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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



VOL, XL 
MAGNETISM-MOTRIL, 



522 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



A 



OF 



GENEBAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME XL 
MAGNETISM-MOTRIL. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 651 BROADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIK 

1879. 






ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, hi the year 1875, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 




Among the Contributors to the Eleventh Volume of the Revised Edition are 

the following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. 0. 
METEOROLOGY. 

Rev. R. W. ALLEN, Cliftondale, Mass. 

MASSASOIT. 

HENRY CARET BAIED, Philadelphia. 

MINT. 
MONET. 

Prof. C. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Univer- 
sity. 

METHODISM. 

JULIUS BlNG. 

MAKIE ANTOINETTE, 

MAXIMILIAN, Emperor of Mexico, 

MOLTKE, HELMITTH KARL BERNHARD VON, Count, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

FRANCIS C. BOWMAN. 

MARENZIO, LUCA. 
MARSCHNER, HEINRICH. 
MARX, ADOLPH BERNHARD. 

EDWARD L. BTIRLINGAME, Ph. D. 

MONK, GEORGE, Duke of Albemarle, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

Rev. CHARLES P. BUSH, D. D. 

MISSIONS, FOREIGN (Protestant). 

ROBERT CARTER. 
MAHMOUD, 
MAMELUKES, 
MANN, HORACE, 
MORMONS, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

MANUSCRIPT, 
MNEMONICS, 
MOROCCO, 
Moscow, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. JOHN A. CHURCH. 
MINERALOGY. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard University. 

MERCURY (in Medicine), 

and other articles in materia medica. 

T. M. COAN, M. D. 

MAUI. 

MAUNA KEA. 

MAUNA LOA. 

MONCURE D. CONWAT, London, Eng. 

MORLEY, HENRY. 
MORLEY, JOHN. 

JOHN ESTEN COOKE, Richmond, Ya. 
MONROE, JAMES. 

Prof. JOSIAH P. Cooke, Jr., Harvard University. 

MOLECULE. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Michigan Univer- 
sity, Ann Arbor. 

MASTER AND SERVANT, 
MILITIA, 
MITTIMUS, 
MORTGAGE, 

and other legal articles. 



Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 

MALPIGHI, MAHCELLO, 
MARROW, 

and medical and physiological articles. 

EATON S. DRONE. 
MAINE, 

MASSACHUSETTS, 
MINNESOTA, 
MISSOURI, 

and other articles in American geography. 

Prof. THOMAS M. DROWN, M. D., Lafayette 
College, Easton, Pa. 

METAL. 
METALLURGY. 

ROBERT T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

W. M. FERRISS. 

MATHEMATICS. 
MOHAMMEDANISM. 

Pres. WILLIAM W. FOLWELL, University of 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn. 
MINNESOTA, UNIVERSITY OF. 

Prof. W. E. GRIFFIS, Imperial College, Tokio, 
Japan. 

MATSUMAE. 
MIKADO. 

J. W. HAWES. 

MANITOBA, 

MARYLAND, 

MICHIGAN, 

MISSISSIPPI, 

MONTANA, 

and other articles in American geography. 

Hon. CHARLES C. HAZEWELL, Boston, Mass. 

MARY STUART, Queen. 

M. HEILPRIN. 

MAIMONIDES, MOSES. 
MARSI. 
MASINISSA, King. 

Prof. JOSEPH HENRY, LL. D., Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Washington. 
MAGNETISM. 

CHARLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 
MECHANICS. 

ROSSITER JOHNSON. 

MAY, SAMUEL JOSEPH, 
MEADE, RICHARD WORSAM, 
MOBILE (war history), 
MORKIS, WILLIAM, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

MANGANESE, 
MOLYBDENUM, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, Boston. 
MAMMALIA, 
MAMMOTH, 
MOLLUSCA, 

and other articles in zoOlogy. 



VI 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ELEVENTH VOLUME. 



Rev. SAMUEL LOOKWOOD, Freehold, N. J. 

MATER, ALFBED MARSHALL. 

JAMES MCCARROLL, Esq., Montreal, Canada. 

MONTREAL. 

Prof. A. M. MAYER, Stevens Institute of Tech- 
nology, Hoboken, N. J. 
MICROSCOPE. 

Prof. J. S. NEWBERRY, LL. D., Columbia Col- 
lege, New York. 
MINERAL DEPOSITS. 

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

MANDBLAY, 
MKRODACH, 
MESSAPIA, 
MONZA, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 

MARTIN, Popes, 

MISSIONS, FOREIGN (Roman Catholic), 

MONACHTSM, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

Prof. S. F. PECKHAM, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

MALTHA. 

Count L. F. DE POURTALES, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

MEDITERRANEAN SEA. 

V. PBECHT. 

MINERAL SPRINGS. 

MINERAL WATERS, ARTIFICIAL. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., London. 

MARS, 
MERCURY, 
METEOR, 
MOON, 

and other astronomical articles. 

Prof. A. RAUSCHENBUSCH, Rochester Theologi- 
cal Seminary, Rochester, N. Y. 
MENNONITKS. 
MENNO STMONS. 

Pfof. ROSSITER W. RAYMOND, Ph. D. 

MERCURY. 

METALLURGY (Ore Dressing). 

MINE. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

MARIETTE, AUGUSTS EDOCABD. 

MONT DE Pi&rfi. 

MORGUB. 



Prof. PHILIP SCHAFF, D. D., Union Theological 
Seminary, New York. 

MELANCHTHON, PHILIPP. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

MARK, SAINT, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

Rev. EDMOND SCHWEINITZ, D. D., Bethlehem, 
Pa. 

MORAVIANS. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

MlNNETAREES. 
MODOCB. 
MOHEGANS. 
MOQUIB. 

Rev. E. L. SMITH. 

MASON, FRANCIS. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

MATTLAND, SAMUEL EOFFEY, 
MASKELL, WILLIAM, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical biography. 

Rev. WILLIAM L. SYMONDS, Portland, Me. 

MANZONI, ALESSANDRO, Count. 

MASSINGER, PHILIP. 

MOLIERE. 

MONTAIGNE, MICHEL, Seigneur de. 

Prof. GEORGE THURBER. 

MAGNOLIA, 

MAPLE, 

MELON, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

MALAYO-POLYNESIAN EACES AND LANGUAGES, 

MANICH^EANS, 

MOAB, 

and other archaeological, oriental, and philological 

articles. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

MALAGA, 
MANILA, 
MEXICO, 

and other geographical and biographical articles. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

MINIATURE PAINTING. 
MOSAIC. 

Prof. J. H. WORMAN, A. M., Assistant Editor 
of "Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, 
and Ecclesiastical Literature." 

MOFFAT, ROBERT. 
MOGILA, PETER. 

Gen. JAMES HARRISON WILSON. 

MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



MAGNETISM 



MAGNETISM, the name given to the phenom- 
ena displayed by magnets. If a bar of 
slightly tempered steel be held vertically and 
struck several blows with a wooden mallet, it 
will acquire the property of attracting iron 
filings at its two extremities. The same prop- 
erty may be communicated from one bar of 
steel to any number of similar bars, by rub- 
bing one half of the length of each of the lat- 
ter with the end of the former which was to- 
ward the earth in the experiment above men- 
tioned, and the remaining half with the other 
end of the same bar. In this process a remark- 
able fact becomes evident, namely, that the 
bar which is employed to impart the magnetic 
property loses none of its own power ; on the 
contrary, if the process is properly performed, 
it will become stronger ; and hence we deduce 
the conclusion, that in magnetization there is 
no transfer of any substance from one body to 
another, but the development of a latent prin- 
ciple. If a magnetized bar be suspended by a 
fibre of untwisted silk, in such a manner as to 
have perfect freedom of motion, it will assume 
a N. and S. direction ; that is, it will exhibit 
the phenomena called polarity. If to either 
end of a magnetized bar thus suspended a 
piece of soft iron be approached, attraction 
will be exhibited between them ; when a simi- 
lar bar is rolled in iron filings, the latter will 
be found to adhere in thick clusters at the two 
ends or poles, while none will attach them- 
selves to the middle of the bar. If, instead of 
presenting to the suspended magnet pieces of 
soft iron, we bring near to its two ends in suc- 
cession the two poles of another magnetized 
bar, repulsion as well as attraction will be 
exhibited-; and by an attentive study of the 
phenomena we shall find that similarly mag- 
netized ends repel, and dissimilarly magnetized 
ends attract each other. These forces act at 
great distances, through all interposed bodies, 



and like gravitation diminish in intensity with 
the square of the distance from each pole. If 
a number of bars of soft iron be placed near 
each other in the same straight line, and the 
N. end, for example, .of a strongly magnetized 
steel bar be brought near one end of the series, 
each piece of iron will become magnetic and 
exhibit polarity. The near end of the first 
magnet will be a S. pole, the far end a N. pole, 
and so on throughout the series, as follows : 



N. S. N. 8. 



S. N. S. N. 8. N. 



When the magnet is removed, the polarity of 
the iron bars ceases ; and when the pole of the 
developing magnet is reversed, the polarity of 
the whole series is also reversed. The develop- 
ment of magnetism in this way is called induc- 
tion, and by it we are enabled to explain many 
facts which would be otherwise perplexing. In 
accordance with this principle, we can assert 
that a magnet does not attract soft iron in its 
natural state, but that it first renders the metal 
magnetic, and then the attraction takes place 
between the dissimilar poles of two magnets. 
Again, when we sprinkle iron filings on a paper 
placed over a magnetic bar, they arrange them- 
selves in beautiful curves radiating from each 
pole and joining near the equator of the bar. 
These lines result from the fact that each 
particle of iron becomes by induction a sepa- 
rate magnet, and attracts the adjacent filings, 
their arrangement in this case being the same 
as that of a series of small needles when under 
the influence of the two poles of a magnetic 
bar. The induction takes place readily in soft 
iron, and disappears as soon as the inducing 
magnet is removed, but not so with hardened 
steel; though the effect is less powerful in 
this, the polarity is permanent. The method 
of making steel magnets of great^power, which 
we have found from long experience the sim- 



MAGNETISM 



pleat and most etVu-ient, is as follows: Procure 
say ten flat bars of good steel bent into the 
usual form of a horse shoe; let these be well 
hardened and fitted with their flat sides to- 
gether so as to form a compound magnet. 
Each of the members of this bundle may be 
magnetized separately to a small degree by 
supporting one of the legs on the lower end of 
a long rod of iron held nearly perpendicular in 
thi- latitude, and the other leg on the upper 
end of the same rod ; or by rubbing one leg 
with the N. pole of a magnetized bar and the 
other with the S. pole. The several shoes, or 
bars, being in this way feebly magnetized, 
eight of them are joined together with their 
similar polos in contact, forming a compound 
magnet with which the remaining two bars are 
to be magnetized to a higher degree. For this 
purpose the latter are placed on a table on 
their flat sides, the N. pole of the one in con- 
taet with the 8. pole of the other, so as to form 
a closed circuit; on any part of this circuit 
the compound horse shoe is placed perpendicu- 
lar to the plane of the table, with its N. pole 
in the direction of the S. pole of the bar or 
shoe on which it rests, and then caused to 
slide in either direction entirely around the 
circuit, care being taken to retain its per- 
pendicularity. After having gone over the 
surface of the two shoes in this way several 
times, they are turned over without separating 
their ends, and the process is repeated on the 
side which was previously under. By this 
method the two bars will receive a magnetic 
power nearly equal to the sum of the powers 
of tho eight magnets in the bundle. Next 
these two bars are placed in the bundle, and 
two others are taken out and subjected to the 
same process. These in turn are put into the 
bundle, and two others are taken out and 
rubbed in the same way, until each pair of 
bars has been gone over two or three times in 
succession. By this method, with the most 
feeble beginning, the magnetism of the several 
shoes may be developed to their full capacity, 
and a magnetic battery produced of great 
power. A compound horse shoe of this kind 
is the most convenient instrument for magnet- 
-t might bars of hardened steel for prac- 
tical uses. Suppose, for example^ we wish to 
magnetize four bars, eadi 1C, indies long, an 
inch wide, and an eighth of an inch thick; 
these are placed on their flat sides in the form 
of a rectangular parallelogram with their ends 
in contact ; the compound horse shoe is then 
placed perpendicularly on the middle of one oi 
the bars, and slid entirely around the parallel- 
ogram several times in succession ; each bar is 
then turned over in its place so as to bring its 
lowt-r side upward, and the process repeated 
care being taken to keep the horse shoe per 
pendi'-ular to the plane- of the parallelogram, 
and its poles in the same relative positions 
<e of the bars. By this method, if the 
compound horse shoe is sufficiently powerful 
the four bars can be magnetized to saturation 



n the course of a few minutes. If there are 
but two bars to be magnetized, the parallel- 
ogram is completed by joining the ends of 
these with two similar bars of soft iron, and 
the same process of rubbing performed as 
before We have seen, in the article ELECTRO- 
MAGNETISM, that the most powerful magnetic 
induction is produced in soft iron by trans- 
mitting around a bar of this metal a current 
of galvanism, and that temporary magnets 
of great power can be produced in this way. 
The same method affords the readiest means 
of strongly magnetizing steel bars. Whatever 
may be the nature of the change which takes 
place in iron at the moment of magnetization, 
we are certain that it pertains to the atoms or 
molecules of the body, and not to the assem- 
blage of these as a whole. To be convinced of 
this, it is only necessary to magnetize a steel 
rod, for example a thick knitting needle, the 
polarity of which will be exhibited near its two 
ends, while no attraction will be manifested 
near the middle. If however we break this 
into two pieces, we shall find each half is a 
perfect magnet ; the separated ends which 
were previously joined together in the middle 
o* the whole length will now exhibit polarity. 
If each of these pieces be again broken in two, 
we shall have four perfect magnets ; and how- 
ever frequent the division or small the parts 
into which the needle is divided, each part will 
still exhibit a N. and S. pole. We may con- 
tinue, at least in thought, this division, and we 
have no reason to doubt that however far it 
might be carried, the same result would be 
produced. We infer from this experiment that 
the reason why the middle of a bar exhibits no 
magnetism is not that none really exists there, 
but that it is neutralized by opposite polarities. 
We are also certain that magnetization is at- 
tended with at least a momentary motion of 
the atoms of the iron. This is proved by the 
fact that during the sudden magnetisation of a 
bar of iron, by means of a current of elec- 
tricity transmitted through a spiral conductor 
enclosing the bar, a sound is emitted ; and if 
the bar be rapidly magnetized and demagnet- 
ized by an interruption of the current, a mu- 
sical sound will be produced. This fact was 
first noted by Dr. Page of the United States, 
and subsequently experimented upon by De la 
Rive, Becquerel, and others in Europe. The 
fact that a change takes place in the molecules 
is also rendered evident by an experiment of 
Mr. Joule of Manchester, England, in which he 
found that, although the whole capacity of the 
iron bar did not change on being magnetized, 
yet its dimensions varied, its length being in- 
creased and its width correspondingly dimin- 
ished. That the magnetic force resides on or 
very near the surface of a magnet has been 
shown by Jamin, who finds that for every 
magnet there is a certain relation between the 
quantity of magnetism and the solid and super- 
ficial contents, such as to establish a limit be- 
yond which a given bar cannot exert magnetic 



MAGNETISM 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 7 



power. (See Comptes rendus, Paris, June, 
1874.) Again, in the magnetization of iron, it 
is found that time is required to produce a full 
effect, as if it were necessary that inertia 
should be overcome ; and Mr. Grove has shown 
that, in rapidly changing the polarity of a bar 
by means of an alternating current of electri- 
city, the iron increases in temperature. The 
fact that a magnet heated to a white heat per- 
manently loses its magnetism is well known ; 
and in general the magnetism is diminished 
by any elevation of temperature. Dr. Maggie 
of Verona asserts that a circular plate of ho- 
mogeneous iron, when magnetized, conducts 
heat better in a direction perpendicular to the 
line joining the poles than in the direction of 
this line itself. It is also stated that iron 
strongly magnetized resists the action of the 
file in a greater degree than in its ordinary 
state. It was formerly supposed that mag- 
netism could be developed only in iron, nickel, 
and cobalt; but we now know from the re- 
searches of Faraday, that all bodies exhibit 
signs of an inductive influence, provided the 
magnetic power applied be sufficiently great. 
From the results of his experiments, Faraday 
was led to divide all bodies into two great 
classes : those like iron, nickel, and cobalt, 
which, on being suspended between the poles 
of an electro-magnet, assume an axial direc- 
tion, were denominated magnetic bodies, or 
paramagnetic; while those which arrange 
themselves at right angles to the magnetic 
meridian were denominated diamagnetic. (See 
DIAMAGNETISM.) The following series exhib- 
its some of the last results obtained by Fara- 
day on the magnetic and diamagnetic powers 
of bodies, in which the angle of torsion neces- 
sary to balance the force of a magnet expresses 
the power of the various substances, volume 
for volume, + representing the paramagnetic 
bodies, and the diamagnetic : proto-ammo- 
niate of copper, +134-23; oxygen, + 17'5; 
air, + 3'4; nitrogen, + 0'3; carbonic acid 
gas, 0-0; hydrogen, 0'1; glass, 18*2 
pure zinc, 74'6; alcohol, 78-7 ; wax 
86-73; nitric acid, 87-96 ; water, 96'6 
sulphuric acid, 104-47; sulphur, 118 
bismuth, 1967"6. Faraday discovered an 
other remarkable evidence of the action of 
magnetism on liquids and solids, as manifest 
in the effect produced on a polarized beam of 
light. Let a piece of gas pipe 18 inches long 
be closed at each end with a plate of tourma- 
line and filled with water. Let the axes of 
the tourmalines be placed transversely, so that 
the polarized beam of light which passes 
through the first may not be transmitted 
through the second. If while the apparatus 
is in this condition the iron be magnetized by 
a current of electricity passing through a long 
wire helix surrounding the tube, the beam of 
light will be partially transmitted by the sec- 
ond tourmaline. It is evident from this result 
that the magnetization of the iron has pro- 
duced an effect on the particles of the liquid, 



which has enabled them to react on the polar- 
ized beam of light and to produce as it were 
a twist in its plane of polarization. A simi- 
lar result will be produced if the liquid be con- 
tained in a tube of glass or any other sub- 
stance, and placed between the poles of a pow- 
erful magnet. To observe the effect however 
in this case, the poles of the magnet should be 
perforated for the transmission of the light. 
A similar effect is produced upon solid trans- 
parent bodies, and particularly upon heavy 
glass of the silicio-borate of lead. The phe- 
nomena of magnetism admit of being investi- 
gated quantitatively and mathematically with- 
out adopting any particular ideas as to the 
fundamental nature of this force ; the most 
complete investigations of this kind have been 
those of J. Clerk Maxwell (" Treatise on Elec- 
tricity and Magnetism," Oxford, 1873), who 
has been able thus to show the profound sig- 
nificance of Faraday's lines of force, and to 
make some progress in the reduction of this 
study to a dynamical science. Quite recently 
Bichat has published a very extended experi- 
mental investigation of this subject, and among 
other things has established the fact that the 
power of this magnetic influence diminishes as 
the temperature rises. Faraday also discover- 
ed the fact that crystallization exerts a con- 
siderable influence upon the direction of crys- 
tallized bodies placed between the poles of a 
powerful electro-magnet ; Plucker found that 
the axis of crystallization tended to assume the 
axial or equatorial direction ; and Tyndall and 
Knoblauch established the fact that if the mole- 
cules of any body are more condensed in one. 
direction than in any other, the magnetism will 
act along this direction with greatest intensity. 
If the substance is paramagnetic, the line of 
greatest condensation will assume an axial posi- 
tion ; if diamagnetic, the same line will come 
into a state of rest in the equator. This is 
shown by mixing carbonate of iron with gum 
into a stiff paste, a disk of which being com- 
pressed between the fingers, so as to give a 
greater density in one direction, and afterward 
suspended between the poles of a powerful elec- 
tro-magnet, will settle with its line of greatest 
condensation in the axial direction. If a simi- 
lar experiment be made with a compound of 
powdered bismuth and gum, the line of great- 
est condensation of this factitious substance 
will assume an equatorial position. Various 
attempts have been made to show a direct 
magnetizing influence in the solar beam to 
develop magnetism in soft iron needles, and it 
has even been asserted that the direct radia- 
tion from the moon has a powerful disturbing 
effect upon the needle of the mariner's com- 
pass ; but the most delicate experiments made 
by those best qualified for such investigations 
have failed to exhibit any result of this kind. 

MAGNETISM, Animal. See ANIMAL MAGNET- 
ISM. 

MAGNETISM, Terrestrial. Gilbert in 1600 was 
the first to announce the bold hypothesis that 



B 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



the earth is a great magnet, and that the need] 
assumes a N. and 3. direction because it is at 
by the dissimilar and repelled by th 
tilar poles of the terrestrial sphere. H 
tte<lthishvp<>th(-is i iy magnetizing ana 
globes of steel ; but this illustration, though i 
served in a general way to represent the phe 
nomena, is not strictly correct. In the firs 
place, the magnetism of the earth is not sym 
metrical like that of a steel magnet, but is to 
I Arable degree irregular; and secondly, i 
is not permanent, but subject within certaii 
limits to almost continual changes both in di 
n and intensity. Indeed, the magnetu 
ly ever absolutely stationary 
fnun one moment to another, but is constantly 
exhibiting minute variations. If the earth is a 
magnet, the free needle at any place should as 
same a definite direction ; but it does not fol- 
low from the hypothesis that this direction 
mu-t be the true north and south, since the 
magnetic poles of the earth do not necessarily 
coincide with its geographical poles. If the 
two pole-* he in the same meridian with a given 
'he needle will at that place point to the 
true north ; but if the magnetic pole lie either 
W. or E. of the meridian of a given place, the 
S. end of the needle will deviate either E. or 
W. of the true north, and the phenomenon 
of the declination or variation of the compass 
will be exhibited. That the needle does not 
point to the true north had long been known, 
and it was observed by Columbus in his first 
voyage of discovery that the direction of the 
i- not the same for all portions of the 
4arth. Thousands of observations have since 
been made to obtain the data for constructing 
charts to represent for the use of the mariner 
the declination in various parts of the earth, 
if we assume that the earth is a great 
magnet, it will follow that in passing from the 
magnetic equator, the needle which is accu- 
rately balanced, so as to settle horizontally at 
the former pla<-e. will incline or dip as we ad- 
vance to either pole. That this is really the 
HIM discovered by Robert Norman in 
Furthermore, if the earth is a magnet 
should expert that the magnetic intensity 
the strength of the action would not be the 
wme at all po.i.ts of its surface, and this infer- 
isiOsobeen found to be true. Bycount- 
thc vibrations of a delicate dipping needle 
we find that the strength of the magnetism of 
he ...creases .as we go from the equator 
ward th, pole. The magnetic intensity, how- 
ever, exhibited by observations of this kind 
not indicate as rapid an increase of force 
approach the magnetic pole as might be 
expected from such a distribution of magnet- 
ism as would result from a magnetized sphere 
ron. In conformity with the three majr- 
'"nt* we have mention,-,! nanidv the 
variation, the dip, and the intcnsi'tv, it !^' 
tnagnetic condition of 
Jl!! ''"V" ! irnob y ^ree systems of 
lines supposed to be drawn on the surface of 



the globe. These are as follows: 1, the line 
drawn through all places where the needle 
points to the true north or south, to 6 W., to 
6 E., 10 W. and 10 E., and so on, called the 
isogonic lines, or lines of equal variation or de- 
clination ; 2, lines nearly at right angles to the 
former, drawn through all places exhibiting 
the same angle of dip of the needle, called iso- 
clinal lines; and 3, a system of lines joining 
all places having the same magnetic intensity, 
and consequently known by the name of iso- 
dynamic lines. It is a problem of much prac- 
tical importance in regard to the art of navi- 
gation, as well as to the study of the phenome- 
na of terrestrial magnetism, that these three 
systems of lines should be accurately deter- 
mined ; and accordingly expeditions have been 
fitted out by different nations almost expressly 
for this purpose. All the observations, how- 
ever, which have been made in regard to them, 
indicate the fact that they are not permanent, 
but are constantly undergoing a change, of 
which the law is exceedingly complex. Hal- 
ley's chart of declination for 1700 is very dif- 
ferent from that of Barlow for 1833 ; and Han- 
steen's dip chart for 1780 does not represent 
the isoclinal lines of the present day. The 
^reat practical object then of investigation in 
;his branch of science is to discover the law of 
;hese changes, in order that, the position and 
! orm of these lines being determined for a 
pven epoch, they may be calculated for any 
future time. The phenomena were first refer- 
red to a very small magnet at the centre of the 
earth, the direction of which is subject to 
Regular changes. Tobias Mayer, instead of 
supposing a magnet to be placed at the centre 
of the earth, conceived one to be situated at 
ibout the seventh part of the earth's radius 
rom the centre, and from this hypothesis he 
was enabled to calculate the variation and dip 
n places not far distant from those in which 
hese quantities had been determined by actual 
observation. Hansteen of Norway, who col- 
scted an immense number of observations, en- 
.eavored to represent the phenomena by the 
lypothesis of two small eccentric magnets of 
nequal strength placed at the centre of the 
arth, giving rise to four magnetic poles, two 
n each hemisphere. In order to represent the 
anations of the needle, the poles of each of 
hese two magnets were supposed to perform 
revolution around an intermediate line, with 
fferent velocities. Gauss of Gottingen, how- 
rer, made the first rigid investigation of the 
roblem m accordance with a definite plan. 
' founded his research oil the assumption 
hat the terrestrial magnetic force, or that 
vnicn is exerted on a needle freely suspended 
y its centre of gravity, is the resultant action 
the magnetized particles of the earth's 
ass. According to this assumption, the so v- 
rning power which affects the needle is due 
o the magnetism of the eartli itself, while the 
brent perturbations to which the needle is 
subjected are the results of extraneous forces 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



9 



To give clearness of perception, he represents 
magnetization as consisting in the separation 
of two magnetic fluids, giving magnetic polari- 
ty to each particle, or in other words in a re- 
pulsive and attractive force acting inversely as 
the square of the distance. No change would 
be produced in the result by adopting the hy- 

Eothesis Of Ampere, in which magnetism is 
eld to consist of constant magnetic currents ; 
nor would there be any difference if terrestrial 
magnetism were ascribed to a mixed origin, as 
consisting partly of actual electrical currents 
and partly of permanently magnetized masses. 
Starting from these assumptions, Gauss obtain- 
ed a general mathematical expression for the 
action of the whole globe on a magnetic needle, 
however irregular might be the distribution of 
the magnetism of the former. In other words, 
he obtained an expression by which, if the dis- 
tribution of the magnetism of the earth were 
known, and the intensity of its action ascer- 
tained with reference to a unit of distance and 
intensity, the position of the needle and the 
magnetic force by which it was acted upon 
at any point could be determined ; and con- 
versely, if the action of the earth on the needle 
were known for a large number of places on 
the surface of the earth, the distribution of the 
magnetism might be considered the unknown 
quantity, and might be approximately found 
from the data thus afforded by observation. 
In this way Gauss was enabled to give a meth- 
od of constructing general charts to represent in 
every part of the earth the magnetic declina- 
tion, inclination, and isodynamic lines, the in- 
tensity and direction of the magnetic force be- 
ing known at a given number of places. The 
data necessary for improved charts of this kind 
have been furnished by the magnetic surveys 
made in various parts of the world in recent 
times, at the suggestion and principally under 
the direction of the British association. By 
repeating the construction of such charts for 
different epochs, the secular changes in dif- 
ferent parts of the earth will become known ; 
and it is hoped that, in due time, if the sys- 
tem of magnetic observations which has been 
established should be continued, the law of the 
changes will ultimately be fully ascertained. 
The investigations of Gauss have shown that 
the hypothesis of two movable magnets at the 
centre of the earth does not explain the phe- 
nomena of terrestrial magnetism. He defines 
a magnetic pole to be the place at which the 
needle points directly downward, or at which 
the dip is 90. Indeed, he has pointed out 
the very obvious fact, that if there be two 
such points in the northern hemisphere, then 
there must be somewhere between the two 
a third point at which the needle would also 
assume the vertical position. Gauss, how- 
ever, arrives at the remarkable conclusion that 
the place of greatest magnetic intensity does 
not coincide with that which is usually de- 
nominated the pole ; and it would appear that 
there may be a diffused space in the northern 



hemisphere around which the isodynamic lines 
may be drawn, representing apparently at least 
two centres of greater magnetic attraction. 
These phenomena are best represented by the 
hypothesis of magnetism due to currents of 
electricity in the earth, but as yet no definite 
hypothesis has been advanced as to the nature 
of such currents. It is true, they have been 
referred to thermo-electricity ; but how the 
varying heat of the sun or the high tempera- 
ture of the interior can give rise to currents 
constantly circulating round the earth, of such 
intensity and such flexures as would account 
for the observed direction and intensity of ter- 
restrial magnetism, has not yet even approxi- 
mately been made out. What we have said in 
regard to the magnetism of the earth princi- 
pally relates to its state at a particular time. 
We shall now briefly give an account of the 
discoveries which have been made in regard to 
the changes to which terrestrial magnetism is 
subject; and for the data from which these 
have been deduced science is indebted to the 
several magnetic observatories established in 
different parts of the earth. These are fur- 
nished with improved instruments, which in 
their present perfect state constantly record, 
by means of photography, the minutest changes 
in intensity and direction of the magnetic force. 
The magnetic perturbations were at first sup- 
posed to consist of two classes, namely, peri- 
odical and fitful. Many perturbations, how- 
ever, which had been regarded as fitful are 
now known to recur at regular periods, and 
are therefore not properly designated by this 
term. The changes of terrestrial magnetism 
are of three classes. The first consists in a 
movement of the magnetic poles, around the 
true poles of the earth, from E. to W. in both 
hemispheres. This motion is inferred from 
the secular changes which have been found to 
affect the position of the magnetic lines, as 
.well as from the secular changes in the posi- 
tion of the magnetic needle at any given sta- 
tion. The magnetic lines at any given epoch 
present great irregularity of shape, because 
very slight differences of magnetic declination, 
due to local peculiarities, may largely affect 
the position of the magnetic lines. But when 
the changes of declination at any given station 
are considered, they are found to correspond, 
at least during the period within which sys- 
tematic observations have been made, to an 
oscillation such as would result from the mo- 
tion of the magnetic poles around the true 
poles of the earth in a period of between six 
and seven centuries. Thus in 1576 the decli- 
nation needle in London pointed 11 15' E. ; 
in 1657 or thereabouts the needle pointed due 
K ; in 1760 it pointed W. by 19 30'. The 
westerly declination attained its maximum in 
1819, when it amounted to 24f. Since then 
the needle has been slowly travelling east- 
ward, the present annual rate of decrease be- 
ing more than 8'. The mean westerly decli- 
nation for the year 1873 was 19 30'. Again, 



10 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



in Paris, which lies 2 20' E. of London, th< 
needle points! lue N. in 1663. Its subsequen 
us have closely resembled those of the 
London needle ; but the Paris needle ceased to 
move westward as early as 1817, and attainec 
a maximum declination of only 22$. Now il 
unltiiie these facts with the changes ol 
.dination, we see at once that they poin 
to a movement of the northern magnetic pole 
from a position between London and the N. 
pole in the middle of the 17th century to its 
present position in the extreme north of the 
lean continent (or rather in the archi- 
pelago which lies beyond those parts north- 
ward i. Fur in the middle of the 17th century 
the needle pointed northward, while afterward 
it pi MM! iMl \\i-t\vard. Then the magnetic pole 
lay at that time either directly beyond the N. 
pole of the earth, or somewhere on (or near) 
the arc joining London and the K pole. But 
if the magnetic pole had lain beyond the true 
pole, the inclination would have been much 
less than that corresponding to a magnetic pole 
at the true pole of the earth, that is, less than 
61$. Instead of this, however, the inclina- 
tion was much greater. Moreover, the incli- 
nation, which would then have been at a mini- 
mum had the magnetic pole been beyond the 
true pole, appears to have then been at a maxi- 
mum. For though exact observations of the 
inclination have not been made during so many 
years as observations of the declination, we 
find that in 1720 the inclination was 74 42' in 
London ; in 1800, 70 85' ; in 1865, 68 9' ; in 
1870, 67 55'; and in 1873, 67 45'. The 
northern magnetic pole was therefore between 
London and the N. pole of the earth in the 
middle of the 17th century, and has since trav- 
elled westward, or in a direction from E. to 
W. around the true pole. If we assume the 
motion to be uniform (which is probably not 
the case), and that the needle at Greenwich 
responds uniformly to such motion (which is 
certainly not the case), we may calculate the 
period of polar revolution. Thus, taking the 
magnetic pole as due N. in 1657, and in 1833, 
according t i:,,Ws observations, as 95 W. of 
Greenwich, we have for the period of revolu- 
tion ^(18831857) years = 667 years about. 
< ming Ross's estimate with the Paris 
epoch, we get a period of ^(1833^-1663) 
years = 644 years about. We may take 650 
rears as a not improbable period of revolution 
I may be added, as confirming the above, that 
m Ku- M^netic inclination has now 

iched a minimum, while in Peking it is in- 
M cau-i- of this change is at pres- 
ely unknown ; it has no analogy with 
tier class of physical phenomena with 
which we are acquainted. By a rough com- 
n of the isothermal lines and the lines of 
equal magnetic intensity, a general similarity 
has been observed, and hence the two have 
>een considered as referable to the same cause- 



but it will be perceived that this analogy does 
not hold, since the magnetic lines are in con- 
stant motion, while the isothermal lines retain 
very nearly a fixed position, or at least change 
in comparison with the other lines with ex- 
treme slowness. The second system of changes 
has evident relation to the annual position of 
the earth in its orbit round the sun, and its 
revolution on its axis. These were at first 
ascribed to the influence of the heat of the sun 
on different parts of the earth ; but they have 
the remarkable characteristic of exhibiting 
notably the same amount in the southern 
hemisphere as in the northern, and in the 
tropical as in the temperate zones. The mag- 
netic force is found to be greater in the months 
of December, January, and February, when 
the sun is nearest to the earth, than in those 
of May, June, and July, when it is most dis- 
tant from it ; whereas, were the effect due to 
temperature, the two hemispheres would be 
oppositely instead of similarly affected in each 
of these two periods. We must therefore 
ascribe the effect to the direct magnetism of 
the sun itself, and consider it established that 
this luminary like the earth possesses attract- 
ing and repelling poles, and that the effects on 
the needle result from the different positions 
of the earth in regard to these centres of ac- 
tion. The pole of the needle which is least 
distant from the sun makes a deuble diurnal 
movement in the following manner. It arrives 
it its greatest western excursion four or five 
hours before the sun passes the meridian of the 
place, as if it were repelled ; it then turns east- 
ward with increasing celerity, and reaches the 
limit of its eastern excursion one or two hours 
after that passage. As the sun passes the in- 
ferior meridian, there is repeated in the night 
the same variation as that which took place in 
the day. To illustrate the action, let us sup- 
pose two globes, a larger and a smaller, placed 
upon the same plane, with their axes of revo- 
lution not precisely parallel to each other, as 
n the case of the earth and the sun ; and let 
as further suppose that one globe is made to 
revolve round the other, the axis of the former 
being constantly parallel to itself. It is evi- 
dent that in one half of the orbit of the mov- 
ng globe the northern poles will be inclined 
toward each other, while in the other half of 
"he orbit the southern poles will be similarly 
nclined; and if we further suppose that the 
magnetic axis of the sun, as in the case of the 
earth, does not differ very much from the axis 
of rotation, we shall have an explanation of 
the effects observed in the records of the diur- 
nal motions of the needle. The K end of the 
needle, which is attracted by the N. pole of 
;he earth, will be repelled by the N. pole of 
iie sun, provided it has dissimilar magnetism 
to that of the earth, and consequently will de- 
Jlme from the sun ; and as, on account of the 
revolution of the earth on its axis, this lumi- 
ary appears on the E. of every place in the 
rthern hemisphere in the morning and on. 



TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



11 



the W. side in the afternoon, corresponding 
variations in the needle will be exhibited. In 
the other half of the year, for a similar reason, 
the S. end of the needle will be affected in an 
analogous but opposite manner ; the strength 
of the magnetism of the earth will be increased 
by the nearer approach of the sun, in the same 
way that two magnets having their dissimilar 
poles opposite each other are increased or 
diminished in magnetic power by a diminu- 
tion or decrease of distance. We are indebted 
for the interesting discovery of the polar ac- 
tion of the sun to Gen. Sabine of England, 
who has had charge of the reduction of all the 
magnetic observations of the English colo- 
nial observatories ; and to Dr. Kriel of Aus- 
tria for another of the same character, which 
leads us to extend the principle of magnetism 
to the moon. It is found that there is a varia- 
tion of each of the magnetic elements corre- 
sponding with the diurnal position of the moon 
in regard to the earth ; but this resembles the 
tides in exhibiting two maxima and two mini- 
ma in the course of 24 hours, regularly chang- 
ing in time with the motion of the moon in her 
orbit around the earth. These phenomena in- 
dicate that the moon is not magnetic per se, 
that is, possessed of permanent magnetism, but 
its magnetic condition resembles that of soft 
iron developed by the continued but varying 
inductive influence on account of change of 
distance of the earth and the sun. That these 
changes in the magnetic elements cannot be 
due to heat in this case, must be evident, since 
the temperature of the moon as a mass is but 
little greater than that of celestial space. The 
third class of variations, which was formerly 
denominated fitful, is now known in a cer- 
tain sense to be periodical. They were called 
by Hnmboldt magnetic storms, and were found 
by Arago to accompany the appearance of 
the aurora borealis. Although it is impos- 
sible to predict from our present knowledge 
the recurrence of individual cases of these great 
perturbations in the intensity and direction of 
the magnetism of the earth, yet they are known 
to increase in number and magnitude of ac- 
tion within the period of a little more than 
five years, and gradually to diminish .through 
nearly an equal period, the whole cycle being 
completed in a little more than 11 years. The 
magnetic storms have been observed in the 
most distant parts of the earth, and no doubt 
can now exist as to their cosmical character. 
The lunar influence of which we have just 
spoken does not appear to participate in or be 
connected with this inequality. The period- 
icity of these apparently fitful variations of 
magnetism was first pointed out by Gen. Sa- 
bine, and has since been established by the in- 
vestigations of Prof. Lloyd of Ireland, Dr. La- 
ment of Germany, and by those of Prof. Bache 
from the observations made under his direc- 
tion at Girard college. But the most astonish- 
ing result in regard to this class of perturba- 
tions is that they coincide with the periodical 



recurrence of the maxima and minima of the 
spots on the sun. A German astronomer, 
Schwabe, has established, by nearly 30 years of 
unremitting daily observation, the periodicity 
of this phenomenon. He finds that the solar 
spots increase in magnitude for about 5 years, 
and diminish through an equal period, the cy- 
cle, as in the case of magnetic storms, being 
completed in about 11 years. The discovery 
of a connection of this remarkable kind gives 
to magnetism a high position in the scale of 
distinct natural forces, and assigns to it equally 
with gravitation a truly cosmical character. It 
is not impossible that the spots on the sun may 
be connected with the falling into its gaseous 
envelope of meteorites, and this suggestion is 
favored by an observation of Mr. Carrington 
of England, in which a remarkable appear- 
ance was observed on the surface of the sun, 
analogous to that which would have been pro- 
duced by an occurrence of the kind we have 
mentioned. Recently Prof. Loomis of Yale 
college has published his analysis of the obser- 
vations of many past years, apparently placing 
beyond all question the existence of a connec- 
tion between the sun-spot period, terrestrial 
magnetic disturbances, and the frequency of 
auroras. One of the most interesting ques- 
tions belonging to the future of this subject, is 
the possible existence of an association be- 
tween the phenomena of the sun's colored 
prominences and the magnetic activity of the 
earth. Observations by Prof. Young of Dart- 
mouth college seem to show the extreme prob- 
ability of such an association. Moreover, the 
observations which have been made on the 
prominences, by showing a connection between 
these objects and the solar spots, seem to force 
upon us the conclusion that some relation ex- 
ists between the colored flames and the phe- 
nomena of terrestrial magnetism, since the 
partial dependence of these upon the sun's con- 
dition as to spots has been very nearly if not 
quite demonstrated. It is not intended by 
what has been said to convey the idea that 
meteorological changes may not affect the po- 
sition of the needle, and that even the magnet- 
ic condition of the atmosphere, according to 
the hypothesis of Faraday, may not produce 
appreciable results ; but as yet the actions of 
these appear to neutralize each other, and to 
leave no definite record of their existence in 
the course of periods of considerable length. 
It is probable, however, that with the im- 
proved photometrical instruments and a more 
minute scrutiny of their records, the effects 
due to these causes will be shown. Since the 
agitation of the atoms of an iron bar is found 
to favor the development of magnetism by in- 
duction, it is not improbable that the magnet- 
ism of the earth may be disturbed during the 
continuance and shortly after the occurrence 
of an earthquake. 

MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY. As shown in the 
article ELECTKO-MAGNETISM, great magnetic 
power is developed by passing a current of 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



galvanism around a bar of soft iron ; and since 
in all cases a mechanical action is accompanies 
by an equal amount of reaction, it is reasonable 
to suppose that electricity ought to be evolved 
by magnetism. Various fruitless attempts 
were however made to obtain this result ; the 
form in whi.-h tin- Affect was to appear was 
unknown, and it was not till 1881 that Faraday 
succeeded in exhibiting currents of electricity 
in a \v ms of magnetic reaction. It 

has also been stated in the same article that, 
In ac< ith the theory of Ampere, 

the mechanical properties of an ordinary mag- 
net may be exhibited by currents of electricity 
transmit! .-.I through spiral conductors; and 
hence, in order to present the phenomena of 
lass in the simplest form, we shall begin 
with stating the fundamental facts of what is 
called electro-dynamic induction, or electricity 
i nd need by a galvanic current. 1. Let a por- 
i a copp-r wire be extended in a straight 
line horizontally, and the two ends at a dis- 
tance be connected with a galvanometer so as 
in a closed circuit in which a current may 
be induced. Let also a portion of another 
win-, connect. <! with a galvanic battery, be 
placed parallel to the first, and a current sent 
_-h it. If the wire transmitting the bat- 
irrent be suddenly brought near the wire 
connected with the galvanometer, during the 
approach of the second wire toward the first a 
current of the natural electricity of the latter 
will pass through the galvanometer in a direc- 
tion adverse to that of the inducing current. 
2. The induced current continues only during 
the motion of the inducing conductor ; when 
the motion of this is stopped, the induced cur- 
rent ceases, and while the current of the bat- 
tery remains stationary and continues the same 
in quantity and intensity, no perceptible effect 
is exhibited in the adjoining wire. 3. When 
the inducing current is suddenly moved away 
from the tir-t wire, a current is observed to pass 
through the galvanometer in the opposite direc- 
I'oriuer induced current, or in the 
same direction as the battery current. 4. Let 
the two wires be placed parallel and near to 
ach other, while the circuit of the battery 
current is interrupted. If in this condition the 
surrent from the battery be suddenly estab- 
fh the inducing conductor, an in- 
taced current of electricity will pass through 
the galvanometer in a direction adverse to that 
ry current ; or in other words, the 
effect will I* the same as that of the approach 
the battery current to the inducing wire as 
1. 5. DviQg the continuance of the 
' unimpaired strength and 

<ty no dMurl-aii.-,. (lf the natnral dec _ 

'ining wire is perceived: but 

ie moment the current of the battery is 

rtopped | l,v a rupture of the circuit, a current 

.-'h the galvanometer in the same 

Jon as that of the current of the batterv 

e phenomena are j,, accordance with 

the hypothesis that dunii-r the transmission of 



a current of electricity through a wire, there is 
exerted in space on every side an inductive 
action diminishing with the distance which 
disturbs the natural electricity of any conduct- 
ing matter which may be brought within its 
influence ; that while the conductor remains at 
rest within this influence an abnormal equi- 
librium exists; and when the conductor is 
removed from this influence, or when the lat- 
ter ceases, the usual equilibrium is established 
by a reverse motion. Since, according to the 
theory of Ampere, magnetism consists of cur- 
rents of electricity revolving at right angles to 
the length of the magnetized bar, it follows 
that analogous results ought to be produced 
by magnetism; and for this purpose, instead 
of the battery current in the last series of ex- 
periments, let there be substituted a magnetized 
bar held at right angles to the wire connected 
with the galvanometer. 1. If this bar be sud- 
denly brought down upon the wire perpendicu- 
lar to its length, the galvanometer will indicate 
a current in an opposite direction to the hy- 
pothetical current in the lower side of the mag- 
net. If the wire be E. and W. and the magnet 
be held across it with its N. pole toward the 
north, the current in the lower side of the mag- 
net will be from the E. to the W., while the in- 
duced current will be in an opposite direction, 
i. e., from W. to E. 2. When the motion of 
the magnet toward the wire is stopped, the in- 
duced current ceases, and no sign of electricity 
is exhibited so long as the magnet remains at 
rest. 3. When the magnet is suddenly removed 
from its proximity to the wire, a current in the 
opposite direction to that of the first, that is, in 
the same direction as .the current in the lower 
side of the magnet, is indicated by the galvan- 
ometer. 4. When a bar of soft iron is placed 
across the wire at right angles, and this is sud- 
denly magnetized, either by a galvanic current 
or by touching its ends to the poles of a horse- 
jhoe magnet, a momentary current is produced 
n the wire in a direction opposite to that of the 
lypothetical currents of the near side of the 
magnet. 5. So long as the soft iron bar re- 
mains at rest and its magnetism suffers no 
change, no current is indicated by the galvan- 
ometer^ but the moment the bar is umnag- 
netized a reverse current takes place. The 
two series of results we have given above are 
precisely analogous; the latter being merely a 
case of the former, in which the hypothetical 
currents of the magnet are substituted for the 
real current of the battery. All the effects 
-hat we have described are produced with 
nuch more intensity, when, instead of using 
ctended wires parallel to each other, we em- 
loy wires in the form of spirals, either flat or 
ndncal. For example, to obtain an induced 
rent of considerable intensity by means of 
tism, we place on a rod of iron, say four 
nclies long, a spool of long wire covered with 
^ ] , may OCGU Py two inches of the 
ph of the middle of the iron. If the two 
f this rod projecting beyond the spool 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



13 



be suddenly brought into contact with the two 
poles of a horse-shoe magnet, an induced cur- 
rent will be developed for a moment in the sur- 
rounding wire ; and when the same rod is sud- 
denly detached from the poles, a current in an 
opposite direction will take place ; and in this 
way a continued series of alternate currents 
may be developed by alternately making and 
severing the contact of the poles of the magnet 
and the ends of the rod. A still greater effect 
may be produced by causing the rod to revolve 
on an axis at right angles to the middle of its 
length, before the poles of the magnet, so that 
each end in rapid succession may be brought in 
contact first with the K and then with the S. 
pole, and so on. Shortly after the discovery 
by Faraday of the laws we have stated, Mr. 
Joseph Saxton of this country, then a tem- 
porary resident of London, afterward attached 
to the United States coast survey, invented 
(1832) the first machine for giving sparks and 
shocks in accordance with the arrangement we 
have just described. Instead of a single bob- 
bin of wire on the middle of a straight bar, 
he employed two, one on each leg of a bar of 
soft iron bent into the form of a horse shoe, 
which were made rapidly to revolve by means 
of a multiplying wheel before the poles of a 
magnet. At each half revolution the mag- 
netism of the soft iron was entirely reversed, 
and in this way a series of currents was in- 
duced, of sufficient intensity to decompose 
water, fire combustible bodies, and powerfully 
to affect the nervous system. An instrument 
maker in London, who was employed to con- 
struct these machines, made a slight change in 
the arrangement, which principally consisted in 
placing the inducing horse-shoe magnet in a 
vertical position, and in causing the spools of 
wire to revolve in a plane parallel to its flat 
side, instead of parallel to its poles. This 
change, instead of improving the instrument, 
produced an opposite effect, since the strength 
of the induction was much diminished. The 
author of it, however, succeeded by advertise- 
ments, and an actual exhibition of it in France, 
in attaching his name to the invention, to the 
exclusion of that of Saxton. It is, however, 
gratifying to see that in the German works on 
the subject, and also in the better class of Eng- 
lish publications, justice is done to the original 
inventor. The next important series of inves- 
tigations on this subject, after the original dis- 
covery of Faraday, was by Professor Henry of 
Princeton, now secretary of the Smithsonian 
institution at Washington. He found that at 
the beginning and ending of the galvanic cur- 
rent in a long wire, an induced current was 
produced by an action which has sometimes 
been called the induction of a current on itself. 
To illustrate this, let the circuit of a small 
battery of a single element be closed by a short 
wire of about a foot in length, dipping into 
a cup of mercury. When the circuit is broken, 
no spark, or but a very feeble one, will be ob- 
served ; but if we now substitute for the short 



wire one of say 100 feet in length and of con- 
siderable thickness, a vivid spark will be ex- 
hibited when the circuit is interrupted. To 
obtain this result in the most striking manner, 
we should employ a copper ribbon at least an 
inch and a half wide and 100 ft. long, well 
covered with two thicknesses of silk, and rolled 
into the form of a flat spiral. At the rupture 
of a battery circuit of which this forms a part, 
a loud snap and deflagration of the metal will 
be produced, when with a short wire, the bat- 
tery remaining the same, scarcely any but a 
very feeble spark would be observed. By this 
arrangement several spires of ribbon react on 
each other, and increase the effect. By coiling 
a bell wire covered with silk of >600 or TOO ft. 
in length into a spiral ring, the intensity will 
be so much increased that shocks may be ob- 
tained by means of a small galvapic battery of 
a single element. If the same wire be coiled 
into the form of an elongated spiral, and in 
the centre of this a rod of soft iron be placed, 
or what is better, a bundle of iron wire, the 
intensity is still more exalted. In this case the 
magnetic reaction is combined with that of the 
current of galvanism, and the two actions be- 
ing in the same direction conspire to increase 
the effect. To produce, however, the most 
powerful inductive apparatus, a bundle of var- 
nished iron wires of about 15 in. in length, and 
together forming a diameter of about an inch, 
is surrounded with a coil of thick copper wire 
well covered with silk of 300 or 400 ft. in 
length. Around this, but separated from it by 
a cylinder of glass or pasteboard soaked in 
shell lac, is coiled a fine copper wire of 4 or 5 
m. in length, care being taken that each spire 
be well insulated from every other. When a 
current of galvanism from a battery of even 
a single element is transmitted through the 
thick copper wire which surrounds the inner 
core or bundle of iron wire, the latter becomes 
magnetic; and at the instant the rupture is 
made in the battery current, a sudden cessation 
of the magnetism, as well as that of the cur- 
rent itself, induces a current of great intensity, 
though of small quantity, in the outer sur- 
rounding fine wire. Each spire of the long 
wire in this arrangement is subjected to the 
inductive influence ; and the rapidity of mo- 
tion of the electricity of the wire, were it not 
for the increased resistance, would be in pro- 
portion to the number of spires, or in other 
words to the length of the wire. This appa- 
ratus has received various ingenious improve- 
ments, the principle in all cases remaining the 
same. Dr. Page \vas the first to invent an ap- 
paratus on this plan by which the rupture of 
the battery current was rendered automatic ; 
the magnetization of the iron core caused the 
attraction of a small magnet attached to one 
end of a lever which broke the circuit, and the 
consequent disappearance of the same magnet- 
ism allowed the end of the lever to fall into a 
cup of mercury and thus again complete the 
circuit. This instrument was much enlarged 



14 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



ami improve.! l.y Kulunkorff of Paris, and was 
Mill further jii-rfi-rti-d by an ingenious Ameri- 




FKJ. 1. Lighthouse Machine. 

can artisan, E. S. Ritchie of Boston. The es- 
sential desideratum in the construction of this 
instrument is the perfect insulation of the sev- 
eral spires of wire, so that the 
intense electricity which is pro- 
duced may not strike across 
from one spire to another ; and 
Mr. Ritchie effected this by 
means of an ingenious process 
of winding, together with an 
improved insulation. An ap- 
preciable time is required to 
overcome the resistance of the 
wire and to give it a full charge 
of the current of electricity, 
and also to magnetize iron ; 
hence in the instrument we 
have described, when a single 
battery is employed, the in- 
duced current, which gives the 
intense spark, is that which is 
produced at the rupture of the 
battery current. We can how- 
increase the intensity at 
tin- he-inning of the current, 
ly employing a battery of a 
number of elements, which, 
producing electricity of greater 
intensity, more suddenly estab- 
lishes the current in the wire, 
and more rapidly develops the 
magnetism of the iron. The 
improvements that have been 
made of late in the construc- 
tion of magneto-electric or in- 
dootion machines have been so 
iMUngattO warrant the hope 
-hall eventually derive great advan- 
tages from the powerful electric currents that 



h* I 



Ar 



can thus be instantaneously generated, produ- 
cing light, heat, or other effects in any locality 
whither the conducting 
wires are led. The ac- 
companying figures il- 
lustrate the forms of the 
most notable machines 
that have been con- 
structed. The first is 
the machine construct- 
ed by the compagnie 
cfalliance of Paris on 
the plans of Clarke and 
Nollet. In Clarke's ma- 
chine, which is but a 
slight modification of 
Saxton's, two soft iron 
cores, connected by cop- 
per and iron bars, re- 
volve rapidly in front 
of the poles of a power- 
ful horse-shoe magnet. 
Around these cores is 
coiled an insulated cop- 
per wire, whose ends 
are so connected with 
a "commutator" that 

the alternating currents of electricity circulate 
always in the same direction through the exter- 
nal circuit. In the machines of the Alliance 
company the use of the commutator may be 




FIG. 8. Wilde's Machine. 



omitted if the currents are designed only for the 
production of light, since in this case the rapid 
reversals of the current are an advantage. In 
bieraens's machine, fig. 2, invented in 1854, a 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



15 



peculiar core replaces the double iron armature 
of Saxton and Clarke ; this is a long cylinder 
around which a wire is wound lengthwise. 
The cylinder is made to revolve rapidly be- 
tween the opposite poles of a series of horse- 
shoe magnets ; the perpetually reversing mag- 
netism induced in the core by the magnets is 
carried in successive currents by the insulated 
wire coil to the commutator, and thence through 
the external circuit. In Wilde's machine, fig. 
3, the external current from a small Siemens 
machine, M, is made to pass through a large 
coil, A B, enclosing a soft iron horse-shoe bar, 
which is thereby magnetized and acts as a per- 
manent magnet on a second revolving core, F, 
larger than but similar to that of the smaller 
apparatus. The latter core collects a much 
more powerful current than that first pro- 
duced, and this can be used to generate a third 
or higher order of current; but with each 
such increase of current we increase the power 
required to turn the cores ; and 'though the 
heat and light are magnificent, yet in no case 
can we convert into electrical energy more than 
a certain per cent, of the mechanical energy 
consumed. In the machine devised by Ladd 
in 1867, as shown in fig. 4, a principle has been 
introduced suggested a short time previously 
by both Siemens and Wheatstone. Two plates 
of soft iron, B B', are so placed that if they 
possess the least initial magnetism, as is ordi- 
narily the case, then the rotation of the Sie- 
mens armature, a', collects the currents, which 
are at once led into the coils about B and B', 
and thus elevate the original magnetism of the 
plates to a high degree of intensity. Between 
the opposite poles of the magnets rotates a 
second Siemens armature, , which collects the 




FIG. 4. Ladd's Machine. 

current for the external circuit. Gramme's ma- 
chine, invented in 1871, two views of which are 
given in figs. 5 and 6, differs materially from 
its predecessors in that it offers a really con- 
tinuous current instead of rapid alternations. 
This is effected by using a circular-ring of soft 
iron, A A, for the core in which the magnetism 
is to be induced. The coil of wire around the 
core offers a continuous metallic circuit, di- 
vided into numerous sections, the ends of the 
wires in each so connected with radial metallic 
523 VOL. XL 2 



arms, R R, that as the ring rotates the induced 
current flows continuously from these arms to 
certain fixed metallic pieces in frictional con- 
tact with them, and thence to the external cir- 







FIG. 5. Gramme's Machine. 

cuit. By dividing the current, one half may 
be led back to the exciting magnets, SON, 
and be used to increase the power of the ma- 
chine. The effect produced by these machines 
increases proportion- 
ately to the velocity 
of rotation up to an 
unknown limit ; it 
also increases with 
the number of coils 
encircling the ring 
core. The machines 
of the Alliance com- 
pany have been em- 
ployed for illumina- 
ting purposes at some 
French lighthouses, 
and those of Wilde F IG . 6. Gramme's Machine, 
have been similarly 

employed in Great Britain. The Gramme ma- 
chine has been used for the illumination of the 
Victoria tower in London, and in the galvano- 
plastic works of M. Christofle in Paris. Cur- 
rents of different Orders. An induced cur- 
rent, by its action on a third conductor, may 
produce another current, and this another, and 
so on. If we call the current of the battery 
a current of the first order, the first induced 
current is named that of the second order, and 
so on. The discovery and investigation of the 
principle and properties of currents of the dif- 
ferent orders is mainly due to Prof. Henry. 
On reflecting a little, it will be evident that 
these currents cannot be produced immediately 
by placing several straight wires parallel to each 
other and passing a current of electricity through 
one of them ; in this case the battery current 
would act on the surrounding wires, and simply 
produce in each of them an induced current of 
the second order. To obtain, therefore, cur- 
rents of the different higher orders, we employ 
a number of flat spirals, through one of which 
placed horizontally on a table is transmitted 
the current from the battery. Immediately 
above this, and separated from it by a stratum 
of air or a plate of glass, is a second flat spiral, 
the ends of which are connected with a third 



16 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



spiral placed at such a distance as to be entire- 
ly out of the influence of the battery current. 
Placing on the third a fourth (the two being 
separated as before by a plate of glass), and 
joining the ends of this with the ends of a fifth 
spiral, and so on, we shall have a series of 
successive currents. The current of the first 
order induced by the battery current induces a 
secondary oomot in the second' spiral, which 
passes through the third spiral, and, thus free 
from the influence of the battery current, in- 
duces a current of the third order in the fourth 
spiral, which in turn, passing through the fifth 
spiral, iii-luces a current of the fourth order in 
the sixth, and so on. Since each induced cur- 
rent must have a beginning and an ending, the 
current of the third order must in reality con- 
gist of two currents in immediate succession 
ami in opposite directions, one produced at the 
beginning and the other at the ending; and for 
a similar reason a current of the fourth order 
HUM consist of four currents in immediate suc- 
cession and opposite directions. On this ac- 
count currents of the higher orders do not 
definitely deflect the needle of the galvanome- 
ter, but merely give it a slight tremor ; the im- 
in opposite directions follow each other 
so rapidly that the inertia of the needle is not 
overcome in the interval between the two. 
The existence therefore of currents of differ- 
ent higher orders could not be determined by 
the galvanometer ; they however give intense 
shocks, and also permanently magnetize steel 
needles. This latter effect will be understood 
when it is recollected that, although the series 
of waves in different directions are the same in 
quantity, they differ very much in intensity ; 
that at the beginning of the agitation they 
have much the greatest energy. Hence the 
currents of different orders exhibit dominant 
impulses in definite directions. If the direc- 
tion of the battery current be represented by 
+ . the current of the second order at the be- 
ginning of the battery current will be repre- 
sented by ; the dominant current of the 
third order + , of the fourth , and so on; 
while the series of dominant impulses at the 
ending of the battery current will be +, +, 
. + , , + . When a circular plate of cop- 
per or any other conducting substance is inter- 
posed between two spirals placed one above 
nid a current from the battery is 
transmitted through, for example, the lower 
induced current at the ending of the 
current "f the Lattery, in the upper spiral, will 
affect the galvanometer as if no plate were in- 
terposed, while the physiological effect, or the 
P wer * & n * 8hocks i wi tf be entirely neu- 
tralized. This remarkable effect is due to an 
''nt in the interposed conductor, 
w Inch i-i rendered evident by cutting out a slip 
of the metal extending from the centre to the 
circumference of the plate; or in other words, 
hy removm- ,,m- of the radii of which the cir- 
cular plate may he conceived to be made up, 
mid thus interrupting the circuit, in which an 



induced current otherwise could be produced ; 
the shocks with the plate thus cut will be near- 
ly as intense as when the plate is entirely re- 
moved. The same effect takes place when in- 
stead of the plates a third flat spiral is intro- 
duced between the first and second spirals ; so 
long as the ends of this spiral are separated, its 
presence produces apparently no effect ; but if 
the ends be closed so as to form a perfect cir- 
cuit which can be traversed by the induced cur- 
rent, the power of giving shocks is neutralized. 
But the question naturally arises as to how the 
current in the plate affects the current in the 
upper spiral so as to destroy its power of giving 
shocks. The explanation of this is to be found 
in the fact, that while the current in the battery 
tends to induce a current both in the plate and 
in the spiral above it, each of these currents 
tends to induce an opposite current in the con- 
ductor of the other ; we may therefore consider 
the upper spiral as being under the -h influence 
of the current from the battery, and the 
influence of the current of the plate ; but as the 
current in the plate produces an equal inductive 
action in opposite directions at its beginning and 
ending, the only effect of it will be to prolong 
the action of the induced current in the upper 
spiral, or in other words, to diminish its inten- 
sity, and hence to neutralize its power to give 
shocks without perceptibly diminishing its ef- 
fects on the galvanometer. These facts are 
of importance in the construction, of the induc- 
tive apparatus previously described ; for if two 
points of two adjacent spires of the long wire 
happen to be in metallic contact, so as to form 
a closed circuit, the effect is the same as that of 
the interposition of a plate or spiral between 
the battery current and the induced current ; 
the intensity of the latter will be neutralized, 
and hence the necessity of the perfect insula- 
tion of the several spires of the long wire. 
For the same reason, if the iron core be en- 
closed in a hollow cylinder of copper or any 
other conducting metal so as to separate it 
from the outer coil of long wire, the great in- 
ductive power of the instrument will be neu- 
tralized ; and it is also on this account that a 
bundle of varnished iron wires is employed 
for the core instead of a solid rod of iron. If 
however the copper cylinder we have just 
mentioned be interrupted by sawing out a thin 
slip parallel to its axis, and the solid iron core 
sawed down from its circumference to its cen- 
tre, forming a saw-gash in the direction of the 
radius and in the plane of the axis, the inter- 
fering induced currents will be prevented. We 
have stated that an induced current of con- 
siderable intensity is generated in the conduc- 
tor of the battery itself at the moment of the 
rupture of the circuit. This also produces, on 
the principle of the interposed plate, an ad- 
verse action which tends to diminish the ener- 
gy of the induction apparatus ; a defect in the 
instrument which M. Fesso has remedied by 
causing the rupture to take place in a cup of 
mercury the surface of which is covered with 



MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 



17 



oil ; the current of the battery is interrupted 
by drawing the end of the conductor out of 
the mercury while it still remains in the oil, 
which being a bad conductor stops in part the 
induced current. A similar effect is pro- 
duced by suffering the extra current to expend 
itself on a large sheet of metal called a conden- 
ser. The facts we have here stated have been 
confirmed and extended by Masson, Yerdet, and 
Acre of France, Dove, Wartmann, Riess, and 
Lentz of Germany, Marianini of Italy, and De 
la Rive of Geneva. Induced Currents from 
Discharges of ordinary Electricity. When a 
discharge from a Leyden jar is transmitted 
through two spiral conductors separated by a 
pane of glass or a stratum of air, induced cur- 
rents analogous to those we have described are 
generated of great intensity, and under favor- 
able circumstances the effect may be exhibited 
at a great distance. Prof. Henry succeeded in 
magnetizing needles with induced currents at 
the distance of several hundred yards, by stretch- 
ing two long wires parallel to each other, and 
transmitting a discharge from a Leyden jar 
through one Of them. He also obtained induc- 
tive effects of the same kind from the discharges 
of the thunder cloud at a distance of several 
miles. The direction of induced currents from 
discharges of the Leyden jar is apparently very 
capricious ; they do not deflect the needle of 
the galvanometer, and the direction indicated 
by the magnetization of needles, enclosed in a 
small helix which forms apart of the circuit, is 
subject to very complex variations. For exam- 
ple, when the two conductors are near each 
other, the direction indicated by the magnetiza- 
tion of the needle is opposite to that of the cur- 
rent from the jar. If the two parallel wires or 
flat spirals be separated to a greater distance, the 
magnetization of the needle will indicate either 
a feeble current or one in an opposite direction ; 
and if the distance be still further increased, 
the opposite polarity of a greater intensity will 
be exhibited. A change also in the direction 
of the magnetization of the needle will be pro- 
duced by an interruption in the circuit of the 
induced current, or by the proximity of another 
closed circuit. These results have led European 
physicists to attempt to ascertain the direction 
of the current by chemical decomposition and 
other effects, but the results do not settle the 
question or throw much additional light on the 
character of the phenomena. Prof. Henry, 
however, after a very extended series of experi- 
ments, was enabled to refer them all to the pe- 
culiarity of the electrical discharge from the 
Leyden jar. This does not consist of a single 
discharge from the inside to the outside of the 
jar, as has been generally supposed, but in a 
series of discharges forward and backward 
alternately, until an equilibrium, as it were, is 
established by a series of oscillations, decreas- 
ing in intensity on account of the resistance 
of the wire, until the normal electrical equi- 
librium is attained. Induction in Masses of 
Metal in motion. Arago in 1824 discovered 



that when a copper plate -is made to revolve 
rapidly immediately under a magnetic bar freely 
suspended by an untwisted thread, the motion 
will be communicated to the latter even through 
a plate of glass ; and also that when a magnetic 
needle is made to vibrate immediately over a 
plate of copper, it will come to rest much sooner 
than when the metal is removed. These facts 
remained entirely isolated until Faraday showed 
that they were the results of currents induced 
in the plate by the action of the magnet. We 
have seen that when a wire is made to approach 
at right angles to a magnetized bar, a current is 
produced in the former opposite to that of the 
hypothetical current in the near side of the 
magnet. A similar result must be produced 
when a plate of metal is moved in the vicinity 
of a magnetic pole. To illustrate this, let the 
N". pole of a strong magnetic bar be placed 
perpendicularly on the middle of an oblong 
plate of copper, extended in a N. and S. direc- 
tion ; while the bar retains this position, let 
the plate be drawn in the direction of its 
length, say southward, under the magnetic 
pole. A magnetic bar thus placed with its N. 
pole downward has hypothetical currents re- 
volving around it from W. to E. on the K 
side, and from E. to W. on the S. side. If the 
plate therefore be moved southward, the N. 
part, which is approaching the pole, will have 
induced in it a current in an opposite direction 
to that of the current in the magnet, which will 
in this case be a current directed toward the 
west, while the S. part of the plate receding 
from the magnet will have currents produced 
in it in the same direction as those in the mag- 
net; but the currents on the S. side of the 
magnet are moving toward the west, and hence 
we shall have on both sides of the magnetic 
pole of the bar currents directed toward the 
west during the time the plate is drawn from 
the north toward the south. If we reverse 
the motion of the plate, the direction of the sys- 
tem of currents will also be reversed. If the 
poles of a horse-shoe magnet be furnished with 
two pieces of iron so as to form acting poles at 
a small distance from each other, and nearly jn 
the same line, and between these a circular disk 
of copper be made to revolve on an axis parallel 
to the line joining the poles, so that the latter 
shall be near the outer circumference, a system 
of currents from the centre to the circumference 
of the plate will be produced ; the radii of the 
plate which are approaching and 'those which 
are receding from the line joining the magnetic 
poles will both conspire to produce this effect. 
If one end of a galvanometer be brought in con- 
tact with the axis of the circular plate, and the 
other made to touch the circumference while it 
is thus revolving, a constant current will be in- 
dicated by the instrument. If the direction of 
the revolution of the disk be changed, an oppo- 
site current will be produced ; or if the velocity 
of the rotation be increased, a corresponding 
increase will be observed in the intensity of the 
current. If the magnet employed in this ex- 



18 MAGNETO-ELECTRICITY 

periment be one of soft iron and sud<l< 

j a -al\ aiiic current, the popper disk pre- 
viously put in rapid motion will instantly be 
topped. Tin- current in the radii of the plate 
which an- approaching the magnetic pole, being 

ppoflfee direction to those in the magnet, 
will In- repelled ; while those in the radii on the 
other ride of the p<-lc, l.-in^ in the same direc- 
tion with the current in the magnet, will be at- 
tracted ; and hence the resultant action of all the 
induced currents will he to stop the plate. A 
himilar rc-ult is produced when a cube of cop- 

ahoiit an inch in diameter is suspended 
between the poles of a powerful electro-magnet, 
and caused rapidly to revolve, from the un- 

_r ..f a thread hy which it is suspended; 
when th- magnet is suddenly excited, the revo- 
lutinn ( .f the cube is instantaneously arrested, 
and brought to rest without the least oscillation, 
l ni momentum and consequently the iner- 
tia of the mass were instantly annihilated. If, 
in tin- case of the arrangement of the revolving 
disk wt: 1 1 a vi- mentioned, a rapid motion be 
communicated to it hy a train of wheels in op- 
po*ition to the resistance between the induced 1 
currents and the magnet, a considerable exer- 
tion will be required to continue the motion ; 
and since, according to the principle of the con- 
servation of force, tin muscular power expend- 
ed must produce some effect, and no change 
is found in the condition of the metal after 
the experiment, the conclusion was drawn that 
the energy exerted was expended in generating 
heat, the truth of which was established by 
Foucatilt. The disk thus made to revolve in op- 
position to the force of the magnet increases in 
temperature, and soon becomes sufficiently hot 
to set fire to an ordinary match. The Magnet- 
ism induced from the Earth and the Sun. The 
earth being a great magnet, currents of elec- 
tricity HUM he induced in all conducting ma- 
terial in which motion takes place at its surface. 
These curn-nN are, however, of feeble intensity, 
but their existence may be shown by connect- 
ing the ends of a copper wire several hundred 
yard- in h-nirth. cov.-r.-d with silk and wound 

around a w I n cylinder of about 2 ft. in 

with a galvanometer, and by suddenly 
turning tin- -'^i- of th,- former from ahorizontal 

D into the direction of the dipping needle. 
Daring the downward motion of the. X. end of 
the cylind.T, the LMlv.iriom.-t.-r will indicate an 

1 current in an opposite direction to that 
of the hypothetical current of the earth, and, 
w-hen the motion is reversed, an induced cur- 

r ' -tlt in 'he n ! -, t ;,.n as that of the current 

in the earth. From this result it must be in- 
ferred that elect rieal eurreiits are constantly 

d hy tin- ma/m-t im of the earth, since 

i th.- direction and position of a 

an take place without devel- 

! inductive action. Moreover, >im-r 

i has been proved i" he a <rreat magnet, 

t-xcrting a powerful action on the ear'h. the 

i of th.- lattermust object it to an 

inductive m-tioM. -imilar to that we have de- 



MAGXOLIA 

scribed in the revolving plate of copper. There 
can be no doubt, in the present state of science, 
that such currents actually do take place, but 
their direction and intensity have not yet been 
ascertained. But from the association of the 
magnetic storms we have previously described 
with the occurrence of the aurora borealis, and 
also with that of the maximum number of 
spots on the sun, we are led to the conclusion 
that the three classes of phenomena are inti- 
mately connected, and that they furnish a sub- 
iect of cosmical research of perhaps as great 
interest as any which have ever occupied the 
attention of the scientific world. 

MAGMFYIXG GLASS. See MICROSCOPE. 

MAGXIN, Charles, a French author, born in 
Paris, Nov. 4, 1793, died there, Oct. 7, 1862. 
He received a brilliant education, and became 
in 1813 assistant in the imperial library, and in 
1832 one of the directors of that institution. 
His theatrical criticisms in the Globe (1826- 
'30), his lectures at the Sorbonne (1834-'5) on 
the origin of the modern stage, and his various 
writings won for him the praise of Sainte- 
Beuve, and a seat in the academy of inscrip- 
tions and belles-lettres. He also wrote poetry 
and plays. His principal works are : Oritjiius 
du theatre moderne (1838) ; Cauteries et medi" 
tations (2 vols., 1843) ; Theatre de Hroswitlia 
(1845, with text and translation) ; and Histoire 
des marionettes (1852). 

MAG\OLIA, a genus of trees and shrubs dedi- 
cated by Linnaeus to Pierre Magnol, professor 
of botany at Montpellier, France, at the close 
of the 17th century, and who was the fir?t to 
apply the term " family " to designate groups 
of botanical genera. The genus is the type of 
the Magnoliacece, a family as to the limits of 
which botanists are not agreed ; as accepted by 
Bentham and Hooker (Genera Plantaruni), it 
includes nine genera, four of which, Magnolia, 
liriodendron, illicium, and schizandra, are rep- 
resented within the United States. In Mag- 
nolia there are fourteen species, six of which 
belong to Japan, China, and the Himalayas y 
and the remainder to North America, including 
Mexico. While a few are low shrubs, the ma- 
jority are fine trees, some reaching the height 
of 50, 60, and even 100 ft. ; there are both 
evergreen and deciduous species, and nearly 
all are ornamental by reason of their fine foli- 
age and flowers. The leaves are alternate, 
sometimes so crowded upon the stem as to ap- 
pear whorled, entire, furnished with stout pe- 
tioles, which when they fall leave broad scars 
upon the stems ; the leaves proceed from cylin- 
drical, acute buds, the integuments or protect- 
ing bud scales of which consist of the large 
deciduous stipules, which are adherent to the 
base of the petioles ; the stipule of each leaf 
envelops the succeeding leaf next above it, 
which is folded lengthwise and rests against 
the next stipular sheath, and so on ; the stipules 
fall away as the leaves unfold. The flowers, 
usually large, are solitary and terminal, and 
are white, greenish yellow, or purple; they 



MAGNOLIA 



19 




have three petal-like sepals, which fall early, 
and six to twelve petals in two to four series ; 
the numerous stamens are in many series upon 
base of the receptacle, which is prolonged 
to the centre of the flower ; the anthers are 
ar, longer than the filaments, and open in- 
cn-d ; the pistils are numerous, consisting of 
one-celled, two-ovuled ovary, pointed with a 
ort style ; they are densely crowded upon 
e upper part of the receptacle ; in maturirig, 
e ovaries become red, fleshy, and coalesce to 
rm a compound cone-like fruit ; when ripe 
each carpel (ovary) opens and liberates the 
two seeds, which have a fleshy bright red coat, 
and are for a while suspended by extensile cob- 
webby threads, which the microscope shows 
to be uncoiled spiral vessels. Bitter and some- 
what aromatic properties pervade the genus, 
and the flowers of some species are highly fra- 
grant. Our most widely distributed species 
is the small or laurel magnolia, or sweet bay 
(J/. glaued), growing in swamps from Cape 
Ann, Mass., to Florida, usually not far inland ; 
in its northern localities it is only a shrub or 
low tree with numerous stems from the same 
root, and is deciduous ; but in some of the 
southern states it grows 50 ft. or more high 
and becomes an evergreen. The bark of the 
young shoots is green, and the oblong leaves 
are dark green above and pale or glaucous 
beneath ; the globular white flowers are about 
2 in. across and delightfully fragrant. The 
fruit is 2 in. long. The bark of the root, the 
cones, and the seeds, made into a tincture 
with spirits, are popularly used in some parts 
of the country as a remedy in rheumatism, 
and have also been successful in diseases of a 
typhoid character in the hands of physicians. 
In the southern states, where the tree grows 
sufficiently large, the wood has been used for 
finishing the interiors of houses, for furniture, 
and similar work ; it is of a mahogany color 
and takes a good polish. The terminal shoots, 
bearing a flower and a cluster of leaves, are 
sold in large numbers in the streets of New 
York and other^cities. Like many other plants 
which grow naturally in swamps, the small 
magnolia flourishes when transferred to the 
drier soil of the garden, and may be trained to 
form a perfectly symmetrical little tree. It is 
surpri:?mg that a native plant of such great 
merit should be so seldom seen in cultivation ; 
there is a popular impression that it is difficult 
to manage, which is no doubt due to the fact 
that large numbers of plants, pulled up rudely 
from the swamp, are each year sold in cities 
by itinerant vendors ; such plants when set out 
are sure to die. All of the magnolias are dif- 
ficult to transplant from their native localities, 
but trees raised from the seed in nurseries, and 
several times transplanted, are quite sure to 
succeed. The manner of propagating the spe- 
cies in general will be found below. This spe- 
cies blooms when only 4 or 5 ft. high ; it has 
produced several garden forms, which differ 
from the original in the size and shape of their ] 



leaves ; one of these, Thompson's magnolia (M. 
Thompsoniand), is said to be a hybrid between 
M. glauca and some other, but it is apparently 
only a large-leaved variety ; it is valuable on 
account of its fine foliage and long continued 
bloom. The next northernmost species, known 




I 



Laurel Magnolia (M. glauca). 



as the cucumber tree (M. acuminata), is found 
from western New York westward to Illinois 
and southward to Georgia, and with one ex- 
ception is the largest of all our magnolias, 
reaching from 60 to 90 ft. ; it grows rapidly, 
assumes a fine shape, and its abundant foliage 
renders it valuable as an ornamental or shade 
tree ; the leaves are thin, 5 to 10 in. long, ob- 
long, pointed, and slightly downy beneath. In 
this species the flowers add nothing to the 
beauty of the tree ; they are bell-shaped, about 
3 in. broad, and consist of twisted or straggling 
glaucous green petals which are tinged with 
yellow ; the fruit, which is about 3 in. long, 
resembles when young a small cucumber; the 
wood is like that of the tulip tree, but is less 
valuable, and with builders ranks in usefulness 
with that of the linden ; it is somewhat used 
for the inside work of houses; in the western 
states it is valued above all other woods for 
making pumps and for pipes for conveying 
water. The great-leaved magnolia (M. ma- 
cropTiylla) is a still more southern species, S. 
E. Kentucky being its northernmost locality, 
whence it extends to Georgia and Florida, but 
is rare everywhere ; it grows to the height of 
30 or 40 ft., its trunk and branches clothed 
with a white bark. This species is the most 
remarkable in the genus for the size of its 
leaves and flowers ; the ovate-oblong leaves are 
narrow and heart-shaped at the base and from 
2 to 31 ft. long ; the petals are 6 in. long, and 
the open, bell-shaped flower 8 or 10 in. across, 
pure white, with a purple spot at the base of 
each petal, and somewhat fragrant ; fruit ovate, 
It is quite hardy in New York and in some 
parts of Xew England, and is worthy of being 






MAGNOLIA 



planted wherever it will endure the climate, 
n,,. uini.n-iia tree i.i/. Mifovlfe), also a fcrge- 
leaved species, has York and Lancaster coun- 
ties, Pa., for its northern limit, and is found 
in most of the southern states ; it rarely ex- 
ceeds 30 ft. in height ; the leaves are pointed 

i ends and from 1 to 8 ft. long; as they 
are crowded in a circle at the ends of the irreg- 
tree presents the appearance 
expressed in it- .-..mmon as well as its specific 
name ; the flowers are 6 to 8 in. broad, pure 
white, ami lave a sweet, heavy odor, which is 
disagreeable to most persons ; its large, rose- 
colored cones are 4 to 6 in. long and showy. 

a rather straggling tree, it can hardly be 
ron-id. ! '! as very ornamental, although it is 
an interesting species ; it is hardy near Bos- 
ton ; it was formerly called M. tripetala. The 
ear-leaved umbrella tree (M. Fraseri, and for- 
merly M. auriculabi) occurs in Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, and southward along the mountains ; it 
grows 40 to 50 ft. high, and though it has some 
resemblance to the preceding, it is handsomer 
in all respects ; its oblong-obovate or spatulate 
leaves are auricled or have an ear-lobe-like 
appendage on each side at the base; tbey are 
seldom over a foot long, and are crowded at 
the ends of the branches in an umbrella-like 

; the flower is about 6 in. across, white 
and pleasantly fragrant. The only other de- 
ciiluous native species is the yellow cucumber 
'A cordata), a native of North Carolina 
and Georgia ; it grows 40 or 50 ft. high, and 
has oval or roundish leaves, sometimes slight- 
ly heart-shaped at base, about 6 in. long; the 
flowers are 4 to 5 in. wide and of a lemon-yel- 
low color, which contrasts finely with the rich 
green of the foliage ; though a peculiarly south- 
ern -pecies, this has proved hardy in New 
England. On r only perfectly evergreen spe- 
cies is the great-flowered magnolia ( J/". grandi- 
jforti), also called the great laurel magnolia, 
which grows from North Carolina to Florida 
and westward to Louisiana. Probably no other 
American tree has had so ranch written in its 

as this and it is deserving of all the 

encomiums tli.tt have been bestowed upon it; 

for whether we regard it as a forest tree or 

as a garden ornament, it is unsurpassed for 

n< 'Mi-ness and beauty. It reaches its greatest 

<>n in lijrht fertile soils, and those who 

nave only seen the few poor starved specimens 

that linger along on its northern limits can 

i "f the beauty of well developed 

"\vs to the height of 60 to 

ami when nut crowded by other trees 

M a form a* regularly pyramidal as if it 

had been shaped by art ; its oblong or obovate 

leaves are very thick and leathery, of thedark- 

al.ove and ni-ty-colored be- 

'V'-n. r, to 1-J in. Im.-; the' flowers, 6 to 

'.' in. across, are of the purest whin- and deli- 

vant ; they are produced during 

April and May. arid after they are <_'..ne the 

ihow with tin,- affect airainst the 

dark-green foliar-. The flowers turn brown 



in fading, and the slightest injury to the petals 
shows itself as a brown spot ; if the petals of 
this or any others of the white-flowered mag- 
nolias be written upon with a sharp point, the 




Great-flowered Magnolia (M. grandiflora). 

writing will soon become legible in distinct, 

dark-brown characters. In some situations in 

England this tree endures without protection, 

but generally it needs the shelter of a wood or 

buildings ; in this country Philadelphia seems 

to be its northern limit, and there its flowering 

is of rare occurrence ; in more northern locali- 

ties it must be regarded as a greenhouse plant ; 

in those states where it will not only live but 

thrive, it is deservedly popular, whether planted 

as single specimens or to line an avenue. A 

number of well marked varieties have been 

raised from seeds, differing from the type in 

form of the leaves, 

size of the flowers, 

and other particu- 

lars; one of these 

raised in Georgia is 

an almost continu- 

ous bloomer. Sev- 

eral of the exotic 

species are common 

in cultivation, while 

others, at the north 

at least, are only 

greenhouse plants; 

some botanists have 

placed these in sep- 

arate genera, but 

they are proper 

magnolias. The best 

known of these is 




si<_Miifyinir lily tree, which is often met with as 
a shrul) flowering when only 3 or 4 ft. high, 
but which grows to a handsome tree of 30 
to 50 ft. ; the flowers, which appear in early 



MAGNOLIA 



MAGNUSSON 



21 



spring (April), before the leaves, are large, 
white, and fragrant; the leaves are obovate, 
pointed, and downy when young; the fruit, 
by the suppression of some of the carpels, is 
often contorted into most grotesque shapes. 
This tree is quite hardy in a much colder 
climate than that of New York, and for its 
large, early, fragrant flowers is a favorite with 
many, while others object to it on account of 
its naked appearance when in flower ; there is 
a celebrated specimen near Newburgh, over 30 
ft. high, symmetrical in form, and when in 
bloom its flowers are estimated by thousands. 
It is a great favorite with the Chinese, who 
dwarf it, as they do other trees, by cramping 
the roots in small pots. A row of seedlings of 
this magnolia presents a great variety in foli- 
age, and some of these are retained in cultiva- 
tion under distinct names. The purple mag- 
nolia (M. purpurea) is a native of Japan ; in 
cultivation it seldom reaches above 10 ft. ; it 
has the same habit of early flowering with the 
preceding species ; the large flowers are pink- 
ish purple outside and white within ; the leaves 
are of a bright dark green ; it is somewhat less 
hardy than the preceding, and in cold localities 
is treated as a greenhouse plant. Soulange's 
magnolia (M. Soulangeana of the nurseries) is 
a hybrid between the two just noticed; the 
tree has the habit and hardiness of M. con- 
spicua, while the purple tinge in the petals 
shows its relationship to M. purpurea. Lenne's 
magnolia, of comparatively recent introduction, 
is supposed to be a variety of M. purpurea, 
from which it differs in its finer foliage and 
larger and more deeply colored flowers. Sev- 
eral other species or varieties of this group are 
in cultivation, but their value remains to be 
ascertained. There are a few other exotic spe- 
cies, but they are rare in our gardens. Camp- 
bell's magnolia (M. Campbellii}, of the Sikkim 
Himalayas, is described as a large tree with fine 
foliage, and crimson and white floAvers rivalling 
those of M. grandiftora in size and exceeding 
them in beauty. M. Kobm and M. obovata are 
Japanese species grown in greenhouses. M. 
fuscata is a small evergreen shrub with much 
the appearance of a camellia ; its brown stems 
are hairy, and its flowers, which are brownish 
red or purple, are exceedingly fragrant; the 
French call it the black-wooded magnolia on 
account of the dark color of its wood. This 
species grows in the open air in Georgia and 
other southern states, where it is highly prized 
for its fragrance, and is generally known as 
the banana shrub ; it there forms a dense bush 
8 or 10 ft. high. The magnolias are readily 
raised from seeds, which germinate better if 
sown as soon as ripe ; if they are to be kept 
till spring, they must be preserved in slightly 
damp sand, for if allowed to become perfectly 
dry they will not germinate. The difficulty of 
removing wild trees has already been alluded 
to ; they form but few fibrous roots, and hence 
are usually looked upon by nurserymen as 
plants very difficult to handle ; but if nursery- 



grown plants are frequently transplanted du- 
ring their growth, fibrous roots are formed, 
and they can be removed with safety ; in some 
nurseries the trees are grown in pots, and 
these, though necessarily small, are quite safe 
for the planter to purchase, as they may be 
turned into the open ground without disturb- 
ing their roots. Magnolias are also multiplied 
by layers, but the tall-growing ones thus treat- 
ed never produce handsome-shaped trees, and 
those from seed are preferable. The rarer 
kinds, especially the Chinese, are grafted upon 
some species which grows readily from seed, 
the cucumber tree (M. acuminata) being usu- 
ally selected as the stock upon which to graft. 
Inarching is also sometimes resorted to to mul- 
tiply these plants. (See GEAFTING.) 

MAGNUS, Ednard, a German painter, born in 
Berlin, Jan. 7, 1799, died there, Aug. 9, 1872. 
He studied in Berlin and in Rome, and became 
known as a member and professor of the Ber- 
lin academy and as a portrait painter. He pub- 
lished Ueber Einrichtung und Beleuch tung von 
JRdumen zur Aufstellung von Gemalden und 
Sculpturen (Berlin, 1864), and Die Poly chromie 
vom Tcunstlerischen StandpunTcte (Bonn, 1872). 

MAGNUS, Heinrich Gustav, a German chemist, 
born in Berlin, May 2, 1802, died there, April 
4, 1870. He graduated at the university of 
Berlin in 1827, where he became in 1834 ex- 
traordinary, and in 1845 ordinary professor of 
physics and technology. In 1828 he discovered 
the compound formed of the elements of chlo- 
ride of platinum and of ammonia, the first of a 
series of combinations of the same substances, 
and known as the green salt of Magnus. He 
afterward published " Researches on Capil- 
larity " and observations upon evaporation in 
capillary tubes. Almost simultaneously Mag- 
nus and Regnault made public the results of 
their experiments upon the coefficient of the 
dilatation of gases, the former on Nov. 25, 
1841, and the latter on Dec. 13, 1841. In 
1860-'61 Magnus published his experiments on 
the transmission of heat through gases in the 
double aspect of conductibility and radiation, 
which led to a protracted controversy with 
Tyndall. His last publication was a memoir 
on the emission, absorption, and reflection of 
heat by bodies at low temperatures. His lec- 
tures continued till near the close of his life, 
and for their illustration he formed the physi- 
cal cabinet of the university. 

MAGNUSSON, or Magnusen, Finn, an Icelandic 
scholar, born in Skalholt, Aug. 27, 1781, died in 
Copenhagen, Dec. 24, 1847. He studied at the 
university of Copenhagen, returned to Iceland 
in 1803, and practised as an advocate. In 1812 
he went again to Copenhagen, where in 1815 
he was appointed professor, and in 1819 began 
to lecture in the university and the academy 
of fine arts on the old Norse literature and 
mythology. In 1842 he was made keeper of 
the archives. He was the author of many ar- 
chaeological works, of which the most impor- 
tant are : Bidrag til nordislc Archceologie (Co- 



MAdoFFIN 



MAGPIE 



penhagen, 1 *_>"), in which he maintained th 
s\iii!i..liriU ideality of the Norse myths 
which makes them aa appropriate as those o 
- reeks for artistic representation ; ' 



Boreal inm Mythologies Lexicon e 
>e Calendarium (1828); a translation and 
-, atin of the elder Edda, ^Eldre Edda 
otfTMt og fort' -Is., 1821-'3); an 

,'<*ren og dent Oprindelte (4 vols., 1824- 
;i exposition of the whole doctrine of 
Ma from the standpoint of comparative 
mythology. In connection with Rafn he pro- 
diiced vrfftfaub hUtoriske Mindesmcerker (3 
vols., 1838-'42), and Antiquite* nue* (2 vols., 
I860-'.")-' i. II-- also wrote a work on runes, 
Runaino og Runerne (1841). 

HAGOFFIV, an E. county of Kentucky, wa- 
tered by Licking river; area, about 600 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,684, of whom 179 were 
<!. The surface is hilly and the soil 
moderately fertile. The chief productions in 
1870 were 5,971 bushels of wheat, 174,591 of 
Iuli:tn corn, 17,488 of oats, 10,660 of potatoes, 
; Ihs. of wool, and 45,537 of butter. 
Thero were 1,063 horses, 1,532 milch cows, 
2,908 other cattle, 6,130 sheep, and 5,848 
swine. Capital, Salyersville. 

M \(.oo>, KlMia L., an American clergyman, 
born at Lebanon, N. II., Oct. 20, 1610. He 
was the son of an architect who was impov- 
eri-hed by sickness, and obtained a good edu- 
cation by his earnings as a bricklayer. He 
was ordained in 1840, and immediately settled 
at Richmond Va., as pastor of the second 
Baptist church, where he remained six years, 
and then made the tour of Europe. On his 
return he became pastor of a church in Cin- 
cinnati. Here he remained till 1849, when he 
IMT.-UIIO pastor of the Oliver street Baptist 
church, Xe\v York. In 1857 he was called to 
the pastorate in Albany, and about 1860 re- 
moved to Philadelphia, where he now resides 
il-^Th. Mo formed a valuable collection of 
pictures especially in water colors, which he 
sold to Vassar college, Poughkeepsie. In 1853 
Rochester university conferred upon him the 
degree of D. D. His published works are- 
n of the American Revolution" (New 
York, lsis ); - Li vinff Orators in America" 
1849) ; "Proverbs for the Peo- 
ple ; (Boston, 1848); "Republican Chris- 
; and Westward Em- 
w York, 1866). 
MiCOT. SeeMACA<, 

M1CPIK, a oontaMtral bird of the crow fam- 

the genus pica, (Briss.). The bill is 

long and strong, about as high as broad at the 

we, with oomprened sides, hooked tip, and 

covered wah hri<v f, a th,rs nearly to its mi* 

nill TS 1!* and r ? Unde<1 ' W ' ith the firs t 

1 short, falcate, and attenuated, and the 

fourth and tifth Marij equal and lon^st 

>* very long a.,,1 graduated the W 

J WttMfl learoeh more than half the n.i.l- 

||;1 " ""' '"'"Mle toe, strong 

with broad scales in front- toes 



strong, and the hind one long, with curved 
sharp claws ; a naked patch behind and below 
the eye ; head without crest ; nostrils circular. 
Nearly a dozen species are described, inhabit- 
ing the old world and North America; they 
are seen generally in pairs, but sometimes in 
flocks, noisy and restless ; they will eat vege- 
tables, grains, mollusks, worms, insects, and 
even carrion, and destroy eggs and young 
birds. The nest is made upon high trees or in 
thick bushes, of large size, of coarse materials 
plastered with clay, and softly lined with wool, 
hair, and feathers; there is generally a kind of 
roof over the nest, with a narrow entrance for 
the birds. The common magpie of Europe 
(P melanoleuca, Vieill.) is 18 in. long, with 
an extent of wings of 2 ft., the tail 10 in., 
and bill 1 in. ; the plumage of the head, 
neck, back, anterior part of breast, and abdo- 
men black ; the rest of the breast and the out- 
er scapulars white ; the tail and wings splen- 
dent with green and purple, most of the inner 
web of the outer quills white ; iris dark. This 
elegantly formed and handsome bird is gen- 
erally distributed in the wooded districts of 
Europe ; in form it approaches nearest to the 
jackdaw, but the wings are shorter and the 
tail much longer. It is fond of coming near 
human habitations ; the flight is rather heavy, 
but moderately rapid; the notes are almost 
"ncessant and hard ; the tail is elevated while 
valking. The eggs are from three to six, about 
by 1 in., of a pale green with brown and 
purplish freckles, or pale blue with smaller 
spots resembling those of the jay; it is fond of 
milding in the same locality, and frequently in 
the same nest. From its docility it is an agree- 
able pet, though it has the propensity common 
to the crow family of stealing whatever objects, 




American Magpie (Pica Hudsonica). 



and especially bright ones, may attract its at- 
ention. The American magpie (P. Hudsonica, 
tJonap.), though closely resembling the Euro- 
pean, is a distinct species; it has a much 



MAGUIRE 



MAHAN 



23 



longer tail, is of larger size, with a thicker bill, 
grayish blue outer ring to the iris, the feathers 
of the throat spotted with white, and the hind 
part of the back grayish. It is found in the 
arctic regions, and, in the United States, down 
to California. 

MAGUIRE, John Francis, an Irish journalist, 
born in Cork in 1815, died there, Oct. 31, 1872. 
He was called to the Irish bar in 1843. He 
was member of parliament for Dungarvon 
from 1852 to 1865, and afterward for Cork 
until his death. He was mayor of Cork at 
several periods from 1853 to 1864, was pro- 
prietor and editor of the " Cork Examiner," a 
leading journal of the south of Ireland, and 
took a prominent part in promoting the linen 
industry. He published " The Industrial Move- 
ment in Ireland in 1852 " (1853) ; " Koine and 
its Ruler" (1857; enlarged ed., 1859), which, 
still further enlarged, was published in 1870 
under the title, " The Pontificate of Pius IX.," 
and for this he received a gold medal from 
the pope; "The Irish in America" (1858); 
" Life of Father Mathew " (1863) ; and " The 
Next Generation," a political novel (1871). 

MAGYAR, Las/16, a Hungarian traveller, born 
in Szabadka in 1817, died in south Africa, 
Nov. 6, 1864. He attended the naval school 
at Fiume, entered the Brazilian navy in 1844, 
and took part in the war between Rosas and 
Uruguay. He went in 1847 to the Portuguese 
settlements on the W. coast of Africa, and 
became commander of the fleet of the negro 
ruler of Calabar. Having familiarized him- 
self with several negro languages, he left Sao 
Felipe de Benguela, Jan. 15, 1849, and crossed 
the table land of Nano to a comparatively low 
country, Bihe, where he married the daughter 
of a chief. On Feb. 20, 1850, he left his new 
home with his wife and nearly 300 armed men, 
crossed the river Kokema, and explored the 
interior, reaching in 1851 the Cazembe river. 
He went westward as far as the Liba river, 
and thence northward to the city of Matiamvo, 
testing his observations by travelling over the 
same region in different directions. The Por- 
tuguese government promoted him to a high 
civil office at Sao Paulo de Loanda,with the 
rank of major. The narrative of his travels 
from 1849 to 1857 was sent to Pesth ; the first 
volume was published in 1859 at the expense 
of the Hungarian academy, and was translated 
into German by J. Hunfalvy. 

MAGYARS. See HTJNGAKT, vol. ix., pp. 55 
and 62. 

MAHAJT, Asa, an American clergyman, born 
in Vernon, N. Y., in 1799. He graduated at 
Hamilton college in 1824, and at Andover theo- 
logical seminary in 1827, and was ordained 
pastor of the Presbyterian church in Pitts- 
ford, N. Y., Nov. 10, 1829. He was pastor of 
the Sixth street Presbyterian (now the first 
Congregational) church, Cincinnati, from its 
organization in 1831 till 1835, when he became 
president of Oberlin college, and professor of 
intellectual and moral philosophy and assistant 



professor of theology. In 1850 he was chosen 
president of the Cleveland university, in 1856 
became pastor of the Congregational church in 
Jackson, Mich., and in 1858 of the Congrega- 
tional church in Adrian, Mich., and in 1861 
president of Adrian college, which post he re- 
signed in 1871, continuing to reside in Adrian. 
He has been a distinguished advocate of the 
religious views known as Perfectionist, and 
has published a work entitled " Christian Per- 
fection." His other works are : " The Science 
of Intellectual Philosophy " (New York, 1845) ; 
"The Doctrine of the Will" (1846); "The 
True Believer" (1847); "Modern Mysteries 
Explained and Refuted," relating to spiritual- 
ist manifestations (Boston, 1855) ; " The Sci- 
ence of Moral Philosophy" (Oberlin, 1856); 
and " The Science of Logic " (New York, 1857). 
He has of late been engaged upon a work en- 
titled " A Critical History of Philosophy." 

MAHAN. I. Deimis Hart, an American mili- 
tary engineer, born in New York, April 2, 
1802, drowned in the Hudson river, near Stony 
Point, Sept. 16, 1871. He graduated at West 
Point in 1824, was appointed second lieutenant 
in the corps of engineers, and was made assistant 
professor of mathematics in the military acad- 
emy. In 1825 he became assistant professor 
of engineering, and in 1826 was sent by the 
war department to study in Europe, where he 
remained four years. In 1832 he was appoint- 
ed professor of military engineering, which 
post he held till his death. He received the 
degree of LL. D. from William and Mary and 
Dartmouth colleges and Brown university. His 
death was by suicide, during a temporary in- 
sanity resulting from his distress on learning 
that the board of visitors had recommended 
that he should be put on the retired list. He 
published "Treatise on Field Fortifications" 
(1836); "Elementary Course of Civil En- 
gineering" (1837; rewritten, 1868); "Ele- 
mentary Treatise' on Advanced Guard, Out- 
post, and Detachment Service of Troops " 
(1847 ; improved ed., 1862) ; " Elementary 
Treatise on Industrial Drawing" (1853) ; "De- 
scriptive Geometry, as applied to the Drawing 
of Fortification and Stereotomy " (1864) ; and 
" Military Engineering : Part I., Field Forti- 
fications, Military Mining, and Siege Opera- 
tions " (1865), and " Part II., Permanent For- 
tifications " (1867). He edited, with addi- 
tions, an American reprint of Moseley's " Me- 
chanical Principles of Engineering and Archi- 
tecture " (1856). II. Milo, an American clergy- 
man, brother of the preceding, born at Suf- 
folk, Nansemond co., Va., May 24, 1819, died 
in Baltimore, Sept. 3, 1870. He was educated 
at St. Paul's college, Flushing, L. L, took or- 
ders in the Protestant Episcopal church in 
1845, became rector of Grace church, Jersey 
City, in 1848, and two years later assistant 
minister in St. Mark's church, Philadelphia. 
He was elected professor of ecclesiastical his- 
tory in the general theological seminary of 
the Episcopal church in 1851, a post which he 



^ MAHANOY CITY 

held for 13 years. In July, 1864, he became 
Ts church, Baltimore. Dr. 
pul.lished "The Exercise of Faith 
(1851); "Ili-tory of the Church, first Three 




tion" (1868). His works have 
been collected, with a memoir by the Rev. J. 
II. I!.,]. kins jr. (S vols., New York, 1872-'5). 

HAIIA.XOY CITY, a boroogh of Schuylkill co., 
Ivania, su in. X. \V. of Philadelphia 
and 56 m. N. E. of Harrisburg ; pop. in 1870, 
6,583; in 1*7-1, including suburbs, about 10,- 
600. It is in the Mahanoy valley, 1,211 ft, 
above the sea, near the watershed between the 
Delaware ami Susquehanna, in the midst of a 
rich anthracite region. It has railroad com- 
munication with Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and 
York, by means of the Lehigh Valley 
and Philadelphia and Reading lines. It is sup- 
ported by the neighboring mines, which dis- 
burse nearly $200,000 in wages monthly. It 
has a large foundery, a national and a state 
bank, two insurance companies, two public 
hall.-, three large school houses, a public li- 
brary, two weekly newspapers, and 13 church- 
es. The tir>t houses were erected in 1859. 

MAIIAM I)I)Y, a river of India, rising about 
lat. 21 N., Ion. 81 E. It flows N. E., S. E., 
and E., through the provinces of Berar and 
and falls into the bay of Bengal through 
numerous deltoid arms which divide just be- 
low Cuttack, where during the rainy season it 
i- -2 m. l.n.ad; its principal mouth is in lat. 20 
18', Ion. 86 40'. It is about 480 m. long, and 
is navigable during tliQ rains 300 m. ; but during 
five or six months of the year a large part of 
nncl is dry, and it is fordable even at 
Cuttack. Diamonds of the finest quality are 
found in it and in its tributaries. 

MA II ASK A, a S. E. county of Iowa, inter- 
sected by the Des Moines and the N. and S. 
fork- of Skunk river; area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. 
'. -J-J..">08. The surface consists in great 
part of K-vrl or undulating prairies, diversified 
with woodlands and the soil is productive. 
Coal and limestone abound. The Des Moines 
Valley railroad and the Central railroad of 
Iowa pass through it. The chief productions in 
1870 were 354,7:12 bushels of wheat, 1,861,282 
<>f Indian corn, Il7.1n9 of oats, 127,146 of po- 
tatoes, 138,512 Ibs. of wool, 582,402 of butter 
tons of hay. There were 8,924 
horses, ;,'.7o mild, cows, 11,302 other cattle, 
~'<>l swine; 7 manufac- 
tories of carriages and wagons, 2 of marble and 
stone work, ii of xl ,h. door* and blinds, 4 
" '"ill-. !' Hour mills, and 4 saw mills. 

MUMliun I.. Miltan of Turkey, a son of 

Mustapha II., born in Constantinople, Aug. 6 

1M6, d .:. 1754. 11,- WM rai^-l i,l 

man thn.n.- in 1 T:M. after the deposi- 

hi- uncle Ahmed III. The janizaries, 

wno Ij : aL'.-iinst the latter and made 



MAHMOUD II. 

Mahmoud sultan, exacted from him a promise 
to continue the war begun against Nadir Shah 
of Persia. His military operations, however, 
were disastrous, and he finally concluded a 
peace in 1736. In the mean while the Rus- 
sians had begun hostilities, and in 1737 they 
took Otchakov and Kinburn, while their Aus- 
trian allies invaded Wallachia. The latter were 
however defeated by the Turks at Krotzka 
on the Danube in 1739, upon which the 
court of Vienna made peace on disadvanta- 
geous terms, relinquishing not only what its 
forces had recently taken, but also Belgrade, 
captured during a former war. The Russians 
obtained a more favorable treaty, retaining 
all their conquests. In 1743 hostilities again 
broke out between Persia and Turkey, and 
were closed by a treaty unfavorable to the 
latter. Notwithstanding the wars in which 
his army was engaged, Mahmoud was a man 
of peaceful disposition, and Turkey was com- 
paratively well governed under him. He was 
succeeded by his brothef Osman III. 

MAHMOUD II., sultan of Turkey, the young- 
er son of Abdul Hamed, born in Constanti- 
nople, July 20, 1785, died there, July 1, 1839. 
During his youth, passed in the seraglio, he 
became familiar with Persian and Turkish lit- 
erature, and is said to have manifested at an 
early age a character of great firmness not un- 
mingled with cruelty. His elder brother Mus- 
tapha IV., who ascended the throne in 1807, 
had ordered him to be put to death as a possi- 
ble rival, when Ramir Effendi, paymaster of 
the army, rescued him. Bairaktar, the pasha 
of Rustchuk, raised an insurrection, deposed 
Mustapha, and placed Mahmoud on the throne, 
July 28, 1808* Bairaktar became grand vizier, 
and with the sultan boldly attempted to carry 
out those European military reforms for pro- 
moting which Selim III., the predecessor of 
Mustapha, had been deposed. The janizaries, 
whose organization was threatened by this, 
rose in rebellion, and stormed the seraglio. 
Bairaktar blew himself up with his enemies, and 
Mahmoud as a desperate measure ordered Mus- 
tapha IV. and his infant son to be strangled, 
and his four pregnant sultanas to be sewn in 
sacks and thrown into the Bosporus. After a 
long struggle amid pillage and conflagrations, 
the rebels gained a victory, and the sultan was 
obliged to submit to thoir demands. As he 
was however the only living descendant of 
Osman, they recognized him - as their ruler, 
dreading the anarchy which must ensue should 
the royal family become extinct. He now, un- 
der very unfavorable circumstances, and with- 
out resources, continued the war with Russia 
and the Servians, until, when totally exhausted, 
his divan concluded a treaty with the Russians 
at Bucharest, May 28, 1812, by which the Pruth 
became the boundary of the two empires, the 
Servians receiving the promise of an amnesty. 
From this time the daring and despotic charac- 
ter of Mahmoud manifested itself with striking 
effect, both in reforms at home and in wars. 



MAHMOUD 



MAHOGANY 



25 



abroad. The Wahabees of Arabia were sub- 
dued by Ibrahim Pasha, the son of the viceroy 
of Egypt, Mehemet Ali. Dreading the increas- 
ing power of Ali Pasha of Janina, Mahmoud 
made war on him and crushed him in 1822. 
In 1821 his Greek subjects revolted. By the 
aid of Mehemet Ali he carried on a successful 
war against them, but with such extreme cruel- 
ty that France, Russia, and Great Britain re- 
monstrated. Their mediation being disregard- 
ed by Mahmoud, they attacked and destroyed 
his fleet at Navarino, Oct. 20, 1827. In 1826, 
after a desperate struggle, in which he dis- 
played great courage and ability, he had over- 
thrown the janizaries, and organized an army 
on European principles. With full confidence 
in its power, he did not shrink from a war 
against Russia, but was defeated, Diebitsch 
even crossing the Balkan; and in consequence 
of the mediation of England, France, and 
Prussia, he signed the treaty of Adrianople, 
Sept. 14, 1829. In 1832, Mehemet Ali having 
refused to withdraw his troops from Syria, 
which he had occupied, Mahmoud made en- 
ergetic preparations against him, but was de- 
feated by Ibrahim Pasha at Hems and Konieh, 
and was only saved by Russian intervention 
from being dethroned. The result was an alli- 
ance for mutual defence between Turkey and 
Russia. In the mean time Mahmoud had done 
much to improve the domestic condition of 
his kingdom. Roads were made, postal com- 
munication was established, ambassadors were 
appointed to the European courts, and women 
were allowed to appear' in public ; measures 
which did not fail to make him many enemies 
among the conservative party. Justice was 
speedily and severely admimst^ed, and an en- 
ergetic though unscrupulous police, often aided 
by the sultan himself, disguised, did much to es- 
tablish order. But his oppression of all the high- 
er officers of his kingdom, and the frequency 
with which he plundered, displaced, or slew 
them, sacrificing men of ability to unworthy 
favorites, deprived him of trustworthy aid, and 
his reign was a succession of revolts and trea- 
sonable attempts. In 1839, being still deter- 
mined to reduce Mehemet Ali, he drove him 
into a new rebellion. His army was again de- 
feated by Ibrahim at Nizib, but he died before 
the news reached him. He was succeeded by 
his son, Abdul Medjid. 

MAHMOUD, sultan of Ghuzni. See GHUZOT. 

MAHOGANY (Swietenia mahagoni), a tree of 
the natural order meliacem, a native of South 
America, Honduras, and the West India islands, 
and among the most valuable of tropical tim- 
ber trees. The genus is named in honor of 
Baron Gerard van Swieten. The mahogany is 
a large, spreading tree, with pinnate shining 
leaves. The trunk often exceeds 50 ft. in 
height and 4 or 5 ft. in diameter. The flowers, 
in axillary panicles 3 or 4 in. long, are small 
and greenish yellow, and are succeeded by 
fruit or capsules of an oval form and the size 
of a turkey's egg. Though the growth is very 



rapid, the wood is hard, heavy, and close- 
grained, of a dark, rich, brownish red color. 
The so-called Spanish mahogany, which in- 
cludes all the above, except that from Hondu- 
ras, is imported in logs about 10 ft. long and 
2 ft. square. The Honduras mahogany is 
usually larger, the logs being from 12 to 18 ft. 
long, and from 2 to 3 ft. square. It is chiefly 
obtained upon low moist land, and is general- 
ly soft and coarse. The trees which grow on 
rocky elevated grounds are of smaller size, but 
the wood is harder and more beautifully veined. 
The collection of mahogany for commerce is 
a most laborious business, often involving the 
construction of a road through a dense forest 
and in a most difficult country, upon which 
the wood may be drawn to the nearest water- 
course ; the logs are roughly squared to prevent 
them from rolling off of the low rude trucks 
upon which they are drawn. The natives make 
this wood serve many useful purposes, as canoes 




Mahogany. 

and handles for tools. Some have supposed 
the Honduras to be a different species from the 
Spanish, from its being lighter in color, as well 
as porous in texture ; but it is now ascertained 
that these differences arise from the different 
situations in which the trees are found. The 
largest log ever cut in Honduras was IT ft. 
long, 57 in. broad, and 64 in. deep, measuring 
5,421 ft. of inch plank, and weighing up ward of 
15 tons. The mahogany brought from Africa 
and the East is decidedly inferior to either of 
the above ; but a fine specimen sent from Cal- 
cutta to the London exhibition of 1851 proves 
that the best quality may be raised in the East 
Indies. The Spanish mahogany is one of the 
most useful of all woods for household furni- 
ture, for which it is adapted especially by its 
durability, beauty, hardness, and susceptibility 
of polish, though of late years it has been less 
fashionable than some other woods. The finer 
kinds of furniture are of solid mahogany, but 






2(J MAHOMET 

the greater part of that in use is made of 
cheaper woods covered with a thin veneer of 
mahogany. Alkalies are often applied to the 
colored wood in order to deepen the 
;,ut the best etfect is produced by using 
a colorless varnish, which brings out in fresh 
beauty the rich veins, and leaves its natural 
tints unchanged. The grain, or curl as it is 
called, is sometimes so beautiful, that it in- 
creases the value of the log to an enormous 
price; several logs have been sold for over 
$5,000 each ; in one instance three logs, each 
i >ng and 38 in. square, produced from a 
sin-le tree, brought $15,000. It is usually a 
difficult matter for dealers to judge with pre- 
cision of the worth of the wood in logs by in- 
spection of the exterior. Mahogany is said to 
have been employed about the year 1595 in 
repairing some of Sir Walter Raleigh's ships, 
but it was not used for cabinet work till 1720, 
when a few planks from the West Indies were 
riven to Dr. Gibbons of London. A man 
named Wollaston, employed to make some ar- 
(.111 this wood, discovered its rare quali- 
tnd it was soon in high repute. See 
s Botanical Miscellany," vol. i. (Lon- 
don, 1830). 

MAHOMET. See MOHAMMED. 

MAHOX. See PORT MAHOX. 

HAI10X, Lord. See STANHOPE, EAKL. 

MAHOMVG, a N. E. county of Ohio, bor- 
dering on Pennsylvania, drained by the Ma- 
honing and Little Beaver rivers ; area, 422 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 31,001. It has an undula- 
ting surface and a highly productive soil. Coal 
and iron ore are found. It is traversed by the 
Atlantic and Great Western and the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Wayne, and Chicago railroads. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 175,907 bushels of 
wheat, 861,439 of Indian corn, 449,385 of oats, 
124,758 of potatoes, 31,000 of flax seed, 2,684,- 
.":;i Ihs. of flax, 91,757 of maple sugar, 295,- 
467 of wool, 963,557 of butter, and 45,371 tons 
of hay. There were 7,312 horses, 18,582 cat- 
tle, 68,055 sheep, and 8,667 swine; 3 manufac- 
"f machinery, 3 of woollen goods, 2 of 
bolts and nuts, 1 of nails and spikes, 7 iron 
furnaces, 4 founderies, 2 rolling mills, 12 tan- 
ning and currying establishments, 5 flour mills, 
and 27 saw mills. Capital, Canfield. 

MAINUY, FrtQfls, an Irish journalist, born 
in Cork about 1805, died in Paris, May 19, 
He -tudied at a Jesuit college in Paris, 
1'sequently in Rome, where he remained 
for seven years, and took orders. He after- 
ibandoned the clerical profession, and 
the staff of "Fraser's Magazine," his 
MBtritaftkmi to which were published in book 
f-.nii. under th.- title of "Reliques of Father 
Trout." in ls:ii;, :m d ri'publMied. with etch- 
ing* by Macli>e, in I860. lie was also one 
of the earliest and most popular contribu- 
!;,-ntle\'s Mi-cellany" in 1837. Af- 
ter travelling through Hungary, Greece, Egypt, 
and Aia Minr, he originated the Roman cor- 
tiie London "Daily News," 



MAHRATTAS 

in which he powerfully advocated the cause 
of Italy. His letters were collected under the 
title " Facts and Figures from Italy, by Don 
Jeremy Savonarola, Benedictine Monk " (Lon- 
don, 1849). He was also for many years Paris 
correspondent of the London "Globe." In 
1864 he retired to a monastery in Paris, where 
he passed the rest of his life. The "Final 
Reliques of Father Prout" was edited by 
Blanchard Jerrold (London, 1874). 

MAIIBATTAS (Maha-rashtra, great people), a 
people inhabiting the region in central and 
western India bounded N. by the Satpoora 
mountains, E. by the Wyne-Ganga and Manjera 
rivers, S. by the Kistnah and Malpurda, and W. 
by the Indian ocean. They eventually spread 
themselves across the whole peninsula, through 
the dominions of Holkar, Sindia (Gwalidr), and 
the guicowar, and the country of Nagpore, 
where they still form an important element in 
the population. Some writers, however, regard 
them as foreigners who emigrated from the W. 
part of Persia about the 7th century, and Pick- 
ering assigns them an Arabian or Egyptian ori- 
gin. They are of Hindoo race, and are hardy, 
active, and well proportioned, but very ill-fa- 
vored ; their stature is small, their skin is dark, 
and their features are irregular. They are much 
given to athletic exercises, and are excellent 
horsemen, but turbulent and predatory, and un- 
fit for regular military service. They are cruel 
and perfidious, and have exercised a disastrous 
influence upon the countries they have conquer- 
ed. They are devout Brahmans. They first 
become conspicuous in history about the middle 
of the 17th century, when they possessed a nar- 
row tract of territory bordering on the Arabian 
sea and extending nearly from Goa to Guzerat. 
Sevajee (born in 1627, died in 1680), the son of 
an officer in the service of the last Mohamme- 
dan king of Bejapoor, was the founder of the 
Mahratta empire. Having collected an army 
among the mountains, he overthrew the king- 
dom of Bejapoor, and gradually united under 
his own rule the multitude of petty states 
among which the Mahrattas were divided. His 
son Sambajee extended his conquests, but was 
finally put to death by Aurungzebe in 1689. 
Under Saho, grandson of Sevajee, the heredi- 
tary prime minister or peishwa became the ac- 
tual ruler of the Mahrattas, and maintained 
their supremacy against the repeated assaults 
of Nizam ul-Mulk, the representative of the 
Mogul emperor in the Deccan. At the culmi- 
nation of their power, in the middle of the 18th 
century, the peishwa, with his capital at Poo- 
nah, was the recognized head of the confeder- 
acy of great chiefs who ruled the several Mah- 
ratta states. Guzerat, where subsequently arose 
the independent power of the guicowar, and 
a great part of Malwa, were overrun by the 
Mahrattas, and about '1760 they made them- 
selves masters of Delhi. Defeated however by 
Ahmed Khan of Afghanistan in the great battle 
of Paniput (1761), their downfall began; and 
though they again occupied Delhi (1772), they 



MAI 



MAIMONIDES 



lost valuable possessions to the armies of Tip- 
poo Sahib, and were driven from the Moham- 
medan metropolis by the British in 1803. A 
few years later two other Mahratta chiefs, Hol- 
kar and Sindia, who ruled the independent 
states of Indore and Gwalior, founded some 70 
years before, entered into a confederacy with 
the peishwa and the rajah of Berar against the 
British. After a protracted war the Mahratta 
power was finally overthrown (1819), the pe- 
ishwa became a fugitive, and his authority was 
abolished. See Grant Duff's " History of the 
Mahrattas" (3 vols. 8vo, London, 1826), and 
Owen's " India on the Eve of the British Con- 
quest " (London, 1872). 

MAI, Angelo, an Italian scholar, born near Ber- 
gamo, March 7, 1782, died at Albano, Sept. 8, 
1854. He entered the novitiate of the society of 
Jesus, and in 1813 was named an associate of the 
Ambrosian college, and soon after one of the 
sixteen attached to the Ambrosian library at 
Milan. When the society of Jesus was formal- 
ly revived by Pope Pius VII. in 1814, Mai, who 
had never taken the solemn vows of the order, 
was induced to remain a member of the secu- 
lar clergy. In 1819 he became chief keeper of 
the Vatican library at Rome, soon after libra- 
rian, and in 1825 supernumerary prothonotary 
apostolic. In 1833 he was appointed secretary 
of the propaganda, and in 1838 prefect of the 
congregation of the Index and cardinal. His lit- 
erary reputation was established by his careful 
exploration of the Ambrosian library, and by 
several important discoveries in the then almost 
unknown department of palimpsests. Among 
his discoveries in Milan were fragments of the 
orations of Cicero in defense of Scaurus, Tullius, 
and Flaccus, and against Clodius (Milan, 1814) ; 
several orations of Cornelius Fronto, and sev- 
eral letters of the emperor Marcus Aurelius and 
of Lucius Verus (Milan, 1815; new ed., Rome, 
1846) ; a fragment of eight orations of Q. Aure- 
lius Symmachus (Milan, 1815 ; new ed., Rome, 
1846) ; the complete oration of Isaaus on the 
inheritance of Cleonymus (Milan, 1815); an 
oration of Themistius (1816) ; several books of 
the " Roman Antiquities " of Dionysius of Hali- 
carnassus (1816) ; an Itinerarium Alexandri, 
and a work of Julius Valerius, Res Gestce Alex- 
andri (1817) ; fragments of Eusebius and Philo, 
and of Eusebius's Chronicorum Canonum Libri 
duo (1818), which he restored, in conjunction 
with Dr. Zohrab, from an Armenian manu- 
script ; and fragments of the Iliad from the 
oldest known manuscripts (Milan, 1819). He 
also discovered at Rome the long-sought work 
of Cicero, De Republica (Rome, 1822). As 
keeper of the Vatican library, Mai resolved to 
publish collections of the unpublished sacred 
as well as profane authors from the Vatican 
manuscripts, similar to those of Muratori, Ma- 
billon, and Montfaucon, leaving to future 
scholars the task of critically editing, com- 
menting, and translating. On this plan he pre- 
pared the magnificent Scriptorum Veterum 
Nova Collectio e Vaticanis Codicibm edita (10 



vols. 4to, Rome, 1825-'38), Auctores Classici e 
Vaticanis Codicibus editi (10 vols. 8vo, 1828- 
'38), and the Spicilegium Romanum (10 vols., 
183 9-' 44). His last publication, Nova Patrum 
Bibliotheca (6 vols., 1845-'53), forms an in- 
dispensable supplement to almost all collective 
editions of the church fathers. He had also 
prepared an edition of the celebrated Biblical 
Codex Vaticanus, but died before the comple- 
tion of the work, which was published by Ver- 
cellane (Rome, 1857). 

MAIDSTONE, a municipal and parliamentary 
borough and market town of Kent, England, 
on the Medway, 27 m. W. by S. of Canterbury, 
and 32 m. S. S. E. of London ; pop. in 1871, 
26,196. The principal manufacture is of paper. 
It consists chiefly of four principal streets, in- 
tersecting at the market place, well paved, and 
lighted with gas. It contains a county jail oc- 
cupying an area of 13 acres, one of the largest 
parochial churches in England, supposed to be 
of the 14th century, several other churches, 
schools, and charitable institutions. All Saints' 
college, founded in 1846, is kept in the build- 
ing of the old college of All Saints, suppressed 
by Edward VI. The navigation of the Med- 
way has been improved, so that vessels of 
above 70 tons can reach Maidstone. 

MAIL, and Mail Coaches. See POST. 

MAIL, Coat of. See AKMOK. 

MAILiTH, Janos Nepomnk, count, a Hungarian 
historian, born in Pesth, Oct. 5, 1786, died Jan. 
3, 1855. He was employed in the public ser- 
vice of Hungary until a disease of the eyes 
compelled him to relinquish his post; he re- 
sumed it at a subsequent period, but was final- 
ly thrown out of office by the revolution of 
1848. Poverty induced him to emigrate with 
his daughter Henrietta to Vienna, and subse- 
quently to Munich ; and to escape becoming a 
burden to their friends, father and daughter 
drowned themselves in the lake of Starnberg. 
He wrote Oeschichte der Magyar en (5 vols., 
Vienna, 1828-'31); Der ungarische Reichstag 
1830 (Pesth, 1831); Geschichte der Stadt Wien 
(1832) ; OescMcJite des osterreichischen Kaiser- 
hauses (5 vols., Hamburg, 1834-'50) ; and other 
works, including original poems and numer- 
ous translations from the Hungarian. 

MA1MACHIN. See KIACHTA. 

MAOI60FRG, Louis, a French historian, born 
in Nancy about 1620, died in Paris, Aug. 13, 
1686. At the age of 16 he entered the society of 
Jesus, and in 1682 he was expelled for defend- 
ing the tenets of the Gallican party ; but Louis 
XIV. settled a pension on him. At the time 
of his death he was writing a history of the 
English reformation. He published Traite his- 
torique sur les prerogatives de VEglise de Rome 
(1681 ; new ed., 1831) ; Histoire du Wiclifia* 
nisme (the Hague, 1682); Histoire du LutJie- 
rianisme (1686) ; and Histoire du Calmnisme 
(Paris, 1686). A uniform edition of his his- 
tories appeared in 1686-7 (14 Vols. 8vo, Paris). 

MAIMOMDES, Moses (Heb. Ralli Moshel "ben 
Maimon, commonly abridged into the initial 



28 



MAIMoNIDES 



name RaMBaM; Arab. Abu Amram Must 
(bdalhih j'/y/j Maimon ul-Kortolti\ a Jew 
ih theologian and philosoplu-r, born in Cor 
ii, March 30, 1185, died in Cairo 
. lec. i:;. rji'4. He was the descendan 
: unily di>iini:ui-hed in the annals of thi 
Jewish community of his native city, at tha 
1 a principal seat of Arabic learning, am 
1 from hi> father Maimon, a theologica 
and astronomical writer in Arabic, a superio 
elu. -ation. He \vas distinguished by a rar 
pr>liciciicy in mathematics, astronomy, medi 
cine, philosophy, and theology, as well as by a 
--ing ability as a writer in Arabic anc 
\v. In consequence of the great persecu 
tion of Jews, Christians, and sectarian Moham 
medans by the dynasty of the Almohades in 
va, he retired with his father to Fez, and 
,uently proceeded to Egypt (1165), pass- 
ing through Acre and Jerusalem, where his 
father died. He established himself in Mitzr 
or Fostat (Old Cairo), where he maintained 
if for some time by trade, until his sci- 
entific acquirements secured his appointment 
as physician to the court of Saladin, which 
office he also held under two succeeding reigns. 
At the same time he was active as a rabbi in 
the Jewish congregation of Cairo, and espe- 
cially as a theological teacher, his fame at- 
tracting numerous pupils even from the most 
distant countries of the West. But he exer- 
cised a far more powerful influence upon his 
brethren by his numerous writings, with few 
exceptions in Arabic, almost all of which have 
sin iv been acknowledged as standard works. 
The most distinguished Hebrew translators of 
the age vied in spreading his masterpieces all 
over the Jewish world, and thus enabled him 
to become almost the second lawgiver of his 
people, and to inaugurate among them a period 
of literary and philosophical activity, which is 
still regarded as the golden age of the Jews in 
exile. Of his works, of which numerous origi- 
nal MSS. are extant in the libraries of Oxford, 
Rome, Parma, &c., embracing among others 
treatises on medicine, mathematics, and as- 
tronomy, the most frequently reprinted (in 
Hebrew translations or original) are: Permh 
nhnah ("Commentary on the Mishnah"), 
KBng in introduction and an ethical trea- 
>\vn under the title of Shemonah pera- 
KL-ht Chanters"); Sepher hammiLoth 
Book of the Commandments"), a sys- 
tematic compend of the Biblical command- 



' ("rah ("The Copy of the Law"), a 
of Jewish observances, written 
illy in Hebrew, in many respects the 
aost extraordinary strictly rabbinical produc- 
, generally known under the appellation of 

} tilt 'hfL7,lL.lh /'PI... <- TT__ III 



l1 .' Hand"), from its 

M dfrUons, )W H-rufyin- ha,,,], and the nu- 
value of the letters of which the word 
is composed bc-ing J4; and Moreh nebukhim 



MAINE 

(" The Guide of the Perplexed "), a philosophy 
of Judaism, which from its influence on the de- 
velopment of Jewish science and genius is the 
most important production of the author. The 
original Arabic text of the last named work, 
in Hebrew letters, from an Oxford manuscript, 
was published with a French translation and 
notes by S. Munk (Le guide des egares, traite 
de theologie et de philosophic par Moise ~ben 
Maimoun, 3 vols., Paris, 1856-'66). Some of 
the views of Maimonides having been violently 
attacked by various western rabbis, his ortho- 
doxy and the rights of philosophy in the syna- 
gogue were vindicated among others by his 
learned son and successor as physician to the 
Egyptian court, Abraham ben Moses. 

M \l.\ (Lat. Mamus), a river of Germany, 
formed by two streams rising in N. E. Bavaria, 
the White Main in the Fichtelgebirge and the 
Red Main in the Franconian Jura, which unite 
about -13 m. N. W. of Baireuth. From the 
junction the river flows W., but with several 
long bends S. and N., into the Rhine at Castel, 
opposite Mentz; length about 250 m. It is 
navigable for nearly 200 m. to its junction with 
fhe Regnitz, and the Ludwig's canal connects 
it with the Danube. The principal towns on 
its banks are Schweinfurt, Wtirzburg, Aschaf- 
fenburg, Offenbach, and Frankfort. 

MAINE, one of the New England states, the 
most easterly of the American Union, and the 
tenth admitted under the constitution, between 
lat. 42 57' and 47 32' N., and Ion. 66 52' and 
71 6' W.', extreme length N. and S. 303 m., 
extreme width 212 m. ; area, 35,000 sq. m. It 
.s bounded N. W. and N. by Quebec, E. by 
New Brunswick, S. E. and S. by the Atlantic 
ocean, and W. by New Hampshire. As estab- 
ished by the treaty of 1842, the boundary on 
;he east is the St. Croix river and a line run- 




state Seal of Maine. 

ning due N. from a monument at its source 
;o bt, John river ; on the north the line fol- 
ows the St. John and St. Francis rivers to 
a monument at the outlet of Lake Pohena- 
?amook; and on the northwest it follows the 
nghlands from this lake in a S. W. direction 



MAINE 



29 



the N. E. corner of New Hampshire. Maine 
is divided into 16 counties, viz. : Androscog- 
Aroostook, Cumberland, Franklin, Han- 
cock, Kennebec, Knox, Lincoln, Oxford, Pe- 
nobscot, Piscataquis, Sagadahoc, Somerset, Wal- 
do, Washington, and York. The cities are 
Augusta, the capital (pop. in 1870, 7,808), Au- 
>urn (6,169), Bangor (18,289), Bath (7,371), 
Jelfast (5,278), Biddeford (10,282), Calais 
(5,944), Ellsworth (5,257), Gardiner (4,497), 
HalloweU (3,007), Lewiston (13,600), Portland 
(31,413), Rockland (7,074), and Saco (5,755). 
Portland is the leading commercial city. The 
largest towns are Brewer (3,214), Brunswick 
(4,687), Bucksport (3,433), Camden (4,512), 
Cape Elizabeth (5,106), Deer Isle (3,414), East- 
port (3,736), Ellsworth (5,257), Farmington 
(3,251), Gorham (3,351), Hampden (3,068), 
Kittery (3,333), Skowhegan (3,893), Thomas- 
ton (3,092), Waldoborough (4,174), Waterville 
(4,852), and Westbrook (6,583). The popula- 
tion of Maine and its rank in the Union, ac- 
cording to the federal enumerations, have been 
as follows : 



DATE OF CENSUS. 


White 
persons. 


Colored 
persons. 


Total 

population. 


Rank. 


1790 


96,002 


538 


96540 


11 


1800 


150901 


818 


151 719 


14 


1810 


227 736 


969 


228705 


14 


1820 


297340 


929 


298 269 


12 


1880 


398 263 


1 192 


899 455 


12 


1840 


500438 


1355 


501 793 


18 


1850 


581 813 


1356 


583169 


16 


I860 


626 947 


1,327 


628 279 


22 


1STO 


624,809 


1,606 


626,915 


23 













Of the total population in 1870, 313,103 were 
males and 313,812 were females ; 578,034 were 
native and 48,881 foreign born ; .and there were 
499 Indians and 1 Chinaman enumerated. Of 
those of native birth, 550,629 were born in 
Maine, 11,139 in Massachusetts, and 9,753 in 
New Hampshire. Of the foreigners, 26,788 
were born in British America, 15,745 in Ire- 
land, and 3,650 in England. The density of 
population was 17'91 to a square mile. There 
were 131,017 families, with an average of 4'78 
to each, and 121,953 dwellings, with an aver- 
age of 5-14 to each. Between 1860 and 1870 
there was a decrease of 1,364 or 0*22 per cent, 
in the total population, this being the only 
state except New Hampshire in which there 
was a loss. The number of male citizens 21 
years old and upward was 153,160. ' There 
were 175,588 persons from 5 to 18 years of 
age ; the total number attending school was 
155,140. Of persons 10 years of age and over, 
13,486 were unable to read, and 19,052 could 
not write, of whom 9,646 were males and 9,406 
females, making the percentage of illiterates 
10 years old and over, to the total population 
(493,847) of the same age, 3 -86, which is less 
than in any other state except Nevada, where 
the percentage was 2*38, and New Hampshire, 
where it was 3-81. In the total number (169,- 
823) of male adults, 6,585, or 3'88 per cent, 
were illiterates ; and of 174,068 adult females, 



6,834, or 3 '91 per cent. The number of pau- 
pers supported during the year ending June 1, 
1870, was 4,619, at a cost of $367,000. Of the 
total number (3,631) receiving support, June 
1, 1870, 3,188 were natives and 443 foreigners. 
The number of persons convicted of crime 
during the year was 431. Of the total num- 
ber (371) in prison June 1, 1870, 261 were of 
native and 110 of foreign birth. There were 
324 blind, 299 deaf and dumb, 792 insane, and 
628 idiotic. Of the total population 10 years 
of a^e and over (493,847), there were engaged 
.in all occupations 208,225, of whom 179,784 
were males and 28,441 females; in agricul- 
ture, 82,011, of whom 24,738 were agricultural 
laborers, and 56,941 farmers and planters; 
in professional and personal services, 36,092, 
including 890 clergymen, 11,321 domestic ser- 
vants, 13,833 laborers not specified, 558 law- 
yers, 818 physicians and surgeons, and 4,183 
teachers not specified ; in trade and transpor- 
tation, 28,115, of whom 11,670 were sailors; 
in manufactures and mechanical and mining 
industries, 62,007, including 2,697 blacksmiths, 
8,757 boot and shoe makers, 6,474 carpenters 
and joiners, 3,896 fishermen and oystermen, 
1,765 lumbermen and raftsmen, 4,187 saw-mill 
operatives, 2,256 ship carpenters, 2,432 wool- 
len-mill operatives, 8,774 cotton-mill opera- 
tives, and 1,131 mill and factory operatives not 
specified. The total number of deaths from all 
causes was 7,728 ; from consumption, 1,991, 
there being 3'9 deaths from all causes to 1 
from consumption ; from pneumonia, 495, or 
15'6 deaths from all causes to 1 from pneu- 
monia ; from diphtheria and scarlet fever, 502 ; 
from intermittent and remittent fever, 39 ; 
from cerebro-spinal, enteric, and typhus fe- 
vers, 641 ; from diarrhoea, dysentery, and en- 
teritis, 269. According to the census of 1870, 
there was a greater number of deaths from 
consumption in Maine, in proportion to the 
total mortality, than in any other state, the 
ratio being 25,598 deaths from consumption in 
100,000 deaths from all causes ; while in New 
Hampshire, the state ranking next in this re- 
spect, the ratio was 22,209 in 100,000. The 
coast of Maine extends in an E. N. E. direc- 
tion, from Kittery point on the west to Quoddy 
head on the east, about 218 m. in a straight 
line ; but following its exact outline, and in- 
cluding the islands, the length of shore line is 
2,486 m. It is studded with numerous islands, 
and indented by many bays and inlets, forming 
excellent harbors. The largest island is Mount 
Desert, having an area of 60,000 acres, and 
lying W. of Frenchman's bay. Its formation 
is very peculiar, and its scenery picturesque 
and striking. Thirteen peaks, the highest of 
which has an elevation of about 1,800 ft., rise 
from its surface from W. to N. Besides this; 
the principal islands are Isle au Haut, off tho 
entrance of Penobscot bay, in which are Deer, 
Long, and Fox islands, and the Isles of Shoals, 
a group of eight belonging partly to New 
Hampshire. Among the largest bays are Pas- 



30 



MAINE 



-My. M:i-lii:is Plcasmt. Frenchman's, 

M u-'-,. nirus, Ca-co. MIK! Saco. Maine 

is abundantly supplied with watercourses. The 

Walloofltook, tiowing into the St. John in 

tlu- iiiTtli. ainl the Aroostook in the east, 

. ith numerous trilmtarics, drain the N. 

a of tin- -t-ite. The St. Croix, which 
flows S. into PttMunAqaoddy bay, forms a por- 
tion i.f tin- K. boundary between Maine and 
New Brunswick. The IVnobscot, flowing into 
'uy, is the largest river, draining 
with its branches and connecting lakes the 
of the state, and navigable for large 
vessels to Bangor, 55 m. from its mouth. The 
Ki-nn.-her. W. of the Penobscot, affords great 
and valuable water power, and is navigable 
for -hips to Hath, 12 m., and for smaller boats 
to Augusta, 50 m. from its mouth. Further 
W. are the Androscoggin and Saco. On the 
southwest the Piscataqua separates Maine from 
New Hampshire. Several of the rivers have 
falls of considerable note. Scattered over the 
surface of the state is a great number of 

the largest of which is Moosehead, 35 
in. long and from 4 to 12 m. wide; among 
others are Sebago, Umbagog, Chesuncook, Bas- 
kaheiran, Long, Portage, Eagle, Madawaska, 
Pamrd'imcook, Millinoket, Sebec, andSchoodic. 
The surface is generally hilly, mostly level 
toward the coast, but rising in the interior. A 
broken chain of eminences, apparently an ex- 
tension of the White mountains of New Hamp- 
shire, crosses the state from S. W. to N. E., ter- 
minating in Mars hill on the borders of New 
Brunswick. The highest elevation in the range 
is Mt. Katahdin, 5,385 ft. above the sea. Sad- 
dl.-hack. BL'dou', Abraham, North and South 
Russell, and I lay-tack are among the others 
1.. st known. Maine is almost exclusively a 
region of the azoic rocks. The W. portion of 

i to is granitic. The metamorphic rocks 
abound in a great variety of interesting min- 

nd Paris, Oxford co., is noted for its 
beautiful colored tourmalines; Parsonsfield, 
York co., arid Phippslmrg, on the coast of 
Lincoln co., for varieties of garnet and various 
other minerals; Brunswick and Topsham for 
;.} and Bowdoinham for beryls, 
of the country the drift for- 
mation j> everywhere -[.read 'in the form of 
bm\ Iders and -and and gravel. Even upon the 
iiN are f.mnd scattered rounded 

tits of formations situated in places fur- 

-. Alting the S. portion of the state 

ts >f tertiary clays are found in many 
localities beneath the drift, They are charac- 

i by beds of shells of the common clam 
and in ]--,!, and consequently belong to the 
newer pliocene. They extend into the interior 
"id Hallou-,.11. and are pene- 
trated by w.-IN -unk 50 ft. or more below the 
Limestone quarries are worked in 
a among the metamorphic rocks, 
-liore of Passamaquoddy bay are 
red sandstone, probably of the age of 
the Connecticut river sandstone. It is pene- 



trated by dikes of trap, and at the contact of 
the two rocks are developed many interesting 
minerals. On Campbell's island and on the 
shores of Cobscook bay veins of galena are 
found of some promise at the contact of trap 
dikes and argillaceous limestone. Trap abounds 
in this portion of the state, and in the interior 
it forms hills of considerable extent. The 
sources of the rivers are in a wild mountain- 
ous territory spreading over the central portion 
of the state. The mountains are in scattered 
groups, with no appearance of regular ranges. 
Their structure is of the metamorphic rocks ; 
and so far as explored they present little of 
economical importance. On the Aroostook are 
numerous beds of limestone and one large body 
of red hematite. Argillaceous slates and lime- 
stones prevail over the N. portion of the state. 
Maine is said to be rich in minerals, espe- 
cially in Aroostook, Piscataquis, and Washing- 
ton cos. Besides marble, slate, granite, and 
limestone, which are sources of wealth, iron, 
lead, tin, copper, zinc, and manganese exist. 
There is also abundance of material for the 
profitable manufacture of alum, copperas, and 
sulphur. Granite is obtained in blocks of im- 
mense size, some weighing more than 100 tons 
each. It is of fine grain, beautiful in color, 
and very durable. The marble is better adapt- 
ed for building than for ornamental purposes. 
The principal belt of roofing slate, which is 
found in immense quantities, extends from the 
Kennebec to the Penobscot river, a distance of 
about 80 m. The principal quarries are in 
Piscataquis co. Most of the slate is suitable 
for tables, blackboards, writing slates, and 
pencils. Few attempts Have been made to 
work metallic ores. The climate is one of ex- 
tremes. In the year the temperature ranges 
between 20 or 30 below to 100 above zero ; 
and the isothermal lines vary with the lati- 
tude from 45$ to 37 F. The following me- 
teorological summary for Portland, lat. 43 
40' N. and Ion. 70 14' W., has been reported 
by the United States signal bureau : 



YEAR. 


Month. 


Mean ba- 
rometer. 


Mean 
thermom- 
eter. 


Total 
rainfall, 
inches. 


Prevailing 
wind. 


1871.. 
1872.. 


October 
November. . 
December. . . 
January. .. 
Fobniary. .. 
March... 
April.... 
May 
June 


80-058 
29-926 
80-004 
29-910 
29-924 
29-900 
29-949 
20-955 
29-950 
29-919 
80-007 
80-020 


50-0 
83-0 
28-0 
22-5 
28-0 
28-3 
41-8 
52-8 
62-0 
6S-7 
67-1 
59-8 


6-55 
6-87 
8-00 
0-77 
0-85 
1-44 
1-60 
8-23 
5-95 
2-97 
6-97 
8-12 

42-82 


Southwest. 
Northwest. 
Southwest. 
Southwest 
Northwest. 
Northwest. 
Northwest. 
South. 
South. 
South. 
Southwest. 
Southwest. 

Southwest. 


July 


Aupruet 
September. . 

Ann'lmean. 


29-963 


48-9 



In the extreme northern part of the state 
the temperature ranges from 5 to 10 lower. 
The winters are severe, but the temperature is 
uniform and not subject to violent changes. 
The snow lies on the ground for from three 



MAINE 



31 



to five months. The northeast winds from 
the Atlantic in the spring and early summer, 
charged with cold fogs, constitute an unplea- 
sant feature in the climate of a portion of 
the state. The soil varies greatly, being sterile 
in the mountains and fertile in the valleys; 
the most productive land lies between the 
Kennebec and Penobscot and in the valley of 
the St. John. Great forests cover the central 
and N. portions of the state, yielding immense 
quantities of timber, which constitutes one of 
the leading sources of wealth. The most prev- 
alent trees are the pine, spruce, and hemlock ; 
maple, birch, beech, and ash are common, and 

I the butternut, poplar, elm, sassafras, and a 
variety of others are found in particular dis- 
tricts. Apple, pear, plum, and cherry trees 
thrive, but the peach has not been cultivated 
with success. The dense forests still afford re- 
treats for the moose and caribou. There are 
also the bear, deer, wolf, catamount, wolverene, 
beaver, marten, sable, weasel, raccoon, wood- 
chuck, squirrel, &c. Wild geese and ducks, 
eagles, hawks, partridges, pigeons, owls, quails, 
crows, and humming birds are among the 
most common birds. The waters off the coast 
abound with fish, chiefly cod, herring, menha- 
den, and mackerel ; and salmon, trout, pickerel, 
&c., are found in great abundance in the lakes 
and rivers. According to the census of 1870, 
there were 59,804 farms, containing 2,917,- 
793 acres of improved land, 2,224,740 of wood- 
land, and 695,525 of other unimproved land. 
The cash value of farms was $102,961,951 ; of 
farming implements and machinery, $4,809,- 
113; total amount of wages paid during the 
year, including the value of board, $2,903,- 
292 ; total (estimated) value of all farm pro- 
ductions, including betterments and additions 
to stock, $33,470,044; of orchard products, 
$874,569 ; of produce of market gardens, $366,- 
397; of forest products, $1,581,741; of home 
manufactures, $450,988; of animals slaughtered 
or sold for slaughter, $4,939,071 ; of all live 
stock, $23,357,129. The agricultural produc- 
tions were 278,793 bushels of wheat, 1,089,888 
of Indian corn, 34,115 of rye, 2,351,354 of oats, 
658,816 of barley, 466,635 of buckwheat, 264,- 
502 of peas and beans, 7,771,363 of potatoes, 
9,114 of grass and clover seed, 1,053,415 tons 
of hay, 5,435 Ibs. of flax, 1,774,168 of wool, 
296,850 of hops, 11,636,482 of butter, 1,152,- 
590 of cheese, 160,805 of maple sugar, 155,640 
of honey, 5,253 of wax, 1,374,091 gallons of 
milk sold, 28,470 of maple molasses, and 7,047 
of wine. There were on farms 71,514 horses, 
336 mules and asses, 139,259 milch cows, 60,- 
530 working oxen, 142,272 other cattle, 434,- 
666 sheep, and 45,760 swine. The leading in- 
dustries are directly connected with the natu- 
ral yield of land and water, the most charac- 
teristic being the production of lumber and 
lime, the packing of ice, fish, and vegetables, 
ship building, and stone quarrying. It is esti- 
mated that the forests cover 10,505,711 acres, 
or very nearly one half the entire area of the 
524 VOL. XL 3 



state. This is not exceeded in any of the other 
great lumber-producing states except Michigan 
and Pennsylvania ; while the ratio of the wood- 
land to the entire area is greater in Maine than 
in any other state. The abundant water power 
renders the use of steam necessary in only a 
small number of mills. The great lumber mart 
is Bangor, where the amount surveyed during 
the season reaches about 200,000,000 ft. The 
most important centres of this industry are 
Penobscot co., where a capital of about $2,- 
000,000 is employed ; Washington co., about 
$1,500,000; Hancock, Kennebec, and Piscata- 
quis cos. According to the census of 1870, 
the number of saw mills was 1,099, having 76 
steam engines of 3,213 horse power, and 1,660 
water wheels of 38,898 horse power, and em- 
ploying 8,506 hands. The capital invested 
amounted to $6,614,875; wages, $2,449,132; 
materials, $6,872,723; products, $11,395,747. 
Ship building, which declined during the civil 
war, has within a few years attained a pros- 
perity exceeding that of former times. In 1870 
Maine ranked next to New York and Pennsyl- 
vania in the value of work completed, and next 
to New York in 1873. In the former year 116 
establishments were reported, employing 1,810 
hands, and a capital of $908,173; the value of 
materials used was $1,267,146, and of products, 
$2,365,745. During the year ending Jan. 1, 
1874, there were built in the state 276 vessels 
of 89,817 tons, being the largest tonnage ever 
built in one year. Among the vessels were 
10 ships of 14,594 tons, 25 barks, 12 brigs, 206 
schooners, 12 sloops, and 9 steamers. The 
principal yards are at Passamaquoddy, Machias, 
Frenchman's Bay, Castine, Bangor, Belfast, 
Waldoborough, Wiscasset, Bath, Portland and 
Falmouth, and Kennebunk. According to the 
census of 1870, the products of the Maine fish- 
eries, exclusive of the whale fisheries, were 
exceeded only by those of Massachusetts, the 
value being $979,610. This included ^9,373 
quintals of cod fish, 2,475 of haddock, 10,955 
of hake, 2,653 barrels of herring, 31,901 of 
mackerel, and 75,334 of miscellaneous fish, 
besides 40,011 barrels of fish oil. The value 
of fish cured and packed was $617,878. In 
1873, 861 vessels of 46,196 tons were en- 
gaged in the cod and mackerel fisheries. 
About 2,000 men are employed in this indus- 
try. The propagation of salmon and trout by 
artificial means in the interior waters is car- 
ried on with success under the direction of 
the state commissioners of fisheries. Along 
the coast, from Yarmouth to Cape Sable, the 
packing of fish, lobsters, clams, &c., is exten- 
sively carried on. The catching of lobsters is 
perhaps more extensive here than anywhere 
else in the country. The canning of vegetables 
in the interior is an important industry. The 
value of canned products in 1873 was $1,842,- 
000; the number of cans was 735,700 dozens, 
embracing 475,000 dozen cans of corn, 7,500 
of succotash, 231,600 of lobsters, 20,000 of 
salmon, and 1,600 of clams. Ice is gathered 



I 



32 



MAINE 



chiefly in Kennebec and Knox cos. for exporta- 
tion to various parts of the world. In 1873, 
,lMim. nts cut 301,000 tons, valued at 
$662,000. Most of the granite quarries are 
on tin- oi.-i-t. tho principal ones being in Knox 

iurnln counties. Here the granite is 
dressed ami shaped for use in buildings in dis- 
tant parts of the country. The stone quarried 

i waa valued at $536,738, and the slate 
at $85,000. According to the census of 1870, 
Maine had more capital invested in the pro- 
duction of lime than any other state except 
i ..rk, and produced more in value than 
any except Pennsylvania ; the capital invested 
amounting to $1,058,000, and the products to 



$1,741,553. In the manufacture of cotton 
goods Maine in 1870 ranked sixth among the 
states. The manufacture of woollen goods is 
also an important industry. The census of 
1870 gives the number of manufacturing es- 
tablishments at 5,550, using 354 steam engines 
of 9,465 horse power, and 2,760 water wheels 
of 70,108 horse power, and employing 49,180 
hands, of whom 34,310 were males above 16 
years of age, 13,448 females above 15, and 
1,422 youth. The amount of capital invested 
was $39,796,190; wages paid during the year, 
$14,282,205; value of materials, $49,397,757; 
of products, $79,497,521. The leading indus- 
tries are indicated in the following statement : 



INDUSTRIES. 


No. of 

eitablUh- 
menti. 


Steam 
engines, 
bone 
power. 


Water 

wheels, 
hone 
power. 


Hands 
employed. 


Capital. 


Wages. 


Materials. 


Products. 


Blackstnlthinfr 


604 


22 


15 


1,282 


$417,595 


$175,418 


$346.191 


$1,012,117 


Bleaching and dyeing 


16 






175 


263,500 


661980 


2,570,522 


2,713,950 




898 


83 


19 


2.786 


871,683 


894,887 


2,261,229 


8,749,710 




291 


12 


438 


1,128 


533,030 


856,207 


335,544 


1,051,488 


Clothing men's . 


148 






4,563 


551,610 


509,013 


1,863,891 


2,881,863 




20 


820 


7,908 


9,879 


9,789,685 


2,550,597 


6,671,280 


11,739,781 


" batting and wadding 


1 






' 8 


2,000 


600 


4,500 


5,000 




2 






57 


43,000 


14,000 


71,000 


98,800 




9 


ISO 


541 


260 


214,750 


111,882 


113,767 


342,050 




40 




5 


450 


160,920 


70,230 


359,087 


617,878 


Kloiirinc uii'l grist mill products 


205 


200 


8,191 


559 


944,350 


115,308 


8.887,370 


4.415,993 




4 


780 


120 


463 


550000 


272,958 


1,051,890 


1 591 196 




| 


6 


40 


24 


85,000 


17,400 


81,300 


53,800 


" nails and spikes, cut and wrought 


2 
44 


850 


00 
224 


22 
501 


80,000 

704718 


12,400 
242654 


24,590 
845 427 


40.636 
749 275 


" " stoves, heaters, and hollow 
ware 


8 


10 


5 


11 


7666 


4818 


15479 


23C90 


Leather, tanned 


128 


552 


1,813 


7S1 


1,606740 


285,882 


3,621,127 


8 779 227 




76 


109 


126 


219 


238 209 


64244 


894 862 


1 082 554 


" morocco, tanned and curried .*... 
board 


1 
2 




J20 


20 

18 


20,000 
36 000 


10,000 
7300 


40,850 
12 600 


50,000 
28 000 


Lini- 


41 






739 


1 058 000 


' 211 527 


1 222 809 


1 741 553 


l.UllliilT, planed 


18 


828 


107 


129 


'lO?' 800 


41 940 


'288^575 


'322'375 


sawed 


1 099 


8218 


88 898 


8 506 


6 614 875 


2 449 13'? 


6 872 728 


11 895 747 


Molasses and sugar refined. 




240 




'l85 


775 000 


117 000 


2 958 118 


3 14'^ 132 


Oil, floor cloth 


6 


98 


.... 


297 


525 000 


149 500 


850 200 


1 314 000 




23 


111 




876 










Paper 


12 


10 


1 608 


382 


899 000 




864 153 




Shfp building, repairing, and ship mate- 


118 


180 




1 802 


904,478 


627 185 


1 263 821 


2 858 415 


Vegetables, canned 


8 


27 


.... 


803 


84^ 000 


8 9 500 


247 000 


605 000 


Woollen goods 


66 


140 


8,867 


2,925 


4,092,685 


1,035,433 


8,761,715 


6,150,620 



The industrial interests of Maine have been 
greatly extended in recent years. The condi- 
tion of the most important industries in 1873, 
according to the state industrial statistician, 
is approximately given in the following state- 
ment, the number of establishments making 
returns being less than the actual number : 



Bsasr? 

Wrick 

.-.jods 

wagons, and 



- iiK-n's and boys' 



at ting, warp, 

-land packed. 






8 

112 
98 
88 

69 
43 
16 

5 
20 

7 






81 7, IN') 
825,000 



180 

:,:; 

4,0*7 



261 

MM BrtMa 

10,699 12,252,000 

145| 180,000 
480,000 



.-".:,: t 
1,842,000 



824,550 

Ml.'^l 
12,151,750 



INDUSTRIES. 


$ 


It 


11 


<* J 

11 


Flouring and grist mill 
products 
Ice, prepared for market 
Iron, cast, forged, and 
rolled 
Leather, tanned and cur- 
ried 


85 
24 

22 
61 


161 
160 

472 
663 


620.600 
60,000 

695,200 
1 529 380 


2,276.122 
552,000 

1,649,640 
8 187300 


Lime 


25 


456 


l'099'soo 


1 535 0^5 


Lumber, long and short. 
" planed 
Machinery, cotton and 
woollen 


1,086 
6 

8 


7,476 

so 

250 


6,879,492 
80,000 

212 800 


9,020.222 
210,000 

315 500 


Machinery, steam en- 
gines, cars, &c 


30 


1101 


1 00~ 500 


2 501 247 


Oit fish ... 


12 


446 


823 500 


852 550 


" kerosene 
Pai>er, prinfg and wrap- 
ping 
Print ing and publishing. 
Sash, doors, and blinds. 
Shooks, box and hogs- 
head 


1 

9 
81 
21 

28 




836 
274 
241 

868 


200,000 

1,500,000 
440,262 
870,000 

149 950 


254,500 

8,041.000 
801,600 
364,450 

652 01 8 


Woollen goods 


89 


2.727 


3217000 


f. MS 292 



MAINE 



33 



According to the same authority, the total 
number of establishments devoted to manu- 
facturing and mechanical industry was 6,072, 
employing 55,614 hands; the capital invest- 
ed amounted to $48,808,448; materials used, 
$57,911,468; wages paid, $16,584,164; value 
of products, $96,209,136. The extensive sea- 
coast and numerous harbors of Maine give the 
state great facilities for commerce. The harbor 
at Portland is one of the best on the Atlantic 
coast There are 14 United States customs dis- 
tricts, viz.: Aroostook (port of entry, Houl- 
ton), Passamaquoddy (port of entry, Eastport), 
Machias, Frenchman's Bay (port of entry, Ells- 
worth), Castine, Bangor, Belfast, Waldobor- 
ough, Wiscasset, Bath, Portland and Falmouth, 
Saco, Kennebunk, and York. The imports from 
foreign countries and domestic exports for the 
year ending June 30, 1874, were as follows : 



CUSTOMS DISTRICTS. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Aroostook 


$40157 




Bangor . 


15834 


$298 367 


Bath 


21.744 


79,071 


Belfast 


15930 


5787 


Castine 
Frenchman's Bay 

Machias 


2,919 
400 
13671 


7,719 
6,508 
101 803 


Passamaquoddy 
Portland and Falmouth 
Waldoborough 


774,279 
2,733,569 

9,784 


I,264,'l07 
8,581,502 


Wiscasset 


148 


27238 








Total 


$8,628,425 


$5,372,102 



The chief articles of import were coal, fish, 
iron, sugar, molasses, and wool ; of export, cot- 
ton goods, canned fruit, fish, and vegetables, 
boots and shoes, bacon and hams, lard, and 
lumber. The vessels entering from and clear- 



ing for foreign countries, together with the 
vessels registered, enrolled, and licensed in the 
different districts, were as follows : 



CUSTOMS DIS- 
TRICTS. 


ENTERED. 


CLEARED. 


REGISTERED, 
AC. 


No. 


Tons. 


No. 

74 

22 
20 
18 
6 
2 
169 
360 

758 
2 
52 
6 


Tons. 

19^27 
7,123 
8,446 
2,501 
904 
1,808 
25,717 
160,131 

280,788 
830 

8,827 
1,885 


No. 


Tone. 


Bangor 


27 
6 
10 
6 

2 


4,171 
2,857 
1,275 
1,515 
40 


240 

278 
337 
856 
817 
87 
249 
215 

892 
23 

588 
173 
16 


85,670 
125.915 
78,772 
26,736 
20,934 
2,820 
34,595 
28,786 

101,832 
3.76(5 
100,643 
9,808 
607 


Bath 


Belfast 

Castine . 


Frenchman's Bay. 
Kennebunk 


Machias 
Passamaquoddy . . . 
Portland and Fal- 
mouth 
Saco 


21 

227 

428 


2,071 
136,396 

218,351 


Waldoborough 
Wiscasset 


22 
1 


1,910 
110 


York 


Total 




363,196 


1^489 


^12,287 


750 


3,221 ; 585,842 



Besides these, there were entered in the coast- 
ing trade and fisheries 2,291 vessels of 1,124,- 
127 tons, and cleared 1,526 of 847,178 tons. Of 
the total number registered, enrolled, and li- 
censed, 3,157 of. 547,665 tons were sailing, and 
63 of 18,025 tons were steam vessels. The 
transit and transshipment trade at Portland is 
larger than that of any other port in the United 
States. Maine had 11 miles of railroad in 1841, 
293 in 1851, 472 in 1861, 871 in 1871, and 945 
in 1874. A board of three railroad commis- 
sioners, appointed by the governor and council, 
are required to examine into and report upon 
the condition of the railroads in the state, the 
cause of accidents, &c. The lines in operation 
at the beginning of 1875, with their mileage, 
were as follows : 



NAME OF CORPORATION. 


TERMINI. 


Miles in 
operation in 
the state in 
1874. 


Length be- 
tween termini 
when different 
from preceding. 


From 


To 






Leeds Junction 
Lewiston 
Island Pond, Vt 
Lewiston . ... 


28 
6 
82 
6 
18 
54 
33 
45 
114 
49 
39 
129 
14 
100 
10 
52 
27 
49 
52 
4 
22 
13 


i49 

iie 

206 

iio 
'52 
'n 


Branch 


Crowley's Junction. . . 
Portland 
Main line 


Atlantic and St. Lawrence 






Bucksport 


Brewer 
Abbot 


Bangor and Piscataquis 


Oldtown 
Belfast 


Belfast and Moosehead Lake 




Boston, Mass 
Bangor 


Portland 
St. John, N. B 
Rockland 


European and North American 




Bath 




Leeds Junction 


Farmington 
Bangor 
Dexter 


Maine Central 


Newport and Dexter 






Portland 




Branch 


Brunswick 
Portland 


Bath 
Dalton, N. H 

Canton 


Portland and Ogdensburg 


Portland and Oxford Central 


Mechanic's Falls 
Portland 


Portland and Rochester 


Rochester, N. H 
Portsmouth, N. H . . . . 
North Conway, N. H.. 
Princeton 


Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth 


Portland 


Portsmouth, Great Falls, and Conway. . 


Conway Junction 
Calais 


St. Croix and Penobscot 


Somerset 


West Waterville . . . 


Norridcrewock. . . 



Of the lines above mentioned, the Androscog- 
gin, Belfast and Moosehead Lake, Leeds and 
Farmington, Newport and Dexter, and Port- 
land and Kennebec are leased and operated by 
the Maine Central company; the Portland, 



Saco, and Portsmouth, by the Eastern of Mas- 
sachusetts ; the Atlantic and St. Lawrence by 
the Grand Trunk of Canada; and the Bangor 
and Piscataquis by the European and North 
American railway company. Lines of steam- 






MAINE 



ere ply regularly between the larger cities and 
Boston. Steamers also _ply between Portland, 
New Y.uk, St. John, H. B., and Halifax, and 
durim: tin- winter between Portland and Liver- 
pool and Glasgow. The number of national 
banks in operation in 1874 was 64, having a 
paid-in capital of $9,840,000, and a circulation 
..uMaiiding of $7,946,576. The circulation 
per capita was $12 67, while the ratio of cir- 
culation t.. wealth w;is 2'2 per cent., and to 
bank capital 80-8 per cent. Savings banks are 
well distributed throughout Maine, and are 

,1 with jrrent care. In 1874 there were 
5*. with s:<U>:> 1,963 deposits and 96,799 de- 
positors, the average amount on deposit by 
each being $320. The deposits in these in- 
stitution^ amount to nearly $6,500,000 more 
than the circulation and deposits of the na- 
tional hanks of the state. The number of 
tire, marine, and fire and marine insurance 
companies do'in:: business in the state, Jan. 1, 
JO, of which 41 were Maine com- 
- The government of Maine is founded 
on the constitution of 1820. Every adult male 
citi/.en of the United States, not a pauper or 
criminal, who has resided in the state three 
months, is entitled to vote at elections. The 
legislature is composed of a senate of 31 mem- 
;iid a house of representatives of 151 
members, all elected annually by the people. 
The general election is held on the second 
Monday in September, and the legislature meets 
in Anjfosta on the first Wednesday in January 
annually. The governor (salary $2,500) is also 
elected annually, and is assisted in his executive 
duties by a council of seven members, elected 
on joint ballot by the legislature. The secretary 
of state (salary $1,500) and the state treasurer 
Salary $1,600) are also elected by the same 
body ami in the same way. Other state officers 
are 'the attorney general, adjutant general, su- 
perintendent of common scnools, land agent, 
insurance commissioner, bank examiner, three 
railroad commissioners, superintendent of pub- 
lic buildings, librarian, two assayers, inspector 

1 of beef and pork, inspector general of 
ti-h. two commissioners of fisheries, industrial 

iun, and two Indian agents. The gov- 
ernor appoints, with the advice and consent 
of the council, besides certain judicial officers, 

torney general, the sheriffs, coroners, 
registers of probate, and notaries public. 
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of 
uL'e-. who are appointed by the gov- 
ernor and council for a term of seven years, 
and receive a salary of $3,000 a year each ; the 
irt of Cumberland co., held in Port- 

vitli one judge appointed in the same 

way and for the same term ; probate courts 

county, the judges being elected by 

the people for term- of four \var-; municipal 

and police court> : and trial justices, appointed 

governor and council for seven years, 

with iiiri-dictiou where the amount does not 

is divided into three 

j'ld'u i n. middle, and western, 



in each of which the supreme court holds nn 
annual session as a court of law. Trial terms 
are also held in each county for civil and 
criminal business, except that in Cumberland 
co. the superior court has exclusive criminal 
jurisdiction. In each county there is a judge 
and register of probate. There is a state board 
of immigration, consisting of the governor, 
secretary of state, and land agent, who are re- 
quired to appoint a commissioner of immigra- 
tion. The board may give to each male adult 
immigrant 100 acres of the public land on which 
to settle. It is the duty of the industrial sta- 
tistician, which office was created in 1873, to 
collect and publish statistical information con- 
cerning the manufacturing, mining, commer- 
cial, agricultural, and other industrial interests, 
together with the valuation and appropriations 
for various purposes of the several towns and 
cities of the state. Maine is represented in 
congress by two senators and five representa- 
tives, and has therefore seven votes in the 
electoral college. The laws for the prevention 
of intemperance in Maine have always been of 
a rigid character. The present law vests the 
sale of intoxicating liquors in special' agents 
appointed by the state, and prohibits all other 
persons from selling such liquors, including 
ale, porter, strong beer, lager beer, and other 
malt liquors, wine, and cider, as well as all dis- 
tilled spirits. The manufacture of intoxicating 
liquors for unlawful sale is also forbidden. 
The provisions of the law, however, do not 
extend to the manufacture and sale of unadul- 
terated cider or wine made from fruit grown 
in the state. The lawful sale of liquors is un- 
der the direction of a commissioner who is ap- 
pointed by the governor, and who is required 
to furnish municipal officers of towns in Maine, 
and duly authorized agents of other states, with 
pure unadulterated intoxicating liquors, to be 
sold for medicinal, mechanical, and manufac- 
turing purposes. If an authorized agent vio- 
lates the law, he is subject to a fine not exceed- 
ing $30, and imprisonment not exceeding three 
months ; while the penalty for a violation by 
a common seller is $100 fine or three months' 
imprisonment for the first, and $250 fine and 
four months' imprisonment for the second and 
each subsequent offence. Any one having been 
injured by an intoxicated person may maintain 
an action for damages against the person who 
sold the liquor ; and the owner or lessee of the 
building in which the liquor was sold is jointly 
liable if cognizant that it was used for such 
purposes. A married woman may hold in her 
own right real and personal estate acquired by 
descent, gift, or purchase, -and may convey or 
devise the same by will, without the consent 
of herjhusband, except such real estate as has 
been directly or indirectly conveyed to her by 
her husband or his relatives, in which case the 
husband must join in the conveyance. A wo- 
man does not lose and a husband does not ac- 
quire rights to her property by marriage. The 
husband is not liable for the debts of the wife 



MAINE 



35 



contracted before marriage, nor for those after- 
ward contracted in her own name ; but she is 
liable in both cases, and may be sued. Mar- 
riages, births, and deaths must be registered in 
every town, and reported to the secretary of 
state. Intention of marriage must be recorded 
in the office of the town clerk at least five days 
before the certificate is granted, and the mar- 
riage must be solemnized by a minister or jus- 
tice of the peace. White persons are prohib- 
ited from marrying negroes, Indians, or mulat- 
toes. Treason, murder in the first degree, and 
arson of an occupied dwelling in the night, are 
punishable with death ; so also is killing in a 
duel, and the seconds are liable to the same 
punishment as the principals. Rape, arson of a 
dwelling in the day time, and burglary at night 
by a person armed with a weapon, or making 
an assault, are punishable with imprisonment 
for life. Adultery is punished with imprison- 
ment for not less than one nor more than five 
years. The receipts into the state treasury 
during the year ending Jan. 1, 1875, amounted 
to $1,423,473, and the expenditures to $1,524,- 
497. Of the receipts, $142,258 was from the 
tax on savings banks, and $67,996 on public 
lands, while nearly all of the remainder, about 
$1,170,000, was from direct taxation. Of 
the expenditures, $432,200 was on account of 
interest, and $238,276 on account of sinking 
fund and principal of public debt ; about $82,- 
000 for special and exceptional appropriations ; 
$407,477 to towns for common schools ; and 
about $320,000 for general state purposes. 
On Jan. 1, 1875, the entire amount of the pub- 
lic- debt was $7,088,400, of which $2,'223,000 
was in registered and $4,865,400 in coupon 
bonds. Deducting the sinking fund ($1,514,- 
022) held for the payment of the debt, the 
liability of the state amounted to $5,574,378. 
While in many other states a large portion of 
the public revenues is raised by indirect taxa- 
tion, in Maine nearly the entire amount is de- 
rived from direct taxes. The rate on the val- 
uation of 1874 was five mills on the dollar. 
The total value of real and personal property 
in 1874, estimated on a true cash basis, was 
stated at $254,000,000. The assessed value of 
real estate, as returned by the census of 1870, 
was $134,580,157, and of personal property 
$69,673,623; the true valuation of real and 
personal estate was $348,155,671. The total 
amount of taxation not national was $5,348,- 
645, of which $1,350,305 was state, $315,199 
county, and $3,683,141 town, city, &c. The 
institutions supported wholly or in part by the 
state are the insane hospital, reform school, 
state prison, soldiers' orphans' home, and two 
normal schools. The insane hospital in A\\- 
gusta was opened in 1840, since which time 
4,404 patients have been received, of whom 
4,011 have been discharged, 1,770 recovered, 
767 improved, 675 unimproved, and 799 have 
died. The daily average under treatment in 
1874 was 406. Of the 393 in the hospital at 
the close of the year, 43 were supported by the 



state, 291 were receiving state aid of $1 50 per 
week, and 59 were supported by their friends 
at the rate of $4 or $7 per week, according 
to accommodations. The capacity of this in- 
stitution is inadequate to the needs of the state, 
and provision has been made for the erection 
of another. The total expenditures on account 
of the hospital in 1874 were $103,917, of which 
the state paid about $34,000 for the support 
of indigent insane, and towns and individuals 
about $56,000. Maine has no state institutions 
for the care of the deaf and dumb or the blind ; 
but $14,179 was paid from the treasury in 1873 
for the education in other institutions of 55 
deaf and dumb and 11 blind beneficiaries. The 
state prison at Thomaston at the beginning of 
1874 contained 129 convicts, of whom 55 were 
under sentence for larceny, 20 for burglary, 
and 12 for murder. The average annual num- 
ber of commitments during the ten years end- 
ing with 1873 was about 51. With the ex- 
ception of a period of about eight years, the 
state has always employed the labor of the con- 
victs in manufacturing operations on its own 
account, producing carriages, harness, and boots 
and shoes. In 1873 the labor of the convicts 
defrayed all the expenses of the institution, 
and yielded to the state a net profit of $6,645. * 
During the 20 years ending with 1873 the sales 
of the product of convict labor amounted to 
$614,028. A beginning has been made of in- 
troducing this system of industry into the va- 
rious county jails. The average number of 
convicts in the 13 jails of the state in 1873 was 
76, making with the average number in the 
state prison (146) a total of 222. The reform 
school, opened in 1852, is about 4 m. from 
Portland, where a farm of 160 acres is devoted 
to the purposes of the institution. Boys be- 
tween the ages of 8 and 16 years are received, 
and besides attending school four hours a day 
are occupied in farming, making bricks, shoes, 
and chairs, and in general housework. The 
average number of boys in 1874 was 137, and 
the appropriation by the state amounted to 
$20,000. An industrial school for girls was 
opened in Hallowell in 1875. The military and 
naval orphans' asylum at Bath affords a home 
for the children of the soldiers who died in the 
civil war. The number of inmates at the close 
of 1874 was 55 ; state appropriation, $10,000. 
There is also a general orphan asylum in Ban- 
go r, which receives state aid. The Maine gen- 
eral hospital in Portland is aided by the state. 
The educational interests of the state are un- 
der the supervision of a state superintendent, 
appointed by the governor and council, and 
there are city superintendents. Every city, 
town, and plantation is required to raise and 
expend annually for the support of schools 
therein not less than $1 for each inhabitant, 
under penalty of not receiving any share 
of the state school fund. The permanent 
school fund, derived chiefly from the sales of 
wild lands belonging to the state, amounts to 
Besides the income of this fund, the 



MAINE 



chief sources of revenue for school purposes are 
tax of one mill per dollar of valuation, 
tax of 80 cents per capita, and a tax 
of one half mill per dollar of the deposits of sa- 
vings banks. The cost of supporting the pubhc 
*eh'ooN in 1*74 (current expenses) was $1,237,- 
778 being about '005 on the state valuation, 
$1 97 for each inhabitant, $5 49 for each per- 
son of school age, and $11 21 according to the 
average attendance. The school funds are ap- 
mong the several towns according 
to the number of persons between 4 and 21 
years of age. The chief facts relating to the 
schools of the state are as follows : 

Number of persons between 4 and 21 years of age. 225,219 

registered in summer schools. 
Arerge attendi 



regfetered in winter schools. 



108,478 



AYerSeduration of ^hook for'the year,'20 weeks and 2 days 

Number of school districts J}48 

" houses 4,iya 

Estimated value of all school property $8,079,81 1 

Male teachers in summer 

in wint.T 1.928 

Female teachers in summer 4.8bG 

inwinter 2,367 

Teachers, graduates of normal schools 294 

Average wages of male teachers per month $36 17 

- of female teachers per week *4 Oo 

Amount of school money voted $678.314 

Excess above amount required by law $187,782 

Amount raised per scholar $2 90 

recei ved from state treasury during 1S74. $367,009 

By a recent act of the legislature a system of 
five high schools throughout the state has been 
established, the state defraying one half the 
cost of instruction upon certain conditions. In 
1*74 there were 355 terms of free high schools 
open, with 14,820 pupils enrolled. The amount 
paid by the state in aid of these was $39,969. 
Sixteen teachers' institutes were held in 1874, 
besides numerous educational conventions and 
associations. The normal schools are under 
the direction of seven trustees, five of whom 
are appointed by the governor, who, with the 
superintendent of common schools, is an ex 

member. The western state normal 
s-huol .-it Farminjiton was established in 1863, 
anl in L87ft-'4had 8 instructors and 63 students 
during tin- autumn and 86 during the spring 

V-idi'9 31 in the model school. The 
course mr-ipi.-* two years, and tuition is free 
to those ph-iL'ing themselves to teach in the 
pul .lie. schools of Maine for as long a period 
as they have been connected with the normal 
>chool. The eastern state normal school at 
Castine was opened in 1867, and in 1873-'4 had 
8 instructors and 94 students in the autumn, 58 
in the winter, and 130 in the spring term ; 170 
<>f tlu- total were females, and 112 males. Tu- 
. but graduates are expected to be- 
come teachi-r^ in tin- public schools of the state. 
In 187 appropriated $17,500 for nor- 

mal schiHiU. The state college of agriculture 

ie m-"!i:inir arts at < )rono, has received 

the grant of public lands made by congress for 

the establishment and maintenance of such in- 

*tituti..n- in - ttet, A farm of 370 

rior land affords excellent facilities 



for the experimental purposes of the institu- 
tion. Five courses of instruction are offered : 
in agriculture, civil engineering, mechanical en- 
gineering, chemistry, and an elective course. 
The studies of the several courses are essen- 
tially in common during the first two years. 
Prominence is given to military instruction, and 
the students are required to devote not exceed- 
in" three hours a day for five days in the week 
to manual labor, for which they receive com- 
pensation. This institution was opened in 1868, 
and in 1874 had 8 instructors and 121 students. 
It is provided with valuable apparatus and a 
library of 2,000 volumes. The most promi- 
nent educational institutions are Bowdoin col- 
lege in Brunswick (see BOWDOIN COLLEGE), 
Colby university (Baptist) at Waterville, and 
Bates college (Freewill Baptist) at Lewiston. 
Colby university was organized in 1820, and 
in 1874 had 7 instructors and 62 students; 
the library contains about 10,000 volumes ; 66 
scholarships, each yielding from $36 to $60 
per annum, have been founded for the ben- 
efit of students needing aid ; the university is 
open to students of both sexes. Bates college 
was organized in 1863 ; connected with it is 
a theological department, which was opened 
in 1870; the libraries of the institution com- 
prise 8,300 volumes; in 1874 there were 8 in- 
structors and 104 students, besides 18 students 
in the theological department. The theologi- 
cal seminary at Bangor (Congregational), estab- 
lished in 1820, is open to the Protestants of 
every denomination ; the course of instruction 
comprises three years ; in 1874 there were 4 
professors, 40 students, 520 alumni, and a li- 
brary of 14,000 volumes. Instruction in med- 
icine is afforded by the medical department of 
Bowdoin college, which is known as the med- 
ical school of Maine, and by the Portland med- 
ical school. The Maine Wesleyan seminary, at 
Kent's Hill, and the Westbrook seminary (Uni- 
versalist), with a collegiate course for young 
ladies, at Deering, afford to students of both sex- 
es classical, scientific, normal, and other courses. 
In 1874 the former had 14 instructors and 389 
pupils, of whom 176 were females, and a library 
of 25,000 volumes, besides valuable collections. 
The East Maine conference seminary and com- 
mercial college, pleasantly situated at Bucks- 
port, is also open to both sexes, and provides 
several courses of instruction ; in 1874 there 
were 6 instructors and 201 students, including 
92 females. According to the census of 1870, 
there were in the state 3,334 libraries, contain- 
ing 984,510 volumes; of these, 1,872, with 
450,963 volumes, were private, and 1,402, with 
533,547 volumes^ were other than private, in- 
cluding the state library with 20,000 volumes, 
58 town and city with 14,649. volumes, 19 law 
with 9,748, 25 school, college, &c., with 63,425, 
1,079 Sabbath school with 277,742, 140 church 
with 39,910, and 136 circulating with 100,273. 
The principal libraries are the state library in 
Augusta, which in 1874 contained 28,000 vol- 
umes; Bowdoin college, 35,000- Portland in- 



MAINE 



37 



stitute and public library, 15,378 ; Bangor theo- 
logical seminary, 14,000; mechanics' associa- 
tion library of Bangor, 13,700 ; Colby universi- 
ty, 10,000 ; Bates college, 8,300 ; and Hallo well 
social library, 5,000. The number of newspa- 
pers and periodicals was 65, having an aggre- 
gate circulation of 170,690, and issuing annually 
9,867,680 copies. In 1870 there were 7 daily 
newspapers, with a circulation of 10,700 ; 1 tri- 
weekly, circulation 350 ; 47 weekly, circulation 
114,600 ; 1 semi-monthly periodical, circulation 
700 ; 8 monthly, circulation 42,840 ; and 1 quar- 
terly, circulation 1,500. In 1874 there were 9 
dailies, 56 weeklies, 1 semi-monthly, 4 month- 
lies, and 1 quarterly. The total number of 
religious organizations in 1870 was 1,326, hav- 
ing 1,102 edifices with 376,038 sittings, and 
property valued at $5,196,853. The denomi- 
nations were represented as follows : 



DENOMINATIONS. 


Organiza- 
tions. 


Edifices. 


Sittings. 


Property. 


Baptist, regular 


262 
218 


213 
154 


70,966 
46 223 


$858,050 
382 917 


Christian 
Congregational 
Episcopal (Protestant) 


44 
231 
25 
23 


20 
219 
23 
23 


4,922 
83,985 
8,975 
7315 


42,200 
1,401,736 
2S0.213 
36400 


Lutheran 


1 


1 


500 


800 


Methodist , 
New Jerusalem (Swe- 
denborprian) 
Eoman Catholic 
Second Advent 
Shaker 


327 

3 

32 

23 
2 


264 

2 
32 
13 

2 


82,530 

1,200 
17,822 
3,175 
700 


895,237 

53,000 
461,700 
13,050 
4,000 


Spiritualist 


3 


1 


200 


300 


Unitarian 

Universalist 
Unknown (Union) 


18 
84 
26 


18 
65 
54 


9,185 
23,910 
15,130 


245,000 
434,850 
96,400 



Maine was visited in 1602 by Bartholomew 
Gosnold; in 1603 by Martin Pring; in 1604 
by the French under De Monts, who wintered 
near the present site of Calais on the St. Croix, 
and in the following spring took possession of 
the shores of the river Sagadahoc or Kenne- 
bec; and in 1605 by Capt. George Wayinouth. 
In 1607 the Plymouth company, having ob- 
tained a grant which included this territory, 
sent out a colony under George Popham and 
Raleigh Gilbert, but it remained only one year. 
In 1613 a French colony fitted out by Mme. 
de Guercheville, a pious Catholic lady to whom 
had been transferred the patent of De Monts, 
landed at Mount Desert, with the purpose of 
establishing a centre for missionary opera- 
tions. The Virginia magistrates, however, sent 
an armed force which dispersed the emi- 
grants and destroyed their settlement. In 
the following year Capt. John Smith arrived 
at Monhegan island, and went at once to the 
Kennebec, where he traded profitably with the 
Indians, explored the coasts, and compiled a 
short history of the country. In 1620 Sir 
Ferdinando Gorges obtained a new patent 
from James I., granting to the Plymouth com- 
pany all the country between lat. 40 and 48 
N., including that upon which the pilgrims 
landed in the following December. Gorges 
regarded these persons as intruders, and sub- 



sequently endeavored to oust them as well as 
the Massachusetts colony established under 
Winthrop at Charlestown and Boston. In 
1621 the company transferred to "William Al- 
exander, afterward earl of Stirling, the country 
E. of the St. Croix (then all designated Nova 
Scotia), thus establishing the E. boundary of 
Maine as it now stands. Monhegan, the first 
or one of the first spots in Maine permanently 
peopled by Europeans, was settled in 1622, and 
Saco in 1623, or perhaps earlier. About 1629 
the Plymouth company began to parcel out 
their territory in grants to suit applicants. In 
that year John Mason acquired the territory 
lying between the Merrimack and Piscataqua 
rivers, and called it New Hampshire, thereby 
settling the western boundary of Maine. In the 
course of two or three years the whole coast 
had thus been disposed of as far E. as the Pe- 
nobscot. The country between the Penobscot 
and St. Croix, and even to the W. of the former 
river, was claimed by the French, and long re- 
mained a subject of dispute. In 1635 the Ply- 
mouth company, having resolved to give up 
its charter to the government, divided the ter- 
ritory among its members, Gorges taking the 
whole region between the Piscataqua and the 
Kennebec, of which he subsequently (1639) re- 
ceived a formal charter from Charles I. under 
the title of the province of Maine. Gorges 
was now appointed governor general of New 
England, with almost unlimited powers. (See 
GORGES.) His son Thomas was sent over as 
deputy in 1640, and established himself at 
Agamenticus, now York, where in 1642 arose 
a city called Gorgeana. On the death of Sir 
Ferdinando, Maine descended to his heirs. It 
was now really placed under four different ju- 
risdictions: 1, that of Gorges, extending from 
the W. line to Kennebunk ; 2, that of Rigby, 
from Kennebunk to the borders of the Kenne- 
bec valley, held under grant from Sir Ferdi- 
nando ; 3, the Sagadahoc, from the Kennebec 
to the Penobscot; 4, the French (Acadia), 
from the Penobscot to the St. Croix. Massa- 
chusetts, apprehending that these fragmentary 
and unsettled governments might fall into 
hands hostile to her interests, and stimulated 
by the wishes of many of the inhabitants, set 
up (1651) a claim under her charter to the 
province of Maine, and sent commissioners to 
admit the people of Gorges's and Rigby's grants 
into the jurisdiction of the Bay colony. The 
governments of Gorges and Rigby remon- 
strated, and carried the matter before the Eng- 
lish parliament; but the Puritan party was 
now in the ascendancy at home, and the claims 
of the Puritan colony of Massachusetts were 
heard with more favor than the protests of 
zealous royalists and adherents of the estab- 
lished church. In 1652, 150 freemen in five 
towns took the oath of allegiance to Massa- 
chusetts, which continued to exercise its au- 
thority in such a way as to prove that, how- 
ever slight its claim to jurisdiction, the trans- 
fer was equally beneficial to both parties. The 



38 



MAINE 



were governed in local matters nearly 
as they are now, and the rules of church disci- 
pline were less strict than in some other colo- 
..].le being generally favorable to 
is freedom. Xo acts of persecution 
,cir history, and they frequently afford- 
ed an asylum to fugitives from intolerance in 
other parts. In 1653 Cromwell annulled the 
transfer of Acadia to France, which had been 
effected in 1632, and sent out Sir Thomas Tem- 
ple as governor. He retained his post till 
1667, when Acadia reverted to France in ac- 
o.rdance with the treaty of Breda. In the 
mean time the Stuarts had been recalled to the 
throne of England, and the heirs of Gorges 
petitioned for t lie restoration of their territory 
in Maine. Royal commissioners were accord- 
ingly sent by Charles II. in 1664 to reestablish 
the authority of the grantees. Massachusetts 
1, and a conflict of jurisdictions ensued, 
which was terminated in 1677 by Massachusetts 
purchasing the interests of the claimants for 
.fl.-J'iO sterling. As early as 1607, according 
to De Peyster's "Dutch in Maine," the Dutch 
had attempted to gain and colonize this coast. 
In 1674 they conquered the coasts of Nova 
Scotia and Acadia adjacent to the Penobscot, 
first capturing Fort Pentagoet or Pemtegeovett 
(Castine). In 1676 Cornelis Steenwyck was 
made governor of the conquered district by 
the Dutch West India company. The Holland- 
ers, however, were soon after expelled by set- 
tlers from Boston. In 1675 the first Indian 
war in Maine was begun by King Philip, at 
whose instigation a series of unprovoked at- 
tacks were made upon the settlers, and more 
than 100 white persons were massacred within 
three months. Thenceforth the savages held 
the country in terror till 1700. Meanwnile dis- 
putes were excited by the claims of the duke of 
York, who, under a grant from Charles II. of 
the I Hitch territories in North America, pro- 
fessed to hold all that part of Maine lying be- 
tween the Kennebec and St. Croix rivers. Sir 
Edmund Andros was commissioned as gover- 
nor of the duke's territories in New York and 
Maine; but Massachusetts, having caused a 
new survey of the E. limit of her patent to be 
made, under which she pushed her boundary 
i-d to the W. shore of Penobscot bay, 
continued to hold possession of all the colony 
Sagadahoc and Pemaquid. When the 
duke came to the throne as James II., Andros 
was made governor of New England, and vis- 
ited Maine, where he was guilty of great ex- 
tortion. The Massachusetts charter had al- 
mdj bw-n de< lured forfeit. Tl..- n-v..luti,.n of 
1688, however, restored things to their former 
ind thenceforth the history of the col- 
: Maine is merged in that of Massachu- 
1-Yoni the close of Indian hostilities 
began to make steady proirivsi in eivili- 
md uvalt h. The war of the revolution 
1 her hut little, hut diirinir that of 1812 
M ML'ain expo,,-,! to the horrors of fron- 
itish obtained possession 



MAINE-ET-LOIRE 

of a part of the country, and kept it until the 
conclusion of peace. The final separation of 
Maine from Massachusetts took place March 
15, 1820, when she was admitted into the 
Union as an independent state. Ever since the 
treaty of 1783 a dispute had existed between 
the government of the United States and Great 
Britain as to the proper interpretation of that 
treaty so far as it related to the boundary be- 
tween Maine and the British possessions. This 
controversy was finally settled by the treaty of 
Washington in 1842, by which Maine and the 
United States agreed to cede to Great Britain 
a small portion of the territory claimed by her, 
in return for the concession of Rouse's Point 
and the free navigation of the river St. John. 
The enterprise of founding a Swedish colony 
in Aroostook, begun in 1870, has proved suc- 
cessful. The place selected is called New Swe- 
den, where in 1873 about 600 Swedes aided by 
the state had settled upon 20,000 acres of land. 
The colonists have their own municipal organ- 
ization and schools, in which the chief study is 
the English language. 

MAINE, an ancient province of France, and 
with Perche one of the great military govern- 
ments of the kingdom, bounded N. by Norman- 
dy, E. by Perche and Orleannais, S. by Tou- 
raine and Anjou, and W. by Brittany. It is 
now almost entirely included in the depart- 
ments of Mayenne and Sarthe. Its capital was 
Le Mans. Under the Carlovingian and early 
Capetian kings the province was governed by 
counts ; it was subsequently in turn united with 
Normandy and Anjou, became subject to the 
kings of England, was wrested from John by 
Philip Augustus, and after various transfers 
was united with the crown of France in 1481. 

MAINE, Sir Henry James Simmer, an English ju- 
rist, born in 1822. He graduated at Pembroke 
college, Cambridge, in 1844, and was regius 
professor of civil law at Cambridge from 1847 
to 1854, when he became reader on jurispru- 
dence in the Middle Temple. From 1862 to 
1809 he was a law member of the government 
in India, where he introduced several legisla- 
tive reforms. In 1870 he was appointed to the 
newly instituted Corpus professorship of juris- 
prudence in Oxford university, and in 1871 a 
member of the council for India. He has pub- 
lished " Roman Law and Legal Education," in 
" Cambridge Essays " (1856) ; " Ancient Law : 
its Connection with the Early History of Soci- 
ety" (8vp, 1861; 5th ed., 1874; reprinted, 
with an introduction by Prof. T. W. Dwidit, 
New York, 1864) ; and " Village Communities 
in the East and West" (1871; 2d ed., 1874), 
being six Oxford lectures, giving the results of 
his observations in India, where he had stud- 
ied the working in village communities of so- 
cial organisms supposed to correspond with the 
earliest rudiments of European civilization. 

MAIXE-ET-LOIRE, a N. W. department of 
France, comprising most of the former prov- 
ince of Anjou, bordering on Mayenne, Sarthe, 
Indre-et-Loire, Vienne, Deux-SeVres, La Ven- 



MAINE DE BIKAN 



MAINTENON 



39 



dee, and Loire-Inf erieure ; area, 2,750 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1872, 518,471. It belongs to the basin 
of the Loire, by which it is annually inundated ; 
the other principal rivers are the Maine, Loir, 
Sarthe, Mayenne, and Oudon. The surface is 
almost level, with slight undulations, and the 
soil very fertile, producing grain, wine, and 
fruits. Iron is found, and slate quarries are 
extensively worked. It has excellent breeds 
of cattle and horses. The principal manu- 
factures are of linen, especially table linen and 
handkerchiefs, flannels, and cotton. It has a 
considerable trade in grain, wine, brandy, and 
cattle. It is divided into the arrondissements 
of Angers, Bauge, Cholet, Saumur, and Segre. 
Capital, Angers. 

MAINE DE BIRAN, Francois Pierre Gonthier, a 
French metaphysician, born at Grateloup, near 
Bergerac, Nov. 29, 1766, died in Paris, July 
16, 1824. He entered the body guard of Louis 
XVI. in 1784, and was at Versailles during the 
tumults of Oct. 5 and 6, 1789, but lived in re- 
tirement during the revolution. In 1797 he 
was chosen to the council of 500, from which 
he was excluded on suspicion of royalism, and 
under the empire became sub-prefect of the 
department of Dordogne at Bergerac, and a 
member of the legislative body. In 1813 he 
was one of the commission appointed to draw 
up an address to the emperor, which for the 
first time manifested a decided opposition to 
his policy. After the restoration he was re- 
elected to the chamber of deputies, became 
a councillor of state in 1816, and from 1818 
retained his seat in the legislature, in which 
he constantly maintained the prerogatives of 
the crown. In a memoir entitled Influence de 
Vlidbitude sur la faculte de penser^ which ob- 
tained the prize of the institute in 1803, he 
prepared for his departure from the reigning 
philosophy of Condillac by maintaining a dis- 
tinction between active and passive mental 
habits, according to which the mind is active 
in perception and passive in mere sensation. 
In his second memoir, Sur la decomposition de 
lapensee (1805), he abandoned the effort to 
give a physiological origin to thought, sug- 
gested that sensation could not furnish the 
active and motive element in man, and was dis- 
posed to admit a principle of intelligence dis- 
tinct from the organism. This work was 
rapidly followed by others, the most important 
of which was the Examen des lecons de M. de 
Laromiguiere (1817), in which he completely 
passes from sensational to spiritual philosophy, 
and develops his own system, which caused 
Koyer-Collard to say of him : " He is the 
master of us all." A complete edition of his 
works was edited by Cousin (4 vols., Paris, 
1841). See Naville, Maine de JSiran, sa vie et 
ses pensees (Paris, 1857). 

MAOiTENON, Fraiif ofce d'Aubigne, marchioness 
de, second wife of Louis XIV. of France, born 
in Niort, Nov. 27, 1635, died at St. Cyr, April 
15, 1719. She was the daughter of Constant 
d'Aubigne and Jeanne de Cardillac, and grand- 



daughter of Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne", the 
Huguenot historian of his time, and the friend 
and companion of Henry IV. Constant d'Au- 
bigne, after dissipating his fortune, formed a 
project for establishing himself in the Carolinas. 
His correspondence on this subject with the 
English government was discovered and treat- 
ed as treason, and he was imprisoned in the 
chateau Trompette at Bordeaux, of which his 
father-in-law was the keeper. After the death 
of the latter he was removed to the concier- 
gerie of Niort, his wife voluntarily sharing his 
imprisonment, and there Franchise was born. 
In 1639 Constant d'Aubigne' was discharged 
from prison, and with his wife and children 
emigrated to Martinique, where for a while 
he prospered ; but he gambled away what he 
acquired, and died in 1645 in complete poverty. 
His widow with her children returned to 
France, and Francoise was confided to the care 
of her father's sister, Mme. de Villette, a Cal- 
vinist, who trained her in the principles of the 
Protestant faith. Mme. d'Aubigne", alarmed 
at her daughter's refusal to attend mass, pro- 
cured an order restoring the girl to her own 
custody, and placed her as an inmate, in a de- 
pendent and almost menial position, in the 
house of her godmother, the countess de Neuil- 
lant, who after a while, and with some diffi- 
culty, converted her from Calvinism to Ca- 
tholicism. The comic poet Scarron, who was 
paralytic and a cripple, lived in the same street 
with the countess de Neuillant, became inter- 
ested in the young, beautiful, and intelligent 
girl, whose adventures had been related to him, 
and offered money to enable her to enter a 
convent, which poverty had hitherto prevented 
her from doing. Franchise refused the offer, 
and shortly afterward the countess de Neuillant 
placed her in an Ursuline convent, permitting 
her occasionally to visit her house, where she 
often met Scarron. Two years afterward, at 
the age of 16, she was without a home, her 
mother was dead, and she consented to become 
the wife of the deformed Scarron, to whom 
she was married in June, 1652. She was at 
this time exceedingly beautiful, graceful, and 
witty, and the house of Scarron soon became 
the resort of the most brilliant intellects of 
Paris. Scarron died in October, 1660, leaving 
his young widow nearly penniless, his pension 
ceasing at his death. Mme. Scarron petitioned 
for the reversion of her husband's pension, 
with small hope of success till Mme. de Mon- 
tespan, the king's mistress, hearing of her des- 
titution, interfered in her behalf, procured her 
an annual allowance of 2,000 francs, and in 
1669 made her the governess of the children 
she had had by Louis XIV., much to the dissat- 
isfaction of the king, who at first did not like 
the extreme gravity and reserve of the young 
widow. Her talents and wisdom, however, 
soon attracted his attention, and she became 
his confidant and adviser, was made a mar- 
chioness, and took the name of Maintenon from 
an estate at Versailles which the king purchased 



40 MAIN/. 

for b. - ' she was appoints! 

the dauphiness, and she intlu- 

enoed that princess to assist in bringing about 

a permanent -rparation between the king and 

Mmo. do Monte-pan. The ipioen became much 

d to Mme. do Maintenon. and died in 

MI-. .Inly 80 - -me time at'terwan 

nig. who had long and vainly solicits 

une his mi-tiv-s, VMS secretly mar 

her at midnight in one of the cabinet!, 
r-saillos. Pore la Chaise, the king's eon 

feasor, performing the ceremony, in the pros- 
f llarlay. archbishop of Paris, Hontems, 
governor of Ver-aillcs, I.omois, and Mont 
lil. a- witnesses. From this time till his 
loath I.ouis was greatly under hor influence, 
though her po\\er over him \\ as o\erci-ed with 
;io prudence and moderation. She care- 
fully shunned the appearance of meddling with 
te. though in reality nothing 
was done without hor knowledge and consent. 

- at hor instigation that the edict of 
Nanu--\\a- iv\ "ked and the Protestants per- 

1. After tho death of the king, in 171.\ 

-he retired to the eon vent and seminary of St. 

\\ Inch she had founded, and spent the rest 

of lier life in acts of charity and in devotional 

-cs, which from earliest youth she had 

been accustomed scrupulously to observe. See 

M<i>l<im dt Mniiitiiion ptintt par ?llf-ni< : i<< 

(Paris. |S'_>(i), which contains her letters, and 

f ilf Mine, dt Maintrnon. by the duke 

lilies rJ vols.. Paris, ISIS). 

M1IW. See Mi 

Mliriltf'N. or Miypurfs, Indians of South 
America, chiefly on the upper Orinoco and Ne- 
;:r,. river-. Tho family includes the Caveres or 
*, who u-.-re nearly annihilated by the Ca- 
: 10 (iuaypunabis, who under their chiefs 
:u stemmed the progress of 
the Caribs and made themselves masters of the 
Upper OrinOOO; the Pareni; tho Maipures prop- 
er, amoii- whom (Jilii labored and wrote, and 
who nre n. iw greatly reduced; the Moxos, who 
extruded into iVru and Holivia; the Moepuro 
(iuiana; the Kirrupa; and the 
is, M remote branch, residing on the 
Mela. These tribes were almost alf cannibals 
Ad engaged in constant wars. Tho Mo\o, , 
oonquered by the inca Yupan.mi, 
'o thus to souu- extent broiijiht within 
the mtlurnce of Peruvian civili/ation. Thev 
ere the only tribe among whom Christian mis- 
' sivo conquests though 

' hollt tf ri>:l - In 17J-J. before 

i"H by the Portuguese, tin ' 
uned 80,000 no..] ;.._ 

1 eatoohis.n of the HOXO. 
'dro Marban. wore published at 
"1 ; and a grammar of the Haure, a 
v .:i". i--till extant. 



MAISTRE 

turer. and surgeon t> the principal hospitals, 
and latterly of the Hotel-I>iou. Ho acquired 
celebrity by his bold and ingonions operations. 
Hi- priiu-ipal work- are: l>n fxriottc ?t J t ..<< 
t. 



the -Paracelsus 



P r ;. <>r " ln . r 

tl In* , tiok 

e in 188fi, and oecanu- prosector, lee- 



\ S'tr In nwt. : Sur 

< % .//;v (184S); Utmoires ur fa 
(1" v '//' <' nourtlle int- 

df cdthcft-risHK 1 (1855) ; J/< : ;</;< ttnr la 
litj(tt\tr< ii nee (18t>0); 

rurgfailf (- vols., 18t>8-*4); and 
l<i< intoxications ehirunjit'iilf* (\*fi~}. 

MllSOKnK, Paul de Chonrdry, sienr do. 
first governor of Montreal, Canada, born in 
Champagne, Franco, died in Paris, Sept. .), 
107(5. lie entered the French army in his l;Uh 
year, and was esteemed alike for piety and 
bravery when he was selected as the leader of 
colonists sent out by an association. He sailed 
with them in three ships, and roaehod Quebec 
Aug. 20, 1(541. Leaving the emigrants there, 
he went on to Montreal, and was installed as 
governor. The winter was spent in preparing 
timber for houses, and the actual settlement of 
the city began in May, 1642. Ten years later 
he returned to France, and brought over an- 
other body of settlers. His administration was 
marked by ability ; he maintained great order 
and discipline in the settlement, organi/ed the 
militia for Indian warfare, and acquired the re- 
spect of the hostile tribes, lie retained otVuv 
under the Sulpitians after the Ulaml w as con- 
veyed to them, but was removed in June, IIM! 5. 
by De Mesy, the governor general, and sent 
back to France by the marquis de Tracy in the 
following year. The action was arbitrary, and 
no charges were made against Maisomienve, 
who, finding that there was no hope of being 
restored to his post, resigned in HHW. 

MUSI UK. I. Joseph/ count tie, an Italian 
statesman, born in Chamben. Savoy, April 1, 
1764, died in Turin, Feb. 20/1S21. 'llis father 
was president of the senate of Savoy. After 
having studied at the university of Turin, he 
entered the magistracy in 1775, and became a 
member of the senate *in January. 17SS. The 
invasion of Savoy by the French in 1792 obliged 
dim to retire to Turin; and when the kinir had 
to give up his possessions on the continent ij V- 
cember, 1798), De Maistre followed him to the 
sland of Sardinia, where he was appointed 
wand chancellor. This othYe lie retained till 
when he was sent as ambassador to St. 
Petersburg. He remained at the Kussian court 
14 years, and wielded for some time consider- 
due influence over the e/ar Alexander. On 
tis return to Turin (1817) he was appointed min- 
jter of state and regent of the grand chancery. 
He commenced his literary career with an / 
H rot } teUrAmHUt (1775). In an early speech 
nade at the opening of the senate he remarked : 
;0ur age has distinguished itself by a destruc- 
IT spirit which has spared nothing, neither 
:ius customs, nor political institutions: it has 
Backed all, shaken all. and the devastation 
Mil extend to limits which no one can as yet 
-evoral works against the 



MAISTRE 



MAITLAND 



revolutionary party in France, among which his 
Considerations snr In, I-'nuiM CJT^'ij had the, 
.itest circulation. Not withstanding the 
Ht.ri<-t<-st prohibition, three editions appeared 
in Paris in one year. Jn 1H10 IK- publi-hed sit. 
St. Petersburg an Essai sur le principe genera- 
te u.r <!<* constitutions politiques et des autres in- 
stitutions liumaines, the object of which was to 
show that (/od is the immediate source of all 
authority upon earth, and every attack upon 
religion is a prelude to the destruction of social 
:uid political order. A translation of a work 
of Plutarch, Sur let delais de la justice divine 
dans la punition des coupables, with notes, ap- 
peared at Lyons in 1816. His most celebra- 
ted work is Du pape (Lyons, 1819). It treats 
of the pope from four points of view : 1, in 
his relation to the Catholic church ; 2, to tem- 
pora.1 sovereignties; 8, to the civilization and 
happiness of the nations; 4, to the schismatic 
churches. It is considered as one of the stand- 
ard ( latholic works in favor of the infallibil- 
ity of the pope, which it infers from the neces- 
sity of an infallible authority in the spiritual 
order. Infallibility in the spiritual order is de- 
dared to be synonymous with sovereignty in the 
temporal order. From the same standpoint he 
attacked the Gallicans in the work De VEglise 
gallicane dans son rapport avec le souverain 
pontife, pour servir de suite a Vouvrage inti- 
tule : Du pape (Lyons, 1821). Among his 
other works are the Soirees de St. Petersbourg, 
ou Entretiens sur le gouvernement temporal de 
la providence (2 vols., Paris, 1821), in which 
the justness of war and capital punishment is 
strongly advocated, and Lettre d'un gentil- 
homme rime sur V inquisition espagnole (Paris, 
1822). In his posthumous Examen de la phi- 
losophic de Bacon (Paris, 1830) he depreciates 
the English philosopher, and disparages critical 
philosophy in general. A very lively discus- 
sion was called forth by the publication of an- 
other posthumous work, Memoires politiques 
et correspondence diplomatique de Joseph de 
Maistre, avec explications et commentaires his- 
t or i<i H en, by Albert Blanc (2 vols., Paris, 1858- 
'60), many passages in which seemed not fully 
to agree with his other writings. De Maistre's 
son Ilodolpho published Quatre chapitres ine- 
dits sur la Russie, par le comte J. de Maistre 
(Paris, 1859). II. Xavler, count do, a miscella- 
neous author, brother of the preceding, born 
in Chambdry in October, 1764, died in St. Pe- 
tersburg, Juno 12, 1852. In early life he en- 
tered the military service of Sardinia, but upon 
the conquest of the country by the French he 
emigrated to Russia, and supported himself for 
some time by his pencil. After the arrival of 
his brother as ambassador in St. Petersburg, he 
was appointed in 1805 director of the library 
and museum of the admiralty. He soon after- 
ward entered the Russian army as lieutenant 
colonel, and participated in the war against 
Pel-sin, in which he obtained the rank of major 
general. He subsequently established himself 
in St. Petersburg, and devoted the remainder 



of his life to literary and scientific pursuits. In 
1794, being known then as a chemist and as a 
landscape painter, he published at Turin an 
ingenious philosophical trifle, entitled Voyage 
autour de ma chambre, which had great 
popularity, and of which numerous imitations 
of various degrees of merit subsequently ap- 
peared. In 1811 appeared Les lepreux de la 
vallee d*Aoste (translated into English, Philadel- 
phia, 1825), a work founded on fact, and not 
less creditable to the author's literary capacity 
than to his humanity. It was followed by 
the Prisonniers du Caucasc, and Prascome, ou 
la jeune Siberienne (translated into English, 
Philadelphia, 1826), both containing vivid and 
truthful pictures of scenery and manners in 
the eastern and southern provinces of the Rus- 
sian empire. His popular Voyage was followed 
by Expedition noctutne autour de ma cham- 
bre (1825). An edition of his works was pub- 
lished at Paris in 1822, in 3 vols. 18mo. 

MAITLAND, East and West, two contiguous 
towns of New South Wales, Australia, on the 
Hunter river, 75 m. N. of Sydney ; pop. in 
1871, 13,642, of whom about 2,000 belong to 
East Maitland. The surrounding region is 
among the most productive of the globe, and 
is commonly called the granary of New South 
Wales. Maitland is the seat of a Roman Cath- 
olic bishop, and there are numerous places of 
worship of nearly all religious denominations. 
East Maitland has a court house and a jail ; 
West Maitland many large stores and some 
good hotels. Two newspapers are published, 
one of which, " The Maitland Mercury," is the 
oldest provincial journal in the colony. There 
is daily communication by railway to Newcas- 
tle, and by steamboat thence to Sydney. 

MAITLAND, Sir Richard, of Lethington, a Scot- 
tish lawyer and poet, born in 1496, died March 
20, 1586. He was educated at St. Andrews 
and in Paris, became an advocate, held several 
public offices, among others that of lord privy 
seal, and was knighted. He was the author 
of a " History and Chronicle of the House of 
Seaton," and of several poems, the most im- 
portant of which is that on " The Creation and 
Paradyce Lost." A complete edition of his 
poems was first published by the Maitland club 
in 1830. He is celebrated as a collector of an- 
cient Scottish poetry. His collections are yet 
extant in manuscript in the Pepysian library, 
Cambridge, and fill two large volumes. He 
became blind in 1559. 

MAITLAND, Samnel Roffey, an English clergy- 
man, born in London in 1792, died at Lambeth 
palace, London, Jan. 19, 1866. He graduated 
at Trinity college, Cambridge, studied law, and 
was called to the bar at the Inner Temple. 
He afterward studied theology, took orders in 
1821, and became perpetual curate of Christ's 
church, Gloucester. He resigned this charge 
in 1830, and thereafter turned his special at- 
tention to literature. In 1838 he was appoint- 
ed librarian to Dr. ' Howley, archbishop of 
Canterbury, and keeper of the Lambeth manu- 



MAIZE 



scripts, which office ho held till the death of 
the archl.Miop in 1*1*. Ilo was for several 
years editor of tin- " British Magazine," to 

he contributed A largo number of valu- 
able essays and dissertations, chiefly on sub- 
jeota of prophecy and its right interpretation, 
church history, criticism, &c. His principal 

are : " An Inquiry into the Grounds on 
which the Prophetic Period of Daniel and St. 

has been supposed to consist of 1260 
years " (1826) ; " Letters on the Voluntary Sys- 
tem " (1837) ; " The Dark Ages, being a series 
intended to illustrate the state of 
Religion and Literature in the 9th, 10th, llth, 
and I'Jth Centuries" (1844; 3d ed., 1853); 
iyg on the Reformation in England" 
(1849)"; and " Eruvin, or Miscellaneous Essays 
on Subjects connected with the Nature, His- 
tory, aii.l Destiny of Man" (1850). He also 
prepared an "Index of such English Books 
printed before the year MDO. as are now in 
the Archu-piscopol Library at Lambeth," which 
was printed, but not published. 

MAIZE, or Indian Cora (zea mays), a valuable 
grass of the tribe of phalaridea. The stems, 
unlike those of most grasses, are solid, with well 
defined nodes, and often producing from the 
lower nodes aerial or prop roots, some of which 
reach the soil ; on the portion of the stem be- 
tween the nodes is a broad shallow channel upon 
alternate sides; the stem is simple above, but 
often produces branches, or suckers, from the 
lower joints. The long linear-lanceolate leaves 
are flat, pointed, pubescent above, and with a 
broad midrib channelled on the upper side; 
sheaths smooth, downy on the margins, with a 
short ligulo. The inflorescence is monoecious, 




.M... -. 

the staminate flowers in clustered spikes at the 

summit ot the stem, forming what is ralK-d 

the fcMMl ; the ^ikelet* are two-flowered, cad. 

Imv.n- three .stani.-n* ; the pistillate 

: denM spfkes crowded upon a 

'he <-,.!; these are enveloped by the 



sheaths of altered leaves, the husks ; the "whole 
pistillate spike is called the ear, and appears at 
the axils of the leaves ; each pistillate spikelet 
is two-flowered with one flower abortive ; when 
the grain is ripe the withered glumes, abortive 
flower, and palets remain upon the cob as the 
chaff ; the ovary is terminated by a long hair- 
like style, which projects beyond the husks, 
and is usually bifid at the extremity ; these 
styles together are the silk ; after fertilization 
the ovary enlarges to form the grain and the 
styles wither; the grain is usually flattened 
by crowding, wedge-shaped or round-kidney- 
shaped, with a shallow groove containing the 
embryo. In the different varieties from one 
to four pistillate spikes or ears are borne by 
each stalk, though rarely more than two, and 
the number of rows of kernels varies from 8 
to 12 or more, but they are always in even 
numbers. It is not rare to find abnormal spe- 
cimens in which pistillate flowers are borne 
upon the tassel, where they perfect their grain, 
and the end of the cob is sometimes pro- 
longed and furnished with staminate flowers. 
The maize plant is affected in a remarkable 
degree by climate and soil ; it soon adapts it- 
self to a locality, and by continuous cultiva- 
tion from the same seed year after year, a local 
variety or strain becomes established. Though 
all the kinds of maize in cultivation, at least 
in the United States, are regarded as of one 
species, the varieties are almost endless ; these 
are produced not only by local influences, but 
by selection ; it is one of the species in which 
any peculiarity may be readily fixed in a few 
years by carefully selecting and sowing seeds 
from those plants which have the desirable 
features most strongly marked. In respect to 
size, there are varieties from 2 or 3 ft. high 
up to 15 and 18 ft., with the stalks and leaves 
large in proportion ; the ears vary greatly in 
size and number of rows of kernels, which 
sometimes reach 24, 32, or more. There is a 
great difference in the form and size of the 
grain ; a miniature kind, known as Brazilian, 
has ears about the size of one's little finger, 
with grains not larger than a mustard seed ; 
while at the other extreme are the large south- 
ern varieties with kernels half an inch long. 
In the variety called rice pop-corn the kernels 
are pointed at both ends and but little com- 
pressed, and in the dent varieties there is a 
distinct depression at the upper end of the 
grain; in some the grains have a sharp hook 
at the end. In one variety, which has been 
described by Bonafous as a distinct species, Z. 
cryptosperma, the floral envelopes of the pistil- 
late flowers, instead of being as is ordinarily 
the case in a rudimentary or imperfect condi- 
tion, are fully developed, and enclose the grain 
when ripe in a miniature husk ; this variety has 
been considered as the primitive type, but it is 
said to lose its husky envelopes in cultivation ; 
neither this nor any other form of maize has 
been found in the wild state. The grains of 
maize present a great variety in color, from 



MAIZE 



white through various shades of yellow to 
orange, red, brown, violet, purple, and black ; 
by the crossing of varieties kernels of two or 
more colors in stripes and blotches are pro- 
duced. In the Tuscarora and some others the 
grain is dull and opaque, while in the so-called 
flint varieties the mass of the grain, the albu- 
men, is translucent ; the opaque kinds are very 
starchy, while the others contain large propor- 
tions of fatty matter. In the varieties known 
as sweet corn the grain is very much wrinkled 
and shrivelled ; in these the conversion of 
sugar into starch is arrested, and the kernel 
does not fill out. A well developed stalk of 
maize is a most beautiful object; it has a state- 
ly sub-tropical aspect, and were it not so com- 
mon it would be prized with us, as it is in some 
parts of Europe, as an ornamental plant. A 
few years ago Mr. Thomas Hogg sent from 
Japan a very distinct variety (if not species), 
in which the leaves are finely striped with 
white, and when young often with a tinge of 
red ; the plant is only about 4 ft. high, but is 
very leafy, and retains its markings all through 
the season ; it at once became popular in Eng- 
land, but is less frequently seen in our gardens 
than its merits deserve. Some writers, inclu- 
ding Bonafous (Histoire naturelle du ma/is, 
Paris, 1836), have attributed an eastern origin 
to maize, and the subject has been the occasion 
of much discussion ; the matter has been thor- 
oughly examined by Alphonse de Candolle 
(Geographic ~botanique raisonnee, Paris, 1855), 
who sums up thus: "Maize is of American 
origin, and was not introduced into the old 
world until after the discovery of the new." 
It was found in cultivation by the aborigines 
from New England to Chili ; varieties not now 
in cultivation in Peru have been found in 
tombs of an antiquity greater than that of the 
Incas; and Darwin ("Geological Observations 
on South America," London, 1846) discovered 
"heads of maize, together with 18 species 
of recent sea shells, imbedded in a beach which 
had been upraised at least 85 ft. above the 
level of the sea." It is estimated that maize 
is eaten by a greater number of human beings 
than any other grain except rice; its analysis 
shows it to be admirably adapted to sustain life, 
and to furnish materials for the growth of 
both human beings and domestic animals. Ee- 
cent analyses show the following percentage 
of nutritive principles : albuminoids (flesh- 
forming materials), 10 per cenf. ; carbohy- 
drates (starch, sugar, &c.), 68; fat, 7. The 
amount of ash is a little over 2 per cent., and 
this contains a large proportion of phosphoric 
acid in combination with lime and other bases. 
The amount of fatty matter or oil is notable, 
varying with the kind of corn from 6 to 11 
per cent. ; the hard flinty varieties of northern 
localities have the most, and the starchy kinds 
the least ; wheat contains only about 1^- per 
cent, of fatty matter. It will be seen that 
maize is a highly concentrated nutriment, and 
is capable of serving, as it does in some tropi- 



cal countries, as almost the sole food of the 
population ; it is more difficult of digestion 
than some other grains, and where, as in Cen- 
tral and South America, it is the chief food of 
the common people, they almost invariably 
accompany it with capsicum, in the form of 
chili Colorado or chili verde, as a stimulus to 
the stomach. While maize furnishes a large 
share of the breadstuff of our farming popu- 
lation, it is but little consumed in cities, except 
to give variety upon the table ; but indirectly 
it largely contributes to the support of city 
populations in the way of meats, poultry, but- 
ter, &c. In the unripe state maize in the form 
of "green corn" is a generally esteemed vege- 
table, and the quantities daily supplied during 
the season to cities are enormous ; the varie- 
ties already alluded to as sweet corn are in the 
northern states raised exclusively for eating 
in the green state ; the ears are plucked while 
the contents of the kernels are still milky. 
A large business is done in preserving this 
kind of corn in tin cans for use when it can- 
not be had fresh, and large quantities are dried, 
being firi-st boiled and then cut from the cob. 
The favorite dish called succotash consists of 
unripe beans and green corn cooked together, 
and in winter it is made from ripe beans and 
dried sweet corn. One of the primitive meth- 
ods of preparing the ripe grain for food is to 
soak it in lye from wood ashes to remove the 
pericarp or hull ; the grain in this process be- 
comes softened, and after w r ashing to remove 
the lye it is crushed into a paste upon an in- 
clined stone by rubbing it with a smaller long 
and narrow stone ; the resulting dough is then 
patted into thin cakes and quickly baked upon 
a tile or iron plate ; these cakes are the torti- 
llas of the Mexicans and other Spanish Ameri- 
cans, and it is probable that this method of 
preparing corn is of great antiquity, as the 
metatl, or stone for grinding, is found among 
ruins so old that all tradition respecting them 
is lost. Another simple method of preparing 
corn in use by the Mexicans is as pinole; the 
grain is roasted, then ground to a coarse meal, 
which is mixed with sugar and spices ; this is 
stirred with water to form a sort of gruel, and, 
the grain being already cooked, it is very nu- 
tritious ; pinole is often the sole provision car- 
ried by travellers on long journeys, and forms 
an important part of the rations of the sol- 
diers. The hull may be removed from the grain 
by beating ; this is done by hand in a wooden 
mortar, or on a large scale by machinery ; corn 
thus prepared is called hominy and samp, 
names derived, with the method of prepara- 
tion, from the aborigines; in the northern 
states samp is the whole decorticated grain, 
and hominy that which is broken or coarselj 
ground, a distinction not made at the south ; 
these preparations of corn are cooked by boil- 
ing. Hulled corn is the grain from which the 
hull has been removed by the use of lye, then 
thoroughly soaked, and afterward boiled until 
tender. In the form of meal maize is largely 



H 



MAIZE 



consumed, it being made into a great variety I served is the manufacture of paper; an Aus- 
of bread :in.l cake*, conspicuous among which, trian, Von Welsbach, invented a process by 
U ,i ,-land brown bread, in which which the fibre of the stalks, leaves, and husks 

:il i> mixed with the corn meal in the 
proportion of OIK- third. Hasty pudding, the 
I of which were celebrated in verse by 
Uarlow, is ;i mush or stirabout of Indian meal 
;tn.l water; this, eaten with milk, is an exceed- 
ingly cheap and nutritive food. In some lo- 
calitics only the dinty kinds of corn are used 
for meal, while in others the starchy varieties 
are preferred. Several varieties are known as 
pop-corn, of which there are white and yellow 
kinds, those with kernels pointed at the end, 
and oth.Ts with the grain of the ordinary 
shape; when gradually exposed to heat over a 
bri-k tin-, the oil in the grain becomes con- 
verted into gas, which at length ruptures the 
irrain, causing a singular inversion of its con- 

the corn thus popped is many times 
larger than the original grain, and snowy 
white ; as an article of food it is much prized 
by children and others, and the preparation of 
it is one of the small industries which in the 
aggregate amount to a respectable. sum. Corn 
is sometimes used as fuel ; upon prairie farms 
where there is no wood, and at long distances 
from a market where corn can be sold and coal 
bought, it becomes the cheapest obtainable 
fuel ; the cobs after the corn has been shelled 
from them are in general use as fuel, and farm- 
ers prefer them to any other to burn in smoke 
houses, as they think meat thus cured is better 
flavored than if wood is used; a pipe with a 
bowl made from a corn cob is a favorite with 
many smokers. Besides the uses of the grain, 
the stalks and leaves are of great value as cat- 
tle fodder; the old plan was to top the corn 
when the grain began to ripen by cutting off 
the stalk above the upper ear, and to strip off 
the leaves from the rest, and this is still done by 
some old-fashioned cultivators ; the improved 
method is to cut up the stalks at the ground 
as soon as the grain begins to harden, or is 
"glazed," tie them in bundles, and set these up 
in the field in largo stocks; treated in this way, 

i ripen* thoroughly, and all the fodder 
is saved in an excellent condition. Corn stalks 
are cut for feeding, and if cut and steamed they 
are considered equal in value to the common 
kinds of hay; one ton of stalks is yielded on 
the average for every 25 bushels of grain. Corn 
is often sown for the sake of a crop of fodder 
only ; in this case no regard is had to the grain, 
and the seed is sown thickly and the corn al- 
lowed to stand close in order to produce a more 
succulent crop ; it is cut as soon as the tassels 
open, and cured in small bundles. Large quan- 
corn are grown in this manner to be 
used as green forage; the plant flourishes best 
in the hot siiniim-r months, the time when pas- 
tures begin to fail. On dairy farms :l field of 
fodder corn is of gri-at importance in krrpin- 
up the supply of fo,,,l; the stalks are cut and 
Q to the animals in their -tails. Among the 
mi>eellaneous uses which the maize plant has 



could be converted into paper; a few years ago 
specimens of various grades, from the coarsest 
to the finest papers, were exhibited in this 
country, but the manufacture does not appear 
to have extended. The juice of the stalk be- 
fore the grain ripens is appreciably sweet, and 
both sirup and sugar have been obtained from 
it; the process of clarifying appears to be a 
difficult one, and for sirup the maize cannot 
compete with sorghum. The starch of the 
grain is converted into grape sugar, which in 
the form of a thick honey-like sirup is used by 
brewers and wine makers. As with all other 
forms of starch, that of maize, being capable 
of conversion into sugar, is by one more step 
capable of producing alcohol, and whiskey must 
be mentioned as one of the incidental products 
of the corn crop. The starch of maize when 
examined with the microscope is found to be 
of irregular grains with many sides, the result 
of mutual compression, having a distinct hilum ; 
the grains are only about one fourth as large as 
those of potato starch. Corn starch carefully 
prepared is much used in delicate cookery for 
puddings and the like ; a similar preparation is 
largely sold under the name of "maizena." 
The oil furnished by corn has been found ex- 
cellent for illuminating purposes, but on ac- 
count of the expense of extracting it is not 
likely to come into general use. The husks, or 
shucks as they are called in some localities, are 
put to many domestic uses ; slit into shreds they 
are used for filling mattresses, both by farmers 
and upholsterers ; large quantities are prepared 
at factories in the southern cities, and they 
form a regular article of commerce ; by select- 
ing the more delicate inner ones and plaiting 
them, table mats and other fancy articles, and 
even bonnets and slippers, have been made 
from them ; coarser ones are braided to form 
door mats, horse collars, and other wares. In 
America corn is cultivated from lat. 54 N. to 
40 S., and in the eastern hemisphere from the 
Azores to southeastern Europe, some being 
raised in Asia Minor, Egypt, India, and China. 
The early colonists of this country soon learned 
its nses and manner of cultivation from the 
Indians; large crops were raised on the James 
river as early as 1608, and it has continued to 
be one of the most important of our agricultu- 
ral products.' In the older states it is a question 
with agriculturists whether corn is a profitable 
crop to raise simply for the grain ; upon poor 
lands it requires abundant manuring, and clean 
cultivation is essential to its success. In a ro- 
tation it is of great value as a cleansing crop ; 
i. e., the cultivation it demands leaves the land 
in excellent condition for whatever crop is to 
follow. Upon the rich lands of some of the 
western states the grain can be raised at a sur- 
prisingly low cost; the great fertility of the 
soil allows crops to be taken year after year 
without manure, and every mechanical appli- 



MAIZE 



MAJESTY 



45 



ance is brought into play to reduce the cost of 
cultivation; corn planters and sulky cultiva- 
tors allow one man to manage many acres ; and 
now machinery has been invented to save the 
'grower from the most irksome task of husk- 
ing; and where the corn is sold in the shape 
of beef and pork, the animals are turned into 
the field and made to do their own harvesting. 
In planting, the seed is put in hills or in drills, 
the distance apart being governed by the kind 
of corn and the richness of the soil; each 
method of planting has its advocates; if the 
land is full of weeds, it is said that these can be 
more readily kept under if the corn is in hills, 
to allow of cultivation by plough or cultivator 
in both directions. By hill, an elevation is not 
to be understood, but it is used to express the 
station for the plants ; the old practice of hill- 
ing, or drawing the earth up to form a mound 
around the plants, is abandoned by good culti- 
vators. The cultivator has numerous enemies 
to contend with; crows and blackbirds will 
take the seed when sprouting, or even before it 
starts, and to prevent this a thin coating of tar 
is sometimes applied; cutworms take off the 
young shoot above ground, and the white grub 
eats the roots below; the chief remedy for 
these is to sow enough seed to allow for their 
depredations. The boll worm, so destructive to 
cotton, also attacks corn, even in the northern 
states; the moth lays her eggs upon the silk, 
and the young larva soon finds its way beneath 



Alabama 


16,977.948 


Missouri 
New York 
North Carolina. 
Ohio 


.. 66,084,075 
. 16,462,825 
. 18,454,215 
67 501 144 


Georgia 
Illinois 


. . 17,646,459 
129 921 395 


Indiana 
Iowa 


. . 51,094,538 
68,935,065 


Pennsylvania.. 
Tennessee 
Texas 


. 34,702,006 
. 41,343,614 

. 20-554.588 


Kansas 
Kentucky 
Michigan 
Mississippi . . . 


. . 17,025,525 
. . 50,091,006 
. . 14,086,238 
. . 15,637,316 


Virginia 17,649.304 
Wisconsin 15,033,998 




Corn Smut. 



the husks, where it revels upon the tender ker- 
nels. The most serious enemy to the crop is 
not an insect but a fungus, mtilago maydis, 
which produces what is known as smut; it 
manifests itself by abnormal growths upon va- 
rious parts of the plant, but more frequently 



it attacks the growing grain ; a single kernel 
will sometimes be found transformed into a 
soft grayish fungoid mass, as large as an egg or 
larger ; this when broken open will be found 
to contain a blackish powder, the spores. This 
is not only destructive to the corn, but danger- 
ous to the animals which eat it ; the death of 
animals has been directly traced to feeding on 
corn stalks badly affected with smut, and it is 
said that mules fed upon corn thus diseased lose 
their hoofs, and that it produces abortion upon 
cows; it seems to have properties similar to 
those of the ergot of rye. According to the 
federal census, the United States produced 592,- 
071,104 bushels of Indian corn in 1850, 838,- 
792, 742 in 1860, and 760,944,549 in 1870. The 
states which produced more than 14,000,000 
bushels in 1870 are as follows: 



During the year ending June 30, 1873, 38,541,- 
930 bushels of Indian corn, valued at $23,794,- 
694, were exported from the United States, 
chiefly to Great Britain, besides 403,111 bush- 
els of meal, worth $1,474,827. In 1872 the 
total import of Indian corn into Great Britain, 
chiefly from the United States, amounted to 
24,532,670 cwts., valued at 8,691,192. For 
a full discussion of the origin of maize, see 
De Candolle, GeograpMe botanique, quoted 
above. A description of the leading varieties 
is given in Fearing Burr, jr.'s "Field and Gar- 
den Vegetables of America" (Boston, 1865). 
A full and exhaustive treatise is Edward En- 
field's "Indian Corn, its Value, Culture, and 
Uses " (New York, 1866). 

MAJESTY, a title of the highest honor, first 
used by the Romans to designate the supreme 
power and dignity of the people (majestas po- 
puli Romani), as well as of its highest chosen 
representatives or rulers, as dictators, consuls, 
and the senate. On the overthrow of the re- 
public, the emperors assumed the same title 
(majestas Augusti), and in the middle ages it 
was adopted by the German emperors. Of 
kings, it was given to Louis XI. of France in 
1461, and Henry VIII. of England assumed it 
in 1520. When Charles V. was elected em- 
peror of Germany in 1519, he took the title 
also as king of Spain. It is now generally be- 
stowed on all emperors and kings of Europe, 
except the sultan, who is styled highness, as 
well as on the emperor of Brazil. The emperor 
of Austria is addressed as imperial and royal 
apostolical majesty. The titles of Catholic 
majesty and most Christian majesty were be- 
stowed by the see of Rome on the kings of 
Spain and France respectively. James I. of 
England used the style " sacred " and " most 
excellent majesty." Violations of the majesty 






MAJORANO 



of the people, ns for instance treason, were 
vnn.-d l.y the K<>nians ,-r twin a laxce majesta- 
ti, a term also used of violations of monar- 

I iliirnity. 

MUOIMNO, Kaetano. Bee < ' M'FMMau. 
MAJORCA (Span. Mallorca), the largest of the 
Balearic islands, in the Mediterranean, belong- 
ing to Spain, about l-Ju in. S. S. E. of Barce- 
lona, between l.-it. W 1-V and 40 N., and Ion. 
2 20' and 3 30' E. ; length from E. to W. 
nearlv fil in., breadth in some parts 40 m. ; 
1,300 sq. m.; pop. about 230,000. 
( >n tu- N. K. <-o:i<t are the large bays of Puer- 
.,r and Puerto Menor, and on the S. E. 
f I'alma; and there are several good 
natural harbor.-. The northern half of the isl- 
rod by mountains, the highest of 
which i- upward of 5,000 ft. above the sea. 
The southern half is comparatively level. The 
are generally of secondary or tertiary 
formation. There are five or six small rivers, 
:md the hill* and plains generally are well sup- 
plied with small streams, though in some of 
the plain- the want of water makes cultivation 
ditli -ult. The principal river, the Riera, rises 
:it the foot of Mount Puigpunente and falls 
into the sea at I'alma. The climate is temper- 
ate, the thermometer in summer ranging only 
from 84 to 88, while that of winter seldom 
falls below 48. The island produces marbles 
of great beauty and variety, 36 different speci- 
mens of which were exhibited at Vienna in 
1873, and also slate, granite, syenite, porphyry, 
and some coal and iron. Lavender, rosemary, 
thyme, marjoram, saffron, marsh mallow, jon- 
quil, and wild celery are the commonest vege- 
t.il.le productions. The island affords abun- 
dant pasturage for large numbers of horses, 
mul.-s, cattle, sheep, goats, and swine. The 
:uv larire, ami produce great quantities 
of fine wool. Game of the smaller kind, such 
as hares, rabbits, quails, and partridges, is very 
plentiful; and the preserving of thrushes as 
well a-* of ti-h is an important industry. There 
are scarcely any venomous animals. The soil 
. .linrrly fertile, but the agricultural skill 
of the islanders is imperfect. Wheat, barley, 
nip, tlax, and silk are produced in con- 
!e abundance, and the fruits include or- 
leMi'-n-. citrons, dates, figs, and pome- 
granates. The olive crop yields yearly 650,- 
i lions of oil. The people manufacture a 
ron-iderablo quantity of woollen stuffs, not 
only for their own use, but for export to Spain, 
Malta, Sardinia, and America. Other impor 
:ianufactiires are hats and fine cabinet 
ware. New factories have recently been con- 
1 fur the production on a large scale ol 
M, n.p.-. am] mrdaire, tihre for which is 
now imported from Manila; the Spanish navy 
was lately supplied entirely with rope made at 
I'alma. The Ul.-md, wliieh in earlier days gave 
ne to majoliea ware, now only produces 
oMinion pnttery. The wines are excel 
nd are largely exported, as are also bran 
dy, oil. tijr-. and oranges. The total value o 



MALABAR 

,he exports in 1873, including the coasting 
irade, was $6,076,339. The principal towns 
are Palma, Seller, Manacor, Alcudia, Porreras, 
and Inca. Palma is the capital, the seat of a 
bishop and of the captaincy general of the Ba- 
earic islands. A railway to connect it with 
nca and Alcudia is in progress. The natives 
resemble the Catalans in their appearance and 
manners, are remarkably honest and hospita- 
)le and make excellent soldiers. The upper 
classes speak Castilian, but the lower orders 
use a dialect which is a mixture of Greek, Lat- 
n, Vandal, Arabic, Catalonian, and Languedo- 
jian words, representing the various races by 
which the island has been occupied. Little is 
known of the early history of Majorca. There 
were Carthaginian settlements in it prior to 
500 B. C. The Roman Q. Metellus conquered 
it A D 123, and the Vandals in 426. The 
Moors seized it in 798, and held it till 1229, 
when it was taken by James I. of Aragon, who 
erected it into a kingdom (including the other 
Balearic islands, the county of Montpellier, 
Roussillon, and Cerdagne) in favor of his son 
Don James, in 1262. It was finally annexed 
to Aragon in 1343. The island declared for 
Charles III. in the war of the Spanish succes- 
sion ;' it rebelled against Philip V. in 1714, but 
submitted in July, 1715. It was thrice visited 
by epidemics in 1865, 1870, and 1873 at- 
tended with frightful mortality. (See BA- 
LEARIC ISLANDS.) 
MARI. See LEMUR. 

MALABAR, a district of British India, in the 
province of Madras, on the W. coast, between 
lat. 10 and 12 20' N. ; area, 6,262 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 2,274,463, of whom about 24,000 
were Christians. It is bounded N. by the dis- 
trict of South Canara, S. by Cochin, W. by the 
Indian ocean, and E. by the Western Ghauts, 
which are here 4,000 ft. and upward in height. 
Between these and the sea the country lies, 
extending about 150 m. along the coast, with 
an average breadth of 40 m. With trifling 
exceptions, a low sandy strip, from 1 to 3 m. 
broad, runs along the shore, and is covered 
with a continuous and luxuriant grove of co- 
coanut trees, to the cultivation and care of 
which the natives give the greatest attention. 
Behind this tract, hills of inconsiderable height 
come down from the mountain chain which 
forms the E. boundary. Between these hills 
there are valleys of extreme fertility, being the 
receptacle of the soil washed in the course of 
ages by the heavy rains from the surrounding 
eminences. The hills have level, or rather 
perfectly horizontal summits of naked rock, 
which is a peculiar characteristic of the face of 
the country. Many of them have steep sides, 
which are not unfrequently formed into ter- 
races and cultivated. All the country that 
borders on the Ghauts is covered with forests 
and dense jungle, belts and detached portions 
of which in places stretch to within a few 
miles of the sea. Malabar is watered by innu- 
merable short streams. The chief river is the 



MALABAK 



Beypoor, which is with its tributaries naviga- 
ble for boats of considerable size for about 30 
m. inland ; next to this is the Ponany river, 
which is longer, but shallower. Several inlets 
run along a short distance from the shore par- 
allel to the coast, receive the mountain streams, 
and communicate with the ocean by shallow 
channels, and are navigable for small boats for 
nearly the whole length of the province. It is 
on the banks of the rivers and of these inlets, 
in the valleys, and along the coast, that the in- 
habitants reside. The climate is generally 
healthful, though in the interior jungle fever is 
prevalent at certain seasons. The hot season 
is from February to May, the wet from May to 
October, and the cool during the remainder of 
the year. The thermometer seldom rises above 
90 in the shade, and rarely falls below 70. 
During the wet season very heavy rain falls 
along the coast, increasing toward the interior ; 
the average rainfall throughout the district is 
more than 75 inches per annum, and at Cana- 
nore it is 123 inches. The principal vegeta- 
ble productions of Malabar are pepper, cocoa- 
nuts, ginger, coffee, hemp, cardamoms, betel 
nuts, turmeric, arrowroot, sapan wood, sandal 
wood, timber of different sorts, and various 
gums and resins. Besides teak, 120 other kinds 
of valuable timber have been enumerated in 
a report upon the forests of Malabar. Since 
1843 large plantations of teak have been made. 
Cardamoms are produced from the forest land 
on the face of the mountains which bound the 
province, at the height of from 2,000 to 4,000 
ft. above the sea, growing spontaneously after 
the felling and burning of the trees. Pepper, 
which is the principal commercial product, and 
is styled the money of Malabar, is chiefly cul- 
tivated in the northern part, in the neighbor- 
hood of Tellichery, and thrives especially in 
the moist valleys of the Ghauts. The trailing 
plant from which it is produced requires but 
slight care, the cultivator having little more to 
do than collect the produce. The culture of 
coffee was introduced by British planters, on 
estates situated on the slopes of the mountains, 
some 2,000 ft. above the sea. The proprietary 
system of land revenue prevails, under which 
a percentage of the rent goes to the landlords 
and the rest to the government. Eice is grown 
throughout the province, but not in sufficient 
quantities for internal consumption. The cul- 
tivation of ginger, since its exportation to 
Europe began, has been carried on with great 
vigor. Iron is obtained from laterite in many 
places, and gold in small quantities is found 
in the mountain streams. Large herds of ele- 
phants and buffaloes frequent the interior for- 
ests. There are some tigers and numerous leo- 
pards, deer of various kinds, elk, bears, hogs, 
porcupines, squirrels, and monkeys. There are 
small bullocks, which, together with buffaloes, 
are used in tilling the ground ; in the level tracts 
elephants are employed to drag timber to the 
rivers, to be floated to the coast. There are 
but few horses, and traffic is either carried on 
525 VOL. xi. 4 



by water or upon men's shoulders, as in China. 
The population of Malabar is made up of 
Hindoos, Mohammedans, and Christians. There 
are a few Jews, both white and black, who are 
principally settled in the southern part of the 
district. The Brahmans, the highest class of 
Hindoos, are here called Nainburis ; to limit 
the numbers of their race, they prevent the 
younger sons from marrying. There is another 
caste of Brahmans called Puttar, who are much 
more numerous. The next in rank are the 
Nairs, who are of 11 castes, of various ranks 
and professions, but all pretend to be born 
soldiers. Their habits and manners are marked 
by some strange peculiarities, among which 
may be mentioned the want of that penurious 
disposition natural to other Hindoos, and their 
utter disuse of marriage. A girl on reaching 
the age of puberty forms any connection she 
thinks fit ; and the children, who have no claim 
upon their natural father, become the heirs of 
her brothers. The Tiars, or Theans, are con- 
sidered next in rank to the Nairs, and are en- 
gaged in various occupations, but principally 
in cultivating the ground. The Poliars, or 
Chermars, are a numerous class, who, before 
the British interfered in their behalf, were held 
in slavery, and bought and sold separately or 
along with the land. The Madis are the low- 
est specimens of all, and are outcasts consid- 
ered so impure that even a Chermar would be 
defiled by their touch. They wander about in 
companies of 10 or 12, keeping at a little dis- 
tance from the roads, and upon seeing a trav- 
eller set up a cry for assistance. They re- 
fuse all labor, subsist upon roots and any food 
however loathsome, and live in wretched huts 
built in secluded spots. The Chermars and 
Niadis are supposed to be the descendants of 
the aboriginal inhabitants of the country, and 
are much smaller in stature and darker in com- 
plexion than the Brahmans, Nairs, or Tiars, 
who are all of good height and well formed, 
with remarkably handsome features and olive- 
colored complexion. The native Mussulmans, 
denominated Mapilas, form about one fourth 
of the population. They are descended from 
Hindoo mothers by Arab fathers, who settled 
in Malabar about the 7th or 8th century, and 
are exceedingly fanatical and treacherous. 
There are some Syrian Christians toward the 
S. boundary of the province, who consider 
themselves descendants of converts made by 
the apostle St. Thomas in the 1st century (see 
CHEISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS) ; and also a few 
thousand converts to Christianity and descen- 
dants of the Portuguese, who reside chiefly in 
the neighborhood of their ancient settlements. 
The Hindoo population of Malabar are not 
prone to congregate in towns and villages, but 
for the most part live in separate houses, neatly 
built and kept scrupulously clean, throughout 
the country. The towns owe their origin en- 
tirely to foreign settlers, and the chief are 
Calicut, Palghat, Tellichery, Cananore, Mahe 
(which is a French colony), and Ponany. At 



48 



MALABAR COAST 



Beypoor, 7 m. S. of Calicut, where the river 
of the same name falls into the sea, is the 
terminus of a railway connecting Madras with 
the coast of Malabar. The attempts of the 
English to manufacture iron here have not 
been successful. Many ships have been built 
at Beypoor, for the construction of which the 
forests situated on the banks of the river sup- 
ply teak timber of a darker color and better 
description than is found elsewhere, and of 
very large size. It was at Beypoor, and not 
at Calicut as generally supposed, that the first 
European navigator, Vasco da Gama, landed in 
1498. At that time the Portuguese established 
themselves in Malabar, and the Dutch made 
some settlements there in 1 663. The exports of 
Malabar amount in value to about $3,000,000 
per annum. They consist chiefly of cocoanuts 
and cocoanut oil, coir rope, arrack, betel nuts, 
coarse cotton cloth, pepper, ginger, cardamoms, 
camphor, coffee, kino, and various gums and 
resins. The imports do not amount to more 
than one third of the value of the exports. 
The name Malabar is supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of the Indian malayalam, signifying 
skirting the hills, and the original Sanskrit 
name is said to have been Kevala. It is sup- 
posed that the country was conquered in very 
early times by a king from the opposite side 
of the mountains, and that the Nairs came at 
the same time as a military body. They took 
every opportunity to aggrandize themselves, 
and continued to rule the country till Hyder 
Ali invaded it in 1763. Hyder subdued the 
country, plundered it almost to exhaustion, 
and expelled all the rajahs except such as con- 
ciliated him by immediate submission. His 
son Tippoo Sahib proposed to the Hindoos to 
embrace the Mohammedan faith, and followed 
up his proposition by levying large contribu- 
tions on his infidel subjects, and forcibly cir- 
cumcising many of the Brahmans, Nairs, and 
others. On the breaking out of the war be- 
tween Tippoo and the British in 1790, the re- 
fractory Nairs, many of whom had fled to the 
forest to escape his persecution, joined the lat- 
ter and succeeded in driving him from the 
country. With some slight disturbances, Mala- 
bar has since remained a portion of British 
India. It was incorporated with the Madras 
presidency in 1803, and since then the popula- 
tion has more than quadrupled, and the coun- 
try i* steadily advancing. 

MALABAR COAST, an indefinite term applied 
to the W. side of the Indian peninsula. In a 
somewhat restricted sense it means the coasts 
of Concan, Canara, Malabar proper, Cochin, and 
Travancore. The coast of Malabar proper is 
about 150 in. in length, and has numerous har- 
bors, though most of them are so shallow as to 
be available only to vessels of light draught 
and coasters. 

MALACCA. I. A British territory, one of the 
Strait* S.-ttl.-m.-nN. on the W. side of the 
Malay p-mn<ul.-i. U-t \veen lat. 2 and 2 30' N., 
extending 42 m. along the coast, and varying in 



MALACCA 

breadth inland from 14 to 24 m. ; area, 658 sq. 
m pop. in 1870 (estimated), 67,267, of whom 
2,648 were white. The territory lies in an ir- 
regular triangle, the S. E. boundary or base of 
which is formed by the Cassang river, which 
rises near a remarkable conical hill named Mt. 
Ophir, about 50 m. E. of the capital. In the 
interior the country is arranged in a series of 
undulating hills and valleys, generally lying 
parallel to the seacoast. There are no great 
ranges of hills, but a large number of detached 
elevations are found, varying in height from 
100 to 1,000 ft. Mt. Ophir, called by the na- 
tives Ledang, is the only considerable elevation; 
it rises to the height of about 5,000 ft. above the 
level of the sea. The general formation of these 
hills and of the territory is granitic, with a cov- 
ering of laterite, or red clay ironstone. The 
coast line may be divided into three portions 
of distinct character. The N. W: portion, from 
Lingie river to Tanjong Kling, 17 m., shows a 
bold wooded elevation reaching to the sea. 
Behind this coast plateau the series of hill and 
valley commences immediately. The central 
portion, or from Tanjong Kling to the town 
of Malacca, 5 m., is a sandy beach, with ferru- 
ginous rocks, appearing in points jutting into 
the sea. The third part, 21 m., is a mud flat, 
exposed for a great distance at low water ; 
and the inner portion is covered with man- 
grove jungle. Inland from the two latter por- 
tions, an immense alluvial plain, with detached 
hills, extends considerably beyond the inner 
boundary of the territory. The district is 
watered by five navigable rivers, of which the 
Lingie is navigable for vessels of 200 tons as 
far as Simpang, a distance of 8 m. Numer- 
ous smaller streams fall into the sea. The 
soil of the low lands is a rich alluvium, vary- 
ing in color from light brown to red. The 
territory is capable of producing in perfection 
almost every article of intertropical culture, 
and of late years the forests have been cleared 
away to a considerable extent, and agriculture 
is on the increase. It enjoys the equable tem- 
perature and salubrious climate of the Malay 
archipelago, to which it geologically and eth- 
nologically belongs. The greatest recorded 
range of the thermometer is from 68 to 86. 
Tigers, leopards, black panthers, and other 
ferocious animals abound. Among the other 
animals are monkeys of various species, the 
elephant, rhinoceros, buffalo, wild ox, tapir, 
several species of deer, the antelope, and musk 
deer. The chief crops are rice, the cocoa- 
nut, and tapioca. Nutmeg plants have been 
brought from the Moluccas, and cultivated with 
moderate success. Cinnamon, of superior 
quality to that of Ceylon, is cultivated for 
exportation. Cotton, chocolate, sugar cane, 
indigo, and a great variety of fine fruits are 
raised. Among the exports are tin, known in 
commerce as "straits tin," ebony, ivory, rat- 
tans, lac, eagle wood, hides, hogs, and fowls. 
Gold is washed from the sands of all the 
streams in fine dust. The trade is chiefly with 



MALACCA 



MALACHY 



the neighboring British settlements, Penang 
and Singapore. The annual exports amount 
to about $2,000,000, and the imports to about 
$2,250,000. (See MALAY PENINSULA, and 
STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.) II. A city, capital of 
the territory, situated near the mouth of a 
small river which falls into the straits of 
Malacca, in lat. 2 14' N., Ion. 102 12' E. ; 
pop. about 15,000. It was the chief em- 
porium of oriental commerce before Euro- 
peans visited the Indian seas. The Arabs, 
Persians, and Hindoos resorted to its port to 
procure the spices, gums, and other precious 
products of the Malay archipelago, which they 
afterward distributed throughout Asia, Af- 
rica, and Europe. It owed its commercial 
distinction to the freedom of its roadstead 
from hurricanes or the influence of the mon- 
soons, and to its advantageous situation in 
the straits of Malacca, the great highway of 
eastern commerce. It is a free port ; but its 
trade has long ceased to be of any relative 
importance, and is almost entirely confined 
to the neighboring settlements. The harbor 
is too shallow to admit large vessels. "When 
first visited by the Portuguese, it contained 
about 35,000 dwellings, and, according to 
the lowest computation made at the time, 
150,000 inhabitants. It was besieged and 
taken by Albuquerque in 1511. The victor 
captured more than 3,000 pieces of brass and 
iron cannon, mounted upon the walls of the 
city, which were said to be superior to any of 
Portuguese fabrication of that period. The 
Portuguese held possession of the city for 130 
years, and during that period it underwent 19 
sieges, 8 of which were undertaken by the 
Malays, chiefly of the state of Acheen, and the 
rest by the Dutch, who captured the place 
after nine months' siege and blockade in 1641. 
The Dutch held the city for 154 years, sur- 
rendering to a British besieging force in 
1795. In 1818 it was restored to the Dutch 
government ; but it again reverted to the Brit- 
ish in 1824, in exchange for Bencoolen in Su- 
matra. There are many notable ruins of for- 
tifications constructed by the ancient Malay 
kings, and many of their tombs ; also ruins of 
monasteries, churches, and fortifications con- 
structed by Albuquerque, including those of 
the monastery of Madre de Dios, on a hill in 
the rear of the town, which contained the 
remains of St. Francis Xavier till they were 
transferred to Goa. 

MALACCA, Straits of, the waters which separate 
the Malay peninsula from the island of Suma- 
tra. This channel is the most frequented route 
of European vessels proceeding eastward to 
Chinese and neighboring points ; and it is also 
in the line of Australian and Malaysian com- 
munication with continental India. It enjoys 
with the Malaysian seas an entire exemption 
from the hurricanes and typhoons which pre- 
vail in the neighboring waters to the eastward 
and westward. Two lighthouses constructed 
by the British government, at the N. W. and 



S. E. extremities, contribute greatly to the 
safety of its navigation. The channel is about 
600 m. long, and from 30 to about 200 m. wide. 

MALACHI, the last of the minor prophets. 
The name may be defined either "my mes- 
senger" or "messenger of Jehovah." Noth- 
ing is known of his person or history, and 
many interpreters, as Umbreit, Hengste*nberg, 
and others, are of opinion that Malachi is not 
a proper name, but an official title ; and some 
hold that Ezra was the writer of this book. 
From the contents of the prophecy it may 
be inferred that the prophet lived after Ze- 
chariah, since in his time the second temple 
was already built (iii. 10), and that he was 
contemporary with Nehemiah (446 B. 0.). 
The prophet reminds Israel of the kindness 
of God toward them in the past, and com- 
plains of the irreligiousness of the priests and 
the people. He then announces the coming 
of a messenger sent by the Lord to prepare 
the way for him, and the coming of the Lord 
himself to judgment, which will be condem- 
nation of the wicked and a blessing on the 
good. The prophecy of Malachi occupies the 
last place in the canon of the Old Testament, 
and is referred to in several places of the New 
Testament. Among the more important com- 
mentaries upon it are those of Hitzig, Ewald, 
Maurer, Umbreit, Pressel, and Reinke. The 
last, a Roman Catholic, has written the most 
complete work on this book, containing the 
Hebrew text and a translation, with a full crit- 
ical, philological, and historical commentary 
(Giessen, 1856). 

MALACHITE. See COPPER, vol. v., p. 319. 

MALACHY, Saint, archbishop of Armagh, born 
in Armagh about 1095, died at Clairvaux, 
France, Nov. 2, 1148. He was of noble birth, 
became a monk, and was appointed vicar of 
St. Celsus, archbishop of Armagh, who des- 
tined him for his successor. He studied canon 
law under St. Malchus, bishop of Lismore, and 
rebuilt a portion of the monastery of Ben- 
chor. About 1127 he was appointed bishop 
of the united sees of Down and Connor. He 
visited on foot every hamlet in both dioceses, 
restored reverence for the matrimonial con- 
tract, repaired churches, established schools, 
obtained enlightened priests, and introduced 
everywhere the Roman liturgy and ritual. He 
became archbishop in 1129 ; but as the tempo- 
ralities of Armagh had been confiscated, he con- 
tinued to govern the diocese of Connor. This 
city was sacked in a civil war, and with 120 dis- 
ciples he retired into Munster, built the mon- 
astery of Ibrach, and as primate made a visita- 
tion of Munster and Connaught. Toward the 
end of 1134 he took possession of the see of 
Armagh, completed his reforms, and made a 
second visitation of the dioceses of Munster. 
In 1137 he resigned his archbishopric, conse- 
crated a bishop for Connor, and reserved for 
himself the poorer and obscurer see of Down, 
where he founded various institutions. In 1189 
he went to Rome, to confer with the pope about 



50 



MALACOLOGY 



a thorough renovation of the Irish church, and 
received full power as legate a latere. After 
his return he visited every part of the island, 
and in 1 14* lu-1.1 :i national council at Inis Padrig 
or Patrick's Holme; disciplinary decrees were 
enacted, and a petition was drawn up for the 
establishment of two metropolitan sees. Avitn 
these Malachy started for France, hoping to 
meet Pope Eugenius III. at Clairvaux ; but he 
arrived there after the pope's departure, fell 
ill of a fever, and died in the arms of St. Ber- 

-.vho pronounced a panegyric at his fu- 
neral, and wrote his life (translated by Mattel). 
He was canonized by Clement III. in 1190, and 
his feast is celebrated on Nov. 3. A " Prophecy 
concerning the Lives of the future Roman Pon- 
tiffs " beginning with Celestine II., elected in 
1143, popularly attributed to St. Malachy, is 
now considered to have originated in the con- 
clave of 1590. It was first published in 1595 
by the Benedictine Arnould de Wyon, and is to 
be found in Moreri's Dictionnaire historique. 

MALACOLOGY (Gr. //aAa<5f, soft, and Myog, 
discourse), that department of zoology which 
treats of the mollusca, some of which were 
termed even by Aristotle malakia (soft ani- 
mals), including the examination both of the 
external shells and the internal organs. In the 
article CONOHOLOOY the outer shells of mollusks 
have been sufficiently described, and their in- 
ternal organization and habits will be noticed 
under MOLLUSCA ; it only remains here to enu- 
merate briefly some of the principal systems of 
classification. Linnaeus (1766) placed mollusks 
in his 6th and lowest class of vermes, with 
worms and zoophytes. As early as 1812 Ouvier 
had given to the world his views on the classi- 
fication of animals, founded principally upon 
his researches in comparative anatomy; he 
makes the mollusca his second branch, with 
the classes: 1, cephalopoda (like cuttle fishes); 
2, pteropoda (like elio or whale bait) ; 3, 
gasteropoda, with orders pulmonata (slugs and 
snails), nudibranchia (naked marine genera 
without shells, like doris), inferobranchia 
(phyllidia), tectibranchia (bulla and aplysid), 
heteropoda (carinaria), pectinibranchia (most 
of the marine univalves, turbo, trochus, &c.), 
tubulibranchia (like siliquaria}, scutibranchia 
(haliotis, &c.), and cyclobranchia (patella and 
chiton) ; 4, acephala, with orders testacea (oys- 

i-ii. ami most bivalve shells) and tunicata 
(ascidians); 6, brachiopoda, like terebratula, 

.-. aii-l finyula; and 6, cirrhopoda (like 
barnacles), now placed among articulata in 

!a erustacea. Lamarck (1815-'22) ar- 
ranged the mollusks in two classes: one his 
llth, conchifera or bivalves, with the orders 
ilimiinrM (having two separated muscular im- 
pressions on the inside of the shells) and 
monomyaria (with a nearly central single im- 
pression); tin? otlu-r his 12th class, mollusca, 
with th- orders pteropoda, gasteropoda, trache- 
< hflii, &c.), cephalopoda, and heteropoda 
trio); he placed the ascidians in his 4th 
class, tunicata, among his apathetic animals; 



he made of the cirripeds his 10th class, with 
the orders sessilia and pedunculata, ranking 
them and the next two classes among sensitive 
animals. Ehrenberg (1836), in his division 
of ganglioneura (with ganglionic nervous sys- 
tem), and subdivision sphygmozoa (with a heart 
and pulsating vessels), makes his 4th section 
of mollusca, characterized by absence of artic- 
ulations to the body and by the irregular dis- 
persion of the nervous ganglia ; he gives the 
classes cephalopoda, pteropoda, gasteropoda, 
acephala, brachiopoda, tunicata (simple ascid- 
ians), and aggregata (compound ascidians) ; the 
cirripeds he places among crustaceans. Owen 
(1843-'58), in his "Lectures on Comparative 
Anatomy," and article " Mollusca " in the " En- 
cyclopedia Britannica" (8th edition), divides 
the province mollusca or heterogangliata into 
two sections, acephala and encephala, accord- 
ing to the absence or presence of a head and 
its accompanying parts. I. Acephala, with 
the classes: 1, tunicata; 2, brachiopoda; 3, 
lamellibranchiata, with the groups monomy- 
aria and dimyaria, with one or two adductor 
muscles. II. Encephala, with the classes : 4, 
pteropoda ; 5, gasteropoda, with the divisions 
monacia and dicecia ; and 6, cephalopoda, with 
orders tetrabranchiata and dibranchiata. The 
cirripeds he places among articulates, though 
in a class distinct from crustaceans, and he, 
with his predecessors, retains the bryozoa 
among radiates. Siebold (1848) makes three 
classes as follows : 1, acephala, with orders 
tunicata, Irachiopoda, and lamellibranchia 
(with suborders monomya, dimya, and in- 
clusa) ; 2, cephalophora, with orders ptero- 
poda, heteropoda, and gasteropoda (with sub- 
orders apneusta, heterobranchia, tubicolce, pec- 
tinibranchia, and pulmonata); and 3, cephalo- 
poda, without orders, but with families nautili- 
na, octopoda, and loligina. (See Burnett's trans- 
lation, Boston, 1854.) Leuckart (1848) divides 
mollusca into four classes: 1, tunicata, with 
orders ascidice and salpce (he is inclined to 
make these not simply a class, but a type in- 
termediate between echinoderms and worms) ; 
2, acephala, with orders lamellibranchiata 
and brachiopoda; 3, gasteropoda, with orders 
heterobranchia, dermatobranchia, heteropoda, 
ctenobranchia, pulmonata, and cyclobranchia; 
and 4, cephalopoda. Before giving the classi- 
fications of Milne-Edwards and Agassiz, which 
seem to be the truest to nature, it will be in- 
structive to glance at a few physio-philosophi- 
cal and embryological systems as compared 
with the preceding founded upon anatomical 
structure. Oken (1809-'43) places the mol- 
lusca in his province of dermatozoa (sensitive or 
tegumentary animals) or splanchnozoa (visce- 
ral or fleshless animals), and in the circle of 
vascular, sexual animals, equivalent to mala- 
cozoa and conchozoa (glandular or shell ani- 
mals) ; according to the anatomical system, the' 
vascular animals are either venous (like mus- 
sels), arterial (like snails), or cardiac (like 
kraken or cuttle fishes) ; according to the de- 






MALACOLOGY 



MALACOPTERYGIANS 



51 



lopment of the feeling sense, the sexual ani- 
mals (the same as the vascular) are either ova- 
rial, orchitic, or renal. In his system (see his 
"Physiophilosophy," Kay society ed., 1847) 
the first class of rnollusks (venous, ovarial 
animals or mussels) has the following orders : 
I. Protozooid mussels. II. Conchozooid mus- 
sels; this corresponds to the acephala, and 'is 
characterized by a membraneous heart with 
two auricles. The second class (arterial, or- 
chitic animals or snails) has the following 
orders: III. Protozooid snails or androgyni 
(bisexual). IV. Conchozooid snails or dicecii 
(with separate sexes) ; this class corresponds 
to gasteropods, having a membraneous heart 
with one auricle. The third class (cardiac, 
nephritic animals or kraken) has the following 
orders: V. Protozooid kraken. VI. Concho- 
zooid kraken. It will be seen from this sys- 
tem that the principles of Cuvier respecting 
the different plans of the four great divisions 
of the animal kingdom are entirely set at 
nought ; orders, according to Oken, represent- 
ing in their respective classes the characteristic 
features of the lower types. Among the em- 
bryological systems may be mentioned those 
of Von Baer, Kolliker, Van Beneden, and 
Vogt. Von Baer (1827-'8) calls the mollusks 
the massive type, as the body and its parts are 
formed chiefly in round masses, the shape un- 
symmetrical, the nervous ganglia diffused and 
appearing late, and the movements slow and 
feeble ; in the course of development identical 
parts are produced, curving around a conical 
or other space. According to Kolliker (1844), 
in the mollusks the embryo arises from a 
primitive part, grows uniformly in every di- 
rection, and either entirely encloses the embry- 
onal vesicle, early in gasteropods and acephala, 
or late (forming a temporary vitelline sac) as 
in Umax, or else contracts above the embryonal 
vesicle, forming a genuine vitelline sac, as in 
cephalopods. Van Beneden (1845-'55) places 
mollusks with worms and radiates under his 
group of allocotyledones or allovitellians, in 
which the vitellus or yolk enters the body 
neither from the ventral nor from the dorsal 
side; his class mollusca, at the first date, in- 
cluded cephalopods, gasteropods, pelecypods, 
and brachiopods ; in his later work he added 
acephala, tunicata, and bryozoa, removing the 
last two from the polyps; the cephalopods, 
however, are not allovitellians, and any classi- 
fication which unites in one group mollusks, 
worms, and radiates cannot be founded on cor- 
rect principles. Vogt (1851) adopts the dis- 
tinction of Kolliker, of animals in which the 
embryo is developed from the whole yolk, and 
those in which it arises from a definite part of 
it, in the former of which he places mollusks, 
with worms and radiates ; he makes a primary 
division of the cephalopoda, in which the yolk 
is cephalic, with a class of the same, with the 
orders tetrabranchiata and dibranchiata. In 
the division mollusca, with an irregular dis- 
position of the organs, he makes the follow- 



ing classes: cephalophora, acephala, tunicata, 
ctenopkora, and bryozoa. The last three classes 
constitute his mollvscoidea. The separation 
of the cephalopods is unjustifiable, and the 
transfer of the ctenophora from acalephan 
radiates to mollusks cannot be maintained. 
Milne-Edwards (1855) divides the third branch, 
malacozoaria or mollusca, into the two sub- 
branches : 1, mollusks proper, with the classes 
of cephalopods. pteropods, gasteropods, and 
acephala; and 2, inolluscoids, with the classes 
tunicata and bryozoa. Agassiz, in his "Essay 
on Classification" (1857), makes only three 
classes of the branch of mollusks : I. Acepha- 
la, with orders : 1, bryozoa (including the wr- 
ticellce) ; 2, brachiopoda ; 3, tunicata ; and 
4, lamellibranchiata. II. Gasteropoda, with 
orders: 1, pteropoda; 2, heteropoda; and 3, 
gasteropoda proper. III. Cephalopoda, with 
orders: 1, tetrabranchiata, and 2, dibranchiata. 
He includes bryozoa among mollusks, uniting 
with them the vorticellidce, the plan of their 
structure not being radiated, but distinctly 
bilateral, and gradually leading through the 
brachiopods and tunicates to the ordinary 
acephala ; tunicata show in the simple ascid- 
ians pedunculated young, resembling boltenia, 
and forming a connecting link with the com- 
pound ascidians ; cephalopods are homologous 
with other mollusks in all their systems of 
organs, and can no more properly be separated 
from them on account of the partial segmenta- 
tion of their yolk, than can the mammalia from 
other vertebrates on account of its total seg- 
mentation in their case. According to Prof. 
Owen, some of the compound ascidians have 
certain affinities to the zoophytes ; some of the 
marine apneusta (like actceon and glaucus) are 
related to some of the abranchiate annelids; 
though cephalopods are the highest, they do 
not pass into amphioxus or any other embryonic 
form of vertebrate; he retains the bryozoa with 
the polyps. Prof. Huxley makes the primary 
divisions of molluscoids and mollusca ; the for- 
mer including the polyzoa, tunicata, and bra- 
chiopoda, the latter the lamellibranchiata, 
gasteropoda, pteropoda, and cephalopoda. Prof. 
Morse places the brachiopods among the worm- 
like articulates ; and very likely the tunicates 
and polyzoa belong with them. (See BRA- 
OHIOPODA.) 

MALACOPTERTGIMS, a division of fishes es- 
tablished by Artedi in the early part of the 
18th century, including such as have the fin 
rays soft, except occasionally the first of the 
dorsal or pectorals. Cuvier divided them into 
three orders: 1, the abdominal, in which the 
ventrals are suspended to the under part of 
the abdomen, behind the pectorals, and not 
attached to. the scapular arch, comprising the 
greater part of fresh-water fishes, as the carp, 
pike, cat fish, salmon, herring, and their allies ; 
2, the subbrachian, having the ventrals at- 
tached under the pectorals, the pelvis being 
suspended to the scapular arch, comprising 
fishes like the cod, flounder, turbot. &c. ; 3, 



52 



MALAGA 



the apodal, wanting ventrals and sometimes 
tli.- j.ectorals, including the eel family. J. 
MQller limits the term to the group acombere- 
tocida of the suborder pharyngognathi, in- 
cluding the flying fish. This is rejected by 
Van der Hoeven, who returns to Cuvier's 
divisions, adding, however, a few families. 
(See FISHES, and ICHTHYOLOGY.) 

MALAGA. 1. A S. province of Spain, in An- 
dalusia, bordering on Cadiz, Seville, Cordova, 
Granada, and the Mediterranean ; area, 2,822 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 505,010. The surface is 
irregular, being traversed from N. E. to S. W. 
by ranges of the Sierra Nevada, forming most 
picturesque and fertile plateaux and valleys, 
watered by innumerable streams. The chief 
rivers are the Jenil, constituting part of the N". 
boundary, the Guadiaro, and the Guadaljorce, 



Guadalmedina, and Velez-Malaga. Lead, iron, 
tin, zinc, quicksilver, and manganese are found 
in large quantities. The climate is one of the 
hottest in Europe, but the great heat is tempered 
by refreshing breezes from the southwest. The 
vegetation is everywhere luxuriant ; the prin- 
cipal products are grapes of various kinds, es- 
pecially those named muscatel and Jaere, the 
sugar cane, pineapples, chirrimoyas, and other 
delicious tropical fruits, aniseed, cumin, liquor- 
ice root, sumach, cork, and cochineal. The 
manufactures include silks, satins, cotton and 
hemp fabrics, morocco leather, wicker ware, 
hats, paper, soap, chemicals, and above all the 
far-famed Malaga wines. Agriculture and fish- 
ing are the chief industries in the interior and 
along the coast. The principal towns, besides 
the capital, are Velez-Malaga, Alora, Anteque- 




Malaga. 



ra, Colmenar, Ronda, Marbella, and Estepona. 
II. A city, capital of the province, on a gulf 
of the same name in the Mediterranean, 262 m. 
8. by W. of Madrid ; pop. about 100,000, or 
with the suburbs, 130,000. It stands in the 
centre of a wide bay, surrounded by walls with 
nine gates, and flanked by high mountains, on 
the base of which it rises in amphitheatre ; and 
seen from the sea it presents, with the ruins 
of its ancient fortifications and its Moorish cas- 
tle, the Gibralfaro, on a lofty eminence to the 
east, an aspect of much grandeur. The streets, 
nr:iH\ all I'xtivmdy narrow, and many of them 
not admitting vehicles, give the town a pecu- 
\foorish appearance. The Guadalmedina, 
crossed by two good bridges, traverses the city 
from N. K. to S. W., dividing it into two quar- 
ters; but th- rivor, which in winter becomes 
a formidable torrent inundating the streets, is 
dry in summer, whx-ii its bed serves as a thor- 



oughfare. The houses (numbering about 7,000 
in 1864) are large and high, and, being all white, 
look remarkably gay and clean. Most of them 
are built round a court. The Alameda, near 
the port, one of the most beautiful promenades 
in Spain, is surrounded by sumptuous edifices, 
and embellished with a number of fountains 
and statues, with rich marble seats at intervals 
through the grounds. In the Plaza del Riego 
is a monument to the memory of Torrijos and 
his 49 confederates executed by order of Mo- 
reno on Dec. 11, 1831 ; and the Paseo de Re- 
ding is an agreeable resort. Chief among the 
public buildings is the cathedral, begun in 1538, 
and completed in 1719 ; it is a stately structure 
in the composite style, with a spire 300 ft. 
high, and magnificent decorations; the high 
altar and choir are noteworthy for the perfec- 
tion of their carved works representing the 
twelve apostles and many saints. The episco- 



MALAKHOFF 



MALARIA 



53 





palace and the custom house are handsome 
edifices. Among the other notable buildings 
are four parish churches and two chapels, ele- 
ven convents, ten nunneries, two foundling, 
one military, and three general hospitals, a 
prison, four barracks, the post office, and a 
superb aqueduct. The places of amusement 

e the theatre and the plaza de toros or bull 

g, with a number of concert and dancing 

ms. . Pipes for the supply of water from 

e river Torremolinos, 6 m. distant, were laid 
1874. The port is one of the finest and 

st commodious on the Mediterranean, serv- 
as a refuge for vessels compelled to leave 

ibraltar during the prevalence of the S. W. 
winds. A mole to the east upward of 1,200 
ft. long, with a lighthouse upon its outer ex- 
tremity, offers good protection ; and the har- 
bor, which has good anchorage for about 500 
ships, is defended by four forts. Among other 
fortifications is the Gibralfaro, a Moorish cas- 
tle on the site of a Roman fortress, on a hill 
manding the city. The principal articles of 

port are wines and raisins, including muscatel, 
finest in the world, lejia or lye, and sun 

.sins. The crop of muscatel grapes yielded 
2,700,000 boxes of raisins, the best of which 
go to England and Russia, and the lower grades 
to the United States. Sugar is extensively 
manufactured for export ; the total production 
in 1872 was 21,960,000 Ibs. The export trade 
in olive oil has greatly increased, mostly with 
France, Germany, England, and Russia; France 
and the United States take the most of the lead 
exported. The total value of the exports to the 
United States in the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, 
was $2,814,682 79, raisins, lemons, and lead 
forming the principal part. The chief imports 
are linen, woollen, and silk fabrics, hard- 
ware, machinery, and cutlery. The port move- 
ments for the year ending June 30, 1873, were 
1,028 steamers and 2,749 sailing vessels, with 
an aggregate of 542,802 tons. The chief man- 
ufactures are soap, cigars, hats, leather, white 
lead, and porcelain ; and there are iron f oun- 
deries, saw mills, lime and brick kilns, and silk- 
weaving establishments. The educational in- 
stitutions are a seminary, a naval school, two 
endowed Latin, and a number of primary 
schools. Malaga (anc. Malaca) was founded 
by the Phoenicians, and subsequently passed 
under the dominion of Carthage and of Rome. 
Its name is variously derived. Humboldt as- 
cribes it to the Iberians; others connect it 
with mela'h, supposed to be the Phoenician 
name for salt fish, for the exportation of which 
the town was famous. In 714 it was seized 
without opposition, by the Moors, who held it 
till 1487, when it was taken by Ferdinand the 
Catholic after a protracted siege. In 1810 Se- 
bastiani, the French general, took the city, and 
exacted a contribution of 12,000,000 reals. It 
was again taken by the French in 1823. 

MALAKHOFF, or Malakoff. See CRIMEA. 

MALAN. I. Cesar Henri Abraham, a Swiss 
theologian, born in Geneva, July 8, 1787, died 



there, May 8, 1864. His ancestors, who were 
noble and Protestant, fled on account of perse- 
cution from Merindol in southern France to 
Switzerland in tne 17th century. At an early 
age he became a minister of the state church 
and a regent in the college of Geneva. After- 
ward, through the influence of Dr. Mason of 
New York and Robert Haldane of Scotland, 
from a Socinian he became a Trinitarian, and 
received much sympathy from English and 
Scotch Christians. He often visited England. 
He published " The Church of Rome " (trans- 
lated into English, New York, 1844) ; " Stories 
for Children" (1852); and "Pictures from 
Switzerland " (1854). The American tract so- 
ciety and the publishing department of the 
Dutch Reformed church have printed many of 
his tracts. His most important work is his vol- 
ume of hymns, entitled Chants de Sion (1826 ; 
enlarged ed., 1841), of which he composed both 
the words and the music. II. Solomon Crcsar, 
an English clergyman, son of the preceding, 
born in Geneva in 1812. After completing his 
education at Geneva he went to Oxford, where 
he graduated. He was appointed classical pro- 
fessor in Bishop's college, Calcutta, in 1838, 
but from impaired health returned in a few 
years to England, and afterward resided some 
time in Arabia. He became vicar of Broad- 
windsor, Dorsetshire, in 1845, and prebendary 
of Sarum in 1871. He is said to be able to 
use in conversation familiarly upward of 20 
languages, and to translate upward of 100. 
Among other works, he has published "Three 
Months in the Holy Land" (1843); "A Plain 
Exposition of the Apostles' Creed" (1847); 
" A Catalogue of the Eggs of British Birds," 
and "A Systematic List of British Birds" 
(1848); "Magdala and Bethany," and "The 
Coast of Tyre and Sidon" (1857); "On Ritu- 
alism" (1867); "Life, Labors, &c., of Cassar 
Malan " (1 869) ; " Our Lord's Miracles and Par- 
ables" (1871); and numerous translations. 

MALARIA (ItaJ. mala aria, bad air), or Marsh 
Miasm (Gr. fiiaiveiv, to infect), an emanation 
which produces in mankind intermitting and 
remitting diseases. This poison is not cog- 
nizable by the senses, nor can it be detected by 
chemical tests ; it is known only by its effects. 
The concurrence of vegetable matter suscepti- 
ble of decay, of moisture either on the surface 
or a short distance below it, and of a certain 
elevation of temperature, is necessary for its 
evolution; of these, long continued heat has 
the greatest influence in increasing the intensity 
of the poison. Comparatively harmless in the 
northern part of the temperate zone, it becomes 
malignant and deadly in places equally favor- 
able to its production, just in proportion to 
the increase in the mean annual temperature. 
Marshes, whether salt or fresh, and wet mea- 
dows are especially subject to malaria, particu- 
larly when drying under a hot sun. Grounds 
alternately flooded and drained are fertile 
sources of it, and it is this which renders the 
cultivation of rice so deleterious. Grounds 



54 



MALARIA 



which, from the nature of the subsoil, retain 
the moisture a short distance beneath the sur- 
face, though that may be dry and parched, are 
favorable to the production of malaria. The 
process of clearing a new country of its woods, 
and thus exposing the soil to the full action oi 
the sun, is commonly followed by the prevalence 
of fevers ; and the same evils often follow the 
ploughing up of meadow lands. It is not ne- 
cessary that the amount of the vegetable matter 
be great or its growth recent, since malarious 
diseases have often been caused by the drainage 
of ponds and lakes ; and the fevers that pre- 
vailed at Bourg-en-Bresse ceased on filling in 
the half wet ditches of the fortifications. The 
low grounds on the margin of lakes and the al- 
luvial lands bordering rivers in warm countries 
are always plagued with malaria. In India 
ground covered with low thick growths of 
brushwood or of weeds and grass, called jun- 
gles, are so well known to produce malarious 
fevers, that they are there termed jungle fevers ; 
even open woods in tropical climates are pro- 
ductive of malaria. The steeping of hemp and 
flax, and the decay of vegetable refuse, pota- 
toes, &e., in confined localities, as cellars or the 
hold of a vessel, have resulted in fever. The 
quantity of water required for the generation 
of malaria is not large, a marsh completely 
covered with water being innocuous ; it is only 
when the moisture is drying up under the in- 
fluence of the sun that it becomes pestilential. 
So in tropical climates disease prevails chiefly 
at the commencement and after the termina- 
tion of the rainy season, and is less prevalent 
while the earth is saturated. In some cases 
the quantity of vegetable matter concerned in 
the production of malaria must be exceedingly 
small. Dr. Ferguson, one of the medical offi- 
cers in the army of the duke of Wellington, 
says: "In Spain, during the month of May, 
109, which was cold and wet, the army re- 
mained healthy ; but in June, which was re- 
markably hot and dry, marching through a sin- 
gularly dry, rocky country of considerable ele- 
vation, several of the regiments bivouacking in 
the hilly ravines which had lately been water- 
courses, a number of the men were seized with 
violent remittent fever (the first which had 
shown itself on the inarch) before they could 
move from the bivouac the next morning ; and 
tin* portion of the troops exclusively were 
affected with this disorder for some time. In 
this instance, the half dried ravine having been 
the stony bed of a torrent, in which soil never 
could be, the very existence of vegetables, and 
consequently of their humid decay and putre- 
wns impossible, and the stagnant pools 
of water still left among the rocks by the wa- 
tercourse were perfectly sweet. Yet this sit- 
uation proved as pestiferous as the bed of a 
' < 'ii the Nature and History of Marsh 
loison," Edinburgh, 1821.) Here, however, 
otal absence of vegetable matter would be 
inVult to prove, and would be in contradic- 
tion with all other experience.Whatever may 



MALATESTA 

be the nature of malaria, it is most concentra- 
ted near the surface of the earth, and becomes 
weaker as we rise above it; it is also most 
active at night, probably from the influence of 
the sun in rarefying and producing currents in 
the atmosphere, and perhaps, too, because it 
has a peculiar affinity for the fogs that are then, 
apt to prevail. In malarious countries it is 
well known that exposure to the night air is 
apt to be followed by fever, and that those 
who sleep in the upper rooms of a house are 
safer than those who lodge on the ground floor. 
While as a general rule low and damp grounds 
are much more unhealthy thali the hills in their 
neighborhood, yet in numerous instances this 
rule does not hold good, or is even reversed. 
The experience of the British army in the East 
and West Indies is conclusive on this point. 
In many cases this can readily be explained by 
the effect of winds and currents of air carry- 
ing the malaria to the higher ground, which 
had been generated on the lower ; thus in Italy 
the malaria from the borders of Lake Agnano 
reaches the convent of the Camaldules, situ- 
ated on a high hill three miles distant. Con- 
nected with the propagation of malaria by cur- 
rents of air is the fact that woods sometimes 
act as a screen, protecting a place from the ma- 
laria which would otherwise be conveyed to it 
from some neighboring source ; in Italy fevers 
have frequently become prevalent on the cut- 
ting down of trees which have thus served as a 
shelter. It becomes an interesting question 
bow far malaria can be carried by winds. This 
has been very variously estimated ; probably 
three or four miles is the maximum. The ef- 
fects of malaria are by no means confined to 
the production of fevers and diseases of an in- 
termittent type, but it is only in warm climates 
and in certain unfavorable localities that its full 
effects upon the constitution are observed. In 
such places the growth is stunted, the complex- 
ion sallow, the limbs slender, the abdomen tu- 
mid, the hair lank and scant, and the teeth de- 
'ective ; life is commonly extinguished before 
40 years of age, and the population is only 
cept up by immigration from healthier locali- 
ties. Yet it is remarkable that when in such 
places persons live beyond their 40th year, 
they frequently recover some measure of health 
and attain to old age. 

MALATESTA, a family of Italy, many of whose 
members were rulers of Rimini and other cities 
of the Romagna, and which became affiliated 
with the house of Montefeltro and with the 
dukes of Urbino. The founder of the family 
was Count Carpegna la Penna de' Billi, who 
ived in the llth century, and who on ac- 
count of his violent disposition was called mala 
l <e*ta (" bad head "), whence the surname of 
us descendants. Among the latter was Mala- 
;esta, count of Verrncchio, who distinguished 
himself against the Ghibellines, became ruler 
of Rimini in 1295, and died in 1312. He was 
succeeded by his son Malatestino, a zealous en- 
my of the Ghibellines, who in 1314 added Ce- 



MALAY ARCHIPELAGO 



MALAYO-POLYNESIAN RACES 55 



sena to Rimini, and died in 1317. Throe of his 
brothers were deformed. Giovanni, one of 
most repulsive of them, had for wife Fran- 
cesca da Polenta, daughter of Guido the elder, 
lord of Ravenna. She became the mistress 
her brother-in-law Paolo, though he was 
30 married, and Giovanni killed his wife and 
>rother with the same sword (1289). Dante, in 
Inferno, gives a thrilling narrative of this 
ragic end of Francesca and Paolo da Rimini, 
nd the story is a favorite theme of poets and 
ists. Malatestino was succeeded by his broth- 
Pandolfo I., instead of by his son Ferrantino, 
le former being confirmed by the pope on ac- 
rant of his vigorous opposition to the Ghi- 
sllines. He was munificent, but disgraced 
lis reign by the murder of his nephew, the 
>unt of Ghiazzolo. On the death of Pan- 
)lfo in 1326, his nephew Ferrantino was in- 
lied as ruler. He served against the infidels 
Palestine, but after a conflict with one of 
is relatives he was expelled from Rimini by 
le pope in 1335, and died in 1353. Two sons 
Pandolfo, Malatesta II. (died in 1364) and 
Galeotto (died in 1385), became joint rulers 
after the expulsion of Ferrantino. They made 
3ace with the pope, and added to their do- 
linion Fano, Fossombrone, Pesaro, and some 
other possessions. Galeotto was succeeded 
by his sons Carlo (died in 1429) and Pan- 
dolfo III. (died in 1427). The former was 
lord of Rimini and a part of Romagna, sided 
with Pope Gregory XII. during the schism, 
and represented him at the council of Con- 
stance, after having commanded the Venetians 
against the emperor Sigismund. Subsequently, 
while aiding the Florentines to expel the Milan- 
ese, he was for some time imprisoned at Milan 
(1427). He was the best soldier and the most 
renowned ruler of the whole family. Pan- 
dolfo III., after having conquered Brescia and 
Bergamo, was driven in 1421 from the latter 
city by the duke of Milan. The most remark- 
able among their descendants was Sigismondo 
Pandolfo (died in 1468), who successively com- 
manded the Florentine, Neapolitan, Aragonese, 
Venetian, and Sienese armies, and conquered 
for Venice a portion of the Morea. He was 
excommunicated by the pope in 1462 for hav- 
ing made war upon the Roman see. He was a 
munificent patron of letters and art, and had 
laces built and libraries established in Rimini, 
first wife was a daughter of the marquis of 
ste, and his second of Francesco Sf orza. The 
last ruler of Rimini was Pandolfo IV., who in 
1503 was robbed of his patrimony by Cesare 
Borgia. After Borgia's death he returned to 
Rimini, but was expelled in 1526 by Pope 
Clement VII., and died in want at Ferrara. 

MALAY ARCHIPELAGO. See INDIAN ARCHI- 
PELAGO. 

MALAYO-POLYNESIAN RACES AND LANGUAGES. 
le Malayo-Polynesians are the light-complex- 
ioned, olive-colored, and straight-haired inhab- 
itants of the islands of the Indian and Pacific 
is, from the Andamans in the bay of Ben- 



gal in the west to Easter island on the east, and 
from Formosa and the Hawaiian islands in the 
north to New Zealand in the south. They oc- 
cupy also the Malay peninsula on the Asiatic 
continent, and partly also the island of Mada- 
gascar adjacent to the African coast. Ethno- 
logically and linguistically they form two great 
divisions, Malayans proper and Polynesians. 
The former chiefly occupy the western islands, 
and the latter the groups E. of the Philip- 
pines and Booro, subdivided into Micronesia, 
Melanesia, and Polynesia (in the narrower 
sense). The original inhabitants of all these 
islands were the Papuans, a dark race, with 
woolly hair growing in tufts. (See PAPUAN 
RACES AND LANGUAGES.) The Malayo-Poly- 
nesians came from the S. E. of Asia, occupied 
at first only the islands adjacent to it, and 
gradually extended their territory to the east, 
either extirpating the previous inhabitants, or 
driving them into the interior of the islands 
and taking possession of the coasts. Their 
relation to the Papuan population of these 
islands therefore is similar to that of the Ary- 
ans to the Dravidas of India. Some contend 
that Polynesia was the earliest home of these 
races, and that they came originally from the 
American continent, but the hypothesis seems 
untenable. Though the Malayo-Polynesian 
type and culture are purest and quite primi- 
tive in the eastern groups of islands, yet the 
character of their fauna and flora is exclusive- 
ly Asiatic, and the numerous historical tradi- 
tions current among the people record migra- 
tions only from the west. These traditions, 
together with the fact that many of the names 
of the islands of Polynesia proper are varia- 
tions of those belonging to the Tonga and Sa- 
moa groups, point to the latter as the common 
source of the population of the former. On 
Tonga and Samoa there are traditions that the 
paradise and cradle of the Polynesians is the 
island called Bulotu or Purotu, which is proba- 
bly Booro, E. of Celebes. From the great simi- 
larities existing among the languages and cus- 
toms of the various Polynesian races, it is in- 
ferred that the migrations from Tonga and Sa- 
moa do not date back to very remote periods. 
The circumstance that the traditions leap from 
Booro at once to Tonga, leaving the whole of 
Melanesia entirely untouched, renders it prob- 
able that the Polynesians on their departure 
from Booro made no large settlements on 
any of the islands between Papua and the Sa- 
moan archipelago, and that the few who chose 
to establish themselves on them accordingly 
became largely intermixed with Papuan ele- 
ments. Of a similar impure type are the Mi- 
cronesian Polynesians. The separation of the 
Polynesians from the Malayans and their emi- 
gration from Booro may be fixed at about 1000 
B. C., as the literature of the latter was de- 
veloped before our era, and shows even then 
a strong mixture of Old Indie or Sanskrit ele- 
ments, which cannot be found in the speech of 
the former. The Polynesian languages, there- 



56 



MALAYO-POLYNESIAN RACES AND LANGUAGES 



fore, are considered to represent the primitive 
forms of speech. To the western or Malayan 
li\iMon of the Malayo-Polynesian races be- 
long the Tagalas or Bisayas (inhabitants of the 
Philippines), the Malays of Malacca, the Achee- 
nese of Sumatra, the Sundanese, the Javanese, 
the inhabitants of Bali and Madura, the Ba- 
taks of tlic interior of Sumatra, the population 
of Nias and Batoo islands, the Hovas of Mada- 
gascar, the Dyaks of Borneo, the Mankasars 
(Macassars) and the Bughis of Celebes, and the 
Alfooras of the Moluccas and the adjacent isl- 
ands. To the eastern or Polynesian division 
belong the Polynesians proper, the Melane- 
sians, and Micronesians. The Polynesian race 
embraces the inhabitants of the Samoa group 
or Navigator's islands, the population of the 
Tonga group or Friendly islands, the Maoris 
of New Zealand, the Tahitians, the inhabitants 
of the Rarotonga group or Cook's islands, the 
people of the Tubuai group or Austral islands, 
of the Low archipelago or Touamotou islands, 
of the Marquesas islands, of the Hawaiian or 
Sandwich islands, and of numerous isolated 
islands in the Pacific ocean. The most east- 
ern island inhabited by Polynesians is Vaihu or 
Easter island, and the most western Tikopia 
or Tukopia. To Micronesia belong the islands 
E.- of the Philippines to Ion. 180, and from 
the Marianas or Ladrones in the north to the 
equator in the south. The population of the 
Marianas or Ladrones is in part extinct, and 
many groups of the Carolines are also unin- 
habited. The people of the Gilbert archipela- 
go form the transition from the Micronesians 
to the Polynesians. The Melanesians embrace 
the inhabitants of the Feejee islands, of New 
Caledonia, of the New Hebrides, and of sev- 
eral of the islands extending thence to Papua, 
whose ethnological character has not yet been 
definitely established. The physical constitu- 
tion of the Malayo-Polynesians (excepting the 
Melanesians, who present a strong Papuan 
type) presents three fundamental forms, gen- 
erally designated as the Malayan, Batak, and 
Polynesian. The pure Malayan type is com- 
monly found among the Malays proper, Rejangs, 
Acheenese, Javanese, Madurese, and Tagalas. 
They are generally 4J or 5 ft. high ; the skull 
is equally long and broad ; the back of the head 
is short and square ; the cheek bones protrude ; 
the jaw bone is broad and prominent ; the nose 
Hat; the nostrils broad and large; the eyelids 
not as large as those of the Mediterranean races 
nor as narrow as those of the Mongolians; the 
eyes are black, but not brilliant; the mouth 
with thick lips, but not puffed up ; the 
I copper-brown with a tint of yellow 
H scarcely any beard, and the hair is 
itraight, coarse, and black with a touch of 
brown ; the loins and calves are thin and weak. 
The women are shorter than the men: their 
breasts are small, pointed, and firm, and their 
bosoms little developed and often quite flat. 
The Batak type is represented by the Bataks, 
.abitunts of Nias, Batoo, and Bali the 



Bughis, and the Mankasars and Alfooras. The 
body is taller, larger, and more muscular, the 
skull and face more oval, and the back of the 
head rounder ; the cheek bones are less prom- 
inent and the jaw not quite so broad ; the nose 
is rather pointed and straight, and depressed 
at the root ; the mouth is smaller and better 
proportioned ; the skin is light brown, and the 
cheeks show a tinge of red ; the hair is straight 
but thinner, and with a clearer shade of brown ; 
the breasts of the women are larger and hemi- 
spherical, and the bosom is fuller and higher. 
The Polynesians are of a still higher stature, 
and their bodies are generally well propor- 
tioned and athletic ; the women, however, are 
rather short and stout, with breasts like those 
of the Malays; the skin is several shades 
darker, especially in the furthest north and 
south, while the population of the equatorial 
islands is the lightest of all; the eyes are 
small, black, and not very vivid ; the hair is 
straight, coarse, black with a tinge of blue, and 
a little inclined to curl, the use of coral chalk 
giving it sometimes a reddish or flaxen color ; 
the growth of beard is little developed. The 
principal trait of the character of the Malayo- 
Polynesians is undoubtedly taciturnity and re- 
serve, which is softened only in case of ad- 
mixture with Papuan blood ; they dislike to be 
approached very closely, and they lay great 
stress on keeping within the bounds of deport- 
ment which custom prescribes for the various 
classes of society ; there is therefore an abun- 
dance of ceremonial laws among the peoples 
of the west, and of tabu laws among those of 
the east. They are possessed also of an almost 
incredible degree of savagery and bloodthirsti- 
ness. They are the cannibals par eminence, 
not through want of food but through the pe- 
culiar hardness of their character. Cannibal- 
ism is practised not only among the inhabitants 
of the South sea islands, but even among sev- 
eral of the half civilized races of the west, 
such as the Bataks of Sumatra, who have pro- 
duced a written literature, and who have can- 
nibal fites in certain cases even prescribed 
by law. They are generally good and fearless 
seamen, and readily undertake long journeys 
in boats apparently very unsafe. They possess 
good powers of observation, and are inclined to 
adopt the ideas of foreigners, and also to imi- 
tate their customs. The sentiments of family 
ties and obligations are but little developed. 
Infanticide is of frequent occurrence ; old, fee- 
ble, and sick persons are badly treated and some- 
times killed ; prostitution is prevalent, and pa- 
rents exercise but little authority. Love of 
gain, however, is the strongest passion among 
them, and lying, stealing, murder, and all man- 
ner of crimes are unscrupulously employed 
whenever they offer a chance of profit. The 
hope of plunder is their principal cause of 
war, and piracy is in the Indian archipelago 
considered to be an honorable and chivalric 
occupation. They are brave, but do not hesi- 
tate to poison their weapons and to play cow- 



MALAYO-POLYNESIAN RACES AND LANGUAGES 



57 




!y tricks on their enemies. They are easily 
excited to religious emotions, and their rich 
store of legends testifies to the vivacity of their 
imagination. The Javanese are the most cul- 
tured among them, and evince capacity for a 
jh degree of intellectual development. (For 
e peculiar customs of the various races, see 
e articles descriptive of their habitats.) 
LANGUAGES. The Malayo-Polynesian languages 
form an independent group, unconnected with 
other. They are derivatives of an extinct 
mitive form of speech, which suffered three 
four dialectical variations before it had 
ined its complete development. They do 
possess the same grammatical structure 
roughout, but only agree more or less in the 
tern of sounds, the general form of the ver- 
roots, and the main principles of grammar, 
degree of development the Polynesian lan- 
guages stand lowest; the Micronesian and Me- 
lanesian are a step higher ; and the Malayan, 
and especially the Tagala languages, occupy the 
highest rank. The known languages of the 
eastern or Polynesian division are the idiom 
of the Marianas or Ladrones, which forms the 
connecting link with the Malayan languages ; 
the languages of the Feejee, Annatom, Erro- 
mango, Tanna, Malikolo, Mare, Lifoo, Baladea 
(New Caledonia), Bauro, and Guadalcanal* isl- 
ands, which are all more or less closely related ; 
and the Maori, the language of New Zealand, 
with its kindred languages of the Tonga, Raro- 
tonga, Tahiti, Hawaiian, and Marquesas islands. 
Of the western or Malayan division, there are 
known in the Philippines the Tagala of the 
south of Luzon, the Pampanga of the south- 
west, the Ilocana and Bicol of the southeast, the 
Ybanag of the province of Cagayan, the Bisaya 
spoken on several islands south of Luzon, and 
the Zebuana on Cebu and the adjacent islands. 
Closely related to them are the languages of 
Formosa, of which the Favorlang and Sideia 
dialects are best known. Three dialects are 
known of the Malagasy, or language of Mada- 
gascar, viz. : the Ankova dialect, spoken by 
the Hovas in the interior of the island, the 
Betsimisaraka dialect of the east, and the Saka- 
lava dialect of the west. The Malay language 
proper, which is in extent and in regard to its 
literature the first among the whole group, is 
spoken on the Malay peninsula and the adja- 
cent islands, and on the coasts of Sumatra. 
Two dialects may be distinguished in it, the 
Malacca and the Menankabow or Padang. Be- 
sides these dialects, a literary or choice lan- 
guage is employed by the Malays. Several au- 
thors divide the various modes of speech ac- 
cording to castes : bahdsa ddlam, the language 
of the court ; bahdsa bansdvan, that of the edu- 
cated classes ; bahdsa ddgah, that of merchants 
and traders ; and the bahdsa Tcatiikan, that of 
the common people. The Malay language pos- 
sesses a large and varied literature, the begin- 
nings of which date back to the 13th century 
A. D., and which is especially rich in poetical 
works, legendary narratives, Mohammedan the- 



ology, jurisprudence, chronicles, travels, and 
various paraphrases of Indie epics. Besides 
the Malay proper, there are several minor lan- 
guages spoken on Sumatra, as the Batak in the 
interior of the northern portion of the island, 
and the languages of the Rejang and the Lam- 
pong in the south. Javanese is spoken on Java 
and several adjacent islands, and stands in 
importance next to Malay, but its literature 
reaches back to the 1st century of our era. 
(See JAVA, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF.) ' 
Closely related to Javanese is the Sunda lan- 
guage, spoken on the western portion of Java. 
Of the languages in Borneo, that of the Dyaks 
is well known; according to the missionary 
Hardeland, it has four dialects. The Dyaks 
have not produced a written literature, but 
they possess a number of ancient songs com- 
posed in a peculiar and only partly intelligible 
language, which they call basa sanian or the 
language of the good beings, i. e., the spirits 
of their ancestors. The Bughis and Mankasar 
(Macassar) languages, spoken in Celebes, have 
also been investigated. The statement above 
made that these languages form an isolated 
family of speech is in accordance with the la- 
test researches of Friedrich Miiller, on whose 
elaborate treatise on the Malayo-Polynesian 
languages in the Eeise der osterreichischen Fre- 
gatte Novara, : Linguistischer Theil (Vienna, 
1867), and excellent ethnological account of the 
races in his Allgemeine Ethnographic (Vienna, 
1873), this article is based. Bopp, in the Ab~ 
handlungen der Berliner Akademie (1840), is 
not of the same opinion. He holds the Malayo- 
Polynesian languages to be a branch of the 
Aryan or Indo-European family, and direct 
descendants of the Indie group. He drew his 
conclusion from the fact that the Malay and 
Javanese languages contain a large amount of 
Sanskrit elements, which however do not be- 
long to the original stock, and were gradual- 
ly incorporated, as both history and the ab- 
sence of Indie forms in the Polynesian lan- 
guages amply testify. Max Miiller has taken 
still another view of the relation which these 
languages hold to other families of speech. 
In Bunsen's " Christianity and Mankind " he 
attempts to establish that the Malayo-Polyne- 
sian languages form a member of the great 
so-called Turanian family, and that they are 
especially closely related to the Tai languages. 
He says : " A language which shares so many 
grammatical principles in common with Khamti 
and Siamese, and differs from Sanskrit on every 
essential point of grammar, can no longer be 
counted as a degraded member of the Aryan 
family, however great the authority of him who 
first endeavored to link Sanskrit and Malay to- 
gether." Friedrich Miiller has a satisfactory 
argument in the above cited work to show that 
the seeming similarities of several grammatical 
forms in the Tai and Malayo-Polynesian lan- 
guages do not warrant us in considering the lat- 
ter a derivative group of the former. Numbers 
constitute one of the highest linguistic tests of 



M MAYO-POLYNESIAN RACES AND LANGUAGES 



58 

relationship, nncl the following table of the 
first ten cardinal numbers in the most im- 
portant of the Malayo-Polynesian languages 



shows at once the close connection existing 
among them, and their isolation from other 
families : 



InB P.KST TEX OARD, SA , NUMBEE9 l THE HXLATO-FOLTNESL.K IANOOAOES. 



_____ 


lUUy. 




Javan.. 




Sundanete. 


Mankaaru 


Dyak. 


Tagala. 


BUaya. 


Ilocana. 





(-ituor sa 


Bft 


Ba or sidi 


8l 


ijaja 


isa 

ilahui 


usa 
duha 


meysa 
dua 


Two 


duva 


rd 


dua or duva 


ruva 






tolo 


tal 




Uga 


tigl 


tilu 


tallu 






upat 




FoDB 


impat 


papat 


opat 


appa 


apat 




lima 




FIVE 


lima 


lima 


lima 


lima 










gu 


IBM 


iK-iK-m 


genap 


annon 


d,ahaven 




pito 


pit6 


BETEX 


tudoh 


pltu 


tud,uh 


tud,u 


udu 


UQU 


ualo 


oalo 


E[01IT 


delApan 


rulu 


dalapan 


sagantugu 


haga 








JflHB 


scmbilan 


sanl 


salapah 


salapan 


d,alatien 








T* 


Mpftloh 


sapuluh 


sapuluh 


sampulo 


sapulu 











MArimneM. 


MmUgiuy. 


Samoa. 


Tongfc 


Maori. 


Rarotonga. 


Tahitian. 


Hawaiian. 


Feejee. 


Oit 


ynkha 


isa or iray 


tasi 


taha 


lahi 


tai 


tahi 


tahi 


dua 


Two 


vu-'ua 


roa 


lua 


ua 


rua 


rua 


rua 


lua 




THREE 


tulo 


telo 


tola 


tola 


toru 


torn 


toru 


kolu 




FOCE .... 


fafat 


6fatra 


fa 


fa 


va 


a 


ha 


ha 




Fiv 


lima 


dimy 


lima 


nima 


rima 


rima 


rima 


lima 




BIX 


punun 


enina 


ono 


ono 


ono 


ono 


ono 


ono 




BEVEJC 


fit! 


fito 


fltu 


fltu 


vitu 


itu 


hitu 


hiku 


vitu 


EIGHT 


piialo 


valo 


valu 


valu 


valu 


varu 


varu 


varu 


valu 


NIKE. 


Bium 


sivy 


iva 


hiva 


iva 


iva 


iva 


iva 


civa 


TEH 


manot 


folo 


sefula 


honofulu 


nahura 


nauru 


ahuru 


unii 


tini 



We shall state only the principal features of 
the two groups. The Polynesian languages 
possess the consonantal sounds fc, n, A, ', , n, , 
I, r, p, ro,/, w, v, and the vowels a, e, i, o, u, 
both short and long. In several of the lan- 
guages some of these consonants are absent, 
and diphthongs are entirely unknown. Sylla- 
bles may begin with a consonant, but must end 
with a vowel; accumulations of consonantal 
sounds are carefully avoided. The accent rests 
generally on the penult, and seldom on the 
antepenult or the ultimate. Roots, like those 
of the Aryan and Turanian families, are not 
found ; there are only a sort of verbal stems, 
which in their external verbal movement re- 
semble those of the Semitic languages, but con- 
sist throughout of two syllables. The various 
derivatives are formed from these either by 
means of reduplication, or by prefixes or suf- 
fixes. Distinctions of number like those in 
the inflected languages are wanting. Nouns 
designate thoughts or objects in a peculiar 
vague manner, implying rather plurality than 
pinirK-ness, and require the introduction of cer- 
tain .-lenients into the sentence to render more 
definite their use in the singular number. Some 
of these elements represent the numeral one, 
and others have the force of demonstration. 
When it is .U-irc-d to render the plural number 
more distinct and definite, the noun is coupled 
t-itlu-r with a mnnTir;il expre^ion or with some 
iii'l'-tinite pronominul stnn. A number of par- 
are used to designate nominative, geni 
ti\v. dative, accusative. instnuiK-ntal, locative 
social, abessive, and ablative cases. As nouns 



do not possess grammatical gender and do not 
admit of inflection, adjectives also remain en- 
tirely unchanged, and are used attributively by 
placing them behind, and predicatively by pla- 
cing them before their nouns. The dual and plu- 
ral of pronouns are indicated by composition 
with the numbers two and three, and possess an 
exclusive and inclusive form, according as the 
person addressed is excluded or included. The 
Polynesian verb is extremely indefinite. Ex- 
ternally indistinguishable from the noun, it is 
recognized as a verb only by its position in the 
sentence and its connection with the pronoun. 
The essentials of time and voice remain vague ; 
even whether an action or a state of being is 
designated must be inferred from the introduc- 
tion of certain affirmative particles. The Ma- 
layan languages employ the consonants k, g, ii, 
h, \ b & & V, *, d , n , *' I, r, p, 6, i, /, , and 
the vowel sounds a, <?, a, , , e, e, o, , *, w, e, o 
(see WRITING) ; genuine dipththongs are un- 
known. This system of sounds does not in- 
clude the foreign elements found in Malay and 
Javanese. The Tagala languages have no pal- 
atals; Javanese makes use also of cerebrals, 
and Bughis of nasals. Malayan syllables al- 
ways open with a single consonant, and the pe- 
nult is always accented, causing a lengthening 
of the vowel. Instead of roots, the Malayan 
languages possess only stems or variations of 
roots, which were originally dissyllabic, though 
probably after having passed through trisyl- 
labic forms developed from monosyllables. 
Words of a single syllable now used are un- 
mistakably contractions of dissyllables. Re- 



MALAY PENINSULA 



59 



duplication, prefixing, suffixing, and infixing 
are the processes of word-building. While the 
Polynesian languages employ certain forms of 
words as nouns and verbs without any special 
changes and additions, the Malayan lan- 
is attempt to distinguish the parts of 
jh independently of their position in a 

itence. A noun not specially qualified des- 

lates the sum of all the persons or objects 
Jf which it is the name, or has always the force 

an indefinite plural. The numeral one, or a 
demonstrative or possessive pronoun, added to 
it, reduces a noun to the singular number. The 
definite plural is formed either by reduplica- 
tion, as in Malay rdda, king, rada-rdda, kings, 
or by the addition of plural expressions, many, 
mltitudes, &c. The cases are indicated by 
>refixing prepositions. Adjectives remain in- 
rariable; comparison also is made by exter- 
aids. Besides the usual pronominal forms, 

is customary, especially in Malay and Java- 
nese, to employ servile and ceremonious ex- 
pressions for the first and second persons. 
The force of a verb is indicated by prefixes, its 
relation to the object by suffixes ; and though 
the Malayan verb differs somewhat from a 
noun, yet it may take the place of the latter by 
being merely placed in conjunction with parti- 
cles used to modify nouns. In Malay the pres- 
ent tense is determined by Idgi, still ; the pre- 
terite by sudah or telah, done, passed ; and the 
future by hendalc or mdu, to will, nanti, to ex- 
)ect, or akan, to, in order to. See, besides the 
works of Friedrich Miiller above cited, Ellis, 
"Polynesian Researches" (London, 1829); 
Yvan, " Six Months under the Malays " (Lon- 
don, 1855) ; Turner, " Nineteen Years in Poly- 
nesia " (London, 1860) ; Waitz, Anfhropologie 
der Naturwlker, continued by Gerland (Leip- 
sic, 18 60-' 6 9) ; Cameron, " Our Tropical Pos- 
sessions in Malayan India" (London, 1865); 
West, " Ten Years in South Central Polynesia " 
(London, 1865) ; Wallace, " The Malay Archi- 
pelago " (London, 1869) ; Semper, Die Philip- 
pinen und ihre Bewohner (Wiirzburg, 1869) ; 
and Perty, Anihropologie (Leipsic, 1873-'4). 

MALAY PENINSULA, the name given by ge- 
ographers to the long and narrow tract which 

ejects southward from Indo- China, and 
)rms the southern extremity of the Asiatic 
continent, bounded E. by the China sea and 
the gulf of Siam, and W. by the bay of Bengal 
and the straits of Malacca. It is sometimes 
called by the Malays Tana Malay u, "Malay 
Land," and is supposed to be the Golden Cher- 
sonesus of the ancients. It extends from the 
parallel of the head of the gulf of Siam, in lat. 
13 30' N., to Cape Burus on the southwest, 
about 80 m. from Singapore, in lat. 1 15' N., 
and to Cape Romania on the southeast, in lat. 
1 17' N. ; length about 900 m., greatest 
1th about 180 m. ; estimated area, exclu- 
sive of Tenasserim, about 80,000 sq. m. ; pop. 
conjectured to be about 500,000. The upper 

id narrower part of the peninsula has a 
population composed chiefly of Siamese, or a 



mixed race of Siamese and Malays called San- 
sam. The western half, N. of lat. 10, forms 
a part of the district of Tenasserim in British 
Burmah. The lower part, or the peninsula 
in the restricted sense, is the country of the 
Malays, and has an area of about 60,000 sq. m. 
Along the shores of the peninsula are many 
islands, of which the principal are Salang, Tru- 
tao, Lancava or Langkavi, and Penang on the 
W. side, Singapore, Batan, and Bingtang at 
the southern extremity, and Tantalem on the 
E. coast. The most important political divi- 
sion of the peninsula is the British Straits Set- 
tlements (Penang, Malacca, and Singapore), 
which, though small in area, have about half 
the population of the country. With the ex- 
ception of the portion included in Tenasserim, 
the N. part of the peninsula, as far S. as the 
bay of Chya on the E. coast, in about lat. 9 
N., is subject to the king of Siam. The Malay 
states are Quedah, Perak, and Salangore on the 
W. side; Patani, Kalantan, Tringanu, and Pa- 
hang on the E. side; Rumbowe, Jehole, and 
Jompol in the interior; and the principality 
of Johore, which comprises the southern ex- 
tremity of the peninsula. A few of these are 
dependent on Siam, several only nominally; 
but most of them are independent and under 
the protection of the British. A range of 
granite mountains runs through the whole 
length of the peninsula, on both sides of which 
spread alluvial plains, not much elevated above 
the sea. The maximum altitude of the range 
is attained E. of Quedah, between lat. 6 and 
7 N., where it is about 6,000 ft. Further N. 
the loftiest peaks are only about half this 
height. The most extensive of these plains are 
on the W. side of the mountains. The rivers 
are numerous but small, and few of them nav- 
igable except so far as the tide ascends them ; 
the largest are the Perak on the west and 
the Pahang on the east. The only lake of any 
considerable extent lies between Malacca and 
Pahang. The zoology of the peninsula is va- 
ried and extensive. There are ten species of 
monkeys, and an ant-eater. There are several 
species of bats, of which the most remarkable 
is the Tcalung or vampire, which is larger than 
a crow ; it flies high in great flocks, and is 
very destructive to fruit. The only planti- 
grade animal is a small bear (ursus Malayen- 
sis). There are eight species of the feline fam- 
ily, of which the largest are the tiger and the 
leopard, both very numerous and destructive 
to human life. The domestic cat has a tail 
about half as long as that of the European cat. 
The domestic dog exists as a vagrant without a 
master, and there are said to be wild dogs in 
the forests. The Indian elephant and two 
species of rhinoceros are met with. The Ma- 
lay tapir and the wild hog are abundant. The 
ox and the domesticated buffalo are used for 
riding and for draught. The domestic ox is 
small and short-legged, but strong and hardy ; 
and there are two species of wild ox, one of 
which, called by the Malays saladang, seems to 



60 



MALAY PENINSULA 



be pecnliar to the peninsula. There is a species 
of wild goat, and a small species of domestic 
goat Three species of deer are met with in the 
peninsula, one of which is the small muntjac. 
The sheep and the rabbit are not indigenous, 
but have been introduced by Europeans. Swine 
and fowls are very abundant. The most re- 
markable birds are the marak or wild peacock, 
the double-spurred peacock, a small and beau- 
tiful species, several species of pheasants, a 
partridge, snipe, sun birds, woodpeckers, the 
wild cock, and the domestic cock, the last a 
small but very courageous bird. The species of 
pigeons are very numerous, and some are no 
larger than a thrush ; the prevailing color is 
green. The parrot family is numerous, but is 
not remarkable for brilliancy of plumage. The 
swallow whose nest is eaten by the Chinese is 
found in the caves of the islands. The birds of 
prey consist of a variety of kites and hawks. 
Among the reptiles are the alligator, the iguana, 
several species of small lizards, and about 40 
species of snakes, of which three or four, among 
them the cobra, are venomous. Fish are very 
plentiful, and form the principal animal food 
of the mass of the people. The white pomf ret, 
called bawal by the Malays, is said to be one 
of the most delicate fishes in the world to 
the European palate. The only cetaceous ani- 
mal is the dugong. The neighboring seas af- 
ford a large and .beautiful variety of shells. 
The forests yield ebony, sapan, and eagle 
wood, and several species valuable for timber. 
Rattans, bamboos, and palms furnish most of 
the materials used by the Malays in construct- 
ing their houses. Rice, cocoanuts, yams, the 
sugar cane, and esculent fruits are the chief 
products of agriculture. The grain used on 
the peninsula is mostly imported from Sumatra 
and Bengal. Among the fruits, those most es- 
teemed are the durian and the mangosteen. 
The durian is an oval spine-covered fruit, of a 
green color and about as large as a cocoanut, 
while the mangosteen is reddish brown in color 
and spherical in shape. Pineapples are plenti- 
fully produced in great perfection. Caoutchouc 
and other valuable gums and resins, drugs, spi- 
ces, ivory, and horns are exported, and coffee, 
cotton, and tobacco are raised. The most re- 
markable and valuable product of the penin- 
sula, however, is the gutta percha tree, which 
was here first made known to Europeans. The 
tin mines in many parts of the country are ex- 
tensive; but they are imperfectly worked, and 
of late years, owing to the exhaustion of sur- 

J'.i. Ores, tlir |.r.)ill|i-t !i:t-.lr.-lillr(l. Si Mill- IT< !(! 

is produced. The climate of the peninsula is 
hot and moist. The mean annual temperature 
at the level of the sea is nearly 80, the mean 
range being from 70 to 90. There is no 
rainy season, but rain falls at short intervals 
throughout the year, and there are heavy dews 
find fiv(jiu-nt fogs. Generally the climate is 
ilii'jilthy, though there are some spots 
infected with a most pestiferous malaria. 
The native population of the peninsula, with 



MALBONE 

the exception of the northern portion and the 
black woolly-haired people known as the Se- 
mangs, who inhabit the interior, are of the 
Malay race, and speak the Malay language. 
Most of the Malays are settled and civilized, 
but others lead a nomad life on the land, 
the rivers, or the sea. The land nomads prac- 
tise a rude agriculture ; the river nomads live 
entirely in boats, and subsist on fish and wild 
roots. Their boats are about 20 ft. in length ; 
at one end is the fireplace, in the middle are 
their utensils, and at the stern is the sleep- 
ing place, where beneath a mat a family of 
five or six, together with a cat and dog, fre- 
quently find shelter. In these boats they skirt 
the shores of the rivers, collecting their food 
from the forests, and when one spot is ex- 
hausted proceed to another. These people are 
pagans, and are very ignorant and filthy in 
their mode of life. The sea rovers roam over 
the whole archipelago in their pralms or boats, 
and are genarally pirates. The civilized and 
settled Malays are Mohammedans, and their 
governments are despotic. The peninsula is 
supposed by some writers to have been the 
original seat of the Malay race. The civilized 
Malays all claim to be descended from emi- 
grants from Sumatra, who in the 12th century 
(about 1160) entered the peninsula at its S. E. 
extremity, where they founded Singapore, and 
gradually drove back the indigenous inhabi- 
tants into the mountains. At the close of the 
13th century the Malays, who had been pagans 
up to that time, adopted Mohammedanism, and 
from the year 1276 Mohammedan monarchs 
reigned at Malacca. In the 15th century a 
large part of the peninsula became subject to 
Siam. In 1511 Mohammed Shah, the Malayan 
sultan, was overthrown by the Portuguese un- 
der Albuquerque. At present the peninsula is 
much less populous than formerly, owing to 
foreign and intestine wars and the incursions 
of pirates. (For British possessions on the 
peninsula, see MALACCA, PENANG, SINGAPORE, 
and STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.) 

MALBONE, Edward G., an American portrait 
painter, born in Newport, R. I., in August, 1777, 
died in Savannah, Ga., May 7, 1807. When 
very young he painted a landscape scene for the 
Newport theatre, afterward employed himself 
in drawing heads in miniature, and at 17 years 
of age settled in Providence as a portrait 
painter. He removed in the spring of 1796 to 
Boston, where he was well received, and du- 
ring the next four years pursued his art with 
industry in various cities. In 1800 he accom- 
panied Washington Allston to Charleston, and 
in 1801 sailed, for Europe. Malbone remained 
a few months in London, where he was urged 
by Benjamin West, the president of the royal 
academy, to take up his permanent residence ; 
but he returned to Charleston in December. 
For several years he painted miniatures in the 
chief cities of the United States; and in 1806 
he visited the West Indies, hoping to regain 
his health, but in vain. His best picture is 



MALCOLM 



MALCZEWSKI 



61 



" The Hours," in which three female figures 
represent the Present, Past, and Future. 

MALCOLM, Sir John, a British diplomatist, born 
in Eskdale, Dumfriesshire, May 2, 1769, died 
in London, May 31, 1833. He was sent to In- 
ia at the age of 13, in the charge of his uncle, 
Paisley, and received a cadetship under the 
India company. In 1797 he was made 
)tain, distinguished himself in a series of im- 
rtant services by bravery and intelligence, 
id after the fall of Seringapatam was secre- 
to the commission appointed to divide 
Lysore. In 1799 he was commissioned by 
)rd Wellesley to negotiate with Persia a de- 
fensive alliance against an anticipated French 
ivasion of India. He had at this time ac- 
lired several eastern languages, and had been 
1792 staff interpreter of Persian. In 1801 
was appointed private secretary to the gov- 
or general, but was again sent to Persia in 
following year. In February, 1803, he 
commissioner of Mysore, and joined 
army of Gen. Arthur Wellesley in the 
[ahratta campaign. In 1805 he was recalled 
Bengal, where he was actively occupied in 
forming treaties of alliance with native princes. 
In 1808 he went again to Persia, but did not 
obtain the advantages hoped for by the British 
government. On returning thither the next 
year as plenipotentiary, owing to a change in 
the ministry, he was received in the most flat- 
tering manner, and on his departure in 1810 
was honored with the order of the sun and 
moon and made a khan and sepahdar of the 
empire. In 1812 he went to England, was 
knighted, and published a " History of Persia " 
(2 vols. 4to, 1815), the materials for which he 
had drawn from original Persian annals as well 
as extensive personal research and observation. 
On returning to India in 1817, he was appoint- 
ed political agent in the Deccan, with the rank 
of brigadier general in the army. He served 
tinder Sir T. Hislop as second in command 
during the Mahratta and Pindaree wars, and 
iially distinguished himself at the battle 
Mehidpoor, in which Holkar was routed. 
After this war he was appointed governor of 
Malwa and the adjoining provinces, with the 
ik of major general. The country was then 
a state of anarchy, brigandage and rapine 
sing generally prevalent; he succeeded in 
^storing order, and governed mildly but firm- 
An account of this part of India was pub- 
shed by him in 1823, under the title of "A 
[emoir of Central India," He was in England 
)m 1821 to 1827, when he was appointed 
>vernor of Bombay, which office he held for 
iree years, and then returned to England. He 
fas elected not long afterward to parliament 
for Launceston, and distinguished himself by 
Jtive opposition to the reform bill. A monu- 
mt was erected to his memory in Westmin- 
abbey, and also an obelisk 100 ft. high near 
igholm, in Eskdale. He also published a 
1 Sketch of the Political History of India from 
L784 to 1823 " (London, 1826), and a "Life of 



Lord Clive" (1836). See "Life and Corre- 
spondence of Sir John Malcolm," by John W. 
Kaye (2 vols., London, 1856). 

MALCOM, Howard, an American clergyman, 
born in Philadelphia, Jan. 19, 1799. He en- 
tered Dickinson college in 1813, was licensed 
to preach in May, 1818, by a Baptist church in 
Philadelphia, and entered Princeton theolo- 
gical seminary, where he remained two years. 
On finishing his studies he was settled over a 
church in Hudson, N. Y., and afterward in 
Boston and Philadelphia,. He was president 
of the college at Georgetown, Ky., from 1839 
to 1849, and of the university at Lewisburg, 
Pa., from 1851 to 1859, having been obliged by 
the failure of his voice to relinquish preaching. 
In both institutions he filled also the chair of 
metaphysics and moral philosophy. The dis- 
ease in the throat increasing, he retired to pri- 
vate life in Philadelphia. In 1841 he received 
the degree of D. D. simultaneously from the 
university of Vermont and Union college, N. 
Y., and after his resignation at Lewisburg was 
made LL. D. by that institution. He visited 
most of the countries of Europe, and travelled 
as a deputy from the Baptist missionary soci- 
ety in Hindostan, Burmah, Siam, China, and 
Africa. He was one of the founders of the 
American tract society, of which he was a vice 
president from the beginning. He was also 
one of the prominent laborers in establishing 
the American Sunday school union, having 
visited on its behalf, when first organized, 
every principal city in the United States. 
Among his works are: a "Dictionary of the 
Bible" (18mo, Boston, 1828; enlarged ed., 
1853); "The Extent of the Atonement;" 
"The Christian Eule of Marriage" (1830); 
" Memoir of Mrs. Malcom " (1833) ; " Travels 
in Southeastern Asia" (2 vols. 12mo, Boston, 
1839); and "Index to Eeligious Literature" 
(2d ed., Philadelphia, 1870). He has also pub- 
lished several addresses and other tracts, and 
edited the "Imitation of Christ," Law's "Se- 
rious Call," Keach's " Travels of True Godli- 
ness," Henry's " Communicant's Companion," 
and Butler's " Analogy of Religion." 

MALCZEWSKI, Antoiii. a Polish poet, born in 
Volhynia about 1792, died in Warsaw, May 2, 
1826. He served in the army from 1811 to 
1816, and afterward travelled in Italy, Switzer- 
land, and France. Having gone to Volhynia, 
he eloped to Warsaw with the young wife of 
one of his neighbors, whom he had cured of & 
dangerous illness by magnetism. Want and 
misery, however, soon embittered the life of 
the lovers, and hastened the death of the poet. 
His principal work, Marja (Warsaw, 1825), a 
metrical romance in the style and spirit of 
Byron, which appeared in the last year of his 
life, was severely criticised, but is now gener- 
ally recognized as one of the gems not only of 
Polish but of modern poetry. It has passed 
through numerous editions, and has been trans- 
lated into French by Clemence Robert, and into 
German by K. R. Vogel. 



62 



MALDEN 



MiLDEN, a town of Middlesex co., Massachu- 
setts, on a stream of the same name, navigable 
by vessels of 800 tons to within half a mile of 
the main village, and on the Boston and Maine 
railroad and tin- SUULMIS branch of the Eastern 
railroad, 5 in. N. of Boston ; pop. in 1870, 
7,867. It is connected with Charlestown by a 
bridge 2,420 ft. long. The manufacturing in- 
dustry of the town is extensive, the chief arti- 
cles produced being India-rubber boots and 
shoes, lasts, boot trees, enamelled leather, coach 
lace and tassels, and iron pipes. There are es- 
tuMi-hments for dyeing silks, cottons, &c., and 
staining glass. The town contains a national 
bank, a laving! bank, good public schools, two 
weekly newspapers, and eight churches. 

MALDIVES, or Maltdiva Islands, a chain of 
small coral islands in the Indian ocean, about 
460 m. W. of Ceylon, extending in a straight 
line from lat. 7 6' N. to 40' S., between 
Ion. 72 48' and 78 48' E. The length of the 
chain is about 650 m., and its breadth about 
60 m. The number of islands is commonly 
stated by the natives at 12,000, but is supposed 
to be in reality nearly 50,000. Their aggregate 
area is about 2,600 sq. m. The great majority 
of them are mere rocks or sand banks, and 
only the larger islands are inhabited. They 
are divided into 17 atolls or circular groups, 
each atoll being enclosed by a coral reef, gen- 
erally about 90 m. in circumference. These 
reefs have channels through them navigable by 
the boats of the natives ; and though the sea 
beats with great violence on the outside, the 
water within the reefs is calm and generally 
shallow. There are deep channels between the 
atolls, four of which have been examined by 
European vessels and found navigable by the 
largest ships. The principal island is Male, in 
lat. 4 10' N., Ion. 73 40' E. It is 7 m. in cir- 
cumference, and contains 2,000 inhabitants. It 
is the residence of the sovereign, who bears 
the title of sultan of the Twelve Thousand Isles, 
and who acknowledges some degree of depen- 
dence on the British government of Ceylon, 
to which he annually sends an embassy with 
tribute, and receives presents in return. The 
population of the whole cluster is estimated at 
from 150,000 to 200,000. The highest land in 
the islands is only 20 ft. above the sea. Each 
island is circular in form, and has a lagoon in 
the centre. The soil is sandy, and at the depth 
ft. a layer of sandstone is found. The 
inhabited islands are richly wooded with palms, 
fig trees, citron trees, and breadfruit trees. 
They produce abundance of millet, and of a 
similar small grain called brinby, of both which 

e inhabitants reap two harvests in the year. 
They also gather various roots, which, with 
nee imported from Hindostan, and fish and 
cocoanuts. constitute their food. The climate 
-Hv.lv h,,t, though the nights are cool 
and the earth is refreshed by heavy dews 
The islands are unhealthy fur Europeans. 
ma April to October is the rainy season, 
during which the westerly winds are boisterous. 



MALDIVES 

In the dry season, from October to April, the 
winds are easterly. The islands breed prodi- 
gious numbers of wild ducks, pigeons, and other 
wild fowl, which are much used for food, and 
sold very cheap. There are no large quadru- 
peds except a few sheep and cows. Cats, pole- 
cats, and ferrets are found, and rats are very 
numerous and troublesome. There is a poison- 
ous species of water snake, and the mosquitoes 
are said to be larger and fiercer than in any 
other part of the East Indies. The Maldivians 
are strict Mohammedans. They are handsome, 
well made, and generally of an olive complex- 
ion, though some have much fairer complexions 
than others, which is probably attributable to 
their descent from Persian or Arab stock, while 
the majority of the population are obviously of 
Hindoo origin. The people are ingenious and 
industrious, and have attained to some degree 
of civilization. They clothe themselves in silk 
or cotton robes, and are cleanly in their habits, 
both sexes bathing regularly once a day. The 
men shave their heads, but allow their beards 
to grow. The women allow the hair to grow 
long, and fasten it up behind. They are not 
kept secluded as in other Mohammedan coun- 
tries, but enjoy a tolerable degree of liberty. 
The Koran is the supreme law, but there are 
various peculiar local laws and usages. An in- 
solvent debtor becomes the servant of the cred- 
itor until the debt is worked out. The ordinary 
punishment for criminals is whipping, which is 
sometimes inflicted so severely as to produce 
death. Frequently criminals are punished by 
banishment to the southern islands. The peo- 
ple learn to read and write Arabic as well 
as their own native language, and they have 
schools in which the mathematics and naviga- 
tion are taught. Polygamy to the extent of 
three wives is tolerated, and divorce is restricted 
only by the necessity of paying back the dowry 
received with the wife. The people are a quiet 
and pacific race, kind and hospitable to stran- 
gers, though distrustful of foreigners. They 
are friendly toward each other, and the ties 
of kindred are cherished with much affection. 
The internal commerce of the islands is con- 
siderable, for each atoll has its peculiar branch 
of industry ; in one the brewers reside, in 
another the goldsmiths; locksmiths, mat ma- 
kers, potters, turners, and joiners, each inhabit 
exclusively their respective atolls. This divi- 
sion of labor gives rise to a constant inter- 
course and interchange of commodities, car- 
ried on by means of boats, which are some- 
times absent for a year from their own islands. 
Every family, even the poorest, has a boat, and 
the rich keep several. The multitude of rocks 
and reefs is so great that this navigation is 
extremely difficult, and much property is lost 
by accidents at sea ; but the natives being uni- 
versally good swimmers, their lives are seldom 
endangered by these shipwrecks. There is 
some trade with the continent of India, carried 
on by native boats of about 30 tons burden, 
built of cocoanut trees. With these boats they 



MALEBRANCHE 



MALE FERN 



63 



make voyages to Calcutta, Ceylon, Sumatra, 
the Malabar coast, and other distant parts, 
carrying cocoanuts, coir, mats, cocoanut oil, 
tortoise shell, dried fish, and cowries, or small 
shells, which pass as coin over all India. In 
return they bring home gold and silver, rice, 
tobacco, cotton and silk goods, and European 
articles. The Maldives have been seldom vis- 
ited by Europeans. The Portuguese touched at 
Male in the 16th century. In the beginning of 
the 17th a French merchant vessel was wrecked 
upon them, and one of the survivors, Pyrard 
de Laval, remained there nearly five years, and 
wrote an account of the islands, which was 
published in Paris in 1679. 

MALEBRAXCHE, Nicolas, a French metaphysi- 
cian, born in Paris, Aug. 6, 1638, died there, 
Oct. 13, 1715. In his childhood he was feeble, 
and was educated at home with great care. 
Intended for the priesthood, he studied philoso- 
phy at the college of La Marche and theology 
at the Sorbonne, and in 1660 entered the con- 
gregation of the Oratory. But he wearied of 
theological and critical studies, and his phi- 
losophical vocation was determined by reading 
the Traite de Vhomme of Descartes, which he 
accidentally met with, and which impressed 
him so strongly that his perusal was more than 
once interrupted by palpitations of the heart. 
From that time (1664) he devoted himself to 
philosophy, renouncing all other sciences ex- 
cept mathematics, aiming thus to enlighten his 
mind without burdening his memory. After 
ten years he produced his principal work, De 
la recherche de la verite (Paris, 1674), which 
received numerous additions, and in its 6th 
edition (1712) extended to four volumes. It 
was translated into English by Richard Sault (2 
vols. 8vo, London, 1692-'4; 2d and 3d eds. 
by Thomas Taylor, fol., 1700 and 1720). In 
1677 he published Conversations metaphysiques 
et chretiennes, a discussion on the relation of 
philosophy to religion and Christian dogmas, 
which involved him in a long controversy with 
theologians and Cartesian metaphysicians, es- 
pecially with Arnauld and R6gis. In 1699 he 
was elected an honorary member of the acad- 
emy of sciences. Withering slowly away, 
till he was hardly more than a skeleton, he 
died "a tranquil spectator of his own long 
dissolution." His later more important publi- 
cations, partly philosophical and partly reli- 
gious, were the Traite de la nature et de la 
grace (1680) ; Meditations metaphysiques et 
chretiennes (1683); Traite de morale (1684); 
Entretiens sur la metaphysique et sur la re- 
ligion (1687); and Reponses de Malebranche 
d Arnauld (4 vols., 1709). A complete edi- 
tion of his works was published at Paris in 
1712, in 11 vols. The philosophical system 
of Malebranche begins with the admission of 

!the Cartesian doctrine that mind and matter 
are utterly opposed and mutually impermeable, 
the mind knowing nothing but its own states, 
i which it sees in self-consciousness. It is like 
one in the dark, who can perceive nothing but 
526 VOL. xi. 5 



himself. To this he added that we are able to 
see external objects in God, who is the light 
of our knowledge. He is the absolute sub- 
stance, in whom exist alike the persons who 
know and the ideas which they know. He is 
the home of the world of ideas, as space is the 
home of physical bodies ; and in him the mind 
knows objects other than itself. Malebranche 
recognized, with Descartes, three substances: 
the thinking, the extended, and the infinite 
substance, or the soul, matter, and God; but 
there is throughout his system a tendency to 
reduce them to one. In Descartes they describe 
excentric circles; in Malebranche they are 
concentric, including each other. Matter is 
grasped by the soul, and souls by the Deity ; 
ideas enter the mind, the mind itself existing 
in God. Thus he marks the transition from 
Descartes to Spinoza, recognizing a personal 
God, but with pantheistic forms of thought, 
tending to reduce spirit and matter to one ab- 
solute substance. His most important works 
are contained in the edition by De Genoude 
(Paris, 1837), and in an edition by Jules Simon 
(2 vols., Paris, 1853). La philosophic de Male- 
tranche^ by Olle'-Laprune, received a prize 
from the French academy in 1872. 

MALE FERN (aspidium Jilix-mas). Theo- 
phrastus and other ancient writers mention two 
kinds of fern, the male and female ; whether 
or not this was the fern referred to as the 
male, it retains the name in common as well 
as in botanical nomenclature. There are some- 
thing over a dozen aspidiums or shield ferns 
found in this country, some of which are very 
common, while a few, including the male fern, 
are exceedingly rare ; this, while one of the 




Male Fern. 

common ferns of Europe, has thus far been 
found here only at Lake Superior. It has a 
large scaly root stock, from which arise the 
handsome fronds in a circular tuft, 2 to 3 ft. 
high and of the outline shown in the engra- 
ving ; its elegant appearance makes it a desirable 






64 MALESHERBES 

plant for the outdoor fernery, but its chief in- 
terest lies in the use that has been made of the 
,-k in medicine. It was known to the 
ancients as an anthelmintic, but attention was 
called to it anew by the widow of a Swiss 
surgeon Mme. Nouffer, who had such great 
gnccess in expelling tapeworms that Louis 
XIV paid her 18,000 francs for her secret; it 
was found that her principal remedy was the 
root of the male fern, which was aided by pow- 
erful purges. The root stocks are collected 
when 3 to 6 in. long and dried, in which state 
they are kept in the shops ; the male fern 
roots, as they are called, contain about 10 per 
cent, of oily and resinous matters, upon which 
A orm-destroying properties depend ; the 
oil of male fern is an ethereal extract, and 
contains such constituents of the roots as are 
soluble in that menstruum. Like other agents 
for the destruction of tapeworms, it has had 
a varying reputation, some attributing its effi- 
cacy solely to the active cathartics used with 
it ; on the other hand, it is asserted that while 
it is effective against the unarmed tapeworm, 
common among the Swiss, it has much less or 
very little effect upon the armed tapeworm, the 
one most common in this country. The medi- 
cine appears to act as a poison upon the worm, 
which is then easily expelled. The dose of the 
powdered root is two or three drams, or of 
the oil half a dram, followed by castor oil. 

MALESHERBES, Chretien Gaillanme de Lamoi- 
pnon de, a French statesman, born in Paris, Dec. 
6, 1721, guillotined April 22, 1794. Of an illus- 
trious family, son of a chancellor of France, 
he was educated in the Jesuits' college, became 
counsellor of the parliament of Paris in 1744, 
succeeded his father in the presidency of the 
court of aids in 1750, and was at the same time 

vored the publication of the Encyclopedic and 
other works of its authors in defiance of the 
anathemas of the Sorbonne. He protested in 
1770 and 1771 against the imposition of new 
taxes and the abuses of lettres de cachet, for 
which he was banished from Paris. After the 
accession of Louis XVI. in 1774, he was called 
.into the ministry with Turgot, and the de- 
partment of Paris and the police of the king- 
dom was intrusted to him. His counsels were 
rejected, and he resigned in 1776 when Turgot 

! '.-missed. He passed the time until the 
revolution in travels in France, Holland, and 
Switzerland, and in the pursuits of literature, 
with the exception of a brief interval in 1787 

he was called into the ministry. When 
LMI'H XVI. was arraigned before the national 

ntion in 1792, Malesherbes obtained the 

rous honor of pleading his cause, and was 
the last to take leave of the condemned 
monarch. Kleven months afterward he was 
d with his family by the revolutionary 
tribunal, and condemned with them to the 
scaffold. Hi- Itiscourset remontrames (1779) 
nre valualil.- with reference to financial ques- 
tions, and hi- paper Sur la liberte de la presse 



MALHERBE 

(1809) is remarkable for its enlightened views. 
A monument was erected to his memory un- 
der the restoration. See Boissy d'Anglas, 
Essai sur la vie, les opinions et les ecrits de 
Malesherbes (2 vols., 1818), and Sainte-Beuve, 
Malesherbes, in Causeries du lundi, vol. ii. 

MALET. Claude Francois de, a French conspira- 
tor born in D61e, June 28, 1754, executed in 
Paris, Oct. 29, 1812. In 1799 he distinguished 
himself in the army during the passage of the 
Little 'St. Bernard, and was made brigadier 
general. He disapproved of the promotion of 
Bonaparte to the consulate, but apparently 
adhered to the empire, expressing in a letter 
to Napoleon a hope of its becoming beneficial 
to and not destructive of liberty. But Prince 
Eugene expelled him from his headquarters 
in Italy, on the charge of conspiring against 
the emperor, and he was imprisoned during 
ten months till May, 1808, and soon rearrest- 
ed. In prison he continued to plan conspira- 
cies with other opponents of Napoleon, espe- 
cially in 1809, after the defeat at Essling, but 
this attempt was abortive. The emperor or- 
dered him to be transferred from La Force to 
a regular state prison, but Fouch6 neglected to 
do so, and even permitted him in June, 1812, 
to remove to a private sanitary asylum. Here 
he met the Polignacs and Abbe Laf on, the prin- 
cipal Bourbon agents, while his wife, the cor- 
poral Rateau, and others worked against Na- 
poleon in the interior of the country. Malet's 
plot was ripe in October, when he deemed the 
anxiety respecting the Russian campaign favor- 
able for its execution. In the night of Oct. 
23-24, when the disastrous retreat from Mos- 
cow became known, he announced to the gar- 
rison of Paris the death of Napoleon, and at 
first met with some success, with the aid of 
his confederates, and by promising rewards to 
those who would join him. He shot dead the 
recalcitrant Gen. Hullin, commander of the 
first division, but was disarmed by two officers, 
who disclosed the deception which had been 
practised, and the populace responded with 
the cry, Vive Vempereur. The whole plot fell 
to the ground, and Malet was sentenced to 
death. His wife was arrested ; and as she sub- 
sequently received a pension, and her son an 
appointment, from Louis XVIII., it was sup- 
posed that Malet had conspired in the interest 
of the Bourbons, but it is generally believed 
that he was a sincere republican. 

MALHERBE, Francois de, a French poet, born 
in Caen in 1555, died in Paris, Oct. 16, 1628. 
While young he studied at Heidelberg and 
Basel, and afterward bore arms in the wars of 
the league. He acquired some reputation in 
1600 by an ode on the arrival in France of 
Maria de' Medici. In 1605, having gone to 
Paris on business, Henry IV. sent for him, 
praised his talents, and provided him with the 
means of remaining at court. After the death 
of Henry IV. his widow, Maria de' Medici, set- 
tled on Malherbe a pension of 500 crowns, " in 
! gratitude for the ode addressed to her." He 



MALIBRAN 



MALLET 



65 



was noted for his avarice, his pretended con- 
tempt of poets, his fondness for female soci- 
ety, his wit, and his dilettantism in language. 
He wrote for the most part light lyrics, odes, 
stanzas, epigrams, sonnets, and a few devo- 
tional pieces. The latest edition of his works 
is that of M. L. Lalanne (4 vols., Paris, 1865). 
MALIBRAN, Maria Felicia, a Spanish singer, 
horn in Paris, March 24, 1808, died in Man- 
chester, England, Sept. 23, 1836. She was the 
eldest daughter of the singer and instructor 
Manuel Garcia, hy whom she was taken when 
nine years old to England, where she remained 
for a number of years. Her father instructed 
her in singing, and by her 17th year she had 
acquired so great a facility that on June 7, 
1825, she was enabled to make her debut in 
London as Rosina in the Barbiere di Semglia, 
on the occasion of the sudden departure of 
Mme. Pasta, who was to have undertaken the 
part. She sang with success in other operas 
and at private and public concerts in London, 
Manchester, and Liverpool, during the same 
season, giving promise of great future emi- 
nence; and in the autumn of 1825 she accom- 
panied her father to the United States as prima 
donna of an opera company of which he had 
assumed the direction. She appeared in New 
York, Nov. 29, in the part of Rosina, the oc- 
casion being memorable in musical annals as 
that which witnessed the introduction of the 
Italian opera into the United States. Her re- 
ception was enthusiastic, and she appeared 
successively in a number of parts, each of 
which subsequently became a perfect creation 
in her hands. In the midst of her triumphs 
she was married, March 23, 1826, to Eugene 
Malibran, an elderly French merchant of New 
York, reputed to be possessed of considerable 
wealth. He afterward failed, and Mme. Mali- 
bran, offended by the readiness with which her 
husband sought to retrieve his fortunes by her 
professional labors, surrendered to his creditors 
the property settled upon her as a marriage 
dower, and in September, 1827, returned alone 
to Europe. From Jan. 14, 1828, when she 
made her first appearance before a Parisian 
audience, until the close of her life, her career 
was prosperous and brilliant. She was accus- 
tomed to spend the winter in Paris and the 
spring and autumn in England and the larger 
continental cities ; and on two occasions she 
made professional tours to Naples, Milan, and 
other Italian cities. The French courts hav- 
ing in 1835 pronounced her marriage with M. 
Malibran void, she was married, March 29, 
1836, to De Beriot, the celebrated violinist. In 
April following she was injured by a fall from 
her horse ; but professing to make light of the 
matter, she appeared in opera in Brussels and 
at Aix-la-Chapelle during the summer. In 
September she went to the Manchester musi- 
cal festival, and, contrary to the advice of her 
physician, took part in the performances. A 
nervous fever set in, which soon proved fatal. 
Mme. Malibran was one of the first singers 



of the age, and her dramatic ability was scarce- 
ly less remarkable than her vocal. Her voice, 
a mezzo-soprano approaching a contralto, of 
great volume and purity, had been brought to 
almost absolute perfection by the severe train- 
ing of her father ; and in the variety and beau- 
ty of her vocal embellishments, as well as in 
the felicity and dramatic propriety with which 
she interpreted her music, she has rarely been 
equalled. Her range included some of the 
finest roles, both tragic and comic, in the ope- 
ras of Rossini, Bellini, and Mozart, including 
those of Rosina, Semiramide, Tancredi, Desde- 
mona, Romeo, Zerlina, Ninetta, Cenerentola, 
and Amina. She also sang with wonderful 
effect the sublime music of Handel's oratorios, 
and many choice selections from Gluck and 
others. Her personal qualities accorded with 
her lyrical genius, and few women have been 
more beloved for their amiability, generosity, 
and professional enthusiasm. Her benefac- 
tions amounted to such considerable sums 
that her friends were frequently obliged to 
interfere for the- purpose of regulating her 
finances. Her intellect was of a high order, 
and the charms of her conversation fascinated 
all who were admitted into the circle of her 
intimate friends. She was also an accom- 
plished linguist, speaking fluently and singing 
in the chief languages of Europe. She com- 
posed several songs, nocturnes, and romances, 
some of which have been published. A me- 
moir of her, by the countess of Merlin (2 vols.), 
appeared in England soon after her death, and 
was republished in the United States. 

MALINES. See MECHLIN. 

MALLARD. See DUCK. 

MALLET, Charles Aagnste, a French philoso- 
pher, born in Lille, Jan. 1, 1807. He studied 
at the normal school, and was professor in va- 
rious colleges of the interior till 1842, when 
he was called to the college St. Louis in Paris. 
From 1848 to 1850 he was inspector of the 
academy of Paris, and afterward rector of the 
academy of Rouen, retiring in 1852. His prin- 
cipal works are : Etudes pJiilosopMques (2 vols., 
Paris, 1837-'8 ; 2d ed., 1843) ; translation of 
Beattie's " Elements of Moral Science " (2 
vols., 1840) ; Histoire de la pTiilosophie ioni- 
enne (1842) ; Histoire jde Vecole de Megare et 
des eooles tfElis et d'Eretrie (1845) ; and Ele- 
ments de morale (1864). 

MALLET, David, a Scottish author, born at 
Crieff, Perthshire, about 1700, died in London, 
April 21, 1765. His original name was Mai- 
loch, which he changed to Mallet in 1726. He 
was educated at Aberdeen, and settled in Lon- 
don as a literary man. In 1733 he published a 
poem entitled "Verbal Criticism," which so 
pleased Pope that he introduced him to Boling- 
broke, who obtained for him the office of under 
secretary to Frederick, prince of Wales, with a 
salary of 200. From the Newcastle adminis- 
tration he got a pension, said to have been the 
reward of his attacks on Admiral Byng. His 
pen was always at the service oi those who 






66 



MALLET 



would pay for it, not sparing even his old f nend 
Pope, whom after his death, at the instiga- 
tion of Bolingbroko, he assailed in his preface 
to that nobleman's " Idea of a Patriot King. 
Bolingbroke made him his literary executor, 
and the duchess of Marlborough left by her 
will the sum of 1,000 to Glover and Mallet 
jointly, provided they drew up from the family 
papers a life of the great duke. Glover de- 
,1m, ,1, but Mallet accepted, and on pretence of 
being engaged upon the work received for the 
rest of his life a pension from the second duke. 
On his death, however, it was found that he had 
never written a line of it. A collection of Mal- 
let's works was published by himself (3 vols., 
1750). A new edition of his songs and ballads, 
by Frederick Dinsdale, appeared in 1857. 

" MALLET, Paul Henri, a Swiss historian, born 
in Geneva, Aug. 20, 1730, died there, Feb. 8, 
1807. After completing his education he went 
to Copenhagen, where he was appointed regius 
professor of belles-lettres in 1752. He em- 
ployed his leisure in studying the language, 
history, and archaeology of the ancient Scandi- 
navians, and wrote his Introduction d Vhistoire 
de Danemarlc (Copenhagen, 1755-'6). In 1760 
Mallet returned to Geneva, and filled the chair 
of history in the college of that city for four 
years. The most important of his works, be- 
sides that above named, are : Histoire de Dane- 
mark (3 vols. 4to, Copenhagen, 1758-'77); 
Memoires sur la literature du nord (6 vols. 8vo, 
Copenhagen, 1769-'60); Histoire des Suisses 
(4 vols. 8vo, Geneva, 1808) ; and Histoire de la 
ligue Hanseatique (Geneva, 1805). His Intro- 
duction d Vhittoire de DanemarTc was trans- 
lated into English by Bishop Percy, under the 
title of "Mallet's Northern Antiquities" (2 
vols. 8vo, London, 1770 ; new ed., by I. A. 
Blackwell, 1 vol. 12mo, 1847). 

MALLOW, a common name for plants of the 
genus maha (from Gr. /zaAdatretv, to soften, in 
allusion to their softening and emollient prop- 
erties). The genus, as at present restricted, 
includes about 16 species, none of which are 
indigenous to this country, though several of 
them are more or less extensively naturalized ; 
it is the type of the natural order mahacece, 
which comprises many kindred genera dis- 
tinguishable mainly in the structural differ- 
ences of the fruit, but all agreeing in hav- 
ing their stamens united into a tube by their 
filaments, and in having one-celled anthers; 
about 700 species are known, distributed among 
69 genera. It is remarkable that none of the 
order possess any unwholesome qualities, while 
all abound in mucilage. The wild or high 
mallow (M. tyhestris) is a handsome biennial, 
with :IM i-rcct stem and kidney-shaped leaves 
having five to seven deeply crenate lobes ; the 
flowers are large, of a purple or a rosy color, 
the calyx hairy, the carpels wrinkled. It 
grows on waste places and roadsides in Eu- 
rope, and is an introduced and naturalized 
weed in the older portions of this count rv. 
For fomentations and poultices, its properties 



MALLOW 

are not inferior in value to those of tlie marsh 
mallow (see ALTH^A), and decoctions of its 
eaves have been used in dysentery and urinary 
troubles. This is the mauve of the French, who 
use the dried flowers in preparing a tisane, or 
diet drink, which is in great repute with them ; 




"Wild Mallow (Malva sylvestris). 

the name mauve is also applied to a dye re- 
sembling the flowers of this plant in tint. ^ By 
far the most common with us is the familiar 
weed known as common or dwarf mallow (M. 
rotundifolia), so abundant by the wayside, m 
rich shaded dooryards, and cultivated grounds 
generally. Its stems are prostrate, spreading, 
and spring from a long, deeply buried root ; its 
leaves are round-heart-shaped, somewhat lobed 
and crenate on their edges ; the flowers small, 
whitish, with purplish veins. The plant is 
much prized by children, who in play seek its 
flat and circular mucilaginous fruits under 
the name of "cheeses." The musk mallow 
(M. moschata) is a low perennial, sometimes 
cultivated in gardens, from which it has to 
some extent escaped, and is occasionally found 
naturalized along waysides ; it has handsome, 
deeply cut leaves, diffusing a pleasant, musky 
fragrance, and large rose-colored or white 
flowers. The curled mallow (M. crispa) is 
likewise seen in old gardens, conspicuous for 
its large, strong, tall stem, and rich, deep green, 
singularly curled foliage, the beauty of which 
supplies the defect of its flowers, which are 
rather inconspicuous. The hollyhock mallow 
(M. Alcea), a European perennial species about 
3 ft. high, with palmately five-cleft leaves and 
rosy-purple flowers 2 in. across, is cultivated 
and has become naturalized in some parts of 
Pennsylvania. The American species formerly 
placed in malva are mostly now in the genus 
malvastrum. There are many very showy 
flowers belonging to the order malvacece, such 
as those of Lavatera, malope, abutilon, and sida, 
prized in border and greenhouse cultivation. 




MALMAISON 

MALMAISON, La, a village of France, in the 
department of Seine-et-Oise, about 7 m. W. of 
the enceinte of Paris, noted for a palace which 
became celebrated through Josephine, the first 
wife of Napoleon I. The Norman pirates com- 
mitted ravages in this vicinity in the 9th cen- 
tury, and the locality was thence called mala 
mansio ("evil spot"). In the 17th century it 
was owned by Christophe Perrot, councillor of 
the parliament of Paris, styling himself lord of 
Malmaison. Afterward it had various propri- 
etors; and from Mme. Harenc, who received 
here many literary and scientific notabilities, it 
passed into the possession of M. Le Couteulx, 
who in 1798 sold the domain to Josephine for 
160,000 francs. She made it a brilliant centre 
of fashionable and intellectual society, enlarg- 
ing and embellishing the grounds after the 
model of Marie Antoinette's Trianon, furnish- 
ing it with a good library, and adding many 
fine pictures and other works of art to the 
collections. The chateau itself, however, re- 
tained a rather unseemly appearance. Bona- 
parte often resided here previous to his removal 
to St. Cloud, and Malmaison preserved great 
prestige until the establishment of the empire 
in 1804. After her divorce (Dec. 16, 1809) Jose- 
phine kept up here the semblance of a court, 
and she was frequently visited by Napoleon, 
who also spent several days here with Hortense 
after the battle of Waterloo. The emperor 
Alexander, as well as the king of Prussia and 
his son, visited Josephine at Malmaison, on the 
first occupation, of Paris. After her death here 
(May 29, 1814) the property reverted to her son, 
Eugene de Beauharnais. The Swedish banker 
Haguerman purchased it in 1826, reducing the 
grounds to their original small dimensions. 
He sold it in 1842 to the dowager queen Maria 
Christina of Spain for 500,000 francs, and she 
resold it in 1861 for 1,500,000 francs to Napo- 
leon III., who had it restored. Among the 
works which he collected here are Isabey's 
painting of "Bonaparte at La Malmaison," 
Hortense's portrait of herself, and a portrait 
of Josephine. The room which Napoleon used 
to occupy contains the bed on which he died 
at St. Helena. 

MAUIESBIRY, a parliamentary borough of 
Wiltshire, England, on the Avon, which is here 
crossed by six bridges, 82 m. W. of London ; 
pop. in 1871, 6,880. Formerly the manufacture 
of woollen cloth was the chief branch of indus- 
try, but it has given way to wool-stapling. 
The parish church is a portion of a famous old 
Saxon nunnery, and contains a tomb reputed 
to be that of King Athelstane. The town is 
the birthplace of the philosopher Hobbes. 

MALMESBCRY. I. James Harris, first earl of, 
an English diplomatist, born in Salisbury, April 
21, 1746, died in London, Nov. 20, 1820. He 
was the eldest son of James Harris, secretary 
and comptroller to Queen Charlotte, and author 
of "Hermes," studied at Oxford and Leyden, 
and was appointed in 1767 secretary of lega- 
tion at Madrid. He was for four years Eng- 



MALMO 



67 



lish ambassador in Berlin, and from 1777 to 
1784 in St. Petersburg. In the house of com- 
mons he was the follower of Fox, after whose 
withdrawal from the cabinet he received from 
Pitt the appointment of ambassador at the 
Hague, and in September, 1788, was raised to 
the peerage as Baron Malmesbury, having been 
knighted in 1780. In 1793 he joined the party 
of Pitt, who again appointed him to a mission 
to Berlin. In 1794 he negotiated the marriage 
between the prince of Wales and Caroline of 
Brunswick, and accompanied the bride to Eng- 
land. In 1796 and 1797 he was employed in 
fruitless negotiations for peace with the French 
republic. Becoming deaf, he spent the rest of 
his life in retirement. In 1800 he was created 
Viscount Fitz-Harris and earl of Malmesbury. 
II. James Howard Harris, third earl of, grand- 
son of the preceding, born in London, March 
25, 1807. He studied at Eton and at Oxford, 
where he graduated in 1828. He was returned 
to the house of commons for the family bor- 
ough of Wilton in June, 1841, and in Sep- 
tember succeeded his father in the house of 
lords. He was secretary of state for foreign 
affairs in the Derby administration from March 
to December, 1852; and being a personal 
friend of Louis Napoleon, he was among the 
first to urge the recognition of the second em- 
pire. He was reappointed foreign secretary 
in March, 1858, but resigned in April, 1859. 
He was lord keeper of the privy seal from 
1866 to the end of 1868, when he retired on 
account of failing health. Besides editing the 
" Diaries and Correspondence " of his grand- 
father (4 vols., London, 1844), he has published 
" The First Lord Malmesbury, his Family and 
Friends : a Series of Letters from 1745 to 
1820 " (2 vols., 1870). 

MALMESBURY, William of, an English histo- 
rian, born in Somersetshire about 1095, died at 
Malmesbury about 1143. He was destined for 
the church, and early entered the monastery 
of Malmesbury, of which he became librarian. 
Several of his numerous works were published 
by Sir Henry Savile in 1596, in his Scriptores 
post Bedam. His " History of the Kings of 
England " and " Modern History " (De Gestis 
JRegum and Histories Novellce), the former 
translated by the Kev. John Sharpe (London, 
1815), were reprinted in 1847 in Bohn's "An- 
tiquarian Library." 

MALMO (Swedish, MalmoJius). I. A Ian or 
province of Sweden, bordering on Christian- 
stad, the Baltic, and the Sound; area, 1,852 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1873, 322,175. It is one of 
the most fertile portions of Sweden, rears the 
best horses and cattle, and produces excellent 
cheese and great quantities of grain. It con- 
tains several lakes, of which the largest is 
Lake Ring. II. A city, capital of the Ian, 
on the Sound, 16 m. S. E. of Copenhagen; 
pop. in 1873, 27,485. It consists of the town 
proper and two suburbs, Oster and Wester 
Warn, connected with it by a canal. The streets 
are spacious, and the market place is planted 



MALMSEY 



MALTA 



with trees. The former fortifications have 
nvorted into promenades. The ancient 
c.i<tK' of M;ilrn<> is used for barracks, and for a 
and penitentiary. Two churches, the 
old town hall, and the theatre are among the 
conspicuous buildings. There are a gymna- 
sium and schools of technology and naviga- 
tion. Among the charitable institutions is a 
richly endowed lunatic asylum. Steamboats, 
railways, and especially the improvement of 
the harbor, have greatly promoted the mari- 
time and commercial importance of Malmo. 
About 5,000 vessels enter and leave the port 
annually. The principal export is grain. 

MALMSEY* See GREECE, WINES OF. 

M \l.o\K. Edmond, an Irish Shakespearian 
scholar, born in Dublin, Oct. 4, 1741, died in 
London, May 25, 1812. He graduated at 
Trinity college, Dublin, and was called to the 
bar in 1767; but having inherited a consider- 
able fortune, he removed to London, devoting 
himself to literary pursuits. In 1780 he pub- 
lished two supplementary volumes to Stee- 
vens's edition of Shakespeare, and in 1790 his 
own edition of the great dramatist appeared in 
11 vols. 8vo. In 1796 he exposed the Shakes- 
pearian forgeries of Samuel Ireland. At his 
death he left a greatly improved edition of his 
Shakespeare, which was published in 1821, un- 
der the supervision of James Boswell, in 21 vols. 
8vo. He edited " The Prose Works of John 
Dryden, with a Memoir ;" " The Works of Wil- 
liam Gerald Hamilton, with a Sketch of his 
Life ;" " The Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds," 
and other works. See "Life of Edmond 
Malone," by Sir James Prior (London, 1860). 

MALPIGHI, Mareello, an Italian anatomist, 
born near Bologna in 1628, died in Rome, Nov. 
29, 1694. In 1656 he was appointed by Fer- 
dinand II. of Tuscany professor of medicine at 
Pisa, where he made the acquaintance of the 
celebrated mathematician Borelli, who first 
convinced him of the propriety of applying 
experimental researches to the elucidation of 
physical science. Ill health, however, soon 
compelled his return to Bologna, where he 
continued to practise as a physician till 1662, 
when he was called to a professorship at Mes- 
sina. In 1691 he was invited to Rome by In- 
XII.. who appointed him his chief 
physician and chamberlain. His reputation is 
mainly duo to the fact that he was the first to 
?mploy the simple microscope, then recently 
.vented, in investigating the anatomical struc- 

e of plants and animals, and particularly 

jipnn his discovery by this means of the capil- 

ary circulation of the blood from the arteries 

e veins. Harvey had already in 1628 de- 

utrated the circulation of the blood as a 
le; that is to say, the return of the blood 

";' bad passed out from the heart by the 
* b * gain to the heart by the veins. 

mode in which the blood passed through 

the substance of the tissues, from the arteries 

t i- reins, was however still unknown ; and 

) doubt it was partly this fact which prevent- 



ed the ready acceptance of Harvey's doctrine 
by the anatomists of the time. But in 1G61 
Malpighi saw with the microscope the circula- 
tion of the blood through the capillaries in the 
frog's lung, and afterward in the mesentery ; 
thus demonstrating its passage by minute ca- 
nals from the arteries to the veins, and supply- 
ing the only deficiency which had existed in 
Harvey's discovery. His name has been per- 
petuated in that of several anatomical textures 
discovered and described by him, viz. : the rete 
Malpighianum of the epidermis, the Malpi- 
ghian bodies of the spleen, and the Malpighian 
tufts of the kidney. His principal works are : 
Observationes Anatomicce de Pulmonibus (fol., 
Bologna, 1661); De Viscerum.Structura Exer- 
citationes Anatomicce (1666; many times re- 
printed and translated into French) ; Disser- 
tatio Epistolica de Formatione Pulli in Ovo 
(London, 1673) ; Dissertatio Epistolica de Bom- 
lyce (London, 1669) ; De Pulmonum Sulstan- 
tia et Motu (Leyden, 1672) ; Anatome Planta- 
rum (London, 1675-'9) ; and Epistola de Glan- 
dulis Conglolatis (London, 1689). The only 
complete collective edition of his works was 
published at Venice in 1743. 

MALPLAQFET, a village of France, in the de- 
partment of Le Nord, 10 m. S. by W. of the 
Belgian town of Mons, celebrated for a battle 
between the allied forces under Marlborough 
and Prince Eugene, and the French under 
Marshal Villars, Sept. 11, 1709. The battle 
commenced at 8 o'clock in the morning, the 
principal attack of the allies being directed 
upon the enemy's left, where Villars himself 
held command. The French at first repelled 
their assailants, but Villars having become 
disabled by a wound, the allies succeeded in 
forcing the position ; and the French, in spite 
of desperate efforts by the new commander, 
Bouflers, and the chevalier St. George, son of 
James II., eventually succumbed, though they 
effected their retreat in good order. In this 
battle, the bloodiest in the war of the Span- 
ish succession, the allies, who brought into the 
field 80,000 men and 140 guns, lost in killed 
and wounded more than 20,000 men; the 
French, who numbered 70,000 men with 80 
guns, lost more than half that number; but 
some accounts place the loss on both sides as 
high as 42,000. During the battle Marlbor- 
ough exposed himself to frequent perils, and 
the report of his death, which was at one 
time prevalent in the French ranks, gave rise 
to the once popular military refrain: Mal- 
firook 8*en t>a fen guerre, which was repro- 
duced from a song of the 16th century on the 
death of the duke of Guise. 

MALT. See BREWING. 

MALTA (anc. Melita\ a British possession in 
the Mediterranean, including the islands of 
Malta, Gozo, and Comino, and the uninhabit- 
ed islets of Cominotto and Filfla, the entire 
group lying between lat. 35 43' and 36 5' ST. 
and Ion. 14 10' and 14 35' E., about 60 m. 
S. W. of the southernmost point of Sicily, and 






MALTA 



69 



200 N. of Tripoli in Africa; area, about 145 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 143,799, exclusive of the 
. The area of Malta proper is about 
100 sq. m. ; pop. about 130,000. There are 
neither lakes nor rivers in the island, and no 
forests or brushwood ; and most of the surface 
is a calcareous rock exposed to the winds from 
the African deserts, and but thinly covered 
with an artificial soil, chiefly brought from 
Sicily. This is, however, by careful cultiva- 
tion made to yield abundant crops of cotton, 
grains, beans, and grass, and excellent fruits, 
of which the orange, olive, and fig are re- 
nowned. In summer the heat is excessive day 
and night. The sirocco prevails especially in 
autumn, and there is little land or sea breeze. 
But in winter the climate is delightful. The 
atmosphere is so clear that at all times of the 
year the summit of Mt. Etna may be distinctly 
seen during the rising or setting of the sun, al- 
though at a distance of 130 m. The E. portion 
of the island contains all the towns and villages, 
and is separated by a ridge from the TV. part, 
which, although less densely settled, is well cul- 
tivated, and abounds with the wild thyme and 
other odoriferous plants, attracting bees, which 
furnish excellent honey. There are about 25,- 
000 head of live stock, including about 6,000 
cattle. Cotton is the staple product, and gives 
rise to an extensive manufacture of cotton 
goods. The cabinet work of Malta enjoys a 
high reputation. Soap, leather, macaroni, and 
iron bedsteads are manufactured to some ex- 
tent. The goldsmiths are noted for their ele- 
gant workmanship, and the Maltese artisans 
are generally able and intelligent. They are 
excellent seamen, and their services are in 
great demand in the Mediterranean. But the 
bulk of the people are either employed in ag- 
ricultural labor or in stone cutting. The isl- 
and of Gozo or Gozzo, about 9 m. long and 
5 m. broad, lies N. TV. of Malta, and is separa- 
ted from it by a channel 3 m. wide. It is sur- 
rounded by a belt of rocks and shoals, with 
openings leading to several small harbors. The 
interior is very rocky and hilly, with a thin 
soil, which however is very fertile. Grain and 
fruit are raised in abundance ; but the most im- 
portant crop is cotton, much of which is spun 
on the island. There are salt works at Port 
Maggiore, on the S. side, and an alabaster quar- 
ry in the northwest. The highest point of land 
is near the centre of the island, and is crowned 
with the fort of Rabato. The principal town 
is Rabato (pop. about 2,000), and there are 
several villages. The island contains a great 
natural curiosity called the Giant's Tower, and 
several Roman monuments. Comino, about 
2 m. long and 1^ m. broad, lies in the channel 
between Malta and Gozo. The surface is very 
hilly and the coast deeply indented. The 
principal settlement is Santa Maria. The Mal- 
tese are derived from an Arabic stock ; it is 
probable, however, that the Arab conquerors 
have been mixed up with the previous Punic 
population. Greek is supposed to have been 



in ancient times the medium of conversation 
of the higher classes, as English is at the pres- 
ent day. The present common language is the 
lingua franca, a patois of the Arabic, mixed 
with Italian and other languages. The com- 
plexion of the Maltese is almost as dark as that 
of the natives of Barbary. The dress of the 
working classes is a short loose waistcoat, 
covering a cotton shirt, short loose trousers, 
woollen caps in winter and straw hats in sum- 
mer, and a kind of sandals resembling those 
of the ancient Eomans. The women are of 
dark complexion, and are small, delicate, and 
generally graceful, and wear in the streets a 
black veil (faldetta). The dress consists most- 
ly of a cotton shift, blue striped petticoat, a 
corset with sleeves, and a loose jacket cover- 
ing the whole. Drunkenness is almost un- 
known, and the people, although coarser in 
their appearance, are less vindictive and im- 
pulsive than other races of southern Europe. 
They are fond of poetry, especially in the rural 
districts, where the taste for improvisation 
prevails extensively. In music they prefer 
noisy instruments, as the tambourine, mando- 
line, and particularly the bagpipe, which ac- 
company the national dances. They marry at 
an early age. Many of them seek employment 
in the Levant, where they are however exceed- 
ingly unpopular on account of their crafty and 
treacherous nature, and they are generally em- 
ployed only in the meanest labors. The fami- 
lies ennobled by the knights of Malta have 
dwindled down to a small number ; and the 
few which remain are not very affluent. The 
national religion is Roman Catholic, under the 
direction of a bishop and more than 1,000 
priests, the church property being considerable. 
The number of Protestants is about 5,000, 
whose places of worship consist only of a few 
chapels. Education is promoted by the uni- 
versity of Valetta, colleges at Citta Vecchia 
and several other places, and about 50 public 
and 100 private schools. The value of im- 
ports paying duty in 1871 was $37,400,000 ; 
of exports, $37,500,000. The number of 
steamers arrived in 1871 was 1,737, tonnage 
1,466,000; of sailing vessels arrived, 2,954, 
tonnage 519,000; total number of vessels, 
4,691, tonnage 1,985,000. The direct trade 
with the United States is inconsiderable, but 
a large number of American vessels are en- 
gaged in the trade of foreign countries with 
Malta. A new government grading dock, ca- 
pable of receiving the largest men-of-war, has 
been recently opened, and new submarine 
telegraphs have been laid connecting Malta 
with Algiers and Alexandria. The hydrau- 
lic lift dock, completed in 1873, is of great 
benefit to commerce, especially to the steamers 
of the India route, as by means of it vessels 
can be repaired without discharging their 
cargo. The revenue in 1870 was 158,630 ; 
expenditures, 171,788 ; public debt, 79,202. 
Malta is a crown colony, the local govern- 
ment being conducted by a governor who is 



70 MALTA 

at the same time coramander-in-chief, assisfr- 
K-jrMutive matters by a council of 1 
-M, of whom 10 are official and 8 elec- 
[fa British troops and their families 
ember, 1872, numbered 6,752 persons. 
The duties of the native regiment, called the 
fencibles, are exclusively local, and their 
maintenance is defrayed out of the revenues 
of the Elands. The central position, military 
:h. and excellent harbor, one of the most 
comm.Mlious and convenient in the Mediter- 
n, render the possession of Malta of great 
importance to Britain, and make it very ad- 
vantageous for the accommodation and repair 
of the men-of-war and merchant ships fre- 
quenting the Mediterranean. The storehouses 
or caricatori for grain are excavated in the 
rock, making Malta an excellent centre of the 
corn trade between the Mediterranean and 
Black seas. Besides Valetta and Cittd Vec- 
chia, and a few other towns, Malta possesses 
about 40 casals or hamlets, chiefly remarkable 
for their picturesque churches. The former 
capital of Malta was Citta Vecchia. , The pres- 
ent capital, Valetta, is one of the best forti- 
fied places in the world, and serves as a station 
for the Mediterranean fleet. The ancient Me- 
lita was important as a commercial centre 
among the nations of antiquity, and it was 
occupied probably at a very early period by 
a Phoenician colony. Afterward it became a 
Carthaginian settlement. At a later period it 
appears to have been in a measure Hellenized, 
though there is no historical evidence of its 
having been in the possession of the Greeks. 
In 257 B. C. it was ravaged by a Roman fleet 
under Atilius Regulus ; and surrendering to the 
Romans at the beginning of the second Punic 
war, it was annexed to the province of Sicily. 
It became notorious as a resort of the Cili- 
cian pirates, but was in a flourishing condi- 
tion in the days of Cicero, who during periods 
of disturbance entertained the project of reti- 
ring thither. The Maltese cotton fabrics (vestis 
Melitentu) were in great demand in Rome, and 
\vere probably manufactured from the 
cotton which still forms the principal product 
of the island. In sacred history Malta is cele- 
brated as the supposed scene of the shipwreck 
Paul on his voyage to Italy (A. D. 60) ; 
though according to some critics Melita (now 
o in the Adriatic, on the coast of Dal- 
matia, was more probably the island visited 
by the apostle. After the fall of the Roman 
empire the island was for some time in the 
possession of the Vandals, but was taken from 
th.-Ni by Belisarius (583), and was subject to 
the Byzantine empire until the latter part of 
the 9th century, when it was conquered by the 
Arabs. It was wrested from them at the close 
llth century by Count Roger, the Nor- 
nnncror of Sicily, and it was united with 
Si.-ily until the early part of the 16th century, 
when (Mi;irl s V. took possession of that coun- 
try and of Malta as heir of Aragon. Under 
iperor the knights of Malta (see SAINT 



MALTE-BRUN 

JOHN, KNIGHTS OF) became its sovereigns, and 
aeld it till 1798, when the French expedition 
r o Egypt under Napoleon seized the island. 
After the battle of the Nile the inhabitants rose 
in insurrection and compelled the French to 
shut themselves up in the fortress of Valetta. 
They were subjected to a stringent blockade 
until Sept. 5, 1800, when, reduced by famine, 
they surrendered to the English, who had come 
bo the assistance of the Maltese. The island 
has since remained under British rule. 

MALTE-BRUN. I. A Danish geographer, whose 
actual name was MALTHE CONRAD BRUTTN, born 
at Thisted in Jutland, Aug. 12, 1775, died in 
Paris, Dec. 14, 1826. He studied in Copen- 
hagen, devoting himself especially to literature 
and politics. He embraced republican prin- 
dples, and in 1795 published a pamphlet en- 
itled "Catechism of the Aristocrats," for 
which he was prosecuted by the government 
and obliged to take refuge in Sweden. A 
poem on the death of Bernstorff which he 
published during his exile procured for him 
permission to return to Denmark. But another 
pamphlet against the aristocracy subjected 
him to a new prosecution, and he left his 
country, and finally took up his residence in 
Paris. In December, 1800, the Danish courts 
pronounced sentence of perpetual banishment 
against him, which was rescinded about the 
time of his death. In Paris he wrote largely 
for various journals, and in 1806 became one 
of the principal writers for the Journal des 
Debate. He at first opposed the consular gov- 
ernment, but subsequently became a zealous 
imperialist, and after the fall of Napoleon an 
equally zealous monarchist, publishing in 1824 
Traite de la legitimite consideree comme base 
du droit public de V Europe chretienne. In 
the mean time he devoted himself especially to 
geographical studies, and in 1803, in conjunc- 
tion with Mentelle and Herbin, commenced the 
publication of OeograpJiie mathematique, phy- 
sique et politique, which was completed in 
1807, comprising 16 volumes. In 1808 lie es- 
tablished the periodical Annales des Voyages, 
which was discontinued in 1814, and resumed 
in 1819, with the collaboration of Eyries, under 
the title, Nouvelles Annales des Voyages, and is 
still issued under charge of his son. He was 
one of the founders of the geographical society, 
of which he became secretary. He wrote a 
number of miscellaneous works, among which 
is a posthumous collection, Melanges scienti- 
fiques et litteraires (3 vols., 1828). His most 
important work is Precis de geograpliie uni- 
verselle (8 vols., 1810-'29, the last two volumes 
being by Huot). This has been several times re- 
published, the last edition by Lavall6e (6 vols., 
1856-'7). It was translated into English, and 
an edition published at Boston, with notes and 
additions by James G. Percival (3 vols. 4to, 
1828-'32), and one at Philadelphia (5 vols. 
8vo, with atlas, 1832-7). II. Victor Adolphe, a 
French geographer, son of the preceding, born 
in Paris in 1816. After having been profes- 



MALTHA 



MALTHUS 



71 



of history in several colleges, he devoted 
himself especially to geographical studies. He 
is secretary of the geographical society, and 
principal editor of the Nouvelles Annales des 

Voyages, and has published numerous works re- 
lating to geography. Among these are : Jeunes 
wyageurs en France (1840) ; Destinee de Sir 
John Franklin devoilee (1860) ; Nouvelles ac- 
quisitions des Busses dans VAsie orientale 
(1861); Les Etats-Unis et le Mexique (1862) ; 

Coup d'ceil sur le Yucatan, and Sonora et ses 
mines (1864); Canal interoceanique du Da- 
rien (1865) ; Histoire de Marcoussis (1867) ; 
and Histoire geograpMque et statistique de 
VAllemagne (4to, 1866-'8). He has also issued 
a revised edition of his father's geography (8 
vols., 1852-'5), and, in conjunction with others, 
France illustree (3 vols., 1855-'7). 

MALTHA (Gr. fidWa, soft wax ; also denoting 
a mixture of wax and pitch, used for the sur- 
face of writing tablets, and for some kinds of 
cement). Pliny describes under this name an 
inflammable mud flowing from a pool at Samo- 
sata, on the Euphrates, which he says was simi- 
lar in nature to naphtha ; and this use of the 
word has led to its later application to viscid 
bitumens. It is the proper name for mineral 
tar, or all bitumens having the consistence of 
tar, and holding water and air in mechanical 
admixture in consequence of their viscidity. It 
occurs on the surface of the ground and issuing 
from springs, often accompanied by water, in 
various parts of the world, but most frequently 
in localities noted for the production of petro- 
leum, for which substance maltha is frequently 
mistaken. It appears to be a product of the 
partial oxidation or decomposition of certain 
unstable varieties of petroleum, and doubtless 
in 'all cases has a common origin with it (see 
PETROLEUM), as it passes by insensible degrees 
into petroleum on the one hand and asphal- 
tum on the other. It is found in this country 
throughout the length of California, in Texas, 
and at various places in the southwest, on both 
flanks of the Rocky mountains, and in Alaska. 
Among foreign localities may be mentioned 
Enniskillen in Canada, the islands of Barba- 
does and Trinidad, many localities in South 
America, some of the islands of the Grecian 
archipelago, and the Caucasus. In California, 
where there are immense quantities of this 
material, it occurs in every variety of density, 
from 0-94 to 1. In consistence it varies from 
that of a thin sirup to that of soft mortar. It 
issues there from a stratum of shale of consid- 
erable thickness which occurs in the miocene 
sandstones of the Coast range. It oozes from 
springs upon hillsides, over which it trickles ; 
it accompanies water in pools, and flows upon 
the surface of streams. It has been obtained 
from artesian borings at a depth of more than 
450 ft. of the consistence of tar, and at a depth 
of 117 ft. so tenacious as to prevent the drill 
from penetrating further. In a few localities 
in this region the maltha is mixed with sand, 
the mixture forming strata or beds of great 



extent. At Enniskillen the maltha forms what 
are known as " gum beds." Barbadoes tar was 
long an article of commerce, used in medicine 
as a liniment. The California malthas have 
been used to some extent as a crude material 
for the manufacture of kerosene; but they 
have not been found to possess much value for 
this purpose when treated in the same appara- 
tus as is used for petroleum ; when it is distilled 
under pressure, or " cracked," a better result 
is obtained both as regards yield and quality. 
Little is known regarding the chemical consti- 
tution of maltha; but it is without doubt a 
mixture of hydrocarbons more dense than those 
found in petroleum. Some specimens contain 
nitrogen, as is proved by the fact that maggots 
are developed in immense numbers in pools of 
this substance. It is also possible that oxygen 
is a constituent of some varieties. While this 
substance is widely distributed and occurs in 
vast quantities in some localities, it is at present 
very much less valuable than petroleum. It 
is readily distinguished from it by its greater 
viscidity and its tendency to froth when heated, 
the froth often occupying 20 times the bulk of 
the maltha at the temperature of boiling water. 
MALTHUS, Thomas Robert, an English political 
economist, born at Albury, Surrey, in 1766, 
died in Bath, Dec. 29, 1834. His father was a 
gentleman of fortune, interested in classical 
and philosophical studies, and so intimate a 
friend of Rousseau that he was appointed one 
of his executors ; and David Hume was like- 
wise among his friends. In 1784 he was ad- 
mitted to Jesus college, Cambridge, and became 
one of the first classical scholars. He received 
his master's degree and a fellowship in 1797, 
entered holy orders, and divided his time be- 
tween the care of a small parish in Surrey and 
his studies in Cambridge. In 1798 he published 
anonymously the first edition of his work on 
population, which was subsequently much en- 
larged and modified. The title of the sixth and 
last revision (1826) is : "An Essay on the Prin- 
ciple of Population, or a View of its past and 
present Effects on Human Happiness, with an 
Inquiry into our Prospects respecting the future 
Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it oc- 
casions." His object at first was to refute the 
theories of Condorcet and Godwin on human 
perfectibility and political optimism, by show- 
ing the necessary sufferings of the poor from the 
tendency of population to increase faster than 
the means of subsistence. The condition of the 
poor became the prominent feature of the sub- 
sequent editions. In 1799 he visited Sweden, 
Norway, Finland, and Russia, collecting, facts 
and documents in illustration of his subject; 
and during the interval of peace in 1802 he 
explored France and Switzerland. He married 
in 1805, and was appointed professor of history 
and political economy in the East India college 
at Haileybury, which post he held till his death. 
His other principal writings are: "Observa- 
tions on the Effects of the Corn Laws " (3d ed., 
1815) ; " An Inquiry into the Nature and Pro- 



7J MALTITZ 

gress of Rent " (1815) ; " Principles of Political 
Economy" (1820); and "Definitions in Polit- 
ic:.! Kconomy" (1827). His reputation rests 
almost exclusively upon the views advanced in 
his work on population. He held that popu- 
lation, when unchecked, increases in a geomet- 
itio, while food can be made to increase 
at furthest only in an arithmetical ratio. Pow- 
erful checks on population must be constantly 
in action, which may be resolved into vice, 
miserv, and moral or prudential restraint. 

MALTITZ, ApoHonlns von, baron, a German 
author, born in Konigsberg in 1795, died in 
\\Vmiur, March 2, 1870. He was a brother 
of the poet Franz Friedrich von Maltitz (1794- 
1857), and like several of his relatives he 
was employed in the diplomatic service of 
Russia, representing that empire at Weimar 
from 1841 to 1805. He published novels, poe- 
try, dramas, tragedies, comedies, and an au- 
tobiography (1863). His best known tragedies 
ginia (1858), Anna BoUyn (I860), and 
Spartacus. Another distinguished poet of the 
same family was GOTTHILF AUGUST vox MAL- 
TITZ (1794-1837). 

MALTZAN, Hfinrleh Karl Eekardt Hellmnth, bar- 
on of Wartenburg and Penzlin, a German trav- 
eller, born in Dresden, Sept. 6, 1826, died in 
Pisa, Italy, Feb. 22, 1874. He studied at sev- 
eral German universities, made explorations 
in north Africa, Arabia, and other countries, 
and published Drei Jahre im Nordwesten von 
Afrika (4 vols., Leipsic, 1863 ; 2d ed., 1868) ; 
Wallfahrt nach MeTclca (2 vols., 1865); Seise 
a"/ Ar Intel Sardinien (1869); Sitteribilder 
aus Tunis und Algerien (1869) ; Reise in den 
Regentschaften Tunis und Tripolis (3 vols., 
1870) ; and Reise nach Sudarabien (Brunswick, 
1872). Jle was a high authority in Phoenician 
and old Egyptian archaeology, and in S. Ara- 
bian geography, ethnology, and philology. 

MALI'S, Etlfnne Lonls, a French engineer and 
physicist, born in Paris, June 23, 1775, died 
there, Feb. 23, 1812. He belonged to a dis- 
tinguished family, and his intellectual preco- 
city manifested itself while he was at school 
in the composition of an epic poem and of 
two tragedies. At the same time he was 
proficient in mathematics, and passed a bril- 
liant examination as a military engineer. In 
1793 he received the rank of sub-lieutenant, 
1'iit :IH the school of M6zieres which had con- 
f.-rn-d it was closed, he enlisted as a volun- 
teer, and exhibited so much talent while em- 




\\itli tin- LM-.-i'li- of sub-lieutenant; and next 
y,-:ir la- t-nt.-r.-il the army as captain. He 
dimngoiahed himself at the capture of Malta 
and of Jaffa, where he narrowly escaped losing 
btt life by the plague. He was among the 
earliest members of the Egyptian institute and 
in 17H9 he was made by Kleber chief of bat- 
tattoa. Shortly aft.-r his return from the East 
he married the .laughter of Chancellor Koch, 



MALVOISINE 

of the German university of Giessen, whose 
acquaintance he had made while formerly sta- 
tioned there. In 1804 he was commissioned 
by Napoleon to draw up plans for the enlarge- 
ment of the harbor and fortifications of Ant- 
werp, and he subsequently superintended the 
reconstruction of the fort at Kehl, opposite 
Strasburg. In 1810 he became mayor, mem- 
ber of the academy, and examiner at the poly- 
technic school, and next year provisional direc- 
tor of that institution. His chief publications 
include a mathematical Traite d'optique, first 
published in 1810, in which he promulgated 
some valuable discoveries respecting the refrac- 
tion of light in transparent media; and the 
" Theory of Double Refraction " (Memoires 
presentes d Vinstitut, vol. ii.), containing an 
account of his discoveries respecting the po- 
larization of light, and showing that light may 
acquire properties identical with either of two 
rays yielded by refraction through Iceland 
spar by the process of simple reflection at a 
particular angle from any transparent body. 
This famous memoir received an academical 
prize at the suggestion of Laplace. He also 






published an 



ay on the Measurement of 



the Refractive Force of Opaque Bodies;" " Re- 
marks on some new Optical Phenomena," in- 
tended to prove that two portions of light are 
always polarized together in opposite direc- 
tions ; a paper " On Phenomena accompanying 
Refraction and Reflection," and one "On the 
Axis of Refraction of Crystals." 

MALYERN, Great, a town of Worcestershire, 
England, celebrated as a watering place, on 
the E. side of the Malvern hills, 8 m. S. S. W. 
of Worcester ; pop. in 1871, 7,825. The springs, 
which are sulphuretted and slightly tepid, are 
especially beneficial in glandular and skin com- 
plaints. They are situated between Great and 
Little Malvern, the latter place being 4 m. S. 
of the former, which is surrounded by fine 
country residences and contains delightful 
walks and good accommodations for bathers 
and visitors. There are several schools, an ex- 
cellent library and reading room, and a chapel 
of the countess of Huntingdon's connection. 
The ancient church, formerly part of a monas- 
tery founded by Edward the Confessor, is one 
of the finest specimens of Gothic architecture 
in England. The Malvern hills, which reach 
a height of about 1,400 ft., extend about 9 m. 
N. and S. 

MALVERN HILL, Battle of. See CHICKAIIOMINY. 

MALVOISINE, or Mawmoislne, William de, a Scot- 
tish ecclesiastic, died July 9, 1238. He was 
educated and perhaps born in France, but was 
at an early age archdeacon of St. Andrews. 
In 1199 he became chancellor of Scotland, in 
1200 bishop of Glasgow, and in 1202 bishop of 
St. Andrews, retaining the latter see until his 
death. In 1211, as papal legate, in concert 
with the bishop of Glasgow, and at the request 
of the pope, he convened a council of the clergy 
and people at Perth to urge an expedition to 
the Holy Land. In 1214 he officiated at the 



MALWA 



MAMELUKES 



Donation of Alexander II., and from 1215 to 
L218 attended the fourth Laterari council as 
of the representatives of the Scottish 

mrch. He was a zealous churchman, and, 
>rding to Fordun, was equally zealous in 

ipport of his personal rights, having deprived 
abbey of Dunfermline of the presentation 
two livings because its monks had once neg- 
to provide him with wine for supper. 

[e introduced new monastic orders into Scot- 

md, established many Dominican and other 

invents, and wrote the lives of St. Ninian 

id Kentigern. 

MALWA, an old province of central India, 

Hnprising a table land from 1,500 to 2,500 
above the level of the sea, bounded N". E. by 
valley of the Ganges, E. by Bundelcund, S. 
>y the Vindhya, and W. by the Aravulli moun- 

lins, and lying chiefly between lat. 22 and 24 
and Ion. 74 and 78 E. ; length about 220 
, average breadth 150 m. The people are 
mostly Hindoos. It is divided into a number 
of native states under British protection, and 
includes part of the possessions of Sindia and 
"lolkar. The surface is uneven, with a gradu- 

descent from the Vindhya mountains. It is 
watered by many rivers, the chief of which is 
the Chumbul, an affluent of the Ganges. The 
soil is fertile, producing cotton, tobacco, opium, 
indigo, sugar, and grain, and affording pastur- 
age for large numbers of sheep and cattle. The 
rivers are not navigable, but a considerable 
overland trade is carried on in cottons, printed 
cloths, opium, and other products. The prin- 
cipal towns are Oojein, Indore, Bhopal, and 
Bilsa. Malwa became tributary to the sover- 
eign of Delhi in the 13th century, but at the 
beginning of the 15th threw off the yoke, and 
for 130 years formed a powerful independent 
kingdom. It was subsequently conquered by 
Shir Khan, annexed to the Mogul empire by 
Akbar, overrun by the Mahrattas early in the 
18th century, and separated from the Mogul 
territory about 1732. It was long desolated 
by the Pindarrees, who were subdued by the 
marquis of Hastings and Sir John Malcolm. 
A police force of Bheels was subsequently or- 
ganized by the British, and for some time 
proved highly efficient, but a large portion of 
it mutinied in 1857. 

MAME, Alfred Henri Armand, a French printer, 
born in Tours, Aug. 17, 1811. In 1833 the 
printing establishment founded by his father 
in Tours came into his possession, in partner- 
ship with his cousin Charles Ernest Mame, who 
was mayor of Tours from 1851 to 1865. The 
cousins, who are also brothers-in-law, together 
extended the business till 1845, when it came 
under the sole direction of Alfred Mame, who 
raised it to the greatest importance. The es- 
tablishment includes departments for print- 
ing, binding, and bookselling. About 700 per- 
sons are employed within and 500 without the 
premises. It produces daily about 20,000 vol- 
umes, bound and unbound. Among the spe- 
cial publications of this house are liturgical and 



devotional works, small books for religious edu- 
cation printed under the auspices of the arch- 
bishop of Tours, editions of the classics, and 
elementary treatises on science and education, 
issued likewise under ecclesiastical authority. 
Its small prayer books (Paroissiens), bound 
in leather and with gilt edges, are sold at re- 
tail for 35 centimes (about 7 cents). About 
1854 M. Mame entered upon the publication 
of richly illustrated works, among the most 
celebrated of which is the Bible with illustra- 
tions by Dore" (1865-'6). He obtained prizes 
at the London exhibition of 1851, the grand 
medal of honor at the French exposition .of 
1855, and the grand prize at that of 1867. In 
the last year he also received one of the prizes 
of 10,000 francs offered to model establish- 
ments in which the greatest social harmony 
and comfort prevail among the workmen. 

MAMELUKES (Arabic, memalik, a slave), a 
body of soldiery who ruled Egypt for several 
centuries. They were introduced into that 
country by the sultan Malek el-Adel II. about 
the middle of the 13th century, and were 
composed originally of young captives pur- 
chased from the Mongols. They were called 
the Bahri Mamelukes, or Mamelukes of the 
river, because they were trained on an island 
in the Nile. They formed the body guard of 
the sultan. Tjiran Shah, the son and suc- 
cessor of Malek el-Adel, becoming unpopu- 
lar, the Mamelukes deposed and murdered him 
about 1250, and raised their commander Eybek 
to the throne. A line of sultans known as 
the Bahri or Turkish dynasty now followed, 
all of whom were raised to power by the 
Mamelukes, and many of them deposed and 
slain. A new band of Mamelukes, however, 
had been created by these sovereigns, composed 
of Circassians and Georgians, who were called 
Borgis, suggestive of a tower or castle, from 
the fact that they had been employed on forti- 
fications in Egypt. In 1382 the Borgi Mame- 
lukes gained the ascendancy over the Bahris, 
and made their commander Barkok sultan. 
The Borgis continued in power till 1517, 
when they were subdued by the Ottoman 
Turks, and Egypt became a dependency of 
Constantinople. The Turkish sultan, however, 
placed the 24 provinces into which he di- 
vided Egypt under Mameluke governors or 
beys, who served to keep the Turkish viceroy 
in check. The beys also had the right to elect 
the governor of Cairo, an official of great pow- 
er. The number of the Mamelukes was about 
12,000, and they were nearly all from the 
region between the Black sea and the Caspian, 
whence they were brought in their youth to 
Cairo, compelled or persuaded to embrace Mo- 
hammedanism, and educated as soldiers. They 
did not intermarry with the natives of Egypt, 
but bought wives of their own race from the 
traders in Circassian slaves. These women 
from the north seldom bore children in Egypt, 
or if they did their offspring were sickly and 
short-lived. Though instances of hereditary 



74 MAMELUKES 

succession among the Mamelukes were not un- 
kno\s ii, they were comparatively rare, and it 
was generally from master to slave, and not 
from father to son. Volney, who visited 
Egypt in the latter part of the 18th century, 
asserted that all Mameluke children perished 
in the first or second descent. Each of the 24 
beys maintained 500 or 600 followers, thor- 
oughly armed and equipped, and forming an 
admirable cavalry force. Each of the Mame- 
lukes was attended by two armed slaves who 
fought on foot. In 1798, when Bonaparte in- 
vaded Egypt, his army first encountered the 
Mamelukes while on the march from Alexan- 
dria to Cairo. "The whole plain was covered 
with Mamelukes," says Scott, "mounted on the 
finest Arabian horses, and armed with pistols, 
carbines, and blunderbusses of the best English 
workmanship, their plumed turbans waving in 
the air, and their rich dresses and arms glitter- 
ing in the sun. Entertaining a high contempt 
for the French force, as consisting almost en- 
tirely of infantry, this splendid barbaric chiv- 
alry watched every opportunity for charging 
them, nor did a single straggler escape the un- 
relenting edge of their sabres. Their charge 
was almost as swift as the wind, and as their 
severe bits enabled them to halt or wheel their 
horses at full gallop, their retreat was as rapid 
us their advance. Even the practised veterans 
of Italy were at first embarrassed by this new 
mode of fighting, and lost several men ; espe- 
cially when fatigue caused any one to fall out 
of the ranks, in which case his fate became 
certain. But they were soon reconciled to 
fighting the Mamelukes, when they discovered 
that each of these horsemen carried about 
him his fortune, and that it not uncommonly 
amounted to considerable sums in gold." At 
the battle of the Pyramids, July 21, 1798, the 
Mamelukes mustered their full force, consisting 
of 7,000 men under Murad Bey, and attacked 
the French with desperate courage ; but they 
were repulsed with terrible slaughter, and 
about 2,500 of them who survived fled to Up- 
per Egypt. " Could I have united the Mame- 
luke horse to the French infantry," said Na- 
poleon, " I would have reckoned myself master 
of the world." After the French were driven 
from Egypt by the British, the Mamelukes re- 
gained in some degree their power, and a civil 
war broke out between them and the Turks. 
They were twice victims of treacherous mas- 
sacres, and were completely crushed March 1, 
1811, when Mehemet AH beguiled 470 chiefs 
into the citadel of Cairo, and then closed the 
gates and ordered his Albanian soldiers to fire 
upon them. Only one escaped, a bey who 
leaped his horse from the ramparts and alighted 
uninjured, though the animal was killed by the 
fall. Immediately afterward a general mas- 
sacre of the Mamelukes in every province of 
Egypt was ordered. The few who escaped 
fled to Nubia, and especially to the province of 
Sennaar, where they built the town of New 
Dongola and attempted to keep up their force 



MAMIANI 

by disciplining negroes in their peculiar tac- 
tics. They did not succeed, however, and a 
few years later their number was reduced to 
about 100, when they dispersed, and the Mame- 
lukes ceased to exist. 

MAMERTUiES. See MESSINA. 

MAMIAJVI, Terenzlo della Rovere, count, an Ital- 
ian philosopher, born in Pesaro about 1800. 
He received a superior education, and in 1831 
took part in the revolutionary movement in 
the Romagna, and was proscribed. He took 
refuge in Paris, where he was occupied in lit- 
erary labors until he was permitted to return 
to Italy by the amnesty granted in 1846 by 
Pius IX. He became prominent among the 
liberal statesmen who gathered around the 
pope, and accepted a place in the administra- 
tion. The vacillating policy of Pius IX., how- 
ever, soon led to his retirement, and he went 
to Turin, where with Gioberti and others he 
founded a patriotic society, of which he became 
president. In November, 1848, after the flight 
of the pope to Gaeta, he returned to Rome 
and became minister of foreign affairs ; . but he 
soon retired in consequence of the predomi- 
nance of the ultra-republican element, and also 
resigned his seat in the constituent assembly. 
After the restoration of the papal power in 
1849 he went to Piedmont, and subsequently 
became professor of philosophy in the Turin 
university, and a member of parliament. He 
warmly supported the policy of Cavour, and 
in 1860 was appointed minister of public in- 
struction. From 1861 to 1865 he was minister 
at Athens. In 1866 he was accredited to 
Switzerland, but soon afterward became a 
member of the Italian senate. In 1870 he 
was restored to the chair of the philosophy 
of history in the Sapienza college at Rome, 
which he had formerly held. He is promi- 
nent among Italian ontologists. In his ear- 
liest philosophical work, Del rinnovamento 
dell 1 antica filosofia italiana (1834), he ad- 
hered to the doctrine of empiricism based on 
psychological investigation. But he soon be- 
came a convert to Rosmini's opinion that the 
experimental method alone cannot philosophi- 
cally reconstruct the science of nature and 
mind; and in his' Discorso sulV ontologia e sul 
metodo (1841), and Dialoghi di scienza prima 
(1846), he strove to find a philosophical basis 
in common sense, and expressed for the first 
time his doctrine of immediate perception as 
the only foundation of a full insight into real- 
ity. This last phase of his doctrine is ex- 
pounded in his Confessioni di un metafisico 
(1865), which is divided into two parts, re- 
spectively relating to ontology and cosmology. 
A complete edition of his poetical works 
was published by M. Lemonnier (Florence, 
1857). An English translation of his Princi- 
pii della filosofia del diritto (" Rights of Na- 
tions "), edited by Roger Acton, was published 
in London in 1860. Among his later works 
are: Rinascimento cattolico (1862) ; Saggi di 
filosofia civile (1865); Meditazioni cartesian* 



MAMMALIA 



75 



(1868) ; and Teoria della religione e dello state, 
e del suoi rapporti speciali con Roma e colle 
oni cattoliche (1868). He also contrib- 
utes largely to the philosophical review La 
losqfia delle Scuole italiane. 
MAMMALIA, the highest vertebrated animals, 
eluding man, warm-blooded, breathing by 
gs separated from the abdominal cavity by 
diaphragm, generally covered with hair, and 
nging forth their young alive, which they 
ourish by the secretion of mammary glands 
whence their name). Most mammals are corn- 
only known as quadrupeds, from their hav- 
f our feet suited for progression on a solid 
rf ace ; but the terms are not synonymous, as 
st reptiles are four-footed, and the whales 
,nnot be called quadrupeds. The form of 
animals is very various ; among them we see 
an walking erect, the flying bats, the swim- 
ing cetaceans, the bulky elephant, the slow- 
iving sloth, and the agile squirrel ; yet the 
ree regions of head, neck, and trunk can al- 
ways be recognized in the skeleton, and gen- 
illy in the living animal. The neck, though 
rying in length, from that of man (one sev- 
th of the spinal column) to that of the giraffe 
(three sevenths), with two or three exceptions, 
consists of 7" vertebras ; some of the sloths 
have 8 or 9, and some manatees are said to 
have 6 only ; in the hoofed animals the length 
of the neck depends on that of the fore legs, 
for the purpose of grazing ; but the elephant 
has a long proboscis to compensate for the 
shortness of the neck rendered necessary by 
the ponderous head ; the extra vertebras of the 
sloths are by some considered as dorsals with 
rudimentary ribs to give additional mobility to 
the neck. The number of dorsal vertebras va- 
ries from 11 in some of the bats to 22 in some 
of the sloths, man having 12 ; the lumbar ver- 
tebras, 5 in man, are 2 in the ornithorhynchus 
and 9 in some lemurs, stronger than the dor- 
sals, and without ribs, which are replaced by 
long transverse processes ; the sacral vertebras, 
usually 4, vary from 1 to 9 ; the rudimentary 
tail of man, the os coccygis, consists of 4 bones, 
but in the long-tailed manis there are 46 cau- 
dal vertebras. The skull is articulated to the 
spine by two occipital condyles, which permit 
the upward and downward motions of the 
head, the lateral and rotating movements de- 
pending on the articulation between the first 
and second vertebras ; in whales the short neck 
is immovable as in fishes, and its bones are 
very thin and more or less consolidated to- 
gether ; the strong ligamentum nuchce, which 
supports the head, is attached to the spinous 
processes and skull. The caudal vertebras are 
of two kinds, one having a spinal canal, the 
other not, and the processes are always devel- 
oped in accordance with the use made of the 
tail ; in most mammals its movements are con- 
fined to brushing away insects from the skin, 
but in the kangaroo it forms with the hind 
legs a firm tripod from which the animal 

Kprings, and in some South American monkeys 



it is prehensile and used as a fifth hand in 
hanging from trees ; in the whales it becomes 
a powerful swimming organ, is provided on its 
under surface with V-shaped bones for the 
protection of the blood vessels, and, being 
horizontal, is used principally as an organ by 
which to rise to the surface to breathe ; in the 
beaver the transverse processes and the lower 
spinous are very large for the attachment of the 
muscles, which move the tail like a trowel 
chiefly in a downward direction. The bones 
of the spine are united by elastic fibro-cartila- 
ges ; these, in whales, form osseous disks, sep- 
arating on maceration, and frequently used by 
arctic travellers for plates. As all mammals 
breathe air, the mechanism of their respiration 
depends on the movable ribs and the dia- 
phragm ; man has 7 true and 5 false ribs, the 
former united to the sternum, the latter not ; 
the number is in proportion to that of the dor- 
sal vertebras ; in the whale, of 12 ribs, 11 are 
false, in the unau 11 out of 23, in the horse 8 
out of 18, in the cats 4 out of 13, and in the 
manatee 14 out of 16 ; in the carnivora they are 
dense and narrow, in the herbivora large, broad, 
and thick. The breast bone varies in shape 
according to the presence or absence of clav- 
icles; in non-claviculated mammals the chest 
is compressed laterally, and the breast bone 
has a projecting keel as in birds ; in bats it is 
much keeled, in the higher apes flat as in man, 
and in the moles it extends in front of the ribs, 
forming a distinct piece ; in mammals with clav- 
icles the chest approaches very nearly to that 
of man ; the human chest, however, is the only 
one in which the transverse exceeds the antero- 
posterior diameter, causing the greater separa- 
tion of the shoulders and the increased facility 
of movement of the arms. The anterior ribs 
always extend as far as the breast bone, and 
are thus true ribs, differing in this respect from 
those of birds. Each of the ribs is usually 
connected by its head to an articular cavity 
formed by the bodies of two vertebras, and by 
its tubercle to the transverse process of the 
posterior of the two ; in the monotremata they 
are connected with the body alone, and in ceta- 
ceans often only with the transverse processes. 
The breast bone consists of several pieces, one 
behind the other, to which the anterior or true 
ribs are joined by cartilages which rarely be- 
come ossified ; the posterior are the false or 
floating ribs, and are not attached immediately 
to the breast bone ; this arrangement gives mo- 
bility to the chest and allows the elevation and 
depression of the ribs during respiration. The 
bones of the skull and face are immovably 
connected with each other, a character which 
does not occur in any of the lower classes ; the 
brain cavity is larger than in birds and rep- 
tiles ; the occipital condyles, near the centre of 
the base in man, are gradually removed to the 
posterior portion as we descend in the scale; 
the number of cranial bones, eight in man, is 
less than in most lower vertebrates. For the 
general characters see COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, 



MAMMALIA 



where also are given sufficient details on the 
organs of sense, teeth, digestive system, and 
Lurv covering. The lower jaw consists of two 
pieces, and is alone movable ; in man it is sus- 
ceptible ..f iii..t ion up and down, laterally, and 
from before backward ; in the carnivora the first 
movement, in the ruminants the second, and 
in the rodents the third, is specially provided 
for 1'v the shape of the condyles and the form 
of the glenoid cavity. The limbs of mammals 
vary exceedingly in shape, according to the 
offices to be performed by them ; we find the 
hand of man with its thumb opposable to the 
the four hands of the monkey, the 

3 of the whale, the walking feet of the 
horse, the wing of the bat, the paw of the lion, 
the shovel of the mole, all constructed on the 
same type and modified from the same bony 
dements. The anterior limbs are always 
present, with a well developed scapular arch, 
usually kept in place by a clavicle ; this last 
is present in man, monkeys, the insectivora, 
squirrels, and bats, but absent in cetaceans, the 
hoofed animals, and some edentates ; in most 
carnivora and in some rodents it is imperfect-. 
lv developed; it corresponds to the furcular 
bone in birds, and the monotremata have in 
ail-lition the second or coracoid clavicle of 
birds. The shoulder blade is thin, flat, and 
more or less triangular, generally with a well 
marked spine ; it is long and narrow in herbi- 
vora, and placed perpendicularly on the anterior 
an 1 lateral portion of the chest; in carnivora 
and rodents, requiring more freedom of motion, 
it is oblique, and so of course is the glenoid 
cavity ; jockeys are well aware that an upright 
shoulder is the mark of a stumbling horse. The 
arm bone is nearly straight in man, much bent 
in the carnivora, long in monkeys and sloths, 
aii'l short in ruminants and cetaceans; it is con- 

1 by a ball and socket joint with the scap- 
ula ; below it articulates with the radius and 
ulna of the forearm by a hinge joint. The ulna 
is the longest in man and lies on the inside, and 
iv.vi ves the arm bone in a deep siginoid cavity ; 
the radius is connected with the wrist, and 
turns with the movements of the hand, rolling 
around and upon the ulna ; this independence 
of movement becomes less and less, acccording 
as the limbs are more used as instruments of 
ision; in the carnivora and rodents the 
two bones are distinct, but the rotation is very 
imperfect, and in the hoofed animals generally 
the two make a single bone; the radius seems 
to form the principal bone, the ulna being fre- 
quently, as in the horse and bats, very rudi- 
mentary. The wrist in man consists of eight 
bones in two rows, in other mammals varying 
from five to eleven; to these are attached the 
five parallel metacarpal bones in man, followed 
hy tne five fingers, each having three joints, 
except the first or thumb, which has only two ; 
ruminants the two metacarpals form 
the single cannon bone, sometimes with rudi- 

ry bones on the side, as the splint bones 

horse; most pachyderms have three 



metacarpals, the elephant having five. In ani- 
mals which walk on the ends of the toes, the 
metacarpus is so lengthened that it has been 
mistaken for the forearm, and supposed there- 
fore to be flexed in an opposite direction to 
that of man ; but the lower part of the fore leg 
of a horse, for instance, is in reality the meta- 
carpus, and the part called the knee is the wrist 
-joint. The fingers vary from one to five ; the 
third or middle finger is the most constant, and 
commonly the longest, and is the only one found 
in the horse ; the thumb disappears first, then 
the little finger, and then the fourth finger; 
ruminants have the second and third, or fore 
and middle fingers. The hind limbs are more 
firmly connected to the trunk than the ante- 
rior; the supporting arch is the pelvis, com- 
posed of the ilium, ischium, and pubis on each 
side, the first joining the sacrum, the second 
forming the prominences upon which man sits, 
and the third uniting in front; in cetaceans 
there is only a rudiment of this bony arch, and 
the hind limbs are absent. The thigh bone, 
the longest in man, is in most other mammals 
relatively shorter ; it is attached by a ball and 
socket joint to the pelvis, in man its axis being 
nearly that of the body, but in the lower mam- 
mals bending more and more forward until 
it forms an acute angle with the trunk. The 
tibia and fibula correspond to the radius and 
ulna of the forearm, and have the patella or 
knee-pan in front of the articulation with the 
thigh bone ; these are coalesced in various ani- 
mals somewhat as are the radius and ulna ; the 
tarsal bones correspond to the carpal, and are 
followed in the same manner by the metatarsus 
and toes. In the apes the great toe is opposable 
to the others, like the thumb, whence they are 
called quadrumana, four-handed ; while man 
rests his whole foot, from the lieel to the toes, 
on the ground, other mammals walk chiefly on 
the toes ; the horse stands on the tips of the 
middle fingers and toes, the heel being nearly 
as high up as the knee in man, the cat on the 
last two joints of several toes, and the bear on 
the metatarsus and toes ; there is no animal, ex- 
cept man, that can be properly said to touch 
the ground with the entire foot ; in the seals 
all the bones of the leg and foot may be recog- 
nized, but they are united by a membranous web 
into a kind of caudal fin. The bones of mam- 
mals have not the air cells found in birds, but 
are either solid or their cavities are filled with 
an oily matter called marrow ; there are, how- 
ever, air cavities called sinuses, especially large 
in the frontal bone of ruminants, as in the ox 
and sheep, and greatly developed in the fron- 
tal region of the elephant ; these communicate 
either with the nasal or auditory passages. 
While most mammals resemble man in the 
arrangement of the muscles, others approach 
birds and even fishes in this respect ; as they 
are less active than birds, their muscles are less 
firm and the tendons less liable to ossify ; they 
are generally fewer in number than in man, 
and their variations from the human type are 







MAMMALIA 



77 



loticed chiefly in the limbs ; in the mole, for 
instance, the flexors of the arm, the great pec- 
toral, and the latiasimus dorsi are very large ; 
the herbivora and pachyderms require mas- 
sive muscles,- and the agile carnivora compact 
g and energetic ones ; the muscles of the ears 
'are specially developed in the herbivora, and 
those of the nose in the hog ; the glutceus max- 
imus, the largest of all in man, is much small- 
er in the monkeys, and very small in the low- 
er mammals ; the nates in the horse are com- 
posed principally of the glutceus medius ; the 
muscles of the calf, so characteristic of man, 
are small in all below him, and the short mus- 
cles of the human hand are absent in the low- 
er mammals ; those of the wings in bats are 
arranged somewhat as in birds, and those of 
cetaceans as in fishes. A muscle remarkably 
developed in many mammals, but rudimen- 
tary in man, is the cutaneous layer, the pan- 
niculus carnosus, of which the human analogue 
is the platysma my aides of the sides of the 
neck and face ; we notice its action in the 
horse when a fly or any irritating object touch- 
es the skin, in the erection of the quills of 
the porcupine, and in the coiling of the body 
of the armadillo and hedgehog. The minute 
coccygeal muscles of man are represented 
by numerous and powerful ones in the pre- 
hensile tail of certain monkeys, in the strong 
trowel of the beaver, and in the fluke of 
the whale, analogous to the human multifidus 
%pin<K, In man and mammals the heart is 
composed of two distinct halves, each divided 
into two cavities, an auricle and a ventricle ; 
the course of the blood is from the left ventri- 
cle to the aorta and over the body, pure arte- 
rial; then traversing the systemic capillaries 
it enters into the veins, and is carried to the 
right auricle ; thence it passes to the right ven- 
tricle, and thence by the pulmonary artery to 
the lungs, in whose capillaries it becomes pu- 
rified by the oxygen of the respired air, and 
is returned by the pulmonary veins to the 
left auricle, whence it enters the left ventricle 
to be distributed as before. Here, therefore, 
the blood passes twice through the .heart and 
through two systems of capillaries before com- 
pleting its circle ; hence the circulation is called 
double, and it is also complete, as the whole 
mass of the blood is purified in the lungs before 
it is sent over the body. Before birth, when the 
lungs are impervious, the auricles communicate 
directly, and one or more vessels pass from the 
right ventricle to the aorta, conveying the blood 
over the body without sending it to the lungs ; 
but when respiration begins these communica- 
tions between the arterial and venous systems 
are closed. In the dugong the two ventricles 
are separated by a deep cleft ; in some mam- 
mals the right auricle receives three venae cavas ; 
the apex is not inclined to the left, as in man, ex- 
cept in some monkeys, and in some hoofed ani- 
mals two small flat bones are imbedded in the 
substance of the left ventricle. In cetaceans 
there is a plexiform arrangement of the arte- 



ries of the walls of the chest, allowing an ac- 
cumulation of blood in them, to be used as re- 
quired during prolonged submersion ; in many 
ruminants the internal carotid forms a rete 
mirabile, or network of vessels, at the entrance 
of the skull, doubtless to prevent injury to the 
brain from too great force of the blood while 
the head is in a dependent position; in the 
slow-moving sloths the arteries of the limbs 
communicate very freely, rendering compres- 
sion during their climbing impossible except in 
a few vessels at a time. A similar disposition 
prevails in the venous system ; in the seal and 
otter, as in the ducks, the inferior cava is di- 
lated into a receptacle which holds the blood 
while they are under water, and only permits 
it to pass on to the lungs when they come to 
the surface; in the porpoise tortuous sinuses 
receive the intercostal veins, and in the foot 
of the horse a fine network is distributed on 
the front of the coffin bone. The heart is 
composed of muscular fibres, each cavity hav- 
ing its own, arranged in a spiral manner from 
the point to the base ; the course of the blood 
is directed from the auricles to the ventricles 
by the mitral valve on the left side and the 
tricuspid on the right, kept in place by tendi- 
nous cords attached to fleshy columns, and the 
entrances of the aorta and pulmonary artery are 
guarded each by three semilunar valves which 
prevent regurgitation. The lungs of mammals 
are almost always in pairs, and hang freely in 
the chest suspended by the straight windpipe, 
and enclosed within the serous cavity lined by 
the pleura ; the air tubes are distributed to all 
their parts, and the pulmonary cells are minute- 
ly subdivided and do not communicate with 
any other air cells in the body as they do iri 
birds. The windpipe varies much in length, 
in the number of its rings (which are from 14 
to 78), and in their completeness ; the cartilages 
do not generally form a complete circle, being 
membranous posteriorly, and in the whales the 
membranous portion is said to be in front. The 
mechanism of the mammalian respiration has 
been described under DIAPHRAGM, the muscular 
partition which separates the thoracic and ab- 
dominal cavities in this class. The voice, under 
the control of the will, is produced by the pas- 
sage of air from the lungs over certain organs 
in the larynx or upper portion of the wind- 
pipe ; in man the larynx is a short and wide 
tube, suspended as it were from the hyoid 
bone, formed of cartilaginous plates, called the 
thyroid, cricoid, and two arytenoid cartilages ; 
the prominence commonly called " Adam's 
apple " is the anterior surface of the thyroid 
cartilage. The mucous membrane forms two 
lateral folds from before backward, like the 
lips of a buttonhole, the vocal cords or liga- 
ments ; above these are two other folds, be- 
tween which and the vocal cords is a cavity 
on each side, the ventricle of the larynx ; the 
space between these four folds is the glottis, 
which is covered above, during the passage of 
food or drink, by a fibre-cartilaginous tongue, 



78 



MAMMALIA 



the epiglottis. In ordinary respiration the air 
passes noiselessly ; but when the will contracts 
<>r otherwise modifies these cords, sound is 
produced, which in man becomes articulate 
speech by the action of the pharynx, nasal pas- 
sages, and parts contained within the mouth. 
The epiglottis exists in all mammals, but it is 
sometimes divided at the upper end ; in ceta- 
ceans, the larynx ascends to the posterior 
nares and communicates with the blow-hole 
on the top of the head. The lion's roar de- 
pends on the great size of the larynx ; the 
jrrunt of the hog is produced in cavities com- 
municating with its ventricles; the neigh of 
the horse by vibration of folds connected with 
the vocal cords; the bray of the ass by re- 
verberation in a large cavity with small aper- 
ture under the thyroid cartilage ; in the howl- 
ing monkeys the hyoid bone is dilated into 
;i bony pouch, and each ventricle opens into 
a large membranous sac, in which the loud 
sounds of these animals are produced ; in the 
marsupials the voice is very weak. The uri- 
nary system of mammals consists of secretory 
organs (the kidneys), and a reservoir for the 
secreted fluid (the bladder), communicating 
with the former by the ureters and externally 
by the urethra. The kidneys of mammals pre- 
sent the same external cortical and internal 
tubular portions as in man, and also the supra- 
renal capsules, in the lumbar region near the 
vertebra and external to the peritoneal sac ; 
they differ somewhat in form, being more or 
less lobulated, as in the human foetus, in ceta- 
ceans, seals, otters, bears, the elephant, and 
ox; the lobules vary from 10 in the otter to 
130 in the seals, in cetaceans resembling a 
bunch of grapes ; in all, except the monotre- 
mata, the ureters open into the bladder ; in 
these into the urethra, as in cnelonians. The 
bladder is generally more loosely connected in 
other mammals than in man; it is largest in 
the herbivora, smaller and more muscular in 
the carnivora and rodents. The chemical com- 
podtion of the urine is about the same in car- 
nivoru as in man, except in the absence of uric 
acid ; in the herbivora it is alkaline, contain- 
ing hippuric acid and much earthy carbonate. 
In the stags, below the inner angle of the 
eyes, there is an opening communicating with 
a large membranous pouch, from the glands of 
\vhich is secreted a brownish liquid, flowing 
down the sides of the face, like tears; many 
nimals have glands on the abdomen, in the 
groins, or about the genito-anal openings, 
whose secretion is very odorous, as in the musk 
deer, beaver, civet, and skunk. The special 
internal male organs are the testes, which se- 
i the sperm, with certain accessory glands 
(as the prostate and Cowper's), and seminal 

' " r Mrfwdfl it, &e tVinalr th,- 



us are formed in the ovaries, whence thev 

escape through the Fallopian tubes into the 

uterus, and thence when full-grown externally 

the name mammal imports, they have also 

external glands for the secretion of milk, the 



mamma or breasts. The testes may be per- 
manently external, as in the dog; always ab- 
dominal, as in the seal, elephant, and cetace- 
ans; or external during the rutting season, 
and at other times internal, as in the mole and 
porcupine. The epididymis is usually largely 
developed; the seminal vesicles are found in 
monkeys, bats, rodents, and pachyderms, but 
are wanting in carnivora, most plantigrades, 
ruminants, and marsupials ; the prostate gland 
exists in some form in all mammals; the ab- 
sence of Cowper's glands in most pachyderms, 
rodents, and carnivora shows that their action 
is not essential to reproduction. The human 
ovaries are two oval, glandular bodies, about 
an inch long, in the posterior portion of the 
broad ligaments ; each contains about 20 Graa- 
fian vesicles, enclosing an ovum. All the in- 
ternal organs, except the uterus, are much 
alike in the other mammalia. This last organ, 
single in the monkeys, is in carnivora, many 
rodents, pachyderms, ruminants, and cetaceans, 
generally divided at the base into two horns 
(cornua), each sometimes having its distinct 
opening ; in marsupials the ovaries are more 
or less racemose, as in birds. In most mam- 
mals, after the fecundated ovum has descend- 
ed through the Fallopian tube (in the higher 
orders about the 12th day), an intimate vas- 
cular connection takes place between the si- 
nuses of the parent and the chorion of the 
foatus, forming the placenta, which continues 
to supply the young with nutriment until it is 
capable of an independent existence. The period 
of utero-gestation, about 270 days in the human 
mammal, varies in the different families. This 
group of placental mammals has been called 
monodelphians to distinguish them from the 
didelphians, which include the marsupials and 
monotremata ; the former have a more perfect 
brain, with its hemispheres united by a corpus 
callosum ; the latter bring forth their young 
in a very imperfect condition, but have the 
brain destitute of a corpus callosum, the ab- 
dominal walls supported in front by two bones 
arising from the pubis, and an external pouch 
for the reception of the young. Prof. Jeffries 
Wyman (" Proceedings of the Boston Society 
of Natural History," vol. vi., p. 363), from the 
examination of a large number of foetal pigs, 
has shown that the above division of mammals 
into " placentals " and " implacentals " is not 
well defined; he found that in pigs there is, 
strictly speaking, no placenta, the maternal 
and foetal vessels being in relation only by 
means of very minute diffused villi and slight 
foldings of the chorion ; this condition is in- 
termediate between those of marsupials and 
ruminants, and shows such a gradual transi- 
tion in this respect that the former must be 
brought nearer than has been usually admitted 
to ordinary mammalia. Mammary glands ex- 
t in both sexes, but serve for purposes of 
lactation only in the female ; the number is 
generally in relation with the number of the 
young at a birth; there are 2 in monkeys, 



MAMMALIA 



79 



the elephant, the goat, and the horse ; 4 in 
the cow, the stag, and the lion ; 8 in the cat ; 
10 in the hog, rabbit, and rat ; and 12 or 14 
in the agouti. The position also varies; in 
monkeys and bats they are on the chest, in 
most carnivora on the chest and abdomen, and 
in the ruminants far back between the pos- 
terior limbs ; in marsupials they are concealed 
within the abdominal pouch. Some mammals 
are born with the eyes open, and are at once 
able to run in search of food ; many, however, 
are born with the eyes closed and in a very 
weak condition ; and a few, as the marsupials, 
leave the uterus in such an imperfect state that 
they would perish did not the parent place 
them in her pouch, where they complete their 
development, each suspended to a teat. In the 
monotremata (ornithorhynchus, &c.), which 
seem to form the connecting link between the 
mammals and birds, in addition to the horny 
bill, cloaca, and bird-like ovaries, there are the 
form, external covering, skeleton, and milk- 
secreting glands of the mammals. As to phys- 
ical distribution, some mammals dwell entirely 
in the sea, as the cetaceans and most seals ; 
some of the latter and the sirenoid pachyderms 
(manatee, &c.), live chiefly in fresh water ; 
others, beavers, muskrats, the ornithorhyn- 
chus, &c., frequent rivers and lakes ; but most 
live upon the land, some on mountains like the 
chamois and ibex, some on plains like the 
antelopes and bison, some on trees like the 
apes, squirrels, and sloths ; others sail or fly in 
the air like the flying lemur and the bats, and 
others live under ground like the moles. For 
these different methods of progression and 
habits of life, the limbs are variously adapted 
by modifications of the same few osseous ele- 
ments, and the study of fossil mammals de- 
velops the same order in past geological ages. 
The study of the geographical distribution of 
mammals shows that the number of genera and 
species increases from the poles to the equator, 
with the exception of the whales and seals, 
which are most numerous in the polar regions ; 
within the northern arctic circle there are spe- 
cies common to both hemispheres, as the arc- 
tic fox, white bear, reindeer, and ermine ; in 
temperate North America the species are dif- 
ferent from those of the eastern hemisphere, 
and in South America even the genera from 
those of the old world, as those including the 
peccary, llama, armadillo, ant-eater, sloth, cavy, 
agouti, vampire bat, marmoset, the howling and 
prehensile-tailed monkeys ; the raccoon and 
muskrat are exclusively American; the hog, 
horse, camel, rhinoceros, elephant, lion, tiger, 
lemurs, and anthropoid apes belong now to 
the eastern world ; the giraffe, hippopotamus, 
chimpanzee, and most of the antelopes, are 
African ; all the marsupials (except the Ameri- 
can opossums) and the monotremata are Aus- 
tralian, while the stags, squirrels, cats, bears, 
dogs, and bats are absent from this region. 
The marsupials, though forming scarcely one 
fifteenth of the land mammals in the world, 
527 VOL. xi. 6 



constitute three fourths of the mammalian 
fauna of Australia ; exclusive of cetaceans and 
seals, the rodents form one third of the entire 
number of species of the world, the bats and 
carnivora one third, the remaining third being 
chiefly the monkeys, ruminants, marsupials, 
and insectivora, according to Van der Hoeven ; 
in Europe, wanting marsupials and monkeys, 
the rodents are one third, bats one sixth, and 
insectivora about one thirteenth; in North 
America the species of rodents form perhaps 
half the entire number of land mammals ; the 
large pachyderms, edentates, and the apes be- 
long to the warm regions, most of the latter 
being African ; the insectivora are almost pe- 
culiar to the northern hemisphere, and the le- 
murs are most common in the southern. Ex- 
cepting the whales and bats, mammals do not 
migrate, but spend the summer and winter in 
the same locality ; the whales pass the summer 
in the polar regions, and come southward in 
winter into the lower Atlantic. The phenom- 
ena of hibernation or winter-sleep in mammals 
have been described under the former title. 
MAMMALOGY includes the classification of mam- 
malia. The mammalia were first separated from 
other four-footed animals by Aristotle, who 
called them zootoca or viviparous animals ; he 
divided them into three sections according to 
their locomotive organs : 1, dipoda, or bipeds; 
2, tetrapoda, or quadrupeds ; 3, apoda, impeds 
or whales. The quadrupeds, including all but 
man and the cetaceans, he subdivided into two 
great groups according to the modifications of 
the organs of touch, in the first of which the 
ends of the digits are left free for the sense of 
feeling, the nail being on the upper surface 
only, and in the second the feet ending in 
hoofs, corresponding respectively to the un- 
guiculata and ungulata of Ray. The unguicu- 
lates he divided by the teeth into three fami- 
lies : 1, those with cutting incisors and tritu- 
rating or flattened molars, like the apes (pithe- 
coida) and the bats (dermaptera) ; 2, those 
with canine or carnivorous teeth, carcharo- 
donta or gampsonucha ; 3, those correspond- 
ing to the rodents, with the negative character 
of the absence of canine teeth. The ungulate 
or hoofed quadrupeds he divided, according to 
the organs of motion, into : 1, polysckida or 
multungulates, like the elephant ; 2, dischidcs 
or bisulcates, including the ruminants (mery- 
cizonta) and the hogs ; and 3, aschidce, or so- 
lidungulates, like the horse. The apodal quad- 
rupeds included the cetaceans or cetoda. It 
thus appears that Aristotle clearly perceived 
the principles upon which mammals are classi- 
fied by the best modern naturalists. This ar- 
rangement was not improved upon until John 
Ray published his Synopsis in 1693 in London, 
and his improvements relate to the four-foot- 
ed mammals. In his ungulate quadrupeds he 
places the solipedous (as the horse), the bisul- 
cate ruminants (like the ox and stag) or non- 
ruminants (as the hog), and the quadrisulcate 
(rhinoceros and hippopotamus) ; in the un- 



80 



MAMMALIA 



either bifid (as in the 



(rnirnlato the feet are either bihd ^ we 
camel), or multitid with digits adhering togeth- 
er (as in the elephant), with distinct depressed 
digits (as in apes), or compressed (as m car- 
nivora, insectivora, rodents, and edentates). 
Linnrous founded his primary divisions on 
the locomotive organs, deriving his orders 
from the modifications of the teeth ; in his 
earlier editions of the Systema Natural, up to 
the 10th, he called the class guadrupedia in- 
cluding the cetaceans among fishes ; in his UTCD 
edition (1766) he makes seven orders, as fol- 
lows: A. Unguiculata: I., primates, with four 
front cutting teeth, including man, the mon- 
keys, and bats (4 genera); II., bruta, with no 
front teeth in either jaw, including the ele- 
phant walrus, and edentates (6 genera) ; 111., 
fern, with front teeth, conical and long canines, 
including the carnivora, opossum, and msecti- 
vora (10 genera); IV., glires, with two front 
cutting teeth in each jaw, including the ro- 
dents (6 genera). B. Ungulata : V., pecora, 
with cutting front teeth in the lower jaw, but 
none in the upper, including the ruminants (6 
genera) : VI., belluas, with obtuse front teeth 



/jaws, including the pachyderms gen- 
erally (4 genera). C. Mutica: VII., cete, with 
horny or bony teeth, pectoral fins instead of 
feet, and horizontal flattened tail, including the 
cetaceans (4 genera). He thus made 40 genera 
in all. Linnceus followed Ray in placing the 
elephant among the unguiculata, an error 
avoided by Aristotle. In 1798 Cuvier pub- 
lished his Tableau elementaire des animaux, 
in which he laid down the basis of his classi- 
fication, which was variously modified until 
the second edition of his Regne animal in 
1829 ; in that work he makes the nine fol- 
lowing orders of mammalia: bimana, qua- 
drumana, carnivora, marsupialia, rodentia, 
edentata, pachydermata, ruminantia, and ce- 
tacea. In his first edition the marsupials were 
ranked among carnivora, and in the Tableau 
klementaire there were three grand divisions : 
I., unguiculata, with the orders bimana, qua- 
drumana, cheiroptera, plantigrada, carnivo- 
ra, pedimana, rodentia, edentata, and tardi- 
grada ; II., ungulata, with the orders pachy- 
dermata, ruminantia, and solipeda ; and III., 
mutica, with the orders amphibia and tetacea. 
The systems of Blumenbach, Illiger, and 
Desmarest differ little from that of Cuvier, ex- 
cept in the names of the orders and their sub- 
divisions. De Blainville (1822) makes in the 
type otteozoaria, or vertebrates, the sub-type 
' ra and the class pilifera or mammifera, 
with the divisions monadelphya and didelphya 
Temminck (1827) makes the 11 orders of man 
monkeys, bats, carnivora, marsupials, rodents 
edentates, pachyderms, ruminants, cetaceans 
ami inimotiviiiMt.:. Fi-rluT, in his Synopsis 
Mammalium (1829), makes the nine orders 
of primates (man and monkeys), cheiroptera 
(bats),/<rr (carnivora), bestia (insectivora and 
marsupials), glires (rodont-i. f>rnta (edentates 
and monotremata), bellua (pachyderms and 



olipeds), pecora (ruminants), and cete (her- 
bivorous and ordinary cetaceans). McLeay 
1821) the founder of the quinary classifica- 
ion makes five orders of mammals, which 
nay be arranged in a tabular form as follows : 



Ferae. 
. Primates. 

Glires. 
Ungulata. 

i. Cetacea. 



Character!. 
Carnivorous. 
Omnivorous. 
Frugivorous. - 
Frequenting the vicin- 
ity of water. 
Aquatic. 



Birdt. 

Raptores. 
Jnsessores. 
Rasores. 
Graliatores. 

Natatores. 



This shows the analogies between mammals 
and birds, in regard to food and habits, 
which were afterward modified by Swainson 
V 1835) as follows: I., typical group, quadru- 
mana, organized for grasping, analogous to 
nsessorial birds ; II., sub-typical, fern, with 
retractile claws and carnivorous, to the rap- 
tores; III., aberrant group, including cetacea, 
eminently aquatic, with very short feet, to 
natatores; glires, with lengthened and point- 
ed muzzle, to grallatores ; and ungulata, with 
crests on the head, to rasores. Oken in 1802 
divided animals into five classes according to 
the organs of sense; this view is elaborated 
m his " Physiophilosophy " (Ray society edi- 
tion, 1847) ; of these five classes the fifth and 
lighest is the ophthalmozoa or mammalia, so 
called because in them the eyes are movable 
and covered with two perfect lids, the other 
sense organs having however suffered no deg- 
radation ; he also calls them thricozoa or pi- 
lose animals on account of their hairy cover- 
ing, and aesthetic or sensorial animals from 
the completion and combination of all the or- 
gans of sense. They belong to his province 
of sarcozoa or flesh animals. His divisions 
are as follows: A. Splanchno-thricozoa : or- 
der I., rodents; II., edentates and marsupials; 
III., insectivora and cheiroptera. B. Sarco- 
thricozoa: IV., ungulata. 0. JEsthesio -thri- 
cozoa : V., unguiculata. Every family of the 
thricozoa contains five genera, in accordance 
with the five organs of sense; the human 
family or genus has also five varieties on the 
same principle: 1, the skin man, the black 
African ; 2, the tongue man, the brown Aus- 
tralian and Malay; 3, the nose man, the red 
American ; 4, the ear man, the yellow Mongo- 
lian; and 5, the eye man, the white Euro- 
pean. Another philosophical system is that 
of Cams. The mammalia are made the sev- 
enth class of his third circle, the cephalozoa. 
He makes ten orders, as follows: 1, natantia, 
or herbivorous and carnivorous cetaceans, with 
evident relations with fishes ; 2, reptantia, or 
monotremata and edentates, related to rep- 
tiles; 3, volitantia, bats and flying lemurs, 
related to birds; 4, mergentia, seals and wal- 
rus, a repetition of the first ; 5, marsupialia, a 
repetition of the second ; 6, glires or rodents, 
a repetition of the third ; 7, pachydermata, a 
second repetition of the first; 8, ruminantia, 
a second repetition of the second, indicated 
by the fifth, which is half ruminant ; 9, fera, 



MAMMALIA 



81 



I 



a second repetition of the third ; and 10, 
quadrumana, having relations with man. 
The fundamental idea of the classification of 
Eitzinger (1843) is the same as that of Oken, 
the class mammalia having five series, accord- 
ing to the development of the organs of sense, 
and each series three orders, viz. : 

TOUCH. TASTE. SMELL. 

Cetacea. Pachydemnata. Edentata. 

1. Balanodea. 1. Phocina, 1. Monotremata. 

2. Delphinodea. 2. Obesa. 2. Lipodonta. 

3. Sirenia. 8. Ruminantia. 3. Tardigrada. 

HEARING. VISION. 

Unguiculata. Primates. 

1. Glires. 1. Chiropteri. 

2. JSrutfi. 2. Hemipitheci. 

8. Ferae. 8. AnthropomorpJii. 

Of the embryological systems of classifica- 
tion may be mentioned those of Von Baer, 
Van Beneden, and Vogt. Von Baer (1828) 
proposed the following divisions of this class 
)f his doubly symmetrical or vertebrate type, 
with osseous skeleton, lungs, an allantois, and 
an umbilical cord: the cord may disappear 
early, 1, without connection with the mother 
(monotremata), or 2, after a short connection 
with the mother (marsupialia) ; or the cord 
may be longer persistent, 1, the yolk sac con- 
tinuing to grow for a long time, the allantois 
growing little (rodentia), moderately (insec- 
tivora), or much (carnivora), or 2, the yolk 
sac increasing slightly, the allantois growing 
little and the umbilical cord very long (mon- 
keys and man), continuing to grow for a 
long time and the placenta in simple masses 
(ruminants), or growing for a long time and 
the placenta spreading (pachyderms and ceta- 
ceans). According to Vogt (1851), mammals 
may be arranged in two divisions: I., aplacen- 
taria, with the orders monotremata smd^mar- 
supialia; and II., placentaria, with series 1, 
composed of the orders cetacea, pachyder- 
mata, solidungula, ruminantia, and edentata ; 
series 2, of the orders pinnipedia and carni- 
vora ; and series 3, of the orders insectivora, 
volitantia, glires, quadrumana, and bimana. 
Van Beneden (1855), in the class mammalia 
of his hypocotyledones or hypovitellians (ver- 
tebrates), in which the vitellus or yolk enters 
the body from the ventral side, establishes the 
orders primates, cheiroptera, insectivora, 
ntia, carnivora, edentata, proboscidea, un- 
ilata, sirenoidea, and cetacea. Prof. Baird 
in vol. viii. of the "Pacific Railroad Survey," 
1857) adopts the following arrangement: A, 
inguiculata, with the orders: 1, quadrumana ; 
cheiroptera; 3, rapacia ; 4, marsupialia; 
rodentia ; and 6, edentata; B, ungulata, 
<ith orders: 7, solidungula ; 8, pachyder- 
ita ; and 9, ruminantia ; C, pinnata, with 
>rders : 10, pinnipedia ; and 11, cetacea. 
ill of these, except the first, are found in 
forth America; the horse, though not now 
asting native, was formerly an inhabitant of 
lis country. Agassiz, in his essay on classifi- 
ition (1857), makes mammals the eighth class 



of vertebrates, with only the three orders of 
marsupialia, herbivora, and carnivora. Owen 
(in the article "Mammalia" in the "Cyclopae- 
dia of Anatomy and Physiology," 1847) admits 
in the sub-class of placentalia the ten orders 
of bimana, quadrumana, cheiroptera, insecti- 
vora, carnivora, cetacea, pachydermata, rumi- 
nantia, edentata, and rodentia, and in the 
sub-class implacentalia the orders marsupialia 
and monotremata; the monkeys by the galeo- 
pithecus are connected with the cheiroptera, 
and by the lemurs with the carnivora; the 
last by otaria are related to cetacea, which 
in turn have certain affinities with the fishes; 
the rodents are connected with ruminants by 
the musk deer ; the monotremata lead to rep- 
tiles. Before introducing the more recent 
classification of mammals by Prof. Owen, ac- 
cording to the cerebral system, the reader 
should be reminded that until the time of 
Cuvier the principal subdivisions were based 
upon the Aristotelian characters derived from 
the organs of locomotion, the secondary groups 
being established on the peculiarities of the 
dental system; Cuvier added others drawn 
from the osseous and generative systems ; De 
Blainville in 1816 first adopted the division, 
according to the method of reproduction, into 
monodelphs, didelphs, and ornithodelphs, or or- 
dinary mammals, marsupials, and monotremes, 
retaining for the most part the Linnsean or- 
ders. Classification by the placenta seems to 
have been first proposed by Sir Everard Home, 
but, as modified by successive naturalists, leads 
to many unnatural affinities ; placing, for, in- 
stance, rodents and insectivora with monkeys, 
and solipeds, pachyderms, and some ruminants 
with the carnivorous cetaceans. Prince Bona- 
parte, in his Sy sterna Vertebratorum (1840), 
adopts the division of placentalia and impla- 
centalia, subdividing the first into the sub- 
classes of educabilia and ineducabilia, the lat- 
ter including the orders bruta, cheiroptera, in- 
sectivora, and rodentia, with the common char- 
acter of a single-lobed cerebrum ; Prof. Owen 
regards this as the most important improve- 
ment since the establishment of the natural 
character of the ovo-viviparous or implacental 
division. In 1845 Isidore Geoffrey Saint-Hi- 
laire raised the marsupials to the rank of a 
distinct class, making its subdivisions orders 
equivalent to those of the placentalia; Owen, 
however, did not regard them as groups of 
equal rank and value. In 1849 Prof. Owen, 
from the consideration of the times of forma- 
tion and the succession of the teeth, divided 
mammals into two groups, monophyodonts, or 
those which generate a single set of teeth (as 
the monotremata, bruta, and cetacea), and the 
diphyodonts, or those which generate two sets 
of teeth (comprising the great bulk of the 
class) ; at the same time he wished it to be 
clearly understood that this dental character 
is not so associated with other organic charac- 
ters as to indicate natural or equivalent sub- 
classes. As early as 1842 he drew attention 



82 



MAMMALIA 



to the valne of the principal modifications ol 
the mammalian brain in regard to their asso- 
ciation with concurrent modifications in other 
systems of organs; it was not till 1857, how- 
ever, that he felt himself justified in proposing 
to the Linnsean society a fourfold division of 
this class, based upon the four leading modifi- 
cations of the cerebral structure. His first 
and lowest group or sub-class is called lyen- 
cetphala, signifying the loose or disconnected 
state of the cerebral hemispheres, which leave 
exposed the olfactory ganglia, the cerebellum, 
and more or less of the optic lobes, have the 
surface generally smooth, and the anfractu- 
osities, when present, few and simple ; in this 
division the absence of the corpus callosum 
commissure is associated with the marsupial 
mode of development and the non-develop- 
ment of the placenta ; it includes the mono- 
tremes and marsupials. The next stage in the 
development of the brain is where the corpus 
oallosum is present, but the hemispheres leave 
the olfactory lobes and cerebellum exposed, 
and are commonly smooth or with few and 
simple convolutions ; these are the listencepTia- 
&, or smooth-brained mammals, or rodents, 
insectivora, bats, and edentates, in many re- 
spects, in common with the preceding subdi- 
vision, resembling birds and reptiles. The 
tldrd modification is an increased relative size 



of the hemispheres, which extend over more 
or less of the cerebellum and olfactory lobes, 
and have their surface, except in a few of tho 
lower quadrumana, folded into more or less 
numerous gyri or convolutions ; hence this 
sub-class is called gyrencephala ; among these 
are not found marks of affinity with the ovi- 
para, but the highest mammalian perfection is 
attained, as shown by the size, strength, ac- 
tivity, sagacity, and docility of many of its 
members; this sub-class comprises the other 
orders of mammals, man only excepted. In 
man the hemispheres overlap the olfactory 
lobes and cerebellum, extending in advance of 
the former and further back than the latter ; 
in man only is there what is called a third or 
posterior lobe, and in him the superficial gray 
matter attains its highest development through 
the number and depth of its convolutions ; as 
representing a distinct sub-class of mammalia, 
and ruling naturally over all the other mem- 
bers of the class, he proposes for man the 
name of archencephala, signifying that he is 
master of the earth and of the lower creation. 
For details on the characters of the secondary 
groups and their distribution in time and 
space, the reader is referred to the original 
paper in the "Proceedings of the Lmnsean 
Society" of London, vol. ii., pp. 1-37, 1857. 
His tabular arrangement is as follows : 



f ABOHIHOKPHALA BIMAKA.. 



MAMMALIA. 



f Unguiculata . 



OTBIBOXPHALA. 



Ungulate. 



LnUKOXPHALA . 



LTKfOIPBALA. 



fQUADBTJMANA.., 



[CABNIVOBA 
ABTIODAOTTLA 



PEBISSODAOTYLA... 
PROBOSOIDIA ....... 

TOXODONTIA ....... 



f SlBENIA 

[CETAOBA.. 



BBDTA 



CHJBIBOPTEBA. . 



INBEOTIVOBA. 



EODENTIA. 



I MONOTBEMATA . . . 



The later classification of Huxley does not dif- 
fer materially in its orders from that of Owen 
"g the many recent American labor- 
re in the department of mammalian classifica- 
tion may be mentioned Prof. Theodore Gill 
of Washington, D. C., whose articles on this 
j'ilj.-rt too long to be condensed here, will 
be found in the " Proceedings of the American 



Family or genu. Example. 

Homo Man. 

Catarhina Ape. 

Platyrhina Marmoset 

Strepirhina Lemur. 

Digitigrada Dog. 

Plantigrada Bear. 

Pinnigrada Seal. 

Omnivora Hog. 

Ruminantia Sheep. 

J Solidungula Horse. 

| Multungula Tapir. 

j Elepha* Elephant. 

DinotJierium Extinct. 

Toxodon " 

Nesodon 

Manatus Sea cow. 

Halicore Dugong 

DelphinidcB Porpoise. 

Balasnidce Whale. 

BradypodidcB Sloth. 

Dnsypodidce Armadillo. 

Edentula Ant-eater. 

Frugivora Roussette. 

Insect irora Bat 

Talpidce Mole. 

Erinaceidce Hedgehog. 

SoricidcR Shrew. 

Non-claviculata. . . . Hare. 

Clamculata Rat. 

Rhizophaga Wombat. 

Poephaga Kangaroo. 

Carpophaga Phalanger. 

Entomophaga Opossum. 

Echidna Echidna. 

Ornithorhynchus.. . . Duck-bill. 



Association for the Advancement of Science " 
for 1870 and 1871. The fossil mammals must 
be considered before the student can form an 
idea of the affinities of the class; these and the 
orders of existing mammalia will be treated 
under their respective titles. The mammalian 
class has existed certainly from the lower oolitic 
penod, and probably from the triassic ; during 



MAMMARY GLANDS 



MAMMEE APPLE 



83 



this immense lapse of time genera and species 
have changed, either that they have been newly 
created at the several epochs, or, as Darwin and 
others maintain, have been modified by pro- 
cesses of natural selection and development, 
many original and intermediate forms having 
become extinct, and, from the imperfection of 
the geological record, as yet having afforded 
no indication of their existence. None of the 
mammalian genera of the secondary epoch have 
been found in the tertiary ones; no genus of 
the older eocene has been discovered in the 
newer; very few eocene genera have been 
found in the miocene, and none in the pliocene ; 
many of the miocene genera are peculiar to 
that division, and some indistinguishable from 
existing species begin to appear only in the 
newer pliocene; while the perissodactyls and 
omnivorous artiodactyls have been gradually 
dying out, the true ruminants have been in- 
creasing in genera and species. One class of 
organs seems to govern one order, and another 
class another order; for example, the teeth, 
which are so diversified in marsupials and 
edentates, are remarkable for the constancy of 
their characters in rodents and insectivora; 
and as a general rule, the characters from the 
dental, locomotive, and placental systems are 
more closely correlated in the gyrencephala 
than in the two inferior sub-classes. 

MAMMARY GLANDS, the organs which secrete 
the nutritive fluid, milk, by which the young 
of man and the mammalia are nourished during 
the early periods of life. They vary from 
two in the human female to 10 or 12 in the 
lower mammals, and may be pectoral as in 
the former, or pectoral and abdominal, or only 
abdominal, as in the latter. Each gland is 
made up of a number of separate lobules, 
more or less closely connected by fibrous tissue 
and fat, and bound down by the same to the 
pectoral or abdominal muscles. The lactifer- 
ous tubes arising from the minute ultimate 
follicles of the lobules terminate in the mam- 
millary tubes of the nipple, 10 or 12 in the hu- 
man female, straight but of variable size; at 
the base of the nipple, and extending into the 
gland, are reservoirs for containing a constant 
supply during lactation ; these are often much 
larger in the lower animals than in woman. 
The skin covering them is very delicate and 
smooth ; the colored circle around the nipple is 
called the areola, which becomes darker during 
and after gestation; the irregular surface of 
the nipple is covered with a very sensitive skin, 
and much erectile tissue enters into its sub- 
stance. The tubes are lined with a very vascu- 
lar mucous membrane, which has its own 
secretion sometimes in considerable quantity. 
These glands, especially during lactation, are 
well supplied with blood from branches of the 
subclavian and axillary arteries; their nerves 
come from the brachial plexus and the inter- 
costals, and the sympathetic plexus accompa- 
nying the mammary arteries. The inner sur- 
face of the follicles is covered with a layer of 



epithelium cells, the real agents in the secreting 
process. They present no great difference in 
size in the sexes until near the age of puberty, 
when a considerable enlargement takes place 
in the female; from the increased supply of 
blood during 'gestation, there is a sense of ten- 
derness and distention which is one of the 
earliest and most valuable signs of pregnancy. 
These glands in the male are miniatures of 
those of the female, but the essential structure 
is the same, as is shown by the authentic cases 
in which they have become sufficiently devel- 
oped in men to produce a secretion of true milk. 
Though the functional activity of these glands 
is naturally limited to the period succeeding 
parturition, their secretion is sometimes seen 
in virgins and in aged women, in whom a 
strong desire to furnish milk and a continual 
irritation of the nipple by the infant's mouth 
have stimulated the organs to unnatural ac- 
tivity. The prolonged secretion of milk in 
domestic cows, which usually lasts for about 
ten months after calving, is simply a continued 
action of these glands due to artificial treat- 
ment. The presence of these organs has given 
the name to the mammalia, the highest class 
of vertebrated animals, implying a mode of 
intra-uterine and extra-uterine development 
not found in birds, reptiles, or fishes. Physio- 
logically these glands belong to the generative 
system, and are gradually removed from the 
caudal to the pectoral region, as we ascend 
from cetaceans to the human female ; the for- 
ward, outward, and upward direction of the 
nipples is exactly adapted to the position of 
the child lying in its mother's arms, and the 
greater abundance of the lactiferous tubes at 
the lower portion of the breast forms a soft 
cushion for its head to rest upon. In the 
African and sometimes in other races, after lac- 
tation, the skin covering the breasts becomes 
so lax, and the organs so elongated, that they 
can be thrown over the shoulders like bags. 
The mammary glands are subject to many 
painful and dangerous diseases, among which 
may be mentioned acute and chronic inflam- 
mations, abscesses, and encysted, fibrous, and 
cancerous tumors; they are sometimes enor- 
mously overloaded with fat. 

MAMMEE APPLE (mammea Americana), a 
handsome tree of 60 ft. in height, native of the 
Caribbean islands and the neighboring conti- 
nent. It has large, oval or obovate, shining, 
leathery, opposite leaves, white, sweet-scented 
flowers, and large, round, obsoletely three- or 
four-cornered fruit, which sometimes grows to 
the size of a child's head. The fruit is cov- 
ered with a double rind ; the outer is leathery, 
tough, and brownish yellow; the inner, thin, 
yellow, closely adhering to the flesh, which is 
firm, bright yellow, and of a singular pleasant 
taste and a sweet aromatic smell ; but the skin 
and seeds are very bitter and resinous. The 
pulp is eaten alone, or cut up into slices with 
wine and sugar, prepared as a jam or marma- 
lade, or with sirup. From the yellowness of 



MAMMOTH 



the pulp, like that of an apricot, it is called by 
in -h .if.rirot sauvage. This fruit is oc- 
casionally brought to our seaport cities, but 
rarely in an eatable condition. The seeds, 




Mammce Apple. 

which are sometimes as large as hen's eggs, are 
used as anthelmintics, and an aromatic liquor 
called eau de Creole is distilled from the flow- 
ers. The tree belongs to the natural order of 
guttiferce. Browne ("Natural History of Ja- 
maica," London, 1756) speaks of the species 
as among the largest trees of Jamaica, and 
esteemed among the best timber trees. It has 
been observed that no one can behold this 
tree towering above a cluster of fruit trees 
without a sentiment of respect for it. The 
maminee tree has become naturalized in some 
parts of Africa, where it produces excellent 
fruit. Two or three other species, natives of 
tropical Asia, are known to botanists. 

MAMMOTH, the fossil elephant of Siberia 
(elephas primigeniu*, Blumenbach), found in 




Mammoth (Elephas primigenlun). 

the diluvial strata of Europe and Asia, and 

P-il,:ij>s also in North America. Large fossil 

u>re alluded to by Theophrastqs, Pliny, 

and many ancient authors, and were general- 



ly supposed to be the remains of giant men. 
They are abundant in the drift of central and 
northern Europe, mingled with the bones of 
other pachyderms, principally in river basins ; 
in Great Britain, in the Kirkdale cavern of 
Yorkshire ; in Sweden and Norway ; but most 
abundantly in the frozen region of European 
and Asiatic Russia, about the mouths of riv- 
ers descending into the icy sea; there is in- 
deed hardly a river in Siberia in whose bed 
or on whose banks these "remains have not been 
found, as well as in the neighboring plains, in 
connection with bones of other animals now 
strangers to the climate ; they are not found in 
the elevated districts. . In Siberia fossil ivory is 
so abundant and so well preserved that it gives 
rise to a considerable traffic both for home and 
foreign use. The most remarkable discovery 
in relation to the mammoth was the occurrence 
of a carcass found by a Tungus fisherman in 
a block of ice on the border of the Arctic sea 
in 1799, near the river Lena; in the course of 




Skeleton of Mammoth. 

a few years this immense mass was thawed 
out, and it was found to be an elephant having 
the flesh and soft parts well preserved, with 
the exception of such portions as had been de- 
voured by bears, dogs, and other carnivorous 
animals ; the tusks were very fine, weighing 
300 Ibs., and were removed by the fisherman. 
In 1806 Mr. Adams, travelling for the museum 
of St. Petersburg, visited the locality and 
collected the remains, which were transported 
to St. Petersburg, where this skeleton now is, 
with many others, in a nearly perfect condi- 
tion ; he ascertained that the skin had an abun- 
dant covering of hair and wool, indicating that 
it was fitted to resist a cold climate. It is evi- 
dent that the climate of Siberia during the di- 
luvial period was not like that of the regions 
now inhabited by elephants ; it must have been 
moderately cold, though such as would permit 
the growth of a vegetation more luxuriant than 
any in the present arctic regions, and sufficient 
for the nourishment of these bulky animals. 
Another more recently discovered specimen 
allowed even a microscopic examination of the 
tissues. The following are the differences be- 



MAMMOTH 



MAMMOTH CAVE 



85 




Tooth of 
Mammoth. 



tween the fossil and living elephants, as deter- 
mined by Cuvier. In the former the laminae 
of the teeth are narrower and more numerous 
than in the Indian elephant, which they most 
resemble, with the lines of enamel more slen- 
jr and less festooned, and the teeth absolutely 
and relatively wider. The tusks 
are larger than in most living 
specimens, and generally more 
curved, but the structure is the 
same. In the skull, there is much 
greater length and perpendicular- 
ity in the sockets for the tusks ; 
the head is more elongated, with 
a greater development of occiput, 
and concave and nearly vertical 
forehead; the long alveoli must 
have modified the trunk, and have 
given the animal a different physi- 
ognomy from that of the pres- 
ent elephant; the antero-posterior length of 
the lower jaw is less, the lower molars are 
parallel instead of converging forward, and 
the jaw is truncated in front instead of having 
a projecting grooved symphysis. The bones 
of the limbs are more massive, and the usual 
distance between the two condyles of the 
femur is reduced to a narrow line. The skin 
is like that of the living elephant, but is cov- 
ered with hair of three kinds; the longest, 12 
or 15 in., is brown and like horse hair; the 
shorter, 9 or 10 in., is more delicate and fawn- 
colored ; and the wool at the base of the hair, 
4 or 5 in. long, is fine, smooth, fawn-colored, 
and a little frizzled toward the roots ; there is 
a mane on the neck, and the whole covering 
is well suited for a cold climate. The mam- 
moth has never been found living, nor have 
any of the existing elephants been discovered 
in the fossil state ; it was probably not much 
if at all higher than the elephants of the pres- 
ent epoch, but was stouter, more clumsy, and 
heavier. Their bones are found mingled with 
those of the rhinoceros, ox, antelope, horse, 
often with marine animals, and sometimes with 
fresh-water shells. They were undoubtedly 
overwhelmed by a comparatively recent and 
sudden catastrophe during some portion of the 
long drift period, accompanied by a depression 
of temperature, and probably by a subsidence 
of the land and an invasion of the sea, general 
over the northern regions of both hemispheres ; 
during the preceding tertiary epoch there was 
an elevation of temperature, permitting tropi- 
cal animals to go far to. the north ; this tem- 
perature gradually became colder, the animals 
becoming adapted for it, as shown by their 
external covering, until they suddenly became 
extinct during the glacial period of the drift. 
From the abundance of the remains found in 
Siberia, it is inferred that elephants were more 
numerous during the diluvian epoch than at 
the present time. To the E. primigenius be- 
long the Siberian fossils, and most, if not all, 
of those of the drift of Europe. Several spe- 
cies of fossil elephant have been found in 



North America, referred by some to the E. 
primigenius. Prof. H. D. Eogers (''Proceed- 
ings of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory," vol. v., Feb. 1, 1854) drew attention to 
the fact that while the European mammoth is 
found in the drift stratum, the North Ameri- 
can fossil elephant is imbedded in strata above 
the drift, of a distinctly more recent age, and 
was a contemporary of the mastodon giganteus, 
their bones being found together in the marshy 
alluvium of Big Bone Lick ; he maintains that 
they lived together in the long period of sur- 
face tranquillity which succeeded the strewing 
of the general drift (the period of the Lauren- 
tian clays), and were overtaken and extermi- 
nated together by the same changes, partly of 
climate, partly of a second but more local dis- 
placement of the waters which reshifted the 
drift, and formed the later lake and river ter- 
races. From figures on bones, it is beyond 
doubt that the mammoth lived with man in 
the early stone age. In the pliocene deposits 
of Kansas and Nebraska Dr. Hayden found 
bones of mastodon and elephant (E. impera- 
tor, Leidy), and a similar coexistence has been 
ascertained in the pliocene of Europe ; the re- 
mains of this and E. Americanus have been 
found in Kentucky, Texas, Mexico, Spanish 
America, from Alaska to Georgia and the Mis- 
sissippi valley, and as far west as Oregon and 
California. The elephants of the tertiary sub- 
Himalayan Sivalik hills have been described 
by Cautley and Falconer ; in these the dental 
laminae are so separated that each forms the 
summit of a ridge, making a transition from 
elephant to mastodon, constituting the genus 
stecodon (Cautley and Falconer). The mam- 
moths of the American continent are now ad- 
mitted to be different species from those of 
Europe and Asia. For details on the mam- 
moth, see Cuvier's articles in vol. viii. of the 
Annales du Museum, and in vol. i. of the Osse- 
mens fossiles ; Pictet's Traite de paleontologie, 
vol. i. ; vol. v. of the "Naturalist's Library," 
which treats of the pachyderms ; and vols. ii. 
and iv. of the " American Naturalist." 

MAMMOTH CAVE, the largest cavern known, 
situated in Edmondson co., near Green river, in 
Kentucky, about 75 m. S. S. "W. of Louisville. 
Its mouth is reached by passing down a wild 
rocky ravine through a dense forest; it is an 
irregular, funnel-shaped opening, from 50 to 
100 ft. in diameter at the top, with steep walls 
about 50 ft. high. The cave extends about 
nine miles, and it is said that to visit the por- 
tions already traversed requires from 150 to 
200 miles of travel. This vast interior contains 
a succession of marvellous avenues, chambers, 
domes, abysses, grottoes, lakes, rivers, cataracts, 
&c., which for size and wonderful appearance 
are unsurpassed. The rocks present numer- 
ous forms and shapes of objects in the exter- 
nal world, while stalagmites and stalactites of 
gigantic size and fantastic form abound, though 
not so brilliant and beautiful as are found in 
some other caves. Chief among the objects of 



gfl MAMMOTH CAVE 

interest are Silliman's avenue, about H m. long, 
from 20 to 200 ft. wide, and from 20 to 40 ft. 
high; Marion's avenue, of about the same 
dimensions; the Star chamber, about 500 ft. 
long and 70 ft. wide, the ceiling of which, 70 
ft. high, is composed of black gypsum, and is 
stml.I.-d with innumerable white points, which 
by a dim light present a most striking resem- 
blance to stars; and Cleveland's cabinet, an 
avenue about 2 m. long, spanned by an arch of 
50 ft, with an average central height of 10 ft. 
By many the last is regarded as the most won- 
derful object in the cave. "It is incrusted 
from end to end with the most beautiful for- 
mations in every variety of form. The base 
of the whole is sulphate of lime, in one part of 
dazzling whiteness and perfectly smooth, and 
in other places crystallized so as to glitter like 
diamonds in the light. Growing from this, in 
endless diversified forms, is a substance re- 
sembling selenite, translucent and imperfectly 
laminated. Some of the crystals bear a stri- 
king resemblance to celery, and all are of about 
the same length ; while others, a foot or more 
in length, have the color and appearance of 
vanilla cream candy ; others are set in sulphate 
of lime, in the form of a rose ; and others still 
roll out from the base in forms resembling the 
ornaments on the capital of a Corinthian col- 
umn. Some of the incrustations are massive 
and splendid ; others are as delicate as the lily, 
or as fancy work of shell or wood." Proctor's 
arcade is a magnificent natural tunnel three 
fourths of a mile long and 100 ft. wide, cov- 
ered by a ceiling of smooth rock, 45 ft. high. 
The Temple or Chief City is a chamber having 
an area of between four and five acres, and 
covered by a single dome of solid rock 120 
ft high. Lucy's dome, the highest of the 
objects of this class, is over 300 ft. high and 
about 60 ft. in its greatest diameter. Mam- 
moth dome and Stella's dome are each about 
250 ft. high, while Gorin's dome is about 200 
ft Sidesaddle pit, over which rests a dome 
60 ft high, is about 90 ft. deep and .20 ft. 
across. This and some of the other pits and 
domes in the cave have been formed out of 
the solid rock by the solvent action of water 
charged with carbonic acid. The deepest of 
the pits are the Maelstrom, 175 ft. in depth 
and 20 in diameter, and the Bottomless pit, 
of about the same depth. There are several 
bodies of water in the cave, the most con- 
siderable being Echo river, which is about 
three fourths of a mile long, 200 ft. wide at 
some points, and from 10 to 80 ft. deep ; its 
course is beneath an arched ceiling of smooth 
rock about 15 ft. high. This river has invisi- 
ble communication with Green river, the depth 
of water and the direction of the current in 
the former being regulated by the stage of 
water in the latter. The river Styx, 450 ft. 
long, 15 to 40 wide, and from 30 to 40 deep, is 
spanned by an interesting natural bridge about 
80 ft. above it. Lake Lethe is about 450 ft. 
long and from 10 to 40 wide, and varies in 



MAN 

depth from 3 to 30 ft. ; it lies beneath a ceil- 
ing about 90 ft. above its surface ; its waters 
sometimes rise to the height of 60 ft., in 
consequence of freshets in Green river. The 
Dead sea is a gloomy body of water somewhat 
smaller than the preceding. Two remarkable 
species of animal life are found in the cave, 
in the form of an eyeless fish and an eyeless 
crawfish, which are nearly white in color. 
Another species of fish has been found with 
eyes, but totally blind. Other animals known 
to exist in the cave are lizards, frogs, crickets, 
rats, bats, &c., besides ordinary fish and craw- 
fish washed in from Green river. The atmos- 
phere of the cave is pure and healthful; the 
temperature, which averages 59, is about the 
same in winter and summer, not being affected 
by climatic changes without. The Mammoth 
cave was discovered in 1809, and has always 
been the property of private individuals. For 
some time after its discovery saltpetre was 
made here. In this vicinity are also Proctor's 
cave, about 3 m. in length; White's cave, 
Diamond cave, and Indian cave, each about a 
mile long. Several accounts of this wonderful 
curiosity have been published, the most recent 
and complete being "The Mammoth Cave," 
by W. Stump Forwood (Philadelphia, 1870). 

MAN. See ANATOMY, ARCHEOLOGY, COM- 
PARATIVE ANATOMY, ETHNOLOGY, MAMMALIA, 
PHILOSOPHY, and PHYSIOLOGY. 

MAN, Isle of (Manx, Mannin, or Elian Van- 
nin ; Lat. Monapia), an island belonging to 
Great Britain, in the Irish sea, about mid- 
way between England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
its centre lying in lat. 54 16' K, Ion. 4 30' 
W.; length N. N. E. and S. S. W. 31 m., 
greatest breadth 12 m. ; area, 227 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 54,042. The coasts are very 
irregular, and on the east and southwest are 
precipitous. There are numerous bays with 
good anchorage. A ridge of mountains trav- 
erses the length of the island, culminating in 
Mt. Snaefell at an elevation of 2,024 ft. above 
the sea. Its prevailing geological formation is 
clay slate, varied on the E. side with large 
masses of granite. The principal rivers are 
the Neb, Colby, and Black and Gray Waters, 
all of which are very small. The climate is 
mild and equable, the mean temperature of 
summer being about 60 F. and of winter 42. 
The chief mineral resources of the island con- 
sist of lead, zinc, copper, and iron ; lead is ex- 
tensively mined. The soil is fruitful, but agri- 
culture is not in a very forward state. Oats, 
barley, wheat, potatoes, turnips, and hay 
the principal crops. A native breed of small 
sturdy horses, an inferior kind of sheep, 
horned cattle, and pigs in great number, 
among the domestic animals. The island 
sesses a breed of cats having either no 
at most a merely rudimental substitute for it. 
Sea birds and some rare kinds of fish are 
found. The fisheries of herring were formerl 
the principal reliance of the islanders, but 
late have become inconsiderable. There 



MANAGUA 



MANAKIN 



8T 



HI' 

: 

co: 



e bleaching works, but few manufacturing 
establishments. The government is vested in 
the queen in council, the governor, and the 
house of keys," a self -perpetuating body, 
nsisting of 24 landed proprietors, who are 
nsidered the representatives of the people, 
and whose concurrence is necessary to give 
validity to every law ; the acts of the British 
parliament do not affect the isle of Man unless 
expressly extended to it. The governor is ap- 
pointed by the crown and assisted by a coun- 
cil of officers. Besides the ordinary civil and 
ecclesiastical courts, there are ancient tribu- 
nals called "deemsters' courts," the judges of 
which, called deemsters, are chosen by the 
people, one for the N. and another for the S. 
division of the island, and possess very exten- 
sive authority. Questions relating to the her- 
ring fishery are tried before an officer called 
the water bailiff, who also appoints two fisher- 
men called admirals to preserve order among 
their fellows. The established religion is that 
of the church of England, under the bishop of 
Sodor and Man, who has a seat but no vote in 
the British house of lords. The island was 
originally peopled by the Manx, a Celtic tribe, 
whose language, a sub-dialect of the Gaelic 
or Celtic, forming one branch with the Erse 
and Irish, is still spoken in the northwest and 
west, though English is generally understood. 
The island was held for some time as a feu- 
dal sovereignty by the earls of Derby, and af- 
terward by the dukes of Athol, from whom 
the sovereignty and revenues were purchased 
by the crown in 1765 for the sum of 70,000, 
to which an annuity of 2,000 was subse- 
quently added. In 1829 the ducal family's 
remaining interests in the island, including 
the manorial rights and patronage of the see, 
were sold to the crown for 416,114. The 
chief towns are Castletown (the capital), Peel, 
Douglas, and Ramsay. 

MANAGUA, a city and the capital of Nicaragua, 
and of the department of Granada, situated on 
the S. shore of the lake of the same name, 
220 ft. above the level of the Pacific, in lat. 12 
7' N., Ion. 86 12' W. ; pop. about 6,500, for 
the most part proprietors of the fertile lands 
which surround it, and which are productive 
in all tropical staples. The public buildings 
are few and devoid of beauty. The old parish 
church, which was in a state of ruin, has been 
demolished, and a new edifice is in process of 
construction ; and there are four other churches. 
The national palace is a low square edifice with 
balconies in the Spanish style, the only ornate 
portions of which are the congress halls and 
those occupied by the president of the repub- 
lic. A new structure beside the palace con- 
tains the cdbildo or city hall, a prison, and 
barracks. The environs of Managua are vry 
picturesque; on the declivities of the moun- 
tain range to the south there are more than 
100 coffee plantations, yielding copious crops, 
despite the lack of water for irrigation in some 
of them ; and in another direction are the 



lakes of Tiscapa-, Nejapa, and Asososca, near 
the banks of which last exist curious antique 
paintings. Managua owes its rank as capital 
chiefly to the rivalries of the cities of Granada 
and Leon, and partly to its central position. 

MANAGUA, Lake, a beautiful body of water in 
Nicaragua, about 40 m. long by 16 m. wide, 
157 ft. above the Pacific ocean, from which it 
is separated by a ridge of land 15 m. broad in 
its narrowest part. It has a depth of water 
varying from 2 to 40 fathoms ; but numerous 
moving sand banks render its navigation diffi- 
cult for large vessels. The N. and E. banks 
are unhealthy marshy deserts ; the W. shores 
are sandy, interspersed with bold rocks; and 
there are several ports, that of Managua being 
the best, and the point designated for the in- 
land terminus of the projected railway from 
the lake to the port of Corinto via Leon. It 
has an outlet at its S. extremity called Eio 
Tipitapa or Estero de Panaloya, connecting it 
with Lake Nicaragua. The difference of level 
between the two lakes, at average stages of 
water, is 28 ft. The Rio Tipitapa, during se- 
vere rainy seasons, has a considerable body 
of water ; but it is frequently almost dry, the 
evaporation from the surface of the lake ex- 
ceeding the supply of water from its tributa- 
ries, which are all intermittent streams, ex- 
cept Sinogapa and Rio Viejo. In the various 
projects for an interoceanic communication 
through Nicaragua, it has been proposed to 
connect the two lakes by means of a canal, 
deepening the Tipitapa and constructing a se- 
ries of locks to the superior lake, with another 
canal from the lake to the port of Realejo, 
or by means of the Estero Real to the bay of 
Fonseca. Bet ween "the N. portion of the lake 
and the Pacific there is only the magnificent 
plain of Leon, having an elevation at its high- 
est part of about 50 ft. above the level of 
water in the lake. The volcano of Momo- 
tombo projects boldly into the lake at its N. 
extremity, and within the lake itself rises the 
island cone of Moraotombita, which had a sa- 
cred repute among the aborigines, and still 
contains numbers of their idols and other 
monuments, concealed beneath the shadows 
of its dense forests. The city of Leon was 
first built on the shore of the N. "W. extremity 
of the lake, at a place called Imbita, abandoned 
for the present site in 1610. 

MANAKIN, the name applied to the denti- 
rostral birds of the family ampelidce or chat- 
terers and subfamily piprina; they are gen- 
erally small and of brilliant colors, and with 
one exception inhabitants of the warmer parts 
of South America. They have a moderate or 
short bill, depressed, with broad base, curved 
ridge, compressed sides, and toothed tip; the 
nostrils are hidden by the frontal feathers ; the 
wings generally short and pointed ; tail short 
and even ; tarsi moderate and slender ; toes long, 
the outer united to the middle to beyond the 
second joint ; claws acute. The red manakin 
or chatterer (phoenicercus carnifex, Swains.) is 



88 



MANAKIN 



about 7 in. long; the crest, lower back, rump, 
lower belly, thighs, and vent, bright crimson ; 
iv*t of plumage dull red, dusky on the back; 
tail crinixm, with end and outer web dusky 
brown; the female is of a general greenish 
olive color, with tinges of red on the head, ab- 




Eed Manakln (Phoenicercus carnifex). 

domen, and tail ; the young birds are brown- 
ish with whitish markings. This and the P. 
nigricollis (Swains.) inhabit the eastern parts 
of tropical South America. The blue-backed 
manakin (pipra pareola, Linn.) is 4 in. long ; 
the plumage is black, with the back and lesser 
wing coverts blue, and a crest of bright crim- 
son feathers ; the female and young are green- 
ish. There are more than 30 other species. 
These beautiful and active birds inhabit damp 
woods, on the borders of which they live in 
small flocks, seeking for insects and fruits. 
The rock manakins belong to the genus rupi- 
cola (Briss.), of which the best known species 




Orange Manakin (Euplcola crocea). 

is the orange manakin or cock of the rock (R. 
crocta, Bonn.); the plumage is saffron orange 
with the auffli partly whit,, and partly brown, 
ami the wing coverts loose and fringed; it has 
a singular crest of feathers arranged in two 
planes, arising from the sides of the head and 



MANATEE 

meeting over and in front of the bill ; the size 
is that of a small pigeon. This handsome spe- 
cies inhabits rocky places near the borders of 
the streams in Guiana, and its legs and feet are 
nearly as stout as in a gallinaceous bird of the 
same size, whence its common name ; it is ac- 
tive and suspicious, feeding on fruits and ber- 
ries; the nest is placed in holes in the rocks, 
composed of roots, grass, and earth, lined with 
finer materials ; it lays two white eggs, about 
the size of those of a pigeon ; it is now com- 
paratively rare, as it is hunted for the beauty 
of its plumage. There is a species in Peru (JR. 
Peruviana, Lath.), of a reddish saffron color, 
with black quills and tail, and ashy wing cov- 
erts ; it is a little larger than the other. The 
only old-world representative of this subfam- 
ily belongs to the genus calyptomena (Raffles)^ 
found in the thick forests of Java and Suma- 
tra ; the plumage is shining green, with a spot 
on each side of the nape, three oblique stripes 
on the wings, and the quills, except the out- 
er margins, dark-colored. The only species 
described by Gray is the green manakin (0. 
viridis, Raffi.), about 6 in. long; the color so 
nearly resembles the foliage of the high trees 
upon which it generally perches, that it is very 
difficult to see and to procure ; its food is en- 
tirely vegetable. 

M \Ylss.ls JUNCTION, Battle of. See BULL 
RUN. 

MANiSSEH. I. The elder son of Joseph, son 
of Jacob, adopted by the latter on his death- 
bed to become the head of one of the tribes 
of Israel, yet made inferior to his younger 
brother Ephraim. At the time of the census 
at Sinai the tribe of Manasseh numbered 32,- 
200, and 40 years later 52,700. On the con- 
quest of Palestine, half of the tribe received 
from Moses its allotment E. of the Jordan, N. 
of Gad, and the other half received from 
Joshua the region W. of the Jordan, between 
Issachar on the north and Ephraim on the 
south, the Mediterranean forming the western 
boundary. The eastern division contained 
among others the districts of Ituraa, Tracho- 
nitis, Gaulonitis, Batanaea, and part of Gilead- 
itis, and the towns of Gadara, Ashtaroth, 
Edrei, Gamala, Jabesh-Gilead, Mahanaim, and 
Gerasa. The western division was less impor- 
tant in history, it being almost always over- 
shadowed by its southern neighbor, Ephraim. 
II. A king of Judah, 696-641 B. C. See HE- 
BREWS, vol. viii., p. 589. 

MANATEE, Lamantin, or Sea Cow, a large aquat- 
ic mammal (manatus, Cuv.), which was ar- 
ranged by Cuvier among cetaceans, forming 
with the dugong the herbivorous group of 
this order, the family sirenia of Illiger. Re- 
cently, on account of the many important dif- 
ferences in their organization, they have been 
removed from cetaceans and placed in an or- 
der called sirenoids, intermediate between the 
old order of pachyderms and the cetaceans. 
The manatee has an elongated, fish-like body 
like that of the whales, the anterior limbs be- 



MANATEE 



89 



ing flattened into fins, and the posterior limbs 
wanting and only represented by a rudimen- 
tary pelvis ; the tail is oval, about one fourth 
of the extent of the body, ending in a flatten- 
ed, horizontal, rounded caudal expansion; in 
these respects it resembles cetaceans. It dif- 
fers from cetaceans in the separation of the 
cervical vertebra ; the smaller total number in 
the whole column, and the absence of osseous 
disks between the bodies ; the articulation of 
the ribs to two vertebral bodies and to trans- 
verse processes ; the long and narrow scapula; 
the regularly shaped huinerus ; the rounded 
radius and ulna ; the compact structure of the 
phalangeal bones ; the wide separation of the 
occipital condyles, and their partly horizontal 
position, and the large size of the occipital 
foramen ; the well marked and strong su- 
tures, and the absence of internal bony falces ; 
the fusion of the parietals into one ; the posi- 
tion of the frontals as usual in front of the 
parietals ; the strong zygomatic arches ; the 




Manatee (Manatus latirostris). 

symmetry of the cranial bones and their usual 
position ; the shape of the jaws, and the char- 
acter of the molars ; and the structure of the 
stomach and heart. Many other distinctions 
are given in the " Proceedings " of the third 
meeting of the American association for the 
advancement of science, Charleston, S. C., 1850 
(pp. 42-47). The head is conical, without a 
distinct line of separation from the body ; the 
fleshy nose much resembles that of a cow, the 
nostrils opening as usual on the end of the 
snout ; the full upper lip has on each side a 
few bristly tufts of hair; the mouth is not 
large, and the eyes are small; the openings 
of the ears are very small. The swimming 
paws are more free in their motions than in 
cetaceans, and may be used also for crawling 
up the muddy banks of the rivers in which 
they dwell; the separate bones may be felt 
through the skin, and the fingers are provided 
with small nails. The skin is of a grayish 
black color, becoming black on drying, with a 
few scattered bristles. In the young animal 



there are two sharp incisor teeth in the up- 
per jaw, which afterward fall out ; there 
are no canines ; the molars are generally f~f-, 
with quadrangular flat crowns, divided by a 
transverse groove. The bones are dense and 
heavy, differing in this from cetaceans ; the 
ribs are numerous and rounded ; the mamma} 
are two and pectoral ; the intestinal canal is 
10 or 12 times the length of the body, in ac- 
cordance with the vegetable character of their 
food ; the stomach has two csecal appendages 
in the pyloric portion, which is separated from 
the cardiac by a constriction. They inhabit 
the sea shores, especially about the mouths of 
rivers, and the rivers themselves, keeping 
near the land, feeding upon algas and aquatic 
plants; they do not feed upon the shores, 
though they sometimes quit the water, and not 
unf requently support themselves in the shallows 
in a semi-erect position ; under these circum- 
stances they present at a distance somewhat 
of human appearance, increased by the dis- 
tinct lips, the long whiskers in the male, and 
the pectoral mammse in the female. The 
largest and best known species is the Florida 
manatee (M. latirostris, Harlan), which inhab- 
its the gulf of Mexico and the West Indies ; 
it sometimes attains a length of 15 or 20 ft., 
but is generally about 12. They are usually 
seen in small troops, associating for mutual 
protection and for the defence of their young ; 
they are harmless even when attacked, of gen- 
tle disposition, not afraid of man, and rarely 
quarrelling with each other. Being found 
only in shallow waters, they are easily cap- 
tured. Their flesh is wholesome and palatable. 
The South American manatee (Jf. australis, 
Wiegm.), usually 9 or 10 ft. long, is not un- 
common about the mouths of the great riv- 
ers of northern Brazil and Guiana ; it ascends 
the streams several hundred miles, and even 
into inland fresh-water lakes ; the flesh of this 
aquatic mammal is considered fish by the Eo- 
man Catholic church in Brazil, and may conse- 
quently be eaten on fast days ; salted and dried 
in the sun, it is an excellent meat; the oil 
from the blubber is of fine quality, and free 
from smell ; the hide is made into harnesses 
and whips, and is noted for strength and dura- 
bility. An African species (M. Senegalensis, 
Desm.) is rarely more than 9 ft. long. The 
manatees are all tropical, but are not found in 
the Pacific or Indian oceans, their place being 
there taken by the allied dugongs (halicore, Illi- 
ger). There was among the Kussians an animal 
called the northern manatee or sea cow ; this is 
the creature described by Steller, forming the 
genus rhytina (111.) or Stellera (Cuv.). This, 
the R. Stelleri (Desm.), was unknown before 
1741, when Behring's second expedition was 
wrecked on an island in the straits bearing his 
name; its flesh formed the principal food of 
the shipwrecked mariners for nearly a year ; 
one of the party, Steller, described the ani- 
mal, and his account was published in St. Pe- 
tersburg, and probably contains all that will 



90 



MANATEE 



ever be known concerning it, as in 1768 the 
crews of the ships in pursuit of sea otters had 
entirely exterminated it; it has met the fate 
of the dodo, but at a much more recent pe- 
riod ; a skull and a few fragments are said to 
exist in European museums. It had no teeth, 
the jaws being covered with an undulating 
surface of horny tubular matter ; the head was 
small, the body covered with a thick, fibrous, 
fissured epidermis, and the caudal fin lunate. 
It attained a length of 25 ft., and formerly lived 
in the neighborhood of Behring island on the 
coast of Kamtchatka. The epidermis had a 
singular structure, being composed of perpen- 
dicular horny tubes, sometimes an inch in 
length, of a blackish brown color, rough and 
wrinkled like the bark of a tree, and so tough 
as to be with difficulty cut with an axe; it 
served to protect the animal from the ice and 
sharp rocks among which it fed. They lived 
in shallow water in troops, the older protect- 
ing the younger ; they were harmless and very 
tame, and strongly attached to each other ; 
they fed on fuci under water, and the skin, fat, 
and flesh were esteemed by the natives. 

MANATEE, a S. "W. county of Florida, bor- 
dering on the gulf of Mexico, touching Lake 
Okeechobee at the S. E. corner, bounded S. 
by the Caloosahatchee river, and watered by 
the Manatee river, Pease creek, and other 
streams; area, 4,070 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
1,931, of whom 88 were colored. Along the 
coast are numerous low sandy islands, within 
which lie Sarasota bay and Charlotte harbor. 
The surface of the mainland is low and level, 
and not very fertile. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 12,727 bushels of Indian corn, 
21,652 of sweet potatoes, 29 bales of cotton, 
41 hogsheads of sugar, and 71,452 Ibs. of rice. 
There were 330 horses, 44,970 cattle, and 5,197 
swine. Capital, Manatee, or Pine Level. 
MAVAYUNK. See PHILADELPHIA. 
MANBY, George William, an English officer, 
born at Hilgay, Norfolk county, Nov. 28, 1765, 
died at Southtown, Nov. 18, 1854. He was 
educated at the military college of Woolwich, 
and became in 1803 barrack master at Great 
Yarmouth. Here he attempted casting a rope 
from the shore to a wreck by means of gun- 
powder. The problem to be solved was the 
maintenance of the connection between the 
rope and the mortar during its transmission. 
Ch.iins were unable to stand the shock of the 
discharge, but stout strips of raw hide closely 
platted together were found to answer; and 
on Feb. 12, 1808, the entire crew of the brig 
Elizabeth, wrecked within 150 yards of the 
beach, were rescued by this simple contrivance. 
In 1810 his invention was brought before a 
committee of the house of commons, and he 
received a grant of money, and all the dan- 
gerous stations on the British coasts were sup- 
.vitli hi- apparatus. He also contrived a 
pyrotechnic which renders vessels visible from 
shore on the darkest night; and shells filled 
with luminous matter, to enable the crew to 



MANCHESTER 

perceive the approach of the rope. He pub- 
lished "The History and Antiquities of the 
Parish of St. David, South Wales" (1801), and 
kindred works; also "Journal of a Voyage to 
Greenland in 1821 " (1822). 

MAX HA, La, an old province of Spain, chiefly 
in the S. part of New Castile, now included 
in the central and eastern portions of Ciudad 
Real, and the adjoining parts of Cuenca and 
Albacete ; area, about 7,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 
200,000. The N. W. and S. E. portions are 
mountainous, and the centre in general a deso- 
.ate sandy plateau. The towns are few and 
uninteresting ; the cottages in the villages are 
built of mud. Most of the country is denuded 
of trees, exposed to the wintry blasts, and 
scorched by the summer heat. The earth is 
arid and stony; the dust is impregnated with 
saltpetre, and the glare of the sun almost blinds 
the eye. Water is wanting, and dry dung is 
used for fuel. In some places, however, corn, 
saffron, and wines are produced ; and the mules 
of La Mancha are celebrated. The natives are 
jovial, honest, industrious, brave, and temper- 
ate. The scenery has become celebrated by 
the descriptions in " Don Quixote." 

M \\CIIK, La, a N. W. department of France, 
in Normandy, bordering on the English chan- 
nel and the departments of Calvados, Orne, 
Mayenne, and llle-et-Vilaine ; area, 2,289 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1872, 544,776. The coast is gen- 
erally flat, and lined with swamps. There 
are several excellent harbors, the principal of 
which are Cherbourg, La Hogue, and Gran- 
ville. La Manche has several short but navi- 
gable rivers, the principal of which is the Vire, 
and is traversed from N. to S. by a hilly range 
of moderate height, called Cotentin, which 
gives its name to the peninsular portion of the 
department. The rest of the surface is undu- 
lating, the soil rich, and the climate moist and 
mild. A prevailing crop is a species of black 
oats. The quantity of cider made is very great. 
A considerable portion of the land is under 
pasturage. The horses are among the best in 
France. Iron, lead, and coal are mined, and 
granite, marble, slate, and limestone are quar- 
ried. Salt is largely manufactured on the 
coast, and in the towns iron, zinc, copper, 
woollen, and cotton. The department is di- 
vided into the six arrondissements of St. Ld, 
Avranches, Cherbourg, Coutances, Mortain, 
and Valognes. Capital, St. L6. 

MANCHESTER, one of the shire towns of Hills- 
borough co., New Hampshire, and the largest 
city in the state, situated on both banks (but 
chiefly on the E.) of the Merrimack river, 18m. 
S. by E. of Concord, and 46 m. N. W. of Bos- 
ton; pop. in 1850, 13,932 ; in 1860, 20,107; in 
1870, 23,536, of whom 7,158 were foreigners, 
including a considerable number of French Ca- 
nadians. The villages of Amoskeag and Piscat- 
aquog are on the W. side of the river, which is 
crossed by five bridges. The city is regularly 
laid out in squares, and the main street is 100 
ft. wide, planted with elms on each side at in- 



MANCHESTER 



91 



rals of 40 ft. for more than a mile. There are 
five public squares of considerable extent in the 
central portion, three of them containing ponds. 
Valley cemetery, the largest in the city, is situ- 
ated in the S. W. part, E. of the Merrimack ; and 
there are two small cemeteries "W. of the river. 
Manchester has railroad communication with 
Boston, Concord, Portsmouth, and other points, 
by means of the Concord, the Manchester and 
Lawrence, the Manchester and North Weare, 
and the Portsmouth railroads. It is one of the 
rincipal manufacturing cities of New England, 



being supplied with ample water power by 
the Blodgett canal, built in 1816 around the 
Amoskeag falls in the Merrimack. The fall is 
47 ft., with rapids above, giving a total de- 
scent of 54 ft. in the space of a mile. The 
water power is owned by the Amoskeag man- 
ufacturing company, which has a reservoir in 
the N. E. part of the city capable of holding 
11,000,000 gallons, for supplying the mills. 
The following table exhibits the statistics of 
the five corporations engaged in the manufac- 
ture of cotton and woollen goods in 1874 : 



CORPORATIONS. 


Dale of 
incorpora- 
tion. 


Capital. 


No. of 
looms. 


Spindlei. 


Opera- 
tives. 


Yardi manu- 
factured per 
week. 


Lbs. of cotton 
and wool con- 
sumed per 
week. 


Amoskeag manufacturing company 


1831 


$3,000,000 


8,500 


125,000 


4200 


600000 


200 000 


Stark mills 


1838 


1 250 000 


1 800 


40000 


1 200 


880 000 


110 000 




1839 


1 800 000 


2150 


loo'ooo 


3000 


400 000 


110 000 


Langdon manufacturing company 


185T 


600,000 


704 


33600 


500 


100000 


28000 


Namaske mill 


185T 


100,000 




5,000 


100 






















Total 




$6 650 000 


7654 


303600 


9000 


1 430 000 


448000 



















Of the operatives, 2,700 were males and 6,300 
females. The Amoskeag company also manu- 
factures steam fire engines, and the Manchester 
company operates extensive print works. The 
Manchester and Namaske companies manufac- 
ture woollens as well as cottons, and the Stark 
mills some linens ; the others, only cotton 
goods. The principal kinds of goods are tick- 
ings, denims, stripes, ginghams, sheetings, shirt- 
ings, print cloths, balmorals, cotton flannels, 
cotton duck, seamless bags, delaines, angola 
flannels, fancy cassimeres, alpacas, poplins, 
silesias, &c. The Amoskeag paper mill em- 
ploys about 40 hands. There are also a manu- 
factory of hosiery, one of boots and shoes, one 
of edge tools, one of locomotives, several of 
machinery and iron castings, of carriages, and 
of circular saws, a brass foundery, and an ale 
brewery. The city contains four national 
banks, with an aggregate capital of $650,000 ; 
five savings banks, with about 18,500 deposi- 
tors and $7,250,000 deposits ; and a fire insu- 
rance company, with $200,000 capital. It is 
divided into seven wards, and is governed by a 
mayor and a board of aldermen of one mem- 
ber and a common council of three members 
from each ward. There is an efficient police 
force, and the fire department is well organ- 
ized. The streets are well paved and sewered 
and lighted with gas. Water is supplied from 
Lake Massabesic on the N. E. border of the 
city by works recently erected. The assessed 
value of property in 1873 was $12,001,200; 
tax, $300,768 ; value of city property, $717,- 
120 45; net debt, Jan. 1, 1874, $807,860 16. 
Manchester is the seat of the state reform 
school, which occupies a brick building on the 
E. bank of the Merrimack, capable of accom- 
modating 150 inmates. The public schools are 
in a flourishing condition, and in 1873 embraced 
45 departments (1 high, 1 training or normal, 
5 grammar, 6 middle, the rest primary or un- 
graded) ; number of teachers, 69; pupils en- 



rolled, 3,779; average attendance, 2,284; cost 
of maintenance, $49,062 17, including $36,- 
451 58 for teachers' wages ; value of school 
property, $249,675. Besides these, evening 
schools are maintained during a portion of the 
year, and there are several Catholic schools 
connected with the churches and convent. The 
latter also conducts an orphan asylum. The 
city library at the close of 1873 contained 
17,672 volumes. Two daily and three weekly 
newspapers and a monthly periodical are pub- 
lished. The number of churches is 16, viz. : 
2 Baptist, 1 Christian, 2 Congregational, 1 
Episcopal, 2 Freewill Baptist, 2 Methodist, 3 
Roman Catholic (1 French), 1 Second Advent, 
1 Unitarian, and 1 TJniversalist, The place was 
first settled near the falls about 1730, incorpo- 
rated under the name of Derryfield in 1751, 
and named Manchester by act of the legislature 
in 1810. It received a city charter in 1846. 

MANCHESTER, a town of Hartford co., Con- 
necticut, on the Hartford, Providence, and 
Fishkill railroad, 5 m. E. of Hartford ; pop. in 
1870, 4,223. It contains extensive manufac- 
tories of book, government, and bank-note 
paper, of woollens and ginghams, print works, 
a silk factory, several carriage factories, &c. 
A weekly newspaper is published. The paper 
mills are at North Manchester, 3 m. from 
which is South Manchester, which has grown 
up around the Cheney silk works, the most ex- 
tensive in America. Dress silks and sewing 
silks are manufactured in immense quanti- 
ties, by ingenious machinery, much of which 
was invented solely for use here. The cocoons 
are imported, and all the work of spinning, 
weaving, and dyeing is done here. The village 
was laid out by a landscape gardener ; there 
are no fences, and pigs and poultry are prohib- 
ited. It is lighted with gas. There is a hand- 
some public hall, with a library and reading 
room, and a free school to which the opera- 
tives are required to send their children. 



92 



MANCHESTER 



MANCHESTER (anc. Mancunium), the most 
important manufacturing city in Great Britain, 
situated in the S. E. corner of Lancashire, on 
both sides of the river Irwell, 162 m. N. N. W. 
of London, and 31 m. E. by N. of Liverpool. 
It consists of Manchester proper, including 
several suburbs on the E. bank of the Irwell, 
and the borough of Salford on the W. bank; 
pop. in 1871, 475,990, of whom 351,189 were 
in Manchester city, and 124,801 in Salford (ex- 
clusive of suburban districts not lying within 
the municipal limits). The two towns, although 
having distinct municipal governments, consti- 
tute in all other respects one city. They are 
connected by eight bridges, among which are 
the Victoria, of a single arch, and Blackfriars, 
of three arches, of stone ; the bridges of Strange- 
ways and Springfield Lane, of iron ; and the 
iron suspension bridge of Broughton. The 
streets are intersected by numerous canals, 
crossed by bridges, and are generally well paved 
and lighted ; but the site is low, and notwith- 
standing the recent improved drainage and 
the introduction of an abundant supply of 
pure water, Manchester is still one of the most 
unhealthy places in the kingdom, the annual 
death rate being about 3 -2 per cent. A portion 
of the place still presents an antiquated ap- 
pearance, but there are many handsome streets, 
such as Market street, Portland place, Grosve- 
nor square, Mosley street, George street, King 
street, Ardwick green, Salford crescent, &c. 
There are several handsome public parks and 
gardens, of which the most important are the 
botanical and horticultural gardens ; the Peel 
park, on the Irwell, 
with an area of 32 
acres; Victoria park, 
between London and 
Oxford roads, a space 
of 140 acres, cov- 
ered with villas ; the 
Queen's park, Phillips 
park, and Alexandra 
park, opened in 1870. 
The buildings devoted 
to business and man- 
ufactures have gener- 
ally an imposing ap- 
pearance. A marked 
change has been made 
of late years in the 
architectural charac- 
ter of the city. New 
squares have been 
l:i-l '"it, new streets 
opened, and commer- 
cial buildings of a 
more ornamental ap- 
pearance have been erected. In Manches- 
T proper, in 1872, there were 168 places of 
worship, of which 8 were Baptist, 51 Church 

Kngland, 26 Independent, 45 Wesleyan and 
other Methodist, 12 Roman Catholic, 9 Pres- 
'>r. nan, and 5 Unitarian; including Salford 
the whole number exceeds 200. The parish' 



church, commenced by Lord Delaware in 1422, 
and since 1847, when Manchester became a 
bishopric, the cathedral, is a highly ornamented 
Gothic structure, 216 ft. long and 120ft. wide; 
but being built of a soft and mouldering stone, 
many repairs have been necessary, which give 
the structure a modern appearance; it has 
within a few years been restored at a great ex- 
pense, and a new tower has been added to re- 
place the old one, which was found incapable 
of restoration. There are several other hand- 
some churches, among which are St. George's, 
in the suburb of Hulme, and the Roman Cath- 
olic cathedral of St. John, in Salford. Trin- 
ity church in Salford, the oldest in the bor- 
ough f has a fine Gothic tower, and is interest- 
ing from the antique aspect of the interior. 
The old town hall, in King street, is in the 
Grecian style, and contains a hall 130 ft. long 
by 38 ft. wide, having its walls and dome cov- 
ered by allegorical frescoes ; but having become 
inadequate to the needs of the city, a new town 
hall, commenced in 1868, has been completed 
at a cost of 250,000. The new exchange is 
an Italian edifice, with a porch flanked by two 
towers, the great hall having a clear breadth 
of 120 ft. The corn exchange is an Ionic 
structure capable of holding 2,400 persons. 
The free-trade hall, somewhat irregular but 
large and effective, occupies the site of the old 
free-trade hall, and like it is noted in the his- 
tory of Manchester as the place of several im- 
portant political meetings. The new building, 
erected in 1856, occupies an area of 20,700 
sq. ft.; it contains a hall 134 ft. long, 78 




Eoyal Exchange, Manchester. 



wide, and 52 high, and will hold 5,000 per- 
sons. The Salford town hall is one of the 
handsomest buildings in the town. The new 
royal exchange has a handsome front with 
Corinthian columns; its great room is 207ft. 
long, 193 wide, and 80 high ; the roof is sup- 
ported by two rows of pillars, with a span of 



MANCHESTER 



93 



rly 100 ft. between them. The new assize 
courts were opened in 1864; the building is 
Gothic, 270 ft. long and 140 deep, with a tower 
210 ft. high. The branch bank of England, op- 
>osite the town hall, is a fine structure, in the 
rrecian style, with a Doric colonnade. The 
infirmary, erected in 1755, is built on 



three sides of a quadrangle, each with a por- 
tico supported by four fluted Ionic columns, 
the whole surrounded with grass borders and 
walks, with a sheet of water in front ; it has 
an income of 9,000, and annually relieves 
more than 20,000 patients. Among the other 
notable public buildings are the court halls, 







The Assize Courts, Manchester. 



the jails, and the asylum for the blind and the 
deaf and dumb. In front of the new town 
hall is the Albert memorial, including a statue 
of Prince Albert. Two statues of Richard 
Cobden were erected in 1867, one in St. 
Anne's square, the other in Peel park. In 
front of the royal infirmary is a statue of Dai- 
ton ; and there are also statues of Watt, Wel- 
lington, and Peel. Among scientific, literary, 
and art associations are the royal Manches- 
ter institution, occupying buildings which cost 
40,000, and devoted to the exhibition of 
paintings, lectures, &c. ; the mechanics' insti- 
tution, founded in 1825, for which a new edi- 
fice was erected in 1856, established for the 
instruction of the working classes, male and 
female, in the principles of the arts they prac- 
tise and in other branches of useful knowledge ; 
and natural history, botanical, horticultural, ge- 
ological, statistical, and medical societies. The 
royal school of medicine and surgery, founded 
in 1824, has 80 to 100 students. The literary and 
philosophical society, established in 1781, has 
numbered many distinguished members, and 
has issued several volumes of valuable trans- 
actions. The Chetham society, established in 
1843, has published 22 volumes of historical 
and literary remains. There are many public 
libraries. *The free library, founded by volun- 
tary subscription, and maintained by a muni- 
cipal rate, has four branches, and is divided 
into two departments, reference and lending, 



each having about 40,000 volumes. A free 
library of about 25,000 volumes is attached to 
Chetham's hospital, or the " College " as it is 
now simply called, an institution founded in 
1651 by Humphrey Chetham, for the educa- 
tion of poor boys. Owens college was found- 
ed in 1846 by the mtnificence of a merchant 
of the city, who bequeathed for the purpose 
more than 100,000, which has of late been 
considerably enlarged by means of a fund raised 
by public subscription ; it issues certificates 
to candidates for the degrees of bachelor of 
arts and bachelor of laws, to be conferred by 
the university of London. The Lancashire In- 
dependent college was established by the In- 
dependents as a theological seminary, and will 
accommodate 50 students. Manchester New 
college, Unitarian, founded in 1786, was re- 
moved to London in 1857 ; and in 1865 Memo- 
rial Hall was erected in Manchester as a Uni- 
tarian college. There is a free grammar school 
founded by Hugh Oldham, bishop of Exeter, 
in 1515-'25. The Jubilee school trains pupils 
for domestic service. Manchester is supplied 
with water from a " gathering ground," about 
24 m. distant, of nearly 20,000 acres. The 
reservoirs form a series of 10 artificial lakes of 
a capacity of 600,000,000 .cubic ft. The pure 
water only is supplied to the city, the turbid 
water being collected in separate reservoirs 
and used for mill purposes. The water is con- 
veyed in aqueducts 12 m. to Godley, thence to 



MANCHESTER 



two reservoirs at Denton, and thence 4 m. to 
Manchester. The works are capable of fur- 
nishing 40,000,000 gallons daily, and their cost 
was about 1,050,000. Manchester is the cen- 
tre of a great system of canals, and has rail- 
way communication with nearly all parts of 
England. The Liverpool and Manchester line 
was the first railway on which was attempted 
the practical application of steam power for 
the transportation of passengers. The borough 
of Manchester, comprising besides the city 
itself the townships of Charlton-upon-Medlock, 
Hulme, Ardwick, and Chetham, with the ex- 
tra-parochial district of Beswick (total pop. in 
1871, 379,374), was incorporated by royal char- 
ter in October, 1838. The management of its 
local affairs is intrusted to a town council of 
64 members, styled respectively mayor, alder- 
men, and councillors, who appoint from their 
body committees for the transaction of public 
business, who report their proceedings for ap- 
proval at the general meeting of the council. 
This council have introduced many valuable 
improvements, notable among which are the 
water works ; it is anticipated that when these 
are fully completed, the sale of water for the 
purposes of trade will be sufficient to defray 
the entire expense, leaving free that required 
for domestic purposes. The gas works are 
also under control of the council, and notwith- 
standing the price of gas has been frequent- 
ly reduced, there is a profit of about 35,000 
a year, which is expended in improving and 
widening the streets. In 1846 the town coun- 
cil purchased from Sir Oswald Mosley his ma- 
norial rights for 200,000, of which 195,000 
was left on mortgage at an interest of 3| per 
cent. ; the income from this property now 
amounts to 16,000 a year. The borough for- 
merly returned two members to parliament, 
but by the reform act of 1867 the number was 
raised to three. The borough of Salford, con- 
stituted by the reform act of 1832, returns two 
members to parliament. It is governed by a 
mayor, 8 aldermen, and 24 councillors. Man- 
chester has from a very remote period been con- 
nected with industry and trade ; but its present 
great importance is specially due to the mag- 
nitude of its cotton manufactures, the great- 
est in the world. It is mentioned as having 
maintained a trade with the Greeks of Massilia 
(Marseilles^. In 1552 an act was passed for the 
better manufacture of "Manchester cottons;" 
and in 1650 its manufactures ranked among 
the first in extent and importance, and its peo- 
ple were described as " the most industrious in 
the northern parts of the kingdom." The in- 
adequate supply of cotton goods about the 
middle of the last century stimulated efforts 
for increasing the means of production; and 
the machines successively invented by Leigh, 
Baches, Arkwright, llargreaves, and others, 
Ini'l their efficiency vastly increased by the 
steam engine of Watt. The value of the ex- 
ports of the cotton industry in 1780 was 355,- 
060; it rose in 1781 to 1,101,457, and in 



1856 it had reached upward of 38,000,000. 
The imports of raw cotton in 1751 were to the 
amount of 2,976,610 Ibs. ; in 1780, upward of 
6,700,000; in 1800, 56,000,000; and in 1860, 
1,115,890,608. In 1857 an advance in the 
price of American cotton caused the formation 
in Manchester of the cotton supply association, 
to procure the staple from other countries. 
After the outbreak of the civil war in the Uni- 
ted States, Manchester suffered severely from 
the cotton famine, and in 1862 more than one 
third of the operatives were thrown out of 
employment. At the close of the war there 
was a renewal of activity, though the import 
of United States cotton in 1870 was but little 
more than half the supply from the same source 
in 1860. Sole reliance, however, is not now 
placed on the American supply. During the 
war the machinery of many of the mills was 
altered to adapt it to the fibre from India and 
Egypt, and these mills still continue to use to 
a large extent the cotton from those countries. 
Connected with the cotton manufacture are 
many important and extensive branches of in- 
dustry, such as bleaching, printing, and dyeing 
works, manufactures of the various materials 
employed in those processes, and particularly 
the great establishments for the construction 
of steam engines and machinery. It is also the 
chief market in the world for cotton yarn or 
thread, the supply of which passes through the 
hands of numerous resident foreign merchants, 
who export it to their respective countries, 
giving to Manchester in this respect a char- 
acter quite unique among inland cities. The 
manufacture of silk and silk goods, and of 
mixed cotton and silk fabrics, is also largely 
carried on. The following table, furnished by 
the inspector of factories, presents the statis' 
tics of the manufacturing industry in 1871 : 



MANUFACTURES. 


No. of 
works. 


Steam 
powwr. 


Total No. 
of persons 
employed. 


Textile fabrics and clothing: 
Cotton factories 
Worsted " 


Ill 
13 


16,564 
671 


20,346 
2538 


Silk " 


11 


185 


I'QSO 


Bleaching and dyeing works . . . 
Warehouses 


26 
80 


769 
1 218 


2,281 
1 236 


Calendering and finishing works 
Millinery, mantle, stay, corset, 
and dress making 
Tailors and clothiers 
Miscellaneous 


161 

846 

218 
417 


1,528 
772 


5,490 

8.334 
1,914 
M76 










Total 


1 383 


21 789 


43595 










Metal manufactures : 
Manufacture of machinery 
Miscellaneous 


88 
282 


2,750 


8,981 










Total 
















Leather manufactures 


74 


118 


677 


Chemical works : 
Glass making 


13 




1 348 


Miscellaneous 
















Total 
















Manufactures connected with 
food 


40 


882 


604 






MANCHINEEL 



MANCINI 



95 



MANUFACT URES. 


No. of 
works. 


Steam 
power. 


Total No. 
of persona 
employed. 


Manufactures connected with 
building, &c. : 
Builders 


52 


161 


1,185 


Cabinet and furniture makers . . 
Miscellaneous .... 


99 
858 


106 
533 


1,183 

2,059 










Total 


509 


800 


4427 












23 


191 


581 










Miscellaneous manufactures : 
Letterpress printing 


101 

18 


221 
91 


2,243 
1,051 


India rubber and gutta percha . 
Others 


4 
288 


611 

484 


840 
4,999 










Total 


411 


1407 


9138 










Grand total 


2,783 


28,515 


78,235 



The site of Manchester is mentioned as a chief 
station of the druids, who had there an altar 
called Meyne. In A. D. 500 it was an unfre- 
quented woodland. In 620 it was taken by 
Edwin, king of Northumbria, and shortly after 
occupied by a colony of Angles. It then passed 
to the Danes, who about 920 were expelled by 
the king of Mercia. The charter conferring 
the privileges of a borough was granted in 
1301. Manchester cotton is first mentioned in 
1352, by which was meant, however, a coarse 
woollen cloth woven from unprepared fleece. 
In 1579 the manor was sold to John Lacye, a 
London cloth-worker, for 3,000, and resold 
in 1596 to Sir Nicholas Mosley for 3,500. At 
the time of the civil war it was distinguished 
for active industry, and suffered much from 
both parties. On Jan. 8, 1819, a great radical 
meeting was held at St. Peter's field ; and an- 
other great meeting, attended by 60,000 per- 
sons, on Aug.' 16 of the same year, was dis- 
persed by the yeomanry cavalry, eight persons 
being killed. In 1857 an exhibition was held 
from May to October for the display of the art 
treasures of the kingdom. Among the objects 
exhibited were 1,115 paintings, 969 water-color 
drawings, 160 specimens of modern sculpture, 
260 original sketches and drawings by the old 
masters, and a museum of ornamental art com- 
prising 17,000 choice specimens. 

MANCHINEEL (hippomane mancinella}, a poi- 
sonous evergreen tree growing wild in the 
West India islands, along the shores of the Ca- 
ribbean sea, and in southern Florida. It is of 
the natural order euphorbiacece ; and the name 
hippomane (Gr. iTriroc, horse, and paivsadai, to 
be mad) is given to the genus from the sup- 
posed maddening effect of its juice upon horses. 
The manchineel tree grows to the height of 40 
or 50 ft. ; it has a smooth brownish bark, and 
short and thick branches. The leaves are about 
3 in. long and half as wide, with two glands at 
the junction of the blade with the short foot- 
stalks ; the flowers grow in short thick spikes 
at the end of the branches ; the fertile flowers 
are solitary at the base of the spikes, and the 
staminate ones in small clusters at its apex; 
528 VOL. xi. 7 



both kinds are obscure and without petals. 
The fruit when ripe is of a yellow color, and 
resembles an apple in appearance ; hence it is 
called manzanillo (little apple), a name that in 
Spanish American countries is applied to sev- 
eral plants bearing fruit like an apple, or the 
leaves and flowers of which have an apple-like 
odor. Some early accounts state that this tree 
is more deadly poisonous than the upas, assert- 
ing that grass would not grow beneath it, that 
death would follow sleeping under its shade, 
and that a drop of its juice falling upon the 
skin had the same effect as the application of 
red-hot iron. While the milky juice of the 
tree is highly poisonous, investigations have 
shown the earlier reports to be greatly exag- 
gerated, and that, like our poison sumach, it 
affects some persons more seriously than oth- 
ers. Those who, not knowing its character, 
have inadvertently tasted of the fruit, have 
suffered from severe blistering of the lips. The 




Manchineel, 

juice as well as the smoke from the burning 
wood produces temporary blindness. Berthold 
Seemann, the botanist, was blind after gather- 
ing specimens, and a boat's crew of his ship, 
the Herald, were blind for several days from 
having used some of the wood in making a 
fire. On account of the beauty of the brown 
and white wood when polished, it is much used 
for cabinet work. It is said that before stri- 
king the axe into the trees the workmen take 
care to light fires around them in order to 
thicken the juice and drive off the volatile 
poisonous quality ; and cabinet makers also 
when working it protect their faces with veils 
from the poisonous effects of the saw dust and 
exhalations from the wood. 

MANCHOORIA. See MANTCHOOKIA. 

MANCINI, a Eoman family, founded in the 
14th century by Pietro Omni-Santi, surnamed 
Mancini dei Luci. Among his descendants 
was Michele Lorenzo Mancini, a brother of 
Cardinal Francesco Maria Mancini, who mar- 



96 



MANCINI 



ried in 1634 a sister of Cardinal Mazarin. His 
1 HI 1 1: liters became prominent, according to 
Michelet, as " a battalion of Mazarin's nieces, 
brought up under the cynical influence of 
Christina of Sweden, and for whom one of 
tlu-ir brothers, the duke de Nevers, had a more 
than brotherly love." I. Lanre (1635-'57), the 
least dissolute of the five sisters, though her 
beauty captivated many persons, among whom 
was the young Louis XIV., married the duke 
de Mercosur. One of her two sons, the duke 
de Vendome, became a famous warrior. II. 
Olynpe (1639-1708), called on account of her 
dark complexion and mischievous disposition 
" black soul and black face," was a mistress 
of Louis XIV. Her uncle found a husband 
for her (1657) in Eugene de Carignan, of 
the house of Savoy, who was on his mother's 
side a French prince of the blood royal, and 
for whom the cardinal revived the title of 
count de Soissons. Though superseded fora 
time in the king's favor by her sister Marie, 
she soon regained her ascendancy, and they 
lived openly together. Her husband died sud- 
denly in 1673, and it was suspected that she 
poisoned him. In 1679 she was compromised 
by the revelations of the poisoner Voisin. But 
she was considered to have been innocent as 
regarded the death of her husband, to whom 
she had borne eight children, and nothing was 
proved against her in connection with Voisin. 
She was however prosecuted by Louvois and 
fled to Brussels, where she barely escaped be- 
ing mobbed, and spent the rest of her life in 
various countries. While in Spain, where she 
met her fugitive sister Marie, King Charles II. 
attributed the sudden and premature death of 
his wife, Louise of France, to the frequent 
and clandestine visits which Olympe had paid 
to the queen in her illness, and to some milk 
which she had prepared for her shortly before 
her death. The celebrated soldier Prince Eu- 
gene of Savoy was one of her five sons, and 
she had three daughters. III. Marie (1640-1715) 
excited the passion of Louis XIV. to such an 
extent that he would have married her if the 
cardinal had not sent her to a convent, while 
he planned the king's union with Maria Theresa, 
and Marie's marriage (1661) with the Roman 
prince and constable Colonna, with a dowry 
consisting of an annuity of 100,000 livres. She 
bore him several children, but he was faithless, 
and she furtively left Rome together with her 
sister Hortense, both reaching Marseilles in 
male attire in a destitute condition. Louis 
XIV. had her removed to the abbaye du Lis, 
and subsequently she led a wandering and ad- 
v.-nturous life. It is not known where she 
died. Michelet describes her as sombre-look- 
ith large glittering eyes. She was the 
least attractive of the sisters. IV. Hortense 
(1646-'99), the prettiest of them all, courted 
by Charles II. of England, Turenne, and Charles 
de Lorraine, was married by her uncle to 
Arrnand de la Porte, marquis de la Meilleraye. 
The cardinal died in March, 1661, a month 



after his niece's marriage with the marquis, 
who assumed the name of duke of Mazarin. 
His jealousy of the king and of other persons 
bordered on insanity. She finally fled with 
her brother, the duke of Nevers, and her re- 
puted lover, the chevalier de Rohan, to the 
house of one of her former admirers, Charles 
de Lorraine, at Nancy, and thence to the court 
of Charles Emanuel of Savoy at Chambery, 
where she spent three years. On his death 
in 1675 she was immediately expelled by his 
widow. After an adventurous expedition to 
the Netherlands and Germany, she paid a visit 
to Charles II., who was still in love with her, 
and added an annuity of 4,000 livres to that of 
20,000 which had been granted to her by Louis 
XIV. He also assigned to her a wing of St. 
James's palace, where gambling and dissipation 
became the order of the day. The Swedish 
count Bannier, another lover of hers, was 
killed in a duel by her nephew, the chevalier 
de Soissons, who, though a mere boy, was 
madly in love with his aunt. After the revo- 
lution of 1688 her pension was cut off, and she 
was accused of complicity in Jacobite plots. 
But William III. restored to her one half of 
her former English pension, and permitted her 
to remain in England, and she ended her life 
at Chelsea. Lafontaine celebrated her in 
verses, giving her credit not only for all im- 
aginable fine qualities of person, mind, and 
heart, but also for being adored from one end 
of the world to the other, and to such an ex- 
tent as to create jealousy between England and 
France. V. Marie Anne (1649-1714) reached 
Paris only in 1655, much later than her sisters. 
She was also prosecuted as an associate of the 
poisoner Voisin, and did not live long with 
her husband, Maurice Godefroi de la Tour, 
duke de Bouillon, a nephew of Turenne, whom 
she had married in 1662. She retired to the 
palace of Chateau-Thierry, where she became 
the patroness of Lafontaine. Subsequently, 
after having rejoined her husband in Paris, 
she made her home a literary centre, with 
Moliere and the aged Corneille among the 
habitues. Like her father and all her sisters, 
she dabbled in necromancy as well as in poi- 
son, and was obliged to leave Paris in 1680. 
She lived for eight years with her sister the 
duchess of Mazarin in England; and after 
spending two years in Venice and Rome she 
was permitted in 1690 to return to Paris, 
where her society was courted to the last by 
eminent men of letters. 

MANCINI. I. Pasqnale, an Italian statesman, 
born in Naples about 1815. He took his de- 
gree at the university of his native city, where 
he became professor of jurisprudence. . In 
1848 he was a member of the Neapolitan par- 
liament, and drew up the protest against the 
king's violent proceedings of May 15. To es- 
[ cape from the vengeance of the king he fled to 
j Turin, where he was appointed professor of 
i international law, which gave him an oppor- 
| tunity to urge the rights of nationalities ; he 



MANGO CAPAO 



MANDAMUS 



9T 



was also elected to the Sardinian chamber. In 
1860 he became minister of justice and religion 
at Naples, and was a leader of the liberal party 
in the first Italian parliament, which met in 
1861. In 1862 he was for a time minister of edu- 
cation in the cabinet' of Rattazzi. He has pub- 
lished Diritto Internationale (Naples, 1873). II. 
Laura Beatrice Oliva, an Italian poetess, wife of 
the preceding, born in Naples in 1823. She de- 
voted the early part of her life to her invalid 
father, to whom she was indebted for her edu- 
cation. In 1840 she married against the wish 
of her relatives, and wrote a play entitled Ines 
founded upon the romantic circumstances of 
this alliance, which was performed in Florence 
in 1845. In 1846 appeared her poem Colombo 
al convento delta Rdbida, and a volume of 
miscellaneous poetry. In 1851 she addressed 
a poem to Mr. Gladstone in gratitude for his 
revelations in regard to the Neapolitan govern- 
ment ; and one of her finest poems was elicited 
by the death of Gioberti (L 1 Italia sulla tomba 
di Vincenzo Gioberti, Turin, 1853). Upon the 
establishment of the kingdom of Italy she com- 
posed several poems for patriotic celebrations. 
MANCO CAPAC. I. The mythical ancestor of 
the incas of Peru. (See PERU, and QUICHUAS.) 
II. Inca of Peru, killed in 1544. He was the 
second son of the inca Huayna Oapac, the 
conqueror of Quito, who died shortly before 
the arrival of Pizarro, dividing his kingdom 
between his legitimate successor Huascar and 
a younger son Atahuallpa. The latter, after 
having made war upon Huascar and put him 
to death, was himself captured and executed 
in 1533 by Pizarro, who then set up Toparca, 
a brother of his victim, as a nominal sovereign, 
under whose name the conquerors might them- 
selves direct the government. Toparca died 
within the year, and shortly afterward Manco 
Capac appeared in the Spanish camp to an- 
nounce his pretensions to the throne and claim 
Pizarro's protection. The conqueror received 
him cordially, and made it his first care after 
the taking of Cuzco to place him on the throne. 
After in vain petitioning for power to exercise 
the sovereignty, he withdrew secretly from 
Cuzco, but was overtaken, brought back, and 
imprisoned. Again escaping, he roused the 
whole nation to arms, and appeared before 
Cuzco in February, 1536, with a host of In- 
dians who covered the surrounding hills. He 
destroyed a large part of the city by fire, 
and reduced the Spaniards to extremities ; but 
after the siege had lasted more than five 
months, he had to draw off most of his fol- 
lowers on account of the scarcity of food, and 
retired to the fortress of Tambo in the val- 
ley of the Yucay. Defeated here by Almagro, 
and forsaken by most of his warriors, he 
fled to the Andes, and for several years re- 
mained a terror to the Spaniards, hovering 
over their towns, lying in ambush on the 
highways, sallying forth as occasion offered at 
the head of a few followers, always eluding 
pursuit in the wilds of the Cordilleras, and in 



the event of civil war among the foreigners 
throwing his weight into the weaker scale in 
order to prolong their contests. Pizarro at- 
tempted to negotiate with him, and sent him 
rich presents by an African slave. The negro 
was murdered on the way by some of Manco's 
men; and Pizarro in revenge caused one of 
the monarch's wives to be tied naked to a tree, 
scourged, and shot to death with arrows. The 
Spanish rulers who succeeded Pizarro, down 
to Blasco Nunez, bore orders from the crown 
to conciliate the formidable chief, but he re- 
fused all offers of accommodation. He was 
killed by a party of Spaniards belonging to the 
younger Almagro's faction, who on the defeat 
of their leader had taken refuge in the Peru- 
vian camp. They were in turn massacred by 
the Indians. 

MANDAMUS, the name of a remedial writ, be- 
longing to a once extensive class of precepts, 
which bore the generic name of mandamus. 
They derived their name from the significant 
word of the mandatory clause, which, while 
the writs were framed in Latin, ran : Nos igi- 
tur tibi mandamus, &c., " We therefore com- 
mand you." Their origin is referred to that 
clause of Magna Charta which declares that to 
no man will the king refuse or delay justice : 
Nulli negabimus aut differemus justitiam vel 
rectum. At a very early period, the injunction 
was in form nothing but a letter from the 
sovereign. Subsequently it became a parlia- 
mentary writ, and issued on petition from the 
king and his council. Later the king's bench 
took jurisdiction, which in the recent judicial 
changes in England has been transferred to the 
supreme court. The writ is directed to per- 
sons, corporations, or courts of inferior judi- 
cature, and requires them to do some specific 
act which belongs to their official duty, or 
which exact justice demands. In this coun- 
try the power to grant it is vested in the su- 
preme judicial authority of the state, but in 
some states, also, in inferior courts. Not only 
does it form a branch of that general super- 
visory control which the sovereign power must 
possess over tribunals, magistrates, and all in- 
deed who in any sense are invested with public 
functions; but also, as it was originally con- 
trived to prevent failure of justice and to 
remedy defects of police, it is to be awarded in 
cases for which the law affords no specific and 
adequate remedy, yet where justice requires 
that there should be one. By the judiciary 
act of 1793 the United States supreme court 
received power to issue writs of mandamus in 
cases warranted by the principles and usages 
of law "to any courts appointed or persons 
holding office under the authority of the Uni- 
ted States;" but in Marbury v. Madison, 1 
Cranch, 137, the latter clause was held to be 
unconstitutional and void, and the supreme 
court refused to grant the writ to compel the 
secretary of state to deliver a civil commission 
alleged to be illegally withheld by him. Circuit 
courts, too, were authorized to issue the writ 



98 



MANDAMUS 



when necessary for the exercise of their juris- 
diction. The award of the writ is generally a 
matter of judicial discretion. He who seeks 
this remedy must show that he is innocent of 
laches, that he has a clear right in the prem- 
ises, that there has been a distinct refusal to 
do that which the petitioner would compel, and 
finally that he has in the ordinary processes of 
law no adequate remedy. The most common 
practice is for the court in the first instance to 
issue a writ commanding to be done that which 
is prayed for, or that the respondent show 
cause why it should not be done ; or an order 
may issue in the first instance that the respon- 
dent show cause why a peremptory mandamus 
should not issue. In either case the defendant 
makes answer, and if the petitioner, who is 
usually called relator, is satisfied with the state- 
ment of facts in the answer, he will demur 
thereto, and the question will thus be referred 
to the court on an issue of law. If the relator 
is dissatisfied with the statement of facts in 
the answer, he may join issue thereon, and this 
issue of fact will be tried as the court may di- 
rect. If either issue is decided in favor of the 
relator, a peremptory mandamus is awarded. 
In a very clear case the peremptory writ may 
issue in the first instance. When directed to 
a court, the writ merely sets such court in 
motion; it bids it exercise a power which is 
vested in it. It does not presume to revise 
the decision of the inferior tribunal upon a 
question either of fact or law addressed to its 
judgment. As examples of this jurisdiction, 
mandamus has been granted to compel the 
sealing of a bill of exceptions or its amendment 
according to the truth of the case ; or, at suit 
of a defendant, to require the inferior court to 
enter judgment upon a verdict, in the regular 
course of proceedings, in order to enable the 
defeated party to bring his writ of error. But 
the writ does not lie to control courts in respect 
to matters of practice under their rules, where 
their authority is discretionary. Mandamus 
often issues to commissioners of highways and 
supervisors of counties, commanding them to 
perform the peculiar duties of their office; 
ordering them, for example, to open a road 
regularly laid out; to estimate the damages 
caused to landowners thereby, or to levy a 
tax as they were required by law to do for the 
payment of damages caused by laying out a 
highway. Corporations, too, are often com- 
1 by this process to do what their con- 
tituent acta require. Thus railway corpora- 
ions have been compelled to pursue, in cross- 
ing rivers, the mode prescribed in their char- 
ters, and have been forbidden to obstruct 
navigation by the location of their track. Re- 
tmnir public officers may also be compelled by 
UIH writ to deliver official books and papers 
t<> their successors, and corporations to admit 
members to tlu-ir privileges, to restore a mem- 
irregul.trlv disfranchised, and to allow di- 
rectors, and in proper cases other corporators 
to have inspection of books. It is a common 



MANDANS 

process to compel the performance of public 
duties by public officers, but in such cases the 
attorney general or other public prosecuting 
officer should be relator, and a private citizen 
would not be allowed to take action except 
where some special and peculiar right of his 
own was involved in the performance of the 
public duty. The action of the executive, 
however, in the performance of his peculiar 
duties, is not to be controlled by this writ. 

MANDANS, an Indian tribe of the Dakota 
family, dwelling on the Upper Missouri. Ac- 
cording to their traditions, they came from 
under the earth, where they lived near a sub- 
terranean lake. They ascended by means of a 
grape vine, which a heavy woman broke, so 
that part of the tribe were left below. About 
1772 they are said to have resided 1,500 m. from 
the mouth of the Missouri, in nine villages, en- 
circled with earth walls, two on the east and 
seven west of the river. The Sioux soon after 
drove the eastern villages to the Rickaree or 
Arickaree country, further up the river, and 
they emigrated again before those on the west 
followed them. Lewis and Clarke found them 
1,600 ra. up the river, in two villages, one on 
each side of the river, and as they were friend- 
ly built Fort Mandan near them. By the ad- 
vice of the explorers they made peace with 
most of the neighboring tribes. In 1822 they 
were estimated at 1,250 in number, and though 
some placed the population much higher, it 
did not probably exceed 2,500. They made a 
treaty with Gen. Atkinson and the agent O'Fal- 
lon, July 30, 1825, recognizing the authority 
of the United States, and making peace. They 
continued to lose severely by their wars with 
the Sioux, who to this day pursue them with 
unrelenting hatred, parties under White Bon- 
net having twice attempted to destroy their 
village in 1870. In 1832 they dwelt at Fort 
Clarke, near the mouth of Knife river, and 
were supposed to number 2,000. In 1837 
the smallpox broke out among them, and re- 
duced the tribe to 145 souls in all, chiefly 
women and children. The survivors took 
refuge with the Rickarees. They are often 
spoken of as having been entirely swept away ; 
but they gradually regained numbers, and al- 
ways maintained a distinct tribal organization. 
In 1845 they removed to their present abode. 
In 1850 they numbered 50 lodges and 150 
souls, and in 1852 had increased to 385. They 
are now (1874) with the Rickarees and Min- 
netarees at Fort Berthold, Dakota territory, on 
the left bank of the Missouri, in lat. 47 34' 
N., Ion. 101 50' W. An executive order of 
April 12, 1870, set apart a reservation of 
8,640,000 acres for the three tribes, in north- 
western Dakota and eastern Montana, extend- 
ing to the Yellowstone and Powder rivers. 
Under a treaty made July 27, 1866, government 
appropriates $75,000 a year for the three tribes, 
The Mandans were reported in 1873 as num- 
bering 479. Though always friendly, living in 
a permanent village, they have had no mission- 







MANDATE 



99 



aries and very feeble attempts at a school. The 
Mandans live partly by agriculture, having 100 
acres in corn and potatoes, and possessing 150 
horses, but they have no cattle or proper im- 
plements. They extend their hunts west to 
the Kocky mountains, north to the British line, 
and south to the Black hills. The Mandans are 
of lighter complexion than many of the tribes, 
and gray hair, even in young persons, is com- 
mon. This, and a story based on very vague 
y that Welsh soldiers at Fort Chartres 
conversed in their language with the Mandans, 
has led to many attempts to trace their origin- 
to Madoc's supposed Welsh colony. Their 
houses are of wood ; some of them are polygo- 
nal in shape, with an excavated cellar in the 
centre. The wooden frame is covered with 
earth, and the roof is a favorite resort. Quad- 
rangular log cabins are also used. Besides 
pipes, arrows, bows, &c., they make matting 
of wild rushes, baskets of willow bark woven 

different and intricate colored patterns, large 
beads, and a very substantial black pottery ; 
some of the vessels hold three gallons and are 
capable of standing great heat. Their canoes 
are made of skins. They place the dead, 
wrapped in skins, on scaffolds, and when these 
fall they gather the skulls and place them in 
circles. They have a strange annual religious 
ceremony, relating to the great canoe and Nu- 
mokhmuckanah, the first or only man. They 
have many peculiar dances and a fearfully 
cruel initiation rite for young warriors. 

MANDATE, a law term derived from the 
Eoman civil law. It may be defined as a bail- 
ment (delivery) of a chattel or chattels to a per- 
son who is to do something with or about the 
things bailed, entirely without compensation. 
The essential element of the contract lies in 
the fact that there is not paid or promised, in 
law or in fact, any compensation whatever for 
the service to be rendered. The person deliv- 
ering the chattels is called a mandator; and 
the person receiving them and undertaking the 
service is called a mandatary. As it must be a 
service or an act, the whole benefit of which 
rests with the mandator, this, by the ordinary 
principles of bailment, determines the amount 
of care to which the mandatary is bound, and 
the degree of negligence for which he is an- 
swerable. For negligence in a bailee has in 
law three degrees: slight negligence, which 
makes the bailee responsible where the bail- 
ment was wholly for his benefit ; ordinary 
negligence, for which he is responsible if the 
bailment be for the benefit of both parties ; 

id gross negligence, for which only the bailee 

responsible where the contract is for the ex- 
lusive benefit of the bailor. And as it is not 

mandate if the bailee derives any benefit 
whatever from the service, it follows that a 
idatary is responsible for loss of or for in- 
iry to the thing delivered to him, only when 

is caused by his gross negligence. There is 
especial form for the contract of mandate ; 

may be in writing or by word only, and made 



very solemnly or in the simplest way ; in either 
case the law is the same. The mandator may 
recall the thing delivered at any time, and so 
rescind the contract. But if the nature of the 
contract be such that a mandatary has ren- 
dered the service in part, and will himself suf- 
fer detriment if it be not completed, the man- 
dator cannot now rescind it without providing 
adequate indemnity to the mandatary. When 
the contract is lawfully dissolved, the chattel 
must be restored to the mandator ; but if in- 
demnity be due to the mandatary, he would 
have a lien on the chattel to secure it. So, too, 
the contract would be dissolved by the death 
of the mandator or of the mandatary, or by any 
change in the state of the parties which from 
its nature should recall it, as by insolvency of 
either party, or insanity, or the marriage of a 
woman, or the sale of the property, or the ter- 
mination of a guardianship on which the man- 
date rested. But in all these cases there must 
be the same exception as to a service partially 
rendered. So, too, it is believed that the man- 
datary may at his own pleasure terminate the 
contract ; and as he may do this at any time, 
he may do it before he has begun to perform 
the service at all. But this very question has 
been more frequently and more elaborately 
discussed than any or all others which have 
arisen out of the contract of mandate. Banks 
and bankers are so far mandataries, that they 
receive notes for collection, and render, or en- 
gage to render, by agreement or by mercantile 
usage, these and similar services without any 
especial or specific compensation. But it is 
understood that they do this as a part of their 
business, and for the general and indirect bene- 
fit they derive from doing it ; and this is un- 
doubtedly consideration enough to make them 
liable for any injury to their customer caused 
by their negligence ; and it is sufficient to make 
them liable that their negligence was ordinary, 
or consisted in the want of common care. We 
have seen that a mandatary is, by law, liable 
only for gross negligence. But it is a volun- 
tary contract, and the parties may vary it in 
any way, and make it more or less stringent, 
at their pleasure. Where the parties enter 
into no specific stipulations, there the law 
sometimes varies their liabilities in accordance 
with the particular circumstances of the case. 
Thus, it is an obvious principle that the man- 
dator has no right to require any more skill or 
care than he has reason to expect. If an own- 
er of a valuable chronometer carry it for re- 
pair to an ordinary watchmaker who does no 
business of this kind, and the instrument be 
injured in his hand because no more care and 
no better skill were applied to it than would 
suffice for ordinary watches, the owner has no 
one to blame but himself ; unless he can show 
that the watchmaker especially undertook to 
be able to do the work required, and that the 
bailor had no means of knowing his incompe- 
tency. On the other hand, if the owner in- 
trusted his instrument to a person who was 



100 



MANDELAY 



known to deal with those of like kind, who 
professed this as his business, and expressly or 
by implication asserted himself to possess suf- 
ficient skill, this person would then be liable, 
as for gross negligence, if he did not possess 
the requisite skill, or did possess it but did 
not make use of it, although he was strictly 
a mandatary, and had undertaken the work 
gratuitously. Here, however, a distinction 
must be taken. If a workman who is paid for 
his service asserts himself to have sufficient 
skill, he is liable for injury resulting from the 
want of that skill, although he does his best. 
But if he is not paid for his service and makes 
the same assertion, he is now not liable merely 
for the want of it unless he made the assertion 
fraudulently and knowing its falsehood ; but, 
however honest, he is liable if, besides a want 
of skill, he has been guilty of negligence. Man- 
dates in the civil law were the orders of the 
high functionaries, as the consuls and procon- 
suls, and afterward the emperors, to subordi- 



MANDEVILLE 

nate officers, to instruct them as to the con- 
duct they should pursue, either in general or 
in particular cases. At common law, the word 
mandate in a corresponding sense can hardly 
be said to be known. But it is sometimes 
used to signify an official command issued by 
a court, or a magistrate, or any tribunal hav- 
ing authority, in the form of a writ or pre- 
cept. It is generally, if not always, confined to 
commands issued to an inferior court, to con- 
firm or set aside a judgment, as by the supreme 
court of the United States to a circuit court, 
or to a proper officer, to enforce or execute a 
judgment, decree, or order. When the com- 
mand is issued to an individual who is a party 
before the tribunal, it is commonly known as 
an injunction, prohibition, or the like. 

MMDELAY, Mandalay, or Pattawapnra, the 
present capital of the kingdon of Burmah, a 
little N. of the former capital Amarapura, 3 
m. from the Irrawaddy river, and 350 m. N. of 
Rangoon ; pop. about 90,000. In 1856 its site 




Mandelay. 



was occupied by cultivated fields; but after 
the royal determination to select a new capi- 
tal, its erection was carried forward so rapidly 
that by July, 1857, it was ready for the recep- 
tion of the court. The city is laid out in three 
parallelograms, one within another, of which 
only the two inner are walled. Within the 
inmost is the palace, which is also defended by 
high palisades, and surrounded by courtyards, 
gardens, and pools. Within this square are 
also the various offices of government. The sec- 
ond enclosure contains the houses of the civil 
and military officers and the soldiers' quarters, 
and is laid out in wide streets crossing at right 
It is surrounded by a high wall flanked 
with strong towers, with four massive gates, 
are locked at night. There is also a 



deep ditch. A wide interval separates this 
quarter from the outer city, which is occupied 
by the merchants, mechanics, &c. The forti- 
fications are massive, and the palace, pagodas, 
and cloisters are brilliant with color and gold ; 
but the city still resembles the encampment of 
a tribe of nomads, and many of the dwellings 
are little more permanent than tents. Water 
is obtained from the river by a canal, which 
to obtain a proper level has to be carried a 
distance of 16 m. Postal communication with 
Rangoon is kept up by dak boats, which make 
the voyage in eight days. 

MANDEVILLE, Sir John, an English author, 
born in St. Albans about 1300, died in Li6ge, 
Nov. 17, 1372. He was a proficient in theolo- 
gy, natural philosophy, and medicine, and even 



MANDINGO 



MAFETHO 



101 



practised as a physician for some time. In 
1322 he proceeded to the East, visited the holy 
places in Palestine, being favored by the sul- 
tan of Egypt, and travelled in Armenia, Per- 
sia, India, Tartary, and northern China (Ca- 
thay). He returned to England about 1355, 
and wrote a narrative of his travels and adven- 
tures, first in Latin, and afterward in French 
and in English, which he dedicated to Edward 
III. This work is a singular mixture of fact 
and fable, a monument at once of the author's 
candor and credulity. The earliest edition of 
it is that of Wynkin de Worde (Westminster, 
1499), and the best of the old English editions 
is that of 1725. A new edition was published 
by J. O. Halliwell (London, 1839). 

MANDINGO, a country in W. Africa, bounded 
K by Kaarta, E. by Bambarra, S. by the Kong 
mountains, and W. by Senegambia, lying be- 
tween lat. 8 and 15 K, and Ion. 8 and 12 
W. Much of this region is a high table land, 
and contains the sources of the Senegal and 
the Niger. Iron is abundant in the mountains, 
and gold dust is found in the rivers. The 
country is divided into a number of small 
states, each of which is nearly independent of 
the others. The most considerable of these 
states are Bambook and Kankan. The Man- 
dingos are remarkable for their industry and 
energy. They are mostly Mohammedans. The 
principal trade of that part of W. Africa which 
lies between the equator and the great desert is 
in their hands. They are shrewd -merchants, 
industrious agriculturists, and breeders of cat- 
tle, sheep, and goats. They are black in color, 
tall and well shaped, with regular features and 
woolly hair. They have been called the Hin- 
doos of Africa. They are amiable and hospita- 
ble, imaginative, credulous, truthful, and fond 
of music, dancing, and poetry. They are adven- 
turous travellers, extending their commercial 
journeys over the greater part of Africa. They 
trade chiefly in gold dust, ivory, and slaves. 
Polygamy is practised, and each .wife has a 
separate hut. Their language is the richest of 
the negro tongues, is widely spread, and is 
written in Arabic characters. The Mandingos 
are the most numerous race of "W. Africa, and 
have spread themselves to a great distance from 
their original seat, being found all over the 
valleys of the Gambia, Senegal, and Niger. 

MA1VDR AGORA. See MANDBAKE. 

MANDRAKE (mandragora officinarum), a 
stemless plant, with lanceolate leaves, conceal- 
ing beneath them several pale violet-colored 
flowers, and having a large, forked, fleshy, per- 
ennial root. It grows spontaneously in the 
south of Europe. The plant belongs to the 
natural order solanacem, which comprises many 
poisonous species. Its large root is often divi- 
ded into two or three forks, causing it to be 
likened to the shape of the human body, a cir- 
cumstance which in old time gave it the repu- 
tation of being endowed with animal feelings ; 
and there are fabulous stories of its uttering 
shrieks when torn from the earth. The works 



of the early herbalists have curious accounts 
of the supposed virtues of this plant, of which 
they distinguished male and female varieties. 
According to Josephus, the collecting of man- 




Mandragora officinarum. 

drake was no easy matter ; after the earth had 
been well dug from around the root a dog was 
tied to it, and when the animal tried to follow 
its master, its struggles pulled up the root ; the 
dog died immediately, a fate which would have 
befallen the man had he pulled it. Sibthorp 
(Flora Grceca, London, 1806-'40) says that the 
young Greeks wear small pieces of the root 
about them to serve as love charms ; and among 
the ancients it was held in high repute for 
philters. The qualities of the mandrake are 
aero-narcotic, purgative, and aphrodisiac. Ac- 
cording to Lindley, Dr. T. H. Silvester has 
shown that the root was formerly used in the 
same way as chloroform and other anaesthetic 
agents now are. The mandrake of the Old 
Testament (Gen. xxx. and Canticles vii.) was 
thought, according to some commentators, to 
have the power of removing barrenness. The 
American mandrake, also called May apple, is 
podophyllum peltatum, a plant belonging to 
a very different family, and now largely em- 
ployed in medicine. (See PODOPHYLLUM.) 

MANDRILL. See BABOON. 

MANES. See MANICELEANS. 
I MANES, in Eoman mythology, the souls of 
the departed, who were generally recognized 
as gods and propitiated by sacrifices at certain 
seasons called ferics denicales, and more partic- 
ularly at an annual festival kept on Feb. 19 un- 
der the name of feralia or parentalia, when 
each person made offerings to the souls of his 
deceased parents and benefactors. The manes 
were believed to have power only by night. 

MANETHO, an Egyptian historian, who flour- 
ished in the reign of Ptolemy Soter, at the 
beginning of the 3d century B. C. He was a 
priest of Sebennytus in Lower Egypt, and 
wrote in Greek a work on the religion and an- 



LOS 



MANFRED 



other on the history of his country, the title of 
the former being Twv Qwrmuv 'Entro/ifa and of 
the latter Aiyvrrrm/ca. Both books are lost, but 
nuin.Tous fragments have been preserved by 
Josephus, Julius Africanus, Eusebius, and by 
Syncellus, who compiled from the two latter. 
Tlu- list of the Egyptian dynasties, as preserved 
in the Armenian version of Eusebius, is the 
most valuable remnant of Manetho's history, 
the dates of which appear to have been derived 
from genuine documents, including the sacred 
Looks of the Egyptian priests. Attacked as a 
fabulist by various critics, Manetho has found 
zealous defenders among the most distinguished 
Egyptologists, and the recent discoveries in 
hieroglyphic archaeology have vindicated his 
authority (see EGYPT, vol. vi., pp. 458-'9) ; but 
parts of the fragments are now generally ac- 
knowledged to be spurious, as is the astrologi- 
cal poem 'AirorefefffiaTiKd, which bears his name, 
but is of late date. The best critical editions of 
the fragments of Manetho are by Fruin (Ley- 
den, 1847) and Mailer, in vol. ii. of the Frag- 
mento Historicorum Qrcecorum (Paris, 1848). 

MANFRED, prince of Tarentum, king of the 
Two Sicilies, natural son of the emperor Fred- 
erick II. and of Blanca, a daughter of Count 
Lanzia of Lombardy, born in Sicily about 1233, 
fell in the battle of Benevento, Feb. 26, 1266. 
At his father's death in 1250 he was appointed 
regent in Italy during the absence of his half 
brother Conrad IV., the legitimate heir. Pope 
Innocent IV. immediately excommunicated him, 
declaring that the house of Swabia had ceased 
to rule over Sicily, because Frederick II. had 
died under the papal ban. Insurrections were 
excited in Capua, Naples, and other cities, but 
Manfred reduced most of the rebels, advanced 
to meet Conrad at Pescara, delivered the gov- 
ernment into his hands, and aided him in com- 
pletely suppressing the revolt. He was, how- 
ever, removed from any part in the administra- 
tion, his principality of Tarentum was taxed, 
and the Lanzias were exiled from it. Conrad 
died in 1254, leaving the crown to his infant 
son Conradin, and Manfred was again called to 
the regency. Innocent IV. renewed his oppo- 
sition to him, supported by the Guelph party in 
the Two Sicilies, forced him to agree to hold 
his possf-ions sis an iiiim.-iliati- li,-f ,,f tl K! holy 
see, and had demanded from him an oath of 
entire submission, when he made his escape to 
the Saracens at Lucera. Aided by them, he 
defeated the papal troops at Foggia, recovered 
A pi ilia, and after the death of Innocent was rec- 
ognized king of the Two Sicilies, and crowned 
at Palermo, Aug. 11, 1258, a report of Con- 
r.-i'l iii's death in Germany being at that time 
spread through Italy. This report was imme- 
contradicted by envoys, but Manfred 
refused to resign the crown, and his bravery, 
handsome person, accomplishments, and success 
made the people willingly submit to his rule. 
Regarded as the hereditary protector of the 
Ghibellines, ho sent troops to Tuscany, by 
whom the Guelphs were defeated at Monte- 



MANGANESE 

aperto. His court abounded with poets and art- 
ists, and he himself was noted for poetic skill. 
He was excommunicated by Pope Alexander 
IV., who vainly, however, proclaimed a cru- 
sade against him, and again by Urban IV., who 
offered his kingdom for sale to any European 
prince who had the strength to take it. Charles 
of Anjou, brother of Louis IX. of France, re- 
ceived the investiture of the Sicilian kingdom, 
was solemnly crowned by Pope Clement IV. 
at Rome, Jan. 6, 1266, and marched thence 
for the conquest of his realms. He was met 
by Manfred beneath the walls of Benevento. 
The latter was bravely supported by the Sara- 
cens, but the Apulians refused to advance 
against the enemy, the Sicilian army was 
thrown into disorder, and Manfred fell cov- 
ered with wounds in the thickest of the bat- 
tle. Dante alludes to his death and to his in- 
terment without religious rites (Purgatorio, 
canto iii.). He was twice married, first to 
Beatrice of Savoy, and next to Helena, a Greek 
princess, and left three sons and one daugh- 
ter, who became the prisoners of the victor. 

MANFREDONIA, a seaport of Italy, in the prov- 
ince and 22 m. N. E. of the city of Foggia; 
pop. about 7,500. It is situated at the foot of 
Mt. Gargano, and surrounded by walls, and the 
harbor is protected by a strong castle. It is 
well built, is the seat of an archbishop, and has 
a Gothic cathedral, containing one of the lar- 
gest bells in Italy, which stands in the old 
town (originally Sipontum), about 1 m. S. W. 
of the new. Salt is obtained from lagoons S. 
of the town, and there is a considerable export 
trade in that article, as well as m corn and or- 
anges. The harbor is only accessible to small 
vessels. Manfredonia was founded about the 
middle of the 13th century by King Manfred. 
It was nearly destroyed by the Turks in 1620. 

MANGANESE, a metal having the symbol Mn 
and the combining weight 55, long known in 
the mineral pyrolusite, used to neutralize the 
green color of glass. The ores containing it 
were variously styled female magnets, magne- 
sia nigra in contradistinction to magnesia alba, 
alabandine from the city of Alabanda, manga^ 
desum by the glass makers, and subsequently* 
by different chemists manganesium, mangani- 
um, and finally manganese. In 1774 Scheele, 
and Bergman described the black oxide as a pe- 
culiar earth, and Gahn afterward succeeded in 
isolating the metal from it by mixing the pulver- 
ized mineral with charcoal and oil, forming the 
mass into pellets, which were introduced into a 
brasqued crucible and exposed for an hour to the 
highest heat of a forge. The metal obtained in 
this way is very brittle, and, like cast iron, con- 
tains silicon and carbon, and has a variable spe- 
cific gravity. Brunner adopted a method anal- 
ogous to the one employed in the preparation 
of aluminum ; the chloride of manganese was 
fused with an equal weight of fluor spar and one 
fifth its weight of metallic sodium. The metal 
thus prepared is very hard and brittle, will 
take a fine polish, cannot be scratched by a file, 




MANGANESE 



103 



^ jts glass easily, does not change in moist air, 
is not attracted by a magnet and is not itself 
magnetic, and has the specific gravity of 7*16. 
Deville reduced manganese oxide by mixing it 
with one tenth its weight of sugar charcoal and 
exposing it for three hours to a white heat in 
a lime crucible enclosed in a brasqued crucible. 
The product was a crystalline mass, the powder 
of which decomposed water rapidly ; color like 
bismuth; specific gravity 8'01 5. Loughlin has 
subjected the above methods and numerous 
others to a careful repetition in his laboratory, 
and comes to the conclusion that the task of 
producing perfectly pure manganese is one of 
great difficulty. The discrepancy between the 
specific gravities, ranging from 6*85 to 8'015 as 
given by different experimenters, leads to the 
conclusion either that manganese has several 
allotropic modifications, or that the pure metal 
has not yet been made. Some of the alloys of 
manganese are of great value. With copper 
it yields a product which possesses the color 
and properties of German silver, while costing 
much less. Elliot Savage of West Meriden, 
Conn., has invented a process for preparing 
this alloy by reducing pyrolusite and copper 
ore directly in a gas furnace. Dr. Prieger of 
Bonn and Valenciennes of Paris have pre- 
pared several alloys of manganese and iron and 
manganese and copper. An intimate mixture 
of black oxide of manganese, powdered char- 
coal, and iron filings or turnings is made in 
a black-lead crucible holding 30 to 50 Ibs. A 
covering is made of charcoal, fluor spar, and 
common salt, and the contents of the crucible 
are exposed for several hours to a white heat. 
The alloy of manganese and copper is prepared 
in a similar way, and both are very hard and 
capable of a high polish. In England there are 
36 patents involving the use of manganese in 
iron and steel, the earliest of which was taken 
out in 1799. Berthier made a large number of 
alloys of manganese, and described their prop- 
erties. Much use is now made of manganese in 
the metallurgy of iron and steel, and the frank- 
linite ore of New Jersey is largely employed 
in the United States in the manufacture of crys- 
talline burglar-proof iron and spiegel iron. 
Manganese does not occur native, but is found 
widely diffused in association with other ele- 
ments. The following are the principal man- 
ganese minerals, the first being the chief ore 
of commerce : pyrolusite, braunite, manganite, 
rhodonite, hausmannite, alabandine, diallagite, 
wad, psilomelane, franklinite, crednerite, col- 
umbite, wolfram, triphiline, and manganese 
alum. Mines of manganese have been worked 
at Bennington, Vt., West Stockbridge and Shef- 
field, Mass., and later in North Carolina and 
Virginia. In 1871 $20 a ton was paid in New 
York for 70 per cent. Virginia ore. The an- 
nual production of manganese ore in Europe 
may be approximately stated as follows : 



Huelva, Spain. 1,000,000 cwts. 

Prussia 581,422 " 

Thuringia 82.103 " 



Saxony 18,579 cwts. 

Austria 9,292 " 

Sweden 2,400 " 



Nearly nine tenths of the manganese of com- 
merce is consumed in the manufacture of chlo- 
rine and bleaching powders ; the other tenth is 
employed in the following industries : to color 
and decolorize glass ; in the manuf ature of iron 
and steel ; in the painting and glazing of por- 
celain and pottery ; in the production of oxy- 
gen ; and in the preparation of the various salts 
required in medicine and the arts. Manganese 
enters as a base into two classes of compounds, 
the manganous and manganic ; and also as an 
acid into two classes of salts, the manganates and 
permanganates. There are five well character- 
ized oxides. 1. Manganous oxide, or manganese 
monoxide, MnO, is a basic body furnishing a 
series of manganous salts, pink-colored, which 
rapidly absorb oxygen, and pass into a higher 
state of oxidation. The pure oxide is a green- 
ish powder obtained by heating the carbonate 
in absence of air ; the hydrate is precipitated 
as a white gelatinous mass, when an alkali is 
added to a solution of a manganous salt. Of 
the manganous salts the chief soluble ones are 
the sulphate, MnS0 4 + 5H 2 O, and the chloride, 
MnCl 2 +4H 2 O. The sulphide, MnS, and the 
carbonate, MnCO 3 , are insoluble. 2. Manganic 
oxide, or manganese sesquioxide, Mn 2 O 3 , exists 
in nature as braunite, and may be prepared ar- 
tificially by exposing manganous oxide to a red 
heat. It forms a series of insoluble salts, of 
which manganese alum is one of the most in- 
teresting. 3. Red or mangano-manganic ox- 
ide, Mn s O4, is a neutral body, corresponding 
to the magnetic oxide of iron, and occurring 
in nature as hausmannite. 4. Black oxide or 
manganese dioxide, MnO 2 , is the chief ore of 
commerce, the magnesia nigra of the ancients, 
and termed pyrolusite by modern mineralo- 
gists. It can be artificially formed by adding 
a solution of bleaching powder to a manganous 
salt. This compound yields one third of its 
oxygen when heated to redness, and one half its 
oxygen when heated with sulphuric acid. Ac- 
cording to Gorgeu, Mn0 2 is capable of form- 
ing manganite salts with alkaline bases. 5. 
Permanganic acid, H 2 Mn 2 8 , is a dark green 
heavy liquid, obtained by the action of strong 
cold sulphuric acid upon potassium perman- 
ganate. Manganic trioxide, its corresponding 
hydrate, manganic acid, and the anhydride of 
permanganic acid, are not known in a free 
state. The salts of the permanganates, notably 
the potassium permanganate, are now largely 
employed as disinfectants, for bleaching, and 
in the laboratory for the purpose of volumetric 
analysis. Among numerous methods for the 
preparation of potassium permanganates, the 
following may be recommended : 500 Ibs. of 
freshly prepared potash lye of 45 B. are mixed 
with 105 Ibs of pure potassium chlorate, and 
concentrated by evaporation in an iron kettle ; 
and then, under constant stirring, 182 Ibs. of 
finely pulverized black oxide of manganese are 
added, and the heat continued until the whole 
is fluid ; it is then stirred until cold ; the gran- 
ular mass is again heated to redness in small 



104 



MANGANESE 



in m ki-ttles until it is wholly fused, and is 
then, after cooling, broken up, boiled with 
water in a large pot, and allowed to settle; 
the clear liquor is decanted and evaporated 
to crystallization. In this way, from 180 Ibs. 
of oxide of manganese, 98 to 100 Ibs. of potas- 
sium permanganate, in beautiful long needles, 
can -be obtained. For the bleaching of en- 
irr:i\ ings and paper stock, for the purification 
of drinking water, as a disinfectant in hospi- 
tals, as a deodorizer of tainted meat in culinary 
operations, as a tooth wash under the name of 
Condy's liquid, for the evolution of ozone oxy- 
gen, and for chemical analysis, there are few 
agents more valuable than potassium perman- 
ganates. Various colors or dyes are prepared 
from salts of manganese. Nuremberg violet 
is made by fusing finely pulverized pyrolusite 
and phosphoric acid in proper proportions, di- 
gesting in ammonia, filtering, evaporating to 
dryness, and treating with water, when a violet 
powder remains. Barium manganate affords 
a fine green pigment, much safer than arsenic 
colors. Potassium permanganate dyes wood in 
imitation of mahogany and nut wood. The 
employment of manganese in glass manufac- 
ture was one of the earliest uses of this element. 
The oxide of manganese is put into the glass 
mixture to counteract the effect of oxides of 
iron ; but in course of time it is itself oxidized 
by the light and air, and colors the glass red. 
As red glass intercepts the chemical rays of 
light, the skylights of photographers and the 
sashes of greenhouses have to be provided with 
glass to which no manganese has been added. 
The manufacture of oxygen on a commercial 
scale, according to the process of Tessi6 du 
Motay, is founded upon the property of the 
black oxide of manganese, when fused with 
caustic soda, to take up oxygen from a current 
of hot air, which it yields up again to super- 
heated steam, thus offering a cheap and con- 
tinuous process. As the principal application 
of the oxides of manganese is in the manufac- 
ture of bleaching powders, their commercial 
value depends upon the amount of oxygen they 
can furnish, or, which comes to the same thing, 
the quantity of chlorine which they are capable 
of eliminating when treated with hydrochloric 
acid. The methods of assaying the oxides of 
manganese may be classed under four heads : 
1. The determination of the amount of oxygen 
disengaged by sulphuric acid ; 2, the oxidation 
of oxalic acid ; 3, the evolution of chlorine 
from hydrochloric acid ; 4, volumetric estima- 
tion. For the details of these methods the 
reader is referred to Fresenius's " Chemical 
Analysis." The chloride of manganese, ob- 
tairi.-.! by crystallization from the residues in 
the manufacture of chlorine from the dioxide 
and hydrochloric acid, is regenerated so as to 
recover the dioxide to be employed again, by 
neutralizing its solution with excess of manga- 
nese and treating with hypochlorite of lime ; 
by slightly elevating the temperature chlorine 
is disengaged, and the hydrate of the dioxide is 



MANGO 

precipitated in great purity, thus accomplishing 
a great saving in the quantity of hydrochloric 
acid and manganese required in this important 
industry. Several salts of manganese have 
been used in medicine, the most important of 
which are the dioxide, iodide, sulphate, and 
phosphat'e, and permanganate of potassium. 
The first of these is said, when slowly introduced 
into the system, as happens to those engaged 
in grinding the mineral, to act as a poison, 
finally inducing paraplegia ; but this is by no 
means a common occurrence. It has been 
used as a tonic, and also as a local remedy in 
dyspepsia. The iodide, sulphate, and phos- 
phate are used together with or instead of the 
corresponding salts of iron, and are supposed 
to have a similar action. Minute quantities of 
manganese have been found in the body, but it 
is extremely doubtful whether its presence is 
of physiological importance, or is in fact any- 
thing more than an accident. Although the 
therapeutic value of these compounds may be 
doubted on theoretical grounds, yet practical- 
ly they have been occasionally found of ser- 
vice. Cases of anaemia that have proved re- 
bellious to chalybeates will sometimes yield to 
the salts of manganese. In chronic nervous 
debility also these salts sometimes act favor- 
ably as a tonic to the nervous system in 
some unexplained way. The dose of the sul- 
phate of manganese is from 5 to 10 grains. 
The sirup of the iodide is one of the best prep- 
arations of manganese for medicinal use; its 
dose is from 10 to 20 drops three times a day, 
and should be given in water soon after eating. 

MANGEL WURZEL. See BEET. 

MANGLES, James, a British traveller, born 
about 1785, died about 1861. He entered the 
navy in March, 1800, took part in the expedi- 
tion to the Cape of Good Hope, and became a 
commander in 1815. In 1816 he visited the 
Levant, went up the Nile, and joined Belzoni 
in clearing away the sand from the entrance 
to the great temple of Ipsambul. They then 
crossed the desert to Syria and the Dead sea, 
whence in 1820 they returned to England. In 
1823 they printed for private circulation a 
selection from the letters written by them 
while absent, republished in 1844 under the 
title of "Travels in Egypt and Nubia, Syria, 
and the Holy Land." 

MANGOUSE, or Mongons. See ICHNEUMON. 

MANGO, the native name of an East Indian 
fruit, of species of mangifera, of which 14 are 
known; some of them have been cultivated 
and become completely naturalized in the West 
Indies and other tropical countries. The genus 
belongs to the anacardiacece or cashew family, 
of which our native representatives are the 
sumachs. The most important species is M. 
Indica, of which there are numerous varieties ; 
it is a large spreading tree, with simple, entire, 
leathery, lanceolate leaves, and large terminal 
panicles of flowers ; the calyx is four- or five- 
parted, petals six ; the stamens four or five, 
only one or two of which are fertile ; ovary 



MANGOSTEEN 



MANGROVE 



105 



me-celled, with a curved style; the fruit is 
3 in. or more long, ovate, and very va- 
iable in shape and color ; it is at first green, 
id then becomes partly or wholly orange- 
)lored ; beneath the skin there is in the better 
arieties a rich delicious pulp, in the centre of 
rhich is a large stone, to which the inner por- 
ion of the pulp is attached by coarse fibres, 




Mango (Mangifera Indica). 

something after the manner of a clingstone 
peach. The largest varieties weigh two pounds, 
but the fruit is usually not larger than a goose 
egg. In its fresh state the fruit is much prized 
by the inhabitants of tropical countries, and 
it is sometimes offered in a very poor con- 
dition in our seaport cities. It is sent from 
the West Indies in the form of a sweetmeat, 
but in that state it is simply sweet and fla- 
vorless. The green fruit, pickled and highly 
spiced, is imported into England from the East 
Indies ; an imitation of this pickle, called man- 
goes, is made of green melons stuffed with aro- 
matics. Some of the varieties are not edible on 
account of their strong flavor of turpentine, 
and being very stringy also, one writer com- 
pares them to " a mixture of tow and turpen- 
tine." The tree is sometimes cultivated under 
glass as a curiosity. The wood is used together 
with sandalwood by the Hindoos in burning 
their dead ; the bark possesses astringent prop- 
erties, and the tree when wounded exudes a 
gum resin which is also astringent. The na- 
tives of India are said to make use of the as- 
tringent leaves and leaf stalks of the mango to 
harden the gums, and they also employ them 

remedial agents in other ways. The seeds 
are said to possess anthehnintic properties, and 
when boiled are eaten in times of scarcity. 

MANGOSTEEN (Malay, mangostana ; Garci- 
nia mangostana), a tree growing with an up- 
right stem to the height of 20 ft., and bearing 
a very beautiful and eatable berry, esteemed 
the most delicious of East Indian fruits. The 
genus Garcinia, of which there are over 30 



species, belongs to the natural order guttiferce, 
which contains trees that are natives of the 
hottest parts of the world, and characterized 
by thick, entire, opposite leaves and resinous 
juices. Several species of Garcinia furnish a 
portion of the gamboge of commerce. In the 
mangosteen the leaves are about 7 or 8 in. 
long, and about half as much in breadth at 
the middle, gradually tapering at both ends, of 
a shining green above, but of an olive color 
beneath. The flower resembles a single rose, 
composed of four roundish petals, of a dark 
red color, which are thick at the base, but thin- 
ner toward the margins. The fruit is about 
the size and shape of an orange, and is crowned 
by a broad peltate-lobed stigma ; the rind is 
like that of the pomegranate, but softer,- thick- 
er, and fuller of juice ; it is green at first, but 
changes to a dark brown with some yellowish 
spots; the inside is white or of a rose col- 
or, and is divided into several cells by thin 
partitions, in which the seeds are lodged, sur- 
rounded by a soft, juicy pulp, of a delicious fla- 
vor partaking of the strawberry and the grape ; 
one writer describes its qualities as " utterly 
inexpressible." It can be eaten in great quan- 
tities without any inconvenience, and it is the 
only fruit which sick people in India are al- 
lowed to eat without scruple. It is said that 
Solander, when in the last stage of a putrid 
fever at Batavia, found great benefit from 
sucking this delicious and refreshing fruit. 
The pulp has a most happy mixture of the tart 
and the sweet, and is no less salutary than 
pleasant. The dried bark of the Garcinia is 




Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana). 

astringent, and has been used in dysentery and 
in infusion as a gargle for sore mouth ; the 
Chinese employ it for dyeing black. The sev- 
eral species are beautiful stove plants. 

MANGROVE, a common name for three or 
four tropical plants, but mainly applied to 
species of rhizophora (Gr. /W'C, a root, and 
, to bear), a genus so called on account 



106 



MANGROVE 



of the aerial roots borne by the plants ; the 
genus gives its name to the small family of 
rhizophoraceas, which is nearly related to the 
myrtle family. There are but few species, the 




Mangrove. 

best known of which is R. Mangle, a plant 
common in tropical countries; its northern 
limits upon this continent are southern Flor- 
ida on the Atlantic and Lower California on 
the Pacific coast. It is a tree sometimes 40 
ft. high, but usually much smaller, with oppo- 
site, entire, leathery leaves, and axillary, few- 
flowered clusters of showy flowers; the per- 
sistent calyx has an obovate tube and a four- 
lobed limb ; the yellow petals are four, thick, 
notched at the apex, and woolly on the mar- 
gins; stamens eight; ovary two-celled with 
two ovules in each cell; 
fruit one-celled, indehis- 
cent, at length perforated 
by the radicle of the em- 
bryo, which germinates 
while the fruit is still upon 
the tree. The mangrove 
is found in muddy locali- 
ties directly upon the sea- 
shore, where it forms im- 
penetrable thickets ; its 
manner of growth is like 
that of the banian tree 
in miniature, as the stem 
and branches produce long 
slender roots, which final- 
Fruit of Mangrove. ly reach the earth and be- 
come fixed. The mangrove 
not only prevents the encroachments of the sea 
upon the land, but acts an aggressive part in 
wr. -ting land from the sea; the seeds, which 
might be washed away if they fell as soon as 




MANICH.EANS 

ripe germinate while yet attached to the 
stem, and when one falls it is already pro- 
vided with a long radicle ; in fact they are not 
properly any longer seeds, but young plants, 
which when they drop into the mud are ready 
to grow at once; after the young tree has 
formed a stem and head of branches, it is then 
by means of its aerial roots enabled to spread 
and occupy more territory, and thus advance 
seaward, while its fruit will drop beyond the 
line of the parent tree and new plants be pro- 
duced further from dry land. The tangled 
mass of stems and roots in a mangrove thicket 
retains the debris from the land that may be 
brought down by floods, and thus upon the 
land side of the grove solid ground is gradually 
formed. From the great quantity of decaying 
vegetable matter collected in a mangrove 
thicket, such localities are highly malarious. 
The account of oysters growing upon trees is 
not, as has been supposed, a traveller's fable, 
for the submerged portions of the branch-like 
roots of the mangrove are often studded with 
these and other mollusks, and when the tide 
recedes oysters may be literally gathered from 
trees. Other species are found on the Malabar 
coast, and one is found on the Feejee and neigh- 
boring islands. The wood of the mangroves 
is tough, hard, and durable in the water; 
hence it is employed for boat building, a use 
for which the natural curves of its branches 
and its numerous knees especially adapt it. 
The bark contains a large amount of tannin, 
and is used all over the West Indies in the 
preparation of leather, as well as by dyers, 
giving with different mordants slate-colored 
and various brown tints. Occasional ship- 
ments of the bark have been made to England, 
but as there are many products which are 
much richer in tannin in proportion to their 
bulk, it is not likely to become a regular article 
of commerce. The fruit of the common man- 
grove is ovate and crowned with the persistent 
calyx, and said to be sweet and edible ; its fer- 
mented juice makes a kind of light wine. 
MANHATTAN ISLAND. See NEW YOEK. 
HANHEIM. See MANNHEIM. 
MANICHJDANS, a religious sect of the East, 
founded about the middle of the 3d century. 
Its origin is involved in obscurity, oriental and 
occidental writers differing much in their ac- 
counts of it. According to the latter, Manes 
or Mani, the founder of the sect, was not the 
originator of his doctrines. The fullest ac- 
count of his life and of the source of his sys- 
tem is given by Epiphanius, and is in all essen- 
tials corroborated by Cyril, Socrates, Theo- 
doret, Suidas, Cedrenus, and the Acta Disputa- 
tionis S. Archelai from which their statements 
were derived. This work, of uncertain author- 
ship, and extant only in a corrupted form, is 
rejected by some scholars as wholly unhistori- 
cal. It contains an account of a disputation be- 
tween Manes and Archelaus, bishop of Cascar. 
It states substantially that a certain Seythianus, 
an Arabian by birth, but a native of Scythia, 



MANIOHJSANS 



107 



a man of much learning, wealth, and travel, 
conceived the idea of a dualism, the doctrine 
of good and bad principles. His disciple Tere- 
binthus composed for him four books, entitled 
Mvarvpia, Ke^a/lam, Evayy&iov, and Qr]Gavp6i. 
Scythianus was intending to go to Judea, in 
the time of the apostles, and teach his doc- 
trines there (as he did, according to Epipha- 
nius), when he suddenly died. Terebinthus fled 
to Persia, took the name of Budda, and taught 
the doctrine of Scythianus. Seeing that he was 
not gaining disciples, he attempted to deceive 
by magic arts, and while in the act fell from a 
roof and died. The books of Scythianus be- 
came the property of an old woman in whose 
house he had been lodging, and whose slave, 
Oubricus, called also Manes, inherited them at 
her death. Manes studied the doctrine and 
undertook to teach it, but with little success. 
Attempting to cure a sick child of the king of 
Persia with some of the remedies given in his 
books, and failing, he was thrown into prison. 
Shortly before this occurrence Manes had sent 
his disciples Thomas, Hernias, and Addas or 
Adda to Jerusalem to study the Christian reli- 
gion. Upon their return they gave him the 
Christian books which they had bought, and 
he studied them in his prison, and embodied 
many Christian doctrines, changed and falsi- 
fied, in his own system. Shortly after he suc- 
ceeded in making his escape. He challenged 
Marcellus, a pious Christian of Cascar (Kas- 
kar) in Babylonia, to a religious disputation, 
and was defeated. He then went to a place 
designated as Diodori Vicus, where he disputed 
with the bishop Archelaus and the presbyter 
Trypton, and was again discomfited. He was 
finally taken prisoner and sent back to Persia, 
where he was flayed alive, and his skin, stuffed 
with straw, was publicly exhibited as a warn- 
ing. Several reasons, as pointed out by Baur 
(Das Manichdische Religionssystem, 1831), tend 
to show that the strange particulars of Epi- 
phanius's narrative are far from being all his- 
torical. The Fihrist el-ulum ("List of Sci- 
ences"), the oldest known literary history of 
the Arabs, written about 987 by Abulf araj Mo- 
hammed ben Ishak en-Nedim, a book which 
still made use of the works of Manes and his 
disciples, no longer extant, has statements in re- 
gard to Manes which are at variance with those 
of Epiphanius. According to this, Manes was 
born in Ctesiphon, the son of Futtak Babek or 
Fatek, of Hamadan, and of a woman probably 
of Babylonian origin. When 12 years old Manes 
became the subject of a divine inspiration, and 
at the age of 24 he was asked to act as a pro- 
phet. De Sacy, in his Memoires sur diverses 
antiquites de la Perse, adduces several oriental 
books which state that Manes, after hiding him- 
self in a cave for a year, pretended to have come 
from heaven, where he bad received a painted 
slate, thereafter known as the Erteng-i-Mdni, 
It is further stated that Manes alleged that he 
had received his doctrine from the king of para- 
dise through the mediation of an angel. He 



j himself was the Paraclete of whom Christ had 
spoken. His tenets were derived partly from 
Christianity and partly from the Magi. His 
writings were six in number, one in Persian 
and five in Syriac, besides a multitude of epis- 
tles. The graphic system employed by him- 
self and his disciples is said to have been pecu- 
liar, resembling both Persian and Syrian char- 
acters. Most of the oriental writers agree 
that Manes came to a violent death, and that 
he was brought before a tribunal of priests, 
charged with heresy, and condemned. Spiegel, 
in his Erdnische AlterthumsTcunde (vol. ii., 
1873), is inclined to consider historical the 
statements that Manes entered the career of a 
prophet when he was 24 years old, and that 
he addressed himself both to the Zoroastrians 
and Christians of Mesopotamia. The Mani- 
chaean system is a mixture of Parseeism, Chris- 
tianity, Babylonian mythology, and Buddhism. 
It contains a dualism different from that of the 
Magi, and shows the same easy transition from 
the concrete to the abstract characteristic of 
the Iranian religion. It assumes that there are 
two kingdoms existing from all eternity, those 
of light and of darkness, coexisting with and 
bordering on each other ; the former under 
the dominion of God, the latter under the 
dominion of the demon or Hyle (matter). (See 
GNOSTICISM.) An inroad was made by the 
kingdom of darkness, the barriers were broken 
through, the primitive man, God's first-born 
son, was for a time imprisoned, and the mate- 
rials of light and darkness were intermixed. 
God now caused the world to be made out 
of this mixed material. It was made by the 
" living spirit," in order that the unmixed 
and imprisoned material of light, which is 
called by the Latin writers Jesus patibilis, 
might be separated by degrees, and the old 
boundaries restored. This recapturing of the 
material of light was effected by Christ and 
the Holy Spirit, who inhabit respectively the 
sun and moon and the air, while the demon and 
evil spirits are fettered to the stars. Adam, 
the progenitor of the human race, was created 
after the image of the primitive man. Every 
man has two souls, one of light, the other of 
darkness; and it is his mission to subject the 
latter to the former, uniting with his soul of 
light some of the material of light imprisoned 
in certain plants, and so fitting it for return to 
the kingdom of light. The demon long led 
men astray by the false religions of Judaism 
and heathenism ; but at length Christ descended 
from the sun, assumed a bodily appearance, and 
taught true worship. He was not fully under- 
stood even by his apostles; still less by their 
successors, whom Manes contemptuously calls 
Galileans. Hence Christ promised the Para- 
clete, who appeared in Manes. The Manichae- 
ans therefore rejected wholly the Old Testa- 
ment, and partially the New. They appealed 
to apocryphal writings, and especially to the 
writings of Manes, which alone they acknowl- 
edged as authoritative. The spirit of their 



108 



MANICILEANS 



morality was self-conquest by asceticism, of 
\\hi.-h they held to three degrees: 1, what the 
Latin writers call signaculum oris, abstinence 
from all impure words, and even thoughts, 
and from any kind of food which might in- 
crease the power of the body over the spirit, 
and especially flesh, wine, and strong drinks ; 
2, the signaculum manuum, abstinence from 
such work as makes this world an attractive 
home; 8, the signaculum sinus, abstinence 
from sexual intercourse. Legal external mar- 
riage was not absolutely forbidden, but celi- 
bacy was strongly recommended, while absti- 
nence from procreation was a moral duty. 
This rigorous asceticism imposed on the bap- 
tized members such privations that most Mani- 
cheeans remained catechumens, postponing bap- 
tism as long as possible. The worship of the 
Manichaeans was very simple. Sunday was cel- 
ebrated by fasting ; they kept the day of Manes's 
death as an annual festival; they adminis- 
tered baptism with oil, and admitted only bap- 
tized members to the Lord's supper, which was 
celebrated in secret. Manes himself sent out 
12 apostles, and these were afterward repre- 
sented by 12 magistri, with a 13th invisible 
one, without doubt Manes himself, at their 
head. After them followed 70 or 72 bishops, 
who in turn had under them presbyters, dea- 
cons, and the other electi, or baptized members 
of the church. The cruel execution of Manes, 
the date of which is commonly fixed at A. D. 
276, in the reign of Bahram I., was undoubt- 
edly followed by a persecution of his disciples. 
The Manichseans consequently fled from Iranian 
territory into lands occupied by Tartaric races, 
where Buddhism was the general religion, and 
toleration was shown to other sects. They re- 
turned to the west only after the fall of the Sas- 
sanian dynasty, and settled especially in Baby- 
lon and its environs, which became the seat of 
the Manichroan primate, and seems to have been 
looked upon as a sort of holy city. Many emi- 
grated to Khorasan in the reign of the caliph 
Muktadir, and still more to Samarcand. Mos- 
lem fanaticism did not disturb them here, as 
the chief of the Turkish tribe of Tagazgaz, who 
took an interest in them, threatened vengeance 
against the Mohammedans in his territory if 
any harm should be done to the Manichseans. 
At the time of the author of the Fihrist, in 
the 10th century, there were but few Mani- 
chaeans in the west, and in Bagdad their num- 
ber diminished, within his own recollection, 
from 300 to 5. Manes had appointed Sis or 
Sisinnius to be his successor as the head of 
the church, and the succession was continued 
for several centuries. But in the time of the 
<"ili|'h Walid I. (705), while Mihr was the 
head of the ManichaBans, a certain Zadhnrmn/ 
separated from the community and built in 
Madain a temple, of which he declared himself 
to be the chief. He appointed Miklas to be 
hi* -m-cessor, and hence those who adhered to 
him were called Miklasiya, and those who 
recognized the authority of Mihr were called 



Mihriya. It seems that the two sects were 
subsequently reunited. During the caliphate 
of Al-Mamoun (813-833) one Yazdanbakht 
caused another schism, of which very little is 
known. The doctrine of Manes succeeded in 
gaining many converts, as it appealed large- 
ly to the imaginative and philosophic charac- 
ter of the oriental mind. Manichaeism spread 
beyond Iran and Mesopotamia over Asia Mi- 
nor and Africa, and it found its way into Eu- 
rope. Its history may be divided into three 
periods. The first period extends to the end 
of the 6th century, until which time the Ma- 
nichaean doctrines continued in a measure in 
their original oriental form. In Africa its suc- 
cess was sufficiently great to be looked upon 
as the rival of Christianity. It numbered 
among its converts many eminent and learned 
men, as Alexander Lycopolitanus, Faustus of 
Milevi, and even St. Augustine for at least nine 
years. St. Augustine says that the name of 
Manes or Mani was changed to Manichasus, 
in order to avoid ribald remarks called forth 
by the resemblance of the former to the Greek 
fiavia. The persecutions of Diocletian, Con- 
stantine, Gratian, Theodosius, Valentinian, and 
Honorius finally succeeded in weakening their 
power, and the Vandal kings drove them out 
of Africa into Sicily and Italy, where Pope 
Leo I. and Valentinian III, soon took measures 
either to convert or destroy them. But a cen- 
tury and a half later Gregory I. still complained 
of the large number of Manichaeans in Christian 
lands. Persecutions had taught them, how- 
ever, the wisdom of appearing to adopt some 
of the Christian rites and doctrines, which had 
the effect of gradually perverting the oriental 
faith into a Christian heresy, and thus Mani- 
chaeism entered upon a new phase of its ex- 
istence. The second period reaches from the 
7th to the llth century. Cappadocia and Ar- 
menia had been the cradle of strong Mani- 
chaean communities, which, finally exiled into 
Bulgaria, by degrees renounced even the name 
and headship of Manes, and rejected various 
doctrines seemingly unintelligible and un- 
profitable. Constantinople was not as severe 
on them as the Roman pontiffs and emperors, 
though the East finally subjected them to the 
same persecutions which their brethren had 
suffered in the West. (See PAULIOIANS.) The 
Manichaeans of Italy soon came under the in- 
fluence of the Bulgarian reform, and a new 
variety of the original doctrine sprung up in 
the West. This third development embraces 
the llth, 12th, and 13th centuries. Germany, 
France, and Italy proceeded against the heretics 
with unwavering severity, and even the popu- 
lace joined in a general persecution of them, 
surrendering them to the penalty of death. 
(For the history of these new sects, see ALBI- 
GENSES, and CATHARISTS.) In modern times 
the various forms of Manichaeism have gradu- 
ally disappeared, and to all appearance, per- 
haps with the exception of a few in Bulgaria 
and Persia, disciples of Manes are nowhere to 



MANIKIN 



MANILA 



109 



found. In theological polemics the term 
Manichaean is still applied to doctrines repre- 
senting evil as a substance, identifying it with 
matter, or regarding the body of man as the 
source or seat of sin. The writings of Manes 
and his immediate disciples are not extant. 
Fragments are found quoted in the writings 
of their opponents, as in the Acta Disputa- 
tionis Sancti Archelai, Episcopi Mesopotami- 
ensis, cum Manete ; St. Augustine, Contra 
Faustum Manichaum, and Contra Fortuna- 
tum Manichceum; and St. Epiphanius. Be- 
sides the accounts of Manichaaism found in 
works on ecclesiastical history, and the spe- 
cial works mentioned above, see Schmidt, His- 
toire et doctrine de la secte des Cathares ou Al- 
ligeois (2d ed., Paris, 1849), and Flugel, Mdn^ 
seine Lehre und seine Schriften, ein Beitrag zur 
Geschichte des Manichaismus, aus dem Fihrist, 
im Text nebst Uebersetzung (Leipsic, 1862). 

MANIKIN. See ANATOMICAL PREPARATIONS. 

MANILA, a city, 
capital of the island 
of Luzon, and of the 
whole Philippine ar- 
chipelago, near the 
mouth of the Kio 
Pasig, which emp- 
ties into the bay of 
Manila; lat. 14 36' 
N., Ion. 121 E. ; 
pop. (including the 
suburbs) from 140,- 
000 to 150,000, of 
whom the Spaniards 
and Creoles are about 
one tenth, the re- 
mainder being na- 
tive Tagalas, mesti- 
zos, and Chinese. 
Most of the Chinese 
are engaged in com- 
merce, and but few 
in agriculture. The 
city is divided by the 
river into two sec- 
tions, Manila proper and Binondo. The for- 
mer, which is the military town, is surrounded 
by lofty walls, and communicates with Binon- 
do by a fine stone bridge 511 ft. long, with 10 
arches, first built in 1630, but rebuilt in 1814. 
The situation of the town is beautiful. On 
one side is the bay, in a framework of forest- 
clad mountains declining gradually toward the 
shore; and on another a picturesque plain, 
where are the military parade ground and the 
fashionable promenades, crowded in the even- 
ing with showy equipages and gay equestrians 
and pedestrians. The aspect of Manila proper 
is somewhat dull and monotonous. The streets 
are perfectly straight, macadamized, and pro- 
vided with ample granite sidewalks. The 
houses, which have in general a sort of pala- 
tial appearance, are of two stories, and built 
in a manner to resist the hurricanes and earth- 
quakes so frequent here. The upper story, 



commonly occupied by the family, is encircled 
by a spacious gallery, from which the sun is 
excluded by large sliding panels with mother- 
of-pearl panes, sufficiently transparent to ad- 
mit light to the apartments. In this town are 
the cathedral and some other churches, with 
all the monasteries and convents, both of which 
are numerous ; the governor's palace ; the cit- 
adel, overlooking both towns; the courts of 
justice, custom house, barracks, arsenal, hospi- 
tal, and other public buildings. Binondo, on 
the N. bank of the river, is much larger and 
more animated ; but the streets are less regu- 
lar and many still unpaved. Numerous canals, 
crowded with pirogues, gondolas, and other 
boats, intersect this suburb, in which reside 
the wealthy merchants, Spanish, English, In- 
dian, Chinese, and mestizos. The newest and 
most elegant houses on the banks of the Pa- 
sig, though of unassuming exterior, are highly 
adorned within. Each house has a landing 




Manila. 

place from the river, and little bamboo huts 
to which the inhabitants repair several times 
a day for bathing. In other parts of the town 
there are sombre and massive structures inter- 
spersed with airy bamboo cottages perched 
on posts, in the midst of avenues of tropical 
trees, giving to the place an appearance at 
once Spanish and oriental. The only square 
worthy of remark in either town is the Plaza 
Mayor in Manila proper, some 300 ft. square, 
and embellished with a fine statue of Charles 
IV. of Spain, presented by Ferdinand VII. in 
1824. The climate is intensely hot, but toler- 
ably salubrious; hurricanes occur frequently, 
and heavy rains fall at short intervals, espe- 
cially during the wet monsoons, which prevail 
five months out of the twelve. The tempera- 
ture is equable, seldom rising above 99 F. or 
descending below 70. Vessels of deep draught 
have to anchor at Cavite", about 7 m. distant ; 



110 



MANILA 



but the anchorage in the port of Manila is ex- 
cellent for small vessels. Manila is by law the 
sole emporium of foreign trade with the Span- 
ish East Indies. The chief articles of export 
are sugar, tobacco (exclusively to Great Brit- 
ain and Spain, the latter receiving annually a 
state tribute out of the tobacco crop to the 
amount of $800,000), cigars, hemp, coffee, in- 
digo, copper, and gums and other tropical 
products. The imports include cotton, linen, 
woollen, and silk fabrics, manufactured iron, 
wines, beer, &c. The total value of the ex- 
ports for the year ending Sept. 30, 1872, was 
$18,679,770 19 ; of the imports, $2,557,227 42 ; 
the amount f duties paid on the latter was 
$284,406 81. The more important commer- 
cial relations are with Spain, Great Britain, the 
United States, France, Germany, China, Chili, 
and the Hawaiian islands. The tobacco manu- 
facture, a government monopoly, employs 20,- 
000 workers of both sexes. (For other manu- 
factures, see LUZON, and PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.) 
Educational establishments are numerous in 
Manila : there are the university of St. Thomas, 
with 500 students; that of St. John, with 250 ; 
a royal marine school (established in 1820), a 
commercial (1840), and a number of primary 
schools public and private. Manila was found- 
ed by the Spaniards in 1571, on the site of a 
Malay town defended by stockades. Miguel Lo- 
pez de Legazpi, conqueror of the Philippines 
and founder of the city, was indefatigable in 
promoting its growth. He founded the cathe- 
dral, the metropolitan church of all Catholic 
Oceanica, and established a municipal organi- 
zation, which was confirmed by Philip II. of 
Spain, and continues to be the form of muni- 
cipal government in Manila. Chinese laborers 
and traders settled here in large numbers, and 
in time Became very turbulent. In 1603 an 
insurrection took place, and 23,000 Chinese 
were massacred; notwithstanding which, the 
Chinese population in 1639 numbered in Ma- 
nila about 30,000. The severity of imposts 
and religious persecution again led to insurrec- 
tion, which terminated with the slaughter of 
about 25,000 Chinese, and the banishment of 
the remainder ; but they soon again resorted 
to the city in large numbers, and assisted Ad- 
miral Cornish and Sir William Draper in the 
capture of it in 1762. The English expedition, 
composed of 2,300 Europeans and sepoys, 
which sailed from Madras, took the city by 
storm, after a siege of ten days. The gover- 
nor and archbishop agreed to pay $5,000,000 
to save the rich cargoes then lying in the port; 
but the king of Spain refused to ratify the 
offer. Sir William Draper has been rendered 
conspicuous by his controversy with Junius 
concerning this ransom. Manila was restored 
to Spain by the peace of Paris, Feb. 10, 1763. 
The Japanese had much trade with the city, 
and were settled in it in large numbers during 
a portion of the 17th century, before their 
laws excluded them from all communication 
with the rest of the world. They imported 



the raw material extensively used in their 
manufactures directly from the Philippines. 
Earthquakes have been frequent and disas- 
trous; in that of 1645, 3,000 lives were lost; 
and those of 1762, 1824, and 1852 were also 
destructive of life and property ; while in that 
of June, 1863, about 1,000 persons perished. 
In March, 1833, about 10, 000 huts were burned, 
some lives were lost, and about 30,000 people 
left homeless. 

MANILA, or Manila Hemp, the fibre of musa 
textilis, a native of the Philippine islands, and 
of the same genus with the banana and plan- 
tain. The tree, known in the islands by the 
native name of cibaca, has a similar habit of 
growth to the banana and other musas; the 




ManUa Hemp Tree (Musa textilis). 

stem proper is small, and is surrounded by the 
broad sheathing petioles of the leaves, together 
making a kind of false stem, which in the abaca 
is 15 or 20 ft. high ; the leaves are dark green, 
and resemble those of the banana; the fruit 
is small and triangular, resembling an abortive 
banana, and full of black seeds; the plant is 
readily multiplied by seeds and by suckers, and 
propagates itself so freely as to take complete 
possession of the land. When the stems are 
about to flower they are cut down, and split 
longitudinally in four pieces; the petioles, 
which are the portion furnishing the fibre, are 
then pulled off, the outer ones, which furnish 
the coarsest and strongest fibre, being kept 
separate from the inner; those which grow 



MANILIUS 



MANISSA 



111 



near the centre are rejected, as their fibres are 
not strong enough to be useful. To separate 
the fibre, the petioles are thoroughly beaten 
with wooden clubs, by which much of the ad- 
hering tissue is loosened ; and the separation is 
further effected by the use of a coarse hackle, 
after which the fibres are frequently washed, 
and when freed of all extraneous matter they 
are hung upon poles or ropes to dry. The 
fibres are coarser or finer as they are from the 
outer or inner petioles, and they are carefully 
assorted, the coarsest being for cordage and 
the finer for weaving. As a material for ropes 
and other cordage its great tenacity and dura- 
bility make it highly valuable, and large quan- 
tities are used for this purpose. From the 
finer fibres the inhabitants of the islands weave 
tissues of great delicacy; the fibres are not 
spun, but used in their natural state; those 
of a proper size being selected, the single 
fibres, which are about 15 ft. long, are tied to- 
gether at their ends, and wound into a ball, 
soaked in hot water, and dried, when they are 
ready for weaving. Tissues woven from the 
abaca fibre are almost transparent, somewhat 
rigid, light, and cool to the touch ; muslins, 
veils, napkins, &c., are made from it, and it is 
even woven into shirts and other articles of 
1 apparel ; the material readily takes dyes of all 
colors. Large quantities of paper are made in 
whole or in part from manila, usually in the 
form of worn-out rope; it possesses great 
toughness in proportion to its weight. 

MAMLIIS, Marcos, a Latin poet, of unknown 
date and history. Bentley supposed that he 
was an Asiatic, and Huet that he was a Car- 
thaginian, and there are indications in his only 
known poem, the Astronomica, that it was 
written under Augustus. The first manuscript 
was discovered by Poggio in 1416, and was 
printed at Nuremberg in 1472 or 1473. Other 
MSS. were afterward found, from which later 
editions were prepared. There is an English 
metrical translation by Creech (London, 1697). 
MAMN, Daniele, an Italian statesman, born in 
Venice, May 13, 1804, died in Paris, Sept. 22, 
1857. He studied law at the university of Pa- 
dua, and commenced practice about 1830. He 
early became a champion of the national party, 
though aiming to combat Austria with legal 
weapons. After the accession of Pius IX. 
Manin and Tommaseo became the leaders of 
| the reform movement in Venice (1847). Ma- 
! nin asked for a separate government of Venice 
!| and Lombardy, a revision of the codes, an an- 
| nual budget, and freedom of religion and of 
\ the press. Upon Radetzky's bloody suppres- 
sion of a riot in Milan (Jan. 9, 1848), his and 
i his colleague's protests (Jan. 18) resulted only 
in the imprisonment of the two patriots. The 
revolution which soon followed forced the 
Austrian commander, Count Zichy, to surren- 
der, March 22 ; the republic of Venice or St. 
Mark was proclaimed, March 23, and Manin 
and Tommaseo were placed at the head of 
affairs. The Venetians prepared to form an 
529 VOL. XL 8 



independent republic in confederation with the 
other Italian states; but the Venetian assem- 
bly, convened June 3, agreed to the fusion 
with Sardinia and Lombardy so as to form a 
united kingdom of northern Italy under Charles 
Albert. Manin resigned ; but after the king's 
defeat at Custozza (July 25), the Venetians pre- 
pared for a separate defence. The republican 
banner of St. Mark was again hoisted, Aug. 11, 
and a triumvirate was appointed to carry on a 
dictatorial government on the 13th, Manin be- 
ing its head. After the defeat of Charles Al- 
bert's army at Novara, March 23, 1849, the 
Austrians concentrated their efforts upon the 
subjugation of Venice, while the French un- 
dertook the reduction of Rome. Fort Mala- 
ghera, one of the forts outside of Venice, fell 
into the hands of the Austrians, May 26, and 
Rome was occupied by the French at the be- 
ginning of July. Venice, however, continued 
its resistance under the military lead of Gen. 
Pepe, and Manin only capitulated (Aug. 23) 
upon terms of amnesty to all except 40 con- 
spicuous leaders, including himself, who were 
compelled to withdraw before the entrance of 
Radetzky. He spent the rest of his life in ex- 
ile in Paris, supporting himself by giving les- 
sons in Italian, and occasionally writing for 
the newspapers of Paris, London, and Turin. 
After the liberation of Venice his remains 
were brought from Paris at national expense, 
and buried with great solemnity (March 22, 
1868). An edition of some of his writings 
was published under the title Documents et 

Eis authentiques laisses par Daniel Manin 
is, I860). See also Daniel Manin, by H. 
in (Paris, 1859), and Errera, La vita ed i 
tempi di Daniele Manin (Venice, 1872). 
MANIOC, or Mandioca. See CASSAVA. 
MAJVIS, an edentate animal of Asia and Af- 
rica. See PANGOLIN. 

MA MSS A, or Manisa (anc. Magnesia ad Sipy- 
lum), a city of Asia Minor, in the vilayet of 
Aidin, on the S. bank of the Hermus, and on 
the N. slope of Mt. Sipylus, about 20 m. N. E. 
of the city of Smyrna; pop. estimated from 
30,000 to 60,000, chiefly Turks, with nearly 
4,000 Greeks and a number of Armenians and 
Jews. There are numerous masques, four Ro- 
man Catholic and several Greek and Armenian 
churches, and four synagogues. . Among the 
public buildings are those for the Turkish 
lieutenant governor and for the Greek bishop, 
a splendid khan, a district lunatic asylum, the 
Ottoman bank, the railway station, and the 
new bazaar. The finest palace is occupied by 
the Karaosmanglu family, the former princes 
of Caramania, once omnipotent here, and still 
large landed proprietors. The principal export 
is cotton, which has been produced in consid- 
erable quantities since the civil war in the 
United States ; and the Smyrna railway, opened 
in 1865, of which Manissa is the last station 
before reaching Kassaba, has rendered the cot- 
ton trade still more active in the two localities.. 
(See MAGNESIA.) 






112 



MANISTEE 



MAIS' ISTEE, a N. W. county of the lower 
peninsula of Michigan, bounded W. by Lake 
Michigan, and watered by the Manistee river ; 
area, about 550 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,074. 
The surface is level, the soil fertile, and there 
are extensive forests of pine. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 5,517 bushels of wheat, 
10 509 of Indian corn, 4,743 of oats, 29,360 of 
potatoes, 12,730 Ibs. of butter, and 565 tons 
of hay. There were 1 manufactory of engines 
and boilers, 2 of sash, doors, and blinds, 1 of 
cigars, and 20 saw mills. Capital, Manistee. 

M IMSTKK, a city and the county seat of Ma- 
nistee co., Michigan, on Lake Michigan, at the 
mouth of Manistee river, 135 m. N. W. of Lan- 
sing ; pop. in 1870, 3,343 ; in 1874, 4,894. It is 
one of the chief lumber manufacturing points 
on the lake. The mills, about 20 in number, are 
situated on Manistee lake, an expansion of the 
river above the city. There are also an extensive 
tannery and seven shingle mills. Manistee has 
some fine residences, a good union school, and 
several churches. It was incorporated in 1869. 

MANITOBA, a province of the Dominion of 
Canada, situated between lat. 49 and 50 30' 
N., and Ion. 96 and 99 W. It is bounded S. 
by Minnesota and Dakota, and on all other 
sides by the Northwest territories, and is 135 
m. long E. and W. by 104 m. in breadth, form- 
ing nearly a parallelogram; area, 14,340 sq. m. 
It is divided into four counties, Lisgar, Mar- 
quette, Provencher, and Selkirk, which are 
subdivided into parishes. The capital and chief 
town is Winnipeg, on the N. bank of the As- 
siniboin or Assiniboine river, at its confluence 
with the Red, which has about 3,000 inhabi- 
tants, and contains within its limits Fort Garry, 
the American headquarters of the Hudson Bay 
company. The population of the territory 
now embraced within the province in 1823 was 
about 600; in 1843, 5,143; in 1849, 5,291; in 
1856, 6,523 ; in 1870 (census taken Dec. 24), 
11,963, of whom 5,757 were French half-breeds, 
4,083 English half-breeds, 1,565 whites, and 
558 Indians; in 1874, about 20,000. The 
half-breeds include all having any intermixture 
of Indian blood, and are the descendants of 
Indian mothers and French Canadian, English, 
or Scotch fathers, the Scotch element predom- 
inat'mtf over the English. The distinction of 
French and English in the census is based 
.rather upon language than lineage. Since 1870 
a considerable immigration, particularly from 
Ontario, has set in. The principal settlements 
are on both banks of Red river, from about 
20 m. X. to 15 m. S. of Winnipeg, and along 
fthe Assiniboin for about 20 m. W. of that 
town. N. of the half-breed settlements on Red 
river is a village of settled and Christian In- 
dians of the Swampy Cree tribe. The western- 
most settlement on the Assiniboin is at Prairie 
Portage (Portage-la-Prairie), 67 m. above Win- 
nipeg. Besides the Indians enumerated there 
arv uncivilized Saulteaux and Maskegons, or 
Swarapies, in the province, and some Sioux 
who have been driven from Minnesota. The 



MANITOBA 

half-breeds are a handsome race, large, strong, 
and well made; they are generally swarthy, 
but many exhibit no sign of Indian extraction. 
Intrepid and indefatigable travellers, they mani- 
fest the Indian instinct in the ability to find 
their way through forests and across prairies. 
Many are employed by the Hudson Bay com- 
pany as boatmen, guides, and sledge drivers; 
others are farmers ; while a large proportion, 
especially of the French, pay comparatively 
little attention to agriculture, but pursue the 
buffalo in summer and winter on the plains 
W. and S. W. of the province. In general 
they are intelligent and hospitable, but prod- 
igal of their earnings, fond of pleasure, in- 
clined to drunkenness and indolence, and res- 
tive of restraint. Those engaged in farming, 
with a settled mode of life, have acquired 
more stable and provident traits of character 
than the hunters. The general surface is a 
level prairie, 80 ft. above Lake Winnipeg and 
700 ft. above the sea. It is broken by the Big 
ridge and Pembina mountain, ancient beaches 
of that lake which is supposed at one time 
to have extended over this region. The Big 
ridge, rising in places 60 or 70 ft. above the gen- 
eral level, commences near Lake Manitoba, N. 
of the Assiniboin river, and runs nearly par- 
allel with that stream to the Red river, cross- 
ing which below Winnipeg, it continues in a 
S. E. direction to German creek, and thence 
a little W. of S. to the Roseau river, which 
it crosses near the United States boundary and 
46 m. above its mouth. The Pembina moun- 
tain enters the province near the 98th merid- 
ian, and runs N. to the Assiniboin, just below 
Prairie portage. It marks the ascent from the 
general level to the hilly and undulating prai- 
rie on the south and west, which is about 100 
ft. higher. West of Pembina mountain, and 
a little S. of the Assiniboin river, are the Blue 
hills, 300 to 400 ft. above the plain. Stony 
mountain, W. of Red river, and about 15 m. 
N. of Winnipeg, rises 60 ft. above the sur- 
rounding prairie. The valley of Red river 
through most of its course is liable to inunda- 
tion in spring, and on several occasions 
suffered severely. N. E. and E. of the Bij 
ridge, along the border of the province, tl 
country is marshy and swampy, forming 
of the marshy region that extends from 1 
Winnipeg S. E. to Rainy lake. Marshes 
occur at other points both E. and W. of 
river. The only important lakes are Winni] 
and Manitoba (from which the province derive 
its name), a small portion of the S. part of t" 
former occupying the N. E. and of the latt 
the N. W. corner. The principal stream is 
Red river of the North, which, rising in Mil 
nesota, flows N. for 140 m. of its course 
through the province, and empties into Lake 
Winnipeg. It is navigable by steamers into 
Minnesota. Red river divides Manitoba into 
two unequal parts, about a third lying on the 
E. and two thirds on the W. bank. The chief 
tributaries from the east, commencing at the 



MANITOBA 



113 



United States boundary and going N., are the 
Roseau or Reedgrass river, Kat river, Oak 
creek, and la riviere Seine or German creek, 
which joins the Red just below Winnipeg. 
On the west the Pembina river drains the S. W. 
corner of the province, and flowing S. E. joins 
Red river in Dakota, a little S. of the boun- 
dary. Proceeding N., the other western tribu- 
taries-are the Scratching river, la riviere Sale 
or Stinking river, the Assiniboin, and Netley 
creek, which joins the main stream near its 
mouth. The Assiniboin, the largest tributary, 
rises in about lat. 52, W. of Lake Winnipe- 
gosis, flows first S. E., then bends E., and con- 
tinues in this direction for about 150 m. of its 
course through Manitoba, emptying into Red 
river' about 50 m. above Lake Winnipeg. The 
only other stream worth mentioning is White 
Mud river, which flows into Lake Manitoba. 
The geological formations occurring in the 
province are the Silurian in the east, the De- 
vonian in the centre, and the cretaceous in the 
southwest, W. of Pembina mountain. These 
series run parallel with each other in a N. 1ST. W. 
and S. S. E. direction. The Laurentian series 
occurs only in the N. E'. corner. The soil of 
the greater portion, and particularly of the 
prairies extending for 30 m. on each side of 
Red river, consists of a deep alluvial deposit of 
rich black mould, resting partly on limestone 
and partly on a bed of hard clay. The lime- 
stone crops out on the Red river below Win- 
nipeg, where it is suitable for building ma- 
terial. Stony mountain consists of limestone. 
The elevated prairie W. of Pembina mountain 
is covered with a light sandy clay loam, and 
near Scratching river the soil is light and sandy. 
Big ridge is composed of gravel, and Pembina 
mountain consists of clay, gravel, and sand, 
thickly strewn with granite boulders. Salt 
springs are found in the valley of la riviere Sale, 
and at one or two points on Red river further 
S.; and there are saline deposits near Stony 
mountain and in the vicinity of Lake Manitoba. 
The climate is healthy, but exhibits great 
extremes of temperature, the thermometer 
falling in winter to 40 below zero and even 
lower, and in summer rising as high as 100. 
Owing to the dryness of the atmosphere, the 
cold is not severely felt, and horses winter on 
the prairies without shelter, fattening on the 
grasses which they dig from beneath the snow, 
which is seldom very deep. The rainfall in 
summer is ample for agricultural purposes, and 
vegetation comes rapidly to maturity. Winter 
sets in with the commencement of November, 
and continues to the middle of April. Frosts 
are liable to occur until the end of May, and 
cold nights begin toward the end of August. 
The mean temperature at Winnipeg of the year 
ending May 31, 1873, was 33; of summer, 
65-7; of autumn, 37'5; of winter, 3'3 ; 
of spring, 32'1 ; warmest month (July), 67'6 ; 
coldest month (December), 9. The total 
precipitation of rain and melted snow was 
22-33 inches. The soil is very fertile. Wheat 



is the staple crop, and yields abundantly, 40 
bushels to the acre being commonly raised. 
Barley, oats, rye, potatoes, turnips, beets, car- 
rots, parsnips, cabbage, lettuce, &c., also do 
well. Indian corn is not much cultivated, 
though some varieties come to maturity in the 
driest soils. Flax and hemp have been suc- 
cessfully grown. The prairie grasses furnish 
good hay, and afford nutritious pasturage. 
Considerable numbers of horses, cattle, sheep, 
and swine are raised. Grasshoppers or locusts 
are the chief pest of the farmer, and have 
on several occasions destroyed all vegetation. 
The principal wild fruits are strawberries, 
currants, raspberries, plums, cherries, blue- 
berries, whortleberries, and marsh and high- 
bush cranberries. Wood is scarce, and is found 
chiefly in narrow strips along the Red and 
Assiniboin rivers, the timber belt extending 
from -J m. to 2 m. back from the stream on 
either bank. There are also portions of wood- 
land along the other streams. The principal 
trees are the elm, oak, maple, and poplar; 
tamarack, spruce, cedar, and birch also occur. 
The ridges afford small aspens and pines, and 
clumps of willows and aspens are found in the 
marshes, as well as on portions of the prairies. 
The ash-leaved maple (negundo fraxinifoli- 
iim) yields sugar. Among the wild animals are 
elks, rabbits, badgers, and squirrels. There are 
ducks, geese, cranes, swans, snipe, prairie hens, 
and other birds. The rivers and lakes swarm 
with whitefish, sturgeon, trout, cat fish, pike, 
perch, and gold-eyes. There are no returns 
of the trade with the other provinces of the 
Dominion. The value of goods entered for 
consumption from foreign countries for the 
year ending June 30, 1873, was $1,029,130, of 
which $509,838 were from Great Britain and 
$441,559 from the United States. The exports 
to foreign countries amounted to $246,983, all 
but $4,915 consisting of furs. The greater 
part of the exports were to Great Britain, the 
rest to the United States. There are no rail- 
roads in Manitoba, but the projected Canadian 
Pacific line is to pass through it, and a railroad 
has been commenced from Winnipeg to the 
United States boundary, to connect with the 
Minnesota system. There is telegraphic com- 
munication with the United States. The gov- 
ernment is based upon the British North Amer- 
ican act (1867) of the imperial parliament, and 
the Manitoba act (1870) of the Dominion par- 
liament. The executive power is vested in a 
lieutenant governor, appointed by the gover- 
nor general of the Dominion in council, and 
an executive council of six members, appointed 
by the lieutenant governor, and responsible to 
the assembly. The legislature consists of the 
legislative council of seven members, appoint- 
ed by the lieutenant governor for life, and the 
legislative assembly of 24 members, elected by 
districts for a term of four years. The sessions 
are annual. Every male person 21 years of 
age and upward, actually resident in the prov- 
ince, being a British subject or having taken 



114 



MANITOBA 



the oath of allegiance, is entitled to vote, npon 
having his name entered by the sheriff on 
the voters' list. Voting is viva voce. Quali- 
fied voters are eligible to office. The judicial 
power is vested in a court of queen's bench, 
county courts, and justices of the peace. The 
>l bench consists of a chief justice and 
t\\ -.. puisne judges, appointed by the governor 
trriuTJil in council, and has general jurisdic- 
.V county court, having inferior jurisdic- 
tion, is held for each county by a Judge of the 
queen's bench without a jury. The records 
and journals of the legislature are kept and 
the laws are published in both English and 
French. Either language may be used in le- 
gal proceedings and in debates in the legisla- 
ture. The common law does not prevail, but 
the general principles in force are the same as 
those recognized in Quebec, and are derived 
from French and Roman sources. Manitoba 
is represented in the Dominion parliament by 
two senators and four members of the house 
of commons (one from each county). The 
amount appropriated for the support of the 
government for 1872 was $81,425, including 
$7,000 for common schools. The salaries of 
the lieutenant governor and judges are paid 
from the Dominion treasury, besides which the 
province receives grants from the Dominion 
amounting in the aggregate to $67,204 50 per 
annum. The public schools are under the 
charge of a board of education of 14- mem- 
bers, of whom half are Catholics and half 
Protestants, one of the members acting as su- 
perintendent of the Catholic and another of 
the Protestant schools. There are 40 com- 
mon schools (20 Protestant and 20 Catholic), 
three Protestant female schools, several con- 
ventual academies and schools controlled by 
the Catholics, and three colleges, viz. : St. 
John's (Episcopal), St. Boniface (Catholic), and 
Kildonan (Presbyterian). Three weekly news- 
papers are published in the province (one each 
in Kn^lish, French, and English and French), 
and there are 32 post offices. A majority of 
the population are Roman Catholics; the oth- 
er principal denominations are Episcopalians, 
vrian-. :md Wesleyan Methodists. The 
i Catholics have an archbishop (arch- 
bU'mp of St. Boniface), and the Episcopalians 
. a bishop (bishop of Rupert's Land). There are 
3-2 c Lurches, viz.: 15 Episcopal, 2 Methodist, 4 
terian, and 11 Roman Catholic. Mani- 
toba forms part of the territory granted in 
1670 by Charles II. to the Hudson Bay corn- 
pun v. which in 1811 sold a tract, including 
wh it is now the province, to Thomas Douglas, 
earl of Selkirk. Under his auspices a colony 
was established, which was sometimes called 
the Selkirk settlement, but more commonly the 
Red River settlement. The first body of colo- 
nists arrival from the highlands of Scotland 
in lsi-2. an-l a si-roml pnrt.v in 1815, and set- 
tled on the Red river near its confluence with 
the As-inihoin. Subsequently other settlers 
arrived, including a number of French Canadi- 



an families in 1818; and as the colony gained 
permanence many who had been in the em- 
ployment of the Hudson Bay company (most- 
ly natives of the Orkney islands) and others 
connected with the fur trade, generally accom- 
panied by Indian families, came in and took up 
their residence in the settlement. Until 1821, 
when the Northwest company was merged in 
the Hudson Bay company, the colonists suf- 
fered much from attacks by the employees of 
the former. In 1835 the Hudson Bay com- 
pany bought back from the heirs of Lord Sel- 
kirk the territory granted to him in 1811, and 
established a more regular government than 
had previously existed, under the style of the 
governor and council of Assiniboia, giving it 
jurisdiction over the district embraced within 
a radius of 50 m. from Fort Garry. The offi- 
cers were appointed by the company, the coun- 
cillors being chosen from among the most in- 
fluential citizens of the district. Settlements 
having been made W. of these limits, a pro- 
visional government was formed at Prairie 
Portage in 1867, with Mr. Spence as president 
and a council of eight members styled the 
council of Manitoba, but it dissolved before 
the annexation of the country to Canada. The 
act of parliament of 1867 creating the Domin- 
ion of Canada contemplated the acquisition by. 
that government of the Hudson Bay territory, 
and Dec. 1, 1869, was subsequently fixed as the 
date of transfer. In the mean time an act of 
the Dominion parliament was passed providing 
for the temporary government of the entire 
region under the name of the Northwest ter- 
ritories, a measure respecting which the inhab- 
itants of Assiniboia were not consulted. This 
fact, with other grounds of apprehension, 
caused much dissatisfaction. Upon the ap- 
proach of William McDougall, who was to act 
as lieutenant governor of the Northwest ter- 
ritories, the French half-breeds, under the 
lead of Louis Kiel, resolved to prevent his en- 
trance into the settlement until some guar- 
antee was received that the rights of the in- 
habitants would be respected ; and from about 
Oct. 20, 1869, to Aug. 24, 1870, they held pos- 
session of the country. A provisional govern- 
ment was formed, with Kiel as president and 
a council of 24 members (12 English and 12 
French), and a bill of rights was adopted, the 
most prominent feature of which was a de- 
mand for representation in the Dominion par- 
liament and for a local legislature elected by 
the people. These were conceded by the 
Manitoba act, which passed the Dominion par- 
liament on May 20, 1870, and was accepted by 
the legislative assembly of Assiniboia on June 
24, providing for the admission of the prov- 
ince from and after the day of the queers 
proclamation annexing the Hudson Bay terri- 
tory. The actual transfer of this region, de 
layed by the disturbances, took place July 15 in 
virtue of a royal proclamation of June 23. On 
Aug. 24 the 60th rifles, under Col. (now Gen.) 
Wolseley, entered Fort Garry, Pdel having 



MANITOBA 



MANKATO 



115 



previously vacated the place ; and on Sept. 3 
Mr. Archibald, the lieutenant governor of the 
province, arrived. The troops soon returned, 
and were replaced by Canadian militia. See 
"The Red River Settlement, its Rise, Pro- 
gress, and Present State," by Alexander Ross 
(London, 1856) ; " Narrative of the Canadian 
Red River Exploring Expedition of 1857," &c., 
by H. Y. Hind (2 vols., London, 1860) ; Esquisse 
le Nord- Quest de VAmerique, by Arch- 
lop Tache (Montreal, 1869), translated by 
ipt. D. R. Cameron, " Sketch of the North- 
rest of America" (Montreal, 1870); "The 
reation of Manitoba, or a History of the Red 
Lver Troubles," .by Alexander Begg (Toron- 
1871) ; " Manitoba and the Northwest of 
s Dominion," by Thomas Spence (Toronto, 
L871) ; and " Red River Country and its Re- 
mrces," by J. J. Hargrave (Montreal, 1871). 
MANITOBA, Lake, a body of water in the, 
Northwest territories of Canada, intersected 
the 51st parallel and 99th meridian, situ- 
jd about 60 m. S. W. of Lake Winnipeg, into 
which it discharges through the Little Saskatch- 
ewan or Dauphin river, which expands near 
the middle of its course into St. Martin's lake. 
Lake Manitoba is about 120 m. long from N. 
N. W. to S. S. E., and has a breadth not ex- 
ceeding 25 m. ; area, about 1,900 sq. m. It is 
40 ft. above Lake Winnipeg, and is navigable 
by vessels drawing 10 ft., though its outlet only 
admits small craft. At its N. extremity it re- 
ceives through Water Hen river the waters of 
Winnipegoos or Winnipegosis, Dauphin, and 
Water Hen lakes, and at its S. extremity White 
Mud river. It abounds in fish. The name sig- 
nifies " supernatural strait," the Indians attrib- 
uting the peculiar agitation of the water in a 
portion of the lake to the presence of a spirit. 
MANITOF, among some tribes of the Amer- 
ican Indians, the name of any object of wor- 
ship. "The Illinois," wrote -the Jesuit Marest, 
*' adore a sort of genius, which they call mani- 
tou ; to them it is the master of life, the spirit 
rules all things. A bird, a buffalo, a bear, 
feather, a skin that is their manitou." " If 
e Indian word manitou," says Palfrey, "ap- 
ared to denote something above or beside 
common aspects and agencies of nature, it 
light be natural, but it would be rash and mis- 
ing, to confound its import with the Chris- 
Mohammedan, Jewish, Egyptian, or Greek 
inception of Deity, or with any compound of 
selection from some or all of those ideas." 
MANITOF, a county of Michigan, comprising 
le Beaver, Fox, and Manitou islands in Lake 
ichigan, off the N. W. coast of the lower pen- 
isula; area, about 100 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
1. The largest island is Big Beaver; the 
ther principal islands are Great Manitou, Lit- 
Manitou, Little Beaver, Garden, Hog, South 
''ox, and North Fox. The surface is rough and 
soil only moderately fertile. Capital, St. 
Fames, on Big Beaver island. 
MANITOULIN ISLANDS, a group stretching E. t 
id W. along the N. shore of Lake Huron from [ 



Georgian bay to the N. peninsula of Michigan, 
the principal of which are Great Manitoulin or 
Sacred island, Little Manitoulin or Cockburn, 
and Drummond's. All but the last (which 
belongs to Chippewa co., Mich.) are included 
in Algoma district, Ontario, Canada; area, 
1,183 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 2,011, of whom 
1,562 were Indians. Great Manitoulin, about 
80 m. long by from 5 to 30 broad, is deeply in- 
dented by numerous bays, and has an elevated 
and rugged surface, abounding in fine scenery. 
The interior is densely wooded with pine, and 
in the E. part are several lakes. Little Manitou- 
lin, about 10 m. in diameter, resembles Great 
Manitoulin in its general features. Drum- 
mond's island is about 20 m. long by from 2 to 
15 broad, and has an irregular surface, covered 
with large masses of rock. It is separated from 
the mainland of Michigan by a strait scarcely 
a mile wide, which forms the principal passage 
for vessels bound to Lake Superior. 

MANITOWOC, an E. county of Wisconsin, bor- 
dering on Lake Michigan, and drained by the 
Manitowoc, E. and W. Twin, and Sheboygan 
rivers; area, 612 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 33,364. 
The soil is fertile and heavily timbered, pine 
lumber being the principal article of export. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 517,146 
bushels of wheat, 92,881 of rye, 386,759 of 
oats, 30,176 of barley, 108,180 of potatoes, 80,- 
410 of peas and beans, 44,421 Ibs. of wool, 
575,319 of butter, and 26,937 tons of hay. 
There were 4,460 horses, 9,351 milch cows, 
11,017 other cattle, 16,403 sheep, and 11,200 
swine ; 15 flour mills, 21 saw mills, 3 woollen 
mills, 11 tanneries, 11 currying establishments, 
and 10 breweries. Capital, Manitowoc. 

MANITOWOC, a city and the capital of Mani- 
towoc co., Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan, at 
the mouth of Manitowoc river, and on the 
Milwaukee, Lake Shore, and Western railroad, 
105 m. N. .E. of Madison, and 75 m. N. of Mil- 
waukee ; pop. in 1860, 3,059 ; in 1870, 5,168, 
of whom 2,577 were foreigners. It has a good 
harbor and considerable trade, and contains 
several ship-building establishments, tanneries, 
and manufactories. There are a national bank, 
graded schools, a semi-weekly and four weekly 
(two German) newspapers, and five churches. 

MANKATO, a city and the county seat of Blue 
Earth co., Minnesota, on the right bank of the 
Minnesota river, at the great bend, and on the 
St. Paul and Sioux City and Chicago and North- 
western (Minnesota division) railroads, 76 m. 
S. W. of St. Paul ; pop. in 1870, 3,482 ; in 
1874, about 6^000. It has an important trade 
and thriving manufactures. The sales of mer- 
chandise in 1873 amounted to $2,225,000 ; the 
value of manufactures was $950,000. The 
principal establishments are an extensive lin- 
seed oil factory, two flouring mills, two plough 
and agricultural implement factories, three 
founderies, and manufactories of woollens, 
bricks, furniture, and sash and doors. It con- 
tains two national banks, a private bank, 15 
hotels, three public halls, a driving park and 



116 



MANLEY 



fair grounds, one of the state normal schools, 
three large public school buildings, a denom- 
inational school, a public library, four weekly 
newspapers (one German), and 11 churches. 

MANLEY, John, an American naval comman- 
der, born at Torbay, Devonshire, Eng., in 1734, 
di.-.l in Boston, Feb. 12, 1793. He settled at 
Marblehead, Mass., and was master of a mer- 
chantman. At the outbreak of the revolution- 
ary war he had command of the armed schoon- 
er Lee, with which he cruised along the coast 
of Massachusetts bay, making captures of great 
value to the American army then investing 
Boston. Among these was an ordnance brig 
laden with heavy guns, mortars, and intrench- 
ing tools. He was commissioned as a captain 
by congress Aug. 22, 1776; and on June 1, 
1777, his ship, the Hancock, 32 guns, in com- 
pany with the Boston, 24 guns, Capt. Hector 
McXeil, encountered the British frigate Rain- 
bow, 44 guns. While Manley was preparing 
for action, McNeil deserted him ; and knowing 
the disparity in strength, Manley tried to es- 
cape, but was chased and captured. After a 
rigorous confinement in Halifax, he was ex- 
changed, and in 1782 was put in command of 
the Hague frigate, which, after lying in a per- 
ilous position on a sand bank off Guadeloupe 
for three days, exposed to the fire of four Brit- 
ish ships of the line, contrived to effect her 
escape. This exploit closed the regular mari- 
time operations of the United States during 
the revolutionary war. Capt. Manley was sub- 
sequently tried by a court martial for the loss 
of the Hancock, but was honorably acquitted, 
while McNeil was dismissed from the service. 

MANLEY (DE LA. RIVIERE), Mary, an English 
authoress, born in Guernsey about 1672, died 
in London, July 11, 1724. She was the daugh- 
ter of Sir Roger Manley, governor of the isl- 
and of Guernsey, who was author of " History 
of the late Wars of Denmark" (1670), and 
Commentarii de Rebellione Anglicana (London, 
1686). He carefully educated his daughter, 
and dying when she was young committed her 
to the care of his nephew, who, having already 
another wife, enticed her into a marriage with 
himself and abandoned her in London. The 
duchess of Cleveland, formerly a mistress of 
Charles II., then took her under her protection, 
but soon deserted her. In this emergency she 
began to write for the stage. Her "Royal 
Mischief," a tragedy represented at Lincoln's 
Inn Fields theatre in 1696, brought her into 
great literary repute, and she almost imme- 
diately became the centre of a brilliant circle 
of men of fashion. Although engaged in nu- 
merous intrigues, she soon produced her " Me- 
moirs of the New Atalantis " (4 vols., London, 
1709), a romance describing with ntuch free- 
dom of language and under feigned names the 
amours of several distinguished characters. 
The work created so much scandal that a crim- 
inal prosecution was commenced against the 
printer and publisher, to screen whom from 
ponkhment she rohmtarfly declared Benetf in 



MANN 

the court of king's bench the sole author. She 
was in consequence imprisoned for a time, but 
was subsequently released on bail. There were 
several later editions of the work, and it was 
translated into French. Upon the accession of 
the tories to power in 1710, she resumed her 
position as a leader of fashionable profligacy, 
and employed her pen with effect in behalf of 
the ministry, under the direction, it is said, and 
with the approval of Swift. The "Vindica- 
tion of the Duke of Maryborough" and other 
political pamphlets testify to her industry ; and 
she also conducted the "Examiner" for some 
time after it had been relinquished by Swift, 
and frequently finished pieces begun by him. 
Among her remaining works are : the comedy 
of "The Lost Lover, or the Jealous Husband " 
(1696); "Lucius, the First Christian King of 
Britain " (1717), a tragedy, for which Steele 
wrote the prologue and Prior the epilogue; 
and a variety of ephemeral novels, memoirs, 
dramas, and poems. During the last few years 
of her life she lived with her printer, John 
Barber, an alderman of London. 

MANLII, one of the most celebrated patrician 
gentes of ancient Rome, members of which 
held high offices in the state for about five 
centuries. The first of them who attained to 
the consulship was Cneius Manlius Cincinna- 
tus, consul in 480 B. 0., who fell in battle 
against the Etruscans. MARCUS MANLIUS CA- 
PITOLINUS, consul in 392 B. C., obtained his 
surname, according to Livy, from his defence 
of the capitol against the Gauls (about 390). 
Roused from sleep by the cackling of -the sa- 
cred geese, he hastily collected a force, and 
repulsed the enemy, who had already gained 
the summit of the hill. He incurred the en- 
mity of the patricians by his defence of ple- 
beian debtors, was accused of aiming at the 
kingly power, and was for a time imprisoned. 
After his liberation, he instigated the plebeians 
to take up arms, but was arraigned for high 
treason before the people in the Campus Mar- 
tius, was condemned to death, and was thrown 
from the Tarpeian rock (381). The Manlian 
gens determined that the name of Marcus should 
be conferred in future upon none of its mem- 
bers. The Torquati and Vulsones were fam- 
ilies of the Manlian gens. 

MANN, Horace, an American educationist, born 
in Franklin, Mass., May 4, 1796, died at Yellow 
Springs, Ohio, Aug. 2, 1859. His father was 
a farmer in limited circumstances, and the edu- 
cation of the son was obtained entirely from 
the common district schools until the age of 
20, when he fitted himself to enter the sopho- 
more class of Brown university, at Providence, 
R. I., where he graduated in 1819. The theme 
of his oration, " The Progressive Character of 
the Human Race," foreshadowed his future 
career. After his graduation he was tutor in 
Latin and Greek in Brown university; subse- 
quently he studied in the law school of Litch- 
field, Conn., was admitted to the bar in 1823, 
and opened an office in Dedham, Mass. In 



MANtf 



117 



1827 he was elected to the legislature, and im- 
mediately took an active part in the discussion 
of all important questions, especially such as 
related to morals, public charities, education, 
or the welfare of the poor, the ignorant, or un- 
fortunate classes. He was foremost in procu- 
ring the enactment of laws for the suppression 
of intemperance and the traffic in lottery tick- 
ets, and for improving the system of common 
schools. The establishment of the state lunatic 
hospital at Worcester was due to his untiring 
efforts ; he was chairman of the commission 
that erected the buildings, and in 1833 was 
chairman of the board of trustees of the insti- 
tution. He continued to be returned by large 
majorities as a representative from Dedham 
till 1833, when he removed to Boston and en- 
tered into partnership with Edward G. Loring. 
At the first election after he became a citizen 
of Boston he was chosen a member of the 
state senate, and by reflections was continued 
a senator for four years. In 1836 and again 
in 1837 he was president of the senate. While 
in the legislature he was a member and for 
part of the time chairman of the committee 
for the revision of the state statutes; and 
a large number of most salutary provisions 
were incorporated into the code at his sugges- 
tion. After the revised statutes were enacted, 
he was appointed in conjunction with Judge 
Metcalf to edit the work, for which he pre- 
pared the marginal notes and the references to 
judicial decisions. At the organization of the 
Massachusetts board of education, June 29. 
1837, he was elected its secretary, and for the 
next eleven years was annually reflected. On 
accepting this office he withdrew from all 
other professional and business, engagements 
and from politics. He introduced a thorough 
reform in the school system of the state ; ex- 
tensive changes in the law relating to schools 
were adopted ; normal schools were estab- 
lished; school committees were paid; a sys- 
tem of county educational conventions was 
instituted; by means of "school registers" the 
actual condition of the schools was ascer- 
tained; and from the detailed reports of the 
school committees the secretary made valuable 
abstracts, which he embodied in his annual re- 
ports, forming several large volumes. In 1843, 
under the auspices of the board, but at his 
own expense, he visited Europe, to examine 
schools and to obtain such information as 
could be made available at home. His seventh 
annual report, made on his return, embodied 
the results of this tour. Many editions were 
printed, not only in Massachusetts, but in 
other states, sometimes by order of legisla- 
tures, sometimes by private individuals; and 
several editions were printed in England. This 
report, in which he advocated the disuse of 
corporal punishment in school discipline, in- 
volved him in a controversy with some of the 
Boston teachers, which resulted in the adop- 
tion of his views on discipline in the schools. 
The "Common School Journal," which he 



edited and much of which he wrote, consists 
of 10 vols. 8vo. He published a volume of 
lectures on education, at the request of the 
board. He travelled over the state every year 
to hold conventions or teachers' institutes, at 
which he often taught during the day and 
lectured in the evening. His correspondence 
was voluminous. He was continually called 
upon for legal opinions in regard to school 
matters, which he always gave gratuitously; 
and whenever the cases were brought before 
the courts, his opinions were invariably sus- 
tained. He superintended the erection of two 
state normal school houses, and drew plans 
and gave directions for hundreds of others. 
He says in his "Supplementary Report" in 
1848: "From the time when I accepted the 
secretaryship in June, 1837, until May, 1848, 
when I tendered my resignation of it, I labored 
in this cause an average of not less than 15 
hours a day ; from the beginning to the end 
of this period, I never took a single day for 
relaxation, and months and months together 
passed without my withdrawing a single even- 
ing from working hours to call upon a friend. 
My whole time was devoted, if not wisely, yet 
continuously and cheerfully, to the great trust 
confided to my hands." In the spring of 1848 
he was elected to congress, to fill the vacancy 
caused by the death of John Quincy Adams. 
On June 30 he made his first speech in main- 
tenance of the right of congress to legislate 
for the territories of the United States, and 
its duty to exclude slavery therefrom. In the 
ensuing November he was reflected, receiving 
11,000 out of 13,000 votes. During his first 
session he volunteered as counsel for Drayton 
and Sayres, indicted for stealing 76 slaves in 
the District of Columbia, and at the trial was 
engaged for 21 successive days in their de- 
fence. In 1850 he engaged in a controversy 
with Daniel Webster in regard to the exten- 
sion of slavery and the fugitive slave law, and 
Mr. Webster's famous speech of March 7 of 
that year. At the ensuing election in Novem- 
ber Mr. Webster's friends succeeded in the 
whig convention in defeating by a single vote 
Mr. Mann's renomination. He, however, ap- 
pealed to the people as an independent anti- 
slavery candidate, and was reflected. His last 
speech in congress was on the slavery ques- 
tion, Aug. 17, 1852. On Sept. 15 the state 
convention of the free-soil party of Massachu- 
setts nominated Mr. Mann for governor, and 
on the same day he was chosen president of 
Antioch college, a new institution just estab- 
lished at Yellow Springs, Greene co., Ohio. 
Failing in the election, he accepted the presi- 
dency of the college, and continued there till 
his death, laboring with zeal and energy in 
the cause of education and philanthropy. He 
carried the institution through its early pe- 
cuniary and other difficulties, and satisfied 
himself by the experiment that a college for 
the common education of both sexes was prac- 
ticable. Besides his annual reports, his vol- 



118 



MANX A 



ume of lectures on education, and his volumi- 
nous controversial writings, he published "A 
Few Thoughts for a Young Man" (B.oston, 
^lavery: Letters and Speeches " 
(1851); "Lectures on Intemperance " (1852) ; 
and "Powers and Duties of Woman" (1853). 
See " Life of Horace Mann," by his wife, Mary 
Peabody Mann {Boston, 1865) ; his " Life and 
Works" (2 vols., Cambridge, 1867); and 
" Thoughts selected from his Writings " 
(1869). His lectures on education were trans- 
lated into French by Eugene de Guer, under 
the title De T importance de V education dans 
une repuUique, with a preface and biographi- 
cal sketch by Laboulaye (Paris, 1873). 

MANNA, the concrete juice of several species 
otfraxinu*, or ash. Several of the ashes have 
flowers producing distinct petals, a character 
which some botanists consider a sufficient rea- 
son for placing them in a distinct genus, or- 
nus, the flowering ashes. (See ASH.) The 
principal manna-bearing species are F. ornus 
and F. rotundifolia, natives of southern Eu- 
rope and Asia Minor. The juice spontane- 




The Manna Ash (Fraxtnus ornus). 

ously exudes in the summer months, from the 
punctures of an insect, cicada omi, but is in- 
creased by transverse incisions made for the 
purpose in the bark. The finer kind, known 
as flake manna, is from incisions in the upper 
part of tin- stem ; it dries upon the tree in long 
flakes, which when removed have the under 
surface conformed to the trunk of the tree and 
the upper of irregular and somewhat stalactitic 
appearance. The coarser kinds are obtained 
ill-sir the roots of the tree, where the juice is 
(1 in joints of the prickly pear (opuntid), 
or upon straw placed to receive it. It is an 
articl.- of import for the sake of its medicinal 
1 11 all ties, and is obtained chiefly from Sicily 
ilabria. The best is of a whitish or 
IL'ht yellow color in flakes and tears, while the 
sorts are darker colored from the im- 
with which they are mixed. It pos- 



MANNHEIM 

sesses a sweet, somewhat nauseous taste, and is 
soluble in water or in alcohol. From its boil- 
in<* saturated solution it separates on cooling in 
crystalline form. It consists of a crystallizable 
sweet principle called mannite, which some- 
times amounts to 75 per cent. ; of true sugar ; 
and of a yellow nauseous matter, which it is 
supposed gives to the manna its purgative 
property. For the sake of this it is used in 
medicine, and is commonly prescribed with 
other purgatives, as senna, rhubarb, magnesia, 
&c., the taste of which it conceals, while it 
increases their effect. When given alone, the 
dose for an adult is one or two ounces. Vari- 
ous other saccharine exudations of plants are 
called manna; the manna of Briangon, which 
appears upon the twigs of the European larch 
(larix Europcea), is formed during the night, 
and soon disappears after the sun falls upon it. 
Another substance called manna is obtained by 
the Bedouin Arabs from the tamarix mannife- 
ra. After collecting it from among the twigs 
and leaves, they boil it, then strain it through 
cloth, and put it away in leathern bags to be 
eaten like honey with bread, as a delicate arti- 
cle of food. Dr. Robinson, in his "Biblical 
Researches in Palestine," mentions its being 
collected in small quantities by the Arabs of 
Mt. Sinai, and sold at very high prices to the 
Russians. According to Berthelot, the tama- 
risk manna from Sinai contains 55 per cent, of 
cane sugar, 25 of inverted sugar, and 20 of 
dextrine, &c. Manna from Kurdistan contains 
61 per cent, of cane sugar, 16*5 of inverted 
sugar, and 22 '5 of dextrine. The Sinai manna 
is soluble in water or alcohol, and the aqueous 
solution readily undergoes fermentation, yield- 
ing an alcohol possessing a butyric acid odor. 
Though the name is probably derived from 
the Syriac mano, a gift, which was applied to 
the Scriptural manna, it cannot be proved that 
there is any relationship between the natural 
products designated by this name and the sub- 
stance mentioned in Scripture (Heb. man) as 
miraculously supplied to the Israelites. 

MANNERS, John. See GRANBY. 

MANNHEIM, or Manheim, a town of the grand 
duchy of Baden, capital of the circle of the 
Lower Rhine, situated on the right bank of the 
Rhine, at the confluence of the Neckar with 
that river, 43 m. S. S. W. of Frankfort ; pop. 
in 1871, 39,614. It is connected by steamers 
with Cologne and other places on the Rhine, 
and by railway with the principal towns of 
Europe. Goethe has appropriately called it 
" the pleasant, cleanly Mannheim." The regu- 
larity of the buildings, however, gives it a 
somewhat monotonous appearance. It con- 
sists of 11 straight streets, crossed by 10 other 
streets at right angles, forming '110 regular 
squares. It is divided into two parts by the 
great street leading from the palace to the 
suspension bridge over the Neckar. The prin- 
cipal public squares are the Plankenplatz and 
the Schillerplatz, where Schiller resided in the 
house called zum Karlsberg, and which is 



MANNING 



119 



lorned with fountains, and statues of Schil- 
ler, Dalberg, and Iffland. The theatre is a fine 
building, and in it Schiller's " Eobbers " was 
first acted. Behind the palace, which contains 
collections of art, a large library, and a cabinet 
of natural history, are beautiful gardens, end- 
ing in a raised terrace upon the brink of the 
Rhine (JRheindamm). Along the banks of the 
Neckar, in the outskirts of the town, are hand- 
some private gardens, and a broad avenue 
(Plankemtrasse) between the Heidelberg and 
Rhine gates is planted with trees. In spite of 
its fine position on two navigable rivers, the 
trade of the place was formerly unimportant ; 
but of late years, owing to its railway connec- 
tions, it has become the first commercial town 
in the grand duchy. The town was founded 
in 1606, and from 1720 to 1777 it was the capi- 
tal of the Palatinate. It suffered severely in 
the thirty years' war, and was almost de- 
stroyed by the French in 1688 after a siege 
of 17 days. It was soon rebuilt, and was 
strongly fortified in 1699; but in the early 
part of the present century the ramparts were 
removed. During the wars of the revolution, 
the French attacked, the town in December, 
1794, and occupied it Sept. 20, 1795. During 
the long siege only 14 houses remained unin- 
jured, and half of the palace was burnt. By 
the peace of Luneville (1801), Mannheim was 
allotted to Baden. 

MANNING, Henry Edward, an English Roman 
Catholic archbishop, born at Totteridge, Hert- 
fordshire, July 15, 1808. He was educated as 
a member of the Anglican church at Harrow 
and Balliol college, Oxford, graduated in 1830, 
and was chosen fellow of Merton college and 
one of the select preachers in the university. 
In 1834 he was appointed rector of Laving- 
ton and Graffham in Sussex, and in 1840 
archdeacon of Ohichester. In 1842 he pub- 
lished his first work, on the "Unity of the 
Church," which classed him among the Pusey- 
ites. Two volumes of sermons published re- 
spectively in 1842 and 1846 attracted much 
attention. He also published three series of 
" Sermons preached before the University of 
Oxford" (1844, 1848, and 1850). The Gor- 
ham decision, leaving the doctrine of the effect 
of baptism an open question in the church of 
England, called forth a declaration from him, 
and other well known clergymen and laymen 
of the establishment, that, unless that decision 
was formally repudiated, it would be of bind- 
ing force upon the English church. They strove 
to free that which they conceived to be the 
church of Christ from submission to a doctri- 
nal decision given by the crown. Their at- 
tempt, however, was without result, and, with 
the exception of one or two protests, the ac- 
tion of the court was acquiesced in. Dr. 
Manning consequently gave up his preferments 
in 1851, and was received into the Roman 
Catholic church. He then went to Rome, 
where he remained till 1854. In 1857 he was 
ordained priest by Cardinal Wiseman, and ap- 



pointed rector of St. Helen and St. Mary's, 
Bayswater, where he established a house of Ob- 
lates of St. Charles Borromeo, an association 
of secular missionary priests founded in the 
16th century. About the same time the de- 
gree of D. D. was conferred on him by Pius 
IX., with the office of provost of the Roman 
Catholic diocese of Westminster and the rank 
of prothonotary apostolic. On the death of 
Cardinal Wiseman, Dr. Manning was nominated 
by the pope archbishop of Westminster, and 
consecrated June 8, 1865. He immediately set 
about promoting temperance, benevolent guilds, 
and elementary education among the poor Cath- 
olics of London, and purchased a site for a 
cathedral which was to be a memorial to Car- 
dinal Wiseman, but declared that not one stone 
of this edifice should be laid till every poor 
child in his flock was provided with a Catholic 
free school. In 1871 he conceived the project 
of a Roman Catholic university, appealed to 
the public, created a fund, and organized a 
senate and a corps of professors. The institu- 
tion was opened in Kensington Oct. 15, 1874. 
On July 2, 1869, he dedicated the pro-cathedral 
of Our Lady of Victories, Newland terrace, 
Kensington. At this time a controversy arose 
between Archbishop Manning and Bishop Du- 
panloup concerning the opportuneness of urging 
a definition of the doctrine of papal infalli- 
bility. The archbishop before departing for 
the oecumenical council addressed a pastoral 
letter to his flock on the question of infal- 
libility, which, with two others on the man- 
ner in which the deliberations of the coun- 
cil were conducted, and in elucidation of the 
defined dogma, was published, with the title 
of Petri Privilegium (London, 1871). In 1868 
he addressed to Earl de Grey a remarkable let- 
ter on Ireland, in which he sets forth the mis- 
chief of English misrule in that country, and 
pleads strongly for justice. Since then he has 
been prominent in encouraging the " Home 
Rule " movement, and has taken an active part 
in denouncing the course pursued in Germany 
and Switzerland toward the Roman Catholic 
church. The principal works of Archbishop 
Manning, besides those mentioned, are the fol- 
lowing : " The Temporal Mission of the Holy 
Ghost " (London, 1865) ; " The Temporal Pow- 
er of the Pope in its Political Aspect " (1866) ; 
"England and Christendom" (1867); "The 
Fourfold Sovereignty of God" (1871); and 
" Sermons on Ecclesiastical Subjects " (1872). 
MIMING, James, an American clergyman, 
born in Elizabethtown, N. J., Oct. 22, 1738, 
died in Providence, R. L, July 29, 1791. He 
graduated at Princeton college in 1762, became 
pastor of a Baptist church at Morristown, N. 
J., in 1763, and soon afterward in Warren, 
R. L, where he opened a Latin school. In 
1763, at the request of an association formed 
for the purpose in Philadelphia, he proposed 
to several influential gentlemen of the denom- 
ination, assembled at Newport, the organiza- 
tion of " a seminary of polite literature, subject 






120 



MANNITE 



to the government of the Baptists," and drew 
up a plan for such an institution. In 1764 the 
k-jjNlature granted them a charter, and in 1765 
Mr. Manning, then hut 27 years of age, was ap- 
pointed "president and professor of languages 
and other branches of learning, with full power 
to act in these capacities, at Warren or else- 
where." The college went into operation at 
Warren in 1766, and on its removal to Provi- 
dence in 1770, Mr. Manning went with it, and 
also became pastor of the first Baptist church 
in that place. During the revolution, when the 
college edifice was occupied as a military bar- 
rack, and afterward as a hospital, he was ac- 
tively engaged in clerical duties, and also ren- 
dered important services to the patriotic cause. 
In 1783 ho resumed his duties at the college, 
and in 1785 he was chosen to represent Rhode 
Island in congress, but after six months' service 
resigned. He resigned the presidency of the 
college in 1790, and his pastorate in April, 
1791. (See BROWN UNIVERSITY.) 

.MA.YMTK, or Mannitose, also called sugar of 
manna and sugar of mushrooms (CgHuOe), 
one of the glucoses, which was discovered by 
Proust, and its composition determined by Lie- 
big. It exists in a great number of vegetables, 
and in the saccharine juices which have under- 
gone viscous or lactic fermentation ; it is gen- 
erally extracted from manna, by digesting this 
substance with boiling alcohol, filtering while 
hot, and crystallizing ; it should be purified by 
repeated crystallizations. On the transforma- 
tion of starch into glucose by boiling with 
dilute sulphuric acid, it is also formed as a 
secondary product ; and finally Linnemann in 
1862 obtained it by the action of nascent hy- 
drogen on glucose. Mannite is a solid sub- 
stance, fusible between 160 and 165 C., and 
when once melted it can remain liquid at 140 
C. It exercises no action on polarized light ; 
it dissolves in 6 times its weight of water at 
18 C., and in 80 parts of cold alcohol of the 
strength of 89 per cent., and much more readi- 
ly in boiling alcohol. It is not soluble in ether, 
and absolute alcohol only dissolves 14 per cent. 
of IN weight of monnite. Mannite crystallizes 
in anhydrous, thin, colorless, four-sided, silky 
prisms, which sometimes grow to a consider- 
able size. It does not ferment except under 
very unusual conditions ; does not reduce oxide 
of copper to the state of suboxide, but hinders 
the precipitation of sulphate of copper by the 
fixed alkalies, causing the formation of a beau- 
tiful blue-purple solution instead. In its chem- 
ical character, mannite is now regarded as a 
polyatomic (hexatomic) alcohol. Berthelot has 
shown its close analogy to glycerine, and has 
obtained a great variety of salts (called man- 
nitanides) from it by heating mannite with dif- 
ferent acids to a temperature of between 200 
and 250 C. With a mixture of nitric and sul- 
phuric acids it gives nitro-mannite. The ni- 
trates of silver and mercury and the chlorides 
>f sil\vr and mercury are not reduced by man- 
nite even at boiling heat ; the acetate and ox- 



MANOMETER 

ide of silver, however, if heated with mannite 
or left in contact with it at ordinary tempera- 
tures, yields a speculum of silver. Compounds 
of mannite with barium, calcium, strontium, 
&c., have been prepared by Ubaldini. In the 
presence of beer yeast mannite does not fer- 
ment ; but if its solution be maintained at 40 
C., after having been mixed with chalk and 
poor cheese, pancreatic tissue, or albumen, fer- 
mentation takes place, hydrogen and carbonic 
anhydride are disengaged, and alcohol is pro- 
duced along with lactic and butyric acids. 

MAN-OF-WAR BIRD. See FRIGATE BIRD. 

MANOMETER (Gr. fiav6^ rare, and fttrpw, 
measure measurer of rarity), an instrument 
employed to measure the pressure exerted by a 
confined portion of gas or vapor. The force is 
usually expressed in units of atmospheric pres- 
sure, called atmospheres, which are equal to 30 
inches height of a column of mercury, or nearly 
15 Ibs. to the square inch. It will therefore be 
easily seen that mechanical ingenuity may devise 
several forms of the instrument. These various 
forms may be classified under three different 
general forms, which act upon different prin- 
ciples: 1, open-air manometer; 2, confined- 
air manometer ; 3, metallic-spring manometer. 
An open-air manometer is shown in fig. 1. It 
consists of a vessel containing mercury in which 
a vertical tube & dips. The 
vessel also admits a tube, a, 
which connects with the boil- 
er or chamber of compressed 
gas or steam. Calling Boyle's 
or Mariotte's law correct for 
all pressures, if the compressed 
gas has a density twice as great 
as it would have at the ordi- 
nary atmospheric pressure, it 
will raise the column of mer- 
cury in the tube 5 30 inches ; 
if five times as dense, the 
height of the mercurial col- 
umn will be 150 inches, cor- 
responding to 75 Ibs. to the 
square inch. There may be 
many forms of open-air ma- 
nometers, and the modifica- 
tions are generally for the 
purpose of increasing the con- 
venience of the apparatus by 
shortening the distance of the 
rise of the mercurial column. 
The multiple-branch manometer, fig. 2, is a 
convenient form. An iron tube is bent upon 
itself, forming several U-shaped flexures, ter- 
minating in a vertical tube of glass, C D, fur- 
nished with a graduated scale, and open at 
the top. Mercury occupies the lower flexures 
and portions of the tube. When the com- 
pressed steam or gas is admitted, it presses 
upon the mercury in the first branch, A, for- 
cing it down, and therefore up in the second 
branch. If it forces A down 10 inches, the 
difference of level in the two branches will be 
20 inches. If there are 10 single or 5 double 




FIG. 1. Mercurial 
Manometer. 



MANOMETER 



MANSABT 



121 



lumns, the combined height of mercury sup- 
ported in column will be 100 inches, or about 
6-66 atmospheres. The compressed-air mano- 




FIG. 2. Multiple-Branch Manometer. 

meter, fig. 8, is constructed upon the assump- 
tion that the confined air in the gauge expands 
and is condensed in accordance with Boyle's 
law. A is a U-shaped glass tube, one end of 
which communicates with the steam cham- 
ber, while the other end is closed. It has its 
flexure stopped with mercury, and a scale is 
attached, which is graduated by connecting 
the apparatus with an open-air manometer. 
It will be seen that as the mercury in A rises, 
the pressure is doubled for every reduction of 
the confined air to one half its volume, so that 
as the column approaches the top the grad- 
uated spaces must be nearer together. The 
metallic-spring manometer may be constructed 




FIG. 3. Compressed-air 
Manometer. 



FIG. 4. Bourdon's Pressure 
Gauge. 



by having a piston press against a spiral spring, 
which is also connected with an index ; or a 
flat copper tube (elliptic section), bent in a spi- 



ral, may be connected at one end with the 
steam chamber, and at the other with an in- 
dex, as in Burden's pressure gauge, shown in 
fig. 4. Increased pressure causes the spiral to 
uncoil, by which the index is moved over the 
graduated arc. 

M \\KKSA, a town of Spain, in 'the province 
and 30 m. N. X. W. of the city of Barcelona, 
near the left bank of the Llobregat river ; pop. 
about 15,000. It is one of the most picturesque 
towns in Catalonia and the centre of a rich 
farming district, and has extensive manufac- 
tures of broadcloth, cotton, silk, tape, ribbons, 
gunpowder, and brandy. The streets are clean 
and well paved, but many of them are crooked 
and steep, and lined with quaint old-fashioned 
houses. There are some elegant churches and 
other public buildings, and in the neighbor- 
hood is the famous monastery of Montserrat, 
and the " cave of St. Ignatius," where Loyola 
passed some time in retirement before found- 
ing the society of Jesus. Manresa was taken by 
the French under Macdonald, March 30, 1811, 
when more than 800 buildings were burned, 
including hospitals and churches. This wan- 
ton act so incensed the Catalans, that they 
fell upon the rear of the French army on its 
march to Barcelona, and destroyed 1,000 men. 

MANS, Le, a town of France, capital of the 
department of Sarthe, 118 m. S. W. of Paris, 
on the "W. bank of the river Sarthe, here 
crossed by three bridges; pop. in 1872, 46,981. 
It is the seat of a bishop, consists of an old 
town and a new town, has a considerable 
trade in local products, and manufactures 
coarse woollens, yarns, lace, linen, paper, and 
soap. The cathedral of St. Julien, dating 
from the 12th century, is famous for its fine 
Gothic choir and painted windows. It is a 
place of great antiquity, having been founded 
in the 2d century by the Romans, and called 
Suindinum or Cenomani, after the Gallic peo- 
ple of the same name, in whose territory it was 
situated. During the war of the league Le 
Mans was captured by Henry IV. ; and in De- 
cember, 1793, it was the scene of the destruc- 
tion of the Vendean army, when more than 
10,000 persons were slaughtered. On Jan. 11 
and 12, 1871, the French army of the Loire, 
under Gen. Chanzy, was here defeated and 
almost annihilated by Prince Frederick Charles 
of Prussia. The town itself was occupied by 
the Germans on Jan. 12. 

MMSART, or Mansard. I. Francois, a French 
architect, born in Paris in 1598, died there in 
1666. At the age of 22 he distinguished him- 
self by the restoration of the hotel Toulon. 
In 1624 he attracted the attention of Cardi- 
nal Richelieu, who commissioned him to erect 
the church of the Feuillants in the rue St. Ho- 
nore, and he was subsequently employed in 
many other great works in Paris and in the 
provinces. Among the numerous chateaux 
erected from his plans are those of Berny, 
Blgrancourt, Choisy, Gevres, Fresnes, and Mai- 
sons. He built the facade of the church of the 



122 



MANSEL 



Minims in the place Royale, which he con- 
sidered his finest work, and the church of Val- 
: -e. IK- was fickle and unstable, often 

ding down half -completed work, and re- 
dinu r <>n now plans at enormous cost. He 
is said to be the inventor of the curb roof 
which bears his name, and which within a few 
years has become very common in the United 
States. II. Jutes Hardouln, a French architect, 
nephew and pupil of the preceding, whose 
name he adopted, and son of Jules Hardouin, 
the painter, born in Paris in 1645, died at Mar- 
ly in 1708. One of his first works was the 
chateau of Clagny, built for Mme. de Montes- 
pan, and since destroyed. Louis XIV. ap- 
pointed him his architect, and the palace of 
Versailles, where Levau had begun alterations 
and additions, was built from Mansart's de- 
_signs, which were largely directed by the vi- 
cious taste of his sovereign. Among his works, 
besides Versailles, are the places Vendome, 
Louis XIV., and des Victoires, the gallery of 
the Palais Royal, and the dome and completion 
of the h6tel des Invalides, begun by Liberal 
Bruant. He was general superintendent of 
the royal buildings, arts, and manufactures, 
and acquired an immense fortune. 

imsEL, Henry Longneville, an English author, 
born at Cosgrove, Northamptonshire, Oct. 6, 
1820, died there, July 30, 1871. He was edu- 
cated at Oxford, became a fellow of St. John's 
college in 1842, was ordained priest in 1845, be- 
came Waynflete professor of moral and meta- 
physical philosophy in 1859, and was appointed 
dean of St. Paul's, London, in 1868. His first 
publication was a small volume entitled "De- 
mons of the Wind, and other Poems" (1838). 
In 1851 he produced his Prolegomena Logica, 
iv philosophical introduction to logic, and pre- 
pared an edition of Aldrich's Artis Logicce 
Rudimenta (5th ed., 1860). In 1856 he deliv- 
ered at Oxford a " Lecture on the Philosophy 
of Kant," which was printed, and designed by 
its brevity to attract readers who would be de- 
terred by a more elaborate exposition. His 
most important work is the Bampton lectures 
delivered before the university of Oxford in 
aid published under the title of "The 
Limits of Religious Thought" (5th ed., 1868). 
Mr. Mansel was one of the editors of the aca- 
demi.al lectures of Sir William Hamilton 
(1859 'till, and the author of the article on 
" Metaphysics " in the 8th edition of the " En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica," which was reproduced 

- p.irately in i860 under the title "Metaphys- 
ics, or the Philosophy of Consciousness" (2d 
ed., 1866). He also published "The Limits 

if Demonstrative Science Considered," an in- 
nuirurul K-ctuiv entitled " Psychology the Test 
of Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy," and 
Philosophy of the Conditioned" (1866). A 
series of his Ic-rtures on "The Gnostic Heresies 
of the KiiM and Second Centuries," with a 
biographical -ketch, was published in 1874. 

Ml.WKU). an an.-imt noble- family of Ger- 
many, taking its name from the castle of 



MANSFIELD 

Mansfeld, the original seat of the family, and 
now in the town and circle of Mansfeld in 
Prussian Saxony. I. Peter Ernst, count of 
Mansfeld, born July 20, 1517, died in Luxem- 
burg, May 22, 1604. The greater part of his 
life was spent in the service of the emperor 
Charles V., and of his son Philip II. of Spain, 
who employed him in various important mili- 
tary and administrative capacities. He took 
part in the war against France in 1552, was 
captured, and remained a prisoner till 1557. 
Having been appointed governor of Luxem- 
burg, he maintained that province in tran- 
quillity at a time when the other provinces of 
the Netherlands were a prey to civil and re- 
ligious commotions. In 1592 he succeeded 
the duke of Parma as governor general of the 
Netherlands ; but two years afterward he re- 
tired to Luxemburg, with the title of prince of 
the empire. II. Ernst, natural son of the pre- 
ceding, born in 1585, died near Zara, Dalmatia, 
Nov. 20, 1626. He was educated by his god- 
father, the archduke Ernest of Austria, and for 
his military services to the emperor Rudolph 
II. and Philip III. of Spain was legitimated by 
the former. But having been denied the dig- 
nity and estates of his father, which had been 
promised to him, he embraced Calvinism, and 
subsequently became one of the most active 
enemies of the house of Austria, by which he 
was called the Attila of Christendom. At the 
commencement of the thirty years' war he 
joined the elector palatine Frederick, elected 
by the Protestants king of Bohemia, and 
ously opposed the imperial forces in that coui 
try and also on the Rhine, where he ravs 
the territories of the Catholic princes, and 
came a terror to his enemies. Though repeat- 
edly beaten, he came forth so formidable from 
every defeat, that, when fighting for a despe- 
rate cause and lying under the ban of the .em- 
pire, he found himself courted at the same 
time by the kings of Spain, France, and Eng- 
land, and the republics of Holland and Venice. 
In 1625 he succeeded in raising subsidies ii 
England, and landed in Holland with consic" 
erable reinforcements, with the design of in- 
vading the hereditary possessions of the house 
of Austria. Defeated by Wallenstein at Des- 
sau in April, 1626, he nevertheless pursued 
march to Hungary, to effect a junction wit 
Bethlen, the Protestant prince of Transylvania. 
But being unable to join his ally, he forme' 1 
the design of reaching England by the way 
Venice, and died on the march. 

MANSFIELD, a town of Tolland co., Connv,- 
ticut, on the New London Northern railroad, 
25 m. E. of Hartford; pop. in 1870, 2,401. 
It is bounded W. by the Willimantic river, and 
is intersected by the Natchaug and its branch* 
Mansfield is chiefly noted for the manufactui 
of silk goods, containing eight establishment 
There are also a manufactory of cotton 
one of spool thread, and one of machinery, 
was formerly noted for the growing of raw silk, 
which was introduced nearly 100 years ago ; ' 



MANSFIELD 



123 



is now produced. Mansfield is the seat of 
the state soldiers' orphans' home, and contains 
7 post offices, 16 schools, and 4 churches. 

MANSFIELD, a city and the capital of Rich- 
land co., Ohio, situated near the centre of the 
county, 65 m. N. by E. of Columbus ; pop. in 
1850, 3,557 ; in 1860, 4,581 ; in 1870, 8,029. 
It is compactly built on a beautiful and com- 
manding elevation in the midst of a fertile and 
populous region. It has a number of hand- 
some public buildings, including several of the 
churches and school houses, and the court 
house, which cost $227,000. Many of the 
residences are elegant and surrounded by spa- 
cious grounds. Four railroads intersect here : 
the Sandusky, Mansfield, and Newark; the 
Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago ; the At- 
lantic and Great Western ; and the Mansfield, 
Coldwater, and Lake Michigan. The whole- 
sale trade is important, amounting to about 
$5,000,000 a year. The annual value of manu- 
factures is about $3,000,000, the principal arti- 
cles being threshing machines, saw mill and 
f oundery products, machinery, woollens, paper, 
boilers, carriages, furniture, flour, &c. There 
are three national banks, a state bank, an in- 
surance company, water works on the Holly 
system, five public school houses, four weekly 
newspapers (one German), a library of 3,500 
volumes, and 15 churches. 

MANSFIELD, William Murray, earl of, a British 
jurist, born at Scone, Perthshire, March 2, 1705, 
died in London, March 20, 1793. He was the 
third son of Viscount Stormont, a Scottish peer 
of Jacobite tendencies, several of whose family 
became deeply involved in the rebellion of 
1745. Removed to London at an early age, he 
was educated at Westminster school, and at 
Christchurch college, Oxford. In 1731 he was 
called to the bar, and being of a vivacious tem- 
perament, with the advantages of aristocratic 
connections and signal personal graces, he be- 
came a companion of wits and men of letters, 
and in particular gained the friendship of Pope. 
Almost at the outset of his career a new class 
of business, that of appeals from the court of 
session in Scotland to the house of lords, fell 
into his hands, and his emoluments were very 
large. His advance was rapid, and in 1743 he 
was appointed solicitor general, having the 
year previous entered parliament for Borough- 
bridge, for which place he was afterward re- 
turned in 1747 and again in 1754. As a legis- 
lator he displayed an eloquence " of which the 
clear, placid, and mellow splendor was never 
for an instant overclouded," and a depth and 
variety of knowledge which brought him into 
great prominence, while at the same time his 
peculiar political views exposed him to the at- 
tacks of Pitt, who frequently taunted his rival 
with his Jacobite connections and presumed 
sympathies. In 1747 he was one of the man- 
agers for the impeachment of Lord Lovat, and 
performed his part in so generous a spirit as 
to elicit praise from the prisoner himself. In 
1754 Mr. Murray was appointed attorney gen- 



eral, and in 1756 succeeded Sir Dudley Ryder 
as chief justice of the king's bench, and was 
created Baron Mansfield of Mansfield in the 
county of Nottingham. So important were his 
parliamentary services to his party, that ex- 
traordinary efforts were made by the duke of 
Newcastle to retain him in the house of com- 
mons, as a government leader. He was offered 
various sinecure offices with large salaries, and 
finally a pension of 6,000 a year, but steadily 
refused them all, regarding the situation of 
chief justice as preferable to the responsibilities 
and labors which the chancellorship, the pre- 
miership, or any other merely political office 
involved. Contrary to general usage, though 
not to precedent, he became when appointed 
chief justice a member of the cabinet ; and in 
1757, while temporarily holding the office of 
chancellor of the exchequer, at the request of 
the king he effected the coalition between New- 
castle, Pitt, and Fox, which resulted in the cel- 
ebrated first administration of Chatham. He 
participated on important occasions in the pro- 
ceedings of the house of lords, where Lord 
Camden and subsequently Chatham became his 
chief antagonists. On questions affecting pop- 
ular privileges or influence he showed a decided 
leaning toward an arbitrary government. The 
stamp act, which he aided in preparing, found 
in him an earnest and able advocate, and the 
doctrine of taxation without representation was 
by no one more persistently defended. In ref- 
erence to the agitation in the North American 
colonies which preceded the repeal of the act, 
he held that the Americans must first be com- 
pelled to submit to the power of parliament, 
and must exhibit "the most entire obedience" 
before an inquiry could be had into their griev- 
ances. The utterance of opinions like these 
marked him out as an object of popular dislike 
and party violence, and for many years he was 
attacked with a vindictiveness which found its 
fullest expression in the letters of Junius, by 
whom "all the resources of the English lan- 
guage were exhausted in desolating and unpun- 
ished party libels on the chief justice of Eng- 
land." He nevertheless performed his judicial 
duties with dignity and courage; and on the 
occasion of the application of Wilkes in 1768 
for the reversal of his outlawry, when public 
excitement had reached an almost unprece- 
dented height, and the chief justice had been 
repeatedly threatened in anonymous letters, he 
announced to the .partisans of Wilkes, who 
crowded Westminster hall, his contempt for 
the means that had been taken to deter the 
court from its duty. His unpopularity was 
still further increased by his direction to the 
jury in the trial-of Woodfall, the- publisher of 
Junius, "that the printing and sense of^the 
paper were alone what they had to consider 
of." This attempt to restrict the right claimed 
by juries, in criminal prosecutions for libel, of 
determining whether a paper was a libel or 
not, brought upon Lord Mansfield the charge 
of arrogating to himself the functions of a le- 



184 



MANSFIELD 



gislator rather than of an administrator of the 
law ; and Junius in his letter of Nov. 14, 1770, 
said to him: "No learned man, even among 
your own tribe, thinks you qualified to preside 
in a court of common law ; yet it is confessed 
that, under Justinian, you might have made an 
incomparable prtor." In the Gordon or "no 
popery " riots of 1780 his house in Bloomsbury 
square, with its valuable library of books and 
manuscripts, his private papers, furniture, and 
other valuables, was destroyed by the mob, 
from whose fury he only escaped by taking ref- 
uge in Buckingham palace. He bore these mis- 
fortunes with a calmness which seemed to dis- 
arm his enemies, declining any pecuniary com- 
pensation from the treasury; and during the 
remainder of his life parties generally united in 
a feeling of respect for his character and virtues. 
He retained his office of chief justice till 1788, 
having in the interim several times declined the 
chancellorship, and passed the last few years 
of his life in retirement. He left no children, 
and his title of earl of Mansfield, granted in 
1776, descended to his nephew Viscount Stor- 
inont, to whom the greater part of his large 
property was bequeathed. The title of Baron 
Mansfield expired with him. As a jurist the 
character of Lord Mansfield contrasts favor- 
ably with the timidity and narrow-mindedness 
which marked his legislative career ; and when 
not influenced by political views his decisions 
were almost uniformly correct. Commencing 
his judicial career as a reformer, he aimed at 
expediting legal proceedings, and by diminish- 
ing the expenses of suitors, and preventing 
unnecessary delays, caused the business of 
the courts, though greatly increased, to be 
despatched with unexampled rapidity. Gifted 
with an acute and powerful intellect, and with 
a wonderfully retentive memory, he was in the 
habit of considering the intent and spirit of the 
law rather than its letter ; but his eagerness to 
discourage technicalities, and preference of the 
principles of the civil law, occasionally led him 
to make the law instead of expounding it. In 
constructing a system of jurisprudence and 
adapting a progressive state of society to cir- 
cumstances and cases entirely new, he was 
eminently successful ; and English commercial 
law, particularly that branch of it relating to 
marine insurance, will be an enduring monu- 
ment of his genius and industry. His conduct 
on the bench was marked by great dignity and 
amenity of manners, and in general he showed 
himself so worthy of his high office that Lord 
Chatham, for many years his determined polit- 
ical opponent, comparing him with two of the 
ni"-t illustrious P.ritish jurists, Somers and 
II. -It, exclaimed: "I vow to God, I think the 
noble lord excels them both in abilities." 
Tliuuirh O|IJMI..,.I to liberal ideas, he was uni- 
formly toli-rant in matters of religious opinion. 
Hi" arguments and decisions are preserved in 
Atkins's, Burrows's, Douglas's, and Cowper's 
reports ; and his life has been written by John 
llolliday ( . 17i7j. Henry lioscoe (1838), and Lord 



MANSLAUGHTER 

Campbell in "Lives of the Chief Justices" 
(1849-'67). See also " Sketches of Statesmen 
who flourished in the Time of George III.," by 
Lord Brougham (1839-'43); and u The Judges 
of England," by Edward Foss (1848-'64). 

MANSLAUGHTER. In the article HOMICIDE, 
it is said that felonious homicide is either 
manslaughter or murder. These two are dis- 
tinguished from each other by the intent which 
causes or accompanies the act. If a homicide 
be not justifiable nor excusable, and yet be not 
committed with malice aforethought, it is man- 
slaughter. It is quite certain that the intent 
need not be to kill ; for while there must be a 
criminal intent to make a person amenable to 
law as a criminal, yet if one crime be intended, 
and in the act of committing it another of a 
higher character be also committed without in- 
tent, the criminal is responsible for this higher 
crime. The general principle laid down in re- 
spect to manslaughter is, that not only a posi- 
tive intention to commit some crime, but mere 
negligence, may make one guilty. If any one 
take upon himself an office or duty requiring 
care or skill, he is liable for the want of either ; 
and if death be the consequence of his ignorance 
or carelessness, he is guilty of manslaughter. 
So if one driving furiously run over and kill 
a person whom he did not see, or if one in com- 
mand of a steamer or sailing vessel by reason 
of gross negligence run down a boat and some 
one in it be drowned, this would be man- 
slaughter. So if any one, whether medical by 
profession or not, deal with another as a physi- 
cian, and through gross want of care or skill 
kill him ; or if any one charged with building 
a house of any kind construct it so badly that 
it falls and kills persons within or near it ; or if 
in building he drop a stone upon some on< 
ing below, and kill him ; in all these cases he 
would be guilty of manslaughter, provided he 
were grossly negligent in the act causing the 
death. This is the essential question ; thus, in 
the last case, if he were building in a place 
where few persons were, and it was by a rare 
occurrence that some one happened to be where 
the stone fell, it is said that there would be n< 
such negligence as would make the killer re- 
sponsible as a criminal; while, on the other 
hand, if it were a crowded thoroughfare, and 
the person dropping the stone gave no notice 
or warning and used no precaution to prevent 
mischief, the crime would then amount to mur- 
der. So if one ride a vicious horse, who kicks 
some one to death, it is no crime whatever if 
the rider did not know his character and did 
nothing by his carelessness to bring about the 
fatal result ; but if he knew that the animal 
was vicious, and carelessly rode him near a 
crowd and exposed him to alarm likely to make 
him run into the crowd and do mischief, the 
the killing would be manslaughter. Sometime 
it is said that if manslaughter be charged upon 
one on the ground of negligence only, without 
intent, this charge can be sustained only by evi- 
dence of the grossest negligence. It has been 



MANSLAUGHTER 



125 



leld that the mere omission to do an act can- 
not, although death ensue, make the man guilty 
of manslaughter. But if the omission were of 
an act which was certainly a duty, and such an 
act that any reasonable person must know that 
its omission would be very dangerous to life, 
the principles of criminal law would lead to 
the conclusion that this might be manslaughter. 
Thus, a man employed to wall a shaft in a 
colliery, and whose duty it was to place a 
stage over the mouth of the shaft, having omit- 
ted this, and a man being thereby killed, the 
court of king's bench held him guilty of man- 
slaughter. It seems to be agreed that if the act 
omitted were a legal duty, it would certainly 
amount to that crime. It should be added 
that the law always presumes (in the absence 
of clear proof to the contrary) that a man in- 
tended to do the thing he actually did, and in- 
tended the consequences which naturally and 
actually flow from his act ; and this principle 
applies even where the act causes death. So 
a very nice distinction is taken in law between 
a malum prohibitum and a malum per se. 
Thus, if there be a law prohibiting the shoot- 
ing of woodcocks before the 4th of July, one 
who shoots at one in June intends to break a 
law ; but if, while thus shooting, by mere ac- 
cident and without negligence, he should kill 
a man, this would be no crime, because shoot- 
ing a woodcock at that season is an offence 
only because the law has made it so. But if 
he shoot at his neighbor's poultry, and by ac- 
cident kill his neighbor, this is manslaughter ; 
because the destroying his neighbor's property 
was an offence of itself, independently of muni- 
cipal law. But by far the most frequent and 
most difficult questions in practice are those 
which must be determined either by the means 
used to produce death, or by the presence or 
absence of previous hostile intention. It is a 
general rule, that if one kills another with a 
deadly weapon, it is more than manslaughter ; 
and it has been said authoritatively, that 
whether the weapon used be a deadly weapon 
or not, is not a question of fact for the jury, 
but a question of law for the court. (See 
MURDEE.) The other question, as to previous 
hostility, generally turns upon the preliminary 
question, whether the act was committed in 
" the heat of passion," or under sudden provo- 
cation. If one, being angry, attacks another, 
his anger is not an entire excuse. But if a 
quarrel and conflict ensue, and the assailant 
kills the man whom he attacked, while this is a 
felonious homicide, it is not murder, because 
there is an absence of that malice aforethought 
which is of the essence of murder ; and there- 
fore it is manslaughter. Still further would it 
be from murder if the party killing had been 
himself attacked. But neither would this ex- 
cuse the act if it were not made necessary by 
the nature of the attack ; but it would reduce 
the crime to manslaughter. Here, however, it 
is to be remembered that such a quarrel makes 
that to be only manslaughter which would 



otherwise be murder, for no other reason than 
because it negatives the supposition of malice 
aforethought. If therefore this be proved, as 
if it be shown that the killer had a grudge 
against the deceased, and had manifested a vio- 
lent hatred and intention to injure him, it 
might be inferred that he provoked the quarrel 
merely to give him the opportunity of gratify- 
ing his malice. In such a case the quarrel, in- 
stead of negativing malice, would help to prove 
it ; and therefore, of course, it could not have 
the effect of reducing the felony to manslaugh- 
ter. So if there had been a quarrel and much 
provocation, and the quarrel had abated, and 
one of the parties withdrew and provided him- 
self with a dangerous weapon, and returning 
killed the other, the excuse of " heat of passion " 
would not apply, for there would then be evi- 
dence of deliberate purpose. So, too, let the 
provocation be what it may, if there be no 
excitement or heat of passion, the killing will 
be deemed deliberate and intentional. Still, 
where there was much provocation, and no evi- 
dence of hostile purpose previous to the prov- 
ocation, the killing itself would generally be 
deemed evidence of excited temper. There are 
other cases which the law regards as only man- 
slaughter, without evidence of momentary ex- 
citement ; partly because the law infers that 
from such a provocation there must be excite- 
ment ; and partly, perhaps, because the party 
killed brought his death upon himself by his 
outrageous wrong. Thus, if a husband detects 
his wife in adultery, and instantly and purpose- 
ly takes either her life or her paramour's, it is 
only manslaughter. Not so, however, if he 
waits for a subsequent opportunity, for then the 
first reason wholly fails, and the killing becomes 
murder. In one English case, where a man 
had his pocket picked, and with the assistance 
of others threw the thief into a pond to punish 
him by a ducking, and the man was drowned, 
this was held only manslaughter. Questions 
of this kind are so frequent, and at the same 
time so difficult, that the legislatures of many 
of the United States have endeavored to aid in 
their determination by discriminating between 
different classes and degrees of manslaughter, 
defining each degree, and affixing to it appropri- 
ate punishment. We have not space to speak 
of these in detail, but to illustrate the prevail- 
ing principles of classification refer to the stat- 
utes of New York. By these, four degrees of 
manslaughter are defined. The first degree, 
briefly stated, consists of killing without the 
purpose of death, when the deceased was en- 
gaged in perpetrating or attempting a crime less 
than felony, and where such killing would be, at 
common law, murder. Assisting in self-murder 
is manslaughter in the first degree, as also wil- 
fully killing an unborn quick child by injury to 
the mother, if it would be murder in case the 
mother died from the injury. The second de- 
gree consists in procuring abortion otherwise; 
killing in the heat of passion without the in- 
tent of death, but in a cruel and unusual man- 



126 



MA NT 



ner ; or killing unnecessarily one attempting to 
commit n felony. The third degree is killing 
in heat of passion, without intent of death, 
but with a dangerous weapon ; involuntary kill- 
ing, by procurement or negligence of another, 
while the person killed is engaged in commit- 
ting a trespass on property ; suffering an animal 
known to be mischievous to go abroad without 
care, or keeping it without care, and thereby 
causing death ; receiving wilfully or negligent- 
ly so many persons into a boat or vessel as to 
cause death; racing while in command of a 
steamboat carrying passengers, bursting the 
Imiler, and so killing; killing by a physician 
while in a state of intoxication. The fourth 
degree may be said to include all other modes 
of manslaughter, known as such at common 
law, and of a milder kind than the preceding. 

MAST, Richard, an English bishop, born in 
Southampton in 1776, died in November, 1848. 
He was educated at Winchester and Trinity 
college, Oxford, and was chosen fellow of Oriel 
college in 1798. He became vicar of Great 
Coggeshall, Essex, in 1810; of St. Botolph's 
Bishopsgate, London, in 1815; and of East 
Horsley, Surrey, in 1818. In 1820 he was 
made bishop of Killaloe and Kilf enora, Ireland ; 
was translated to Down and Connor in 1823 ; 
and received in addition Dromore in 1842. 
His most important works are: "An Appeal 
to the Gospel, or an Inquiry into the Justice of 
the Charge that the Gospel is not preached by 
the National Clergy" (Bampton lectures for 
1812; 6th ed., 1816); " Sermons " (3 vols., 1813- 
'16); in conjunction with Dr. D'Oyly, an edi- 
tion of the Bible, with notes for family use 
(republished in New York, under the supervi- 
sion of Bishop Hobart, 1818-'20); "Book of 
Common Prayer, with Notes" (1820 ; 5th ed., 
1840) ; " Happiness of the Blessed consid- 
ered " (1833) ; " History of the Church of Ire- 
land" (2 vols., 1839-'41) ; and Hora Liturgicw 
(1846). He also published volumes of poems. 

flIA\T(INK)RIA, or Mantrhuria, the land of the 
Mantchoos, a country of Asia, a dependency 
of the Chinese empire, bounded N. by the 
Amoor river, which separates it from the 
Russian province of the Amoor, E. by the 
Usuri river, which separates it from the Rus- 
sian district of the Amoor, S. by Corea and 
the Yellow sea, and TV. by Mongolia, between 
lat. 40 and 53 30' N., and Ion. 118 and 135 
E. ; area about 400,000 sq. m. ; pop. estimated 
at 8,000,000. Formerly the territory extended 
to lat. 68 N. and Ion. 142 E. ; but in 1858 
China ceded to Russia all of Mantchooria N. 
of the Amoor and E. of the Usnri river. (See 
AMOOB COUNTRY.) A large part of this coun- 
try is an uninhabited wilderness, and but lit- 
tle of it has been visited by Europeans. Near- 
ly the whole of it is drained by the Amoor 
ii\vr and its branches. There are few lakes; 
tin- ni'.-t important of them is Lake Khan- 
ka, wliidi is 40 in. long and 25 m. broad. 
The province is traversed by several moun- 
tain chains. The Sih-hih-tih mountains ex- 



MANTCHOORIA 

tend from the boundary of Corea in a N. E. 
direction. The S. W. portion of this range 
bears the Mantchoo name of Shan Alin, and 
the Chinese name of Shangpe-shan or Long 
White mountains. The Ilykhoori Alin, in the 
north, forms three sides of the extensive valley 
of the upper Nonni, its eastern branch ex- 
tending between the Amoor and the Songari 
to near their junction. The Khingan moun- 
tains, running N. and S., and rising to a height 
of 15,000 ft., form part of the W. boundary. 
The greatest part of Mantchooria is covered 
by forests, the abode of wild animals, many of 
which afford valuable furs. Among them are 
bears, wolves, deer, the argali, and the dziggetai. 
The rivers and coasts abound in fish, among 
which carp, sturgeon, salmon, pike, and shell 
fish are especially plentiful. Among the birds 
of prey is a vulture which in size and fierceness 
rivals its congener the condor of the Andes. 
The southern part of Mantchooria is cultivated, 
and produces wheat, barley, pulse, millet, buck- 
wheat, and silk. It also supports large herds 
of horses, cattle, and sheep. Ginseng and 
rhubarb are a government monopoly. The 
country is rich in iron and coal. The climate 
of the greater part of Mantchooria resembles 
that of Canada in the contrasts of temperature 
in different seasons ; in summer varying from 
70 to 80, while in winter in the northern 
parts snow is abundant, the ground is frozen 
to a considerable depth, and the mercury 
ranges from 45 above to 10 below zero. 
Mantchooria is divided into three provinces, 
Liaotung or Shinking, Girin, and Saghalin-ulu. 
Liaotung contains a population, according to 
the Chinese census of 1812, of 2,187,286; the 
others together about 1,000,000. Liaotung is, 
however, sometimes included in China proper. 
The three capital cities are Mukden or Shin- 
yang, Girin, and Tzitzikhar. Mukden is 380 
m. N. E. of Peking, and is a large city sur- 
rounded by a wall 10 m. in circuit. Hing- 
king, 60 m. E. of Mukden, is also a consider- 
able city ; it was formerly the family residence 
and the family burial place of the Mantchoo 
emperors of China. Kingchow, on the gulf of 
Liaotung, S. W. of Mukden, of which it is the 
port, carries on a considerable trade in cattle, 
provisions, and drugs. Its harbor is shallow 
and unsafe. Kaichow, on the E. side of the 
gulf, has a better harbor. Girin is a very ex- 
tensive province, but thinly inhabited. The 
Mantchoos belong to the Tungusic branch of 
the Mongolian division of mankind. They are 
of lighter complexion and heavier build than 
the Chinese, and some of them have florid 
complexions, blue eyes, aquiline noses, brown 
hair, and heavy beards. They have the same 
peculiar conformation of the eyelids as the 
Chinese, and resemble them closely in other 
respects ; but their countenances are generally 
of a higher intellectual cast, and their charac- 
ter haughtier and more determined. They are 
the dominant race in the Chinese empire, being 
dispersed over the whole of it as officers and 



MANTEGtfA 



MANTEUFFEL 



127 



liers, and the skill and energy with which 
they have governed their vast dominions since 
1644, when they took possession of the throne, 
show them to be possessed of high qualities. 
During the same period they have greatly im- 
proved the condition of their own original coun- 
try. When the Mantchoos conquered China, 
they imposed upon the subject people a portion 
of their dress and many of their usages. The 
mode of arranging the hair in a tail now in use 
by the Chinese was forced upon them by the 
Mantchoos, to whom it had long been familiar. 
On the other hand, they have adopted many of 
the customs of the Chinese. They began to be 
conspicuous in eastern Asia about the begin- 
ning of the 17th century, when after a long 
series of internal wars their tribes were united 
into one nation under a chieftain named Tien- 
ming, who in 1618 declared war against China, 
then ruled by the Ming dynasty. He overran 
and devastated the N. E. provinces, but died 
about 1 627, leaving the prosecution of his design 
of conquest to his son Tien-tsung, who made 
alliances with rebels whose leaders pretended 
to be rightful heirs to the throne. With their 
aid he made himself master of Peking, and the 
last of the Chinese emperors, Hwai-tsung, hav- 
ing committed suicide in 1643, the Mantchoo 
chief took possession of the government. He 
died in 1644, and his son and successor Shun- 
chi is regarded as the first emperor of the 
Mantchoo dynasty which still holds the throne. 
(See CHINA.) An account of the country, by 
the archimandrite Palladius of Peking, was 
communicated to the British royal geographical 
society in 1872. (See TURANIAN KACES AND 
LANGUAGES.) 

MANTEGNA, Andrea, an Italian artist, born 
near Padua in 1431, died in Mantua, Sept. 13, 
1506. When quite young he was placed under 
the instruction of Francesco Squarcione. At 
the age of 17 he painted an altarpiece, and 
soon afterward the four evangelists for the 
church of St. Sophia at Padua. The works 
and reputation of the young artist induced the 
painter Jacopo Bellini to give him his daugh- 
ter, Nicolasa, in marriage. His frescoes in 
the church degli Eremitani, representing the 
life of St. James and the legend of St. Chris- 
topher, and his St. Mark in the church of St. 
Giustina, were among his next works in Padua. 
He was invited about 1468 by Ludovico Gon- 
zaga to Mantua. Between 1485 and 1490 he 
visited Rome at the invitation of Innocent 
VIII., and painted with almost miniature-like 
delicacy a series of frescoes in a chapel in the 
Belvedere, all of which however perished when 
Pius VI. destroyed the chapel toward the close 
of the last century to make room for his new 
museum. Of his works extant, the principal 
is the celebrated series representing in nine 
compartments the triumph of Julius Csesar 
after his conquest of Gaul, originally painted 
for Ludovico Gonzaga, and which upon the 
downfall of that family were purchased by 
Charles I. of England. They were sold by 
530 VOL. xi. 9 



parliament with the rest of Charles's pictures, 
but were repurchased on the return of Charles 
II., and placed in Hampton court. They were 
engraved by the painter, and were copied in 
chiaroscuro by Andrea Andreani. Of his easel 
pictures the most famous is the Madonna delta 
Vittoria, now in the Louvre, painted in com- 
memoration of the victory gained by Gonzaga 
over Charles VIII. of France in 1495. Many 
other pictures by him are to be found in Italy 
and the large galleries of central Europe. 
Mantegna, according to Lanzi, engraved up- 
ward of 50 of his own designs, of which about 
30 are known to collectors. 

MANTELL, Gideon Algernon, an English geolo- 
gist, born in Lewes, Sussex, in 1790, died in 
London, Nov. 10, 1852. He was educated as 
a surgeon, and attained a lucrative practice 
in his native town. Inclination, however, led 
him to devote much time to geological re- 
searches, and in a few years his discoveries in 
the Wealden formation, the extraordinary fos- 
siliferous richness of which had been previous- 
ly little known, gave him a high rank among 
living palaeontologists. To his labors science 
is indebted for the discovery of four out of 
five of the genera of extinct dinosaurian rep- 
tiles, viz. : the igvanodon, the hylceosaurus, the 
pelorosaurus, and the regnosaurus ; and his 
valuable museum collected from the Wealden 
and chalk formations, and which was purchased 
in 1839 for 5,000 by the trustees of the Brit- 
ish museum, contains well preserved fossils of 
these, and also of many extinct fishes, insects, 
and plants. His geological drawings were be- 
queathed to Yale college, from which institu- 
tion he received the degree of LL. D. in 1844. 
In 1825 he was elected a member of the royal 
society; in 1835 he received the W T ollaston 
medal of the geological society, and in 1849 
the royal medal of the royal society. In 1839 
he removed to London, where he continued his 
medical practice and geological researches, and 
was remarkably successful as a lecturer. His 
chief scientific work separately published is 
" Fossils of the South Downs, or Illustrations 
of the Geology of Sussex " (4to, London, 1822). 
He is also the author of two popular treatises 
of great merit, " The Wonders of Geology " 
(2 vols., London, 1838), and "The Medals of 
Creation, or First Lessons in Geology " (2 vols., 
1844), both of which have been translated into 
German, and of a number of other works illus- 
trating the geology of the British isles and his 
own discoveries, including a " Pictorial Atlas 
of Fossil Ptemains" (4to, 1850). In Agassiz 
and Strickland's BibliograpJiia Zoologies et Ge- 
ologice, 67 works and memoirs by Dr. Mantell 
are cited, besides which he wrote several pa- 
pers on antiquarian and professional subjects. 

MANTEIIFFEL. I. Otto Theodor, baron, a Prus- 
sian statesman, born at Lubben, Feb. 3, 1805. 
He entered the civil service at an early age. 
In 1844 he was made a member of the council 
of state, and in 1847, in the first united diet, 
he was conspicuous as an ultra conservative. 



128 



MANTINEA 



During the administration of Count Branden- 
burg (1848-'50) he was minister of the interior. 
Upon the death of the count he was appointed 
minister of foreign affairs, and soon after, at 
the conference of Olmutz (November, 1850), 
brought about a settlement of the disputes be- 
tween Austria and Prussia, by abandoning the 
position previously assumed by his state in 
North Germany. In December following he 
was appointed prime minister, still retaining 
his place as the head of the department of for- 
eign affairs. In January, 1862, he became 
president of the council of state, and in 1858 
was superseded and retired to private life. II. 
Karl Roehns Edwin, baron, a Prussian soldier, 
cousin of the preceding, born in Magdeburg, 
Feb. 24, 1809. lie became aide-de-camp to the 
king in 1848, and rose to the rank of adjutant 
general, lieutenant general, and chief of the 
military cabinet. In 1865-'6 he became con- 
spicuous as military and civil governor of 
Schleswig, by the invasion of Holstein, by his 
operations against Hanover, and by his vigor- 
ous proceedings against the city of Frankfort. 
In the Franco-German war he commanded the 
first Prussian army corps before Metz, and on 
the capitulation of Bazaine (Oct. 27, 1870) he 
commanded the first German army against the 
French army of the North, capturing Amiens, 
Rouen, and Dieppe. In January, 1871, he was 
placed in command of the South German troops 
operating against the French army of the East 
under Bourbaki, and afterward under Clin- 
chant, which he drove across the Swiss fron- 
tier, thus ending the war. In June, 1871, he 
was appointed commander-in-chief of the Ger- 
man army of occupation, his headquarters be- 
in^ at first at Comptegne, and afterward at 
Nancy, where he remained until the final evac- 
uation of the French territory in 1873. He has 
received the rank of field marshal. See Am 
dem Leben dea General- Feldmarachalls Edwin 
Freiherrn von Manteuffel (Berlin, 1874). 

MANTUTEi, one of the oldest and most pow- 
erful towns of Arcadia, on the borders of Ar- 
golis and the river Ophis. Its democratic po- 
litical constitution was, according to Polybius, 
one of the best in antiquity. Like the other 
Arcadian towns, it acknowledged the Spartan 
supremacy prior to and during the Persian war. 
It was an ally of Sparta in the early part of the 
Peloponnesian war, but in 421-'20 B. 0. formed 
a confederacy with Argos, Elis, and Athens, 
which was defeated and dissolved by the Lace- 
daemonians in 418. Though it became again 
an ally of Sparta, its increasing power ren- 
lered it obnoxious to the latter city, and in 
885 the Spartans attacked and destroyed it by 
turning the waters of the Ophis against its 
walls. The Mantineans rebuilt their city after 
the overthrow of the Spartan supremacy by the 
battle of Leuctra in 371. They were promi- 
n. nt in the formation of the Arcadian con- 
federacy, but soon abandoned it for an alli- 
ance with their ancient enemies the Spartans. 
To prevent this coalition Epaminondas marched 



MANTIS 

into the Peloponnesus, and Mantinea is chiefly 
celebrated as the scene of the great battle (362) 
between the Thebans and Spartans, in which 
he fell. It continued one of the most impor- 
tant towns of Arcadia till the time of the 
Achaean league, which it at first joined, but 
subsequently deserted for the ^Etolian confed- 
eracy, an event which occasioned the Cleo- 
menic war. In 226 it was surprised and ter- 
ribly chastised by Aratus, and in 222 it was 
plundered by Antigonus Doson, and its name 
changed to Antigonea, which it bore till its an- 
cient appellation was restored by the emperor 
Hadrian. The ruins of Mantinea are visible 
at the modern village of Paleopoli, in a bare 
plain, 8 m. N. of Tripolitza; they consist of 
the remains of the theatre and three courses 
of masonry of the entire circuit of the walls, 
which were elliptical, 1,250 yards in diameter, 
with 10 gates and 118 towers. 

MANTIS (Fabr. ; Gr. pavnc, a soothsayer), a 
genus of orthopterous insects of the group of 
graspers (raptorid). In the best known spe- 
cies, M. religiosa (Linn.), the head is triangular, 
the eyes large, the prothorax very long, and 
the body narrowed and lengthened ; the an- 
terior feet are armed with hooks and spines, 
and the shanks are capable of being doubled 
up on the under side of the thighs. When at 




Mantis religiosa. 

rest it sits upon the four posterior legs, with 
the head and prothorax nearly erect, and the 
anterior feet folded backward ; from this sin- 
gular attitude it is called the praying mantis 
or soothsayer (the prie-Dieu of the French). 
The insects are slow in their motions, waiting 
on the branches of trees and shrubs for some 
insect to pass within their reach, when they 
seize and hold it with the anterior feet, and 
tear it to pieces. They are voracious, some- 
times preying upon each other ; they are bene- 
ficial to man in destroying caterpillars and oth- 
er insects injurious to vegetation. The eggs 
are deposited in two long rows, protected by 
a parchment-like envelope, and attached to the 
stalk of a plant ; the nymph is as voracious as 
the perfect insect, from which it differs prin- 
cipally in the less developed wings. They are 
most abundant in the tropical regions of Afri- 
ca, South America, and India, but are found in 
the warmer parts of North America, Europe, 
and Australia. In the south of France it was 
once a popular belief that this insect, if spo- 
ken to, would point out the way to a lost child, 
and in central and south Africa it is still re- 
garded with veneration. The American spe- 
cies is the M. Carolina. 



MANTUA 



129 



MANTUA (Ital. Mantovci). I. A K province 
of Italy, formerly included in Lombardy, but/ 
lately attached to Venetia, bordering on Bres- 
cia, Verona, Rovigo, Modena, Reggio, Parma, 
and Cremona; area, 855 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
288,942. It is an extensive plain, in many parts 
swampy and insalubrious, but has been much 
improved by draining, and is generally very 
fertile. It is watered by the river Po and its 
affluents the Mincio and Oglio, and its princi- 
pal products are grain, flax, silk, hemp, rice, 
fruits, and wine. The province is divided into 
the districts of Gonzaga, Mantua, Ostiglia, Re- 
vere, and Sermide, and embraces the former 
duchy of Mantua. II. A city, capital of the 
province, 80 m. E. S. E. of Milan and 22 m. S. 
S. W. of Verona, on an island in the middle of 
a lagoon formed by the Mincio ; pop. in 1872, 
26,687. The swamps and marshes surround- 



ing Mantua, in connection with the formidable 
works which guard all its approaches and en- 
close it on every side, once constituted its most 
important defences, and made it so strong that 
it was deemed impregnable by any means but 
famine ; but of late years the marshes have been 
partially drained and diked, and the salubrity of 
the city is greatly improved. The communica- 
tion between the island and the mainland is by 
several bridges, the longest of which, the ponte 
di San Giorgio, forms the principal approach 
to the city. The latter is entered by five gates, 
one of which, the porta Mulina, presents a cu- 
rious specimen of ancient engineering. Man- 
tua has a desolate appearance, except in the 
central parts, where there is commercial activ- 
ity-; but it contains many fine streets, the via 
Larga being the widest avenue. Among the 
finest squares are the piazza di Virgilio, sur- 




Mantua. 



rounded by elegant houses; the piazza delle 
Erbe, where the market is held ; the esplanade or 
piazza di San Pietro ; and the piazza del Argine, 
with a marble pillar crowned by a bust of Vir- 
gil. Great masses of buildings, consisting of 
feudal castles with their battlemented turrets 
and Lombard arches, extend from the porta di 
San Giorgio to the piazza Delpurgo, and in- 
clude the ancient palatial castle (castello di 
Corte) of the Gonzagas, now used partly as a 
prison and partly for public offices. Adjoin- 
ing it is the immense structure begun in 1302, 
now comprising the so-called palazzo Imperiale, 
palazzo Vecchio, and corte Imperiale, contain- 
ing about 500 apartments, and mainly indebted 
for its present beauty to the genius of Giulio 
Romano, whose works as a painter and archi- 
tect form the greatest artistic glory of the city, 
but are nowhere displayed to greater advan- 



tage than in the decorations of this palace. 
The palazzo del Te, outside of the city, origi- 
nally intended for ducal stables, also grew up 
under the genius of Romano to the dimensions 
of a vast and magnificent building. The prin- 
cipal churches are the cathedral of St. Peter, 
Sant' Andrea, and Sta. Barbara, all more or less 
rich in paintings, particularly the last, which 
also contains in its sacristy a golden vase at- 
tributed to Benvenuto Cellini. San Maurizio 
contains the "Martyrdom of St. Margaret," 
one of the finest works of Ludovico Carracci. 
The shambles (beccheria) and fish markets 
(pescheria) were planned and built by Giulio 
Romano. Mantua is a bishop's see, erected in 
808, and contains a number of educational and 
charitable institutions, a botanic garden, a mu- 
seum of antiquities, a library of about 80,000 
volumes, an academy of science and fine arts 



130 



MANUEL 



(Virgiliana), now chiefly used as a school of 
drawing, a chamber of commerce and indus- 
try, a monte di pietd, a general house of cor- 
rection, a military arsenal, a theatre, and an 
elegant amphitheatre. The manufactures, in- 
cluding silk, linen, sail cloth, woollens, soap, pa- 
per, and parchment, are limited, and the princi- 
pal article of trade is silk. Mantua is supposed 
to have been founded by the Etruscans 400 years 
before the building of Rome, and it came un- 
der Roman power in 197 13. C. It derives its 
chief classical celebrity from associations with 
Virgil, who has celebrated Mantua as the place 
of his birth in several passages of his works. 
Charlemagne gave it its first fortifications, 
which in modern times were completed in their 
present form by the Austrians. In the middle 
ages it was one of the most important cities in 
Italy, and was greatly improved and embel- 
lished by the Gonzaga family, under whom it 
became with the surrounding territory a duchy. 
(See GONZAGA.) In 1630 it was seized by the 
imperialists and subjected to terrible calamities, 
from which the city has never recovered. In 
1796-7 Bonaparte, hopeless of reducing the 
fortress by force of arms, kept it under strict 
blockade for five months till famine com- 
pelled it to capitulate, Feb. 2, 1797. The Aus- 
trians regained it in July, 1799, and the French 
again, after Marengo, in 1800. It belonged to 
the kingdom of Italy till 1814, when it was 
restored to Austria. In July, 1842, the Jews, 
who formed a considerable portion of the pop- 
ulation, then confined in a separate quarter 
(ghetto), were subjected to great persecutions. 
In the war of Sardinia with Austria in 1848, 
the victory depended on the possession of Man- 
tua; it was blockaded for several months by 
the troops of Charles Albert, till his defeat 
by Marshal Radetzky in the battle of Cus- 
tozza (July 25). During the wars of 1859 and 
1866 Mantua was again of high strategical 
importance, as one of the most formidable 
strongholds of Austria. By the treaty of Vil- 
lafranca, July 11, 1859, it was excepted from 
the territory ceded to the king of Sardinia; 
but it was annexed to Italy Oct. 11, 1866. 
MAM EL, the name of two Byzantine em- 

nre. 1. Manuel I. Com urn us born about 1120, 
Sept. 24, 1180. The valor which he had 
displayed against the Turks induced his father 
John II. (Calo-Joannes) to bequeath the crown 
to him rather than to his elder brother Isaac, 
and he succeeded him in 1143. He was at once 
involved in wars both in the East and the West, 
which lasted with brief intermissions through 
his reign. In 1144 he subjected Raymond, 
the Latin prince of Antioch. In 1145 he de- 
feated the sultan of Iconium in successive 
pitched battles. In 1147 he promised his aid 
to the new crusade headed by Louis VII. of 
France and Conrad III. of Germany ; and he 
allowed them a passage through his dominions, 
but gave secret information to the Turks. In 
1148 he began the most important war of his 
reign with Roger, the Norman king of Sicily, 



MANUMISSION 

| who had taken Corfu and prepared to invade 
Greece. He formed an alliance with the Vene- 
tians, who within a year joined him before 
the fortress of Corfu, which was surrendered 
after an obstinate siege. He was prevented 
from invading Sicily by hostilities of the Ser- 
vians and Hungarians, instigated by Roger, the 
former of whom were vanquished in two cam- 
paigns, but the latter protracted the war till 
1152. In that year he suffered a reverse from 
the Turks in Cilicia, but his general John Ducas 
gained so great successes in southern Italy that 
Manuel conceived the project of reuniting the 
eastern and western empires. The defeat of 
Alexis, the successor of John Ducas, by Wil- 
liam, the successor of Roger, soon followed ; 
the Sicilian admiral Maius routed the Greek 
fleet off Negropont, and advanced toward Con- 
stantinople ; and Manuel therefore accepted an 
honorable peace in 1155. Those Greek prisoners 
who were silk weavers were retained in Italy, 
and gave origin to the Italian silk manufac- 
tures. In the following years he waged suc- 
cessful wars with Raymond, prince of Antioch, 
and Az ed-Din, the Turkish sultan. A .new 
war soon broke out with Gejza II., king of Hun- 
gary, which was terminated by the defeat of 
the Hungarians. In 1176 he was defeated by 
Az ed-Din in the mountains of Pisidia, and was 
obliged to sign a disadvantageous peace. By 
breaking the treaty and renewing the war he 
obtained honorable terms. Depressed by this 
disastrous expedition, he never recovered his 
former militarv enterprise and ambition. II. 
Mannel II. Palseologns, bora in 1348, died July 
21, 1425. At the death of his father John V. 
in 1391, he fled to Constantinople from the 
court of the sultan Bajazet, with whom he 
had been left as a hostage. The consequence 
was a war with Bajazet, in which Manuel 
was supported by an army of Hungarians, 
Germans, and French. The allies, under the 
command of Sigismund, king of Hungary and 
afterward emperor of Germany, were defeated 
in the bloody battle of Nicopolis in 1396, 
with the loss of 10,000 men. Constantino- 
ple was besieged, and its fall seemed impend- 
ing, when the conquests of Tamerlane diverted 
the arms of the sultan. Manuel visited Italy, 
France, England, and Germany, vainly seeking 
assistance from the western princes. In the 
conflict between the Tartars and the Turks, 
he acted with diplomatic skill, and secured 
peace to his empire. He sent ambassadors to 
the council of Constance with instructions to 
urge a union of the Latin and Greek churches; 
but his real object was only to obtain aid from 
the kingdoms of the West, and to alarm the 
Turks by the negotiations. 

MANOIISSION, in Roman antiquity, the form 
by which slaves, or other persons not mi ju- 
ris, were released from their condition. There 
were three modes of effecting a legal release, 
by vindicta, census, or will, by any of which 
the freedman might obtain the rights of a 
citizen. The vindicta was the oldest, and as 



MANURES 



MANUSCRIPT 



131 



lows : The owner brought his slave before 
the magistrate, and stated the grounds on 
which he intended his manumission. The 
lictor laid a rod on the head of the slave, and 
declared him free by right of the Quirites; 
the master, who in the mean time held the 
slave, pronouncing the words, "I wish this 
man to be free," turned him round, and let him 
go (emisit e manu, whence the term). The 
magistrate then declared him to be free. The 
manumission by census was effected by the 
slaves giving in their names at the lustra! cen- 
sus at the bidding of their masters. By will a 
slave could be made free conditionally or un- 
conditionally, or free and an heir to the tes- 
tator. Laws at different periods enacted re- 
strictions, such as limiting the proportion of 
slaves a man might manumit in his will and 
preventing manumission to defraud creditors. 
The act of manumission established the rela- 
tion of patron and freedman between the 
manumittor and the manumitted ; and if the 
former was a citizen, the latter became a mem- 
be? of his gens, and assumed his family as well 
as personal name, to which he added some 
other as surname, commonly that by which he 
was previously known. 

MANURES. See AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY, 
vol. i., p. 197. 

MANUSCRIPT (Lat. manu scriptum, written 
with the hand), in bibliography, a written book 
or document, in distinction from a printed 
one. (For the various materials that have 
been used for this purpose, see BOOK, PAPER, 
and PAPYRUS.) In form, ancient manuscripts 
were either rolls (volumina) or flat pages like 
our printed books (codices). The Egyptian 
papyri are usually in rolls of an indefinite 
length, according to the subject matter, but 
some of the smaller ones are flat. Leaves of 
parchment were sometimes interspersed with 
papyrus leaves to strengthen the latter. Parch- 
ment and vellum manuscripts also were origi- 
nally in rolls, but codices were made as early 
as the 3d and 4th centuries. The pages of the 
latter are usually quarto, rarely folio or octavo. 
Some of the oldest are square, but they are 
generally a little higher than broad. The 
manuscripts of the Mexicans were sometimes 
in rolls, but more generally in book form, the 
paper, which was continuous, being folded 
like a chart, with a tablet or cover of wood at 
each end. As the writing was on one side 
only, each page could thus be referred to sepa- 
rately, as in a modern book. The transcribing 
of manuscripts was committed by the Greeks 
and Romans principally to slaves, who were 
esteemed of great value when they excelled in 
the art. They are called by Horace scriptores 
librarii, and in later times antiquarii. Becker 
thinks that the latter term was applied, after 
the cursive writing came into use, to those 
who copied books in the old uncial characters. 
There were also at Rome professional copyists, 
some of whom were women. About the 5th 
century associations of scribes, who worked 



under stringent rules, were formed. In the 
middle ages copying was almost exclusively 
in the hands of ecclesiastics, who were called 
clerks (clerici). In all the principal monasteries 
a room called scriptorium was devoted to the 
scribes or scriptores, where they could pursue 
their work in quiet. The text was sometimes 
read aloud by a dictator. The manuscript 
when finished was corrected by one appoint- 
ed for the purpose, and it then passed into 
the hands of the miniator, who added the or- 
namental capitals and other embellishments. 
The earliest form of illumination was the use of 
different colored inks. The Egyptian papyri 
are generally written in red and black, but some 
are ornamented with other colors and with 
gilding, and some with vignettes, many of 
which are remarkable for the delicacy and 
beauty of their execution. In the vellum 
manuscripts of the 4th and 5th centuries the 
initial letters, the first words, or the first three 
or four lines of books are often in red ink, 
while the body of the work is in black. Other 
colors, as purple, blue, green, and cinnabar, 
were used early, and sometimes the entire 
manuscript was written in gold or silver let- 
ters on purple, blue, or rose-colored parch- 
ment. One of the most interesting examples 
of this is the Argenteus Codex in the library 
of the university of Upsal, written in silver 
letters, with the initials in gold, on violet-col- 
ored vellum. (See ARGENTEUS CODEX.) The 
Codex Aureus of the royal library at Stock- 
holm is a Latin manuscript of the Gospels, 
written in Gothic characters of gold on leaves 
of vellum alternately white and violet ; it be- 
longs to the 6th century. In the earlier Greek 
and Latin manuscripts there was no distinc- 
tion of initial letters, but after the 4th cen- 
tury the first letters of books and chapters, 
and sometimes of each page, were made lar- 
ger than the body of the letters, and were fre- 
quently profusely ornamented in design and 
color. In the 6th and 7th centuries initial let- 
ters were one or two inches high, and from the 
7th to the 10th century were often a foot high, 
covering nearly the whole page. The Irish 
manuscripts of this period exhibit some of the 
most extraordinary work of this kind, the ini- 
tials being formed of complicated interlaced 
patterns, and ornamented with figures of men, 
birds, animals, and grotesque deformities. One 
of the finest specimens of this class is the copy 
of the Gospels known as the Book of Kells, in 
the library of Trinity college, Dublin ; it dates 
from the 7th century. The early Franco-Gallic 
manuscripts show a distinct style of illumina- 
tion of initial letters in arabesque patterns with 
elegant foliage. In the middle ages colored and 
gilded designs and illustrations were so com- 
mon that it was said : Hodie scriptores non sunt 
scriptores, sed pictores. Miniatures and pic- 
tures were early introduced into manuscripts. 
Pliny says that physicians painted represen- 
tations of medicinal plants in their treatises, 
and that Varro illustrated his biography of 



132 



MANUSCRIPT 



eminent persons with 700 portraits. In the 
imperial library at Vienna is a Roman calen- 
dar with allegorical figures of the months, sup- 
posed to have been executed in the first half of 
the 4th century; and in the same library is a 
copy of Dioscorides, dating from the beginning 
of the 6th century, containing numerous minia- 
tures and illustrations of plants. There is also 
a fragment of a Virgil of the 4th century in 
the Vatican library, which is profusely orna- 
mented with miniatures. The Codex Cottoni- 
anus Geneseos, the remains of which are in 
the British museum, had originally 250 minia- 
tures, each about four inches square. This 
manuscript, which contained fragments of the 
Old and the New Testament in 165 quarto 
leaves, is said by tradition to have belonged 
to Origen in the first half of the 3d century, 
but it is now ascribed to the 6th century. It 
was almost entirely destroyed at the burning 
of the Cottonian library in 1731. In the Am- 
brosian library in Milan is a part of a very an- 
cient copy of the Iliad illustrated with minia- 
tures. The Persians, Hindoos, Chinese, and 
other eastern nations illuminated their manu- 
scripts, but no very ancient specimens are 
known to be extant. Some of the Arab man- 
uscripts are remarkable for the beauty of their 
arabesque ornamentation, and for the absence 
of any representations of living figures, the 
painting of which is forbidden by the Koran. 
The most ancient manuscripts extant are 
the papyrus rolls from the tombs of Egypt, 
where the dryness of the climate and of the 
sand beneath which they were buried pre- 
served them in an almost perfect condition for 
thousands of years. They may be considered 
under two general heads, the Egyptian proper 
and the Greek. Of the former three classes 
are found, written respectively in the hiero- 
glyphic, the hieratic, and the demotic or en- 
chorial characters. The first are mostly books 
of a religious and moral character, the most 
common one being the ritual of the dead. Hie- 
ratic manuscripts contain the great body of 
Egyptian literature. One of the oldest known 
is the Prisse papyrus in the national library at 
Paris, a moral treatise written by Prince Ptah- 
hotep of the 5th dynasty, the beginning of which 
is placed by Mariette at 3951 B. C. Manuscripts 
in the demotic character, consisting principal- 
ly of contracts, bills of sale, accounts, letters, 
&c., are found -dating from the beginning of 
the 9th century B. C. to about the 2d century 
A. D. (See EGYPT, LANGUAGE AND LITERA- 
TUBB OF.) The Greek papyrus manuscripts 
found in Egypt are of two classes : books prop- 
er, written in uncial letters, and public and pri- 
vate documents, in cursive characters. Among 
the oldest specimens of the first class extant 
are fragments of a treatise on rhetoric and a 
part of the 13th book of the Iliad, written in 
the 3d century B. C., in the national library 
at Paris; and among the papyri recovered 
from Herculaneum is a fragment of a treatise 
on music by Philodemus, of the 1st century 



B. C. Among the oldest cursive manuscripts 
is a petition to Ptolemy Philometor, written 
in the 2d century B. C., also in Paris. The 
invention of parchment is usually ascribed to 
the reign of Eumenes II., king of Pergamus, 
in the 2d century B. C., but manuscript rolls 
of brown leather of the 14th dynasty have 
been found in the Egyptian tombs, and rolls 
of white parchment made more than 1,000 
years before Eumenes are preserved in the 
British museum. A recently discovered leath- 
er manuscript of the ritual of the dead, written 
in black and red hieratic characters, is now in 
the Berlin museum. It is ascribed to the 18th 
dynasty. Of parchment manuscripts made 
since the beginning of the Christian era, prob- 
ably the most ancient one in existence is the 
palimpsest of Cicero's De Republica in the 
Vatican library, supposed by its discoverer, 
Cardinal Mai, to have been written in the 2d 
or 3d century. (See PALIMPSEST.) It con- 
tains 302 pages, and is written in double col- 
umns of 15 lines each, in fine Roman uncials, 
with no division of words. Over it is St. Au- 
gustine's commentary on the Psalms. In the 
library of Verona is a palimpsest Virgil of the 
3d or 4th century, with the Gregorian com- 
mentary on Job written over it in a script of 
the 8th century. The same library possesses 
the celebrated palimpsest of the 4th century, 
containing the greater part of the Institutes 
of Gains, overwritten with a copy of the let- 
ters of St. Jerome. A palimpsest in the Brit- 
ish museum contains, under fragments of the 
sermons of St. Chrysostom, written in Sy- 
riac, the only extant portion of the annals of 
Licinianus, in uncial characters of the 4th 
century. In the Vatican are a Terence of the 
4th or 5th century and a fragment of a Sal- 
lust of jthe 5th. The Lanrentian library of 
Florence possesses the celebrated Medicean 
Virgil, the most perfect of the ancient copies 
existing, wanting only a part of the Bucolics. 
It contains 440 leaves, is written on both sides, 
and the first three lines of each book are in 
vermilion. It belongs to the 4th or 5th cen- 
tury. No authentic manuscripts or fragments 
of manuscripts of the Bible of the first three 
centuries are known to exist. The Codex Sir 
naiticiis, which was obtained by Tischendorf 
in 1859 from the convent of St. Catharine on 
Mt. Sinai, and is now in the imperial library 
at St. Petersburg, is generally conceded to 
have been written -about the middle of the 4th 
century. Tischendorf considers it not improb- 
able that it is one of the 50 copies of the 
Scriptures which the emperor Constantino in 
the year 331 directed to be made for Byzan- 
tium, under the care of Eusebius of Ceesarea. 
It consists of 345$ leaves of very fine vellum, 
made probably from the skins of antelopes or 
of asses, each leaf being 14 inches high by 
13 J inches wide. The writing on each page 
is in four columns (excepting in the poetical 
books of the Old Testament, where there are 
but two), each containing 48 lines of from 12 




5th cent A. D. Medicean Virgil. ^Encid, Book iv. 1. 

At regina gravi jandodum saucia cura. 



* __ 




N oxrO c KAIOAO POCH 



5th cent. Cod. Alexandrinus. John i. 1. 

o "koyoa rj \ irpoa TOV 0[eo]v* nai 0[eo]<r tjv o "koyoa. 



10th cent. Cod. Basilensis. Mat. xv. 1 
Upoaipxovrai aiiTui tyapiaaloi /cat 
airb iepoao'kvfjLuv Tiiyovrea' diari ol 




MANUSCRIPT 



133 



14 letters each. The characters are well 
tecuted uncials, unconnected with each other, 
without spaces between the words, with no 
large initial letters, no breathings nor accents, 
and with few marks of punctuation. .The first 
line of each of the psalms and of the other 
poetical books is in red ink. It contains both 
the Old and the New Testament, the latter per- 
fect. The Codex Vaticanus, a manuscript of 
the Greek Bible, deficient in some parts of the 
New Testament, is also ascribed to about the 
middle of the 4th century, although Tischen- 
dorf considers the evidence not quite so con- 
clusive as in the case of the Sinaiticm. Its 
early history is not known, but it appears in 
the first catalogue of the Vatican library in 
1475. It is a quarto volume, 10| inches high, 
10 broad, and 4 thick, and is bound in red 
morocco ; contains 146 leaves of fine thin vel- 
lum, has three columns of 42 lines each to the 
page, and is written in elegant uncials, some- 
what smaller than those of the Sinaiticm, with 
no spaces between the words. As originally 
written, it had no large capital letters and no 
breathings nor accents ; but capital letters in 
blue or red, three fourths of an inch high, have 
been added at the beginning of each book by 
a later corrector, who also put in the breath- 
ings and accents, and probably the stops. Of 
the Biblical manuscripts of the 5th century, the 
Codex Alexandrinus of the British museum, 
containing nearly the whole of the Greek Bible, 
is the most important. It is in four quarto vol- 
umes, with pages 13 inches high by 10 broad, 
has two columns of 50 lines each to the page, 
and is written in uniform uncials, with the first 
three or four lines of each book in red letters. 
It differs from the Sinaiticm and the Vatica- 
nus in having large initial letters. Scholars 
are generally agreed in ascribing it to the mid- 
dle of the 5th century. (See ALEXANDRIAN 
CODEX.) Of the same century is the Ephraem 
palimpsest of the national library in Paris. It 
is about the size of the Codex Alexandrinm, 
though not quite so high, and has 209 leaves, 
of which 64 contain fragments of the Septua- 
gint and 145 various parts of the New Testa- 
ment. The original text, which was partly 
erased in the 12th century to make room for 
the writings of Ephraem Syrus, is in elegant 
uncials, without division of words or chapters, 
and with but one column to the page, consist- 
ing of from 40 to 46 lines. The Codex Bezw 
or Cantalrigiensis, in the library of the uni- 
versity of, Cambridge, belongs to the 6th cen- 
tury. It is a Greek manuscript, with a Latin 
translation on the opposite pages, of the four 
Gospels and Acts, with a number of pages miss- 
ing. It is a quarto volume of 414 leaves, with 
pages 10 inches high by 8 wide, and written 
stichometrically in a single column of 33 lines 
to the page. The first three lines of each book 
are in red ink. The characters are uncials, and 
the words are undivided. (See BEZA'S CODEX.) 
Among the fragments of manuscripts of this 
century, one of the most interesting is the Codex 



Purpurem, four leaves of which are in the Brit- 
ish museum, six in the Vatican, and two in the 
imperial library at Vienna. Tischendorf found 
33 additional leaves in the island of Patmos. 
It is written in silver letters, now quite black 
from age (the names of God and Christ in 
gold), on very thin purple vellum, and has 
two columns of 16 lines each to the page. The 
characters are large Greek uncials, written 
without division of words. Among the old- 
est and most important of the cursive Greek 
manuscripts of the New Testament is the Co- 
dex Basilensis, in the library of Basel, ascribed 
to the 10th century. It has one column of 38 
lines to each page, and is written in small ele- 
gant characters, with breathings, accents, iota 
subscripts, and a few illuminations, among 
which are portraits of the emperor Leo the Phi- 
losopher and his son Constantino Porphyro- 
genitus. The Codex Ruler, a cursive manu- 
script containing fragments of the New Tes- 
tament, in the national library at Paris, is writ- 
ten entirely in red ink ; it belongs to the 10th 
or llth century. Of the manuscripts of the 
Latin Bible, the Codex Amiatinm, in the Lau- 
rentian library at Florence, is the most impor- 
tant. It derives its name from the Cister- 
cian monastery of Monte Amiato, in Tuscany, 
where it was owned previous to its acquisition 
by the Laurentian library. From intrinsic 
evidence it is supposed to have been written 
about 541 by Servandus, abbot of the Benedic- 
tine monastery near Alatri, on the borders of 
Latium. It consists of 1,029 leaves, of which 
796 are devoted to the Old Testament and 232 
to the New. It is written in well formed Ro- 
man uncials, and has two columns to the page, 
each having in general 43 lines stichometri- 
cally arranged. The first line of each book is 
rubricated. Other renowned manuscripts of 
the same century are a Virgil in the Vatican, 
a Prudentius, the sermons of St. Augustine 
on papyrus, the psalter of St. Germain-des- 
Pr6s in silver letters, and a copy of the Theo- 
dosian code, all in the national library at 
Paris ; the unique copy of the fifth decade of 
Livy, in the imperial library at Vienna; a 
Lactantius and the breviary of Alaric at Bo- 
logna ; and a palimpsest containing 4,000 lines 
of the Iliad in the British museum. The cele- 
brated manuscript of the Digest of Justinian 
too, in the Laurentian library at Florence, be- 
longs probably to the close of the 6th century. 
The science of reading and judging ancient 
manuscripts is called diplomatics, and is a 
branch of palaeography. In examining a man- 
uscript in order to judge of its antiquity, it is 
necessary to consider the quality and charac- 
ter of the material on which it is written; 
the style of the writing; the inks used; its 
miniatures, vignettes, and arabesques, and the 
colors with which they are executed ; the cov- 
er, its material and ornamentation ; and the 
character of the contents. The oldest Greek 
and Latin manuscripts are written in square 
capital letters, without division of words or 



134 



MANUSCRIPT 



sentences, and without punctuation. This 
style was in use until about the 6th century, 
when it was superseded by uncial writing, 
which had coexisted with it from the 3d cen- 
tury. A kind of capitals called rustics, having 
the letters slightly inclined, were used how- 
ever until a much later time. Uncials differ 
from pure capitals in having some of the let- 
ters, particularly A, D, E, and M, curved. The 
most of the extant Greek and Latin manu- 
scripts written between the 4th and 6th cen- 
turies are in uncial characters ; but from the 
6th to the close of the 8th century semi-un- 
cial writing, a mixture of small and capital 
letters, came gradually into use, and led even- 
tually to the small cursive or minuscule wri- 
ting of the 10th century. These remarks ap- 
ply more particularly to book manuscripts, for 
Greek cursives were used in letters and docu- 
ments before the Christian era. Latin cursives 
were introduced into book manuscripts as ear- 
ly as the 4th century. In the oldest manu- 
scripts the characters are written separately 
each from another, and there are no divisions 
into words or sentences, nor distinction of ini- 
tial letters. Abbreviations early came into use. 
At first they were limited to principal words, 
such as names of the Deity ; but in time, par- 
ticularly in the 12th and 13th centuries, they 
became so common as to render many manu- 
scripts almost unintelligible. Many of these 
abbreviations are arbitrary signs derived from 
the so-called Notes Tironiance, or Roman sys- 
tem of shorthand, ascribed by some to the in- 
vention of Tiro, the freedman of Cicero. A 
line is generally drawn above each abbreviated 
word to denote contraction. When the period 
or dot came into use, it was placed generally 
above, not in the line ; the comma was intro- 
duced about the close of the 10th century, and 
marks of interrogation and exclamation and pa- 
rentheses about the 15th century. The repeti- 
tion at the foot of each page of the first word 
of the following page belongs to the 12th and 
subsequent centuries. The Arabic numerals 
first appear in writing near the beginning of 
the 12th century. The most important works 
on manuscripts and palaeography are: Mabil- 
lon, De He Diplomatica (Paris, 1681); Mont- 
faucon, PalcBographia Graca (Paris, 1708), and 
Bibliotheca Bibliothecarum Manwcriptorum 
Nova (2 vols., 1739); Maffei, htoria diplo- 
matic^ &c. (Mantua, 1727); Baring, Clavis 
Diplomatica (Hanover, 1737-'54); Toussaint 
and Tassin, Nouveau traite de diplomatique, 
par deux reliaieux benedictins, &c. (6 vols. 4to, 
Pari^ 1750-W); Vaines, Dictwnnaire rai- 
wnne de diplomatique (2 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1773- 
'4) ; Astle, " Origin and Progress of Writing " 
(London, 1784) ; Kopp, PalcsograpJiica Criti- 
ca (4 vols., Mannheim, 1817-'29) ; Ebert, Zur 
Il'inds'-hrifenkunde (2 vols., Leipsic, 1825-'7) ; 
Wailly, Elements de paUographie (2 vols. 4to, 
Paris, 183H); Silvestre, PaUographie unitf.r- 
telle, facsimiles, with descriptions by Cham- 
pollion-Figeac and Aim6 Champollion (4 vols. 



MANUTIUS 

fol., Paris, 1839-'45 ) ; Marini, Diplomatica 
pontificia (Rome, 1841); Westwood, Palceo- 
graphia Sacra Pictoria (London, 1845) ; Chas- 
sant, Dictwnnaire des abreviations latines et 
francaises usitees dans les manuscritu . . . du 
moyen age (Evreux, 1844 ; 3d ed., Paris, 1866) ; 
and Wattenbach, Anleitung zur griechischen 
Palaographie (Leipsic, 1867). 

MANUTICS (MANUZIO). I. Aldus, called the 
Elder, the first of a well known family of Ital- 
ian printers, born at Bassiano about 1449, died 
in Venice, Feb. 3, 1515. He was deeply versed 
in classical literature, and about 1490 established 
a printing press in Venice, which soon became 
celebrated for the variety and excellence of the 
works issuing from it. In 1494 appeared his 
edition in Latin and Greek of the " Hero and 
Leander " of Musseus, followed within a few 
years by editions of Plato, Aristotle, Herodo- 
tus, Pindar, the Greek dramatists, &c., many of 
which were printed from original manuscripts 
procured from distant countries at considera- 
ble expense. His Latin editions, published 
subsequent to 1500, and commencing with Vir- 
gil, are printed in a character cast, it is said, 
in imitation of the handwriting of Petrarch, 
and now called Italic; and the editorial la- 
bors of the publisher were shared by a society 
of learned men who met at his house and 
formed what was called the Aldine academy. 
These impressions are said to be more correctly 
printed than the Greek. He suffered by the 
wars in which Venice was engaged in the be- 
ginning of the 16th century, but subsequently 
pursued his avocation with industry and suc- 
cess until his death. Besides the numerous 
prefaces and dissertations in Greek and Latin 
embodied in his publications, he produced 
grammars of the Greek and .Latin languages, a 
Greek-Latin dictionary, translations, &c. The 
title pages of his books have a device repre- 
senting a dolphin coiled about the shank of an 
anchor, on the sides of which are the syllables 
Al and Dvs. II. Panlns, youngest son of the 
preceding, born in Venice, in 1511 or 1512, 
died in Rome, April 6, 1574. He was a man 
of equal learning and critical ability with his 
father, and was distinguished by the correct- 
ness of his editions of the Latin classics, par- 
ticularly of his Cicero, with prefaces, notes, 
and an index. Failing to receive adequate 
patronage in Venice, he repaired about 1562 to 
Rome, and was for some time employed in edit- 
ing and printing the manuscripts of the church 
fathers deposited in the capitol. He, returned 
to Venice in 1570, but again went to Rome, 
and died in poverty. He published a Latin 
translation of the Philippics of Demosthenes, 
and a number of original works in Latin and 
Italian, which entitle him to rank among the 
most polished writers of the 16th century. 
III. Aldns, called the Younger, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in Venice, Feb. 13, 1547, died in 
Rome, Oct. 28, 1597. He published at the age 
of 11 a collection of choice specimens from 
Latin and Italian authors, and three years late* 






MANZONI 



MAP 



135 



luced a treatise on Latin orthography, 
'thographice Ratio, founded on inscriptions, 
idols, and manuscripts. Notwithstanding 
lese evidences of precocity, his mental capa- 
ity and attainments were inferior to those of 
is father or grandfather ; and in consequence 
his neglect to employ competent persons, 
publications are the least valuable of all 
lanating from the Aldine press. He re- 
jned his press in 1584 to one of his workmen, 
id during the remainder of his life was pro- 
of belles-lettres successively in Bologna, 
isa, and Rome. He published works in Lat- 
and Italian, besides commentaries on Hor- 
3, Cicero, &c. (See ALDINE EDITIONS.) 
MAX /ONI, Alessandro, count, an Italian novel- 
';, born in Milan, March 8, 1784, died there, 
ay 22, 1873. His father possessed little cul- 
ivation ; his mother was a daughter of the 
stinguished philosophical economist Becca- 
i. He studied first at Milan and afterward 
at Pavia, where he was an enthusiast for Al- 
fieri, Monti, and Foscolo. In 1805 he went 
with his mother to Paris. The sudden death 
of a friend furnished the subject of his first 
poem, in blank verse, entitled In morte di Car- 
lo Imbonati (Paris, 1806). Returning to Milan 
in 1807, he married in the following year the 
daughter of a banker of Geneva, and published 
in 1809 his mythological poem Urania. His 
education and residence in Paris had led him 
to imbibe skeptical opinions, and his wife 
belonged to the Calvinistic church; but both 
now became devout Roman Catholics. The 
change was announced by his Inni sacri (Milan, 
1810), a collection of religious lyrics. In 1820 
appeared his romantic tragedy II conte di Car- 
magnola, dedicated to Fauriel, which violated 
the unities of time and place, but was remark- 
able for its simplicity of plot and purity of 
style. It attracted attention throughout Eu- 
rope, was severely criticised, was admired by 
Goethe, and was defended by the author in a 
letter written in French Sur Vunite de temps et 
de lieu. It was followed in 1823 by another 
tragedy, Adelchi; and on occasion of the death 
of Napoleon, he published an ode, II cinque 
Maggio (1821), one of the finest modern Italian 
lyrics, in which he highly extolled the empe- 
ror. His greatest success was achieved by the 
novel I promessi sposi (3 vols., 1827), a Milan- 
ese story of the 17th century, which was trans- 
lated into the principal languages of Europe, 
and was republished in America under the title 
of " The Betrothed Lovers." In an illustrated 
edition (1842), he added to the original text a 
Storia della colonna infame, in which he gives 
an account of the executions caused by the pop- 
ular superstition during the plague of 1630, 
and touches upon some of the highest ques- 
tions of social economy. In 1834 he wrote Os- 
servazioni sulla morale cattolica (Florence), in 
reply to Sismondi's depreciation of the moral 
influence of the Catholic church in the middle 
ages ; it was translated into English (London, 
1836). He married a second time in 1833, and 



was afflicted by the death of all his children (in- 
cluding a daughter married to Massimo d'Aze- 
glio), the last dying a few weeks before him. 
In February, 1860, he was named senator of 
Italy. His 80th birthday was celebrated with 
much enthusiasm by his countrymen in 1864. 
In 1868, with R. Bonghi, he prepared a report 
on the means of establishing the unity of the 
Italian language on the basis of the Florentine 
dialect. Almost to the day of his death he 
was engaged in the preparation of a " History 
of the French Revolution." At his funeral 
the highest honors were paid to his memory, 
and the royal princes were among. his pall- 
bearers. The chapter of the Prussian order 
pour le merite which had been conferred upon 
Manzoni was in 1874 given to Carlyle. 

MAORI. See NEW ZEALAND. 

MAP (Lat. mappa), a representation of a por- 
tion of the earth's surface, or of the celestial 
sphere, upon a plane. Its object is to present 
to the eye the bearings of objects upon the 
surface from each other, and their relative dis- 
tances apart, as nearly correct as may be. But 
this can be done with accuracy only upon a 
globe, the surface of which is similar to that 
of the earth itself. Various plans, however, 
have been devised by which in the more con- 
venient form of plane sheets true delineations 
of the surface are presented, reference being 
had to the principles upon which these maps 
are constructed. By the method called pro- 
jection, the rules of perspective are applied to 
the delineation of objects upon the surface 
according to four principal modes. In the 
method of projection called orthographic, the 
eye is supposed to be at an infinite distance 
from the sphere, so that the rays of light 
coming from every point of the hemisphere 
opposite to it may be considered as parallel to 
one another. The sphere is intersected through 
its centre by a plane perpendicular to these 
rays, and it is upon this plane that the objects 
are projected, as their shadows might be cast 
upon it from the sun through a transparent 
medium. Objects near the centre of the plane 
would by this method be delineated in nearly 
correct proportions ; but in receding from this, 
as the rays strike more obliquely upon the sur- 
face of the sphere, their projection becomes 
more and more distorted, and the parallels of 
latitude or meridians of longitude (as the eye 
is placed opposite the pole or the equator) are 
drawn more and more closely together. In 
the stereographic projection, the eye is sup- 
posed to be placed at the surface of the sphere, 
and the surface to be delineated is the opposite 
hemisphere or a portion of it, of which the 
inner or concave side is presented to the eye. 
The plane upon which the objects are project- 
ed is supposed to be transparent, and placed so 
as to pass through the centre of the earth, its 
surface perpendicular to the line passing from 
the eye to the centre. In this method the 
meridians and parallels intersect each other as 
they do upon the globe ; and though there is 



136 



MAP 



distortion increasing from the centre, it is less 
than by some of the other methods. The 
stereographic method is much used for the 
maps of the world drawn in two hemispheres; 
and the meridian of 20 W. from Greenwich 
is usually selected for the plane of projection, 
because this throws the two great continental 
divisions of the earth into their respective 
hemispheres. In the central or gnomic pro- 
jection, the eye is supposed to be at the centre 
of the earth, and the objects upon the surface 
are projected upon a plane which is a tangent 
to its surface. This method is obviously ap- 
plicable to maps of a limited extent only ; and 
except for maps of the polar regions, where 
the parallels of latitude are concentric circles, 
and the meridians are straight lines, they are 
troublesome to execute on account of the ir- 
regular curves the parallels assume. In the 
globular projection, the eye is supposed to be 
at a distance from the sphere equal to the sine 
of 45; or, the diameter being 200, this dis- 
tance is 707. In order, however, that the 
meridians may intersect the equator at equal 
distances, the distance for the eye is generally 
fixed at 69^, the diameter being 200. Maps 
are also constructed in which the meridians 
are represented by arcs of circles cutting the 
equatorial diameter at equal distances, and the 
parallels by arcs of circles cutting the polar 
diameter at equal distances. These maps are 
not projections, and founded upon no geomet- 
rical principle which can be of service in their 
use ; nevertheless they give a very good repre- 
sentation of the forms and relations of areas, 
and are of very simple construction. They 
are called globular maps, but must not be con- 
founded with maps constructed upon the prin- 
ciple of globular projection, mentioned above. 
Another method of map making is based 
upon the principle called development, which 
is a mode of projecting the forms upon the 
surface of the earth upon the inner surface of 
a cone or of a cylinder, which is supposed to 
envelop the earth and touch it only around 
the circle which is to be the middle latitude of 
the map. The points on the earth's surface 
being projected by other lines drawn through 
them from the centre, the inner surface of the 
cone or cylinder is afterward supposed to be 
unrolled or developed, and thus present the 
various objects upon a plane surface. Those 
situated nearest the middle latitude will be 
most correctly represented. In the use of the 
cylinder the latitude circles and meridians ap- 
pear as parallel straight lines, and thus most 
correctly represent for nautical purposes the 
angles at which they are cut by objects moving 
over the surface on any other lines. This 
principle is in part the foundation of the pro- 
jection known as Mercator's, and applied by 
him to charts for navigators, in which the cor- 
rect bearings of objects upon the surface are 
of more importance to determine than the true [ 
figures of countries. Still other principles are 
employed in constructing maps, according to 



the special purposes for which they are de- 
signed. In maps of small areas, the figure of 
the earth may be neglected, and the positions 
and forms of bodies be represented as if the 
surface w.ere itself a plane. Some have special 
objects in view, as the delineation of the coast 
lines, channels, shoals, reefs, lighthouses, &c., 
hence called hydrographic maps or charts; 
others are intended to show the political divi- 
sions of states, counties, and towns ; and others, 
designated topographical maps, to represent the 
natural features of a country, as its mountains, 
hills, rivers, plains, &c., for all of which certain 
conventional signs are adopted. Maps have 
also been constructed to represent the courses 
of the winds and of oceanic currents over the 
surface of the earth ; to designate the position 
of the isothermal lines ; to indicate the geolo- 
gical formations found in different regions; 
and others to indicate the flora and the fauna 
of different countries. In the construction of 
geographical maps covering large areas, the 
principal places are located according to their 
latitudes and longitudes, and the lines of coasts 
and of countries, roads, &c., are plotted from 
the most exact surveys that have been made. 
Those which have been conducted under gov- 
ernment patronage have furnished the mate- 
rials for the best maps, and these are constant- 
ly improving as new materials are collected. 
Of the United States, the most complete maps 
are those of the state of Massachusetts made by 
order of the legislature, of the coast survey 
under the general government, Whitney's sur- 
vey map of California, and Clarence King's 
survey map of the 42d parallel. The great 
lakes, more especially on the Canadian side, 
have been surveyed and mapped with great 
accuracy by Lieut. Bayfield of the royal army. 
Maps of the Spanish provinces in America 
have been made by the Spanish hydrographical 
depot in Madrid ; and Brazil and other South 
American states have executed maps of their 
territories. The ancient Egyptians had some 
knowledge of maps, as Sesostris caused the 
territories he possessed and had conquered to 
be represented upon tablets for the instruction 
of his people; and the Israelites appear to 
have acquired the same knowledge, from the 
record, in Josh, xviii. 6, of a map of the coun- 
try being ordered by that lawgiver. The first 
map of the world, as known to the ancients, 
is said to have been made by Anaximander 
the Milesian. Herodotus makes mention of 
maps constructed by the Persians in the time 
of Darius, and of one by Aristagoras of Mile- 
tus. Eratosthenes introduced the lines of lati- 
tude and longitude, and the use of these was 
established by Hipparchus upon a mathemati- 
cal principle. Still, for want of exact surveys, 
and owing to the dependence of geographers 
upon the reports of travellers and their itine- 
raria picta, or painted itineraries, the maps 
afterward made were extremely inaccurate. 
Even those of Strabo and Ptolemy, of which 
those of the latter were for centuries the chief 



MAPES 

authorities in geography, contained most ex- 
travagant errors, such as giving to the Medi- 
terranean 1 ,400 miles greater length than be- 
longed to it ; and what is equally extraordi- 
ry, some of their gross exaggerations were 
continued in all the maps from that period 
down to the commencement of the 18th cen- 

iry. The system upon which Ptolemy's maps 
were drawn was that of stereographic pro- 
jection. After the discovery of America, the 
early maps representing the position of the 
new world relative to the old were exceedingly 
inaccurate. In one published in Venice in 
1546 Asia and America are joined together in 
lat. 38. The great difficulty was in deter- 
mining the true longitude of places ; and until 
this could be done there was no means of 
avoiding such errors. In 1700 De Lisle pub- 
lished a new map of the world, and others of 
Europe, Asia, and Africa, founded on compara- 
tively accurate astronomical observations, and 
in them the errors introduced from the maps 
of the ancients were first corrected. The true 
system, of map making may be considered as 
at that time established. Maps were first en- 
graved on metal by Btickink and Schweyn- 
heim in 1478, and on wood by Holl in 1482. 
An " Essay toward a Circumstantial History 
of Maps," by Hauber, was published in TJlm in 
1724. A historical account of the art is also 
given in a series of lectures by J. G. Kohl, 
published in the report of the Smithsonian in- 
stitution for 1856-'7. See also Santaran, Essai 
BUT la cartographic pendant le moyen age (3 
vols., Paris, 1849-'52). 

MiPES, or Map, Walter, an English Latin 
poet, born about the middle of the 12th cen- 
tury, probably in Herefordshire, died about 
1210. He studied in Paris, and after his return 
became a great favorite on account of his 
learning and courtly manners, especially with 
Henry II., by whom he was sent on a mission 
to the French court, and to the council sum- 
moned by Pope Alexander III., at which he 
was called on to refute the deputies of the 
"Waldenses. He received several livings, was 
made canon of the cathedrals of St. Paul and 
of Salisbury, precentor of Lincoln, incumbent 
of "Westbury in Gloucestershire, and finally in 
1196 archdeacon of Oxford. His tastes were 
however for elegant literature, and he is only 
known at the present day as a genial, festive, 
and satirical writer, to whom is attributed a 
great portion of the humorous rhyming Latin 
Leonine lyrics and Norman French romances 
of the latter half of the 12th century. Of late 
years it has been doubted whether Mapes was 
really the author of the poems which pass 
under his name, but the fact that they were 
for several centuries so generally attributed to 
him has been thought to prove that he ex- 
celled in a peculiar style of writing, and that a 
part of them at least are his. He also wrote 
much prose, both in Latin and Anglo-Norman. 
Among the former is his De Nugis Curialium, 
a work containing much curious information 



MAPLE 



137 



of a very varied character ; and among the 
latter are a large portion of the existing ro- 
mances of the round table. The " Latin Poems 
commonly attributed to Walter Mapes" were 
printed in London by the Camden society in 
1841, and De Nugis Curialium in 1850. 

MAPIMI, a desert in N. Mexico, extending 
from the great bend of the Rio Grande, in lat. 
30, southward to the vicinity of Parras, in lat. 
25 30', and averaging 2 degrees in width. It 
embraces two thirds of the state of Coahuila 
and parts of Chihuahua and Durango, and 
consists chiefly of a vast basin called the Bol- 
son, or pocket, bounded N. by the Sierra del 
Carmen, E. by a portion of the Sierra Madre, 
and W. by low ranges of mountains. From 
the mountains to the northeast the rivers Es- 
condido, Alamos, and Nadadores take their 
rise, but in the central basin there is no water 
except the brackish lagoons called Jaco, Agua 
Verde, Cayman, and El Muerto. Nomadic 
Apaches are the only inhabitants, but well 
preserved mummies have been found in caves 
near the S. border. There is rarely any vege- 
tation. Meteoric iron and coal abound, and 
the precious metals are believed to exist. 
Only the S. portions, called the Cation de San 
Marcos, and the plains of La Paila and La Ban- 
durria, have been explored with any care. The 
Kickapoo Indians established themselves in 
1864 near the N. border of this desert, and 
remained there till 1873, when they were re- 
moved to their former reservation in the Indian 
territory. At the W. entrance to the Bolson 
is situated the mining town of Mapimi, with 
5,000 inhabitants. The emperor Maximilian 
erected a department under this name, with 
limits differing from those of the desert. 

MAPLE, the common name of trees of the 
genus acer (Celtic c, hard), belonging to the 
natural order sapindacece, of which with two 
other genera it forms the suborder acerinece. 
There are about 50 species, distributed in 
North America, Europe, northern Asia, Java, 
and the Himalayas ; some are small shrubs and 
others large trees, frequently with a saccharine 
sap and rarely with a milky juice ; the leaves 
are opposite, deciduous, simple, palmately three- 
to seven-lobed, rarely entire. The flowers are 
in axillary and terminal racemes and usually 
polygamo-dioecious ; i. e., some have stamens 
only, others pistils only, or both organs may 
be in the same flower ; the usually five-parted 
calyx is colored and deciduous ; petals want- 
ing, or when present as many as the lobes of 
the calyx ; stamens four to twelve, inserted 
upon a disk ; pistil of two united ovaries with 
two styles ; from the back of each ovary grows 
a wing converting the fruit into two one-seeded 
keys. Our North American species, of which 
there are about 10, differ in their time of flow- 
ering ; in some the flowers appear long before 
the leaves, others produce their flowers at the 
time the leaves unfold, and in others they do 
not appear until after the foliage is well de- 
veloped. Our commonest species is the red 



138 



MAPLE 



or swamp maple (A rubrum}\ this and the 
next, the silver maple, flower in March and 
April, and perfect their seeds about the first 
of June ; when the seeds fall, they germinate 
in a few days, and by the autumn of the same 
year form a young tree one or two feet high ; 
this peculiarity must be observed by those who 
would raise these trees, as the seeds will not 
retain their vitality if kept until the following 
spring. The red maple is found in swamps 
and damp woods from Canada to the gulf of 
Mexico, and is also known as the soft, the 
swamp, and the white maple, which last name 
should be discarded, as it properly belongs to 
the next species; it is usually a small tree, 
though it sometimes reaches 60 or 70 ft., with 
a diameter of 2 or 3 ft. ; the young twigs are 
red, and gradually change to a clear ashy gray. 
This is a conspicuous tree when in bloom in 
early spring, as its flowers are produced in such 
profusion as to make the tree appear at a dis- 
tance as a mass of color, varying from crim- 
son to scarlet ; the individual trees differ much 
in shade, some being very pale, while others 
are exceedingly brilliant ; the leaves vary great- 
ly in size and shape, and the number and depth 
of the lobes. The trees with pistillate or per- 
fect flowers produce a profusion of fruit, which 
makes them objectionable near a garden, as 
the seeds find their way to every nook and the 
young maples spring up as weeds. The beauty 
of our autumn landscape is largely due to the 
brilliant colors assumed by the foliage of the 
red maple ; it presents every shade of orange, 
scarlet, and crimson, and these colors, together 
with green, are frequently to be found upon the 
same leaf. The wood is white with a tinge of 
rose color, fine, close, and smooth ; it is used 
for a great variety of turned work and for 
making the cheaper kind of furniture ; it is a 
useful wood for any purpose if it is not to be 
exposed to dampness. Some of the trees, in 
which the fibres take a serpentine course, 
afford the handsome wood known as curled 
maple, valued for inside work and for gun 
stocks ; other varieties are known as landscape 
and mountain maple. As a fuel, the wood of 
red maple ranks below that of the sugar or 
rock maple; it burns rapidly and does not 
make a lasting fire. The bark is used in do- 
mestic dyeing, forming with iron salts a good 
black. The white or silver maple (A. dasy- 
carpurri) is more common in the western than 
in the eastern states, but it is more or less 
abundant along rivers from Maine to Georgia ; 
as the red maple is often called white maple, 
the two trees are frequently confounded, but 
they are readily distinguished by the color of 
the young twigs, which in this species are 
preen, while in the other they are red, and by 
the silvery whiteness of the under surface of 
the leaves, which has given one of its common 
names to this species. The leaves are usually 
five-lobed, with the lobes deeply and hand- 
somely toothed ; the flowers, which appear be- 
fore the leaves, are greenish yellow ; the fruit, 



the early ripening of which has been mention- 
ed, is downy when young, but smooth when 
ripe ; the two wings diverge widely and are 
about 2 in. long. The tree grows to about 50 
or 60 ft. with very spreading limbs ; specimens 
with a circumference of 12, 16, and 18 ft. 
are recorded, but the usual diameter is about 
2 ft. On account of the wide spread of its 
branches and its fine foliage, this is much val- 
ued as a shade and ornamental tree ; but as the 
wood has little strength, the branches are apt 
to be broken by gales and by accumulations of 
snow and ice. For planting in prairie coun- 
tries no tree is more highly prized than this, 
as by its rapid growth it gives a quick return 
in valuable fuel. The wood is soft, white, and 
fine-grained, but it has little strength and is 
very perishable ; hence its use as lumber is 
limited ; as a fuel it is much esteemed. The 
most valuable of all our species is the sugar or 
rock maple (A. saccharinuni), which is most 




Sugar Maple (Acer saccharinum). 

abundant north of lat. 40 and east of the Mis- 
sissippi ; in the southern states it is found only 
along the mountains. The tree when young is 
usually very symmetrical, and indeed some- 
what too formal in its outline, but when old it 
assumes a great diversity of forms, which seem 
to depend upon soil and situation ; it some- 
times reaches 70 or 80 ft., but is usually much 
smaller. The leaves are broader than long, 
often heart-shaped at base, three- to five-lobed, 
with the sinuses or spaces between the lobes 
rounded, while in the two species above men- 
tioned these are acute. The flowers, which ap- 
pear with the leaves, are greenish yellow, in 
umbel-like clusters upon very slender hairy 
pedicels ; the fruit, which has a broad wing, 
ripens in October, and if intended for sowing 
should be kept through the winter in damp 
sand. As an ornamental tree the sugar maple 
has been strangely neglected in this country ; 
its growth is quite slow when young, and nur- 




MAPLE 



139 



serymen prefer to produce more rapidly grow- 
ing trees ; as a tree to plant in the streets of 
towns and villages, and along country roads, 
it has great merit ; not the least of its excel- 
lent qualities is the great brilliancy of its au- 
tumnal colors. The wood is one of the most 
valuable for fuel, ranking next to hickory, and 
for charcoal it is esteemed above all others. 
While the wood of some trees is perfectly 
straight-grained, that in other specimens pre- 
sents marked and often elegant varieties ; the 
curled hard maple presents a pleasing surface 
of light and shade, and the bird's-eye maple has 
its fibres so singularly contorted as to produce 
numerous little knots which look like the eye 
of a bird ; these varieties and others are much 
valued for cabinet work of various kinds and 
interior finishing, while the straight-grained 
wood is used for making lasts, buckets, tubs, 
and a variety of other useful articles ; it is also 
employed in ship building. The sap of this 
species contains cane sugar, a fact recognized 
in its common and botanical names ; other 
maples, the birches, hickories, and some other 
trees, yield sugar, but none of them in such 
large quantities or in so pure a state as the 
sugar maple. On many farms a maple orchard 
or sugar bush, as it is called, is an important 
part of the property, and yields a good share 
of the yearly income. The trees are tapped 
by boring near the ground, a tube, frequently 
of elder, inserted, and a vessel is set or hung 
to catch the sap as it trickles out ; the flow 
begins in early spring, often in February, and 
is most abundant when there are warm days 
and frosty nights. The process of making the 
sugar is often very crude, and consists of 
merely collecting the sap and boiling it down 
in kettles over an open fire ; when sufficiently 
concentrated the sirup is poured into moulds 
to granulate. Of late years much more care 
is given to the manufacture of the sugar, and 
a house is provided expressly for the purpose, 
and furnished with improved evaporators and 
other apparatus to facilitate the operation ; 
there is a large demand for maple sirup, and 
some makers send all their sugar to market in 
this form. According to the census of 1870, 
the total production of maple sugar in the Uni- 
ted States was 28,443,645 Ibs., in 28 different 
states, of which the following contributed the 
largest amounts : New Hampshire, 1,800,704 
Ibs.; Vermont, 8,894,302; Massachusetts, 399,- 
800; ISTew York, 0,692,040; Pennsylvania, 
1,545,917; Virginia and West Virginia, 755,- 
699; Kentucky, 269,416; Ohio, 3,469,128; 
Indiana, 1,332,332; Wisconsin, 507,192. The 
total quantity of maple molasses or sirup re- 
turned was 921,057 gallons. The black sugar 
maple, which was described by Michaux as a 
distinct species, is now regarded as only a 
variety (var. nigrum) of the ordinary sugar 
maple; the leaves are less deeply lobed, and 
the whole tree has a darker appearance ; it is 
said to be more productive of sugar. The 
striped maple or moosewood (A. Pennsylva- 



nicum) is a small and slender tree from 12 to 
20 ft. high, found in rich woods from Maine 
to Wisconsin and southward along the moun- 
tains ; its branches and trunk become striated 
with dark lines, giving a character by which 
the tree is readily identified; the leaves are 
three-lobed at the apex and doubly serrate; 
the flowers, which do not appear until after 
the leaves, are in terminal pendulous racemes, 
and the cluster of fruit is quite conspicuous, 
In the northern woods the young twigs of this 
tree are browsed upon in winter by the moose. 
The wood is regarded as more durable than 
that of any other maple, but it is too small to 
be of much value ; it is said to reach three or 
four times its ordinary size if grafted upon the 
larger species of maple. Its chief value is as 
an ornamental tree ; its ample leaves, which at 
the time of opening are rose-colored, the striped 
appearance of the trunk, and the conspicuous 
flowers and fruit all commend it to the atten- 
tion of the planter. The mountain maple (A. 
spicatum), found in the same range as the 
moosewood, is rather a tall shrub than a tree, 
and forms clumps in moist woods ; the three- 
to five-lobed leaves are downy beneath, and 
their very long petioles become scarlet in Sep- 
tember; the flowers are in terminal, usually 
erect racemes, and the fruit, which is smaller 
than in any other of our native species, has 
very divergent wings. The large-leaved maple 
(A. macropliyllutn) of the Pacific coast is es- 
pecially abundant in Oregon, associated with 
the firs and spruces ; it is a remarkably grace- 
ful tree, from 40 to 90 ft. high, with widely 
spreading branches and a rough brown bark ; 
it is very conspicuous on account of its very 
large leaves, which are sometimes a foot broad, 
though variable in size ; they are deeply five- _ 
lobed and rather thick ; the flowers are in 
large pendent racemes, yellow and fragrant, 
and succeeded by clusters of hairy fruit with 
smooth, slightly diverging wings. The wood 
of this species is close-grained and hard, and 
according to Nuttall handsomely veined ; it is 
much valued in Oregon as furnishing almost the 
only hard wood obtainable in some parts of the 
state ; its sap is said to be abundant and saccha- 
rine. This magnificent tree has been so little 
planted in the Atlantic states that its hardiness 
cannot be considered as fairly tested. Another 
far western species is the round-leaved maple 
(A. circinatum), called in Oregon the vine ma- 
ple on account of its manner of growth ; in the 
moist forests several stems spring from the 
same root and arch over until the tops reach 
the ground, where they take root and thus form 
an almost impenetrable thicket ; it sometimes 
grows 20 or 30 ft. high, but has more the habit 
of a shrub than of a tree. The leaves are heart- 
shaped, seven- to nine-lobed, about the size of 
those of the red maple ; the flowers are pur- 
plish, and the fruit is remarkably divaricate; 
the wood is heavy, fine-grained, and valued for 
making handles and other small articles. The 
smooth maple (A. gldbrum) of the Rocky moun- 



140 



MAPLE 



tains is a small shrub with leaves resembling 
those of the common currant in size and shape ; 
its foliage is variable, and one form has been 
described as a distinct species, A. triparti- 
tum. Among the exotic species cultivated in 
this country, the largest and finest is the syca- 
more maple (A. peudo-platanus); it attains 
the height of 60 ft. or more, with wide-spread- 
ing branches; specimens in England have 
reached 100 ft. with a diameter of 6 to 9 ft. ; 
its foliage resembles that of the sugar maple, 
but the leaves are much larger, somewhat 
downy beneath, and on long reddish petioles; 
the flowers are in long racemes, and the fruit 
has only moderately spreading wings ; the wood 
is much esteemed in Europe for turners' work 
and other uses. There are several varieties of 
this species, one of which has purple leaves, 
and another with leaves variegated with yel- 
low. The tree does not well bear transplant- 
ing when large. The Norway maple (-4. pla- 




field maple (A. campestre), as seen in this conn- 
try is scarcely more than a bush, seldom above 
10 'or 15 ft. high ; in the south of Europe it 
grows much larger; its heart-shaped leaves 



Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudo-platanus). 

tanoides), from northern Europe, is probably 
more generally planted, at least in the eastern 
states, than any other species ; though of but 
slow growth when young, after four or five 
years from the seed it increases very rapidly, 
and forms a tree 60 ft. or more high ; the con- 
tour of the tree is much like that of the sugar 
maple, and the leaves somewhat resemble those 
of that species. This tree can be readily dis- 
tinguished by the milky juice of the leaves, 
\vhicli ia best seen on breaking the petiole; the 
fruit is smooth, the wings diverging in a straight 
line. It is a most valuable shade tree, espe- 
cially for streets and avenues; for this use it 
has some advantages over the sugar maple, as 
its foliage is more dense, and appears earlier 
and holds on later ; it is remarkably free from 
the attacks of insects, a fact that has been as 
cribed to its milky juice. The eagle's-claw anc 
the shred-leaved maples are accidental form 
of this. The common European or English 




Common European Maple (Acer campestre). 

are 2 to 3 in. broad, and five-lobed ; flowers in 
short erect clusters and wings of the fruit di- 
verging horizontally ; there are several named 
varieties which differ from the type in foliage ; 
the wood makes excellent fuel, and when large 
enough is used for cabinet and other work. 
Its chief value with us is as a lawn tree; it 
makes a regular and formal growth, and when 
well developed and branching to the ground 
presents a dense mass of foliage as broad as it 
is high. The Candian (A. Creticum), almost 
an evergreen, the Tartarian (A. Tartaricum), 
the Montpellier (A. Monspessulanum), and the 
Colchian 'maple (A. Colchicum), and some 
others, are met with in collections of rare trees. 
A highly ornamental class of maples is found 
in Japan, several of which have been intro- 
duced into this country by Mr. Thomas Hogg; 
these include varieties of A. palmatum, A.po- 
lymorphum, and others of which the species 
are not determined ; they present a great va- 
riety in the lobing and dissection of their leaves 
and the most exquisite variegations in color. 
The ash-leaved maple, called acer negundo by 
Linnceus and Michaux, is now placed in a sep- 
arate genus, negundo, which differs from acer 
in having perfectly dioecious flowers and pin- 
nate leaves. There are but three or f on r_ spe- 
cies of this genus, which is peculiar to North 
America and Japan. The common species is 
N. aceroides, which is found from the Red river 
of the North to North Carolina, but mainly 
westward, and is more abundant on the banks 
of streams than elsewhere. It is a rapid-grow- 
ing tree when young, but is short-lived on dry 
soils ; in favorable situations it becomes a fine 
tree 40 to 60 ft. high, but is usually much 
smaller ; it f onns a handsome round head with 



MAQUET 



MARABOU 



141 



dense foliage ; its compound leaves have three 
or five leaflets, which are ovate, pointed, and 
toothed; the staminate flowers are in small 
clusters, and the pistillate ones in racemes, 
which later are several inches long and conspic- 
uous on account of the numerous fruits, like 
those of the maple, with incurved wings. The 
wood is similar to that of the red maple, and 
useful for fuel. The abundant sap yields sugar, 
and it is by some regarded as purer than that 
afforded by the sugar maple. This tree is in 
the western states generally called box-elder, 
and is a favorite with those engaged in tree 
planting upon the prairies, a purpose for which 
its rapid growth well adapts it ; and though 
not long-lived, it will furnish both fuel and su- 
gar while slower but more valuable kinds are 
growing. It is much valued as an ornamental 
tree, its symmetrical growth and neat habit 
making it suitable for the lawn. A variegated 
form of this has been recently introduced, in 




Ash-leaved Maple (Negundo aceroides). 

which the leaves are abundantly marked with 
white ; a specimen of this seen against a back- 
ground of evergreens produces a striking effect 
in landscape gardening. 

MAQUET, Angnste, a French novelist, born 
in Paris in 1813. He studied and taught at 
the college Charlemagne, and wrote for Alex- 
andre Dumas parts of many works which the 
latter claimed exclusively as his own. In 1846, 
however, Maquet's pamphlet, La maison Alex- 
andre Dumas et compaynie, forced Dumas to 
acknowledge his share in these productions; 
and in 1851 they dissolved 1 their literary partner- 
ship. Maquet has published La belle Gdbrielle 
(5 vols., 1853-'5) ; Le comte de Lavernie (10 
vols., 1853-'5) ; La maison du baigneur (2 vols., 
1856) ; Venters et Vendroit (4 vols., 1858) ; and 
La rose Handle (3 vols., 1859). Among the 
novels ostensibly by Dumas, the best known of 
those in the writing of which Maquet had a 
considerable if not the principal share are Lea 



trois mousquetaires, Vingt ans apres, Le mcomte 
de Bragelonne, Monte Gristo, and Joseph Bal- 
samo. He took the same share in dramatizing 
some of these novels, chiefly in conjunction 
with Dumas, but also with Jules Lacroix. 

MARABOU, the popular name of several large 
birds of the stork family, of the genus leptop- 
tilus (Lesson), natives of Asia and Africa, 
whose delicate vent feathers were formerly 
highly esteemed as ornaments. The L. argala 
(Lath.), the Asiatic marabou or adjutant, has 
no equal in size except the jabiru and ostrich ; 
the length from the point of the bill to the 
claws is 7i ft., and the expanse of wings is 
nearly 15 ft. ; it stands 5 ft. high. The bill is 
about 2 ft. long, straight, strong, and sharp- 
pointed ; the wings long and ample, the tail 
moderate and broad, tarsi strong, and toes long, 
the anterior webbed at the base. The head 
and neck are nearly bare of feathers, and in 
front of the neck hangs a pouch or dewlap 
several inches long and capable of considerable 
distention. The bill is yellowish white, and 
its gape is such that it can swallow whole an 
animal as large as a cat; front of the neck 
yellowish, back of neck reddish with a few 
hairy warty excrescences ; the back and wing 
coverts deep bluish ash, wings dusky, breast 
and belly dusky white; the feathers of the 
sides beneath the wings, and those of the vent 
and under tail coverts, are whitish, downy, 
about 12 in. long, and so light and delicate as 
to command a high price for ladies' head dress- 
es ; a feather a foot long and 7 in. wide weighs 
only 8 grains. It is common in Bengal, and 
by the natives each is believed to be possessed 
by the soul of a Brahman ; by the English it is 
called adjutant from its resemblance at a dis- 




Marabou (Leptoptilus marabou) 

tance to an officer with white waistcoat and 
breeches. Its voracity is extreme, exercised 
upon anything which comes in its way, from 
offal, fish, and reptiles, to birds and quad- 



142 



MARACAYBO 



, and even to the cooked meats of the 
natives; its services are valuable as a scaven- 
ger, and its presence is encouraged; it has 
even been domesticated. In the wild state, 
they live in small flocks near the mouths of 
rivers ; their power of flight is great, and their 
vision very keen. A smaller species (L. mara- 
bou, Temm.) occurs in tropical Africa, assisting 
the vultures in consuming the tilth of the ne- 
gro villages ; it is more ugly, if possible, than 
the Asiatic bird, and its delicate plumes are 
equally valued ; marabou is the native African 
name. Other species are described, with simi- 
lar characters. 

MARACAYBO, or Maraealbo. I. A city of Ve- 
nezuela, capital of the state of Zulia (formerly 
Maracaybo), situated on the W. shore of a 
channel connecting the lake and gulf of the 
same name, about 25 m. from the gulf, and 
800 m. W. of Caracas; lat. 10 40' K, Ion. 
71 40' W.; pop. about 15,000. The city is 
built on a dry sandy soil, and the N. portion, 
upon a rising ground, commands a fine view 
of the lake. The houses, a few of which are 
handsome, are for the most part of chalk and 
sand, or of wood, and covered with reeds. 
The harbor is commodious and well defended 
by three forts ; but, owing to the bar at the en- 
trance, only vessels drawing less than 10 ft. can 
come up to the town. The climate is excessively 
hot, but more salubrious than that of the low- 
land towns of the eastern and inland states. 
Heavy rain falls from May to November; and 
in the other months violent and even disastrous 
rains, accompanied by terrific lightning and 
thunder, are not infrequent, but hurricanes are 
unknpwn. Earthquakes are common. The 
principal articles of export are cacao, cotton, 
sugar, fustic, and coffee ; of the last 23,000,000 
Ibs. were exported in the year ending June 30, 
1872. Cattle are reared in large numbers in 
the surrounding country. Ship building, for 
which a dockyard in the port offers superior 
facilities, is extensively carried on. There is 
an important coasting trade. The foreign 
trade is mostly in the hands of English, French, 
and Germans. Tliis city was founded in 1571 
by Alonso Pacheco, who named it Zamora; it 
was afterward called Maracaybo, after a power- 
ful cacique of the lake region. It has frequent- 
ly suffered by fire and earthquakes. II. Lake 
of, a large lagoon or inlet of the sea, in shape 
resembling a guitar, lying immediately S. of the 
city ; length, nearly 100 m. ; greatest breadth, 
76 m. The channel cbnnecting the lake with 
the sea is 46 m. long and from 4 to 14 m. wide, 
and deep enough except over the bar at its 
mouth for the largest vessels. The shores of 
the lake are low and barren, and at certain 
seasons inundated to a distance of 10 or 20 m. 
Its waters, being fed by about 500 small streams 
(only about 100 of which however are peren- 
nial), are generally fresh when the S. wind 
prevails ; at other times they are brackish. On 
the N. E. shore is a mine of mineral pitch, 
which at night during the hottest months emits 



MAKAOTIAO 

a brilliant phosphoric light resembling light- 
ning, and called by navigators the lighthouse 
(faro) of Maracaybo. The carrying trade on 
the lake is done by schooners ; but it is now 
proposed to establish also one or two lines of 
steamers. III. Golf of. See VENEZUELA. 

MAKA.IO, or Joannes, an island of Brazil, in 
the mouth of the Amazon, which it divides into 
two unequal branches; length about 180 m., 
greatest breadth about 150 m. ; pop. about 
20,000, almost exclusively Indians. The land 
is generally low and flat, and is watered by 
several navigable rivers and a number of small 
streams; the principal of the former are the 
Moudin, with a course of about 50 m., and the 
Arajaz, of 60 m. The climate is similar to 
that of the province of Grao Para. The soil, 
though marshy, favors the cultivation of most 
of the tropical products, especially rice, which 
is grown in prodigious quantities ; but the 
principal occupation of the people is the rear- 
ing of cattle, which find excellent pasture in 
the vast prairies of the island. Maraj6 was 
first given to Antonio de Souza de Macedo, 
baron Joannes, and was long known by his 
name. The Tupinamba Indians, who inhabit- 
ed it, were civilized by the Jesuit priest An- 
tonio Vieira; they were celebrated canoe build- 
ers and coasters. The island was united to the 
province of Grao Para about 1830. 

MARANHAO, or Maranham. I. A 1ST. E. prov- 
ince of Brazil, bounded K by the Atlantic, E. 
by the province of Piauhy, S. W. by Goyaz, and 
W. by Grao Para; area, 168,000 sq. m. ; pop. 
about 385,000, consisting chiefly of Indians. 
The coast line is very regular to the east ; but 
about the middle it is deeply indented by the 
vast bays of Sao Joze" and Sao Marcos, between 
which lies the island of Maranhao, opposite the 
embouchures of the Maranhao and Itapicuru 
rivers ; still further W. occur at short intervals 
the bays of Cuma, Cabello, and Turiassu, the 
last forming the mouth of the river of the 
same name. From this point to the extreme 
west, and indeed to the mouth of the Parti, or 
more properly the Amazon, the shore is fringed 
with innumerable islets, keys, and reefs. The 
coast of Maranhao is mainly low and flat ; high 
red cliffs border the shore of the island, and 
of the mainland to a considerable distance 
westward. The principal elevations are in 
the southwest and south, whence low parallel 
ridges slope almost due N., where they sink 
into extensive plains. Of the numerous rivers 
the largest are the Parnahyba, forming the en- 
tire E. boundary, and receiving a host of im- 
portant tributaries from the southern corner 
of the province; the* Itapicuru, Mearim, and 
Pindare", all navigable nearly to their sources, 
and the last two uniting 15 m. N. of the town 
of Mearim to form the Maranhao ; the Turiassn 
and the Gurupi, separating the province from 
that of Grao Para; while the S. W. boun- 
dary line is constituted by the Tocantins and 
its N. E. affluent the Manoel Alves Grande. 
A great part of the country is densely wood- 




MAEANHAO 



ed, but in the interior occur some extensive 
campos and alluvial flats, which are frequently 
inundated. Gold mining on a large scale was 
attempted at Marcassume, but was abandoned 
about 1867. Silver, platinum, rich copper ore, 
antimony, and arsenic have been discovered 
in many parts ; iron is general throughout 
the province; there is petroleum on the Ita- 
picurii ; sulphur is said to exist at Rosario, 
and saltpetre and hydraulic lime at Alcan- 
tara and Guaraju; and about 60,000 tons of 
salt are annually produced on the Alcantara 
coast. The climate is hot and damp, like that 
of the Amazonian valley, of which, according 
to Agassiz, it once formed a part ; the ther- 
mometer ranges from 69-8 to 97'8 F. The 
light rains begin in October, but the rainy sea- 
son sets in in December and lasts till May, 
with much thunder and lightning, especially 
toward the close ; and from June to Decem- 
ber the general winds blow steadily from the 
northeast by day, and from the east by night. 
The principal products are rice, cotton, sugar, 
and coffee ; the last is now abundantly grown 
on the mountain slopes inland, and will prob- 
ably soon take the place of cotton as a staple 
for exportation. Oils of various kinds are ex- 
tensively extracted, but mostly for domestic 
use, except copaiva, the annual production of 
which is about 100 pipes ; and sarsaparilla, 
annotto, vanilla, caju rosin, and many .valuable 
medicinal plants are found in great plenty, but 
have not yet become important commodities. 
In 1854, 13,000,000 Ibs. of cotton were ex- 
ported, valued at $987,197; and in 1869, 12,- 
500,000 Ibs., valued at $1,784,955. The total 
value of exports in 1867 was $3,150,426, and 
of imports (consisting mainly of machinery 
and manufactured goods) $2,712,560. Man- 
teiga de tartaruga, a kind of butter from tor- 
toise eggs, is extensively manufactured. There 
are three f ounderies and one machine shop ; 
superior embroideries and laces are made ; but 
the larger portion of the inhabitants are en- 
gaged in agricultural pursuits. Maranhao has 
eight cities and 28 towns ; the more important 
of the former, besides the capital, are Caxias, 
Vianna, and Alcantara. Education is here 
more general than in any other province of the 
empire, there being a lyceuin with 12 chairs 
of languages, sciences, and law, several semina- 
ries, and numerous other schools. Maranhao 
has produced many of the most prominent 
Brazilian men of letters, arts, and sciences. 
II. San Luiz de Maranbao, a maritime city, capital 
of the province, on the W. side of the island 
of the same name, lying at the mouths of the 
Itapicuru and Maranhao rivers, 1,410 m. N". of 
Rio de Janeiro ; lat. 2 31' S., Ion. 44 18' W. ; 
pop. of the island in 1872, 34,023, of whom 
about 30,000 were in the city. The city is de- 
fended by a line of high red cliffs skirting the 
shore of the island to the north, from which 
direction it is accessible only by narrow passes. 
The streets are regularly laid out, are spacious, 
well paved, and lighted with gas. The houses 
531 VOL. XL 10 



MARAT 



143 



are well built, many of them being of two 
stories, and surrounded with gardens. The 
finest of the public buildings are the cathedral 
and the episcopal palace, both the work of the 
Jesuits. There are ten other churches and 
chapels, eight convents, the governor's house, 
town hall, custom house, post office, prison, 
and one military, one foundling, and several 
general hospitals. The benevolent institutions 
comprise asylums for orphans and indigent 
females, besides several societies for the pro- 
tection and relief of artisans. There are two 
banks, several mercantile and industrial asso- 
ciations, and a number of insurance companies. 
The educational establishments are a lyceum 
in which are taught languages, sciences, law, 
and philosophy, two seminaries, and many 
primary and grammar schools. The public 
library contains about 10,000 volumes. Eight 
periodicals are published. A botanic garden 
has lately been established. The climate is 
extremely hot and unhealthy. Maranhao is 
the entrepot for the productions of its own 
province and those of Grao Para, Piauhy, Rio 
Grande do Norte, and Ceara. The port is easy 
of access, well defended by a series of forts, 
and affords good anchorage for vessels draw- 
ing 20 ft. of water. The exports and imports 
for the second half of 1871 amounted to 
$1,021,468 64 and $1,063,225 30 respectively. 
In 1870 there were exported 12^133,000 Ibs. 
of cotton and 6,338,280 Ibs. of sugar. Among 
other exports are hides, balsam copaiva, and 
unprepared isinglass. The chief imports are 
manufactured goods and machinery. Half of 
the foreign trade is with Great Britain, and 
about one tenth with Portugal. The maritime 
statistics for the year ending June 30, 1872, 
were : entered, 40 steamers and 36 sailing ves- 
sels, tonnage 44,272 ; cleared, 39 steamers and 
51 sailing vessels, tonnage 52,230. Besides a 
direct line of steamers to Lisbon and Liverpool, 
there are two touching at Ceara and Belem or 
Para, all established since 1867, and almost mo- 
nopolizing the carrying trade between Mara- 
nhao and Europe. The rivers Itapicuru, Mea- 
rim, and Pindare" are navigated by steamers, and 
there are also coasting lines to Rio de Janeiro 
and to Para. Maranhao was founded in 1612. 

MARANHAO RIVER. See MEAEIM. 

MARAflOff. See AMAZON. 

MARAT, Jean Paul, a French revolutionist, 
born of Protestant parents at Baudry, near 
Neufchatel, Switzerland, May 24, 1744, assas- 
sinated in Paris, July 13, 1793. He was edu- 
cated as a physician ; but the narrow sphere 
in which he lived offering scanty means to 
satisfy his ambition, he went abroad. At 30 
years of age he was at Edinburgh, where he 
obtained a living as private tutor, and pub- 
lished a revolutionary pamphlet in English, 
entitled " The Chains of Slavery," which ap- 
peared in French at Paris in 1792 (latest ed., 
1850). In the following year, by a more volu- 
minous publication, De Vhomme, ou des prin- 
cipes et des lots de Vinfluence de Vdme sur U 



144 



MARAT 



corps et du corps sur Vame (3 vols., Amsterdam, 
177")). IK- appeared as an opponent of Voltaire, 
and a literary controversy ensued between 
tin-in. He removed to Paris, and from 1779 
bo 17^ published a series of writings, in which 
he attempted to revolutionize natural philoso- 
phy, and to refute the Newtonian theory. ^ His 
success being far inferior to his pretensions, 
!i ivlin[uished the field of literature and en- 
d -avorud to establish himself as a physician; 
but after many disappointments he was ob- 
IL'ed to accept a position as veterinary surgeon 
to the count of Artois, afterward Charles X. 
The outbreak of the revolution gave him the 
opportunity to play the part of a demagogue. 
Although physically not prepossessing, being 
hardly five feet high, with a strange mixture of 
the ludicrous and terrible in his countenance, 
he soon obtained a vast influence over the low- 
er classes by his energy and resolution. On 
Sept. 12, 1789, he published the first number 
of the PuUiciste Parisien, the title of which 
was afterward changed into Ami du Peuple. 
As early as August of that year he had publicly 
proclaimed that 800 members of the national as- 
sembly ought to be hanged, Mirabeau the fore- 
most among them. In the same spirit every 
page of the Ami du Peuple was written. This 
journal, under the successive titles Le Journal 
de la Republique Franfaise and Le Publiciste de 
la Republique Fran$aise, was continued with- 
out interruption till July 14, 1793. At the 
same time he also published several revolution- 
ary pamphlets, and 13 numbers of a political 
journal entitled Le Junius Fran$ais. Having 
been introduced by Danton into the club of 
the Cordeliers, he created there disturbances 
so violent that the municipality ordered his 
arrest in January, 1790. He evaded it by se- 
creting himself in the cellars of the Cordeliers, 
whence he continued to issue his periodical. 
After the king's unsuccessful attempt at flight, 
Marat again ventured into publicity, and di- 
rected his attacks against the Girondists. Hav- 
ing been prosecuted in consequence, he re- 
turned to his former underground haunts, from 
which he again emerged in the riots of Au- 
gust, 1792. lie now became the right-hand 
man of Danton, then minister of justice, intro- 
duced himself into the vigilance committee es- 
tablished by the municipality of Paris, and was 
one of the chief instigators of the massacres 
of September. To reward him for the part he 
had taken in these atrocities, the people of 
Paris elected him to the national convention. 
Here his speeches were received by the party 
of the majority with a feeling of abhorrence 
mingled with contempt They moved a vote 
of censure against him for having advocated 
the establishment of a dictatorial power. When, 
after anirry diBCTttdons, the motion was at last 
Withdrawn, Marat produced a pistol from his 
.liming that, if the motion had 
he would have blown his brains out in 
the presence of the convention. Emboldened 
by impunity, he grew more fanatical every day 



MARATHON 

1 and his paper denounced the French generals 
and armies as incapable, and asked for the 
heads of 270,000 " traitors," and the massacre 
of three fourths of the members of the conven- 
tion. In vain the Girondists endeavored to 
break down his influence. Under the pressure 
of popular excitement, created by foreign in- 
tervention, the ultra-revolutionary party had 
gradually obtained the ascendancy, and the 
most sanguinary proceedings being considered 
unavoidable in order to prevent a cooperation 
of the anti-revolutionary elements with the 
foreign foe, Marat, who excelled all others in 
this respect, was almost adored by the Parisians 
as the saviour of the country. Thus, in April, 
1793, he succeeded in obtaining the passage of 
a "law for the arrest of suspicious persons," 
by the operations of which no fewer than 400,- 
000 individuals were imprisoned throughout 
France. Having, as chairman of the Jacobin 
club, signed an address to the people, in which 
the assassination of the Girondists was openly 
called for, he was prosecuted before the revo- 
lutionary tribunal. But his trial became a tri- 
umph. The public prosecutor, the jurors, and 
the audience did him homage, and he was car- 
ried in triumph to the national convention t 
where Danton delivered an eloquent eulogy in 
his honor. He now rapidly rose to the cul- 
minating point of his career. Having made 
the municipality subservient to his plans, he 
instigated the mob of May 31, 1793, by which 
the Girondist party was completely destroyed. 
With Robespierre and Danton he formed a 
triumvirate, which for the time determined 
the destinies of France. Confined by disease 
in his garret, Marat was restlessly active in 
stirring up, by letters and denunciations, the 
passions of the people and of the national con- 
vention. He was finally assassinated by Char- 
lotte Corday, while preparing a list of Giron- 
dists to be sacrificed to the common weal, only 
a few days before his life would probably lu<u 
ended from natural causes. (See COEDAY.) 
Robespierre used his death as a pretext for 
carrying the reign of terror to its utmost ex- 
tent. Hundreds of victims were sacrificed to 
the "manes of the martyr." The entire na- 
tional convention attended his funeral. His 
body was transferred, Nov. 4, 1793, to the 
Pantheon, and his portrait, executed by Da- 
vid, adorned the hall of the convention. A 
pension for life was voted by the "grateful 
nation " to his concubine. Two years later, 
when the revolutionary passions had cooled 
down, the remains of Marat were removed 
from their resting place and his portrait taken 
down. Though vain and egotistic, Marat was 
doubtless sincere in his sanguinary ravings, and 
was so disinterested that, even in" the height of 
his power, he lived in the most abject poverty. 
MARATHON, a town of Greece, near the E. 
coast of Attica, about 18 m. N. E. of Athens, 
near which the Persians under Datis and Ar- 
taphernes were defeated, in 490 B. C. (Sept. 28 
or 29, according to somewhat uncertain compu- 



MARATHON 



MARBLE 



145 



tations), by the Greeks under Miltiades. The 
Persians, having crossed the ^Egean and taken 
Eretria in Euboea, passed over to Attica, land- 
ing on the plain of Marathon ; their numbers 
were about 110,000. To oppose them was an 
Athenian force of 10,000 heavy-armed infan- 
try and a small body of light-armed troops 
and attendants. According to Athenian law, 
there were ten generals, each of whom in turn 
was entitled to command for a day ; but the 
other generals waived their authority in favor 
of Miltiades, who thus became sole comman- 
der. Having received a reenforcement of 1,000 
heavy-armed Platseans, Miltiades resolved to 
sally from his strong position on the heights 
and attack the Persians, who were crowded in 
the plain. So little was an attack anticipated 
that it was really a surprise. The Greeks ad- 
vanced in three bodies, a centre and two wings, 
with a considerable interval between. Both 
attacks by the wings were successful, and the 
enemy was driven to the right and left ; but 
in the centre the heavy masses of the Per- 
sians repelled the Athenians, who were forced 
back for a considerable space. Miltiades 
then recalled his victorious wings, which fell 
upon the flanks of the Persian centre ; this 
was speedily broken, and the whole army fled 
in rout to their ships, which were drawn up 
on the beach. The Persian loss was 6,400, that 
of the Greeks only 192. A tumulus, still 
standing near the modern village of Vrana, 
which probably occupies the site of the ancient 
Marathon, marks the burial place of the Greeks 
who fell in this action. The battle of Mara- 
thon is justly considered one of the most im- 
portant in history, not so much on account of 
the numbers engaged or the losses incurred, as 
for its historical results. Had the Athenians 
been defeated, there was no power capable of 
resisting the Persian invasion, and Greece must 
have become a Persian satrapy. 

MARATHON, a K county of Wisconsin, bor- 
dering on Michigan, and drained by the Wis- 
consin river and its branches ; area, 6,048 sq. 
in. ; pop. in 1870, 5,885. It has a diversified 
surface, extensive pine forests, and numerous 
small lakes. The chief productions in 1870 
were 35,327 bushels of wheat, 76,482 of oats, 
22,164 of potatoes, 8,385 of peas and beans, 
and 2,843 tons of hay. There were 273 horses, 
1,331 milch cows, 2,754 other cattle, 1,482 
sheep, and 1,215 swine. Capital, Wausau. 

MARATTI, Carlo, an Italian painter, born 
near Ancona in 1625, died in Rome, Dec. 15, 
1713. At about the age of 12 he was sent to 
Rome and put under the instruction of Andrea 
Sacchi, with whom he remained eight years. 
He became a student of the works of Raphael, 
and his contemporaries, supposing that he could 
only paint madonnas, called him Carluccio delle 
Madonne; but he silenced their sneers by exe- 
cuting for the baptistery of St. John Lateran 
a picture of Constantine destroying the idols, 
which caused him to rank among the first 
painters of the day. He restored the frescoes 



of Raphael in the Vatican, and those of Anni- 
bale Carracci in the Farnese palace. His mas- 
terpiece is the "Martyrdom of St. Biagio " at 
Genoa. He also executed several etchings from 
his own designs and from Italian masters. 

MARBEAU, Jean Baptiste Francois, a French 
philanthropist, born at Brives in 1798. He be- 
came an advocate in Paris, and published in 
1824 a treatise on proceedings at civil law, and 
in 1834 one in the interest of the working 
classes. In 1844 appeared his fitudes sur Veco- 
nomie sociale. In the same year he was ap- 
pointed adjunct mayor, and founded the first 
infant asylum (creche) at Chaillot. He set 
forth the utility of such institutions in Des 
creches (1845), which has had many editions 
and translations, and obtained a Montyon prize 
of 3,000 francs, which he appropriated to one 
of the principal asylums. His beneficent en- 
terprise led to the establishment of hundreds 
of infant asylums all over France. 

MARBECK," John, an English composer, born 
early in the 16th century, died about 1585. He 
was one of the earliest composers of the re- 
formed church of England. About 1544 there 
were formed at Windsor associations in sup- 
port of the Lutheran doctrines. Marbeck, then 
organist at St. George's chapel, Windsor, lent 
his support to one of these, and with three 
other members was seized on a charge of here- 
sy. An examination of his papers discovered 
a concordance to the English Bible, complete 
as far as the letter L. The special charge 
against him was for copying an epistle of Cal- 
vin's against the mass. All four were con- 
demned to be burned, but Marbeck was saved 
through the influence of the bishop of Win- 
chester, and resumed his post as organist. He 
finished his " Concordance," the first complete 
one ever made, and published it (fol., London, 
1550). He also published " The Boke of Com- 
mon Praier, noted" (4to, 1550), the oldest pub- 
lished for the use of the Anglican church. 
Robert Jones of Ely cathedral issued a new 
edition of this work, entitled " Marbeck's Book 
of Common Prayer for voices in unison, ar- 
ranged for modern use, with an ad libitum or- 
gan bass accompaniment." The work unalter- 
ed was reprinted in London in 1844. Smith's 
Musica Antiqua, in the collection of the Brit- 
ish museum, contains a Te Deum and a mass 
for five voices by Marbeck. His other works 
are : " The Lyves of Holy Sainctes, Prophets, 
Patriarches, and others" (4to, 1574); "The 
Holie Historic of King David, drawn into Eng- 
lish Meetre " (4to, 1579) ; and "A Ripping up 
of the Pope's Fardel" (8vo, 1581). 

MARBLE, a rock used as an ornamental build- 
ing stone, for interior decorations, and for 
sculpture. Generally, any limestone that can 
be obtained in large sound blocks, and is sus- 
ceptible of a good polish, is marble ; and the 
only marble that is not limestone is the ser- 
pentine and the oriental verd antique (the lat- 
ter a mixture of serpentine and limestone). It 
is found in beds in various geological forma- 



146 



MARBLE 



tions. In the azoic group it is a metamorphic 
rock of granular and crystalline structure, and 
often presents a fineness of texture and purity 
of shading that fit it for the choicest works of 
the sculptor. In the palaeozoic formations it 
bears more of the character of a sedimentary 
rock, and it is apt to contain organic vestiges, 
as corallines and fossil shells, which indeed 
sometimes compose nearly its whole substance ; 
it is also of variegated colors, and sometimes is 
of brecciated structure, evidently made up of 
fragments of an older rock, the layers of which, 
broken up and confusedly rearranged, have 
been cemented together. Though thus vary- 
ing greatly in color, texture, and structure, the 
composition of marble is for the most part es- 
sentially the same ; it is a carbonate of lime, 
or a combined carbonate of lime and carbonate 
of magnesia, and is readily burned to quick- 
lime. It is soft and easy to work with the chisel 
or hammer, generally of even grain, so as to be 
split with wedges, and of specific gravity about 
27, making the weight of a cubic foot about 
169 Ibs. Its durability is very variable, some 
varieties retaining sharp edges when exposed 
for many years to the weather, and others soon 
crumbling away. Many varieties of marble 
have acquired a name and celebrity from re- 
mote times. The ease with which the rock is 
worked caused it to be selected for the earliest 
structures. The names of many marbles fa- 
mous among the ancient Greeks and Romans 
are still retained, and their localities are known. 
Mt. Pentelicus in Attica furnished the valua- 
ble Pentelican white marble, called by the mod- 
erns Penteli marble ; the islands of Paros and 
Naxos, the still celebrated Parian marble ; and 
other similar white marbles came from Mt. 
Hymettus in Attica, from Thasos and Lesbos, 
from Corallus in Phrygia, from Cyzicus on the 
Propontis, and one variety, exceeding the Pari- 
an in whiteness, from Luna in Etruria. Of the 
first named (the Pentelican) the Parthenon was 
built, and also the temple of Ceres at Eleusis, 
besides many celebrated statues. Though of 
finer grain than the Parian, it is said not to 
retain its polish and beauty so well. The Pari- 
an marble is placed first by both Theophrastus 
and Pliny in their enumeration of ancient mar- 
bles. Pindar and Theocritus also celebrated 
its praise. The statues of Venus de' Medici, 
Diana Venatrix, the Oxford marbles known as 
the Parian chronicle, and many other famous 
works, are of this marble. Black marbles are 
occasionally referred to by the ancients ; but 
some of those named, as the Chium marmor 
from the island of Chios, appear to be of ques- 
tionable character. This one is sometimes called 
lapis obsidianus antiquorum. It was glossy 
black, and received so high a polish that it was 
made into mirrors. The green marbles were 
Mrpenttate from various localities. Yellow 
marble was obtained at Corinth. The marmor 
Phengite* of Cappadocia was white with yel- 
low spots ; the Rhodian was marked with gold- 
en-colored spots, and that of Melos (Milo) was 



yellow. The marbles of modern times have 
been variously classified and named. In south- 
ern Europe two general divisions are made of 
antique and modern. The quarries of the 
former being lost or abandoned, the stone is 
obtained only from ancient monuments ; and 
being consequently most highly prized, meth- 
ods are resorted to, and sometimes with suc- 
cess, to attach the name antique to stone from 
quarries now worked. It is also the case that 
some of the marbles held in the highest es- 
timation in France, being transported from 
monuments at Rome, are the product of quar- 
ries worked in ancient times in France. It is 
probable these might be again discovered. With- 
out reference to these marbles, however, the 
French boast that their country surpasses even 
Italy in the beauty and variety of this class of 
stones. The following are convenient divisions 
in which marbles may be arranged for a general 
notice of the most important of them : 1, the 
simple or single-colored marbles ; 2, the varie- 
gated ; 3, the brecciated ; 4, the lumachella or 
fossiliferous. These sorts, however, pass into 
each other, so that some may be placed indif- 
ferently either in one or the other of two groups. 
1. The best known of the first class are the plain 
white marbles, some of which have been already 
named. The white marble of Carrara, of which 
an account is given in the article CARRAEA 
MARBLE, is of a texture like loaf sugar, differing 
in this respect from the Parian marble, which 
on close examination appears to be made up of 
the most delicate plates or scales, confusedly 
but most closely united together. Pure black 
marble is found in some ancient Roman sculp- 
tures. Some varieties of it are obtained in Der- 
byshire, England, and in Kilkenny, Ireland; 
but as the latter is more or less intermixed 
with fossil shells, it should come under the 
fourth division. It is quarried in the United 
States at Shoreham, Vt., and Glen's Falls, N. Y., 
and specimens are obtained from some other 
localities. The colored marbles are generally 
variegated ; but the Siena marble of Italy is 
sometimes of a uniform yellow color, or the 
same clouded. Some of the red marbles of 
Italy also display only the one color. In North 
America white marbles are worked at various 
places on the range of the great belt of meta- 
morphic rocks through Canada, Vermont, west- 
ern Massachusetts, a little back of the cities of 
New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Wash- 
ington, and thence through Virginia and the 
Carolinas into northern Georgia and Alabama. 
It is this formation that supplies the white 
marble for building purposes to the different 
cities along its range, and its quarries in Mas- 
sachusetts and New York furnish the marble 
for the most costly edifices of southern cities. 
The statuary marble is only the finest grained 
variety of this common building stone. Many 
localities are known to furnish it in small beds 
interstratified with the coarser marble. Sev- 
eral quarries of fine statuary marble have been 
opened in Vermont. The first were at Rut- 




MAEBLE 



147 



land, but other localities have since been found. 
Excellent quarries are also found in other parts 
of the United States. 2. The variegated mar- 
bles are those variously spotted, shaded, and 
veined. They are the most numerous class, 
and include the most beautiful of the colored 
marbles. None are more highly esteemed than 
the variegated yellow marble of Siena. This 
and the Italian dark red marbles may be seen 
in many of the costly mantels in our marble 
shops ; and also the soft, shaded, dove-colored 
Lisbon marble, of which are made the smaller 
columns in the entrance of the Unitarian church 
at the corner of 4th avenue and 20th street, 
New York. The black Genoese marble, with 
golden-colored and white veins, called Portoro 
marble, the best of which is from Porto Ve- 
nese, has for many years past been the most 
popular and the best known foreign marble in 
all parts of the United States, though now 
rather out of fashion. It is a weak stone, and 
is for the most part used in thin slabs cemented 
upon a back of slate. The marbles of this 
class found in the United States east of the 
Eocky mountains have not attained much celeb- 
rity, nor do we know of any worthy of it, unless 
we should include among them certain varieties 
of the brecciated marbles from northern Ver- 
mont and Tennessee. The gray and white 
clouded limestones of Thomaston, Me., are 
quarried to considerable extent for marble, and 
may be seen in common use in portions of the 
eastern states. They possess little beauty. Cali- 
fornia has furnished of this class some very 
showy marble of brilliant reddish and brown- 
ish colors, and susceptible of a high polish. 
It is imported into New York and used for 
mantels. 3. The brecciated marbles are com- 
posed of angular fragments, it may be of va- 
rious mineral substances, united in a bed or 
paste of calcareous cement ; or the mass may 
be so divided by numerous veins into pieces as 
to present the appearance of broken fragments 
irregularly united. Brocatellas are breccias, in 
which the fragments are very small ; we incor- 
rectly apply the name only to a reddish brec- 
ciated marble brought to this country from 
Spain. The varieties of this class are very nu- 
merous ; but some of the most celebrated are 
never seen here, such as those called le grand 
deuil and le petit deuil, literally the full mourn- 
ing and the half mourning. These come from 
the Pyrenees and different parts of France; 
they are of a black ground spotted with white 
fragments. Among the brecciated marbles of 
the United States, the best known is that of 
the Potomac on the Maryland side, some miles 
below the Point of Eocks. The principal use 
that has been made of it was to furnish the 
columns in the old chamber of representatives 
at Washington. The irregularities of hardness 
in the different ingredients render it an expen- 
sive stone to work ; still the quarries are de- 
serving of more than government patronage. 
The stone is certainly handsomer than the 
Italian red and white breccia imported for the 



inner columns of the central arched entrance 
of the church before mentioned. Quarries have 
been opened in the northern part of Vermont, 
near Lake Champlain, which produce the most 
beautiful of the American colored marbles. They 
are brecciated, though they pass into the varie- 
gated. They present a great variety of colors, 
from a deep re,d, traversed with veins of white, 
to rose-tinted flesh color mottled with whitish 
spots. In some specimens the brecciated struc- 
ture is very strongly marked, the fragments 
being large with sharp edges and of decided 
shades of dark red, drab, and salmon, upon a 
ground of white bordered with rose. Unlike 
the Potomac marble, the fragments are not dif- 
ferent varieties of rock, but are all limestone. 
The stone, though somewhat hard for marble, 
is still of uniform texture and takes an even 
high polish. Some large blocks closely resem- 
ble the foreign brocatella. It is however very 
difficult to work. Other marbles of this char- 
acter and of rather dark red colors abound 
near Knoxville, Tenn., and have been brought 
into notice by the extent to which they are 
employed in the construction of the capitol at 
Washington. 4. Lumachella or fossiliferous 
marbles are those which contain petrified shells. 
These are sometimes so crowded upon one an- 
other, that they compose the whole mass of 
the stone; sometimes single shells are seen 
scattered throughout the block. These mar- 
bles are very abundant in Europe, and also 
throughout New York and the western states. 
Handsome mantels are made of American va- 
rieties which are composed entirely of fossil 
shells, but they are rather to be regarded as 
curious than beautiful. They lack the high 
colors of the brecciated and variegated mar- 
bles, and though they take a good polish, they 
are from their plain colors comparatively dull 
and sombre. Some of the best of the kind is 
from Becraft's mountain, back of Hudson, N. 
Y., which is thus noticed by Prof. Silliman 
("American Journal of Science," vol. vi., p. 
" 371) : " The marble is of a grayish color with a 
slight blush of red ; its structure is semi-crys- 
talline, and in some places highly crystal- 
line, especially in and around the organized 
bodies which in vast numbers it embraces. The 
large slabs present a great diversity of appear- 
ance, and can scarcely be distinguished from 
the similar transition marble of the Peak of 
Derbyshire, which it quite equals in beauty and 
firmness." Serpentine, as before stated, dif- 
fers in composition from the other marbles. 
It consists of about equal parts of silica and 
magnesia with 12 per cent, of water. It is a 
soft mineral of different shades of green, of 
waxy lustre, and susceptible of a high polish. 
It is better adapted to ornamental work with- 
in doors than to be exposed to the action of 
the weather. Verd antique is a mixture of 
green serpentine and light-colored limestone. 
These varieties come from Genoa and Tus- 
cany, and the best verd antique from Egypt. 
In Vermont and Canada serpentine abounds ; 



148 



MARBLE 



and verd antique may be obtained in various 
places in New York and Pennsylvania, and in 
any of the New England states. At Milford, 
Conn., a quarry of serpentine and verd antique 
was worked more than 50 years ago, which 
furnMied slabs pronounced by good judges 
quite as fine as the European stone. The 
method! of preparing marble for use differ 
from the working of granite. This hard rock, 
aftor being quarried, is split by small wedges 
drivm into holes drilled in a line, and is then 
1 by hammers or used in the rough. 
Marble, being a comparatively soft rock, is cut 
into slabs by a process of sawing with smooth 
iron saws fed with sharp sand and water. 
Several of these plates or saws are set in one 
frame, and in a large establishment 20 or more 
of the frames may be seen kept in steady oper- 
ation by a steam engine. The progress of the 
saws cutting down through the great blocks of 
marble seems very slow, for the most part not 
exceeding an inch per hour. The thickness of 
the slabs is usually four or six inches. In this 
form the marble is used for facing the walls 
of buildings upon a back of brick, giving all 
the effect of a solid wall of marble at much 
reduced cost. In the most expensive structures 
only are the walls built of solid blocks of mar- 
ble or freestone. Marble slabs for mantels and 
other interior work are sawed like those for 
building, and are then rubbed smooth upon a 
heavy revolving table of cast iron, called the 
rubbing bed, and afterward polished. Accord- 
ing to the census of 1870, there were 22 mar- 
ble quarries in operation in the IJnited States, 
employing a capital of $1,316,600. The total 
products amounted to $804,300. The most ex- 
tensive quarries were in Maryland, where the 
products for the year were valued at $275,000 ; 
NVu York, $222,000; Vermont, $130,800; 
Pennsylvania, $101,000 ; and Massachusetts, 
$59,500. Marble valued at $3,709,518 was 
worked into monuments and tombstones, val- 
ued at $8,916,654. The value of marble and 
stone ami manufactory thereof, imported into 
the United States during the year ending June 
30, 1873, was $1,099,280, of which $423,818 
was from Italy. 

MARBLE, Manton, an American journalist, 
born in Worcester, Mass., Nov. 16, 1835. He 
graduated at the university of Rochester in 
A- as soon after connected with the Bos- 
ton "Journal," and subsequently was editor 
of the Boston "Traveller." In 1858 he went 
to New York and joined the staff of the 
Kvniing Post." In 1859 he made atrip to 
K. 1 river and beyond, corresponding with the 
" Evening Post," and contributing three papers 
descriptive of the journey to " Harper's Maga- 
/inr." He has been connected with "The 
World" newspaper from its establishment, 
Jane 16, 1860, and became its proprietor and 
</<litor in April, 1*62, making it a free-trade 
and democratic journal. 

MIKBLEIIKil), a town and port of entry of 
Essex co., Massachusetts, at the terminus of a 



MARBLES 

branch of the Eastern railroad, 12 m. N. E. of 
Boston; pop. in 1870, 7,703. It is built upon, 
a peninsula projecting into Massachusetts bay, 
about 4 m. in length and 2 in breadth, with an 
area of about 3,700 acres, and joins Salem on 
the west. The surface is elevated, and is ex- 
ceedingly irregular and rocky. The harbor is 
deep and convenient, and is about 1 m. long 
by m. wide. The town has been noted from 
the first settlement of New England for the 
enterprise of its people in the fisheries. More 
recently the inhabitants have also engaged ex- 
tensively in the manufacture of boots and 
shoes. For the year ending June 30, 1873, the 
number of vessels engaged in the cod and 
mackerel fisheries was 59, with an aggregate 
tonnage of 2,098; belonging to the port, 64 
vessels, of 2,554 tons. There are two national 
banks, a savings bank, graded public schools, 
with a high school, a weekly newspaper, and 
eight churches. Marblehead was originally a 
part of Salem, and was incorporated as a dis- 
tinct town in 1649, at which time it contained 
44 families. Many of the settlers were from 
the Channel islands ; and their peculiarities of 
language are still to be noticed among the in- 
habitants, and formerly existed to such a degree 
as almost to constitute a separate dialect. At 
the commencement of the revolutionary war 
Marblehead was reckoned the second town in 
Massachusetts in population and wealth. It 
contributed a regiment of 1,000 men to the 
army, and at the end of the war there were 
600 widows and 1,000 fatherless children in its 
population of less than 4,000. During the war 
of 1812 the frigate Constitution was chiefly 
manned by men from Marblehead, and the town 
also sent out a great number of privateers; 
and when peace was declared it was found 
that 500 of its citizens were held in England 
as prisoners of war. In the civil war it was 
the first town to send troops to Boston (April 
16, 1861), and furnished altogether 1,440 men. 
MARBLES, Playin, little balls of marble, baked 
clay, agate, or other stony substance, used as 
toys for children. Marbles are made in im- 
mense quantities in Saxony for exportation to 
the United States, and to India and China. 
They are also largely manufactured in the agate 
mills at Oberstein on the Nahe, in Germany, 
particularly for the American market. The 
material used in Saxony is a hard calcareous 
stone, which is first broken up into square 
blocks with a hammer. These are then thrown 
100 to 150 together into a mill, which is con- 
structed of a stationary flat slab of stone, with 
a number of concentric furrows upon its face. 
Over this a block of oak of the same diameter, 
partially resting upon the small stones, is kept 
revolving, while water flows upon the stone 
slab. In 15 minutes the marbles are worn com- 
pletely round, and are fit for -sale. An estab- 
lishment with three mills will manufacture 60,- 
000 marbles in a week. Agates are made into 
marbles at Oberstein by first chipping the 
pieces nearly round with a hammer, and then 




MARBOIS 

wearing them down upon the face of large 
rindstones. The hard stones are managed 
dth great dexterity by the workmen, who in 

few minutes bring them into the shape of 

jrfect spheres. 

MARBOIS, Barb. See BAEB -MARBOIS. 

MARBURG, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ice of Hesse-Nassau, on the river Lahn, 49 
i. S. W. of Cassel ; pop. in 1871, 9,065. The 
mncipal public buildings are the church of St. 
"lizabeth, a fine, perfectly preserved specimen 
)f the pointed Gothic, built in the 13th cen- 
iry, and the ancient castle of the landgraves 
Hesse on the Schlossberg (now used as a 
jnitentiary), where the famous discussion on 
ransubstantiation between Luther and Zwingli 
>ok place, Oct. 1-3, 1529. The university of 

arburg was the first founded in Germany after 
reformation, by the landgrave Philip the 
[agnanimous (May 30, 1527) ; it was richly 
adowed from the proceeds of the confiscated 



MARCEAU 



149 




Marburg. 

property of the clergy, and attracted students 
from all parts of Protestant Europe. Although 
a rival university was established in Giessen 
in 1607, it continued to flourish until the out- 
break of the thirty years' war. From 1625 to 
1650 the Giessen university was united with 
that of Marburg, but they have .since been 
again separated, the former being now the na- 
tional university of Hesse-Darmstadt. In the 
first part of the 18th century Marburg derived 
great celebrity from the philosopher Christian 
von Wolf, who was one of the professors. In 
the winter of 1873-'4 the university was at- 
tended by 433 students, mostly medical. It 
contains a library of about 130,000 volumes, 
an anatomical theatre, an observatory, an admi- 
rable chemical laboratory, a botanic garden, a 
lying-in asylum, a clinique, a school for veteri- 
nary surgeons, a zoological museum, a philo- 
logical seminary, and one for political sciences. 
Marburg possesses also a gymnasium and other 



educational institutions, a society for natural 
history, and a Bible society. The chief man- 
ufacture is pottery. The town was several 
times besieged during the seven years' war. 
In 1806 and 1809 it was the scene of risings 
of the Hessian peasantry against the French, 
who destroyed in 1810 and 1811 the greatest 
part of the fortifications of the castle. 
MARC' ANTONIO. See RAIMONDL 
MARCEAU, Francois Severin dcs Grayiers, a 
French soldier, born in Chartres, March 1, 1769, 
died at Altenkirchen, Rhenish Prussia, Sept. 
23, 1796. His father, a lawyer, intended him 
for the legal profession ; but he enlisted in 1785, 
and was sergeant in 1789, when he was prom- 
inent in the. taking of the Bastile. In 1792 
he was assigned to the army of the Ardennes, 
where as commander of volunteers he restored 
obedience to the commanding general Lafay- 
ette. Rapidly promoted for bravery, he was 
made general of division in 1793, and distin- 
guished himself with 
Kleber in the war of 
the Vendee, especially 
at the battle of Save- 
nay. His magnanim- 
ity in saving the life 
of Angelique de Mel- 
liers, a female royalist 
combatant, was mis- 
represented as an act 
of treason, but he was 
acquitted. In 1794 he 
mainly decided the vic- 
tory at Fleurus (June 
26), which placed Bel- 
gium at the mercy of 
France. The commit- 
tee of public safety 
called him "the lion 
of the army," and im- 
mediately placed him 
in charge of the right 
wing of the army of 
the Sambre and Oise, 

Jourdan being commander-in-chief, and Kle- 
ber at the head of a division. In October 
he achieved a brilliant success in capturing 
Coblentz, the great focus of the emigrant no- 
bles. In 1795 he took part in the siege of 
Ehrenbreitstein. "While commanding the rear 
guard on the right bank of the Rhine, he was 
driven to despair by the premature destruction 
of a pontoon on the Sieg, and would have com- 
mitted suicide if it had not been for the inter- 
vention of one of his aides-de-camp. Kle"ber 
arrived in time to rescue him from his perilous 
position. In 1796 he was placed at the head 
of the first division to cover the retreat of 
Pichegru from Mentz, and to protect the oper- 
ations of Jourdan, whom he enabled to effect 
a junction with KMber. At the end of July 
he took Konigstein, after having baffled an at- 
tempt of the enemy to -make a sortie from 
Mentz, which place he invested, and gained 
several other important successes. While occii- 



150 



MARCELLO 



pying the plain of Altenkirchen, awaiting the 
arrival of Jourdan, he undertook a reconnois- 
sance, Sept. 20. He was severely wounded by 
a ball, and was carried within the enemy's 
lines, where he died three days after. His ob- 
! \vi-re celebrated with great pomp, the 
Austrians firing minute guns in his honor. A 
pyramid erected near the spot where he fell 
was subsequently removed to the neighborhood 
of Ooblentz. In his native town monuments 
were erected in his honor ; and in September, 
1851, a bronze statue of him was placed in the 
principal square. See Kleber et Marceau, by 
Charles Desprez (Paris, 1857). 

MARCKLLO, Benedetto, an Italian composer, 
born in Venice, July 24, 1686, died in Brescia, 
July 17, 1739. His father was a Venetian sen- 
ator, and personally superintended his educa- 
tion. He studied music thoroughly, learning 
counterpoint under Gaspari, became an advo- 
cate, and held several important offices, being 
a member of the council of forty and treasu- 
rer at Brescia. His most esteemed work is his 
music for Giustiniani's version of 50 of the 
Psalms. The pieces were written for two, 
three, and four voices, with accompaniment 
for organ or clavichord, several having also 
obbligato for violoncello or two violas. John 
Garth of Durham published a fine edition of 
these psalms in eight folio volumes, with Eng- 
lish words. Marcello's other works consist 
of oratorios, masses, cantatas, madrigals, and 
different parts of the Roman Catholic service. 
He wrote also what he styled a " Drama for 
Music," and Calisto in Orsa, a pastoral with 
the use of scenery ; a variety of instrumental 
compositions, and two satirical madrigals. Be- 
sides these musical works, he left a treatise in 
manuscript on music, a poem upon the re- 
demption, and a collection of sonnets, verses, 
burlesque poems, and dramas. He is justly 
considered as one of the greatest of the Italian 
masters ; his style being noble and sustained, 
his invention poetic, and his thought and mu- 
sical forms full of originality. 

MARIELLIS, Marcos Clandlns, a Roman gene- 
ral, bora about 268 B. C., killed near Venu- 
pia, in Apulia, in 208. The family to which 
he 1" 'longed (a plebeian branch of the great 
Clau'lian gem) was of the highest distinction 
in Rome. Marcellus was early known as a 
bold and skilful soldier, serving in the first 
Punic war. His first office was that of curule 
ndilc. to which he was chosen about 226. 
Shortly afterward he was elected augur, and in 
222 he was made consul. While holding that 
office he brought the Gallic war to a success- 
ful termination, killing the leader of the Gauls 
with his own hands. Marcellus dedicated the 
spoils of the Gallic chief as spolia opima in the 
temple of Jupiter Feretrius, being the third 
and last instance of such dedication in Roman 
history. Hu was one of the prrotors in 216, 
when the second Punic war was at its height, 
and was about to sail for Sicily when the defeat 
of the Romans at Cann caused a change in his 



MARCH 

destination. Employed against Hannibal, he 
prevented the town of Nola from falling into 
his hands, and repulsed his forces, which was 
the first check received by the Carthaginian. 
He was summoned to Rome to take part in the 
consultations concerning the conduct of the 
war, and then sent back to Campania as pro- 
consul. Elected consul in 215, with another 
plebeian for colleague, he resigned the office 
rather than offend the senate, which was 
averse to the whole consular power being in 
plebeian hands. Returning to his proconsular 
position in Campania, he again baffled Hanni- 
bal at Nola, and inflicted great loss on his 
army. He was elected consul in 214, having 
Fabius Maximus for his colleague, and resumed 
his Campanian command, repulsing Hannibal 
at Nola for the third time. Casilinum having 
capitulated to Fabius, Marcellus massacred all 
the garrison but 50. He was then sent to Sici- 
ly, which he nearly conquered in three years. 
The siege of Syracuse, which he maintained for 
two years, and in which he was opposed by the 
science of Archimedes, who was killed during 
the sack of the town (212), was one of the 
most famous sieges of ancient warfare. Re- 
turning to Rorqe in 211, he was refused the 
honors of a triumph because he had not entirely 
subdued Sicily. His ovation was very brilliant, 
but the magnificence of his Sicilian spoils, com- 
prising rich works of art, gave much offence to 
the old Roman party. He was a fourth time 
consul in 210. Prevented from returning to 
Sicily by the opposition of the Sicilians, whom 
his cruelty and rapacity had alienated, he was 
placed at the head of the army which acted 
against Hannibal that year, and the next year 
retained the command of it as proconsul. The 
Romans complained of his want of vigor du- 
ring the latter part of his proconsulate, but he 
defended himself successfully, and was elected 
consul for the fifth time. Having appeased 
the Arretians, who threatened revolt, he again 
assumed command of the army in presence of 
Hannibal, his colleague being with him. While 
reconnoitring the Carthaginian camp, he fell 
into an ambuscade, and was slain. 

MARCELLUS, Nonius, an early Latin gramma- 
rian, in regard to whose personal history there 
is no authentic information, but who is known 
as the author of Nonii Marcelli Peripatetid 
Tuberticensis de Compendiosa Doctrina per 
Litteras ad Filium, first published in Rome 
about 1470. The first critical editions appeared 
in 1565 and 1586. Mercier's Paris edition of 
1614, with a new version of the text, was re- 
published in Leipsic in 1826. In 1842 ap- 
peared a superior edition by Gerlach and Roth, 
and in 1872 the best of all by the French gram- 
marian Louis Marie Quicherat. 

MARCH (Lat. Martins, pertaining to Mars), the 
third month of the year, consisting of 31 days. 
It was the first month in the early Roman cal- 
endar, and it also marked the commencement 
of the year among some of the Latin Christian 
nations till the 18th century. The English 




MARCH 

year began March 25 until the change of 
style in 1752. There is an old English and 
Scottish proverb : u March borrows three days 
of April, and they are ill." 

The first, it shall be wind and weet ; 
The next, it shall be snaw and sleet ; 
The third, it shall be sic a freeze, 
Sail gar the birds stick to the trees. 

ft is disputed whether these "borrowing days " 
fere the last three in March or the first three 
in April. Dr. Jamieson explains that when 
they were stormy March was said to borrow 
them from April that he might extend his 

>wer so much longer. 

MARCH, or Morawa, a river of Austria, which 

ses on the N. frontier of Moravia, near Al- 
It, and flows S. S. E., passing Olmtitz, Krem- 
sier, and Hradisch ; then turning S. S. W. it 
separates Hungary from Moravia and the arch- 
duchy of Austria, and flows into the Danube 
7 m. above Presburg. Its principal affluents 
are the Hanna, Miava, Beczwa, and Thaya. 
Its length is about 200 m., and it is navigable 
as far as Goding, 50 m., and improvements for 
extending navigation to Olmtitz are proposed. 
At its mouth it is 400 yards wide. Its position 
on the boundary of Hungary and proximity to 
Vienna have made it often of historical im- 
portance. The extensive plain between the low- 
er March and the Danube, called the Marchfeld, 
has been the scene of several great battles, in- 
cluding those of Aspern, Essling, and Wagram. 

MARCH, Charles W., an American author, born 
in Portsmouth, N. H., Dec. 15, 1815, died in 
Alexandria, Egypt, Jan. 24, 1864. He gradu- 
ated at Harvard college in 1837, studied law, 
practised in Portsmouth, and was a member of 
the state legislature. Removing to New York, 
he became a writer for the " Tribune " and 
the " Times," and correspondent of the Boston 
" Courier." He was for some time vice consul 
at Cairo. He published "Daniel Webster and 
his Contemporaries, or Reminiscences of Con- 
gress " (New York, 1850), and " Sketches and 
Adventures in Madeira, Portugal, and the An- 
dalusias of Spain " (1856). 

MARCH, Earl of. See MORTIMER, ROGER. 

MARCH, Francis Andrew, an American scholar, 
born at Millbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1825. He 
graduated at Amherst college in 1845, where 
he was tutor from 1847 to 1849. He studied 
law in New York, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1850. After teaching at Fredericksburg, 
Va., from 1852 to 1855, he was appointed tu- 
tor in Lafayette college, at Easton, Pa., in 
1856 adjunct professor, and in 1858 professor 
of the English language and comparative phi- 
lology. He received the degree of LL. D. from 
the college of New Jersey in 1870, and from 
Amherst college in 1871 ; and in 1873 he was 
elected president of the American philological 
association. He has contributed articles on 
philological subjects to the " Transactions " of 
that body and of the national educational asso- 
ciation, and to the Jahrbuch fur romanische 
und englische Literatur in Berlin ; and arti- 



MARCHESI 



151 



cles on jurisprudence and psychology, inclu- 
ding discussions of Sir William Hamilton's 
theory of perception and his philosophy of the 
conditioned, to the " Princeton Review " (1860 ; 
reprinted in England, 1861). He has published 
" A Method of Philological Study of the Eng- 
lish Language" (New York, 1865); "Parser 
and Analyzer for Beginners " (1869) ; " Anglo- 
Saxon Grammar" (1870) ; and "An Introduc- 
tion to Anglo-Saxon : Grammar, Reader," &c. 
(1871). He is now (1875) editing a series of 
text books for college use of the Greek and 
Latin Christian authors, of which " Latin 
Hymns " and " Eusebius " have appeared. 

MARCHE, La, or La Mart-he Limousine, an an- 
cient province of France, bounded N. by Berry 
and Bourbonnais, E. by Auvergne, S. by Li- 
mousin, and W. by Angoumois and Poitou. 
It now forms the department of Creuse, a 
considerable portion of Haute- Vienne, and 
fractions of several other departments. It 
was divided into Haute- and Basse-Marche, 
with Gu6ret as capital of the former and Bel- 
lac of the latter. Under the Romans it was 
part of Aquitania Prima. William III., duke 
of Aquitaine, converted La Marche into a 
county in the 10th century. In 1177 it was 
sold to England, but Hugh IX. de Lusignan, 
of a family several of whose members be- 
came kings of Jerusalem and Cyprus, gained 
possession of the county, and it belonged to 
that house until early in the 14th century, 
when the last descendant of this branch of the 
Lusignans ceded it to Philip the Fair, king of 
France. Subsequently it passed through va- 
rious hands. The most distinguished of the 
counts of La Marche was Bernard d'Armagnac 
(died in 1462) ; his son Jacques d'Armagnac 
was sentenced to death in 1477 by Louis XL, 
who confiscated the county for the benefit of 
his son-in-law Pierre de Bourbon; and after 
undergoing some more changes, it was perma- 
nently united to the crown toward the middle 
of the 16th century. 

MARCHES, The, a geographical division of 
the kingdom of Italy, embracing the provinces 
of Ancona, Ascoli Piceno, Macerata, and Pesa- 
ro ed Urbino; area, 3,746 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
915,419. The boundaries in general corre- 

Znd to those of the mediaeval inarches of 
sona and Fermo. 

MARCHESI, Pompeo, an Italian sculptor, born 
in 1790, died in Milan, Feb. 6, 1858. His 
earlier works were executed under the direc- 
tion of Canova, and he became professor in 
the academy of fine arts, ranking among the 
foremost of modern Italian sculptors. Among 
his principal works are statues of the Venus 
TJrania, of St. Ambrose, Charles Emanuel, 
Volta, Beccaria, Bellini, and of Goethe in the 
public library at Frankfort; of the emperor 
Francis, and of Philibert Amadeus of Savoy; 
a monument to Malibran ; and 12 busts in terra 
cotta of warriors, which he executed gratui- 
tously for the embellishment of the fort of 
Milan. His colossal marble group, the "Mater 



152 



MARCHISIO 



Dolorosa with the Dead Christ on her Lap," 
known as " The Good Mother," or " The Cele- 
bration of Good Friday," is considered to be 
liU ma-terpiriv; this was presented by the 
emperor Francis to the city of Milan, and 
in the church of San Carlo. 

M UM HMO. tarlotta, an Italian vocalist, born 
in Turin in 1835, died in 1872. She inherited 
the musical talents of several members of 
her family, and thoroughly studied harmony, 
counterpoint, and other departments of the art. 
Her magnificent soprano voice secured her 
success on her first performance in Venice in 
1858. Her surviving sister, BARBARA (born in 
1838), who has a fine contralto voice, appeared 
on the same occasion, and the two sisters per- 
formed together in Italy, France, and almost 
all nver Europe. Rossini composed for them 
his Petite mease, which they executed for the 
first time in 1865. They were much admired 
in Paris in Semiramis, and Barbara won great 
applause as Azucena in II trovatore. 

M ARC I0\. See GNOSTICS, vol. viii., pp. 53, 54. 

II VIUOMAVM (Ger., men of the marches or 
borders), an ancient German people of Suevic 
race. They appear to have originally dwelt in 
the regions of the Main and Neckar in S. W. 
Germany, whence they followed Ariovistus 
across the Rhine on his invasion of Gaul, and 
afterward their own chief Maroboduus into the 
land of the Boii, which embraced parts of mod- 
ern Bohemia and Bavaria. Having subdued 
that people, they established a powerful king- 
dom N. of the Danube, which soon became in- 
volved in wars with the Cherusci, and after- 
ward with the Romans. Their longest and 
bloodiest war was that waged in alliance with 
the Quadi, Hermunduri, Narisci, and other Ger- 
man tribes, against the emperor Marcus Aure- 
lius. The latter having died (180) in Vindo- 
bona (Vienna) on his last expedition against 
them, his son and successor Commodus has- 
tened to conclude by purchase a shameful 
peace with the barbarians. In the 3d and 4th 
centuries the Marcornanni made some new in- 
cursions into the Danubian provinces of the 
Unmans, but during the following great mi- 
gration of northern nations they finally disap- 
peared from history. 

MARCO POLO. See POLO. 

MARCOr, Jules, a French geologist, born at 
Salins, in the department of Jura, April 20, 
1824. He completed his studies at the col- 
16ge St. Louis in Paris, and published in 1846, 
in the memoirs of the geological society, his 
Recherche* geologiques ur le Jura salinois. 
In the same year he was attached to the min- 
eralogical department of the Sorbonne. In 

1847 he was employed in classifying the pa- 
Ifflontological collection at the museum, for 
\\liirh Institution he made geological inves- 
tigations in various parts of Europe, and from 

1848 to 1850 in the United States and Canada. 
In ls.v;-'4 lie explored the Rocky mountains, 
under the auspices of the American govern- 
ment ; and he continued his American explora- 



MARCY 

tions in 1860, after having in the interval filled 
the chair of palaontological geology at the poly- 
technic school in Zurich. His principal works 
are: "Geological Map of the United States" 
(English, 1853), followed in 1855 by a resume 
of the same, including Canada ; Le terrain car- 
bonifere dans VAmerique du Nord ; Sur le 
gisement de Vor en Calif ornie ; Lettres sur les 
rockers du Jura et leur distribution geogra- 
phique dans les deux hemispheres (1857-'60); 
"Geology of North America" (1858); Drias 
et trias, ou le nouveau gres rouge en Europe, 
dans VAmerique du Nord et dans Vlnde 
(1859) ; Carte geologique de la terre, according 
to the Jura strata (1862) ; and Derniers tra- 
vaux sur le drias et le trias en Russie (1870). 

MARCUS AURELIUS. See ANTONINUS. 

MARCY, William Learned, an American states- 
man, born at Southbridge, Mass., Dec. 12, 1786, 
died at Ballston Spa, N. Y., July 4, 1857. He 
was the son of a farmer, graduated at Brown 
university in 1808, and studied law in Troy, 
N. Y., where he was admitted to practice. 
When the war with England broke out in 1812, 
he was a lieutenant in a military company be- 
longing to Troy, and was stationed at French 
Mills, now Fort Covington. On the night of 
Oct. 22, 1812, he was sent with a detachment 
under command of Major Young to capture a 
party of Canadian militia posted at St. Regis. 
Lieut. Marcy led the attack, broke open the 
door of the blockhouse occupied by the Cana- 
dians, and when they surrendered received 
their arms. These were the first prisoners 
taken by the Americans on land, and their flag 
the first standard captured in the war. He re- 
mained in service till the close of hostilities. 
From 1816 to 1818 he was recorder of Troy. 
He then became editor of the Troy ''Budget," 
a daily newspaper, which he soon made a lead- 
ing organ of the democratic party. In January, 
1821, he was appointed adjutant general of the 
state militia; and in February, 1823, he was 
elected by the legislature comptroller of the 
state, when he removed to Albany. In 1829 
he was appointed an associate justice of the 
New York supreme court, which office he held 
till Feb. 1, 1831, when he was elected United 
States senator. During his term he was chair- 
man of the committee on the judiciary. In 
1832 he was elected governor of New York, 
and resigned his senatorship. He was re- 
elected in 1834, and again in 1836, but was de- 
feated by Mr. Seward in the election of 1838. 
He was appointed by President Van Buren one 
of the commissioners to decide upon the claims 
of the Mexican government under the conven- 
tion of April, 1839, and performed the duties 
of this office till 1842. In 1845 President Polk 
appointed him secretary of war, a post whose 
duties were made peculiarly difficult and re- 
sponsible by the breaking out of the war with 
Mexico in the spring of 1846. As a member 
of President Folk's cabinet his diplomatic pow- 
ers were exerted to advantage in the settlement 
of the Oregon boundary dispute with England, 




MARDIN 

id his abilities as a statesman were called into 
requisition upon many other questions. In 
March, 1853, he was appointed by President 
Pierce secretary of state, and in the latter part 
of that year he greatly distinguished himself 
at home and abroad by his correspondence with 
the Austrian government on the subject of 
the release of Martin Koszta by Capt. Ingraham 
of the United States navy. (See INGRAHAM, 
DUNCAN NATHANIEL.) Besides his Koszta let- 
ter, his state papers on Central American af- 
fairs, on the enlistment question, on the Danish 
Sound dues, and on many other topics of na- 
tional interest, exhibited his remarkable ability 
as a writer, statesman, and diplomatist. He 
retired from office on the inauguration of Mr. 
Buchanan, March 4, 1857, and just four months 
later died suddenly while lying on his bed read- 
ing. He left a reputation among his country- 
men of all parties as a statesman of the highest 
order of abilities. 

MABDIN, a town of Asiatic Turkey, in the 
vilayet of Diarbekir, 350 m. N. W. of Bag- 
dad; pop. about 12,000. It is situated on a 
rocky eminence, more than 2,000 ft. above the 
level of the sea. Near it is a Jacobite monas- 
tery, said to have a large library, containing 
works in 12 different languages. The town is 
the seat of a United Syrian and a Chaldean 
bishop, and of a flourishing Protestant mission. 
It has several mosques and churches, and man- 
ufactories of linen, cotton, and leather. 

MARDOMCS. See GEEECE, vol. viii., pp. 
189, 190. 

MAREtfME (sing, maremma, a salt marsh), 
tracts of marshy country in some parts of mid- 
dle Italy, on the Mediterranean coasts, especial- 
ly from the mouth of the Cecina to Orbetello, 
which are extremely unhealthy from midsum- 
mer to the middle of autumn. During this pe- 
riod it is dangerous to spend even a single night 
in the Maremma ; those who do so are almost 
surely attacked by fever. There is nothing 
apparent in the air, either to sight or smell, to 
account for this insalubrity ; on the contrary, 
the atmosphere seems to be remarkably clear 
and pure. The malaria does not proceed from 
the water of the marshes, for it is equally vir- 
ulent on dry elevations, and has been attrib- 
uted to unhealthy exhalations of sulphur and 
alum in the soil. In ancient times the Cam- 
pagna di Roma, which is now almost deserted 
in consequence of the malaria, was cultivated 
like a garden, and was the seat of a dense pop- 
ulation. The city of Rome itself has been in- 
vaded by the mephitic air, and the malarious 
fever prevails in some of the streets. The 
Maremme, in different basins, occupy altogether 
an area of nearly 1,000 sq. m. Of late years 
efforts, which to some extent have been success- 
ful, have been made to redeem the marshes by 
drainage, banking in the lakes, planting trees, 
and bringing the ground into tillage. 

MARENCO, Carlo, an Italian dramatist, born 
at Cassolo, Piedmont, May 1, 1800, died in Sa- 
vona, Sept. 20, 1843. He took his degree in 



MARENZIO 



153 



jurisprudence at Turin in 1818, but became 
famous in 1828 by his drama, Bondelmonte. 
His Famiglia Foscari is especially admired. 
He spent most of his life at Ceva, excepting 
shortly before his death, when the government 
appointed him to a public office at Savona. 
His posthumous Tragedie inedite, edited by G. 
Prati (Florence, 1856), contain several poems. 

MARE1VGO, a W. county of Alabama, bounded 
W. by the Toinbigbee river, which unites with 
the Black Warrior on the N. W. ; area, 975 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 26,151, of whom 20,058 
were colored. It has a nearly level surface ; 
the soil is very fertile, and a tract known as 
the " Canebrake " is among the most produc- 
tive cotton land in the south. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 598,938 bushels of In- 
dian corn, 38,691 of sweet potatoes, 164,931 Ibs. 
of butter, and 23,614 bales of cotton. There 
were 1,377 horses, 3,629 mules and asses, 4,116 
milch cows, 8,315 other cattle, 1,763 sheep, 
and 16,531 swine. Capital, Linden. 

MAREAGO, a village of Piedmont, Italy, on 
the river Bormida, 2 m. S. E. of Alessandria, 
situated on an extensive plain of the same 
name, where a victory was gained by Bona- 
parte over the Austrian general Melas, June 14, 
1800. Bonaparte, having crossed the Great 
St. Bernard in the latter part of May and over- 
run a large portion of Lombardy, entered the 
plain of Marengo with the object of prevent- 
ing Melas, who had concentrated his forces at 
Alessandria, from escaping him by a march 
southward to Genoa. On the morning of 
June 14 the village of Marengo was occupied 
by two French divisions under Victor. Melas 
attacked them with 31,000 men and 200 can- 
non, and at 11 o'clock, when Bonaparte ar- 
rived, Victor's divisions with Lannes's corps 
were in full retreat. The fugitives, reanimated 
by the presence of Bonaparte, rallied and kept 
the Austrians in check. At 4 P. M. Desaix's 
corps, which was on the road to Novi, and had 
been hurriedly recalled, arrived on the field and 
took position on the left, while Victor and 
Lannes reformed on the right, with Marmont's 
masked battery in the rear. Thus reenforced, 
Bonaparte turned the tide and completely over- 
whelmed the Austrians, the younger Keller- 
mann's cavalry charge deciding the day. The 
Austrians lost 7,000 killed and wounded, 3,000 
prisoners, 20 pieces of artillery, and 8 stand- 
ards. The French, who brought about 28,000 
men into the field, lost about 7,000 in killed 
(including Desaix) and wounded and 1,000 pris- 
oners. An armistice followed, by the terms 
of which the Austrians were allowed to retire 
beyond the Mincio on condition of giving up all 
their fortified places in Italy west of that river. 

MARENZIO, Lut-a, an Italian composer, born 
near Brescia about 1550, died Aug. 22, 1599. 
His parents were poor, and he received instruc- 
tion from the parish priest and the chapel- 
master at Brescia. His first collection of mad- 
rigals brought him into notice, and he was en- 
gaged in the service of the king of Poland. 



154 



MAREOTIS 



The climate of the north being too severe for 
him, he returned to Italy and entered the ser- 
vice of Cardinal d'Este, and later of Cardinal 
Aldobrandini as chapelmaster. In 1595 he 
was admitted to the college of precentors of 
the pontifical chapel. He is considered as one 
of the greatest composers of the 16th century, 
and was surnamed il piu dolce cigno, "the 
sweet swan," and " the divine composer." He 
gave himself almost wholly to the composition 
of madrigals for four, five, and six voices ; but 
in these, of which he wrote a great number, 
he displayed an invention, grace, and skill that 
won for him universal admiration. 

M1KEOTIS (Arab. Birket el-Maryoot\ a lake 
in Lower Egypt, S. E. of Alexandria, whose 
southern walls it once washed ; length nearly 40 
m., breadth 15 m., depth from 4 to 14 ft. It is 
separated from the Mediterranean on the west 
by the narrow neck of land on which Alexan- 
dria is situated. In former times its connec- 
tion by canal with the Rosetta branch of the 
Nile, and with the sea at Port Eunostu, the 
old harbor of Alexandria, made it available for 
inland navigation, and its shores were covered 
with vineyards and gardens. With the decay 
of Alexandria the canal was neglected, and the 
lake, ceasing to receive the Nile waters, grad- 
ually dried up. In 1801 the British, then be- 
sieging the French in Alexandria, cut the nar- 
row isthmus separating the lakes of Mareotis 
and Aboukir, and the sea water flowing in filled 
the bed of the lake. Mehemet Ali reestablished 
the isthmus by filling up the channel cut by the 
British, and restored the canal connecting with 
the Rosetta branch of the Nile at Fua. 

MARESCII, J. A., a Russian horn player, born 
in Bohemia in 1709, died in St. Petersburg in 
1794. In 1744 he entered the Russian impe- 
rial service, where his talent was noticed by 
Prince Narishkin, under whose direction he 
set about the improvement of the Russian 
horns. The instruments of this class then in 
use were very inferior in construction, giving 
but one tone. He made 37 of these, giving 
nil the tones and semi-tones comprised within 
three octaves. The horn producing the lowest 
tone was 7 ft. in length, that producing the 
highest, one foot. He distributed these 37 
horns to as many men, and by severe drilling 
enabled them to execute the most difficult and 
rapid passages. Each performer waited for 
the proper instant for him to sound his par- 
tiMilar note with the necessary degree of force. 
The first trial of this singular music was made 
in 1755 in presence of the imperial court at 
Ismailov, near Moscow. Maresch was munifi- 
r.-ntly recompensed for the astonishing results 
which he obtained. 

M.IRET, Ilenrl Lonls Charles, a French theolo- 
gian, born at Meyrueis, Lozere, April 20, 1805. 
He was nnlainrd in 1830, appointed to a charge 
in Paris in 1*:;-J. :m <l i n 1839 published Essai 
fir le j>antl,;i*me dans Its societea modernea, 
which brought him prominently before the 
public. In 1840 he was appointed professor 



MAREZOLL 

of dogmatic theology in the Sorbonne, and 
honorary canon of Notre Dame. In 1844 he 
published the result of his lectures at the Sor- 
bonne under the title of Theodicee chretienne, 
which was a parallel between the Christian 
and the rationalistic notion of God. In 1849 
he was appointed vicar general of Paris, and in 
1853 dean of the faculty of theology. His Phi- 
losophic et religion (1856) has been translated 
into several languages. He was in I860 nomi- 
nated by the government bishop of Vannes, 
but on account of his Gallican opinions he was 
not confirmed by the pope; and in 1861 he 
was consecrated bishop of Sura in partibus 
infidelium, and appointed by the emperor a 
member of the imperial chapter of St. Denis. 
In 1869, before the opening of the Vatican 
council, he published Du concile general et de 
lapaix religieuse (2 vols. 8vo), which was trans- 
lated into German and Italian. This work was 
assailed by the Univers, as well as by Arch- 
bishop Manning, to whose arguments Bishop 
Maret replied in Le pape et les eveques. At 
the council he voted with the opposition ; but 
in September, 1871, he wrote to the pope to 
express his acceptance of the decree of infalli- 
bility, and his regret for everything which he 
had written against it. His other principal 
works are : ISEglise et la societe lalque (1845), 
and L'Anti-christianisme (1864). When La- 
cordaire in 1848 founded IS Ere Nouvelle, he 
placed it under the direction of M. Maret. 

MARET, Hngnes Bernard. See BASSANO. 

MAREY, Etienne Jnles, a French physiologist, 
born in Beaune in 1830. He took his medical 
degree in Paris in 1860, subsequently lectured 
on the circulation of the blood, and in 1867 suc- 
ceeded Flourens as adjunct professor of natural 
history at the college de France. His princi- 
pal works are : Tableau sommaire des appareil* 
et experiences cardiographiques de MM. Chau- 
veau et Marey (Paris, 1863), and Du mouve- 
ment dans les fonctions de la vie (1867). His 
experimental researches on the movements of 
animals are also of great originality and ex- 
cellence. His latest book is La machine ani- 
male : Locomotion terrestre et aerienne (Paris, 
1873), of which the English translation (" Ani- 
mal Mechanism, a Treatise on Terrestrial and 
Aerial Locomotion," New York, 1874) forms 
vol. xi. of the "International Scientific Series." 

MAREZOLL, Gostav Ludwig Theodor, a German 
jurist, born in Gottingen, Feb. 13, 1794, died in 
Leipsic, Feb. 25, 1873. He was a son of Johann 
Gottlob Marezoll (1761-1828), an eloquent Prot- 
estant clergyman, whose writings, especially 
his Andachtsbuch fur das weibliche Geschlfcht' 
(2 vols., Leipsic, 1788-'9), had many editions 
and translations. He studied in Jena and Got- 
tingen, where he took his degree in 1815 ; and 
was professor at Giessen from 1817 to 1837, 
and subsequently at Leipsic till 1864, when he 
retired. His principal works are: Lehrbnch 
der Institutionen des romischen Rechts (Leipsic, 
1839 ; 9th ed., 1869), and Das gemeine deutsche 
Criminalrecht (1841 ; 3d ed., 1856). 




MARGARET 



155 



MARGARET, titular queen of Navarre, or MAR- 
GARET OF ANGOULEME, born in Angouleme, 
April 11, 1492, died at the chateau of Odos, in 
Bigorre, Dec. 21, 1549. She was the daughter 
and eldest child of Charles of Orleans, count 
of Angouleme, and of Louise of Savoy. Her 
father died when she was in her 12th year, 
and she was educated by her mother at the 
court of Louis XII. She was married in 1509 
to Charles, duke of Alencon, a prince of the 
blood royal, and the five years immediately 
following were passed in the duchy of Alen- 
con ; but on the accession of her brother to the 
throne of France as Francis I. (1515), she be- 
came attached to his court, and had a large 
part in the government. She was superior to 
her brother in ability, spoke several languages 
fluently, a,nd her learning and wit made her 
the fit companion of the statesmen of those 
times. After the defeat and capture of her 
brother at Pavia, in February, 1525, Margaret 
aided her mother to carry on the government 
for some months ; but in August she went to 
Madrid, where Francis was then a prisoner. 
During this visit she was efficient in negotia- 
ting the treaty of January, 1526, which even- 
tually led in 1530 to the marriage between 
Francis and Eleanor, sister of the emperor, 
and queen dowager of Portugal. The duke 
of Alencon, her husband, died in 1525, and 
in January, 1527, she became the wife of 
Henri d'Albret, count of Be"arn and titular 
king of Navarre, whose kingdom was held 
by Spain. Francis, besides bestowing a lib- 
eral portion on Margaret, pledged himself to 
effect the restoration of her husband to the 
throne of Navarre, for which Margaret, as her 
correspondence shows, was anxious; but cir- 
cumstances baffled his purpose. In 1529 she 
and her husband retired to the principality of 
Beam, where they labored with success for 
the improvement of the country. Margaret 
also paid much attention* to the government 
of her duchy of Alencon. She sympathized 
with the reformers, several of whose leaders, 
and especially Calvin, were protected by her 
in Beam against their persecutors. How far 
she favored the new doctrines is unknown, 
and it has been asserted by adherents of the 
old faith that she admitted, some time before 
her death, that she had been in error, and 
when dying declared that what she had done 
for the reformers was more from compassion 
for them than from ill will to Rome. It is 
certain, however, that the zealous Catholics 
regarded her as a heretic, and that one of her 
works, Le miroir de Tame pecheresse (1533), 
contains Protestant doctrines. The Sorbonne 
censured it, and it was denounced in other 
ways. Francis was told that if he wished to 
destroy the heretics, he must begin with the 
queen his sister; but he never would allow 
her to be injured, and punished some of those 
by whom she had been insulted, or who had 
sought to poison his mind against her. Mar- 
garet was a voluminous, writer in verse and 



prose, and one of her works, the Heptameron, 
is an old French classic. It was published in 
Paris in 1559 (best ed., 1863), and has been 
translated into English by W. K. Kelly (Lon- 
don, 1855). It is written in imitation of the 
Decamerone of Boccaccio, but was left incom- 
plete at her death, as it contains but 72 tales, 
instead of 100 as originally intended. It is so 
far an original work, that most of the adven- 
tures described befell some of the author's 
contemporaries. She wrote many poems, 
dramas, poetical epistles, rondeaux, and the 
like, several of which have been printed, while 
others remain in manuscript. Her letters to 
her brother Francis were published in Paris, 
from the originals, in 1842. 4 On the death of 
Francis I. (1547) Margaret", who was much 
afflicted by his loss, became devout, passed 
most of her time in seclusion, and solaced her 
mind with religious thoughts and literary pur- 
suits. Her daughter, Jeanne d'Albret, who 
married Antoine de Bourbon, became the 
mother of Henry of Navarre, afterward Henry 
IV. of France, and founder of the royalty of 
the house of Bourbon. The best life of Mar- 
garet of Navarre is that by Martha Walker 
Freer (2 vols., London, 1854). 

MARGARET, queen and patron saint of Scot- 
land, born in Hungary in 1046, died in Edin- 
burgh, Nov. 17, 1093. She was the niece of 
Edward the Confessor, and daughter of Ed- 
ward, son of Edmund Ironside, and of Agatha, 
daughter of the emperor Henry III. With her 
brother Edgar Atheling and her sister Chris- 
tina she was reared at the court of Hungary till 
1056, when she returned to England. She fled 
to Scotland in 1070 with Edgar, and was re- 
ceived at Dunfermline by King Malcolm Can- 
more, whose wife she became soon afterward. 
Margaret was gentle, pious, learned, and ac- 
complished, and anxious to introduce among 
the people of Scotland a higher civilization. 
She enlightened her husband's mind and 
soothed his fierce spirit ; invited the Scottish 
clergy and monks to a council, in which she 
prevailed on them to adopt the Roman man- 
ner of celebrating Easter ; and put into prac- 
tice several wise regulations for the instruc- 
tion of their flocks. She also prevailed on the 
king to encourage commercial intercourse with 
other countries. She regulated the royal house- 
hold, introducing the ceremonial of European 
courts. She was lavish in her charities to the 
poor, and founded a number of churches, work- 
ing with her own hands for their embellish- 
ment. She bestowed her chief care on the 
education of her nine children, especially her 
six sons ; the youngest, David I., was called by 
Buchanan "the perfect exemplar of a good 
king," and his sister, Queen Matilda or Maud, 
who founded London bridge, inherited all their 
mother's virtues. King Malcolm and Edward, 
his eldest son, having been slain before the 
walls of Alnwick, Nov. 13, 1093, the news of 
their death so affected the queen that she 
died four days afterward (though according to 



156 



MARGAKET OF ANJOU 



some she lingered till June 10, 1094). She 
was canonized in 1251 by Innocent IV. ; and 
Clement X. in 1G73 made her the patron saint 
of Scotland. Her feast is celebrated on Juno 
10. St. Margaret's chapel, built in her honor 
by H.ivid L, is still visited in the castle of 
Edinburgh. It was restored in 1853, and in 
the chancel are three stained-glass windows 
with portraits of the saint, Malcolm Canmore, 
and David I. The life of St. Margaret was 
\\ ritt.-n in Latin by her chaplain and confessor, 
Theodoric or Thierry, a monk of Durham ; in 
French by Lefebvre"(Douai, 1660); and by the 
Bollandists in Acta Sanctorum." St. Marga- 
ret's cup " or " draught " was a custom intro- 
duced by her into the Scottish court for the 
purpose of repressing drunkenness, and con- 
sisted in her filling with her own hand a cup 
of choice wine, of which all partook, with the 
promise to drink no more. After this grace 
was said. This custom became general in 
Great Britain, Flanders, and Germany, several 
popes attaching an indulgence to the "grace 
cup " on condition that it should be the last 
for that day. This was especially observed by 
guilds and brotherhoods at their yearly ban- 
quets, and many of these indulgenced cups, 
called "mazers," are still preserved. 

MARGARET OF AXJOC, queen of England, 
daughter of Ren6, duke of Lorraine and count 
of Provence, and titular king of Sicily and 
Jerusalem, and of Isabella of Lorraine, born 
at Pont-a-Mousson, March 23, 1429, died at 
the chateau of Dampierre, Aug. 25, 1481. Her 
childhood was passed, amid the troubles that 
befell her family, in Italy, France, and Lor- 
raine. Her hand was sought by the count de 
St. Pol and by the count de Nevers. Report 
of her beauty having reached Henry VI. of 
England, from a gentleman of Anjou, who 
acted under the inspiration of Cardinal Beau- 
fort, her portrait was obtained for his inspec- 
tion. This decided the king's action, and com- 
missioners were appointed to negotiate a truce 
with France and Burgundy. Charles VII. fa- 
vored the marriage, with the view of making 
it the basis of peace. Not only was no dowry 
asked with Margaret, but England ceded An- 
iou and Maine to Ren6, who claimed them as 
his hereditary dominions. The war party in 
England, headed by the duke of Gloucester, 
opposed both the peace and the marriage, but 
the Beaufort party proved victorious; and 
Suffolk, who was elevated to a marquisate, 
married Margaret as Henry's proxy at Nancy 
in November, 1444. Margaret did not reach 
England until the next April, when her mar- 
riage took place in Titchfield abbey. In 1447 
occurred the death of the duke of Gloucester, 
of which she has been accused by some histo- 
rian-. She soon became unpopular, and the 
English connected the loss of their French 
possessions with her marriage. The York 
family. t:ikinir advantage of the weakness of 
the king, aimed to obtain the crown, which 
belonged to their chief by the law of descent. 



Margaret's only child, Edward, born Oct. 13, 
1453, was said by her enemies to be either 
the offspring of adultery or a supposititious 
child. Prince Edward was born while his 
father was suffering from one of his fits of 
imbecility, and when the queen was at the 
head of the government. The duke of York 
was made protector, but on the restoration of 
the king's health he was dismissed, where- 
upon he asserted his right by an appeal to 
arms, and the Yorkists won the first battle of 
St. Albans, which restored them to power. 
Parliament censured the queen and her friends, 
but in 1456 Henry assumed his rights, and the 
government was virtually in Margaret's hands. 
Personal ill feeling between the queen and the 
earl of Warwick, the most powerful of the 
Yorkist leaders, caused a renewal of the war, 
and the Lancastrians were at first victorious ; 
but the Yorkists rallied, defeated their foes, 
and obtained possession of the person of the 
king, who recognized York as his successor. 
Margaret fled with her son, first to Wales, and 
thence to Scotland. Receiving assistance from 
the Scotch, she returned to England, and was 
joined by her supporters in the northern coun- 
ties. York advanced to oppose her, and was 
defeated and slain at Wakefield. Marching to 
London, she defeated Warwick in the second 
battle of St. Albans, and released her husband. 
The Londoners would not admit her into their 
city, but recognized York's eldest son as king, 
by the title of Edward IV. She retreated 
north, and was followed by Edward. After 
the fatal battle of Towton, March 29, 1461, 
Margaret fled to Scotland with her husband 
and son. Thence she went to France, in the 
hope of obtaining aid from Louis XL, in which 
she met with little success. Pierre de Brez6, 
seneschal of Normandy, armed in her support, 
and by his aid she landed in England, but ac- 
complished nothing, and returned to Scotland, 
There she raised forces and invaded England, 
and at first obtained some successes, but was 
defeated in the battle of Hexham, in 1464. 
She returned again to Scotland, and afterward 
went to Flanders. After remaining some time 
at Bruges, she took up her residence in her 
father's dominions, where she superintended 
her son's education, aided by Sir John Fortes- 
cue. She visited the French court, at Tours, 
in 1469 ; and it was under the mediation of 
Louis XL that a reconciliation between her 
and the earl of Warwick was effected in 1470 T 
the earl having broken with Edward IV. and 
fled from England. The earl's youngest daugh- 
ter, Anne Neville, was betrothed to the queen's 
son, Edward of Lancaster. Warwick returned 
to England and marche.d to London ; the Lan- 
castrians were for the time triumphant ; Ed- 
ward IV. fled to the continent, and Henry VI. 
regained the throne. Margaret prepared to re- 
turn to England, but contrary winds delayed her 
purpose, and it was not till April 14, 1471, that 
she landed at Weymouth, accompanied by her 
son. Warwick, however, had been defeated 



MAEGAKET OF AUSTRIA 



MARGARET OF PARMA 157 



and slain on the same day in the battle of Bar- 
net, and the queen took sanctuary in Beaulieu 
abbey. Some of the Lancastrian leaders, who 
a strong force, induced her to join them ; 
id while seeking to effect a junction with their 
"iends in Wales, they were assailed and de- 
feated at Tewkesbury, May 4, 1471, by Edward 
IV. Margaret fell into the hands of the vic- 
tor, her son having previously been slain. Her 
husband was put to death a few weeks later. 
~"ie was imprisoned in the tower, and afterward 
Windsor and at Wallingford, till Nov. 3, 
L475, when she was ransomed by Louis XL, 
rho paid 50,000 crowns for her liberty, her 
ither having ceded Provence to him for the 
irpose. She formally renounced all the rights 
?r English marriage had given her, and resided 
deep seclusion at Reculee, near Angers, one 
of the possessions of her father, seldom leaving 
lat retreat. Her last days were passed in the 
chateau of Dampierre, to the lord of which 
father at his death had consigned her. See 
; Life and Times of Margaret of Anjou," by 
Mary Ann Hookham (2 vols., London, 1872). 

MARGARET OF AUSTRIA, daughter of Maxi- 
milian L, emperor of Germany, and of Mary of 
Burgundy, born in the Low Countries, Jan. 10, 
1480, died there, Dec. 1, 1530. Before she was 
three years old she was, by the treaty of Arras, 
concluded between her father and Louis XI. 
of France, affianced to the dauphin, with a 
large territorial dowry. To prepare her for 
her future station, she was educated at the 
French court; but Charles VIII. broke the 
contract, and returned her to her father, in 
order that he might wed Anne of Brittany, 
whom Maximilian himself was seeking in mar- 
riage. This gross insult, which happened in 
1491, was never forgiven by the house of Aus- 
tria. In 1495 a treaty of alliance was made 
between Maximilian and Ferdinand and Isa- 
slla, one of the terms of which was that 
Fohn, prince of the Asturias, and heir appa- 
3nt of the Spanish sovereigns, should marry 
[argaret. Sailing for Spain in winter, the 
r eather was so stormy that many of the ves- 
1s composing the fleet were wrecked, and 
that which bore the princess was in great dan- 
3r of being lost ; but she was so cool that she 
r rote her own epitaph : 

" Ci gist Margot, la gentil' damoiselle 
Qu'a deux maris, et encore est pucelle." 

iding in Spain in March, 1497, Margaret 
r as married to Prince John on April 3. Their 
don was of brief endurance, as John died of 
3ver on Oct. 4. In a few months Margaret 
ive birth to a still-born child, and in 1499 she 
turned to the Netherlands. In 1501 she mar- 
ied Philibert the Fair, duke of Savoy, who 
ied without issue in 1504. On the death of 
brother Philip in 1506, she was made re- 
it of the Netherlands by her father, and su- 
>erintendent of the education of her nephew, 
;he future emperor Charles V., and his sis- 
ter Mary. She was an able ruler, and was con- 



cerned in some of the principal negotiations 
of that time, proving herself a vindictive ene- 
my of France, and a zealous servant of the 
house of Austria. In connection with Louise 
of Savoy, mother of the king of France, she 
negotiated the treaty of Cambray, in 1529, be- 
tween Francis I. and Charles V., which was 
called the "ladies' peace," the terms of which 
were most humiliating to the French. Through- 
out her life she showed a fondness for literary 
pursuits, and wrote well in prose and verse. 

MARGARET OF DENMARK, called the Semi- 
ramis of the North, queen of the united king- 
doms of Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, born 
in Copenhagen in 1353, died in Flensburg, Oct. 
28, 1412. She was the third daughter of Wal- 
demar III., king of Denmark, and at the age 
of 10 was married to Haco, king of Norway. 
Upon the death in 1387 of Olaf, the offspring 
of this marriage, and the king of Denmark and 
Norway, she procured her election as queen of 
the former kingdom, and by skilful manage- 
ment soon after secured the crown of Norway. 
In 1388 the Swedes, who were oppressed by 
their king Albert, having offered her the throne 
of that kingdom, she defeated Albert, who 
after seven years' imprisonment was released 
on condition of formally resigning his crown. 
Thenceforth she reigned with absolute author- 
ity. When urged to secure an heir to her 
thrones by another marriage, she promised to 
designate a successor, and at the assembly of 
the estates of the three kingdoms at Calmar, 
in 1397, presented to the deputies her grand- 
nephew Eric as her appointed heir. On this 
occasion, by her eloquence and address, she 
procured the adoption of a fundamental law, 
called the " Union of Calmar," establishing a 
perpetual union of the three kingdoms. Eric 
was at the same time associated with her in 
the government. Although holding extreme 
opinions on the royal prerogative, Margaret 
was in the main a just, magnanimous, and suc- 
cessful sovereign. 

MARGARET OF PARMA, regent of the Nether- 
lands under Philip II. of Spain, born in Brus- 
sels in 1522, died at Ortona, Italy, in 1586. 
She was the natural daughter of Charles V. by 
Margaret van der Geenst, a lady of a noble 
Flemish family in Oudenarde, and received an 
education suited to her rank in the household 
of Mary, queen dowager of Hungary. In 1536 
she became the wife of Alessandro de' Medici, 
duke of Florence, a man of profligate habits, 
and her senior by about 12 years. Within 
a year of the marriage Alessandro was assas- 
sinated by his kinsman, Lorenzino de' Medi- 
ci, and the young widow, upon reaching the 
age of 20, was united to Ottavio Farnese, 
then 13 years old, receiving as her dowry the 
duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Toward Far- 
nese she entertained feelings of contempt. 
Her birth, her masculine bearing, her un- 
doubted capacity and training in the astute 
school of Italian politics, and above all her 
orthodoxy in matters of religion, suggested 



158 MARGARET OF VALOIS 

her to Philip, when about to take his depar- 
ture from tne Netherlands in 1559, as a suit- 
able person to fill the office of regent of 
those provinces. Her administration, which 
lasted eight years, and witnessed the opening 
scenes in the great revolt of the Netherlands, 
was mild and beneficent in comparison with 
those which followed. She left the Nether- 
lands Dec. 30, 1567, was amply pensioned by 
Philip, and passed the remainder of her life 
chiefly in I tidy. Her tastes, including her love 
for the chase, were masculine ; and in person- 
al appearance "she seemed," in the language 
of a contemporary historian, "like a man in 
petticoats," the illusion being heightened by a 
somewhat hairy chin and upper lip. She died 
of gout. Alexander Farnese, the great com- 
mander, was her son. 

MARGARET OF VALOIS, queen of France, born 
at St. Germain, May 14, 1553, died in Paris, 
March 27, 1615. She was the daughter of 
Henry II. and of Catharine de' Medici, and 
was famous for beauty, talents, and profli- 
gacy. The third duke of Guise, Henri de 
Lorraine, would have married her, although 
aware of her vices ; but she desired a crown, 
and agreed to become the wife of Sebastian 
of Portugal, a union which was prevented by 
the influence of Spain. In August, 1572, she 
was married to the king of Navarre, after- 
ward Henry IV. of France. Her mother, 
just before the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 
sought her consent to have her marriage with 
a heretic annulled, but this Margaret refused. 
There was no attachment between her and her 
husband, and she hated his religion. A short 
time after he left Paris in 1576 she was per- 
mitted to join him in B6arn, where she re- 
mained five years, tolerating his infidelities, 
though he would not tolerate her religion. In 
1581, on the invitation of her mother, she re- 
turned to the French court. There the prof- 
ligacy of her life drew upon her the condem- 
nation of her brother, Henry III., who com- 
pelled her to return to her husband, by whom 
she was received with bitter reproaches. She 
fled from him, and took up her residence at 
Agen, whence she made war on him as a here- 
tic. That place being taken in 1585, she vain- 
ly sought another asylum, and was seized and 
imprisoned in the fortress of Usson ; but her 
arts made her mistress of the place, from 
which she drove the governor, and held it for 
2d years. She became queen of France in 
1589, on the death of Henry III. ; but her hus- 
band, even after his triumph in 1594, refused 
to restore her to freedom until she should 
renounce her rank, to which she would not 
consent until after the death of his mistress, 
Gabrielle d'Estrees. They were divorced in 
1599, but she did not recover her liberty un- 
til some years later. She visited the court 
in 1605, where she did homage to her suc- 
cessor, Maria de' Medici. The remaining 10 
years of her life were passed in Paris or its 
vicinity. Almost to her last days she led a 



MARHEINEKE 

vicious life ; but at length she fell into hypo- 
chondria, and was terrified at the approach 
of death. She founded the convent of the 
Petits Augustins in Paris, and instructed the 
children of the choir in music. Her Memoires 
(latest ed., Paris, 1860), written by herself, are 
valuable because of the details they contain of 
the last days of the line of Valois. 

MARGARINE, and Margarie Add. When olive 
oil is cooled down to 32 F. and submitted to 
pressure, a solid residuum is obtained, which, 
when more completely separated from the oily 
portion after melting and slowly cooling to the 
temperature of 55 or 60 by a second pressing, 
is the substance formerly called margarine. It 
dissolves in about 400 times its weight of boil- 
ing alcohol, and separates in pearly scales as 
the alcohol cools ; whence its name, from Gr. 
[Mapyapirw, a pearl. It is also obtained from 
human fat, goose grease, and other fatty sub- 
stances. When saponified it yields an acid in 
the form of white pearly scales or fine needles, 
called margaric acid. This, according to Heintz, 
is a compound of stearic and palmitic acids, 
into which it may be separated. The term 
margaric acid is now restricted to an artificially 
prepared fatty acid having the definite com- 
position CnH 8 4Oa. This acid is produced by 
the action of potash on cyanide of cetyle (mar- 
garonitrite). The margarine or margaric acid 
described by Chevreul in 1820 has been shown 
to be a compound of stearic acid and other 
fatty acids of lower melting point. 

MARGARITA, Island of. See NUEVA SPARTA. 

MARGARITONE D'AREZZO, an Italian artist, 
born in Arezzo about 1236 (according to Wor- 
num; about 1215 according to others), died 
there at the age of 77. He attained great celeb- 
rity in Italy before the time of Cimabue. He 
executed many works in fresco and distemper 
in the churches and convents of Arezzo, in the 
Byzantine style, of which few remains are now 
to be seen. His " San Francesco," however, 
which Vasari calls one of his masterpieces, still 
exists, and bears his inscription. He was more 
celebrated as a sculptor than as a painter, and 
one of his chief works, a reclining statue of 
Pope Gregory X., is still preserved at Arezzo. 

MARGATE, a seaport town of Kent, England, 
on the isle of Thanet, 15 m. N. E. of Canter- 
bury, and 63 m. E. by S. of London ; pop. in 
1871, 12,054. The great source of prosperity 
is the visitors in summer, who occasionally 
number, it is said, 100,000. 

MARGAY. See OCELOT. 

MARGRAVE. See MARQUIS. 

MARHEINERE, Philipp Ronrad, a German 
theologian, born in Hildesheim, May 1, 1780, 
died in Berlin, May 31, 1846. He was educated 
at Gottingen, and in 1806 became professor 
extraordinary of theology at Erlangen ; in 
1809 ordinary professor at Heidelberg ; and in 
1811 ordinary professor at Berlin, and pastor 
of the church of the Trinity. The first edition 
of his G-rundlehren der chrisilichen Dogmatik, 
which was founded on the philosophy of Schel- 



MARIA CHRISTINA 



MARIA II. DA GLORIA 159 



ling, appeared in 1819. The second revised 
edition (Berlin, 1827) was adapted to the He- 
gelian philosophy. His most important his- 
torical work is the GescJiichte der deutschen 
Reformation (4 vols., Berlin, 1816-'34), which 
Bproduces many documentary records. In 
his Christliche Symbolik (3 vols., Heidelberg, 
1810-'14), and his Institutiones Symbolic^ (3d 
ed., 1830), he took a historical and comparative 
rather than dogmatic view of the principal 
hristian creeds. The practical results of his 
iim to demonstrate the unity and harmony of 
the Scriptures, the church, and the reason ap- 
pear in his Entwurf der praktischen Theologie 
(Berlin, 1837). He published several volumes 
of minor writings and sermons, was one of the 
editors of the works of Hegel, and was prom- 
lent in the controversies excited by the Sym- 
ililc of Mohler, and the mystical tendencies 
" Gorres, both of whom he opposed. 
MARIA CHRISTINA, former queen dowager of 
Spain, born in Naples, April 27, 1806. Her fa- 
ther was Francis I., king of the Two Sicilies, and 
her mother Maria Isabella, daughter of Charles 
IV. of Spain. She became the fourth wife of 
Ferdinand VII. of Spain, Dec. 11, 1829, to the 
consternation of the Carlists, whose hope that 
the childlessness of the king would secure to 
his brother Don Carlos the succession to the 
throne was prostrated by the restoration on 
March 29, 1830, of the law by which the crown 
was made heritable by the female line. Maria 
Christina gave birth to a daughter, afterward 
Isabella II., on Oct. 10, 1830. In October, 1832, 
Maria Christina, at the request of the king, 
took the reins of government into her own 
hands, and courted popularity by promulgating 
a general amnesty two weeks afterward. The 
king resumed the conduct of affairs in Decem- 
ber, but died Sept. 29, 1833. In his will he 
appointed Maria Christina regent and guar- 
dian of Isabella, and of a second daughter, 
Maria Louisa Fernanda, that she had borne to 
him in 1832, and who afterward became the 
wife of Antoine, duke of Montpensier, the 
youngest son of Louis Philippe. Maria Chris- 
tina assumed the regency Oct. 2, 1833. Hav- 
ing conceived a violent passion for Ferdinand 
Munoz, a private soldier in the royal body 
guard, whose parents had a tobacco shop at 
Tarancon, where he was born, she married him 
secretly, Dec. 28, 1833. Meanwhile she lost 
>und with the people, partly on account of 
ler subserviency to the moderado party and to 
"ranee, to which policy she was instigated by 
ministers Martinez de la Rosa and Toreno, 
it chiefly owing to her clandestine relations 
rith Mufioz. The new charter granted by her 
ras far from giving satisfaction to the prov- 
ices, which revolted. In the night of Aug. 
L3, 1836, a detachment of the provincial mili- 
led by exaltados, entered her palace of La 
rranja near Madrid, and after being joined by 
corps of the guards stationed in the palace, 
ley compelled the queen regent to dismiss her 
linisters and swear to the constitution of 
532 VOL. xi. 11 



1812 ; and a new constitution was promulgated 
in June, 1837. Her position, however, con- 
tinued precarious. The ministers, Zea Bermu- 
dez, Toreno, Martinez de la Rosa, and Isturiz, 
who were successively at the head of affairs, 
were unable to restore her popularity. This 
received the greatest blow from her decree, 
issued June 15, 1840, in obedience to French 
influence, which put an end to the old mu- 
nicipal liberties of Spain. The people rushed 
to arms, and she abdicated on Oct. 12 in favor 
of Espartero as regent, and repaired to Paris. 
After the downfall of Espartero, she returned 
to Madrid in 1844, and on Oct. 13 she cele- 
brated her marriage with Mufioz in public, on 
which occasion she created him duke of Rian- 
zares. Though Isabella had been declared of 
age, she continued to intermeddle in public 
affairs till 1854, when she was expelled from 
Spain by a new revolutionary movement. 
She retired with her husband and their ten 
children to France, where she had purchased 
the chateau of La Malmaison, which she sold 
to Napoleon III. in 1861. She then removed 
to Paris, though residing part of the time 
at Beaumont lodge, near Windsor, England, 
which she subsequently sold to the Jesuits to 
be used as a college. In September, 1864, she 
returned to Madrid, where she remained till 
she was driven out with Isabella by the revo- 
lution of September, 1868, when she went back 
to Paris, where she now resides. Her hus- 
band Mufioz died near Havre, Sept. 12, 1873. 

MARIA II. DA GLORIA, queen of Portugal, 
born in Rio Janeiro, April 4, 1819, died in Lis- 
bon, Nov. 15, 1853. Her mother, a daught'er of 
the emperor Francis I. of Austria, and her grand- 
father, John VI. of Portugal, both died in 1826, 
when her father succeeded as Pedro IV. ; but 
having been made emperor of Brazil in 1822 as 
Pedro I., he ceded the Portuguese throne to his 
infant daughter (May 2, 1826), whom he wished 
to marry his brother Dom Miguel. But the 
latter, having succeeded (Feb. 26, 1828) his 
sister the princess Maria as regent duwng 
his niece's minority, usurped the crown four 
months afterward, before the queen's arrival in 
Portugal. Her rights were not established un- 
til after his final overthrow through a protract- 
ed civil war, and she was formally recognized 
as queen in September, 1834. In January, 
1835, she married Duke Augustus of Leuchten- 
berg, who died two months afterward. In the 
following year she became the wife of Prince 
Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, to whom she bore 
three sons (the late king Pedro V., the pres- 
ent king Louis I., and Prince Augustus) and 
two daughters. At the instigation of her dic- 
tatorial prime minister Costa-Cabral, she sub- 
stituted in 1842 the reactionary charter of 
1826 for the liberal constitution of 1820, which 
she had formally adopted in 1838 ; but Costa- 
Cabral and his brother were driven from pow- 
er by an insurrection in 1846, and the deposi- 
tion of Maria was prevented only by foreign 
intervention. She discarded Saldanha in 1849' 



160 



MARIA DE' MEDICI 



MARIA THERESA 



to reappoint Costa-Cabral ; and she insisted 
up. in retaining his services despite his resigna- 
tion in consequence of the adverse vote in the 
cortes in February, 1851, and consented to dis- 
pense with them only after Saldanha had set 
on foot a revolution for his rival's overthrow. 
Saldanha remained prime minister until after 
the queen's death. 

MARIA DE' MEDICI, queen of France, daugh- 
ter of Francis I., grand duke of Tuscany, and 
of the archduchess Johanna of Austria, born in 
Florence, April 26, 1573, died in Cologne, July 
3, 1642. She was educated in utter seclusion, 
and knew nothing beyond the circle of the 
Florentine court, when, in 1599, her hand was 
asked for Henry IV. of France of her uncle, 
Ferdinand I., grand duke of Tuscany. Her 
marriage with Henry had been contemplated 
seven years before ; though but for the inter- 
position of Philip II. of Spain she would have 
married the duke of Parma. She was married 
in 1600, and in L601 gave birth to the first 
dauphin who had been born since 1543, and 
who became Louis XIII. Maria had great 
cause to complain of the infidelities of her hus- 
band, and her domestic life was full of bick- 
erings. Henry often threatened to send her 
back to Italy, with her favorites the Concinis, 
by whom she was ruled. Her coronation did 
not take place till May 13, 1610, the day be- 
fore her husband was assassinated. By the 
aid of the duke of Epernon, colonel-general of 
the French guard, she became regent. She got 
rid of the prime minister Sully, and soon her 
government became one of the worst ever 
knowli in France. The Concinis were put 
to death in 1617, and she was herself exiled 
to Blois, her son being the chief of her ene- 
mies. She was freed from prison by Eper- 
non, and a reconciliation was effected be- 
tween her and Louis, chiefly through the aid 
of Richelieu, and by the same assistance Maria 
maintained her ascendancy at court for some 
jtHn. Becoming jealous of Richelieu, she 
sought to overthrow his power, but was de- 
feat ! and imprisoned in 1631. Escaping to the 
Netherlands, she remained there till 1638, and 
was concerned in many intrigues against the 
government of Richelieu. She then went to 
England, where her daughter Henrietta Maria 
was queen. Charles I. unsuccessfully endeav- 
ored to prevail upon the French government to 
allow her to return to France; and she became 
so unpopular in England that the long parlia- 
ment requested her to leave the kingdom. She 
departed in August, 1641, parliament giving her 
8,000, and promising her 6,000 more. She 
went to Antwerp, and took up her residence 
in the house of Rubens, whose patron she had 
>een. After residing there for some weeks, 
she was ordered to leave Antwerp, and to pro- 
ceed to Cologne, where she arrived Oct. 12 
Here she finally died in comparative destitu- 
tion, in a squalid chamber. 

MARIA LOI'ISA, si-rond wife of Napoleon I 
See BONAPARTE, vol. iii., p. 47. 



MARIMA, Juan, a Spanish historian, born in 
Talavera in 1536, died in Toledo, Feb. 6, 1623. 
He was educated at the university of Alcala, 
and when 17 years of age joined the society 
of Jesus. In 1561 he was appointed professor 
of theology in the Jesuit college at Rome. 
He afterward lectured on divinity in Sicily and 
Paris, and finally retired to the Jesuit house in 
Toledo. Having been employed to examine 
the polyglot Bible, edited by Arias Montanus 
at Antwerp in 1569-'72, which had been de- 
nounced to the inquisition, he returned a fa- 
vorable opinion of it, which brought upon him 
the displeasure of his superiors. His arrange- 
ment of the Index Expurgatorius of 1584, and 
still more his work De Rege et Regis Institu- 
tione (Toledo, 1599), in which he intimates that 
unrighteous kings and usurpers may be put to 
death, were also displeasing. In Paris, where 
Henry III. had been assassinated a few years 
before, the latter work was condemned to be 
burned by the common hangman. It aroused 
a violent controversy, and brought great popu- 
lar odium upon the order to which Mariana 
belonged. In 1609 he published at Cologne 
" Seven Theological and Historical Treatises," 
two of which, " On Mortality and Immortal- 
ity " and De Alteratione Monetce (denouncing 
the falsification of the coinage by the king of 
Spain's ministers), were censured by the inqui- 
sition, and the author was subjected to impris- 
onment and penance. To the "History of 
Spain " he devoted the last 30 or 40 years of 
his life. It was published in Latin (1592-1609) 
and Spanish (1601 ; enlarged ed., 1623), and 
extends from the supposed peopling of Spain 
by Tubal, son of Japheth, to the accession of 
Charles V., with a summary of later events, 
down to 1621. The best edition is the 14th 
(2 vols. fol., Madrid, 1780). There is an Eng- 
lish translation by Steevens (London, 1699). 
Among his other works are Scholia Brema in 
Vetus et Novum Testamentum (Madrid, 1619), 
and Discursus de Erroribus qui in Forma Gu- 
bernationis Societatis Jesu occurrunt, published 
after his death and of disputed authenticity 
(Bordeaux, 1625). 

MAR1ANNA, a city of Brazil, in the province 
of Minas Geraes, between the rivers Caruco 
and Seminario, 170 m. N. by W. of Rio de 
Janeiro ; pop. about 7,000. It is situated at an 
elevation of 3,000 ft. above the sea, between two 
mountains, that to the east, Itacolumi, being 
nearly 6,000 ft. high. There are two large 
squares, seven fountains, and a bridge of a single 
arch crossing a torrent which runs through the 
centre of the town. There are eight churches, 
including a cathedral, a hospital, court house, 
and prison. Outside the town are an episcopal 
palace and a seminary. The climate is temper- 
ate and salubrious. Mining and agriculture are 
the principal occupations of the inhabitants. 

MARIAME ISLES. See LADROXES. 

MARIA THERESA, a German empress, and 
queen of Hungary and Bohemia, born in Vien- 
na, May 13, 1717, died there, Nov. 29, 1780. 



MARIA THERESA 



MAPJCOPA 



161 



She was the daughter of the emperor Charles 
VI. of Hapsburg, whose principal aim during a 
long reign seemed to be to secure to his heiress 
the succession to all the hereditary dominions 
of his house. By ample cessions of territory 
to various princes of Europe, he finally at- 
tained a general acknowledgment, though not 
by the Bourbons, of the " pragmatic sanction ;" 
and Maria Theresa, a princess of rare beauty 
id talents, received not only an education 
itting her future condition, but was also early 
dtiated into the secrets of state and admitted 
the council of her father. In 1736 she was 
larried to Francis Stephen of Lorraine, after- 
ward grand duke of Tuscany, and eventually 
German emperor under the name of Francis I., 
who was always glad to leave affairs of state 
to his. consort, while he employed himself in 
>rofitable private speculations. Charles died 
" 3t. 20, 1740, and at once, in spite of the prag- 
latic sanction, claimant after claimant raised 
^tensions to the whole or parts of his posses- 
sions. The young princess saw herself sur- 
rounded by enemies. Frederick the Great of 
Prussia occupied Silesia ; Charles Albert of Ba- 
varia was elected emperor under the name of 
Charles VII.; Spain, Sardinia, and Augustus 
III. of Poland and Saxony threatened to en- 
force various claims by force of arms; and 
France, which had no rights of succession of 
its own, was ready to support those of others. 
George II. of England alone proved a faithful 
ally. At the diet of Presburg in 1741 she put 
herself and her infant son Joseph under the 
protection of the Hungarians, who promised to 
die for their " king " Maria Theresa ; and their 
enthusiasm became a support powerful beyond 
11 expectation. Frederick made peace at Bres- 
m (1742), retaining Silesia, which he had con- 
mered; but Charles VII. lost even his own 
lominion, Bavaria. This success of the Aus- 
arms, however, raised the apprehensions 
Frederick, and the second Silesian war en- 
led (1744), France simultaneously declaring 
war against England. Louis XV. himself ap- 
ired on the field, and Marshal Saxe won battle 
fter battle in the Netherlands ; Frederick, too, 
, r as successful. Saxony, however, was now 
ally of Maria Theresa. Charles VII. died 
>on after reentering his capital Munich, and 
is son and successor not only renounced all 
iis claims, but also supported the election of 
[aria Theresa's husband to the imperial throne 
Germany (1745). Frederick, confirmed in 
possession of Silesia, made peace at Dres- 
len (1745). The war against Spain and France 
ras continued, Marshal Saxe being victorious at 
^ontenoy (1745), Raucoux (1746), and Lawfeldt 
(1747), while England was successful against 
pretender, in the colonies, and on the seas, 
lizabeth of Russia declaring for Maria Theresa, 
war was terminated by the peace of Aix- 
-Chapelle (1748), Austria ceding Parma, Pia- 
3nza, and Guastalla to Don Philip, prince of 
Spain, and some districts of the duchy of Milan 
Sardinia. Maria Theresa now turned her 



principal attention to the internal affairs of 
her states. Following chiefly the advice of her 
minister Kaunitz, she introduced numerous re- 
forms, organized the administration, alleviated 
the burdens of the peasantry, abolished tor- 
ture, created various institutions of learning, 
promoted industry and trade, and, though a 
zealous Catholic herself, subjected the papal 
bulls to the placet regium. In regard to Hun- 
gary, she observed a mild but .slowly dena- 
tionalizing policy. The external diplomacy of 
Kaunitz was also active, and when he finally 
succeeded in gaining over with Mme. de Pom- 
padour the court of France, in addition to the 
alliance of Russia and the house of Saxony, 
Frederick sought and obtained the alliance of 
England, and the seven years' war began (1756), 
of which the Prussian monarch became the 
hero, Laudon and Daun being his most effec- 
tive Austrian antagonists. The war extended 
to almost all parts of the world, from the coast 
of Coromandel to Canada, and nearly all pow- 
ers partook in it. The double peace of Paris 
and Hubertsburg (1763) terminated it to the 
advantage of Prussia and England, Frederick 
remaining now undisputed master of Silesia. 
Two years later Francis I. died, and was suc- 
ceeded in the empire by his son Joseph II., and 
in Tuscany by Leopold, their sister Marie An- 
toinette being afterward married to the future 
French king Louis XVI. Joseph, however, 
enjoyed in the hereditary states of his mother 
only the rights of a co-regent, though his in- 
fluence generally prevailed in foreign affairs, as 
in the case of the annexation of Galicia at the 
first division of Poland (1772), and of Buko- 
wina from Turkey (1777). The peace of Te- 
schen (1779) terminated, according to the ener- 
getic decision of the old empress, the war of 
the Bavarian succession. A monument 60 ft. 
high, representing Maria Theresa surrounded 
by the principal statesmen of her time, is to 
be completed at Vienna in 1875. Her corre- 
spondence, comprising several previously un- 
known letters, has been published in French 
by Alfred von Arneth (3 vols., Paris, 1874). 

MARIA-THERESIOPEL. See SZABADKA. 

MARIAZELL, a village in Styria, Austria, 55 
m. S. W. of Vienna (pop. about 1,000), situated 
in a picturesque country, and celebrated for its 
shrine of the Virgin, which makes it the prin- 
cipal resort of pilgrims in the Austrian mon- 
archy. From May to September there are 80 
great processions from different parts of Aus- 
tria, and the number of pilgrims annually is 
estimated at 250,000. 

MARICOPA, a central county of Arizona, 
bounded E. by New Mexico and S. by the Gila 
river, and intersected by the Salt river and 
other tributaries of the Gila ; area, about 14,500 
sq. m. It has been recently formed, and is 
not included in the census of 1870. The set- 
tlements are chiefly in the valley of Salt river, 
one of the largest and most productive in the 
territory. Irrigation is practised, the river 
supplying abundant water. The chief crops 



162 



MARICOPAS 



are wheat, barley, and Indian corn. The val- 
ley of the Gila also contains large tracts of 
lain! suited to agriculture, and the table lands 
and mountains adjacent furnish good pasture 
throughout the year. The E. portion is gen- 
erally broken and mountainous, but is watered 
by a number of streams, and contains much 
timber. Gold, silver, copper, and lead exist in 
most of the mountain ranges. The Apaches 
have held possession of the greater portion of 
the county. Capital, Pho?nix. 

M mil ol vs. See COCO-MARIOOPAS. 

MARIE, Charles Franfois Maxlmilien, a French 
mathematician, born in Paris, Jan. 1, 1819. 
He left the military school of Metz in 1841, 
and has since devoted himself to researches in 
the most abstruse parts of mathematical science. 
Hi- methods were for a long time the subject 
of ridicule, notwithstanding they had been 
approved by M. Lam6 and M. Poncelet. In 
1858 M. Leonville gave him the use of the 
columns of his mathematical journal to explain 
his discoveries; and in 1863, after violent op- 
position, he was appointed an examiner in the 
polytechnic school. He has published Lepons 
cTarithmetique (Paris, 1860), and Lefons d'alge- 
Ire (1860), treating the theory of the quantities 
called imaginary, and Questions sociales (1869). 

MARIE AMELIE, queen of the French, born 
at Caserta, near Naples, April 26, 1782, died 
at Claremont, near Windsor, England, March 

24, 1866. Her father was Ferdinand I., king 
of the Two Sicilies, and her mother Carolina 
Maria, archduchess of Austria. Her brother 
succeeded to the throne of Naples, and her 
four sisters were respectively empress of Aus- 
tria, grand duchess of Tuscany, queen of Sar- 
dinia, and queen of Spain. In 1798, when 
Naples was invaded by the French, she retired 
with her mother to Palermo. In June, 1800, 
she went to Vienna, and returned in 1802 
to Naples, but renewed political outbreaks 
forced the royal family to return to Palermo. 
There she became acquainted in 1808 with 
Louis Philippe, whose wife she became, Nov. 

25, 1809. She continued to reside at Palermo 
till the restoration called her husband to Paris 
in September, 1814. The events of the hun- 
dred days soon compelled her and her family 
to take refuge in England. She returned to 
France in 1817, and from that time to 1830 re- 
sided at Neuilly. Her legitimist tendencies led 
her to view with regret the revolution of 1830, 
and she manifested a repugnance, based on 
scruples, to Louis Philippe's acceptance of the 
crown. After his accession Marie Amelie de- 
voted herself exclusively to domestic life, and 
was remarkable for her charities, accomplish- 
in, -nts and piety. In 1848 she implored Louis 
Philippe not t<> abdicate; but when further 

MCO was useless she accompanied him to 
Evreux, where for safety she separated from 
him. rejoined him at Iloiifleur, and accompa- 
nied him to Claremont, where she took the title 
of countess of Xeuilly. See Vie de Marie- Ame- 
H> . r, 'tncdes Franca is, by Trognon (Paris, 1871). 



MARIE ANTOINETTE 

MARIE ANTOINETTE, Josephe Jeanne de Lor- 
raine, queen of France, born in Vienna, Nov. 2, 
1755, executed in Paris, Oct. 16, 1793. She was 
the youngest daughter of the emperor Francis 
I. (who died in 1765) and Maria Theresa. Her 
marriage with the French dauphin, the future 
Louis XVI., was early determined upon by her 
mother, with a view of strengthening Austria 
against Prussia. The princess was brought up 
in the unconventional manner of the imperial 
family circle ; but while taught to be natural 
and unaffected, her attainments were not above 
the superficiality of merely fashionable accom- 
plishments. French actors taught her elocu- 
tion ; a Frenchman instructed her in dancing ; 
and though Maria Theresa inculcated in her 
mind solid moral principles, she regarded the 
rather frivolous character of her education as 
necessary to qualify her for the French throne. 
The abbe" de Vermond, a worthless person, was 
brought in 1769 from Paris as her tutor, and 
afterward became her reader. She went to 
France in her 15th year, and was enthusiasti- 
cally received all along the journey, and espe- 
cially at Strasburg by the prince de Rohan, 
then coadjutor of his uncle the cardinal, who 
afterward, as ambassador in Vienna, shocked 
Maria Theresa by his levity and dissipations, 
and who subsequently, while cardinal and roy- 
al chaplain, implicated Marie Antoinette in the 
affair of the diamond necklace. Her marriage 
with the dauphin was celebrated at Versailles, 
May 16, 1770, and was followed by sumptuous 
festivities, marred however by a number of cas- 
ualties, involving the loss of several lives, which 
were regarded by the superstitious as ominous. 
The powerful anti- Austrian party at the court, 
and the daughters of Louis XV., as well as 
Mme. du Barry, the king's mistress, were un- 
friendly to the new dauphiness, though the 
old king himself was pleased with her vivaci- 
ty. But this peculiar trait of her character, 
and her dislike of the restraints of court life, 
alienated from her the rigid upholders of eti- 
quette among the nobility, while no greater con- 
trast could be imagined than that between the 
joyous and impulsive young princess, fond 
of pleasure, excitement, and society, and her 
grave, sedate, and ungainly, though good-na- 
tured and upright husband, who delighted 
chiefly in mechanical pursuits, and in a life 
of good fare, seclusion, and meditation. She 
was consequently left to drift along in a so* 
cial set including many persons of inferior 
moral culture, who encouraged her in indis- 
cretions which were misconstrued and injured 
the popularity which her youth and fascina- 
ting manners had at first gained for her. Af- 
ter her husband's accession to the throne 
(May 10, 1774), her charities enlisted popular 
sympathy for a time, but her wayward con- 
duct, which occasionally wore a coloring of 
positive impropriety, was grossly exaggerated 
by her detractors. Yet, though her admirers 
were numerous, she gave no cause of com- 
plaint to her husband, with whom she lived 



MAEIE ANTOINETTE 



163 



in perfect harmony, and to whom she bore 
four children. Louis XVI. humored and hon- 
ored her, while she, without deep feelings of 
love, never ceased to respect him. According 
to the best authorities, she led a virtuous life 
in the midst of vicious associations. But the 
haughty spirit of her race, which asserted itself 
occasionally despite her general urbanity, could 
not always be reconciled with her fondness for 
familiar intercourse and her desire to please. 
Shortly after she became queen she conceived 
a warm friendship for the princess de Lamballe, 
and insisted upon restoring for her benefit the 
office of superintendent of the queen's house- 
hold. This entailed additional expense, and 
gave offence to her former ladies in waiting, 
who resigned, while other ladies of the court 
declined to serve under the princess. At the 
'same time she was on bad terms with her 
brother-in-law the count of Provence (after- 
ward Louis XVIIL), the prince de Conde, and 
the duke of Orleans, and she made bitter ene- 
mies of many of the women of easy, virtue 
who had flourished under Louis XV., and 
whom she discarded. Yet while setting such 
examples, she was forbearing toward the fail- 
ings of some of her own favorites; and this 
.want of consistency strengthened her enemies, 
who made every effort to injure her in public 
estimation. In this they succeeded, especially 
after the sensation produced by the affair of 
the necklace (1785), in which Marie Antoinette 
was scandalously implicated by the woman 
Lamotte and the cardinal de Rohan, and for 
which the two latter were imprisoned. (See 
LAMOXTE-VALOIS.) Nothing could be proved 
against Marie Antoinette, who exerted herself 
to alleviate the condition of the prisoner La- 
motte, whose husband, and she herself after- 
ward, overwhelmed the queen with defama- 
tions. This affair became a convenient weapon 
in the hands of the queen's enemies. Her 
famous parties at the Trianon were described 
as orgies, and her fondness for private the- 
atricals and for unceremonial balls and amuse- 
ments became pretexts for atrocious calumnies. 
At the same time she was denounced as hos- 
tile to France, and as solely laboring in the 
interest of Austria. Ever since the birth of 
the first dauphin (1781) she had been charged, 
and not without some reason, with mixing her- 
self up too much with politics. But at length 
she was accused of being the cause of all the 
national and financial troubles ; of having pro- 
cured vast sums for her brother, the emperor 
Joseph II. ; of having helped the Polignac 
family to grow rich at the expense of the state ; 
and of warmly supporting the administration 
of the unpopular Calonne, who gratified all her 
caprices, and whose influence became para- 
mount after the death of Vergennes (1787). 
Marie Antoinette was often admonished by her 
brother Joseph, as she hadl>een by her mother, 
who were especially alarmed at her loss of 
prestige consequent upon her over-familiar in- 
tercourse with the Polignacs and other friends. 



Many sarcastic songs were circulated in Paris, 
in which she was held up to ridicule and op- 
probrium. Her opposition to the assembling 
of the notables for the consideration of the 
financial situation confirmed the popular pre- 
judices against her, and she was nicknamed 
Madame Deficit. The aid afforded to the 
American colonies, of which she was an en- 
thusiastic advocate, had been an additional 
source of financial embarrassment. In fact, 
she wrote to one of her friends, April 9, 
1787: "Dearly enough do we pay to-day for 
our rejoicing and enthusiasm over the Amer- 
ican war." Calonne was removed at her in- 
stigation, and replaced by Lomenie de Bri- 
enne, archbishop of Toulouse, a prelate fond 
of theatricals and puerilities, and an especial 
favorite of the queen. She joined him in a 
strenuous opposition to Necker's suggestion of 
a convocation of the states general, which was 
taken up by Lafayette and by public opinion 
as the only alternative to revolution. But, 
frightened at the tumults in Paris and other 
places, she at last prevailed upon the prime 
minister to issue a decree (Aug. 8, 1788) for 
the meeting of the states general in May, 
1789. The king continued to lead his placid 
life, while the queen controlled affairs of state. 
Loni6nie. de Brienne having lost her ' confi- 
dence, she placed Necker at the head of the 
cabinet. But the outbreak of the political 
storm which was gathering round the mon- 
archy was accelerated by her want of earnest- 
ness and sincerity in the proposed creation of 
a third estate, which she regarded as a death- 
blow to the nobility and as a menace to the 
throne. At the opening of the states general, 
May 5, 1789, she was received in a manner 
which deeply offended her pride ; and so low 
had she already sunk in public estimation that 
the habitual expression of sympathy on occa- 
sions of bereavement in the royal family were 
withheld by that body on the death of her first- 
born son, the dauphin, June 4, 1789. During 
the subsequent political developments the count 
de la Marck in vain appealed to her to come to 
an understanding with Mirabeau, to which she 
replied that her husband would probably never 
become so miserable as to be obliged to resort 
to such an expedient; but at a later period, 
when she in her turn in vain attempted to 
conciliate Mirabeau, she exclaimed that it was 
her destiny to make mischief. Appalled at 
the signs of the times, and at the detestation 
in which she was held by the populace, she led 
an uneasy life at the Trianon till Oct. 5, 1789, 
when that palace was invaded by the mob, 
from whose violence she only escaped by her 
own intrepidity. While she fully recognized 
the peril of the situation, the king consented 
to accompany the populace to Paris, a step 
which she regarded as fatal, and she very re- 
luctantly went with him and their children. 
Feeling that her unpopularity aggravated the 
difficulties of her husband's position, she now 
strove to remain in the background, but still 



MARIE ANTOINETTE 



MAPJENWERDER 



virtually continued to control affairs; and as 
some of her measures conflicted with those 
urged by the king's other advisers, many cross 
purposes increased the prevailing uncertainty 
:uid IM MI fusion. She was unable, and the king 
was too lethargic, to secure the cooperation of 
< impotent statesmen in building up a constitu- 
tional monarchy, which might perhaps have 
savnl the throne. Despairing at last, she ob- 
taim-d Mirabeau's consent, shortly before his 
drat h, to the flight of the royal family, which 
i/ndod so ignominiously (1791). During the 
insurrection of June 20, 1702, Madame Elisa- 
K'th, the devoted sister of the king, was mis- 
taken for Marie Antoinette by the mob, who 
shouted A las V AutricJiienne. The people 
had long been made by her adversaries to be- 
lieve that she was surrounded by a so-called 
Austrian cabinet, which was planning the ruin 
of France ; and the mourning at the court over 
the death of Marie Antoinette's brother, the 
emperor Leopold, which began March 13, 1792, 
was jeered at and turned into public rejoicing. 
During the attack upon the Tuileries, June 20, 
she overawed the co'arse women who came to 
insult her by her firm and noble attitude, 
which she also displayed on Aug. 10, when the 
palace was sacked, and she and her family took 
refuge in the national assembly, though she 
long declined to leave the Tuileries, imploring 
the king rather to nail her to the walls of the 
palace. On Aug. 13 the royal family was re- 
moved to the Temple prison, where she was 
separated from her friends, including Mme. de 
Lamballe, who soon fell a victim to the Septem- 
ber massacre, and whose bleeding head was 
paraded before the queen's windows. She was 
also speedily separated from her husband, and 
did not see him again till Jan. 20, 1793, the eve 
of his execution. In the night of Aug. 1-2, 
when she was removed to the Conciergerie, she 
took leave of Madame Elisabeth and of her 
daughter; and having long prepared herself 
for her inevitable fate, she bore all her agonies 
with stoical fortitude. Before the revolutionary 
tribunal (Oct. 14), she showed the same calm- 
ness and resignation. Instead of vindicating 
herself, as her husband had attempted to do, 
she hardly condescended to reply, excepting in 
the most laconic manner, to the questions put 
to her ; and she demonstrated by her attitude 
that she regarded the trial as a farce and her 
death sentence as a foregone conclusion. Only 
when she was accused by Hebert (Pere Du- 
chesne), the principal witness against her, of 
having debauched her own boy, who had slept 
in tin- same bed with her and Madame Elisa- 
l>-th. her indignant denial of that accusation. 
and appeal to all the mothers present, struck 
'mirtion into the minds of the most obdu- 
Eren Fouquier-Tinville, the public pros- 
ut..r, and the most infuriate^ women seemed 
to sympathize for once with the unfortunate' 
'l'i--n. Tin- trial la-t.-d t\v<> davs. She insist- 
i-d that n. .thin^ W as proved against her, and 
that she had only done her duty as a wife in 



obeying her husband. She was found guilty of 
having conspired against France abroad and 
at home, and sentenced to death at 4 A. M., 
Oct. 16. She was then taken to a cell of con- 
demned prisoners at the Conciergerie, where 
she immediately wrote a touching and spirited 
letter to Madame Elisabeth, which has been 
preserved. Girard, the metropolitan vicar, 
having been sent to her by the authorities to 
attend her last moments, he besought her to 
dedicate her life to God in expiation of her 
crimes; to which she replied that he should 
speak of her mistakes, but never of her crimes. 
Dressed in plain white, and having cut off her 
beautiful blonde hair with her own hands, she 
was conveyed to the guillotine like other vic- 
tims, only that more than 30,000 soldiers were 
stationed in the streets, and that the cries 'of 
Vive la repullique ! A las la tyrannic ! were 
incessant. She showed neither haughtiness nor 
humility in her bearing, stepped with firmness 
upon the scaffold, and her head fell at 12.15 
P. M. Her remains were interred in the ceme- 
tery of the Madeleine, by the side of those of 
Louis XVI. In 1815 they were removed to the 
vaults of St. Denis. The most faithful likeness 
of Marie Antoinette is the portrait by the Swe- 
dish painter Rossline. - It was also drawn by 
Mme. Vig6e-Lebrun, who published souvenirs of 
the queen. See also Memoires sur la me pritee 
de Marie- Antoinette, by Mme. Campan (Paris, 
1826) ; Histoire de Marie- Antoinette, by Ed- 
mond and Jules de Goncourt (1859) ; Maria 
Theresa und Marie Antoinette : Ihr Brief wech- 
sel wdhrend derJahre 1770-'80 (Vienna, 1865), 
and Marie Antoinette, Joseph II. und Leopold 
II. : Ihr Briefwechsel (Vienna, 1866), both by 
Alfred von Arneth. Arneth's Correspondance 
de Marie- Therese (3 vols., Paris, 1874) shows 
that Marie Antoinette was constantly watched 
by her mother, through secret agents, with a 
view of protecting her. 

MARIENBAD, a watering place in Bohemia, 
20 m. S. S. W of Carlsbad, and 76 m. W. by 
S. of Prague ; pop. about 1,000. It contains 
a number of mineral springs, beneficial for dis- 
eases of the chest, bowels, and skin, as well as 
for rheumatic complaints, and is annually vis- 
ited by thousands of persons. The waters of 
some of the springs, particularly of the Kreuz- 
brunnen, are largely exported to foreign coun- 
tries. The watering place is of comparatively 
recent origin, and was opened out of the forest 
which covered its site in 1810. 

MARIENBURG, a town of Prussia, in the 
province of West Prussia, on the Nogat, 28 m. 
S. E. of Dantzic ; pop. in 1871, 8,235. It has 
a gymnasium, a normal school, and an institu- 
tion for the deaf and dumb. The castle, which 
was formerly the seat of the grand master of 
the Teutonic order, was restored in 18l7-'24. 
The town remained with the Teutonic order 
till^ 1457, when Poland* took possession. In 
1772 it was united with Prussia. 

MARIE1VWERDER, a town of Prussia, capital 
of an administrative district in the province of 



MARIES 



MAPJETTE 



165 



West Prussia, on the Little Nogat, 45 m. S. E. 
of Dantzic ; pop. in 1871, 7,172. It is one of 
the most beautiful towns of eastern Germany, 
has a large cathedral church, a gymnasium, a 
hospital for blind soldiers, and an ancient cas- 
tle which is now used as a prison. The most 
important branches of industry are woollen 
cloth weaving, brewing, and distilling. 

MARIES, a S. central county of Missouri, in- 
tersected by the Gasconade river ; area, about 
500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1970, 5,916, of whom 22 
were colored. The surface is broken and gen- 
erally well timbered ; the soil of the valleys is 
fertile, that of the uplands poor. Iron, lead, 
and copper are found. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 79,243 bushels of wheat, 163,479 
of Indian corn, 72,075 of oats, 8,887 of pota- 
toes, 17,672 Ibs. of tobacco, 15,152 of wool, 
and .41,633 of butter. There were 2,720 
horses, 466 mules and asses, 1,998 milch cows, 
4,337 other cattle, 8,095 sheep, and 10,759 
swine. Capital, Vienna. 

MARIETTA, a city and the capital of "Washing- 
ton co., Ohio, at the confluence of the Ohio 
and Muskingum rivers, and at the terminus of 
the Marietta and Cincinnati and the Marietta, 
Pittsburgh, and Cleveland railroads, 85 m. E. 
S. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1850, 3,175; in 
1860, 4,323; in 1870, 5,218. Including Har- 
mar, which is part of the town, the popula- 
tion is over 7,000. It is regularly laid out, 
with wide streets and. neatly built houses. 
On the site of the city there is a remarkable 
group of ancient works, which are described 
in Squier and Davis's " Ancient Monuments 
of the Mississippi Valley" as consisting of 
" two irregular squares (one containing 40 
acres area, the other about 20 acres), in con- 
nection with a graded or covered way, and 
sundry mounds and truncated pyramids. The 
town of Marietta is laid out over them, and, in 
the progress of improvement, the walls have 
been considerably reduced and otherwise much 
obliterated; yet the outlines of the entire 
works may still be traced. The walls of the 
principal square, where they remain undis- 
turbed, are now between 5 and 6 ft. high by 
20 or 30 ft. base ; those of the smaller enclo- 
sure are somewhat less. The entrances or 
gateways at the sides of the latter are each 
covered by a small mound placed interior to 
the embankment ; at the corners the gateways 
are in line with it. The larger work is desti- 
tute of this feature, unless we class as such an 
interior crescent wall covering the entrance at 
its southern angle." Marietta has considerable 
trade in petroleum, which is obtained in the 
vicinity, and contains several iron founderies, 
manufactories of buckets, chairs, &c., a union 
bank, and two national banks. It is the seat 
of Marietta college, the grounds of which oc- 
cupy a square, and contain four buildings. 
This institution was established in 1835, and 
in 1873-'4 had 11 professors and instructors, 
182 students (93 in the collegiate and the rest 
in the preparatory department), 360 alumni, 



and libraries containing 25,000 volumes. The 
city has flourishing graded schools, including a 
high school, three weekly newspapers (one 
German), and 15 churches. Marietta is the 
oldest town in the state, having been settled in 
1788 by New Englanders under Gen. E. Put- 
nam, and named in honor of Marie Antoinette. 
MARIETTE, August* fcdouard, a French Egyp- 
tologist, born in Boulogne, Feb. 11, 1821. He 
was educated at the college of Boulogne, in 
which he was subsequently a teacher of gram- 
mar and of drawing. He early became inter- 
ested in antiquities, and his first publication, 
Lettres d M. Bouillet (Paris, 1847), was a dis- 
sertation on the names of the cities that had 
formerly occupied the site of Boulogne. Egyp- 
tian hieroglyphics attracted his attention, and 
by the aid of books he became so well versed 
in Egyptology that he was appointed in 1848 
to a situation in the Egyptian museum in the 
Louvre ; and in 1850, at the recommendation 
of the institute, he was sent by the govern- 
ment on a scientific mission to Egypt. There 
his attention was chiefly directed to the re- 
mains of Memphis, and his excavations led to 
most important discoveries. Among these is 
the discovery of the Serapeum, close by the 
three great pyramids, and the first of the tem- 

S'es of Memphis disinterred. M. Mariette told 
r. Bayard Taylor, who visited him at the 
scene of his explorations in 1851, that an in- 
scription which he found on one of the blocks 
quarried out of a mound near Mitrahenny in- 
duced him to believe that the principal part of 
the city lay to the westward, and accordingly 
he began to sink his pits four miles from the 
spot which archaeologists had fixed upon as 
the site of Memphis. He soon struck upon an 
avenue of sphinxes, which led to the Serapeum 
or temple of Serapis mentioned by Strabo, 
an enormous structure of granite and alabaster, 
containing within its enclosure the sarcophagi 
of the bulls of Apis from the 19th dynasty to 
the time of the Roman supremacy. He found 
also 2,000 sphinxes, between 4,000 and 5,000 
statues, reliefs, and inscriptions, eight colossal 
statues, evidently the product of Grecian art, 
and streets, colonnades, public and private edi- 
fices, and other marks of a great city. Subse- 
quently he discovered an entrance to the great 
sphinx at Gizeh, and the clearing away of the 
sand at the base has left no doubt that this 
monument was sculptured from the immense 
rock which forms its foundation. On his re- 
turn home, he was in 1855 appointed assis- 
tant conservator of the Egyptian museum in 
the Louvre, and in the same year sent to 
stndy Egyptian antiquities in the museum at 
Berlin. Having returned to Egypt, he was 
made by the viceroy director of the depart- 
ment for the preservation of Egyptian antiqui- 
ties, with the title of bey, and an annual al- 
lowance for the prosecution of his researches. 
Among his later excavations, resulting in in- 
teresting and important discoveries, are those 
at Tanis, disclosing the monuments of the 



MARIGNANO 



MARIGOLD 



kings of the shepherd dynasty, and at Thebes 
and elsewhere of monuments and inscriptions 
which explain the genealogy and chronology 
of different dynasties. In I860 he discovered 
at Thebes the mummy of Queen Aah-hotep, of 
the 18th dynasty, and her jewels, consisting of 
a long gold chain, a diadem with two golden 
sphinxes, a breastplate of open work, a richly 
chased dagger, bracelets, earrings, and other or- 
naments, all of exquisite workmanship. These 
were shown in the Paris exhibition of 1867, 
and are now spoken of as u the pride of the 
inu.-uni of Boolak." This museum is tem- 
porarily located, and is to be removed to Cairo. 
In April, 1874, Bayard Taylor again visited 
Mariette, and described his collections, which 
are arranged in the Boolak museum according 
to their civil or religious character, those of 
the earlier dynasties having the most conspicu- 
ous place. Three statues in the court belong 
to the age of the shepherd kings. The main 
vestibule is crowded with relics of the oldest 
Egyptian art. In the main hall are wooden 
statues belonging to the 4th dynasty, two 
painted limestone statues belonging to the 3d, 
and a granite statue of Cephren, the builder 
of the second pyramid, found by Mariette in a 
well in the granite temple discovered in 1866 
near the sphinx. Even more interesting is the 
vast collection of furniture, household articles, 
implements of trade, glass and earthern ware, 
&c., revealing the civilization and domestic life 
of Egypt 4,000 years ago. In this museum is 
also the trilingual Canopic stone discovered at 
Tanis in 1866 by Lepsius, Reinisch, and Rosier. 
Mariette's discoveries thus far have thrown 
comparatively little light upon the sojourn of 
the Israelites in Egypt, though they have af- 
forded grounds for many probable chronologi- 
cal conjectures ; but the revelations of the ear- 
liest periods resulting from his researches are 
of great value. He has published Memoire sur 
la mire d*Apis (1856) ; Aperpu de VTiwtoire 
d'figypte (1864) ; Nouvelle table ffAtydos 
(1865) ; Le Serapeum de Memphis (in 9 parts 
fol., with 110 plates, 1857-'64); and Fouilles 
executes en figypte, en Nubie et au Soudan 
cTapres les ordres du viceroi d'figypte (fol., 
1867). The Nouvelle table d'Abydos gives an 
account of the discovery of a more perfect 
tablet than the one formerly found in Abydos 
and preserved in the British museum. This 
second tablet supplies nearly all the vacancies 
which occur by mutilation in the first, and fur- 
ni-lu-i a list of kings of the first six dynasties, 
lu-.iHy as complete as Manetho's, and corrobo- 
rating the list of that historian. For the im- 
portance of Mariette's discoveries, historically 
and Qhrpnologically considered, see Lenormant 
and Chevalier, Manuel d*hutoire ancienne de 
V Orient (3 vols., Paris, 1868-'9; English edi- 
tion, 2 vols., 1869-70). 

MARIG\A\(>, or MarfcnaD. See MELEGNANO. 

MARIGOLD, the usual name of garden plants 
of two distinct genera of composite. The old 
naturalists called them Mary Gowles, a name 



from the Anglo-Saxon for another plant, which 
has been transferred to these, probably on ac- 
count of a similarity in color. The garden or 
pot marigold, calendula officinalis, a spreading 
plant about a foot high with succulent oblong, 
entire, strong-smelling leaves, is still to be 
found in country gardens ; the heads have nu- 
merous ray flowers, and these are the only 
ones that produce seed, which are in long, 
curved, roughened achenes ; the disk flowers as 
well as those of the ray are yellow ; the flow- 
ers have been rendered double in cultivation. 
The common marigold was once used in cook- 
ery, imparting a flavor to soups and broths, 
and thus has long had a place in the kitchen 
garden. It was formerly, among other uses, 
employed as a carminative ; and its dried florets 
were used to adulterate saffron, and by dairy 
maids to impart a rich color to their cheese 
and butter. There are lemon-colored varieties, 
but the usual color is a rich orange yellow. 
The showy plants known in gardens as the 
African and French 
marigolds belong to 
the genus tagetes, and, 
notwithstanding their 
geographical garden 
names, are natives of 
South America and 
Mexico ; they are an- 
nuals, with mostly pin- 
nate leaves and heads 
of yellow, orange, 
or brownish flowers, 
with a smooth cup- 
shaped involucre ; the 
ray flowers only are 
pistillate, but in most 
of the garden forms 
they are double by the 
conversion of the disk 
flowers into ligulate 
.ones like those of the 
ray. The so-called 
African marigold (T. 
erecta) has large flowers varying from lemon 
color to orange. It is showy, but a much coarser 
plant than the French (T. patuld), which has 
more delicate leaves, and flowers varying from 
pale yellow to a rich orange brown, often 
handsomely, striped or bordered with differ- 
ent shades. The most beautiful and delicate of 
all is the comparatively recent tagetes signata, 
with very finely divided foliage of a rich deep 
bluish green color, and producing a great pro- 
fusion of small single flowers, with five orange- 
colored rays which are marked with a darker 
spot at the base; a dwarf form of this, var, 
pumila, is a fine plant grown as a single speci- 
men, and it is useful in masses. The foliage of 
the species before mentioned has a strong and 
unpleasant odor, but there is a sweet-scented 
one, T. lucida, the leaves of which have the 
odor of anise ; its flower heads are very small 
and borne in clusters ; it is much less cultivated 
than formerly, and though a perennial is treat- 




African Marigold (Tagetes 
erecta). 






MARIN 



MARIO 



167 



ed as an annual. The different sorts are read- 
ily raised from seeds, sowing in June in the 
open ground, or earlier in hotbeds, and trans- 




French Marigold (Tagetes patula). 

planting when 3 or 4 in. high. On the allu- 
vial banks of rivers, from Illinois southward, 
is' an American plant belonging to this group, 
known as the fetid marigold (dysodia chrysan- 
themoides), furnished with pellucid glands, 
which give out a strong odor ; the flower heads 
are terminal and the flowers yellow. The 
marsh marigold (caltha palustris) belongs to 
the order ranunculacecs. 

MARIN, a W. county of California, bounded 
E. by the bays of San Pablo and San Francisco, 
and S. and W. by the Pacific ocean ; area, 570 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,903, of whom 361 were 
Chinese. The surface is rugged and moun- 
tainous, and only a small portion of the soil is 
adapted for cultivation, though much of it .is 
well suited for grazing. The valleys are highly 
productive. It is intersected by the San Fran- 
cisco and North Pacific railroad. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 57,880 bushels of 
wheat, 297,744 of oats, 37,755 of barley, 157,- 
245 of potatoes, 2,107,755 Ibs. of butter, 381,- 
300 of cheese, and 12,054 tons of hay. There 
were 2,671 horses, 18,655 milch cows, 10,443 
other cattle, 2,067 sheep, and 6,606 swine; 
LI brick kilns, 1 saw mill, and 1 paper mill. 
)ital, San Rafael. 
MARINA, Maliiitzin, or Malinche, an Indian wo- 
lan who rendered efficient aid in the conquest 
)f Mexico. She was a native of the province 
)f Guazacoalcos, and of noble blood, though 
)ld as a slave in her childhood to the Maya In- 
ians of the frontier of Yucatan. Being thus 
liliar with the two principal languages of 
[exico, she was presented to Cortes in Tabasco 
by a native chief, and, quickly acquiring Span- 
' 'i, made herself indispensable to the conquer- 
ors as an interpreter. She was much beloved 
l)y the Mexicans, and exerted a great influence 



in restraining the barbarities against her coun- 
trymen which were but too common. Cortes 
made her his mistress, and by him she had a 
son, Don Martin Cortes, who figured in the 
political history of the colony. .After the mar- 
riage of Cortes, she became the wife of the 
comendador Juan de Jaramillo, and survived 
till after the year 1550, living chiefly at Jalpan 
on the isthmus of Tehuantepec, where a mound 
is still shown as her burial place. 

MARINER'S COMPASS. See COMPASS. 

MARIM, or Marino, Giambattista, an Italian 
poet, born in Naples, Oct. 18, 1569, died there, 
March 25, 1625. He was driven from his home 
on account of his repugnance to the legal pro- 
fession, and devoted himself to poetry under 
the influence of Tasso. The grand admiral, 
Prince Conca, made him his secretary, but a 
love affair drove him from Naples. In Rome 
he found a patron in Cardinal Pietro Aldo- 
brandini, whom he accompanied to the court 
of Duke Charles Emanuel at Turin. His pane- 
gyric on the latter won for him the post of 
ducal secretary ; but he wrote a satire against 
Murtola, a fellow secretary, who wrote a coun- 
ter satire and attempted to shoot him ; and on 
being released from prison at Marini's inter- 
cession, he ruined the latter by pointing out 
disparaging allusions to the duke in one of his 
poems. Marini was imprisoned, and recovered 
his liberty only through the intervention of 
Cardinal Gonzaga. He next went to Paris, 
to the court of Margaret of Valois, widow of 
Henry IV., and after her death he became a 
favorite and pensioner of Maria de' Medici. 
He returned to Italy in 1622, and was received 
with great enthusiasm at Rome, and elected 
prince of the academy of the Umoristi. His 
Adone (Paris, 1623; new and complete ed., 4 
vols., London, 1789) was regarded as a mas- 
terpiece at the time of its publication, though 
full of mannerism and defects, and so licentious 
that its circulation was not permitted. Among 
his other works are La strage degli innocenti 
(Rome, 1633), and several exquisite sonnets. 
There was for a time a large class of imitators 
of his style, called Marinists. 

MARK), Giuseppe, marquis di Candia, an Ital- 
ian singer, born in Cagliari, Sardinia, Oct. 18, 
1810. He received an excellent musical edu- 
cation, and in 1830 entered the Sardinian mili- 
tary service. Having been ordered to Cagliari 
for certain youthful indiscretions, he resigned 
his commission ; but upon the refusal of gov- 
ernment to accept his resignation, he escaped 
to Paris, and by his admirable tenor voice soon 
attracted attention in the musical salons of 
that city. For the sake of satisfying his cred- 
itors, he accepted an engagement at the French 
opera at a liberal salary, assumed the name of 
Mario, and, after two years' study at the con- 
servatory, made his d6but in December, 1838, 
in Robert le diable, with decided success. In 
the succeeding year he sang with Rubini at the 
Italian theatre, and formed one of that bril- 
liant galaxy of singers then upon the stage,' 



1G8 



MARION 



comprising Rubini, Lablache, Tamburini, Mali- 
bran, Sontag, Persiani, and Grisi. From that 
pi-riod, he was constantly before the public, 
occupying the position of the first tenor singer 
upon the stage. After performing principally 
in London and Paris, he visited Russia in 1845, 
remaining there five years, and in 1850-'60 
generally snng in London in the spring and 
summer" and in Paris in the winter. In 1854- 
'5 he accompanied Grisi, with whom he had 
lived for many years, having by her a family 
of children, and whom he finally married, on 
an operatic tour through the chief cities of the 
United States. In 1859 he appeared in Lon- 
don and Paris in the part of Don Giovanni, in 
the opera of that name, transposed to suit his 
voice. On June 18, 1871, he took his farewell 
of the stage at Covent Garden in La favorita. 
In the autumn of 1872 he again visited the 
United States on a concert tour. His voice 
had quite failed him, however, and his reap- 
pearance was a detriment to his reputation. 
He possessed respectable dramatic abilities, 
and excelled in parts like Almaviva in the 
u Barber of Seville." Among the operas in 
which he has principally appeared are La 
donna del lago, La gazza ladra, Cenerentola, 
Moise, and others by Rossini ; La sonnambitla, 
Norma, and / puritani, by Bellini; Lucia di 
Lammermoor, La favorita, Lucrezia Borgia, 
Don Pasquale, &c., by Donizetti ; and Ernani, 
La traviata, and II trovatore, by Verdi. 

MARION, the name of 17 counties in the Uni- 
ted States. 1. A N. county of West Virginia, 
drained by the Monongahela and its branches ; 
area, 275 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 12,107, of 
whom 78 were colored. It has an undulating 
surface with considerable woodland, and a fer- 
tile soil. Coal and iron ore abound. The Bal- 
timore and Ohio railroad intersects it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 26,538 bushels 
of wheat, 63,643 of Indian corn, 29,819 of 
oats, 12,780 Ibs. of wool, 22,927 of butter, and 
3,780 tons of hay. There were 907 horses, 
1,110 milch cows, 2,377 other cattle, 4,924 
sheep, and 508 swine. Capital, Fairmont. II. 
An E. county of South Carolina, bordering 
on North Carolina, bounded E. by Little Pe- 
dee and Lumber rivers, and S. by the Great 
I\ ]. ,- and Lynches creek ; the Little and Great 
Pedee also intersect it; area, 1,200 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 22,160, of whom 10,732 were 
colored. The Wilmington, Columbia, and Au- 
gusta railroad traverses it. The surface is lev- 
el and the soil moderately fertile. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 190,326 bushels of 
Indian corn, 11,412 of oats, 58,103 of sweet 
potatoes, 12,450 of peas and beans, 6,910 bales 
of cotton, and 415,382 Ibs. of rice. There 
were 1,419 horses, 957 mules and asses, 3,633 
milch cows, 5,468 other cattle, 4,420 sheep and 
19,521 swine. Capital, Marion Court House. 
III. A W. county of Georgia, drained by trib- 
utaries of the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers; 
area, 432 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,000, of whom 
3,830 were colored. The surface is undulating 



and the soil generally fertile. A branch of 
the Southwestern railroad passes through the 
N. W. corner. The chief productions in 1870 
were 9,523 bushels of wheat, 163,298 of Indian 
corn, 20,967 of sweet potatoes, 15,050 Ibs. of 
butter, 5,439 bales of cotton, and 5,330 gallons 
of molasses. There were 514 horses, 1,002 
mules and asses, 1,404 milch cows, 2,480 other 
cattle, 1,260 sheep, and 7,448 swine. Capital, 
Buena Vista. IV. A central county of the pen- 
insula of Florida, intersected by the Ocklawa- 
ha river, and partly bounded S. by the With- 
lacoochee ; area, 1,760 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
10,804, of whom 7,878 were colored. The 
surface is level and the soil fertile, There are 
numerous lakes, of which the largest are Or- 
ange, Bryant, and Ware. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 129,596 bushels of Indian 
corn, 3,355 of oats, 23,968 of sweet potatoes, 
and 3,858 bales of cotton. There were 637 
horses, 906 mules and asses, 3,035 milch cows, 
306 working oxen, 458 other cattle, 442 sheep, 
and 3,488 swine. Capital, Ocala. V. A N. W. 
county of Alabama, bordering on Mississippi, 
drained by branches of the Tennessee and 
Tombigbee rivers ; area, about 700 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 6,059, of whom 224 were color- 
ed. The surface is uneven and the soil gener- 
ally fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 
5,108 bushels of wheat, 90,429 of Indian corn, 
15,546 of sweet potatoes, 1,010 Ibs. of tobacco, 
9,691 of wool, 25,335 of butter, and 463 bales 
of cotton. There were 662 horses, 1,269 milch 
cows, 665 working oxen, 1,707 other cattle, 2,- 
999 sheep, and 5,765 swine. Capital, Pikeville. 
VI. A S. county of Mississippi, bordering on 
Louisiana, and drained by Pearl river ; area, 
1,224 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,211, of whom 
1,649 were colored. It has an undulating sur- 
face and a fertile soil on the borders of the 
streams. The chief productions in 1870 were 
69,691 bushels of Indian corn, 22,268 of sweet 
potatoes, 4,949 gallons of molasses, 793 bales 
of cotton, and 32,038 Ibs. of rice. There were 
797 horses, 2,206 milch cows, 4,637 other cat- 
cle, 4,827 sheep, and 8,574 swine. Capital, 
Columbia. VII. A 1ST. E. county of Texas, 
bordering on Louisiana, and bounded S. by 
Big Cypress bayou and several lakes, which 
with Red river afford navigation to New Or- 
leans; area, 320 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,562, 
of whom 4,362 were colored. The bottom 
lands are very fertile. It has an abundance of 
timber of all kinds, and iron ore of superior 
quality ; and there are seven mineral springs. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 73,118 
bushels of Indian corn, and 8,345 of sweet 
potatoes. There were 362 horses, 943 milch 
cows, 2,363 other cattle, and 3,241 swine. 
Capital, Jefferson. VIII. A N. county of Ar- 
kansas, bordering on Missouri, drained by 
White river and its branches ; area, 900 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 3,979, of whom 19 were colored. 
It contains lead ore, and a variegated marble 
is found in the W. part. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 12,822 bushels of wheat, 115,169 



MARION 



169 



of Indian corn, 302 bales of cotton, 19,361 Ibs. 
of tobacco, 39,024 of butter, and 4,720 gallons 
of sorghum molasses. There were 845 horses, 
849 milch cows, 1,763 other cattle, 2,283 sheep, 
and 7,952 swine. Capital, Yellville. IX. A 
S. county of Tennessee, bordering on Alabama, 
ly bounded S. E. by the Tennessee, and 
itersected by the Little Sequatchie river ; 
area, 600 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,841, of whom 
915 were colored. The surface is hilly and 
broken, being traversed by ridges of the Cum- 
berland mountains. The Jasper branch of the 
Chattanooga railroad terminates at the county 
seat. The chief productions in 1870 were 
28,134 bushels of wheat, 265,100 of Indian 
corn, 27,989 of oats, 7,504 of Irish and 10,662 
of sweet potatoes, 17,487 Ibs. of tobacco, 9,157 
of wool, 64,742 of butter, and 724 bales of 
cotton. There were 1,571 horses, 1,977 milch 
cows, 4,289 other cattle, 5,605 sheep, and 17,020 
3 wine. Capital, Jasper. X. A central county 
of Kentucky, drained by the Rolling fork of 
Salt river; area, 304 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
12,838, of whom 3,343 were colored. The 
surface is hilly and the soil generally fertile. 
The Knoxville branch of the Louisville, Nash- 
ville, and Great Southern railroad passes 
through it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 93,530 bushels of wheat, 395,170 of In- 
dian corn, 72,812 of oats, 16,676 of potatoes, 
132,293 Ibs. of tobacco, 22,102 of wool, 193,397 
of butter, and 3,274 tons of hay. There were 
3,398 horses, 1,138 mules and asses, 2,070 milch 
cows, 4,042 other cattle, 7,578 sheep, and 22,460 
swine ; 3 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 5 of carriages and wagons, 4 of saddlery 
and harness, 1 woollen factory, 5 distilleries, 
2 tanneries, 2 flour mills, 5 saw mills, and 2 
planing mills. Capital, Lebanon. XI. A cen- 
tral county of Ohio, drained by the Scioto, 
Little Scioto, and Whetstone or Olentangy 
rivers; area, 384 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 16,184. 
It has a level surface and fertile soil. It is 
intersected by the Atlantic and Great Western 
and the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, and 
Indianapolis railroads. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 285,019 bushels of wheat, 635,291 
of Indian corn, 196,639 of oats, 53,720 of po- 
tatoes, 702,090 Ibs. of flax, 337,617 of wool, 
439,226 of 'butter, and 29,062 tons of hay. 
There were 6,715 horses, 4,897 milch cows, 
9,160 other cattle, 89,616 sheep, and 16,800 
swine ; 2 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 15 of carriages and wagons, 1 of ma- 
chinery, 3 of furniture, 4 tanning and currying 
establishments, 15 saw mills, and 3 flour mills. 
Capital, Marion. XII. A central county of 
Indiana, drained by the West fork of White 
river; area, 360 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 71,939. 
It has a nearly level surface and fertile soil. A 
number of railroads concentrate at the county 
seat. The chief productions in 1870 were 
613,267 bushels of wheat, 1,305,988 of Indian 
corn, 78,246 of oats, 220,885 of potatoes, 
37,439 Ibs. of wool, 378,963 of butter, and 
17,464 tons of hay. There were 7,483 horses, 



6,424 milch cows, 7,705 other cattle, 13,173 
sheep, and 27,989 swine. The total number 
of manufacturing establishments was 740, hav- 
ing a capital of $8,303,185 and an annual 
product of $16,642,105. The principal pro- 
ducts were leather, boots and shoes, bricks, 
carriages, cars, clothing, cooperage, cotton and 
woollen goods, furniture, iron and hardware, 
machinery, paper, saddlery and harness, tobac- 
co and cigars, varnish, planed lumber, flour, and 
pork. Capital, Indianapolis, which is also the 
capital of the state. XIII. A S. central county 
of Illinois, drained by Skillett fork of Little 
Wabash river; area, 579 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
20,622. It has an undulating surface and fer- 
tile soil. The Illinois Central and the Ohio and 
Mississippi railroads intersect it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 173,652 bushels of 
wheat, 1,034,057 of Indian corn, 389,446 of 
oats, 37,689 of potatoes, 40,285 Ibs. of wool, 
81,014 of butter, and 21,242 tons of hay. 
There were 6,695 horses, 4,457 milch cows, 
7,027 other cattle, 14,511 sheep, and 21,883 
swine ; 18 manufactories of carriages, 10 of 
saddlery and harness, 6 of tin, copper, and 
sheet-iron ware, 3 of machinery, 9 saw mills, 
and 11 flour mills. Capital, Salem. XIV. A 
S. central county of Iowa, intersected by the 
Des Moines river ; area, 576 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 24,436. The surface is undulating, with 
much prairie, and the soil fertile. The Des 
Moines Valley railroad passes through it. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 374,414 bushels 
of wheat, 2,110,900 of Indian corn, 189,331 of 
oats, 152,763 of potatoes, 88,820 Ibs. of wool, 
499,153 of butter, and 21,522 tons of hay. 
There were 8,975 horses, 7,162 milch cows, 
12,322 other cattle, 29,074 sheep, and 41,238 
swine ; 5 manufactories of carriages and wag- 
ons, 2 of woollen goods, 2 flour mills, and 6 
saw mills. Capital, Knoxville. XV. A N. E. 
county of Missouri, separated by the Missis- 
sippi from Illinois, and drained by North and 
South Fabius and North Two and South Two 
rivers; area, 425 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 23,780, of 
whom 3,592 were colored. It has an undulating 
surface, mostly prairie, and a very fertile soil. 
It is traversed by the Hannibal and St. Joseph, 
the Quincy, Missouri, and Pacific, and the 
Toledo, Wabash, and Western railroads. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 230,822 bushels 
of wheat, 305,256 of Indian corn, 158,715 of 
oats, 25,936 of potatoes, 33,438 Ibs. of tobacco, 
41,481 of wool, 22,700 of butter, and 10,212 
tons of hay. There were 6,340 horses, 1,145 
mules and asses, 4,306 milch cows, 9,130 other 
cattle, 14,976 sheep, and 20,019 swine ; 1 manu- 
factory of railroad cars, 2 of machinery, 2 of 
tobacco, 1 of woollen goods, 2 iron founderies, 
4 breweries, 11 saw mills, and 4 flour mills. 
Capital, Palmyra. XVI. An E. central county 
of Kansas, watered by Cottonwood river ; area, 
1,044 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 768. It is traversed 
by the Atchison, Topeka, and Sante Pe" rail- 
road. The surface is undulating and the soil 
fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 



170 



MARION 



7,722 bushels of wheat, 20,827 of Indian corn, 
1,879 of oats, 1,814 of potatoes, 12,745 Ibs. of 
butter, and 3,555 tons of hay. There were 
407 horses, 537 milch cows, 2,831 other cattle, 
485 sheep, and 291 swine. Capital, Marion 
Centre. XVII. A N". W. county of Oregon, 
bounded W. by the Willamette river, and wa- 
tered by the N. Santiam and other streams; 
area, 2,900 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,965, of 
whom 127 were Chinese. The E. part is 
mountainous, bordering on the Cascade range, 
and here are extensive forests and deposits of 
gold, silver, coal, and iron ; further W. the 
surface is hilly, while the S. W. portion is a 
broad and level prairie, with a fertile soil. It 
is traversed by the Oregon and California 
railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 
232,091 bushels of wheat, 164,087 of oats, 
37,464 of potatoes, 51,169 Ibs. of wool, 70,838 
of butter, and 3,405 tons of hay. There were 
1,707 horses, 1,830 milch cows, 2,133 other 
cattle, 12,760 sheep, and 6,458 swine; 3 manu- 
factories of f drniture, 1 of linseed oil, 2 of 
sash, doors, and blinds, 2 of woollen goods, 6 
flour mills, and 5 saw mills. Capital, Salem, 
which is also the capital of the state. 

MARION, a town and the capital of Perry 
co., Alabama, on the Selma, Marion, and Mem- 
phis railroad, 60 m. "W. by K of Montgomery ; 
pop. in 1870, 2,646, of whom 1,455 were col- 
ored. It has a savings, insurance, and trust com- 
pany, two weekly newspapers, and a monthly 
periodical published by the college students, 
and is the seat of three institutions of learn- 
ing: Howard college (Baptist), founded in 
1837 ; Judson female institute (Baptist), and 
Marion female seminary, institutions of colle- 
giate grade founded in 1836. The college has 
a theological department, and in 1873-'4 had 6 
professors, 148 students. (40 preparatory, 96 
collegiate, and 12 theological), and a library of 
1,000 volumes ; Judson institute, 12 instruc- 
tors, 133 students (24 preparatory and 109 col- 
legiate), and a library of 3,000 volumes; Ma- 
rion seminary, 8 instructors, 127 students (25 
preparatory and 102 collegiate), and a library 
of 1,000 volumes. 

MARION, Francis, an American revolutionary 
officer, born in Winy aw, near Georgetown, S. 
C., in 1732, died near Eutaw, S. 0., Feb. 28, 
1795. He was of a Huguenot family which 
emigrated from France to South Carolina 
about 1690. He received little education, for 
which the facilities in his native district were 
then very slight. In 1759 he was a volunteer 
in, an expedition against the Cherokees, and 
i in a cavalry troop commanded by one 
of his six brothers. In 1760 and 1761 he was 
:I_M'HI in the field on similar expeditions. He 
K-d the forlorn hope in the battle of Etchoee, 
and was one of the few who escaped. In 1775, 
at the outbreak of the revolution, 'he was 
rleoh'd to the provincial congress of South 
Carolina from St. John's parish, Berkeley. 
In the iiiilitjiry organization which ensued, he 
was made (June 21, 1775) a captain -in the 



regiment of which William Moultrie was col- 
onel. Marion's company was one of those de- 
spatched from Charleston for the capture of 
the British fort Johnson. The place was taken, 
and the guns were directed upon the men-of- 
war in the harbor. The British shipping was 
completely expelled from the harbor by the 
cannon from another fort established by Moul- 
trie on Haddrell's point. A fortification at 
Dorchester was confided to Marion, who was 
promoted in his regiment. He was soon sum- 
moned thence to the defence of the fort begun 
on Sullivan's island, menaced by a powerful 
British fleet. It was assailed before it was fin- 
ished, but the hostile fleet was repelled with 
great loss. In February, 1777, Marion was 
despatched with 600 men to the defence of 
Georgia, where he served at intervals until the 
British with overwhelming forces had gained 
possession of the state. Fort Moultrie (Sulli- 
van) was again confided to his charge, and he 
held this post during Gen. Prevost's attempt 
at a coup de main on Charleston (1779). Sub- 
sequently he joined the united French and 
American forces in the fruitless attack on Sa- 
vannah. During the siege of Charleston he 
accidentally broke his leg, and was therefore 
conveyed with all other invalids out of the 
city. As he grew able for service, the Caro- 
linas being left almost defenceless, he gath- 
ered his neighbors about him and laid the 
foundation of that brigade which finally be- 
came famous for its partisan successes. Mean- 
time Gen. Gates had been despatched by con- 
gress to take command of the southern army. 
At the approach of the continental forces, 
Marion, then a colonel, joined them in North 
Carolina; but so wretched were his equip- 
ments, and so paltry his numbers, that Gates 
remarked only the ridicule which they pro- 
voked in the camp, and failed to appreciate 
their patriotism and ability. He despatched 
Marion on an idle mission to cut up the boats 
on the rivers to prevent the escape of the 
British. A few days later Gates was defeat- 
ed in the battle of Camden (Aug. 16, 1780), 
while Marion, waylaying the British guards, 
dispersed them and rescued their continental 
prisoners. From this period dates the series 
of adventurous flights, forages, marches, coun- 
termarches, and surprises which distinguished 
the brigade of Marion until the establish- 
ment of peace. He kept alive the spirit of 
patriotism, taught the inexperienced frontier- 
man to be both bold and vigilant, how to dis- 
cipline himself, and how to arm and support 
himself, at a time when the country had no 
resources for him. In 1780 Marion was pro- 
moted to a brigadiership, and his command 
was termed a brigade whether it numbered 20 
or 1,200 men. It is impossible to pursue in 
detail the progress of so restless and eager a 
chieftain in a career marked by so great a va- 
riety of action and resource. Even popular 
tradition fails to follow him. His camp at 
Snow's island, his potato feast to the British 



MARION 



MARIOTTE 



171 



officer, his quiet humor when dealing^ with 
both friend and foe, his perpetual vigilance 
and sudden movements, have all entered into 
the legends of the country. Though Snow's 
island, a natural fortress of swamps and for- 
ests accessible only under good guidance, was 
lis favorite hiding place, yet he had other re- 
Teats in almost every swamp of Carolina, 
where he found ready refuge from a superior 
enemy, and whence he could rapidly emerge. 
His food was chiefly potatoes and corn; his 
only drink was vinegar and water ; for months 
he slept without a blanket, and marched with- 
out a hat ; and he trained his followers to his 
own habit of cheerful endurance. He disci- 
plined in his style of warfare many young offi- 
cers, who proved in time worthy of their mas- 
ter. In December, 1780, Gen. Greene, super- 
seding Gates, took command of the southern 
army. He was able to appreciate the courage 
and services of Marion, who now united his 
brigade with the main army or acted separate- 
ly, as the occasion or the wishes of the con- 
tinental general required. He was Greene's 
great resource for obtaining intelligence ; had 
his spies in the British camps and garrisons, in 
Camden, Charleston, Georgetown, and Savan- 
nah ; and was himself almost ubiquitous with 
his brigade. He baffled Tarleton, Barfield, 
Doyley, Gainey, McArthur, Coffin, and We- 
myss, all of whom were in turn or in concert ' 
despatched for his express capture or defeat. 
After Cornwallis had driven Greene's army 
out of the state Marion held his ground, 
pressed his predatory warfare to the gates of 
Charleston, and interrupted the line of com- 
munication between the metropolis and all 
parts of the interior. Col. Watson with a 
picked force was sent to expel or crush him. 
Major Gainey, of whom great expectations 
were formed, was also sent in pursuit ; yet he 
was defeated by Marion, narrowly escaping 
with his life. Col. Tyne, whom Marion had 
once before defeated, was also on his track, 
and was again foiled. Major Mcllraith, sent 
with another division to cooperate with Wat- 
son, was in close pursuit of him, but he baf- 
fled them both, so palpably that Mcllraith was 
disgraced. The next auxiliary of Watson was 
Col. Doyle, subsequently distinguished as a 
British general in India. Each took the field 
with a regiment of British, and a large addi- 
tional force of loyalists. Unable openly to 
meet either division, Marion determined to 
prevent their junction. Watson was led into 
one ambush after another until, having lost a 
large part of his men, he reached Georgetown. 
Marion then turned upon Doyle, who made a 
precipitate retreat and avoided him. This re- 
treat was in part occasioned by the necessities 
of Rawdon, who called in his detachments at 
the approach of Greene. Being joined by Lee's 
legion and supplied with ammunition, Marion 
determined to attack Fort Watson on the San- 
tee river. It was on high ground, and as he 
was without artillery, towers made of logs 



were extemporized during the night, and raised 
sufficiently high to enable the riflemen to plant 
themselves on an elevation equal to that of the 
fortress ; and while the sharpshooters plied 
their bullets, a storming party scaled the walls, 
and the garrison surrendered. Lee then re- 
joined Greene, but after the battle of Hobkirk's 
Hill aided Marion in investing Fort Motte on 
the Congaree. The besiegers again felt the 
want of artillery, but Mrs. Motte, the original 
owner of the house around which the fort had 
been constructed, furnished an Indian bow 
with arrows, which, tipped with combustibles, 
set fire to the roof over the heads of the gar- 
rison, which then capitulated. Marion distin- 
guished himself by prudence and humanity su- 
perior to his times, and prevented Lee's men 
from hanging some of the prisoners. Some 
causes of complaint tempted him soon after 
to resign his commission and join the main 
army under Washington ; but Greene succeed- 
ed in dissuading and retaining him, and he was 
soon repeating his exploits on the skirts of 
Lord Rawdon's forces, and while holding him 
in check captured Georgetown. He subse- 
quently joined Greene and Sumter in the pur- 
suit of Rawdon, till he intrenched himself in 
Orangeburg, and declined battle. After the 
evacuation of Orangeburg and the departure 
of Rawdon for Europe, the forces of Marion 
and Sumter swept the country to the gates of 
Charleston. He. then resumed his indepen- 
dent command in the Santee country, took an 
important part in the battle of Eutaw Springs 
(Sept. 8, 1781), and pursued the enemy in their 
retreat. The British were gradually confined 
almost to the walls of Charleston, and the le- 
gislature of the state again assembled for the 
purpose of restoring civil authority. Marion 
steadily refused to engage in any unnecessary 
enterprise after the prospect of peace. He 
disbanded his brigade soon after the British 
fleet and army evacuated Charleston (Dec. 14, 
1782), taking a tender farewell of his follow- 
ers, and returned to the avocations of a farm- 
er almost in poverty. He was subsequently 
returned to the senate of the state by the elec- 
tors of St. John's parish, Berkeley. In 1784 he 
accepted the appointment under the state of 
commandant of Fort Johnson, and soon after 
married. In 1790 he was a member of the 
convention for framing a state constitution, 
and in 1794 he resigned his commission as one 
of the generals of the state militia. He was 
buried at Belle Isle, in the parish of St. John's, 
and a slight oblong tomb, the tribute of a pri- 
vate citizen, covers the remains of one of the 
purest men, truest patriots, and most adroit 
generals that American history can boast. 

MARIOTTE, Ednie, a French physicist, died 
May 12, 1684. The date and place of his birth 
are unknown. He was prior of St. Martin- 
sur-B.eaune, Dijon, and one of the original 
members of the French academy of sciences. 
Condorcet says that " Mariotte^ was the first 
one in France who introduced into physics a 



172 



MARIPOSA 



observation and doubt, and who in- 
spired that scrupulousness and caution so ne- 
cessary to those who interrogate nature and in- 
terpret her responses." His collected works 
were published at Ley den in 1717, and at the 
Hague in 1740, in 2 vols. 4to. They contain 
papers upon a great variety of subjects in phys- 
ics and natural philosophy, and are filled with 
accounts of his numerous and ingenious ex- 
periments. His principal discoveries were : 1, 
the l:i\v in regard to gases, usually called Mari- 
otte's law, that, the temperature of a gas re- 
maining fixed, its volume varies inversely as 
the pressure upon it (see PNEUMATICS) ; 2, that 
air exists in liquids, especially in water ; 3, that 
the part of the retina where the optic nerve 
enters it is insensible to light. He also in- 
vented the now common experiment of drop- 
ping a coin and a feather in the exhausted re- 
ceiver of an air pump, to show that both will 
fall through equal distances in equal times. 

MARIPOSA, an E. county of California, 
drained by the Merced and Mariposa rivers, 
affluents of the San Joaquin; area, 1,440 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,572, of whom 1,084 were 
Chinese. The surface is mountainous, the E. 
part being traversed by the Sierra Nevada; 
the soil in the TV. is of great fertility. Gold 
abounds throughout the county, being found 
in nearly every creek and gulch and in quartz 
veins. Three placers and three quartz mines 
were in operation in 1870. It contains the 
Yosemite falls and the Mammoth Tree grove. 
(See CALIFORNIA.) The chief productions in 
1870 were 4,275 bushels of wheat, 8,135 of 
barley, 1,712 of potatoes, 87,816 Ibs. of wool, 
and 2,499 tons of hay. There were 1,110 
horses, 923 milch cows, 6,118 other cattle, 
18,442 sheep, and 8,577 swine; 1 iron foun- 
dery, 2 breweries, 4 saw mills, and 2 quartz 
mills. Capital, Mariposa. 

MARITZA (anc. Hebrus), a large river of Rou- 
melia, European Turkey. It rises on the N". E. 
flank of the Despoto Dagh (anc. Ehodope), a 
branch of the Balkan mountains, flows E. S. E. 
and S. S. TV., and after a course of about 300 
in., during which it passes Filibe (Philippopo- 
lis) and Adrianople, enters the Grecian archi- 
pelago by two mouths. 

MARIIS, Cains, a Roman soldier, born near 
Arpinum in 157 B. C., died in Rome in 86. His 
origin was humble, and his parents are said to 
have been clients of the Herennii, an eminent 
plebeian family. That he ever labored for 
wages may be doubted, and may have been 
one of the reports invented to injure him by 
the optimates, and accepted by him to make his 
elevation seem the greater by contrast with his 
original position. Marius had no third name, 
or cognomen, nor did he ever win one, not- 
withstanding his brilliant military services. A 
in Velleius Paterculus, which repre- 
M -ins him to be of equestrian birth, is believed 
to be an error of some transcriber. Plutarch 
\pivly states that his parents were obscure, 
and that they gained their living by the labor ; 



MARIUS 

of their hands. The first mention of him in 
history is as a soldier in the army with which 
the second Scipio Africanus besieged Nurnantia 
in 134, when he was but 23 years old. His bra- 
very, his sobriety,. and the readiness with which 
he submitted to the severe reforms that Scipio 
found it necessary to introduce into the Ro- 
man army, attracted the attention and won 
the commendation of that great general. The 
tradition was, that Marius was so encouraged 
by Scipio's words, deeming them to form a di- 
vine intimation, that he entered on a political 
career; yet it was not until 15 years later that 
he achieved his first political success, being 
then chosen tribune of the people (119). This 
office he obtained through the influence of 
Metellus, who belonged to the Csecilian gens, 
one of the most distinguished plebeian houses 
in Rome. He had previously been unanimous- 
ly elected military tribune. As tribune of the 
people he introduced a bill calculated to pro- 
mote the freedom of elections, which was op- 
posed by the optimates, then at the height of 
their power, immediately after the fall of Cains 
Gracchus; but Marius, by the most vigorous 
measures, carried his point, though the oppo- 
sition was headed by his patron, the consul 
Metellus. He showed his firmness in another 
way, by opposing a distribution of corn among 
the people, because he believed it*in jurious to 
their interests. He sought the curule sedile- 
ship, but was forced to withdraw from the 
contest ; and he was beaten as a candidate for 
the plebeian sedileship. Elected praetor, his 
name was the lowest on the list. He was then 
proceeded against for bribery, but escaped con- 
viction, the votes of his judges being equal- 
ly divided. He was prsetor in 115, but did not 
leave Italy. As proprietor, the next year, he 
served in Further Spain, which he is report- 
ed to have cleared of robbers. Shortly after- 
ward he married Julia, a sister of the father of 
Julius Caesar, who belonged to one of the most 
illustrious of the patrician gentes. When Q. 
Caecilius Metellus took command of the Roman 
army employed against Jugurtha (109), Marius 
became one of his legates, and distinguished 
himself in the war, being very popular with 
the common soldiers, and attracted the atten- 
tion of his countrymen at home. He asked 
leave of Metellus to go to Rome, that he might 
offer himself as a candidate for the consulship ; 
but his commander, after first seeking to argue 
against his supposed unreasonable ambition, 
and then declaring that he could not be spared 
from the army, finally refused his request in 
an insulting manner. Marius then commenced 
intriguing against Metellus, whom he accused 
of prolonging the war, which he offered to 
bring to a prompt conclusion with one half the 
force then employed against Jugurtha. These 
things were all known at Rome, where they 
increased the popularity of Marius. To get rid 
of an enemy, Metellus granted him the permis- . 
sion he had asked, but only 12 days before the 
time of election. Arriving at Rome, Marius en- 



MARIUS 



173 



3red on the contest at once, and became con- 
il in 107, at the age of 50. He did not bear 
lis success with meekness, but made use of the 
rshest language when speaking of the aristoc- 
3y. The province of Numidia was assigned 
which made him the successor of Metel- 
In levying soldiers he did not confine 
imself to the classes whence the legions had 
formerly been recruited, but enrolled men from 
"e lowest orders, and slaves, which is regard- 
as the first of those acts through which the 
Ionian armies were led finally to look for law 
lore to their commanders than to the state. 
[e led his new levies to Africa, where he vigor- 
isly waged the war against Jugurtha until the 
tter took refuge with Bocchus, king of Mau- 
'itania, who betrayed him to Sulla, the quaestor 
Marius (106). This caused Sulla to claim 
le merit of having closed the war, and so laid 
e foundation of a personal quarrel destined 
have memorable consequences. Marius re- 
mained two years longer in Numidia, bringing 
the country into order and establishing the 
Roman government there. "While thus en- 
gaged, he was elected consul without opposi- 
tion, the approach of the Teutons and Cimbri 
and the Ambrones, who had destroyed several 
Roman armies, having caused great fear in 
Italy, and drawn all men's minds to the con- 
clusion that power could be intrusted to no 
one but the conqueror of Numidia. His Ju- 
gurthine triumph took place Jan. 1, 104, the 
first day of his second consulship. Jugurtha 
walked in the procession, and afterward was 
thrown into a dungeon and starved to death. 
The barbarians not appearing in Italy, Marius 
employed the time in effecting reforms in the 
army, and in disciplining the newly raised 
troops. His discipline was severe, but the im- 
partiality of his conduct made him a favorite 
with the men, who had the utmost confidence 
in his ability and good fortune. He was cho- 
sen consul a third time for the year 103. The 
enemy still remaining in Spain, the aristocrati- 
cal party determined to oppose his reelection ; 
but the people supported him, and he was ele- 
vated a fourth time. This year he encountered 
the Teutons and Ambrones in Gaul, totally 
destroying them in a great battle fought near 
Aquae Sextiae, the modern Aix. Just after the 
battle Marius received news that he had been 
elected consul for the fifth time. Meantime 
the Cimbri, who had separated from their al- 
lies, had penetrated into Italy, where the ter- 
ror of their name caused the army of Catulus, 
the other consul, to fly before them. Marius 
was recalled to Rome. Refusing the triumph 
offered him by the senate until the Cimbri 
should be conquered, he joined the army of 
Catulus, with which the troops who had con- 
quered the Teutons were now united. On 
July 30, 10-1, the Cimbri were annihilated in 
a pitched battle, fought on a plain called the 
Campi Raudii, near Yercellae, the modern Ver- 
celli. The victory was really due to Marius, 
though his enemies sought to give the credit 



of it to Catulus, who was then proconsul ; but 
the Romans were so convinced that they owed 
their deliverance to the consul, that among 
other high honors they gave him the title of 
third founder of the state, thus ranking him 
with Romulus and Camillus. His triumph was 
brilliant, and Catulus was allowed to share in 
it. For the sixth time he was chosen consul ; 
but the good fortune which he had experienced 
in the field deserted him in the city, where his 
ignorance of civil life led him into various mis- 
takes, which caused his popularity to decline as 
rapidly as it had risen. The aristocracy art- 
fully placed him in opposition to the tribune 
Saturninus, who was his instrument and asso- 
ciate, and whom he had to proceed against to 
the tribune's ruin and death. He entrapped 
his old enemy Metellus into a position that 
caused him to be banished. So low had Marius 
sunk by the time his sixth consulship was draw- 
ing to a close, that he durst not become a can- 
didate for the censorship. The next year (99) 
he visited Asia, where he sought to rouse Mith- 
ridates to make war on Rome, being confident 
that he should recover his popularity when 
once more placed at the head of an army. He 
was chosen augur during his absence. After 
his return to Rome, he did not rise in popular 
esteem; he could obtain no command in the 
East, and Sulla, who had supplanted him in 
the popular favor, exasperated him by his con- 
duct. The Mauritanian king had set up in the 
capitol figures showing the surrender of Ju- 
gurtha to Sulla. Marius was making prepara- 
tions to pull down these figures, and Sulla to 
resist him, when, in 90, the social or Marsic 
war broke out, which threatened the subversion 
of the Roman power in Italy. Both Marius 
and Sulla had to contend against the confed- 
erate Italians in the social war, and both did so 
with success. It was thought, however, that 
the exploits of Sulla were the more striking, 
but it is certain that Marius twice defeated the 
Marsi, the most warlike of all the allies, and 
whose name furnished to the Romans a title 
for the war. He returned to Rome after these 
victories, avowedly because of his inability to 
encounter the fatigues of the service. He w r as 
67 years old, and had grown fat and unwieldy. 
After this war had been finished, the rivalry 
of Marius and Sulla was resumed. War against 
Mithridates having been commenced, Marius 
sought the command in the East. He fre- 
quented the Campus Martius, and went through 
exercises appropriate to the young, in order to 
show that he was equal to the fatigues of war. 
He failed, and Sulla was appointed to the office 
he sought (88). Marius now procured the 
passage of a law to distribute the Italian allies, 
who had been admitted to the Roman fran- 
chise, among all the tribes, so that they should 
control the old citizens. His tool was P. 
Sulpicius Rufus, a tribune, and he was suc- 
cessful, though not without having resort to 
violence. The Italians then conferred the 
eastern command upon Marius ; but Sulla, who 



MARIUS 



had joined the army destined to act against 
Mith'ridutes, incited it to resistance, marched 
to Rome, and compelled Marius and his friends 
to fly, they having no force to send against 
him. Marius vainly endeavored to raise an 
army by offering freedom to all slaves who 
should join him. He then sought to reach 
Africa, but was compelled by bad weather 
and want of provisions to land in Italy, near 
which he was coasting. Taking refuge in a 
wood, and suffering from cold and hunger, 
he predicted that he should yet receive a 
seventh consulship. He told his compan- 
ions that in his childhood a nest with seven 
eaglets in it had fallen into his lap, and that 
the soothsayers had prophesied to his pa- 
rents that he should seven times enjoy su- 
preme power. Flying from immediate pur- 
suit, he and his company were forced to swim 
to two merchant vessels, the crews of which 
refused to give them up, but afterward made 
them land at the mouth of the Liris. Here, 
while concealed in a marsh, Marius was found 
by his pursuers, and imprisoned at MinturnaB. 
A Cimbric soldier was ordered to despatch 
him, but was so affected by the old man's 
look and language that he lost courage, and 
declared that he could not kill Caius Marius. 
The people of the town rose in his favor, 
and furnished him with a vessel, in which he 
sailed to Africa, meeting with many dangers 
on the way. He landed at Carthage, where a 
message was sent him by the Roman prrotor, 
ordering him to leave the country. His answer 
was : " Tell the prtor that you have seen 
Caius Marius a fugitive sitting on the ruins of 
Carthage;" a reply, says Plutarch, in which he 
not inaptly compared the fate of that city and 
his own changed fortunes. He was soon com- 
pelled to leave, and went with his son to the 
island of Cercina. Meantime a revolution had 
taken place in Italy, where the consul Cinna, 
who was of the Marian party, had placed him- 
self in opposition to the Sullan faction, head- 
ed by his colleague Octavius. The latter, after 
a severe struggle, expelled Cinna from Rome, 
who raised a large army, composed of the new 
citizens. Marius, on hearing of this, returned 
to Italy, and on landing proclaimed freedom to 
the slaves, and sent to Cinna, offering to obey 
him as consul. Cinna accepted the offer, and 
named him proconsul. This office Marius 
would not accept, saying its title and insignia 
were not suited to one in his state. One idea, 
that of vengeance, alone had possession of his 
mind. Rome was soon compelled to surrender 
to the army headed by Cinna and Marius. The 
foriiior was disposed to proceed mildly, but 
Marius had other intentions. At first he re- 
fused to enter the city until the comitia repealed 
the law under which he had been banished ; 
but wliiK- the voting for that purpose was go- 
ing on, he entered at the head of his guards, 
who were composed of the slaves by whom he 
had been joined, and an immediate massacre of 
the anti-Marians was begun. The slaughter 



MARJORAM 

was continued for several days, and among its 
victims were many of the noblest of the Ro- 
mans. Cinna and Marius declared themselves 
consuls for the next year, 86. But though 
Marius had thus irregularly obtained his seventh 
consulship, he did not long enjoy it, dying on 
its 18th day, from illness brought on by age, 
fatigue, and care. The statement that his mind 
was disordered by fear of Sulla's return is 
probably one of the libels of the Sullan party. 
After the triumph of Sulla, the ashes of Marius 
were thrown into the Anio, by order of the 
victor. The representative and leader, though 
perhaps not in strictness the founder, of the 
party which bears his name in the subsequent 
history of the Roman republic, and which he 
was clearly incompetent to conduct to success, 
his character has probably suffered, like that 
of other party chiefs, at the hands of his ene- 
mies. No Roman ever rendered greater ser- 
vices to the state, and no Roman ever rose so 
high, to fall so low, with the single exception 
of Pompey, who in the next generation headed 
the opposite party. 

MARIVAIIX, Pierre Carlet de Chainblain do, a 
French author, born in Paris in 1688, died 
there, Feb. 12, 1763. He wrote about 30 
comedies, the greater part for the Italian thea- 
tre, and now seldom performed. Among the 
best are Le jeu de V amour et du hasard, the 
author's dramatic masterpiece, and Lesfawses 
confidences. He is now known chiefly by his 
romances, La me de Mariane and Le paysan 
parvenu. He also wrote Le spectateur fran- 
fois and Le philosophe indigent, distinguished 
by an eccentric and affected style, called after 
him marivaudage. He was elected a member 
of the French academy in 1743, Voltaire being 
a rival candidate. 

MARJORAM, the common name of plants of 
the genus origanum, in the natural order la- 
fiiatce, having nearly entire leaves and purplish 
or whitish flowers crowded in cylindrical or 
oblong spikes, which are imbricated with fre- 
quently colored bracts. About 25 species are 
enumerated, of which the most common in the 
gardens is the sweet marjoram (0. majorand), 
native of Barbary and middle Asia. It is a 
clean, pretty, low, bushy plant, usually treated 
as an annual, but properly a perennial. The 
fragrant leaves and buds, being carefully dried, 
are pulverized by rubbing them in the hands, 
and are employed by cooks as a seasoning for 
forced-meat balls, stuffing, soups, &c. On ac- 
count of the compact clusters or heads, it is 
in some localities known as knotted marjoram. 
The wild marjoram (0. vulgare) has become 
sparingly naturalized in the United States, ad- 
ventitiously introduced from Europe. It can 
be found occasionally upon dry banks and sunny 
slopes. Its flowers are very pretty, appearing 
in the months of July and August. Essential 
oils may be extracted from either of the spe- 
cies mentioned above, but the oil which is now 
known in commerce as oil of origanum has been 
shown to be really derived from the thymus 




MARK 



175 



vulgaris, a mint growing in the south of France. 
This is sometimes used as an external irritant, 
especially in veterinary practice, and, like many 




Marjoram. 

other volatile oils, will allay toothache when 
introduced into a carious cavity. Internally 
it is a stimulant, but has no great value. 

MARK, Saint, the evangelist, according to the 
opinion of most theologians, identical with 
John Mark, mentioned in the Acts (xii. 12, 
25). By comparing the passages of the New 
Testament relating to both Mark and John 
Mark, we learn the following facts of his life. 
He was the son of a certain Mary, who pos- 
sessed a house at Jerusalem which served the 
Christians as a place of refuge. About the 
time when James the Elder was executed, he 
left Jerusalem with Paul and Barnabas, his 
kinsman (A. D. 42), went to Antioch, and from 
there to Cyprus and Asia Minor, but sepa- 
rated from them at Perga, in order to return 
to Jerusalem. Paul blamed this conduct ; and 
when later Barnabas proposed to take Mark 
along on a new missionary tour, Paul objected, 
and Barnabas and Mark undertook a journey 
of their own. But we find him again as a 
friend and fellow laborer of Paul during the 
first captivity of the latter. It appears that 
both intended, after the end of the captivity, 
to visit the Christians of Asia Minor. Mark 
probably executed this design, for Paul re- 
quests timothy (2 Tim. iv. 11) to bring Mark 
to Eome. He was with the apostle Peter, 
near Babylon (which, according to many in- 
terpreters, designates Rome), when that apos- 
tle wrote his first epistle. According to the 
testimony of the ancient church, Mark was in 
a particularly intimate relation to the apostle 
Peter, who employed him as secretary in the 
same way as Titus was employed by Paul. 
After the death of Peter, Mark is said to have 
me to Egypt, and especially to Alexandria, to 
lave collected congregations there and in the 
533 VOL. XL 12 



neighborhood, to have been the first bishop of 
Alexandria, and, finally, to have suffered mar- 
tyrdom there. He is the patr.on saint of Ven- 
ice, which city claims to possess his body. His 
festival is celebrated in the Roman Catholic 
church on April 25. The Gospel of Mark is 
distinguished from the three others by being 
more exclusively historical, and excluding long- 
er didactic portions, such as 'the sermon on 
the mount. All the facts recorded in it may 
be found also in Matthew or Luke, and only 
27 verses belong exclusively to Mark ; a cir- 
cumstance which has given rise to wide differ- 
ences of opinion concerning the position of 
Mark in relation to the other two. Augustine 
advanced the opinion that Matthew wrote first, 
that Mark wrote an abridgment of the Gospel 
of Matthew, and that Luke in writing his Gos- 
pel made use of both Matthew and Mark. This 
view continued to prevail among exegetical 
writers until the 18th century, when the ques- 
tion of priority of composition among the three 
synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) 
became the subject of vehement controversy, 
every possible combination finding its defend- 
ers. Eichhorn in 1794 advanced the theory 
that all the three synoptic Gospels of our can- 
on had made use of a primitive Gospel (Ur- 
Evangelium), no longer extant. Many Ger- 
man critics assume a primitive Gospel of Mark 
( Ur-Marlcus), of which the Gospel in our canon 
is a revised and enlarged copy. Among the 
prominent defenders of this view are Ewald 
(1849), Scholten (1867), Volkmar (1870), and 
"Weiss (1872). Others have advanced similar 
views with regard to Matthew and Luke. Most 
of these writers agree in regarding the Gospel 
of Luke as the latest of the synoptic Gospels in 
their present form ; the most notable exception 
being Keim, who (in his " Life of Jesus ") main- 
tains that the Gospel of Mark is the latest of 
the three. The defenders of the originality of 
the Gospel of Mark in its present form gener- 
ally place the time of its compilation between 
the death of the apostles Peter and Paul and 
the destruction of Jerusalem. Rome is almost 
unanimously regarded as the place where it 
was written. The evangelist undoubtedly used 
the Greek language ; a note to the Syrian trans- 
lation, stating that the Gospel was compiled in 
Latin, received for a time wide currency among 
Roman Catholic scholars through the support 
of Baronius, but it has been almost entirely 
discarded since the time of Richard Simon. 
Doubts are entertained also by prominent the- 
ologians of the orthodox school whether the 
last 12 verses are by Mark, or were added after 
his death ; in support of the latter view it is 
adduced that Jerome, Gregory of Nyssa, and 
other fathers expressly mention that the Gos- 
pel closed with the words, "For they were 
afraid " (xvi. 8) ; in favor of the other, that all 
the Latin and Syrian manuscripts have these 
verses. For commentaries on Mark, see the 
collective works on the Gospels mentioned in 
the article LUKE. Commentaries on Mark 



176 



MARK ANTONY 



alone have been published, among others, by J. 
A. Alexander (New York, 1858), Klostermann, 
Dat Marlcus-Evangelium (Gottingen, 1868), 
and Weiss, Das Markus-Evangelium und seine 
gynoptischen Parallelen (Berlin, 1872). Ac- 
counts of the modern discussions about the 
origin and history of the Gospel of Mark may 
be found in Wilke, Der Urevangelist (Leipsic, 
1838), F. C. Baur, Das Marlcus-Evangelium 
(Tubingen, 1851), and in the commentaries of 
Klostermann and Weiss. A full account of 
the literature on the subject is given by Se- 
vin in ErUarung der drei ersten Evangelien 
(Wiesbaden, 1873). 

MARK ANTONY. See ANTONY. 

MARKHAM, Clements Robert, an English geog- 
rapher, born at Stillingfleet, near York, July 
20, 1830. He was educated at Westminster 
school, and entered the navy in 1844. In 1846 
he was appointed naval cadet on board a vessel 
on the Pacific station, and, having passed for 
a lieutenant, left the navy in 1851. In 1850 
-'51 he served in the expedition in search of 
Sir John Franklin, and in 1852-'4 explored the 
forests of the eastern Andes. In 1855 he be- 
came clerk in the board of control, and in 
1858 secretary of the Hakluyt society. Be- 
tween 1859 and 1866 he again went to Peru 
and twice visited India, where he introduced 
the cultivation of the cinchona tree. In 1863 
he was made secretary of the royal geographi- 
cal society, and in 1867 assistant secretary in 
the India office, receiving charge of its geo- 
graphical department in 1868. In the latter year 
he was appointed geographer to the Abyssinian 
expedition, and was present at the storming 
of Magdala. Besides many translations for 
the Hakluyt society and papers in the journal 
of the royal geographical society, he has pub- 
lished " Franklin's Footsteps " (1852) ; ' Cuzco 
and Lima " (1856) ; " Travels in Peru and In- 
dia" (1862); "Quichua Grammar and Dic- 
tionary " (1863) ; " Spanish Irrigation " (1867) ; 
" History of the Abyssinian Expedition " 
(1869); "Life of the Great Lord Fairfax" 
(1870); Ollanta, a Quichua Drama" (1871); 
"Memoir on the Indian Surveys" (1871); a 
translation, printed by the Hakluyt society, 
of the "Reports on the Conquest of Peru" 
(1872); "The Threshold of the Unknown 
Regions" (1873); and a "General Sketch of 
the History of Persia" (1874). He is the 
editor of the " Geographical Magazine." 

MARKIRCH, or Mariakirrli (Fr. Ste. Marie-aux- 
Minei), a town of Alsace-Lorraine, Germany, 
22m. N. W. of Colmar; pop. in 1871, 12,319. 
It is one of the most flourishing centres of Al- 
satian industry. Among the principal branch- 
es of manufacture are silk, wool, and cotton 
weaving, dyeing, and bleaching. The valley 
of Markirch is one of the most picturesque of 
Alsace. There are lead and copper mines in 
the neighboring mountains. The town is of 
recent origin. 

MARL, a clay containing a large proportion 
of carbonate of lime, sometimes 40 to 50 per 



MARLBOROUGH 

cent. If the marl consists largely of shells or 
fragments of shells, it is called shell marl. In 
New Jersey the layers of greensand are very 
generally known as marl beds, a name more 
correctly applied to the tertiary beds made up 
of marine fossil shells which are found near 
the coast of the middle and southern states, 
and are employed for fertilizing the soil. In 
the northern states rich marl deposits are often 
found at the bottom of ponds, in the form of a 
thin white mud filled with minute fresh-water 
shells of living species. (See GREENSAND.) 

MARLBOROUGH, a N. E. county of South 
Carolina, bordering on North Carolina, bound- 
ed W. by the Great Pedee river, and watered 
by its affluents ; area, 505 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 11,814, of whom 6,668 were colored. 
The surface is level and the soil productive. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 6,321 
bushels of wheat, 158,088 of Indian corn, 20,- 
748 of oats, 17,894 of peas and beans, 42,356 
of sweet potatoes, 17,677 Ibs. of rice, and 
8,843 bales of cotton. There were 916 horses, 
919 mules and asses, 1,637 milch cows, 2,907 
other cattle, 974 sheep, and 8,370 swine. Cap- 
ital, Bennettsville. 

MARLBOROUGH, a town of Middlesex co., 
Massachusetts, on a branch of the Fitchburg 
railroad, and on the Boston, Clinton, and 
Fitchburg railroad, 25 m. W. of Boston, and 
15 m. E. N. E. of Worcester ; pop. in 1870, 
8,474. It is built on numerous hills, and con- 
tains within its limits Lake Williams, a beau- 
tiful sheet of water covering 160 acres. It 
has a handsome soldiers' monument of granite, 
a brick town hall costing $87,000, three ho- 
tels, gas works, and a good fire department. 
There are 25 boot and shoe manufactories, of 
which several are very extensive ; a national 
bank, a savings bank, a high school, 36 public 
schools, four evening schools, five private 
schools, a public library of 5,000 volumes, 
two weekly newspapers, and seven churches. 
Marlborough was incorporated in 1661. 

MARLBOROUGH, a town and parliamentary 
borough of Wiltshire, England, on the Kennet 
river, 75 m. W. by S. of London ; pop. in 1871, 
5,034. It consists chiefly of one wide street. 
There is a royal free grammar school, found- 
ed by Edward VI. A castle existed in the 
days of Richard I., and a parliament was held 
there under Henry III., passing laws which 
were known as the statutes of Malbridge or 
Marlberge. The site was subsequently occu- 
pied by a noble mansion, at a later period by 
an inn, and is now part of Marlborough col- 
lege. This institution dates from 1843, and is 
intended for 500 pupils, two thirds of whom 
must be sons of clergymen. A laboratory and 
science lecture room were established in 1875. 
The town has considerable trade in local manu- 
facturing, agricultural, and dairy products, but 
has lost the importance which it had before 
the opening of the Great Western railway, 
when it was one of the principal posting sta- 
tions between London, Bath, and Bristol. 






MARLBOROUGH 



177 



MiRLBOROUGH, John Churchill, duke of, a 
British general, born at Ashe, in Devonshire, 
June 24, 1650. died in London, June 16, 1722. 

le was the son of Sir Winston Churchill, a 

Dyalist of some note, who procured for him 
place of page to the duke of York, short- 
after the restoration. His education was 

ight, but he was a favorite with the duke, 

rho made him an ensign in the guards at the 
of 16. He served at Tangiers against 
Moors, and in the auxiliary force which 

)harles II. sent to aid the French in their at- 
3k on Holland, where he won the praise of 
irenne by his courage and capacity. Louis 

[IV. made him a colonel, and on his return 
England after the peace of Nimeguen the 

Luke of York gave him high appointments in 
household. He owed his advancement as 

mch to the influence of his sister Arabella as 
to his own merits, she being the mistress of 
the duke of York. He was engaged in not a 
few intrigues of gallantry, and is said to have 
jumped from the window of the chamber of the 
duchess of Cleveland, one of the most notori- 
ous of the king's mistresses, to avoid the king. 
The lady rewarded him by the present of 
5,000, with which he purchased an annuity 
of 500 a year. In 1678 he married Sarah 
Jennings, a young woman of good family, in 
the service of the duchess of York, who be- 
came famous for her talents and imperious 
temper. He received military promotion, and 
was made Lord Churchill in the peerage of 
Scotland ; and soon after, on the marriage of 
the princess Anne with Prince George of Den- 
mark (1683), Lady Churchill was made chief 
lady of her bedchamber. The ladies had been 
friends for some time, though no two persons 
could be more unlike; Anne being as dull, 
heavy, and yielding as Sarah was lively, change- 
able, and imperious. They corresponded, 
when unavoidably separated, under the names 
of Mrs. Morley and Mrs. Freeman. The in- 
fluence thus established lasted for more than 
a quarter of a century, and would have ended 
only with Anne's life if Lady Churchill had 
known how to govern her temper. On the 
duke of York becoming James II., Churchill 
was made general and baron of Sandridge, 
and was sent as ambassador to France. On 
the rebellion of the duke of Monmouth, he 
performed important military services, and 
the victory of Sedgemoor was due to him. 
He was not conspicuous during the reign of 
James II., and was opposed to the policy of 
that prince ; but his opposition was not of a 
demonstrative character, and down to the last 
moment he enjoyed the king's confidence. The 
influence of his wife over Anne was used with 
effect to keep the princess opposed to her fa- 
ther's policy, and in 1687 Churchill communi- 
cated that fact to William of Orange. On the 
landing of William, Churchill was made a lieu- 
tenant general, and appointed to an important 
command. He induced Lord Cornbury, son 
of the earl of Clarendon and brother-in-law of 



James, to join William, and soon followed 
him, accompanied by several military men, 
and by the duke of Grafton, an illegitimate 
son of Charles II. His example was followed 
by Prince George of Denmark, while Lady 
Churchill found no difficulty in persuading 
Anne to leave London, and to join the north- 
ern insurgents. The influence of the Church- 
ills was employed to induce Anne to waive 
her superior claim to the throne over William. 
For this Lord Churchill received valuable ap- 
pointments, and was made earl of Marlbor- 
ough. In the subsequent disputes between 
William and Anne he sided with the latter. 
He was sent in 1689 to command the British 
forces in the Low Countries, and repulsed the 
French at Walcourt. The next year he led an 
army to Ireland, and took Cork and Kinsale. 
He early began a correspondence with the ex- 
iled king, and completely deceived him. His 
object was not to aid James, but to overthrow 
William III., place Anne at the head of the 
nation, and rule her and England through his 
wife. In 1692 he was dismissed from his em- 
ployments, and sent to the tower, where he 
remained for some time. He sent to James 
an account of the expedition against Brest, 
which enabled the French to defeat the Eng- 
lish with great slaughter, one of his objects 
being to ruin Talmash, a military rival, who 
lost his life on the occasion. After the death 
of Queen Mary, Marlborough was restored to 
favor, and made governor to the duke of 
Gloucester, Anne's son. At the beginning of 
the war of the Spanish succession he was ap- 
pointed commander of the forces in Holland, 
and ambassador to that country. He was very 
successful as a diplomatist, and the king, in 
anticipation of his death, recommended him 
to Anne as one most competent to advise and 
command. When Anne became queen reg- 
nant (1702), Marlborough was made captain 
general and master of the ordnance, and a 
knight of the garter. Lady Marlborough re- 
ceived several valuable appointments in the 
royal household, and two of her daughters 
were made ladies of the bedchamber. Through 
his own influence with Godolphin, the prime 
minister, who was his son-in-law, and that of 
his wife with the queen, Marlborough now 
practically ruled the kingdom. As ambassa- 
dor to Holland, he completed the arrange- 
ments for the declaration of war against 
France, and was appointed generalissimo of 
the armies of the grand alliance, when he 
entered upon a surprising career of victory. 
After various successes, the campaign of Blen- 
heim, in cooperation with Prince Eugene, took 
place in the summer of 1704, and on Aug. 13 
the battle of that name was won. He had 
previously been made a duke, and now the 
manor and honor of Woodstock were conferred 
upon him, and the queen ordered that a palace 
should be there built for him, to be called Blen- 
heim. He was successful in the operations of 
1705, when the German emperor conferred 



178 



MARLBOROUGH 



upon him the lordship of Mindelheim, with the 
title of prince. The battle of Ramillies was 
won May 23, 1706. Other successes marked 
this campaign, and the duke received a pension 
of 5,000, and other rewards. The campaign 
of 1707 was marked by no striking event where 
Marlborough commanded; but on July 11, 
1708, he won the battle of Oudenarde. Lille 
was taken the same year. Efforts to restore 
peace having failed, the war was resumed, 
and on Sept, 11, 1709, Marlborough, aided by 
Eugene, won the battle of Malplaquet, the most 
sanguinary and hardly contested of all his vic- 
tories. His last campaign, in 1711, when he 
captured the fortress of Bouchain, was the 
most brilliant and effective of all. In the 
mean time great changes had taken place in 
England. The war had been commenced by 
a tory ministry, though it was to support 
whig views. Gradually everything changed. 
Godolphin became a whig, and the great of- 
fices passed into whig hands. In 1707 the 
change was complete, though the queen's sym- 
pathies were with the tones. The duchess of 
Marlborough, who was a whig at the time 
her husband was a tory, bent all her energies 
to the support of the ministry, and if her tact 
had equalled her talent that ministry might 
have lasted through the queen's life. But the 
queen at length became weary of her imperi- 
ous sway, and Mrs. Masham, a cousin of the 
duchess, whom she had placed in the service 
of the queen, was used by Robert Harley as a 
tool to effect her downfall. The ministry of 
Godolphin was overthrown (1710), the duchess 
was dismissed, and Harley, as earl of Oxford, 
became the head of a tory cabinet (1711). This 
was followed by the removal of Marlborough 
from all his offices (Jan. 1, 1712). It was even 
intended to proceed against him legally on a 
charge of embezzling the public money. Gov- 
ernment ceased to pay the cost of building 
Blenheim, and that palace was completed out 
of the funds of the duke. The German gov- 
ernment treated him with equal ingratitude, as 
his principality had been lost through the res- 
toration of the elector of Bavaria. At the 
close of 1712 he left England, and visited Flan- 
ders and Germany, residing principally at Aix- 
la-Chapelle, Frankfort, and Antwerp. The 
ill treatment he had received from the tones 
caused him to become a firm friend of the 
Hanoverian succession. He corresponded with 
the elector, offered him a large loan, and used 
his influence with Holland in behalf of the 
Protestant succession. He returned to Eng- 
land on the very day of the accession of the 
house of Hanover, and was well received by 
the people, the nobility, and the array. He 
was appointed a privy councillor, and on the 
arrival of George I. was made captain general 
of the army and master of the ordnance. He 
was prompt in his measures during the rebellion 
of 1715 ; but it is said that he sent money to 
the pretender. His health was now on the de- 
cline, and he experienced more than one par- 



MARLOWE 

alytic shock. Still his mental powers were not 
affected. He attended parliament even in the 
last year of his life, and also performed his 
various military duties. He offered to resign 
his offices, but the king would not hear of 
it. He was seized with palsy in June, 1722, at 
Windsor lodge, and died eight days before the 
completion of his 72d year. He had a mag- 
nificent funeral, and his body was deposited 
in Westminster abbey, whence it was removed 
to Blenheim, and placed in a noble mauso- 
leum, the work of Rysbrack. The duke left 
no son, and his title passed to his eldest daugh- 
ter, Henrietta, countess of Godolphin, from 
whom it descended to her nephew, Charles 
Spencer, earl of Sunderland. He left enormous 
wealth, his income at the time of his death 
being 70,000, exclusive of what he drew from 
royal gifts. He was doubtless the most adroit 
statesman an'd most successful commander of 
his time. The duchess survived him 22 years. 
Though there is much exaggeration in the or- 
dinary accounts of her violence and quarrels, 
it is undeniable that her life was not of that 
dignified character which would have been be- 
coming in one of her station. She could be 
liberal, and aided Child, the banker, whom the 
bank of England was seeking to ruin, by giving 
him an order on that institution for 100,000. 
She gave Hooke 5,000 for assisting to write 
her "Account" of her conduct while at court. 
She died Oct. 18, 1744, in her 85th year. Her 
immense wealth was left principally to Charles, 
duke of Marlborough, and to his brother, John 
Spencer. Among her bequests was one of 
20,000 to Lord Chesterfield, and another of 
10,000 to the elder Pitt. In 1845-'6 the " Let- 
ters and Despatches of the Duke of Marlbor- 
ough" were published in 5 vols. 8vo, edited 
by Sir George Murray. The best biographies 
of the duke of Marlborough are by Coxe, " Me- 
moirs of John, Duke of Marlborough " (3 vols. 
4to, London, 1817-'19, and 3 vols. 8vo, 1848), 
and Alison, "Life of John, Duke of Marlbor- 
ough" (2 vols., London, 1847). The "Life of 
the Duchess of Marlborough " has been writ- 
ten by Mrs. A. T. Thomson (2 vols., London, 
1839), and by Miss Costello, in vol. iv. of 
"Eminent Englishwomen" (1844). 

MARLIANI, Anrelio, count, an Italian com- 
poser, born in Lombardy about 1803, killed in 
Bologna in June, 1849. He joined the car- 
bonari, lost his fortune in their service, and 
was obliged to take refuge in Paris. There he 
became a teacher of singing, and Julia Grisi 
was his pupil. After the revolution of 1848 
he returned to Italy, and took up arms with the 
revolutionists. He composed many songs and 
romances and several operas, the best known 
of which, Le bravo, was produced at Paris in 
1834 and at Vienna in 1835. 

MARLITT, E. See JOHN, EUGEXIE. 

MARLOWE, Christopher, or Kit, an English 
dramatic poet, born in Canterbury in 1564, 
killed in Deptford, June 16, 1593. His father, 
a shoemaker, obtained for him admission into 



MARMARA 



MARMONT 



179 




King's school, Canterbury. He was after- 
ward entered as a pensioner of Corpus Christi 
college, Cambridge, where he received the de- 
gree of bachelor of arts in 1583 and of mas- 
in 1587. In 1586 he produced the first part 
his tragedy of " Tamburlaine," which ex- 
bits more action on the stage, a more drama- 
dialogue, and a far more varied and skilful 
rsification, than any English play which had 
ceded it ; but it was ridiculed for its bom- 
ic style and extravagant scenes. It was 
rinted with a second part in 1590. His sec- 
ond play was the " Tragical History of the 
Life and Death of Dr. Faustus," a powerful 
though irregular drama, its poetical beauties 
being often intermingled with low buffooneries. 
" e hero makes a pact with Lucifer, to whom 
disposes of his soul on condition of having 
familiar spirit and unlimited /power at his 
mmand for 24 years. The awful melancholy 
the fiend, as contrasted with the malignant 
irth of Goethe's Mephistopheles, the strug- 
es of awakened conscience in the hero, and 
splendid horror of the termination, are its 
ost striking features. The German puppet 
ly constructed from this drama was the f oun- 
,tion of Goethe's great tragedy, which con- 
sequently in the opening has a striking resem- 
blance to Marlowe's. "The Jew of Malta" 
has more- vigorous passages than are to be 
found in any other Elizabethan play except 
those of Shakespeare. His "Edward II." con- 
tains a death scene which Charles Lamb says 
"moves pity and terror beyond any scene, an- 
cient or modern." Several other plays of 
doubtful authorship have been attributed to 
him, and it is probable that the second and 
third parts of Henry VI. in Shakespeare were 
mostly written by Marlowe. He also made 
translations from Ovid, so licentious that the 
archbishop of Canterbury ordered them to be 
burned, yet they have been often reprinted. 
He is supposed to have been an actor as well 
as playwright, led a dissipated life, is stated to 
have held atheistical opinions, though there is 
no proof of this in his plays, and died from a 
wound received in a disgraceful quarrel. An 
edition of his works by Alexander Dyce was 
published in London in 1850, in 3 vols. 
MARMARA, Sea of. See MARMORA. 
MARMAROS, a N". E. county of Hungary, bor- 
dering on Galicia, Bukowina, and Transylvania, 
and the counties of Bereg, Ugocsa, and Szat- 
mar ; area, 3,998 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 220,506, 
including about 100,000 Ruthenians, 50,000 
Wallachs, 20,000 Jews, 15,000 Magyars, and 
3,000 Germans. The United Greek church is 
the most numerous, there being only about 
15,000 Roman Catholics and 6,000 Protestants. 
Marmaros is next to Bihar and Pesth the lar- 
gest county of Hungary, but far more thinly 
populated. The Carpathians separate it from 
Galicia, Bukowina, and Transylvania, and trav- 
erse it in many directions, the highest peaks 
rising to an altitude of 7,000 ft. At the foot 
of Mt. Csorna rises the Black Theiss, which 



joins the White Theiss in this county. Iron, 
lead, marble, alabaster, coal, and crystals are 
found, and in a few localities also gold. The 
Marmaros diamonds are celebrated. The salt 
mines are immense. The Suliguli is the most 
important of the mineral springs. The forests 
are rich in wood, especially oak. Horses and 
sheep are raised in great numbers. Excepting 
the limited valley of the Theiss, the country 
does not favor the production of cereals, fruits, 
and wine, and maize is the principal grain raised 
for local consumption. Capital, Sziget. 

MARMIER, Xavier, a French author, born at 
Pontarlier, June 24, 1809. He studied the 
German and other foreign languages, and be- 
came editor of the Revue Germanique. From 
1836 to 1838 he explored northern Europe, on 
board of a national ship of war, and was pro- 
fessor at Rennes from 1839 to 1841, when he 
received the appointment of librarian in the 
ministry of education, which permitted him to 
travel in the East, in North and South Amer- 
ica, and in other countries. In 1846 he was 
placed in charge of the Ste. Genevieve library, 
and in 1870 was elected to the academy. He 
has translated Goethe's and Schiller's plays and 
other German works, and published miscel- 
laneous writings, some of which relate to the 
history, language, and literature of Iceland, 
Denmark, and Sweden. His best novels, Les 
fiances du Spitzberg (Paris, 1858) and Gazida 
(1860), received academical prizes. Among 
his books of travel are : Lettres sur le Nord, 
Danemark, Suede, Laponie, Spitzberg (1840; 
5th ed., 1847) ; Du Rhin au Nil (2 vols., 1847) ; 
Lettres sur la Russie, la Finlande ft la Pologne 
(2 vols., 1848) ; Lettres sur VAmerique (2 vols., 
1852); Lettres sur V Adriatique et le Monte- 
negro (2 vols., 1854); Voyage pittoresque en 
Allemagne (2 vols., 1858-'9) ; En Amerique et 
en Europe (1859) ; and Souvenirs d'un voya- 
geur (1867). Among his more recent publica- 
tions is the story book, VArbre de Noel (1871). 

MARMONT, Auguste Frederic Louis Viesse de, duke 
of Ragusa, a marshal of France, born in Cha- 
tillon-sur-Seine, July 20, 1774, died in Venice, 
Feb. 28, 1852. He was descended from an 
ancient family, and at 15 years of age entered 
a regiment of infantry as sub-lieutenant. Three 
years afterward he was transferred to the ar- 
tillery ; and having fallen under the notice of 
Bonaparte, he was in 1796 appointed his first 
aide-de-camp, in which capacity he served with 
distinction in the two Italian campaigns. He 
accompanied the expedition to Egypt, and 
for his good conduct at the investment of 
Malta was appointed a general of brigade. He 
returned with Bonaparte to France, and for 
his cooperation on the 18th Brumaire was ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the artillery in 
the army of reserve. The successful trans- 
portation of the French artillery over the Great 
St. Bernard in the spring of 1800 was in a 
great measure due to his exertions ; and the 
skill with which he managed his batteries at 
Marengo procured him the rank of general of 



180 



MARMONT 



division. He participated with credit in the 
campaign of 1805 in Germany, and in 1806 was 
made commander-in-chief of the forces in Dal- 
matia, where he remained till 1809. For his 
successful defence of Ragusa against a greatly 
superior force of Russians and Montenegrins, 
Sept. 30, 1806, he subsequently received the 
title of duke of Ragusa. After the battle of 
Aspern and Essling (May 21, 22, 1809) he 
brought up his corps in good order to the as- 
sistance of the emperor, defeating on the way 
superior bodies of Austrians in several en- 
counters ; and for his conduct at the battle of 
Wagram and in the subsequent pursuit of the 
enemy, he was created a marshal of the em- 
pire. In 1811 he was sent to relieve Massena 
in Portugal, and he ended a series of unfor- 
tunate movements by losing the battle of Sala- 
manca, which ruined the French cause in the 
Peninsula. Having recovered from a severe 
wound received on this occasion, he joined the 
emperor in Germany in 1813, and fought at 
Ltitzen, Bautzen, Dresden, and Leipsic, with a 
valor which in some degree retrieved his mili- 
tary reputation. In the campaign of 1814 he 
vigorously cooperated with Napoleon in the 
brilliant but useless series of battles by which 
the advance of the allies was sought to be 
stayed, and on March 29 arrived with the rem- 
nant of his corps before Paris. At the battle 
of Paris, fought on the succeeding day, he 
showed the utmost intrepidity and devotion to 
the imperial cause, and, with the few thousand 
men composing his own corps and that of 
Marshal Mortier, withstood for many hours the 
attacks of an army four times as numerous. 
An armistice was finally agreed upon, and late 
in the day Marmont, availing himself of a let- 
ter from Joseph Bonaparte, who had been ap- 
pointed lieutenant general of the empire, au- 
thorizing him to enter into an arrangement 
with the allied sovereigns, agreed to evacuate 
the city. On the 31st the allies entered Paris 
in triumph; and four days afterward Mar- 
mont, influenced by a aenatus cowultum declar- 
ing Napoleon's forfeiture of the throne, and 
abolishing the right of succession of his family, 
gave in his adhesion to the provisional govern- 
ment which had been formed under the pres- 
idency of Talleyrand; stipulating, however, 
that the life and personal freedom of Napoleon 
should be secured, and that the French troops 
should be provided with secure quarters in 
Normandy. On April 5 his corps, numbering 
12,000 men, accordingly entered within the 
allied lines and took the road to Normandy. 
The indignation of Napoleon at this proceed- 
ing was boundless, and, in an order issued 
from Fontainebleau immediately after the news 
reached him, he expressly disavowed it, ob- 
serving: "The emperor cannot approve the 
condition on which the duke of Ragusa has 
taken this step; he cannot accept life and 
liberty at the mercy of a subject," During the 
hundred days he expressly excepted him from 
the imperial act of amnesty, and subsequently 



MARMONTEL 

at St. Helena, speaking of his defection, said : 
" I was betrayed by Marmont, whom I might 
call my son, my offspring, my own work." 
He received numerous distinctions from the 
Bourbons after the first and second restora- 
tions, but about 1825 retired to his country 
seat, whence, in July, 1830, he was suddenly 
summoned to Paris to quell the revolt against 
Charles X. Failing in this, he was obliged to 
share the exile of the Bourbons ; and so strong 
was the odium excited against him, that his 
name was struck from the list of the French 
army. He never reentered France, but wan- 
dered over Europe, fixing his residence finally 
at Venice, where his latter years were passed. 
He published his travels in Hungary, southern 
Russia, Syria, Egypt, &c., and Esprit des in- 
stitutions militaires, which Marshal Bugeaud 
wished to place in the hands of every officer in 
the service; and left an autobiography, pub- 
lished in Paris under the title of Memoires du 
due de Eaguse (9 vols., 1856). 

MARMONTEL, Jean Francois, a French author, 
born at Bort, Limousin, July 11, 1723, died at 
Ableville, near Evreux, Dec. 31, 1799. Of hum- 
ble birth, he was educated gratuitously under 
the Jesuits of Mauriac, and was intended for the 
priesthood. His love of literature prevented 
this career, and also withdrew him from com- 
merce, in which his father sought his estab- 
lishment, and he became professor of philoso- 
phy at Toulouse, where his verses took the 
prize of the floral games. Voltaire, with whom 
he began a correspondence, induced him to re- 
move to Paris in 1745, where he soon obtained 
the prize of the French academy for a poem, 
and produced several tragedies which the genius 
of Mile. Clairon made eminently successful on 
the stage. Protected by Mme. de Pompadour, 
he became in 1753 historiographer of the royal 
buildings, and in 1758 publisher of the Mercure 
de France, and thus had a large income. To 
the Mercure he contributed the Contes moraux, 
on which his fame chiefly rests, and which have 
been greatly admired as specimens of light and 
lively writing. His position as manager of the 
Mercure was lost after two years in conse- 
quence of a satire on the duke d'Aumont, and 
he was confined for a few days in the Bastile. 
Admitted into the academy in 1763, he suc- 
ceeded D'Alembert in 1783 as perpetual secre- 
tary. He left Paris during the revolution, was 
one of the moderate deputies in the council of 
the ancients in 1797, and lived again in retire- 
ment after the 18th Fructidor. His best the- 
atrical pieces are the tragedies Les Heraclides 
and Numitor, the operas Didon and Penelope, 
and the comic operas Sylvain and Zemire et 
Azore. He also wrote the romances Belisaire 
(1767) and Les Incas (1777), collected his ar- 
ticles in the Encyclopedic under the title of 
Elements de litterature (6 vols., 1787), pub- 
lished a history of the regency of the duke of 
Orleans, and left treatises, designed for the ed- 
ucation of his children, on the French language, 
logic, metaphysics, and morals, and his own 



I 



MARMORA 

Memoires (4 vols., 1804). A complete edition 
of Iris works was published in 18 vols. (1808), 
and a select edition in 10 vols. (1824). His son, 
Louis JOSEPH, born in Paris in 1789, published 
two poems of his father, Polymnie and the 
Neuvaine de Cy there, and wrote several poems. 
He went to Mexico, and subsequently to the 
United States, leading a vagrant life, and died 
in a hospital in New York in 1830. 

MARMORA, Sea of (anc. Propontis), a body 
of water lying between European and Asiatic 
Turkey; length 172 m., greatest breadth about 
50 m. Its 1ST. E. extremity is connected with 
the Black sea by the Bosporus, and its S. W. 
extremity with the Archipelago by the Darda- 
nelles. It is remarkable for its depth, which 
in some places is more than 350 fathoms. It 
has numerous excellent harbors on its K shore, 
contains several islands, the principal of which 
is Marmora, and receives the waters of many 
but inconsiderable tributary streams. It has 
no tides, but currents of variable strength and 
velocity run through it. (See BLACK SEA, vol. 
ii., p. 683.) Its shores present a picturesque 
aspect, and are especially bold and precipitous 
on the Asiatic side. The ISLAND OF MARMORA 
(anc. Proconnesus ; Turk. Marmar Adassy), 
which gives name to the sea, is about 12 m. 
long and 6 m. wide, and for the most part 
mountainous and barren. It has been cele- 
brated from a remote age for its marble 
(whence its name, from Lat. marmor), with 
which in ancient times it supplied Cyzicus 
and other Hellenic cities, as in modern times 
it has supplied Constantinople. The capital, 
Marmora, stands on the S. W. coast, and is 
chiefly built of wood. The highest summit of 
the island is in lat. 40 36' N., Ion. 27 35' E. 

MARMOSET, the common name of the South 
American monkeys of the family hapalidce, in- 
cluding the genera hapale (Illiger) and midas 
(Geoffroy). The number of teeth is the same 
as in the old-world apes and in man, viz. : 
incisors , canines ^Cy, and molars fl|, with 
acute tubercles. They are all of a size, re- 
sembling squirrels in form and agility; the 
rounded head is frequently furnished with ear- 
like tufts of silky hair on the sides ; the feet 
are five-toed, the posterior having an opposable 
thumb with a flat nail, all the other fingers of 
both extremities having sharp claws, with the 
anterior thumb scarcely opposable ; the tail is 
long and bushy, but not prehensile, and the 
body is covered with soft woolly fur. In hapale 
the muzzle is short ; the facial angle 50 ; the 
upper lateral incisors insulated, the lower the 
longest, narrow, and convex outward; lower 
canines smallest. The striated marmoset or 
ouistiti (H. jacchus, 111.) is about 8 in. long, and 
the tail about a foot ; the general color is a 
deep gray, with the lower back and tail banded 
with brown, head chestnut, spot on forehead 
and long hairs on cheeks and behind the ears 
white. It is a handsome and cleanly animal, 
walking on all-fours, and like the rest of its 
family lives in the woods of Brazil, running 



MARMOSET 



181 



about in the trees in pursuit of insects, fruits, 
small birds, and eggs ; it is easily tamed, and 
makes an interesting and affectionate pet ; in 
captivity it will eat almost any vegetable or an- 
imal food ; it is not so intelligent as the other 



> 




Striated Marmoset (Hapale jacchus). 

monkeys ; it breeds occasionally in confinement. 
In midas the lower incisors are short and 
broad, and the forehead more prominent ; the 
species are commonly called tamarins, and in- 
clude some of the smallest and prettiest mon- 
keys. The silky marmoset, or marikiva (M. 
rosalia, Geoffr.), is of a golden yellow color, 
sometimes with a reddish tinge, the fur be- 
ing very soft and silky and forming a kind of 
mane upon the neck ; its disposition is gentle, 
but its constitution is so delicate that it soon 
dies from the exposure of even temperate cli- 




Silky Marmoset (Midas rosalia). 

mates. The leonine marmoset, or leoncito 
(M. leoninus, Geoffr.), is the smallest monkey 
known ; the color is brownish with black face 
and brown mane, which it erects when angry, 
whence its name. 



182 



MARMOT 



MARMOT, a large rodent of the squirrel family, 
and genus arctomys (Schreber). The body is 
thick and compressed, the head large and flat- 
tened, the legs short and stout, and the tail 
short, bushy, and nearly cylindrical ; the inci- 
sors are less compressed than in the squirrels, 
smooth in front and rounded ; the molars are 
\~1, enamelled continuously, with transverse 
pointed tubercles, the first upper one the small- 
est ; the ears are short and rounded, but dis- 
tinct above the fur; the fore feet with four 
toes armed with sharp claws, and a very rudi- 
mentary thumb with a small flat nail instead 
of a claw ; the hind feet five-toed, with strong 
curved claws; the soles are entirely naked; 
there are very shallow cheek pouches. The com- 
mon European marmot {A. marmota, Schreb.) 
is 18 in. long, the tail 2 in. ; the color is yel- 
lowish gray, with the top of the head dark 
gray, russet at the base of the tail, and incisors 
yellow. The form is clumsy, the movements 
slow, and the sagacity small ; inhabiting the 
mountains of Europe near the snow line, they 




European Marmot (Arctomys marmota). 

live in families in burrows, in which they pass 
the winter in a state of lethargy ; the food is 
vegetable, during the search for which one 
animal is stationed as a sentinel near the bur- 
row, into which all retreat at the signal of dan- 
ger; the circular chamber for the family is 
approached by a narrow gallery 6 or 6 ft. 
long; they hibernate on beds of dried grass, 
and are very fat at the beginning and very lean 
at the end of this season ; when fat they are 
sometimes used by the mountaineers as food. 
The Poland marmot (A. lobac, Pall.) is some- 
what larger, with more reddish tints. They 
burrow in the plains of less elevated districts 
in Poland, Russia, and northern Asia; they 
prefer dry and stony soils, into which they dig 
very deeply, living in families of 30 or 40, and 
amassing large quantities of dried grasses. 
Other marmots are described, which occasion- 
ally, as perhaps do all, feed upon birds and 
small quadrupeds. For the American marmot 
(A. monax, Gmel.) see WOODCIIIJCK, its com- 
mon name. Many animals of the allied genus 
spermophilus (Cuv.) are sometimes called mar- 



MAROCHETTI 

mots, but such come more properly under the 
head of prairie squirrels. The fur is thick and 
not very coarse, and is considerably used for 
common caps, robes, and similar objects. 

MARNE (anc. Matrona), a river of France, 
which rises in the department of Haute-Marne, 
and, after a N. W. course of about 280 m., 
falls into the Seine near Paris. Its principal 
tributaries are the Ornain, Blaise, Petit-Morin, 
and Grand-Morin. The chief cities on its 
banks are Langres, Chaumont, Joinville, St. 
Dizier, Vitry-le-Francais, Chalons, Epernay, 
and Meaux. It is navigable from its junction 
with the Seine to St. Dizier, 210 m. The 
Marne is connected with the Rhine and Aisne 
by means of canals. 

MARNE, a N. E. department of France, in 
Champagne, bordering on Aisne, Ardennes, 
Meuse, Haute-Marne, Aube, and Seine-et- 
Marne; area, 8,159 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
386,157. The surface is an inclined plane, 
sloping from E. to W., and diversified by a 
few hills of moderate elevation. It is divided 
into two nearly equal parts by the river Marne, 
whence it derives its name. The land adjoin- 
ing this river is rich, but the soil elsewhere is 
in general light and barren. The principal riv- 
ers, besides the Marne, are the Aisne, Suippe, 
and Vesle in the north, and the Aube and Seine 
in the south. Great quantities of wine are 
made, mostly champagne. The most important 
manufacture is that of wool, which centres 
chiefly at Rheims. The department is divided 
into the arrondissements of Chalons-sur-Marne, 
Epernay, Rheims, Ste. Menehould, and Vitry- 
le-Francais. Capital, Chalons-sur-Marne. 

MARNE, Haute. See HAUTE-MARNE. 

MARNIX, Philip van. See ALDEGONDE, SAINTE. 

MAROCHETTI, Carlo, baron, an Italian sculp- 
tor, born in Turin in 1805, died in Paris, Dec. 
28, 1867. He studied in Paris and Rome, and 
after 1848 went to London. Among his prin- 
cipal works are: "The Fallen Angel" (1831); 
a bronze statue of Emanuel Philibert, duke of 
Savoy, erected at Turin (1838); equestrian 
statue of the duke of Wellington, at Glasgow 
(1844); "Sappho" (1850); Richard Coeur de 
Lion, at London (1851); "Cupid and Grey- 
hound " (1854) ; equestrian statue of the queen, 
at Glasgow (1854) ; and statue of Wellington, 
at Strathfieldsay (1866). He was employed in 
a large number of monumental works, such as 
" The Battle of Jemmapes," a bass relief on the 
Arc de VEtoile, and the tomb of Napoleon in 
the Invalides, Paris ; monument to the British 
soldiers buried at Scutari, in London ; monu- 
ment to the officers of the Coldstream guards 
who fell at Inkerman, in St. Paul's cathedral, 
London ; and a monument to the princess 
Elizabeth, daughter of Charles L, in Newport 
church, Isle of Wight. He also executed a 
large number of portrait busts, among the best 
of which is one of Prince Albert. He was en- 
nobled by Charles Albert of Sardinia in 1838, 
and was elected a member of the royal academy 
in London in 1866. 







MARONITES 

MAROMTES, a body of Syrian Christians who 
acknowledge the spiritual supremacy of the 
Roman pontiff. The name appears to have 
been derived from St. Maron or Maroun, a 
hermit who lived in the mountains near Tyre, 
and whose feast is celebrated on Feb. 9. His 
followers built a monastic stronghold on the 
banks of the Orontes, near Apamea, which 
bore his name and became during the early 
Mohammedan wars the refuge of the Syrian 
Christians. Another Maron, a Monothelite 
bishop of the 7th century, induced the greater 
number of the Syrian Christians to embrace his 
opinions ; and from him also they were called 
Maronites. Finally John Maron, a monk of the 
monastery of Apamea, was appointed in 676 
bishop of Botrys and patriarch of the orthodox 
Maronites. This similarity of name has occa- 
sioned no little confusion among the church 
historians of Syria. The Maronites chiefly in- 
habit the mountain chain of Lebanon between 
Tripoli, Tyre, and the lake of Gennesaret. 
Their chief seat is in the district of Kesrawan. 
Their early history is enveloped in much ob- 
scurity. It is certain, ho'wever, that when the 
last Byzantine troops were withdrawn in 685 
from the Syrian fortresses, the Christians held 
the entire range of mountains from Antioch to 
Jerusalem ; and there they continued to dwell 
under chiefs of their own, repelling every at- 
tack of the Saracens, and affording an asylum 
to the persecuted Christians of the surrounding 
provinces. With the original Druse population 
and the Mohammedan recusants who joined 
them from time to time, the Maronites appear 
to have lived in peace. (See DRUSES.) A force 
of Maronites in 877 helped to defend Syracuse 
against the Saracens. At the epoch of the 
crusades they rendered valuable service to the 
Christian armies. In 1182 a part of the Mono- 
thelites abjured their errors before Amaury, 
La