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THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



VOL XII. 
MOTT-PALES 



578 






THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED, 



VOLUME XII. 
MOTT-PALES. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

5W AND 551 BROADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIX. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



S 







Among the Contributors to the Twelfth Volume of the Revised Edition are 

the following : 



FKEDEEIO ADAMS, Newark, N. J. 

ORANGE, N. J. 

A. AENOLD. 

MOWING AND EEAPING MACHINES. 

PAUL ABPIN, late Editor of the Courrier des 

fitats- Unis. 

NECKER, JACQUES. 

NECKER, SUSANNE CURCHOD DE NASSB. 

Prof. B. FOEDYCE BAEKEB, M. D. 

OBSTETRICS. 

"WiLLABD BAETLETT. 

NATAL. 

NIGER. 

NILE. 

NORTHWEST PROVINCES. 

NUBIA. 

JULIUS BING. 

MUNICH, 

NESSELRODE, KARL ROBERT VON, Count, 

ORLEANS, DUCHY AND FAMILIES OF, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

FEANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

Music (History of). 
NILSSON, CHRISTINE. 
OFFENBACH, JACQUES. 
ORGAN. 

Rev. CHAELES H. BEIGHAM, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

OWEN, JOHN. 
EDWAED L. BUELINGAME, Ph. D. 

NEWSPAPERS (Foreign), 

OVIEDO Y VALDES, GONZALO FERNANDEZ DE, 

Oxus, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

JAMES BUENS, M. D., New Orleans, La. 

NEW ORLEANS. 

Rev. CHAELES P. BUSH, D. D. 

NESTORIANS. 
NESTORIUS. 

ROBEET OAETEE. 

NEO-PLATONISM. 
O'CONNELL, DANIEL, 
ORANGEMEN, 
OSSIAN, 

and other articles in biography and history. 



JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 



MUMMY, 

MUSCAT, 

NICARAGUA, 

NORTHMEN, 

NORTH SEA, 

NORWAY, 

OMAN, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

Prof. E. H. CLAEKE, M. D., Harvard 'Univer- 
sity. 

NlCOTIA, 

OPIUM (medical part), 

and other articles in materia medico. 

Hon. T. M. OOOLET, LL. D., Michigan Univer- 
sity, Ann Arbor. 

NEGLIGENCE, 
NULLIFICATION, 

and other legal articles. 



Prof. J. 0. D ALTON, M. D. 

Mucus, 
MUSCLE, 
NERVE, 
NERVE CELL, 
NOSE, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

Hon. CHAELES P. DALY, LL. D., Chief Justice 
of the Court of Common Pleas, New York. 
NATURALIZATION. 

Prof. W. H. DBAPEB, M. D. 

NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

EATON S. DEONE. 

NEBRASKA, 
NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
NEW JERSEY, 
NEW YORK (State), 
NORTH CAROLINA, 
OHIO, 

and other articles in American geography. 

ROBEET T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

W. M. FEEEISS. 

MUEZZIN. 

MUFTI. 

OHM, GEORG SIMON. 

OHM, MARTIN. 

OXFORD, UNIVERSITY OF. 

Prof. WILLAED FISKE, Cornell University, Ith- 
aca, N. Y. 

NORWAY, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF. 

SAMUEL W. FEANCIS, M. D., Newport, R. I. 

MOTT, VALENTINE. 

Gen. W. B. FEANKLIN, Superintendent Colt's 
Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, 
Hartford, Conn. 

MUSKET. 
NAVY. 

Prof. W. E. GBIFFIS, late of the Imperial Col- 
lege, Tokio, Japan. 

NAGASAKI. 
NIKKO. 
NIPPON. 
NOBUNAGA. 

OZAKA. 

ALFEED H. GUEENSEY. 

NASHVILLE, SIEGE OF, 

and other articles in military history and biogra- 

phy. 

Prof. JAMES HALL, LL. D., Curator of the State 
Museum of Natural History, Albany, N. Y. 
PALAEONTOLOGY. 

J. W. HA WES. 

NEVADA, 

NEW BRUNSWICK, 

NEWFOUNDLAND, 

NEW MEXICO, 

NEW YORK (City), 

NORTHWEST TERRITORIES, 

NOVA SCOTIA, 

ONTARIO, 

OREGON, 

and other articles in American geography. 

THOMAS HITCHCOCK. 

NEW JERUSALEM. 



VI 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE TWELFTH VOLUME 



CHABLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

NITEIO ACID. 

NITROGEN. 

NUTRITION. 

OXYGEN. 

OZONE. 

Prof. T. STEKRY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 
MOUNTAIN. 

ROSSITEE JOHNSON. 

NIGHTINGALE, FLORENCE, 
OATES, TITUS, 
ODD FELLOWS, 
OLIPHANT, CAROLINA, 
ORVIETO, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. 0. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

NAPHTHA, 
NAPHTHALINE, 
NICKEL, 
OXALIC ACID, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

MYLODON, 

NAUTILUS, 

OCTOPUS, 

ORNITHOLOGY, 

OWL, 

Ox, 

OYSTER, 

and other articles in zoology. 

Prof. JAMES LAW, Cornell University, Ithaca, 

MURRAIN. 

Rev. SAMUEL LOOKWOOD, Ph. D., Freehold, N. J. 

NEWCOMB, SIMON. 

Prof. THOMAS R. LOUNSBURY, Yale College. 

NELSON, HORATIO. 
ORDEAL. 

Prof. BENJAMIN W. MCCREADY, M. D., Belle- 
vue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

OPHTHALMIA. 

Prof. ALFRED M. MAYER, Stevens Inst. of Tech- 
nology, Hoboken, N. J. 

Music (Theory of). 

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

NAMES, 

NINEVEH, 

NORMANBY, MARQUIS OP, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 

NEWMAN, JOHN HENRY, 
NICHOLAS, Popes, 
OBLATES, 
ORATORIANS, 
ORIGEN, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

Count L. F. DE POURTALES, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

PACIFIC OCEAN. 
V. PREOHT. 

MUSICAL Box. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., London. 

NEBULA, 

NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS, 

NEPTUNE, 

and other astronomical articles. 



Prof. A. RAUSCHENBUSCH, D. D., Rochester 
Theological Seminary, Rochester, N. Y. 

MtiNZER, THOMAS. 

Prof. CHARLES VALENTINE RILEY, State Ento- 
mologist, St. Louis, Mo. 

OAK APPLE. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

NAST, THOMAS, 
NEWSPAPERS (American), 
NORDHOFF, CHARLES, 

and other articles in biography. 

JOHN SAVAGE, Fordham, N. Y. 

O'BRIEN, WILLIAM SMITH. 
O'CURRY, EUGENE. 

Prof. PHILIP SCHAFF, D. D., Union Theological 
Seminary, New York. 

NEANDER, JOHANN AUGUST WILHELM. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 
OLD CATHOLICS, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

NARRAGANSETTS, 
NATCHEZ, 
NEZ PERCES, 
ONONDAGAS, 

OSAGES, 

OTTAWAS, 

and other articles on American Indians. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of tho 
City of New York. 

MUHLENBERG, WlLLIAM AUGUSTUS. 

NEALE, JOHN MASON. 
ONDERDONK, HENRY USTICK. 
ONDERDONK, BENJAMIN TREDWELL. 

Prof. FRANK H. STOEER, College of Agricultu- 
ral Chemistry, Harvard University. 
NOMENCLATURE, CHEMICAL. 

Rev. WILLIAM L. SYMONDS, Portland, Me. 

MYSTERIES. 

Prof. GEORGE THUEBER. 

MUSHROOM, 

MYRTLE, 

NASTURTIUM, 

OAK, 

OLIVE, 

ORANGE, 

ORCHIDS, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

MYTHOLOGY, 

NETHERLANDS, LANGUAGE AND LITEEATUEK OP 

OSIRIS, 

and other archaeological, oriental and philological 

articles. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

MURCIA, 

NUEVO LEON, 

OAJACA, 

PAEZ, JOSE ANTONIO, 

and other geographical articles, 

B. E. WELLS, Oswego, N. Y. 

OSWEGO. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

MURILLO, BAKTOLOME EBTEBAN. 
OVERBECK, FRIEDRICH. 
OVERBECK, JOHANNES ADOLF. 
OVTD. 
PAINTING. 

H. WILLEY, New Bedford, Mass, 

NEW BEDFORD. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



MOTT 






MOTT, Lncrctia (COFFIN), an American min- 
ister of the society of Friends, born in 
Nantucket, Jan. 3, 1793. In 1804 her parents 
removed to Boston, where she went to school ; 
subsequently she attended a boarding school 
in Dutchess co., N. Y., in which when 15 
years old she became a teacher. In 1809 she 
rejoined her parents, who had removed to 
Philadelphia, and in 1811 married James Mott, 
who went into partnership with her father. 
In 1817 she took charge of a school in Phila- 
delphia, and in 1818 began to preach. She 
travelled through New England, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and a part of Virginia, advocating 
the tenets of the Friends and speaking against 
intemperance and slavery. In the division of 
the society in 1827 she adhered to the Hicks- 
ites. She took an active part in the organiza- 
tion of the American anti-slavery society in 
Philadelphia in 1833, and was a delegate to the 
world's anti-slavery convention in London in 
1840, but, with other woman delegates, was re- 
fused membership on account of her sex. She 
took a prominent part in the first woman's 
rights convention, held in 1848 at Seneca Falls, 
N. Y., over which her husband presided ; and 
since then she has been conspicuous in such 
conventions and in yearly meetings of Friends. 
She still (1875) resides in Philadelphia. 

MOTT, Valentine, an American surgeon, born 
at Glen Cove, Long Island, Aug. 20, 1785, died 
in New York, April, 26, 1865. He graduated 
as M.D. at Columbia college in 1806, and 
studied in London and Edinburgh. In 1809 he 
was called to the chair of surgery in Columbia 
college, which he held till the medical depart- 
ment of that institution was merged in the 
college of physicians and surgeons in 1813. 
He withdrew from that school in 1826, and 
with Dr. Hosack, Dr. Francis, Dr. Mitchill, 
and others, founded the Rutgers medical col- 
lege, which, owing to a question about its 



charter, existed but four years. Subsequently 
he lectured in New York in the college of phy- 
sicians and surgeons, and in the university 
medical college, as professor of surgery and 
regional anatomy, to which last branch he de- 
voted special attention. His professional repu- 
tation is mainly due to his original operations 
as a surgeon. As early as 1818 Dr. Mott 
placed a ligature around the brachio-cephalic 
trunk, or arteria innominata, only two inches 
from the heart, for aneurism of the right sub- 
clavian artery, for the first time in the histo- 
ry of surgery. Though all apparent supply of 
blood vessels was cut off from the right arm, 
pulsation could be distinctly felt in the radial 
artery, and the limb presented no evidences of 
sphacelation. On the 26th day, however, sec- 
ondary haemorrhage having set in, the life of 
th'e patient was speedily terminated. He suc- 
cessfully removed the entire right clavicle for 
malignant disease of that bone, where it was 
necessary to apply 40 ligatures. He was also 
the first to tie the primitive iliac artery for aneu- 
rism. He tied the common carotid 46 times, 
cut for stone 165 times, and amputated nearly 
1,000 limbs. He early introduced an original 
operation for immobility of the lower jaw, and 
succeeded after many eminent surgeons had 
failed. In 1821 he performed the first opera- 
tion for osteo-sarcoma of the lower jaw. He 
was the first surgeon who removed the lower 
jaw for necrosis. Up to an advanced period 
of life he continued to lecture and practise, 
He had been elected a member of the princi- 
pal European medical societies, and made a 
knight of the fourth order of the Medjidieh of 
Turkey. Sir Astley Cooper said in regard to 
Dr. Mott: "He has performed more of the 
great operations than any man living, or that 
ever did live. 1 ' In 1835 he visited Europe for 
his health, and travelled extensively through 
England, the continent, and the East. His 



6 



MOTTE 



principal works are: "Travels m Europe and 
the East" (New York, 1842); translation of 
Velpeau's "Operative Surgery" (4 vols.); 
- Anniversary Discourse before the Graduates 
of the University of New York" (I860); 
"Mott's Cliniques," reported by Samuel W. 
Francis (1860); and several separate papers 
concerning special operations and cases, in 
medical periodicals and in the " Transactions" 
of the New York academy of medicine. 
MOTTE (or Mothe) CADILLAC. See CADILLAC. 
MOTTEVILLE, Francoise Bertaut de, a French 
authoress, born about 1621, died Dec. 29, 1689 
She was brought up at the court of Anne of 
Austria, wife of Louis XIII. ; but as Richelieu 
objected to the influence of her mother, who 
was of Spanish origin, she went with her pa- 
rents to Normandy. She married in 1639 the 
octogenarian Langlois de Motteville, after whose 
death she rejoined Anne, now queen regent, 
in 1643, in whose service she remained until 
the death of the latter in 1666. Sainte-Beuve 
praises her tact and sagacity and her spotless 
life Her Memoires (5 vols., Amsterdam, 1723 ; 
new ed., 6 vols., 1739; 11 vols., Paris, 1822-'3) 
are regarded as the best authority on the his- 
tory of the Fronde and the minority of Louis 
XIV., and are classed by Marmontel next to 
those of Mme. de Lafayette as the best works 
written by a woman. 

MOTTEZ, Victor Louis, a French painter, born 
in Lille, Feb. 13, 1809. He studied under In- 
gres and Picot, and exhibited many fine reli- 
gious paintings, and also several mythological 
pieces, including "Leda" and '< Ulysses and 
the Sirens." His best known portraits are 
those of Guizot and Mile. Judith. After five 
years' residence in London, he returned to 
Paris in 1856, and in 1864 completed paintings 
for the churches of St. Germain 1'Auxerrois, 
St. Severin, and St. Sulpice, his masterpieces. 
Among his later works are "Medea" (1865), 
" The Cursing of the Serpent," and " The Vir- 
gin bruising the Serpent's Head" (1869). 
MOUFFLON. See SHEEP. 
MOULD, Jacob Wrey, an American architect, 
born at Chiselhurst, England, Aug. 7, 1825^ 
His father was a parliamentary solicitor in 
London. He graduated at King's college, Lon- 
don, in 1842, and studied under Owen Jones 
and Lewis Vulliamy, with both of whom he 
was associated in some of their most importan 
works. In 1852 he removed to America, anc 
after executing several buildings in and abou' 
New York, he was employed in the architec 
tural department of the works in the Centra 
park. In 1870 he was appointed architect-in 
chief to the department of public parks. Hi 
designs are distinguished for picturesquenes 
of outline and originality of detail. His prin 
cipal works are the church of the Messiah, 
Presbyterian church in 42d street, the churcl 
of the Holy Trinity, and several buildings am 
structures in the city parks. In March, 1875 
he was appointed architect-in-chief of the pub 
-lie works in Lima, Peru. 



MOULTRIE 

MOULINS, or Mouta^ur-Allier, a town of 
Vance, capital of the department of Allier, 
n the river Allier, 162 m. S. S. E. of Paris; 
OD in 1866, 19,890. It is the seat of a bishop, 
nd has many educational establishments and 
earned societies. Among the principal bmld- 
ngs are the cathedral of Notre Dame (which 
ras founded in 1468 as a collegiate church, and 
ras completed in 1861), the college, museum, 
dtel de ville, public library, barracks, ana 
ospital. Hardware and cutlery, silk and cot- 
on hosiery, woollen and cotton goods, articles 
n ivory, and catgut are manufactured ; and it 
tas a trade in iron, wood, leather, charcoal, 
oal, wine, oil, salt, and cattle. Moulins was 
ormerly the capital of Bourbonnais, and the 
ukes of Bourbon kept their court there with 
O reat splendor. But a single tower now re- 
nains of their once famous castle. 
MOULMEIN. See MAULMAIN. 
MOULTON, Louise Chandler, an American au- 
horess, born in Pomfret, Conn., April 10, 1835. 
n 1855 she was married to William U. Moul- 
on of Boston, where she now lives (1875), but 
ms a summer residence at Pomfret. She has 
)een a contributor to periodicals from her 
5th year, and has published the following 
books: "This, That, and the Other" (12mo, 
Boston, 1854) ; " Juno Clifford," a novel (New 
York, 1855) ; " My Third Book," a collection 
of stories (1859); "*' Bedtime Stories" (Bos- 
;on, 1873); "Some Women's Hearts," a col- 
ection of novelettes (1874); and "More Bed- 
time Stories" (1874). 

MOULTRIE, a central county of Illinois, drain- 
ed by the Kaskaskia river and its branches; 
area, 320 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,385. It has 
a level or undulating surface and a fertile soil. 
The Terre Haute, Paris, and Decatur, the Chi- 
cago and Paducah, and the Chicago and Illi- 
nois Southern railroads traverse it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 213,564 bushels of 
wheat, 1,753,141 of Indian corn, 263,992 of 
oats, 59,263 of potatoes, 21,010 Ibs. of tobacco, 
56,679 of wool, 247,264 of butter, and 9,214 
tons of hay. There were 6,274 horses, 3,254 
rnilch cows, 6,695 other cattle, 20,531 sheep, 
and 2,300 swine. Capital, Sullivan. 

MOULTRIE, Fort, a fortification on Sullivan's 
island at the mouth of Charleston harbor, where 
a victory was gained, June 28, 1776, by the 
South Carolina troops under Col. William Moul- 
trie over a British fleet commanded by Sir 
Peter Parker. Early in that month the fleet 
of 40 or 50 sail arrived off Charleston with a 
view of investing that place. A fort which 
Moultrie was then building was ordered to be 
finished at once. On the morning of the at- 
tack it consisted of a square with a bastion at 
each angle, built of palmetto logs laid in par- 
allel rows 16 ft. apart, the interspaces being 
filled with sand. It mounted 26 guns, and had 
a garrison of 435 men. Four vessels of the 
British fleet, with 156 guns, anchored at a dis- 
tance of 350 yards and opened fire; but the 
balls, sinking into the soft wood, produced lit- 



MOULTKIE 



MOUNT 



tie effect, while the fire from the fort was very 
destructive to the vessels. The whole num- 
ber of guns carried by the attacking fleet was 
262, on eight vessels. The action lasted, with 
some intermissions, from about noon until 
after 9 o'clock in the evening, when such of 
the vessels as were not disabled drew off. Sev- 
eral auxiliary attempts were made in the mean 
while by other parts of the British force, but 
without result. The loss of the British was 
205 killed and wounded ; that of the Ameri- 
cans 11 killed and 26 wounded. In December, 
1860, Fort Moultrie was occupied by a United 
States force under Major Kobert Anderson, 
who on the 26th withdrew to Fort Sumter. 
(See ANDERSON, KOBEET.) Fort Moultrie now 
exists only in name. Sullivan's island, upon 
which it stood, after being almost devastated 
during the civil war, has since come to be a 
suburb and watering place of Charleston. 

MOULTRIE, William, an American soldier, born 
in South Carolina in 1731, died in Charleston, 
Sept. 27, 1805. In 1761 he was appointed a 
captain of foot in a militia regiment raised 
against the Cherokees. At the outbreak of the 
revolutionary war he was appointed to the 
command of the second colonial regiment, and 
he also represented the parish of St. Helena in 
the provincial congress of 1775. In March, 
1776, he was ordered to construct a fortress 
on Sullivan's island at the mouth of Charleston 
harbor, and was busy at the work when the 
enemy made his appearance. (See MOULTRIE, 
FORT.) In commemoration of Moultrie's bra- 
very in defending the fort, it was subsequently 
called after his name. He was soon after put 
upon the continental establishment, was made 
a brigadier general, Sept. 16, 1776, and in 
February, 1779, he defeated a superior British 
force under Col. Gardner, near Beaufort. In 
May following, with about 1,200 militia, he op- 
posed the advance of Gen. Prevost on Charles- 
ton, and held the city until the approach of 
Gen. Lincoln compelled Prevost to retire to 
Savannah. In the spring of 1780 Charleston 
was attacked for the third time by a strong 
land and sea force, and Moultrie, who was 
second in command, shared in the capitulation 
of the American troops. While a prisoner he 
was approached by the British officers with 
offers of pecuniary compensation and the com- 
mand of a British regiment stationed in Jamaica 
if he would leave the American service. He 
replied: "Not the fee simple of all Jamaica 
should induce me to part with my integrity." 
After remaining nearly two years a prisoner, 
he was permitted to go to Philadelphia, where 
in February, 1782, he was exchanged for Gen. 
Burgdyne. He was made a major general, 
Oct. 15, 1782. In 1785 he was elected gov- 
ernor of South Carolina, and again in 1794. 
After the close of his term in 1796 he devo- 
ted most of his remaining years to the prepa- 
ration of his "Memoirs of the Revolution" (2 
vols., New York, 1802). 

MOUND BIRD. See BRUSH TURKEY. 



MOUNDS. See AMERICAN ANTIQUITIES. 

MOUNDSVILLE, a town and the capital of 
Marshall co., West Virginia, 12 m. below 
Wheeling, on the left bank of the Ohio, be- 
tween two streams called Big and Little Grave 
creeks; pop. in 1870, 1,500. The post office 
name was formerly Grave Creek. It derives 
its present name from a mound in the vicinity, 
one of the largest of the ancient mounds in the 
United States, and one of the most interesting 
of American antiquities. It is connected with 
a series of earthworks of ancient construction, 
and is 820 ft. in circumference at the base, 
about 70 ft. high, and at the summit 63 ft. in 
diameter. In 1838 a shaft was sunk from the 
apex of the mound to its base, and a horizontal 
tunnel made from the exterior of the base to 
the centre. Two sepulchral chambers were 
found, one at the base, the other 30 ft. above 
it. These chambers had been constructed of 
logs and covered with stones, but had sunk in 
from the decay of the woodwork. One skele- 
ton was found in the upper chamber, and two 
in the lower. There were also found in these 
chambers nearly 4,000 shell beads, several or- 
naments made of mica, copper bracelets, and 
articles carved in stone. Ten other skeletons 
in an advanced stage of decay were found in 
making the excavation. It is asserted that 
among the articles dug from it was a small 
stone on which was sculptured an alphabetical 
inscription. This tablet is of dark, compact, 
silicious rock, and is oval, 1 in. long and 1^ 
in. broad. It is of rude workmanship, but the 
characters are all distinct. The inscription 
consists of three lines and of 22 characters, 
with an ideographic sign. Much diversity of 
opinion exists as to the nature and origin of 
this inscription. Dr. Wills De Hass of Vir- 
ginia, in a paper read before the American 
ethnological society at New York, adduced 
evidence and arguments which seem to estab- 
lish the authenticity of the tablet, of which 
strong doubt had been expressed. He main- 
tained that similar ones have been found in 
the mounds composing the Grave Creek group, 
among others a small globular stone having 
five characters enclosed in a cartouche. 

MOUNT, William Sidney, an American painter, 
born in Setauket, L. I., Nov. 26, 1807, died 
there, Nov. 19, 1868. In 1826 he entered the 
school of the national academy of design, in 
1828 painted his first picture, a portrait of 
himself, and produced afterward in New 
York "The Daughter of Jairus," a full-length 
portrait of Bishop Onderdonk, and several 
clever portraits of children, which gave him 
reputation ; but he soon returned to Setauket, 
where he devoted himself wholly to genre 
art. His first picture of this class, a " Eustic 
Dance," was exhibited in New York in 1830, 
and was followed in succeeding years by "Husk- 
ing Corn," "Walking the Crack," "Farmer's 
Nooning," " Wringing the Pigs," " Turning the 
Grindstone," " The Raffle," " The Courtship," 
"Boys Gambling in a Barn," "Turn of the 



MOUNTAIN 




Haymakers,' 

of which are in private galleries m JN ew i orK, 
and "Bargaining for a Horse," in the New 
York historical society's collection. He ex- 
celled especially in humorous pictures of Amer- 
ican rustic life, and in delineations of negro 
life and physiognomy. 

MOUNTAIN, a considerable elevation, of the 
earth's surface, either isolated or arranged in 
a linear manner. Great regions of the earth 
are much elevated above the sea, forming high 
plains, called table lands or plateaus, from 
which mountains often rise. Such are the 
great plain of Thibet, with an average height 
of 16,000 ft. ; that of western Asia, from 4,000 
to 8,000 ; and that of western North America, 
of about the same height, from which rise the 
Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada. The 
elevation of mountains is generally calculated 
from the sea level. With few exceptions the 
mountains of the earth are arranged in con- 
tinuous lines or chains, and a mountain system 
consists of parallel chains with intervening val- 
leys. The great mountain system of the Ame- 
rican continent is that which has been called 
the Pacific highlands, extending from Alaska 
to Cape Horn along the W. part of the conti- 
nent. It consists in the United States, exclu- 
sive of Alaska, of the Rocky mountains to the 
east and the Sierra Nevada and Cascade moun- 
tains to the west, rising from the broad table 
land already mentioned, and having between 
them the great central basin with its subordi- 
nate mountain ranges. The highest points in 
both of these chains attain about 15,000 ft. 
The highest mountains in Alaska (Mt. St. Elias) 
and Mexico (Popocatepetl and Orizaba) rise to 
a height of nearly 18,000 ft. In South Amer- 
ica the same great continental system consists 
of two, and in some parts of its course of three 
chains, separated by narrow elevated valleys. 
The general breadth of the whole system of the 
Andes is between 100 and 300 m., and the 
greatest height is attained in the plateau of 
Bolivia and in Chili, where there are peaks of 
from 20,000 to 23,000 or, according to some, 
25,000 ft. In eastern North America are the 
Atlantic highlands or Appalachians, extending 
from the gulf of St. Lawrence to Alabama; 
these attain their greatest elevation 'in the 
Black mountains of western North Carolina, 
where there are several peaks of over 6,000 ft., 
one reaching 6,700 ft., and in New Hampshire, 
where the highest, Mt. Washington, is 6,285 ft. 
In the intermediate portions the heights are 
less, and in New York the tidal valley of the 
Hudson traverses the range. To the north 
and west of the Hudson are the Adirondack, 
Helderberg, and Catskill mountains, which in 
their continuation southward form the Al- 
leghany and Cumberland mountains. Be- 
tween this belt and the eastern one, which, 
extending from the Green mountains and 



White mountains of New England, and the 
Highlands of the Hudson, takes the name of 
the Blue Ridge S. of the Potomac, lies what 
is called the great Appalachian valley, which 
itself attains a considerable elevation in S. W. 
Virginia. From the plateau of Brazil rises 
along its E. portion a chain corresponding 
to the Appalachian; and in Africa there are 
similar highlands on the two sides of the con- 
tinent, those of the eastern attaining an ele- 
vation of 20,000 ft. A like arrangement of 
highlands is seen in Australia, where however 
the highest elevation is about 7,000 ft. In 
Europe the Scandinavian and the Ural moun- 
tains are N. and S. chains, like the Appala- 
chians ; but the great mountain systems of the 
eastern hemisphere have a general E. and W. 
direction from the Atlantic to the Pacific. The 
Pyrenees, the Alps, the Balkan, the Caucasus, 
the Himalaya, and various subordinate ranges, 
mark this great mountain belt. Of these the 
Pyrenees have a crest line of about 8,000 ft., 
but attain in some peaks 11,000; the Alps 
have an average height of from 10,000 to 
12,000 ft., the highest peak being Mont Blanc, 
15,732 (or 15,781) ft., while the Himalayas rise 
in many points to 25,000 ft., and attain in Mt. 
Everest 29,000 ft., and the Thian-shan range, 
N. of these, is from 15,000 to 20,000 ft. The 
chains of this great mountain region of the 
eastern hemisphere are not always parallel, 
but are often considerably divergent. The 
slopes of mountains are generally very grad- 
ual. Thus the average ascent of the Andes 
from the E. side is about 60 ft. in a mile, 
and on the bolder W. slope from 100 to 150 ft. 
in a mile ; while for the E. slope of the Rocky 
mountains the average ascent to the great pla- 
teau is not more than 10 ft. in a mile. A 
much more rapid inclination than any of these 
is seen for isolated peaks, of which a very 
remarkable sample is Mont Blanc, which rises 
from the valleys on either side at an inclina- 
tion of about 30. The slope of the volcanic 
cone of Jorullo in Mexico is about the same, 
while those of Mt. Etna and Mauna Loa in the 
Hawaiian islands (reckoning from the base) 
are not more than 5 or 6. The relations of 
mountains to climate are very important, but 
the discussion of them belongs to meteorology. 
The early history of mountains, or orography, 
as it is called, presents crude notions. By the 
older geologists mountains were supposed to 
be thrust up by some force from within, and 
were compared to bubbles on the earth's crust. 
Some geologists of the present century have 
maintained this notion, and have even specu- 
lated upon the cataclysmal effects of a sudden 
upheaval of a mountain chain like the Pyrenees 
from beneath the ocean. But these concep- 
tions have given place to more rational ideas. 
We must distinguish two classes of mountains, 
of widely different origin: those which are 
produced by the accumulation of matters eject- 
ed from volcanic vents, and those which have 
been formed by erosion. The first class, of 



MOUNTAIN" 



9 



which Etna and Vesuvius may be taken as 
types, have been built up as an ant hill is 
raised by matters brought grain by grain from 
below the surface. Successive overflows of 
molten rock or lava, and showers of dust and 
scoriae, the solidified scum of the lava, have 
heaped up these volcanic cones; while from 
time to time fissures or ruptures in the mass 
have allowed the injection of dikes of molten 
matter, which in cooling have given solidity 
to the whole. Yolcanic cones are in fact gen- 
erated in the air by the force of gravity. Vol- 
canic vents may occur alike beneath the sea, in 
low plains, or on elevated plateaus, and some- 
times from the summits of mountains not them- 
selves volcanic. (See VOLCANO.) But the moun- 
tains of purely volcanic origin are insignifi- 
cant when compared with the great systems 
of mountains which are not volcanic, or in 
which the presence of volcanic vents is but a 
secondary fact. These mountains, whether 
composed of aqueous or of igneous rocks, have 
had a very different origin from volcanic cones. 
They are due to erosion, and are the remains 
of great plateaus, the larger part of which has 
been removed. They are but fragments of the 
upper crust of the earth, separated from each 
other by valleys which represent the absence 
or the removal of mountain land. The popu- 
lar conception is that mountain chains are due 
to the folding and plication of strata ; but care- 
ful study of their structure shows that these 
are but accidents of structure, in no way es- 
sential to the formation of mountains, and 
sometimes absent. To De Montlosier and to 
J. P. Lesley we owe our first conceptions of 
the true nature and origin of mountains and 
valleys, and to James Hall its further elucida- 
tion and its illustration by the facts of North 
American geology. That the crust of the 
earth is not rigid, but yielding, and subject to 
movements of depression and elevation, due to 
a disturbance of its equilibrium, which have in 
all ages been operating, is evident from the 
distribution of sedimentary deposits in past 
geological periods. In addition to these there 
are other movements which are conceived to be 
due to the contraction of the earth's nucleus, 
resulting also in movements of depression and 
elevation of the surface, and in corrugations 
of portions of the crust. The result of these 
is seen in undulations of the stratified rocks, 
which are sometimes very slight and regular, 
but at other times both marked and irregular, 
occasionally giving rise to great overturns, folds, 
or inversions, and sometimes enclosing a por- 
tion of the rocks in a great fold until there is 
an inversion of the pinched-up strata on both 
sides of the axis of the fold, by which they 
come to present a fan-like structure when seen 
in transverse section. In other cases occur 
breaks or slidings of the strata on one anoth- 
er, and frequently more or less nearly vertical 
displacements, or faults, as they are called, by 
which the strata on one side of a line of frac- 
ture may be raised several thousand feet above 



the same strata on the other side. These va- 
rious disturbances of the strata influence in 
many ways the eroding agencies of the ele- 
ments, so that the mountain outlines and the 
distribution' of mountains and valleys depend 
upon these accidents, though not the elevation 
of the mountain plateau. Thus the crest of 
a fold from which the strata dip in opposite 
directions, making what is called in stratigra- 
phy an anticlinal axis, will generally be frac- 
tured by the strain which this part has suffered, 
and will then present a line of weakness which 
becomes a line of erosion. Valleys are thus 
cut out, and the strata between the adjacent 
anticlinals, escaping the eroding action, form 
a synclinal mountain range, the beds in their 
natural order dipping from the valleys on each 
side toward the centre of the mountain. Such 
a condition of things is seen in the anthracite 
region of Pennsylvania, in the Catskill moun- 
tains of New York, and in western Vermont. 
From irregularities in the undulations, from 
faults, or from the intervention of harder and 
softer beds, it often happens that the process 
of erosion is less regular than this. Sometimes 
an anticlinal mountain appears ; at other times 
an anticlinal mountain is divided, presenting 
two monoclinal mountains, or, as the result of 
a great fault in the strata, a single mountain of 
this kind in which the strata dip to one side. 
For a further discussion of the various forms 
of mountain structure, see Lesley's "Manual 
of Coal and its Topography." The structure 
of mountains is best studied in regions of un- 
crystalline rocks, where the strata have not 
been too much disturbed, and where stratifi- 
cation is very evident, as in the palaeozoic rocks 
of the Appalachians. In the crystalline eozoic 
rocks of this mountain system, where the strata 
are greatly disturbed and nearly vertical, the 
study of mountain structure is much more diffi- 
cult. Mountains do not owe their elevation 
to any folding, or crushing, or piling up of the 
strata. The influence of folding has been well 
pointed out by Hall, who has shown the rela- 
tions of the elevations of palaeozoic rocks in the 
United States to the accumulation of sediments. 
In the upper part of the Mississippi valley, 
where the palaeozoic rocks are represented by 
3,000 or 4,000 ft. of sediments, we find hills 
made up of horizontal strata, the lower Cam- 
brian rocks which form the base of the hills 
being everywhere above the water level, while 
the height of the hills is equal to the vertical 
thickness of the strata which compose them. 
In Pennsylvania, on the contrary, where the 
palaeozoic strata have a vertical thickness of 
about 40,000 ft., the synclinal mountains, hav- 
ing in their summits the upper beds of the 
series, are not more than 2,000 or 3,000 ft. 
high, the greater part of the strata having been 
removed from the anticlinal valleys while they 
are sunk far beneath the mountains. It fol- 
lows from what has been said that in horizon- 
tal and synclinal mountains the newer rocks 
are at the top and the older ones at the base, 



10 



MOUNTAIN 



but in overturned and dislocated strata this 
is of course no longer the case. In regions 
where, as the result of great folds and over- 
turns the fan-like structure already described 
has been produced, the older rocks from be- 
neath are made to surmount and rest upon the 
newer strata, which have folded and doubled 
up beneath them. The erosion of such a re- 
gion gives rise to a mountain like Mont Blanc ; 
in this the ancient crystalline strata, which 
elsewhere form the floor upon which repose 
the newer stratified rocks, rise above these, 
forming the summit of the mountain, while 
at lower levels on its flanks the newer strata 
seem to dip toward the centre of the moun- 
tain, but are really bent upon themselves and 
doubled up, as is seen in the valley of Cha- 
mouni. Mont Blanc, which served as a type 
to the early students of geology, is thus an 
exception. The crystalline strata which form 
its summit were looked upon as an upthrust of 
granite which had lifted upon its sides the new- 
er stratified rocks, thus giving the mountain, as 
was imagined, an anticlinal structure. In the 
process of sculpturing the earth's surface by 
ocean currents, frost, rain, and rivers, the un- 
equal erosion exposes the harder masses, and 
thus eruptive rocks lying in the midst of softer 
strata appear in the form of hills, as is seen in 
the trappean ranges of New Jersey and the 
Connecticut valley. Isolated peaks of a similar 
origin are found in the vicinity of Montreal, 
and are denuded masses of eruptive rock which 
were once included in the soft palaeozoic strata 
of the region long since removed by erosion. 
They were perhaps the stocks or underground 
portions of volcanoes in paleozoic times. 
The question of the geological age of moun- 
tains is twofold, including, first, that of the 
deposition of the rocks of which they are 
composed, and second, that of their uplifting 
and erosion. Elie de Beaumont, considering 
only the latter question, supposed all mountain 
chains having the same direction on the earth's 
surface to be of the same age ; but this notion 
is no longer tenable, since a great mountain 
chain, such as the Appalachians, exhibits con- 
siderable variations in different parts of its 
course, from a N. and S. direction in parts of 
New England to one nearly E. and W. in other 
parts of its extension. As regards the age of 
the rocks of this great chain, while the Green 
and White mountains, the Adirondacks, and the 
Blue Ridge are eozoic, the Oatskills, the Alle- 
ghanies, the Unaka, and the Cumberland ranges 
are composed of paleozoic sediments, and the 
whole Appalachian system was not uplifted 
until after the deposition of the coal. The 
study of the Alps shows that the elevation of 
this great mountain system was still later, since 
even tertiary rocks are involved in the folds 
and inversions of the strata. 

MOUNTAIN. I. Jacob, a Canadian bishop, born 
in Norfolk, England, in 1750, died in Quebec, 
June 16, 1825. His grandfather, Jacob de 
Montaigne, a great-grandson of Montaigne the 



MOUNT DESERT 

essayist was banished from France by the re- 
vocation of the edict of Nantes. He graduated 
at Caius college, Cambridge, in 1774, became a 
fellow in 1777, and in 1781 was nominated to 
the living of St. Andrew's, Norwich, holding 
besides several other livings. In 1793 he was 
appointed first Protestant bishop of Quebec. 
He found but nine clergymen in his diocese, 
and labored for 30 years to build churches 
and schools and to promote the spiritual wel- 
fare of his flock. II. George Jehoshaphat, second 
son of the preceding, born in Norwich, July 
27, 1789, died in Quebec, Jan. 8, 1863. He 
graduated at Trinity college, Cambridge, in 
1810, was ordained priest in 1813, and ap- 
pointed evening lecturer in his father's cathe- 
dral. In 1814 he was nominated rector of 
Fredericton, New Brunswick, and in 1817 
rector of Quebec and bishop's official. In 
1821 he became archdeacon, and in 1825, du- 
ring a mission to England, he received the 
degree of D. D. On his return Bishop Stuvard 
appointed him his examining chaplain, and in 
1835 he was sent to England on business con- 
nected with the question of the clergy reserves. 
While there he was appointed bishop of Mont- 
real, and given the entire charge of the Epis- 
copal church in Lower Canada. He continued 
to administer the dioceses of Quebec and Mont- 
real till 1850, when he assumed the title of 
bishop of Quebec. In 1844 he visited the mis- 
sions on Red river, composing during his jour- 
neys " Songs of the Wilderness " (London, 
1846). He was the founder of Bishop's college, 
Lennoxville, and of the church society, spend- 
ing most of his income for these institutions 
and for charitable purposes. Some time be- 
fore his death he declined the dignity of met- 
ropolitan of Canada. He published sermons 
and addresses, and a "Journal of a Northwest 
American Mission " (London, 1843). 

MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON, a mountain range 
said to exist in central Africa, in which Ptole- 
my and other ancient geographers placed the 
sources of the Nile. On modern maps, until 
recently, the name was given to a great range 
which was supposed to cross the continent 
from the Indian ocean to the Atlantic. It is 
now known that no such range exists. Capt. 
Speke applied the name in 1858 to a range 
N. of the newly discovered lake Tanganyika, 
though incorrectly, according to Capt. Burton. 

MOUNT AUBURN. See CAMBEIDGE (Mass.). 

MOUNT DESERT, an island of the state of 
Maine, at the southern extremity of Hancock 
co., in Frenchman's bay, about 30 m. S. E. of 
Bangor; pop. in 1870, 3,935. The island is 
14 m. long and 8 m. broad, and has an area of 
about 1 00 sq. m. It is divided into three towns, 
Eden, Mount Desert, and Tremont, and contains 
11 post offices, 15 or 20 hotels, 35 school houses, 
and 6 churches. Ship building and the manufac- 
ture of lumber are carried on, and the cod and 
mackerel fisheries are pursued. A narrow bay 
or sound runs from the ocean at the S. side of 
the island into the interior in a northerly direc- 



MOUNT. EVEREST 



MOUNT VERNON 



11 



tion to the distance of 6 or 8 m. The scenery 
of the island is very grand and beautiful. The 
greater part of its surface is covered by seven 
ridges of mountains, whose highest peak, Mt. 
Adam or Mt. Green, rises 1,762 ft. above the 
sea. High up among the mountains are many 
beautiful lakes, the largest of which is several 
miles long. The S. E. coast is lined with stu- 
pendous cliffs ; the most remarkable of these 
are Great Head and Schooner Head. In French- 
man's bay, on the E, side of Mount Desert, are 
five high rocky islands called the Porcupines, 
and about 20 m. to the southward in the open 
ocean is Mount Desert rock, the site of a noted 
lighthouse. Mount Desert is much resorted to 
in summer for the beauty of its scenery. The 
island was discovered and named by the French 
about the beginning of the 17th century. M. 
de La Saussaye and Fathers Quentin, Lalemant, 
Biard, and Masse, with 25 colonists from France, 
landed here in May, 1613, built a small fort 
and a few cabins, and called the place St. 
Sauveur. This settlement was forcibly broken 
up in a few weeks by Gov. Argall of Virginia. 
The first permanent settlement was made by 
Abraham Somes, who in 1T61 built a house at 
the head of the sound." 

MOUNT EVEREST. See HIMALAYA MOUN- 
TAINS, vol. viii., p. 732. 

MOUNTFORD, William, an American clergy- 
man, born in Kidderminster, England, May 31, 
1816. He was educated at Manchester New 
college, and was minister of a Unitarian chapel 
in Manchester from 1838 to 1841, when he 
went to Lynn-Regis. In 1850 he removed to 
the United States, and soon after became 
minister of the first Unitarian church in Glou- 
cester, Mass. He was in France and Italy from 
1856 to 1860, when he returned, and has since 
resided in Boston. He has published "Mar- 
tyria, a Legend " (London, 1845 ; Boston, 1846) ; 



" Christianity the Deliverance of the Soul and 
its Life," sermons (London, 1846) ; " Euthanasy, 
or Happy Talks toward the End of Life " (Bos- 
ton, 1848 ; with additions, 1850 ; new ed., 1874) ; 
"Thorpe, a quiet English Town, and Human 
Life therein " (1852) ; and "Miracles, Past and 
Present" (1870). 

MOUNT PLEASANT, a town and the capital of 
Henry co., Iowa, on the Burlington and Mis- 
souri River railroad, 25 m. W. N. "W. of Bur- 
lington, and 110 m. E. S. E. of Des Moines; 
pop. in 1870, 4,245. It stands on an elevated 
prairie, surrounded on all sides but the east by 
Big creek, an affluent of Skunk river. The 
adjacent country is highly productive. The 
town is the seat of one of the state asylums 
for the insane, and of Iowa Wesleyan uni- 
versity and German college, both under the 
control of the Methodists. The university was 
established in 1855, admits both sexes, and 
has preparatory, collegiate, theological, and law 
departments, and a school of pharmacy. In 
1873-'4 it had 14 instructors, 200 students, and 
a library of 3,000 volumes. German college 
was organized in 1873, and in 1873-'4 had 4 
instructors and 15 students. Mount Pleasant 
has graded public schools, a high school, two 
national banks, two weekly newspapers, two 
monthly periodicals, and eleven churches. 

MOUNTRAILLE, a N. W. county of Dakota, 
bordering on British America, and bounded S. 
W. by the Missouri river, recently formed, and 
not included in the census of 1870 ; area, about 
3,200 sq. m. It is drained by White Earth and 
Little Knife rivers, affluents of the Missouri, 
and 'by a fork of Mouse river. The surface is 
elevated, being occupied by the Plateau du 
Coteau du Missouri. 

MOUNT SAINT ELIAS. See ALASKA. 

MOUNT VERNON, the home and burial place 
of George Washington, on the right bank of 




Mount Vernon. 



the Potomac in Fairfax co., Va., 9 m. S. by 
W. of Alexandria and 15 m. from Washington 



city. At the time of Washington's decease the 
estate comprised several thousand acres. The 



12 



MOUNT VERNON 



mansion is beautifully situated on a swelling 
height crowned with trees and commanding a 
fine view up and down the Potomac. The 
house is of wood, two stories high and 96 ft. 
long, with a lofty portico extending along the 
whole front. On the ground floor are six 
rooms, none large except the dining room. 
The library and Washington's bedroom remain 
as they were at the time of his death, and con- 
tain many articles of great interest. In front 
of the house sloping to the river is a lawn of 
five or six acres. About 300 yards S. of the 
mansion, on a hillside in full view of the 
river, is the old family vault, where the body 
of Washington was first laid and remained 
till 1830, when it was removed to a new vault 
at no great distance on the edge of a deep 
wooded dell. Mount Vernon mansion was 
built by George Washington's elder brother 
Lawrence, who settled there in 1743, and named 
the estate in honor of Admiral Vernon, under 
whom he had served in the West Indies. George 
Washington added wings to the mansion, and 
greatly enlarged and embellished the estate, 
which was his home from boyhood till his death. 
He bequeathed it to Bushrod Washington, from 
whom it passed to his nephew John A. Wash- 
ington. By him the mansion and 200 acres of 
land were sold in 1858 for $200,000 to the 
" Ladies 1 Mount Vernon Association," who de- 
sign to hold it in perpetuity as a place of pub- 
lic resort and pilgrimage. 

MOUNT VERNON. I. A city and the capital 
of Knox co., Ohio, on the N. bank of Ver- 
non river, and on the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon, 
and Columbus railroad, and the Lake Erie di- 
vision of the Baltimore and Ohio line, 40 m. 
N. N. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 4,876. 
It is well and compactly built on gently as- 
cending ground, is lighted with gas, and has 
many handsome residences. It is surrounded 
by a fertile and well cultivated country, and has 
considerable trade. The river affords good wa- 
ter power. The city contains two iron founde- 
ries, a woollen factory, two flouring mills, two 
saw mills, two national banks, graded public 
schools, including a high school, two weekly 
newspapers, and eleven churches. It was laid 
out in 1805. II. A town and the capital of 
Posey co., Indiana, on a bend of the Ohio 
river, in the S. W. corner of the state, and 
on the St. Louis and Southeastern railroad, 
160 m. S. W. of Indianapolis; pop. in 1870, 
2,880. It stands on a bluff commanding a 
view of the river, and has an active trade. It 
contains two banks, two flouring mills, two 
saw mills, a foundery, a planing mill, and oth- 
er manufactories, several schools, two weekly 
newspapers, and seven churches. 

MOURNING, an outward manifestation of grief, 
particularly on occasions of death. Every na- 
tion has some conventional form of mourn- 
ing. The ancient Hebrews tore their gar- 
ments, dishevelled their hair, threw dust or 
ashes on the head, and abstained from wash- 
ing. During the time of mourning they sat on 



MOURNING 

the ground, and went bareheaded and bare- 
'ooted. The usual period of mourning was 
seven days, but for Moses and Aaron they 
mourned a month. On public occasions pro- 
iessional mourning women were employed. 
The modern Jews preserve to some extent the 
customs of their forefathers, such as sitting 
on the ground, and making an incision in some 
Dart of their clothing to symbolize the old 
;earing of garments. In Jerusalem a week- 
y lamentation and wailing is still observed 
near the site of the temple. The rending of 
clothes was observed by the Egyptians, who 
also sprinkled their heads with dust and ashes, 
struck their breasts, allowed their hair to grow 
and their dress to hang neglected, went un- 
washed, and abstained from wine and other 
delicacies. The women ran crying through 
ihe streets with disordered hair and exposed 
bosoms. The Lycians regarded grief as un- 
manly, and had a law compelling men when 
they went into mourning to put on female gar- 
ments. The Syrians wept for their dead seve- 
ral days in solitary places. The Persians rent 
their garments with wailing, and cut off their 
hair. The last was customary also among the 
Scythians. The Greeks withdrew into retire- 
ment, cut off their hair, put on black, or in 
some states, as Argos, white garments, rolled 
themselves in the dust or mire, threw ashes on 
their heads, tore their clothes, never appeared 
in public without a veil, lacerated -their faces, 
and frequently uttered the exclamation , I, L 
When a popular general died, the whole army 
cut off their hair and the manes of their horses. 
In Athens the duration of mourning was about 
30 days ; in Sparta it was 11 days. The Ro- 
man forms of mourning did not differ greatly 
from the Grecian. In the time of the republic 
the color of the mourning dress was black for 
both sexes, and it always continued so for men ; 
but during the reign of Augustus a white veil 
was worn by women, and subsequently a com- 
plete costume of white became their conven- 
tional token of sorrow. Ornaments for the 
person were laid aside, and the men let their 
hair and beards grow long. The extreme dura- 
tion of mourning by men was ten months, by 
women a year, but this period was abridged 
by the occurrence of any auspicious event, 
such as the birth of a child, the happening of 
any piece of good fortune to the family, cer- 
tain religious feasts, or the consecration of 
a temple. The period of public mourning for 
the death of a great person or for a public 
disaster was fixed by special decree. At such 
times the forum, baths, shops, temples, schools 
of exercise, and other places of concourse 
were closed, the senators put aside the lati- 
clave, the consuls sat on a lower seat than 
usual, and the magistrates appeared without 
their badges of office. On private occasions 
the mourning was done almost wholly by the 
women ; the men wore black only for a few 
days, and the domestic ceremonies in honor 
of the deceased terminated on the ninth day 



MOURNING 



13 



after the funeral with a sacrifice called noven- 
diale. A widow who married again during 
her time of mourning for a husband (ten 
months or a year) was accounted infamous and 
debarred from inheriting of her late spouse. 
Persons in mourning kept within doors, and 
the custom of tearing the garments was some- 
times practised. Hired mourning women were 
employed at funerals by both Romans and 
Greeks. In the old tombs which have been 
opened in Palestine, Greece, and Italy are found 
lachrymatories or tear bottles, in which it was 
customary for mourners to preserve their 
tears. Among the modern Syrians mourning 
women play a very important part at fune- 
rals. It is not unusual for families in moder- 
ate circumstances to be ruined by the expen- 
sive feasts and other commemorations which 
are held for weeks after the funeral. In Ara- 
bia the men wear no mourning, and are si- 
lent in grief, but the women scream, tear 
their hair, and throw earth on their heads. 
The latter also stain their hands and feet with 
indigo, which they suffer to remain for eight 
days, and during this time they abstain from 
milk on the ground that its white color ill ac- 
cords with the gloom of their minds. The 
hired mourning women of Medina dance be- 
fore the house of the deceased, tearing their 
arms, faces, and hair. The Chinese mourn in 
white, and on the death of a near relative 
every article of dress must be of that color. 
Less intense affliction is indicated simply by 
caps and girdles of white linen, and a very 
moderate degree of grief by shoes and queue 
cords of blue. Mourning on occasion of the 
death of a parent or husband is enforced by the 
penalties of 60 blows and a year's banishment. 
The duration of mourning is fixed by law. 
For a father or mother it is three years, but in 
the case of government officers it has been re- 
duced to 27 months. During this period of 
mourning a Chinese cannot perform the duties 
of any public office. For 30 days after the 
demise the nearest kindred must not shave 
their heads nor change their dress, ^hen the 
emperor dies all his subjects let their hair 
grow for 100 days. At funerals the relatives 
of the deceased furnish all who take part in 
the procession with mourning dresses, just as 
gloves and scarfs are given at the present 
day in Europe and America. They employ 
mourning women, whose faculty of shedding 
tears is extraordinary. The Japanese mourn- 
ing color is also white, but relatives in the 
ascending line and seniors neither mourn for 
their junior kindred nor go to their funerals. 
Persons in mourning stay at home for 50 days, 
abstain from animal food and from the intoxi- 
cating liquor saki, and neither shave their heads 
nor pare their nails. This period of 50 days, 
called the imi, is succeeded by the bulcu, or 13 
months of a sort of " second mourning," during 
which it is not allowed to wear bright colors 
or enter a Shinto temple. These long periods 
observed only on the death of parents ; for 



other relatives the imi and buku vary from 30 
days and 13 months for a husband to 3 days 
and 7 days for cousins and their children. In 
the Feejee islands, after the death of a chief, a 
general fast until evening is observed for 10 or 
20 days, the women burn their bodies, and 50 
or 100 fingers are amputated to be hung above 
the dead man's tomb. The ceremonies of 
domestic mourning consist of abstinence from 
delicate dishes, and from the use of oil on the 
person ; the mourners sleep on the bare ground, 
and use only leaves for dress. These customs 
are optional; among those exacted by fashion 
are the "jumping of maggots," or a meeting 
of friends on the fourth day after the funeral 
to picture to themselves the corruption of the 
corpse, and the " causing to laugh " on the 
next night, when comic games are held. About 
the tenth day the women scourge all the men 
except the highest chiefs. Among the natives 
of New Caledonia there is a custom for women 
to burn parts of their bodies in time of mourn- 
ing. The Hawaiians denote grief by painting 
the lower part of their faces black and knock- 
ing out their fore teeth. The North American 
Indians howl and wail, make speeches to the 
dead, and pierce the flesh with arrows and 
sharp stones. Among all civilized modern na- 
tions there is a great similarity in mourning 
customs, and black is universally considered 
the proper color to be worn, although modern 
refinement has gone so far as to symbolize the 
gradual change from the depth of affliction 
to a state of cheerfulness by a gradual return 
from black to gay colors through the inter- 
mediate hues of purple and violet, which are 
recognized as " second mourning." The ma- 
terial of a mourning dress is also prescribed 
by fashion, being for ladies generally crape. 
The time varies, according to the degree of 
relationship of the deceased, from a week to a 
year, the latter being the period fixed by cus- 
tom for a widow. Hired mourners are retained 
by the English as attendants at funerals, but 
their oifice is one of mere show, and they are 
commonly called mutes. In some parts of 
Ireland, however, the Tceeners or professional 
mourners, generally old women, are famous 
for their extravagant lamentations. It was an- 
ciently the custom in England to give mourn- 
ing rings and suits at funerals. In Spain and 
France, of old, the color of grief was white. 
Certain forms of private as well as public 
mourning were prescribed by Napoleon I., but 
went out of use at the restoration. Court 
mourning in Europe for members of the reign- 
ing family, even in remote degrees, is pre- 
scribed by ceremonials which give the minutest 
directions as to dress. The sovereign wears 
violet, except in England, where the color is 
black ; but violet was formerly used there also. 
The courtiers appear in black. Court mourn- 
ing seldom lasts more than six months. Pub- 
lic mourning is not yet banished from the 
civilized world. It was witnessed in the Uni- 
ted States on the death of Franklin, Washing- 



MOUSE 



ton, Lafayette, and Lincoln. Members o: 
legislative, civic, military, and other associa 
tions usually wear a piece of crape on the lef 
arm on public occasions for 30 days after th< 
death of a comrade. 

MOUSE, the common name of the smaller 
members of the rodent subfamily murince, 
This subfamily is characterized by incisors 
smooth in front and compressed laterally ; mo- 
lars f if or fif , rooted, the anterior the largest ; 
the ante-orbital foramen a deep narrow slit, 
widening above ; palate mostly on one plane ; 
the descending branch of the lower jaw has 
not the angles above the plane of the crowns 
of the molars ; other characters in the palate 
and lower jaw sufficiently distinguish them 
from arvicolinm or meadow mice ; feet usually 
naked beneath ; the hind legs the longest and 
five-toed, the anterior with only four and a 
kind of a wart for a thumb; clavicles com- 
plete ; tail scaly, with hairs between the whorls 
of the scales. They hold their food in the fore 
paws, and sit on their haunches to eat it ; most 
of them burrow and swim well. ^Reserving 
the larger species for the article EAT, this 
subfamily may be subdivided into two princi- 
pal groups : mures, confined in the wild state 
entirely to the old world; and sigmodontes, 
exclusively American. The former have very 
large and broad molars, with three tubercles 
in each transverse series of the upper jaw ; the 
latter have narrower molars, with two tuber- 
cles in each similar series. A third group, 
merionides, intermediate to the above, with 
plane molars and transverse complete lamellae, 
is found in Africa and central Asia. In the 
murine group of this subfamily, the genus 
mus (Linn.) has the molars of opposite sides 
parallel to each other, no cheek pouches, the 
upper lip divided, the whiskers in five series, 
the nose sharp and hairy to the cleft, and 
the large, prominent ears nearly naked; the 
nails are short, pointed and curved; palms 
naked, with five small balls, those of the 
hind feet the largest ; the hair is soft and 
fine ; the mammae are ten, three pairs on the 




House Mouse (Mus musculus). 

lower abdomen and two pairs on the chest, 
ftore than 50 species are described, including 
tte house rats; the only one here called a 
mouse is the common little creature of our 



houses (M. musculus, Linn.). This varies 
much in color, from almost black to pure 
white; the albino or white mice are a mere 
variety of the common animals, but have the 
ability of propagating their race inter se. 
" Singing mice " do not differ in appearance 
from ordinary mice, but make, especially at 
night, a whistling noise somewhat like the 
feeble chirp of a canary bird. The house 
mouse was originally a native of Europe and 
central Asia, but is now spread over most in- 
habited regions of the world ; in some parts of 
the United States, and particularly in newly 
settled districts, it is replaced by the white- 
footed mouse, which commits about as much 
mischief in houses and out-buildings as the 
common mouse. Of European field mice may 
be mentioned the M. syhaticus (Linn.), or 
wood mouse, found in fields and gardens, where 
it makes large deposits of provisions in sub- 
terranean burrows, laying up grain, nuts, 
acorns, &c., for winter use. It is smaller than 




Nest and Head of Harvest Mouse. 

;he house mouse, reddish gray above, and 
white below ; the hind legs,are so long that it 
moves by jumps, making the transition to me- 
riones (111.). The harvest mouse (M. minutus, 
Pall. ; M. messorius, Shaw) is only 2 in. from 
end of nose to root of tail, this being about 
J in. more. These tiny mice make nests of 
eaves and straws among standing corn and in 
;histles, and are often carried into barns with 
;he harvest, where they live and multiply; 
n winter they retire to burrows and corn 
ricks ; the color is ruddy above and white be- 
ow. The lineated mouse (M. pumilio, Gmel.), 
! rom the Cape of Good Hope, weighs less than 
four scruples (80 grains). Some mice of the 
genus dendromys (Smith) live on trees ; the 
ipper incisors are grooved, the fore feet three- 
;oed with a thumb-like wart, and the long tail 
s thinly haired and ringed ; here belongs the 
M. mesomelas (Licht.). Among the American 
or sigmodont mice are the genera reithrodon 
Waterh.) and hesperomys (Waterh.). Neoto- 



MOUSE 



MOWATT 



15 



ma and sigmodon belong properly among the 
rats on account of the large size of all their spe- 
cies. In reithrodon the ears and tail are short 
and hairy, and the upper incisors are grooved 
longitudinally in front; three species of rat- 
like size have been found in the extreme south- 
ern portion of South America, while the North 
American ones resemble slender house mice; 
the body is depressed, limbs short, head broad 
and short, tail about as long as the body, thumb 
rudimentary and with a short nail, and heel 
hairy ; the North American species are found 
in the southern states on the Atlantic border, 
and from St. Louis to the Pacific. The har- 
vest mouse (B. humilis, Baird) is about 2J in. 
long, with the tail a trifle less ; in color and 
general appearance it so nearly resembles a 
small house mouse, that it can only be distin- 
guished at the first glance by the grooved in- 
cisors ; the eyes are small ; it is rarely injuri- 
ous to the farmer, preferring grass lands to 
grain fields for its habitation. In hesperomys 
or the vesper mice, the typical species have 
long tails scantily haired, large ears, the quick 
motions of the common mouse, and generally 
white feet and a whitish tail. The old genus 
was of very great extent, embracing a large 
portion of the American muridce; the South 
American species, most of them too large to 
be considered mice, have been arranged by 
Burmeister under the genera calomys, Jiabro- 
thrix, and oxymicterus, established by Water- 
house, the first resembling the common mouse, 
the second the meadow mice (armcolcB), and 
the third the lemmings. Baird divides even 
the North American species into three groups, 
as follows : hesperomys (Waterh.), containing 
13 species; onychomys (Baird) and oryzomys 
(Baird), each with a single species. In hespe- 
romys the form is mouse-like, tail not less or 
even longer than the body without the head, 
claws weak, hind legs and feet long, and soles 
naked or less than half hairy. The white- 
footed or deer mouse (H. leucopus, Le Conte) 
is between 3 and 4 in. long, with tail about 
the same ; the color of the adult is yellowish 
brown above, darker on the back, the lower 




Deer Mouse (Hesperomys leucopus). 

parts of the body and tail and the upper sur- 
face of the feet white; the young are dark 
slaty ; the eyes and ears are large, and the fur 
long and soft. It is distributed from Nova 
579 VOL. xii. 2 



Scotia to Virginia, and as far west as the Mis- 
sissippi, and is a common inhabitant of houses 
and barns ; it is nocturnal in its habits, as ac- 
tive as a squirrel, nesting in trees, in the fields, 
in barns and houses, and making a dwelling 
resembling a bird's nest ; it feeds principally 
on grain, seeds, nuts, and acorns, and is very 
fond of maize ; it produces two or three broods 
in a season, according to latitude, five or six at 
a birth ; it is not very injurious to the farmer, 
most of the mischief commonly attributed to 
it being due to the armcolce or meadow mice ; 
great numbers are destroyed by the smaller 
carnivorous mammals and birds. Allied species 
are found in Texas, California, the southern 
states, and on the Pacific coast. The cotton 
mouse (H. gossypinus, Le Conte) makes its 
nest under logs and in trees, often robbing the 
planter of more than a pound of cotton for a 
single nest. The hamster mouse (H. my aides, 
Gapper) is mentioned under HAMSTEE. The 
prairie mouse (H. Michiganensis, "Wagner) is 
3 in. long, with a tail of 1 in., and the smallest 
of the genus ; the color is grayish brown above, 
whitish beneath, with the cheeks yellow. The 
Missouri mouse (H. leucogaster, Pr. Max.), the 
type of the group onychomys, has the clumsy 
form of the armcola, tail less than half the head 
and body, claws large and fossorial, the poste- 
rior two thirds of the soles densely furred, 
and the skull without crest ; the body is 4 in. 
long and the tail 3| in. ; grayish brown above, 
passing into yellowish red and fulvous on the 
sides ; feet and under surface of body and tail 
white ; the eyes are large, the ears rather short, 
and the whiskers long ; it lives on the seeds 
and roots of wild plants, and sometimes on corn. 
The rice-field mouse {H. palustris, Wag.), the 
type of oryzomys of Baird, has a rat-like form, 
ears nearly buried in the fur, coarse hair, tail 
longer than head and body, hind feet long, 
soles naked, and upper margin of the orbit 
raised into a compressed crest ; it is more than 
5 in. long, and the tail about the same ; the 
color is rusty brown above and whitish below. 
It is found in the rice fields of Carolina and 
Georgia, burrowing in the dams just above the 
water line ; it scratches up the newly planted 
rice, eats it in the milky state, and gleans it 
from the fields in autumn ; it is a good swim- 
mer and diver ; it eats also seeds of marsh 
grasses, and small mollusks and crustaceans. 

MOUTON, Georges. See LOBATT. 

MOVERS, Franz Karl, a German orientalist, 
born in Koesfeld, Westphalia, July 17, 1806, 
died in Breslau, Sept. 28, 1856. He studied at 
Minister, was ordained in 1829, and officiated 
in the pulpit from 1830 to 1839, when he was 
appointed professor of Old Testament theol- 
ogy in the Catholic faculty of Breslau, which 
office he held till his death. His principal 
work, Die Phonizier (3 vols., Breslau and Ber- 
lin, 1840-'56), presents a comprehensive view 
of Phoenician history. 

MOWATT (Ritchie), Anna Cora, an American 
authoress and actress, born in Bordeaux^. 



16 



MOWER 



France (where her father, Samuel 0. Ogden, a 
merchant of New York, was then established 
in business), in 1819, died in England, July 28, 
1870. She was the 10th of a family of 17 chil- 
dren. Her early childhood was passed in a 
chateau in the neighborhood of Bordeaux, in 
the private theatre of which she frequently par- 
ticipated in juvenile dramatic performances. 
When she was about six years of age the family 
returned to New York. While at school she 
attracted the attention of James Mowatt, a law- 
yer of New York, with whom she made a run- 
away match in her 15th year. During the first 
two years of her married life she published 
two poems, " Pelayo, or the Cavern of Cova- 
donga" (1836), an epic in five cantos, and 
"The Reviewers Reviewed" (1837), a satire 
against the critics of the former poem. Her 
health failing, she made a visit of a year and 
a half to Europe, during which she wrote for 
private performance a play entitled " Gulzara, 
or the Persian Slave" (1840). After her re- 
turn she gave a series of public dramatic read- 
ings in Boston, Providence, New York, and 
other cities. Her exertions produced a serious 
illness, and for two years she was 1 a confirmed 
invalid, during which time she contributed to 
the magazines under the pseudonyme of Helen 
Berkley. In 1842 she published ' ' The Fortune 
Hunter," a novel ; in 1845 a five-act comedy 
entitled "Fashion," which was played at the 
Park theatre, New York, with considerable 
success ; and in 1847 another drama entitled 
" Armand, or the Peer and the Peasant," which 
was represented at the Park theatre in 1848. 
On June 13, 1845, she made her public d6but 
at this theatre as Pauline in the "Lady of 
Lyons," and thenceforth for many years was 
a popular actress. In 1847 she made an ex- 
tended professional visit to England, where in 
1851 her husband died ; and in 1854 she played 
a series of farewell engagements in the United 
States and left the stage. She was married on 
June 7 of that year to W. F. Ritchie, editor of 
the Richmond "Enquirer." Her later works 
are: "The Autobiography of an Actress" 
(1854); "Mimic Life" (1855); "The Twin 
Roses " (1857) ; "Fairy Fingers "(1865); "The 
Mute Singer " (1866) ; and " The Clergyman's 
Wife and other Sketches" (1867). She pub- 
lished also several compilations. 

MOWER, a S. E. county of Minnesota, border- 
ing on Iowa, and watered by several streams ; 
area, 720 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,447. It has 
an undulating surface, consisting mostly of 
prairies, and the soil is fertile. It is traversed 
by the Milwaukee and St. Paul and the South- 
ern Minnesota railroads. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 673,017 bushels of wheat, 
118,771 of Indian corn, 463,085 of oats, 39,975 
of barley, 63,244 of potatoes, 7,670 Ibs. of wool, 
295,896 of butter, 44,470 of flax, and 18,151 
tons of hay. There were 2,821 horses, 3,073 
milch cows, 4,543 other cattle, 1,945 sheep, 
and 2,973 swine; 3 carriage factories, and 3 
flour mills. Capital, Austin. 



MOWING AND REAPING MACHINES 

MOWING AND REAPING MACHINES, mechan- 
ical devices for cutting grain or grass by animal 
power. Though this invention was suggested 
by the ancient Romans, the first experiments 
toward practical results were made in Europe 
in the latter part of the 18th and early part of 
the present century. The first machines, how- 
ever, which attained to much efficiency were 
made in the United States between 1830 and 
1850. The first reaping machine on record 
was described about A. D. 60 by Pliny, who 
says that it was used on the plains of Rhaetia. 
It had the form of a cart with a comb-like bar 
in front, which stripped off the ears of wheat 
and delivered them into a box, the straw being 
allowed to stand. It was propelled by an ox 
that walked behind the machine. A similar 
implement is now in use for gathering clover 
seed, called a header. The forerunner of the 
present form of machines, in which the gather- 
ers or cutters were given increased velocity, 
was one constructed by Pitt in 1786, in which 
a cylinder armed with combs plucked off the 
ears and discharged them into a box. For 
some time after this the cutters were made 
upon the rotary principle, the motive power 
being, as ever since, the bearing wheels. In 
1822 a reciprocating or to and fro motion was 
given to the cutters. Nearly all the inventors 
attached the power behind, only four previous 
to 1823 placing it in front. In 1806 Gladstone 
of England patented a front-draft side-cut ma- 
chine having a revolving knife. A bar with 
fingers gathered the standing grain and held it 
to the knife. Ogle in 1822 made the first re- 
ciprocating knife, which was also attached to 
a forward-draft machine. He used 'a reel to 
gather the grain to the cutter, and also a plat- 
form which was tilted to drop it in portions. 
Bell's machine (1826) had a reel and a travel- 
ling apron which carried off the grain to one 
side. The names of Adams of New York, Ten 
Eyck of New Jersey, and Lane of Maine are 
among the earliest connected with the inven- 
tion of harvesters in the United States. In 
1833 Obed Hussey, then of Cincinnati, 0., 
patented a machine to which he applied saw- 
toothed cutters and guards. This machine was 
at once put into practical operation. On July 
12, 1837, a public exhibition of its operation, 
under the direction of the board of trustees of 
the Maryland agricultural society for the east- 
ern shore of Maryland, gave great satisfaction. 
During the same season this machine cut in a 
satisfactory manner 180 acres of oats and bar- 
ley on a farm in Maryland. The open-topped 
slotted finger was patented by Hussey in 1847. 
In 1834 Cyrus McCormick of Virginia patented 
a reaper, which, having been improved in 1845 
and again in 1847, received a medal at the 
world's fair in London in 1851. It had a 
sickle-edged sectional knife, reciprocating by 
crank movement with the bearing and drive 
wheels ; there was a reel, and a divider was 
used on each end of the platform. The reaper 
had a seat behind the platform. The names 



MOWING AND KEAPING MACHINES 



of Haines, Ketchum, Manny, and Wood are 
prominent among inventors of improvements 
in mowers and harvesters. The practical use 
of self-rakers in this country dates from the 
invention of W. H. Seymour of New York in 
1851, who arranged a quadrant-shaped plat- 
form directly behind the cutters, a reel to 
gather the grain, and a rake moving over the 
platform in the arc of a circle, depositing the 
sheaves on the ground. In 1856 Owen Dorsey 
of Maryland combined the reel and rake, and 
his improvement has been extensively used in 
this country and Europe, with some modifica- 
tions, one of which was by Johnston in 1865, 
who arranged it so that the size of the sheaves, 
or gavels as they are called, could be regulated 
at the will of the driver. Owing to the variety 
in form and the multiplicity of patented modi- 
fications of the several parts of the modern 
machines, and the impossibility of doing jus- 
tice to all parties in an attempt to describe all 
the inventions within the limits of this article, 
we shall give a general description only of their 
construction and operation. These machines 




FIG. 1. Mower. 

consist of a strong framework, so constructed 
as to support a driver's seat, the cutting mecha- 
nism, and, when used for harvesting grain, a 
platform on which the grain falls when cut, 
and from which it is raked as often as a suffi- 
cient quantity for a bundle has accumulated. 
This framework is somewhat longer than the 
width of the swath to be cut, which is usually 
5 ft., and of sufficient width for the platform, 
say 3 ft., except when used for cutting grass, 
when the platform is dispensed with, as the 
mown grass is allowed to fall over the cutters 
directly upon the ground. On the front edge 
of the frame is the cutting apparatus, consist- 
ing of a series of iron guards or pointed fingers, 
which are permanently fastened to the frame 
and extend about 7 in. beyond its edge, parallel 
to each other, horizontal and pointing forward. 
They are about 3J in. apart, and 1% in. wide 
at the base, lessening toward the point. Each 
guard has a horizontal mortise through it, and 
being on a line with each other they all form 
a continuous horizontal mortise or slit through 
the whole line of guards. The cutters are 



formed of thin triangular plates of steel, fast- 
ened to a straight flat rod or plate of metal. 
These steel plates are arranged side by side, 
resembling a saw with teeth 3 in. wide at their 
base and 4 in. long, sharp on both sides, and 
terminating in a point. This saw or cutting 
plate is passed through the slits in the guards 
with the teeth pointing forward and their 
points coming even with the centres of the 
guards. One end of the saw is connected with 
a crank, which receives a rapid motion through 
intermediate cog wheels, from the tractive 
force and motion of the main or driving 
wheel. The framework with all its mechan- 
ism is supported by two or more wheels, the 
drive wheels being much larger than the others, 
and the axles so constructed as to admit of the 
platform, cutters, &c., being horizontal and 
suspended within a few inches of the ground. 
The pole is so attached to the framework as 
to allow the team to walk before the machine 
on the stubble of the last swath, while the 
platform with the cutters on its front edge 
extends on the right at right angles with the 
direction of the horses, so that the guards and 
cutters are presented to the standing grain or 
grass. A large reel, in front of and parallel 
with the series of cutters, is sometimes attached 
to the framework, and, being connected by a 
band or otherwise to the drive wheel, is made 
to revolve with it in the right direction to 
bend back the top of the standing grain or 
grass, past the cutters and over the platform, 
which tends to assist the cutting and to insure 
the backward fall of the grass upon the plat- 
form, or the ground in the rear of the machine. 
Some of the later machines, like the one shown 
in fig. 2, of which the " Champion " reaper of 
Springfield, O., is an example, have a sweep 
rake consisting of arms which, by means of a 
circular inclined plane, or stationary cam over 
which the heels of the arms are made to pass 
in revolving, become elevated when passing 
over the inner drive wheel, and lowered to the 
proper level when passing over the platform, 
so that the grain is gathered into parcels of a 




FIG. 2. Eeaper. 

suitable size for sheaves. A seat for the driver 
is usually attached directly behind the team, 
above and over the outer drive wheel in the 
harvester, but in the mower it is usually be- 
tween the two drive wheels. Some patents 
have been granted for machines for reaping 



18 



MOXA 



and threshing grain at the same operation, 
and many for a binding apparatus as an attacn- 
ment to the reaper; but the more simple ma- 
chines are the ones in general use. 

MOXA, a counter-irritant used especially m 
cases of gout, rheumatism, and nervous dis- 
orders. It is of Japanese invention, having 
been in use in that country many centuries. 
The term is derived from the Japanese mogusa, 
"burning herb or grass." The finer woolly 
parts of the young leaves of wormwood, a spe- 
cies of artemisia, are applied to the skin in the 
form of small cones, and set on fire by means 
of a magnifying glass. They burn very slowly, 
and leave a scar or blister, which afterward 
breaks and discharges. The operation is not 
severely painful, except when it is applied 
twice in the same place. The Japanese have 
elaborate treatises on the art of moxa burning, 
according to the part to which it is applied. 
Its use in Japan is almost universal, and near- 
ly every person, especially among the lower 
classes, is scarred with moxa spots, burned on 
the back to relieve pleurisy, asthma, and indi- 
gestion; on the legs for rheumatism and to 
strengthen the feet; on the arms to relieve 
sore or weak eyes. It is used occasionally in 
the practice of western physicians. 

MOXOS, or Mojos, a nation of Indians in South 
America, occupying a large tract in Bolivia, 
between lat. 13 and 16 S., and Ion. 64 and 69 
W. They believed that they originated on the 
spot, and from their superstitious reverence 
for its mountains, lakes, and rivers, each band 
feared to emigrate. They are lighter in color and 
taller than the neighboring nations ; are indus- 
trious, cultivating the soil, fishing and hunting. 
The women spin and weave. Their manners 
are generally mild, though they have some cruel 
superstitions. Missions were attempted among 
them at a very early period by the Dominicans, 
and a great mission of Jesuits was founded 
by Cyprian Baraza in 1676. They stopped the 
feuds among the Moxos bands, increased the 
planting of maize and bananas, and taught 
them various arts, collecting them in 15 fine 
missions. The Moxos Christians suffered great- 
ly from the attacks of the Portuguese, who 
carried off whole villages as slaves, but the 
suppression of the Jesuits was the greatest 
blow. They left 30,000 converts, but in less 
than 20 years the missions were reduced to 11. 
They have declined still further during the 
revolutions of the present century. In 1820 
Velasco, the governor of the district, killed 
the cacique of San Pedro, and the Moxos rose 
in rebellion and put Yelasco and his soldiers 
to death. In 1831 the Moxos missions, with 
those of the kindred Baures and Muchojeones, 
numbered only 13,620 souls- in all, of whom 
1,000 were in a wild state. They have a few 
books copied from generation to generation, 
and still play the old church music from notes. 
Even in their wild state they had a kind of 
signs which they used in writing. A history 
of the Moxos was written by F. Francis X. 



MOZAMBIQUE 

Iraizos. Their language lacks d, f, I, is harmo- 
nious and abounds in frequentative words. 
There is an Arte de la lengua Moxa con su 
wcabulario, by Father Marban (Lima, 1V01). 

MOZAMBIQUE (Port. Mozambique). I. A name 
applied to a large extent of the seaboard of 
E. Africa, belonging to Portugal ; area, about 
380,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 300,000. It is 
bounded E. by the Mozambique channel, N. by 
Cape Delgado, lat. 10 41' S., and S. by Dela- 
goa bay, lat. 26 S. ; on the west the boundary 
is indefinite. The coast includes the two 
prominent headlands of Cape Corrientes in 
the south and Cape Delgado in the north, 
and several large bays, the chief of which 
are Delagoa and Pamba. Between Delagoa 
bay and Cape Corrientes, and from Mozam- 
bique city to Cape Delgado, the shores are 
high and precipitous ; while reefs and numer- 
ous islands lie off the land nearly throughout 
its entire length. Many large streams dis- 
charge themselves here; the principal is the 
Zambesi, the largest river of E. Africa, which 
debouches by several mouths at the middle 
point of the Mozambique coast. The climate 
is hot and unhealthy. Considerable tracts are 
cultivated and yield abundant crops of rice. 
The forests supply wood of great beauty and 
value. The rivers abound with hippopotami, 
which yield fine ivory. Gold was formerly 
obtained by washing the sands, but little is 
now produced ; and copper ore is said to be 
found in several places. The vast plains of 
the interior abound in elephants, lions, and 
other wild animals, from which ivory and 
valuable skins are obtained. But the Portu- 
guese have so neglected their possessions that 
the trade and government are now very feeble. 
The native chiefs are absolute rulers in most 
parts of the territory, and many of them are 
inimical to the Portuguese authority, which 
does not extend ten consecutive miles in any 
direction. Many of the subordinate officials 
and the entire garrison of 1,000 men are con- 
victs. The coast for administrative purposes 
is divided into six sub-districts, of which Mo- 
zambique is the head. A governor general 
and secretary, appointed by the crown, ad- 
minister the government, assisted by a junta 
composed of a president, treasurer, and 12 
members ; and it is represented by two mem- 
bers in the Lisbon cortes. The established re- 
ligion is Roman Catholic, and is superintended 
by an apostolical prefect and a few priests. 
Education, like religion, is at a very low ebb, 
and most of the teachers reside in the capital. 
The Portuguese settlements, beginning from 
the north, are Sao Joao, Mozambique, Quili- 
mane, Sena, Tete, Sofala, Inhamban, and Lou- 
renco Marques ; all of which have declined. 
This coast was known to the Arabs centuries 
before its discovery by Europeans, and was oc- 
cupied by them when first visited by the Por- 
tuguese in the beginning of 1498. The fame 
of its gold and the convenience of its ports 
for the Indian trade led the Portuguese to at- 



MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL 



MOZAET 



19 



tempt the expulsion of the original settlers. 
This was not difficult, and in 1508 they had 
obtained a footing in two places, and built 
a fort upon the island of Mozambique. They 
have .made some unsuccessful attempts to 
penetrate the interior; but since 1860 a con- 
siderable part of the territory immediately ad- 
jacent to the. Zambesi, and its tributary the 
Shire, to Lake Nyassa, has been explored by 
Dr. Livingstone. The slave trade is still car- 
ried on, but not so actively as formerly, and 
several Portuguese officials have been removed 
for permitting it or participating in it. In 
1873 Sir Bartle Frere visited Mozambique and 
adjoining countries, and negotiated with the 
sultan of Zanzibar a treaty for the suppression 
of the slave traffic on the E. coast of Africa. 
n. A city, capital of the territory, on a coral 
island near the mainland ; pop. about 7,000. 
The centre of the island is in lat. 15 3' S., Ion. 
40 48' E. It is about 1 m. long and m. 
broad, in the form of a crescent, with the 
hollow side toward the sea; and, with two 



other islets, it is near the mouth of a bay 6 m. 
long and 5 m. broad, which furnishes a safe and 
excellent harbor. The ground on which the 
town stands is from 20 to 50 ft. above the 
water, and the position is strongly fortified. 
The governor's palace is an extensive stone 
building. There are two churches and three 
chapels, a custom house, a hospital, prisons, 
tanks, and storehouses. The streets are very 
narrow, and the houses being all whitewashed, 
the glare and heat are very great, the mercury 
rising from 6 to 10 higher in the town than 
on the mainland. The inhabitants are a mix- 
ture of Indian, Arabian, and European, and 
their costumes are as various as their races. 
With the exception of the governor and his staff, 
the greater part of the European settlers are 
convicts. Other classes are descendants of the 
old Arab settlers, most of whom are sailors, 
the Banian traders from Hindostan, and ne- 
groes. Mozambique formerly supplied nearly 
all the markets in that part of the world with 
slaves, besides sending some to the West Indies. 







Mozambique. 



The legitimate traffic of the place is principally 
carried on by Arab ships, which bring piece 
goods and eastern produce from India, and 
take back ivory. It was made a free port a 
few years ago, but the rise of Zanzibar and 
the almost total suppression of the slave trade 
have interfered with its prosperity, though its 
export of ivory is still important. 

MOZAMBIQUE CHANNEL, the passage between 
the E. coast of Africa and the island of Mada- 
gascar, lat. 12 to 25 S. At its S. entrance it 
is 550 m. wide, at its N. nearly 600, and in the 
middle about 250. Its length from N. E. to S. 
W. is about 1,050 m. The Comoro islands lie 
at its N. entrance. 

MOZART. I. Johann Georg Leopold, a German 
musician, born in Augsburg, Nov. 14, 1719, 
died May 28, 1787. He excelled on the organ 
when a youth, and paid his way while study- 
ing law by teaching music. Having gone to 
Salzburg to perfect his studies, he accepted the 
post of chamberlain to Count Thurn, a preb- 
endary of the cathedral. In 1743 Archbishop j 



Sigismund appointed him chamber musician; 
a few years later he became court composer 
and leader of the orchestra, and in 1762 vice 
chapelmaster. In 1757 his musical works 
were already very numerous. His "Violin 
School" (1756), which laid the foundation for 
modern German violin playing, is remarkable 
as the first of its kind, and as teaching that 
mere execution is but a means to the true ar- 
tistic end. He married in 1747 Anna Maria 
Pertlin, who bore him seven children, all of 
whom died in infancy excepting a daughter 
and a son. The daughter, Maria Anna Wal- 
burga Ignatia (born 1751, died 1829), became 
known as a pianist and afterward as a teacher, 
and married Baron Berchthold. II. Johannes 
Chrysostomns Wolfgang Amadens (generally called 
Wolfgang), a German composer, son of the 
preceding, born in Salzburg, Jan. 27, 1756, 
died in Vienna, Dec. 5, 1791. When in his 
third year he attracted his father's notice by 
striking chords upon the harpsichord, and by 
readily learning passages in his sister's music 



20 



MOZART 



lessons. In his fourth year his father began 
to teach him short pieces for the harpsichord. 
In his fifth year he composed little melodies 
with simple but correct harmonies, which his 
father wrote out. Though music was his chief 
delight, he displayed great aptitude for lan- 
guages and mathematics. In January, 1762, 
when Wolfgang was six years old, the elder 
Mozart took his two children to Munich, where 
they played before the elector and excited the 
deepest astonishment. In the autumn they vis- 
ited Vienna, and were at once summoned to 
Schonbrunn. In October the boy was seized 
with the scarlet fever, which interrupted their 
performances, and after a visit to Presburg 
they reached home in January, 1763. Mozart 
at this time played at sight the second violin 
part in six trios, which one of his father's pu- 
pils had written during his absence. Schacht- 
ner relates that one day Wolfgang, who was 
playing his own violin, said to him: "Your 
violin is tuned half a quarter of a note lower 
than mine here, if you have left it as it was 
when I last played it." Schachtner's violin was 
brought and found to be as Wolfgang had said. 
This extraordinary memory for pitch after- 
ward became conspicuous in Mozart's perform- 
ances. In the summer of 1763 another tour 
was undertaken, extending to Paris and Lon- 
don. The boy most astonished old musicians 
by his organ playing, and in Heidelberg this 
was commemorated by an inscription placed 
upon the organ. After performances before 
various German princes and in cities, they at 
length reached Frankfort. The following is 
an extract from the advertisement of their 
concert in that city, on Aug. 30: "The girl, 
now in her 12th, and the boy, in his 8th year, 
will not only play concertos upon the harpsi- 
chord (the girl indeed the most difficult pieces 
of the greatest masters), but the boy will also 
perform a concerto upon a violin, accompany 
in symphonies upon the harpsichord, cover the 
keys with a cloth and play as well as if they 
were in sight, and also designate any note or 
chord struck at a distance, whether upon - a 
harpsichord or any other musical instrument, 
or upon bells, glasses, musical clocks, &c. 
Finally, he will extemporize, not only upon 
the harpsichord, but also upon the organ, so 
long as any one desires, in all, even the most 
difficult keys that can be proposed, and thus 
prove that he understands the organ, which is 
totally different from the harpsichord in its 
treatment." After successful performances in 
Coblentz, Aix-la-Ohapelle, and Brussels, they 
reached Paris in November. Here they won 
additional fame. Mozart accompanied Italian 
and French airs at sight, transposing them when 
required to do so, a task then more difficult 
than now, as the accompanist had to read the 
full score or depend upon a figured base. At 
this time his first work was published, con- 
sisting of four sonatas for harpsichord and 
violin. In April, 1764, the family went to 
London, where they were received with even 



greater enthusiasm than in Paris. The queen 
accepted the dedication of six sonatas for 
pianoforte and violin from his pen, and the 
public crowded the concerts, in which he ap- 
peared in the new character of composer of 
symphonies for the orchestra. They returned 
through Holland up the Rhine, and through 
Switzerland to Salzburg, where they arrived 
in November, 1766. The elder Mozart now 
put both children to a systematic and thorough 
study of both instrumental execution and the 
theory of music. Wolfgang studied with un- 
flagging zeal Emanuel Bach, Hasse, Handel, and 
the old Italian masters. A German passion 
cantata and a Latin comcedia, " Apollo and Hy- 
acinth," attest his progress in contrapuntal 
study and composition in 1767. The emperor 
Joseph II. suggested the composition of an 
opera by young Mozart on the occasion of the 
marriage of an Austrian princess with King 
Ferdinand of Naples. An Italian opera buffa, 
La finta semplice, was selected, and Wolfgang 
was engaged to compose it on the usual terms, 
100 ducats. The score was finished soon after 
Easter. It is still preserved, and is fully up to 
the standard of similar works of that period, 
but owing to the intrigues of jealous musicians 
it was never performed. At the request of 
Maria Theresa, he composed a mass and con- 
ducted it in presence of the empress, Dec. 7, 
1768. He also produced an operetta, " Bas- 
tien and Bastienne." The pecuniary success 
of this visit to Vienna was limited, but Mo- 
zart's increased fame led the archbishop Sigis- 
mund to appoint him concert master. The 
year 1769 was devoted to severe study. Two 
masses of this date indicate the pains taken by 
the father that his son should become a con- 
trapuntist of the severest school, as the foun- 
dation for the future practice of free compo- 
sition. In December of this year his father 
took him to Italy. Concerts were given in 
Verona, Mantua, and other places, Wolfgang 
appearing as singer, composer, and performer 
on the harpsichord, organ, and violin. His 
extemporaneous compositions had the great- 
est weight with musicians, and that of several 
arias to words from Metastasio displayed so 
much talent that the composition of an opera 
for the next winter was offered him under very 
flattering auspices. In Lodi he composed his 
first string quartet; and in Rome he repro- 
duced Allegri's Miserere from hearing it in the 
Sistine chapel. Several weeks were next spent 
in Bologna, where Wolfgang had the advan- 
tage of much intercourse with Padre Martini, 
and where he became a member of the phil- 
harmonic society. He went thence to Milan, 
where he wrote his opera Mitridate, re di Pon- 
to. It was finished and rehearsed in less than 
two months, and on Dec. 26, 1770, successfully 
given, Wolfgang presiding at the harpsichord. 
It ran 20 nights, and when he left Milan the 
score remained behind, to fill orders for five 
copies. They visited Turin, Padua (where an 
oratorio was ordered from Wolfgang, prob- 



MOZART 



21 



ably the Betulia liber ata\ Vicenza, and Ve- 
rona, and reached home in March, 1771. Maria 
Theresa had ordered an opera by Hasse and a 
serenata by Mozart for" the occasion of the 
marriage of the archduke Ferdinand with a 
daughter of the prince of Modena, which was 
to be celebrated in Milan with great splendor. 
It was September before the text to the sere- 
nata, Ascanio in Alba, in two acts with ballet, 
was delivered, and scarcely six weeks were left 
for the composition and rehearsal of the work ; 
but it was ready in time, and wholly eclipsed 
Basse's opera. Just as they reached Salzburg 
again, Archbishop Sigismund died. His suc- 
cessor, Hieronymus, Count Colloredo, did all in 
his power to break the spirit, crush the hopes, 
and ruin the prospects of young Mozart. For 
the festivities of his installation Mozart was 
ordered to compose Metastasio's opera, II sogno 
di Scipione. It was a hasty composition, and 
bears more marks of being a mere occasional 
piece than any other of his works. In Novem- 
ber he again reached Milan, bringing with him 
a part of the recitative of an opera which had 
been ordered, but changes in the text forced 
him to rewrite most of it. The singers were 
not yet there for whom he was to adapt the 
principal parts. It was already December, and 
only the recitative, choruses, and overture were 
finished. Yet on the 26th it was publicly 
given, and, in spite of a bad performance, was 
a success. It was repeated more than 20 times ; 
but notwithstanding its success it was Mozart's 
last opera written for the stage in Italy, be- 
cause Hieronymus henceforth refused his con- 
cert master, save in a single instance, leave 
of absence. In the autumn of 1774 came an 
order for a comic opera for Munich. Hierony- 
mus stood in such relations to the elector, that 
he could not refuse Mozart the necessary leave 
of absence. The fine orchestra and excellent 
singers were a new spur to the young man, 
and this effort surpassed all his previous ones. 
The opera was Lafinta giardiniera, performed 
Jan. 13, 1775. A visit of Maria Theresa's 
youngest son, Maximilian, afterward elector of 
Cologne, to Salzburg, was the occasion of Mo- 
zart's last youthful operatic composition ; it was 
Metastasio's 11 repastore. During the next two 
years he filled his position as concert master 
at a court where there was a constant demand 
upon him as performer and composer. He 
was the favorite of all classes, and had but 
one enemy, the man upon whom he depended 
for subsistence. He was wretchedly paid, and 
the family avoided debt only by the most 
rigid economy. Another artistic tour was a 
necessity, and as a preparation for this Mo- 
zart went again through a course of study in 
perfecting himself as a performer upon the or- 
gan, harpsichord, and violin. In the autumn 
of 1777 the father petitioned for leave of ab- 
sence for himself and son. The request was 
rudely refused. Wolfgang, now of age, im- 
mediately resigned his place as concert mas- 
ter. He was the first pianist, one of the first 



organists, and in the highest rank of violinists 
in Europe ; and the author of more than 200 
works, from the opera, grand mass, and sympho- 
ny, down through all classes of compositions. 
He first went to Munich with his mother, but 
there was no vacancy ; and he turned his steps 
to Mannheim, where he could not obtain em- 
ployment. He stayed till March, 1778, partly 
in consequence of a passion for a beautiful 
young singer, Aloysia Weber. The mother 
and son now tried Paris, where they arrived 
March 23. The contest between the Gluckists 
and Piccinists was at its height, and they with 
the French composers filled the stage. Baron 
Grimm received the Mozarts with great kind- 
ness ; but he belonged to the Italian party. 
He procured Mozart a few pupils, who were 
his main dependence during his stay in Paris. 
Le Gros, the conductor of the concerts spiritu- 
els, and others, were very ready to use the young 
composer's talents for their own benefit, until 
he was forced to refuse any application for 
new music not accompanied by the offer of 
a reasonable compensation. The spring passed 
away, and the prospect began to improve. Le 
Gros ordered a symphony, which was given 
with the greatest applause. At this time (July 
3) Mme. Mozart died, and Mozart's father 
ordered his return to Salzburg. He felt it to 
be his duty to obey, although fortune was evi- 
dently turning in his favor in Paris. The time 
spent there had been of great value to him. 
He had made himself familiar with many of 
the principal works of the three great schools 
of opera, Gluck's, the Italian, and the purely 
French. The coming of Christian Bach from 
London, and his friendship for Mozart, opened 
a prospect also in the English capital ; the place 
of organist at Versailles, almost a sinecure, had 
been proposed for him. He delayed at Munich, 
where he met the Weber family and found that 
Aloysia's love for him had grown cold ; and 
he did not reach Salzburg till January, 1779. 
Mozart was now "concert master and court 
.and cathedral organist;" the salary was small, 
but, together with that of the father and what 
he earned by teaching, enabled the family to 
live in comfort. It was stipulated in the new 
contract with the archbishop that leave of ab- 
sence should be granted at reasonable inter- 
vals, for the production of new works in oth- 
er cities. So passed nearly two years, Mozart 
being called upon continually for new music 
for church and chamber, and supplying the 
demand with a succession of works of increas- 
ing excellence. Of dramatic music during this 
period he produced only the choruses and entr'- 
actes to the play of " Thames, King of Egypt," 
and an unfinished opera, Zalde. In 1780 he 
received the order for Idomeneo, the opera seria 
for the ensuing carnival, which was produced 
Jan. 29, 1781. Five years had elapsed since his 
last work for the operatic stage, which had 
been in the formal Italian style. Idomeneo 
from the character of the text was of the same 
school, but bears marks of the composer's 



22 



MOZART 



studies at Paris, and exhibits proofs of a genius 
rapidly becoming independent of traditional 
trammels. It was received with great applause. 
Mozart had hopes of obtaining a permanent 
appointment from the elector Charles Theo- 
dore, when he received a peremptory order 
from the archbishop to meet him in Vienna. 
Mozart and two other musicians in the arch- 
bishop's train dined with the two chamberlains 
and the three head cooks. The archbishop 
exhibited his concert master both as performer 
and composer, but took care that he should 
have no opportunity of playing where he could 
increase his income ; and it was only through 
the persistency of men whose request Hierony- 
mus dared not refuse that Mozart was permit- 
ted to play in the grand annual charitable con- 
cert. The impression made by him on this 
occasion was remarkable even in Vienna. His 
success is the only known reason why Mozart 
was ordered to return to Salzburg early in May. 
An accident caused him to delay a few days, 
and when he called on his master to excuse 
himself and take leave, he was received with a 
torrent of abuse. Remembering the needy cir- 
cumstances of his father, he had borne the in- 
dignities to which he was subjected for six 
weeks, but he could endure them no longer, 
and tendered his resignation. The archbishop 
took no notice of it, and he repeated his appli- 
cation on June 8, upon which Count Arco, 
"master of the kitchen," grossly abused him 
and turned him out of the room. Nothing but 
the remonstrances of the father prevented the 
son from publicly calling Arco to account. No 
cause has ever been suggested for the hatred 
of the archbishop, except that the Mozarts dis- 
dained to play the part of flatterers. Mozart 
now gave lessons and concerts, and published 
music by subscription. He resided for some 
months with the Weber family in Vienna, 
where Aloysia, who had married Lange the 
actor, was engaged as a singer. The emperor 
Joseph, who was then busy with his project of 
establishing an opera devoted to German works, 
and who was friendly to Mozart, ordered a 
composition from him. This was the opera 
"Belmont and Constanza." Mozart received 
the text in July, 1781, and the music was soon 
ready ; but owing to the opposition of the sing- 
ers and orchestra, urged on by the Italian fac- 
tion, the opera was not produced till July 12, 
1782, and then only by express command of 
the emperor. In the mean time Mozart had 
become enamored of Constanza Weber, sister 
of Aloysia, and his father, apparently believ- 
ing the groundless stories respecting their inti- 
macy, gave an unwilling consent to their mar- 
riage, which took place Aug. 4, 1782. They 
had several children, of whom only two sur- 
vived infancy. The emperor having given up 
his idea of establishing a German opera, and 
the Italian school continuing to thwart his pro- 
gress, Mozart endeavored in 1783 to compete 
with it by procuring popular texts, but was 
successful only after his acquaintance with Da 



Ponte, who furnished him with the libretto of 
the "Marriage of Figaro." Beaumarchais's 
play was just then exciting extraordinary inter- 
est in Paris. Mozart saw the capabilities of 
the subject, and proposed to Da Ponte to make 
it the theme of an Italian opera text. It was 
finished in six weeks. At the first performance, 
May 1, 1786, Mozart was obliged to go to the 
emperor's box after the first act to inform him 
that several of the singers were singing false pur- 
posely, to prevent his success. The emperor 
put an end to these intrigues, and none of Mo- 
zart's successes was more triumphant. His op- 
ponents now plotted in secret to prevent its rep- 
etition, and it was given but nine times, when 
V. Martini's Cosa rara, with its light pleas- 
ing music, long ago forgotten, met with such a 
popular reception that the managers withdrew 
Jfigaro from the stage for the next two years. 
But in Prague it was received with so much 
applause that Mozart was induced to visit that 
city. His stay there was one of the happiest 
periods of his life, and he consented to prepare 
a new piece for the manager of the Prague 
opera, for which Da Ponte wrote his libretto 
of Don Giovanni. It was given first on Oct. 
29, 1787, the overture being played without 
rehearsal from parts just from the pens of the 
copyists, Mozart not having written it out until 
the night before. On Nov. 3 it was sung for 
the fourth time and for the benefit of the com- 
poser. Just as Mozart reached Vienna again, 
Gluck died of apoplexy (Nov. 15), and the em- 
peror, aware that the composer was only await- 
ing adequate proposals to go to London, at 
once appointed him one of his chamber musi- 
cians, a sinecure with a salary of 800 florins, 
which, though small, was higher than that of 
his colleagues. The report of the first perform- 
ance of Don Giovanni had excited a desire in 
Vienna to hear it. It was performed May 7, 
1788, but was coldly received. The emperor 
said to Da Ponte : " The opera is divine ! per- 
haps finer than Figaro ; but it is no food for 
the teeth of my Viennese." Da Ponte repeated 
this to Mozart. " Let them have time to chew 
upon it," said he. Da Ponte used his influence 
to have the performances of it follow each 
other as rapidly as possible, and the result 
was an astonishing success, as the audience 
gradually recognized the transcendent merits 
of the work. A new sphere of activity now 
opened for Mozart. Starzer, director of the 
great oratorio, died, and Mozart was engaged 
in his stead. In Handel's time the deficien- 
cies of the orchestra were compensated by the 
organ; but, as the performances in Vienna 
took place in halls where there was no organ, 
it was necessary to supply its place with ad- 
ditional orchestral parts. Four of Handel's 
works were arranged by Mozart: "Acis and 
Galatea" (1788), "The Messiah" (1789), and 
"The Ode for St. Cecilia's Day" and "Alex- 
ander's Feast" (1790). Although he never 
worked harder than at this time, his pecuniary 
condition was becoming deplorable. He was 



MOZART 






plundered of his labors by performers, and of 
his money by delinquent borrowers; but his 
fame was extending, and his works, notwith- 
standing their striking originality, were be- 
coming more generally appreciated. In the 
spring of 1789 he became a travelling compan- 
ion of Prince Charles Lichnowsky, and he gave 
performances in Dresden, Leipsic, and Berlin. 
The king of Prussia, Frederick William II., 
understood Mozart's music very well, and took 
such a liking to him as to offer him the place 
of chapelmaster with 3,000 thalers salary. Mo- 
zart refused the offer out of regard for the em- 
peror Joseph, whereupon the king told him it 
should remain good for a year and a day. After 
an absence of three months he returned to 
Vienna, where his profits were soon absorbed 
by the illness of his wife. He now wrote a 
quartet for the king of Prussia, for which he 
received a gold box and 100 friedrichs d'or. 
He had as yet said nothing of Frederick Wil- 
liam's offer ; but, urged by his friends, he sub- 
mitted to the emperor his needy condition and 
requested his dismissal. Joseph was unpleas- 
antly surprised, and exclaimed : " What ! you 
will leave me, Mozart ? " Mozart was touched, 
and replied : " Your majesty, I throw myself 
upon your mercy, and will remain." His Cosi 
fan tutte was produced Jan. 26, 1790, and 
was running successfully when the emperor 
died, before he had increased the composer's 
salary. The new emperor Leopold II., hostile 
to his predecessor's favorites, declined his ser- 
vices; and he carried his spitefulness so fap 
that when the musicians in Vienna played be- 
fore the king of Naples, Mozart was not invited 
to take part. In the autumn he visited Frank- 
fort, Mentz, and Mannheim, on occasion of Leo- 
pold's coronation. In Munich he was invited 
to play before the king of Naples, upon which 
he wrote to his wife : " Very honorable to the 
court at Vienna that the king could only hear 
me in a foreign land ! " He was still pressed 
for money, but fortune was turning. Soon 
after his return, John Peter Salomon came to 
Vienna to engage Haydn, and after him Mozart, 
for his London concerts. Early in the spring 
of 1791 an old acquaintance, Schikaneder, pro- 
prietor of a small theatre in Vienna, applied 
to him to compose music for a fairy play. The 
subject was the Zauberflote ("Magic Flute"). 
Constanza Mozart was in Baden at the sulphur 
baths, and her husband while engaged upon 
this opera was thrown much into the socie- 
ty of Schikaneder, who led a dissipated life. 
With him and his companions the disappointed 
and harassed composer forgot his troubles, and 
for 10 or 12 weeks, the first and only time in 
his life, was induced to break in upon his ab- 
stemious habits. With the exception of those 
which relate to this short period, the stories 
unfavorable to his reputation which are current 
in musical literature are without foundation. 
On May 9 the magistrates of Vienna appointed 
Mozart adjunct and successor to the chapel- 
master Hoffmann of St. Stephen's church, the 



best musical position in Vienna, except the 
imperial chapelmasterships. In July a mes- 
senger unknown to Mozart (his name was Leut- 
ger) brought him an anonymous letter in which, 
after speaking warmly of the composer's ge- 
nius, his terms for a requiem were demanded. 
Mozart gave them, and soon after the messen- 
ger returned and paid him 50 ducats (or ac- 
cording to some authorities 100) in advance. 
At this time he was so assiduously engaged on 
the " Magic Flute" that he could not carry out 
Da Ponte's suggestion of giving performances 
in London, and he was moreover suddenly 
called upon in August to compose an opera for 
the coronation of the emperor as king of Bo- 
hemia at Prague. But four or five weeks re- 
mained for the entire labor of composition and 
rehearsal of this, the Clemenza di Tito, one of 
Metastasio's texts. When they were about to 
leave for Prague, some one pulled Mme. Mo- 
zart's dress as she and her husband were en- 
tering the carriage. She turned, and recognized 
the man who had ordered the requiem. Mo- 
zart explained the necessity of the journey, and 
promised to complete it at once on his return. 
When he reached Prague but 18 days were left 
before the opera was to be given. But his 
pupil Siissmaier was so well acquainted with 
Mozart's style of composition, that his master 
could give the score into his hands after the 
vocal parts were written and the accompani- 
ment sketched, to be filled out. In this manner 
the work was completed in time ; but it was 
not received as his others had been, partly on 
account of the character of the libretto, and 
partly because the subject was scarcely fitted 
for the excitement of a coronation. The opera 
afterward became popular. In September Mo- 
zart returned to Vienna, sick and disappointed, 
to divide his time between the " Magic Flute " 
and the requiem. The opera was performed 
on the 30th of that month, Mozart directing. 
The audience remained cold to the end of the 
first act, but warmed up before the -close, and 
the composer was called before the curtain. 
Its popularity increased with each performance. 
It was given 24 times in October alone. There 
is hardly another instance in the annals of the 
lyric stage where an opera possessed of so little 
dramatic action has become so universally popu- 
lar. That Goethe wrote a second part to it is 
perhaps the greatest compliment that could be 
paid it. Mozart now applied himself to the 
composition of the requiem with all the force 
of his genius. He was unable to discover the 
name (a Count Walsegg) of him who had or- 
dered it, and he began to fancy that there was 
something supernatural about it. The anxieties 
of the preceding year, possibly the change in 
his habits while under the influence of Schika- 
neder, and his labors on the "Titus," had 
brought his nervous system into a condition 
which required a long period of rest. But he 
persisted in work, although he fainted repeat- 
edly while engaged on the "Magic Flute;" 
and the restless energy with which he lab'ored 



24: 



MOZART 



on the requiem daily enfeebled him. His wife 
became anxious, called a physician, and took 
away the score. He then imagined that some 
one had given him poison. In November 
he was so much better as to write a cantata 
for the masonic lodge to which he belonged, 
" Praise of Friendship;" but at this time a 
rheumatic inflammatory fever was epidemic in 
Vienna, and in Mozart's enfeebled condition it 
seized upon him. Inflammation of the lungs 
led to dropsy of the chest, and after two weeks 
confinement to his bed he died. On the last 
day of his life he busied himself with the re- 
quiem, which he fancied he was composing for 
his own obsequies, but left it unfinished. The 
widow could not return the money which had 
been received for it, and she determined to 
have it completed from her husband's rough 
nptes. Siissmaier, Mozart's pupil, had often 
conversed with him about the plan of the work, 
and as his hand had a remarkable similarity to 
that of his master, he undertook the task. He 
copied all that Mozart had written, and added 
the rest, consisting of the close of the Lacri- 
mosa, the Sanctus, the Benedictm, and the 
Agnus Dei, save that to the words Cum sanctis 
he repeated the fugue of the Kyrie. When 
the messenger came for the requiem, this score 
was given him ; and its authenticity as a manu- 
script from Mozart's hand was never suspected 
by Walsegg until it began to be discussed by 
the press. While Mozart lay sick, the Hun- 
garian nobility secured to him an annual pen- 
sion of 1,000 florins, and a musical association 
in Amsterdam a still higher annuity, for which 
he was to furnish certain compositions an- 
nually. Mozart left more than 800 works for 
the pianoforte in all forms, variations on a 
simple theme, works for two pianofortes, and 
up through all gradations to the concerto, with 
full orchestra ; for orchestral instruments of 
every kind, from solos to the grand symphony ; 
there are even compositions for Franklin's har- 
monica, and a piece for a musical clock. Equally 
universal is he in vocal music, from songs and 
airs for every kind of voice, to the opera and 
church music in all its forms as employed in 
the Roman Catholic service. But it is not so 
much the quantity as the excellence of his music 
which excites the astonishment of the musician. 
This was owing not more to the greatness of 
his genius than to his profound studies, which 
from infancy to the close of his life never ceased. 
During the rehearsals of Don Giovanni at 
Prague, in a conversation with the chapelmas- 
ter Kucharz, he remarked, in reply to praises 
of the new work : " People err if they think 
my art has cost me no trouble ; I assure you, 
my dear friend, no one has taken such pains 
with the study of composition as I. There is 
hardly a celebrated master in music whom I 
have not carefully, and in many cases several 
times, studied through." Several generations of 
musicians have been educated upon the works 
of Mozart. His ideas have become common 
stock; and effects which, if now introduced 



MOZIER 

into a composition, would sound hackneyed, 
were in his works the joint production of lofty 
genius and profound contrapuntal knowledge, 
niided and restrained by exquisite taste. As 
an instrumental composer perhaps one only has 
surpassed him, Beethoven ; but Beethoven had 
perfected his genius by studying Mozart. Haydn 
tiad developed the quartet form and invented 
the grand symphony. Mozart gave them a new 
spirit, and one sees his influence in all Haydn's 
later works. That great master said to Mo- 
zart's father in 1785 : " I tell you before God 
and as a man of honor, that I look upon your 
son as the greatest composer of whom I ever 
heard; he has taste, and possesses the most 
thorough knowledge of composition." The 
symphony in with the fugue is alone suffi- 
cient proof of the correctness of Haydn's opin- 
ion; it is the greatest work of the kind ever 
written before Beethoven. But it was as an 
operatic composer that Mozart reached a height 
upon which, like Handel in oratorio, and Bach 
in his own contrapuntal sphere, and Beetho- 
ven in orchestral music, he stands superior to 
all his predecessors. Two musical institutions 
bear his name, the Mozarteum at Salzburg, and 
the Mozartstiftung in Frankfort, and a monu- 
ment was erected to him in the former city in 
1852. Among German works relating to Mo- 
zart are those by Niemetschek (1798), Roch- 
litz (1801), Arnold (1803), Nissen (1828), and 
Otto Jahn (4 vols., 1856-'9 ; new ed., 2 vols., 
1869), the last of which is considered the best. 
The best French works on Mozart are by Fetis 
and Scudo. Several of the German works have 
been translated into French, and a publication 
in French by the Russian Ulibisheff (Moscow, 
1841) has been translated into German (new 
ed. by Prof. Santler, 3 vols., 1873). In Eng- 
lish, E. Holmes published a "Life of Mozart" 
(2 vols., London, 1865). Mozart's letters, edited 
by Nohl (1865; new ed., 1870), have been 
translated into English by Lady Wallace (2 vols., 
London, 1865). The earliest notice of Mozart 
in any language is by Daines Barrington in the 
"Philosophical Transactions" (1770). In 1874 
the house in which Mozart composed the "Ma- 
gic Flute" was removed to the Mirabellgarten 
in Salzburg, to be a repository of portraits and 
autographs of his eminent contemporaries and 
of musicians and poets of the present day. 
KARL, the last surviving son of Mozart, at- 
tended the centennial celebration of his father's 
birth at Salzburg in 1856, and died in Milan, 
Oct. 31, 1858, leaving a large fortune. 

MOZIER, Joseph, an American sculptor, born 
in Burlington, Vt., Aug. 22, 1812, died in 
Switzerland in October, 1870. He removed 
to New York in 1831, and was engaged in 
mercantile pursuits till 1845, when he retired 
^from business, and shortly after visited Eu- 
*rope. Having devoted several years to the 
study of sculpture in Florence, he went to 
Rome, where he long resided. His principal 
works are a statue of Pocahontas, the "Wept 
of the Wish-ton- Wish," contributed to the in- 



MOZLEY 



MUD FISH 



25 



ternational exhibition at London in 1862, stat- 
ues of "Truth" and "Silence" in the posses- 
sion of the New York mercantile library asso- 
ciation, "Rebecca at the Well," "Esther," 
a group illustrating the parable of the prodi- 
gal son, an "Indian Girl at the Grave of 
her Lover," and " Jephthah's Daughter." 

MOZLEY, James Bowling, an English clergyman, 
born in Lincolnshire in 1813. He graduated 
at Oriel college, Oxford, in 1834, was elected 
fellow of Magdalen college, and became vicar 
of Shoreham, Sussex, in 1856. He was ap- 
pointed Bampton lecturer in 1865, canon of 
Worcester in 1869, and regius professor of 
divinity and canon of Christ's church, Oxford, 
in 1871. He has published "A Treatise on 
the Augustinian Doctrine of Predestination" 
(1855); "Primitive Doctrine of Baptismal Re- 
generation" (1856); "Review of the Baptis- 
mal Controversy" (1862); "On Subscription 
to the Articles" (1863); and "On Miracles" 
(Bampton lectures, 3d ed., 1872). 

MTZENSK, or Mzensk, a town of Russia, in the 
government and 35 m. N". E. of the city of 
Orel, on the Zusha; pop. .in 1872, 13,373. It 
is the capital of a circle, contains 13 church- 
es and two convents, and has a considerable 
trade in agricultural products. 

M1JCIUS SCJ1VOLA. See SC^VOLA. 

MiJCRE, Heinrich Karl Anton, a German painter, 
born in Breslau, April 9, 1806. He completed 
his studies in Berlin under Schadow, whom he 
accompanied to Diisseldorf, where he became 
in 1844 teacher of anatomy at the academy. 
In 1849 he was appointed professor and subse- 
quently member of the academical senate, which 
offices he resigned in 1867. He visited Italy 
and England, and was employed in painting in 
the former country, and on designs for the " Art 
Journal " in the latter. Among his principal 
works are frescoes in the palace of Heltorf, 
near Dusseldorf, illustrating the life of Fred- 
erick Barbarossa, with Lessing and other ar- 
tists ; and a large fresco in St. Andrew's church 
at Dusseldorf. His fine frescoes for the Elber- 
f eld town hall have been destroyed. Among his 
most celebrated oil paintings is " St. Catharine 
carried by Angels to Mount Sinai." His other 
works include " The Storming of Jerusalem 
by Godfrey of Bouillon," "The Crowning of 
the Virgin," "The Resurrection," and many 
etchings and designs for illustrated works. 

MUOOUS MEMBRANE. See MEMBKANE. 

MUCUS, a transparent, colorless, and glairy or 
viscid fluid, exuded upon the free surface of 
the mucous membranes of the living body. It 
is the secretion of the numerous glandulse or 
follicles with which these membranes are pro- 
vided, and varies in the details of its composi- 
tion and the degree of its viscidity with the 
particular region in which it is produced and 
the special function which it is destined to per- 
form. It does not readily mix with water, but 
when agitated with that liquid is broken up 
into floating shreds or flakes, which are apt to 
become frothy from the entanglement of bub- 



bles of air. It consists of water combined 
with a small quantity of the mineral salts, and 
a peculiar variety of animal or organic matter 
termed mucosine; to this last ingredient the 
glairy or viscid consistency of mucus is mainly 
due. The office of mucus is to lubricate the 
mucous canals and thus facilitate the passage 
of their contents, as in the mouth, oesophagus, 
and genito-urinary passages; to protect their 
surfaces from injury by desiccation, as in the 
nares, trachea, and bronchial tubes ; or to take 
part in the chemical changes going on in their 
cavities, as in the small intestine. In the cer- 
vix uteri, during gestation, the mucus has so 
great a degree of viscidity as to be semi-solid 
like gum or strong paste ; its office is to block 
up the cavity of the cervix uteri and prevent 
the escape or injury of the foetus. 

MUD EEL. See SIEEN. 

MUD FISH (amia, Linn.), a genus of American 
ganoids, found in the fresh waters of the United 
States. After it had been referred by ichthy- 
ologists to cyprinoid, salmonoid, and clupeoid 
fishes, Vogt discovered it to be a ganoid, hav- 
ing found in the muscular arterial trunk two 
oblique rows of five or six valves each and a 
spiral intestinal valve. Muller considers it the 
living representative of a ganoid family, like 
the fossil megalurus, leptolepis, and their con- 
geners. The body is long and flexible, with a 
bony vertebral column ; there are no spiny 
plates on the anterior border of the fins as in 
the gar fish, nor a series of separate dorsal fins 
as in polypterus; the mouth is trout-like, ex- 
cept in the absence of lingual teeth ; there are 
two nasal cirri ; the head is flat, and the bones 
under the very thin skin are sculptured plates; 
the large sublingual bone is naked and fur- 
rowed, the gill openings large, and the bran- 
chiostegal rays broad and flat, 11 or 12; tongue 
thick and fleshy ; behind the conical teeth of 
the jaws are flat pavement-like ones ; the scales 
are horny rather than osseous, flexible and 
rounded, yet presenting bone corpuscles of the 
same form and character as lepidosteus and 
other ganoids; the ventral fins are median, 
the single dorsal long, and the anal short ; the 




Western Mud Fish (Amia occidentalis). 

caudal comes further forward above than 
below, rounded, giving an indication of the 
heterocercal tail. The larger air bladder is 
cellular and lung-like, communicating with the 



26 MUD HEN 

oesophagus ; no pancreatic caeca ; ova dropping 
into abdominal cavity. Of about ten species, 
the best known is the western mud fish (A. 
occidentals, De Kay), from 1 to 3 ft. long ; 
the back of the head is bluish black, the sides 
often obscurely spotted with olive, white be- 
low, and with a black spot at the upper edge 
of the caudal. It is found in the great north- 
ern lakes, south to Carolina, and west to the 
Mississippi ; it is the bowfin of Lake Ohamplain, 
the dog fish of Lake Erie, and the marsh fish 
of the Canadians ; it feeds on crawfish and 
other crustaceans, and is sometimes eaten by 
the Indians. This may include several species. 

MUD HEN. See COOT. 

MUDIE, Robert, a British author, born in For- 
farshire, Scotland, in 1777, died in London in 
1842. He was self-educated, and in 1802 was 
appointed professor of Gaelic and teacher of 
drawing in the Inverness academy. In 1820 
he went to London, and was employed as a 
reporter on the " Morning Chronicle," but his 
career ended unhappily. He published a great 
number of popular works on natural history, 
astronomy, and other subjects, including "The 
British Naturalist" (2 vols., 1835), "Man, 
Social, Intellectual, Moral, Physical," " Hamp- 
shire," &c. 

MUEZZIN (Arab, mueddzin, caller, proclaim- 
er), an officer of a mosque who calls the faith- 
ful to prayer, as prescribed in the Koran, at 
dawn, near noon, in the afternoon, a little after 
sunset, and at nightfall, generally about an 
hour and a quarter after sunset. He stands 
upon the balcony of a minaret, and turning suc- 
cessively toward the four cardinal points chants 
in a loud voice: "God is great; I testify 
that there is no God but Allah ; I testify that 
Mohammed is the prophet of God. Come to 
prayer ; come to the temple of safety. God is 
great. There is no God but Allah." For the 
convenience of those who may desire to per- 
form extra devotions, the muezzin chants the 
same words during the night, and at these 
times, immediately after the words " come to 
the temple of safety," he adds : " Prayer is bet- 
ter than sleep." According to an Arabic tra- 
dition, the office was instituted by Mohammed 
himself, and the words last quoted were added 
to the regular formula by the first muezzin on 
an occasion when the prophet overslept him- 
self. Mohammed approved of them, and they 
were ever afterward retained in the nightly 
call. As the lofty position of the muezzin ena- 
bles him to overlook the roofs and balconies of 
the neighboring private houses, on which the 
women often pass their time, it has long been 
the custom to confer the office only on blind 
men ; and stories abound in the East of men 
feigning blindness in order to secure it. Pu- 
rity of morals, acquaintance with the Koran, 
and a strong and pleasant voice are also re- 
garded as indispensable qualifications. 

MUFTI (Arab., one who expounds the law), a 
doctor of the law of the Koran who performs 
certain religious and civil functions. There is 



MUGGLETON 

one in every large town of the Ottoman em- 
pire. In his religious capacity he manages the 
property of the church and watches over the 
due observance and preservation of its rites and 
discipline. In his civil capacity he pronounces 
decisions in such matters of dispute as may be 
submitted to him. He has no power to en- 
force his decision, but if it is not voluntarily 
conformed to by the parties, it has great weight 
before any other tribunal to which they may 
appeal. Matters of police, disputes between 
families, and generally questions involving pri- 
vate interests of no great importance, are de- 
cided by the mufti without the intervention 
of advocates or any legal expense. According 
to tradition, his decisions should be given in 
the fewest words without assigning any rea- 
sons; if possible, it should be simply "Yea" 
or "Nay." The mufti of Constantinople, or 
grand mufti, called also sheikh ul-Islam, "chief 
of Islam," is the highest religious authority of 
the empire. He is appointed by the sultan 
and can be deposed by him, but the sultan can- 
not sentence the grand mufti to death nor con- 
fiscate his property. The grand mufti ranks 
next to the grand vizier ; he is the chief inter- 
preter of the law, and his authority and influ- 
ence, though merely advisory, were formerly 
very great. Of late years the practical impor- 
tance of the office has greatly declined. 

MUGGE, Theodor, a German author, born in 
Berlin, Nov. 8, 1806, died there, Feb. 18, 1861. 
He abandoned commercial life to enlist in the 
army, and was about to join Bolivar in Peru 
when the news of the expulsion of the Span- 
iards reached him in London. He then stud- 
ied in the university of Berlin, published Bil- 
der am dem Leben (1829), and after losing by 
his political pamphlets in 1830 all chance of 
receiving a public office, he began to publish 
tales, novels, and narratives of travel. A com- 
plete edition of his works appeared in 33 vol- 
umes in 1862-'7. The most notable are : Tom- 
saint Louverture (1840); Die Schweiz (1847; 
English translation by Mrs. Percy Sinnet, Lon- 
don, 1848) ; and his novels delineating Scandi- 
navian life, Afraja (1854 ; English translation 
by Edward Joy Morris, Philadelphia, 1854; 
French, Paris, 1857), Erich Randal (1857), and 
Leben und Lieben in Norwegen (1858). 

MUGGLETON, Ludowick, an English fanatic, 
who in conjunction with John Reeve founded 
the sect of the Muggletonians, born in 1609, 
died March 14, 1697. He was a tailor, and in 
1651 proclaimed himself and Reeve the " two 
last witnesses " mentioned in the Apocalypse, 
and armed with power to prophesy and to 
punish men. Muggleton professed to be the 
" mouth " of Reeve, as Aaron was of Moses. 
They began their mission by denouncing all 
religious sects, especially Ranters and Quakers. 
In 1656 appeared an exposition of their doc- 
trines under the title of " The Divine Looking 
Glass." They held that God has the body of a 
man, that there is no distinction of persons in 
the Trinity, and that God, descending to earth 



MUHLBACH 



MUHLHAUSEN 



and suffering on the cross, left Elias as his vice- 
gerent in heaven during his absence. They 
were attacked by William Penn in a book 
called "The New Witnesses proved Old Here- 
tics." Muggleton was arraigned at the Old 
Bailey for blasphemy in 1676. The first com- 
plete edition of his works was published in 
1756. In 1832 another edition appeared in 3 
vols. 4to, including his rhapsodies and those 
of Reeve, with several tracts by others. 

MUHLBACH, Lnise. See MUNDT, KLARA. 

MLHLBERG, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince of Saxony, on the right bank of the Elbe, 
40 m. S. E. of Wittenberg; pop. about 3,500. 
It is memorable for the victory obtained here, 
April 24, 1547, by the emperor Charles V. over 
the elector of Saxony, John Frederick, which 
terminated the war of the Smalcald league, 
the elector himself being taken prisoner. The 
Protestant cause in Germany was completely 
prostrated, but the fruits of his victory were 
lost to the emperor by the defection in 1552 
of Maurice, the new elector of Saxony. 

Ml HLDORF, Battle of. See AMPFING. 

MUHLENBERG. L Peter John Gabriel, an Amer- 
ican general, son of Henry Melchior Muhlen- 
berg, the founder of the German Lutheran 
church in America, born at Trappe, Montgom- 
ery co., Pa., Oct. 1, 1746, died near Philadel- 
phia, Oct. 1, 1807. He was ordained to the 
ministry in England, and preached at Wood- 
stock, Va. His last sermon was upon the du- 
ties men owe to their country; and saying, 
"There is a time for all things, a time to 
preach and a time to fight, and now is the 
time to fight,' 1 he stripped off his gown after 
the service, put on a uniform, read his commis- 
sion as colonel, and formed a regiment among 
his parishioners. He was made brigadier gen- 
eral in 1777, and major general at the close of 
the revolution. After the war he removed to 
Pennsylvania, where he was elected a member 
of the supreme executive council, and in 1785 
became vice president of the commonwealth. 
He was a member of congress in 1789-'91, 
1793-'5, and 1799-1801. In 1801 he was 
elected United States senator, but resigned 
the next year, and was appointed supervisor 
of the revenue for the district of Pennsyl- 
vania. From 1803 till his death he was collec- 
tor of the port of Philadelphia. His life has 
been written by H. A. Muhlenberg (Philadel- 
phia, 1849). II. Gotthilf Henry Ernst, an Amer- 
ican clergyman and botanist, brother of the 
preceding, born in New Providence, Mont- 
gomery co., Pa., Nov. 17, 1753, died in Lan- 
caster, May 23, 1815. At the age of 10 he was 
sent to the university of Halle. In 1770 he 
returned to America, and in 1774 became as- 
sistant to his father, then pastor of the Lu- 
theran congregation in Philadelphia. In 1780 
he became pastor of the church at Lancaster. 
He was a member of the American philosophi- 
cal society, of the Gesellschaft naturforschen- 
der Freunde in Berlin, of the philosophical and 
physical societies of Gottingen, and of various 



other associations in Germany and Sweden. 
His chief works are: Catalogus Plantarum 
Americce Septentrionalis (Lancaster, 1813), 
and Descriptio Vberior Graminum, &c. (1817). 
III. William Augustus, an American clergyman, 
great-grandson of Henry Melchior Muhlen- 
berg, born in Philadelphia, Sept. 16, 1796. 
He graduated at the university of Pennsyl- 
vania in 1814, was ordained for the ministry 
of the Protestant Episcopal church in 1817, 
and became assistant in Christ's church, of 
which Bishop White was rector. In 1821 he 
accepted the rectorship of St. James's church, 
Lancaster, where he was instrumental in es- 
tablishing the first public school in the state 
out of Philadelphia. He founded in 1828 a 
school at Flushing, L. I., which was afterward 
known as St. Paul's college, and for nearly 20 
years was its principal. In 1846 he became 
rector of the church of the Holy Communion, 
New York, which was erected by his sister, 
and was the earliest free Episcopal church. 
Not long afterward he began his efforts to se- 
cure the founding of St. Luke's hospital, which 
was erected in Fifth aveuue and 54th street, 
and opened in 1858, Dr. Muhlenberg becoming 
its first pastor and superintendent, which post 
he still holds (1875). In 1845 he organized 
the first Protestant sisterhood in the United 
States, and the ladies of this association are 
in charge of St. Luke's hospital. He has also, 
within the past few years, made an effective 
beginning toward establishing an industrial 
Christian settlement at St. Johnland, Long 
Island, about 45 m. from New York. He is 
the author of the well known hymn, " I would 
not live alway," and of other poems, has pub- 
lished " Church Poetry, being Portions of the 
Psalms in Verse and Hymns suited to the 
Festivals and Fasts, from various authors" 
(1823) ; in conjunction with Bishop Wain- 
wright, " Music of the Church " (1852) ; and 
" The People's Psalter " (1858). He originated 
the famous memorial movement in the Epis- 
copal church, and has written much on evan- 
gelical catholic union. 

MUHLEIiBURG, a W. county of Kentucky, 
bounded N. E. by Green river and W. by Pond 
river, its principal branch ; area, 430 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 12,638, of whom 1,633 were col- 
ored. The surface is hilly and the soil gen- 
erally fertile. It contains coal and iron mines 
near Green river. The Elizabethtown and Pa- 
ducah railroad passes through it. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 36,544 bushels of 
wheat, 364,513 of Indian corn, 86,880 of oats, 
1,821,988 Ibs. of tobacco, 27,091 of wool, 76,- 
389 of butter, and 2,615 tons of hay. There 
were 2,985 horses, 1,290 mules and asses, 2,961 
milch cows, 4,024 other cattle, 13,959 sheep,- 
and 17,830 swine. Capital, Greenville. 

MUHLHAUSEN, or Mfflhausen (Fr. Mulhome), a 
town of the German Reichsland of Alsace-Lor- 
raine, in the district of Upper Alsace, on the 
111, 19 m. N. W. of Basel and 62 m. S. S. W. of 
Strasburg; pop. in 1871, 52,825, since which it 



28 



MtfHLHAUSEN 



has considerably increased by immigration from 
Germany. It consists of an old and a new 
town, the former on an island, the latter on 
the right bank of the 111. Since the beginning 
of the present century it has been an impor- 
tant seat of industry. Cotton printing was 
introduced here about the middle of the 18th 
century, and is largely carried on ; and re- 
cently the manufacture of woollen goods has 
assumed great importance. The town with its 
territory once formed part of the Swiss con- 
federation, but was united to France in 1798. 
It was occupied by the Germans in Septem- 
ber, 1870, and by the treaty of May, 1871, was 
ceded to Germany. 

MUHLHAUSM, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince of Saxony, on the Unstrutt, 29 m. N. W. 
of Erfurt; pop. in 1871, 19,516. It has a 
gymnasium, 14 churches, three hospitals, and 
an orphan asylum. The principal manufac- 
tures are linens, woollens, leather, and tobac- 
co. It is surrounded by walls, and was for- 
merly a free city of the empire. It is mem- 
orable as the headquarters of Miinzer, the 
leader of the peasants' war, and the scene of 
his execution in 1525. 

MUHLHEIM-ON-THE-RfflNE, a town of Rhe- 
nish Prussia, on the Cologne and Minden rail- 
way, 2 m. N. of Cologne ; pop. in 1871, 13,511. 
It has a Catholic and two Protestant church- 
es, a synagogue and a pro-gymnasium. The 
industry is very flourishing; the chief manu- 
factures are velvet, silk, and leather. There 
are also numerous mills, and a brisk trade by 
river and railway. Its prosperity dates from 
the beginning of the 17th century, when some 
Protestant emigrants from Cologne settled here. 

MUHLHEIM-ON-THE-RUHR, a town of Rhenish 
Prussia, 35 m. N. of Cologne; pop. in 1871, 
14,267. It has a Catholic and a Protestant 
church, a Realschule, and a school of weaving. 
There are important manufactories of woollen 
and linen cloth, of paper, tobacco, soap, and 
starch, and a large cotton mill. Many vessels 
are built here for the navigation of the Rhine 
and the Ruhr, which here becomes navigable 
and is crossed by a chain bridge. An impor- 
tant trade is carried on in coal, large quanti- 
ties of which are shipped to Holland, and in 
building materials. 

MUIR, John, a British orientalist, born in 
Glasgow in 1810. He was educated in the uni- 
versity of Glasgow and in the school of the 
East India company at Haileybury, and was 
employed in the civil service in British India 
from 1828 to 1853. He gave 5,000 to the 
university of Edinburgh for the endowment of 
a chair of Sanskrit and comparative philolo- 
gy, and has greatly promoted the diffusion of 
Christianity among the Hindoos. His principal 
work is " Original Sanskrit Texts on the Ori- 
gin and History of the People of India, their 
Religion and Institutions" (5 vols., London 
1858-'70).-^His brother, Sir WILLIAM MUIR 
(born in 1819), became governor of the North- 
western Provinces of India in 1868. 



MULBERRY 

MULATTO. See NEGRO. 

MULBERRY, a name, the derivation of which 
is obscurely traced to morus, the Latin name 
of a genus of trees which some botanists place 
in a division of the nettle family (urticacew}, 
while others make an order morem for this, 
the fig, the breadfruit, and a few other related 
genera. The mulberries are trees with round- 
ed leaves, a milky juice, and monoecious or 
dioecious flowers in small axillary spikes ; the 
flowers are apetalous, the sterile consisting of 
a four-parted calyx and four stamens ; the 
fertile with a similar calyx and a two-celled 
ovary with two styles ; in ripening, one of the 
cells of the ovary disappears, and the fruit 
proper is one-seeded ; it is surrounded by the 
calyx, which in ripening becomes fleshy and 
berry-like, and the whole fertile spike, crowd- 
ed with the ripened calices, becomes edible. 
The red mulberry (M. rubra) is found from 
New England southward ; it is usually a small 
tree 15 to 30 ft. high, but in some localities it 
reaches 60 or 70 ft., forming a handsome head ; 
its leaves are heart-ovate, serrate, rough above, 
downy beneath, and on young shoots often 
lobed; the flowers are frequently dioecious; 
the fruit is about an inch long, dark purple, 
and pleasant to the taste. This native species 
has been singularly neglected; it is a hand- 
some ornamental tree, and produces an accept- 
able fruit, which, to judge from what has been 
done with other species, may be greatly im- 
proved ; but its chief value is in the excellent 
quality of its timber, which is of a yellowish 
color, strong, compact, and regarded as equal 
in durability to that of the locust ; it is used 
in ship building as a substitute for locust in 
treenails, and for the light timbers of vessels 
and boats, for which use it is in the southern 




Black Mulberry (Morus nigra). 

states preferred to any wood except the red 
cedar. The black mulberry (M. nigra), prob- 
ably originally from Persia, has been known 
from very early times, and it is believed that 



MULBEKRY 



29 



the mulberry mentioned in the Scriptures was 
this species; it has long been cultivated in 
England, as it is mentioned by Tusser in 1557 ; 
Shakespeare had a favorite tree of this species 
in his garden at Stratford, and from this Gar- 
rick raised two trees which were standing a 
few years ago. There are several -instances 
recorded of the longevity of this tree ; those 
at Syon House, the residence of the duke of 
Northumberland, can be traced back more than 
three centuries. Not only is the tree long- 
lived, but exceedingly tenacious of life ; it is 
stated in the Annales des sciences naturelles 
that a root sent up shoots after lying dormant 
in the ground for 24 years. This species is 
not hardy in a climate more severe than that of 
the city of New York. It seldom grows more 
than 30 ft. high, is much branched, and has 
heart-shaped, rough leaves ; its fruit is much 
larger and finer than that of our native species, 
being an inch and a half long and an inch thick ; 
when ripe the fruit falls spontaneously, and it 
is customary to plant the tree in grass so that 
the fruit may be kept clean ; the seeds of cress 
or other fine-leaved annuals are sown around 
the tree when it stands in bare ground, to 
form a mat to receive the fruit. In England 
the mulberry is a popular dessert fruit, and it 
is used to form a sweetmeat and a sirup ; its 
juice is mixed with that of apples to form mul- 
berry cider. The wood of this species is of lit- 
tle value except for fuel. The white mulberry 
(M. alba) is a native of China, and has become 
naturalized in the older portions of this coun- 
try. It is readily distinguished by its obliquely 
heart-shaped, somewhat lobed leaves, which 
are smooth and shining, and by its generally 
yellowish white fruit, which is mawkishly 
sweet and without flavor. While silkworms 
will feed upon the leaves of other species, none 
produce silk of so fine quality as those kept 
upon the leaves of the white mulberry. This 
species was introduced into Europe by the 
way of the Levant in 1434. The variety of 
this, with smaller stems and more abundant 
leaves, called M. alba multicaulis, is preferred 
in the silk-growing countries to any other. 
The remarkable excitement caused by the 
introduction of this variety into the United 
States 30 or 40 years ago is still within the 
recollection of many; hundreds of people 
were engaged in raising mulberry trees for 
sale, with the expectation of a handsome for- 
tune; but as unfortunately there were no 
buyers, the speculation subsided as suddenly 
as it arose. A seedling of the multicaulis is 
Downing's ever-bearing mulberry, which origi- 
nated with Mr. Charles Downing at Newburgh, 
N. Y. ; the tree is very productive and remains 
in bearing a long time ; the fruit is nearly as 
large as that of the black mulberry, which it 
resembles in flavor; it is maroon-colored or 
blue-black at maturity. Although the fruit of 
the multicaulis is white, it has produced several 
dark-colored seedlings besides this. Hicks's 
ever-bearing mulberry, which originated in 



Kentucky, produces an immense quantity of 
sweet and insipid fruit for four months; in 
the southern states it is planted in poultry 
yards to afford the fowls both shade and food. 




Paper Mulberry (Broussonetia papyrifera). 

The. paper mulberry belongs to another ge- 
nus of the same family, Broussonetia, named 
in honor of a French naturalist, Broussonet; 
three species have been described, but they 
are probably all forms of one, B. papyrifera, 
which grows wild in Japan, China, and many 
of the islands of the Pacific. It is a small 
quick-growing tree, 20 or 30 ft. high, with 
leaves very variable in shape ; upon the older 
branches they are ovate or heart-shaped, but 
those upon vigorous shoots, or suckers that 
spring up from the roots, are so much lobed 
and cut that one would hardly think they 
could belong to the same tree with the oth- 
ers ; they are all rough above and downy 
beneath. This species is truly dioecious, the 
staminate trees being much more numerous 
than the fertile; the sterile flowers are in 
cylindrical catkins much like those of the 
mulberry, while the fertile are crowded in a 
round head about the size of a marble ; they 
consist of a three- or four-lobed calyx, out of 
which the ripened ovary protrudes as a club- 
shaped, pulpy fruit, which is scarlet, sweetish, 
and insipid. This has long been cultivated in 
New York and southward as a shade tree, but 
elsewhere than in paved streets it becomes a 
nuisance on account of the great abundance of 
suckers it produces. It is fortunate that the 
fruit-bearing trees are rare, as in streets the 
abundant pulpy fruits fall and keep the walk 
in an unpleasant condition. The Japanese cul- 
tivate this tree to furnish material for their 
paper ; the tree is kept cut back to produce an 
abundance of young shoots; these, in pieces 
of convenient size, are boiled to separate the 
bark, which is then peeled off and dried for 
use. The bark is converted into paper by 



30 



MULDER 



scraping off all extraneous matter, and boil- 
ing in ley until its fibres separate ; it is then 
beaten with wooden sticks, and the pulp thus 
obtained is mixed with mucilage and spread 
upon frames of rushes to dry. The so-called 
India paper, used by engravers to take proofs 
of their work, is also prepared from this bark. 
In the South sea islands the bark is used to 
make tap a, which serves the natives as a sub- 
stitute for cloth ; the bark is soaked for a long 
time and then beaten to the requisite thinness 
by the use of a square stick of hard wood, the 
sides of which are sharply creased ; the cloth, 
which is made into garments, is used plain or 
stamped with rude figures in various colors. 
The tree is propagated from cuttings made of 
the root. Mulberries are propagated by seeds, 
cuttings, and layers ; they grow readily from 
seeds which are sown in early spring. The 
black mulberry is grown from cuttings, the 
multicaulis variety by both cuttings and lay- 
ers. Downing's ever-bearing is propagated by 
grafting upon roots of the white mulberry. 

MULDER, Gerardus Johannes, a Dutch chemist, 
born in Utrecht, Dec. 27, 1802. He studied 
at the university of Utrecht, and became a 
physician in Amsterdam. In 1827 he was 
appointed lecturer on botany and chemistry in 
the medical school of Rotterdam, resigned in 
1830, and in 1840 became professor of chem- 
istry at Utrecht. His chief work, translated 
from the Dutch into German by Kolbe, and 
into English by Fromberg, is "Chemistry of 
Vegetable and Animal Physiology " (edited by 
J. F. W. Johnston, Edinburgh, 1849). In this 
he deduces as the result of original inquiries 
the existence in animals of a substance which 
he calls " proteine," which they derive ready 
formed from plants. This discovery involved 
Mulder in a controversy with Liebig, who 
from the difficulty of obtaining it doubted the 
existence of proteine as an independent com- 
pound. Among his other works are " Chem- 
ical Researches" (1847), "The Chemistry of 
Wine" (edited by H. Bence Jones, London, 
1857), "The Chemistry of Beer" (1856), and 
"The Chemistry of the Vegetable Mould" (3 
vols., 1861-'4), all of which have been trans- 
lated into German. 

MULE. See Ass. 

MULE DEER. See DEEE. 

MULGRAVE. I. Constantine John Phipps, lord, 
a British navigator, born May 30, 1744, died 
in Liege, Belgium, Oct. 10, 1792. His father 
was raised to the Irish peerage as Baron Mul- 
grave in 1767. He early entered the navy, 
commanded a northeast arctic exploring expe- 
dition in 1773, and returned the same year 
having reached lat. 80 48', beyond which an 
impenetrable field of ice stretched as far as 
could be seen. He was afterward commis- 
sioner of the admiralty, and in 1790 was 
created Baron Mulgrave in the British peer- 
age. He published a " Journal of a Voyage 
toward the North Pole" (London, 1774). 
II. Henry Phipps, first earl of Mulgrave and 



MULLEIN 

Viscount Normanby, brother of the prece- 
ding, born Feb. 14, 1755, died April 7, 1831. 
He served in the British army during the 
American war of independence. On his broth- 
er's death the English barony became extinct ; 
but he succeeded to the Irish title, became a 
member of Mr. Pitt's administration, and was 
noted for his opposition to Roman Catholic 
emancipation. In 1807 he was made first lord 
of the admiralty, and in 1812 was created 
earl of Mulgrave and Viscount Normanby. 
(See NOEMANBY.) 

MULGRAVE, John Sheffield, earl of. See BUCK- 
INGHAM, Or BUCKINGHAMSHIRE, DUKE OF. 

MULGRAVE (or MOle) ISLANDS, a group in the 
southern part of the Radack chain, which 
forms the eastern part of the Marshall or Mul- 
grave archipelago in the N. Pacific ocean. 
Their extent is not very well determined, but 
the surrounding reefs have been examined for 
about 40 m., and only one pass for ships and 
another for boats could be found. Some of 
the islands are mere coral rocks submerged at 
high tide, but nearly all have deep water close 
to" the reefs. When they reach the level of 
the water they become, like the islands already 
formed, covered with sand and vegetation. 
Some of them are of considerable size, and 
have clumps of cocoanut and breadfruit trees. 

MULHOUSE. See MUHLHATTSEN. 

MULL, an island of the Hebrides, forming 
part of Argyleshire, Scotland, in the Atlantic 
ocean, and separated from the mainland by a 
narrow strait" called the sound of Mull; area 
(including that of the surrounding islets), 301 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 5,947. The coast is 
rocky, and deeply indented. The surface is 
mountainous, Benmore, its highest summit, at- 
taining an altitude of 3,168 ft. The most re- 
markable natural objects are the caverns and 
basaltic columns and arches around its shores. 
The soil is chiefly devoted to pasturage. Her- 
ring and white fish are caught off the coasts. 
Mull contains several villages. Tobermory, near 
the 1ST. E. extremity, is the most important. 

MULLEIN, the common name of verbascum 
thapsus, said to be derived from the Latin 
malandrium, a disease like leprosy, applied to 
this plant on account of its having been used 
for this and similar diseases in cattle. It is 
a common and troublesome plant in cultivated 
grounds and by roadsides in the older parts of 
the United States. The genus includes more 
than 80 species, which are widely distributed ; 
it belongs to the family of figworts or scrophu- 
lariacece, and differs from most others of the 
family in having an open, wheel-shaped corolla. 
The common mullein is a biennial with radical 
leaves 6 to 12 in. long, oblong- acute, those of 
the stem smaller and decurrent at the base, 
forming wings upon the stem ; the leaves and 
the stem, which is 4 - to 6 ft. high, are clothed 
with a dense woolly pubescence, which gives 
the plant a hoary appearance ; the flowers are 
collected in a dense spike, a foot or more long, 
the bright yellow corolla nearly equally five- 



MULLEIN 

lobed; stamens five, the upper three with 
bearded filaments; the fruit a thick, ovoid, 
two-celled capsule, containing numerous small 
seeds. The plant is found all over Europe and 



MULLER 



31 




Common Mullein (Verbascum thapsus). 

the temperate parts of Asia, and has long been 
naturalized in this country. Were it not a 
weed, the mullein would be valued as an orna- 
mental plant, as a single well grown specimen 
is a stately object ; but its chief importance is 
as a weed, and its presence indicates slovenly 
culture. Although it so abundantly seeds the 
ground, it is not difficult to eradicate if taken 
while young. The leaves have a mucilaginous 
and bitter taste, and slight narcotic properties, 
and have long been used in domestic medicine 
to allay coughs and other irritations, and ex- 
ternally as an emollient application to tumors, 
piles, &c. ; on account of its use in diseases of 
cattle, one of its common names in England 
is bullock's lungwort. The down upon the 
leaves, when perfectly dry, makes a good 
tinder ; the same substance served the ancient 
Greeks for lamp wicks, and the Romans dipped 
the stalks in suet to make funeral torches. 
High taper and hig or hag taper are old English 
names for the plant, and refer to its use in the 
incantations of witches. Moth mullein ( V. 
blattaria) is less common than the other, and 
more abundant in the eastern states than else- 
where ; it is from 2 to 4 ft. high, with leaves 
and stem smooth and green ; the flowers are 
in a leafy raceme, and yellow, or white with a 
tinge of purple ; the filaments of the stamens 
are all bearded with violet-colored wool, which 
gives to the very ephemeral flowers no little 
beauty. This is also an introduced plant, hav- 
ing abroad an equally wide range with the pre- 
ceding, and is of no other importance than as a 
weed for the farmer to get rid of. The white 
mullein ( V. lychnitis) is of rare occurrence in 
Pennsylvania and New York; its stem and 
leaves are clothed with a thin, powdery pubes- 
cence, and its yellow flowers (only rarely white) 
580 VOL. xii. 3 



are in a pyramidal panicle. It is also from 
Europe, where as well as here it hybridizes 
with the common mullein, and produces some 
puzzling intermediate forms. Some species 
rank as ornamental plants, including V. Chaixii 
from the Pyrenees, which, unlike the others, 
is perennial ; its abundant flowers are yellow, 
with a violet throat, and arranged in a large 
pyramidal panicle. 

MULLMHOFF, Karl Victor, a German philolo- 
gist, born at Marne, Holstein, Sept. 8, 1818. 
He studied in Berlin, and graduated in 1837 at 
Kiel, where he became professor of the Ger- 
man language and of ancient history. In 1858 
he was transferred to the university of Berlin. 
His writings relate mainly to early German lit- 
erature and philology, and include Altdeutsche 
SpracJiproben ; Denkmaler deutscher Poesie 
und Prosa aus dem 8. bis 12. Jahrhundert, 
with Scherer (Berlin, 1864); and Deutsche 
Alterthumskunde (1870). 

MILLER, Charles Louis, popularly known as 
Miiller de Paris, a French painter, born in 
Paris, Dec. 22, 1815. He studied under Oo- 
gniet and Gros, and in the school of fine arts, 
and in 1837 exhibited his first picture, " Christ- 
mas Morning." From 1850 to 1853 he was di- 
rector of the manufacture of Gobelin tapestry, 
and in 1864 he succeeded Flandrin in the acad- 
emy of fine arts. Among his principal works 
are " The Martyrdom of St. Bartholomew," 
"The Massacre of the Innocents," "Prima- 
vera," and "The Appeal of the Victims of the 
Reign of Terror." The last, his masterpiece, 
contains portraits of the most illustrious vic- 
tims. In 1855 he exhibited a large painting, 
Vive Vempereur, illustrating a poem by Mery, 
representing an episode in the battle before 
Paris, March 30, 1814, which gained for him a 
medal of the first class. Among his later 
works are "Desdemona" (1868), and "Lan- 
juinais at the Tribune " (1869). 

MULLER, Friediich, a German painter and poet, 
born in Oreuznach in 1750, died in Rome, April 
23, 1825. He early devoted himself to paint- 
ing and copperplate engraving, and in his 18th 
year published several collections of etchings, 
which attracted much attention from their 
originality. In 1776 he went to Rome, and 
studied the works of Michel Angelo ; but his 
taste for the grotesque constantly, increased and 
gave a fantastic character to his productions. 
He was chiefly known as a guide in Rome, 
where he was called Muller the painter. He 
succeeded better as an author than as an artist, 
writing idyls, romances, ballads, and dramas. 
His best drama is Niobe. A complete edition 
of his works has been published (3 vols., Hei- 
delberg, 1811 ; 2d ed., 1825). 

MULLER, Friedrich, a German philologist, born 
at Jemnik, Bohemia, March 5, 1834. He com- 
pleted his studies in Vienna from 1853 to 
1857, and was employed as a librarian there 
from 1858 to 1866, when he became extraordi- 
nary and in 1869 ordinary prof essor of com- 
parative philology and of Sanskrit at the uni- 



32 



MttLLER 



pprsitv and a member of the academy of 
IcTences. Benfey regards him as the highest 
authority on comparative philology and eti 
nology Ynd he has written extensively on these 
subjects for periodicals. His principa JO*B 
are Reise der ostirreichuchen Fregatte Ao 
lara- Linguistischer Theil (Vienna, 1867), 
and Ethnog g raphischer Theil ! (1868); and All- 
gemeine Ethnographic (1873). 



TT^ , i " : ^;ni offontion to ban- 
Brockhaus 



first work a translation of the Hitopadeca, 
flection of Hindoo fables. After Attending 
the lectures of Bopp and Schellmg in Berlin, 
and examining the collection of Sanskrit man- 
uscripts then purchased by the government, 
he went to Paris, where he prepared himself, 
at Burnouf's suggestion, to undertake the edit- 
ing of the Rig Veda with the Sayana commen- 
tary For the purpose of comparing the manu- 
scripts of the Louvre with those in the pos- 
session of the East India company and those 
contained in the Bodleian library, he went in 
1846 to England, where Bunsen and Wilson 
induced him to remain, and the East India 
company assumed the expense of the publica- 
tion of his edition of the Rig Veda. The first 
volume of this stupendous work appeared in 
1849, and the sixth and last at the end of 1874. 
Each volume consists of more than 1,200 pages. 
This edition has a special value from the mas- 
terly introductions prefixed to the volumes, 
which form important additions to the science 
of Indian antiquities and linguistics. The first 
volume of a second edition of the Rig Veda, 
without the Indian commentary, was published 
at Leipsic in 1856. He has published in Ger- 
man an excellent translation of Kalidasa's Me- 
ghaduta (Konigsberg, 1847), a charming novel 
entitled Deutsche Liebe (Leipsic, 1857 ; English 
translation, Chicago, 1875), and several articles 
in philological journals ; but most of his publi- 
cations are in English. After a series of essays 
on the modern dialects of India, which ap- 
peared in the " Transactions of the British As- 
sociation" and literary journals in England, he 
issued in 1854, on the occasion of the Crimean 
war, a treatise entitled " Suggestions on learn- 
ing the Languages of the Seat of the War in 
the East." After the publication of " Proposals 
for a Missionary Alphabet " appeared his "His- 
tory of ancient Sanskrit Literature" (1859), 
which has passed through several editions. 
The greatest success, however, has attended his 
"Lectures on the Science of Language," de- 
livered at the royal institution of Great Britain 
in 1861 and 1863 (2 vols., London, 1861-'4), 
in which he shows in a popular style the bear- 
ing of the science of language on some im- 
portant problems of philosophy and religion. 
His " Handbooks for the Study of Sanskrit," 



of which the first volume was published m 
i865, are held in high esteem. They comprise 
a Sanskrit grammar and dictionary, and an 
edition of the text of the Hitopadeca with a 
Latin transcription, an interlinear translation 
and grammatical notes. In the years 1867-'70 
appeared several volumes of his essays first 
published in periodicals, under the title of 
" Chips from a German Workshop," on sub- 
jects pertaining to the science of religion, 
mythology, and the history of literature. In 
1870 he delivered a course of lectures intro- 
ductory to the science of religion, which pro- 
duced considerable discussion in Europe and 
America. When they were published he added 
two essays on "False Analogy" and 'The 
Philosophy of Mythology." He lectured in 
1872 before the newly inaugurated university 
in Strasburg, and in 1873 in Westminster ab- 
bey, which led to remonstrances on the part 
of the orthodox clergy. Having settled in 
1848 in Oxford, where his edition of the K\g 
Veda, was to be printed, he was invited by the 
university to give courses of lectures on com- 
parative philology as deputy Taylorian pro- 
fessor. Though once defeated as candidate 
for a professorship of Sanskrit, a new profes- 
sorship of comparative philology was founded 
in 1868, with his name in the statute as the 
first incumbent. He has been since 1865 di- 
rector of the oriental department of the Bod- 
leian library, and in 1874 he presided over the 
Aryan section of the first international orien- 
tal congress. 

MIJLLER, George, an English philanthropist, 
born at Kroppenstadt, Prussia, Sept. 27, 1805. 
He graduated at Halle, went to England in 
1829, and in 1830 was settled as pastor over a 
small Independent chapel at Teignmouth. Ill 
a few months he relinquished his salary, be- 
lieving that God would supply his wants in 
direct answer to prayer. In 1832 he became 
pastor at Bristol, refusing all salary except 
voluntary offerings. He established a free 
breakfast for all poor persons who would^ listen 
to religious reading while eating; but this was 
discontinued because the neighbors objected 
to the presence of so many beggars. In 1833 
he opened two day schools, and before the end 
of the year had four schools in operation. In 
1836 he determined to establish an orphanage, 
and hired a house for that purpose. By June, 
1837, he had received 1,000 for his orphans, 
and considerable sums for other benevolent 
purposes. In 1838 he hired three houses, and 
supported 86 orphans. In 1842 he had ten 
schools and 96 orphans. In 1845 he deter- 
mined to erect a building sufficient for all 
orphans that should be sent to him, and began 
to pray for 10,000, besides current expenses. 
In December a donation of 1,000 was sent 
to him; in July, 1846, he received a donation 
of 2,050; and up to January, 1847, he had 
received 9,284 besides current expenses. In 
1850 the large orphan house was built and 
furnished at a cost of 15,000, and was im- 



MULLEE 



33 



mediately filled with 300 orphans. At this 
time his annual receipts for all his enterprises 
amounted to 8,000, all of which he says was 
received in direct answer to prayer, without 
application to a single person. Praying for 
still more funds, he received in January, 1851, 
a gift of 3,000 ; in March, 1852, one of 1,- 
000, and another of 500; in the spring of 
1853 one of 8,100, and in the autumn one of 
5,200. Believing it wrong to run in debt, he 
laid all these aside until he should have enough 
to finish one building. In May, 1856, he had 
accumulated 29,297, and began to build; and 
by May, 1860, he had received 45,000 for 
his building fund alone. In March, 1862, two 
more houses had been built and furnished, 
and were occupied by TOO orphans, making 
1,000 supported by him, besides numerous 
schools and other benevolent undertakings. His 
three houses being full, he began to pray for 
funds to build two more. These were finished 
in 1870, when the five houses contained 2,050 
children, besides teachers and attendants. Du- 
ring the year ending May 26, 1874, he received 
37,855 15s. 6^., with which 189 missionaries 
and 122 schools were supported in whole or 
in part, 2,261 orphans maintained, and 47,413 
Bibles or parts of the Bible and 3,775,971 
tracts and books distributed. Between Octo- 
ber, 1830, and May, 1874, he had received in 
all 617,000, by which 38,800 children had 
been taught in schools in Great Britain, Spain, 
Italy, India, and British Guiana; 467,000 Bi- 
bles and Testaments had been distributed, 
50,000,000 tracts circulated, 190 missionaries 
supported year by year, and 4,408 orphans 
brought up. The orphans, after being edu- 
cated, are put out to service or apprenticed to 
trades. The five orphan houses, erected at a 
cost of 115,000, are vested in a board of 
trustees; but they have no endowments, as 
their founder believes that funds will be provi- 
ded as required. He is also pastor of a church 
of 900 members, built up by his own labors. 

MILLER, Gerhard Friedrieh, a Eussian historian, 
born at Herford, Westphalia, Oct. 18, 1705, 
died in Moscow in October, 1783. He studied 
at Leipsic, became in 1725 a teacher in St. 
Petersburg, and in 1730 was appointed pro- 
fessor of history. In 1733 he accompanied 
Gmelin and De Lisle de la Croyere to Siberia, 
and returned in February, 1743, having spent 
the interval in studying the geography and 
antiquities of that country. In 1747 he was 
appointed historiographer of the Eussian em- 
pire, in 1754 secretary of the academy of 
sciences, in 1766 keeper of the archives at 
Moscow, and afterward councillor of state. 
He is best known by his Sammlung Russischer 
Geschichte (9 vols., 1732-'64). His other wri- 
tings include Histoire des voyages et decouvertes 
des Russes (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1766). He 
has been called the father of Eussian history, 
wrote French, Latin, Eussian, and German 
with equal ease, and was the first to found a 
literary journal in the Eussian language. 



MULLER, Johann. See EEGIOMONTANTTS. 

MILLER. I. Johann Gotthard von, a German 
engraver, born at Bernhausen, near Stuttgart, 
May 4, 1747, died in Stuttgart, March 14, 1830. 
He prepared himself for the church, but attend- 
ed at the same time the academy of fine arts. 
He studied engraving in Paris, where he re- 
mained from 1770 to 1776, when he was ad- 
mitted to the French academy of fine arts, and 
was appointed by Duke Charles to found a 
school of art at Stuttgart, which under his 
guidance produced many excellent artists. 
Among his best prints are the "Battle of 
Bunker Hill," after Trumbull's picture, Ea- 
phael's Madonna della Seggiola, St. Catharine 
after Leonardo da Vinci, and a portrait of 
Louis XVI. II. Johann Friedrieh Wilhelm, son of 
the preceding, born in Stuttgart in 1782, died 
near Dresden, May 3, 1816. After a careful 
training under his father he completed his 
studies in Paris, where besides other works he 
executed engravings of "St. John" and "St. 
Cecilia " after Domenichino. After preparing 
in Eome for the engraving of Eaphael's Ma- 
donna di San Sisto, he devoted the remainder 
of his life to that masterpiece, his reproduc- 
tion of which is one of the finest achievements 
of the art. In 1814 he was appointed pro- 
fessor in the academy at Dresden, but his 
health being impaired by overwork, he retired. 
He engraved in all only 18 plates. 

MULLER, Johann Heinrich Jakob, a German 
physicist, born in Cassel, April 30, 1809. He 
studied in Darmstadt, Bonn, and Giessen, and 
became a teacher at Darmstadt. In 1844 he 
was appointed professor of physical sciences 
at Freiburg, Baden. His principal work, 
Lehrbuch der Physik und Meteorologie (2 vols., 
Brunswick, 1842 ; 7th ed., 1868-'9), was ori- 
ginally a version of Pouillet's Elements de phy- 
sique; and he published a supplement to it, 
Lelirbuch der Tcosmischen Physik (1856 ; 3d ed., 
1872). Among his other works are : Grund- 
riss der PJiysik und Meteorologie (1846 ; 10th 
ed., 1869-'70 ; with two supplements) ; Grund- 
zuge der Krystallographie (1845 ; 2d ed., 1869) ; 
Lie constructive Zeichnungslehre (2 vols. 1868) ; 
and Anfangsgrunde der geometrischen Disciplin 
fur ,Gymnasien, &c. (3d ed., 1869). 

MILLER, Johannes, a German physiologist, 
born in Coblentz, July 14, 1801, died in Ber- 
lin, April 28, 1858. He was the son of a poor 
shoemaker, and was about to be apprenticed 
to a saddler when his talents attracted the at- 
tention of his teacher, and he prepared him- 
self for the Eoman Catholic priesthood. After 
attending in 1819 the university of Bonn, he 
took the degree of M. D. and went to Berlin, 
where under the influence of Hegel and Eu- 
dolphi he was induced to reject all systems 
of physiology which were not founded upon 
a severe philosophical observation of nature. 
Eeturning to Bonn in 1824, he lectured as pri- 
vate professor on anatomy, physiology, em- 
bryology, and related subjects; and in 1826 
he became extraordinary professor of physi- 



MtfLLER 



ology and anatomy. In 1833 he was appointed 
to the chair of anatomy in the university pi 
Berlin, then considered the first in Europe in 
that department of science. He founded the 
physico-chemical school of physiology, raising 
it from a speculative to a positive science, and 
reformed the study of medicine. He generally 
passed his vacations on the shores of the Med- 
iterranean, where he became a favorite with 
the Italians. His publications, numbering up- 
ward of 100, embrace nearly every subject in 
comparative anatomy and physiology, not one 
of which failed to receive new and valuable 
illustrations from his hand. His most impor- 
tant work is the Handbuch der Physiologie 
(Coblentz, 1833), which has been translated 
into English by Dr. W. Baly (" Elements of 
Physiology," 2 vols., London, 1837-'42), and 
into several other languages. Among his oth- 
er works are : De Bespiratione Fwtus (Leipsic, 
1823), a prize dissertation ; Zur vergleichenden 
Physiologie des Gesichtsinnes des Menschen und 
der Thiere (1826; English translation by Baly, 
1848); Grundriss der Vorlesungen uber die 
Physiologie (Bonn, 1827); Grundriss der Vor- 
lesungen uber allgemeine Pathologie (1829); 
and Ueber die organischen Nerven der erecti- 
len mannlichen Geschlechtsorgane, &c. (Ber- 
lin, 1835). He also wrote numerous disser- 
tations on subjects not altogether physiologi- 
cal. Among these are: EorcB Ichthyologies 
(Berlin, 1849) ; Ueber die phantastischen Ge- 
tichtserscheimmgen (Coblentz, 1826); Der Ta- 
lalc in geschichtlicher, hotanischer, chemischer 
und medizinischer Einsicht (Berlin, 1832); 
Ueber die fossilen Beste der Zeuglodonten, 
&c. (1848); and Ueber Synopta digitata und 
uber die Erzeugung von Schnecken in Eolothu- 
rien (1852). His latest investigations were 
devoted to infusoria, and his Terminologia 
Entomologica was published at Brilnn in 1850. 
He also founded several influential periodicals 
for the promotion of physiology, anatomy, and 
other sciences. 

MILLER, Johannes von, a Swiss historian, born 
in Schaffhausen, Jan. 3, 1752, died in Cassel, 
May 29, 1809. He completed his studies at 
Gottingen, where Schlozer diverted his atten- 
tion from theology to history. He was pro- 
fessor of Greek in Schaffhausen from 1772 to 
1774, when he removed to Geneva, where for 
a time he supported himself by teaching. In 
J781 he accepted a professorship in Cassel, 
but returned to Switzerland in 1783 to prose- 
cute historical labors, lecturing occasionally, 
but generally depending upon friends and in- 
curring large debts. From 1786 to 1807 he 
was in the service, in various capacities, of 
the elector of Mentz, the emperor, and the 
king of Prussia, and received several titles and 
patents of nobility. After the occupation of 
Berlin by the French, he incurred the displea- 
sure of his German friends by his subserviency 
to Napoleon, and by holding office under his 
brother, King Jerome of Westphalia. This 
sentiment, however, subsequently gave way to 



a general acknowledgment both of his extra- 
ordinary merits as a writer and the noble traits 
of his character. His most celebrated work is 
Die Geschichte der schweizerischen Eidgenos- 
senschaft (4 vols., 1780-1805), extending to 
1489, and continued to the end of the 16th 
century by Glutz-Boltzheim (vol. v., 1816) 
and J. J. Hottinger (vols. vi. and vii., 1825- 
'9). A French translation by Monnard and 
Vulliemin extends to the 19th century (19 
vols., Paris, 1837-'51). Among his other wri- 
tings are minor political essays ; Essais histo- 
riques, published in French under the auspi- 
ces of Frederick the Great (Berlin, 1780); 
Beisen der Papste (new ed., Aix-la-Chapelle, 
1831 ; French translation, 1859), written against 
the anti-papal reforms of Joseph II., although 
he was a Protestant; and Vierundzwanzig 
Bucher allgemeiner Geschichten, lectures deliv- 
ered in Switzerland (3 vols., Tubingen, 1811 ; 
often republished). His complete works have 
been published in 27 vols. (Stuttgart, 1810- 
'19), and 40 vols. (1831-'5). Among his biog- 
raphers are Heeren (1809), Wachler (1809), and 
Woltmann (1810). 

MILLER. I. Karl Otfried, a German archaB- 
ologist, born in Brieg, Silesia, Aug. 28, 1797, 
died in Athens, Greece, Aug. 1, 1840. He was 
educated at the gymnasium of Brieg, the uni- 
versity of Breslau, and that 'of Berlin, where 
he graduated in 1817, and published in the 
same year his ^Egineticorum Liber. On leav- 
ing Berlin he was appointed instructor in 
ancient languages in the Magdalenum of Bres- 
lau, where he employed much time in mytho- 
logical studies and in the analysis of the differ- 
ent mythical cycles, the results of which are 
embodied in his Geschichte hellenischer Stam- 
me und Stiidte, of which vol. i., Orchomenos 
und die Hinyer, appeared at Breslau in 1820. 
At the recommendation of Bockh he was ap- 
pointed in 1819 to a professorship at Gottin- 
gen, the duties of which included a series of 
lectures on archaeology and ancient art; and 
to prepare himself he visited France, England, 
and various parts of Germany. His Die Dorier 
(2 vols. 8vo., Breslan, 1824), forming vols. ii. 
and iii. of the Geschichte hellenischer Stamme 
und Stadte, was intended to show the connec- 
tion of manners, religion, politics, and history 
in one of the Greek races. An English trans- 
lation by H. Tuffnell and Sir George Cornewall 
Lewis was published at Oxford in 1830, with 
additions and corrections by the author, and a 
new German edition of the whole work was 
published at Breslau (3 vols., 1844). Of his 
remaining works, the most important are the 
Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen My- 
thologie (Gottingen, 1825 ; English translation 
by J. Leitch, London, 1844) ; Ueber die Wohn- 
sitze, die Abstammung und diealtere Geschichte 
des makedonischen VolJces (Berlin, 1825) ; Die 
Etruslcer (Breslau, 1828) ; and Eandbuch der 
Archaologie der Kunst (translated by Leitch, 
London, 1850). He also undertook for the so- 
ciety for the diffusion of useful knowledge a 



MtlLLER 



35 



history of Greek literature, the first volume of 
which was translated into English by Lewis 
and Donaldson (1840), previous to its publica- 
tion in Germany, where it was issued after 
Miiller's death by his brother Eduard (Ge- 
schichte der griechischen Literatur ~bis auf das 
Zeitalter Alexanders, 2 vols., Breslau, 1841 ; 2d 
ed., 185T), and was brought down by Donald- 
son in English to the capture of Constantino- 
ple (3 vols., London, 1858). He published also 
several special archaeological treatises and arti- 
cles in periodicals, and edited Festus, Varro's 
De Lingua Latina, and the Eumenides of JEa- 
chylus. In 1839 he undertook a tour of explo- 
ration in southern Italy and Greece, and while 
superintending excavations at Delphi contract- 
ed a fatal fever. He was removed before his 
death to Athens, and buried on an eminence 
near the site of Plato's academy. A collection 
of his Kleine deutsche Schriften was published 
posthumously by his brother Eduard (3 vols., 
Breslau, 1847-'8). See Erinnerungen an Ot- 
fried Midler, by Lucke (Gottingen, 1841). II. 
Julias, a German theologian, brother of the pre- 
ceding, born in Brieg, April 10, 1801. He aban- 
doned the study of law for that of theology, and 
was settled over several small parishes from 
1825 to 1831. He was then appointed preach- 
er at the university of Gottingen, and in 1834 
professor of theology. From 1835 to 1839 he 
filled the same chair at Marburg, and afterward 
at Halle. He has published various theological 
works and essays, and his Die christliche Lehre 
von der Sunde (Breslau, 1839 ; 4th revised ed., 
2 vols., 1858 ; English translation by W. Puls- 
ford, " The Christian Doctrine of Sin," 2 vols., 
Edinburgh, 1852-'3) is one of the most noted 
productions of contemporary German Protes- 
tant literature. In 1850 he was associated with 
Neander and Nitzsch in founding the Deutsche 
Zeitschrift fur christliche Wissenschaft und 
christliches Leben. Having been a represen- 
tative of evangelical union in the Berlin synod 
of 1846, he published in 1854 Die evqngelische 
Union, ihr Wesen und gottliches Pecht. III. 
Eduard, brother of the preceding, born in Brieg, 
Nov. 12, 1804. Since 1853 he has been direc- 
tor of the gymnasium of Liegnitz, and has 
published Geschichte der Theorie der Kunst ~bei 
den Alien (2 vols., Breslau, 1834-'7), and a 
tragedy, Simson und Delilah (1853). 

MULLER, Otto, a German novelist, born at 
Schotten, Hesse-Darmstadt, June 1, 1816. He 
began his career as a librarian and a journal- 
ist, and resided in various places till 1856, 
when he settled in Stuttgart. He early pub- 
lished a series of novels, and in 1845 appeared 
his Burger, ein deutsches Dichterleben, which 
was followed by Georg Volker and other polit- 
ical novels. In 1854 appeared his admirable 
Charlotte AcTcermann. Among his subsequent 
novels are Der Klosterhof (1859), Aus Petr ar- 
ea's alten Tagen (1862), Erzahlungen und Cha- 
raUerlilder (1865), Der Wildpfarrer (1866), 
Der Professor von Heidelberg (1870), Der Fall 
von Konstanz (1872), and Der Majoratsherr 



(1873). His Ausgewahlte Schriften appeared 
in Stuttgart (12 vols., 1874). 

MULLER, Otto Frederik, a Danish naturalist, 
born in Copenhagen in March, 1730, died Dec. 
26, 1784. He was educated for the church, 
became tutor to a young nobleman, and after 
several years' travel with him settled in Copen- 
hagen in 1767, and married a lady of wealth. 
His first important works, Fauna Insectorum 
Friedrichsdaliana (Leipsic, 1764), and Flora 
Friedrichsdaliana (Strasburg, 1767), recom- 
mended him to Frederick V. of Denmark, by 
whom he was employed to continue the Flora 
of Denmark, and he added two volumes to the 
three published by Oeder since 1761. The 
study of zoology, and particularly of the minute 
animals, meanwhile began to occupy his atten- 
tion almost exclusively, and in 1771 he pro- 
duced a work in German on " Certain Worms 
inhabiting Fresh and Salt Water," which de- 
scribed many new species of those annulose 
animals called by Linnaeus aphrodita and nerei- 
des, and gave much additional information re- 
specting their habits. In his Vermium Terres- 
trium et Flumatilium, seu Animalium Infuso- 
riorum, Helminthecorum, et Testaceorum non 
Marinorum, succincta Historia (2 vols. 4to, 
Copenhagen and Leipsic, l773-'4), he arranged 
the infusoria for the first time into genera and 
species. His Hydrachnm in Aquis Danim Pa- 
lustribus detectce et descriptce (Leipsic, 1781), 
and Entomostraca (1785), describe many spe- 
cies of minute animals previously unknown. 
To these was added an illustrated work on 
the infusoria, published in 1786. These three 
works, according to Cuvier, give the author 
" a place in the first rank of those naturalists 
who have enriched science with original ob- 
servations." His Zoologica Danica, which was 
intended to correspond in the animal kingdom 
with the Flora Danica in the vegetable, was 
commenced in 1779, but only two parts, each 
containing 40 plates, were finished by him. 

MULLER, Peder Erasmus, a Danish bishop, born 
in Copenhagen, May 29, 1776, died Sept. 16, 
1834. He was educated at the university of 
Copenhagen, where, after visiting France and 
England, he was appointed professor of the- 
ology in 1801, and in 1830 bishop of Seeland. 
He published theological treatises and works 
on the language, literature, and history of Den- 
mark and Iceland. The most celebrated is his 
"Library of the Sagas" (1816-'20), in which 
he gives an account of all the Icelandic sagas 
or tales. From 1805 to 1832 he was editor of 
the "Danish Literary Gazette" (Danslc Lit- 
eratur Tidende). 

MULLER, Sophie, a German actress, born in 
Mannheim in 1803, died at Hietzing, near 
Vienna, June 20, 1830. She was a daughter 
of the actor Karl Muller (1783-1837), and ap- 
peared on the Carlsruhe stage in her 15th year. 
In 1821 she went to Munich, and in 1822 was 
engaged at the court theatre of Vienna, ac- 
quiring the reputation of one of the most dis- 
tinguished tragedians of her day. She also 



36 MftLLER 

became reader to the empress of Austria. Her 
biography, by Mailath, was published at Vi- 
enna in 1832. 

MILLER, Wilhelm, a German poet, born in 
Dessau, Oct. 7, 1794, died there, Oct. 1, 1827. 
He studied at the university of Berlin, and after 
serving in the war of liberation (18 13-' 14) 
he returned to Berlin, and applied himself 
especially to the ancient German language and 
literature. From 1817 to 1819 he travelled in 
southern Germany and Italy, and on returning 
was appointed classical instructor in the new 
normal school of Dessau. His works include 
Blumenlese am den Minnesdngern (1816) ; a 
translation of Marlowe's "Faustus" (1818); 
and Lieder der Griechen (1821-'4). His trans- 
lation of patriotic Greek songs for Fauriel's 
collection (2 vols., 1825), and his Lyrische 
Spaziergange (1827), are his best productions. 
His VermiscJite Schriften were published by 
S. Schwab with a biography (5 vols., Leipsic, 
1830). His Gedichte (2 vols., 1837) had seve- 
ral editions, and his AusgewdJilte Gedichte ap- 
peared in 1864. He was the father of Max 
Muller. (See MULLER, FEIEDEICH MAX.) 

MULLER, William John, an English painter, 
born in Bristol in 1812, died there, Sept. 8, 
1845. He studied with J. B. Pyne, the land- 
scape painter, and in 1833-'4 made a tour 
through Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. In 
1838-'9 he made a tour through Greece and 
Egypt, among the results of which were two 
landscapes, " Athens from the Road to Mara- 
thon," and "Memnon, or Ruins at Gornou in 
Egypt at Sunset." In 1843 he accompanied Sir 
Charles Fellows on his expedition in quest of 
the Xanthian marbles. Five pictures of Asi- 
atic scenery in the exhibition of 1845 were, like 
previous contributions, treated with neglect, 
and soon after he was seized with illness, the 
result of mortification, from which he never re- 
covered.. His pictures subsequently command- 
ed high prices, and a collection of 300 sketches 
was sold soon after his death for 4,360. 

MULLER VON RONIGSWDTTER, Wolfeang, a Ger- 
man poet, born at Konigswinter, near Bonn, 
March 5, 1816. He studied medicine at Bonn, 
graduated at Berlin in 1840, and was a physi- 
cian in Dusseldorf from 1842 to 1853, when he 
removed to Cologne, where he became a pop- 
ular poet, novelist, and chronicler of the Rhine 
region. Among his works are : Junge Lieder 
(1841); Balladenundfiomanzen(I84:%); EJiein- 
fahrt (1846); Gedichte (2d ed., 1857); Lorelei 
(2d ed., 1857) ; Eine Maikonigin (1852) ; Prinz 
Minnewin (1854); Der Eattenf anger von St. 
Goar (1857) ; Mann von Werth (1858) ; Er- 
zahlungen eines rheinischen Chronisten (1860) ; 
Vier Bur gen (1862); Zum stillen Vergnugen 
(1865); Der Pilger in Italien (1868); and 
Durch Kampf zum Sieg (1871). 

MULLET, a name given to two families of 
acanthopterygian fishes, the mugilidce and the 
mullidce, though the latter, to avoid confusion, 
are better styled surmullets. In the mugilidm 
the body is more or less cylindrical ; head and 



MULLET 

body covered with large, easily detached scales, 
in reality ctenoid, but so slightly denticulated 
as to appear cycloid; gill covers thin and 
smooth; head flattened, and the eyes large and 
far apart; the mouth small, and the teeth, 
when present, exceedingly fine; a kind of crest 
in the lower jaw received into a groove in the 
upper ; dorsals two, small and distinct, the first 
with usually four spinous rays, the second with 
flexible rays; ventrals behind pectorals; the 
pharyngeals are very large, the stomach rather 
fleshy, and the intestine with a few pyloric 
cffica; the swimming bladder is large. More 
than 50 species of the principal genus mugil 
(Linn.) have been described, from Europe, 
America, Africa, and the East Indies, inhabit- 
ing salt water, in preference about the mouths 
of rivers which they can ascend or descend 
with the tide. The gray mullet of western 
Europe (M. capita, Cuv.) attains a length of 
from 1 to 2 ft. ; the color above is dusky gray 
tinged with blue, the sides and belly silvery 
with longitudinal parallel dusky lines ; a dark 
spot at the base of the pectoral fin. They are 
highly esteemed as food, and are caught in 
nets, from 'which they attempt to escape by 
jumping over the edge. This species is com- 
mon on the English coasts, never far from 
land, and ventures many miles inland with 
the tide ; it is one of the species which thrive 
in fresh water; the food consists of soft or 
decaying animal or vegetable substances ; the 
spawning time is in midsummer. The gray 
mullet of the Mediterranean (M. cepJialus, Cuv.) 
may be known by the two adipose veils which 
half cover the eyes, by the long ridged scale at 
the base of the pectoral fins, and by the entire 
concealment of the maxillary bone when the 
mouth is shut; it attains a weight of 10 or 12 
Ibs., and is taken in nets in great quantities at 
the mouths of rivers ; the flesh is tender, deli- 
cate, and fine-flavored, and has been esteemed 
from ancient times; it is eaten fresh, salted, 
and smoked. Of the American species may 
be mentioned the striped mullet (M. linea- 
tus, Mitch.), 6 or 8 in. long, purplish brown 
above, lighter on the sides, with 10 or 12 dark 
brown longitudinal stripes, pupils black and 




Striped Mullet (Mugil lineatus). 

irides yellowish white, and abdomen pearl 
gray; this is an excellent fish, ranges from 
New York southward, and appears in the 
markets in early autumn ; the white mullet 
(M. albula, Linn.), of a general whitish color, 
about 9 in. long, plump and firm, appearing in 



MULLET 

July and August, and prized by epicures ; and 
the rock mullet (M. petrosus, Cuv.), like the 
last, found from New York to the gulf of Mex- 
ico. The African and Asiatic species are gen- 
erally greenish brown above, with golden and 
silvery reflections, and white below. The 
other family of mullets, more properly called 
surmullets (mullidUe), have some affinities with 
the perch family in the position of the fins, 
but differ from them in the unarmed opercula 
and the slightly ctenoid character of the scales ; 
the branchiostegal rays are four; the scales 
are large and easily detached ; the dorsals are 
two, widely separated, and all the fins are 
moderate; body oblong, little compressed; 
profile nearly vertical ; mouth small, and teeth 
feeble; gill opening wide; eyes large and at 
top of the head; in most species the lower 
jaw has two barbels at the symphysis. In the 
genus mullus (Linn.) there are no teeth in the 
upper jaw, but pavement-like ones on the 
vomer and lower jaw, and no air bladder. 
The red mullet (M. surmuletus, Linn.) is bright 
red above and on the sides, with three golden 
yellow longitudinal lines behind the pectorals, 
and rosy white below ; it attains a length of 12 
to 15 in. It is found from the English coast 
southward, being more common to the south, 
and very abundant in the Mediterranean, where 
it feeds upon crustaceans and mollusks; it is 
less esteemed as food than the next species. 
The bearded mullet (M. barbatus, Linn.) has a 
more vertical profile and a deeper and more 



MULTNOMAH 



37 




Bearded Mullet (Mullus barbatus). 

uniform red color; comparatively rare north 
of the English channel, it is most abundant in 
the Mediterranean; this is the rouget of the 
French. Of about the same size as the last, it 
is more highly esteemed for its white, firm, 
well flavored, and easily digested flesh ; the old 
Eoman epicures paid immense prices for this 
fish ; they kept them alive in vivaria, and ex- 
hibited their brilliant colors, rendered more 
beautiful in the agonies of death, to their 
guests. In America fish of the allied genus 
upeneus (Cuv.), with teeth in both jaws, are 
called mullets ; most of these have a large air 
bladder. The IT. maculatus (Bloch), with 
others, 6 or 8 in. long, is found in the gulf of 
Mexico, the West Indies, and South America ; 
the color is red, with a few blackish spots; 
the flesh is not much prized. 



MTLLJVER, Amadeus Gottfried Adolf, a German 
dramatist, born at Langendorf, near Weissen- 
fels, Oct. 18, 1774, died in Weissenfels, June 
11, 1829. He practised for some time as a 
lawyer, and wrote on jurisprudence; but he 
is best known by his dramas Der neunund- 
zwanzigste Februar and Die ScJiuld, which 
were among the most popular productions of 
the fatalistic dramatic school. His miscellane- 
ous writings were published in 2 vols. (Stutt- 
gart, 1824-'6), and his dramatic works in 7 
vols. (Brunswick, 1828). The hundredth an- 
niversary of his birth was celebrated at Weis- 
senfels in 1874. 

Ml LOCK, Dinah Maria. See CKAIK. 

MULREADY, William, a British painter, born in 
Ennis, Ireland, April 1, 1786, died at Bays- 
water, near London, July 7, 1863. He was 
admitted a student of the royal academy at 14 
years of age. His " Rattle " (1808), " Eoad- 
side Inn" (1811), and "Punch" (1813) showed 
careful study from nature and a good idea of 
color. His "Idle Boys" (1815) procured his 
election as an associate of the academy, and 
in 1816 he was admitted to full membership. 
His subsequent works, including " The Fight 
Interrupted " (1816), " Lending a Bite " (1819), 
" The Wolf and the Lamb " (1820), " The Con- 
valescent" (1822), " The Origin of a Painter" 
(1826), "The Last In" (1835), "First Love" 
(1840), and " The Ford " (1842), established 
his reputation. In 1840 he prepared 20 designs 
to illustrate the "Vicar of Wakefield," which 
suggested his subsequent pictures, " The Whis- 
tonian Controversy" (1844), "Choosing the 
Wedding Gown" (1846), and " Burchell and 
Sophia" (1847). Of his later works the best 
known are "The Butt" (1848), "Women 
Bathing" (1849), and "Blackheath Park" 
(1852). Choice specimens of his style are 
contained in the royal collection, in the Yer- 
non and Sheepshanks portions of the national 
gallery, and in the Peel collection. 

MIJLSO, Hester. See CHAPONE. 

MULTNOMAH, a JST. W. county of Oregon, bor- 
dering E. on the Cascade mountains, bounded 
N. by the Columbia river, and intersected in 
the west by the Willamette ; area, about 400 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,510, of whom 508 
were Chinese. The soil is generally fertile, and 
agriculture and cattle raising are the chief in- 
dustries. It is traversed by the Oregon and 
California and Oregon Central railroads. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 5,003 bushels 
of wheat, 1,473 of Indian corn, 11,882 of 
oats, 3,724 of barley, 1,826 of peas and beans, 
60,490 of potatoes, 4,626 Ibs. of wool, 115,- 
549 of butter, 11,260 of cheese, and 6,138 tons 
-of hay. There were 838 horses, 1,966 milch 
cows, 2,213 other cattle, 2,583 sheep, and 
2,583 swine; 1 manufactory of awnings and 
tents, 4 of bread, 8 of carriages and wagons, 
27 of clothing, 3 of confectionery, 6 of coop- 
erage, 5 of furniture, 4 of iron castings, 6 of 
engines and boilers, 5 of saddlery and harness, 
3 of sash, doors, and blinds, 8 of tin, copper, 



38 



MUMMIUS 



and sheet-iron ware, 5 of upholstery, 5 tan- 
neries, 4 breweries, 3 flour mills, 1 planing 
mill, 7 saw mills, and 1 beef and 1 pork pack- 
ing establishment. Capital, Portland. 

MUMMIUS, Lneins, a Roman general of the 2d 
century B. 0. He was praetor in 154 B. C. 
His province was Further Spain, where he met 
with several defeats, but finally was victorious 
over the Lusitanians and Blasto-Phoenicians. 
When he became consul in 146, the Achaean 
chiefs, only partially humbled by the victories 
of Metellus, his predecessor, had assembled an 
army on the isthmus of Corinth. Mummius 
took command in person, easily defeated the 
Achseans, and entered Corinth. The city, 
almost entirely deserted by its inhabitants, 
was pillaged and burned. Mummius carried 
off an immense quantity of spoils, consisting 
largely of the finest paintings and statuary in 
Greece.- Many of 
the rarer works 
he sold to the 
king of Pergamus, 
and the remain- 
der he sent to 
Rome, where such 
of them as had 
escaped the per- 
ils of the sea 
were exhibited in 
his triumph. For 
his great victory, 
which completed 
the conquest of 
Greece, Mummius 
received the sur- 
name Achaicus, 
being the first 
nomis homo thus 
honored for mili- 
tary service. He 

remained in Greece during the greater part of 
the years 146 and 145, having in the latter year 
the title of proconsul. He governed wisely, 
and respected the religion of the people. He 
became censor in 142 with Scipio Africanus 
the younger; the two men were exact oppo- 
sites in character and culture, and disagreed in 
everything. Mummius was rustic, rigidly hon- 
est, but lenient to others, and died poor. 

MUMMY (Persian and Arabic, mumiya, from 
the Persian mum, naphtha or liquid asphal- 
tum), a dead body embalmed, or preserved 
from decay by desiccation. The custom of 
thus preserving the bodies of the dead pre- 
vailed among several ancient nations. The 
Assyrians, Persians, and Ethiopians practised 
it to some extent, as did also the Hebrews, 
Greeks, and Romans, and in America the 
Mexicans and Peruvians ; but it was most 
general among the Egyptians, who embalmed 
all their dead. For the methods employed 
by the last, see EMBALMING. After the em- 
balming process was finished, the Egyptians 
swathed $ the body with narrow linen bandages 
steeped in some resinous liquid, probably the 



MUMMY 

gum of the mimosa Nilotica. These were 
wound around with great nicety, all the irreg- 
ularities being padded so as to bring the body 
to a symmetrical shape. In the Greek and 
Roman period the limbs were bound sepa- 
rately, but the Egyptians enclosed in one en- 
velope the entire body, which when thus pre- 
pared exhibited only the general outlines of 
the human form, even the face being covered. 
The bandages, which differ in quality from fine 
muslin to coarse canvas, were sometimes more 
than 1,000 yards in length. The body was 
next enclosed in a cartonage or case made of 
layers of cloth cemented together, which was 
probably adjusted to it when damp so as to 
take its exact shape. When fitted it was taken 
off, dried, and then put on again and sewed up 
at the back ; after which it was richly painted 
and gilded, the face being colored to represent 




1. Mummy in Bandages. 2. Cartonage. 3. Outer Case. 4. Sarcophagus. 



the features of the deceased, or overlaid with 
thick gold leaf, and the eyes made of enamel. 
The cartonage was covered with other cases, 
sometimes three or four, made of cedar ^ or 
sycamore, similarly painted. The cases varied 
in number, beauty, and style, in proportion to 
the expense incurred by the friends of the de- 
ceased, and the whole was sometimes placed 
in an outer sarcophagus of wood or stone, or- 
namented with paintings or sculptures. Mum- 
mies thus prepared were of those embalmed by 
the most expensive process, generally the bodies 
of priests or other dignitaries. The bodies of 
the middle classes seldom had more than one 
covering, and those of the lower orders were 
merely wrapped in coarse mats. Within the 
bandages were often placed papyri, small fig- 
ures of Osiris in blue porcelain, scarabaei, amu- 
lets, necklaces of glass beads or agate, ear 
rings, finger rings, bracelets, hair pins, and 
other ornaments ; and many of these are now 
found in mummies which have been undis- 
turbed. Mummies preserved by resinous sub- 
stances are of an olive color, and the skin dry, 
flexible, and as if tanned. The features appear 






MUMPS 



MUNCH 



39 



as during life ; the teeth, hair, and eyebrows 
are well preserved. Mummies of this kind are 
light, dry, and easily broken. Those filled with 
bitumen are black ; the skin hard and shining, 
as if varnished ; the features perfect ; and the 
whole corpse dry, heavy, and difficult to break. 
Of mummies preserved with natron and filled 
with asphaltum and resinous substances, the 
skin is hard and elastic, resembling parchment, 
and does not adhere to the bones ; the coun- 
tenance is little altered, but the hair falls off 
on being touched. The bodies Of the poor, 
which were salted and boiled in bitumen, are 
black, dry, heavy, and very hard to break, and 
neither the hair nor the eyebrows are pre- 
served. It has been estimated that more than 
400,000,000 human mummies were made in 
Egypt from the beginning of the art of em- 
balming until its discontinuance in the 7th cen- 
tury. In addition to these, vast numbers of 
sacred animals, bulls, apes, cynocephali, dogs, 
cats, sheep, vultures, falcons, ibises, geese, liz- 
ards, serpents, crocodiles, and fi.sh were em- 
balmed. The principal places where mummies 
are found are the necropolis in the plain of 
Sakkarah, opposite the site of Memphis, and 
the necropolis of Thebes. Great numbers have 
been removed, and mummies of the best class 
are now scarce. Many are burned for fuel by 
the Arabs, and ship loads have been transported 
to England to be ground up for manure. 

MUMPS (cynanche parotidea, parotitis), a 
specific inflammation of the parotid and sub- 
maxillary glands. This curious affection, called 
by the Scotch branks, and by the French oreil- 
lons or ourles, has been known from the time 
of Hippocrates. It commences with a feeling 
of pain and tension beneath the ear, swelling 
takes place, and motion of the jaw is painful. 
The swelling soon involves the parotid and 
submaxillary glands ; it is somewhat pasty to 
the feel, and is unattended with redness of the 
skin. Sometimes one side only is affected, 
sometimes both at once, more commonly one 
after the other. The disease is attended with 
slight fever, but the pain is by no means pro- 
portioned to the swelling and the deformity. 
The duration of the complaint is from eight 
to ten days, it taking four days to attain its 
height, and four days being occupied by its 
decline. Occasionally in males the testes, and 
in females the breasts, become swollen and 
hard as the swelling of the salivary glands 
subsides; and very rarely, in the subsidence 
of the swelling, either of the parotid or of the 
testes, inflammation of the brain or its mem- 
branes has occurred. The disease is often 
epidemic, and is generally believed to be con- 
tagious. It ordinarily requires little treatment, 
the administration of a laxative and warm and 
emollient applications to the affected part be- 
ing all that is necessary. "When the brain is 
attacked, it must be treated irrespective of the 
original affection. 

MWTCH, Ernst Hermann Joseph voi, a German 
historian, born in Rheinfelden, Switzerland, 



Oct. 25, 1798, died there, June 9, 1841. He 
was for some time professor at Freiburg, and 
filled the chair of ecclesiastical history and law 
at Liege. He was also royal librarian at the 
Hague, and director of the private library of the 
king of. Wurtemberg. Among his principal 
works are Allgemeine GescMchte der neuesten 
Zeit (6 vols., Leipsic, 1833-'5), and his auto- 
biography, Erinnerungen und Studien aus den 
ersten 37 Jahren ernes deutschen Gelehrten (3 
vols >v Carlsruhe, 1836-'8). 

MUNCH, Friedrich, a German author, born at 
Niedergemiinden, Hesse-Darmstadt, June 25, 
1799. He is the son of a clergyman, studied 
theology at Giessen, and- succeeded his father 
as pastor of the village church. He founded 
in 1833, with Paul Follen, an emigration so- 
ciety at Giessen, and came with a number of 
emigrants to the United States, settling as a 
farmer in Missouri. He was active in promo- 
ting German immigration, and was a member 
of the Missouri senate from 1862 to 1866. He 
has published Ueber Religion und Christen- 
thum (1847), of which an English edition ap- 
peared in Boston ; Der Staat Missouri (New 
York, 1859; 2d ed., abridged, Bremen, 1866); 
Amerikanische Weiribauschule (3d ed., St. 
Louis, 1867) ; Die sinnliche und die geistige 
Lebensansiclit (Philadelphia, 1871); Geistes- 
lehre fur die heranreifende Jugend (St. Louis, 
1872) ; and Das Lelen 'don Karl Follen (Neu- 
stadt-on-the-Haardt, 1872). 

MOTCH. I. Peder Andreas, a Norwegian histo- 
rian, born in Christiania, Dec. 15, 1810, died in 
Eome, May 25, 1863. He graduated in 1834 
at the university of Christiania for the civil 
service, but devoted himself to philology and 
history, and became lecturer in 1837, professor 
in 1841, and historiographer of the king and 
archivist of Norway in 1861. His principal 
work is Det norske Folks Historie (9 vols., 
Christiania, 1852-'63), for the preparation of 
which he visited England, Scotland, and France. 
From 1858 to 1861 he was at work in the 
archives of the Vatican, and he returned to 
Rome shortly before his death. He also pub- 
lished grammars of the Runic, Old Norwegian, 
and Old Norse languages, and prepared several 
editions of Old Norse philological works. II. 
Andreas, a Norwegian poet, cousin of the pre- 
ceding, born Oct. 19, 1810. He was the son 
of the bishop of Christiansand, and studied 
jurisprudence at Christiania. He published a 
volume of poems in 1836 and a drama in 1837. 
From 1841 to 1846 he edited a journal, and 
from 1850 to 1860 was amanuensis in the uni- 
versity library. A stipend voted to him by 
the storthing in the latter year enabled him 
to devote himself to literature, and to publish 
collections of his poems. His Sorg og Tr&st 
(1852) has had several editions. Among his 
other works are Billeder fra 8yd og Nord, an 
account of a journey to Italy (1848), and the 
dramas Salomon de Caus (1854), En A/ten paa 
GisJce (1855), Lord William Eussel (1857), and 
Eertug Skule (1863). 



40 MtfNCH-BELLINGHAUSEN 

MUNCH-BELLINGHArSEN, FJigins Franz Joseph 
von. baron, a German dramatist, known by his 
pseudonyme of Friedrich Halm, born in Cra- 
cow, April 2, 1806, died in Vienna, May 21, 
1871. His first drama, Griseldw (Vienna, 
1834), was well received. Of the succeeding 
ones, the most celebrated are Der Sohn der Wild- 
niss (1842 ; translated into English by Charles 
E. Anthon, New York, 1848, under the title 
of "The Son of the Wilderness," but fre- 
quently performed on the American stage 
under that of " Ingomar the Barbarian "), and 
Der Fechter von Ravenna (1854). Among his 
later works is a drama entitled Ipfiigenie in 
Delphi, in imitation of Goethe's Iphigenie, 
and a play written for the Schiller festival in 
1859 entitled Vor Tiundert Jahren. He pub- 
lished a volume of poetry (1850), a work on 
ancient Spanish plays (1852), and an edition of 
his works (8 vols., 1857-'64). In 1861 he was 
made member for life of the Austrian house 
of lords. For several years he was first keeper 
of the imperial library, and from 1867 to 1870 
director of the court theatre in Vienna. 

MUXCIIIIAl'SEX, Hieronymns Karl Friedrich von, 
baron, a German soldier, born at Bodenwerder, 
Hanover, in 1720, died there in 1797. He 
served in his youth as a cavalry officer in the 
Kussian army, and passed his latter days in 
Hanover. He delighted in telling wonderful 
stories of his adventures in the campaign 
against the Turks in 173 7-' 9, which gained for 
him the reputation of being one of the great- 
est liars who ever lived. The stories were re- 
peated from one end of the country to the 
other, and created universal merriment. They 
are said to have been first compiled by Ru- 
dolf Erich Raspe, a man of letters, who, being 
compelled to flee from Cassel to England on 
account of a charge of embezzlement, was 
engaged in London in literary pursuits, and is 
generally believed to have published anony- 
mously an English edition of the stories under 
the title of " Baron Munchausen's Narrative of 
his Marvellous Travels and Campaigns in Rus- 
sia" (London, 1785). A second edition, con-- 
siderably enlarged and ornamented with views 
from the baron's drawings, was published at 
Oxford in 1786, under the 'title of " The Singu- 
lar Travels, Campaigns, Voyages, and Sport- 
ing Adventures of Baron Munnikhousen, com- 
monly pronounced Munchausen ; as he relates 
them over a bottle when surrounded by his 
friends." A third edition (London, 1786) bore 
the additional title of " Gulliver Revived," 
and was soon followed by others. The work 
was first issued in a German form in 1787, 
under the auspices of the poet Burger. A 
German edition of this famous work, entitled 
Des Freiherrn von Munchhausen wunderlare 
Reisen und Abenteuer (Gottingen and Berlin, 
1849), contains an introduction by Adolf Ellis- 
sen upon the life and writings of the author, 
the sources and originals of the Miinchhausens, 
and the literature of fictitious travels in gen- 
eral. But a large proportion of the hunting 



MUNDT 

stories in this edition are derived from Hen- 
ry Bebel's Facetice (Strasburg, 1508), while 
other incidents are borrowed from Casti- 
glione's Cortegiano and Bildermann's Utopia, 
which are included in Lange's Delicia Acade- 
mics (Heilbronn, 1765). A free German ver- 
sion of the English edition appeared in Leip- 
sic in 1846, under the title of Munchhausens 
Lugenabenteuer. The work still maintains its 
popularity in Germany as well as in England 
and the United States. Imitations of Miinch- 
hausen's stories are called in Germany Munch- 
hausiaden. The success of the work gave rise 
to Immermann's celebrated novel Munchhau- 
sen (4 vols., 2d ed., Dtisseldorf, 1841), and to 
Adolf Schrodter's picture representing the 
baron surrounded by his listeners. 

MUNDT. I. Theodor, a German author, born 
in Potsdam, Sept. 19, 1808, died in Berlin, 
May 30, 1861. He was educated in Berlin and 
Leipsic, and became prominent among the 
young Germany school of writers and poli- 
ticians. His liberalism giving umbrage to the 
government, he travelled in various parts of 
Europe, and was permitted to teach at the 
university of Berlin after his return in 1839. 
In 1848 he was appointed professor of general 
literature and history at Breslau, and in 1850 
he became director of the library of the Berlin 
university. Among his earliest writings was 
Madonna, oder UnterJialtungen mit einer Hei- 
ligen (Leipsic, 1834) ; its morbid though poet- 
ical views of life are said to have prompted 
Charlotte Stieglitz to commit suicide from de- 
votion to her husband, whom she hoped to di- 
vert from his varied troubles by the greater 
sorrow caused by her death. (See STIEGLITZ, 
HEINEIOH.) Mundt edited her writings under 
the title Charlotte Stieglitz, ein DenTcmal (Ber- 
lin, 1835). Among his subsequent works are 
a series of novels, including Thomas Munzer 
(Altona, 1841), and Carmola, oder die Wieder- 
taufe (Hanover, 1844) ; Mendoza, oder der Vo- 
ter der Schelme (Berlin, 1847) ; and Die Mata- 
dore (Leipsic, 1850). He also published Spa- 
ziergange und Weltfahrten (Altona, 1838-'40), 
Volkerschau auf Reisen (Stuttgart, 1840), and 
other sketches of travels, and a delineation of 
the character of Knebel in the edition of that 
author's posthumous works which he prepared 
in concert with Varnhagen von Ense. Among 
his other productions are Kunst der deutschen 
Prosa; Allgemeine Literaturgeschichte, in con- 
tinuation of that of Schlegel; Dramaturgic; 
Oeschichte der Literatur der Gegenwart, &c. 
His Oeschichte der Gesellschaft (1844) was fol- 
lowed by a Geschichte der deutschen Stande 
(1854) ; and he published in 1851 a work on 
Machiavelli. In 1844 he began the publica- 
tion of an edition of Luther's political works. 
His last work, Rom und Neapel, appeared in 
1860. H. Rlara (MULLER), best known by her 
pseudonyme of LUISE MUHLBACH, a German 
novelist, wife of the preceding, born in Neu- 
Brandenburg, Jan. 2, 1814, died in Berlin, 
Sept. 27, 1873. She was married in 1839, and 



MUNICH 



in the same year published her first novel. The 
long series of romances which followed gained 
great popularity, and brought her a large for- 
tune, enabling her to support her husband du- 
ring the long illness which preceded his death, 
and to build a handsome residence in Berlin, 
where she was a prominent figure in literary 
society. Mme. Mundt was an advocate of fe- 
male suffrage and of great changes in the social 
position of women, an extreme liberal in her 
political views, and a frequent participant in 
reform movements in these and similar direc- 
tions. She wrote many essays on social ques- 
tions. Her historical romances have been 
translated into English, and are as well known 
in Great Britain and America as in Germany. 
The facts of history are very freely treated in 
them, and the imagination of the writer is al- 
lowed full liberty ; but the narratives are spir- 
ited, and the social features of the periods 
of which they treat are often fairly repre- 
sented. The best known of these works are 
"Frederick the Great and his Court," "Joseph 
II. and his Court," " The Merchant of Berlin," 
" Frederick the Great and his Family," " Ber- 
lin and Sans-Souci," " Henry VIII. and Catha- 
rine Parr," "Louisa of Prussia and her Times," 
" Marie Antoinette and her Son," " The 
Daughter of an Empress," " Napoleon and the 
Queen of Prussia," "The Empress Josephine," 
"Napoleon and Bliicher," " Queen Hortense," 
"Goethe and Schiller," "Andreas Hofer," 
"Prince Eugene and his Times," and "Mo- 
hammed Ali and his House." Among her la- 
test works were "The Thirty Years' War," 
" Emperor William," and "From Koniggratz 
to Chiselhurst," all published in 1873. She 
wrote in all more than 50 separate novels, 
comprising nearly 100 volumes. 

MUNICH (Ger. MuncJien), the capital of Ba- 
varia 'and of the district of Upper Bavaria, on 
the Isar, in the midst of an extensive plain, 
1,700 ft. above the level of the sea, in lat. 48 
9' N., Ion. 11 35' E., 33 m. S. E. of Augsburg, 
290 m. S. S. W. of Berlin, and 220 m. W. of Vi- 
enna; pop. in 1871, 169,478 (in 1812, 40,000). 
It is celebrated for its architectural splendor, 
for its admirable institutions and works of art, 
and for its university. The city is composed 
of the old and the new town and of five sub- 
urbs on the left bank and three on the right 
bank of the Isar. The river is spanned by four 
bridges, the Isar bridge being the largest and 
the Maximilian the finest and most recent. The 
number of streets is about 275, and new streets 
are springing up in every direction, particularly 
near the new railway stations in Haidhausen 
and other suburbs, and in the S. part of the city. 
The streets in the old town are irregular, but 
spacious and bustling. The most celebrated 
in the modern city are the Ludwig and Maxi- 
milian streets, which respectively contain the 
most remarkable public and private buildings. 
There are nearly 20 squares, of which the Max- 
Joseph is the largest; and others conspicu- 
ous for attractiveness are the Odeon, Wittels- 



bach, Maximilian, Karl, and Promenade squares, 
the Carolinenplatz, and the Konigsplatz. Fa- 
vorite promenades are the Hofgarten and the 
English garden, the latter remarkable for a 
Greek temple and other embellishments. The 
S. continuation of it, known as the Hirschau, 
abounds with deer, stags, and pheasants ; and N. 
of the park is the new zoological garden. Not 
far from Munich is the park adjoining the palace 
of Nymphenburg, and the picturesque scenery 
of the upper banks of the Isar makes many of 
the neighboring villages favorite resorts, while 
the immediate vicinity of the city teems with 
public gardens. Munich contains upward of 
20 Koman Catholic churches and chapels. St. 
Peter's, the oldest, dates from the 13th century. 
The Gothic cathedral (FrauenMrche), com- 
pleted at the end of the 15th, has two lofty 
dome-capped towers. St. Michael's is remark- 
able for the beauty of the interior and for the 
width of its roof unsupported by pillars; it 
contains Thorwaldsen's monument of Eugene 
de Beaurharnais. St. Cajetan's contains the 
tombs of the royal family. The modern edi- 
fices are however the most interesting. All 
Saints' chapel (Allerheiligen-Kapelle or Hof- 
Tcapelle) has columns of red Tyrolese marble 
with white bases and gilded capitals. The 
upper part of the aisles is incrusted with col- 
ored marbles ; all the rest is covered with 
frescoes upon a golden ground. The Lud- 
wigskirche, in the round arch style, is also fa- 
mous for the beauty of its execution and its 
designs, and for the wealth of its decorations, 
which comprise colossal statues of St. Peter 
and St. Paul and other works by Schwan- 
thaler, and Cornelius's "Last Judgment," up- 
ward of 60 ft. high. The parish church of 
Maria-Hilf, in the Au suburb, and in the Ger- 
man pointed style of the 14th century, with 
high lancet windows, contains 19 painted win- 
dows illustrative of incidents in the life of the 
Virgin. The church or basilica of St. Boni- 
face, finished in 1850, in the Byzantine style, 
is the largest and most splendid of them all. 
The front has a portico of eight Corinthian 
columns with three bronze doors. The side 
facades have a double row of round-headed 
windows. The interior, divided into a nave 
75 ft. high and 50 ft. wide, and a number of 
aisles, is supported by 64 monolithic columns 
of marble disposed in four rows. The pave- 
ment is of marble mosaic, and the roof of 
open timber work, the beams of which are 
carved and richly decorated, and the ceiling 
between them azure with golden stars. The 
frescoes on the walls represent saints and 
martyrs and incidents in the life of St. Boni- 
face. The majority of the population are Ko- 
man Catholics, and an archbishop resides here. 
Munich has also recently become the great 
centre of the Old Catholic movement. There 
are about 16,000 Protestants, who have several 
places of worship. There is only one syna- 
gogue, Jews being less numerous here than 
in most other parts of Germany, numbering 



42 



MUNICH 



barely 2,000. Charitable institutions are nu- 
merous; the most prominent are those for 
the blind and deaf and dumb, and the new 
lunatic asylum in the Au suburb. The peni- 
tentiary, or great prison, in the same locality, 
is one of the most remarkable establishments 
of the kind in Germany, resembling a manu- 
factory in which every handicraft is carried on, 
the prisoners, male and female, being obliged 
to work at their respective trades. Among 
the finest official buildings are the war and 
post offices, the mint, the office of the mining 
and salt works, and the renovated city hall 
(Rathhaus). The Ludwig-Maximilian univer- 
sity, founded in Ingolstadt in 1472, and in 
1800 transferred to Landshut, was removed 
to Munich in 1826, and has since attained 
world-wide celebrity, particularly under the 
reign of Maximilian II. (1848-' 64). The 400th 
anniversary of its foundation was celebrated in 
1872. In the winter term of 1874-'5 it was 
attended by 1,145 stu- 
dents, including 80 in 
Koman Catholic theol- 
ogy, 223 in jurispru- 
dence, &c., 307 in medi- 
cine and pharmacy, and 
432 in philosophy. Con- 
nected with it were 113 
professors, one of whom 
is Dr. Dollinger. At- 
tached to the univer- 
sity, which occupies a 
new and imposing edi- 
fice, are the Georgianum 
or theological school, 
a philological seminary, 
anatomical and clini- 
cal institutions, and the 
general hospital. The 
royal polytechnic school, 
founded within the last 
generation, has rapidly 
risen to great impor- 
tance, and was attended in 1875 by upward of 
1,300 students. A fine building was appropria- 
ted in 1863 for an athenamm for training young 

^ [r> the , civil Sen7ice ' and contains Kaul- 
bach's "Battle of Salamis," one of 100 paintings 
illustrating universal history. There are many 
other educational institutions in Munich, ex- 
tending over every specialty of military and 
civil instruction, and including a Catholic nor- 
mal seminary. The libraries of Munich are ex- 
tensive and numerous. The most celebrated is 

^7- r /rK 01 ' P ^ liG HbraiT ( H f- und Staats- 
bibliothelc), a splendid building in the Ludwig 
street, resembling an Italian medieval palace 
d containing a reading room, 900,000 vol- 
umes, and 22,000 manuscripts, the books from 
suppressed monasteries greatly contributing to 
swell the number. Next in extent is the uni- 
versity library, with 230,000 volumes and 2 000 
manuscripts. The academy of sciences is rich 
in scientific co lections, and has jurisdiction 
over the cabinet of antiquities in the old royal 



palace, the chemical laboratory established by 
Liebig, the botanic garden and the new palm 
house, and the observatory and meteorological 
bureau, near the neighboring village of Bogen- 
hausen. The academy of fine arts, including 
the Schwanthaler and other museums, is de- 
voted to architecture, .sculpture, drawing, and 
engraving. Piloty succeeded Kaulbach as pres- 
ident in 1874. A plot of ground near the Sie- 
gesthor was in 1874 purchased by the govern- 
ment for the erection of a new building for the 
academy. The Glyptothek or sculpture gallery 
is surrounded by pleasure grounds, and con- 
sists of 12 halls named after the statues which 
they contain. The 1st is filled with Egyp- 
tian sculptures, and the 2d with the earliest 
Greek and Etruscan; the 3d with JEginetan 
antiquities, which are especially celebrated for 
the marbles discovered in 1811 and restored 
by Thorwaldsen ; the 4th (the hall of Apollo) 
is devoted to the works of Phidias; the 5th 




The Glyptothek. 

(hall of Bacchus) contains the sleeping or Bar- 
berini faun, and other famous works; the 6th 
(hall of the sons of Niobe) is remarkable for 
a kneeling figure of Ilioneus, the youngest 
son of Niobe ; the 7th (hall of the gods) is de- 
voted to heathen mythology, and the 8th (Tro- 
jan hall) to the heroes of Homer ; in the 9th 
(hall of heroes), are statues of Alexander the 
Great and Nero ; the 10th (Roman hall) is re- 
markable for its decoration, and contains busts 
which exhibit the decline of Pvoman art ; the 
llth is the hall of colored sculpture; and the 
12th is that of modern statuary, containing 
Ihorwaldsen's Adonis and bust of King Louis 
1. Ihe Pmakothek or picture gallery, a more 
extensive building than the Glyptothek, like 
the latter designed by Klenze, was completed in 
1880. It contains about 1,300 paintings, con- 
sisting of the best works of the royal collec- 
tions, arranged according to schools in 9 halls 
and 23 compartments, the large works of each 
school being placed in the central hall, which 



MUNICH 



43 



communicates on one side with the collections 
of the smaller paintings, and on the other with 
an extensive corridor, divided into_25 loggie, 
adorned with frescoes by Cornelius illustrative 
of the history of the fine arts during the mid- 
dle ages. Cimabue, Giotto, Leonardo da Vin- 
ci, Correggio, Titian, Michel Angelo, Albert 
Diirer, Rembrandt, and Vandyke are here rep- 
resented, some of them by numerous works. 
An entire compartment is filled with those of 
Raphael, and 95 works of Rubens take up the 
entire space of the central and largest hall of 
the gallery. Murillo, Poussin, and other Span- 
ish and French painters are also represented. 
The lower story contains collections of 9,000 
drawings by the old masters, including some 
of Raphael, the drawings of Cornelius for the 
loggie, and 3,000 drawings of South American 
scenery by Rugendas. The cabinet of engra- 
vings comprises about 300,000 works. On 
the ground floor of the W. wing is a collection 
of Etruscan and other 
vases. On the north is 
the new Pinakothek, 
completed in 1853, des- 
tined for the works of 
contemporary artists, 
and comprising 52 
rooms in two stories. 
The upper floor, which 
contains them, is divi- 
ded into 5 large central 
halls, 5 rooms on the 
south and 14 small cab- 
inets on the north, be- 
sides a room at the 
west with Rottmann's 
encaustic illustrations 
of Grecian history and 
sites. In the central hall 
are Kaulbach's " De- 
struction of Jerusalem " 
and Schorn's " Del- 
uge." It contains also 

Wilkie's "Reading of the Will." On the 
ground floor are paintings on porcelain, with 
copies of the most celebrated works of the 
picture gallery. In the old picture gallery 
on the "N. side of the royal park is a collec- 
tion of antiquities and curiosities from dif- 
ferent parts of the world. The Leuchten- 
berg gallery of paintings was removed to St. 
Petersburg in 1853. The new royal palace 
(der neue Konigsbau) is a magnificent and 
stupendous extension of the old palace. The 
interior is embellished after the model of the 
loggie of the Vatican. The ground floor con- 
sists of state rooms decorated with Schnorr's 
Nibelungen. The kings' and queens' apart- 
ments are adorned with paintings respectively 
from Greek and German poets. Other apart- 
ments are devoted to Klopstock, Wieland, 
Goethe, Schiller, and Tieck. The most inter- 
esting part of the palace is the Festsaalbau, 
containing on the E. side of the ball room two 
rooms for card playing called halls of the 



beauties, with portraits of beautiful women of 
modern times, including Lola Montez. The 
banquet hall and the halls of Charlemagne, 
Barbar.ossa, and Rudolph of Hapsburg are 
full of fine decorations, the throne room being 
the most gorgeous of all. Among other royal 
residences are the Wittelsbach palace and the 
palaces of Prince Max and Prince Luitpold, 
the latter formerly known as the Leuchten- 
berg palace, situated on the Odeon square, op- 
posite to the fine bazaar celebrated for its ar- 
cades ; and there are several private mansions 
of remarkable architecture. The Bavarian 
national museum, completed in 1866, about 
500 ft. long and 95 ft. high, contains varied 
and interesting collections relating to Bava- 
rian antiquity, history, and manufactures, and 
the walls are decorated with many frescoes 
of stupendous size. There are various other 
buildings used as museums and for exhibitions 
of ancient and modern art, of which latter 




The Kuhmeshalle. 

Munich contains a greater number than any 
other place of its size, the so-called crystal 
palace in the old botanic garden being the 
most extensive. Some of the city gates, as the 
Siegesthor (the triumphal arch), after the model 
of the arch of Constantine, and the Isarthor, 
are exceedingly interesting, as well as the Pro- 
pyla3um, a triumphal arch in the old Doric 
style, with bass reliefs, commemorating the 
modern Greek war of independence and King 
Otho. The Ruhmeshalle (hall of fame) is the 
most conspicuous monument of Munich. It is 
situated on high ground in the Theresienwiese, 
and consists of a large Doric portico of Ba- 
varian marble, forming three sides of a quad- 
rangle and an open side, in the centre of which 
rises Schwanthaler's colossal bronze statue of 
Bavaria, about 100 ft. high, including the pedes- 
tal. There are 48 columns with busts of emi- 
nent Bavarians. In the tympana are female 
statues representing Bavaria, the Palatinate, 
Swabia, and Franconia ; and in the frieze are 



44 MUNICH 

upward of 90 metopes, adorned with figures 
of Victory and with reliefs symbolical of the 
arts and occupations of civilized society. The 
principal squares and streets are adorned with 
monuments of Bavarian monarchs, some of 
them of colossal size, especially the equestrian 
statute of Louis I. on the Odeon square, and 
that of Maximilian II., erected in 1874. Goethe, 
Schiller, Gluck, and other eminent men are 
likewise honored here by monuments; and 
among the most recent are those of Liebig 
and Kaulbach. In the southern cemetery and 
the adjoining new cemetery are also interest- 
ing monuments ; the former contains a house 
(Leichenhaus) for funeral exposition of the 
dead, and the latter has a fine campo santo, 
in the mediaeval Lombard style, consisting of 
a large square enclosure, surrounded by an 
elegant structure of brick. The opera house 
of Munich, the concerts in the Odeon and 
other places, and the conservatory of music 
are among the best in Germany; the royal 
school of music was attended in 1874-'5 by 
59 female and 45 male pupils. There are sev- 
eral theatres for dramatic performances, the 
most recent being the Volkstheater for popu- 
lar plays and also for operettas. There were 
seven railway stations in 1874. The lines to 
Paris and Vienna and to Italy form here a 
main junction, making Munich a great centre of 
travel, especially in summer, and of increasing 
trade and industry. In 1874 there were near- 
ly 200 manufactories of various articles. The 
most celebrated establishments are the brewer- 
ies ; the royal bronze f ounderies, where Craw- 
ford's statues of Beethoven and Washington, 
and the doors of the capitol at Washington, 
were cast ; the royal glass and porcelain works, 
Maffei's manufactory of machinery, Mann- 
hardt's of steeple clocks, and Ertl's of techno- 
logical instruments (which was founded by 
Keichenbach) ; Fraunhofer's and Utzschn ei- 
der's optical works, continued by Marz and 
sons ; and photographic and xylographic estab- 
lishments. The staple article of trade is grain, 
and there are two great annual fairs (Dulten). 
Granaries, a cattle market, and an abattoir have 
been built near the railway stations, where new 
establishments spring up in increasing numbers. 
Munich was originally a settlement of monks 
(Monche\ whence the name, which was first 
mentioned early in the 12th century ; and Henry 
the Lion raised the Villa Municha to some im- 
portance (1158). It became the residence of 
the dukes of the house of Wittelsbach, and was 
much enlarged after its destruction by fire in 
1327, and endowed with many public buildings 
by Duke William the Pious (1579-1596) and 
the duke and elector Maximilian I. (1596-1651). 
On May 17, 1632, it was taken by Gustavus 
Adolphus of Sweden, and held for some time. 
Under Charles Theodore (1777-'99) Munich 
was greatly improved and enlarged. It was 
entered by a division of the French army 
under Moreau in June, 1800, and in October, 
1805, by Napoleon, who again visited the city 



MUNK 

in January, 1806, on occasion of the marriage 
of Eugene de Beauharnais. Munich from an 
inferior town has risen under the fostering 
care of King Maximilian I. (died in 1825), and 
particularly under that of his son Louis I., to 
the rank of an important capital. While still 
crown prince Louis ordered the building of 
the Glyptothek and of other public works, 
and he contributed most powerfully to invest 
Munich with its present splendor, and con- 
tinued his exertions for the embellishment 
of the capital even after his abdication in 
1848. Under his son Maximilian II. arose 
the magnificent street and bridge which bear 
his name, and many remarkable institutions 
and works of art. His influence on science 
was great, and he gave to the university the 
benefit of the services of Liebig and other 
eminent men, and encouraged poets and liter- 
ary men generally. The present king, Louis 
II., is chiefly interested in music, but proposed 
in 1874 to endow Munich with a palace and 
museum after the model of Versailles. 

MCNJEET, the commercial name for the root 
of an East India plant, rubia munjista, or ac- 
cording to some of R. cordifolia, used for the 
same purposes as madder. The roots are of 
similar appearance to those of madder, but are 
thinner and much longer, and are found in 
commerce in bundles 2 or 3 ft. long, and as 
thick as one's wrist. The coloring principle 
appears to be alizarine, and, as in madder, this 
is convertible into garancine, for which pur- 
pose the roots are used in Europe. Munjeet 
dyes a very bright scarlet. 

MUNK, Salomon, a French orientalist, born of 
Jewish parents in Glogau, Prussian Silesia, 
May 14, 1805, died in Paris, Feb. 6, 1867. He 
was educated in Berlin and Bonn, and after- 
ward studied the oriental languages in Paris. 
In 1835 he visited the university of Oxford, 
with a view of collecting materials for an edi- 
tion in the original Arabic text in Hebrew let- 
ters of the celebrated work of Maimonides, 
Moreh nebu&him (" Guide of the Perplexed "), 
which he published with a French translation 
and notes under the title of Le guide des egares 
(3 vols., 1856-'66). In 1840 he was appointed 
deputy custodian of the oriental manuscripts in 
the royal library of Paris. In the same year 
he accompanied Sir Moses Montefiore and Cr6- 
mieux to Egypt, where he secured many in- 
teresting Arabic manuscripts. In 1852 failing 
eyesight compelled him to relinquish his office 
in the library, but, with the assistance of friends, 
he still pursued his studies. In 1865, though 
entirely blind, he was appointed professor of 
the Hebrew, Chaldaic, and Syriac languages in 
the college de France. He wrote Palestine, 



description geographique, historique et archeo* 
logique (Paris, 1845, included in Didot's DniverS 
pittoresque). A portion of his contributions 
to the Dictionnaire des sciences ptiilosopliiques, 
on Arabic and Hebrew philosophy, has been 
translated into German under the title of PUlo- 
sopMe und philosopJiiscJie ScJiriften der Juden 



MUNKACS 



MUNSELL 






(Leipsic, 1852). He also published Reflexions 
BUT le culte des anciens Hebreux dans ses rap- 
ports avec les autres cultes de Vantiquite (1833), 
and other works, and prepared a Cours de langue 
hebra'ique, chalda'ique et syriaque (1865). 

MUN&ACS, a town of N. E. Hungary, in the 
county of Bereg, on the Latorcza, 67 m. E. S. 
E. of Kaschau ; pop. in 1870, 8,602. E. of it, 
on a high rock, is the fortress of the same 
name, remarkable for numerous sieges, and 
formerly used by the Austrians as a state 
prison. Among the prominent prisoners con- 
fined there was Alexander Ypsilanti. During 
the war of 1848-'9 the town and fortress were 
in the hands of the Hungarians. It has large 
iron and saltpetre works. 

MUMICH, Bnrkhard Christoph, count, a Rus- 
sian soldier, born in the then Danish duchy of 
Oldenburg, May 20, 1683, died in St. Peters- 
burg, Oct. 27, 1767. He was the son of a 
peasant ennobled by Frederick III. of Den- 
mark, and early distinguished himself. He was 
made a prisoner in the battle of Denain, and 
sent to Cambrai, where he was very kindly 
treated by Fenelon. In 1720 he was received 
with distinction by Peter the Great, who con- 
fided to him the execution of the great Ladoga 
canal. In the reign of Anna he became field 
marshal and president of the council of state. 
He reduced Dantzic in 1734. In 1735 he was 
called to the chief command of the army against 
the Turks, and gained distinction by his victo- 
ries. He desolated the Crimea (1736), took 
Otchakov (1737), defeated the Turks near Sta- 
vutchay (1739), seized the fortress of Khotin, 
and occupied Moldavia. The treaty of Belgrade 
(Sept. 18, 1739) put an end to the war. Previous 
to the death of the empress he prevailed upon 
her to appoint the duke Ernest Biron of Cour- 
land as regent during the minority of her suc- 
cessor. But his hope of securing in this man- 
ner his own influence was disappointed by the 
duke taking the power into his own hands, upon 
which Munnich caused him to be arrested, and 
transferred the regency nominally to Princess 
Anna, the mother of Ivan, the young presump- 
tive heir to the crown, while he assumed the 
reins of government as prime minister of the 
empire, endeavoring to consolidate his power 
by an alliance with Prussia. The regent Anna 
lavished upon him her bounties, but entered 
into negotiation with Austria and Saxony in 
order to neutralize Mtinnich's coalition with 
Prussia, in consequence of which he relinquish- 
ed his office (May, 1741). He was on the point 
of removing to Konigsberg, when on the ac- 
cession of Elizabeth (December) he was ar- 
rested by her order and sentenced to death. 
The sentence was commuted to exile to Siberia, 
but his estates were confiscated. In 1762 he 
was recalled by Peter III., who restored his 
property and position. Catharine II. appointed 
him in the same year director general of the 
Baltic ports. His EbaucJie pour donner une 
idee de la forme du gouvernement de P empire de 
fiussie was published at Copenhagen in 1774. 



Fernando, duke of Rianzares, husband 
of Maria Christina, ex-queen dowager of Spain, 
born at Tarancon, province of Cuenca, about 
1808, died near Havre, Sept. 13, 1873. He was 
of low birth, and while a private in the royal 
guards attracted by his personal beauty the 
admiration of Maria Christina, to whom he 
was secretly married, Dec. 28, 1833, three 
months after the death of her husband, King 
Ferdinand VII. The marriage was publicly 
solemnized, Oct. 13, 1844, and Mufioz was made 
duke of Rianzares, a Spanish grandee of the first 
class, and a knight of the golden fleece. On 
the marriage of the duke de Montpensier to 
the sister of Queen Isabella II., Louis Philippe 
bestowed upon Mufioz the French title of duke 
of Montmorot. On the expulsion of Maria 
Christina from Spain in 1854 he went with her 
to France, and subsequently resided with her 
at Malmaison and in Paris. 

MUNRO, Alexander, an English sculptor, died 
young in Cannes, France, Jan. 1, 1871. He 
executed the colossal statue of James Watt at 
Birmingham, the statue of Queen Mary now 
in Westminster hall, London, a fountain nymph 
in Berkeley square, and statues of Hippocrates, 
Galileo, Davy, and Watt in the Oxford museum. 
He excelled in medallion portraits in high and 
low relief, and also in the busts of females and 
children. His works are generally remarkable 
for gracefulness, delicacy, and picturesqueness. 

MUNSEES, Monseys, or Minsis, a tribe of Ameri- 
can Indians formerly residing on the upper 
Delaware and the Minisink. In 1663 they 
aided the Esopus Indians in attacking the 
Dutch post, and were chastised by Kregier. 
They claimed all the land from the Minisink 
to the Hudson, the head waters of the Dela- 
ware and Susquehanna, and south to the Lehigh 
and Conewago. Settlers began to encroach 
on them early in the 18th century, and they 
fell back to the Susquehanna. The Moravians 
drew some to their missions, but the main body 
were discontented ; moving westward through 
the Iroquois country, they joined the French 
at Niagara, and were with difficulty gained 
over by Sir William Johnson. After the fall 
of the French, some listened to the Moravians, 
but in the revolution most of the .tribe, under 
Capt. Pipe, retired to Sandusky and joined the 
English, and even after the war remained hos- 
tile, rejecting terms in 1793, and not making 
peace till 1805. In 1808 a part settled on 
Miami land at White river. Some years later 
they joined the Stockbridge Indians near Green 
bay. Most of the Munsees, under a treaty in 
1839, removed to Kansas. They are now near- 
ly extinct, being represented in Wisconsin by 
a single family of half a dozen souls, and in 
Kansas by part of a band of 56 Chippewas 
and Munsees. Their language was an Algon- 
quin dialect closely allied to the Delaware. 

MUNSELL, Joel, an American printer, born in 
Northfield, Mass., April 14, 1808. He went 
to Albany in 1827, edited and published the 
" Albany Minerva " in 1828, and was publisher 



46 



MUNSTEE 



and editor of the " New York State Mechanic" 
from 1841 to 1843. He has compiled "An- 
nals of Albany" (10 vols., Albany, 1850-'58); 
"The Typographical Miscellany" (1850); 
"Chronology of Paper and Paper Making" 
(1857) ; and " Every-Day Book of History and 
Chronology " (New York, 1858). He has also 
published "Historical Series" (10 vols.), in 
great part edited and annotated by himself; 
" Woodworth's Eeminiscences of the City of 
Troy" and "Collections on the History of 
Albany " (4 vols., 1865-71), and numerous 
other works. He has at various times been 
the publisher of papers and periodicals,. among 
which are the following dailies: the "Union- 
ist," "Albany Daily State Register," "Albany 
Morning Express," and " Statesman.]' He has 
made the art of printing, in its history and 
application, a special study, and his collection 
of works on the subject, the largest ever made 
in America, has been in part purchased by the 
state for the New York state library. In 1872 
he published a catalogue with full titles of all 
the books and pamphlets he had printed down 
to that date, in 191 closely printed brevier 
pages, 8vo. 

MCNSTER (anc. Mumhari), the largest and 
southernmost of the four provinces of Ireland, 
bounded N. by Connaught, N. E. by Leinster, 
and on other sides by the Atlantic, and com- 
prised between lat. 51 26' and 53 12' N., and 
Ion. 6 56' and 10 26' W. ; area, 9,272 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 1,390,402. In the west are the 
highest mountains in Ireland, and the south 
is crossed by long chains of hills. Three 
fourths of the surface is arable, and one fourth 
under tillage. The principal rivers are the Suir, 
Blackwater, Lee, Bandon, Cashen, Maigue, and 
Fergus, with the estuary of the Shannon, all 
of which are navigable. The principal lakes 
are those of Killarney. Except in the rugged 
uplands of Kerry, Clare, and western Cork, the 
limestone soil of Munster is excellent. The 
climate is the most genial in Ireland. Geo- 
logically, the province is peculiar in Ireland 
for the rare appearance of igneous protrusions 
and the absence of bituminous coal, though 
possessing perhaps the most extensive anthra- 
cite deposit in the British isles. Clay slate 
is found, and copper abounds all along the S. 
coast. Lead, silver, iron, alum, black and mot- 
tled marbles, plastic clays, and fine ochres are 
found. The province comprises the counties 
of Clare, Cork, Kerry, Limerick, Tipperary, 
and Waterford. As a kingdom of the Irish 
pentarchy, Mumhan was perhaps the most for- 
midable of the five states ; it early subjected 
Leinster to the payment of an annual tribute; 
its princes successfully opposed and ultimately 
expelled the Danes, and more than once usurp- 
ed the ^ sceptre of Tara as sovereigns of the 
entire island. It was then divided into three 
principalities, Thomond, Desmond, and Ormond 
(i. e., North, South, and East Munster), and 
Cashel was the civil, as it is still the ecclesias- 
tical, metropolis. During the rebellions in the 



MUNTEE 

time of Queen Elizabeth Munster was governed 
through a local president and council. 

MUNSTER, a city of Germany, capital of the 
Prussian province of Westphalia and of a dis- 
trict of its own name, on the small river Aa, 
connected by railway with Dtisseldorf , and with 
the river Ems by a canal, 76 m. N. N. E. of 
Cologne; pop. in 1871, 24,815. It has fine 
Gothic buildings, the ground floor of the houses 
of the main street being provided with arcades 
to support the upper stories. Among the re- 
markable public buildings are the cathedral, 
of the 13th century, and St. Lambert's church. 
The house of John of Leyden, a fine specimen 
of the Gothic, still exists in the market place. 
The treaty of Westphalia, which ended the 
thirty years' war, was signed here in 1648. 
The town house was renovated in 1860, and a 
grand Gothic hall was added. The churches 
of St. Maurice and St. Leger have also recent- 
ly been renovated. The Catholic university, 
which was supplanted in 1818 by the state 
university of Bonn, has been since reduced 
to an academy consisting of a theological and 
a philosophical faculty, which in 1873 had 28 
professors and 387 students. There are also a 
gymnasium, a library of 50,000 volumes, a 
number of minor Eoman Catholic churches 
and convents, a Protestant church, and a syna- 
gogue. The city is the seat of a bishop, and con- 
tains several learned societies. The manufac- 
tures consist of leather, woollen goods, cloth, 
linen, sugar, &c. Munster was known in the 
time of Charlemagne under the name of Mimi- 
gardevord. In the 13th century it joined the 
league of the Hanse towns. The reformation 
was introduced in 1532, and in 1533-'5 it wit- 
nessed the agitations of the Anabaptists. (See 
ANABAPTISTS.) The former bishopric of Mun- 
ster was raised in the 12th century to the rank 
of an imperial principality. Among the prince- 
bishops was the warlike Galen. (See GALEN.) 
In 1719 the archbishop of Cologne was invest- 
ed with the see of Munster. After the peace 
of Luneville (1801) the bishopric was secular- 
ized, and a part of it ceded to Prussia, which 
constituted it a principality. This was ceded 
to France by the treaty of Tilsit in 1807, but 
restored to Prussia in 1815, with the exception 
of a^small district allotted to Oldenburg. 

MUNTER. I. Balthasar, a German clergyman, 
born in Liibeck, March 24, 1735, died in Co- 
penhagen, Oct. 5, 1793. He studied theology 
at Jena, was for a time a preacher at Gotha, 
and became celebrated as a pulpit orator in 
the German church of Copenhagen, and as the 
author of the BelcelirungsgescJiichte des Grafen 
von Struensee (Copenhagen, 1772 ; English 
translation, " A Faithful Narrative of the Con- 
version and Death of Count Struensee," &c., 
by the Eev. Mr. Wendeborn, 2d ed., London, 
1774). He wrote a series of hymns (1773 and 
1774). He was the father of Friederike Brun. 
II. Friedrich, a German-Danish theologian and 
archaeologist, son of the preceding, born in 
Gotha, Oct. 14, 1761, died in Copenhagen, 



MUNTJAC 



MtNZER 



April 9, 1830. He was professor of theology 
at Copenhagen, and from 1808 till his death 
bishop of Seeland. He wrote several books on 
the history of Christianity and of the reforma- 
tion in Denmark and Norway, and critical 
works on the cuneiform inscriptions of Per- 
sepolis (1800), on similar inscriptions in Sicily 
(1802), on the religion of the Carthaginians 
(1816), and various other topics of ancient and 
mediaeval history. 

MUNTJAC (cervulus, De Blainv., or stylocerus, 
H. Smith), the name of several small East In- 
dian deer, which seem to make the transition 
from the typical cervida to the musk deer. 
The horns are small, with only one anterior 
snag, elevated on pedicels supported by longi- 
tudinal ridges on the face; there are large 
canines in the upper jaw, and large and deep 
suborbital pits ; there are no metatarsal glands 
nor tufts ; the hoofs are triangular, partly uni- 
ted in front by a web, and the false hoofs 
small and transverse ; the hair is thin, shining, 




Muntjac (Cervulus vaginalis). 

and generally unspotted, and the tail is tufted; 
;he form is light and elegant. The few species 
nhabit the forests and jungles of elevated re- 
gions in India and its archipelago, where they 
are hunted for their excellent venison. The 
common muntjac or kijang (C. vaginalis, Gray) 
is dark reddish brown, with the lower parts 
lighter, and a narrow white streak on the front 
edge of the thigh; it is about 2 ft. high at 
the shoulders; in the living animal there are 
two folds of skin along the sides of the ridges 
which support the horns, uniting below like a 
V, but drying after death in three ribbed lines, 
which suggested to Pennant the name of rib- 
faced deer. The principal horns are 4 or 5 in. 
long, at first straight, but curving inward and 
backward at the top, the anterior antler being 
about 1 in. ; the pedicels upon which they rest 
are 3 in. high, covered with skin and hair, so 
that when the antlers are shed they appear to 
have straight horns. The food consists chiefly 
of a kind of sugar cane, and malvaceous and 
succulent plants. Its speed and agility are 
581 VOL. xii. 4 



great, the flight being generally in a circle; 
when brought to bay, it is capable of inflicting 
severe wounds upon the dogs with its canines ; 
it is sometimes taken in snares, and falls a fre- 
quent victim to beasts of prey. It is found in 
Sumatra and Java. The Nepaul muntjac (C. 
moschatus, De Blainv.) is bright reddish yellow, 
the thigh streaked and under the tail white, 
and the chin and throat whitish. The Chinese 
muntjac (C. JReevesii, Gray) is grayish brown, 
with the hair short, with paler rings ; it has a 
larger head and tail than the common species, 
with less red and more bluish tinge, and no 
white over the hoofs. According to Gray, the 
earl of Derby had these three species at the 
Knowsley menagerie; but they so bred to- 
gether that it became " impossible to discrimi- 
nate.the mules from the original species." 

MIJNZER, Thomas, a German mystic, born at 
Stolberg in the Hartz mountains about 1490, 
beheaded at Muhlhausen, Thuringia, in May, 
1525. After preaching at various places, in 1520 
he became pastor of the principal church in 
Zwickau, Saxony. Here he associated himself 
with Nikolaus Storch, a weaver, who professed 
to receive divine revelations. They formed a 
society among the weavers separate from the 
church, whose members believed in dreams, 
visions, and divine inspirations. They soon 
gained such an influence that Munzer's co-pas- 
tor Egranus, who opposed him, was obliged to 
leave the city. The city council, who for a 
time had favored Mtinzer, finally considered 
his revolutionary views dangerous to the pub- 
lic peace, and imprisoned many of his adhe- 
rents. Others, among whom was Storch, fled 
to Wittenberg, where they still professed to re- 
ceive inspirations, and rejected infant baptism. 
Miinzer went to Bohemia, where he spent six 
months endeavoring to stir up reformatory 
movements. Meeting with little success, he 
went to Thuringia, married, and in 1523 be- 
came curate at Allstadt. He was the first to 
substitute the German language for the Latin 
in the public prayers and singing. He com- 
posed a directory for worship, which was in 
harmony with his ideas of the reformation. 
Infant baptism was to be administered in the 
presence of the church, instead of privately as 
before, the baptismal liturgy to be in German. 
Besides his public ministrations, he organized 
those whom he considered truly regenerated 
into a separate society, whose members held 
community of goods and aimed at the over- 
throw of hierarchy and despotism. Their fa- 
naticism soon led them to destroy the images 
and burn the chapel in a neighboring place of 
pilgrimages. The Saxon princes opposed these 
proceedings ; Luther also wrote against them ; 
and Mtinzer was obliged to leave Allstadt in 
the summer of 1524. He went to Nuremberg, 
where he wrote a violent pamphlet against Lu- 
ther ; then to Basel, where he conferred with 
(Ecolampadius ; then to Waldshut, where he 
exerted considerable influence on the men who 
soon afterward began the peasants' war. Ke- 



48 MUNZINGER 

turning to Thuringia, he was settled early in 
1525 as curate at Muhlhausen. The city coun- 
cil, who had opposed his settlement there, were 
deposed, and a new council installed, who were 
entirely under the control of Munzer and his 
disciple Pfeiffer. At the outbreak of the peas- 
ants' war in southern Germany, Munzer sum- 
moned the people to rise and secure their lib- 
erty, threatening vengeance on all who resisted 
them. His pamphlets and letters were signed 
"Thomas Munzer, a servant of God against 
the ungodly," or " Thomas Munzer, with the 
sword of Gideon." Still he himself hesitated 
to take up arms, until Pfeiffer forced him to 
do so by alleged inspiration. Led by him, the 
peasantry of N. W. Thuringia destroyed clois- 
ters, chapels, and the castles of such nobles 
as refused to engage in the insurrection. For 
some time they encountered little resistance, 
until in May the elector John the Constant 
and Duke George, both of Saxony, the land- 
grave Philip of Hesse, and other princes rallied 
their forces against them. The peasants, in 
their fortified encampment near Frankenhau- 
sen, were assured by Munzer that God would 
give them the victory ; but they were quickly 
routed in the battle of May 15, and about 5,000 
of them were killed. Munzer fled in disguise 
to Frankenhausen, but was captured, tortured, 
and removed to the castle of Heldrungen. From 
that place he addressed a letter to the people 
of Muhlhausen, recommending his wife and 
child to their care. After the capitulation of 
that city the leaders were sentenced to death, 
including Munzer and Pfeiffer. Munzer was 
beheaded in the market place. His numerous 
writings, all of which are still extant, indicate 
a more than ordinary power of mind and will, 
but a strange lack of clear and sound judg- 
ment. His language is often forcibly eloquent, 
but full of coarseness and vulgarity. As he 
was associated with persons opposed to infant 
baptism, Munzer has often been considered an 
Anabaptist, which he never was. See Me- 
lanchthon, Die Historic wn Thome Muntzer 
(1525); Strobel, Leben, Schriften und Lehren 
Thoma Muntzers (Nuremberg, 1795) ; Seide- 
mann, Thomas Munzer (Dresden and Leipsic, 
1842) ; and Heinrich Leo's essay on him in the 
Evangelische Kirchenzeitung (Berlin, 1856). 
Theodor Mundt published a historical novel, 
Thomas Munzer (3 vols., Altona, 1841). 

MIXZINGER, Werner, a Swiss traveller, born 
at Olten in 1832. He studied at Bern, Munich, 
and Paris, and in 1852 established himself as a 
merchant in Egypt, in 1854-'5 resided at Mas- 
sowah, and for nearly six years explored the 
land of the Bogos and adjoining territories. 
He joined Heuglin's expedition in July, 1861 ; 
left it in November, in northern Abyssinia, 
and travelled with Kinzelbach over an unex- 
plored region, ascertaining the course of the 
river Gash, and returning to Khartoom March 
1, 1862. Shortly after he succeeded Heuglin as 
chief of the German-African expedition. He 
penetrated to Kordofan, but was unable to 



MURAT 

reach Darf oor and Waday, and went to Europe. 
In 1864 he returned to Massowah, where he 
Became British consul, and rendered valuable 
services as a guide to the English army during 
the Abyssinian war. In 1868, after the de- 
parture of the English troops, he continued to 
i-eside at Massowah as French consul. In the 
following year, while he was exploring the N. 
boundary of Abyssinia, an attempt was made 
upon his life by an assassin, and he was se- 
verely wounded. In 1870 he was named 
governor of Massowah, and visited with Oapt. 
Miles the S. E. coast of Arabia. In 1871 
he explored new territories N. of the land of 
the Bogos. His principal works are: Bitten 
und Becht tier Bogos (Winterthur, 1859) ; Ost- 
afrilcanische Studien (Schaffhausen, 1864); 
Die deutsche Expedition in Ostafrilca (Gotha, 
1865); Vocalulaire de la langue Tigre ; and 
contributions to the journal of the London 
geographical society (187l-'2), and to Peter- 
mann's Mittheilungen (1872 et seq.\ 

Ml RAD. See AMUEATH. 

MURJENA. See EEL, vol. vi., p. 447. 

MURAT, Joachim, a French soldier, and king 
of Naples, born at La Bastide-Fortuniere, near 
Oahors, March 25, 1771, executed in Calabria, 
in the night of Oct. 13-14, 1815. He was 
the son of an innkeeper, was educated for the 
church at the college of Cahors, and afterward 
at Toulouse, and was ordained sub-deacon ; but 
being dismissed from the seminary on account 
of some youthful follies, he enlisted in a regi- 
ment of chasseurs. Cashiered for an outbreak 
of temper after he had risen through some of 
the lower grades, he became a waiter at a cafe 
in Paris. He soon entered the constitutional 
guard of Louis XVI., and on its dissolution re- 
ceived a sub-lieutenancy in a cavalry regiment. 
He was cashiered after Robespierre's over- 
throw, but was restored, served as .aide-de- 
camp to Bonaparte, and accompanied him to 
Italy. After Beaulieu's defeat he was sent to 
Paris with the 21 standards taken from the 
Austrians, and returned to his post to share in 
the following Italian campaigns, in which he 
rose to the rank of brigadier general. In 1798 
he went with Bonaparte to Egypt. He was 
wounded at the taking of Alexandria and in 
the battle of the pyramids, and was conspicu- 
ous in the Syrian campaign, contributing to 
the victory of Mount Tabor, April 16, 1799, 
and leading the assault at Acre. In the battle 
of Aboukir, July 25, he was again wounded, 
and was rewarded with the rank of general of 
division. He left Africa with Bonaparte, who 
had conceived a strong liking for him, and in 
the coup d'etat of the 18th Brumaire was at 
the head of the grenadiers who expelled the 
council of 500 from their hall at St. Cloud. 
The chief command of the consular guard and 
the hand of Caroline Bonaparte were his rec- 
ompense. At Marengo he was at the head 
of the cavalry, and in 1801 he commanded the 
army which invaded the kingdom of Naples 
and took possession of Elba. He was then 



MUKAT 



made governor of the Cisalpine republic, and 
in 1804 of Paris and member of the legislative 
body ; and on the establishment of the empire 
he received the baton of a marshal and the ti- 
tle of prince. He had a large share in the suc- 
cess of the campaign of 1805 in Germany, and 
led the cavalry at Austerlitz. In 1806 he was 
made grand duke of Berg and Cleves. His 
abilities were strikingly displayed in the bat- 
tles of Jena, Eylau, and Friedland, and still 
more in following up the results of these 
victories. In 1808 he commanded the army 
which invaded Spain. After the elevation of 
Joseph Bonaparte to the Spanish throne he 
went to Italy, where, on Aug. 1, 1808, he was 
proclaimed king of the Two Sicilies, under the 
name of Joachim Napoleon. He attempted to 
ameliorate the condition of his new subjects, 
encouraged agriculture and industry, improved 
the public finances, increased the navy, and 
organized an army 70,000 strong. To vindi- 
cate the independence of Naples, he ordered 
that all foreigners in his service should re- 
nounce allegiance to their native country. 
This edict, aimed especially at the French, 
called forth an imperial decree declaring that, 
the kingdom of Naples being part of the 
French empire, every Frenchman should be of 
right a citizen of the Two Sicilies. The king 
then listened to overtures from various Euro- 
pean powers, particularly Austria. He durst 
not, however, disregard Napoleon's summons 
to take part in the campaign against Eussia, 
and was intrusted with the supreme command 
of the cavalry. At Borodino he withstood the 
Eussian fire during the whole day. But his 
energy seemed to falter when the retreat from 
Moscow commenced, especially after he had 
been worsted at Vinkovo, Oct. 18, 1812. He 
however received the chief command of the 
army when, after the disastrous crossing of 
the Beresina, Napoleon left it in haste for 
Paris. But Murat proved unequal to his ardu- 
ous task ; he was anxious to return to Italy, 
and on Jan. 16, 1813, suddenly took his de- 
parture. He resumed his secret negotiations 
with the enemies of Napoleon, but joined his 
brother-in-law in the campaign of 1813, and 
displayed his wonted intrepidity again at Dres- 
den, Wachau, and Leipsic. On his return to 
Italy he signed, Jan. 11, 1814, a treaty with 
Austria, by which his kingdom was guaranteed 
to him, on condition that he should act in 
concert with the allies at the head of an army 
of 30,000 men. He accordingly marched against 
Prince Eugene, viceroy of Italy, and forced 
him to retreat toward the Adige. But his new 
allies, having used him, were ready to abandon 
him, while the Bourbons were insisting on his 
overthrow at the congress of Vienna. On 
hearing of this, he sought the support of the 

t Italian patriots, was secretly reconciled with 
Napoleon, and on the news of the latter's re- 
burn from Elba marched against the Austrians. 
He advanced through the Papal States to the 
banks of thePo; but being worsted at Fer- 






rara, he was forced to beat a hasty retreat; 
fought bravely, but ineffectually, May 2 and 
3, at Tolentino ; was driven in disorder along 
the sea and across the Apennines, made an 
ineffectual stand at San Germano and Mi- 
gnano, and finally saw his army wasted away 
by battle and desertion. He now attempted 
negotiation ; but, deserted by even his own 
emissaries, and the populace of Naples rising 
in insurrection, he was obliged to fly to Ischia, 
while his queen took refuge on board an Eng- 
lish frigate. From Ischia he went to the 
shores of Provence, where he arrived on May 
25 at night. After the battle of Waterloo, in 
which he was not allowed to share, he went to 
Piacenza, where he remained for two months, 
and then to Bastia, where he landed Aug. 25. 
Here he prepared an expedition, and on Sept. 
28, at the head of 250 men, with seven small 
transports, he set sail for Naples ; his squadron 
was scattered by foul weather, while he him- 
self with a few companions was driven to the 
gulf of Santa Eufemia. He landed on Oct. 8 
near Pizzo, attempted in vain to rouse the in- 
habitants of this village in his behalf, was pur- 
sued to the mountains by the peasants of the 
neighborhood, and fought to the last, but final- 
ly fell into the hands of his pursuers and was 
taken to the castle of Pizzo, where he was con- 
demned by a court martial, and shot in one of 
the rooms of the castle. Being offered a chair 
and a handkerchief to bandage his eyes, he re- 
plied : "I have braved death long and often 
enough to face it with my eyes open and stand- 
ing." Leonard Gallois published a Eistoire 
de Joachim Murat (Paris, 1828) ; and the later 
events of his career have been chronicled by 
Coletta, Les six derniers mois de la me de Murat 
(1821), and by Franceschetti, Memoir 'es sur les 
tenements qui ont precede la mort de Joachim 
I. (1826). By his wife Caroline (see BONA- 
PAETE, vol. iii., p. 26), Murat left two sons and 
two daughters. Both the latter married Italian 
noblemen, Ljetitia Josephine becoming Countess 
Pepoli, and Louise Julie Caroline, Countess Eas- 
poni. The elder son, NAPOLEON ACHILLE, born 
Jan. 21, 1801, after his father's death went with 
his mother to Haimburg, Austria, came in 1821 
to the United States, settled in Florida, married 
a grandniece of Washington, devoted himself 
to scientific pursuits, and wrote some essays 
on the institutions of America. He died April 
15, 1847, on his estate near Tallahassee. The 
younger, NAPOLEON LUCIEN CHAELES JOSEPH 
FBANgois, born in Milan, May 16, 1803, after 
living near his mother till 1825, went to Spain, 
where he was arrested on suspicion. After his 
liberation he came to the United States, and 
married a Miss Fraser, his wife earning a sup- 
port by teaching. After repeated short stays 
in France, he returned thither in 1848, and 
was elected to the constituent and legislative 
assemblies. He was envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary to Turin in 1849, be- 
came senator Jan. 25, 1852, and received the title 
of prince of the imperial family in 1853. In 



50 



MURATORI 



1860, when the Bourbons were expelled from 
Naples, Murat put forth his claims to the throne 
of the Two Sicilies; but at the instance of 
Napoleon III. he soon publicly disclaimed his 
pretensions. In 1870 he was with Bazaine in 
Metz, and when the city capitulated was made 
prisoner. His eldest son, JOSEPH JOACHIM NA- 
poiJoN, born in Paris, July 21, 1834, has been 
since 1866 a colonel in the French army, and 
in April, 1872, obtained leave to serve four 
years in the Swedish army. 

MURATORI, Ludovieo Antonio, an Italian scho- 
lar, born at Vignola, in the duchy of Modena, 
Oct. 21, 1672, died in Modena, Jan. 23, 1750. 
He was educated at the university of Modena, 
was ordained priest, and in 1694 was appoint- 
ed keeper of the Ambrosian library at Milan, 
where he discovered several inedited Latin 
and Greek manuscripts, selections from which, 
with notes and commentaries, he published 
under the titles of Anecdota Latino, and Anec- 
dota Grceca. In 1700 he became conservator 
of the public archives and principal librarian 
of Modena. His three great works are Rerum 
Italicarum Scriptores (25 vols. fol., Milan, 
1723-'51), Antiquitates Italics Medii JEm 
(6 vols. fol., 1738-'42), and Annali d'ltalia 
(12 vols., 1744-'9). To publish this vast col- 
lection several princes and nobles of Italy sub- 
scribed $4,000 each. The best uniform edition 
of his works is that published at Venice (48 
vols. 8vo, 1790-1810). 

MURAVIEFF, an ancient Russian family, ori- 
ginally settled in the former grand duchy of 
Moscow, and since the latter part of the 15th 
century in various other parts of the country. 
I. Mikhail, born in Smolensk in October, 1757, 
died in St. Petersburg in July, 1807. He was 
tutor of the grand dukes Alexander and Con- 
stantine, for whom he' prepared a series of es- 
says on history, ethics, and literature. Paul I. 
appointed him privy councillor, and Alexander 
I. deputy minister of popular instruction. An 
edition of his writings was published in 3 vols. 
(Moscow, 1810; supplement, St. Petersburg, 
1815). II. Nikolai, born in Riga in 1768, died 
in Moscow in 1840. After many years of active 
service in the Russian army and navy, he es- 
tablished near Moscow a private military acad- 
emy. He took part in the campaign of 1812- 
'13, concluded the capitulation of Dresden with 
Gen. Dumas, and was present at the siege of 
Hamburg. After the peace he resumed his 
duties at his academy, which in 1816 was 
raised to the rank of an imperial institution. 
He conducted it till 1823, from which time 
till his death he devoted himself to agriculture. 
He was one of the founders of the Moscow 
agricultural society. III. Nikolai, second son of 
the preceding, born about 1794, died in Novem- 
ber, 1866. He entered the army in 1811, was 
employed in the military service in the Cauca- 
sus, and published in 1822 an account of his 
travels in Khiva, whither he had been sent 
on a political mission by Gen. Yermoloff. In 
1828 he took part in the Persian war, and 



MURAVIEFF 

in 1831 in the Polish campaign. He was made 
lieutenant general, commanded during the 
siege of Warsaw in September the right wing 
of the Russian army, and stormed the forti- 
fications of Rakowiec. He commanded the 
Russian corps which landed in Asia Minor, 
and arrested the advance of Ibrahim Pasha 
toward Constantinople after his victory at Ko- 
nieh, and then visited Mehemet Ali in Cairo. 
He superintended the construction of the for- 
tifications of Sevastopol, but fell into disgrace 
in 1838, for having in a sham fight made pris- 
oners the emperor Nicholas and his staff, and 
lived in retirement in Moscow till 1848, when he 
became a member of the board of war, and 
afterward commander of the corps of grenadiers 
in the imperial guard. In 1855 he was in com- 
mand of the army of the Caucasus as general 
of infantry and governor of Transcaucasia, and 
conducted the siege of Kars with great ener- 
gy and ability from the beginning of June till 
Nov. 27, 1855, when the fortress was com- 
pelled to capitulate. Muravieff was rewarded 
with the title of prince, but, being unpopular 
with his fellow officers and the court, spent 
his last years in retirement. IV. Mikhail, brother 
of the preceding, born in 1796, died in 1866. 
At the age of 15 he was a teacher in the military 
school established by his father. In 1813 he 
took part in the campaign against the French, 
and on his return continued his military 
studies, and about this time translated Gar- 
nier's Geometric analytique into Russian. In 
1823 he became colonel in the army; in 1831 
military governor of Grodno and subsequent- 
ly of Kursk; in 1842 chief director of the to- 
pographical corps and major general; and in 
1850 a member of the council of the empire. 
He was soon after chosen president of the geo- 
graphical society, and sent an important sci- 
entific expedition to Siberia. In 1857 he be- 
came president of the department of apanages, 
in which office he did much to promote the 
advancement of agriculture. In 1863 he was 
appointed governor general of Wilna, and his 
rigorous rule during the Polish insurrection 
was not wholly approved by Alexander. In 
1866 he was president of the commission to 
discover the accomplices of Karakozoff in the 
attempted assassination of the emperor. V. 
Nikolai, born in 1810, served a long time in the 
Caucasus, and in 1847 was made lieutenant 
general and governor general of eastern Sibe- 
ria. He concluded the treaty of May, 1858, 
by which China ceded to Russia the Amoor 
territory, for which service he was created 
Count Amurski. In 1859 he concluded at 
Yedo a treaty with Japan favorable to Russia, 
and in 1861 was made a member of the coun- 
cil of the empire. VI. Alexander, son of the 
first mentioned Nikolai, born in 1792, died in 
1864. He was implicated in the revolutionary 
movement of 1825, and was exiled to Siberia. 
In 1853 he was restored to the army, and 
during the Crimean war he was made major 
general. In 1855 he was governor of Nizhni 



MURCHISON 



MURCIA 



51 



Novgorod, and he took an active part in the 
emancipation of the serfs. At the time of his 
death he was a lieutenant general and a mem- 
ber of the senate. A branch of the family 
has adopted the name of MUEAVIEFF-APOSTOL, 
from the marriage of one of them in the 18th 
century with a daughter of a Cossack hetman 
named Apostol. Noticeable among this branch 
is IVAN (born, in 1769, died in 1851), who trans- 
lated Sheridan's "School for Scandal," Hor- 
ace's " Satires," and Aristophanes's " Clouds " 
into Russian, and published in 1822 an ac- 
count of his archaeological explorations in 
Taurida. He officiated as ambassador at seve- 
ral European courts, and was eventually made 
a privy councillor and senator. His son SEB- 
GEI was a conspicuous leader of the con- 
spiracy of 1825, and after the unsuccessful 
attempt in St. Petersburg he proclaimed the 
grand duke Constantine as emperor and took 
possession of the town of Vasilkov. He was 
defeated and severely wounded near Ustinovka, 
Jan. 15, 1826, removed to St. Petersburg, and 
executed July 25. His brother Ippolit was 
killed, and another was banished to Siberia. 

Ml 1UIIISO>, Sir Roderick Impey, a British 
geologist, born at Tarradale, Ross-shire, Scot- 
land, Feb. 19, 1792, died in London, Oct. 22, 
1871. He obtained a commission in the army 
in 1807, served during a portion of the penin- 
sular war, and was employed on the staff of his 
uncle Sir A. Mackenzie in Sicily. He retired 
with the rank of captain of dragoons in 1815, 
married a daughter of Gen. Hugonin, and 
through her influence and the advice of Hum- 
phry Davy devoted himself to natural science. 
In 1825 he read a paper before the geological 
society "On the Geological Formation of the 
Northwest Extremity of Sussex, and the adjoin- 
ing parts of Hampshire and Surrey." In 1827 he 
explored the highlands of Scotland, and in 1828 
accompanied Lyell in a tour through France, 
studying the volcanic regions of Auvergne and 
the formation of valleys. He next undertook, 
with Prof. Adam Sedgwick, a systematic ex- 
amination of the lower fossiliferous rocks of 
England and Wales. He partially remodelled 
the classification of the palaeozoic strata, and 
in 1832 first applied the term Silurian to a 
series of rocks intermediate between the Cam- 
brian and Devonian formations. Murchison 
recognized two main divisions as constituting 
the Silurian system, an upper and a lower, the 
latter of which he believed to lie imposed upon 
the upper Cambrian of Sedgwick. Subsequent 
researches have shown that the geological sec- 
tions of Murchison, upon which his system was 
based, were in great part erroneous, and that 
his lower Silurian was identical with the upper 
Cambrian. This discovery gave rise to a long 
and acrimonious controversy between Sedgwick 
and Murchison and his partisans ; but later re- 
searches, by comparing the justice of Sedg- 
wick's views and the correctness of his deter- 
minations, are again bringing his nomencla- 
ture into use. (See GEOLOGY, and SEDGWICK, 



ADAM.) In 1839 appeared "The Silurian Sys- 
tem," a revised edition of which was published 
in 1854 under the name of " Siluria." By invita- 
tion of the emperor Nicholas, Murchison, accom- 
panied by De Verneuil and Keyserling, under- 
took a geological survey of Russia ; and between 
1840 and 1844 he explored the southern prov- 
inces of the empire, and a large portion of the 
Ural mountains, besides sections of Germany, 
Poland, Sweden, and Norway. He now con- 
ceived the idea of uniting the upper series of the 
paleozoic rocks, consisting mainly of the lower 
new red sandstones and the subjacent magne- 
sian limestones, into a single group, for which 
he proposed the name Permian, from the preva- 
lence of this formation in the ancient district of 
Perm. The results of the Russian expedition 
were published in a treatise " On the Geologi- 
cal Structure of the Northern and Central Re- 
gions of Russia in Europe " (London, 1841), and 
in " Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural 
Mountains" (1845). In 1856 he published a 
geological map of Europe, and in 1861, conjoint- 
ly with Geikie, one of Scotland. He was cre- 
ated grand cross of the Russian order of St. 
Stanislas in 1845, knighted in 1846, and made 
a baronet in 1866. In 1846 he was president 
of the British association. On the death of 
Sir Henry T. De la Beche in 1855, he became 
director of the British geological survey, a post 
which he resigned shortly before his death. 
Murchison was one of the founders of the roy- 
al geographical society in 1830, was elected its 
president in 1843, was several times reflected, 
and held the office from 1862 until his death. 
It was chiefly through his influence that Dr. 
Livingstone was enabled to prosecute his re- 
searches in South Africa. He received the 
degrees of D. C. L. and LL. D. from the uni- 
versities of England, and was an associate of 
nearly all scientific institutions. He opposed 
the evolution theory of Darwin, stanchly ad- 
hering to the doctrine of immutability. See 
"Memoirs of Sir Roderick I. Murchison," by 
Archibald Geikie (2 vols., London, 1874). 

Ml'RCIA. L An ancient kingdom of Spain, 
bounded N. W. and N. by New Castile, N. E. 
and E. by the province of Valencia and the 
Mediterranean, S. E. and S. by the 'Mediterra- 
nean and Granada, and W. by Jaen ; area, 10,- 
450 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 660,040. The coast 
from the confines of Granada to Cartagena is 
rocky and precipitous, but eastward from that 
port it is in general low and sandy. The sur- 
face is mostly mountainous. The principal 
ranges are the Sierra de Sagra, the Sierra de 
Alcaraz, and the Sierra de Segura. The chief 
rivers are the Segura, Mundo, and Sangonera. 
Where it can be irrigated the soil is often of 
exuberant fertility. The productions are wheat, 
barley, maize, rye, rice, flax, vegetables, and 
superior fruit, particularly pomegranates, mel- 
ons, oranges, and lemons. Lead, silver, sul- 
phur, and nitre are found. The climate is mild, 
and snow and ice are almost unknown. Murcia 
was conquered by the Moors in 712, and made 



52 



MURCIA 



a dependency of the caliphate of Cordova. In 
1239 Mohammed Ali or Hudiel made it an in- 
dependent kingdom, but within a few years 
it was .united to Castile. It was divided in 
1833 into the provinces of Murcia and Albacete. 
The chief port is Cartagena. H. The mod- 
ern Murcia comprises the southern part ot the 
ancient province, bounded S. E. by the Medi- 
terranean and drained by the Segura and its 
tributaries; area, 4,478 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 
439 067. The S. and K W. portions are moun- 
tainous, and much of the soil is sterile, but near 
the rivers are some rich tracts whose prolinc 
vegetation has acquired for them the name of 
huertas or gardens. In the southeast are mines 
of lead and silver. III. A city, capital of the 
ancient and modern province, on the N. bank 
of the Segura, 220 m. S. E. of Madrid ; pop., 

T i _v j_ -| 1 A AAA T-f id ViAQT* 



MURDER 

MURDER, a crime defined by Blackstone as 
the unlawful killing of u any reasonable crea- 
ture in being, and under the king's peace, with 
malice aforethought, either express or implied," 
by a person of sound memory and discretion. 
The element of "malice aforethought" is of 
the essence of murder. The greatest difficulty 
in determining whether a homicide be murder 
is generally connected with the question of 
malice. It is quite certain that the malice need 
not be malice against the individual killed ; for 
if one maliciously shoots at a person with in- 
tent to kill him, and missing him kills another, 
it is quite as much murder as If he had exe- 
cuted his intention. Nor indeed need it be di- 
rected against any person in particular. If one 
shoots into a crowd without knowing a person 
and kills one of them, it is murder ; for 




Murcia. 

de Murcia, and was formerly fortified. It is 
the residence of the bishop of Cartagena, and 
has 11 parish churches, a theological seminary, 
a college, several other learned institutions, 
an academy of music, a public library, and a 
botanic garden. The cathedral tower is very 
imposing, consisting of three quadrangular 
stages, each diminishing perimetrically and 
crowned with a dome. It is ascended to the 
top of the first stage by an inclined plane 320 
paces long and of gradually increasing steep- 
ness. From the first stage a narrow stairway 
of 210 steps leads to the summit of the tow- 
er. The chief manufactures are earthenware, 
leather, coarse linen, silk thread, silks and 
baskets, mats, cordage, and sandals. Murcia 
was founded by the Moors, and during their 
supremacy was one of the seven metropolitan 
cities of Spain. It submitted to the Spaniards 
in 1243. In 1810 it was plundered by the 
French under Sebastiani. 



mani generis. Still there 
must be malice ; for 
probably no kind or de- 
gree of mere careless- 
ness or negligence would 
make a case of homicide 
one of murder. So if 
the death were caused by 
mere mistake, whether 
of law, of fact, or of the 
person, it would not be 
murder, unless it would 
have been murder if the 
law or fact or person 
had been what they were 
supposed to be. The 
principal exception to 
the necessity of proof 
of actual malice would 
seem to be where the 
death was caused with- 
out intention, but by the 
commission of or in at- 
tempting a felony. This 
distinction is so nice, that while, if one shooting 
at his neighbor's fowls with intent to destroy 
them shoots him by accident, this would not be 
murder, yet shooting them with intent to steal, 
and with the same result, would, it is said, be 
murder. Drunkenness has been considered in 
reference to manslaughter, and a somewhat 
similar rule is held as to murder; that is, 
intoxication, if it negatives the supposition of 
malice, would prevent the crime from being 
murder, unless it was a state of temporary in- 
sanity, purposely brought on that under it mur- 
der might be committed safely, in which case 
it would not be regarded as any excuse what- 
ever. Cases of compulsion have been some- 
what considered ; and it has been generally 
held that strict and actual compulsion was an 
excuse, but nothing less. If a captive on board 
a pirate were compelled to act with the crew 
in committing murder by threats of immediate 
death,, this compulsion would undoubtedly be 



MURDER 

a sufficient excuse ; but nothing less than a 
compulsion of this character would have this 
effect ; as no command from a master, and no 
threat of a whipping, would be any excuse at 
all for a servant. But a jury, who can now 
judge of the law as well as the fact in crimi- 
nal cases, if they were satisfied, from the evi- 
dence of command or threat, of the absence of 
all malice, either general or individual, would 
seldom render a verdict of murder. So if a 
crime be committed by a wife in presence of 
her husband, it is presumed by the law that she 
did the act under his coercion, and she is not 
herself guilty. But murder and treason are 
exceptions to this rule ; and here it is said that 
no proof of actual constraint by the husband 
operates as an excuse. It seems quite well 
settled, as a general rule, that if many are con- 
federate in any unlawful act, and some one of 
them, in doing the act, commit a murder, all 
are guilty ; as if several conspire to seize a ves- 
sel forcibly and run away with her, and one 
opposing them is killed in the conflict, all are 
guilty of murder, in law, who are present, aid- 
ing and abetting in the unlawful act. No con- 
sent or even request of the party killed is any 
excuse whatever. At common law, counselling 
of suicide, if it causes the suicide, is murder. 
So if two persons agree to commit suicide to- 
gether, and use means which take effect only 
on one, it is murder in the survivor, provided 
he was present when the act was committed, 
as otherwise he is only an accessory before the 
fact. In such a case, however, the jury would 
be very likely to treat the case as manslaughter. 
If one, by working on the fears of another, or 
by mere unkind usage, put one into " a passion 
of grief or fear " whereof he or she, being per- 
haps at the time in feeble health, dies, this, says 
Hale, though murder or manslaughter in the 
sight of God, is not so at common law. Most 
later writers have adopted this view, which is 
said to be in accordance with the codes of 
France and of Scotland ; while in some coun- 
tries the law is held to be, as an English judge 
in a recent case declared it to be in England, 
that one is guilty if he cause death by force 
" applied either to the body or the mind." We 
consider Sale's view as being that of the com- 
mon law, and of the prevailing law of the 
United States. It was a rule of the common 
law, that it was murder to procure the con- 
viction and execution of an innocent person 
charged with a capital crime by perjury. Now, 
however, we are satisfied that both in England 
and in the United States such a crime would 
be punished only as an aggravated case of per- 
jury. The question has arisen, whether one 
can be indicted in a state or country for mur- 
der, if the criminal did actually in that state 
give the fatal blow, or fire the fatal shot, but 
the injured party went into another state or 
country and died there. The weight of au- 
thority, and we think of reason, is that no such 
indictment can be maintained. No country can 
punish a crime committed abroad, or partially 



MURDOCH 



53 



abroad, unless by its own municipal provisions, 
applied to its own citizens. In accordance 
with this view, the statute of the United States 
against "murder on the high seas" has been 
held inapplicable to a case where a fatal blow 
was given with malice on the high seas, but the 
wounded person reached the shore and died on 
land. An important question has exercised the 
courts, both of England and the United States, 
in respect to the evidence of murder and the 
burden of proof. Some courts have held that 
if the government proved the death alleged, 
and that this death was caused by the prisoner, 
the burden of proof then shifted, and it lay on 
the prisoner to prove want of malice, or acci- 
dent, or self-defence, or any other justification. 
Other courts hold the contrary, and we are 
satisfied that in cases of murder, the actual and 
practical rule whereby the fate of the prisoner 
is determined should be and is that the bur- 
den of proof remains on the government until 
they have proved their whole case, which in- 
cludes the killing and the intent, or " the malice 
aforethought," without which there can be no 
murder. This evidence may undoubtedly be 
indirect or circumstantial, and must be so gen- 
erally, because malice is a condition of mind 
and purpose. But it would not be enough in 
modern times to charge A with the murder of 
B, and rest the charge upon the mere proof 
that A killed B, unless there were something 
in the time, place, or circumstances of the kill- 
ing, or of the conduct of the prisoner in refer- 
ence to it, which brought home to a jury a 
belief that he was moved by malice afore- 
thought. In some of the states, although not 
generally, the crime of murder has been divided 
into degrees ; and where capital punishment is 
retained, only murder in the first degree is 
punishable with death. It should be added, 
that whenever a person is indicted and tried 
for murder, it is competent for the jury to 
bring in a verdict of manslaughter. 

MURDOCH, James Edward, an American actor, 
born in Philadelphia, Jan. 25, 1811. He first 
appeared on the stage in the Arch street thea- 
tre, subsequently played in various southern 
cities, and in June, 1838, appeared in the Park 
theatre, New York, in leading characters, in 
support of Ellen Tree. He withdrew from the 
stage in 1842 to devote himself to the teaching 
of elocution, and also gave a series of lectures 
on Shakespeare's characters in Boston, Phila- 
delphia, and New York. On Oct. 20, 1845, he 
appeared as Hamlet in the Park theatre, New 
York, and subsequently made professional tours 
in Canada, California, and England, appearing 
in the Haymarket theatre, London, in 1856. 
In 1858 he retired to a farm in Lebanon, Ohio. 
During the civil war he gave elocutionary en- 
tertainments throughout the north in aid of 
the sanitary commission, devoted himself to 
the care of sick and wounded soldiers, and 
served for a while on the staff of Gen. Rous- 
seau. Since then he has resided in Philadel- 
phia as a professional elocutionist. In con- 



54 MURDOCK 

junction with William Russell he published 
" Orthophony, or Culture of the Voice " (12mo, 
Boston, 1845). 

MURDOCH., James, an American clergyman, 
born in Westbrook, Conn., Feb. 16, 1776, died 
in Columbus, Miss,, Aug. 10, 1856. He gradu- 
ated at Yale college in 1797, was ordained as 
a Congregational minister in 1801, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1802, was settled in Princeton, Mass. In 
1815 he became professor of ancient ^languages 
in the university of Vermont, and in 1819 of 
sacred rhetoric and ecclesiastical history in the 
theological seminary at Andover, Mass. In 1828 
he removed to New Haven, where he devoted 
himself to the study of ecclesiastical history, 
the oriental languages, and philosophy. His 
principal works are: a translation from the 
German of Mtinscher's "Elements of Dogmatic 
History" (New Haven, 1830) ; a translation of 
Mosheim's "Institutes of Ecclesiastical His- 
tory," with copious notes (3 vols., New Haven, 
1832; revised ed., New York, 1839); an edi- 
tion of Milman's "History of Christianity," 
with a preface and notes (New York, 1841) ; 
"Sketches of Modern Philosophy, especially 
among the Germans " (Hartford, 1842) ; a "Lit- 
eral Translation of the whole New Testament 
from the Ancient Syriac Version," with a pre- 
face and marginal notes (New York, 1851) ; 
and a translation from the Latin of Mosheim's 
" Commentaries on the Affairs of the Chris- 
tians before the time of Constantine the Great " 
(2 vols., New York, 1852). He also published 
several sermons, one of which, on the atone- 
ment (1823), attracted great attention. He 
was a member of many learned societies, and 
in 1819 received the degree of D. D. from Har- 
vard university. 

MURE, William, a Scottish author, born at 
Caldwell, Ayrshire, July 9, 1799, died in Lon- 
don, April 1, 1860. He was educated at West- 
minster school and the university of Edinburgh, 
and completed his studies in Germany. He 
published "Remarks on the Chronology of the 
Egyptian Dynasties" (1829), "A Dissertation 
on the Calendar of the Zodiac of Ancient 
Egypt" (1832), " Journal of a Tour in Greece " 
(1838), and " Critical History of the Language 
and Literature of Ancient Greece" (5 vols., 
1850-'57), which was left unfinished. He rep- 
resented Renfrewshire in parliament from 1846 
to 1855, and in 1847-'8 was lord rector of the 
university of Glasgow. 

MURET, Theodore Cesar, a French author, born 
in Geneva, Jan. 24, 1808, died at Soisy, near 
Paris, in July, 1866. He was descended from 
French Protestant refugees, studied at Geneva 
and Rouen, took his degree of advocate at Paris 
in 1829, and devoted himself to journalism in 
the legitimist interest, and to dramatic and gen- 
eral literature. The best known of his vaude- 
villes, in which he had collaborators, are Le 
medecin de campagne (1838) and Le docteur 
Saint-Brice (1840). He published novels and 
many pamphlets, some of which, especially La 
Verite aux ouwiers, aux paysans, aux soldats 



MURFREESBORO 

(1849). had an enormous circulation. His other 
works comprise Histoire de Paris (1837; 2d 
ed., 1851); Souvenirs de Vouest (1838); Les 
grands Jiommes de la France (2 vols., 1838); 
Histoire de Varmee de Conde (2 vols., 1844); 
Histoire des guerres de Vouest (5 vols., 1848) ; 
and L* Histoire par le theatre (3 vols., 1864- 1 5). 
MUREX, a genus of gasteropod mollusks, 
found in almost all temperate and tropical 
seas at depths varying from 25 to 60 fathoms. 
About 200 living species are known, and 160 
fossil, chiefly belonging to the eocene forma- 
tion. Some of the species are remarkable for 
their very long and slender beak, along which 
the canal is partly closed. The shells are orna- 
mented with three or more longitudinal ridges, 
from which sometimes proceed rows of long 
pointed spines, which are removed by the ani- 
mal when they interfere with its growth. The 
murices are particularly interesting from their 
having been the source of the famous Tyrian 
dye. It is said that heaps of broken shells of 
the M. trunculus, and caldron-shaped holes in 
the rocks, may still be seen on the Phoenician 
shore ; and on the coast of the Morea there is 
evidence that the M. firandaris was anciently 
used for the same purpose of collecting the 
purple secretion of which the dye was com- 
posed. The ancients bruised the smaller shells 
in mortars, but took out the animal from the 
larger ones. Several species of purpura also 
produce a fluid which gives a dull crimson 
dye. An imitation of the purple dye prepared 
from uric acid, treated by nitric acid and com- 
bined with ammonia, was discovered by Prout 
in 1818, and afterward named by Liebig and 
Wohler murexide. It is now produced from 
guano, and is used for the dyeing of foulard 
silks. The coloring fluid is secreted by a special 
gland situated on the mantle; in murex and 
purpura it is colorless when secreted, but on 
exposure to the sun becomes first yellowish, 
and finally violet, passing through the tints 
formed by the mixture of yellow, blue, and 
red. The M. tenuispina of the Moluccas is 




Murex (Murex tenuispina). 

one of the handsomest species, 5 to 6 in. long. 
A handsome species is abundant on the Cen- 
tral American coasts. 

MURFREESBORO, a city and the capital of 
Rutherford co., Tennessee, situated near the 
centre of the state, on an elevated and healthy 
plain bounded E. by the Cumberland mountains, 
on the Nashville and Chattanooga railroad, 32 
m. S. E. of Nashville ; pop. in 1870, 3,502, of 



MURFREESBORO 



MURILLO 



55 



whom 1,805 were colored. It is regularly laid 
out, lighted with gas, and well built, princi- 
pally of brick. The court house is large and 
handsome, and stands in the centre of the pub- 
lic square. Being surrounded by a fertile and 
thickly settled country, the city has an impor- 
tant trade, especially in cotton and grain. It 
contains two national banks, a manufactory 
of cedar ware, an extensive saw mill, a cotton 
gin manufactory, a pork-packing establish- 
ment, several cotton gins and grist mills, car- 
riage factories, &c. There are four public 
school departments, two for white and two for 
colored children, a private school, a female in- 
stitute, the Soule female college under the pat- 
ronage of the Methodists, two weekly news- 
papers, and ten churches (four colored). Mur- 
freesboro was the seat of Union university, 
founded by the Baptist educational society in 
1848, but now suspended. In the immediate 
vicinity of the city are the Tennessee central 
fair grounds, occupying 20 acres handsomely 
improved. Near by are a large national 
cemetery, beautifully laid out and decorated, 
containing a monument to those who fell in 
the battle of Murfreesboro, and a confeder- 
ate cemetery. The town was established in 
1811, and incorporated in 1817. The state le- 
gislature met here from 1819 to 1825. Early 
in the summer of 1862 it was occupied by a 
small Union force. On July 13 it was cap- 
tured by the confederates under Forrest, a 
Michigan regiment being made prisoners. Soon 
after Gen. Bragg made it the centre of his 
operations in Tennessee, having about 50,000 
men, of whom nearly a third were caval- 
ry. Late in November Gen. Rosecrans moved 
from Nashville with about 40,000 infantry 
and 3,000 cavalry, and took up a strong posi- 
tion near Murfreesboro. For nearly a month 
the two armies lay watching each other. At 
length Bragg sent the greater part of his cav- 
alry to operate against the lines of commu- 
nication of Rosecrans, who thereupon took 
the offensive. Skirmishing began on Dec. 
26, but the main engagements took place 
Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 2, 1863. The action 
of Dec. 31 was severe but indecisive. On 
Jan. 2 the confederate 'forces made one more 
vigorous attack. Bragg was finally repelled, 
and on the 4th he abandoned Murfreesboro, 
of which Rosecrans took possession next day. 
He fortified the place, and made it his depot 
of supplies, remaining there for six months, 
after which he advanced toward Chattanooga, 
whither Bragg had fallen back. The battle of 
Murfreesboro, commonly called that of Stone 
River, was, in proportion to the numbers en- 
gaged, one of the most bloody of the war. 
Bragg says he had 35,000 men engaged, and 
that the Union force was about 70,000. Rose- 
crans puts his force at 43,000, estimating that 
of the confederates at 62,000. The Union 
loss was 1,553 killed, about 7,000 wounded, 
and 3,000 prisoners. Bragg puts his entire 
loss at about 10,000. 



MURGER, Henry, a French author, born in 
Paris in 1822, died there, Jan. 28, 1861. He 
had only limited opportunities of education, 
and became a lawyer's clerk, and afterward 
secretary of Count Tolstoi, a Russian resident 
of Paris. He wrote in prose and verse, and 
led a precarious life as a journalist and Iitt6- 
rateur till 1848, when his Scenes de la vie 
de Boheme, describing his own experiences, 
made him famous. He dramatized it in 1851, 
with Theodore Barriere, with considerable suc- 
cess. Among his subsequent works are poems, 
plays, novels, and new series of his sketches of 
"Bohemian" life in Paris, including Le pays 
latin, scenes de la vie d'etudiant (1852). 

MURIATIC ACID, See HYDEOCHLORIO ACID. 

MURILLO, Bartolome Esteban, a Spanish painter, 
born in Seville, where he was baptized Jan. 1, 
1618, died there, April 3, 1682. At an early 
age he entered the studio of his uncle Juan de 
Castillo, and soon began to sketch the ragged, 
sunburnt children of the street, and to paint 
pictures of Spanish low life. The removal of 
his master in 1640 to Cadiz threw Murillo upon 
his own resources, and he painted several coarse 
and hurried pictures to sell in the public fairs 
of Seville. To procure means to enable him 
to study in Madrid, he executed pictures for 
the colonial market, which were distributed 
throughout the Spanish American possessions, 
comprising the greater part if not the whole 
of his paintings in churches and monasteries of 
the new world, and the number and value of 
which have been greatly exaggerated. With 
the money thus acquired he went in 1643 to 
Madrid, and was kindly received by Velasquez, 
who admitted him to his academy and intro- 
duced him to the royal galleries of the capital 
and the Escurial, where during the next two 
years he copied the works of Titian, Rubens, 
Vandyke, Ribera, and Velasquez. After his 
return to Seville, his first important commis- 
sion was from the friars of the convent of San 
Francisco, for the cloisters of which he paint- 
ed 11 large pictures in the frio, described as 
dark, with a decided outline, which was the 
first of the three styles usually distinguished 
in his works. The cloisters were burned in 
1810, and the greater part of the pictures car-* 
ried off by Marshal Soult. Commissions flowed 
in upon him, and in 1648 he married an Andalu- 
sian lady of wealth and rank. Soon afterward 
he adopted his cdlido or second style, warm, 
and with improved coloring, some of the earli- 
est examples of which are " Our Lady of the 
Conception," the "San Leandro" and "San 
Isidro," the "Nativity of the Virgin," and the 
" St. Anthony of Padua." From the last, in 
the cathedral of Seville, the figure of the saint 
was cut out and stolen in 1874, but recovered 
in New York in January, 1875. In 1660 Mu- 
rillo, in 'con junction with Valdes Leal and the 
younger Herrera, founded an academy of art 
in Seville, of which he was president till his 
death. To this period may be ascribed his 
four large semicircular pictures, executed for 



56 



MURILLO 



the church of Santa Maria la Blanca in Seville. 
Two of these, representing the legend of the 
dream of the Eoman patrician which led to the 
building of Santa Maria Maggiore in Borne un- 
der Pope Liberius, now hang in the academy of 
San Fernando in Madrid. They are in the va~ 
poroso style, described as misty, vaporous, and 
blending, and are magnificent specimens of the 
artist's powers. Between 1660 and 1674 was 
executed, for an almshouse outside the walls oi 
Seville, a celebrated series of pictures. Five 
of these, "Abraham receiving the three An- 
gels " " The Return of the Prodigal Son," " The 
Healing of the Cripple," "St. Peter released 
from Prison by the Angel," and " St. Elizabeth 
of Hungary," were carried off by Soult. I he 
first two were sold to the duke of Sutherland; 
the third was bought by Mr. Tomline, an Eng- 
lish collector, for 160,000 francs; the fourth is 
in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg ; and the 
fifth, with the two pictures from Santa Maria 
la Blanca, is in the academy of Seville. Of the 
original series still remaining in the almshouse 
the chief are " Moses striking the Rock," " The 
Charity of San Juan de Dios," and " The Mira- 
cle of the Loaves and Fishes," works conceived 
with all the artist's strength in the maturity 
of his powers. Subsequent to 1675 he paint- 
ed a series of about 20 pictures for the 
convent of the Capuchins in Seville, of which 
17 are now in the museum of the city. 
One of the best of these, " The Charity of St. 
Thomas of Villanueva," presents many striking 
studies of street nature, and was called by the 
artist su liemo, " his own picture." Another 
celebrated picture formerly in the chapel of the 
monastery, representing the Virgin and child, 
is said to have been painted on a sermlleta, 
whence it was called the "Virgin of the Nap- 
kin." He subsequently executed fine series of 
pictures for the hospital de los venerdbles and 
the Augustinian convent of Seville, and a mul- 
titude of miscellaneous works, generally of a 
religious character. Preeminent among them 
were those devoted to the illustration of the 
immaculate conception of the Virgin ; and from 
the frequency and fondness with which he 
represented the subject, he was called "the 
''painter of the conceptions." A memorable 
example of this style of picture is the " Im- 
maculate Conception," purchased at the sale 
of Marshal Soult's collection in 1852 by the 
French government for 635,000 francs, and 
now in the Louvre, in which the Virgin ap- 
pears in a state of ecstatic beatitude, borne 
aloft in a golden ether to heaven by a multi- 
tude of cherubs, who are painted with inimi- 
table sweetness. A few similar works, attrib- 
uted to him, are owned in the United States. 
His remaining works are distributed among 
the royal and private galleries of Europe. The 
Louvre contains a considerable number; the 
Pinakothek in Munich has two or three admi- 
rable specimens of his beggar boys ; Dulwich 



gallery has six pictures, including the celebra- 
ted "Flower Girl;" and the national gallery 



MURNER 

of London has his "Holy Family" and "In- 
! ant St. John and the Lamb." The Hermitage 
n St. Petersburg has 18 of his pictures. His 
' Little Shepherd " (El pastorcico), presented 
by Queen Isabella to Guizot, was sold by him 
at auction in May, 1874, for 120,000 francs. 
Such, however, has been the mania of late 
years for his works, that his name has been 
applied indiscriminately to productions utterly 
unworthy of his pencil, and many of the pic- 
tures of peasants and beggars attributed to 
aim are supposed to be by his followers or 
pupils. A short time before his death Murillo 
went to Cadiz to paint the " Espousals of St. 
Catharine " over the high altar in the Capuchin 
church of that city, and while engaged upon 
the work stumbled and fell from the scaffold- 
ing, receiving an injury which proved fatal. 
He was buried in the church of Santa Cruz in 
Seville, before a picture of the " Descent from 
the Cross " by Pedro Campana, which he had 
greatly admired in his life. The French in 
1810 levelled the church to the ground, and 
" cast out the ashes of Murillo to the winds." 
Murillo was essentially a painter of religious 
subjects, and excelled as a colorist. As a land- 
scape painter his scenery is often conventional 
and merely accessory. He also painted a few 

Eortraits. See Ford's " Handbook of Spain," 
tirling's "Annals of the Artists of Spain," 
Head's "Handbook of the Spanish School," 
and Cunningham's " Life of Wilkie." 

BURNER, Thomas, a German satirist, born in 
Strasburg, Dec. 24, 1475, died probably in 
Heidelberg about 1536. He studied at the 
principal universities of Europe, lost a place 
in the conventual Latin school of Strasburg by 
his invective against Wimpfeling, and led af- 
terward an unsteady life, preaching for some 
time at Frankfort and other places, but gener- 
ally incurring the displeasure of his congrega- 
tion by his coarse personalities. He was suc- 
cessively expelled from Freiburg, Treves, and 
Venice. He resumed his functions in the con- 
ventual school of Strasburg in 1519, and be- 
came one of the most virulent opponents of 
the reformation. In 1523 he went to England, 
invited by Henry VIII., but troubles in his 
convent compelled him to return. Some of 
his writings against the reformation had al- 
ready been burned by order of the Strasburg 
magistracy ; and to elude the vigilance of the 
authorities he established a press of his own, 
which was destroyed by a mob, together with 
his house, and he was compelled to flee to 
Switzerland, whence he was afterward ex- 
pelled. In 1506 he had been crowned as poet 
laureate by the emperor Maximilian, and he had 
justified the distinction by his Narrenbeschwo- 
rung and Der Schelmen Zunft (1512). He wrote 
Chartiludium logice, &c. (Cracow, 1507), and 
other Latin works; prepared a German ver- 
sion of Virgil and other translations ; and was 
also regarded as .the editor of Eulenspiegel. 
But he is chiefly remembered by his writings 
against Luther and the reformation. His most 



MURPHY 



MURRAIN 



57 



celebrated satirical work is entitled Von dem 
grossen lutheriscken Narren (Strasburg, 1522). 

MURPHY, Arthur, a British dramatist, born at 
Clooniquin, county Roscommon, Ireland, Dec. 
27, 1727, died in London, June 18, 1805. He 
was educated at the Roman Catholic college of 
St. Omer, spent some years in a banking house 
in London, and in 1756 was admitted to Lin- 
coln's Inn. He conducted for two years a 
weekly paper, the " Gray's Inn Journal." In 
1758 appeared his first dramatic production, 
" The Upholsterer," a farce, followed by " The 
Orphan of China," "The Way to Keep Him," 
u All in the Wrong," " The Citizen," " The Old 
Maid," &c. In 1762 he was called to the bar, 
but at the end of 15 years quitted his profes- 
sion, and devoted the remainder of his life to 
literary pursuits. In 1786 appeared an edition 
of his works in 7 vols. 8vo, containing, in ad- 
dition to the dramatic pieces above mentioned, 
his " Three Weeks after Marriage," " Zenobia," 
" The Grecian Daughter," &c. Some of his 
plays long kept possession of the stage. In 
1792 he published an essay on the life and ge- 
nius of Dr. Johnson, in 1793 a translation of 
Tacitus in 4 vols. 4to, and in 1801 a life of 
Garrick. His translation of Sallust, completed 
by Thomas Moore, appeared in 1807. At va- 
rious times in his life he engaged in political 
controversies, and edited journals opposing 
Mr. Fox, the first Lord Holland, and Wilkes's 
" North Briton." In his old age he was made 
a commissioner of bankrupts, and for the last 
three years of his life he received a pension of 
200. A life of Murphy by Jesse Foot was 
published in 1811. 

MIHRALV (Span, morrifia, from Lat. mori, 
to die ; or Gr. papaivsiv, to waste, to destroy), a 
term applied to various fatal contagious epizoo- 
tics, and therefore an equivalent to some extent 
of the Greek Ao^of, Latin pestis, and English 
pest and plague. The diseases most commonly 
included under this term are Russian cattle 
plague, aphthous fever, lung fever, and malig- 
nant anthrax. The first three are true plagues, 
spreading widely by contagion and irrespective 
of the influences of season, climate, &c. ; the 
fourth appears to arise from unhealthy local con- 
ditions, but in hot, damp, insalubrious years will 
assume an unusual virulence and spread far be- 
yond its native limits. From the earliest ages 
these affections have spread widely and dis- 
astrously in the track of belligerent armies, 
being propagated in their herds of supply; 
and thus on the occasion of any great European 
war the ravages of pestilence and famine have 
been superadded to the horrors of fire and 
sword. The yearly losses of individual coun- 
tries in such cases were to be counted by hun- 
dreds of thousands of stock, while the losses 
to the continent by a single epizootic are com- 
puted at hundreds of millions. 1. Russian Cat- 
tle Plague, or Steppe Murrain (Ger. Binder- 
pest, Fr. la, peste bovine, &c.), is a contagious 
fever of cattle and other ruminants, supposed 
to arise spontaneously in the Kirghiz steppes 



and the government of Kherson in southern 
Russia, characterized by congestion, excessive 
growth and degeneration of epithelium, slough- 
ing, and ulceration of all the mucous mem- 
branes, but especially of those of the alimentary 
canal. It has spread over western Europe in 
connection with every great general war, from 
the irruption of the Huns, about A. D. 375, to 
the recent Franco-German contest, after which 
both belligerent countries suffered severely. 
After the taking of Paris the plague anticipated 
the famished inhabitants in destroying the cattle 
set apart for their relief, and out of 10,000 to 
12,000 reserved for the troops 800 died in one 
night. From 1711 to 1769 it destroyed over 
200,000,000 head of cattle in Europe; from 
1793 to 1796, 3,000,000 to 4,000,000 in Italy; 
in 1842 it killed 300,000 head of cattle in 
Egypt, and died out two years later for want 
of more animals to destroy; and in 1865-'6 
it proved fatal to about 500,000 head in Great 
Britain within 18 months. Excepting in its 
supposed birthplace on the steppes, this malady 
is propagated only by contagion, and in ordi- 
nary cases passes over exclusively breeding dis- 
tricts into which no strange cattle nor their 
products are brought. Thus Belgium almost 
entirely escaped in the recent French outbreak. 
Austria and Prussia habitually protect them- 
selves by a supervision and quarantine on their 
frontiers, and only suffer when such barriers 
are broken down under the exigencies of war. 
The poison, which exists in all parts of the 
body, and is given off in the secretions and 
exhalations, does not spread far on the atmos- 
phere, but may remain in a frozen or dried 
condition for many months, without losing its 
virulence. When this poison has been intro- 
duced into the system by inoculation, it re- 
mains latent for over 36 hours. At the end 
of the second day there is a marked elevation 
of the bodily temperature (2 to 3), and the 
following day the mucous membranes of the 
mouth, nose, and vulva are suffused by a deep 
livid blush. At this time, or even earlier, 
there appear on the gums or lips whitish aph- 
thous-like elevations, formed of epithelium, 
which are granular or even approaeh the 
characters of pus cells in their deeper layers. 
On the fourth day there is dulness, appetite 
and rumination are impaired, and the secre- 
tions generally are lessened. On the fifth day 
illness is recognized by any one, in the great 
depression, half-closed watery eyes, retracted 
ears, the dry, hard, and scanty dung coated 
with mucus, the want of appetite, irregular 
breathing, and small, weak, and often accel- 
erated pulse. Next day all the symptoms are 
exaggerated ; the bowels are relaxed and dysen- 
teric, the faeces passed with much straining, 
and the everted gut of a deep red ; the back 
is arched, the abdomen tense and tender, the 
mouth covered with raw sores from the sepa- 
ration of the white crusts, the muzzle dry, 
cracked, and raw, the pulse weak and rapid, 
and the breathing checked with a clucking 



58 



MURRAIN 



sound and a concussion of the whole body at 
the commencement of expiration. This check 
to expiration causes emphysema of the lungs, 
and later of the walls of the chest, where it 
appears in puffy irregular swellings crackling 
under pressure. These symptoms are steadily 
aggravated, emaciation becomes extreme, weak- 
ness compels the animal to lie down constantly, 
the fetid stools pass involuntarily, and the tem- 
perature rapidly falls as a precursor of death, 
which usually happens on the seventh or eighth 
day. In many mild cases an eruption appears 
on the skin, consisting of modified epidermic 
cells. Buffaloes suffer from this affection, and 
to a less extent sheep, goats, deer, the yak, 
the aurochs, and even the peccary. The patho- 
logical lesions consist largely in stagnation of 
blood in the capillaries of the various mucous 
membranes, which, often in the interpulmonary 
air passages, but above all in the third and 
fourth stomachs, the small intestines, and the 
rectum, assume a dark claret color, and are 
covered besides with black spots of extravasa- 
tion that may terminate in sloughing and even 
perforation. The mucous membranes of the 
urinary and generative organs are often simi- 
larly congested and ecchymosed. The blood 
and diseased textures contain an excess of 
granules in an active state of vitality, which 
are believed to be connected with the increase 
of the poison. Treatment of this disease is 
inadmissible. The extinction of the poison 
by the slaughter of the diseased animals, as 
advised by Lancisi in 1713 and first practised 
in England in 1714, has been proved by the 
experience of a century and a half to be the 
one satisfactory and economical mode of con- 
tending with it. Wherever the disease has 
been treated, as it was generally in former 
times, and in Egypt, England, and Holland 
more recently, the losses have been enormous ; 
whereas in countries where the infected were 
promptly slaughtered, and all that had been in 
contact with them thoroughly disinfected, it 
has been invariably extinguished at a trifling 
cost. 2. Aphthous Fever (Gr. atyda, from aKreiv, 
to set on fire), Vesicular Murrain, Eczema 
Epizodtica, or Foot and Mouth Disease, is a 
contagious fever of ruminants and omnivora, 
communicable to other mammals and to fowls 
by inoculation or the use of the warm milk. 
It is characterized by the eruption of blisters 
on the mouth, udder, teats, and feet. It is 
first distinctly described as prevailing among 
Silesian cattle in 1686, and has since spread 
on the occasion of every great European war. 
England was long protected by its insular 
position, but imported the disease in 1839, 
and has steadily maintained it by her con- 
tinental cattle trade. In 1870 it was carried 
from England to Canada, and later to Buenos 
Ayres. From Canada it spread to New York, 
Connecticut, and Massachusetts ; but in the 
absence of large markets for store cattle, it 
died out here under moderate restrictions as to 
movement of stock. Some cases reappeared 



in Rensselaer county, K Y., in the spring of 
1871, and inDutchess county in January, 1872, 
doubtless from virus preserved in the buildings. 
It is only known as propagated by contagion, 
and the absence of spontaneous development in 
England and America is demonstrated by their 
immunity for centuries, until the disease was 
conveyed in imported cattle, by its prompt 
disappearance from our states when the prop- 
agation of the poison was interfered with, 
and by the continued exemption of some ex- 
clusively breeding and secluded districts even 
in England. Almoat all ruminants and swine 
are susceptible, but as the poison does not 
spread through the atmosphere, but mainly or 
alone on solid bodies, it is easily controlled. 
After an incubation of about a day, the patient 
appears chilly, stiff, rough-coated, with warm 
tender mouth, teats, and feet, and an elevation 
of bodily heat by 2 F. The second or third 
day blisters appear on the mouth, teats, and 
feet ; the patient slavers, smacks her lips, 
stretches the legs out backward and shakes the 
feet, and flinches on milking. Soon the blisters 
break, leaving raw sores, which speedily heal 
up in the mouth, but are often maintained 
and extended by milking or by filth in the 
case of the teats and feet. Thus it is that the 
udder often inflames, suppurates, or sloughs, 
the womb sympathizes, causing abortion, or 
the cow becomes an inveterate kicker, or 
sheds her hoofs and contracts periostitis, ca- 
ries, or necrosis of the bones of the foot. If 
however the parts are kept clean, recovery 
is usually complete in 8 to 16 days. Sheep 
and swine suffer most seriously in the feet. 
Other animals have blisters in the mouth, and 
near the hoofs, nails, or claws. Infants and 
other sucking animals sometimes contract fa- 
tal inflammation of the stomach and bowels. 
Though rarely fatal, this disease causes great 
losses by drying up the milk, or rendering it 
unfit for consumption, by disease of the udder 
and feet, by abortion, and other complications. 
It demands little treatment beyond cool soft 
food and cleanliness, yet advantage may be 
derived from a laxative when the bowels are 
costive, and astringent cooling lotions to the 
affected parts. The feet may require poulticing 
when much inflamed, or strong caustics when 
ulcerated. But, like other contagious diseases, 
this is best prevented by a careful professional 
supervision over importation, and by the com- 
plete seclusion and disinfection of diseased 
stock, and of all places and objects with which 
they have been in contact. 3. Lung Fever, 
Pulmonary Murrain, JZpizootic or Contagious 
Pleuro-pneumonia, Lung Plague, &c., is a con- 
tagious fever of cattle, characterized by exten- 
sive exudations into the respiratory organs, and 
the phenomena of a low typhous inflammation 
of the lungs, pleurae, and bronchia. This dis- 
ease has usually spread in company with rin- 
derpest and aphthous fever, but attracted less 
attention because of its long incubation, its in- 
sidious onset, and slow progress, which allowed 



MUKRAIN 



59 



the public mind to be preoccupied with its 
more prompt and fatal congeners. Pulmonary 
epizootics are mentioned by Tacitus and Co- 
lumella, and in 1693 Valentin described one 
which, being confined to cattle, was proba- 
bly that of our own day. Since then it has 
usually spread in the track of armies and co- 
existed with the rinderpest. Though existing 
continuously in the greater part of western 
Europe during the whole of the present cen- 
tury, yet it has respected certain countries for 
a length of time or entirely. Thus England was 
protected by the narrow strait of Dover till 
1839, when the disease was introduced by the 
same series of importations which carried aph- 
thous fever. Denmark imported it repeatedly 
from England and Holland, but as often stamped 
it out by the destruction of the infected ani- 
mals and a thorough attendant disinfection, 
and kept clear until the recent war with Ger- 
many. In 1860 it was imported from Scot- 
land into Norway, but was at once extin- 
guished by a close quarantine and careful dis- 
infection. In 1858 it reached Oldenburg from 
Scotland, but was immediately annihilated by 
the destruction of the infected stock. Switz- 
erland, long slandered as the native home of 
the plague, has cleared her farms, and now 
keeps them sound by inexorable slaughter. 
Mecklenburg has met with an equal success. 
In 1858 the disease reached Australia by an 
imported English cow, and was allowed to 
spread on the open plains until many of them 
were almost depopulated. In 1843 and 1850 it 
was brought to Brooklyn, N. Y., and in 1847 
to New Jersey, by English cattle, and finally 
in 1859 into Massachusetts by Dutch cattle. 
The New Jersey outbreak was extinguished 
by the destruction of all the cattle on the 
farm. In Massachusetts a government com- 
mission was appointed with power to isolate 
exposed herds under strict supervision and 
to kill all diseased animals, remunerating the 
owners out of state funds; and they finally 
extinguished the disease after six years' effort 
and the slaughter of 1,164 cattle, besides those 
which died of the plague. In New York no 
sufficient effort was made, and the plague has 
since been known in the city as the swill-milk 
disease, and has spread in Kings and Queens 
counties, into New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, the District of Columbia, and 
Virginia. Its progress is greatly retarded by 
the absence of any cattle traffic westward ; but 
should it ever reach the great stock-raising 
regions of the west, it can scarcely fail to rap- 
idly overrun the entire country. The disease 
is undoubtedly propagated by contagion alone 
in western Europe and America. The poison, 
which pervades the entire body, is concen- 
trated in the pulmonary exudation, and being 
exhaled in the breath spreads much further 
on the atmosphere than those of rinderpest 
and aphthous fever. It is conveyed long dis- 
tances in the clothes of human beings, and 
hence butchers and jobbers are continually 



spreading the disease in infected countries. 
Markets, cars, boats, loading banks, roads, 
pastures, yards, buildings, clothing, utensils, 
fodder, &c., are also fruitful means of its dif- 
fusion. The bovine race are alone suscepti- 
ble. After an incubation of four to six weeks, 
the temperature rises to 103 or 104 F., and 
an infrequent short dry cough appears, which 
increases in frequency, depth, and hoarseness. 
Soon a staring coat, stiff gait, cold horns and 
legs, tender spine, intercostals, and breast 
bone, accelerated pulse and breathing, partial- 
ly suppressed secretions, impaired appetite and 
rumination, and occasional dryness of the muz- 
zle, mark further progress. The physical signs 
of effusion into the lungs and pleurae are pres- 
ent from the first, and the progress of the dis- 
ease, as well as of recovery, may be followed 
from day to day by auscultation and percus- 
sion. At first the patient may lie on the side 
most affected, but as the disease advances he 
stands obstinately with legs apart, nose pro- 
truded, and each expiration accompanied by a 
deep groan. The nose discharges a muco- 
purulent fluid, with solid masses of mucus and 
even blood, and a fetid watery diarrhoea sets 
in and rapidly wears out the animal. Emacia- 
tion becomes extreme, and death ensues in 
four to six weeks, if the patient has escaped 
the earlier risks of suffocation. The mor- 
tality is usually from 50 to 60 per cent, in 
a newly invaded locality. The lesions are 
mainly confined to the chest. The lungs are 
infiltrated with serosity, or later are firmly 
hepatized, and show the yellow lines or mar- 
bling common to all bovine pneumonia; the 
pleurae are more or less filled with serum and 
covered by false membranes, the bronchia con- 
gested and covered with a muco-purulent dis- 
charge ; softening, abscess, gangrene, &c., are 
not uncommon, and in the worst cases the ex- 
udations are often blood-stained. This disease 
is more amenable to treatment than rinder- 
pest, but, unless where a land is already in- 
fected throughout, it is rarely advisable to treat 
it. Treatment consists in such measures as will 
moderate the fever, sustain the depressed vital 
functions, favor the elimination of the poison, 
and check its reproduction. Laxatives with 
cooling diuretics and arterial sedatives are 
often serviceable, especially in the early stages, 
while in the very prostrate states diffusible 
stimulants may be freely used. Counter-irri- 
tants may be applied to the affected parts of 
the chest whenever there is evidence of ac- 
tive inflammation, while disinfectants (carbolic 
acid, bisulphate of soda, and the sulpho-carbo- 
lates) may be given by the mouth as well as 
employed to disinfect the building and dis- 
charges. The hydropathic treatment by thor- 
ough wet-sheet packing has been employed 
successfully, being repeated as often as the 
fever rises anew. But prevention is the most 
economical course, and when few animals in a 
country are infected this is best secured by 
their prompt destruction, followed by a thor- 



60 



MURRAIN 



ough disinfection. If a country is generally 
infected, sound cattle may be protected by the 
free use of sulphate of iron, or sulpho-carbo- 
lates, by seclusion, treatment, and thorough 
disinfection of infected herds ; or still better, 
by inoculation, the animals operated on being 
shut up in secluded and disinfected stables 
and treated in every respect like diseased 
stock. The inoculation is made on the tip of 
the tail with lymph from a recently infiltrated 
lung and a mild case of the disease. Store 
markets should be closed and no stock moved 
except under a written official warrant, and 
only from herds in which no disease has ex- 
isted for over two months (better one year), 
and where disinfection has been thorough. A 
special supervision should be kept up at all 
landing ports, a clean bill of health demand- 
ed, and a sufficient quarantine enjoined, since 
the long incubation of this fever affords every 
facility for its introduction unobserved. 4. 
Malignant Anthrax, Malignant Carbuncle, 
Carluncular Fever, Bloody Murrain, Black 
Murrain, Hmmatosepsis, Typhamia, Pelcemia^ 
Blood-striMng (G-er. Brand, Fr. charbori), &c. 
These names are applied to a class of specific, 
contagious diseases, enzootic, but sometimes 
epizootic, originating in herbivora, swine, and 
birds, and communicable to other animals, in- 
cluding man. It is characterized by profound 
changes in the chemical and vital properties of 
the blood, disintegration of its globules, im- 
paired or suspended haBmatosis, and exudations 
and extravasations in the most varied parts, 
with a tendency to gangrene. In the earlier 
ages this class of diseases was very prevalent 
and disastrous, often extending like a plague ; 
and though improved cultivation has greatly 
limited their ravages, they are still far too fre- 
quent and deadly. Fleming quotes from Irish 
records a notice of an epidemic and epizootic 
in 2048 B. 0., supposed to have been of this 
nature. The murrain in Egypt spoken of in 
connection with the exodus, which attacked 
all domestic animals (Ex. ix.), and the plague 
of boils and blains upon man and beast, are 
referable to different forms of these affections. 
The decimation of the Grecian army and their 
beasts at the siege of Troy (Iliad, lib. i.), and the 
combined epidemics and epizootics in the Ro- 
man territories mentioned by Plutarch, Livy, 
and Virgil, point in the same direction. The 
records of the middle ages abound in accounts 
of pestilences on man and beast, many of them 
unquestionably of this kind. More recently we 
find the outbreak in Santo Domingo in which, 
from eating the dead and dying beasts, 15,000 
people perished from malignant pustule in six 
weeks ; also the yearly devastations in the Rus- 
sian provinces, where besides the live stock 
as many as a fourth of the human population 
are cut off in the worst anthrax years. In the 
United States, epidemics occurred near Phila- 
delphia in 1834-'6, in Louisiana in 1837-'9, and 
in northern New York ("malignant erysip- 
elas"), after a "fatal epizootic of slavers" 



(glossanthrax) among horses, in 1825. The 
records of the bureau of agriculture show its 
prevalence in the malarious regions of the 
south, and isolated outbreaks and even human 
victims are still quite common in the northern 
states. Contagion is probably the sole occa- 
sion of this affection in man, and a common 
cause in the lower animals also. In bad cases 
all parts of the body are poisonous, and the 
virus may be dried up and kept for an in- 
definite period without losing its potency ; it 
survives a temperature of 145 F., so that 
cooked meat is often fatal ; and its simple con- 
tact with unbroken skin has sufficed to convey 
the disease. Spherical and staff -like bacteria, 
always found in the blood and morbid fluids in 
fatal cases, have been fixed upon as the cause 
of the malady; but it remains to be proved 
that they are more than the effect. That in- 
sects serve to propagate it is probable, since 
nearly all cases in man commence on the face, 
hands, or other exposed part of the body. It 
prevails above all on marshy soils when dry- 
ing, in basins with no drainage, on rich river 
bottoms and deltas, on stiff clays, hard pan, 
and other impervious subsoils, in rich valleys 
sheltered from winds by surrounding hills 
whose rocky sides radiate the heat and hasten 
evaporation, and even on over-manured soils, 
saturated with organic matter and rich in ni- 
trites, though the drainage may be moderately 
good. Yet many marshes prolific of fatal ma- 
larious fevers in man are not remarkable for 
causing malignant anthrax. They seem to be 
the best fields for the permanent preservation 
of the poison, but are perhaps not always 
capable of developing it de now. Plethora, 
youth, alternations of heat and cold, starva- 
tion, overwork, or anything indeed which low- 
ers the vitality or loads the blood with effete 
organic products, lays the system open to re- 
ceive the poison. These diseases are primarily 
divisible into two great classes: 1, those in 
which the changes are confined to the blood 
and internal organs, especially the spleen ; and 
2, those which, in addition to the blood changes, 
present local swellings from blood extravasa- 
tions and sero-albuminous exudations. Of the 
first class a certain proportion die after a few 
minutes' illness. This, the apoplectic form, 
occurs in swine, horses, sheep, and cattle, in 
about the order named. From apparent health 
the victim suddenly falls, struggles, perhaps 
expels blood by some natural opening (nose, 
anus), and dies. In these there is little change 
even in the blood. More protracted are sple- 
nic apoplexy of horse and ox, blood-striking; 
braxy or sang-de-rate of sheep, and the car- 
buncular fever of swine and fowls. In these 
there are profound nervous prostration, pen- 
dent head, excited pulse and breathing, some- 
times abdominal pain, spots of blood-staining 
on the visible mucous membranes, or a deep 
yellow or brownish hue of these parts, and the 
passage of the elements of blood by some of 
the natural openings (nose, anus, urinary or- 



MURRAIN 



MURRAY 



61 



gans). The temperature, rarely elevated, may 
be even lowered. Death ensues in from six 
hours to several days. The blood globules are 
largely disintegrated, the fibrine replaced by a 
comparatively incoagulable less oxidized ele- 
ment ; if a clot forms, it fails to contract and 
squeeze out the serum ; the blood reddens but 
little on exposure, its liquid part is stained by 
dissolved hsematine, and it contains spherical 
and elongated bacteria. Rigor mortis is rare, 
decomposition setting in at once with intoler- 
able f cetor. The spleen is enlarged, sometimes 
ruptured, and other internal organs are often 
the seats of extravasation or exudation. The 
localized forms of the disease are as varied as 
the seat and extent of the swellings. All such 
swellings however have characters in common. 
They appear suddenly, after some general fever 
and lassitude, and increase rapidly. The skin 
covering them tends to gangrene, and dries 
and hardens in part or in whole, becoming 
cold, and crackling on pressure from the ex- 
trication of gas beneath. Blisters with red or 
purple contents may form, or a yellow or pur- 
ple liquid may ooze from the surface. Exten- 
sive sloughing often succeeds. Active inflam- 
mation and suppuration are favorable signs. 
The smaller swellings will sometimes shift from 
place to place. These external forms of the af- 
fection are less fatal than the internal. Among 
them may be mentioned many cases of so-called 
purpura hcemorrhagica in the horse, in which 
the head, limbs, and other parts are engorged ; 
the glossanthrax or black tongue; the black- 
quarter of cattle, in which extravasation takes 
place in one limb or a part of the trunk ; the 
carbuncular erysipelas of sheep and swine ; the 
anthrax of the mouth and carbuncular sore 
throat of hogs ; the boil plague of eastern Eu- 
rope and Asia ; and finally the malignant pus- 
tule of man. (See PUSTULE.) The treatment 
in the local forms of the disease is to destroy 
the diseased structures with caustic before 
the general system has been poisoned. For 
more extended swellings, attended by constitu- 
tional disturbance, antiseptics may be applied 
locally or, better, injected into the enlarge- 
ments. Carbolic, sulphuric, and chromic acids 
and iodine may be mentioned, the last having 
destroyed the virulence of anthrax fluids when 
dissolved in 12,000 times its weight of water. 
When sores have formed, the extravasations and 
exudations may be cauterized throughout, and 
the sound tissues beneath stimulated to a healthy 
action. But no sores should be made, save 
with the fine nozzle of the injecting syringe, 
where they do not already exist. In both in- 
ternal and external forms of the affection, the 
system must be supported by tonics and stimu- 
lants; gentle laxatives and diuretics may be 
used to eliminate waste and pernicious matters 
from the blood, and antiseptics administered 
to check the prolification of the poison as far 
as possible. Carbolic acid, chromic acid, the 
mineral acids, and iodine are especially to be 
recommended. By way of prevention noth- 



ing succeeds better than thorough drainage, 
removal of animals from dangerous enclosed 
valleys, rich river bottoms, &c., during the 
hot and dry season, keeping stock indoors un- 
til the dews have disappeared in the mornings, 
good steady dieting, the avoidance of suddenly 
induced plethora, the maintenance of a healthy 
action of bowels, kidneys, and skin, and a gen- 
eral attention to sound hygienic principles. 

MURRAY. I. A N. "W. county of Georgia, bor- 
dering on Tennessee, bounded W. by the Conna- 
sauga river and drained by its branches ; area, 
320 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,500, of whom 757 
were colored. The surface is elevated, and the 
soil generally fertile. Gold, silver, lead, and 
zinc are found. The chief productions in 1870 
were 47,269 bushels of wheat, 151,286 of In- 
dian corn, 11,123 of oats, 5,810 Ibs. of wool, 
40,851 of butter, 7,698 of tobacco, 288 bales 
of cotton, and 10,050 gallons of sorghum mo- 
lasses. There were 659 horses, 1,067 milch 
cows, 1,722 other cattle, 3,025 sheep, and 5,454 
swine. Capital, Spring Place. II. A S. W. 
county of Minnesota, drained by the Des 
Moines and Rock rivers and other streams; 
area, 720 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 209. The sur- 
face consists of rolling prairies. 

MURRAY, or Goobva, a river of Australia, 
which rises in the Warragong mountains, in 
lat. 36 20' S., Ion. 148 15' E. Its course is 
very tortuous, the curvatures being short, ab- 
rupt, and almost incessant. After descending 
from the highlands, it flows nearly westward 
to Ion. 144 45' E., then takes a N. W. direc- 
tion to Mt. Lookout, where again turning it 
proceeds to Elbow, in lat. 34 S., Ion. 139 46' 
E., and there bending suddenly runs S. S. W. 
to Lake Victoria, into which it falls at Wel- 
lington in lat. 35 30' S. This river and its trib- 
utaries drain an area of about 500,000 sq. m. 
Its length is about 1,000 m., and its average 
breadth from 100 to 150 yards. It overflows 
its banks periodically, and sometimes rises 30 
or 40 ft. above its ordinary level. During this 
season it is navigable to within 90 m. of its 
source, and then steamers and barges ply regu- 
larly between Wellington, Albury, and the in- 
termediate towns. Its principal affluents are 
the Goulburn, Campaspe, Murrumbidgee (with 
the Lachlan), and Darling. Lake Alexandrina, 
Victoria, or Kayinga, which connects it with 
the sea, is about 30 m. long and 15 m. broad, 
but in general very shallow. The entrance to 
it from the sea not being navigable, a tram- 
way has been constructed between Goolwa and 
Port Elliot, which is worked in connection 
with the river steamers. 

MURRAY, Alexander, an American naval officer, 
born at Chestertown, Md., in 1755, died in 
Philadelphia, Oct. 6, 1821. In 1776 he was 
appointed a lieutenant in the continental navy, 
but there being no employment for him afloat, 
he served through the campaigns of 1776-'7 as 
lieutenant and captain in the first Maryland 
regiment, participating in the battles of Flatbush 
and White Plains. At the close of the cam- 



MURRAY 



paign of 1777 he was appointed to the com- 
mand of a letter of marque, in which he was 
captured by a British squadron and carried 
into New York. After his exchange he served 
as lieutenant in the Trumbull, in the action 
with the Iris and Gen. Monk off the mouth of 
the Delaware. In 1798 he was made captain, 
and served in the West Indies, in command of 
the Montezuma, and afterward of the Constel- 
lation. In 1802 he commanded the Constella- 
tion in the Mediterranean ; and an attack which 
he made upon a flotilla of 17 gunboats was the 
first affair of the war with Tripoli. At his 
death he was in command of the navy yard at 
Philadelphia, and was senior officer of the navy. 

MURRAY, Alexander, a Scottish philologist, 
born at Dunkitterick, Kirkcudbrightshire, Oct. 
22, 1775, died in Edinburgh, April 15, 1813. 
He was the son of a shepherd, learned French, 
Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Arabic, Welsh, and An- 
glo-Saxon, and in 1794 entered the university 
of Edinburgh. In 1806 he was assistant pas- 
tor, and in 1808 became pastor of Urr in Kirk- 
cudbrightshire. In 1811 he translated a letter 
in Geez or old Ethiopic, addressed to the king 
by the sovereign of Tigre in Abyssinia; and 
in the following year he was elected to the 
chair of oriental languages in the university of 
Edinburgh. His most important works are 
"Outlines of Oriental Philosophy" (Edin- 
burgh, 1812), and "History of the Euro- 
pean Languages, or Researches into the Affin- 
ities of the Teutonic, Greek, Celtic, Sclavonic, 
and Indian Nations " (1813). He also edited 
Bruce's " Travels," and contributed some philo- 
logical papers to the "Edinburgh Review." 

MURRAY, or Moray, James Stuart, earl of, regent 
of Scotland, born about 1533, killed at Linlith- 
gow, Jan. 23, 1570. He was an illegitimate 
son of James Y. and Lady Margaret, daugh- 
ter of John, fourth Lord Erskine, and when a 
little child was appointed by his father prior 
of St. Andrews. He afterward acquired the 
priory of Pittenweem, and that of Macon in 
France, in commendam, with a dispensation to 
hold three benefices. In 1548, on the inva- 
sion of Scotland by Lords Grey de Wilton and 
Clinton, the one by land, the other by sea, the 
young prior commanded a small band and re- 
pelled a descent made by the latter upon St. 
Monan on the coast of Fife, driving back the 
invaders to their ships. In the same year he 
accompanied his sister Mary to the court of 
France. In 1558 he was one of the commis- 
sioners from Scotland to witness the ceremony 
of marriage between Mary and the dauphin of 
France, afterward Francis II. In the contest 
between the queen regent and the lords of the 
congregation, he sided alternately with both 
parties, but finally joined the latter ; and when 
in 1559 the congregation resolved to take the 
government into their own hands, he was one 
of the council appointed for civil affairs. Af- 
ter the death of the queen regent in June, 1560, 
he became one of the lords of the articles, and 
on the death of Francis II. was commissioned 



to go to France and invite Mary to Scotland. 
On her return he became her confidant, advi- 
ser and prime minister, protected her in the 
exercise of her religion, obtained from her a 
proclamation favorable to the reformers, cleared 
the border of freebooters, and ruled the coun- 
try with judgment and ability. He was re- 
warded with the title of earl of Mar, and mar- 
ried soon after Agnes Keith, daughter of the 
earl marischal, on which occasion Mary gave 
a series of splendid entertainments. Lord 
Erskine claiming the earldom of Mar as his pe- 
culiar right, Lord James resigned it and received 
instead the earldom of Murray, and shortly 
after defeated at Corrichie the earl of Huntly, 
an unsuccessful competitor for power and pop- 
ularity. Although governing Scotland judi- 
ciously and with undisputed authority, he was 
too lukewarm a Protestant for the extreme re- 
formers, who lamented the protection he af- 
forded to the queen in the use of the mass, and 
particularly his defence of her and her ladies in 
what Knox called "the superfluities of their 
clothes." Between Knox and Murray a cool- 
ness sprung up in consequence, which contin- 
ued a year and a half ; but they were brought 
together again by their mutual opposition to 
the queen's marriage with Darnley. Murray 
had endeavored to prevent it, and finally re- 
sorted to arms ; but being pursued by his sis- 
ter at the head of a superior force, he was 
compelled to fly to England. On the mur- 
der of Rizzio, however, he was recalled, and 
apparently reconciled to the queen. It is not 
certain whether or not he was accessory to 
the murder of Darnley. He left Edinburgh 
the day before, and was also absent from 
Scotland during the trial of Bothwell and his 
subsequent marriage with Mary. After the 
dethronement of the queen and her confine- 
ment in Lochleven castle, Murray was ap- 
pointed regent of Scotland, Aug. 22, 1567. 
In this situation he acted with vigor .and dis- 
cretion, and kept the country in a state of 
tranquillity. On the escape of the queen he 
refused to resign his power, defeated her and 
her adherents at Langside, March 13, 1568, and 
followed up the victory by destroying the 
strongholds of her friends, and more firmly es- 
tablishing the government. When Mary was 
tried at York for complicity in the murder of 
Darnley, Murray bore the most unqualified 
testimony against her. In passing through the 
streets of Linlithgow, he was shot through the 
body by a bullet fired from a window by James 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, and died the same 
night. Bothwellhaugh's conduct has generally 
been ascribed to revenge for a personal injury, 
but there is reason for believing that he acted 
as the executioner of a doom pronounced on 
Murray by his enemies in secret conclave. 

MURRAY, John, an American clergyman, born 
in Alton, Hampshire, England, Dec. 10, 1741, 
died in Boston, Mass., Sept. 3, 1815. Under 
the influence of Wesley and Whitefield he be- 
came a convert to Methodism, and an occasion- 



MURRAY 



63 



al preacher in Wesley's connection in Cork, 
Ireland, whither his parents had removed. 
About 1760 he returned to England, and a few 
years later adopted the doctrines of Universal- 
ism promulgated by James Kelly, for which 
he was excommunicated at Whitefield's taber- 
nacle in London. In 1770 he emigrated to the 
United States. New York and New Jersey 
were the first scenes of his labors, and subse- 
quently he preached in Newport, R. I., Bos- 
ton, Portsmouth, N. H., and other places in 
New England, in some of which his peculiar 
doctrines subjected him to opposition, and oc- 
casionally to open violence. In 1774 he re- 
sided in Gloucester, Mass., and upon suspicion 
that he was an emissary of the British govern- 
ment in disguise, he was ordered to depart ; but 
through the exertions of his friends he was en- 
abled to remain and preach. In the spring of 
1775 he was chaplain of the three regiments 
of the Rhode Island line encamped before Bos- 
ton, with several of whose officers, including 
Greene and Varnum, he was on terms of inti- 
macy. The rest of the chaplains united in 
petitioning Washington to remove Murray from 
his office, but without effect. His connection 
with the army was soon after terminated by 
illness, and he returned to Gloucester, where 
he was established over a society of Universal- 
ists. In 1783 he became plaintiff in a success- 
ful action brought to recover property belong- 
ing to persons of his denomination, which had 
been appropriated to the expenses of the ori- 
ginal parish of Gloucester, on the ground that 
the Universalists were not a society legally au- 
thorized. He participated in the proceedings 
of the first Universalist convention at Oxford, 
Mass., in 1785, and for a number of years he 
was a delegate to the general convention of 
the Universalists. In 1788 he made a brief 
visit to England, and in 1793 was installed over 
a society in Boston, where he passed the re- 
mainder of his life. In 1809 he was paralyzed. 
He is considered the father of Universalism in 
America, although his doctrines differed essen- 
tially from those now recognized by Universal- 
ists. He published three volumes of letters and 
sketches of sermons, and wrote an autobiogra- 
phy (8th ed., Boston, 1860). 

MURRAY, John, a Scottish physician, born in 
Edinburgh in 1778, died there, June 22, 1820. 
He began his career as an apothecary in his 
native city, and subsequently became eminent 
as a lecturer on natural philosophy, chemistry, 
materia medica, and pharmacy. In geology he 
was a zealous Neptunian, and in reply to Play- 
fair's "Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory 
of the Earth" (1802), published his "Com- 
parative View of the Huttonian and Neptunian 
Theories." The most important of his other 
works are "System of Chemistry," "Ele- 
ments of Chemistry," and " System of Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy." 

MURRAY, John, an English publisher, born 
in London, Nov. 27, 1778, died June 27, 1843. 
He was of Scottish descent, and his father, 
582 VOL. xii. 5 



whose name was MacMurray, established him- 
self in 1768 as a bookseller in Fleet street, 
London. After a good education acquired at 
a number of schools, at one of which he lost 
the sight of an eye by an accident, he was 
left in his 15th year by his father's death to 
conduct the business, in which he was assist- 
ed by Mr. Highley the shopman, whom he 
subsequently took into partnership. In 1803 
he terminated this connection, and, entering 
a wider sphere of business, was thenceforth 
known as one of the most enterprising and 
liberal publishers of London. By coming for- 
ward to the assistance of a number of young 
men who had become involved in some pe- 
cuniary loss in conducting a periodical called 
the "Miniature," he secured several influential 
friends, among others Mr. Canning. With the 
latter he matured in 1807 a project for the 
establishment of the "Quarterly Review" as a 
means of counteracting the influence of the 
whig "Edinburgh Review;" and securing the 
cooperation of George Ellis, the Hebers, Bar- 
row, Gifford, and others, he commenced in 
1809 the publication of the new periodical, 
which under the editorial supervision of .Gif- 
ford soon attained a circulation of 12,000 
copies. In 1810 Mr. Murray made the ac- 
quaintance of Lord Byron, to whom he paid 
600 for the first two cantos of " Childe Ha- 
rold," and whose entire works he subsequently 
published. Of his generosity and consideration 
toward the poet many instances are given; and 
Byron's correspondence with him, published 
in Moore's " Life of Byron," affords an evidence 
of the friendly relations existing between them. 
In 1812 he removed to Albemarle street, where 
the business is still carried on by his son and 
successor, John Murray, and where a long line 
of literary celebrities, including Scott, Byron, 
Campbell, W. Spencer, Bishop Heber, the elder 
Disraeli, Hallam, Mme. de Stael, Crabbe, South- 
ey, Washington Irving, and Lockhart, were 
wont to assemble. Of the numerous impor- 
tant works issued from the press of this house, 
it may suffice to mention the voyages and trav- 
els of Mungo Park, Belzoni, Parry, Franklin, 
Denham, Clapperton, and Layard; the series 
of the " Family Library ;" the histories of Hal- 
lam, Lord Mahon, Grote, Ranke, Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson, and Mrs. Markham ; the " Sketch 
Book," "Tales of a Traveller," "Life of 
Columbus," and other works of Washington 
Irving; the "Domestic Cookery," of which 
300,000 copies were published ; the despatches 
of the duke of Wellington ; the dictionaries of 
William Smith; an elaborate series of hand- 
books of travel; and the works of Crabbe, 
Heber, Lockhart, Milman, Head, Gleig, Kugler, 
Lord Campbell, Leake, Borrow, Davy, Raw- 
linson, Mrs. Somerville, Lyell, Murchison, &c. 
In 1826 he was persuaded into establishing 
a daily journal called the " Representative," 
which proved a failure ; but in general his good 
judgment and tact as a business man rendered 
his enterprises successful, and the publications 



MURRAY 



emanating from his house were for the most 
part books of merit, his imprint being one of 
their best recommendations. His liberality to 
authors was a distinguishing trait in his char- 
acter, and he sometimes made heavy pecuniary 
sacrifices to gratify others, as in the case of the 
autobiography of Lord Byron, which ^ he sur- 
rendered to Moore on the representation that 
the publication of it might injure the reputa- 
tion of the living as well as the dead. 

MURRAY, Lindley, an English grammarian, 
born at Swatara, Lancaster co., Pa., in 1745, 
died near York, England, Feb. 16, 1826. He 
received his primary education in Philadelphia, 
in the academy of the society of Friends ; in 
1753 he was placed for a time in school in 
New York, and then entered a counting house, 
being destined for the mercantile profession. 
He afterward studied law, was admitted to the 
bar, and his practice soon became extensive. 
When the revolutionary war broke out, he re- 
tired to the country on account of his health, 
and there remained four years. But the want 
of pecuniary means compelling him to return, 
he engaged in mercantile pursuits, and by the 
close of the war his fortune had become so 
ample that he was enabled to retire from busi- 
ness. Impaired health soon induced him to 
go to England with his family, where he pur- 
chased an estate at Holdgate, near York, and 
occupied himself chiefly with literary pursuits. 
In 1787 his first work, " The Power of Religion 
on the Mind," was published anonymously. 
His " Grammar of the English Language," first 
issued in 1795, and enlarged and improved in 
successive editions, for many years superseded 
all others. In 1797 he published "English 
Exercises," and a "Key" designed to accom- 
pany the grammar ; and subsequently an " Eng- 
lish Reader," an " Introduction to the English 
Reader," and an " English Spelling Book." He 
also published French reading books of a char- 
acter similar to his English ones. His last pub- 
lication was a selection from Home's "Com- 
mentary on the Psalms," and "The Duty and 
Benefits of Reading the Scriptures" (1817): 
His autobiography, finished in 1809, was pub- 
lished posthumously in 1826. 

MURRAY, Nicholas, an American clergyman, 
born in Ireland, Dec. 25, 1803, died in Eliza- 
bethtown, N. J., Feb. 4, 1861. In 1818 he came 
to America, and became an apprentice in the 
printing establishment of Harper and brothers. 
He was brought up a Roman Catholic, bul 
became a Protestant, graduated at Williams 
college in 1826, studied theology at Princeton 
and in 1829 became pastor of a Presbyterian 
church in Wilkesbarre, Pa. From 1834 till 
his death he was pastor of the first Presbyte 
rian church at Elizabethtown, N. J. In 1849 
he was elected moderator of the Presbyterian 
general assembly. He published " Notes, His 
torical and Biographical, concerning Elizabeth 
town, N. J." (Elizabethtown, 1844); "Letter 
to the Right Rev. John Hughes, Roman Oath 
olic Bishop of New York," under the signature 



of "Kirwan" (New York, 1848; enlarged ed., 
1855) ; " Romanism at Home " (1852) ; " Men 
and Things as I saw them in Europe" (1853); 
'Parish and other Pencillings " (1854) ; "The 
Happy Home" (1859); and "Preachers and 
Preaching" (1860). "A Dying Legacy," a 
posthumous volume, was printed in 1861. 

MURRAY, Patrick, fifth Baron Elibank, a Scot- 
:ish author, born in February, 1703, died Aug. 
3, 1778. In 1723 he was admitted to the Scot- 
tish bar, but entered the army the same year, 
and in 1740 was lieutenant colonel in the expe- 
dition to Cartagena, South America. After- 
ward he turned his attention to literature, and 
published "Thoughts on Money, Circulation, 
and Paper Currency " (Edinburgh, 1758) ; " An 
Inquiry into the Origin and Consequence of the 
Public Debts;" " Queries relating to the Pro- 
posed Plan for altering Entails in Scotland " 
1765) ; " Letter to Lord Hailes on his Remarks 
on the History of Scotland " (1773) ; and " Con- 
siderations on the Present State of the Peer- 
age of Scotland" (1774). In politics he was 
an adherent of the house of Stuart, with whom 
tie maintained a secret correspondence. 

MURRAY, or Moray, Sir Robert, one of the 
founders of the royal society of London, born 
in Scotland about the beginning of the 17th 
century, died in June, 1673. In his youth he 
entered the French service, and rose to the 
rank of colonel. Subsequently returning to 
Scotland, he became an ardent supporter of 
Charles I., and afterward of Charles II., the 
latter of whom in 1651, during his brief reign 
in Scotland, appointed him justice clerk and 
lord of session. During the protectorate his 
offices were taken from him, but he received 
them again at the restoration. He was a prom- 
inent member of a small club established in 
London by Boyle, Lord Brounker, and others, 
for the discussion of questions in natural sci- 
ence, or, as it was then termed, "the new phi- 
losophy," and which by Sir Robert Murray's 
efforts obtained in 1662 a royal charter as a 
regular scientific body. 
MURRAY, William. See MANSFIELD. 
MURRAY, William Henry Harrison, an American 
clergyman, born in Guilford, Conn., April 26, 
1840. He graduated at Yale college in 1862, 
and was licensed to preach in 1863. In 1864 
he became pastor of the Congregational church 
in Greenwich, Conn., but removed in 1866 to 
West Meriden, Conn. In 1868 he was settled 
as pastor of the Park street church in Boston. 
He has become distinguished both as a pulpit 
orator and as a lecturer, and during the winters 
of 1869-'70 and 1872-'3 he delivered courses 
of Sunday evening sermons in the music hall, 
Boston, which have been published under the 
title " Music Hall Sermons " (2 vols., Boston, 
1870-'73). He has also published "Camp 
Life in the Adirondack Mountains" (1868); 
"Words Fitly Spoken" (1873), being selections 
from his pulpit utterances ; and " The Perfect 
Horse" (1873), a contribution to agricultural 
literature. A weekly publication of his ser- 



MURVIEDRO 



MUSCAT 



65 



mons delivered in his church, under the title 
"Park Street Pulpit," was issued in Boston 
from the beginning of 1871 till October, 1874, 
when Mr. Murray resigned his pastorate. 

Ml RVIEDRO (anc. Saguntum), a town of Spain, 
in the province and 16 m. N. by E. of the city of 
Valencia ; pop. about 7,500. It is on the right 
bank of the Palancia, and was once a seaport, 
but the recession of the sea has left it 4 m. in- 
land. It is a straggling town at the foot of a 
hill, which is crowned by a citadel, and the 
streets are narrow and crooked. The principal 
industrial establishments are flour and oil mills 
and four distilleries. The Goths, the Moors, 
and the Spaniards have freely used the rich 
marbles of Saguntum as materials for later 
structures. In 1867 a wall was built around 
the ruins of the theatre. The fortress was the 
key of Valencia, and the French under Suchet 
captured it in 1811, after a battle on the plain, 
Oct. 25, where with about 20,000 men they 
defeated the Spanish Gen. Blake, who attacked 
them with 25,000. (See SAGUNTUM.) 

MFSMIS. I. A Greek poet, who flourished 
at Athens in prehistoric times. He was said 
by some to have been a native of Thrace and a 
son of Orpheus ; while others represented him 
as the son of Eumolpus and Selene, or of An- 
tiphemus and Helena, and the disciple of Or- 
pheus. He was regarded as the author of va- 
rious compositions, especially of such as were 
connected with the rites of Ceres at Eleusis, 
over which he was thought to have at one 
period presided. According to a tradition 
preserved by Pausanias, the Museum at Piraeus 
received its name from Musasus having been 
interred there. A few specimens of his reputed 
works are extant ; but Pausanias deemed none 
of the productions ascribed to him genuine 
except a hymn to Ceres. II. A Greek gram- 
marian, supposed by most modern critics to 
have lived at about the beginning of the 6th 
century A. D. He was the author of the poem 
on "The Loves of Hero and Leander," dis- 
covered in the 13th century. The best edi- 
tions of it are those of Passow (Leipsic, 1810) 
and Schafer (1825). It was jointly translated 
into English by Marlowe and Chapman (1606), 
and there are several other English versions. 

JIESAUS, Johann Karl August, a German author, 
born in Jena in 1735, died in Weimar, Oct. 28, 
1787. He studied theology, and was a candi- 
date for a rural parish, but his services were 
declined on account of his having participated 
in a dance ; upon which he renounced divinity, 
and accepted in 1763 an employment at the 
court of Weimar, as governor of the pages. 
He exchanged this office in 1770 for that of 
professor at the gymnasium of Weimar, which 
he held until his death. He wrote Grandi- 
son der Zweite, republished in 1781- '2 under 
the title of Der Deutsche Grandison, directed 
against Richardson's admirers. He also took 
the^field against Lavater in his Physiognomische 
Reisen. His VollcsmarcJien der DeutscJien (5 
vols., 1782) gained a still wider popularity. 



Kotzebue prepared an edition of his remains 
(Leipsic, 1791), with a biography of the author, 
whom he calls the good Musaus. Carlyle's 
"Specimens of German Romance" (London, 
1827) contains versions of some of the tales. 

MUSCARDINE, a name given by the French to 
a disease which for the last 20 years has proved 
very destructive to silkworms, and has seriously 
interfered with the production of silk in France 
and other parts of Europe. The fact is now 
well established that the disease is due to a 
minute fungus, fiotrytis lassiana, which is not 
confined to the silkworm, but attacks several 
other caterpillars. The mycelium (see FUNGI) 
of this fungus lives in and feeds upon the intes- 
tines and other interior portions of the silk- 
worm, finally destroying it. After its death 
the reproductive portion of the fungus may be 
seen upon the surface of the worm, giving it 
the appearance of having been dusted with 
flour ; under a microscope this appears to be a 
forest of minute branching threads which pro- 
duce an abundance of spores. Sometimes the 
silkworm retains sufficient vitality to spin its 
cocoon, and the fungus does not manifest itself 
externally until the caterpillar has assumed the 
state of pupa. It is found that the disease is 
communicated even if the spores fall upon the 
skin of the worm ; indeed, the spores are so 
exceedingly small that they readily escape ob- 
servation, and when the fungus is once intro- 
duced into an establishment they may be on the 
leaves upon which the worm feeds, and be thus 
taken into its interior, or they may be brought 
in contact with the worms in various ways. 
Absolute cleanliness and washing every por- 
tion of the room with lime water are the means 
of preventing its spread. Neither muscardine 
nor any other of the diseases of silkworms 
has appeared in California. 

MUSCAT, or Mascat, the chief city of Oman, 
in Arabia, situated at the head of a small inlet 
of the Indian ocean, in lat. 23 38' K, Ion. 58 
40' E., about 240 m. S. E. of the entrance to 
the Persian gulf ; pop. within the walls, about 
30,000; of the suburbs, 5,000. The cove of 
Muscat, as the harbor is called, is about three 
fourths of a mile long and half as broad, open- 
ing toward the northwest. To the west of 
this inlet is the larger bay of Muttra, or Ma- 
tara, capable of affording shelter to shipping 
when bad weather renders it difficult to enter 
the cove. The city stands on the S. side of 
the cove, in a hollow at the foot of cliffs 400 
or 500 ft. high, and there is only one pass 
communicating with the interior. As seen 
from the sea, these cliffs have no trace of vege- 
tation. Their summits and flanks are occupied 
by a chain of forts and towers, reached by 
difficult and narrow paths. These fortifica- 
tions, which were built by the Portuguese at 
the end of the 16th century, are in a ruinous 
condition, and most of their guns have lost 
their carriages. The city walls are flanked by 
four fortified gates. The streets are narrow 
and dirty, and some of them are almost impas- 



66 



MUSCAT 



sable. Half the town is in ruins. Many of 
the houses are mere mat huts, and even those 
of the better class are seldom more than one 
story high. The sultan's residence is a very 
plain edifice. There is no police, and no con- 
straint on the citizens, who have the largest 
liberty, and eat, sleep, and sometimes die in 
the open streets. The climate is excessively 
hot, and the land breeze at night is suffoca- 
ting. The thermometer rarely falls below 90 
in the shade. The inhabitants are composed 
of Arabs, Persians, Syrians, Kurds, Hindoos, 
Afghans, Belooches, and negroes. The pre- 
vailing language is a corrupt Hindostanee, the 
Arabic tongue being confined to the native 
Arabs. Most of the merchants live at Muttra 
and other towns along the coast, and bring in 
boats each morning the produce of the inte- 
rior and of the places along the Persian gulf, 
even fire wood being thus imported. Muscat 
has an extensive transit trade with Arabia, 



MUSCATINE 

Persia and India. Corn and cloth are the 
principal imports ; the exports are dates, horses, 
salt fish, hides, and madder, which are sent to 
India; sharks' fins, to China; and asses, to 
Mauritius. The harbor abounds with nsn, and 
large quantities are cured. The district of 
Muscat comprises the city and its suburbs, and 
the city and suburbs of Muttra, which, about 
4 m. W. of Muscat, is connected with it by a 
good road. Muttra stands in an open plain 
exposed to the sea breeze, and is much cooler 
than Muscat. It has docks for building and 
repairing ships, and a large part of its popula- 
tion of about 25,000 are fishermen, boatmen, 
sailors, and pilots. The sterility of the coun- 
try around Muscat is only apparent. In the 
valleys back of the hills are woods, streams, 
gardens, and villages. In the 15th century 
Muscat was a place of considerable importance, 
and was subject to Ormuz. Albuquerque took 
it in 1507", and it soon after became the centre 




Muscat. 



of the Portuguese commerce in that part of 
the world. In 1648 the natives expelled the 
Portuguese, and took possession of several 
places in the Persian gulf. In 1707 they ob- 
tained permission from the king of Pegu to 
build vessels in his territory, constructed ships 
armed with from 30 to 50 guns, and committed 
great depredations on the coasts of Malabar and 
the Persian gulf, and on vessels in the Indian 
ocean. During the latter part of the 18th cen- 
tury they gave up their piratical habits and 
engaged largely in commerce. (See OMAN.) 

MUSCAT or Muscatel Wine. See FEANCE, WINES 
OF, vol. vii., p. 411, and GERMANY, WINES OF, 
vol. vii., p. 775. 

MCSCATINE, a S. E. county of Iowa, bordering 
on Illinois, from which it is separated by the 
Mississippi, and intersected by Red Cedar riv- 
er ; area, 440 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 21,688. It 
has a diversified surface and fertile soil, and 
contains extensive beds of coal and quarries of 
freestone and limestone. It is traversed by 



the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific railroad. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 333,147 
bushels of wheat, 36,726 of rye, 1,208,640 of 
Indian corn, 320,256 of oats, 96,049 of barley, 
147,005 of potatoes, 28,090 Ibs. of wool, 380,- 
382 of butter, and 29,841 tons of hay. There 
were 9,238 horses, 7,101 milch cows, 12,656 
other cattle, 7,173 sheep, and 24,504 swine ; 5 
manufactories of boots and shoes, 13 of car- 
riages and wagons, 9 of clothing, 4 of machi- 
nery, 11 of saddlery and harness, 10 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 6 breweries, 4 
flour mills, 2 planing mills, and 3 saw mills. 
Capital, Muscatine. 

MUSCATINE, a city and the capital of Musca- 
tine co., Iowa, on the W. bank of the. Missis- 
sippi, at the apex of the great bend, and on the 
Muscatine division of the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids, and Minnesota railroad, and the south- 
western branch of the Chicago, Rock Island, 
and Pacific line, 130 m. E. of Des Moines; 
pop. in 1850, 2,540; in 1860, 5,324; in 1870, 



MUSCLE 



6T 



6,718; in 1873, 7,940. It is built on a rocky 
bluff, and is the shipping point of an exten- 
sive and fertile country. Its lumber business 
is large, employing 500 hands. Four large saw 
mills in 1872 produced 30,100,000 ft. of lum- 
ber, 20,950,000 shingles, and 8,700,000 laths. 
The entire quantity handled at this point du- 
ring the same year embraced 63,668,000 ft. of 
lumber, 27,891,000 shingles, and 15,049,000 
laths. There are two large pork-packing es- 
tablishments, three extensive flour mills, gas 
works, and three banking houses. The city 



has good public schools, a Catholic school, two 
daily, a semi-weekly, and three weekly news- 
papers, a monthly periodical, and 14 churches. 
Muscatine' was first settled in 1836, and was 
incorporated as a city in 1853. 

MUSCLE (Lat. musculus), the fibrous contrac- 
tile tissue forming the flesh of man and ani- 
mals, by which locomotion and the various 
functions of life requiring voluntary or invol- 
untary movements are performed. Whether 
elongated or enclosing a cavity, this tissue is 
arranged in the form of fibres, usually in bun- 




FIG. 1. Muscles and Tendons of the Arm and Hand. 



dies connected by areolar tissue, surrounded 
by a vascular network, and supplied with ner- 
vous filaments. Muscles are so arranged as to 
produce great velocity, extent of motion, and 
strength, without injuring the beauty of pro- 
portions, by the obliquity of their fibres to the 
tendons and of the last to the bones on which 
they act, and by the proximity of their points 
of insertion to the axis of motion of the joints. 
Muscles are attached to bone by means of ten- 
dons, rounded or flattened fibrous cords, white 
and shining, inelastic, and very resisting ; apo- 
neuroses or fasciae are firm, shining fibrous 
membranes, enveloping the muscles, giving at- 
tachments to their fibres, and often fixed to 
bones like the tendons. Muscles occupy the 
whole distance between the skin and bones, 
and take an elongated, broad, or thin form, 
according to the necessities of the several parts 
of the body ; their strength is in proportion to 
their length and thickness, and may be rapid- 
ly exhausted by continuous exertion. Muscles 
are called voluntary or involuntary, according 
as they are or are not under the control of the 
will ; the division is not strictly accurate, as 
all of the former at times contract indepen- 
dently of the will, and some of the latter are 
to a certain extent under the influence of vo- 
lition. The former are generally solid, as in 
the muscles of the trunk and limbs, and the 
latter hollow, as in the heart or the muscular 
layers surrounding cavities and canals. The 
voluntary and involuntary muscles are also dis- 
tinguished by their structure ; the former con- 
sisting of striped, the latter of unstriped fibres. 
The fibres of voluntary muscles are generally 
cylindrical, though more or less prismatic or 
many-sided, being somewhat flattened against 
each other. They vary in length in different 
muscles, and in the human subject average 
^5- of an inch in diameter. Their color in 
man and the higher animals is ruddy, and they 
are elegantly marked by transverse or circu- 
lar striations, giving them a very characteris- 



tic appearance, which has led to their being 
distinguished by the name of striped fibres. 
They consist of a cylindrical or prismatic mass 
of contractile substance marked with the above 




FIG. 2. Striped Muscular Fibre, crushed at one end and 
breaking up into fibrillae. 

mentioned striations throughout its entire 
thickness, and containing also minute elonga- 
ted or oval bodies termed nuclei. Each fibre is 
invested by a delicate, transparent, structure- 
less and colorless membrane, the sarcolemma, 
which supports the contractile material and 
limits its lateral expansion. The fibres are 




FIG. 3. Striped Muscular Fibre, highly magnified, torn 
across, and showing the Sarcolemma. 

arranged side by side, parallel with each oth- 
er, and united in small groups or bundles of 
100 to 200 each. These bundles are again 
united into larger secondary bundles, connect- 
ed with each other by areolar tissue, and so 
on ; the entire muscle being invested with an 
external fibrous expansion of condensed are- 
olar tissue, and abundantly supplied with blood 
vessels and nerves. The unstriped or involun- 
tary muscular fibres are soft, pale, flattened 



68 



MUSCLE 



bands, apparently homogeneous or finely gran- 
ular, about yoVfr of an incn in di ameter ? with 
an elongated nucleus in the central part of 
each one. The fibres are arranged in paral- 




FIG. 4. Transverse Section of a Voluntary Muscle, showing 
the bundles of Muscular Fibres and intervening layers 
of Areolar Tissue, and the external Fibrous Expansion. 

lei layers, their pointed extremities interlock- 
ing with each other, so as to form membra- 
nous expansions surrounding the cavities of 
the internal organs. Thus the oesophagus, the 
stomach, the intes- 
tines, the bladder and 
urinary passages, the 
uterus and Fallopian 
tubes, the excretory 
ducts of the glandular 
organs, and the ar- 
teries and veins, all 
have their muscular 
coat, composed of un- 
striped fibres, and lia- 
ble to contraction and 
relaxation indepen- 
dently of the will. An 
exception to the rule 
that involuntary mus- 
cular organs are com- 
posed of unstriped 
fibres is found in the 
heart and in the great 
veins immediately con- 
tiguous to it. Here the 
muscular fibres belong 
to the striped variety, 
but they are smaller 
than those of volunta- 
ry muscles, their stri- 
ations are less distinct, and they also present 
the peculiarity of branching and inosculating 
with each other, which is not seen in other 
striated muscular fibres. In all probability the 
difference in structure between the two kinds 
of fibres, strictly speaking, has reference to 
their mode of contraction, rather than to its 
voluntary or involuntary character. The con- 
traction of the striped muscular fibres is prompt, 
vigorous, and rapidly followed by relaxation, as 
in the voluntary muscles and the heart ; that of 
the unstriped fibres is generally sluggish, grad- 
ual, and continued, as in the peristaltic action 




FIG. 5. Unstriped Muscular 
Fibres, highly magnified, 
from the walls of the Kenal 
Vein. 



of the alimentary canal. Striped fibres have 
been found in all vertebrates and in articulates ; 
as we descend the animal scale the movements 
become more and more automatic, until com- 
plex muscular action gives place to simple cili- 
ary vibration. The contractility of muscle de- 
pends on an inherent property, independent of, 
though capable of modification by, nervous in- 
fluence. The stimuli which induce contraction 
are volition, emotion, impressions conveyed to 
the nervous centres and involuntarily reflected 
thence, and various physical and chemical agents 
applied to any portion of the course of a motor 
nerve or to the muscular fibres. A muscle in 
action becomes shorter and thicker, changing its 
relative proportions without any actual change 
in bulk. After death muscles become fixed and 
rigid, a condition constituting the rigor mor- 
tis. In the active contractions which charac- 
terize muscles on the application of stimulus, 
force is exerted against some opposing power ; 
this is attended with exhaustion or fatigue, and 
requires intervals of rest. Sustained contrac- 
tion consists of an infinite number of partial 
momentary contractions acting in succession. 
There are altogether in the human body 527 
distinct muscles, of which 261 are in pairs, and 
5 single on the median line ; of these there are 
in the head and face 83, the orbicularis oris 
being single; in the neck 49, the arytenoid 
of the larynx being single ; in the thorax 78, 
the triangularis sterni and the diaphragm being 
single ; in the abdomen 33, the sphincter ani 
being single ; in the back 78 ; in the upper 
extremities 98, and in the lower 108. Yet, 
with all this complex apparatus, everything is 
in perfect order and harmony. Matteucci and 
Du Bois-Reymond have investigated the elec- 
tric currents of muscles. The combination of 
the muscular movements is in most cases so 
far independent of the will, that we are apt to 
lose sight of their perfection ; but let paralysis 
affect one side of the body or contraction draw 
up a muscle, and the fact becomes at once evi- 
dent, as may be seen every day in palsy of one 
side of the face, or strabismus with the turn- 
ing in or out of the eye. The simple process 
of walking, performed it may be unconsciously, 
with its nice adjustments executed by the au- 
tomatic guidance of the senses rather than by 
any act of the will, is what the most ingenious 
mechanician can never effect in an automaton, 
from the impossibility of harmonizing the many 
acts which constitute walking. The energy 
and rapidity of muscular contraction is more 
remarkable in the lower animals than in man. 
The muscular power of insects is seen in the 
rapid flight of the dragon fly, the leap of the 
flea and the cricket, the fixed attitudes of some 
larvae, and the strength of beetles. It is very 
great in the flight of birds, though their whole 
structure is organized for aerial motion ; the 
power of the wings is three times as great as 
that of the legs in ordinary birds, and their 
absolute power in proportion to the weight of 
the body is as 10,000 to 1 ; in small birds the 



MUSCLE 



MUSES 



69 



movements of the wings are so rapid that they 
cannot be counted by the eye ; the muscular 
force of the hawk can propel it 150 miles an 
hour, and the albatross can fly across the ocean 
without fatigue. Dragons, flying fish, pha- 
langers, and squirrels (pteromys), though well 
organized in some respects for aerial progres- 
sion, cannot fly for want of sufficient muscular 
power ; but the extinct pterodactyl shows evi- 
dence of having possessed, like the existing bats, 
extensive powers of flight. The amount of 
muscular force necessary for flight is so great, 
that if man could concentrate all the strength 
employed in a day's labor, he could not support 
himself in the air for more than five minutes ; 
the accomplishment of flight in man, even with 
the assistance of any contrivance thus far sug- 
gested, may be safely considered an impossi- 
bility. The energy of the muscular system of 
fishes, considering the rapidity with which they 
move in their dense medium, must be very 
great. Other familiar examples of muscular 
power are seen in the constrictions of the boas ; 
the leap of the frog, kangaroo, jerboa, and 
hare; the speed of the antelope; the spring 
of the lion ; and the strength of the ox and 
elephant. The muscular power of man is more 
advantageously displayed by the extent and 
variety of motion than by actual force; but 
by scientific training great strength may be 
obtained from naturally feeble persons. The 
rapidity of muscular action is familiarly seen 
in the ventricular contractions of a child's 
heart, each of which occupies a little more 
than half a second ; in the movements of the 
vocal cords in rapid singing or speech; and 
most remarkably in the flight of insects, whose 
wings strike the air sometimes thousands of 
times in a minute, by a muscular mechanism 
and arrangement of elements mentioned under 
GNAT. Muscle may be hypertrophied from 
excess of nutrition arising from abundance 
of formative material, from increased supply 
of blood, but principally from preternatural 
formative capacity; the opposite conditions 
lead to atrophy of muscle. A remarkable 
change in muscle consists in its fatty degene- 
ration, to which the fibres of the heart are very 
subject ; the muscles of the limbs after paraly- 
sis are occasionally thus affected. Throughout 
the animal kingdom the development of the 
muscular system is in conformity with that of 
the nervous system. The vertebral system of 
muscles is most developed in fishes, the costal 
in serpents, the hyoid in fishes, the mastica- 
tory in vertebrates, the tegumentary in those 
mammals armed with spines (like the hedge- 
hog and porcupine), and in the unpaired or 
vertical fins of fishes ; those of the voice are 
most developed in birds, mammals, and man ; 
those of the limbs inversely as those of the 
spine, and feeblest in fishes; the diaphragm 
exists in mammals only. The muscles of the 
hand reach their highest perfection in man, 
while those of the tongue, eyes, ears, and nose 
show that many groups of muscles which are 



complete in the lower mammals, exist in man 
in a comparatively rudimentary condition. 
Muscles which move a limb in opposite direc- 
tions are called antagonist muscles. The flexor 
muscles of the arm, for instance, bend the limb 
at the elbow joint, and the extensor muscles 
draw it back, or extend the arm in a direct 
line ; thus these muscles antagonize each other. 
There is a sort of passive action in the differ- 
ent muscles of the body, constituting what is 
termed the natural tone of the system; and 
when this is los't or partially enfeebled in one 
set of muscles, their natural antagonists have 
an undue action on the parts, and cause dis- 
figurement by destruction of the natural bal- 
ance. The form and position of the muscles 
of the face, for instance, keep up a balance of 
feature in the natural expression of immobility 
or stillness ; those of one side antagonize those 
of the other. In paralysis of one side of the 
face, the muscles of that side are deprived of 
their natural tone and power of action, while 
those of the other side retain their tone and 
power as before ; the consequence of which is, 
that the latter draw the mouth to their side of 
the face, while the others are unable to coun- 
terbalance this action from want of power to 
act in the opposite direction. Certain mus- 
cles are antagonized by the natural elasticity 
of the parts to which they are attached ; the 
elasticity of the ribs and that of the elastic 
ligaments of the spinal column may be consid- 
ered as antagonistic to the natural tone and 
power of the muscles attached to them, or act- 
ing in a contrary direction . 

MUSCLE SHOALS. See TENNESSEE EIVEE. 

MISCOGEE, a W. county of Georgia, sepa- 
rated from Alabama by the Chattahoochee 
river, and bounded E. and S. E. by Upatoi 
creek ; area, about 200 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
16,663, of whom 9,220 were colored. A 
branch of the Southwestern railroad has its 
terminus at the county seat. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 2,140 bushels of wheat, 
103,117 of Indian corn, 10,205 of oats, 29,560 
of sweet potatoes, 53,147 Ibs. of butter, and 
5,150 bales of cotton. There were 456 horses, 
841 mules and asses, 1,257 milch cows, 2,184 
other cattle, and 3,784 swine ; 1 manufactory of 
agricultural implements, 3 of brick, 3 of cotton 
and 3 of woollen goods, 2 of cotton and woollen 
machinery, 1 of engines and boilers, 4 foun- 
deries, and 5 flour mills. Capital, Columbus. 

MUSCOGEES. See CEEEKS. 

MUSCOVY. See RUSSIA. 

MUSCOVY DUCK. See DUCK:, vol. vi., p. 289. 

MUSES (Gr. fiovaai), in classical mythology, 
the goddesses originally of song, and afterward 
of all kinds of poetry and of the arts and 
sciences. According to the earliest legends, 
they had their principal seats in Pieria on 
Mt. Olympus and in Bo3otia on Mt. Helicon. 
Homer styles them the Olympian, and Hesiod 
the Heliconian ; according to the latter, how- 
ever, they were born on Olympus, and dwelt 
at a short distance from the pinnacle on which 



70 



MUSEUM 



Jupiter was enthroned, whence they visited 
Helicon to bathe in Hippocrene, and celebrate 
their choral dances around the altar on the top 
of the mountain. K. O. Mtiller infers, from the 
fact that the worship of the muses originally 
flourished on the same mountain which was 
represented as the common abode of the gods, 
that it was the poets of that region, the ancient 
Pierian minstrels, whose imagination created 
and arranged the Olympian council. Elsewhere 
they were chiefly honored as the nymphs of 
fountains. They were commonly esteemed the 
daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, but were 
also called daughters of Coelus and Terra 
(Uranus and Ge), of Pierus and a Pimpleian 
nymph, of Jupiter and either Plusia, Moneta, 
or Minerva, of Apollo and Plusia, and of ^Ether 
and Terra. Their number was variously given 
at first as either three, four, or seven, but was 
at length established and recognized as nine 
throughout Greece. Hesiod first states the 
names of all the nine, by which they are usu- 
ally designated: Olio, the muse of history; 
Euterpe, of lyric poetry ; Thalia, of comedy ; 
Melpomene, of tragedy ; Terpsichore, of choral 
dance and song ; Erato, of erotic poetry ; Po- 
lyhymnia, of the sublime hymn; Urania, of 
astronomy ; and Calliope, of epic poetry. In 
Homer as in later authors they sing festive 
songs at the banquets of the gods, and are in- 
voked by mortal poets to bring before the 
mind the events which they have to relate, and 
to confer the gift of poetry. They punished 
Thamyris, who had presumed to excel them, 
with blindness ; stripped the sirens, who had 
ventured on a contest with them, of their 
wings ; and metamorphosed the nine daughters 
of Pierus, who sought to rival them, into birds. 
Though usually regarded as virgin divinities, 
the greatest mythical bards, such as Linus 
and Orpheus, were called their sons. Apollo, 
as the god of the lyre, led their choir, and 
they themselves had the gift of prophecy. 
They were worshipped with libations of water 
or milk and honey, received various designa- 
tions from the poets according to the places that 
were sacred to them, and were represented 
each with particular attributes in works of art. 
MUSEUM (Gr. povaelov, a temple of the muses), 
a repository of objects relating to history, 
science, or the arts. In the modern sense of 
the term the temples of Apollo at Delphi and 
Juno at Samos, and the acropolis at Athens, 
as receptacles of works of art, were muse- 
ums. In history the name was first applied 
to the academy founded by Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus at Alexandria. Cosmo the Elder be- 
gan the first of the now celebrated galleries 
of Florence, and to him is due the conception 
of the museum in its modern signification. 
Pope Julius II. founded the museum of the 
Vatican. During the 16th and 17th centuries 
the museum mania led to the stripping of the 

Erovinces of works of art, which were col- 
>cted in the capitals ; and thus were begun the 
great museums and galleries in nearly all the 



MUSHROOM 

leading cities on the continent. Besides paint- 
ino-s and statuary, many of the museums com- 
prise collections of bronzes, medals, gems, 
cameos, and intaglios. The Ashmolean museum 
in Oxford, founded about 1680, is the oldest in 
England ; and the British museum in London, 
established in 1753, is the most important in 
the world. In some of the European cities 
there are special repositories, like the Thor- 
waldsen museum in Copenhagen and that in 
Paris established by Plon in the Louvre in 
1875. The celebrated collections are described 
in this Cyclopaedia under the names of the cities 
in which they are situated ; and the more promi- 
nent, such as the British museum, the Louvre, 
and the Vatican, are particularly described 
under their own titles. There are also special 
museums of palseontological, anatomical, zo- 
ological, geological, and mineralogical collec- 
tions, which are mentioned in connection with 
the places or institutions in which they are 
situated, or with which they are connected. 

MTSHROOM (Fr. mousseron, from mousse, moss, 
because mushrooms are often found grow- 
ing in it), the name of several edible fungi, 
chiefly of the genus agaricus. The genus is 
large, and contains the most highly organized 
forms found among fungi ; the number of spe- 
cies known to be edible is few; untested ag- 
arics, and those known to be poisonous, to- 
gether with other fungi of similar appear- 
ance, are popularly called toadstools. The ag- 
arics have an abundant mycelium, known to 
gardeners as the spawn, consisting of white, 
cottony filaments, which spread in every direc- 
tion through the soil; this, which is the ve- 
getative portion of the plant, grows quite 
out of sight. That which is .popularly recog- 
nized as the mushroom corresponds to the in- 
florescence in other plants ; this appears upon 
the mycelium as a small knob, and soon pushes 
its way to the surface, where it is at first 
nearly spherical, but it rapidly develops and 
shows its various parts. There is a stem, bear- 
ing at its top an expanded, umbrella-shaped 
portion, the pileus or cap. In the button state, 
the covering or skin of the cap (volva) is at- 
tached to the stem, but as the cap expands this 
breaks away, leaving a fragment upon the 
stem, known as the ring or annulus. Upon 
the under side of the cap are numerous thin 
vertical plates, radiating from the stem, but 
not attached to it ; these are the hymenium, 
popularly called the gills ; a thin transverse 
section of one of these plates, when highly 
magnified, shows its surface to be studded 
with large cells terminating in four points, 
each of which bears a spore. The different 
species of agaricus present great variety in the 
form and size of the cap, and the color and 
character of its surface ; the gills and the 
spores vary in color, which serves to divide 
the genus into groups according as they are 
white, pink, rust color, purplish brown, or 
black. Mushrooms grow wild in Europe and 
America, and a majority of the edible spe- 



MUSHKOOM 



cies are common to both. In the articles 
FUNGI and LYOOPEEDON reference is made 
to the recent attempts of English natural- 
ists to increase the list of edible fungi, and 
to popularize them as articles of food. In 
this place are enumerated the principal species 
which have received the name of mushroom, 
and are common to both England and the 
United States. Locality appears to have much 
to do with the quality of mushrooms. Some 
of the agarics which are highly esteemed in 
England have here proved unpalatable, and the 
common mushroom, A. campestris, so gener- 
ally eaten elsewhere, is not only rejected in 
the markets of Italy, but is regarded with 
dread. This varies considerably, but in all 
cases is to be distinguished by its white, firm, 
solid stem, its fleshy cap, and its pink gills ; 
when the cap begins to expand the gills are 
pale, but they soon become pink, and on this 
account it is in some parts of this country 




Common Mushroom (Agaricus campestris). 

known as the pink-gill ; when older the gills 
become chocolate - colored and then tawny 
black, in which state they are regarded as unfit 
for food. It has a pleasant and characteristic 
odor, by which those familiar with it can dis- 
tinguish the plant. This species is found in 
pastures, and in some years in great abun- 
dance ; its proper season is September and 
October, when our markets are abundantly sup- 
plied from the wild growth; at other times 
cultivated mushrooms are to be had, but at 
very high prices. This is the only species cul- 
tivated. Mushrooms resemble flesh in flavor 
more nearly than do any other vegetables, and 
it is asserted by Badham that they contain 
similar proximate principles. They are used 
to form a dish by themselves, either stewed, 
broiled, or baked, and are largely employed to 
flavor other dishes, entering into a great variety 
of stews, fricassees, and sauces ; many are con- 
sumed in the preparation of catsup, which is 
the juice of the mushrooms extracted by sprin- 



kling them with salt and flavored with spices. 
The general testimony is that mushrooms are 
highly nutritious, but difficult of digestion, 
and unsuited to persons with delicate stom- 




Horse Mushroom (Agaricus arvensis). 

achs. The horse mushroom (A. arvensis), 
called snowball in the southern states, has a 
hollow stem, with a broad, pendulous ring ; a 
slightly conical cap ; the gills brownish white, 
and never of the pure pink color of the pre- 
ceding; while the common mushroom rarely 
excels 3 or 4 in. across, this is sometimes more 
than a foot; it turns brownish yellow when 
broken. This species is quite common, and in 
English markets is much more abundant than 
the other. The parasol agaric (A. procerus) 
has a stem 6 or 8 in. high, hollow, with a 
loose pith, and tapering upward from a pear- 
like bulb at the base ; ring loose on the stem ; 




Parasol Mushroom (Agaricus procerus). 

the cap when expanded is 3 to 7 in. across, 
with a blunt point in the centre, and with a 
brown and more or less torn cuticle; gills 
white. According to the late Mr. Curtis, this 



MUSHROOM 



when fresh has the flavor of a hazel nut, and 
he calls it the nut mushroom; he consid- 
ers that this flavor, together with the mova- 
ble ring upon the stem and the brown color, 
will allow of its ready identification. In Eng- 
land this ranks as one of the finest flavored, 
and those who have tried it here coincide in 
the opinion. A. prunulus, A. rube&cens, and 
A. nebularius are species common to both 
England and the United States. The favorite 
mushroom of Italy, A. Ccesareus, regarded as 
the most delicious of all fungi, was found 
abundantly in North Carolina by Mr. Curtis, 
who called it the imperial mushroom. The 
French call all mushrooms champignons, but 
in England the name is restricted to the fairy- 
ring champignon, which is by some called 
agaricus oreades, and by other authors it is 
placed in the genus marasmius. The fairy 
rings which are so common in pastures and 
lawns in England are circles of bright green 
in the grass of a few feet to several yards in 
diameter; these are produced by the myce- 
lium of fungi which, having exhausted the soil 
within the ring, is constantly spreading and 
enlarging the circle. The champignon is the 
most important of these fungi ; it is only 1 or 
2 in. in diameter, with a very tough stem ; the 
cap is dull fawn color when moist, and when 
dry creamy white, with the gills of the same 
color, broad and far apart. A very acrid 
champignon, A. urens, has a similar appear- 
ance, but the gills are narrow and much 
crowded. The champignon is one of the most 




Fairy King Champignon (Marasmius oreades). 

highly flavored fungi, and may be kept in the 

dry state for years without losing its aroma. 

The chantarelle (cantharellus cibarius), one of 
the esteemed rarities in England, was found in 
great abundance in North Carolina, but was 
not relished by Mr. Curtis or his friends. Mr. 
Curtis in a letter to the Eev. Mr. Berkeley sta- 
ted that he had eaten 40 species of edible fungi 
collected within two miles of his residence, and 
that he had detected 111 kinds in North Car- 
olina alone. The cultivation of mushrooms, 
which is so largely practised abroad, is in this 
country mainly confined to private gardens; 
an attempt was made by the late Prof. Blot to 
cultivate them on a commercial scale, but his 



structures, being of wood and underground, 
decayed and fell to ruin before the success of 




Chantarelle (Cantharellus cibarius). 

the project was established. Occasionally a 
florist may make a bed for mushrooms under 
the stage of his greenhouse, and from these 
and other sources there is a scanty supply of 
fresh mushrooms; but except during the au- 
tumn months restaurants and hotels depend 
upon those imported from France in sealed 
tins. The mushroom appears to be depen- 
dent upon the horse, it being supposed that the 
spores are taken into the animal with the grass 
it eats, and germinate in the droppings; the 
manure of horses and cattle is the medium in 
which the mycelium of the mushroom flour- 
ishes most vigorously ; hence in cultivation an 
abundant supply of this is required, and also 
a stock of mycelium or spawn. The earth of 
riding schools, or that from the track of a 
horse mill, in which the droppings of the horses 
are thoroughly beaten into the soil, is found to 
afford an abundant supply of spawn; when 
once obtained it can be multiplied to any ex- 
tent, and, as it retains its vitality when dry, 
can be transported ; that sold in this country 
comes from Europe. Horse and cow droppings 
and loam are mixed together and formed into 
blocks like large bricks ; when these are partly 
dry, a hole is made in each and a small piece 
of spawn inserted ; the bricks are then placed 
upon a hotbed and kept at a temperature of 
60 F. until the whole mass of each is per- 
meated by the threads of the mycelium ; fur- 
ther development is then checked by com- 
pletely drying the bricks, and afterward they 
are stacked away in a dry place for use or for 
sale. Mushrooms are grown in houses built 
for the purpose, in out buildings, cellars, caves, 
or wherever a uniform temperature of between 
50 and 60 can be maintained. Cultivators 
vary so much as to details that general princi- 
ples only can be stated. Some use pure horse 
droppings, others mix these with those of cat- 
tle ; the beds are made of the fermenting ma- 
nure built up solidly and large enough to main- 
tain a heat of about 70. The bed being of 



MUSHROOM 



MUSIC 



the proper temperature, bits of a brick of 
spawn are inserted in it at intervals, and when 




Mushrooms grown in a Cask. 

the mycelium is growing rapidly, or the spawn 
"runs," about two inches of soil are placed 
upon the bed, and it is then covered with 
straw; water is applied if necessary, and it 
should be warmed to the temperature of the 
bed. Mushrooms appear in six or eight weeks, 
and are collected when in the button state or 
larger as required ; it injures the bed to cut 
the mushrooms, hence they are twisted off. 
Instances are given of successful cultivation in 
tubs made by sawing a cask in two, in boxes 
which are stacked upon each other, upon shelves 




Mushroom Cave. 



in a stable, and in other unusual places. In 
England beds are profitably made in the open 
air, but with us the extremes of temperature 
are too great for this kind of culture. Mush- 
room culture is conducted upon the largest 
scale in the vicinity of Paris, where there are 
extensive caves formed by the removal of 
building stone ; these caves are from 20 to 60 
ft. deep and of great extent ; one of them con- 
tains 16 m. of mushroom beds, and in another 
the beds measured one year over 21 m. in 
length. As the plant does not require light, 
and as these caves have the requisite unifor- 
mity of temperature, they are utilized by the 
mushroom cultivators, who, notwithstanding 



the labor and difficulty of bringing the immense 
quantity of manure to the spot, find it a prof- 
itable business. One of the large quarry plan- 
tations when in full bearing sent 3,000 Ibs. of 
mushrooms to the Paris market daily. Not- 
withstanding the efforts that have been made 
abroad to add various neglected fungi to the 
food supply, the fact that there are many which 
are highly poisonous has confined the use of 
all but the commoner species to a very few 
enthusiastic amateurs. Unfortunately there is 
no general rule for distinguishing the whole- 
some from the harmful ; the colors produced 
by contact with a silver spoon or by the action 
of salt have been proposed, but are fallacious, 
and the only guide to be relied upon is an eye 
educated to observe the peculiarities of struc- 
ture, color, &c., which characterize the various 
species. As a general rule, the wholesome 
fungi have an agreeable smell and taste, and 
all those with a repulsive odor and an acrid 
taste in the fresh state should be rejected. 
Most of the general treatises upon gardening 
have a chapter on mushrooms. Descriptions 
of species will be found in Badham's "Escu- 
lent Funguses of England " (London), Cooke's 
"Handbook of British Fungi" (2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1871), and the numbers of the " Garden- 
ers' Chronicle " (weekly, London) for several 
years past. For cultivation, see Robinson's 
" Mushroom Culture " (London, 1870). 

MUSIC (Gr. fiovaa, a muse), an agreeable com- 
bination and arrangement of sounds, and the 
art of so combining and arranging sounds. It 
is indispensable to have some knowledge of 
the nature of sounds before we begin the con- 
sideration of the manner in which they are 
arranged and compounded in music. We here 
give only that information which is essential 
to the understanding of the subject of this arti- 
cle, referring the reader to the article SOUND 
for a discussion of the nature of sonorous vi- 
brations and of their properties. The more 
rapidly the sonorous pulses of the ear follow 
each other, the higher is the pitch of the sound 
perceived. Thus, the gravest sound which is 
really musical is caused by 40 vibrations ,a sec- 
ond, while the auditive sensation the highest 
in pitch is produced by about 40,000 a second. 
But the sounds employed in music have not 
so extended a range ; they are practically em- 
braced by about seven octaves, extending from 
40 vibrations to about 5,000 a second. The 
gravest sound of an orchestral instrument is 
the E of the contra-bass, of 40 vibrations a 
second. Modern pianos and organs indeed give 
generally the C (of 33 vibrations) below the E 
of the contra-bass; and some recent grand 
pianos extend as low as the A (of 27 vibra- 
tions) in the next lower octave. In the largest 
organs there is also sometimes a pipe which 
gives a sound that descends into the yet lower 
octave, reaching the C of 16 vibrations. But 
none of these grave sounds below the E of the 
contra-bass can be termed musical; for the 
separate pulses which compose them do not 



MUSIC 



blend into smooth continuous sensations, but 
produce beats, corresponding in number to the 
rate of vibration indicated above. These grave 
sounds cannot be used alone, but are always 
sounded in unison with pipes or instruments 
giving their higher octaves and harmonics. 
Thus the latter are compounded with the harsh 
fundamental of the grave note, and at the same 
time blend with any harmonics which may 
accompany the fundamental of these grave 
sounds. In the higher regions of musical 
sounds, pianos give the notes A and even 0, 
of 3,520 and 4,224 vibrations. The most acute 
sound of orchestral music is the D (of 4,752 
vibrations) of the piccolo flute. There are 
three distinctions to be made among- sounds : 
their pitch, of which we have just spoken; 
their intensities, concerning which it is not 
necessary to enlarge ; and their timbre, or that 
character by which we distinguish between 
sounds having the same pitch and intensity. 
All simple sounds, which we define as those 
having only one pitch, have the same timbre. 
Such aro the sounds given by flue organ pipes, 
or by tuning forks when mounted on resonant 
boxes. But the sounds employed in music are 
always composite, being formed of several sim- 
ple sounds whose numbers of vibrations are to 
each other generally as 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. ^ Sim- 
ple sounds are unfit for musical expression by 
reason of their want of brilliancy ; for this rea- 
son the notes of closed flue pipes are rarely 
sounded alone, but to invest their tones with 
feeling and life they are combined with other 
stops, giving the harmonics or furniture of 
their simple sounds. The sounds of the flute 
approach in character those given by closed 
organ pipes; but when associated with other 
instruments which bring out the sequence of 
the harmony, the flute, by reason of the per- 
fect softness of its sounds and the facility with 
which it renders rapid movements, is charm- 
ing, and cannot be replaced by any other in- 
strument. It held a far more important place 
in ancient than in modern music; but even 
among the ancients the abler masters preferred 
the more thrilling sounds of stringed instru- 
ments. The sounds of all other instruments, 
as well as the notes of the human voice, are 
composite, formed by the blending of several 
simple sounds, having different positions in 
the musical scale. (See HARMONY.) Helm- 
holtz has proved that the distinctive timbre of 
any given sound is due to the number and rel- 
ative intensities of its elementary sounds, or 
harmonics. Stopped wooden flue pipes of large 
section give nearly simple sounds when blown 
with a feeble pressure. An increase of pres- 
sure in the blast develops the third harmonic, 
and an excessive pressure may injure the tim- 
bre of the sound by giving to it too great an 
intensity compared with that of the funda- 
mental ; it may even cause the latter to dis- 
appear, and then the whole sound will have 
risen in pitch by an octave and a fifth. Stop- 
ped organ pipes having small area of section 



compared with their lengths give the fifth 
harmonic as well as the first and third. In 
other words, closed pipes give the uneven har- 
monics ; open and narrow pipes give the com- 
plete series of harmonics up to a certain num- 
ber. Thus, if we close all the holes in a flute 
and blow gently, and then with increasing in- 
tensity, the instrument will successively give 
the first, second, third, and fourth harmonics. 
In the case of the narrow open pipes in the 
organ (viola, principal, violoncello, contra-bass, 
viola-di-gamba), powerful pressure of wind 
gives the fundamental sounds of these pipes 
accompanied by the clear sounds of all the 
harmonics, including the sixth. It is quite 
otherwise in the case of the large open pipes. 
From the considerable mass of air which they 
contain, and from the fact that they do not 
readily jump in their pitch from the funda- 
mental to one of the harmonics on increasing 
the wind pressure, these large pipes form the 
basis of the mass of sounds of the organ, and 
hence they have been called the principal re- 
gister. In these pipes the fundamental sound 
is intense, and is accompanied by a few har- 
monics of feeble intensities. In the flute or 
chimney pipes, the timbre receives a brilliant 
character from a small open pipe adapted to the 
top of these closed pipes. By combining the 
stops on the organ, one can produce a great vari- 
ety of timbre ; and in this regard the organ has 
the advantage over all other musical instru- 
ments. Vibrating plates, or reeds, are used in 
the reed pipes of the organ, in the melodeon, and 
in the clarinet, hautboy, and bassoon ; while in 
the horn, trumpet, trombone, and cornet the 
lips perform the office of the reed. The sounds 
of all reed instruments are peculiarly rich in 
harmonics; it is not difficult to distinguish 
those even as high as the twentieth. The fun- 
damental, or some powerful harmonic, is gen- 
erally reenforced in reed organ pipes by sur- 
mounting them with open or partly closed 
tubes of various sizes and forms ; and thus are 
obtained the various timbres of these instru- 
ments, such as the trumpet, vox liumana, &c. 
The clarinet gives only the odd series of har- 
monics, 1, 3, 5, 7, &c., while the hautboy and 
bassoon give the entire series, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. 
If the hautboy takes one note of an interval 
and the clarinet another, some concords will 
sound best when the former instrument, others 
when the latter takes the upper note. Among 
stringed instruments those of the violin kind 
occupy the highest place. The tones of these 
are highly complex, containing the clear sounds 
of the higher harmonics from the sixth to the 
tenth ; and as violins do not, like the piano, 
give fixed sounds evolved by a keyboard, they 
have great sonorous flexibility, giving the per- 
former the power of playing in any mode or 
scale, and of gliding from one note to another 
without perceptibly breaking the continuity oJ 
the sound ; and above all, he can obtain any 
note with varying intensity, and thus express 
his feelings by the most exquisite modulation. 



MUSIC 



75 



When the violin is well played, the fundamental 
or lowest harmonic comes out with force, and 
the harmonics up to the sixth are feebler than 
in the cases of the guitar, harp, or piano ; but 
the sixth and higher harmonics are stronger 
than in the case of the latter instruments. On 
examining with a vibration microscope the 
forms of the vibrations of the strings, Helm- 
holtz found that in instruments of the highest 
excellence these forms remained constant du- 
ring the whole duration of the tone. To this 
great regularity in the vibrations he attributed 
the purity of the sounds of old instruments ; 
and for the same reason the strings can be 
sounded with more force. In the piano the 
sounds are composite; the lower harmonics 
are relatively stronger than in the violin, but 
the harmonics above the sixth, which in the 
main form dissonant combinations with those 



below the sixth, are purposely prevented from 
appearing in the sounds of this instrument, by 
causing the hammers to strike the strings at 
points distant from the ends of the strings 
about one seventh of their length. The sounds 
of the harp and guitar differ from those of the 
piano ; for in these instruments we have catgut 
strings which are pulled aside from their po- 
sitions of equilibrium, and then allowed to vi- 
brate freely ; in such circumstances the higher 
harmonics, which appear in the first swings of 
the cords, soon disappear from their sounds. 
But no instrument emits sounds so smooth, so 
clear, and so touching as those of the human 
voice. The voices of men are classed as bass, 
barytone, and tenor ; those of women as con- 
tralto, mezzo-soprano, and soprano. The posi- 
tion on the musical scale and the range of these 
voices are given as follows in musical notation : 




Bass. Barytone. 



Tenor. Contralto. Mezzo-soprano. Soprano. 



We thus see that ordinary voices do not in- 
clude two full octaves. The range from the 
lower F of the bass to the higher G of the 
soprano is a little more than three octaves. 
These limits, however, have been extended in 
exceptional cases. Prsetorius, in his Syntagma 
Musicum, says that in the 16th century, in the 
time of Orlando di Lasso, there were at the court 
of Bavaria three basses, the brothers Fischer 
and one Gassner, who sang the F_i ; while 
the highest note ever recorded is that attained 
by Lucrezia Ajugari, called La Bastardella. 





| 


1 cv D 


| 


*-j. /L 




I _^ i fni 




1 ' v U 


1 


3 

FISCHER. 


BASTARDELLA. 



Mozart, who heard her at Parma in 1770, gives 
several passages which she sang for him. We 
copy the last of them, which ends in 8 : 








She trilled on the D 6 and performed other ex- 
traordinary feats. Mozart's father says that 
La Bastardella sang these passages with a little 
less force than the lower notes, but that her 
voice remained as pure as a flute. She could 
descend easily as far as G a . Kuhlau wrote for 
a songstress who astonished St. Petersburg in 
1823 the part of Adelaide in his opera of Le 
chateau des brigands. The dominant air in 
the third act reaches as high' as A 6 . " At one 
representation, just as she was about to give 
the perilous note, the leader of the orchestra 
looked at her fixedly, which so disconcerted 
her that she gave 6 ." The voice of Gaspard 
Forster embraces three octaves, from A_i to 
A 5 ; while that of the younger of the Sessi 
sisters extends through three octaves and a 
half, from 2 to F 6 . Catalani's voice had 
likewise a compass of three and a half oc- 



rs 1 


f f 


1 


1 


^ ^ i 


fc^~ 


1 


E3 


HI 

-* 


i 


3 





taves, as also had the voice of Farinelli, who 
went from A to Ds. 



FORSTER. 



FARINELLI. 



Very remarkable heights have likewise been 
reached by Nilsson and Oarlotta Patti. At the 
age of puberty the glottis of man suddenly 
enlarges, and the voice ordinarily descends in 
pitch an octave. This change does not take 
place in castrates ; their voices remain as in 
their childhood, and are distinguished by an in- 
describable flute-like quality. But cases are on 



MUSIC 



record where the voice has never acquired the 
pitch characteristic of manhood ; thus, M. Du- 
pont, who often sings at the celebration of high 
mass in Paris, has a remarkably fine soprano 
voice, yet he is 36 years old (1874), and is the 
father of several children. In music we con- 
sider the ratios of the numbers of vibrations of 
definite sounds more than the absolute num- 
ber of the vibrations, or pitch, of these sounds. 
From the most ancient times it has been known 
that the most harmonious concords are pro- 
duced by means of the simultaneous sounding 
of strings whose lengths bear to each other 
simple ratios. Pythagoras, who probably de- 
rived the fact from the Egyptians, says that 
when the ratio of the lengths of the strings 
was as 1 : 2, the grave note sounded in unison 
with its octave, while the ratio 2 : 3 gave the 
quint, and 3 : 4 gave the quart. We now 
know that the numbers of vibrations of similar 
strings are inversely as their lengths, so that 
the existence of the above consonant intervals 
depends alone on the ratio of the vibrations of 
the strings, and not on the absolute number 
of vibrations of the fundamental note of the 
chord. (See HARMONY.) When we double the 
number of vibrations corresponding to a note, 
we obtain the octave of this note, and the sen- 
sation caused by this higher octave seems to 
repeat that which corresponded to the lower. 
This interval of the octave, which includes all 
the notes of any musical system, is established 
by our physiological constitution, and was de- 
termined long before it was known that to 
obtain the octave of a note we had to double 
the number of its vibrations. Modern science 
has shown that the following musical conso- 
nances are only obtained when their constitu- 
ent notes have the following vibration ratios : 
octave, 1:2; fifth, 2:3; fourth, 3:4; major 
third, 4:5; minor third, 5:6; major sixth, 
3:5; minor sixth, 5 : 8. Within the compass 
of the octave are seven distinct steps of pitch, 
constituting the gamut. We here give the names 
of the notes of the natural gamut in English 
and German, and in Italian and French notation. 
Under these names we give the relative numbers 
of their vibrations in whole numbers and in 
fractions ; and in the succeeding line are the 
intervals between the notes of the gamut : 

j C DE F . G A B C 

(utordo re mi fa sol la si do 



Batio 
of vibra- 
tions. 



1 



24 
1 



Intervals be- ) 
tween succes- V -|. 



eive notes. 



27: 30 
t : * 

V 1 



32 : 36 : 40 
fV|:| 



45 : 48 



I 



The gamut does not suppose a knowledge of 
the absolute height of the notes ; it only fixes 
the ratios. The first note, or tonic, can have 
any pitch ; but once fixed upon, all the others 
must follow in the ratios of the above numbers ; 
thus, if makes 240 vibrations, then D in the 
same time must give 270, E 300, F 320, and 



so on. One gamut is continued by a second, 
formed by simply doubling the numbers of vi- 
brations constituting the first, and another by 
doubling the vibrations of the second, and so 
on. The ratios between the successive notes 
of the gamut and the first note, or tonic, are 
denominated their musical intervals. In the 
following table we give the names of the in- 
tervals preceded by the names of the notes. 
These intervals are designated by the position 
of the notes in the gamut : 



C: 

C:D 

C:E 

C:F 

C:G 

0: A 

0:B 

0: C 3 

C:D 3 

0:E 3 

0:F 2 

C: G a 



Unison 


1: 1 


Second 


8: 9 


Third 


4:5 


Fourth 


3:4 


Fifth 


2: 3 


Sixth 


3:5 


Seventh 


8: 15 


Octave 


1 : 2 


Ninth 


4: 9 


Tenth 


2 : 5 


Eleventh 


3: 8 


Twelfth 


1 : 3 


Double octave 


1 :4 


Seventeenth 


1 :5 


&c. 


&c. 



C:C 3 



C:E 8 



&c. 



The first six notes received their present Italian 
names from the Benedictine Guido Aretino 
in 1026. They are the first syllables of the 
words taken from the following stanza of the 
hymn to St. John the Baptist : 

UT queant laxis .RjEfconare fibris 
J/7ra gestorum FAmull tuorum, 
SOL\& polluti Z-4bii reatum, 
Sancte Johannes. 

The air to which this hymn is now sung at 
Rome on St. John Baptist's day is altogether 
different from that used by Guido, for in an- 
cient times the six syllables were sung to the 
notes which these syllables designated. The 
word si, derived from the fourth line (S and I), 
was first used by Francois Lemaire in 1684 to 
designate the seventh note of the gamut. The 
use of these words in solmization caused the 
Italians to change the ut into do. These names 
for the notes did not spread very rapidly, for 
during the time of Jean de Muris, in the 14th 
century, they still sang at Paris the syllables 
pro, to, no, do, tu, a; but finally Guide's 
names prevailed, except in Germany and Eng- 
land, where the notes are generally designated 
by the letters 0, D, E, F, G, A, B (or H). The 
origin of the latter nomenclature is as follows : 
Before the 6th century, certainly during .the 
time of Gregory the Great, they formed a se- 
ries of gamuts corresponding to the ordinary 
range of the notes of the human voice, and of 
the principal musical instruments then in use. 
The notes were designated by the first seven 



MUSIC 



77 



letters of the alphabet, in this manner : A, B, 
0, D, E, F, G; a, b, c, d, e, f , g; aa, bb, cc, 
dd, ee. Subsequently they added another note 
lower in pitch than those already embodied in 
their system, and this note was indicated by 
the Greek gamma (y), whence the name gamut. 
Others say that gamut comes from the fact 
that the letter y was placed on the lowest line 
of the staff. Guido replaced the letters by 
points which he wrote on parallel lines (the 
staff), each of which belonged to a certain let- 
ter, called the key or clef of that line. Thus 
when an F had been written at the beginning 
of a line, it indicated that all points on that 
line represented the note F. Afterward they 
enlarged these points, placed them between 
the lines, and increased the number of the 
lines and spaces as they were needed. In order 
to indicate a chord, or the simultaneous sound- 
ing of two or more notes, these notes were 
placed one below the other, and from this 
method of notation arose the name of counter- 
point, or the science of accords. Musical no- 
tation at first only indicated the heights of the 
various notes on the musical scale ; in 1338 De 
Muris invented squares to indicate their dura- 
tion. This system was improved by Ottavio 
Petrucci (1470), who in 1502 was the first to 
print music by means of movable types. The 
syllables do, re, mi, fa, sol, la did not origi- 
nally stand for fixed notes, but simply the 
degrees of any gamut whatever. They stood 
for the hexachord of Guido, and were written 
below the letter which designated the fixed 
gamuts, beginning with 0, with F, or with G : 



C D E F G A 

do re mi fa sol la . 
. do re mi fa sol la 
. do re mi fa . 



B c d e f 



Thus the same note could occupy different 
positions in the movable gamut, which was 
often incompatible with the preservation of 
the established intervals of the notes, do, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la. Hence arose different modes, 
more or less harmonious, and a great confusion 
in the ancient system of music. They then 
felt the necessity of changing slightly the pitch 
of certain fixed notes when, by the transposi- 
tion of the movable gamut, the intervals of the 
corresponding fixed notes did not give the in- 
tervals originally given to the series do, re, mi, 
fa, sol, la. Thus, when do was written below 
F, and fa below B, the interval of F to B 
should have been a fourth ; but as in reality it 
was greater, they diminished it by flattening B 
a semitone. The latter note was then called 
B molle, while it was B durum in the gamut 
which began in 0. They indicated these changes 
by writing a ft, round or square, and this is the 
origin of the signs (, and fy The origin of these 
signs is shown in the French language, in which 
they are respectively termed Umol and lecarre. 
By many modifications musical notation grew 
* into the present system. The signs now em- 



quaver r, 

/ 

and demi- 



ployed in music denote the length, pitch, and 
force of tones, or rhythm, melody, and expres- 
sion. The length of a note is represented by 
its shape. The notes are the breve sj or \fa\ , 
semibreve ffl , minim P, crotchet f , 
semiquaver f, demisemiquaver 

quaver 8, but the first and last^of these are 

little used. The breve is twice as long as the 
semibreve, the semibreve twice as long as the 
minim, and so on. A dot following a note 

lengthens it one half, thus, f "= f f. Rests, 

indicating silence, are: n ', equal in length to 
a , or a whole bar ; * = P; f =s ^ ; ?f =e P- 

*f = j^'^=p; * =$. Rhythm is fur- 
ther marked by the division of time into mea- 
sures of equal length indicated by vertical lines 
drawn across the staff. Measures again are 
divided into two, three, four, or six parts, 
and the first part of a measure is almost always 
accented. There are four measures in common 
use : double, triple, quadruple or common, with 
a secondary accent on the third part, and sex- 
tuple, with a secondary accent on the fourth 
part, each represented by figures placed at the 
beginning of the staff, as follows : 



or 






or 



Thus, taking the crotchet as a standard, in 
double time there must be two crotchets or 
their equivalent in every bar or measure, in 
triple three, in quadruple four, in sextuple six. 
There are exceptions to these rules, however, 
and even five crotchets to a bar have been used 
with eccentric effect. The pitch of a tone is 
determined by its position on the staff, which 
consists of five parallel lines and the four in- 
tervening spaces, and by the clef, which indi- 
cates the pitch of all the notes on one line or 
space of the staff, whence the rest are easily 
found. In the early Italian school every kind 
of voice had its own clef, but at present only 
two are in general use, the treble or G clef 



of the violin, 5E=E, and the bass or F clef, 




)^ . In some musical scores, however, par- 



ticularly Italian, the C clef is retained for the 
tenor and alto parts. For the former it is placed 



on the fourth line, 



tzz, which thus be- 



comes the position of 0, and for the latter on 



the third, _JMI The popular plan in wri- 



78 



MUSIC 



ting music in four parts is to put the alto on the 
same staff with the trehle, and the tenor with 
the hass or treble. With these staves, and the 
aid of short lines called leger lines above and 



below the staves, we are able to represent all 
the notes of the human voice, and even more. 
The following is the musical scale from the 
lowest bass note to the highest soprano : 



DE FGAB CD EF G A B C DE 




The pitch of any note may be raised half a tone 
by means of a sharp (ft) placed before it, or low- 
ered half a tone by a flat fo). When a sharp 
or flat is placed on a line or space at the begin- 
ning of a staff, it affects every note occurring 
on that, line or space and its octaves through- 
out the piece. A natural (J|) restores to its nor- 
mal pitch a note affected by a flat or sharp. 
A note or passage may be raised or lowered 
an octave by writing over or under it the sign 

8va. Besides the words forte, 

fortissimo, piano, pianissimo, and their abbre- 
viations,/.,/"., p., pp., indicating that a note 
or passage is to be given loud, very loud, soft, 
or very soft, there are the signs ==C (crescen- 
do), denoting a tone gradually increasing from 
soft to loud ; ^= (diminuendo), the reverse 
of crescendo ; > (sforzando), an explosive tone 



instantaneously diminished ; 

(staccato), a short articulate utterance as if each 

note were followed by a brief rest ; and *~f 

(legato), a binding together of successive tones. 
The system of musical notation adopted in- 
dicates to the performer the pitch, the dura- 
tion, and in an imperfect manner the intensity 
of musical sound, but; conveys no idea of the 
timbre or composition of these sounds. A 
musical note, indeed, gives merely the pitch of 
the fundamental or first harmonic of a musi- 
cal sound. This defect is unavoidable, and to 
the musician is generally of little consequence ; 
for in concerted music the parts are writ- 
ten for special instruments, whose qualities of 
sound are well known to the musical ear. 
It was only after ages of experience, and many 
changes, that the system of music reached its 



present condition. The principal problem was 
this: Whatever the note selected from the 
scale to begin the gamut, the other notes when 
combined with the former shall give the estab- 
lished musical intervals. In order to solve this 
problem, the fixed notes were altered, either 
by elevating them in pitch by a semitone, 
which operation is called sharpening a note, 
and is indicated by the sign |, or by lowering 
them a semitone in pitch, which is to flatten a 
note, and is indicated by the sign |j. For the 
value of this semitone the interval f f- has been 
adopted, which is smaller than the ratio -^f , 
the value of the interval E F. The notes 0, 
D, E, &c., are given by the white keys of the 
piano and organ, while the black keys give 
the sharps and flats. The gamuts are always 
designated by the name of their first note, or 
tonic. All the gamuts called major are model- 
led on the primitive gamut of 0, formed by 
the series of natural notes, 0, D, E, &c. The 
gamut of G is formed of the notes G, A, B, 0, 
D, E, F#, G; that of F, of the notes F, G, A, 
Bfr, 0, D, E, F. These gamuts constitute the 
major mode. Music, however, requires also a 
minor mode, formed of gamuts whose type is 
the gamut of A minor : A, B, 0, D, E, F, G, 
A. The principal difference between the two 
modes consists in the introduction of the minor 
third, A C (5 : 6), in the place of the major 
third, E (4 : 5). They are both character- 
ized by a perfect accord, formed with the third 
and fifth of the tonic, as follows : 



Perfect major accord, C 



minor 



E G. 

E, or C Ej, G. 



The major and minor scales give us a series of 
11 notes, which, severally combined with the 
tonic, form 10 distinct intervals. In musical 
notation they are as follows : 



Second. 



Minor Third. 



Major Third. 



Fourth. 



Fifth. 



^fee - 


^ id 


' 





5- 



Minor Sixth. 



Major Sixth. 



Minor Seventh. 



Major Seventh. 



Octave. 




m 



MUSIC 



79 



In the minor mode we are often obliged to 
elevate by a semitone the seventh and also the 
sixth note of the gamut. To obtain absolute 
purity, all gamuts on an instrument of fixed 
sounds, like the organ or piano, would require 
an extraordinary, indeed an almost impracti~ 
cable complication. Mr. A. J. Ellis has shown 
in a paper published in the " Proceedings of 
the Royal Society," vol. xiii., " On a perfect 
Musical Scale," that within the compass of an 
octave 72 notes would be required to give an 
absolutely perfect command of all the keys 
that are now used in music. It has there- 
fore been found necessary to make a compro- 
mise, in perfect harmonious effects, in the con- 
struction of instruments with fixed sounds; 
and thus has come about the universal adop- 
tion of the musical scale known as that of 
"equal temperament," so called because be- 
tween any two contiguous notes the same in- 
terval (called a semitone) exists throughout the 
whole scale. As the octave is divided into 12 
equal intervals, it follows that each of these 



intervals is equal to |/2, or to 1-05946. This 

scale being a compromise, the major triads are 
slightly dissonant. Thus, in the natural scale 
the ratio of the vibrations of G : E : G are as 
1 : 1*25 : 1*5 ; but on the scale of equal temper- 
ament these same notes bear to each other the 
vibration ratios of 1 : 1-2599 : 1-4983. Thus it 
follows that the interval of the major third is 
sharpened, while the fifth is flattened. If we 
take the middle octave of the piano for an ex- 
ample, we shall find that E and A are three 
vibrations a second too sharp, while the fourth 
and fifth are out of tune by one vibration a 
second. For convenience of comparison we 
here give the two scales. The natural scale is 
placed below the scale of equal temperament. 
The numbers of vibrations in a sound, correct 
to the nearest unit, are written under the notes. 
When the vibration number is a fraction more 
or less than the number given, the sign + or 
is respectively attached to the number. The 
notes belong to the middle octave of the piano. 



C Ctf D Dfl E F F| a Gtf A Aft B 

264 280- 296+ 314- 333- 352+ 373+ 395+ 419+ 444- 470+ 498 + 





264 



D E|, E F 

297 317- 330 352 



G Aj, A 

396 422+ 440 



Tb B 

469+ 495 



The ratio of the semitones of the tempered 
scale is approximately |f , and a tone on this 
scale barely differs from the major tone of -f. 
This invention has been variously attributed to 
Keidhart and Werckmeister, to Sebastian Bach, 
and to Lambert the geometrician. This musi- 
cal scale was first applied to the clavichord, 
and Emanuel Bach, son of Sebastian, said a 
well tuned clavichord was the most accurate 
of all instruments ; this remark is readily un- 
derstood when it is explained that, from the 
manner of production of the sounds on this 
instrument, the higher harmonics, even when 
evolved, are feeble and soon die out from the 
sounds, while the resultant tones appear only 
at the moment the chords are forcibly struck. 
But all organists know how harshly intervals 
are given on a stop of reed pipes, or on the 
furniture register, tuned to the equal-tempered 
scale. This harshness is due to the imperfect 
tuning causing the beating of harmonics and 
resultant tones. An excellent method of com- 
paring the relative effects of natural and of 
tempered tuning is to listen to a few voices 
singing a series of sustained chords of three or 
four parts without accompaniment, and then 
1! 3ten to exactly the same chords with the ac- 
)mpanimeht of a piano or melodeon. In the 
itter case the harshness of the accompaniment 
is forcibly brought out. One naturally sings 
irfect intervals, and a violinist with a refined 
IT will involuntarily play on the natural scale ; 
but if the voice is educated by the accompani- 
lent of the piano instead of the violin, and if 
violinist is always accompanying the fixed 
533 VOL. xn. 6 



tones of an orchestra, then they will both have 
acquired the habit of rendering the false in- 
tervals of the tempered scale. The vibration 
fraction of an interval expresses the ratio of 
the numbers of vibrations performed in the 
same time by the two notes which form the 
interval. Thus, the vibration fraction means 
that while the lower of the two notes, forming 
a major third, makes four vibrations, the higher 
of these notes makes five. Therefore, while 
the lower makes one vibration, the higher 
makes five fourths of a vibration, or one vibra- 
tion and a quarter. Conversely, while the 
higher note makes one vibration, the lower 
makes four fifths of a vibration. This reason- 
ing is general, and hence follows this rule : Any 
fraction greater than unity denotes the number 
of vibrations, and fractions of a vibration, made 
by the higher of two notes forming a certain 
interval while the lower note is making a sin- 
gle vibration. Similarly, any fractioif less than 
unity indicates the proportion of a whole 
vibration performed by the lower note while 
the upper is making one complete vibration. 
The rules for adding and subtracting musical 
intervals are as follows : To find the vibration 
fraction for the sum of two intervals, multiply 
their separate vibration fractions together. To 
find the vibration fraction for the difference of 
two intervals, divide the vibration fraction of 
the wider by that of the narrower interval. 
Thus, a major third added to a fifth gives a 
major seventh ; while a major third subtracted 
from a fifth leaves a minor third. One of the 
most common applications of the second' rule 



80 



MUSIC 



is when an interval has to be inverted. The 
inversion of an interval less than an octave is 
the difference between it and an octave ; i. e., 
the interval which remains after the first has 
been subtracted from an octave. Thus, to 
invert the minor third we divide 2 by f ; or, 
in other words, we invert the vibration frac- 
tion of the interval and multiply by 2. This 
operation gives ns f ; therefore, the inversion 
of the minor third is the major sixth. Evi- 
dently there exists a mutual relation between 
an interval and its inversion, so that each is 
the inversion of the other. Thus, the inver- 
sion of the major sixth is the minor third. 
The following three pairs of consonant inter- 
vals, embraced within the compass of an oc- 
tave, have to each other the mutual relation 
of inversions : 

Minor third, . . Major sixth, . . f 
Major third, . . f- Minor sixth, . . 
Fourth, .... | Fifth, . . . . f 

Musical sounds of different pitch, simultane- 
ously emitted, form a chord. Chords formed 
of two notes are called binary chords ; those 
of three notes are called triads. A binary 
chord is consonant when its two notes form a 
consonant interval. In a triad there are three 
intervals: one between its lowest note and^the 
next higher, one between the middle and high- 
est note, and one between the lowest and 
highest. The triad is only consonant when 
all three of these intervals are concords. 
Therefore, to form consonant triads we select 
a note, then find the others, each of which 
forms with the bottom note a consonant inter- 
val. We then determine whether the interval 
between the two higher notes is a consonant 
one; if this be so, then the triad is conso- 
nant. To determine all of the consonant tri- 
ads contained in an octave, above any selected 
bottom note, we must assign to the middle and 
top notes every possible consonant position 
with respect to the fixed bottom note, and 
reject all such relative positions as give rise 
to dissonant intervals between those notes 
themselves. The remaining positions will 
constitute all the consonant triads which have 
for their lowest note that originally selected. 
The intervals at our disposal are : for the mid- 



dle note, from the minor third to the minor 
sixth ; and for the upper note, from the major 
third to the major sixth. In the following 
table the possible positions of the middle note 
with respect to the bottom note are shown 
in the left-hand vertical column, the name of 
each interval being accompanied by its vibra- 
tion fraction. The possible positions of the 
top note are similarly shown in the top hori- 
zontal line. Each space common to a hori- 
zontal and vertical line contains the vibration 
fraction of the interval formed between the 
simultaneous positions of the middle and 
upper notes named at the beginning of these 
lines. The intervals thus formed which are 
dissonant are designated by being enclosed in 
brackets. Whenever they are consonant the 
name of the interval is given. 





Major 
third. 


Fourth. 


Fifth. 

f 


Minor 
sixth. 

1 


Major 
sixth. 


Minor 
third. 


in] 


m 


M^jor 
third. 


1 
Fourth. 


Fourth. 


Major 
third. 




M] 


Mtaor 
third. 


UN 


Fourth. 






[] 


Minor 
third. 


Major 
third. 

m 

[tt] 


Fifth, 
t 

Minor 
sixth. 

1 








[If] 










An examinati< 
that the follow 

Middle note. 
Minor third. 
Major third. 
Fourth. 

The above co 
musical notati< 


m of the above tables shows 
ing are all the consonances : 

Upper note. 
Fifth, or minor sixth. 
Fifth, or major sixth. 
Minor sixth, or major sixth. 

usonances are thus expressed in 
m: 






We thus obtain two groups of three major 
and three minor triads, which may be ar- 
ranged thus : 



(a) 



Fifth. 
Major third. 



, xj Fifth. , . 

W\ Minor third. < 



Minor sixth. 
Minor third. 



sixth, 
third. 



jMaior sixth. 
\ Fourth. 

( Minor sixth. 
l Fourth. 



The above six consonant triads may be de- 
fined by the intervals separating the middle 



from the bottom note, and the top from the 
middle note, instead of defining these in- 
tervals, as we have done above, by the inter- 
vals formed by their middle and top notes 
with the bottom note. To bring about this 
change we perform on each one a subtraction 
of intervals. Thus, the difference between a 
fifth and a major third is f x|=, or a minor 
third. In this manner we find that the top 
and middle notes are separated by the follow- 
ing intervals : 



MUSIC 



81 



a 


b 


c 


a 


|3 


V 


Minor 
third. 


Fourth. 


Major 
third. 


Major 
third. 


Fourth. 


Minor 
third. 



Hence the two groups may be written as below : 



,,. j Minor third. 
* ' ] Major third. 

,,( Major third. 
1 '1 Minor third. 



03') 



Fourth. 
Minor third. 

Fourth. 
Major third. 



Major third. 
Fourth. 

Minor third. 
Fourth. 



It can now be shown that the triads of each 
group are closely connected. Take (a), and 
form from it another triad, by causing its bot- 
tom note to ascend one octave, the other two 
remaining where they were. The middle will 
then become the bottom note, the top the mid- 
dle note, and the octave of the former note 
the top note. Hence the lower interval of the 
new triad will be the upper interval of the old 
triad, i. e., a major third. The upper interval 
of the new triad will necessarily be the inver- 
sion of the interval which separated the ex- 
treme notes of the old triad. This interval is 



a fifth (see (a) ), and its inversion by the table 
already given is a fourth. Hence the new triad 

is JMnor h third [ which is identical with 
(b'). If we modify (b^) in the same way, the 
new interval is the inversion of the minor 
sixth, i. e., the major third, and the resulting 

triad, viz., j FoTJ;h tllird [' is identical with 
(c'). This triad, when similarly treated, brings 
us back to (a'), and the cycle of changes is 
complete. By an extension of the word " in- 
version," it is usual to call the triads (b') and 
(c') the first and second inversions of the tri- 
ad (a'). Exactly similar relations hold be- 
tween the members of the second group of 
triads ; (/?') and (y') are accordingly called the 
first and second inversions of the triad (a). 
The proof is exactly like that just given, and 
will be easily supplied by the reader. If we 
choose as the bottom note of (a') and (a'), 
the major and minor groups will be expressed 
in musical notation by 




They may also be defined in the language of 
thorough bass, which refers every chord to its 
lowest note, in accordance with the mode 
adopted in (a), (b), (c) ; (a), (/3), (y). Thus the 
triads (a'), (b'), (c') would be indicated by the 
figures %, f, % respectively, and so would the 
triads (a'), (p'), and (y'); the differences be- 
tween minor and major thirds and sixths be- 
ing left to be indicated by the key signature. 
The positions (a 7 ) and (a') are regarded as the 
fundamental ones of each group, (b'), (c ), and 
(/?'), (y') being treated as derived from them 
respectively by inversion. The fundamental 
triads bear the name of their lowest notes; 
thus (a') and (a r ) are called respectively the 
major and minor common chords of C. The 
remaining members of each group are not 
named after their lowest note, but after that 
of their fundamental inversion ; thus (b'), (c ; ), 
and (p'), (y 7 ) are respectively the major and 
minor common chords of G in their first and 
second inversions. The reason of this, as far 
as the major group is concerned, follows di- 
rectly from Helmholtz's theory of consonance 
and dissonance. The notes of the triads (a'), 
v^O) ( c/ ) are all coincident with individual har- 
monics of a composite sound whose funda- 



mental tone is the low 






for 



(a') and (b'), and the octave above that note 
for (c') ; hence they may be regarded as form- 
ing a part of the composite vibration of a C 
sound, and therefore each triad may be ap- 
propriately called by its name. With the mi- 
nor triads this is not so completely true, be- 
cause the E|, in (a ; ), (/?'), and (y') is not coinci- 
dent with an overtone of C. The other two 
notes, however, are in each case leading har- 
monics of C, and" therefore these triads belong 
at any rate more to than to any other note, 
Common chords of more than three constitu- 
ent sounds can only be formed by adding to 
the consonant triads notes which are exact oc- 
taves above or below those of the triads. The 
bright open character of the major and the 
gloomy veiled effects of minor chords are at- 
tributed by Helmholtz to the different way in 
which combination tones enter in the two 
cases. The positions of the first order of com- 
bination tones, for each of the six consonant 
triads, are shown in crotchets in the appended 
stave, the primaries being indicated by minims : 



v 




& 


IT 


/L 


22 


22 


II 






g 


-41^ 


! 






t-^:- 4-.. 4 

2 ^ ^ 


t- 


~H~ 




i 



m 



MUSIC 



Each interval gives rise to its own combination 
tone, but, in the cases of the fundamental po- 
sition and second inversion of the major 
triad, two combination tones happen to coin- 
cide. The reader will at once observe that in 
the major group no note extraneous to the 
harmony is brought in by the combination 
tones. In the minor group this is no longer 
the case. The fundamental position and the 
first inversion of the triad are both in an A|>, 
which is foreign to the harmony, and the sec- 
ond inversion involves an additional extraneous 
note, B|>. The position of these adventitious 
sounds is not such as to produce dissonance, 
for which they are too far from each other and 
from the notes of the triad ; but they cloud the 
transparency of the harmony, and so give rise 
to the effects characteristic of the minor mode. 
The unsatisfying character of minor compared 
with major triads comes out with peculiar dis- 
tinctness on the melodeon; as indeed, from 
the powerful combination tones of that instru- 
ment, we should naturally have anticipated. 
Sedley Taylor, from whose work " On Sound 
and Music " nearly all of the above passage on 
inversion is taken, says : " The musical nota- 
tion in ordinary use evidently takes for granted 
a scale consisting of a limited number of fixed 
sounds. Moreover, it indicates directly abso- 
lute pitch, and only indirectly relative pitch. 
In order to ascertain the interval between any 
two notes on the stave, we must go through a 
little calculation, involving the clef, the key 
signature, and perhaps, in addition, 'acciden- 
tal ' sharps or flats. Now these complications, 
if necessary for pianoforte music, are perfectly 
gratuitous in the case of vocal music. The 
voice wants only to be told on what note to 
begin, and what intervals to sing afterward; 
i. e., it is concerned with absolute pitch only 
at its start, and needs to be troubled with it 
no further. Hence, to place the ordinary no- 
tation before a child who is to be taught to 
sing, is like presenting him with a manual for 
learning to dance, compiled on the theory that 
human feet can only move in twelve different 
ways. Not only does the established notation 
encumber the vocalist with information which 
he does not want ; it fails to communicate the 
one special piece of information which he does 
want. It is essential to really good music that 
every note heard should stand in a definite re- 
lationship to its tonic or key note. Now there 
is nothing in the established notation to mark 
clearly and directly what the relation ought in 
such case to be. Unless the vocalist, besides 
his own part, is provided with that of the ac- 
companiment, and possesses some knowledge 
of harmony, he cannot ascertain how the notes 
set down for him are related to the key note 
and to each other. The extreme inconvenience 
of this must have become painfully evident 



to any one who has frequently sung concert- 
ed music from a single part. A bass, we will 
suppose, after leaving off on F#, is directed to 
rest thirteen bars, and then come in fortissimo 
on his high Efc. It is impossible for him to 
keep the absolute pitch of Fj^in his head du- 
ring this long interval, which is perhaps occu- 
pied by the other voices in modulating into 
some remote key ; and his part vouchsafes no 
indication in what relation the E^ stands to 
the notes or chords immediately preceding it. 
There remains then nothing for him to do but 
to sing at a venture some note at the top of 
his voice, in the hope that it may prove to be 
E|>, though with considerable dread, in the op- 
posite event, of committing a conspicuous for- 
tissimo blunder. The essential requisite for a 
system of musical notation, therefore, is that, 
whenever it specifies any sound, it shall indi- 
cate in a direct and simple manner the relation 
in which that sound stands to its tonic for the 
time being. A method by which this criterion 
is very completely satisfied shall now be briefly 
described. The old Italian singing masters de- 
noted the seven notes of the major scale, reck- 
oned from the key note upward, by the sylla- 
bles do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si. As long as a 
melody moves only in the major mode, without 
modulation, it clearly admits of being written 
down, as far as relations of pitch only are con- 
cerned, by the use of these syllables. The 
opening phrase of ' Rule Britannia,' for in- 
stance, would stand thus : do, do, do, re, mi, fa, 
sol, do, re, re, mi, fa, mi. In order to abridge 
the notation, we may indicate each syllable by 
its initial consonant. The ambiguity which 
would thus arise between sol and si is got rid 
of by altering the latter syllable into ti. In 
order to distinguish a note from those of the 
same name in the adjacent octaves above and 
below it, an accent is added, either above or 
below the corresponding initial. Thus d' is an 
octave above d; d, an octave below d. When 
a modulation (i. e.\ a change of tonic) occurs, 
it is shown in the following manner : A note 
necessarily stands in a twofold relation to the 
outgoing and incoming tonic. The interval it 
forms with the new tonic is different from that 
which it formed with the old one. Each of 
these intervals can be denoted by a suitable 
syllable initial, and the displacement of one of 
these initials by the other represents in the 
aptest manner the supersession of the old by 
the new tonic. The old initial is written above 
and to the left of the new one. Thus r f indi- 
cates that the note re is to be sung, but its name 
changed to fa. As this is a somewhat difficult 
point, a few modulations are appended, ex- 
pressed both in the established notation and in 
that now under consideration. The instances 
selected are from to G-, from to F, from 
E to C, from G to F#. 



fg j 



f m d 




S 



d, f m d 



MUSIC 



83 




Immediately after a modulation, the ordinary 
syllable initials come into use again, and con- 
tinue to be employed until a fresh modulation 
occurs. It will be seen at once that the diffi- 
culty of ' remote keys,' which is so serious in 



f m d 



the established notation, thus altogether disap- 
pears. For instance, a vocal phrase occurring 
in Spohr's 'Last Judgment,' which in the es- 
tablished notation is represented in the fol- 
lowing manner : 



il||il== 



takes, in the notation before us, the simple form, 

sit | d' mf 8 \ sfl II s | / m. 



As another example, take the following, from 
the same work : 






d 



The system of notation of which a cursory 
sketch has just been given originated, it is said, 
with two Norwich ladies named Glover, but 
has received its present form at the hands of 
Mr. J. Curwen, to whom it owes the name of 
'tonic sol-fa,' by which it is now so widely 
known. No mention has been made of the 
notation for minor and chromatic intervals, 
nor of that for denoting the relations of time 
by measures appealing directly to the eye, in- 
stead of by mere symbols. On these and all 
other points connected with his system, Mr. 
Curwen's published works on tonic sol-fa 
give full and thoroughly lucid and intelligible 
explanations. Mr. Curwen has also created a 
very extensive literature of the best vocal mu- 
sic, printed in his own notation, which has 
given a most remarkable impulse to choral 
singing." Helmholtz gives his opinion in favor 
of the tonic sol-fa method. Melody is a se- 
quence of sounds of different heights and du- 
rations, producing an agreeable effect. In the 
development of music, melody preceded har- 
mony ; and Helmholtz traces the progress of 
musical theory through three distinct periods, 
viz. : 1, homophonous music of antiquity, to 
which belongs the music at present in use among 
oriental people; 2, polyphonic music of the 
middle ages, which allows of several parts, but 
without attaching any importance to the indi- 
vidual signification of musical accords ; its pe- 
riod extends from the 10th to the lYth century, 
when it developed into : 3, harmonic or modern 
music, characterized by the importance given 
to harmony considered in itself. This school 
of music began to develop in the 16th century. 
The best theory of melody, like that of har- 
mony, is based on the existence of the har- 
monics in all musical sounds. The harmonics 
which exist in any two sounds determine the 
affinity of their sequence, just as the affinities 
existing between the notes of any chord depend 



d 



f 



d 



on the harmonics which are common to them. 
It is necessary for the existence of a melody 
that the sounds composing it shall have definite 
intervals between them, or, in other words, 
steps in pitch, and that these sounds shall have 
definite durations. The measure of the music 
directs us in the division of time, while the 
sequence of the notes by definite numbers of 
tones and semitones gives us 'the means of 
making the steps in pitch ; and thus we have 
the movement of the music from the rhythm 
and the melody. Such sounds as that made by 
the wind produce confused and unmusical im- 
pressions because of the absence of measure 
and of gradations in pitch ; but music has a 
scale for measuring the ascending and descend- 
ing movements of sounds, and this scale is the 
gamut. The foregoing considerations will lead 
to a rational explanation why, in the musical 
scale, we have the octave, the fifth, the third, 
and so on. In the following table are given 
the tonic, and under it various musical inter- 
vals. Each interval is followed by those of its 
harmonics which it has in common with the 
tonic. The greater the number of such ties, 
the greater the affinity of the notes. 



Tonic (1) 
Octave (2) 
Twelfth (3) 
Fifth 




Major third 
Minor third 



The octave has all of its even harmonics in 
common with the tonic ; therefore the affinity 
between it and the tonic is greater than that 
between the notes forming any other interval. 
Hence, the octave is to a great extent the rep- 
etition of the tonic, and this is of course true 
of all the notes of any octave, referred to the 



MUSIC 



same notes in the octave below. Thus we 
have a rational explanation of the fact that 
each succeeding octave repeats the impression 
made by the one which preceded it. The fun- 
damental tone of the twelfth is really the third 
harmonic of the tonic, and its second and third 
harmonics coincide with the sixth and ninth 
harmonics of the tonic; but the affinity be- 
tween the tonic and its twelfth is evidently far 
less than that existing between the tonic and 
its octave. In diminishing degrees of affinity 
follow the fifth, fourth, major third, and minor 
third. The nearest affinities dominated in the 
earlier periods of music. Thus, in the poly- 
phonic chanting of the middle ages the fifths 
were most in vogue, while the thirds and sixths 
are typical of modern music, and are charac- 
teristic of the early developments of harmony. 
According to Helmholtz, there is an affinity of 
the first degree between two sounds when they 
have at least one harmonic in common; an 
affinity of the second degree when the^two 
sounds have a harmonic in common with a 
third sound. From these premises he deduces 
the construction of the diatonic scale with 
notes which have for the tonic affinities of the 
first and second degrees. The immediate affin- 
ities of the tonic are composed of the notes 
O a , G, F, A, E, and E|>, if we confine ourselves 
to the first six harmonics, the others being too 
feeble to determine an affinity. We thus have 
the gamuts :Q__E_F_G_A__C a ; 
or better, _ _ E a |> _ F _ G _ A _ _ 2 , for 
we cannot place in the same gamut notes so 
near to each other as E and Eu. In this series 
there are two intervals which are too large, 
and in order to divide them we must recur to 
the affinities of G, which are 0, D, Ej,, B, C 2 . 
The D and the B are thus found to be related 
to by an affinity of the second degree ; on 
interpolating them in the above gamuts, we 
obtain the diatonic gamut 0, D, E, F, G, A, B, 
Ca ; which becomes the minor ascending gamut 
if we place E[, in the place of E. The D which 
we find in the affinity of F differs by a comma 
from D as determined by G. These examples 
will serve to show the method followed by 
Helmholtz. " In studying the rules of harmony 
we finally perceive that the accords, considered 
as complex sounds, contain the same relations 
of affinity as the notes of the gamut, by reason 
of the coincidence of some of their notes. The 
important function of the tonic in modern 
music, or what M. Fetis calls the principle of 
tonality, is also explained by the properties of 
the harmonics of the tonic. These principles, 
so clear and so simple, have afforded Helmholtz 
the means of deducing from considerations in 
some respects mathematical the fundamental 
rules of musical composition. Nevertheless, 
we cannot but be of the opinion that the last 
word on the theory of music has not been said, 
for all of the deductions of Helmholtz are noi 
beyond criticism. Thus, Arthur von Oettingen 
has criticised with much reason the explanation 
which Helmholtz gives of the difference be- 



tween the major and minor modes, for the 
jhenomenon of the harmonics is sometimes 
i>arely perceptible. Yon Oettingen finds that 
difference in the reciprocal principles of tonicity 
and of phonicity. The tonicity of an interval 
or of an accord consists in the possibility of con- 
sidering it as a group of harmonics of the same 
'undamental sound. It is thus that the major 
accord is formed by the fourth, fifth, and sixth 
Harmonics of the tonic or fundamental. 1. 
Phonicity is the inverse property of having a 
larmonic in common ; the minor accord ^, , 
A has the sound 1 as common harmonic or 
phonic. The major accord has the phonic 60 ; 
the minor accord has for tonic -^5-. These re- 
lations can be expressed as follows : 



4-5- 



60 



Tonic. Accord Phonic, 
(minor). 

F A-C-E E 



Tonic. Accord Phonic, 
(major). 

C C-E-G B 



Musicians call C the tonic and G the domi- 
nant of the gamut of C major, which can be 
written thus : 



OD 

1 



EFGA 

I I I I 



B 



Yon Oettingen calls E the phonic and A the 
dominant of A minor, and writes the above 
gamut as follows: 



E F 



G A 

! f 



B C 

f I 



D E 

4 1 



By the development of this dualism he obtains 
the parallel construction of the major and mi- 
nor modes." (Radau, Acoustique.} Whenever 
music is written for parts, the laws of harmony 
necessarily come into play, and the skill of the 
composer is required, not only to have the 
harmonics correct, but that the parts shall be 
distinct and clear. This polyphonic style re- 
quires very intricate laws, and hence persons 
capable of creating lovely melodies, and wri- 
ting them in combination with other themes, 
are as rare as great poets. In harmonious 
treatment of music, the following are a few 
of the radical laws. In the regular progression 
of harmonics the fundamental bass note falls 
a fifth to whatever note, or rises a fourth to 
the octave above it ; but this law has many 
exceptions. If in the treble or soprano part 
the procession of notes is upward, say C D E 
G, the bass cannot give the same notes, but 
must use others, such iterations being intoler- 
able to the musical ear. Accordingly, it is a 
rule in harmony or part writing that contrary 
motion is best between the extreme parts ; or 
that when one goes upward the others go 
downward, and the reverse. The parallel mo- 
tion, as it is called, is in use between extreme 
parts, but then the notes must be different. 
Thirds or sixths move harmoniously together. 
When the parts are in octaves, the law against 
identical notes moving up or down together 



MUSIC 



85 



ceases, for the effect of such unity supersedes 
harmony for the moment. There are certain 
keys which have a close alliance to others. 
Given a certain key or tonic, for example, on 
which it is proposed to write a piece, say C : 
the keys having the closest alliance to this are 
G major, the fourth below ; A minor, the third 
below ;. F major, the fourth above ; and E 
minor, the third above. Next in order of alli- 
ance to are E major, E flat major, A major, 
and A flat major. The key of B major is 
widely dissociated from C ; so too B flat ma- 
jor; and F sharp major is a distant musical 
shore only to be approached in a long musical 
voyage. D minor and D major in their rela- 
tions to C can be used but transiently. D flat 
major can be reached readily through minor. 
The passing to a new key without an inter- 
mediate chord is called a transition ; when one 
or more chords are used, it is called a modu- 
lation. Transitions are among the brilliant 
effects of modern dramatic music. A great 
surprise, sudden and violent emotion, warrants 
a transition, and the change may be further 
enforced by an explosion of all the orchestral 
instruments. The transition is marked in pro- 
portion as the notes of the scale are changed. 
A transition from to G for the purpose 
named would be timid and feeble ; but one 
from C to A flat or D flat would be effective. 
In the one case all the notes of the chord of G 
are found in the scale of C ; in the others, two 
notes are changed ; hence the shock. "We 
close this portion of the article with a few 
observations on the relations existing between 
the physical theory of consonance and disso- 
nance and the aesthetics of music. Helmholtz 
founds his theory of consonance and dissonance 
on the fact that whenever a dissonance is per- 
ceived beats are produced by the constituent 
sounds of the chord, and that in consonance 
these beats are few or entirely wanting. On 
this physical basis the intervals are placed in 
the following order, according to their degree 
of freedom from dissonance. The octave stands 
first, then follow the fifth, the fourth, the major 
third, the major sixth, the minor third, the 
minor sixth. This classification, as stated, is 
based on the decreasing number of beating 
harmonics in the successive intervals; but it 
does not necessarily follow that the smoothest 



chords will always be those which are musi- 
cally the most pleasing ; for may there not be 
some other property which gives us greater 
satisfaction than mere consonance ? "^Esthetic 
considerations come in here, with the same 
right to be heard as mechanical considerations 
within their own domain. Now unquestion- 
ably the ear's order of merit is not the same 
as the mechanical order. It places thirds and 
sixths first, then the fourth and fifth, and the 
octave last of all. The constant appearance 
of thirds and sixths in two-part music, com- 
pared with the infrequent employment of the 
remaining concords, leaves no doubt on this 
point. In fact these intervals have a peculiar 
richness and permanent charm about them, not 
possessed by the fourth or fifth to anything 
like the same extent, and by the octave not at 
all. The thin effect of the octave undoubtedly 
depends on the fact that every harmonic of 
the higher of two musical sounds forming that 
interval, coincides exactly with a harmonic of 
the lower sound. Thus no new sound is intro- 
duced by the higher note ; the quality of that 
previously heard is merely modified by the 
alteration of relative intensity among the con- 
stituent harmonics. Major and minor thirds 
bring in a greater variety of pitch in the re- 
sultant mass of sound than does the fifth ; but 
this can hardly be said of the major and mi- 
nor sixths compared with the fourth. On the 
whole, we are inclined to attribute the predi- 
lection of the ear for thirds and sixths, over 
the other concords, to circumstances connected 
with its perception of key relations, though 
we are not able to give a satisfactory account 
of them. The ear enjoys, in alternation with 
consonant chords, dissonances of so harsh a 
description as to be barely endurable when 
sustained by themselves. This constitutes a 
marked distinction between it and the other 
organs of sense. As instances of the kind of 
discords in which the ear can find delight, take 
the following. The chord marked * should in 
each case be played first by itself, and then in 
the place assigned to it by the composer. The 
effect of this isolated discord is so intensely 
harsh that it is at first difficult to understand 
how any preceding and succeeding concords 
can make it at all tolerable ; yet the sequence, 
in both phases cited, is beautiful. 



Last Chorus, BACH'S 
Passion." (St. Matthew.) 




Considerations such as those just alleged tend 
to show that, while physical science is ab- 
solutely authoritative in all that relates to 



the constitution of musical sounds, and the 
smoothness of their combinations, the com- 
poser's direct perception of what is musi- 



86 



MUSIC 



cally beautiful must mainly direct him in the 
employment of his materials." Besides the 
authorities previously mentioned, see Fetis, 
Traite du contrepoint et de la fugue (Pans, 
1825); Reicha, Traite de haute composition 
musicale, edited by Czerny (4 vols., Vienna, 
1834)- Cherubini, Cours de contrepoint et de 
fugue (Paris, 1835 ; translated into English by 
0. Clarke) ; Dehn, Lehre wm ContrapunU, &c. 
(Berlin, 1841) ; Marx, Die Lehre von der mu- 
sikalischen Composition (4 vols., Leipsic, 1852) ; 
Richter, Lehrbuch der Harmonie (Leipsic, 6th 
ed., 1866; translated into English by John P. 
Morgan, New York, 1867) ; Ouseley, " Treatise 
on Harmony" (Oxford, 1868); "Treatise on 
Counterpoint, Canon, and Fugue " (1869) ; and 
Weber, Allgemeine Mmiklehre (Darmstadt, 
1872). HISTORY OF Music. The history of 
music is older than that of civilization. The 
most savage races are found to have some rude 
musical instruments, sufficient at least to mark 
certain rhythmical divisions of time and to 
serve as accompaniment to the dance ; those 
less savage have melodies ; while in all recorded 
instances where nations have advanced from 
barbarism to civilization music has followed 
the national growth. Among the oldest na- 
tions of whose history we have any knowledge 
it has been cultivated from time immemorial. 
The Hindoo, Chinese, and Japanese music is 
probably what it was thousands of years ago. 
The Chinese, whose music practically is -un- 
pleasant to refined ears, have some sweet-toned 
instruments, and a notation for the melodies 
played on them which is sufficiently clear. 
Their history and fables touching the art ante- 
'date by many centuries those of classic na- 
tions; in the time of the emperor Hoangti, 
some centuries before the Christian era, they 
had discovered that the octave was divisible 
into 12 semitones. The relations which the 
Egyptians assigned between the sounds of mu- 
sic and the planets, the signs of the zodiac and 
the 24 hours, are all found among the Chinese. 
The two Chinese instruments, the Mn and the 
c7ie, contain all the elements of whatever scales.. 
Calculations among the Chinese on all combi- 
nations of sounds have been carried to a great 
extent. Kouie, a Chinese musician who lived 
1,000 years before the assumed era of Orpheus, 
said : " When I play upon my Icing the animals 
range themselves spell-bound before me with 
melody." Confucius said 100 years before Pla- 
to : u Wouldst thou know if & people be well gov- 
erned, if its manners be good or bad, examine 
the music it practises." In their system and 
practice the Chinese detail eight kinds of sound 
under which all can be classed : metal, stone, 
silk, bamboo, gourd, earthenware, skins, and 
wood. This division, according to them, is to 
be found in nature. The different substances 
are made into instruments. They are, besides 
the gong and the bamboo pipes, the Icin, a body 
of thin wood curved like the top of a violin to 
increase resonance, with five strings of silk of 
different sizes ; the che, an instrument kindred 



to the Mn, but having the chromatic or scale 
of half tones ; the king, a frame of wood with 
pendent stone, graduated through 16 notes, 
and struck with a hammer ; drums ; a species 
of flutes, which anciently had but three finger 
holes ; brass instruments of the trumpet spe- 
cies; guitars resembling the mandolin; and 
little boards with a pleasant sound. The Chi- 
nese make use of music in their most dignified 
ceremonies. The sacred imperial hymn, sung 
with great pomp annually, is a sequence of 
long-drawn notes, precisely parallel to the^early 
church music in unison, and lacking the inter- 
val of the fourth and seventh, like the old 
crude popular scales of some European nations. 
The secular melodies of the Chinese are found- 
ed upon sequences of notes, such as are found 
in playing on the black keys of the pianoforte. 
They eschew all harmony on principle. Music 
makes no progress among the Chinese, as their 
sumptuary laws would restrain its development 
if there were genius to advance it. The head 
of the musicians in China is called conservator 
of the five capital virtues : humanity, justice, 
politeness, wisdom, and rectitude. Their mu- 
sic affects a certain seriousness, rejecting the 
sensuous element. The Persians rank vocally 
among them as the Italians do among us, and 
it has been said that singers from that country 
make concert tours in China. The higher style 
of oriental music, which has a limited degree 
of melodious merit, with rhythms logically and 
distinctly drawn from consociation with poetry 
as refined and liquid as the Italian, may be 
found in that of India, dating also from the re- 
motest antiquity. The poetic legends of Hin- 
dostan, and indeed of all southern Asia, rival 
those of China and Greece in ascribing fabu- 
lous effects to music. The Hindoos consider 
every art as a direct revelation from heaven ; 
and while their inferior deities communicated 
other parts, it was Brahma himself who pre- 
sented music to mortals. To his son Nared is 
imputed the invention of the vina, a stringed 
instrument with a finger or key board for frets, 
being of the same family as the modern guitar. 
The Hindoo writers on music (and there are 
works exhibiting earnest study of its mathe- 
matical bases) theoretically recognize divisions 
of the scale corresponding to our octave in 22 
fractional tones, these fractions being quarters 
or thirds, or approximate equivalents. As to 
the fractions, they admit practically that they 
have no existence, since only tones or semi- 
tones are known in their actual compositions. 
The succession of tones and semitones in their 
scale is that of the diatonic. The seven notes 
of this scale they term swarras or sounds, the 
first or key note being distinguished from all 
others by this generic word, and the six others 
by different names. But their words being 
polysyllabic, the ancient Hindoo artists took 
their first syllables only to designate respec- 
tively the notes of the scale. The syllables 
thus chosen are quite as good as the Italian do, 
re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, do, and are as follows : 



MUSIC 



87 



*, ri, ga, ma, pa, dha, ni. These are the notes 
of the major diatonic scale. The minor mode 
is also familiar to East Indian music. The fin- 
ger board of the vina is about two feet long, 
with frets like the guitar, which permit the 
player to divide the scale into half tones over 
14 notes. The Hindoo writers have names 
corresponding to ours for the tonic or first, 
the mediant or third, and dominant or fifth of 
the scale ; and indeed there are multitudinous 
proofs of their assiduous study of the art, how- 
ever limited their practical skill, owing to the 
paucity and imperfection of their instruments. 
They have music in common and triple time, that 
is, in groups of two and three notes severally. 
The Hebrew music, both vocal and instru- 
mental, is constantly referred to in the Bible, 
and especially in the Psalms, and yet we have 
no certain knowledge as to its character. It 
was probably founded on the music of the 
Egyptians, and it is conjectured that one of 
the results of the Egyptian training which 
Moses received was the introduction into the 
Hebrew service of the music of the Egyptian 
priesthood. But no melodies that have come 
down to us can be identified as those used in 
the temple service. That the singers were a 
body by themselves under leaders, and that the 
singing was done by alternate choirs, as was 
later the case with the primitive Christians, is 
well known. That they had various instru- 
ments, both wind and stringed, is also known. 
So also had the Egyptians ; but as none of the 
ancient nations possessed a knowledge of har- 
mony, the music they produced must have been 
to a degree harsh and dissonant. The discovery 
by Bruce of a painting of a harp upon a The- 
ban tomb furnished the first evidence as to the 
ancient state of music on the Nile, and of the 
fact that long before Athens was founded the 
Egyptians were possessed of stringed instru- 
ments. It is further proved from the monu- 
ments that the Egyptians had an instrument 
with frets like the guitar ; none of the hun- 
dreds of representations of instruments of 
Grecian music indicate that the Greeks had 
arrived at that point of ingenuity. What the 
Egyptian composition of music was can only 
be inferred, for no relics of it exist, unless the 
inartificial songs of the boatmen on the Nile 
be taken as samples of the art of a polished 
people. Greek music was probably little more 
than sonorous declamation, sustained by the 
lyre, and some pleasant notes from the flute 
and pandean pipes, with the martial trumpet 
on occasion. In the Greek drama the language 
was sung, not spoken. It was a musical reci- 
tative, and the chorus intoned. The theatres 
were very large, without roofs, and were ca- 
pable of holding many thousands. To enable 
the performers to be heard well, it was neces- 
sary so to intone the voice; and moreover 
they wore metallic masks to add to the reso- 
nance. This was as artificial a mode of repre- 
senting passion and emotion as the modern 
opera, though its means were fewer. It is 



generally conceded that the Greeks did not 
understand harmony, and that their lyre of a 
few strings merely played the notes of the 
voice. The discovery of some Greek musical 
manuscripts (that is, poetry with musical signs) 
on the revival of letters gave rise to great dis- 
plays of erudition and much passionate argu- 
ment. Fanaticism in favor of Greek music 
culminated, but all to no purpose ; for no sat- 
isfactory key to the Greek system was found. 
Although a treatise on ancient music by Euclid 
is extant, and other writers of antiquity who 
have come down to us discuss it, they shed 
little light on the ancient musical manuscripts. 
"We know that the Greeks had many hundreds 
of musical signs; that to be a musician-poet 
required years of practice; but with the in- 
terpretations of the two or three extant Greek 
musical manuscripts, we can only discover, if 
the interpretations be right, that they had 
some sort of minor mode, and declaimed in a 
kind of recitative, and intoned pretty much as 
is done in the Roman Catholic service by the 
priest. The Greek lyre was too poor an instru- 
ment to afford much melody, though the an- 
cient flute might have had some advantages; 
and as there was a theocratic resistance to im- 
provements in instruments, and the mainte- 
nance of music in prescribed forms was con- 
sidered a state necessity, we may fairly infer 
that .the science of music was not understood 
by the Greeks. Nevertheless their interest in 
it was great. Musical tournaments were held, 
and choruses and dances were used to aid the 
religious ceremonies. Pythagoras and Aris- 
toxenes wrote upon the art, and Boethius has 
expounded their theories in five books De Mu- 
sica. "With the Romans the art never made 
any progress, and their music seems to have 
been an echo of the Greek, without force or 
originality. In tracing the history of the art 
as it exists in our own day, we need go no 
further back than to the beginning of the 
Christian era ; for although modern music may 
be said to have a certain relation to that of the 
ancients, the connection between the two is so 
slight that it may be disregarded. We look 
therefore to the early music of the Christian 
church, to whose fostering influence through 
several centuries the preservation and progress 
of the art was due, for the foundation upon 
which the modern system is built. The exact 
nature of the psalms used by the early Chris- 
tians is not known, but they were sung an- 
tiphonally, and probably were borrowed partly 
from Hebrew and partly from pagan sources. 
The first high ecclesiastic who is known to 
have greatly interested himself in the music of 
the church was St. Ambrose, to whom are at- 
tributed many of the early hymns and the selec- 
tion of the four so-called Ambrosian keys or 
scales in which he advised that the music for 
the church should be written. The next emi- 
nent priest to set his mark upon the music of 
his time and to further the advancement of 
the art was Pope Gregory I. (590-604). He 



MUSIC 



established new ecclesiastical keys, founded 
and encouraged a system of musical training at 
Rome, wrote many hymns, and finally was the 
father of the Gregorian chant, upon the broad 
foundation of which the music of the church 
rested for several centuries. But as yet har- 
mony, the most important element of music, 
did not exist. In chanting, the performers all 
sang the melody. The system of musical nota- 
tion was also exceedingly, imperfect, certain 
signs called numce being used to designate the 
pitch and duration of notes, the lines and 
spaces of the staff not yet being invented. It 
was not until the discovery of harmony, and 



the invention of the staff and of a proper no- 
menclature for the notes of the scale, that the 
art of music began to free itself from its fet- 
ters. During the 7th, 8th, and 9th centuries 
there is little to be recorded in the way of mu- 
sical progress. At the close of the 9th century 
Hucbald, a Flemish monk, wrote a treatise on 
harmony, which had already begun to be prac- 
tised after a rude fashion, the octave, fourth, 
and fifth only being used, and the parts pro- 
gressing together. The following example, 
harsh enough to modern ears, will serve better 
than any description to show the condition of 
the science of harmony in those days : 




Nos qui vi - vi-mus be- ne - di - ci-mus Do-mi - num ex hoc mine et UB - que in sse - cu - lum. 



The notation is modern, for it was not till more 
than a century later that Guido Aretino, also a 
monk, added two lines to the staff, then consist- 
ing of two only, and originated the system of 
solmization on which his reputation rests. At 
the same time that progress was made in harmo- 
ny within the church, the love of music, innate 
in human nature, found expression through the 
songs of the people. There is scarcely any na- 
tion whose traditions do not furnish examples 
of folk songs of a remote antiquity. The Celts 
made great progress in this direction; their 
bards were famous for their skill in poetry 
and song. They also possessed an instrument 
known as the crowth, which had several strings 
of different pitch ; and many writers on music 
have asserted their belief that the secrets of 
harmony were known to them before they 
were to the Italians. The French also had 
their chansons, the Italians their canzonetti, 
and the Germans their Vollcslieder. Nothing 
was more common than for the church com- 
posers to adopt some well known popular air 
as a theme for their masses. Indeed, the mass- 
es were not infrequently named after the song 
which served as their basis, so that we find 
the mass " Farewell, my loves," that of " The 
Armed Man," that of " The Pale-faced Man," 
that of "The Red Noses," and many others 
similarly named. The minstrels, jongleurs, 
minnesingers, and troubadours played a very 
important part in the development of the 
music of the middle ages. From the close 
of the llth to the commencement of the 14th 
century these musicians exercised a wide in- 
fluence. Minstrelsy and warlike deeds were 
closely associated ; many of the knights were 
also minstrels. Among those nobles who were 
distinguished troubadours were Thibaut, king 
of Navarre, the chevalier Raoul de Coucy, and 
William IX., count of Poitou. Pierre Vidal of 
Toulouse accompanied Richard of England as 
minstrel on the third crusade. The trouba- 
dours cultivated various kinds of lyric compo- 
sitions, such as the chanson or love song, the 



sirvente or satire, the tenson or lyric contest, 
the lalada or ballad, and the serena or sere- 
nade. On their return from the crusades they 
brought home various new musical forms 
caught in the East, which served to enlarge the 
domain of melody. In the beginning of the 
14th century the troubadours as a class disap- 
peared ; but in that century music received a 
fresh impetus from the Netherlander, who 
suddenly took the lead of all European natipns 
in the cultivation of the art, which supremacy 
they held for a century and a half, sending their 
musicians as teachers, leaders, and composers 
into all countries. The Netherlands at this 
time were rich and prosperous; their cities 
were in a condition almost of republican free- 
dom ; the government under the house of Bur- 
gundy was liberal, and fostered with especial 
care the arts of painting and music. Counter- 
point received great attention during the peri- 
od of the Dutch supremacy, and in the course 
of the 15th century the Netherlander became 
the most learned contrapuntists in Europe. 
The first of their composers who came into no- 
tice was Guillaume Dufay, born in Hainaut, in 
the latter part of the 14th century. His mass- 
es, which are to be found in manuscript in the 
papal chapel, are the oldest known in contra- 
puntal form. Dufay is credited with having 
emancipated music from the harsh succession 
of fourths, fifths, octaves, and unisons, which 
constituted the harmony of preceding compo- 
sers. The next Flemish composer of eminence 
was Jan Okeghem, who exerted great influence 
not only as a composer, but also as a teacher. 
Among his pupils was Josquin des Pres (died 
about 1530), the most famous composer of his 
day. He did not strive, as did many of his time, 
to construct impossible fugues and ingenious 
contrapuntal puzzles, written simply to display 
his technical knowledge, but sought to infuse 
intelligence and soul into all the parts, and to 
give sympathy and expression to music. His 
influence was felt in Italy, where for a time he 
was attached to the pontifical choir of Sixtus 



MUSIC 



89 



IV., and in France, where he was composer 
and chief singer in the chapel of Louis XII. 
Among his celebrated pupils were Jannequin 
Arcadelt and Willaert. With the last named 
of these composers (died about 1563) the ascen- 
dancy of the Dutch in musical composition be- 
gan to decline. The application of movable 
metal types to the printing of notes in 1502 
served to cheapen and diffuse published music. 
Willaert's greatest distinction rests on the fact 
that he was the first celebrated composer who 
gave his attention to the composition of mad- 
rigals, from which fact he was called "the 
father of the madrigal." While still a young 
man he went to Venice, and he became the 
head of the Venetian school. During the 
16th century, and contemporary with Willaert, 
lived many notable composers: in Italy, Pa- 
lestrina, Constanzo Festa, Luca Marenzio (one 
of the greatest of madrigalists, surnamed the 
Sweet Swan), and Cypriano de Rore, called by 
the Italians il Divino ; in the Netherlands, Or- 
lando di Lasso, Clemens non Papa, and Chris- 
tian and Sebastian Hollander ; in Spain, Cris- 
tofano Morales; in England, Marbeck, Tallis, 
Bird, Morley, Weelkes, and Wilbye. Nearly 
all of these distinguished themselves as com- 
posers of madrigals; the English cultivated 
this form of composition with so much suc- 
cess that the practice of madrigals became du- 
ring that century the delight of refined society ; 
sight reading was at that time even more than 
in our own day a common accomplishment 
among the educated. The madrigals of Wil- 
bye, Weelkes, and Morley have never been 
surpassed in beauty of melody and form, or 
in the freedom with which the different parts 
move. In 1601 Thomas Morley published a 
collection of madrigals in fulsome praise of 
Queen Elizabeth, entitled " The Triumphs of 
Oriana," to which 20 English composers con- 
tributed. Of the composers of other nations 
whom we have named, the two most famous 
were Palestrina and Orlando di Lasso. The lat- 
ter was the last of the great Netherlands school, 
and after his death the ascendancy passed over 
to the Italians. As to Palestrina, it is difficult 
to overestimate the talent of the man or his 
influence over the art in his day. In his com- 
positions the solemn words of the mass found 
their highest and noblest musical expression. 
He was truly regarded as the great reformer 
of church music. So fully was his genius 
recognized by the composers of his own time, 
that 14 of the most celebrated combined to 
compose and dedicate to him a collection of 
psalms in five parts. He used only the eccle- 
siastical modes, and avoided all straining after 
effect by strange harmonies; but his knowl- 
edge of counterpoint, and the elevation and 
nobility of his style, made his masses and 
his other compositions, of which he wrote a 
vast number, examples for all time of what 
true church music should be. During this 
century the keyed instruments in use were the 
organ, the virginal, the spinet, the clavichord, 



and the harpischord. The viol, the guitar, and 
the flute were also used. Between 1550 and 
1600 instruments were first introduced into 
churches for the purpose of accompanying 
voices. No such thing as independent accom- 
paniment was known at this time, the instru- 
ments being used only to reenforce the voice 
and playing from the vocal score. The vio- 
lin now began to assume new importance, and 
in the hands of the Amati family and their 
immediate successors it was brought with won- 
derful rapidity to a beauty of form and color 
and sweetness of tone that have not since 
been excelled. It is the only example in his- 
tory of an instrument which at once attained 
its perfection, and which the inventors of two 
centuries and a half have not been able to im- 
prove upon. (See AMATI.) The closing year 
of the 16th century witnessed the birth both of 
opera and of oratorio. In the year 1600 was 
performed at Florence a work entitled Euri- 
dice, una tragedia per musica. The words 
were by Rinuccini, the music by Peri. This 
work possessed after a rude fashion the charac- 
teristics of the modern opera. In the same 
year was performed at Rome Emilio del Cava- 
liere's religious drama L'Anima e corpo, which 
may be considered the forerunner of the ora- 
torio, as Peri's work was of the opera. The 
way had been long preparing for both opera 
and oratorio, through the miracle plays and 
the performances representing the passion of 
Christ. These sacred musical dramas were 
often performed in a hall, called by the Ital- 
ians oratorio, adjoining the church, and hence 
came to be called by that name. Cavaliere's 
work was first represented on the stage of the 
church of La Vallicella, with appropriate scenery 
and action. The personages were Time, Pleas- 
ure, the Body, the World, and Human Life. 
There was also a chorus that commented, after 
the manner of the Greek tragedies, upon the 
events narrated. The instruments of accom- 
paniment were placed behind the scenes, and 
were as follows : una lira doppia, a double lyre ; 
un clavicembalo, a harpsichord ; un chitarone, 
a large guitar ; due flauti, two flutes. Instead 
of overture, a madrigal with all the voice parts 
doubled was recommended by the composer. 
The example thus set by Cavaliere was speedily 
followed by other composers. Among the most 
distinguished of those who contributed to this 
form of composition during the 17th century 
were Carissimi, Stradella, Scarlatti, and Caldara. 
Another element combined with that of the 
miracle plays to give form to the opera ; this 
was Greek tragedy. With the revival of letters 
a new impetus had been given, especially in 
Italy, to the study of the Greek authors. At 
the house of Giovanni Bardi, count of Vernico, 
in Florence, a small musical and literary circle 
was accustomed to meet to discuss the probable 
forms of Greek music, and the method in which 
they could be made available. Vincenzo Galilei, 
father of the astronomer, was one of this num- 
ber. From theory they advanced to practice, 



90 



MUSIC 



and Galilei was the first to write music for a 
single voice. Among the members of this circle 
were the poet Rinuccini and the musician Peri. 
Their efforts to reproduce the musical declama- 
tion of the Greeks resulted finally in the mu- 
sical setting to Rinuccini's Euridice, in which 
appeared what they called the stilo rappresen- 
tativo, which in a somewhat altered form we 
now know as recitative. The opera of Euri- 
dice was called by its authors a drama per mu- 
sica, the term opera not being applied to this 
kind of composition till 1656. The scenery 
represented first green fields, then the ocean, 
afterward the abodes of the blest, and finally 
the torments of the infernal regions. The lan- 
guage was bombastic, and the music awkward 
and affected. The solos were in the style of 
recitative, and the choruses in madrigal form. 
The instruments were the same as those men- 
tioned above in the oratorio. The next Italian 
operatic composer of eminence was Olaudio 
Monte verde. His Orfeo, composed in 1607, 
was an advance upon Peri's music. The or- 
chestration was better, the recitative more dra- 
matic, and suggestions appeared of the aria, 
which was yet to be invented. The opera 
quickly spread over Italy, and finally crossed 
the Alps, Cardinal Mazarin introducing it in 
1645 into France. The first opera there per- 
formed was La finta pazza, which was given 
in the presence of Louis XIV. The first French 
opera was called Akebar roi de Mogol ; the 
words and music were by the abbe Mailly, and 
it was performed in 1646. The first French 
operatic composer of any note was Cambert, 
who however was speedily supplanted in the 
favor of the king by the Italian Lulli. This 
composer for many years controlled the French 
lyric stage, more by his sense of dramatic situ- 
ations than by the merit of his musical forms. 
He was the first to elaborate and give promi- 
nence to the overture. The first of his operas 
performed in France was Les fetes de V Amour 
et de Bacchus, which was represented in 1672. 
The principal Italian composers during the last 
half of the 17th century were Cesti, Alessan^ 
dro Scarlatti, and Carissimi. The last did not 
write for the stage. Henry Purcell (1658-'95) 
was at this time one of the few native com- 
posers on whom the English could look with 
pride. He had been a close student, almost 
an imitator, of the style of Carissimi, and did 
much, both through his operas and church com- 
positions, for the elevation of his art. The 
18th century was the age of great orchestral 
writers, operatic and oratorio composers, and 
performers. It would be impossible to name 
all of the illustrious musicians of that century ; 
among those of most conspicuous talent were 
(in the order of their birth) Marcello, Domeni- 
co Scarlatti, Rameau, Handel, Bach, Porpora, 
Hasse, Martini, Pergolesi, Jomelli, Gluck, Pic- 
cmi, Haydn, Gretry, Paisiello, dementi, Cima- 
rosa, Mozart, Cherubini, Mehul, Beethoven, and 
Spontini. Auber, Schubert, Rossini, Meyer- 
beer, Donizetti, and others, though born in the 



18th century, belong rather to the 19th, in 
which their genius began to manifest itself. 
We can only refer with any detail to such of 
those whom we have named as exercised a 
marked and lasting influence upon the art. 
First among them was Johann Sebastian Bach. 
Though he was only cantor at St. Thomas's 
church in Leipsic, and undertook no works 
that were not in the simple line of his duty, 
he has given to the world organ and vocal 
compositions unrivalled in their way. The 
art of fugue writing, so steadfastly cultivated 
during the so-called Dutch period, he per- 
fected. Taking the German chorals for his 
themes, he wrought upon them his great work, 
the passion music, the sublimest ever composed 
for the Protestant church. Though Bach pro- 
duced also delightful compositions for the 
stringed orchestra, such as his suite in D, his 
fame must rest upon his passion music and his 
organ and pianoforte works. While Bach waa 
elevating the church music of Protestantism, 
his great contemporary Handel was working 
out that mighty chain of oratorios that have 
since been the delight of the world. For many 
years he had devoted himself to the composi- 
tion of Italian operas ; more than 40 of these 
exist, but never will be placed upon the stage 
again. From them, however, have been select- 
ed many arias, such as the Lascia cfrio pianga 
from the opera of Rinaldo, that are still among 
the greatest favorites of the concert room. It 
was fortunate for the world that Handel failed 
in his operatic enterprises, otherwise such works 
as "Saul," "Samson," "Judas Maccabeus," 
"Israel in Egypt," and the "Messiah" would 
never have existed. In the century and a quar- 
ter that has elapsed since they were created, 
no greater works of their kind have been pro- 
duced. From Haydn composition for the or- 
chestra received its greatest development. This 
illustrious composer when a boy had the benefit 
of instruction from Porpora, the great Italian 
composer, from whom he derived his knowl- 
edge of vocal writing ; and he learned the art 
of setting words to music from Metastasio the 
poet. But with all these advantages he failed 
as an operatic composer, while he succeeded in 
orchestral music and oratorios. His genius for 
melody was so great that, although he was near- 
ly contemporary with Handel, his melodies are 
in advance of Handel's in grace, symmetry, and 
essential beauty. His muse was kindred with 
Mozart's. In symphonic writing, in many re- 
spects, he has not been excelled ; in breadth 
and depth, however, the palm for that depart- 
ment has been awarded to his successor Bee- 
thoven. The form of the symphony, as devel- 
oped by Haydn, is derived from that of the 
piano sonato or violin quartet; generally it 
is composed of four movements: an allegro, 
usually the principal movement ; then a slow 
movement; then a minuet, or old dance tune; 
then a rondo, or finale, of quick movement. 
There is no organic completeness in this de- 
sign, so far as the number of movements is 



MUSIC 



91 



concerned; they are all distinct, and there 
might as well be one movement, or 40, if so 
many could be compassed; but symphonies 
and quartets were composed according to this 
method as though under an irrefragable law. 
Their structure is: a theme or melody in a 
given key, say major ; a passage leading to 
another key, G major, the most closely related 
to the first, with a strong assertion of the chord 
of the seventh or the fifth of G, which is D, be- 
fore the second theme or melody is taken ; then 
follows some accessory and climacteric matter, 
and we arrive at the end of the exposition of 
the primary ideas. The second part is taken 
up, generally after the first is repeated, but 
without stopping; and now begins what is 
called the development of ideas, in which the 
primary ones are set off in various ways, by 
new harmonies or accessories of n^ody, by 
double counterpoints (that is to say, placing 
phrases indifferently as the bass or treble), by 
modulations, by instrumentation, &c. ; and 
this runs into a repetition of the original mel- 
ody, to which the second melody is added, but 
this time in the same key with the original, 
and the whole is crowned with a musical pero- 
ration in which appear the most ambitious 
flights and climaxes. The second movement 
of the symphony is a clear melody, with acces- 
sory and developed matter, ancl the melody re- 
peated with a short peroration. The third is 
a minuet, measured and somewhat developed. 
In Beethoven's symphonies the minuet is set 
aside for the scherzo, or playful movement, in 
which piquancy is aimed at. The last move- 
ment of the symphony is a melody or theme 
with accessories, its repetition, and a perora- 
tion. Sometimes the last movement is the 
most important. In the choral symphony of 
Beethoven the voices are added. The quartets 
and sonatas of Haydn, as well as those of later 
composers, are on the same plan as sympho- 
nies, but generally briefer, as the variety of 
instrumental coloring in an orchestra warrants 
greater length. In the course of 50 years 
Haydn produced more than 500 instrumental 
compositions. A remarkable trait of the com- 
poser was his unerring sense of orchestral 
color, and of the precise instrument or combi- 
nation of instruments that best produced the 
effects he had in mind. While Haydn was de- 
veloping the instrumentation of his time, Gluck 
was working with equal zeal and success in the 
domain of opera. He was a great reformer, 
and was the first to announce in clear and un- 
mistakable language the true principles upon 
which opera should be composed. Much that 
he then said has since been reiterated by Rich- 
ard Wagner. Even now the world is slow to 
accept the theories then advanced ; what won- 
der then that Gluck in his day excited the live- 
liest antagonism, and that a contention arose 
between his adherents and those of Piccini (the 
Gluckists and the Piccinists) which enlisted on 
one side or the other all the literary and fash- 
ionable people of Paris ? In the preface to an 



edition of three of his operas (Paris, 1769) 
Gluck expounded his theories of operatic com- 
position, the pith of which is that the legiti- 
mate purpose of music is to second poetry in 
order to strengthen the expression of the senti- 
ments and the interest of the drama, without 
interrupting the action or weakening it by 
superfluous embellishments. (See GLUCK, vol. 
viii., p. 43.) These maxims the composer ex- 
emplified by his works. The subjects were 
mostly from Greek classical literature, as the 
names of his principal operas indicate, such as 
"Orpheus," "Alcestis," "Iphigenia in Aulis," 
"Paris and Helen," and "Iphigenia in Tauris." 
In spite of the fierce opposition of the Piccini 
faction, France gave its adherence with enthu- 
siasm to Gluck and his works, and from that 
day the false and artificial methods of the ear- 
lier composers were laid aside, and a new era 
began for the opera. The dramatic and poetic 
element found its true position by the side of 
melody and harmony. The next great com- 
poser to exert a wide influence upon operatic 
and other forms of composition was Mozart. 
He was a man of universal musical genius, and 
was distinguished as a writer of chamber music 
and symphonies and as an operatic composer. 
His pianoforte compositions were also nu- 
merous ; but his influence was not marked in 
that direction, since he adhered to the forms 
given him by his predecessors, without effect- 
ing in them any great change or improvement. 
To this generation he is best known through 
his operas. He was a thorough master of the 
Italian art of singing, and brought to the sup- 
port of the voice and the enriching of his 
scores his profound knowledge of treatment. 
What Gluck had begun in the way of sweeping 
aside the formalism and artificiality of the 
earlier Italian operatic composers, Mozart com- 
pleted. Their works together gave a new direc- 
tion to art, which has had its effect on all sub- 
sequent composers for the lyric stage. While 
the "Orpheus," "Alcestis," and "Iphigenia" 
of Gluck, and the Don Giovanni, "Marriage of 
Figaro," and " Magic Flute " of Mozart still keep 
the stage, the works of their contemporaries 
have mostly passed into oblivion. Cimarosa's 
Matrimonio segreto is still occasionally heard, 
but we look in vain in the modern operatic 
repertoire for the works of Paisiello, Salieri, 
Sarti, Paer, Zingarelli, Hasse, or Righini, all 
prominent composers in Mozart's time. But 
the 18th century was distinguished also by many 
illustrious performers. The more extended 
knowledge of harmony and the constantly in- 
creasing technical ability of instrumental play- 
ers pushed on the musical instrument makers 
to improvements and new inventions. The 
violins, violas, violoncellos, and double basses, 
as we have seen, had already attained their 
perfection at the hands of the Amati, Stradi- 
varius, the Guarneri, Stainer, and other great 
makers. Yet much remained to be done for 
keyed instruments, and the efforts for improve- 
ment made in this direction resulted in the 



92 



MUSIC 



substitution of hammers for the quills that 
were used in the harpsichord, and the instru- 
ment so constructed took the name of forte 
piano. The invention has been ascribed ^to 
several different men, and by some authorities 
it is carried back to Bartolommeo Cristofali 
of Padua, harpsichord player to the court of 
Tuscany. Improvements were made by Schro- 
ter of Bohemia, Silbermann of Strasburg, and 
Stein of Augsburg; but the progress was quite 
slow. The piano used by Gluck was made by 
Pohlmann in 1772, and is still in existence. It 
is a small square instrument, 4 ft. long and 
2 ft. wide, the wires being little more than 
threads, and so thin that a moderately hard 
blow would break them. The action is imper- 
fect, and the hammers are a few thicknesses of 
leather glued over the head of a horizontal jack 
working on a hinge. John Broadwood and 
sons became the leading English makers of 
pianofortes in the latter part of the century, 
and about the same time the house of Erard 
was founded in Paris; and Pleyel soon after 
established himself also in Paris as a piano- 
forte maker. John Broadwood's first patent 
bears date July 17, 1773. Among the cele- 
brated performers of this time were Tartini, 
Farinelli, and Dragonetti. Among composers 
born in the last century who came to their 
maturity and exerted their influence mainly in 
the present, may be named Oherubini, Beet- 
hoven, Spontini, Boieldieu, Hummel, Bishop, 
Auber, Spohr, Paganini, Weber, Herold, Ros- 
sini, Moscheles, Meyerbeer, Schubert, Merca- 
dante, Donizetti, and Halevy. Of the men 
born within the present century who have dis- 
tinguished themselves in the art, either as com- 
posers or executants, are Bellini, Adam, Berlioz, 
Herz, Balfe, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Schumann, 
David, Ole Bull, Thomas, Liszt, Hiller, Thalberg, 
Wagner, Ernst, Wallace, Verdi, Franz, Bennett, 
Gade, Gounod, Vieuxtemps, Raff, Rubinstein, 
and Joachim. Among these Beethoven beyond 
a doubt occupies the loftiest position in the art ; 
with him instrumental music reached its high- 
est point of development. Whatever form of 
music he touched he enlarged and ennobled ; 
under his hand the sonata was perfected and 
the symphony rose to its grandest proportions, 
culminating in the ninth, concerning which 
Wagner has said that with it " the last of sym- 
phonies had been written and the domain of 
instrumental music exhausted." His two mass- 
es and his single opera Fidelio are also among 
the noblest accomplishments of German art. 
A few years later than Beethoven, Spontini 
was born. Among the immediate successors 
of Mozart he holds an illustrious place. His 
style was noble and vigorous, his orchestral 
treatment admirable, and his dramatic instincts 
correct. In his Vestale and Fernando Cortes 
are many passages of true genius. Cherubini 
may be cited as a composer who particularly 
linked the styles of the close of the last cen- 
tury with those of this. He produced operas 
which are still represented, and he was equally 



successful in his sublime church music. He 
competed with Reicha, moreover, in his pro- 
found treatises on the fugue. In brilliant flu- 
ency Rossini excels all others who have written 
for the Italian opera ; but then it must be re- 
membered that he was preceded by Mozart, 
whose operas were written to Italian words, 
and with melodies identical in shape, in csesu- 
ral pauses, in syllabication, and in relation to 
the chords, with the Italian school of Paisiello, 
Piccini, and Cimarosa. Whatever tendency 
there may have been to avoid excessive orna- 
mentation in singing, and to maintain the 
theory of Gluck, was set aside for many years 
by Rossini. Mozart, who indulged occasion- 
ally in ultra-florid music, or several notes rap- 
idly sung to a syllable, was not brilliant in 
that department. Rossini was, and his ornate 
arabesque work not being of the old pattern, 
that is to say, merely roulades following a 
plain melody, but being integrated with the 
melody itself, he struck the secret of popu- 
larity, and swayed Europe musically. The 
voices, whether bass, tenor, contralto, or so- 
prano, were made to do this ornate work, lav- 
ished on serious and comic scenes alike; but 
with all this profusion of notes, there are ever 
present touches of severe simplicity. This was 
exemplified when he wrote for the French 
Grand Opera, and produced Guillaume Tell. 
Among Rossini's Italian contemporaries were 
Bellini and Donizetti. The romantic, tender, 
and impassioned strains of the former gave a 
new impulse to the Italian music, and estab- 
lished a greater popularity for it than it had 
hitherto enjoyed. The directness of his melo- 
dies, and his use of a few notes instead of many 
for masculine voices, enabled amateurs to seize 
hold of them who were unable to cope with 
the floridities of Rossini. In this new school 
Donizetti was the peer of Bellini, and the au- 
thor of Lucia and Lucrezia Borgia, with all 
his shortcomings, has never been surpassed in 
popularity. It remains only to speak of Verdi, 
and all the Italian composers of any decided 
influence in the art will have been referred to. 
This composer exhibits a perfect apprehension 
of climax, intuitive knowledge of stage busi- 
ness, and strong dramatic perception. His 
melodies are clear, strong, and well defined. 
In his earlier works his merits stood in strong 
contrast with certain vices of style, such ^ as 
overstraining the voice for effect, and noisy 
and empty unison passages. In his later works, 
such as the Alda and the " Requiem Mass," he 
has profited by the example of more painstaking 
composers, and produced works more carefully 
considered and of higher merit than his pre- 
vious compositions. Many of the operas pro- 
duced by composers for the French stage com- 
bine grace, brilliancy, breadth, and grandeur. 
Among these the works of Meyerbeer are con- 
spicuous. The Huguenots contains some of 
the finest music ever written for the operatic 
stage. It has been objected to Meyerbeer that 
his was too much the music of effect, that he 



MUSIC 



93 



sacrificed the higher form of art to the spec- 
tacle, that years of labor were devoted to the 
careful study of form, and that the soul es- 
caped ; in a word, that while his operas evinced 
a prodigious talent and industry, the genius 
was lacking. However this may be, the world 
has had reason to admire the splendid results 
of the patient labor which this composer be- 
stowed on his operas. Among the French 
composers HaleVy holds an honorable place. 
His opera La Juive, produced 40 years ago, 
has maintained its place with undiminished ef- 
fect, though in his later compositions he was 
less successful. The most popular of recent 
French composers are Gounod and Ambroise 
Thomas. The Faust of the former and Mignon 
of the latter are performed wherever French 
or Italian opera has a foothold. In Germany 
the modern composers wielding the greatest 
influence have been Von Weber, Mendelssohn, 
Schumann, and Wagner. Von Weber, grasp- 
ing all the extensions and improvements in or- 
chestration, wrote overtures of a larger tex- 
ture and clearer dramatic form than any pre- 
decessor, and infused into his operas quali- 
ties which placed him at the head of the new 
school, the romantic. His vocal writing often 
wants fluency, though this is less apparent in 
Der Freischutz than in EuryantJie ; had his 
metres been better, his music would not have 
been amenable to this charge. But the tran- 
scendentalism of his music was the most daring 
ever attempted. In a certain class of passion- 
ate expression he was without a rival ; certain- 
ly no such intense portraiture of womanly love 
was drawn in music before his Agatha. The 
influence of Mendelssohn was exercised part- 
ly through his orchestral works, but mainly 
through his two great oratorios " St. Paul " and 
" Elijah." Schumann manifested his strength 
in the vigor and novel form of his pianoforte 
works, and in the intensely poetic feeling, the 
dramatic fervor, and the variety of color of his 
compositions for orchestra ; while Wagner has 
made his power felt through the earnestness 
with which he has put forth his ideas in his 
critical writings and through his great works 
based upon those ideas. The opposition and 
discussion that have been aroused by the the- 
ories broached by him are far greater even than 
those that were excited when Gluck propound- 
ed somewhat similar ones a century ago. But 
Wagner has gone much further than Gluck 
dared in carrying out his ideas. As briefly 
stated by himself, his objection to previous 
methods upon which operatic composition has 
proceeded is this: "The error of opera as a 
form of art has consisted in the fact that music, 
which is only a means of expression, has been 
made the end, while the drama, which is the 
true end of expression, has been made the 
means; and thus the actual lyric drama has 
been made to rest upon the basis of absolute 
music." If this theory is accepted and acted 
upon by future composers in the same spirit 
in which it is carried out by its promulgator, 



it will revolutionize the art of operatic compo- 
sition. Among its immediate consequences is 
the subordination of the composer to the poet. 
The drama is the thing first to be considered, 
the music being only a means through which 
the emotion excited by the dramatic situation 
is deepened and intensified. In the opera the 
aria has always been one of the principal means 
through which the music found expression.; 
but the aria being a formal thing, constructed 
according to certain fixed rules and centring 
attention on itself and its own melodic beauty, 
this retarded the action and distracted the au- 
ditor from the thing sung about to the thing 
sung. Accordingly, this could find no place 
under the new. theory, and Wagner cast it 
aside, putting in its place the melos or " endless 
melody," a kind of musical declamation spring- 
ing naturally out of the sentiment of the words 
that are being sung. The orchestra also ceases 
to be a mere instrument of accompaniment, 
and is made by Wagner to enter into the dra- 
matic situation and express it with every va- 
riety of tone and harmonic combination. The 
operas, or rather musical dramas as Wagner 
prefers to call them, written upon these the- 
ories, he avers should have a poetical basis; 
and he finds the proper subjects in the myths 
of his own country, making the Nibelungenlied 
the text of his later works. He has deemed 
it essential for the true exposition of his ideas 
that his latest operas should not be brought 
out in any of the German opera houses, but 
should have a building constructed expressly 
with a view to their fit and complete presen- 
tation. Such a building is now in course of 
erection at Baireuth, Bavaria, and there in 
the spring of 1876 Wagner proposes to put his 
theories to the final test. The four dramas 
composing the tetralogy, Der Ring der Nibe- 
lungen, will there be produced, each on a 
separate day. They consist of Das Rheingold, 
Die Walkure, Siegfried,, and Goiter dammerung. 
Upon the success or failure of the magnificent 
and costly experiment there to be made, the 
future of the opera will in a measure depend. 
A very decided influence has been exercised 
upon the musical art of our own day by the 
composers for the pianoforte. The extensions 
and improvements of that instrument, now 
carried so far as to make it the epitome of the 
orchestra, have been of great use to composers 
of every class. Through the grand piano and 
the organ the intricacies of the science of har- 
mony have been explored, chords analyzed, the 
relations of keys made clear, and melody de- 
veloped. About 1840 Thalberg began to write 
dramatic music for the piano, in which he gave 
the precise vocal pitch of the airs, and at the 
same time surrounded and embellished them 
with an arabesque of brilliant execution. Then 
came Liszt, remarkable as a conductor and 
composer, but chiefly as a pianist. He carried 
the difficulties of pianoforte playing to their 
utmost limit, and placed himself by his aston- 
ishing powers at the head of modern pianists. 



94: MUSICAL BOX 

Chopin was a composer of the greatest sensi- 
bility. Using the rhythms 'and characteristic- 
traits of the music of his native country, he 
treated his themes with a passionate and dra- 
matic fervor and grace that have made him 
the poet of the instrument. Rubinstein, Clara 
Schumann, and Von Billow are also to be 
ranked as virtuosos of the first order. The pi- 
anists whom we have named have seemingly 
thoroughly explored the capacities of the pi- 
anoforte as it at present exists, both as an 
instrument of expression and of execution. 
Every technical difficulty has been presented 
and every form of sentiment expressed, and in 
this department of the art at least there would 
seem to be but slight room for further pro- 
gress. See Hawkins, " A General History of 
the Science and Practice of Music" (5 vols. 
4to, London, 1776; new ed., 2 vols. 4to, 1853); 
Burney's " General History of Music from the 
Earliest Ages to the present Period " (4 vols. 
4to, London, l776-'89); Forkel, Allgemeine 
GescUcJite der Musilc (2 vols., Leipsic, 1788) ; 
Hullah, " History of Modern Music " (London, 
1862) ; Fetis, Histoire generate de la musique 
depuis les temps les plus anciens jusqu'd nos 
jours (4 vols., Paris, unfinished) ; Ritter, " His- 
tory of Music, in the Form of Lectures " (2 vols., 
Boston, 1871-'4) ; and Chappell, " The History 
of Music" (4 vols., London, 1874 et seq.}. 

MUSICAL BOX, a case enclosing mechanism so 
constructed as to play tunes automatically. 
The principle of the mechanism is the same as 
that of the barrel or hand organ, and of the 
machinery which is used for the chimes of bells 
in church towers. The use of machines for 
making mechanical music is almost coeval with 
the invention of clocks; but musical boxes 
proper were not introduced much before the 
latter half of the 18th century. Among the 
earliest made were small ones to be worn as a 
charm or seal, pendent from the watch chain ; 
and from this insignificant beginning has grown 
the modern musical box, capable of almost 
every musical effect and of playing from one 
to more than 100 tunes. The principal parts 
of the mechanism are the comb, the cylinder, 
and the fly or regulator. The comb is a steel 
board with many tongues, arranged like the 
teeth of a comb. The cylinder, which is usu- 
ally brass, is fitted with small steel pins or 
points, representing the notes of the tune to 
be played. This is moved forward or backr 
ward by mechanism into a proper position to 
act on the comb, when it revolves and its pins 
raise and let fall the teeth, producing musical 
tones. As the notes must necessarily follow 
in rapid succession, it is impossible to make 
one tooth of the comb produce the requisite 
number without striking on the following pin ; 
therefore, when needed, there are two, three, 
or four teeth of the comb of the same tone or 
pitch placed beside each other, which are struck 
by pins arranged side by side instead of behind 
each other, thus permitting the rapid recur- 
rence of the same note. The time in which 



MUSK 

the cylinder makes its revolutions depends upon 
the train of wheels and pinions leading to the 
fly. In all the larger music boxes the fly or 
regulator is adjustable, the wings which im- 
pinge against the air being capable of limited 
extension and contraction, thus retarding or 
accelerating the rate of revolution of the cylin- 
der. The tones of the tongues are regulated 
by their length and thickness ; the shorter they 
are, the quicker are the vibrations and the 
higher in the scale is the pitch. The vibrations 
of the long teeth are retarded by masses of lead 
attached to them, and underneath them are 
placed little dampers made of spring wire for 
the purpose of checking the vibrations when 
too long. Various attachments or accompani- 
ments, such as bells, drums, and castanets, are 
often applied to musical boxes, and different 
effects are produced according to the arrange- 
ment of the music. In respect to these effects 
musical boxes are called mandolines, expres- 
sives, quatuors, organocleides, piccolos, &c. 
Some have a combination of reeds and pipes, 
and are called flutes, celestial voices, or harmo- 
niphones. The musical clocks of the Black 
Forest, and the musical boxes of Prague and of 
Ste. Susanne in France, are largely exported. 
The centres of the manufacture, in its present 
state of mechanical perfection, are Geneva and 
Ste. Croix, in the Pays de Vaud, Switzerland. 

MUSIMON. See SHEEP. 

MUSK, a concretionary substance of peculiar 
and most powerful odor, which is secreted in 
a projecting hairy sac or bag between the um- 
bilicus and the prepuce of the male of a small 
Asiatic animal, called the musk deer, and named 
by Linnaeus moschus moschiferus. The sac is 
from 2 to 3 in. long, and contains two or three 
drachms of musk, which when first removed is 
soft and almost liquid, but afterward hardens 
and dries into a substance resembling dark-col- 
ored snuff, coarsely granulated. The hunters 
cut off, tie up, and dry the sac, or, as it is called 
in commerce, the pod ; and in this state the arti- 
cle is transported. In China, where it is chiefly 
supplied to commerce, the pods are packed for 
shipment in catty boxes holding from 20 to 25 
each. A single pod being worth from $15 to 
$18, the adulteration of the article is a profita- 
ble operation ; and the Chinese practise it with 
great skill, and to such an extent that genuine 
musk is scarcely known in trade. Dried blood, 
having the appearance of musk, is introduced 
into artificial sacs made of the skin of the ani- 
mal, and a variety of other substances are add- 
ed, with which enough musk is intermixed to 
give its strong odor to the mass. Musk of dif- 
ferent qualities is also mixed together by the 
Chinese with the intention of passing off the 
whole as the best. That of Tonquin, which is 
obtained only from China, is far stronger than 
that of southern Siberia, which is also carried 
to China as well as to Russia. The Siberian 
article is received to some extent through Eu- 
rope. The pods are larger and more elongated 
than the Chinese, and the musk is in finer 



MUSK DEER 



95 



grains, and possesses a fetid odor; while the 
Chinese is very strongly scented, and has an 
odor somewhat ammoniacal. A variety ex- 
ported from Calcutta, where it is brought from 
Thibet and the Himalaya mountains, is es- 
teemed better than the Siberian, but inferior to 
the Chinese. Musk is familiarly known as a 
perfume of most penetrating and lasting odor. 
According to the accounts of Tavernier, Char- 
din, and other travellers in Asia, it is so pow- 
erful when first taken from the animal that 
those exposed to its influence are in danger of 
haemorrhage from the nostrils, even when the 
nose and mouth are protected by coverings of 
linen. Headache is often produced by ap- 
proaching the sacs even in the open air. The 
substance was formerly in high repute as a 
medicine, and is still largely used by eastern 
nations and to some extent in civilized coun- 
tries, being administered in the form of a pill 
or emulsion. It is used as a stimulant and anti- 
spasmodic, and has been employed in hysteri- 
cal and other convulsions, hiccough, and low 
forms of fever. Its price, the uncertainty of 
its composition, and a want of confidence in 
the efficiency of its action, render it by no 
means a popular drug with American prac- 
titioners. Musk is however chiefly of value 
as a perfume ; and it is the most remarkable 
of substances for the diffusiveness and perma- 
nence of its odor. A whole room has been 
known to be perfumed with it for 30 years, 
and no perceptible loss of weight in the musk 
was occasioned thereby ; and specimens known 
to be 100 years old were as strong as the fresh 
article. One part communicates its smell to 
more than 3,000 parts of inodorous powder. 
Its taste is disagreeably bitter and acrid. Its 
chemical composition is variable and exceed- 
ingly complicated. A volatile compound, prob- 
ably of ammonia and a volatile oil, has been 
found by Guibert and Blondeau, in the pro- 
portion of 47 per cent. Besides this, they 
separated a large number of other ingredients. 
MUSK DEER (moschidai), a family of small 
ruminants, living in flocks on the continent of 
Asia and the larger islands of the Indian archi- 
pelago. They have no horns in either sex and 
no lachrymal sinuses, but the males have two 
elongated canines in the upper jaw, used as in- 
struments of defence and offence ; the legs in 
some are exceedingly slender ; the name is de- 
rived from the presence in the males of some 
of the species of a bag or pouch beneath the 
abdomen, which secretes the powerfully odor- 
iferous substance known as musk. The true 
musk deer (moschus moscliiferus, Linn.) is of 
about the size of a small roebuck, with shorter 
legs and thicker body; the color is reddish 
brown, paler below and on the inside of the 
limbs, with throat and streak on each side of 
the neck white, and sometimes whitish gray 
on the sides ; the hair is stiff, long, and curled ; 
the canines project an inch beyond the closed 
mouth; the hoofs are long and sharp, well 
adapted for the rocky places in which they de- 
584 VOL. xn. 7 



light to dwell in the manner of the chamois ; 
the ears are long and the tail short. It is shy, 
very active, and not easily taken; it is pur- 
sued chiefly for the odorous secretion, which is 
strongest and most abundant during the rutting 
season. This species is distributed over the 




Musk Deer (Moschus moschii'erus). 

mountainous regions of central Asia, especially 
Thibet and China, extending even into northern 
Tartary. The flesh is sometimes eaten, and the 
skins are prepared as articles of clothing and as 
leather. A species is said to exist near Sierra 
Leone, on the west coast of Africa. In tropi- 
cal Asia and its islands are the allied genera, 
tragulus (Briss.) and meminna (Gray), con- 
taining the most diminutive of ruminants, some 
of them no larger in the body than a hare. 
The napu musk deer (T. Javanicus, Briss.) has 
shorter ears, smooth hair, very slender legs, 
with the supplementary hoofs at a greater dis- 
tance from the ground; like the rest of the 
genus it has no musk sac ; it is about the size 
of a full-grown hare, of a glossy ferruginous 
brown color, lighter along the back; throat, 
chin, under parts, and inside of the limbs white ; 
on the fore part of the chest are three broad, 
white, radiating stripes, separated anteriorly 
by bands of blackish brown ; and a white line 
passes back on the cheek from the lower lip. 
It is commonly called the mouse deer in the 
straits of Malacca. It inhabits Java and Su- 
matra, frequenting thickets near the seashore, 
and feeding principally on berries of a species 
of ardisia ; it is easily tamed, when taken 
young. The kanchil (T. pygmceus, Briss.) is 
of the size of a small rabbit, of a delicate and 
elegant shape, and very active ; this is the spe- 
cies which is said to leap to the branches of 
a tree when pursued, hanging suspended by 
the canines until its enemy has passed by ; the 
flesh is excellent. The color is reddish brown 
on the back, bay on the sides, white below, 
with three white streaks under the throat ; it 
is common in the peninsula of Malacca and the 
neighboring islands, where it is captured in 
traps or by throwing sticks- at the legs when it 



96 



MUSKEGON 



comes to feed on the sweet potatoes at night ; 
it is very cunning, feigning death when caught 




Kanchil (Tragulus pygmaeus). 

in a noose. The Ceylon musk (meminna In- 
dica, Gray) is about 17 in. high, an elegant, 
graceful, and gentle animal, whose flesh is ex- 
cellent food; the ground color is cinereous 
olive, spotted, striped, and barred with white ; 
it lives in the jungles of Ceylon and of India. 

MUSKEGON, a S. W. county of the S. penin- 
sula of Michigan, bordering on Lake Michigan, 
and watered by White and Muskegon rivers 
and other streams ; area, about 500 sq. in. ; 
pop. in 1870, 14,894. The surface consists of 
undulating prairie land ; the soil is fertile. It 
is traversed by the Chicago and Michigan Lake 
Shore railroad. The chief productions in 1870 
were 28,920 bushels of wheat, 28,629 of Indian 
corn, 24,028 of oats, 72,335 of potatoes, 55,- 
872 Ibs. of wool, and 5,658 tons of hay. There 
were 800 horses, 975 milch cows, 1,037 other 
cattle, 2,530 sheep, and 1,545 swine; 3 manu- 
factories of carriages and wagons, 3 of iron 
castings, 4 of machinery, 3 of sash, doors, and 
blinds, 5 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 1 
tannery, 1 currying establishment, and 62 saw 
mills. Capital, Muskegon. 

MUSKEGOJV, a city and the county seat of 
Muskegon co., Michigan, on Muskegon river, 
where it expands into a lake of the same name, 
near its mouth in Lake Michigan, on the Chi- 
cago and Michigan Lake Shore railroad, and at 
the terminus of the Michigan Lake Shore, the 
Muskegon and Big Rapids, and the Grand River 
Valley railroads, 90 m. N". W. of Lansing, and 
175 m. W. K W. of Detroit; pop. in 1870, 
6,002 ; in 1874, 8,505. It is a stopping place 
for the East Shore steamboat line, and has a 
daily line of steamers to Chicago. The soil in 
the vicinity is well adapted to fruit growing, 
and considerable attention has lately been paid 
to the cultivation of peaches and grapes; but 
the chief business of the city is the manufac- 
ture and shipment of lumber. The logs are 
floated down the river to the lake, which is 
5 m. long and 2 m. wide. The annual ship- 
ments amount to about 300,000,000 ft. The 



MUSKET 

trade employs more than 100 vessels, and 
large quantities are also shipped by rail. The 
principal manufacturing establishments are 32 
saw mills, two flouring mills, two large steam 
engine works and f ounderies, two saw factories, 
a boiler factory, and five planing mills and sash 
and blind factories. The city contains two na- 
tional banks, a union school, five ward schools, 
three weekly newspapers, and ten churches. 
Muskegon was first settled in 1836. It was 
laid out in 1853, incorporated as a village in 
1861, and as a city in 1870. 

MUSKET, the smooth-bored firearm with 
which the infantry of all civilized nations has 
been armed from the beginning of the 18th 
century until nearly the present time. The 
best authorities give the derivation of the name 
from the French mouchet or the Latin muscetus, 
a male sparrow hawk. This is not so improb- 
able a derivation as would at first sight appear, 
for other firearms have been named after ani- 
mals, as for instance the falcon and the dragon ; 
and the probable reason of its use will be found 
further on. The first portable firearm of which 
we have any representation is exhibited in a 
French translation of Quintus Curtius, written 
in 1468. It was called the bombard or bom- 
bardelle, and was a heavy weapon made in the 
shape of a blunderbuss, and fired from the 
shoulder, or from a wooden frame or rampart, 




FIG. 1. Bombard. 



with a live coal or match. There is some evi- 
dence that these weapons were used as early as 



MUSKET 



1346 by the English at the battle of Crecy, but 
it is not definite. They were certainly used 
before the beginning of the 16th century. 
When gunpowder was first applied to warlike 
purposes, the cannon were hooped, and ex- 
ternally were not unlike boxes. In Germany 
they were therefore called Buchse, and an ar- 
tillerist was a Buchsenmeister. When guns 
were transported on wheels they were called 
Kanonenbuchse. The portable arm which fol- 
lowed the bombardelle was called in German 
Hakenbiichse, because it had attached to the for- 
ward part of the stock a hook {Hakeii} which 
received the shock of the recoil. This name 
was corrupted in other languages to arquebus, 
arquebuse, archibuso, &c. The arm was also 




FIG. 2. Arquebus. 



used with a forked stick upon which to rest the 
forward end in the act of firing, and was, if 
not the earliest, certainly one of the earliest 
portable firearms. About the same time the 
hammer and pan for priming were applied to 
the arm, and they or their equivalents have 
been used on portable firearms ever since. 
When the hammer was first used, it was merely 
a piece of iron bent in the shape of the letter 
S, and called the serpent, one end of which 
carried the live coal or match, and the other 
acted as a trigger. It was fastened to the 
piece at its centre, about which it could move ; 
when the piece was to be fired the trigger end 
was pulled, and the match end was brought 
down on the priming. Springs were soon at- 
tached to it, causing it to go back to its original 
position after it had done its work ; and this 
arrangement was the first gunlock. Muskets 
with the serpent attachment were captured 
from the Chinese at the Peiho forts in 1860, 



-. 8. Arquebus and Serpent. 

and were in use in Japan until within a few 
years. During the 15th and 16th centuries the 
use of the arquebus became general in the con- 
tinental nations of Europe ; but the English 
still retained the crossbow, believing that it 
was more rapid and accurate in its action, and 
that its range was greater. In 1517 the wheel 
gunlock was invented at Nuremberg, and at 
this time the portable arm took the name of 
musket. This lock consisted of a heavy iron 
plate to which the parts were fastened. The 
parts were a steel wheel about an inch and a 
half in diameter and a quarter of an inch thick, 
the circumference of which was channelled. 
To the arbor of the wheel was attached one end 
of a short iron chain, the other end of which 
was fastened to a heavy spring. By means of 



a key, about three fourths of a turn could be 
given to the wheel, compressing the spring. 
When the wheel was turned sufficiently, a dog 
engaged in a corresponding hole in the wheel, 
fastening it. This dog could be lifted out of 
its hole by the action of a lever corresponding 
to the trigger in the modern lock, and when 
the dog was so lifted the wheel moved round 
with some rapidity. Above the wheel was 
fastened the pan, a piece of iron, pan-shaped, 
in the bottom of which was cut a hole through 
which a small part of the circumference of the 
wheel projected, filling the hole. The cock or 
hammer was a piece of iron or steel so ar- 
ranged that one of its ends held a flint or piece 
of iron pyrites between jaws, and the other 
end was fastened to the lock plate, the hammer 
being free to move around the fastening. A 
spring acted upon the fastened end, so that 
when the flint end of the hammer rested upon 
that part of the wheel projecting through the 
pan, the spring pressed it hard on the wheel. 
To discharge the piece with this lock, suppo-: 




FIG. 4 "Wheel Lock with Serpent attached, front view. 




FIG. 4 a. Wheel Lock with Serpent attached, rear view. 

sing the priming to be in the pan, the wheel 
was turned until it engaged the dog ; the cock 
was then turned so that the flint pressed on 
the wheel; then by pushing the trigger or 
lever, the wheel turned quickly, and sparks 
were thrown off, igniting the priming. This 
was an exceedingly ingenious piece of mecha- 
nism, and all flint locks made since its date are 
modifications of it. Many locks of the present 
day contain the same ideas in an improved 
form. The flint was held in the cock or ham- 
mer by jaws moved by a screw. In some 
specimens of this lock these jaws are engraved 
to represent the head of a bird of prey holding 
the flint in its beak. It is not unlikely that 
the name musket originated with this device. 
So in Germany the hammer is called Hahn, 
cock. In England and the United States cock 
was the name of the hammer so long as flint 
locks were used. In France the hammer was 
called chien, dog. As the flint in the wheel 
lock often missed fire, in some cases the ser- 
pent was also attached to one end of the 
lock plate. In this the match was tept lighted, 



98 



MUSKET 



so that the musketeer was sure that by some 
means he could fire his piece. During the 
16th century muskets with wheel locks were 
introduced into all the continental armies, but 
pikes were also used by foot soldiers, and 
the proportion of muskets to pikes was about 
one to three. The musket at that period bore 
the same relation to the infantry that the 
field piece does in armies of the present day. 
It was a good attacking weapon, but in close 
quarters the brunt of the action was borne 
by the pikemen, for the musketeers had as 
much as they could do to take care of their 
unwieldy weapons. In the 16th century the 
flint lock as it exists at present was also invent- 
ed in Spain, and it was merely changed in de- 
tails of construction, and by some subsidiary 
inventions, until it was in general superseded 
by the lock for percussion caps in this century. 
For a long time the flint lock was regarded 
with disfavor as too complicated, and likely 
to fail, and for nearly 100 years its use did not 
become general. It was adopted in France in 
1630. The English were behind continental 
nations in portable firearms in the 16th and 
17th centuries. As late as 1668 "The Corn- 
pleat Body of the Art Military," by Lieut. Col. 
Eichard Elton, which gives a system of infantry 
tactics and manuals for the pike and musket, 
recommends that two thirds of each company 
shall be armed with the musket and one third 
with the pike. The musket manual is for the 
arm with the match lock or serpent, and there 
is nothing in the book to indicate that its au- 




FIG. 5. Chenapan or Snaphaunce Lock. 




carried his musket and its rest, and a large 
sword. Over his left shoulder was slung a broad 
leather belt called a bandolier, the ends of which 
were fastened on the right side. On this were 



FIG. 5 a. Arab Lock of same construction. 

ihor had ever heard of the wheel or flint lock 
The latter was introduced into England about 
the year 1690. The musketeer in the days of 
matchlocks was a very unwieldy soldier. He 




FIG. 6. Musketeer of 16th and 17th centuries, fully 
equipped, showing Schweinsfeder and Musket. 

hung a number of wooden, leather, or tin cylin- 
ders, each containing a charge of powder for his 
musket. The balls were contained in a leather 
bag, and the priming powder in a flask or horn, 
and both were slung by separate slings from 
the left shoulder to the right side. He was a 
man of much greater consideration than is the 
infantry private soldier of the present day, and 
in some armies was allowed a servant to carry 
his musket on the march. At the battle of Wit- 
tenweiler, in 1638, which lasted eight hours, 
the musketeers of the duke of Weimar fired 
seven times only. This account shows that 
the use of the musket at that time did not add 
greatly to the destructiveness of wars. The 
Schweinsfeder (hog's bristle) was the imme- 
diate forerunner of the bayonet. It was a long 
rapier with a thin handle, and its sheath was 
the musket rest, which was an iron tube forked 
at the upper end. When the rapier was to be 
used, the handle was inserted in the muzzle of 
the musket, which then became an efficient 
pike. As the arm became lighter, the musket 
rest gradually went out of use, and in order 
to keep up the use of the arm as a pike as well 
as a firearm, some new weapon had to be de- 
vised. So in 1640 the bayonet was introduced, 
taking its name from Bayonne, where it was 
first made. At first the shank or handle was 
made of wood, and was inserted in the muz- 



MUSKET 



99 



zle of the piece. Soon afterward it was made 
of metal in the shape of a hollow cylinder, 
and was secured to the piece by slipping the 
cylinder over the end of the barrel, and fixed 




FIG. 7. First Bayonets. 1. Bayonet of 1640, triangular 
blade, fastening in bore of inusket. 2. Spanish Bayonet, 
fastening in bore. 3. French Bayonet, fastened by ring 
and spring. 

in place by a stud soldered to the barrel. This 
arrangement permitted the piece to be fired 
with the bayonet fixed. The introduction of 
the bayonet gradually caused the pike to be 
thrown aside as an infantry weapon, and cor- 
respondingly increased the importance of the 
musket. About this time sights were placed 
on muskets, and their accuracy of fire was con- 
sequently much increased. The flint lock was 
improved, and the barrel and stock were fast- 
ened to each other in a more mechanical man- 
ner. Cartridge boxes were introduced, and 
during the second half of the 17th century the 
musket was so materially improved that it 
may be considered as having become the main 
arm of the infantry from the commencement 
of the 18th century. The ramrod of the mus- 
ket, made of wood, was clumsy and easily bro- 
ken until about lYSO-'SO, when the iron ram- 
rod was introduced into the Prussian army by 
Frederick William L, father of Frederick the 
Great ; and the consequent improvement in the 
rapidity of fire of the musket was enormous. 
At the battle of Mollwitz, in 1741, between the 
Austrians and Prussians, the Austrians used 
wooden and the Prussians iron ramrods. The 
defeat of the Austrians was at the time imputed 




FIG. 8. 1. Old Prussian Musket and Bayonet, with wooden 
ramrod. 2 and 3. French Musket and Bayonet, model 
of 1777-1SOO. 

to the superior rapidity of fire of the Prussian 
muskets, due entirely to the use of iron ram- 
rods. During the remainder of the 18th cen- 
tury the musket gradually, by changes in form, 



took on the continent of Europe nearly the 
shape and appearance that it retained until the 
supersedure of the muzzle-loader by the breech- 
loader. Bands were substituted for the pro- 
jections on the barrel which fastened it to the 
stock, the ramrod was lightened, the leather 
strap for carrying the arm on the march was 
added, and the weapon was made simpler and 
more convenient, so that the soldier was sooner 
instructed. France led in these improvements. 
Great Britain seems to have retained an earlier 
model, and bands were not there applied to 
muskets until the present century. In the ear- 
ly part of the 19th century, on account of the 
wars of the French republic and empire, the 
number of muskets manufactured was enor- 
mous. In the two years 1809-' 10 Birmingham 
furnished 575,000 musket barrels and 470,000 
gun locks. In 1813 England made 500,000 
muskets, and from 1814 to 1816 she furnished 
for her allies and herself 3,000,000. From 
1803 to 1814 there were made in France about 
4,000,000 muskets. In 1818 the percussion cap 
was invented, and its use gradually superseded 




FIG. 9. 1. Percussion Musket Lock, 
sion Cap. 



2. Military Percus- 



that of the flint and steel, so that by 1850 
nearly all the armies of the civilized world were 
armed with muskets using the percussion locks. 
The advantages of these locks are: 1, the lock 
is simplified ; 2, the operation of firing is short- 
ened ; 3, the sureness of fire is increased, the 
presence of water having no effect upon the 
explosion of a good percussion cap. The ex- 
plosive substance in military percussion caps 
is fulminate of mercury. This salt is mixed 
with powdered glass, and a small portion of 
the mixture is placed in the botton of a copper 
cup. The fulminate is covered with tin foil, 
and then with lacquer, so that it is impervi- 
ous to water. With the percussion lock a " nip- 
ple " or cone was fastened to the barrel of the 
musket at the right side of the breech instead 
of the pan of the flint lock, and a hole through 
the cone communicated with the rear of the 
bore. The percussion cap was placed on the 
cone, which it fitted closely; the hammer 
struck the cap, exploded the fulminate, and 
communicated fire to the gunpowder in the 
barrel. The calibres of muskets were until 
about 1850 '7 in., a little more or less. The 



100 



MUSKET 



old British musket "Brown Bess" had a bore 
76 of an inch in diameter. The length of the 
barrel was 42 in., the weight of the ball 1'06 
oz., and the weight of the musket 12-25 Ibs. 
The whole length, including bayonet, was 59 
in. About 1853 in Great Britain the Enneld 
rifle was adopted, the bore of which was -577 
in. Until this time British muskets were made 
without bands, the barrel being fastened to 
the stock by pins. The Enfield rifle had bands. 
The weights of all muskets in use in the last 
century were from 10| to 12 Ibs. In the 



FIG. 10. English Musket, "Brown Bess." 

United States the first muskets used were of 
course of English manufacture. The Indian 
and French wars had caused the distribution 
of large numbers of these arms among the col- 
onies, and the war of the revolution was com- 
menced with them. But after the alliance 
with France was perfected, French muskets 
were obtained, and it is likely that by the end 
of the war, in 1783, the troops were generally 
armed with French arms. The United States 
began to manufacture muskets at Springfield, 
Mass., in 1795, after the French model, and 
this model with slight variations was used un- 
til the adoption of the Springfield rifle, mod- 
el of 1855. New models were introduced 
in 1799, 1822, and 1840, all of French style, 
and of the French calibre, '69 in., and carry- 
ing a ball weighing a little less than an ounce. 




FIG. 11. Musket and Bayonet, Model of 1841. 



In fact it may be said that until the intro- 
duction of the needle gun in Prussia, France 
gave the model for the musket to all civilized 
nations. About 1842 percussion-lock muskets 
were adopted, and when the Mexican war be- 
gan in 1846 there were enough to have armed 
the troops ; but Gen. Scott preferred the flint- 
lock musket, considering it dangerous to cam- 
paign in an enemy's country with so untried a 
weapon as the percussion musket. After that 
war its use became general in the army. In 
1855 the Springfield rifle was adopted, and it 
gradually displaced the old musket, until at 
the commencement of the civil war in 1861 the 
troops of the regular army were armed with 
tbat weapon. Nearly all the infantry arms at 
that time in store were muskets of '69 in. cal- 
ibre. The whole number of muskets and rifles 
manufactured at the Springfield armory from 
1795 to 1865, when the manufacture of muzzle- 
loading arms was stopped, was 1,517,464, and 



the expenditure during the same period was 
$25,199,626 30. Over $2,000,000 reckoned as 
expenditure was the value of the property of 
the United States in lands, buildings, &c., be- 
longing to the armory, and about $3,000,000 
was the value of the parts of arms unassembled 
when the manufacture was stopped. The num- 
ber made at the other United States armory, that 
at Harper's Ferry, Va., cannot be given. At the 
commencement of the civil war this armory 
was dismantled, and all the records and mov- 
able property were carried to Richmond by 
the confederates. Its capacity for turning out 
arms was then about equal to that of the 
Springfield armory. There are other names of 
muskets besides those given previously. The 
hand cannon was a tube on a straight piece of 
wood about 3 ft. long. It had trunnions, cas- 
cable, and vent on top like a cannon. After- 
ward the vent was placed at the side and the 
priming was held in a pan. Its date was near- 
ly the same as that of the J)ombardelle. The 
hand gun was longer in barrel than the hand 
cannon. It had a cover for the pan, and 
some arrangement for taking sight. The Eng- 
lish seem to have used it in 1446. The snap- 
haunce was a modification of the wheel lock. 
Instead of the wheel a straight piece of fur- 
rowed steel was used. The flint pressed against 
it, and when the steel was suddenly moved by 
the spring, fire was struck. It was introduced 
into England in Queen Elizabeth's time, but 
did not get into general use until the time of 
the civil wars. The name is derived from the 
Dutch. The caliver, lighter and shorter than 
the musket, had a match lock. The carbine was 
simply a horseman's musket, and was shorter 
and lighter than the in- 
fantry musket. The ori- 
^^=3 gin of the word is ob- 

o scure. It was intro- 

r^ duced into England from 

France, but the term 
came from Spain, and 
from Calabria, where it 
was first used. It has been surmised that the Ca- 
labrians used it on board of small vessels called 
carabs. The term fusil applied to a musket 
appears to have been taken from the French, 
and was brought into England when locks using 
flints were introduced. It is technically the 
steel against which the flint is struck in a tin- 
der box or gun lock. The term fusiliers for 
part of the infantry is still retained in some 
armies, particularly the British, and was origi- 
nally the name given to troops using the flint- 
lock musket, to distinguish them from those 
who used the match-lock or wheel-lock mus- 
kets. The mousquetoon was of French origin, 
and shorter and not so efficient as the musket. 
The petronel was a short musket for horse- 
men's use. The name comes from pedernal, 
flint, and not, as is generally supposed, from 
poitrine, as it was supported against the breast 
when it was fired. The blunderbuss was a 
short piece with a large bore and funnel-shaped 



MUSKINGUM 



MUSK OX 



101 



muzzle. It was loaded with slugs, nails, &c. 
The word is of German origin, and the arm 
was introduced into England from Holland. 
In German Donnerbuchse would be the term, 
which after corruption by the Dutch becomes 
blunderbuss in English. The escopette is the 
Spanish or Mexican name (escopeta) for a car- 
bine. ' The oldest document that mentions por- 
table firearms is an inventory at Bologna dated 
1397, in which they are called scolpos. From 
this term were derived later sclopeti, esclopette, 
escopette. (See EIFLE.) 

MUSKIXGOI, a river of Ohio, formed by the 
junction of the Walhonding and Tuscarawas, 
which rise in the N. part of the state and unite 
at Coshocton, whence it flows S. E. for about 
110 m. through Muskingum, Morgan, and Wash- 
ington counties, and enters the Ohio river at 
Marietta, its mouth being 225 yards wide. At 
Zanesville and other points abundant water 
power is afforded by falls. It is navigable for 
steamboats to Dresden, 95 m. from its mouth. 

MIJSKDrGFM, a S. E. county of Ohio, inter- 
sected by the Muskingum river, which affords 
abundant water power, and drained by Licking 
river and other branches ; area, 665 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 44,886. It has a diversified sur- 
face and fertile soil, and contains bituminous 
coal, iron ore, and salt, the last procured by 
deep boring into the whitish sandstone, or 
salt rock. Large quantities of salt and coal 
are exported. It is intersected by the Ohio 
canal and the Central Ohio division of the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad. The Muskingum 
Valley railroad terminates at Zanesville, and 
the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis passes 
through the S". W. corner ; there is also a branch 
from Dresden to Zanesville. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 336,984 bushels of wheat, 
1,198,677 of Indian corn, 313,240 of oats, 185,- 
130 of potatoes, 605,194 Ibs. of wool, 815,562 
of butter, and 38,094 tons of hay. There were 
9,430 horses, 9,379 milch cows, 15,480 other 
cattle, 145,954 sheep, and 21,690 swine; 5 
manufactories of agricultural implements, 8 of 
brick, 19 of carriages and wagons, 1 of railroad 
cars, 3 of woollen and 1 of cotton goods, 4 of 
furniture, 3 of glass ware, 2 of iron, 7 of cast- 
ings, 11 of saddlery and harness, 8 of salt, 31 
of stone and earthen ware, 18 tanneries, 5 
breweries, 13 flour mills, 5 saw mills, and 2 
lime kilns. Capital, Zanesville. 

MISROKEES. See CEEEKS. 

MISKOKA, an electoral district of Ontario, 
Canada, in the W. part of the province, bound- 
ed W. by Georgian bay ; area, 5,307 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 6,919, of whom 2,541 were of 
English, 2,092 of Irish, and 1,293 of Scotch 
origin or descent. It is bounded S. by the 
Severn river, and watered by Muskoka river, 
by the outlet of Lake Nipissing, and by other 
streams and lakes. Capital, Bracebridge. 

MUSK OX (ovibos moschatus, De Blainv.), a 
ruminating animal found in the arctic regions 
of America, seeming to form, as its generic 
name imports, the connecting link between 



the ox and the sheep. It is about the size 
of a two-year-old cow, 5 ft. from nose to 
root of tail, and weighs about 700 Ibs., two 
or three times as much as the reindeer; the 
head is large, and surmounted by broad flat 
horns in both sexes ; in the males the horns 




Musk Ox (Ovibos moschatus). 

meet on the median line of the head, from 
which they bend down on the cheeks, and then 
turn outward and upward, much as in the gnu ; 
dull white and rough on the basal half, they 
are smooth and shining beyond, and black at 
the point ; the horns of an old male measured 
by Dr. Kane were 2J ft. from tip to tip, and 
each If ft. to the median line of the head. The 
nose is very obtuse, with only the small space 
between the nostrils naked ; the ears not per- 
ceptible, tail concealed by the hair, the legs 
short, and the hoofs broad and inflexed at the 
tips. The hair is so long that it almost reaches 
the ground, so that the animal looks more like 
a large sheep or goat than an ox ; the color is 
brownish black, more or less grizzled. The 
musk ox frequents arctic America from lat. 
60 to 79 K, and from Ion. 67 30' W. to the 
Pacific coast ; though Dr. Kane saw no living 
specimens, the skeletons and probably foot- 
marks were so numerous that he was inclined 
to believe the statement of the Esquimaux that 
these animals had been recent visitors, and 

Erobably migrated from America to Green- 
ind ; they are generally seen in herds of 20 
or 30, in rocky barren lands, and feed on grass 
and lichens ; the rutting season is about the 
end of August, and the young are born toward 
the first of June. Though the legs are short, 
they run very fast, and climb hills and rocks 
with great facility; they are difficult to ap- 
proach ; the males are irascible, and often dan- 
gerous when slightly wounded ; the flesh, when 
fat, is well tasted, but when lean smells strong- 
ly of musk, as does the whole animal, whence 
its name ; the hair is long and fine, and, if it 
could be obtained in sufficient quantity, would 
be useful in the arts ; the skin is made into 
articles of dress by the Esquimaux. The tracks 
made by this animal in the snow are much like 
those of the reindeer, somewhat larger, and 



102 



MUSKRAT 



can be distinguished only by the skilful hunter. 
Only one living species is known, and the geo- 
graphical distribution of this is not precisely 
ascertained. It is very rare in collections, the 
only specimen in the United States being in 
the museum of the Philadelphia academy of 
natural sciences, a stuffed skin presented by 
Dr. Kane. It is said to occur fossil at Esch- 
scholtz bay on the N. W. coast. The bos Pal- 
lasii (De Kay) of North America and the fos- 
sil oxen found in various parts of the United 
States, coming near the musk ox, have been 
described by Dr. Leidy, under the name of 
bootherium, in vol. v. of the "Smithsonian 
Contributions to Knowledge" (1853), as the 
B. camfrons and B. bombifrons ; these proba- 
bly, he says, were clothed in a long fleece, and 
inhabited the great valley of the Mississippi 
just anterior to the drift period. The Sibe- 
rian and northern European fossils probably 
belong to the genus ombos. 

MUSKRAT (fiber zibethicm, Cuv.), an Ameri- 
can rodent, the only species of its genus, well 
known for its aquatic habits ; it is also called 
musquash, musk beaver, and ondatra. The 
dentition is : incisors f- , and molars f i-f, in all 
16 teeth. The body is rat-like, the head and 
neck short ; the eyes and ears very small, the 
latter having no special arrangement except 
their dense fur to exclude the water ; the up- 
per lip not cleft, and hairy between the teeth 
and nose ; lips thick and fleshy ; nose thick and 
obtuse ; six horizontal rows of whiskers, with 
some over the eye and under the chin; the 
legs short, and the thighs hid in the body ; the 
claws compressed and incurved, the third toe 
the longest on the fore feet and the fourth on 
the hind feet; the hind feet appear slightly 
twisted, the inner edge posterior to the outer, 
by which the animal can "feather the oar" 
when the foot is brought forward in swim- 
ming; all the feet are partly webbed, naked 
below, covered with short hairs above, and 




Muskrat (Fiber zibethicus). 



have their edges more or less margined with 
bristly fringes ; the tail is two thirds as long 
as the body, compressed, two-edged at the 
end, scaly, with short thin hair ; the fore feet 
are four-toed, with a wart-like thumb, and the 
hind feet five-toed. The head and body are 



MUSONIUS 

from 13 to 15 in. long, and the tail 9 or 10 in. ; 
the general color is ruddy brown above, dark- 
er on the back, and cinereous beneath ; some 
specimens are very dark brown ; the long hair 
is fine, compact, and silky, with coarser hairs 
intermingled, especially above. It is more ex- 
tensively distributed over North America than 
the beaver, and unlike the latter does not dis- 
appear at the approach of civilization; it is 
found from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 
from the Rio Grande to arctic America, even 
on the N. W. coast ; it occurs nowhere in the 
old world. Fortunately for the rice planter, it 
is not found in the alluvial lands of the Caro- 
linas, Georgia, Alabama, and Florida, though it 
extends much further south. Its favorite local- 
ity is a grassy marsh or bank of a lake or .slug- 
gish stream ; nocturnal in habit, it is occasion- 
ally seen in the daytime swimming a stream 
or diving into the mouth of its hole ; awkward 
on land, it is an excellent swimmer and diver, 
and very lively and playful in the water; it 
often swims 15 or 20 yards under water. The 
burrows are made in banks skirting streams, 
the entrances being under water, thence lead- 
ing upward above the highest freshets ; their 
winter galleries often extend 40 or 50 ft. from 
the water, the central part containing the nests, 
made of dried reeds and grasses; in swamps 
and marshy lands they sometimes raise mounds 
of sticks, twigs, and leaves from 2 to 4 ft. 
above the surface, in which are their grassy 
beds large enough to accommodate several ani- 
mals ; the entrance to these is also under wa- 
ter, the surface of which they take care shall 
not be entirely frozen. The fur was once 
in great demand for hats, and hundreds of 
thousands of skins were annually exported for 
this purpose to Europe; their value is now 
very small, as they are used chiefly for cheap 
furs; the animal, however, is generally killed 
when possible, to prevent the destruction of 
dams and embankments. They are not at all 
cunning, and may be caught in ordinary box 
traps, or in steel traps placed just under water 
and baited with sweet apples or parsnips ; they 
are often dug out of their holes, hunted by 
dogs, and speared in their nests. Great num- 
bers are killed by lynxes, foxes, owls, and oth- 
er rapacious mammals and birds. Like the 
common rat, they are omnivorous, feeding on 
grasses, roots, vegetables, mussels and other 
mollusks, fruits, and even flesh ; they are in- 
jurious rather from digging under embank- 
ments and undermining meadows than from 
destroying vegetation either in field or garden. 
They are very prolific, bringing forth four to 
six young at a time, three times a year. They 
have a strong musky odor, -which to most per- 
sons is less offensive than that of the mink, 
and far less so than that of the skunk; the 
flesh is considered palatable in some localities. 

MUSK TURTLE. See TORTOISE. 

MUSOMUS, Cains Rnfns, a Roman stoic of the 
1st century A. D. Nero banished him to Gya- 
rus in 66, under pretence of his having been 



MUSPEATT 



MUSSEL 



103 



a party to the conspiracy of Piso. On the 
death of Nero he returned from exile, and 
when Antonius Primus, the general of Vespa- 
sian, was advancing against Eome, he joined 
the embassy sent by Vitellius to make terms 
with his enemies. After the downfall of Vi- 
tellius he became reconciled to Vespasian, who 
suffered him to remain in Kome. The only 
edition of the extant fragments of his works 
is that of Peerlkamp (Haarlem, 1822). 

MUSPRATT, James Sheridan, a British chemist, 
born in Dublin, March 8, 1821, died in Liver- 
pool in November, 1871. He removed at an 
early age to Liverpool, where his father estab- 
lished a large chemical manufactory. At the 
age of 13 he travelled through France and Ger- 
many, and subsequently studied in the labora- 
tory of Prof. Graham of Glasgow, whom he 
accompanied to London. Before reaching the 
age of 17 he was sufficiently advanced to be 
intrusted with the chemical department in a 
large manufacturing establishment in Manches- 
ter, and he also published a lecture on chloride 
of lime. After an attempt to embark in busi- 
ness in America, by which he lost money, he 
went in 1843 to Giessen and studied chemistry 
for two years under Liebig. His first impor- 
tant original paper was one on the sulphites, 
published in Liebig and Wohler's Annalen, in 
which he proved the analogy between the sul- 
phites and the carbonates, and which procured 
him the degree of doctor of philosophy. While 
at Giessen he edited Plattner's "Treatise on 
the Blowpipe," with many valuable additions. 
Between 1845 and 1847 he travelled over Eu- 
rope, returning in the latter year to Giessen, 
where he discovered several remarkable bodies 
produced from the sulpho-cyanides of ethyle 
and methyle. In 1848 he returned to England, 
married the American actress Susan Cushman, 
and soon after founded a college of chemistry 
in Liverpool, of which he was appointed direc- 
tor. In 1854 he commenced a dictionary of 
chemistry, published in Europe and America 
in parts, which was completed in 1860 in 2 
vols. royal 8vo. It was translated into Ger- 
man and French, and reached a large circu- 
lation. He has also published "Outlines of 
Quantitative Analysis for Students." 

MUSQUASH. See MUSKRAT. 

MUSSCHENBROEK, Pieter van, a Dutch mathe- 
matician, born in Leyden, March 14, 1692, died 
there, Sept. 19, 1761. He was educated at 
Leyden, and in 1717 formed an intimacy with 
'sGravesande, who subsequently cooperated 
with him in introducing the Newtonian sys- 
tem of philosophy into Holland. In 1718 he 
took his degree of doctor of medicine, and 
soon afterward visited England for the pur- 
pose of seeing Newton and making himself 
acquainted with his system. In 1719 he was 
appointed professor of philosophy and mathe- 
matics and professor extraordinary of medi- 
cine in the university of Duisburg, which he 
resigned in 1723 for the chair of philosophy 
and mathematics at Utrecht. Here he re- 



mained till 1739, and about 1740 he accepted 
the chair of mathematics at Leyden, which he 
filled during the remainder of his life. His 
works contain many original researches in ex- 
perimental physics, and are among the earliest 
expositions of the Newtonian philosophy ; the 
cohesion of bodies, the phosphorescent prop- 
erties which many bodies acquire from expo- 
sure to light, magnetism, capillary attraction, 
and the size of the earth being among the sub- 
jects most successfully treated. 

MUSSEL, or Muscle (Lat. musculus ; Ger. Mu- 
schel), a well known lamellibranchiate mollusk 
of the genus mytilus (Linn.). It belongs to the 
dimyarian group, or those having two adduc- 
tor muscles, the anterior being small; the 
mantle has a distinct anal orifice ; the foot is 
small, cylindrical, grooved, with many retrac- 
tile muscles and a large silky byssus divided to 
its base; the shell is longitudinal and subtri- 
angular, with the beaks terminal and pointed, 
dark-colored and shining. The common salt- 
water mussel (M. edulis, Linn.) is from 1 to 
2 in. long and 1 in. broad, of a greenish black 




Common Salt-water Mussel (Mytilus edulis). 

color externally and purplish and bluish white 
within. This species is esteemed as food in 
Europe ; they lie together in large beds uncov- 
ered at low water, and are more easily obtained 
than the oyster; they are most esteemed in 
autumn, as in the spring or spawning season 
they are apt to disarrange delicate stomachs and 
to produce a cutaneous eruption ; thousands 
of bushels are annually obtained for food and 
bait for deep-sea fisheries, affording employ- 
ment for hundreds of women and children, x 
especially along the frith of Forth ; they an- 
chor themselves very firmly to rocks and 
stones by the horny threads of the byssus, 
directed by means of the foot, and attached 
by their broad disk-shaped extremities. The 
common mussel of New England (M. lorealis, 
Lam.), by some considered the same as the last 
species, is eaten, fresh and pickled, in some 
parts of the country, but is more commonly 
used for bait or manure. The forms of their 
shells are very various, from accidental distor- 
tions or from the shape of the cavities and 
crevices in which they are commonly wedged. 
Several other species are described. Anoth- 
er shell, commonly called mussel by the fisher- 
men, is the allied genus modiola (Lam.), known 
in Europe as the horse mussel. Our common 
species (M. modiolus, Turton) is from 4 to 6 
in. long and from 2 to 3 in. wide ; the shell is 



104: 



MUSSET 



thick, coarse, and rough, with the beaks sub- 
terminal; the color externally is chestnut or 
dark brown, pearly within. It inhabits deep 
water, attaching itself very firmly to rocks, 
from which it is torn in great numbers during 
violent storms; it is almost always more or 
less distorted, and has seaweed or some para- 
site attached to it ; though too tough for food, 
it makes excellent bait for cod and other deep- 
sea fishes, but is very difficult to obtain when 
wanted. Other species live in brackish wa- 
ter; some in Europe are said to burrow and 
make a nest of sand and fragments of ^ shells. 
The fresh-water mussel (anodon) and river mus- 
sel (unio) are dimyarians, with a large foot not 
byssiferous in the adult ; the hinge is toothed. 
The A. flumatilis (Gould) has a thin, inequi- 
lateral shell, grassy green externally and lilac- 
tinted white within, and attains a length of 4J- 
in. ; it is common in mill ponds and sluggish 
streams. Many other species of this genus, 
and of unio and allied genera in North Ameri- 
ca, have been specially described by Mr. Isaac 
Lea. Some of the unios, both in this country 
and in Europe, produce very fine pearls, and 
about 20 years ago there was a general pearl 
hunting in many parts of the United States, 
which resulted in the finding of a few valuable 
specimens after an immense amount of gen- 
erally unprofitable labor. The pearl mussel of 
Europe (U. margaritifera, Linn.) has long been 
famous for the ornamental excretions found in 
its shell, some of which are of rare beauty. 

MUSSET, Louis Charles Alfred de, popularly 
known as Alfred de Musset, a French poet, 
born in Paris, Nov. 11, 1810, died there, May 
2, 1857. He was a son of VICTOR DONATIEN DE 
MUSSET (1768-1832), better known under the 
name of Musset-Pathay, a cousin of the mar- 
quis Musset de Cogners, and, like the latter, of 
literary distinction, especially for his writings 
about Rousseau. Alfred is said to have writ- 
ten a tragedy as early as 1826, and in 1828 he 
received a prize for a Latin dissertation. He 
alternated for some time between the studies 
of medicine, law, and art, and was for a short 
period attached to a banking house, but was 
encouraged in his predilection for literature by 
intercourse with Charles Nodier and Victor 
Hugo. His first work, Les contes d/Espagne 
et cPItalie (1830), revealed his poetic talent, 
and excited much attention and comment on 
account of the unbridled utterances of a fan- 
tastic and erotic imagination. His next im- 
portant production, Le spectacle dans un fau- 
teuil (1833), consisted of a tragical poem {La 
coupe et lea levres), a graceful comedy or im- 
broglio (A quoi revent les jeunes filles ?), and a 
kind of Byronic narrative in verse (Namouno), 
containing eloquent lines addressed to the Ty- 
rolese, which were regarded by his admirers as 
the most classical production of the romantic 
school. More perhaps than any of his con- 
temporaries he embodied in his effusions mor- 
bid and skeptical views of life, which mar to 
some extent the beauty of his exquisite poem 



MUSSEY 

Eolla (1835), and of his Confession tfun en- 
fant du sitcle (1836 ; new ed., 1859). In the 
latter work he describes under fictitious names 
his journey to Italy with George Sand, and his 
relations with that authoress, which led her to 
publish in 1859 Elle et lui, and to the appear- 
ance in the same year of Lui et elle by Al- 
fred's brother, PAUL EDME DE MUSSET (born in 
Paris, Nov. 7, 1804, and known as the author 
of Lesfemmes de la regence, 2 vols., 1841, and 
other works), and to George Sand's refutation 
of the latter 's allegation against her, in the 
preface to her novel Jean de la Roche, also in 
1859. Alfred became in 1836 as devoted to 
Mme. Malibran as he had previously been to 
Mme. Dudevant. His Poesies nouvelles (latest 
ed., 1862) contain his Strophes a la Malibran, 
and his Nuit de mai, de decembre, d'octobre et 
d'aout; these Nuits are regarded as the most 
beautiful of his lyrics, and as most deeply re- 
flecting the conflicting emotions of his inner 
life. Among other fine effusions are his Let- 
tre a Lamartine and VEspoir en Dieu. Du- 
ring the political complications in 1840 he an- 
swered Becker's German war song in regard 
to the Rhine with a poem entitled Nous I 1 awns 
eu, votre JKhin allemand. The influence of 
the duke of Orleans, who had been his college 
classmate, had procured for him the office of 
librarian in the ministry of the interior ; and 
he commemorated the death of that prince in 
1842 in one of his most eloquent poems. He 
was deprived of his office at the revolution 
of 1848, but was restored to it after the estab- 
lishment of the empire (1852), with the title 
of reader to the empress. His finest poetry 
was written before his 30th year, which made 
Heine say: (Test un jeune homme d^un beau 
'passe. His Contes comprise Mimi Perison, His- 
toire d'un merle blanc, and La mouche (1854). 
Among his best novelettes are Emmeline and 
Margot. He was less successful as a dra- 
matist, though his Un caprice (3d ed., Paris, 
1848), II ne faut jurer de rien (1848), and 
// faut qu'une porte soit ouverte ou fermee 
(1851), were received with great favor. A 
complete edition of his Comedies et proverbes, 
revised by himself, was published in 2 vols. in 
1856. His complete works, with illustrations, 
and a biographical notice by his brother, ap- 
peared in 10 vols. in 1865-'6. His (Euvres 
posthumes (1867) A include Faustine, an unfin- 
ished drama, DAne et le ruisseau, a graceful 
comedy, and poems and letters, one of the 
latter containing a picturesque account of Ra- 
chel's reading Phedre to him in her house. 

MUSSEY, Renben Dimond, an American sur- 
geon, born in New Hampshire in 1780, died in 
Boston, June 28, 1866. He practised his pro- 
fession during the earlier part of his life with 
great success in his native state, and from 1814 
to 1838 was connected with various medical 
professorships in Dartmouth college. He af- 
terward removed to Cincinnati, where he ^*as 
professor of surgery in the Cincinnati college 
of medicine and surgery from 1838 to 1852, 



MUSTAED 



105 



when he took the same chair in the Miami 
medical college, resigning in 1860 and remov- 
ing to Boston. His surgical practice in Cin- 
cinnati and the neighboring country was large, 
and he was widely known and resorted to as 
a consulting surgeon. He was a prominent 
temperance lecturer, and advocated temper- 
ance in eating as well as drinking. He pub- 
lished " Health, its Friends and its Foes " 
(12mo. Boston, 1862). 

MUSTARD, the name of a well known condi- 
ment as well as of the plants which produce it. 
In commerce two sorts of mustard seed are 
known, the white and the black, which are 
produced by plants formerly called sinapis alba 
and 8. nigra ; but in the most recent revision 
of the cruciferce, the family to which they be- 
long, sinapis is reduced to brassica, the genus 
which includes the cabbage and the turnip, 
and according to this view the mustard plants 
are Irassica alba and B. nigra. White mustard 




Mustard. 

is an annual, with a stem 1 to 2 ft. high, smooth 
or with a few spreading hairs ; its leaves are 
pinnately lobed, more or less rough, the lobes 
coarsely toothed, with the terminal one the 
largest ; the yellow flowers in a raceme, suc- 
ceeded by pods three f oiirths of an inch to an 
inch long, bristly, upon spreading stalks and 
terminated by a stout flattened beak which 
forms more than one half of the pod and is 
one-seeded, while the lower part of the pod is 
turgid and contains several seeds ; the seeds are 
pale brown or brownish yellow. Black mus- 
tard is a somewhat taller and smoother plant, 
and has less divided leaves ; the pods are erect, 
smooth, about half an inch long, and somewhat 
four-sided, without the long beak, but tipped 
with the style, with much smaller and very 
dark brown seeds. Both species are natives 
of Europe, and are found in the older portions 
of this country as naturalized weeds. The 
seeds of both are sold by druggists ; a portion 
of the supply is of home growth, the rest being 



imported. White mustard is much used in 
England as a salad ; the seeds are sown very 
thickly, and the young plants are cut while 
still in the seed leaf ; cress (lepidium sativutri) 
is usually sown with the mustard, and the 
product of the two together is known as " small 
salading." This species is sometimes culti- 
vated in gardens as a pot herb or greens, the 
leaves being cooked while yet tender. In Eng- 
land mustard is much sown as a crop for for- 
age and for green manuring, and the few ex- 
periments that have been made with it here 
have been favorable; sowed at the rate of 
about 12 Ibs. to the acre, it gives an abundant 
crop of succulent forage, which is cut before 
the seeds begin to mature anci fed to cattle, 
sheep, and swine. When either kind is raised 
for seed, it is cut with a sickle before it begins 
to drop its seed, and when dry threshed with a 
flail. The great consumption of mustard seed 
is in the preparation of the " flour of mustard " 
for table use; the black seeds are the most 
pungent, but both kinds are used together ; the 
seeds are crushed between rollers, then pound- 
ed in mortars, and the finer portions sifted from 
the husks. This was first prepared in Durham, 
England, by a woman who kept her process 
a secret, and the name " Durham mustard " 
is used as a trade mark by manufacturers at 
the present day. There is probably no article 
of domestic consumption more generally adul- 
terated than flour of mustard; wheat flour to 
increase the weight, turmeric to give color, and 
cayenne to add pungency, are the most com- 
mon adulterations ; sometimes gypsum or white 
clay is used with chrome yellow (chromate of 
lead) to increase the color. The microscope 
readily shows the presence of flour, turmeric, 
and other vegetable admixtures ; but to detect 
the inorganic impurities recourse must be had 
to chemical analysis. The husks, separated by 
the sieves in the manufacture of mustard, yield 
by expression a bland fixed oil which is used 
for burning and other purposes ; the cake left 
after expressing is used as a manure, it being 
too pungent for cattle food. The two kmds of 
mustard seed differ in their chemical constitu- 
ents, which in both are rather complex. The 
activity of black mustard seeds depends upon a 
volatile oil which does not exist ready formed 
in the seeds, but is developed only by the con- 
tact of water. The seeds contain myronio 
acid, in which sulphur is found in combination 
with oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen. 
Another principle is my rosin e, an albuminoid 
which is affected by heat, alcohol, and other 
agents in the same manner as albumen. In 
the presence of water, myrosine and myronic 
acid react upon one another, and produce the 
volatile oil of mustard, or sulpho-cyanide of 
allyle, an exceedingly acrid and pungent liquid, 
which promptly blisters when applied to the 
skin. White mustard produces no volatile oil, 
but its activity depends upon a non-volatile 
acrid principle, which results from the action 
of myrosine upon sulpho-sinapisine, a con- 



106 



MUSTARD 



stituent of the white mustard seed only. An- 
other respect in which white mustard seed dif- 
fers from the black is the mucilage contained in 
the husks, which is readily imparted to boiling 
wa ter. Mustard has been employed in medi- 
cine from very early times, and is mentioned 
by Theophrastus and Galen, and it is still 
much used in domestic and professional prac- 
tice. The whole seeds of the white mustard 
were at one time a popular remedy in dyspep- 
sia ; given in the dose of a tablespoonf ul, they 
probably served as a mechanical stimulus to 
torpid bowels. Serious inflammation has fol- 
lowed their use, and it should not be under- 
taken without advice. The flour of mustard is 
a useful emetic always at hand in case of poi- 
soning or other emergency ; the dose is from a 
teaspoonful to a tablespoonful stirred in a tum- 
bler of water. As a topical stimulant, in the 
form of a mustard poultice or sinapism, itia 
in frequent use ; when the mustard is pure, its 
action is sufficiently prompt if mixed with an 
equal bulk of rye meal or wheat flour; but 
much of that found in the shops is already so 
far diluted as to be nearly inert. For this or 
any other use the mustard should be mixed 
with cold or tepid water, as hot water coagu- 
lates the myrosine and prevents the develop- 
ment of the active principle. The ready-made 
mustard plaster sold by druggists consists of 
the black seeds reduced to a coarse powder, 
which is sprinkled upon paper or stiff cloth on 
which a coat of thick mucilage has been spread ; 
when dry this will keep well, and when re- 
quired for use is rendered active by dipping 
it in tepid water and bound upon the desired 
spot; this is more certain in its action and 
more cleanly in use than any other form of 
sinapism. As mustard varies so much in 
strength, and the skin of individuals in sus- 
ceptibility, the action of mustard when applied 
should be closely watched, else a troublesome 
ulcer may be produced ; this is especially ne- 
cessary when the patient is unconscious. As 
a condiment the uses of mustard are well 
known; it is mentioned by Shakespeare in 
" Taming of the Shrew," act 4, scene 3, though 
it did not become common until the time of 
George I. The English and Americans usually 
mix mustard with water and a little salt, but 
the French and Germans prepare it with va- 
rious flavoring articles and usually cook it, de- 
priving it of much of its pungency. The im- 
ported French mustard is of various flavors, 
that containing tarragon being much esteemed ; 
celery seed, garlic, cloves, anchovies, and other 
things are used, and in some cases a peculiar 
flavor is given by stirring the mixture with a 
hot poker. German mustard is mixed with 
vinegar in which black pepper, cinnamon anc 
other spices, and onions have been boiled, with 
salt and sugar added ; the vinegar is used boil- 
ing, hence the mustard is very mild; it im- 
proves by keeping. Wild mustard, the char- 
lock of English farmers, is brassica sinapis- 
trum (formerly sinapis arvensis), a troublesome 



MUTINY 

weed in European agriculture, and equally so 
n the grain fields of some of the older parts 
of the United States ; it bears a general resem- 
jlance to the two species already noticed, but 
ts leaves are less divided, and the nearly 
smooth pods have their seed-bearing portion 
onger than the stout two-edged beak, which 
.s either empty or one-seeded. The seeds of 
this, if buried so low that they will not germi- 
nate, retain their vitality for a long time, and 
aave been known to vegetate when brought 
to the surface after having been buried more 
khan 40 years. Sheep are exceedingly fond of 
it, and are sometimes used to clear a field of 
charlock. In Japan, India, and other countries 
related species are cultivated for their leaves 
as food, or for their seeds to furnish oil. The 
attempts to identify the plant mentioned as 
mustard in the New Testament have given 
rise to much discussion ; some still hold that 
the black mustard, which in Palestine grows 
10 or 12 ft. high, is the plant, while others re- 
fer it to Salvadora Indica, which according to 
Boyle was the mustard tree of the Jews. The 
order Salvadoracew is a small one closely re- 
lated to the jasmine family. Hedge mustard 
is sisymbrium officinale, a common, much- 
branched, unsightly weed, of the same family ; 
it is the Jierb au chantre of the French, who 
formerly held it in esteem as a remedy for the 
hoarseness of singers. Tansy mustard is S.. 
canescem, with finely divided leaves, common 
from New York southward. 

MCTINA. See MODENA. 

MUTINY (Fr. mutin, refractory, stubborn; 
mutiner, to rise in arms). A century ago the 
word mutiny was, as we learn from lexicog- 
raphers, often used in describing insurrec- 
tion or sedition in civil society; but it is 
now applied exclusively to certain offences by 
sailors and soldiers. Properly it is the act of 
numbers in resistance of authority; but by 
statutes certain acts of individuals are declared 
to be mutiny. The act of congress of March 
3, 1835, defines mutiny or revolt in the follow- 
ing language: "If any one or more (^f the 
crew of any American ship or vessel on the 
high seas, or any other waters within the mari- 
time and admiralty jurisdiction of the United 
States, shall unlawfully, wilfully, and with 
force or by fraud, threats, or other intimida- 
tions, usurp the command of such ship or ves- 
sel from the master or other lawful command- 
ing officer thereof ; or deprive him of his au- 
thority and command on board thereof; or 
resist or prevent him in the free and lawful 
exercise thereof; or transfer such authority 
and comman.d to any other person not legally 
entitled thereto ; every such person so offend- 
ing, his aiders and abettors, shall be deemed 
guilty of a revolt or mutiny and felony." The 
same statute provides for endeavors and con- 
spiracies to excite mutiny. In construction of 
the act it has been held that mere disobedience 
of orders by one or two of the seamen, with- 
out any attempt to excite a general resistance 



MUTTEA 



MUYSCAS 



107 



or disobedience, and insolent conduct or lan- 
guage toward the master or violence to his per- 
son, if unaccompanied by other acts showing 
an intention to subvert his authority as master, 
are not sufficient to constitute the offence of 
endeavoring to excite mutiny. An indictment 
for this crime, it is said, must set forth a con- 
federacy of at least two of the men to refuse 
to do further duty, and to resist the lawful 
commands of the officers. The offence of 
making a revolt was by the act of April, 1790, 
punishable by death. By the act of 1835, 
now in force, it is punished by fine not exceed- 
ing $2,000, and by imprisonment and confine- 
ment at hard labor for not more than 10 years, 
according to the nature and aggravation of the 
offence ; while attempts to excite mutiny are 
punishable by fine not exceeding $1,000, or by 
imprisonment not exceeding five years, or by 
both. Sailors refusing to go to sea from rea- 
sonable apprehension of the unseaworthiness 
of the vessel are not punishable as for a revolt 
under the act; neither are those who refuse 
to do duty after a deviation from the voyage 
named in the shipping articles. Mutinous con- 
duct in the army and navy is provided for by 
the acts of April 10, 1806, and of April 23, 
1800. In the navy it is punishable with death ; 
in the army with death or such other punish- 
ment as a court martial may inflict. 

MUTTRA, a city of British India, in the 
Northwestern Provinces, capital of a district of 
the same name, on the W. bank of the Jumna, 
30 m. N. N. W. of Agra; pop. in 1872, 51,540. 
It is picturesquely built on high ground in the 
form of a crescent, and was once well forti- 
fied. Flights of stone steps, or ghauts, adorned 
with temples, lead down to the river, which is 
accounted sacred by the Hindoos, and every 
day crowds of devotees frequent its banks to 
perform their religious rites. The streets are 
steep, narrow, and dirty, and rendered more 
difficult by deep ravines which run through 
the town. There are some striking ruined 
buildings, among which is a fort, having on its 
roof an observatory with astronomical instru- 
ments. One of the most beautiful edifices is a 
temple and dwelling house together, built by a 
former treasurer of the state of Gwalior, and 
approached through a richly carved gateway. 
The British have extensive cantonments about 
a mile distant. Muttra is held in great rev- 
erence by the Hindoos as the birthplace of 
Krishna, and is overrun with sacred monkeys, 
bulls, paroquets, and peacocks, which are fed 
and protected, but allowed to go at large in the 
streets. The wealth and importance of the 
place were formerly much greater than at 
present. Mahmoud of Ghuzni sacked it in 
1017, and carried off or destroyed an enormous 
amount of treasure. Among other rich speci- 
mens of handicraft, he found five idols of gold 
with eyes of rubies, and 100 idols of silver, 
each as large as a camel could carry. At the 
commencement of the present century the 
town was taken by Sindia, who bestowed it 



on the French adventurer Perron; and in 1803 
it was occupied by the British troops, and 
soon afterward ceded to the East India com- 
pany. A detachment of sepoys mutinied at 
Muttra in the latter part of May, 1857, shot 
their British officers, and marched to Delhi. 

MCTTRA, or Matara, Arabia. See MUSCAT. 

MU1SCAS, or Chibchas, a nation of South 
American Indians in what is now the United 
States of Colombia. They were highly ad- 
vanced in civilization, founded an empire, and 
reduced all the tribes between Serinza, lat. 6 
N"., and Suina Paz, 4 S., including the table 
lands of Bogota and Tunja. At the time of 
the Spanish conquest the Muysca or Chibcha 
empire, including the less civilized conquered 
tribes, had a population estimated by Acosta 
and Uricoechea at 1,200,000, and by others at 
2,000,000. They were divided into three inde- 
pendent nations, governed by the zipa residing 
at Funza, the zaqui at Tunja, and ihejeque, an 
ecclesiastical chief residing at Sogamoso. The 
greatest of the line of zipas was Sagnanma- 
chica. They honored Nemterequeteba as the 
great mythical civilizer of the race. They 
worshipped the sun and a number of inferior 
deities, but offered human sacrifices only to 
the sun. They had two great temples at Sua- 
moz and Leiva. Their priests were called 
jeques. They made offerings by throwing pre- 
cious objects into the lakes. They had a kind 
of week of 3 days, 10 making a month; 20 
months were a year, and 20 years an age. Suc- 
cession was in the female line. They cultivated 
maize, potatoes, and quinoa, and made a spir- 
ituous liquor of maize; used rafts and balsas 
in fishing ; raised cotton, and spun and wove 
cloth, in which they were decently dressed. 
They wore square mantles, some of them 
dyed and painted. They were ingenious car- 
vers of bone, wood, and stone, and worked in 
precious metals. They were a commercial peo- 
ple, had a rude kind of money, and carried on 
a trade in painted mantles, gold ornaments, 
salt, and emeralds. They taught parro.ts to 
talk, and sacrificed them instead of human be- 
ings. Their houses were of wood and clay, 
with conical roofs, surrounded by a palisade. 
The floor was covered with mats, and benches 
were ranged around as seats. They buried in 
caverns. Chibcha seems to have been their 
real name, Chibchacum being the national dei- 
ty. Muysca means men. The Chibcha lan- 
guage was cultivated by Gonzalo Bermudez, 
Jose" Dadei, and Bernardo de Lugo (Oramdti- 
ca mosca, Madrid, 1619). There is a recent 
Gramdtica, vocabulario, catecismo i confesio- 
nario de la lengua Chibcha, by E. Uricoechea 
(Paris, 1871). There is no d, I, or r. There 
are two conjugations, and inseparable pro- 
nouns; there is no variation in tense for per- 
son or number, and no gender, case, or num- 
ber in nouns. The language is generally rep- 
resented as having been lost about 1765, but it 
is still spoken by some bands on the Meta, &c., 
who represent this ancient civilized race. 



108 



MUZIANO 



MUZIANO, Girolamo, an Italian artist, born at 
Acquafredda, near Brescia, in 1528, died in 
Rome in 1590 or 1592. He established him- 
self in Rome about the middle of the cen- 
tury, and became known both as a landscape 
and historical painter. The churches of Rome 
and other Italian cities contain many fine 
works by him in oil and fresco ; and there is 
also a celebrated "Christ Washing the Feet of 
his Disciples" in the cathedral of Rheims, 
which has been engraved by Desplaces. He 
was almost equally celebrated as a mosaic 
worker. His chief architectural work is the 
chapel of Gregory XIII. in St. Peter's. He 
was instrumental in founding the academy of 
St. Luke at Rome, the brief for the establish- 
ment of which he procured from Gregory XIII. 
Many of his pictures have been engraved. 

MUZZEY, Artemas Bowers, an American clergy- 
man, born in Lexington, Mass., Sept. 21, 1802. 
He graduated at Harvard college in 1824, and 
at the Cambridge divinity school in 1828, and 
was ordained pastor of the Unitarian society 
in Framingham, Mass., June 10, 1830. He 
resigned this post in May, 1833, and became 
pastor successively of the Unitarian churches 
in Cambridgeport, Jan. 1, 1834; Lee street, 
Cambridge, in July, 1846 ; Concord, N". H., in 
March, 1854; and Newburyport, Mass., Sept. 
3, 1857, from which he retired in May, 1865. 
He has published " The Young Man's Friend" 
(1836) ; " Sunday School Guide " (1837) ; " Mor- 
al Teacher" (1839); "The Young Maiden" 
(1840), which has passed through many edi- 
tions; "Man a Soul "(1842); " The Fireside " 
(1849) ; " The Sabbath School Hymn and Tune 
Book " (1855) ; " Christ in the "Will, the Heart, 
and the Life," a volume of sermons (1861); 
" The Blade and the Ear, Thoughts for a Young 
Man" (1864); "Value of the Study of Intel- 
lectual Philosophy to the Minister" (1869); 
" Leaves from an Autobiography," in the " Re- 
ligious Magazine" (1870-72); "The Higher 
Education." (1871); and numerous tracts, ser- 
mons, and essays, and reports on common 
schools and Sunday schools. 

MYCALE (now Samsuri), a mountain in the 
south of Ionia in Asia Minor. It is the "W. ex- 
tremity of Mt. Mesogis, and runs out into the 
sea in a promontory called Mycale or Trogyli- 
um (now Cape Santa Maria), directly opposite 
Samos, from which it is separated by a strait 
three fourths of a mile wide. This strait was 
the scene of the great naval victory of the 
Greeks under Leotychides and Xanthippus over 
the Persian fleet in September, 479 B. 0. On 
the N. side of the promontory was the temple 
of Neptune, where the Panionic festival of the 
Ionian confederacy was held. On or near the 
promontory there appears to have been a city 
of the same name. 

MYCENJE, or Mycene, a city of ancient Greece, 
situated on a rocky hill at the N. E. extremity 
of the plain of Argos. It is said to have been 
founded by Perseus, and its massive walls were 
deemed the work of the Cyclops. It is spoken 



MYCONI 

of as the favorite residence of the Pelopidae, 
and as the principal city of Greece during the 
reign of Agamemnon. From the period of 
the Dorian conquest its importance declined ; 
but it still maintained its independence, and in 
the Persian war contributed its quota of troops. 
This brought upon it the enmity of the other 
Argives, who about 468 B. C. laid siege to My- 
cense, reduced it by famine, and destroyed it. 
It was never rebuilt, but its remains, near the 
modern village of Kharvati, are among the 
grandest and most interesting of the antiqui- 
ties of Greece. Part of the walls of the acropo- 
lis to the height in some places of 15 or 20 ft., 
are still standing, and at the N. W. angle may 
yet be seen the great entrance to the citadel, 
styled the " gate of lions " from the two beasts, 
considered lions, sculptured in a triangular 
block of gray limestone, supported by two 
massive uprights. Some suppose that it repre- 
sented the altar of the deity of the sun, wor- 
shipped at Mycenae. The most remarkable of 




Gate of Lions, Mycenae. 

its other antiquities is the subterranean vault 
commonly called "the treasury of Atreus," 
consisting of two chambers, the larger of 
which is of circular form, 40 ft. high and 50 ft. 
broad. The lintel of the entrance is formed 
by two huge blocks, the lower of which is 25 
ft. long, 20 ft. wide, and 4 ft. thick, and the 
other, still covered with earth, is probably of 
the same dimensions. Except in the ruins of 
Baalbek, these are the largest blocks found 
in the walls of buildings. The circular room 
consists of numerous horizontal rows of stones 
placed above each other in circles gradually 
diminishing in diameter. Several archaeologi- 
cal societies and private persons, among them 
Schliemann, have recently entered upon nego- 
tiations with the Greek government for the 
disinterment of the entire acropolis. 

MYCONI, or Mycono (anc. Myconus), an island 
of Greece, in the JEgean sea, one of the Cy- 
clades, lying E. of Delos and N. of Naxos, 



MYEE 



MYLODON 



109 



about 10 m. long and 6 m. wide; pop. about 
6,000. Its highest summit has two peaks, 
whence Pliny calls it dimastus. Corn, wine, 
cotton, and figs are produced. In ancient 
times it was famous for the number of bald 
persons among its inhabitants. 

JHYER, Albert J., an American meteorologist, 
born in Newburgh, N. Y., Sept. 20, 1828. He 
graduated at Geneva college in 1847, took the 
degree of M. D. at the university of Buffalo in 
1851, and in 1854 was appointed assistant sur- 
geon in the United States army. From 1858 
to 1860 he was on special duty in the signal 
service, and in the latter year was made major 
and chief signal officer in the army, serving 
in New Mexico and the Eocky mountains till 
May, 1861. In June he was made signal officer 
on the staff of Gen. Butler at Fortress Monroe, 
and afterward of Gen. McOlellan, and took 
part as chief signal officer in nearly all the 
engagements during the peninsular campaign. 
In November, 1862, he took charge of the sig- 
nal office at Washington. He was successively 
brevetted as lieutenant colonel, colonel, and 
brigadier general, the last being for " distin- 
guished services in organizing, instructing, and 
commanding the signal corps of the army, and 
for its especial service Oct. 5, 1864," at Al- 
latoona, Ga. He was made colonel and chief 
signal officer in the army in July, 1866, and 
introduced a full course of study of signals 
at West Point and Annapolis. By virtue of 
an act approved Feb. 9, 1870, he was charged 
with the special duties of the observation and 
giving notice by telegraph and signals of the 
approach and force of storms on the northern 
lakes and seacoast, at the military posts in the 
interior, and at other points in the states and 
territories. He organized the meteorological 
division of the signal office, being assigned to 
duty according to his commission as brevet 
brigadier general in June, 1871. By an act 
approved March 3, 1873, he was placed in 
charge of the special duties of telegraphy, 
&c., being authorized to establish signal sta- 
tions at lighthouses and at such of the life- 
saving stations as are suitable for the purpose, 
and to connect these stations by telegraph with 
such points as may be necessary. In 1873 he 
was a delegate to the international meteorolo- 
gical congress at Vienna. He has published 
a "Manual of Signals for the United States 
Army and Navy" (1868). 

MYERS, Peter Hamilton, an American novelist, 
born in Herkimer, N. Y., in August, 1812. He 
has published " The First of the Knickerbock- 
ers, a Tale of 1673 " (New York, 1848) ; "The 
Young Patroon, or Christmas in 1690 " (1849); 
^ The King of the Hurons " (1850), republished 
in England under the title of " Blanche Mon- 
taigne;" and "The Prisoner of the Border, a 
Tale of 1838" (1857). He has also written 
several tales, and "Ensenore, a Eomance of 
Owasco Lake," and other poems. He now 
(1875) resides in Auburn, N. f. 

MYGALE. See SPIDER. 



MYLITTA, the Greek name of the Babylonian 
goddess Beltis or Bilit, "the Lady." She is 
commonly represented as the wife of Bel-Nim- 
rod (Belus), and the mother of his son Nin, 
though she is also called the wife of her son 
Nin. She united the characteristics of the Ju- 
no, Venus, and Diana of classical mythology, 
but was chiefly the goddess of birth and fertil- 
ity. She had temples at Nineveh, Ur, Erech, 
Nipur, and Babylon. The Baaltis of the Pho3- 
nicians was the same in name and character. 
The young women of Byblos, like those of 
Babylon, sacrificed in her service their virgin- 
ity, and gave the price they received to the 
temple of the goddess. The Derceto of Asca- 
lon, the Ashera of the Hebrews, and the Ish- 
tar of the Babylonians were kindred divinities. 

MYLODOtf (Gr. //a?, mill, and bdobs, tooth), 
a genus of gigantic fossil edentates established 
by Prof. Owen, and closely allied to the sloth, 
resembling megalonyx and megatherium. The 
mylodon has the heavy form of the megathe- 
rium, with a dentition resembling that of the 
megalonyx ; the molars are |c, and are worn 
into flat surfaces ; in the upper jaw, the first 
is subelliptical and separated from the rest, the 
second elliptical, and the others triangular, with 
the internal surface grooved ; in the lower jaw, 
the first is elliptical, the third quadrangular, 
and the last the largest and bilobed, and the 
symphysis stronger than in the megalonyx. The 
head resembles that of the megatherium in its 
form, and has a strong descending process of 
the zygomatic arch ; the extremities are equal, 
the anterior five-toed, and the posterior four- 
toed ; the two external fingers are without 
nails, and the others have large semi-conical 
and unequal claws ; the acromion and coracoid 
are united, the radius turns around the ulna, 
the tibia and fibula are distinct, the heel bone 
long and large as in the other megatherioids. 
(See MEGALONYX, and MEGATHEKIUM.) The 
M. Darwinii (Owen) was discovered by Mr. 
Darwin in northern Patagonia ; the symphysis 
of the lower jaw is long and narrow, with the 
second molar subelliptical, and the last with 
two furrows, of which the internal is angular ; 
it is found from the pampas of Brazil south- 
ward. The M. Harlani (Owen) has the symphy- 
sis shorter and wider, the second molar square, 
and the last with three grooves, the internal 
one biangular ; this has been found in Ken- 
tucky, Mississippi, Missouri, South Carolina, 
and Oregon. The M. robustus (Owen) is char- 
acterized by a short and wide symphysis, with 
the second molar subtriangular, and the last 
with three grooves, of which the internal is 
rounded. A fine and nearly complete skeleton 
of this species is now in the museum of the 
London college of surgeons ; it was discovered 
in 1841 in the fluviatile deposits about 20 m. 
north of Buenos Ayres, recently elevated above 
the level of the sea. The skeleton is very ro- 
bust; the trunk, shorter than that of the hip- 
popotamus, ends in a pelvis as wide as and 
deeper than that of the elephant; the hind 



110 



MYLODON 



limbs short and massive, with feet as long as 
the thigh bones, set at right angles to the leg, 
and with the sole turned slightly inward ; the 
tail as long as the hind limbs, very thick, and 
affording a firm support in the semi-erect po- 
sition ; the chest long and large, protected by 




Mylodon robustus (restored). 

16 pairs of ribs, broad and strongly attached 
to a well developed sternum; the scapulae 
unusually broad ; arm bones thick and short, 
with strong processes for muscles ; the bones 
of the forearm longer than those of the leg ; 
the skull smaller than that of the ox, but long, 
narrow, with a truncated muzzle, and support- 
ed by a short neck of seven vertebrae ; dorsal 
vertebrae 16, with broad and high spinous pro- 
cesses nearly equal and having a uniform back- 
ward inclination. Such proportions are found 
in no living animals, and only in the megathe- 
rioids among fossils. The skull presented two 
extensive fractures, from which the animal had 
recovered ; the air cells extend from the fron- 
tal and ethmoidal sinuses into the cranial bones, 
separating the two tables of the skull some- 
times for the extent of 2 in., forming a great 
protection against injury from falling limbs 
of trees. They were probably peaceful ani- 
mals like the existing sloths, though able to 
inflict severe wounds by their sharp and heavy 
claws ; the muscular strength of the edentates is 
very great, and must have been immense in all 
the megatherioids. While presenting the closest 
affinity to the small arboreal sloths, the mylo- 
don, with its claw-armed inner toes, had the 
outer thick and stunted, and evidently envel- 
oped in a kind of hoof, giving the power of 
standing and walking firmly as well as digging 
and seizing in this respect marking a tran- 
sition between edentates and pachyderms. It 
is now generally admitted that this animal com- 
menced the process of .prostrating trees by 
scratching away the soil from their roots, and 
loosening them from their attachments ; then, 
seizing the branches or trunk, and supported 
on the hind limbs and tail, it swayed the tree 



MYKMECOBIUS 

to and fro, and soon brought it to the ground 
;o be stripped at its leisure ; in case of meeting 
a tree too large to be uprooted, it is probable 
;hat some of the smaller species, as indicated 
3y the inward turning of the soles, possessed 
;he faculty of climbing to the larger branches 
within reach of the foliage. In regard to the 
means of stripping off leaves, Prof. Owen, from 
;he cavity in the mastoid process for the articu- 
.ation of the hyoid bone, and the large size of 
the anterior condyloid foramina whence issue 
the motor nerves, maintains that there was a 
remarkable development of the tongue ; this is 
also indicated by the broad, smooth, concave 
surface of the symphysis of the lower jaw, 
which, with the absence of incisors, offered no 
obstacle to its free motions, and provided space 
for it when retracted ; the megatherium had a 
short proboscis, prehensile lips, and a smaller 
tongue in a narrower mouth ; the elephant has 
a maximum proboscis, the giraffe a maximum 
tongue, the megatherium being intermediate; 
the mylodon, having no proboscis, had a largely 
developed tongue for stripping off foliage, con- 
trasting in this respect with the almost tongue- 
less elephant. While the megatherium may 
have measured 18 ft. from the fore part of the 
skull to the end of the tail, following the curve 
f the spine, the mylodon measured only 11 ft. ; 
other measurements in these animals respec- 
tively were : circumference at pelvis 14 and 
9f ft. ; length of skull 2 and H ft., greatest 
width 1| and | ft. ; length of lower jaw 25 
and 15^ in., width at symphysis 5f- and 5^ in. ; 
length of anterior limb 10 and 4% ft. ; clavicle 
15 and 8| in., humerus 2 and l| ft., ulna 25 
and 14% in., radius 26 and 11 in. ; fore foot 
31J and 14 in. long, and 14 and 8 wide ; mid- 
dle and longest claw 10 and 5 in. ; width of 
pelvis 61 and 41 in. ; length of femur 28 and 
19 in., circumference over great trochanter 3 
and 2| ft., and width at same point 16 and 9 
in. ; tibia 22 and 8|- in. ; length of hind foot 34^ 
and 19 in., width 12 and 6| ; heel bone IT and 
7|- in. ; middle and largest claw 9 and 5 in. ; 
and width of largest vertebra of tail 21 and 
10$- in. The scelidotherium (Gr. a/ce^tf, hind 
leg, and dqpiov, animal) is another extinct me- 
gatherioid, remarkable for the size of the hind 
limbs ; a nearly entire cranium shows the es- 
sential characters of the sloth's skull, with the 
mylodontal modifications of the complete zy- 
goma and shape of the lower jaw ; the teeth 
were f if , the upper triangular ; the form was 
massive. Pictet mentions seven species, vary- 
ing in size from a hog to an ox, which lived 
in South America during the diluvial epoch. 
Some other genera have been described by 
Owen, Pictet, and Leidy. 

MYRIAPOD. See CENTIPEDE. 

MYRMECOBIUS, a genus of marsupial animals, 
established by Waterhouse, of which the typ- 
ical species is the M. fascia tus of southern 
and western Australia. The teeth are very 
numerous, being incisors , canines |l|, pre- 
molars -|i|, molars |zf =52. The fore feet are 



MYRMELEON 



MYERH 



111 



five-toed, with sharp nails for climbing and 
digging; hind feet four-toed, all free; head 
elongated, and snout acute ; body slender ; tail 
moderate and bushy. Length 10 in., tail 7 in. 
additional. The general color of the fore part 
of the body is reddish, gradually shading into 
the black of the posterior half, which has seven 
to nine white transverse bands; fur coarse 
above and finer underneath, below fulvous 




Mynuecobius fasciatus. 

white. They have no pouch, the young, five 
to eight in number, being protected by the long 
hairs of the under side of the body. They are 
gentle, active, and squirrel-like animals, feed- 
ing on insects, especially ants, which they 
obtain by their long and extensile tongue, and 
on sweet vegetable juices ; they are seen gen- 
erally on trees, in whose hollows they live. 
The fossil ampMtJierium or tJiylacotherium, of 
the lower oolite of Stonesfield, England, re- 
sembled the myrmecobius, as also did the dro- 
matherium of the trias of North Carolina, and 
the microlestes of the trias of central Europe. 

MYRMELEON. See ANT LION. 

MYRMIDONES, an ancient Achaean race of 
Phthiotis in Thessaly. According to the le- 
gendary account, they originally came from 
^Egina, where, at the request of ^Eacus, Jupi- 
ter changed all the ants (//%^/cef) of the island 
into men, who from their origin received the 
name of Myrmidones. They subsequently fol- 
lowed Peleus into Thessaly, and accompanied 
his son Achilles in the expedition against Troy. 
Other legends make them the descendants of 
Myrmidon, a son of Jupiter and Eurymedusa, 
whom the god deceived in the disguise of an 
ant. They dp not appear in authentic history. 
From them is derived the word myrmidons, 
designating a band of rough soldiers or ruffian- 
ly marauders devoted to the will of a leader. 

MYRON, a Greek sculptor, born in Eleuthe- 
rse, Boeotia, about 480 B. 0. Besides represent- 
ing the human figure in difficult attitudes, he 
modelled animals with success. His master- 
pieces were nearly all in bronze. The most 
celebrated were his Discobolus, or quoit player, 
and his "Cow." There are several marble 
Discoboli still extant, copies of the original. 
Of his other works, perhaps the most famous 
were his colossal statues of Jupiter, Minerva, 
and Hercules at Samos, which were carried off 
by Mark Antony. Augustus restored Minerva 
585 VOL. xii. 8 



and Hercules to the Samians, retaining only 
Jupiter, which he placed in the capitol. 

MYRRH (Heb. mor\ a gum resin mentioned 
in the Old Testament as an article of commerce, 
and one of the oldest medicinal articles of 
which we have any record. Though the drug 
has been well known for many centuries, its. 
origin was long obscure ; it was once supposed 
to be produced by an acacia, and 'it has been 
attributed to other genera. Nees von Esen- 
beck in 1826 described the myrrh-yielding tree 
from specimens brought home by Ehrenberg 
as balsamodendron myrrha, and this was ac- 
cepted as the plant till 1863, when Berg in 
studying the specimens found that the one 
indicated by Ehrenberg as furnishing myrrh 
was quite different, and he described it as JB. 
EJirenbergianum, in honor of the collector. 
The genus fialsamodendron, by some referred 
to terebinthacece, is now placed in Burseracew, 
a small family of plants which have aromatic 
resinous juices, and are nearly related to the 
orange and rue families. About six species of 
the genus are recognized, all shrubs or small 
trees inhabiting Africa, Arabia, and other parts 
of Asia; the general character of their foli- 
age and flowers is shown in the illustration. 
The drug, which is probably the product of 
more than one species, is a natural exudation, 
which may be increased by wounding the bark 
of the tree ; it is at first light yellow and 
soft, but becomes darker and harder as it dries. 
Like many other eastern drugs, myrrh is known 
in commerce by the names of the places whence 
it is exported rather than those which produce 
it, and we have Turkey or Smyrna, and East 




Myrrh (Balsamodendron EhrenbergianmB). 

Indian or Bombay myrrhs, though they are 
collected in Arabia and Abyssinia. Myrrh 
occurs in lumps or tears of variable size, which 
are whitish upon the exterior from the powder 
produced by attrition ; it is brittle, reddish 
yellow or reddish brown, semi-transparent, 



112 



MYRTLE 



and with a dull oily kind of fracture; its 
odor is aromatic, characteristic, and pleasant 
to most persons ; it has an aromatic and bit- 
ter taste. Though known in commerce as gum 
myrrh, it is a true gum resin, containing nearly 
28 per cent, of two kinds of resin, about 64 
per cent, of gum, some volatile oil, &c. It is 
imported in chest's of about 200 Ibs., which 
contain lumps of various qualities ; it is sorted 
by the dealers into myrrh of two or three 
grades. The chests often contain inferior 
gums added accidentally or intentionally; one 
of the most frequent is a gum resembling Sene- 
gal, which is readily recognized by its shining 
fracture and lack of proper taste ; bdellium, also 
found as an impurity, is distinguished by being 
softer and darker colored. Alcohol dissolves 
the resin and volatile oil of myrrh, leaving the 
gum, and a tincture represents the active por- 
tions of the drug. "When triturated with water 
the gurn dissolves, and the finely divided resin 
and oil are held in suspension and form a 
milky emulsion, one of the forms in which 
myrrh is administered. The Hebrews employ- 
ed myrrh in preparing the ointment for the 
rite of consecration, and it is mentioned as one 
of the articles used in the purification of women, 
in embalming, and as a perfume. It is now 
employed in medicine as a stimulant and tonic ; 
it is seldom prescribed alone, but with prep- 
arations of iron and vegetable bitters; it is 
given in doses of from 5 to 20 grains or more. 
Externally myrrh is employed to stimulate in- 
dolent ulcers and to dress wounds that are 
slow of healing, and is a popular remedy for 
soft and spongy gums, for which purpose the 
tincture largely diluted with water is used. It 
has been proposed to utilize the residue after 
the preparation of the tincture for the manu- 
facture of a coarse mucilage. 

MYRTLE, a name which, with or without a 
prefix, is given to several widely different 
plants, but properly belonging to myrtus corn- 
munis, an evergreen shrub of the Mediterra- 
nean region, which is the type of a very large 
and important order, the myrtacece. The myr- 
tle family consists of trees or shrubs, with 
simple, entire, mostly aromatic leaves, which 
are marked by pellucid or resinous dots, and are 
without stipules ; the flowers are perfect, the 
calyx tube adherent to the ovary, and the petals 
and numerous stamens borne upon the throat 
of the calyx tube or upon a disk which bor- 
ders it ; the fruit a berry or capsule ; seeds 
without albumen. This family abounds in the 
tropics and the southern hemisphere; a few 
species belonging to the genera are found in 
southern Florida. Among the important plants 
and products of this family are the clove, all- 
spice, guava, cajeput, rose apple, Brazil and 
Sapucaya nuts, and the gigantic and useful 
eucalyptus trees of Australia. The common 
myrtle is a shrub, which even in favorable 
situations does not exceed 20 ft. in height, with 
opposite shining leaves and axillary peduncles, 
each bearing a single white or rose-tinged flow- 



er, which is succeeded by a several-seeded berry. 
The plant, having been so long in cultivation, 
presents numerous varieties differing in the size 
and shape of their leaves and color of the 
fruit ; the latter is naturally black, but there 
are white-berried varieties, as well as those 




Common Myrtle (Myrtus communia). 

with their leaves striped and spotted with 
white or yellow markings. In England the 
myrtle is barely hardy in the southern counties, 
and in our northern states it is only seen as a 
pot plant, or grown in tubs to decorate the 
grounds in summer, and removed to the cellar 
or a pit for the winter. In those southern 
localities where the camellia and Cape jas- 
mine live without protection the myrtle is 
hardy. As with many other plants known to 
the ancients, there are numerous legends at- 
taching to the myrtle ; it was sacred to Venus, 
and the temples of that goddess were sur- 
rounded by groves of myrtle; wreaths of it 
were worn by the Athenian magistrates as 
symbols of authority, and the victors in the 
Olympic games were crowned with it. The 
buds and berries were formerly used to flavor 
many dishes, and they had a reputation for 
medicinal properties, the aromatic berries and 
other portions of the plant being tonic and 
stimulant. The Tuscans used the plant in 
the preparation of a wine called myrtidanum. 
At present the chief use of the myrtle is in 
perfumery. Eau flange is a very fragrant 
astringent water, distilled from the flowers; 
the leaves mixed with other aromatics are 
used for sachet powders. The wood is hard 
and handsomely mottled, but its use is con- 
fined to small articles of turnery. Bay rum 
owes its peculiar fragrance to a volatile oil 
obtained from the leaves of myrcia acris, a 
West Indian plant of this family. The myr- 
tle is readily propagated from cuttings of 
the just hardening young shoots. The plant 
known in this country as myrtle or running 
myrtle belongs to a very different family. (See 



MYSIA 



MYSOEE 



113 



PERIWINKLE.) The candleberry or wax myrtle 
is myrica cerifera. (See BATBEEEY.) Sand 
myrtle is leiophyllum \uxifolium, a pretty low 
shrub of the heath family, found in the pine 
barrens of New Jersey and southward. Crape 
myrtle is the common name for Lagerstrcemia 
Indica, a shrub largely planted for ornament 
in Virginia and southward. It does not belong 
to the myrtles proper, but to the loosestrife 
family (lythracecv). It is a much-branched 
shrub, 6 to 10 ft. or more high, with smooth, 
oval, opposite leaves, and large panicles of 
showy flowers; the petals are upon slender 
claws, and are waved and crimped in such a 
manner as to give them an exceedingly beauti- 
ful appearance, and to suggest the fabric known 
as crape ; the stamens, which are in long 
silky tufts, add to the beauty of the flowers. 
The usual color of the flowers is a pale rose, 
but recently a white and several very dark- 
colored varieties have been introduced. The 
plant is a natiye of the East Indies, and the 
genus was named in honor of Lagerstrom, a 




Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia Indica). 

Swedish naturalist. In northern localities it 
may be grown as a tub plant with a treatment 
like that of the oleander. 
t MYSIA, in ancient geography, a N". W. divi- 
sion of Asia Minor, the boundaries of which 
greatly varied at different periods. In the 
time of the early Roman emperors it was 
bounded N. by the Propontis (sea of Marmora), 
N. E. in part by the Bithynian Olympus, S. E. 
by Phrygia, S. by Lydia, W. by the ^Egean, and 



N". W. by the Hellespont (strait of Dardanelles). 
It thus included, among other territories, those 
of Troas in the northwest, and Teuthrania 
(which included Pergamus), as well as the 
Grecian coast land of ^Eolis, in the southwest. 
Mysia was for the most part mountainous, the 
principal ranges within its boundaries being 
Mt. Ida in Troas, Mt. Temnus, which extended 
from the former to the borders of Phrygia, 
dividing the country into two unequal parts, 
and Mt. Olympus on the northeastern or 
Bithynian border. Of the principal rivers, the 
Caicus and Evenus flowed into the Elaitic gulf, 
on the S. "W. corner; the Satniois into the 
^Egean, N. of Cape Lectum; the Scamander 
and Simois, renowned in Trojan legends, into 
the Hellespont, near Cape Sigeum ; the Grani- 
cus, on the banks of which Alexander the 
Great achieved his first victory over the Per- 
sians (334 B. 0.), the ^Esepus, Tarsius, Maces- 
tus, and Rhyndacus, into the Propontis. The 
largest gulf was that of Adramyttium (now 
Adramyti) on the ^Egean, opposite the island 
of Lesbos. Mysia is more renowned in legen- 
dary traditions than in history, the chief in- 
terest attaching to the territories of Troas, Per- 
gamus, and the .ZEolian confederacy. Some 
suppose the Mysians to have been of Thracian 
race and immigrants from the countries south 
of the Danube afterward known as Moesia, and 
others make them offshoots of the Lydians. 
Egyptologists think they can recognize their 
name in inscriptions of very ancient date. 
Having been successively under the dominion 
of Croesus, the Persian kings, Alexander of 
Macedon, his general Lysimachus, and the Se- 
Ieucida3, Mysia was assigned by the Romans, 
after their victory over Antiochus the Great 
(190), to the new kingdom of Pergamus, which 
had previously been formed from one of its 
parts, and with the whole of that kingdom was 
bequeathed to the Roman republic by King 
Attalus III., thus becoming a part of the pro- 
consular province of Asia (133). 

MYSORE. I. A native state of India, under 
British protection, situated between lat. 11 30' 
and 15 N. and Ion. 74 45' and 78 45' E., and 
surrounded on all sides by the province of Ma- 
dras, except where bordered by Coorg on the 
west and Bombay on the north ; area, 27,717 
sq. m., of which about 9,000 are under cultiva- 
tion; pop. in 1872, 5,055,412. The state com- 
prises three divisions for governmental pur- 
poses, ISTandidroog, Ashtagram, and Nagar ; the 
chief towns are Bangalore, Mysore, and Se- 
ringapatam. The country consists of an inte- 
rior table land elevated from 2,000 to 3,000 ft. 
above the sea, rising westward to the Western 
Ghauts, which separate it from the seaboard. 
The principal rivers are the Cavery, Tungabu- 
dra, and the N. and S. Pennar. There are no 
natural lakes, but many large tanks and arti- 
ficial reservoirs in the high grounds. The level 
of the table land is interrupted in places by 
large masses of granite, rounded in their out- 
lines, standing singly or in clusters. The cli- 



114 



MYSORE 



mate is healthful. The average annual rainfall 
is about 30 inches. Mysore not only produces 
the grains, vegetables, and fruits common to 
southern India, but also many of those belong- 
ing to the temperate regions. A considerable 
portion of the surface is covered with jungle. 
Rice, sugar cane, ragi, a species of coarse grain, 
and wheat are the chief crops raised. The 
betelnut palm and the castor oil plant thrive 
well. Carbonate of soda, salt, and iron are 
found. The inhabitants are principally Hin- 
doos ; in 1872 there were 230,518 Mohamme- 
dans, 15,241 Christians, 14,600 Buddhists, and 
2,843 of other creeds. The Roman Catholics 
claim about 20,000 converts. Coarse blankets, 
carpets, shawls, and cotton cloths are manu- 
factured. There are 3,072 m. of roads in the 
country, and 48 m. of railway. The total 
number of schools during 1871-'2 was 2,683, 
of which 603 were government institutions. 
Mysore is mentioned in the Hindoo mythologi- 
cal writings ; but the authentic history of the 
country commences, with the Mohammedan in- 
vasion in 1326, when it was incorporated with 
the empire of Delhi. The affairs of that em- 
pire soon afterward falling into confusion, My- 
sore was lost, and some Hindoos escaping from 
Mohammedan persecution in the north founded 
a city on the banks of the Tungabudra, which 
became the capital of a new state comprising 
nearly the whole of Mysore and part of the 
Carnatic; but in 1565 its ruler, Ram Rajah, 
was defeated and slain by the army of a Mo- 
hammedan confederation, and his capital taken 
and depopulated. A Mysorean chief, named 
Rajah Wadeyar, acquired possession of the fort 
and island of Seringapatam, and his successors, 
by a career of aggression, toward the close of 
the 17th century had extended their authority 
over the whole table land of Mysore. In 1731 
the minister deposed the rajah, and in 1749 
Hyder Ali made his appearance as a volunteer 
in the army of Mysore, and ultimately rose to 
be sovereign of the country. Upon the death 
of his son Tippoo Sahib in 1799, the British 
annexed a considerable portion of his domin-- 
ions to their Indian possessions, and allotted 
the territory now known as Mysore to the de- 
scendant of the rajah who had been supplanted 
by Hyder Ali ; but the country having fallen 
into a deplorable condition under his govern- 
ment, Lord W. Bentinck, the governor general 
of India, placed the civil and military admin- 
istration in the hands of a British commission, 
though the rajah still nominally retained au- 
thority. The rajah died childless in 1868, and 
a chief commissioner, who is directly respon- 
sible to the governor general of India, now 
administers the government in the name of 
the rajah's adopted son, who is a minor. (See 
HYDEE ALI, TIPPOO SAHIB, and SERINGAPATAM.} 
II. A city, capital of the state, 7 m. S. S. W. 
of Seringapatam, and 250 m. W. S. W. of Ma- 
dras, in lat. 12 19' N., Ion. 76 42' E.; pop. in 
1872, 57,765. The town is built upon two 
small hills or parallel elevated ridges, 2,450 ft. 



MYSTERIES 

above the sea, and is fortified by a wall of 
earth with a moat, and by a quadrangular fort, 
within which stands the palace of the titular 
rajah. The buildings of the town are generally 
good, and the streets regular and well kept. 
The want of a sufficient supply of good drink- 
ing water is severely felt, and is the main 
cause of the unhealthiness of the place. Car- 
pet making is the chief industry. Mysore has 
always been the nominal and historic capital 
of the district; but it was neglected in favor 
of Seringapatam by Hyder Ali and his son, and 
has only recovered from its position of secon- 
dary importance within the present century. 

MYSTERIES (Gr. [tvarfpta, from nvelv, to shut 
the lips), ceremonies in ancient religions to 
which only the initiated were admitted. They 
may be obscurely traced in the early Orient, in 
the rites of Isis and Osiris in Egypt, in the Per- 
sian Mithraic solemnities, and in the festivals in- 
troduced into Greece with the worship of Bac- 
chus and Cybele ; and they lingered through 
the decline of Rome, and perhaps left their 
traces in the ceremonies of freemasonry. They 
consisted, in general, of rites of purification 
and expiation, of sacrifices and processions, of 
ecstatic or orgiastic songs and dances, of noc- 
turnal festivals fit to impress the imagination, 
and of spectacles designed to excite the most 
diverse emotions, terror and trust, sorrow and 
joy, hope and despair. The celebration was 
chiefly by symbolical acts and spectacles; yet 
sacred mystical words, formulas, fragments 
of liturgies, or hymns were also employed. 
There were likewise certain objects with which 
occult meanings that were imparted to the ini- 
tiated were associated, or which were used in 
the various ceremonies in the ascending scale 
of initiation. The sacred phrases, the cnrdpfara, 
concerning which silence was imposed, were 
themselves symbolical legends, and probably 
not statements of speculative truths. The 
most diverse theories have been suggested 
concerning the origin, nature, and significance 
of the Hellenic mysteries. As Schumann re- 
marks (GriecJiiscJie Alterthumer, 3d ed., Ber- 
lin, 1873), the very fact that it was not per- 
mitted to reveal to the uninitiated wherein 
these cults consisted, what were the rites pe- 
culiar to them, for what the gods were in- 
voked, or what were the names of the divini- 
ties worshipped, has been the cause of our ex- 
tremely incomplete information in regard to 
them. The oldest of the Hellenic mysteries are 
believed to be those of the Cabiri in Samothrace 
and Lemnos, which were renowned through 
the whole period of pagan antiquity. Though 
they were only less august than the Eleusinian, 
nothing is certain concerning them, and even 
the names of the divinities are known to us 
only by the profanation of Mnaseas. (See 
CABIRI.) The Eleusinian were the most ven- 
erable of the mysteries. "Happy," says Pin- 
dar, "is he who has beheld them, and de- 
scends beneath the hollow earth; he knows 
the end, he knows the divine origin of life." 



MYSTERIES 



MYTHOLOGY 



115 



They comprised a long series of ceremonies, 
concluding with complete initiation or perfec- 
tion. The fundamental legend on which the 
ritual seems to have been based was the search 
of the goddess Demeter or Ceres for her daugh- 
ter Proserpine, her sorrows and her joys, her 
descent into Hades, and her return into the 
realm of light. The rites were thought to 
prefigure the scenes of a future life. The 
same symbol was the foundation of the Thes- 
mophoria, which were celebrated exclusively 
by married women, rendering it probable that 
initiation into it was designed to protect 
against the dangers of childbirth. . The Orphic 
and Dionysiac mysteries seem to have de- 
signed a reformation of the popular religion. 
Founded upon the worship of the Thracian Di- 
onysus or Bacchus, they tended to ascetic rather 
than orgiastic practices. Other mysteries were 
those of Zeus or Jupiter in Crete, of Hera or 
Juno in Argolis, of Athena or Minerva in Ath- 
ens, of Artemis or Diana in Arcadia, of Hec- 
ate in JEgina, and of Rhea in Phrygia. The 
worship of the last under different names pre- 
vailed in divers forms and places in Greece 
and the East, and was associated with the or- 
giastic rites of the Corybantes. More impor- 
tant were the Persian mysteries of Mithra, 
which appeared in Rome about the beginning 
of the 2d Christian century. They were prop- 
agated by Chaldean and Syrian priests. The 
austerity of the doctrine, the real perils of ini- 
tiation which neophytes were obliged to en- 
counter, the title of soldier of Mithra which 
was bestowed upon them, and the crowns 
which were offered to them after the combats 
preceding every grade of advancement, were 
among the peculiarities which gave to these 
rites a military and bellicose character; and 
Roman soldiers eagerly sought initiation into 
them. The fundamental dogma of the Mithraic 
doctrine was the transmigration of souls under 
the influence of the seven planets, over whose 
operations Mithra presided. The whole fra- 
ternity of the initiated was divided into seven 
classes or grades, which were named succes- 
sively soldiers, lions, hysenas, &c., after animals 
sacred to Mithra. The sacrifice of the bull 
was characteristic of his worship. On the 
monuments which have been found in Italy, 
the Tyrol, and other parts of Europe, inscribed 
Deo Mithra Soli Invicto, Mithra is usually rep- 
resented as a young man in a flowing robe, 
surrounded with mystical figures, seated on a 
bull, which he is pressing down, or into which 
he is plunging the sacrificial knife. A dog, a 
serpent, a scorpion, and a lion are arranged 
near him. Nothing is certain concerning the 
signification of this scene. After the adoption 
of some of the ideas connected with other 
religious systems, as those of the Alexandrian 
Serapis, the Syrian Baal, and the Greek Apollo, 
the Mithra worship disappeared in the 5th or 
6th century. See Creuzer, Synibolik und My- 
thologie (1810-'12), translated into French with 
elaborate annotations by Guigniaut and others 



(1825-'36) ; Sainte-Croix, Recherches historiques 
et critiques sur les mysteres du paganisme, 
edited by Sylvestre de Sacy (1817) ; Seel, Die 
Mithra- Geheimnisse wdhrend der vor- und ur- 
christlichen Zeit (1823); Limbourg-Brouwer, 
Histoire de la civilisation morale et religieuse 
des Grecs (1833-'41) ; Lajard, Recherches sur le 
culte public et les mysteres de Mithra (1847-'8) ; 
Maury, Eistoire des religions de la Grece an- 
tique (1857) ; and Preller, Romische Mythologie 
(2d ed., 1865), and Griechische Mythologie (3d 
ed., 1872). 

MYSTERIES, mediaeval dramas. See MIEA- 
CLES AND MORALITIES. 

MYTHOLOGY (Gr. (iWo^ a saying, and Tfyog, 
discourse), the science of myths. The ancient 
Greeks applied the term pvdoi to all classes of 
narratives, but especially to their religious and 
poetic traditions of gods, heroes, and remark- 
able events, and hence pvdokoyia, mythology, 
came to be a synonyme of apxaioXoyia, archae- 
ology. Though mythology is still understood 
to embrace all the traditions and legends of a 
people, especially of ancient peoples, yet it is 
more commonly confined to accounts of and 
researches into primitive polytheistic religions. 
There are myths of all nations, and among 
uncivilized races they are still current and in 
course of formation. Max Mtiller's recent work 
on comparative religion and mythology (" In- 
troduction to the Science of Religion," Lon- 
don, 1873), with an essay on the philosophy of 
mythology, is the first successful attempt at 
laying before the English public the results of 
the speculations of German scholars on this 
subject. German literature has of late pro- 
duced an extensive array of works which under- 
take to describe the probable processes of the 
evolution of mythology, or religion, or moral 
and religious sentiments in general. Such are 
Caspari's Urgeschichte der Menschheit (Leipsic, 
1873), Hellwald's Culturgeschichte in Hirer na- 
turlicJien Entwickelung (Augsburg, 1874 et 
seq.), and Peschel's Volkerlcunde (Leipsic, 1874). 
Max Miiller says : " There is this common fea- 
ture in all who have thought or written on 
mythology, that they look upon it as some- 
thing which, whatever it may mean, does cer- 
tainly not mean what it seems to mean ; as 
something that requires an explanation, wheth- 
er it be a system of religion, or a phase in the 
development of the human mind, or an inevi- 
table catastrophe in the life of language." Ac- 
cording to some, mythology is history changed 
into fable ; according to others, fable changed 
into history. Some discover in it the precepts 
of moral philosophy enunciated in the poetical 
language of antiquity ; others, a picture of the 
great forms and forces of nature, particularly 
the sun, the moon, and the stars, the changes 
of day and night, the succession of the seasons, 
and the return of the years. According to this 
last theory, to understand the origin and sig- 
nificance of myths, one must enter into the 
childlike spirit of those who conceived them. 
Man instinctively turns to the light. In the 



116 



MYTHOLOGY 



second half of the day he sees the sun gradu- 
ally sink and disappear, and feels the pleasant 
warmth depart. His own body loses strength, 
and sleep overpowers him. At his waking he 
sees the light gradually return, the sun rise, the 
plants revive, and the animals come forth from 
their retreats. He perceives his powerlessness 
in these ever-recurring scenes, and he conceives 
a fear for the invisible forces which every day 
rob him of light, warmth, and life. Summer 
is followed by winter, and darkness and cold 
seem to gain daily in strength. Then comes 
spring ; the powers of light and warmth regain 
the ascendant, and everything is rejuvenated 
and renewed. In tropical climes this change 
of season is ushered in by dreadful thunder 
storms and great floods of rain. Primitive 
races, the children of humanity, do not know 
what causes the warring of the elements. To 
explain it, they have to draw upon their ima- 
gination, and to believe what their fancy can 
supply. They consider themselves to be the 
centre of a great contest between beings who 
hate or love them, persecute or shield them. 
They give to these beings forms with which 
they are acquainted, and conceive them either 
as men or as animals. The earth is peopled 
from above, and hence there are in the heavens 
beings like those here below. As the chief 
interest of the transmundane powers rests in 
man, the good and evil spirits are often in the 
midst of human habitations. They are difficult 
to distinguish from ordinary men and animals, 
but as they must be adored or propitiated, it 
is to be presumed that they bear some distinc- 
tive sign by which man may recognize them. 
Though it is possible thus plausibly to elaborate 
theories of the origin of myths, the earliest 
records of ancient peoples exhibit mythological 
conceptions far beyond these primitive ideas. 
Even Egyptian inscriptions, of which some are 
perhaps from 5,000 to V,000 years old, bear 
witness to the existence of an already highly 
developed mythological system, unfolded by 
some sacerdotal class. The inhabitants of Low- 
er Egypt differed in religious ideas and prac^ 
tices from those of the upper Nile. At Mem- 
phis Ptah was the object of the highest adora- 
tion. He is the father of the god of the sun, 
and presumably the ruler of the region of light 
and the god of fire. He is symbolized by the 
scarabcBus sacer, an insect believed to propagate 
without bearing. Ra was the supreme divinity 
at On or Heliopolis, near Memphis. Manetho 
names him second to Ptah. The solar disk 
supported by two rings is his symbol, and the 
male cat, the light-colored bull, and the hawk 
are sacred to him. He is the god of the sun, 
rejuvenating every morning and creating all 
that exists below the heavens. Eight children 
of Ptah were worshipped at Ashmunein or 
Hermopolis. They are the gods of the ele- 
ments, on whom the various forms of created 
beings depend. Female deities were wor- 
shipped at Sais, Buto, and Bubastis. Neith, 
adored at Sais, is the cow which bore the sun, 



the mother of the gods, who represents the 
creative power of nature. The goddess of 
Buto the Greeks compared to their own Leto, 
the parent of Apollo, the solar deity. Bast or 
Pasht, the Greek Artemis, had her temple at 
Bubastis. She is represented either with a 
solar disk on her head, or as having the head 
of a cat, the animal sacred to her, and the fes- 
tivities connected with her worship resembled 
those of Venus in Greece and Rome. In Up- 
per Egypt Amun, the Greek Ammon, or "the 
hidden," is the creating, sovereign god, rep- 
resented by Ptah at Memphis. He is a phallic 
god, sitting upon a throne, and having upon his 
head the two plumes, symbolizing dominion 
over the upper and the lower country. The 
goddess Maut or Mut, who bears the crown 
of Upper Egypt, is the mother and mistress 
of darkness. Shu, Sos, or Sosis, the son of 
Amun and Maut, was worshipped principally 
at This or Thinis and Abydos, as the spirit of 
the air and the bearer of the heavens. Turn 
or Atmu represents the sun in his nocturnal 
course, and Mentu or Mandu the setting sun. 
Turn, in some respects the equal of Amun and 
Ptah, generated himself, and is the father of 
the gods. Khem, whom the Greeks likened to 
Pan, is a phallic god. Khnum, Num, Kim- 
phis, or Kneph regulates the overflowing of 
the Nile. The goddess Hathor received ado- 
ration both in Upper and Lower Egypt, espe- 
cially at Aphroditopolis, near Memphis, and at 
Edfoo and Denderah. To her are consecrated 
mirth, orgies, and the dance. She is generally 
represented as holdiug a tambourine in her 
hand, but sometimes merely as a cow. The 
mythological conceptions in regard to Isis, 
Osiris, and Horus have been given at length in 
separate articles. Seb and Nut, the Greek 
Cronos and Rhea, are the spirits of the earth 
and the firmament. Typhon, says Plutarch, 
was called Set by the Egyptians ; the ass was 
sacred to him, and his symbol is an unknown, 
strange-looking animal. It is remarkable that 
even in their higher civilization the Egyptians 
continued to look upon animals as incarnations 
or representatives of their gods. The bull rep- 
resented the gods who created life ; the cow, 
the goddesses of conception and birth; the 
hawk and the cat, gods of light or of the sun ; 
the scarabaeus, Ptah; the vulture, Nut and 
Isis ; a sort of ibis, Thoth ; and the crocodile, 
Seb. The priest recognized the incarnated 
gods among these animals by various signs, 
and introduced them into the temples. The 
holiest of the chosen animals was the bull in 
the temple of Ptah at Memphis. He was the 
famous Apis, born of a cow which conceived 
him by a spark from heaven, or by a moon- 
beam. (See APIS.) The ardea purpurea, a 
species of heron with two long plumes on its 
head, generally appears at the time of the 
overflow of the Nile, which is the fertile sea- 
son in Egypt; and hence also these birds, 
called bennu by the Egyptians, were regarded 
as manifestations of the god of life. With this 



MYTHOLOGY 



117 



bird are connected the well known legends of 
the phoenix. Herodotus says the Egyptians 
were the first who believed in the immortality 
of the soul. For the general character of their 
ritual, the "Book of the Dead," see EGYPT, 
LANGUAGE AND LITEHATUEE OF. The Acca- 
dians, who inhabited the lower regions of the 
Tigris and Euphrates before the time of Baby- 
lonia and Assyria, divided the universe into 
heaven, the earth and atmosphere, and the 
lower regions, ruled respectively by Anu, Ea, 
and Mulghe, probably corresponding to the sub- 
sequent first Chaldean triad of Anu, Nua, and 
Bel. Ea had a consort in Daokina. Mnghe 
and Ninghel seem to have been chthonian 
goddesses. The Accadian hell seems to have 
borne some resemblance to the Chaldean hell. 
As both demons and good spirits were to be 
found there, it is to be supposed that it was 
conceived of as a general tarrying place until 
the coming of the day when, as they believed, 
all the dead would assemble and live again. In 
regard to the subsequent Babylonian mythol- 
ogy, Diodorus says there were 12 gods of the 
heavens, each personified by one of the signs 
of the zodiac and worshipped in a certain 
month of the year. El or II was the highest 
of these gods, and Babel, meaning the gate of 
El, was named after him. It seems that all 
the gods were local, or that each city and its 
neighborhood was supposed to be under the 
special protection of a particular deity. The 
importance of the various gods hence depended 
on the political rank of their districts. The 
gods of the Babylonian pantheon were asso- 
ciated also with appropriate goddesses. It is 
difficult to distinguish the attributes of El from 
those of Bel, whose name, meaning lord, is 
equally applicable to all the gods. That Bel 
and El were distinct gods appears from in- 
scriptions which speak of them as being both 
lords of Sumir and Accad. Bel was the presi- 
ding god of Nipur, and retained his position 
. as the national god of the Chaldeans until the 
rise of Babylon. Anu, Bel, Hea, Sin, Shamas, 
Bin, and the planetary divinities Adar, Me- 
rodach, Nergal, Ishtar, and Nebo (the divinities 
of the planets Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, 
and Mercury), were the principal of the nu- 
merous gods mentioned in the inscriptions. 
Anu, who often has the epithet of malik or 
king, appears to have been the Anu-malik 
or Anamelech of the Scriptures. Hea appears 
as the lord of the earth and king of the 
rivers; and Anu and Bel formed with him 
at an early period a sort of triad, presiding 
over the other gods. The mythological ideas 
attached to Sin, Shamas, and Bin are clearer. 
Sin, the moon god, came into importance 
when the seat of government was removed 
to Ur, his special seat. He had the symbol 
of the new moon, and was called the eldest 
son of Bel. Shamas, whose sign was the circle, 
came into prominence with the city of Lar- 
. sa. He was god of the sun and ruler of the 
day. Bin is spoken of as the god who thun- 



ders in the midst of the heavens, in whose hand 
there is a flaming sword, and who is the giver 
of abundance and wealth. The Himyarites of 
southern Arabia are said to have worshipped 
the sun, the moon, and minor demons. There 
are many indications that the Sabseans gave 
to the sun a prominent place in their worship. 
Himyaritic inscriptions mention the name of 
Almakah, a moon goddess, and of Athtar, the 
Babylonian Ishtar. The Nabatheans are said 
to have worshipped the sun, and also Dusares, 
a god of war. The Arab tribes commonly sym- 
bolized their deities by white and black stones. 
The highest god of the Midianites and Amalek- 
ites, who occupied the Sinaitic peninsula and 
the neighboring districts, was Baal, whom also 
the Moabites adored. Thus the religious con- 
ceptions of the Arabs did not vary greatly 
from those of Babylon and Nineveh. Still 
more marked are the similarities between the 
worship of the Phoenicians (and the Canaan- 
ites in general) and that of the Chaldeans and 
Assyrians. But the former is more lasciv- 
ious and cruel, and does not put the same 
emphasis on the worship of the stars. The 
Phoenicians ascribed the authorship of their 
sacred books, which were said to be of high 
antiquity, to Esmun, one of their gods, and a 
series of hierophants, including Thabion, Isiris, 
Sanchuniathon, and Mochus. Philo of Byblos 
is considered to have given a Greek translation 
of the books ascribed to Sanchuniathon in his 
history of the Phoenicians, and the extant frag- 
ments indicate that he looked upon many of 
the gods as deified rulers and heroes. Ampli- 
fying and correcting his account from other 
sources. Max Duncker concludes that El was 
the principal god of the Canaanites also, and 
that Saturn was his planet. Above him, how- 
ever, was Baal-Samin, the lord of the heavens, 
representing probably the beneficent effects of 
the sun. Springs and rivers also entered into 
the worship of the Phoenicians, and specially 
sacred was the Nahr Damur, north of Sidon, the 
Tamyras of the Greeks. The goddess Baaltis, 
mentioned by Greek authors as the Derceto of 
Ascalon and the Atargatis of Hierapolis, and 
compared by them to Aphrodite Urania, re- 
sembled the Bilit or Mylitta of the Babylonians, 
and the Ashera of the Hebrews. She was the 
goddess of birth and fertility, and symbolized 
the beneficent effects of moisture and water. 
Her worship was often held at the seashore 
and on the banks of rivers, and her images 
sometimes represent her with a body merging 
at the waist in that of a fish. Many Phoeni- 
cian colonies adored a Venus of the sea, and the 
goddess of Berytus was said to have come out 
of the sea. Dagon, the fish god of the Babylo- 
nians, was also regarded by the Phoenicians as a 
god of fertility, and connected with the water, 
though his province seems to have been the 
land ; he was the inventor of the plough and 
the giver of crops. Moloch symbolized the 
parching heat of the sun. He was the god of 
fire, purifying as well as devouring. He was 



118 



MYTHOLOGY 



the god of war, and before a battle and after a 
victory he received large sacrifices of human 
beings. It is said that he was represented as a 
bull, or had the head of one ; and as Adar, to 
whom the Babylonians gave the form of a bull, 
was the spirit of Saturn, it is probable that 
Moloch also was connected with that planet. 
Astarte, the divinity of Sidon, who as goddess 
of war held a spear and was represented in 
Carthage as riding on a lion, bore some rela- 
tion to the moon, and was called the horned 
Astarte (Ashteroth Karnaim in the Scriptu- 
ral form), probably in reference to the horns 
of the moon on her head. She was the god- 
dess of fire, and human sacrifices were made 
to her. She represented chastity; to serve 
her was to subdue all passion ; and emascula- 
tion and other self-mutilations were highly 
pleasing to her. The attributes of both Baal 
and Moloch were united in Melkart, " king of 
the city,"'whom the inhabitants of Tyre con- 
sidered their special patron. The Greeks called 
him Melicertes, and identified him with Her- 
cules. By his great strength and power he 
turned evil into good, brought life out of de- 
struction, pulled back the sun to the earth at 
the time of the solstices, lessened excessive 
heat and cold, and rectified the evil signs of 
the zodiac. In Phoenician legends he conquers 
the savage races of distant coasts, founds the 
ancient settlements on the Mediterranean, and 
plants the rocks at the strait of Gibraltar, the 
end of the world, as landmarks of the ex- 
tent of his journeyings. As goddess of the 
moon Astarte was brought into connection 
with Melkart, the god of the sun, becoming 
his spouse, assuming the name of Milkath, and 
changing from the severe and cruel goddess 
of war and chastity into a gentle patron of 
love and fruitfulness. Under the names of 
Dido and Anna the two sides of her worship 
reappear especially in Carthage. As Dido she 
was the wandering goddess of the moon, paral- 
lel to Europa, and possessed the attributes of 
Astarte only. Melkart finding and espousing 
her, she changed into Anna, the graceful. In 
like manner Astarte became an Asherah, and 
Artemis or Athena an Atargatis. The people 
of Byblos worshipped an addon (lord) Tammuz, 
who is generally identified with the Greek 
Adonis. The Phosnicians combined the deities 
of their cities into a sort of system, forming a 
circle of seven gods, called Kabirim (Cabiri), 
the powerful or the great, and children of 
Sydyk, the just. Among these gods were 
Khusor or Vulcan, the worker of iron; the 
female Khusarthis, or Thuro, the law, whom 
the Greeks call Harmonia, and who in many 
respects resembles Astarte ; and Baal-Melkart, 
the patron of Tyre. An eighth god of this 
series seems to have been Esmun, " the eighth," 
who appears as a saving and pardoning di- 
vinity, and somewhat like the Thoth of the 
Egyptians and Hermes of the Greeks. The 
images of these eight patron gods were often 
carved on the bows of Phoenician vessels. 



Next to the Kabirim were demons, and by 
degrees was formed a system of divinities of 
three times seven, or, with Esmun, 22 gods, 
arranged according to the Phoenician alphabet, 
and often put into fanciful relations to each 
other. The mythological conceptions entering 
into the religious systems of other races of 
the East will be found treated in the articles 
BUDDHISM; INDIA, RELIGIONS AND RELIGIOUS 
LITERATURE OF ; KORAN ; ZEND AVESTA ; and 
ZOROASTER. The principal divinities of the 
ancient Greeks and Romans are treated under 
their own titles ; but the prominence of these 
in modern culture calls for a synthetical survey 
of the entire theogony and body of myths, and 
also for the characteristic features of the wor- 
ship. Numerous systems of classification have 
been devised, but the most serviceable for or- 
dinary purposes is a simple grouping accord- 
ing to the abodes and the spheres of activity 
attributed to the principal gods and godlike 
beings. The divinities of heaven are Uranus, 
Zeus, Hera, Helios, Selene, Eos, Iris, and 
JSolus; of the water, Poseidon, Amphitrite, 
tritons, sirens, Nereids, naiads, Scylla, and 
Charybdis; of the earth, Ge or Gsea and Rhea; 
of the fields, woods, and gardens, Demeter, 
Pan, Faunus, Terminus, Flora, Pomona, Pales, 
Vertumnus, and nymphs ; of the house and 
domestic life, Hestia, lares, and penates; of 
time, the Horse and Cronos ; of the arts, trades, 
and sciences, Hephaestus, Athena, Apollo, Arte- 
mis, Hermes, and the muses ; of love and joy, 
Aphrodite, Eros, the Graces, Hebe, Ganymede, 
Dionysus, satyrs, and Silenus; of health, vEs- 
culapius and Hygiea ; of war and peace, Ares, 
Bellona, Eris, and Janus; of fate, justice, and 
retribution, Fatum, Nemesis, Ate, Moirse or the 
Fates, Themis, Erinnyes or Eumenidae, Harpies, 
Thanatos, and genii; and of the lower or in- 
fernal world, Pluto, Persephone, Grseee, Gor- 
gons, Manes, Nyx, and Hypnus. Exclusively 
Roman divinities among these are Janus, 
Faunus, Terminus, Vertumnus, Pales, Flora, 
genii, lares, penates, and manes. In adopting 
the Greek mythology the Romans transferred 
to it the names of their own divinities and 
their own legends, or gave to the Greek names 
a Latinized form. Thus Cronos they called 
Saturnus ; Uranus, Coelus ; Gsea, Terra ; Helios, 
Sol ; Zeus, Jupiter ; Poseidon, Neptunus ; Ares, 
Mars ; Hephaestus, Vulcanus ; Hermes, Mercu- 
rius; Hera, Juno; Athena, Minerva; Artemis, 
Diana ; Aphrodite, Venus ; Eros, Amor ; Hestia, 
Vesta; Demeter, Ceres; Dionysus, Bacchus; 
Persephone, Proserpina; Selene, Luna; Eos, 
Aurora ; Hypnus, Somnus ; and the Moires, 
Parcse ; and these Latin names have prevailed 
in modern literature. The Greeks considered 
their gods as possessed of human form, some- 
times rather gigantic and superhuman, and of 
great beauty. They needed to eat and drink 
and sleep. They were subject to suffering, 
for they could be wounded, and though called 
blessed they were not free from sorrows and 
tribulations. They were holy and just, but 



MYTHOLOGY 



119 



irascible and hard-hearted, and at times sedu- 
cers of human beings. They were truly divine, 
for they knew no age, and were immortal. 
They could foretell what would befall a per- 
son; but otherwise much must have been 
hidden from them, for even Jupiter could be 
deceived, and the other gods could deceive 
each other. They sometimes moved among 
men in any form they chose, and visibly or in- 
visibly. They could send signs and messages, 
such as were announced by the oracles of Dodo- 
na, Delos, and Delphi, or by the cries, chirping, 
eating, or flight of birds, or by thunder and 
lightning, or by the peculiar formation of the 
entrails of certain animals. They maintained 
their bodily and spiritual faculties in their ori- 
ginal youth and strength by living on ambrosia 
and nectar. Certain animals and plants were 
their emblems or sacred to them. They were 
worshipped in images of wood, bronze, or mar- 
ble, placed on hills and mountains, or in groves 
and forests, and generally removed from the 
thoroughfares of daily life. Only the lares 
and penates were household gods. The wor- 
ship consisted in prayer, vows, or sacrifices. 
Prayer was commonly offered standing, the 
head covered, and the hands extended upward, 
or laid on the mouth, or touching the altars of 
the gods or the knees of their images. When 
the gods of the upper region were to be propi- 
tiated, the people dressed in white, and the cere- 
monial consisted partly in bathing and wash- 
ing, and raising the hands toward heaven. 
When the divinities of the lower regions were 
invoked, the dress was black, the hands were 
pointed downward, and only black animals 
were sacrificed. Bloody sacrifices, which took 
place in the earliest times of Greek history, were 
resorted to only in propitiation for a whole tribe 
or people. They consisted sometimes of hu- 
man beings, and in such cases one commonly 
suffered death for all ; but generally they con- 
sisted of eatable domestic animals. The blood 
of the slaughtered animal was poured upon 
the altar, the portion designed for the god was 
burned upon it, and the remainder was dis- 
tributed among the priests and sacrificers. 
Other sacrifices consisted mainly in libations, 
as wine, honey, milk, and oil, and the burning 
of frankincense, and fruits and sweets. The 
myths or mythical traditions, and the heroes 
or demigods who figure in them, are an im- 
portant element in the mythology of the 
Greeks and Romans. The myths may be di- 
vided into three groups : those with one hero, 
those with entire generations of heroes, and 
those which recount tribal or national expedi- 
tions. The principal myths relating to single 
heroes are those of Prometheus, Deucalion, and 
Tantalus. Among those of heroic races or fam- 
ilies are the Corinthian myths of Sisyphus and 
Bellerophon; the Argive myths of Inachus, 
Danatis, Danae, Perseus, and Hercules; the At- 
tic myths of Cecrops and Theseus; and the 
Theban myths of Cadmus and (Edipus. The 
myths of national expeditions are the Argonau- 



tic, the two Theban wars, and the Trojan war. 
The myths of Evander, JEneas, and Romulus 
are Roman. The heroes or demigods were of 
both divine and human descent, or rather hu- 
man beings elevated to the rank and honor of 
gods. The masses generally looked upon them 
as having been the great men of primitive 
times, and paid homage to them only as such. 
In order to facilitate the understanding of the 
great deeds which the myths ascribed to them, 
they were imagined as having been persons of 
superhuman strength. They all differ from 
the gods in that they were mortal, though a 
few were permitted to continue for a while 
their existence in Elysium. Hercules is the 
only one who becomes immortal. The wor- 
ship of heroes consisted in offerings of hon- 
ey, wine, oil, and milk. Animals also were 
sacrificed to them, but with the caution of 
twisting the heads downward, and making the 
blood flow into a ditch. Further, the meat 
was not eaten, but burned ; and only the 
tombs of the heroes could be used for their 
worship. The mythology of the Scandina- 
vian or Norse races, preserved mainly in the 
literature of Iceland, accounts for the exis- 
tence of the world by placing in the begin- 
ning a Ginungagap, an empty space, with a 
Niflheim, a region of mist, ice, and snow, to 
the north, and a Muspelheim, a region of 
warmth and sunlight, to the south. The ice 
melting and dropping into Ginungagap, there 
came to be an accumulation of matter, out 
of which arose Ymir, the giant, who brought 
forth Reimthursen, the frost. His nurse was 
Audhumla, the cow, which lived by licking 
the ice, and in consequence of her licking ap- 
peared the form of Buri, the father of Burr, the 
father of Odin. Yili and Ve, Odin's brothers, 
overthrew the dynasty of Ymir and Reim- 
thursen. Ymir's flesh, blood, and bones be- 
came the earth, sea, and mountains, and his 
skull and brains the heavens and the clouds. 
In Jotunheim were the giants, and Ymir's eye- 
brows served as a wall between them and 
the inhabitants of the earth. The clouds 
and the wind were subject to Odin, the god 
of war, and the father of Saga, the goddess 
of poetry. On his shoulders sat the ravens 
Herginn and Muninn, which he sent out to 
bring him news of passing events. At his 
side sat Frigga, his favorite, who controls all 
nature. Freyja, the custodian of the dead, 
claimed half the heroes slain in battle^ Both 
were also goddesses of love, and at different 
times the one or the other was considered the 
wife of Odin. Thor, Odin's son, the god of 
thunder and lightning, held a hammer as a 
symbol of his authority, and threw down from 
his abode in heaven thunderbolts made by the 
black elves that dwelt in the interior of the 
earth. He . presided also over the domestic 
hearth and the fruitfulness of wedlock. Bal- 
dur or Baldr, the sun, the father of daylight, 
had been made invulnerable except by the mis- 
tletoe, and Loki, son of the giant Farbauti and 



120 



MYTHOLOGY 



god of mischief, ordered Hodr, the blind god of 
winter, to slay Baldur with a twig of it. Loki 
thought to escape by plunging into the sea and 
changing into a salmon, but was caught in a 
net, and bound till the judgment day. Hodr 
was killed by Bali, Odin's son. The wolf 
Fenris, the progeny of Loki, bit off the hand 
of Tyr, the god of war and athletic sports, and 
was also bound, and on the judgment day he 
will be slain by Vidarr, the god of twilight, 
next in strength to Thor. The serpent of Mid- 
gard (which is the middle world, between Mus- 
pelheim and Niflheim, and formed from Ymir's 
body) was thrown by Odin into the sea, where 
it grew so large as to encircle the whole world ; 
as was also Hel, a goddess half black and half 
blue, who lived upon the brains and marrow of 
men'. On Midgard was Asgard, the dwelling 
of the Asa race, namely, Odin and the twelve 
^Esir: Thor, Baldur, Freyr, Tyr, Bragi, Hodr, 
Heimdalr, Vidar, Vali, Ullr, Ve, and Forseti. 
The gods and goddesses lived apart, the former 
in the mansion called Gladsheim and the lat- 
ter in Vingolf . In Valhalla Odin caroused with 
dead heroes, and was waited upon by Oskmey- 
jar or Valkyries. Freyr, whose attributes are 
not clearly defined, is called by Dasent the god 
of rain, sunshine, and fruits, whom Gridr cap- 
tivated with her beauty. Iduna, the wife of 
Bragi, the god of poetry and eloquence, dwelt 
iii the lower world, where she was custodian 
of the golden apples with which the gods re- 
juvenated themselves. Ullr was god of the 
chase, and Mimir of wisdom and knowledge. 
Heimdalr is the watchman of the bridge Bi- 
frasta, that leads to the lower world, and his 
horn will give the signal for the great battle of 
the gods at the end of time. In the article 
EDDA are some additional details of the my- 
thological conceptions of the Scandinavians. 
The mythology of the Germans is built upon 
the same foundation as that of the Scandinavi- 
ans, and many portions of it are identical. The 
principal deities are the same. Wuotan, or Wo- 
tan according to the Low Germans, is the Odin 
of the North. The atmosphere and the heavens 
are subject to him, and on him depends the 
f ruitfulness of the earth. He takes pleasure in 
the brunt of battle and in the excitement of the 
chase. He rides upon a white horse, and his 
gigantic form is robed in a large dark mantle. 
Donar, the Scandinavian Thor, the god of 
storms, swings a heavy hammer or a thunder- 
bolt. He is the giver of increase, and the 
fruits of the field, the cattle, and wedlock are 
under his protection. The Tyr of the Norse 
finds a counterpart in the Tui or Saxnot of the 
Saxons, the Ziu of the Swabians, and the Eru 
of the Bavarians. His symbol is the sword ; he 
is the god of war, but originally he was a god 
of heaven. Fro, who seems to have answered 
to Freyr, unites various not well defined mytho- 
logical attributes. Baldur or Phol, who was 
principally worshipped in Thuringia, is a youth- 
ful warrior, and somewhat connected with the 
blessings of the season of spring. The Frisians 



MYTILENE 

gave him a son named Fosite, the Forseti of 
Norse mythology. The goddess called Ner- 
thus by Tacitus, which name was subsequently 
corrupted into Hertha, whom the Franks wor- 
shipped as Holda or Holle, the Bavarians as 
Perchta, and the Low Germans as Fria or Frigg, 
appears to have been known first to the early 
inhabitants of the island of Kiigen in the Bal- 
tic. Her attributes are those of kindness and 
motherly care. She presides over the blessings 
of wedded life, house, and field, and rules the 
and of the dead. For the minor deities of 
;he Germanic races, rather of a legendary than 
of a mythical character, see FAIRIES. See also 
DEMONOLOGY. See Creuzer, SymboliTc und My- 
thologie der alten Voider (3d ed., Leipsic, 1837- 
'44) ; Keightley, " Mythology of Ancient Greece 
and Italy" (2d ed., London, 1865) ; Preller, Ro- 
mische Mythologie (2d ed. by Kohler, Berlin, 
1865) ; Leitschuh, Die EntsteJiung der Mytho- 
logie und die Entwickelung der griechischen 
Religion (Wiirzburg, 1867) ; Baring-Gould, 
" Origin and Development of Religious Belief " 
(London, 1869-'70) ; George W. Cox, " The 
Mythology of the Aryan Nations" (London, 
1870); Schomann, GriecMsche AltertMmer 
(3d ed., Berlin, 1871-'3) ; Preller, Griechische 
Mythologie (3d ed. by Plew, Berlin, 1872 et 
seq.} ; Kirchner, Grundrisse der Mythologie 
und Sagengeschichte der Griechen und Romer 
(Gera, 1872); Gubernatis, "Zoological My- 
thology" (London, 1873); Murray, "Manual 
of Mythology " (London, 1873) ; Petiscus, Der 
Olymp, oder Mythologie der Griechen und Ro- 
mer (Leipsic, 1873) ; Delaunay, Moines et Si- 
~bylles dans Vantiquite judeo-grecque (Paris, 
1874) ; Kroon, Mythologisch woordenboek (Arn- 
heim, 1874 et seq.*) ; Holtzmann, Deutsche My- 
thologie (Leipsic, 1874) ; Lenormant, La magie 
chez les Chaldeens (Paris, 1874); Schrader, 
Ishtar (Berlin, 1874) ; "Records of the Past: 
Translations of Assyrian and Egyptian Monu- 
ments" (London, 1874 et seq.} ; and Duncker, 
Geschichte des Alterthums (4th ed., Leipsic, 
1874). 

MYTILME, or Mitylene (anc. Leslos), an island 
of the Grecian archipelago, belonging to Tur- 
key, separated from the coast of Asia Minor 
by a strait from 7 to 10 m. broad ; area, 276 
sq. m. ; pop. previous to the Greek revolution, 
60,000, since reduced to less than 40,000. On 
the south it is indented by two deep bays called 
Ports Oaloni and lero, the former extending 
to the centre of the island. Both have very 
narrow mouths, and expand as they stretch 
inland. The surface is diversified by wooded 
hills and beautiful plains ; the soil is fruitful, 
and the climate salubrious, but the means of 
irrigation are imperfect. The principal prod- 
ucts are olives, wine, fruit, silk, cotton, and 
pitch. The chief town is Castro, or Mytilene, 
on the E. coast, which receives considerable 
business as a port on the steamboat route to 
Constantinople. The principal merchants are 
Greeks. The town was considerably damaged 
by an earthquake in 1867. The ancient Lesbos 



MYXINOIDS 



121 



was one of the islands of the ^Eolians, and at 
a very early period contained several rich and 
populous cities, of which Mytilene and Methym- 
na were the most important, on account of their 
fine harbors for the coasting trade. After 
the island had undergone several revolutionary 
changes, Pittacus about 600 B. 0. usurped the 
dictatorship, restored order, and laid the foun- 
dation for the future greatness of the city 
of Mytilene. While continental ^Eolis became 



subject to Persia about 550 B. 0., Lesbos main- 
tained her independence several years longer. 
About 500 it joined the revolt of the lonians, 
but without success. After regaining its in- 
dependence it became a member of the Athe- 
nian confederacy in 477, but revolted in the 
beginning of the Peloponnesian war, 428, and 
once more in 412, both times suffering severely. 
With the exception of a short period during 
which it was under Spartan sway, Lesbos con- 




Mytilene. 



tinned subject to Athens till 387. In 334 it 
submitted to Alexander. In the 1st century 
B. 0. the island was under the dominion of 
Mithridates, and after his defeat it was annexed 
to the possessions of Rome. In the 13th cen- 
tury one of the Byzantine emperors ceded it 
to the Venetian family of Gateluzzi as the 
dowry of his sister ; it was taken from them 
in 1462 by Mohammed II., who besieged the 
chief city and captured it through treachery. 
It was the birthplace of the poets Terpan- 
der, Arion, Alcseus, and Sappho, of the philoso- 
phers Pittacus, Cratippus, and Theophrastus, 
and the historians Hellanicus and Theophanes. 
MYXINOIDS, an order of fishes, which, with 
the cyclostomes or lampreys, form the class 
of myzonts of Agassiz, containing the lowest 
of the vertebrates. They form the family Jiy- 
perotreta (Mall. ; marsipobrancMi of Huxley), 




Organs of Eespiration in the Myxiiie: a, single hooked 
tooth; &&&&, double rows of lingual teeth; c, branchial 
cells ; d d d d, tentacula ; e, mucous glands. 

and are characterized by a cylindrical body, 
obliquely truncated anteriorly; the mouth is 
furnished with cirri or tentacles, the palate is 



perforated, and the cavities of the nose and 
mouth communicate (as in no other fish) ; the 
upper margin of the mouth has a single tooth, 
and the tongue has a double recurved row on 
each side ; the jaws are absent, and the inferior 
margin of the mouth is formed by the anterior 
extremity of the tongue bone; the eyes are 
concealed ; the branchia} are on each side, with 
internal ducts leading to the oesophagus. For 
full details see the papers of J. Muller in the 
" Transactions of the Berlin Academy " for 
1834, 1838, 1839, and 1842, and papers by F. 
W. Putnam in "Proceedings of the Boston 
Society of Natural History," vol. xvi., 1874. 
In the genus myxine (Linn.) two spiracles ap- 
proximate on the lower surface behind the 
branchia3, each receiving the external ducts of 
the six branchire of its own side. The com- 
mon myxine or glutinous hag (M. glutinosa, 
Linn.) has a smooth eel-like body, wjth a very 




Common Myxine (Myxine glutinosa). 

long dorsal fin continued round the tail to the 
vent, a single spiracle on the head, and eight 
barbules around the mouth ; the color is bluish 



122 N 

brown above and whitish below ; the length is 
from 6 to 15 in. Linnaeus placed this animal 
among worms, regarding the two lateral parts 
of the tongue as transverse jaws, which do not 
occur in vertebrates. It is the lowest of verte- 
brates, except the lancelet. The specific name 
is derived from the great quantity of viscid 
mucus secreted by the cutaneous glands whose 
pores open along the under surface of the 
body ; the spinal column is a soft and flexible 
cartilaginous tube, with no division into rudi- 
mentary vertebrae. It is called borer from its 
habit of eating into the bodies of other fish 
which have been caught on hooks, entering the 
mouth or other part of the surface, and in this 
way is often annoying to fishermen during 
spring and summer. It is found along the 



NABLUS 

coasts of Great Britain and in the northern 
seas, on the N. E. coast of North America, and 
the S. coast of South America. In the genus 
heptatrema (Dum.) or bdellostoma (Mtill.) there 
are six or seven branchiae on each side, each 
with an external spiracle; the eyes are very 
small, conspicuous through the skin. It re- 
sembles the preceding genus in internal struc- 
ture, and attains a larger size ; it is found in 
the southern seas, preferring rocky bottoms, 
where it lies in wait for fishes; it is active, 
and has remarkable powers of emitting mucus 
from the skin. The species described as bdel- 
lostoma Forsteri by Miiller and as B. cirrha- 
tum by Giinther is roasted and eaten by the 
natives of New Zealand. 
MYZOKTS. See MYXINOIDS. 



N 



NTHE 14th letter and the llth conso- 
nant of the English alphabet, corre- 
sponding to the 14th letter of the Phoanician 
alphabet, the nun, the name of which in the 
Semitic languages signifies fish. The usual 
sound of the English N, or that which it 
naturally has when not affected by the neigh- 
boring consonants, is that of a lingual nasal. 
This is in the English language an original 
sound, derived without change from the earlier 
languages. There is an epenthetic n in bring 
(comp. brought), think (comp. thought)-, also 
in some words of Latin origin, as frangible 
(comp. fracture), tangent (comp. tact). The 
letter n final, after I or m, is silent in English, 
as condemn, kiln, column, hymn; but this n 
was originally sounded. The omission of an n 
is sometimes indicated merely by the length- 
ening of the preceding vowel, as goose (Ger. 
Gam), tooth (Lat. dens, genit. dentis ; Moeso- 
Gothic, tunthus), tithe (comp. tenth). The 
English n, when it comes immediately before 
a palatal mute, as c, ch (when pronounced like 
k), g, k, q, or x, is a palatal nasal, or has the 
sound of ng final. In ng final, the palatal 
sound has arisen in the same way, although 
the sound of g has been dropped in English. 
But the suffix ing appears to have arisen from 
the infinitive termination an in the earlier 
language. The Anglo-Saxon and Latin have 
the same two nasal sounds of n as the English. 
The Moeso-Gothic and the Greek have the two 
nasal sounds, but express the palatal nasal by 
g. The Latin of the earliest authors had some- 
times g and sometimes n for the palatal nasal. 
The Sanskrit language has a great variety of n 
sounds. In numeration, the Greek N signified 
50. Among the Romans, according to some 
authors, N signified 90 ; according to others 900, 
and with a horizontal line above it, 90,000. 

NABATHEANS. See EDOM. 

NABIS, a Spartan tyrant who raised himself 
to supreme power on the death of Machanidas 



in 207 B. 0. He caused the young son of the 
deceased king Lycurgus to be assassinated ; 
the most influential citizens were put to death 
or banished; the wealthy were subjected to 
incessant exactions enforced by torture, and 
one of the tyrant's favorite engines of punish- 
ment was the figure of a woman which he 
called after his wife Apega, and which being 
made to embrace the victim pierced him with 
spikes projecting from its breast and arms. 
The money thus obtained enabled him to sup- 
port a mercenary force to crush the spirit of 
Sparta, attempt the restoration of the Lacedae- 
monian ascendancy in the Peloponnesus, and 
seize the city of Messene. He was forced^ to 
withdraw by the Megalopolitan general Philo- 
poamen, but in the next year he returned and 
reduced the territory of Megalopolis to great 
distress. On the conclusion of the first Mace- 
donian war, Flamininus, the Roman consul, 
invaded Laconia with a powerful force, and 
laid siege to Sparta. Nabis made an obstinate 
defence, but was ultimately constrained to pur- 
chase peace (195). In 192, having again in- 
volved himself in hostilities with the Achaeans, 
he applied to the JEtolians for succor. They 
sent a small force, ostensibly to assist but in 
reality to overthrow him, and he was soon as- 
sassinated by their general Alexamenus. 

NABLUS, or Nabulns, a town of Palestine, 30 
m. N. of Jerusalem; pop. estimated at from 
10,000 to 20,000, among whom are about 1,000 
Christians and 200 Samaritans. It is situated 
in a valley at the base of Mt. Gerizim, and is 
supposed to occupy the site of the ancient She- 
chem. When restored by the Romans in the 
reign of Vespasian, it received the name of 
Neapolis, of which its modern name is a cor- 
ruption. In the Samaritan synagogue are sev- 
eral valuable manuscripts, the most important 
of which is the copy of the Pentateuch known 
as the Samaritan codex. Nablus has important 
manufactures, especially of soap. 



NABOB 



NADIR SHAH 



123 



NABOB (Hind, nawaufy, a title of office in 
India, applied during the Mogul empire to the 
imperial lieutenant or viceroy of a province. 
The word is the plural of naib, prince, it being 
a custom of the natives to address all great 
men in the plural number. As the power of 
ihe emperors declined, their deputies became 
independent. They made war upon each other, 
and the country was perpetually disturbed by 
their contentions. The English, availing thein- 
selves of these dissensions, reduced them in de- 
tail to mere pensioners on their bounty. In the 
English language the word nabob signifies a 
man who has acquired great wealth in the East. 

NACHTIGAL, Gustav, a German traveller, born 
at Eichstedt, Prussian Saxony, Feb. 23, 1834. 
He practised medicine in Algeria from 1859 to 
1863, when he entered the service of the bey 
of Tunis as a military doctor, and eventually 
became his body physician. In 1869 he vol- 
unteered to accompany a caravan to Kuka, to 
convey presents from the king of Prussia to 
the sheikh of Bornoo in return for his kind- 
ness to various German travellers. He left 
Tripoli Feb. 18, 1869, and reached Moorzook 
March 27. While the expedition was delayed 
he explored Tibesti, the country of the Tib- 
boos, and finally left Moorzook April 18, 1870, 
reaching Kuka July 6. He collected geograph- 
ical materials about Bornoo, visited Kanem 
and Lake Tchad, acquiring much valuable in- 
formation concerning the southern Sahara, and 
went to Baghirmi, where he explored the 
Shari and its many branches, returning several 
times to Kuka. In the beginning of March, 
1873, he set out on his return through Waday, 
passing S. of Lake Tchad to Abeshr, the present 
capital of Waday. While there he visited Bar 
Runga, a vassal state, which stretches south- 
ward to about lat. 8 N. He arrived at the 
capital of Darfoor on March 17, 1874, and 
reached Cairo in November, no European hav- 
ing ever before succeeded in making the jour- 
ney through from Waday. Petermann pub- 
lished in 1874 his Die trilutaren Heidenlander 
JSaghirmis. For an account of his late explo- 
rations see the London " Geographical Maga- 
zine" for October, 1874. 

NACOGDOCHES, an E. county of Texas, bound- 
ed S. W. by the Angelina river and E. by the 
Attoyac, which unite at the S. E. corner ; area, 
886 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,614, of whom 3,275 
were colored. It has an undulating surface, 
occasionally hilly and broken, and generally 
well timbered. The soil varies greatly, but is 
mostly fertile, cotton and corn being the prin- 
cipal crops. Good iron ore exists. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 217,861 bushels of 
Indian corn, 16,515 of barley, 35,113 of sweet 
potatoes, 4,531 bales of cotton, 62,334 Ibs. of 
butter, and 5,490 gallons of sorghum molas- 
ses. There were 1,971 horses, 3,607 milch 
cows, 9,563 other cattle, 2,470 sheep, and 
16,089 swine. Capital, Nacogdoches. 

NADIR SHAH, or Ruli Khan, a king of Persia, 
born in Khorasan in 1688, assassinated June 19 



or 20, 1747. His father was a maker of sheep- 
skin caps and coats4 For four years Nadir 
was held in captivity by the Uzbecks, from 
which at the age of 21 he escaped, and after- 
ward entered the service of the governor of 
Khorasan. Here he attained high rank, but 
was degraded and punished, whereupon he 
placed himself at the head of a band of rob- 
bers. The invading Afghans had dethroned 
the Persian monarch early in the 18th century. 
Nadir joined Tarn asp, son of the shah, with 
5,000 men, in 1727, was given the supreme 
command, drove the Afghan king out of Kho- 
rasan, overtook the retreating army at Per- 
sepolis, and cut it to pieces. For these ser- 
vices he received in 1730 the provinces of Kho- 
rasan, Mazanderan, Seistan, and Kerman, and 
took the title of Tamasp Kuli (Tamasp's slave), 
to which Khan was added by the king. In 
1731 he defeated the Turks on the plains of 
Hamadan, and then marched against the Af- 
ghans. In his absence Tamasp was defeated 
by the Turks and signed a treaty ceding them 
several provinces. Nadir, taking advantage 
of the popular discontent, proclaimed that he 
would carry on the war, and in August, 1732, 
dethroned the sovereign, who was afterward 
put to death. The infant son of Tamasp was 
made nominal ruler as Abbas III., but died early 
in 1736; and at an assembly called to consider 
the state of the kingdom, Nadir accepted the 
crown. He had already recovered from the 
Turks the ceded provinces, and he now moved 
against the Afghans. He captured the city 
of Candahar in 1738, and his son Riza Kuli 
crossed the Oxus and overthrew the ruler of 
Bokhara and the Uzbecks. Afghanistan was 
conquered, and Nadir, marching into Hindo- 
stan in 1739, defeated the Mogul army, and 
entered Delhi. The inhabitants of that city 
rose against their conquerors, and Nadir there- 
upon ordered a general massacre of Hindoos 
in every house in which a dead Persian was 
found. He returned to Persia with plunder 
amounting to $100,000,000, including the Koh- 
i-noor diamond, having also taken from the 
Mogul emperor the provinces west of the In- 
dus. In 1740 he subjugated the sovereign of 
Bokhara, and defeated .and put to death the 
khan of Khiva. In his latter years he became 
capricious and cruel, finally putting whole 
cities to the sword on the slightest pretext. 
He had also grown so avaricious that the taxes 
levied upon the empire were intolerable. At 
length four noblemen, who learned that their 
names were in a proscribed list, broke into his 
tent at night and despatched him. His life was 
written in Persian by Mirza Mohammed Ma- 
hadi Khan, his secretary, and translated into 
French by Sir W. Jones (London, 1770 ; Eng- 
lish, 1773). A detailed account of his career 
is given by Malcolm in the second volume of 
the "History of Persia" (1815), and of his ear- 
lier life and conquests by Fraser, whose author- 
ities were Persian manuscripts, in his " TTio - 
tory of Nadir Shah" (1742). 



His- 



124: 



N^EVIUS 



NffiVIUS, Cneins, a Koraan poet, born probably 
in Campania between 274 and 264 B. 0., died 
in Utica, Africa, about 204. He served in 
the first Punic war, settled in Rome, and 
produced his earliest play in 235, making the 
stage a vehicle for assailing the aristocracy. 
For a libel on Q. Csecilius Metellus he was cast 
into prison, and obtained his release by two 
plays, the Hariolus and Leon, in which he re- 
canted his calumnies. Having again offended, 
he went into exile at Utica, and employed his 
latter days upon his epic poem on the "Punic 
War " a few fragments of which are extant. 
Fragments of Naevius may be found in several 
collections of the Latin poets, and in Her- 
mann's Elementa Doctrines Metric (Leipsic, 
1852); the most complete and convenient edi- 
tion is that of Klussmann (Jena, 1843). 

NAGASAKI (i. e., Long Cape), a seaport town 
of Japan, in the province of Hizen, in the 
west of the island of Kiushiu, the seat of gov- 
ernment of the Teen or prefecture of the same 
name ; , pop. about 80,000. The city is sur- 



NAGOYA 

rounded by hills on every side except toward 
the harbor. It is laid out in rectangles, and a 
stream of water crossed by 21 bridges flows 
through it. The hills are covered with temples 
and groves. The foreign concession is sepa- 
rated from the native town by an arm of the 
bay. The historic isle of Deshima (outer iaU 
and) lies in front of the native town, shaped 
like an open fan, the handle toward the shore. 
The harbor is landlocked, deep, spacious, and 
one of the finest in the world. The surround- 
ing scenery is of exquisite beauty. The city 
contains a Chinese quarter, in which live nearly 
1,000 Chinamen, who carry on a large trade 
with their own country in medicines, dried 
fish, isinglass, seaweed, and mushrooms. The 
exports to Europe and America are tea, tobac- 
co, coal, camphor, and porcelain. Nagasaki is 
the terminus of two telegraph cables, one to 
Shanghai, the other to Vladivostok ; it is also 
connected by telegraph with Tokio and Hako- 
date. It contains a government hospital and 
college, a patent slip, and dry dock. The sur- 




Nagasaki. 



rounding country is rich in metallic wealth, 
and its vicinity to the collieries of Takashima, 
Karatsu, and Matsushima makes it a good coal- 
ing station for the many steamers that ply in 
the Inland sea and Pacific ocean. It is the 
chief depot of the trade with China, and the 
mart for the potteries of Hizen ; but the lack 
of good land approaches hinders its growth. 
The value of the exports in 1873 was $1,899,- 
793, and of the imports $1,626,775, carried in 
328 vessels, of 280,972 tons. Until 1568 Na- 
gasaki was a mere fishing village. The daimio 
of Omura invited the Portuguese merchants 
and missionaries to reside here, and conversions 
and trade multiplied until the village grew into 
a large city. During the 100 years of Jesuit 
proselytizing in Japan Nagasaki was the eccle- 
siastical centre of the new faith, and the an- 
nals of missionary zeal, persecution, and mas- 
sacre have given it great historical prominence. 
After the expulsion of the Portuguese, the 
Dutch were ordered to leave their factory at 
Hirado, and come to Deshima, in which they 



lived under surveillance, only one Dutch ship 
being allowed to come annually to Nagasaki 
for more than two centuries. In 1854, by 
the Perry treaty, the harbor was specified as 
a place of anchorage and supplies for foreign 
vessels. By the Harris treaty it was opened to 
foreign commerce. Although S. of the usual 
course of the typhoons which ravage the coasts 
of Japan, a cyclone of unusual violence visit- 
ed Nagasaki in August, 1874, sinking more 
than 100 junks, damaging steamers, and caus- 
ing great destruction of life and property in 
the city. Pappenberg, the precipitous rocky 
island from which thousands of the native 
Christians were driven into the sea in 1643, 
lies in the bay in sight of the city. 

NAGOYA, the fourth largest city of Japan, on 
the main island, in the province of Owari, 
capital of the Aichi Teen or prefecture, near 
the head of Owari bay, about 170 m. W. S. W. 
of Tokio ; pop. about 400,000. The city lies 
on the great plain of Owari, forming nearly 
a right-angled triangle, with the river which 



NAGPORE 



NAIL 



125 



drains the castle moats as one of the sides. It 
is regularly laid out in squares, and the com- 
mercial, ecclesiastical, and official quarters are 
separate. The castle, now containing the gov- 
ernment buildings, is one of the largest and 
strongest in Japan. The temples and monas- 
teries are numerous, wealthy, and occupy much 
ground. The Tokaido, or main highway of 
the empire, passes through the city, which has 
a large inland trade, chiefly by carts and pack 
horses, and a still larger business by junks and 
steamers. It is noted for its manufactures of 
decorated porcelain, lacquered work, wood car- 
ving, and fans. It contains a telegraph station 
and a government college. Seven miles distant 
is the seaport of Miya. 

NAGPORE, or Nagpoor, a city of central India, 
capital of the province of Berar or Nagpore, 
situated in lat. 21 9' N., Ion. 79 11' E., 420 
m. E. N. E. of Bombay, with which city it is 
connected by a branch of the Great Indian 
Peninsula railway; pop. about 115,000. It is 
7 m. in circumference, but the houses are gen- 
erally inferior. There are important manu- 
factories of cotton, and silk and cutlery are 
also made. Two great trunk roads in addition 
to the railway lead out of Nagpore : one 160 
m. to Jubbulpore, the other 180 m. to Raipur 
in Chaltisghar. In 1740 Nagpore became the 
seat of an independent Mahratta sovereignty. 
On Nov. 26, 1816, the English garrison of 1,400 
men were suddenly attacked at Seetabuldee, 
the heights in the vicinity of the residency, by 
the rajah's army of 18,000 troops, who were 
finally repulsed, although with a loss to the 
British of 333 killed and wounded. The city 
was annexed to the British dominions with 
the state of Berar in 1853. A partial mutiny 
of the Madras sepoys stationed at Nagpore, on 
Jan. 18, 1858, was successfully repressed. 

NAHANT, a town of Essex co., Massachusetts, 
10 m. N. E. of Boston by water ; pop. in 1870, 
475. It consists of a peninsula, projecting 
about 3 m. into Massachusetts bay, and con- 
nected with Lynn by a narrow beach of sand 
and gravel so hard that a horse's footsteps 
scarcely leave a trace. The extremity, called 
Great Nahant, is 2 m. long and m. broad, 
and contains 463 acres. In many places the 
shore is lined by rocks rising 20 to 60 ft. 
above the tide ; and there are many singular 
caves and fissures, the most noted of which 
are the Swallow's cave and the Spouting Horn. 
A large hotel, erected on the E. extremity in 
1824, was burned in 1858, and there are now 
only three small hotels. The peninsula is chiefly 
occupied by handsome cottages, used as sum- 
mer residences by the citizens of Boston. Ma- 
olis garden, a public picnic ground, occupies 
about 20 acres along the shore on the N. side, 
and is adorned with fountains and shell work. 
Between Great Nahant and the mainland, and 
about |- m. from the former, a rocky ridge, 
called Little Nahant, crosses the beach, rising 
80 ft. above the sea, and comprising about 40 
acres. A mile E, of Nahant is Egg Rock, 



rising abruptly to the height of 86 ft., and 
crowned by a lighthouse. The town was sepa- 
rated from Lynn in 1853. 

NAHE, a river of Germany, one of the afflu- 
ents of the Rhine. It rises on the confines of 
Rhenish Prussia and the detached portion of 
Oldenburg enclosed by that province, and after 
a tortuous course, first N. E. and then E., of 
about 60 m., 25 m. of which is navigable, it 
empties through a portal formed by the Ro- 
chusberg on the right and the Rupertsberg on 
the left into the Rhine at Bingen. There is 
some fine scenery in the vicinity of Creuznach 
and Oberstein. 

IV AUDI, the seventh of the Hebrew minor 
prophets in order of arrangement. He is des- 
ignated the Elkoshite, probably from the place 
of his birth, the location of which is however 
unknown, contradictory traditions placing it in 
Galilee and on the banks of the Tigris. He 
prophesied probably in Judah toward the close 
of the reign of Hezekiah (about 700 B. 0.), 
after the deportation of the ten tribes, and 
predicted the destruction of Nineveh and the 
relief of Judah. His pictures of the wicked- 
ness and fall of Nineveh are vivid and power- 
ful, and his diction clear and sonorous. Re- 
cent explorations in the East have given fresh 
interest to the study of this book. There are 
many commentaries upon it and works illustra- 
ting its connections with history. See espe- 
cially O. Strauss, Nahumi de Nino Vaticinium 
(1853) ; M. von Niebuhr, Geschickte Assures und 
Babel's (1857); Vance Smith, "The Prophe- 
cies relating to Nineveh " (1857) ; and Paul 
Kleinert in Lange's BibelwerTc, part xix. (1868). 

NAIADS (Gr. vdeiv, to swim), in Grecian and 
Roman mythology, nymphs who presided over 
fresh waters, and were supposed to inspire 
those who drank of them with oracular powers 
and the gift of poetry. They could also restore 
sick persons to health. They are represented 
in works of art as beautiful maidens, half 
draped, and with long hair. 

NAIL (Sax. ncegel; Ger. Nagel), a piece of 
metal, more or less sharp at one end with a 
head at the other, used to fasten together pieces 
of wood or other material by being driven 
into or through them. The principal division 
is into wrought and cut nails, the former be- 
ing made from tough wrought iron, the lat- 
ter from rolled plates. The different sorts are 
named from the use to which they are applied 
or from their shape, as shingle, floor, or horse- 
shoe nails, tacks, brads, or spikes. The term 
penny, when used to mark the size of nails, is 
supposed to be a corruption of pound. Thus, 
a four-penny nail was such that 1,000 of 
them weighed 4 Ibs., a ten-penny such that 
1,000 weighed 10 Ibs. Originally, the "hun- 
dred " when applied to nails was 6 score or 
120; consequently the thousand was 1,200. 
The making of nails is one of the oldest of the 
handicraft arts, probably dating as far back as 
the art of working metals. Before the inven- 
tion of machinery an immense number of per- 



126 



NAIL 



sons were employed in making nails, there 
having been no fewer than 60,000 nailers in 
the neighborhood of Birmingham alone. It is 
only within the last 80 years that machinery 
has been employed to supersede to any extent 
hand labor in nail making. It appears, how- 
ever, that as early as 1606 Sir Davis Bulmer 
obtained a patent for cutting nail rods by 
water power. The details of the invention 
are unknown, and there are no records of Eng- 
lish patents prior to 1617. In 1618 a patent 
was issued in England to Clement Dawbeny 
for an improvement on Buhner's machine. 
But machinery was not put into actual use in 
England till 1790, when Thomas Clifford of 
the city of Bristol patented a nail machine. 
His machines were used in French's factory 
at Wineburn, Staffordshire, in 1792. He used 
two iron rollers, faced with steel, in which were 
sunk impressions, or forms of the nails, half 
of the form being in each roller, and arranged 
circumferentially, so that a bar of iron, being 
passed between the rollers, came through a 
string of nails, the head of one nail being 
slightly joined to the point of the next. In 
the United States, where so many wooden 
structures had to be erected by the settlers, the 
obtaining of cheap nails was of the utmost 
importance. In 1775 Jeremiah Wilkinson of 
Cumberland, R. I., cut tacks from sheet iron, 
and afterward nails and spikes, forming the 
heads in a vice. The first patent issued for a 
machine for cutting nails is said to have been 
given to Josiah G. Person, or Pearson, of 
New York, March 23, 1794. On Jan. 16, 
1795, Jacob Perkins of Boston obtained a pat- 
ent for a cutting machine said to have been 
invented about 1790, and to have been capable 
of making 200,000 nails a day. The follow- 
ing year patents were issued to Peter Cliff 
and to Amos Whittemore of Massachusetts, 
and to Daniel French of Connecticut. It is 
said that the first patent for a cutting and 
heading machine (Nov. 11, 1796) was granted 
to Isaac Garretson of Pennsylvania; and on 
Dec. 12, 1796, a patent for a similar machine 
to George Chandler of Maryland. Ezekiel 
Reed of Bridgewater, Mass., is also said to 
have invented a machine for cutting and head- 
ing nails at one operation. Afterward several 
patents were granted to Jesse Reed, Samuel 
Rogers, and Melville Otis of Massachusetts, to 
Mark and Richard Reeve of Philadelphia, to 
Roswell Noble of Baltimore, and others. The 
machine invented by Jesse Reed, with some 
later improvements, is that still most largely 
used. The manufacture of cut nails was soon 
established in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Mary- 
land. In 1810 Joseph C.Dyer of Boston, but 
then a merchant in London, took out patents 
in England for the nail machinery invented in 
Massachusetts, and large manufacturing estab- 
lishments were soon put in operation. Some 
in the neighborhood of Birmingham are able 
to make over 40,000,000 nails a week. Mr. 



NAKHITCHEVAN 

Edward Hancorne, a nail maker of London, 
in 1828 obtained a patent for a nail machine, 
by which the nail was pointed by swedging it 
between two oscillating snail pieces or spirals, 
the rod being cut off by shears and headed by 
a piece working in a slide propelled by a cam 
attached to a shaft. In 1834 Mr. Henry Bur- 
den obtained a patent for a machine, which 
with several improvements has been for many 
years in successful operation at his exten- 
sive nail works in Troy, N. Y. Many of the 
first inventors spent large sums of money on 
their machines. It has been estimated that it 
cost more than $1,000,000 to bring them to 
the perfection arrived at in 1810, when a ma- 
chine made about 100 nails per minute. It 
was at this time that the full value of the 
invention was brought prominently before the 
world in the well known report of Albert 
Gallatin, then secretary of the treasury. Large 
nail factories were early established in differ- 
ent parts of Massachusetts, and at Ellicott's 
Mills, near Baltimore. At the present day the 
business is carried on very extensively in the 
Schuylkill iron region. There the pigs from 
the furnace go immediately to the bloomary, 
thence to the rolling mill, and so on through 
the slitting and nail-cutting machines, so that 
all the operations from the crude ore to the 
finished nail are carried on at the same place. 

JfADf, a town of Palestine, in Galilee, men- 
tioned in the New Testament (Luke vii.) as the 
place where Jesus raised the widow's son to 
life. It was situated between the Little Her- 
mon and Mt. Tabor, about 6 m. S. E. of Naz- 
areth, and 60 m. N. of Jerusalem. It is now 
an insignificant hamlet, and is called Nein. 
The rock near by is full of sepulchral caves. 

NAIRNE, Baroness. See OLIPHANT, CAROLINA. 

3 A Ht \SIII RE. a maritime county of Scotland, 
bordering on the Moray frith, Elginshire, and 
Inverness- shire ; area, 215 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1871, 10,225. The coast, about 10 m. in ex- 
tent, is low, sandy, and dangerous. The in- 
land districts are hilly and wooded ; those on 
the sea are well cultivated and productive. 
The chief rivers are the Nairn and Findhorn. 
The climate is severe but healthful. Nairn, 
the capital (pop. in 1871, 4,207), is a favorite 
watering place. About 5 m. distant are the re- 
mains of Cawdor castle, where Macbeth is said 
to have murdered Duncan. The room which 
was pointed out as the scene of the deed was 
destroyed by fire in 1815 ; but no part of the 
castle is really older than the 15th century. 

RAJA. See COBRA DE CAPELLO. 

NARHITCHEVAN. I. A town of European 
Russia, in the government of Yekaterinoslav, 
on the right bank of the Don, about 30 from 
its mouth, and 7 m. E. N. E. of Rostov ; pop. 
in 1871, 16,584, mostly Armenians. It stands 
on an eminence, has manufactures of cotton 
and silk, and maintains an extensive traffic with 
Circassia, Astrakhan, Turkistan, and Constanti- 
nople, especially in pearls and precious stones. 
The town was founded in 1780 by a colony of 



NAMAQUA 



NAMES 



127 



Armenians, and is the seat of the Armenian 
patriarch of Russia. II. A city (anc. Naxuana) 
of Russian Armenia, on a plateau near the left 
bank of the Aras, 83 m. S. E. of Erivan, and 
175 m. S. by E. of Tiflis; pop. in 1871, 5,356. 
The Armenians regard it as the most ancient 
city in the world, and as the spot where Noah 
settled after the deluge ; and it formerly con- 
tained, according to the Persian annalists, 
40,000 houses. In antiquity it belonged to 
Media, and subsequently it became important 
in Armenia. It was destroyed in the 4th 
century by the Persians, in the 13th by the 
Tartars, and in the 17th again by the Persians. 
Shah Nadir wrested it from Turkey, and the 
Russians in 1827 from Persia. In 1840 it was 
partly destroyed by an earthquake. 

NAMAQUA, a tribe of S. Africa, inhabiting 
both banks of the Orange river near the 
mouth. Their country is divided into Great 
and Little Namaqualand, and the latter, lying 
S. of the Orange river, is now absorbed in 
Cape Colony. The tribe is small, and has 
been much diminished by disease and famine. 
They dwell in huts of the old Hottentot style, 
and speak the Nama, the oldest and purest of 
the Hottentot dialects. (See HOTTENTOTS.) 

NAMES, words by which particular objects are 
indicated. Names of persons were originally 
usually of a single word, as in the Hebrew 
genealogies, Terah, Levi, Aaron. The same is 
true of the earlier names in Egypt, Syria, Per- 
sia, Greece, and Italy, and in the Celtic and 
Germanic nations. All names were originally 
significant. Among the Hebrews the name 
given a child originated in some circumstance 
of its birth, or expressed some religious senti- 
ment; as Jacob, the supplanter; Samuel, God 
hath hearkened. Sometimes a new name was 
taken upon some important change in life, as 
Abraham for Abram. The Greeks bore a sin- 

fle name given the tenth day after birth by the 
ither, and expressing generally some admira- 
ble quality ; as Pherecrates, strength-bringer ; 
Sophron, wise. The Roman names were in 
their origin less dignified than those of the 
Greeks. Some were derived from ordinary 
employments, as Porcius, swineherd; some 
from personal peculiarities, as Naso, long- 
nosed. Many of the Celtic and Teutonic 
names were derived from "God," as Gott- 
fried, Godwin ; others from spirits or elves, as 
Elfric, elf king. The Jews after accumulating 
a considerable stock of names began to repeat 
them, and in the New Testament we find few 
new names. Among the later Greeks the eldest 
son generally bore the name of his paternal 
grandfather, and the confusion arising from 
the repetition of the same name was relieved by 
appending the father's name, either simply or 
turned into a patronymic, the occupation, the 
place of birth, or a nickname. This did not 
however amount to a regular system of sur- 
names. The Romans had a very complete sys- 
tem of nomenclature. The commonwealth was 
divided into clans called gentes, each of which 
586 VOL. xii. 9 



was subdivided into families. Thus in the 
gens Cornelia were included the families of the 
Scipiones, Lentuli, Cethegi, Dolabellse, Cinna3, 
Sulla3, and others. Each citizen bore three 
names, viz. : the prcenomen, which marked the 
individual; the nomen, which marked the 
gens ; and the cognomen, which marked the 
family. Thus Publius Cornelius Scipio be- 
longed to the Cornelian gens and the family 
of the Scipiones, while Publius was his indi- 
vidual, or what we now call Christian name. 
Sometimes a fourth name, or agnomen, was 
given, generally in honor of some military 
success; as Publius Cornelius Scipio Africa- 
nus, and La3lius Cornelius Scipio Asiaticus, his 
brother. The agnomen, being a distinction of 
honor, was carefully preserved by the chil- 
dren, and a decree of the senate granted to the 
elder Drusus the title Germanicus, and also to 
his posterity. The pra3nomen, like all given 
names, was commonly indicated by an initial ; 
but the Roman initial indicated one name in- 
variably : C. always meant Caius ; M., Marcus. 
Cneius was indicated by Cn. There were 
only about 30 recognized prasnomens. In 
common intercourse the prsenomen and cogno- 
men were used without the nomen, as C. Cae- 
sar for C. Julius Ca3sar. The ruder popula- 
tions of northern Europe continued to use a 
single name. There were few surnames in 
England before the Norman invasion, although 
some appear in the Saxon records. Many in- 
fluences united to introduce them. Names 
once significant lost their meaning and were 
repeated in memory of those who had borne 
them; and as many persons bore the same 
name, some further distinction became neces- 
sary. As Christianity prevailed it displaced 
the old heathen names by names from the 
Bible ; new names were taken in baptism, and 
sometimes whole companies were baptized, to 
save trouble, with the same name. Many sur- 
names appear in Domesday Book, but it was 
not at first common to transmit the surname 
from father to son. In the middle of the 12th 
century it was thought essential that persons 
of rank should bear a surname. Robert of 
Gloucester says that in the reign of Henry I. 
a lady objected to marrying a natural son of 
that king because he had no surname, upon 
which the monarch gave him the surname of 
Fitz-Roy, fitz being a corruption of fits, son ; 
the Russian vitch, as in Petrovitch, Ivanovitch, 
has the same value. After the reformation 
in England the introduction of parish registers 
contributed to give permanence to surnames. 
Yet in the beginning of the 18th century many 
families in Yorkshire had none, and it is said 
that even now few Staffordshire miners bear 
their fathers' names, but are known by some 
personal sobriquet. Sons took their fathers' 
names first in the modified form of patronym- 
ics ; thus, Priamides, son of Priam. Heraclides 
meant not only a son of Hercules, but a de- 
scendant. During the middle ages the Jews 
formed surnames with the Hebrew ben or 



128 



NAMES 



Arabic ibn, meaning son, as Solomon ben Ga- 
birol, and Abraham ibn Ezra. Among the 
Saxons we find in A. D. 804 Egbert Edgaring, 
ing denoting descent; and to this origin are 
attributed such names as Browning, Dering, 
Whiting. In Wales the surnominal adjunct ap 
was used in the same sense, as David ap Howell ; 
and even in the 17th century combinations 
were carried up through several generations, 
so that a man carried his pedigree in his 
name, as Evan ap Griffith ap David ap Jenkin 
ap Hugh ap Morgan ap Owen. Sometimes, in- 
stead of any patronymic syllable, the father's 
name was taken in the possessive case, as 
Griffith William's, or as now written Williams ; 
to which origin may be traced many names 
ending in s. The prefix mac was used in a 
similar manner by the Gaelic inhabitants of 
Scotland and Ireland. The Irish also used for 
the same purpose oy or 0, signifying grand- 
son, as O'Hara, O'Sullivan. The use of fitz, 
son, has already been mentioned; while the 
word "son" added to the father's name gave 
rise to a great number of names, as Adamson, 
Johnson. Subsequently convenience dropped 
the patronymic syllable, or prevented its repe- 
tition, and the father's name was taken with- 
out alteration as a surname. Thus many origi- 
nally Christian names have become surnames. 
The general European system by which the son 
inherits the father's name still has its excep- 
tions. The present royal family of England 
has never adopted an unchangeable surname. 
The same thing is true of many other distin- 
guished houses, as those of Saxe, Nassau, Bour- 
bon, and Orleans. In Spain the wife does not 
change her surname on marriage, and the son 
calls himself by the names of both parents, 
connecting them with the conjunction y, and, 
as Pi y Margall, or chooses either of them 
alone. Surnames, having been first an indi- 
vidual distinction, were retained by the chil- 
dren for the sake of retaining the honor which 
they marked. That which was originally a 
mark of rank was soon imitated and became 
general. The use of hereditary surnames was 
established in England by the middle of the 
14th century, the system being consolidated 
by a statute of Henry V. requiring that the 
name and description of the party should be 
exactly set forth in any writ or indenture. It 
was formerly usual in England to obtain a spe- 
cial act of parliament to authorize a change 
of name, and subsequently to obtain a royal 
license ; but legal authorities have decided that 
there is nothing in the law to prevent any one 
from changing his name as he may choose. 
The origin and signification of surnames can be 
traced in very many cases, although some mean- 
ings have become obscure, being derived from 
words now obsolete. Many are local. To this 
class belong most English names beginning 
with the French de, which retain the name of 
the old home in Normandy ; such names as 
Burgoyne, from Burgundy; Attemoor, from 
at and moor; Byfield; Underbill; Barrow, a 



NAMUR 

hill ; Applegate, from garth, an orchard. With 
these should be classed names from the signs 
of houses, as Thomas at the Dolphin, Will at 
the Bull, George at the Whitehorse, &c., after- 
ward becoming hereditary, and dropping for 
convenience the connecting words. Such 
names as Lyon, Hawke, Raven, and Heron 
are either local like the above, or have been 
taken from devices on shields. Many names 
originated in office or occupation. In Domes- 
day Book occur Guilielmus Oamerarius (Wil- 
liam the Chamberlain) and Radulphus Venator 
(Rodolph the Hunter). The most notable name 
of occupation is Smith, from the Anglo-Saxon 
smitan, to smite, and originally of much wider 
meaning than now, including wheelwrights, 
carpenters, masons, and smiters in general. 
The "Saxon Chronicle" speaks of "mighty 
war smiths who overcame the Welsh." Many 
names of this class have the Anglo-Saxon femi- 
nine termination, as Baxter or Bagster, the 
feminine of baker; Webster, of Webber or 
weaver. It is said that the trade of weaving 
has been carried on by a Sussex family named 
Webb since the 13th or 14th century. Spencer 
is from dispensator or steward; Grosvenor 
from gros veneur, grand huntsman. The ter- 
mination ward indicates a keeper, as Durward, 
doorkeeper; Hay ward or Hereward, keeper 
of the town cattle ; Woodward, forest keeper. 
Various personal characteristics often gave ori- 
gin to names ; as Paulus, little ; Calvus, bald ; 
White, Black, Brown, Gray; Read, Reed, or 
Reid, old spellings of red; Lightfoot; Duff, 
Welsh for black ; Vaughan, little ; Gough, red. 
The names of the ancient Saxon population of 
England were nearly all descriptive of some 
quality of mind or body. Thus Edward is 
truth-keeper ; Edmund, truth -mouth ; Alfred, 
all-peace. Some names have become great fa- 
vorites, and some much used at particular pe- 
riods have afterward become very unusual ; as 
Patience, Prudence, Faithful, Thankful. There 
are only about 53 Christian names of men 
that can be used without appearance of sin- 
gularity, of which 32 are taken from the Bible. 
The number of surnames now extant in Eng- 
land is about 40,000. In Scotland there are 
fewer in proportion to the population, certain 
names being remarkably frequent in particular 
localities, from the clansmen having taken the 
name of their chief. See Salverte, Essai his- 
torique et philosophique sur les noms (Paris, 
1824: English translation, London, 1862); 
Lower, "English Surnames" (London, 1842); 
Pott, Die Personennamen (Leipsic, 1853) ; and 
Ferguson, "English Surnames" (London, 
1858), Patronymica Britannica (1860), and 
" The Teutonic Name System " (1864). 

NAMIR. I. A province of Belgium, bound- 
ed N. by Brabant, N. E. by Liege, E. by Lux- 
emburg, S. by France, and W. by Hainaut; 
area, 1,413 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 314,718. The 
principal rivers are the Meuse, Sambre, and 
Lesse. The surface is very much diversified, 
and the soil is in general fertile. Iron, lead, 



NANA SAHIB 



129 



coal, and marble are mined. The province is 
divided into the arrondissements of Namur, 
Dinant, and Philippeville. II. A city, capital 
of the province, at the confluence of the Sam- 




Namur. 

bre and Meuse, 35 m. S. E. of Brussels; pop. 
in 1871, 25,600. It is the seat of a bishop, 
and has a cathedral, 16 other churches, a 
theological seminary, a royal Athenaeum, an 
academy of design, a conservatory of music, 
and two museums. The cathedral, a modern 
structure, is ornamented in front with 20 Co- 
rinthian columns, and beside the great altar 
stand colossal statues of the apostles Peter and 
Paul. The staple manufactures are cutlery, for 
which Namur is famous, and leather, which 
gives employment to one tenth of the popula- 
tion. The town was taken by Louis XIV. in 
1692, and by William III. of England in 1695. 
The emperor Joseph II. demolished its fortifi- 
cations, which in 1817 were restored by the 
king of the Netherlands ; but they were again 
demolished, except the citadel, in 1866. 

MNA SAHIB, the title of Dhundoo Punt, a 
Hindoo chieftain and a leader of the sepoy 
mutiny in 1857, born in 1824 or 1825. He 
was the son of a Brahman of the Deccan, and 
when a little more than a year old was brought 
to Bithoor, where Bajee Row, the peishwa or 
chief of the Mahrattas, adopted him. On the 
death of Bajee in 1851, without heir of his 
body, an estate in the neighborhood which 
had been bestowed upon him by the Brit- 
ish during pleasure was declared lapsed to the 
East India company, as they had previously 
refused to recognize inheritance of lands by 
adoption, and a pension of $450,000 a year 
granted to him and his family in 1818 was also 
stopped. The Nana sent an agent to England 



to advocate his claims, but without success, 
and this supposed wrong he never forgave. 
He lived however in great apparent friendship 
with the English, imitating their customs as 
far as he could, and was permitted to occupy 
the town of Bithoor, where he possessed much 
wealth and influence. When the sepoy mu- 
tiny broke out in 1857, he was universally 
trusted by the English, who applied to him 
for a body of soldiers to guard the treasury at 
Cawnpore, which he immediately granted ; but 
no sooner had the insurrection occurred at the 
latter place than he put himself at the head of 
the rebels (June 5), and killed all the Euro- 
peans that fell into his hands, among whom 
were two large parties, principally of women 
and children, who were endeavoring to escape 
down the Ganges from Futtehgurh. The Eng- 
lish at Cawnpore in the mean time defend- 
ed themselves until June 27, when they sur- 
rendered on the Nana promising to send them 
safe to Allahabad. They were permitted to 
embark, but immediately afterward fired upon, 
many being killed and the rest brought back 
to land. The men were put to death at once ; 
the women and children, after surviving name- 
less outrages, were massacred July 15, the day 
before Havelock arrived at Cawnpore, and their 
bodies were thrown into a well. The Nana 
retreated to Bithoor on the 17th, whither Have- 
lock pursued him, driving him out of the town 
and dispersing his army. He soon collected 
another force, with which he followed Have- 
lock into Oude, but afterward returned toward 
Cawnpore with the intention of attacking Gen. 
Neill, who was in garrison there with a small 
force. Reoccupying Bithoor, he threw out his 
left wing in the direction of Cawnpore, but it 
was driven back in confusion by Gen. Neill, 
Aug. 15 ; and on the next day Havelock, who 
had returned from Oude, defeated his whole 
force in a sharp engagement. Owing to the 
exhaustion of the victors and their want of 
cavalry, the Nana escaped, and, without com- 
ing directly in contact with the British,, except 
once more at Cawnpore, where Sir Colin Camp- 
bell defeated him, Dec. 6, he continued an ac- 
tive and harassing warfare. On the occupa- 
tion of Gwalior by the rebels in June, 1858, 
he was chosen peishwa of the Mahrattas, and 
his nephew Row Sahib was placed in command 
of the city. His subsequent career it is diffi- 
cult to trace, for his energies were bent rather 
upon escaping pursuit than conducting offen- 
sive operations. Long after the other leaders 
had submitted or been captured, he continued, 
with the begum of Oude and about 10,000 
rebels, to infest the northern parts of central 
India and the frontiers of Nepaul. There was 
a report that he died of fever in the latter part 
of 1859, but it was generally discredited; an- 
other that he crossed the Himalaya in disguise 
in 1860 into Thibet, and encamped near the N. 
base of the mountains with about 10,000 men. 
In November, 1874, a man was arrested in the 
north of India, supposed to be Nana Sahib. 



130 



NANCY 



Great excitement was caused by the arrest, and 
he was taken to Cawnpore for identification ; 
the result of such inquiry is not yet known 
(January, 1875). 

NANCY, a city of France, capital of the de- 
partment of Meurthe-et-Moselle on the left 
bank of the river Meurthe, 1TO m. E. of Paris ; 
pop. in 1872, 52,978. It stands in a beautiful 
and fertile plain, and consists of an old and a 
new town. The many fine edifices, squares, 
and promenades render Nancy one of the hand- 
somest of French cities. It is the seat of a 
bishop, and has faculties of law, medicine, 
sciences and literature, a lyceum, a school of 
forestry, 8 Catholic churches, 6 religious com- 
munities of men and 15 of women, and a num 
her of learned societies. The chief edifices are 
the cathedral, a handsome modern structure, 
with two towers more than 250 ft. high ; the 
church of St. Epvre, which contains several 
fine paintings, and a fresco attributed to Leo- 
nardo da Vinci ; the church of the Cordeliers, 
in which is the mausoleum of the dukes of 
Lorraine ; an ancient Gothic castle, which was 
nearly destroyed by fire on the withdrawal of 
the German troops in July, 1871 ; the museum, 
with pictures by Isabey, a native of Nancy, 
and other works of art; and hospitals. Ho- 
siery, muslin, cotton yarn, woollen cloth, cal- 
ico, lace, &c., are manufactured. There are 
three fairs yearly, one of which lasts 20 days. 
Nancy was the capital of the duchy of Lor- 
raine from the 13th century till its absorption 
by France; and under its walls Charles the 
Bold, duke of Burgundy, was defeated and slain, 
Jan. 5, 1477, by Rene II., duke of Lorraine. 

NANDOU. See OSTRICH. 

NANKING, or Nankin (i. e., the " southern 
capital," in distinction from Peking, the " north- 
ern capital "), called also KIANGNING-FU, a city 
of China, the chief town of the province of 
Kiangsu, and the residence of the governor 
general of the three provinces of Kiangsu, 
Nganhwui, and Kiangsi, about 3 m. S. of the 
Yangtse-kiang river, about 200 m. from its 
mouth, 560 m. S. by E. of Peking, and on the 
grand canal connecting Canton and Peking, in 
lat. 32 2' N., Ion. 118 49' E. ; pop. estima- 
ted before the Taiping rebellion at 400,000 or 
more, but now probably much less. The river 
opposite the city is 1% m. broad and 25 fathoms 
deep, with a rocky bottom, and a current of 
from 3 to 5 m. an hour. The region about the 
city is very marshy, and the excessive moisture 
makes it unhealthy for Europeans and natives 
of other provinces. The remains of ancient 
walls have been traced for a circuit of about 
35 m. The modern walls are about 40 ft. 
high and 18 m. in circumference, and enclose 
a space of which not more than one eighth is 
occupied by the town. On the W. side they 
are strengthened by a deep ditch from the 
river. The great extent of the walls makes 
them difficult to defend, and the city is over- 
looked by the hills on the east. The eastern 
part of the city is irregular and thinly inhabit- 



NANKING 

ed, but in other parts the houses are so closely 
packed that one looking from a high building 
over the tent-like roofs of the temples can 
scarcely trace the streets. The Mantchoo and 
Chinese parts are separated by a cross wall. 
The principal streets are of moderate width, 
and were formerly lined with handsome shops. 
Most of the buildings of former note have 
been destroyed. There is a curious square 
tower 50 ft. high, on the top of which is a 
finely sculptured figure of a turtle, carved from 
a single block of marble. Not far from the 
walls is an ancient cemetery, which travellers 
have called the tombs of the kings, approached 




Porcelain Tower (destroyed by the Taipings). 

by an avenue of colossal figures. At some dis- 
tance from these statues are rude colossi of 
horses, elephants, and other animals, without 
regular arrangement, and perhaps removed from 
their original places. The celebrated porcelain 
tower was destroyed by the rebels. It was 
built in 1413-'32, and was of an octagonal 
form, 260 ft. high, in nine stories, each adorned 
with a cornice and gallery, and covered with a 
roof of green tiles, with a bell suspended at 
each corner, which sounded when moved by 
the wind. On the top was a pinnacle in the 
shape of a pineapple, surmounted by a gilded 
ball. A spiral staircase led to the summit. 
Before the accession of the Mongol dynasty the 
court sometimes resided at Nanking. The first 



NANSEMOND 



NANTES 



131 



two emperors of the Ming dynasty also resi- 
ded in it. It was taken by the Mantchoos 
in 1645, and continued to be a very impor- 
tant city, famous for various manufactures, 
especially for the cloth called from it nan- 
keen. It was invested by Sir H. Pottinger 
Aug. 14, 1842, and the treaty with England was 
signed there Aug. 26. It was taken March 19, 
1853, by the Taiping rebels, who tried to es- 
tablish there the ancient " heavenly empire." 
They held it for 11 years. During this occu- 
pation a collision with the British ships under 
Lord Elgin led to a bombardment of the city, 
which ruined the Chinese batteries. On July 
19, 1864, it was taken by the imperialists, who 
sprung a mine of 68,000 Ibs. of gunpowder 
under the wall, and entered through the breach. 
They found the rebel emperor dead by suicide, 
with most of his higher officials. More than 
2,000,000 of treasure was found concealed in 
the palace. Since the imperialist occupation 
there has been some 
attempt to restore the 
former manufactures, 
but with little success. 
The governor gene- 
ral has established a 
manufactory of shot 
and shell. The busi- 
ness part of the city 
is being gradually re- 
stored. There is little 
or no foreign trade ; 
and though the city 
is a free port, few for- 
eigners reside there. 

XANSEMOKD, a S. E. 
county of Virginia, 
bordering on North 
Carolina and the Dis- 
mal Swamp, and 
drained by branches 
of the Nansemond 
river; area, 444 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 

11,576, of whom 5,517 were colored. It has a 
level surface and sandy soil. Lumber, tar, and 
turpentine are exported in considerable quan- 
tities. The Seaboard and Roanoke, and the 
Atlantic, Mississippi, and Ohio railroads pass 
through it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 5,405 bushels of wheat, 228,057 of Indian 
corn, 22,466 of oats, 22,169 of Irish and 57,594 
of sweet potatoes. There were 1,017 horses, 
1,392 milch cows, 2,192 other cattle, 1,381 
sheep, and 11,044 swine. Capital, Suffolk. 

NANTASKET, a narrow peninsula about 5 m. 
long, extending into Massachusetts bay, in 
Plymouth co., Mass., about 22 m. from Boston 
by railroad and 9 m. by water. It is a favorite 
summer resort on account of its facilities for 
sea bathing. This peninsula comprises the 
town of Hull, which was settled about 1625; 
pop. in 1870, 261. (See COHASSET.) 

NANTERRE, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of the Seine, at the foot of Mont Vale- 



rien, 6 m. W. N. W. of Paris ; pop. about 4,000. 
It is celebrated as the birthplace of St. Gene- 
vieve, and also for its pastry. It is a place of 
great antiquity, and the Gauls here celebrated 
druidical rites. It was formerly fortified, but 
the ramparts have been converted into prome- 
nades. Clotaire II., son of Chilperic, was bap- 
tized here in 591. In the 14th and 15th cen- 
turies it endured many vicissitudes. 

NANTES (anc. Condimcnum), a city of France, 
capital of the department of Loire-Inf6rieure, 
on the right bank of the Loire, at its junction 
with the Erdre, 210 m. W. S. W. of Paris ; pop. 
in 1872, 118,517. The old town W. of the 
Erdre was walled until the end of the 17th 
century. In the new quarter the houses are 
handsomely built of white stone, although the 
streets are narrow. There are however some 
fine boulevards, and the quays extending for 
nearly 2 m. along the Loire and Erdre former- 
ly composed a famous promenade, lined with 




Nantes Castle and Cathedral. 

trees, which have been sacrificed to the rail- 
way. The cathedral of St. Pierre, built in the 
15th century, is unsightly externally, the tow- 
ers scarcely rising above the roof, but has a 
finely sculptured triple portal, and contains the 
mausoleum of the last duke of Brittany and 
his duchess. The castle is an irregular Gothic 
pile flanked with round towers. Its chapel 
was used as a powder magazine, and was blown 
up in 1800, destroying much of the building. 
i In this castle Henry IV. signed the edict of 
j Nantes, April 13, 1598, which secured liberty 
I of religion to the French Protestants, until its 
revocation by Louis XIV., Oct. 22, 1685. In 
1654 it was the prison of the cardinal de Retz. 
Most of the kings of France from Charles VIII. 
have resided in it at some time. The museum 
contains more than 1,000 paintings and 300 
sculptures. The building docks are of great 
extent, and one fourth of the trading vessels 
of France are built at Nantes. The most im- 



132 



NANTEUIL 



portant industry is sugar refining, and there 
are considerable cotton and woollen manufac- 
tories. The town communicates by canal with 
Brest. It has a large foreign and internal 
trade, and much wheat and Hour is exported to 
England. Nantes was the stronghold of the 
ancient Nannetes. In the middle ages it was 
the capital of the duchy of Brittany. It was 
three times taken by the Normans and nearly 
ruined. During the English wars in France it 
fell repeatedly into the hands of the opposite 
parties. During the revolution, it was unsuc- 
cessfully besieged by the Vendean army in 1793, 
and subsequently was the scene of the noyades 
and " republican marriages." (See CARRIER.) 

NANTEUIL, Celestin, a French artist, born in 
Rome in 1813, died in Paris in 1873. He stud- 
ied under Langlois and Ingres, and exhibited 
his first work, a " Holy Family," in 1833, fol- 
lowed by "A Beggar" (1834), and "Christ 
Healing the Sick" (1837). But he was mainly 
employed as a lithographer, and in the course 
of about 30 years executed more than 2,000 
vignettes for literary and musical publications. 
Among his more recent paintings are "The 
Temptation "(1851), "The Vine "(1853), "Sou- 
venirs of the Past" and "The Kiss of Judas" 
(1858), the latter after Van Dyck, of which he 
also produced an admirable engraving. 

NAXTUCK.ET, a town and county of Massa- 
chusetts, coextensive with each other, com- 
prising the island of Nantucket, the islets of 
Tuckernuck and Muskeget, and the Gravelly 
and Swyle islands adjacent to it on the west ; 
aggregate area, 48 sq. m. ; pop. in 1775, 
4,500; in 1840, 9,012; in 1860,6,094; in 1870, 
4,123. Nan tucket island is situated in the At- 
lantic ocean, 18 m. S. of Cape Cod, 85 m. S. 
E. of Boston, and is separated from Martha's 
Vineyard on the west by a channel 8 in. wide. 
It is of an irregular triangular form, about 16 
m. long from E. to W., and for the most part 
from 3 to 4 m. wide, with an area of about 45 
sq. m. It has a level surface in the south, and 
is slightly hilly in the north. The soil is light, 
and with the exception of some low pines the 
island is treeless. There are several ponds 
containing fine fish. Farming and fishing are 
the chief occupations of the people, the sur- 
rounding waters abounding in fish of various 
kinds. The climate is mild in winter and cool 
in summer, and the island is becoming a fa- 
vorite summer resort. It constitutes a cus- 
toms district, but has little commerce. There 
is a lighthouse on Sankaty head (lat. 41 17' 
N., Ion. 69 57' 35" W.), near the S. E. ex- 
tremity of the island ; another, known as Nan- 
tucket light, on Sandy or Great point (lat. 41 
23' 22", Ion. 70 2' 25"), at the N. E. extremi- 
ty; and several W. of the entrance to Nan- ! 
tucket harbor. Wrecks are not infrequent. ! 
Nantucket shoals, about 50 m. long and 45 m. \ 
wide, are S. E. of the island, and are danger- 
ous to navigation. There are two post vil- 
lages, Nantucket on the N. side of the island, 
and Siasconset on the S. E. Nantucket har- 



NAPA 

bor is deep and secure, though the entrance is 
obstructed by a bar with only 7| ft. of water at 
low tide. Steamers run daily to Wood's Hole 
on Cape Cod, connecting with railroad for 
Boston. The town contains a national bank, 
with a capital of $200,000 ; a savings bank ; 
five public halls, including the town hall; 
several public schools; a semi- weekly and a 
weekly newspaper; and nine churches, viz.: 
Baptist (2), Congregational, Episcopal, Friends' 
(2), Methodist, Koman Catholic, and Unita- 
rian. The Coffin school is an incorporated 
endowed institution, including a grammar and 
a high school department. The Athenaeum 
has a library of 4,000 volumes, and there is a 
circulating library. Nantucket was first set- 
tled in 1659 by Thomas Macy, who emigrated 
from Salisbury, Mass. It was then partially 
wooded with oaks and other deciduous trees 
and conifers ; but the destruction of the trees 
ultimately made the island almost a desert. 
It was included in the grant to the Plymouth 
company in 1620, in 1664 annexed to New 
York, and in 1693 ceded to Massachusetts. 
The town was incorporated as Sherburne in 
1673, and in 1795 the name was changed to 
Nantucket. When it was first settled there were 
about 1,500 Indians on the island. They de- 
creased to 358 in 1763, in which year a pesti- 
lence carried off 222 of them. The last one of 
full blood died in 1821, and the last half-breed 
in 1854. Nantucket has been chiefly noted as 
a seat of the whale fishery, having been at one 
time the chief whaling port in the world. The 
fishery from the shore commenced about 1670, 
and was continued till 1760. The first sperm 
whale was captured in 1712, and immediately 
after small vessels were fitted out for short 
cruises. The size of the vessels and the length 
of the cruises were gradually increased, until 
in 1775 150 vessels were engaged in the busi- 
ness, extending their voyages as far as Davis 
strait and the coast of Brazil. The war of the 
revolution destroyed this business, but after its 
.close it was revived. The first ship was des- 
patched to the Pacific in 1791. The town in- 
creased in size and prosperity till 1846, when 
it was visited by a severe conflagration, de- 
stroying property to the value of nearly $1,- 
000,000. After this the whale fishery and 
with it the prosperity of the town rapidly de- 
clined. The fishery began to revive before the 
breaking out of the civil war, but afterward 
became extinct. (See WHALE FISHERY.) 

NAPA, a N. W. county of California, drained 
by Napa and Las Putas rivers ; area, 828 sq. 
m.; pop. in 1870, 7,163, of whom 263 were 
Chinese. The surface is diversified, but gen- 
erally fertile and well adapted for cultivation. 
The Coast range of mountains extends along 
the S. W. border, and Mount St. Helena, at the 
head of the Napa valley, attains an elevation 
of 3,700 ft. It contains numerous medicinal 
springs, constantly increasing deposits of sul- 
phur, two lakes yielding large quantities of 
borax, geysers or hot springs about 60 m. N. 



NAPHTALI 



NAPHTHALINE 



133 



of Napa City, and quicksilver. The Napa 
branch of the California Pacific railroad trav- 
erses it. The chief productions in 1870 were 
264,240 bushels of wheat, 34,890 of barley, 
20,789 Ibs. of wool, 56,860 of butter, 46,745 
gallons of wine, and 4,555 tons of hay. There 
were 1,755 horses, 1,128 milch cows, 2,703 
other cattle, 6,006 sheep, and 6,243 swine. 
Capital, Napa City. 

NAPHTALI, the sixth son of Jacob, the second 
child borne to him by Bilhah, the handmaid of 
Rachel. In the census before Sinai the tribe 
of Naphtali numbered 53,400 fighting men, and 
at the entrance into Canaan 45,400, occupying 
a middle position among the tribes. It received 
as its allotment a part of upper Galilee, ex- 
tending from Lake Gennesaret to the sources 
of the Jordan. The only famous hero of the 
tribe was Barak. It is distinguished in the 
song of Deborah for the alacrity with which it 
obeyed the call to arms against the oppressors 
of the Hebrews. The principal town in its 
territory was Kedesh, the city of refuge. 

NAPHTHA, a term originally applied to a 
variety of pungent, volatile, inflammable liquids, 
chiefly belonging to the class of ethers ; it was 
then extended to oils of natural origin, rock 
oil, petroleum, &c. Subsequently the light oil 
of coal tar, owing to its resemblance to mineral 
oil, was termed naphtha ; more recently it has 
been again extended so as to include most of 
the inflammable liquids produced by the dry 
distillation of organic substances. In the Uni- 
ted States it is applied to a series of hydrocar- 
bons obtained from petroleum, and having spe- 
cific gravities ranging from 0-625 (rhigolene) 
to 0*742, and boiling points varying with the 
densities from 65 to 300 F. The following 
are some of the naphthas known in commerce : 
1, boghead naphtha, obtained by distilling the 
Torbane hill mineral or boghead coal at as low 
a temperature as possible; 2, bone naphtha, 
Dippel's animal oil; 3, coal naphtha, obtained 
by the distillation of coal tar, and often con- 
founded with benzole; 4, mineral naphtha, 
from petroleum. According to S. Dana Hayes, 
the petroleum naphthas have distinguishing 
characteristics by which they are easily recog- 
nized, and which place them in a class by 
themselves; and aside from their odors, den- 
sities, boiling points, volatilities, and solvent 
powers, a noticeable peculiarity is the absence 
of oily bodies ; they do not leave any perma- 
nent stain on common writing paper, as do 
all the heavier oils obtained from petroleum. 
The commercial products are : 





Specific 
gravity. 


Beaume 
scale. 


Boiling 
point. 


C. Naphtha 


0-706 


70 


180 F. 


B. Naphtha... 


0-724 


67 


220 " 


A. Naphtha... 


0-742 


65 


300 " 



5. Wood naphtha, pyroligneous ether, pyrox- 
ylic spirit, or methylic alcohol, is a colorless, 
mobile, indifferent, inflammable liquid, which 



burns with a faintly illuminating, bluish flame ; 
it is miscible in all proportions with water, 
alcohol, ether, and ethereal oils; specific grav- 
ity 0-796, boiling point 149 F. When pure it 
has been prescribed in medicine for diseases of 
the lungs, and owing to its cheapness it is often 
substituted for alcohol, and sometimes used to 
adulterate brandy. As commonly described, 
naphtha is a very inflammable colorless liquid, 
of bituminous odor, tasteless, soluble in all pro- 
portions in absolute alcohol and in ether, insol- 
j uble in water, of specific gravity 0'700 to 0'847. 
It dissolves the fixed and essential oils in all 
proportions, and is hence advantageously used 
for removing grease from fabrics, and for the 
extraction of oils from seeds. It also dissolves 
sulphur, phosphorus, iodine, gum lac and copal, 
camphor, caoutchouc, the resins, &c. ; a quality 
that adapts it for the preparation of varnishes, 
and for other similar uses in the arts. In its 
preparation from artificial coal oils it is found 
that those which produce paraffine yield in 
general naphtha, while the product of those 
which contain naphthaline is rather limited to 
the hydrocarbons of the benzole series. It is 
manufactured into gas, is used to increase the 
illuminating power of coal gas in the place of 
benzole, and is sold for combustion in gas 
stoves and in lamps. There is probably no 
chemical product which has occasioned the loss 
of so many lives and the destruction of so much 
property as naphtha. Since its cheap manu- 
facture as an incidental product in the distil- 
lation of petroleum, it has been thrown upon 
the market in enormous quantities, and owing 
to its cheapness has been mixed with petro- 
leum or sold under a great variety of names 
for heating and illuminating purposes; and 
from its highly explosive and inflammable na- 
ture, it has proved little better in the hands 
of ignorant people than so much gunpowder. 
Its sale is now everywhere prohibited except 
for legitimate purposes. 

NAPHTHALINE (Ci H 8 ), a hydrocarbon ob- 
tained from the distillation of numerous or- 
ganic bodies, such as coal, wood, resin, oils, 
and animal substances; also by conducting the 
vapor of acetic acid, alcohol, ether, volatile 
oils, and camphor through red-hot tubes. It 
has been prepared by the passage through hot 
tubes of ethylene, marsh gas, and other hydro- 
carbons, as well as of a mixture of benzole and 
ethylene, sulphuretted hydrogen and disulphide 
of carbon, hydrogen, and the vapors of chlo- 
ride of carbon. In general we can say that 
naphthaline is the product of the decomposi- 
tion of organic matter at a red heat, just as 
the oxidation of the same bodies yields oxalic 
acid. Warren and Storer found naphthaline 
as a native product in the petroleum of Bur- 
mah. It was first noticed by Garden in 1820, 
was observed about the same time by Reichen- 
bach, and fully analyzed and its true chemical 
composition determined by Faraday. The most 
laborious researches upon it were made by 
Laurent, who was engaged for 20 years in the 



134 



NAPHTHALINE 



study of the substitution products of this in- 
teresting body. The raw material usually em- 
ployed in the preparation of naphthaline is 
coal tar, and the method recommended by 
Vohl is as follows: The dead oil is run into 
vats, and left in a cool place for six to eight 
days, when crystals of naphthaline are formed. 
The liquid portion is then drawn off, the crys- 
talline mass stirred up to a pap by a pestle, the 
adhering oil removed in a centrifugal machine, 
and the mass finally placed under a hydraulic 
press. The press cake is then transferred to 
an iron vessel provided with a steam coil and 
a stirrer, so arranged that it can be operated 
when the vessel is closed. The fused mass is 
then well mixed with a few per cent, of caus- 
tic soda, the lye run off, and the operation 
repeated three times, and finally washed with 
hot water until no further reaction can be per- 
ceived. In this manner all of the carbolic 
acid, creosote, resinous matter, and other im- 
purities are removed. The still fluid naphtha- 
line is then intimately mixed with a few per 
cent, of sulphuric acid of 45 B., the acid let 
off, washed out with water, and the contents 
of the vessel agitated with strong caustic soda 
and left for two or three hours to subside, at a 
temperature of 100 C. The naphthaline thus 
treated- is further purified by distillation over 
a free fire from cast-iron stills capable of hold- 
ing a ton. At first naphthaline mixed with 
water passes over, but at 210 C. pure naph- 
thaline distils, and so rapidly that 100 Ibs. can 
be obtained in 20 minutes. The naphthaline 
vapors are condensed in water at 80 C. in closed 
vessels placed in water baths, also kept at 80. 
The pure naphthaline obtained in this way 
is run into conical glass, metal, or moistened 
wooden moulds, from the sides of which it 
separates by contraction on cooling, and is in- 
troduced into commerce in sticks like brim- 
stone. Naphthaline, when pure, has the form 
of brilliant white, scaly, rhombic plates of pe- 
culiar odor, having a specific gravity of 1-151, 
according to Vohl ; a melting point, according 
to Kopp, of V9-2 0. ; and a boiling point of 
216-4 to 216-8 0. It is in small quantities 
volatile at lower temperatures, and goes over 
copiously with steam. It possesses at first a 
weak, subsequently a burning taste ; is insolu- 
ble in cold, very slightly in hot water ; easily 
soluble in warm alcohol, ether, benzole, tur- 
pentine, volatile and fatty oils, and in acetic 
and oxalic acids. According to Vohl, the 
fused naphthaline absorbs air in the same 
manner as molten silver, which is richer in 
oxygen than the atmosphere, and gives it up 
again on cooling. Naphthaline dissolves indi- 
go, phosphorus, sulphur, succinic, benzoic, and 
oxalic acids, chloride of mercury, and the sul- 
phides of arsenic, tin, and antimony, which 
on cooling usually separate in a crystalline 
condition. Caustic potash and dilute sulphu- 
ric acid do not act on naphthaline, but chlo- 
rine, bromine, nitric acid, and concentrated 
sulphuric acid readily attack it. It crackles in 



NAPIER 

the hand like sulphur, and becomes negatively 
electric when rubbed with silk. It is destruc- 
tive to moths, and is used as a substitute for 
camphor in the protection of woollens, plants, 
and objects of natural history. When burned 
in its pure state it gives rise to copious clouds 
of fine lampblack. The researches of Laurent 
have shown the existence of a numerous series 
of substitution compounds, in which chlorine 
and bromine take the place of the hydrogen 
element, and sometimes replace each other. 
The bodies so formed are not of much practi- 
cal importance, but their investigation has had 
a remarkable influence upon the recent pro- 
gress of organic chemistry. A table of a few 
of these compounds will serve to illustrate the 
manner of substitution : 

Naphthaline ^10^8 

Chlonaphtase C 10 H 7 C1 

Bronaphtase C 10 H 7 Br 

Chloraphtese C, H 6 C1 2 

Bronaphtese Ci H 6 Br 2 

Chlonaphtise C 10 H 6 C1 3 

Bronaphtise C 10 H 8 Br 3 

Chlorobronaphtise C 10 H 6 Cl 2 Br 

Chlonaphtose C 10 H 4 C1 4 

Chlorobronaphtcse C 10 H 4 Cl a Br 2 

Chloribronaphtose C, H 4 Cl 3 Br 

Bronaphtose C 10 H 4 Br 4 

Bromechlonaphtuse C 10 H 3 8r 2 Cl 3 

Chlonaphthalase C 10 H 2 C1 6 

Chlonaphthalise C 10 C1 8 

Naphthalic or phthalic acid, made by the 
oxidation of naphthaline by sulphuric acid and 
black oxide of manganese, can be converted 
into benzoic acid, benzole, nitro-benzole, and 
finally into aniline ; and in this way naphtha- 
line is one of the sources of aniline colors. 
Magdala red is a dye prepared by the action of 
nitrous acid on naphthylamine, which in turn 
is derived from naphthaline. Naphthaline 
yellow is made by digesting 100 parts of naph- 
thaline for a few hours in a mixture of 200 
parts of water and 20 parts of nitric acid, and 
dissolving the resulting crystals in ammoniacal 
water. Kopp's brown is produced by boiling- 
nitro-naphtnaline with sulphuric acid. Other 
compounds are naphthazarine, similar to aliza- 
rine, called also dianthine; naphthylamine, 
one of the most interesting ; Perkins's vio- 
let; naphthaline alcohol, or naphthole; Hoff- 
mann's naphthaline red; naphthyl-rosaniline ; 
and numerous others. 

NAPIER, Sir Charles, a British admiral, born 
at Merchiston hall, Stirlingshire, March 6, 1786, 
died Nov. 6, 1860. He was a grandson of the 
fifth Lord Napier and a descendant of the in- 
ventor of logarithms. ' He entered the navy in 
1V99 ; in 1805 was appointed lieutenant ; in 
1808 commanded the brig Recruit of 18 guns; 
and in April, 1809, for gallant service against 
the French, was made a post captain. He 
subsequently served with the army in Portu- 
gal; and between November, 1811, and June, 
1815, he participated in numerous exploits on 
the coast of southern Italy and the North 
American station. After a long period of in- 
activity he was in 1829 employed in special 
service on the coast of Portugal, and in 1835 



NAPIER 



135 



was appointed by Dom Pedro to command the 
Portuguese fleet destined to operate against 
Dom Miguel. On July 5, 1833, he gained a 
signal victory off Cape St. Vincent, and was 
created Viscount Cape St. Vincent, grand 
cross of the tower and sword, and a grandee 
of the first class in Portugal. In 1839 he re- 
entered the English navy, and in 1840 became 
commodore under Admiral Stopford of the 
fleet employed on the coast of Syria, where he 
participated in the storming of Sidon and the 
capture of Beyrout and Acre. In the same 
year he was created a K. C. B., besides receiv- 
ing several continental decorations; and in 
1846 he was appointed rear admiral of the 
blue, and given command of the channel fleet. 
In 1849 he was superseded, but upon the 
breaking out of war with Russia he was put in 
command of the fleet destined to act against 
Cronstadt and other Russian ports in the Bal- 
tic, with the rank of vice admiral of the blue. 
He sailed from Spithead, March 11, 1854, with 
the most magnificent fleet ever equipped by 
Great Britain, promising to take Cronstadt in 
a month. His return to England in Decem- 
ber, without having accomplished anything of 
importance beyond the capture of Bomarsund. 
subjected him to considerable ridicule, and led 
to recriminations between himself and the 
ministry. In 1858 he was made admiral of 
the blue. He was member of parliament for 
Marylebone from 1841 to 1847, and after 1855 
for Southwark. He published a series of let- 
ters on naval reform, and in 1851 " The Navy, 
its Past and Present State." He also wrote 
"Account of the War in Portugal" (2 vols., 
1836), and " The War in Syria " (2 vols., 1842). 
A "History of the Baltic Campaign of 1854" 
was prepared from materials furnished by him 
(1857). His " Life and Correspondence " was 
published by Maj. Gen. E. Napier (2 vols., 1862). 
NAPIER, Sir Charles James, a British soldier, 
cousin of the preceding, born in Whitehall, 
London, Aug. 10, 1782, died at Oaklands, near 
Portsmouth, Aug. 29, 1853. At an early age 
he received an ensign's commission in the 4th 
regiment of foot, with which he served during 
the Irish rebellion of 1798, and again in 1803. 
He commanded the 50th regiment of foot in 
the retreat of Sir John Moore, and in the bat- 
tle of Corunna (Jan. 16, 1809) .received five 
severe wounds, and was left for dead in the 
hands of the enemy. He returned to England 
on parole some months later, to the astonish- 
ment of his friends, who had already adminis- 
tered upon his estate. Before procuring em- 
ployment he occupied his leisure by writing 
pamphlets on a variety of subjects. He finally 
went to the Peninsula as a volunteer, had two 
lorses shot under him at Coa, and was se- 
verely wounded at Busaco. In 1811 he pro- 
cured a regular command, and served until the 
close of the war. Immediately afterward he 
was sent to Bermuda as lieutenant colonel of 
the 102d regiment, and for some months par- 
ticipated in expeditions which harassed the 



! coast of the United States. The return of Na- 
poleon to France recalled him to Europe, but 
he arrived too late to participate in the battle 
of Waterloo. In 1824 he was appointed gov- 
ernor of Cephalonia, where he remained five 
years, and was active in promoting the cause 
of Greek independence. After along period 
of inactivity, he was appointed commander of 
the forces in the northern district of England, 
whence in 1841 he was transferred to the com- 
mand of the army in Bombay. He commenced 
his Indian career by a number of sweeping re- 
forms in the service, which gained him the dis- 
like of his officers. Upon the arrival of Lord 
Ellenborough in India in February, 1842, as 
governor general, Napier sketched out for him 
the plan of a second Afghan campaign ; and in 
the early part of the succeeding year he took 
the field against the ameers of Sinde. He 
made a rapid march across a desert to the for- 
tress of Emaun Ghur, one of the chief strong- 
holds and magazines of the ameers, which he 
blew up. On Feb. .17, 1843, with a force of 
less than 2,000 men, he overcame an army of 
35,000 Belooches at Meeanee, compelling the 
surrender of the important fortress of Hydra- 
bad. On March 24 he defeated Shere Mo- 
hammed, who had collected an army of about 
25,000 men at Dubba, near Hydrabad. The 
war being ended, Napier set to work to im- 
prove the condition of the conquered prov- 
ince, of which he had been appointed gover- 
nor. He protected the Hindoo and Sindian 
population, who had long been subjected to 
the military despotism ot the Belooches, en- 
couraged native industry, and abolished slavery 
and the slave trade, sutteeism, infanticide, the 
military tenure of lands, and other barbarous 
customs. At the breaking out of the first 
Sikh war in 1845 he organized a force of 
15,000 men to operate against the enemy, but 
was ordered elsewhere before the commence- 
ment of the campaign. In 1847 he returned 
to England. In March, 1849, he was again 
sent to India, as commander-in-chief of the 
British forces in the second Sikh war, super- 
seding Lord Gough. He found the war virtu- 
ally ended before his arrival, and coming into 
collision with the governor general, Lord Dal- 
housie, on some points of prerogative, he re- 
turned to England in 1850. His health rapid- 
ly failed after this, his last public appearance 
being at the funeral of the duke of Wellington 
in November, 1852. Among his numerous 
publications those of most permanent impor- 
tance are: "Lights and Shadows of Military 
Life" (1840), a free imitation of Alfred de 
Vigny's Grandeur et servitude militaire ; 
"History of the Colonies: Ionian Islands" 
(1853) ; "and " Indian Misgovernment and Lord 
Dalhousie" (1853). His career in India has 
been described by his brother Sir William F. 
P. Napier, who also published his "Life and 
Opinions" (4 vols., London, 1857). Monu- 
ments to him have been placed in Trafalgar 
square and St. Paul's church, London. 



136 



NAPIER 



NAPIER, Henry Edward, an English author, 
born March 5, 1789, died Oct. 13, 1853. He 
was the youngest brother of Sir Charles James 
Napier, and was a captain in the navy. He is 
the author of "Florentine History from the 
earliest Authentic Records to the Accession of 
Ferdinand III., Grand Duke of Tuscany" (6 
vols. 12mo, London, 1846-"T). 

NAPIER, John, laird of Merchiston, the in- 
ventor of logarithms, born at Merchiston cas- 
tle, near Edinburgh, in 1550, died there, April 
4, 1617. In 1562 he entered St. Salvator's 
college in the university of St. Andrews, and 
subsequently passed several years in travel- 
ling in France, Italy, and Spain. On his re- 
turn to his native country he did not mingle in 
active life, and but little is known of him until 
he had arrived at the age of 40. In 1593 he 
published "A Plain Discovery of the Revela- 
tion of St. John " (4to, Edinburgh), and in the 
dedication gave King James some advice in 
regard to religious matters, and the propriety 
of reformation in his own "house, family, and 
court." A letter of his to Anthony Bacon, 
concerning secret inventions for national de- 
fence, written in 1596, still exists in the arch- 
bishop's library, Lambeth. One of these was 
for a burning mirror to set fire to ships by re- 
flecting the rays of the sun; another was a 
device to accomplish the same purpose by re- 
flecting "the beams of any material fire or 
flame;" another an instrument which should 
scatter such an amount of shot in all quar- 
ters as to destroy everything near it. Noth- 
ing is heard of him after this until in 1614 he 
brought out his system of logarithms, entitled 
Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis Descriptio 
(4to, Edinburgh). Although published then, 
it is evident that Napier had begun the inves- 
tigation of this subject before 1594, from a 
letter written by Kepler to Orugerus in 1624, 
in which he says : Nihil autem Nepierianam 
rationem esse puto ; etsi Scotus quidem literis 
ad Tychonem, anno 1594, scriptis jam spem 
fecit canonis illius mirifici. No sooner was 
the work published than Henry Briggs, then 
professor of mathematics in Gresham college, 
London, began the application of the rules in 
his Imitatio Nepierea, and the system pro- 
posed by him is now commonly used. Napier's 
last work was his Raldologice sen Numeratio- 
nis per Virgulas Libri duo (12mo, Edinburgh, 
1617), in which he explained a contrivance to 
facilitate multiplication and division by means 
of small rods, which invention goes under the 
name of Napier's bones. After his death was 
published his Mirifici Logarithmorum Canonis 
Constructio (12mo,. 1619), in which he ex- 
plained the principle of the construction of 
logarithms. Napier also enriched the science 
of trigonometry by the general theorem for 
the resolution of all the cases of right-angled 
spherical triangles. There are two lives of 
Napier: one by the earl of Buchan, with an 
analysis of his works by Dr. Walter Minto 
(1787), and another by Mark Napier (1834). 



NAPIER, Macvey, a Scottish writer, born in 
1776, died in Edinburgh, Feb. 11, 1847. He 
studied law, was chosen librarian of the so- 
ciety of writers for the signet, and in 1825 was 
selected for a lectureship on conveyancing, 

| which was soon afterward made a professor- 
ship in the university of Edinburgh, a post 
which he occupied till his death. In 1817 he 
published an essay on the writings of Lord Ba- 
con, which was subsequently incorporated with 
a work entitled "Lord Bacon and Sir Walter 
Raleigh" (8vo, Cambridge, 1853). He edited 
the " Supplement to the Encyclopaedia Bri- 
tannica" (6 vols. 4to, Edinburgh, 1815-'24), 
and afterward superintended the seventh edi- 
tion of the entire work (1830-'42), to which 
he contributed many important articles. He 
succeeded Mr. Jeffrey as editor of the " Edin- 
burgh Review " in 1829, and conducted it for 
17 years. In 1837 he resigned his office of libra- 
rian, being made one of the principal clerks 
of the court of session. 

NAPIER, Robert, a Scottish engineer, born in 
Dumbarton, June 18, 1791. The son of a 
blacksmith, he preferred serving an appren- 
ticeship to that trade to going to college. In 
1811 he went to Edinburgh, but had little suc- 
cess, and afterward to Glasgow, where he was 
employed a short time with Mr. W. Lang, who 
manufactured jacks and machinery for calen- 
dar works. In 1815 he purchased with the 
help of his father a blacksmith's establishment 
at the Gallowgate of Glasgow, and set up busi- 
ness for himself. In 1823 he constructed his 
first marine engine, the forerunner of a large 
number of works of a similar character. In 
1830, in conjunction with the city of Glasgow 
steam packet company, he established a line of 
vessels which remained unsurpassed till super- 
seded by railways. In 1834 he furnished the 
Dundee and London shipping company with 
the Dundee and Perth steamships ; in 1836 the 
East India company with the Berenice ; and, 
in addition to several other works, in 1840 
supplied Samuel Cunard with his first four 
steamers. He built in 1856 the iron steam- 
ship Persia, of 3,600 tons. In 1859 the firm 
of Robert Napier and son undertook the con- 
struction for the British navy of the Black 
Prince, of 6,100 tons, in 1860 of the Hector, 
of 4,060 tons; and they have constructed 
steam rams and iron-clad ships of war for 
foreign governments. Mr. Napier received 
the great gold medal of honor at the Paris 
exposition of 1855, and the decoration of the 

| legion of honor. 

NAPIER, Sir William Francis Patrick, a British 
author, brother of Sir Charles James Napier, 
born in Castletown, county Kildare, Ireland, 
in 1785, died at Clapham Park, near London, 
Feb. 12, 1860. He entered the army at 15 

i years of age, and became a captain in 1804. 
After serving in the expedition to Copenhagen 
in 1807, he accompanied Sir John Moore to 
Portugal in 1808, and during the next six years 
was an active participant in the peninsular 



NAPIER OF MAGDALA 



NAPLES 



137 



war. In 1811 he became major and in 1813 
lieutenant colonel. He was repeatedly wounded 
during the war, particularly at Almeida, and 
in following the retreat of Massena from Por- 
tugal in 1811. He became major general in 
1841. Between 1842 and 1848 he was lieu- | 
tenant governor of Guernsey, and in 1848 he j 
was created knight commander of the bath, i 
In 1851 he became lieutenant general, and in j 
1859 general. He is best known as a writer J 
of military history. His principal work is 
"The History of the War in the Peninsula 
and in the South of France from 1807 to 
1814" (6 vols., London, 1828-'40). In the 
preparation of this eminent work he was sup- 
plied with materials and documents by the 
duke of Wellington, Marshal Soult, and other 
officers, English and French. His wife, a niece 
of Charles James Fox, deciphered for him the 
secret correspondence of Joseph Bonaparte. 
The critical and positive character of this work 
subjected it to much animadversion, calling out 
several replies from the author, which were 
appended to the later editions under the title 
of " Justificative Pieces." In 1855 he published 
a volume entitled "English Battles and Sieges 
in the Peninsula," consisting principally of 
extracts from his large work, with portions 
rewritten. He also published " The Conquest 
of Scinde " (1845), and " The Life and Opinions 
of the late Sir Charles Napier " (185V). 

NAPIER OF MAGDALA, Robert Cornells Napier, 
baron, a British general, born in Ceylon, Dec. 
6, 1810. His father was a major in the royal 
artillery, and he was educated in the royal 
military academy at Addiscombe, and in 1826 
entered the Bengal engineers. In the Sutlej 
campaign of 1845-'6, during which he held the 
rank of brigade major, he served with distinc- 
tion, and was severely wounded. He was 
wounded a second time at the siege of Mool- 
tan, where for some time he acted as chief 
engineer officer. In 1849 he was made a 
lieutenant colonel for meritorious conduct at 
Guzerat. He was engaged in active service 
throughout the sepoy mutiny, distinguishing 
himself by the engineering operations which 
he conducted against Lucknow, and subse- 
quently as a brigade commander, particularly 
at the siege of Gwalior and the battle of Pow- 
ree. In 1858 he was made a knight command- j 
er of the bath. Two years later he took part 
in the Anglo-French expedition against China, 
with the local rank of major general, and , 
achieved special distinction in the operations | 
preceding the capture of Peking. He became | 
a colonel of the royal engineers in 1862 ; and 
from 1861 until his appointment to the com- 
mand of the Bombay army with the local rank 
of general in 1865, he was a member of the 
council of the governor general of India. In 

t October, 1867, having been promoted to the 
full rank of lieutenant general, he was select- 
ed by the home government to command the 
expedition to Abyssinia for the release of the 
British prisoners held by King Theodore at 



Magdala. He landed at Annesley bay on Jan. 
7, 1868, and in a brief and brilliant campaign 
defeated the Abyssinian army, and on April 
13 assaulted and captured Magdala, the Brit- 
ish prisoners having previously been released. 
(See ABYSSINIA.) For this achievement Sir 
Robert Napier received the grand cross of 
the bath, and was raised to the peerage July 
17, 1868. In 1870 he was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief of the forces in India, with 
local rank as general, and in this capacity he 
is a member of the viceroy's council. He has 
a parliamentary annuity of 2,000 voted in 
1868, and has thrice received the thanks of 
parliament: in 1859, for his services during 
the Indian mutiny ; in 1861, for his skill and 
intrepidity at Peking ; and in 1868, for his 
conduct of the Abyssinian expedition. 

NAPIERVILLE, a S. W. county of Quebec, 
Canada; area, 152 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
11,688, of whom 10,815 were of French ori- 
gin. It is traversed by a division of the Grand 
Trunk railway. Capital, Napierville. 

NAPLES. I. Kingdom of. See SICILIES, THE 
Two. II* A province of the kingdom of Italy, 
bordering on Caserta, Salerno, and the Tyr- 
rhenian sea ; area, 412 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
907,752. It is the most beautiful and most 
fertile of all the Italian provinces, producing 
olives and wines of the best quality. The east- 
ern part is mountainous, being traversed by 
ramifications of the Apennines. The principal 
rivers are the Sarno and Sebeto. There are 
many lakes, none of them large ; the most 
important are Lakes Fusaro, Averno, and Lu- 
crino (the Acherusia, Avernus, and Lucrinus 
of ancient Campania). It is divided into 
the districts of Casoria, Castellamare di Sta- 
bia, Naples, and Pozzuoli. 

NAPLES (Ital. Napoli ; anc. Neapolis), the 
largest city of Italy, in the province of the 
same name, on the N. coast of the bay of 
Naples, and on the river Sebeto, in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Mt. Vesuvius, and not far 
from the sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii, 
118 m. S. E. of Rome, with which it is con- 
nected by railway; lat. 40 51' N., Ion. 14 
15' E. ; pop. in 1872, 448,335. The approach 
to Naples from the sea is famous for its loveli- 
ness. The entrance of the bay, from Cape 
Miceno on the N. W. to Cape Campanella on 
the S. E., has a width of about 20 m., with a 
circuit of about 35 m., and an indentation of 
about 15m. It is well sheltered, and has good 
anchorage with seven fathoms of water. At 
the N. W. entrance are the islands of Ischia 
and Procida, and at the S. E. the island of 
.Capri, while on the N. shore the city rises in 
an amphitheatre. On the E. side Mt. Vesuvius 
is in full view, and numerous towns and vil- 
lages line the shore. The beauty of the bay 
has been celebrated by ancient and modern 
writers, and it is the subject of numerous fine 
paintings. The city has five principal land 
entrances, but it is open like London and New 
York, provided only at the leading avenues 



138 



NAPLES 



with barriers for the purpose of collecting the 
gdbelle or duties on provisions. It retains 
only a few fragments of its mediaeval fortifica- 
tions. Its three castles and modernized gates 
are surrounded by streets and houses, and are 
now within the city. It is divided into two 
amphitheatre-like crescents by a ridge, running 
N. and S., which forms the hills of Capodi- 
monte, Sant' Elmo, and Pizzofalcone, termina- 
ting on the south in a small island occupied 
by the castel dell' Ovo, and joined by a cause- 
way to the mainland. The crescent E. of this 
ridge includes the bulk of the population, the 
most ancient part of the city, and the principal 
edifices and public institutions, extending E. 
to the river Sebeto, and intersected from N. to 
S. by a long thoroughfare, the lower portion 
of which forms the strada di Toledo. On a de- 
pression between the Oapodimonte and Sant' 
Elmo hills are the suburbs La Sanita and L'ln- 
frascata, and on the slopes of the former the 
suburbs Dei Miracoli and Le Vergini. The 
crescent W. of Sant' Elmo is the modern city, 
known as the Ohiaia or quay, connected with 
the E. portion by the streets occupying the 
depression between Sant' Elmo and Pizzofal- 
cone, and by a broad avenue which bears suc- 
cessively the names of Gigante, Santa Lucia, 
Ohiatamone, and Victoria, and which runs 
along the shore at the foot of Pizzofalcone 
from the palazzo TCeale on the east to the 



villa Nazionale, formerly villa Reale, on the 
west. Another broad street, Riviera di Chiaia, 
passes along the whole length of the Chiaia ; 
and at its W. extremity are the suburbs of 
Piedigrotta and Mergellina. The length of 
Naples, from the Sebeto bridge on the east to 
the Mergellina suburb on the west, is 4 m. ; 
the breadth, from the Capodimonte hill on the 
north to the castel dell' Ovo on the south, 
is 2-J m. The streets are generally straight, 
and paved with square blocks of lava; the 
large thoroughfares are lighted with gas, but 
only the principal of them have a sidewalk. 
The majority of the houses are divided into 
separate tenements. The ground story consists 
of a series of arched cells, all of the same shape 
and size, occupied generally by tradesmen or 
for cafes or restaurants ; and on the upper 
floors lodge numbers of families. The Neapol- 
itans live much out of doors, and it is nothing 
unusual to see the children washed and dressed, 
and other domestic scenes of a more or less 
delicate nature enacted, in the open street. 
The strada di Toledo, the main artery of 
Naples, was built in the 1 6th century by Pedro 
de Toledo, on what was the western fosse or 
ditch of mediaeval Naples, which it separates 
from the modern city. It runs N. and S. 
for about 1^- m., from the end of the strada 
di Santa Lucia, near the royal palace, to the 
museum, but is hardly 60 ft. in width, while it 




Naples. 



is bordered by houses five to seven stories 
high. The strada del Duomo, nearly parallel 
to the Toledo, was commenced in 1870, lead- 
ing directly to the sea, and promising to be one 
of the finest streets in the city. Few of the 
other streets exceed 30 ft. in width, and many 



are not above 15 to 20 ft., while some are still 
narrower. The balconies of most of the houses 
and the booths and stalls give the streets an 
appearance of being still more contracted than 
they really are. The Santa Lucia was rebuilt 
and enlarged in 1846, and contains one of the 






NAPLES 



139 



markets for fish, especially for shell fish and 
oysters, which are in great demand. In January, 
1868, a land slide destroyed a number of houses 
at the foot of Pizzofalcone. Naples possesses 
hardly any squares. There are a few public 
places called until recently larghi, but now 
designated as piazze, 
some of which are dec- 
orated with fountains 
and statuary. Of these 
the piazza del Mercato 
is occupied by a great 
market twice a week. 
It was the scene of the 
insurrection of Masa- 
niello. The piazza del 
Plebiscito, called before 
1860 the largo del Pa- 
lazzo, occupies the site 
of four monasteries re- 
moved in 1810 ; it con- 
tains equestrian statues 
of Ferdinand IV. (I.) 
of Bourbon and Charles 
III., the latter having 
been originally modelled 
for a likeness of Napo- 
leon, then altered to 
Murat, and finally to 
Charles III. The piazza 
del Municipio, formerly the largo del Castello, is 
the largest in Naples, and contains a celebrated 
fountain erected by the duke of Medina Celi. 
The villa Nazionale is the fashionable prome- 
nade, and may be said to form part of the Ri- 
viera di Chiaia. It is 5,000 ft. long and 200 
ft. wide, planted with evergreens, oaks, and 
acacias. It was laid out in 1T80, and enlarged 
in 1807 and 1834. The early part of it is in 
the Italian style, and the additions are in the 
Egyptian, and contain two temples dedicated 
to Virgil and Tasso, winding paths, grottoes, 
and a terrace extending into the sea. The 
sea air proved so injurious to the statuary, 
that the famous Farnese bull was removed to 
the museum, and replaced in 1825 by the large 
granite basin from Pa3stum which forms the 
central fountain. Other remarkable statues 
have also since been taken away, and replaced 
by mediocre copies of celebrated works of an- 
tiquity. The Molo is a favorite resort of the 
seafaring classes. The popular minstrels, or 
cantatori, who formerly frequented it, have 
removed to the Marinella, a long open beach, 
once the resort of the lazzaroni. The latter 
class has lost its ancient characteristic fea- 
tures, being composed mainly of industrious 
boatmen and fishermen, though they still pre- 
serve their fondness for lying on the beach 
and basking in the sun. Prominent among 
the public buildings of Naples are the castles. 
The castel Nuovo, with its massive towers 
and fosses, is situated near the port. The 
triumphal arch, erected in honor of the entry 
of Alfonso of Aragon into the city in the 
15th century, is remarkable for its classical 



style, and stands between two of the old broad 
and massive Anjou towers. It is entered by 
bronze gates, sculptured in compartments rep- 
resenting the victories of Ferdinand I. ; they 
are the work of the monk Guglielmo. Within 
are the barracks and a magnificent hall, now 




Castel Nuovo. 

used as an armory, but formerly for a royal re- 
ception room, and for state festivals. A cov- 
ered gallery connects the fort with the palace. 
Adjoining the castle and the royal palace are 
the dockyard and arsenal. Iron-clad and other 
vessels of the Italian navy are frequently sta- 
tioned here. The castel dell' Ovo, in the south- 
ernmost part of the city, is of oval form, and 
defended by bastions and outworks. It was 
much enlarged by Charles I., and is now chiefly 
used as a prison. The castel Sant' Elmo, the 
most commanding point in the city, was built 
in its present form by Pedro de Toledo, and is 
said to abound with mines and subterranean 
passages, which, together with the counterscarp 
and fosses cut in the solid tufa, and its formi- 
dable walls, made it of great strategical impor- 
tance. It has been dismantled under the new 
regime, and is used as a military prison. Its 
ramparts afford a splendid prospect of the city 
and bay. The castel Capuano was once the 
residence of the Swabian and occasionally of 
the Anjou dynasty ; it is now the seat of the 
tribunal of commerce, and of the principal 
courts of criminal and civil law, and contains a 
prison on the ground floor, unhappily celebrated 
under the Bourbons. The castel del Carmine 
was fortified after the revolt of Masaniello, 
when it was the stronghold of the insurgents, 
and is now used as a military prison and bar- 
racks. The palazzo del municipio was begun 
in 1819 and completed in 1825 for the purpose 
of conducting all the public business in one 
building. It contains 6 courts, 846 apartments, 
and 40 corridors, covering 200,000 sq. ft. of 
ground. There are many fountains, some of 



140 



NAPLES 



which are highly adorned. The chief aqueduct, 
which supplies them with water, is the Acqua 
di Carmignano. The Acqua della Bolla supplies 
the lower quarters of the city. The supply 
is, however, limited. Two artesian wells have 
been sunk, but without success ; and an English 
firm secured a concession for supplying the city 
with water in 1873. There are two mineral 
springs in the city of great celebrity. The num- 
ber of churches is over 300. The most impor- 
tant is the cathedral, which retains little of its 
original Gothic character excepting in the tow- 
ers. It was commenced at the end of the 13th 
century and completed at the beginning of the 
14th; was injured by an earthquake in the 
middle of the 15th, and was rebuilt by Alfonso 
I. ; and has since undergone frequent restora- 
tions, the last in 1837. Over the great entrance 
are the tombs of Charles I. of Anjou, Charles 
Martel, and his wife Clementia of Hapsburg. 
It also contains the tombs of King Andrew, of 
Pope Innocent IV., and of other noted person- 
ages. Opposite to the entrance of the basilica 
of Santa Restituta, on the site of a temple of 
Apollo, and once the place of worship for the 
Greek ritual, but now part of the cathedral, is 
the cappella del Tesoro, or chapel of San Gen- 
naro (St. Januarius), with the two celebrated 
vials said to contain the blood of that saint, the 
liquefaction of which gives occasion for the 
greatest religious festivals of Naples. (See 
JANUARIUS, SAINT.) The "Tomb of San Gen- 
naro," with the sick waiting to be cured, and 
several other paintings and frescoes in the 
chapel, are by Domenichino. The tomb is un- 
der the high altar in the richly ornamented sub- 
terranean chapel called the "confessional of 
San Gennaro," near the kneeling statue of Car- 
dinal Carafa, which is said to have been exe- 
cuted by Michel Angelo. The church of Sant' 
Aniello a Capo Napoli, or Sant' Agnello Mag- 
giore, in the piazza Sant' Agnello, has a painting 
of San Carlo by Caracciolo, said to be one of 
the most masterly imitations of Annibale Car- 
racci. Beneath the richly decorated church de' 
Santi Apostoli, said to have been founded by 
Constantine on the ruins of a temple of Mer- 
cury, is a cemetery containing the tomb of the 
poet Marini. Among the other churches are 
Santa Chiara, with a Latin inscription over the 
Gothic tomb of King Robert the Wise, attrib- 
uted to Petrarch, designed like many other 
monuments by Masuccio II. ; and the church of 
San Lorenzo, associated with one of the stories 
of Boccaccio, with Petrarch, who resided for 
some time in the cloister attached to it, and 
with Alfonso I., who in the chapter house of 
ihis church proclaimed his natural son Ferdi- 
nand heir to the throne by the title of duke of 
Calabria. The convent and church of San Mar- 
tino is celebrated for the magnificence of the 
view from it, as well as for the beauty of its 
architecture. Santa Maria del Parto, in the 
Mergellina suburb, called by the common peo- 
ple il diavolo di Mergellina, derives its name 
from Sannazzaro's poem De Partu Virginis, and 



contains that poet's tomb. Beggars abound in 
Naples in spite of the law. There are about 
60 institutions devoted to charitable purposes. 
The most celebrated of them is the albergo de 1 
poveri or reclusorio, an immense institution, 
which with its dependencies accommodates 
more than 5,000 persons. It is over 1,000 ft. 
long, but was intended by its founder Charles 
III. to cover a still larger ground, to serve as an 
asylum and an educational establishment for all 
the poor of the kingdom. To some extent it 
is made to answer this purpose ; boys and girls 
are educated there and brought up to trades, 
and the boys generally enlist in the army. The 
greatest among the other hospitals is the santa 
casa degV incurabili, or hospital for incurable 
diseases, but open to the sick of all descriptions ; 
it is in high repute as a medical school, and ac- 
commodates about 2,000 patients. The hospital 
dell' Annunziata is chiefly intended for the re- 
ception of foundlings. There are annually about 
2,000 foundlings out of 15,000 births, and they 
are better cared for in Naples than in other 
parts of Italy. The new hospital di Gesu Maria 
is the great clinical school attached to the uni- 
versity. The latter in 1873 contained 74 pro- 
fessorships and 1,500 students, and has a library 
of about 25,000 volumes. The Chinese college, 
founded by Father Ripa, a missionary in China, 
is intended for the training of young Chinese, 
who, after having completed their education, 
are employed as missionaries in their native 
country. The college of music, in which Bel- 
lini was educated, enjoys a high reputation, and 
has had for its directors Zingarelli and Merca- 
dante. It gives free instruction to 100 pupils, 
and admits others at a small remuneration. The 
national school of medicine and surgery is at- 
tended by upward of 120 students, contains a 
pathological museum, and communicates by a 
subterranean passage with the practical medi- 
cal school at the hospital for incurables. The 
public primary schools are still in a very un- 
satisfactory condition, numbering in 1872 only 
about 15,000 pupils. The societd reale com- 
prises academies of science, of archaeology, and 
of the fine arts, and the two former publish 
their transactions. The observatory of Naples, 
situated on the Capodimonte hill, about 500 
ft. above the sea, is an elegant building, com- 
pleted in 1820, after the plans of Piazzi, un- 
der whose direction it achieved great celeb- 
rity. The botanic garden was completed in 
1818, and is remarkable for its collection of 
trees. The most notable new institution is 
the zoological garden, established in 1873, with 
one of the finest aquariums in the world. Na- 
ples possesses five public libraries: the Na- 
zionale, of 200,000 volumes and 5,000 manu- 
scripts; the Brancacciana, of 75,000 volumes; 
the university library; the Girolomini; and 
the biblioteca del municipio. The glory of 
Naples, however, is the museum, situated in a 
building originally intended for cavalry bar- 
racks, afterward remodelled from the designs 
of Fontana for the use of the university, and 



NAPLES 



141 



for some time the seat of the academy of sci- 
ence. It is still called palazzo degli studii pub- 
~blici, or simply studii. The name museo reale 
borbonico was given to it by Ferdinand IV. (I.), 
who, after its enlargement in 1790 for the pur- 
pose of receiving the royal collection of art, 
caused all the antiquities and pictures in the 
royal palaces of Portici and Capodimonte to be 
brought into it in 1820. After the annexation 
of Naples to the Italian kingdom it was named 
museo nazionale. It contains collections of 
ancient frescoes, mosaics, and mural inscrip- 
tions, Egyptian antiquities, ancient sculptures, 
inscriptions, bronzes, glasses, pottery, cinque- 
cento objects, papyri, gems, medals and coins, 
vases, paintings, and the national library. 
Among the ancient frescoes are more than 1,600 
specimens found at Herculaneum and Pompeii. 
The collection of ancient sculpture contains the 
statues of the Roman emperors and a colossal 
bust of Julius Caesar. The " room of the papy- 
ri" includes more than 1,700 rolls of writings 
from Herculaneum, disfigured by the effects of 
the fire, of which about 500 have been success- 
fully unrolled. Several volumes of transcrip- 
tions from them have been published. The 
gallery of paintings was rearranged in 1866-'7. 
It contains 500 works, many of them master- 
pieces of the old painters ; while the Neapol- 
itan school can nowhere be studied so well as 
here. The best paintings are arranged in four 
rooms, apart from the main collections of the 
several schools, with some remarkable engra- 
vings, and drawings by the great masters. 
The private palaces of Naples are far inferior 
in architectural beauty to those of Florence 
and other cities of upper Italy, but almost 
all of them contain museums of works of art. 
The most beautiful private palace is the palazzo 
Gravina, in the strada di Monte Oliveto, built 
at the end of the 15th century by Ferdinando 
Orsini, duke of Gravina, after the design of 
Gabriele d'Agnolo ; it is now the property of 
the government, and used by the general post 
office and telegraph offices. The palazzo Pia- 
nura, near the church of San Paolo, was the 
residence of the poet Marini. The palazzo 
Santangelo is remarkable for its fine statuary 
and collection of coins and medals, illustra- 
tive of the numismatic history of the Two 
Sicilies. The palazzo Monticelli, a fine spe- 
cimen of the domestic architecture of the 
15th century, was long the residence of the 
mineralogist Monticelli, whose collection of 
Vesuvian productions was purchased by the 
university and the British museum after his 
death. Naples abounds with fine villas, some 
of them commanding superb views on the 
bay. In its immediate environs are the grotta 
di Pozzuoli or di Posilippo, consisting of a 
tunnel about 2,250 ft. long and 21 ft. wide, 
excavated in the older volcanic tufa, and con- 
taining near the top of the entrance the 
celebrated Roman columbarium known as the 
tomb of Virgil. The environs abound with 
many other remarkable sights, interesting to 



the classical scholar, archaeologist, and natu- 
ralist, as well as to the admirers of the beauti- 
ful and picturesque in nature, the vicinity of 
Vesuvius and other volcanic localities present- 
ing scenes of matchless grandeur. The prin- 
cipal places of amusement are the theatres. 
The San Carlo, adjoining the royal palace, was 
long the largest Italian opera house in the 
world. It was designed, by order of Charles 
III., by Medrano, a Sicilian artist, built in the 
short space of eight months by Angelo Cara- 
sale, a Neapolitan architect, and opened in 
1737. It was burned down in 1816, but re- 
built after seven months without altering 
the original form. It has six tiers of boxes 
of 32 each, and the pit accommodates more 
than 1,000 persons. The teatro del Fondo, in 
the strada Molo, is under the same manage- 
ment as the San Carlo, and is exclusively 
devoted to operas and ballets. The oldest 
theatre in Naples is the teatro de' Fiorentini, 
now the popular stage of the Italian drama. 
The opera buffa is represented chiefly in the 
teatro Nuovo. The teatro Partenope is a pop- 
ular theatre, in which farce and comedy are 
performed twice a day in the Neapolitan dia- 
lect. The theatre of San Carlino is the home 
of Pulcinello. The performances take place in 
the morning and evening in the Neapolitan dia- 
lect, and are attended by all classes of the pop- 
ulation. The scholars and savants, artists, 
jurists, medical men, and the higher middle 
and professional classes of Naples generally, 
constitute a very intelligent and refined so- 
ciety; and its men of science and scholars are 
celebrated in Italy for their devotion to their 
respective branches of study. The number of 
strangers is great at all times, but particular- 
ly during the winter, notwithstanding the fre- 
quently dangerous effect of the climate upon for- 
eign constitutions, especially upon consumptive 
patients. Naples has three ports: the Porto 
Piccolo, the last remains of the ancient port of 
Palseopolis, and now only suited to small craft ; 
the Porto Militare, a new harbor with a 'depth 
of water of five fathoms, bounded N. by the 
Porto Grande and S. by a mole which runs in 
a S. E. direction into the sea for a distance of 
1,200 ft. ; and the Porto Grande, the principal 
port, but with only three or four fathoms in 
its deepest part, having suffered from the 
silting of the sand and shingle. Between the 
Porto Grande and Porto Piccolo is the imma- 
colatelle, with the offices of a branch of the 
board of health and the captain of the port. 
On the other side of the Porto Piccolo is the 
custom house. New docks are projected. The 
Mandracchio district, S. E. of the latter port, 
is inhabited by the dregs of the Neapolitan 
population. The principal imports of Naples 
are sugar, coffee, and other colonial produce ; 
coal, salted fish, cotton (the cultivation of 
which has of late enormously increased in the 
surrounding region), woollen, silk, and flax 
goods ; iron, tinware, and hardware. The 
chief exports are products of the surrounding 



142 



NAPLES 



country, chiefly consisting of staves, coral, ol- 
ive oil, tartar and wine lees, madder, liquor- 
ice, hemp, and fruits, and amounting in 1873 
to nearly $9,000,000 ; imports, chiefly colonial 
products, cotton, woollen, and silk goods, fish, 
grain, and metals, nearly $25,600,000. The 
shipping comprised 4,703 inward and 4,724 out- 
ward vessels, tonnage 1,020,758 and 998,421. 
There are several great banks, and most of the 
business men are more or less interested in 
financial schemes, which are often carried on in 
a reckless manner. Many banks recently es- 
tablished without adequate capital have resulted 
in bankruptcies and financial chaos. Merchants 
are arranged by the chamber of commerce 
into five different classes, and credit to a cer- 
tain amount at the custom house for the pay- 
ment of duties is granted to them accordingly. 
The most important manufacture is of maca- 
roni and vermicelli, which constitute the prin- 
cipal food of the people. Next in importance 
is the production of silk goods, the gros de 
Naples taking its name from the manufacture 
of this city. There are also iron and glass 
works, type founderies, and manufactories of 
carpets, broadcloth, chemicals, soaps, perfu- 
mery, artificial flowers, corals, porcelain, hats, 
carriages, gloves, &c. For municipal purposes 
the city is divided into 12 districts. There 
is a garrison of 6,000, and the national guard 
numbers 14,000. The prisons of Naples have 
had an infamous reputation, but have been 
much improved of late years. The most im- 
portant have already been mentioned. The 
principal antiquities of Naples are the cata- 
combs, which are of greater extent than those 
of Rome. (See CATACOMBS, vol. iv., p. 95.) 
The environs abound with celebrated relics 
of antiquity, but in the city proper there are 
not many of them, excepting the fragments 
of the temple of Castor and Pollux, of the 
Julian aqueduct, now called Ponti Rossi, and 
a few other remains. The greatest authority 
on Neapolitan inscriptions is Mommsen's Cor- 
pus Inscriptionum Neapolitanarum (Leipsic, 
1851). Several of the learned Neapolitan an- 
tiquaries claim for Naples a Phoenician ori- 
gin, but it is generally considered to have been 
originally a Greek city and colony of Cumse, 
although the account of its first foundation, 
under the name of Parthenope, is regarded by 
many authorities as a mythical tradition. Ac- 
cording to several accounts the city was, after 
its increase through settlers from various parts 
of Greece, divided into an old town (Palseopo- 
lis) and a new town (Neapolis). But the iden- 
tity of the connection between the two names 
is not yet clearly established. Niebuhr places 
the situation of Palaeopolis near the site of the 
present town of Pozzuoli, and Livy refers to 
them as close to each other ; but long before 
his time (330 B. C.) Palaeopolis is mentioned 
as having been engaged in hostilities with 
Rome, and the name seems soon afterward to 
have disappeared from history, and to have be- 
come merged in Neapolis, which early became 



a faithful ally and dependency of Rome, and 
noted for the courage of its citizens from their 
successful resistance to the attack of Pyrrhus 
in 280 B. 0., while the strength of its fortifica- 
tions caused Hannibal to leave the place un- 
molested during the second Punic war. It re- 
tained to a far greater extent than other Italian 
cities its Greek culture and institutions, and 
many of the higher classes of Romans resorted 
to Neapolis for their education, on account of 
the beauty of the climate and the scenery, and 
of its hot springs. It recovered quickly from 
the calamities of the civil war of Marius and 
Sulla. Under the empire it continued to be 
a favorite resort of the Roman nobility. Nero 
made his first public appearance as an actor on 
the stage of Naples, and the voluptuous char- 
acter of the city caused it to be called by Ovid 
in otia natam Parthenopen. The great tunnel 
under Posilippo was then as now an object of 
admiration. The chief glory of the city was 
its association with Virgil, who resided there 
for a considerable period. Naples was taken 
by the Goths in A. D. 493, retaken by Belisarius 
in 536, and reduced and dismantled by Totila 
in 543. About 570 it was constituted a separate 
duchy, forming a dependency of the exarchate 
of Ravenna. After the fall of the exarchate 
in the 8th century it enjoyed for about 400 
years an independent government under dukes 
of its own election, though often engaged in 
hostilities with the Lombard dukes of Bene- 
vento, to whom it was obliged to pay tribute. 
When the duchy of Benevento was divided 
into three principalities, the prince of Capua en- 
deavored to gain the supremacy, and succeeded 
in temporarily seizing Naples (1027) ; but the 
Normans, having conquered all the rest of 
southern Italy and Sicily, reduced Naples after 
a protracted siege ; and the city submitted to 
Roger I. of Sicily about 1137. On the extinc- 
tion of the Norman dynasty in 1189, Naples 
became subject to the house of Swabia. In 
1268, under the Anjou dynasty, Naples super- 
seded Palermo as the seat of the government. 
In 1442 the last king of the Anjou dynasty 
was conquered by Alfonso of Aragon. Charles 
VIII. of France conquered Naples in 1495, 
but was driven out by Gonsalvo de Cordova. 
Under the Aragonese and Spanish kings it was 
ruled by viceroys till the peace of Utrecht 
(1713), when it was annexed to the possessions 
of the house of Hapsburg. The popular insur- 
rection under Masaniello took place in 1647. 
Charles, son of Philip V. of Spain, became 
master of the city and kingdom in 1734, and 
founded the Bourbon dynasty. The French 
took it in 1799 and again in 1806. Joseph 
Bonaparte was made king of Naples, but was 
replaced in 1808 by Murat, who was displaced 
by the Austrians in 1814, when the Bourbons 
were restored. The city was the scene of a 
revolutionary conflict on May 15, 1848. It was 
entered by Garibaldi in September, 1860, and 
incorporated with the dominions of Victor 
Emanuel. Naples has been often alarmed by 



NAPO 



NARCISSUS 



143 



earthquakes, and a severe eruption of Vesu- 
vius in April, 1872, resulted in the loss of some 
200 lives, and the city was covered with a 
shower of ashes. A railway to the summit of 
Vesuvius was commenced in 1875. 

NAPO, a river of South America. See ECUA- 
DOE, vol. vi., p. 394. 

NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. See BONAPAETE. 

NAPOLEON-VENDEE, a town of France, capi- 
tal of the department of Vendee, on the river 
Yon, 231 m. S. W. of Paris; pop. (including 
the suburb of Roche-sur-Yon) about 9,000. It 
consists of several streets crossing each other 
at right angles, nearly all ending in the place 
Royale, a spacious square, bordered by ranges 
of pine trees, and surrounded by public monu- 
ments and fine mansions. It is situated upon 
an open heath, and has few manufactures and 
little trade. The town occupies the site of a 
large feudal castle built prior to the crusade, 
which was destroyed by the republicans in 
1793. In 1805 Napoleon selected the place as 
the site for the capital of the department, and 
devoted 3,000,000 francs to the erection of 
public edifices, giving to the new town the 
name which it nows bears. Under the restora- 
tion it was called Bourbon- Vendee. 

NAPOLI DI ROMANIA. See NAUPLIA. 

NAQUET, Alfred Joseph, a French chemist, born 
in Carpentras, Oct. 6, 1834. He completed his 
studies in Paris, where he took his medical 
degree in 1859. In August, 1863, he was 
named professor at the school of medicine, 
to enter upon his duties in November, 3865. 
In the interval he was employed by the Ital- 
ian government in establishing a professor- 
ship of chemical and physical sciences in the 
national technical institute at Palermo. Af- 
ter lecturing on organic chemistry in the med- 
ical faculty of Paris till 1867, he incurred 
15 months' imprisonment and a fine for hav- 
ing been one of the organizers of the con- 
gress at Geneva, and having submitted to it a 
resolution calling the first Napoleon the great- 
est malefactor of his day. In March, 1869, he 
was again arrested and fined on account of 
his opposing the rites of marriage (his own 
marriage had been celebrated in 1862 without 
the attendance of a clergyman) in his pub- 
lication entitled Religion, propriete, famille, 
in which however he defended the rights of 
property. After the revolution of Sept, 4, 
1870, he was military secretary to the govern- 
ment at Tours and Bordeaux. His election 
to the assembly, Feb. 8, 1871, being contest- 
ed by the monarchists, he was reflected, July 
2, by a large majority. Among his scientific 
works are : Principes de chimie fondes sur les 
theories modernes (1865) ; De Vatomicite (1868) ; 
and Precis de chimie legate (1872). His chief 
political work is La republique radicale (1 873). 

NARBONNE (anc. Narlo Martins}, a city of 
Languedoc, France, in the department of Aude, 
near the Mediterranean, with which it is con- 
nected by a canal, 33 m. E. of Carcassonne, 
and 54 m. S. W. of Montpellier ; pop. in 1866, 
587 VOL. xii. 10 



17,172. The most remarkable edifices are the 
cathedral of St. Just, a handsome Gothic struc- 
ture founded in the 13th century ; the church 
of St. Paul, an ancient building in the Roman- 
esque style ; and the hotel de ville, formerly 
the archiepiscopal palace, one of the towers of 
which dates from the 14th century. Within 
it Louis XIII. signed the order for the arrest 
of Cinq-Mars and De Thou. The seat of the 
archbishopric has been transferred to Toulouse. 
There are important manufactures of verdigris, 
linen, woollen, and leather, and trade in wine, 
and in honey celebrated for its whiteness. 
Narbo Martius was founded by the Romans 
in 118 B. C. Many of the soldiers of Csesar's 
tenth legion having been settled there at the 
end of the civil war, it was thence frequently 
called Decumanorum Colonia. It was taken 
by the Saracens in 719, and held by them 
for nearly half a century. In the middle ages 
it was one of the most flourishing towns in 
France, containing more than 40,000 inhabi- 
tants. No building of the Roman period now 
exists, the ruins having been used in the con- 
struction of the city walls, in which about 500 
Roman bass reliefs, friezes, and inscriptions 
were visible, besides Saracenic ramparts. The 
walls were pulled down after 1865, and many 
of the ancient sculptures are gathered in the 
museum. Varro, the Latin poet, and the Ro- 
man emperor Carus, were born in or near Nar- 
bonne. One of the four provinces of Gaul, as 
divided by Augustus, was called from this city 
Gallia Narbonensis. 

NARBONNE-LARA, Lonis, ( count de, a French 
soldier, born at Colorno, in the duchy of Par- 
ma, Aug. 24, 1755, died in Torgau, Germany, 
Nov. 17, 1813. He was educated with the 
French princes, became a colonel in 1780, and 
was employed in the ministry of foreign af- 
fairs under Vergennes. In 1789 he became 
very popular at Besancon, where in 1790 he 
was placed in command of the national guard ; 
but he was always loyal to the royal family. 
He accompanied the king's aunts when they 
left Versailles in 1791, and, after seeing them 
safe out of France, returned to Paris. He 
was appointed minister of war, Dec. 6, .1791, 
but was dismissed in March, 1792, and joined 
the army. After the attack on the Tuileries, 
Aug. 10, 1792, when he was present in the 
capital and displayed great courage, he fled to 
London, where he wrote a memoir to the con- 
vention in behalf of Louis XVI. He returned 
to France in 1800, and was restored to his 
rank as general of division in 1809. He ac- 
companied Napoleon as special aide-de-camp 
to Russia, was ambassador to Vienna in 1813, 
minister to the congress at Prague, and finally 
military commander at Torgau. 

NARCISSUS. I. A mythical youth, son of the 
river god Cephissus and the nymph Liriope, 
who was remarkable for his beauty, but wholly 
inaccessible to love. The nymph Echo died of 
grief because he would not reciprocate her af- 
fection. One of his rejected admirers begged 



144 



NAKCISSUS 



Nemesis to punish him, and the goddess caused 
him to fall in love with the reflection of his 
own figure in a spring. Under the influence 
of this passion he pined away, and after death 
was changed into the flower which bears his 
name. II. A freedman and secretary of the 
Koman emperor Claudius, who was completely 
subject to his influence. For some time he 
used his power in subservience to the wishes 
of the empress Messalina ; but when he found 
that she meditated his destruction, he deter- 
mined to anticipate her, and, revealing to Clau- 
dius her marriage with Caius Silius, convinced 
him that his own safety required her imme- 
diate sacrifice. The emperor consented to her 
imprisonment, but as he manifested reluctance 
to have her put to death, Narcissus sent a 
tribune to despatch her. Agrippina, whose 
intrigues in favor of her son Nero Narcissus 
had thwarted, had him removed to Campania, 
where he was murdered by her orders, A. D. 
54. He is said to have amassed a fortune of 
400,000,000 sesterces, equivalent to $13,500,- 
000. HI. A Roman athlete, with whom the 
emperor Commodus was in the habit of con- 
tending in the arena, and who was afterward 
employed by Marcia to strangle his patron. 
For this crime Septimius Severus, on his ac- 
cession (A. D. 193), had him given to the lions. 
NARCISSUS, the common as well as the botan- 
ical name of a genus of popular garden flowers. 
It is often said that the name is from that 
of the youth of Grecian mythology who was 
turned into the flower. Prior regards this as 
" an instance, among many more, of a legend 
written to a name," and considers it to be de- 
rived from vapudeiv, to become dumb, as it had 
the reputation of causing torpor or heaviness 
by its perfume. The genus belongs to the 
amaryllis family, and consists of bulbous-root- 
ed plants, with flat or channelled, linear leaves, 
an often compressed or angular scape or flow- 
er stalk, at the top of which is a spathe, which 
bursts at one side and liberates one to several 
flowers. The tube of the perianth (calyx and 
corolla together) is prolonged above the ovary, 
with six equal spreading divisions ; stamens 
six, of unequal length, included in a cup-shaped 
or tubular white or colored crown, which 
springs from the corolla-tube at their base; 
ovary three-celled, with a simple style and an 
obtuse stigma. This genus, which is mainly 
south European, extending into Asia, has been 
divided by some botanists in a most perplexing 
manner. While some regard it as containing 
only a few species, others, upon trivial charac- 
ters, have made some 15 genera, with about 
100 species. ^ In popular nomenclature the 
genus is divided into narcissus, jonquil, and 
daffodil. Those recognized as narcissuses have 
a very short, cup-like crown to the flower. 
One ^ of the best known of these is the poets' 
narcissus (N. poeticus), large clumps of which 
are common in old gardens ; the scape, about 
a foot high, bears but a single flower, of the 
purest white color, yellowish at the throat, the 



small crimped crown with a bright pink or 
scarlet edge ; there is a double variety in which 
the crown disappears; this species, which is 
very fragrant, especially when double, is a 




Poets' Narcissus (N. poeticus). 

native of southern Europe from France to 
Greece. The two-flowered narcissus (N. M- 
florus) is also a native of the south of Europe, 
but has become thoroughly naturalized in Eng- 
land, and is thought to be native to some parts 
of that country; it has two white or pale 
straw-colored flowers to each stem, the flowers 
having a short yellow crown ; this is also sweet- 
scented, and is the primrose peerless and pale 
daffodil of the old gardeners. The hoop-petti- 
coat narcissus {N. bulbocodium) has its leaves 
and flower scapes 6 to 9 in. long ; the solitary 
bright flower is 1J to 2 in. long, with a very 




Two-flowered Narcissus (N. biflorus). 

conspicuous cup, which widens rapidly toward 
the brim ; it is an exceedingly neat and pretty 
species for the border or for pot culture. The 
most prized of all is that known as the poly 



NARCISSUS 

anthus narcissus, which originated from JV. 
Tazetta, perhaps crossed with other species; 
the catalogues give numerous named varieties ; 
in all the bulbs are large, the flat leaves about 



NARD 



145 




Polyanthus Narcissus (N. Tazetta). 

a foot long, and the flower stem, of about the 
same height, produces a cluster or umbel of 
six to ten large very fragrant flowers ; in the 
different varieties corolla and cup are both of 
different shades of yellow, or the one is white 
while the other is yellow, and in some the 
cup is double. While this is the finest, it is 
the most tender of all ; but in the climate of 
New York city, if planted 6 in. deep, and cov- 
ered with litter, it flowers freely in spring. It 
is very popular for forcing for winter bloom- 
ing. The species known as jonquil (diminu- 




Daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus). 

tiye of Span, junco, from Lat. juncus, a rush) is 
N. jonquilla, which has narrow rush-like or 
half cylindrical leaves, which with the flower 
scapes are about a foot long ; flowers two to 



five, small, yellow, and fragrant; there is a 
double variety. The daffodil, which in Eng- 
land more than in this country is called daffo- 
dilly and daffadowndilly, derives its name from 
asphodelus, through affodilly, &c. ; the species 
generally known by this name is N. pseudo- 
narcissus^ which has flat leaves and the scape 
bearing a single large flower having a large 
crown or cup; in the typical form the cup 
and petals are of a uniform yellow color, but 
in the variety bicolor the petals are white and 
the cup yellow, and there are several other 
varieties, including double and dwarf ones. 
One of the plants known by the garden name 
of "butter and eggs" is the double form of 
the incomparable daffodil (2f. incomparabi- 
lis\ in which large lemon-colored petals are in- 
termingled with smaller orange-colored ones. 
There are several other species, but they are 
rarely seen in ordinary cultivation. The com- 
mon poets' and two-flowered narcissus, the 
jonquil, and daffodil are very common in gar- 
dens, especially in country places, where they 
remain in the same place year after year, and 
form large clumps which show a small num- 
ber of flowers for the quantity of foliage; 
being so hardy, they are left to themselves 
until the soil about them becomes filled with 
bulbs and roots and completely exhausted. 
To have them flower satisfactorily the clumps 
should be taken up in autumn, divided, and 
set in fresh soil. The treatment of the tender 
sorts is indicated under POLYANTHUS. The 
method of forcing in pots is the same as for 
similar bulbs (see HYACINTH). The varieties 
of polyanthus are those most generally seen in 
window culture, but the commoner species are 
bright and welcome in winter, and might be 
more generally* used for indoor blooming than 
they are. The gardeners near New York and 
other cities force great quantities of the poets' 
narcissus, daffodils, &c., and send them to mar- 
ket in early spring in full bloom. 

NARCOTICS (Gr. vapw, torpor), substances 
which when taken into the blood affect all 
parts of the nervous system, but especially the 
higher nervous centres, in the direction of pa- 
ralysis. A primary stage of stimulation some- 
times precedes the true narcotic effect, but 
much of what is called stimulation, as for 
instance the noisiness or restlessness of alco- 
hol, is in reality the beginning of narcotism, 
being due to a gradual removal of the restraints 
imposed by the higher faculties, by custom, 
or by timidity, upon the lower impulses. In 
the later stages of narcotism the faculties of 
sensation, of voluntary and reflex motion, are 
abolished, and death may result from paralysis 
of the centres that govern the circulation and 
respiration. Familiar examples of this class of 
drugs are opium, alcohol, and chloroform. The 
symptoms of narcotism manifested by special 
drugs are described under the titles of those 
drugs, and to them the reader is referred. 

NARCOTIffA. See OPIUM. 

NARD. See SPIKENAED. 



146 



NARES 



N ARES. I. James, an English composer, born 
at Stanwell, Middlesex, in 1715, died in 1783. 
He was educated as a chorister at King's chapel, 
London, under Bernard Gates and Dr. Pepusch. 
In 1734 he was appointed organist of York 
cathedral, in 1756 organist and composer to 
George II., and in 1757 master of the choris- 
ters in the chapel royal. The last named office 
he resigned in 1780. He composed several 
anthems and services for the royal chapel, and 
published " Twenty Anthems in Score," which 
is still in constant use in the cathedrals of 
England and Ireland. He also published " The 
Royal Pastoral, a Dramatic Ode," and " A Col- 
lection of Catches, Canons, and Glees." II. 
Robert, an English author, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in 1753, died in 1829. He was 
educated at Oxford, took orders in 1778, and 
became rector of Sharnford, Leicestershire, and 
preacher at Lincoln's Inn. Subsequently he 
was assistant librarian at the British museum, 
became archdeacon of Stafford, and held other 
preferments. He published " Elements of Or- 
thoepy" (1784); "A Connected and Chrono- 
logical View of the Prophecies relating to the 
Christian Church " (1805) ; " The Veracity of 
the Evangelists Demonstrated" (1815); and a 
" Glossary of Words, Phrases, &c., which have 
been thought to require illustration in the works 
of English authors " (4to, 1822 ; new ed., edited 
by J. O. Halliwell and T. Wright, 2 vols. 8vo, 
1859). With Mr. Beloe he founded the " Brit- 
ish Critic," which he edited for four years. 
III. Edward, an English author, cousin of the 
preceding, born in London in 1762, died at 
Biddenden, Kent, Aug. 20, 1841. He was 
educated at Westminster school and at Christ- 
church college, Oxford, and became a fellow 
of Merton college in 1788. He took orders in 
1792, married a daughter of the duke of Marl- 
borough in 1797, and in 1798 became rector of 
Biddenden. He was appointed Bampton lec- 
turer in 1805, and professor of modern history 
at Oxford in 1814. His works are : " On the 
Plurality of Worlds" (1802); "Evidences of 
Christianity" (Bampton lectures, 1805) ; " Re- 
marks on the Version of the New Testament 
lately published by the Unitarians" (1810); 
" Thinks I to Myself," a novel (1811) ; " Dis- 
courses on the Three Creeds" (1819); "Ele- 
ments of General History," a continuation of 
Tytler's work (1822); "Heraldic Anomalies" 
(2 vols., 1824) ; and " Memoirs of the Life and 
Administration of William Cecil, Lord Burgh- 
ley" (3 vols., 1828-'31). 

1VARO, a town of Sicily, in the province and 
12 m. E. of the city of Girgenti, on the river 
Naro ; pop. about 11,000. It is of Saracenic 
origin, and renowned for its picturesque sit- 
uation, and has a feudal castle bearing the 
arms of the Chiaromonte family. It contains 
several churches and other buildings of great 
antiquity, and has an active trade in sulphur, 
wine, and oil. 

NARRAGANSETT BAY, on the S. E. coast of 
Rhode Island, extends from Point Judith on 



NARSES 

the W. to Seconnet on the E., and N. to Bul- 
lock's Point, 6 in. below Providence ; it is 28 
m. long by from 3 to 12 m. wide. It receives 
the Pawtuxet, Providence, Pawtucket, and 
Taunton rivers, and contains a number of isl- 
ands, the principal of which are Rhode island, 
Canonicut, and Prudence. It is easily acces- 
sible, and affords excellent harbors and road- 
steads. Newport, Bristol, Warren, and other 
towns are on its borders. It is well supplied 
with lighthouses, and strongly fortified. 

NARRAGANSETTS, an Algonquin tribe of 
American Indians, who occupied the territory 
now comprised in Rhode Island. They were 
less warlike and more industrious than the 
Pequots. They had 12 towns within a distance 
of 20 m., and were very numerous. In 1621 
their chief Canonicus sent to Plymouth a bun- 
dle of arrows tied with a snake skin, indi- 
cating hostile intentions. Gov. Bradford re- 
turned the skin filled with powder and shot, 
which seemed to have a quieting effect. In 
1636 Roger Williams won the Narragansetts 
to peace, and they made a treaty and cooperated 
with Mason against the Pequots. In 1644 Gor- 
ton induced them to cede their lands to the 
king. They engaged in hostilities in 1645, but 
submitted to a treaty Sept. 5, agreeing to pay 
indemnity to the colonies. In King Philip's 
war they were suspected of aiding their old 
enemies the Pokanokets, and a force of 1,000 
men, with 150 Mohegans and Pequots, captured 
and burned their fortress. Canonchet, their 
chief, then cut off two English parties and 
destroyed many frontier villages, but was at 
last taken by Denison and shot. A large force 
was then sent to crush the tribe. Their chief 
fortress, on an island in a swamp in South 
Kingston, was taken after a stubborn fight, 
and it was estimated that 1,000 men, women, 
and children were killed ; the colonial loss was 
230. This war almost exterminated the Nar- 
ragansetts. The remnant settled at Charles- 
town, R. I., and prospered. In 1822 there 
were 407 on their reserve of 3,000 acres, with 
a missionary, a church, and 50 pupils at school. 
In 1833 they had declined to 158, only 7 being 
of pure Narragansett blood. Their language 
is preserved in Roger Williams's " Key into the 
Language of America," &c. (London, 1643). 

NARSES, a Byzantine general, born about 
A. D. 473, died in Rome about 568. He was a 
eunuch and a slave of Justinian, but rendering 
important services to his master during the 
riots of "the blue" and "the green" in 532, 
he was appointed imperial treasurer, and was 
subsequently sent on several embassies. In 
538 he commanded the reenf or cements sent to 
Belisarius, then waging war against the Goths 
in Italy; but his jealousy of that general, 
whom he is supposed to have had instructions 
from Justinian to thwart, paralyzed the Roman 
arms and led to the capture of Milan by the 
Goths. Narses was recalled shortly after, and 
for the next 12 years his name is hardly men- 
tioned in the Byzantine annals ; but in the im- 



NARUSZEWICZ 



NARVAEZ 



147 



perial councils lie continued to exercise a pre- 
dominant influence. He commanded a second 
expedition against the Goths in Italy in 552, 
and near Rome gained a victory over King 
Totila, who perished with 6,000 of his sol- 
diers. This triumph led to the surrender of 
Rome and several of the strongest fortresses 
in central Italy. A vast barbarian army under 
Teias, the successor of Totila, was soon after- 
ward defeated on the banks of the Sarno, near 
Naples, after a battle of two days, in which 
Teias was slain. The Franks and Alemanni, 
to the number of 75,000, now descended from 
the Alps, and spread themselves over the whole 
peninsula. When they had become demoral- 
ized and weakened by rapine, Narses attacked 
them at Casilinum in Campania, on their return 
northward, with such vigor that out of 30,000 
men only 5,000 are said to have escaped. This 
victory ruined the barbarian power in Italy, 
which once more became a province of the 
empire. Narses was rewarded by the appoint- 
ment of governor of the conquered territory, 
and ruled at Ravenna with the title of exarch 
for about 14 years. After the accession of 
Justin II., being dismissed from office, he in- 
vited the Lombards to invade Italy, probably 
anticipating that he would be restored to pow- 
er in order to repel them. In this he was dis- 
appointed, and he is said to have died of grief 
at the ruin he brought upon the country. 

NARVSZEWICZ, Adam Stanislaw, a Polish histo- 
rian, born in Lithuania in 1733, died at Jano- 
wiec, Galicia, in 1796. He entered the order 
of Jesuits in 1748, travelled through Germany, 
France, and Italy, was appointed professor at 
Warsaw, and became bishop of Smolensk in 
1773, and of Luck in 1790. His " History of 
Poland" (8 vols., Warsaw, 1780 et seq.) gained 
him the surname of the Polish Tacitus. Among 
his other works are a history of the Tartars, 
idyls, satires, and other poems. 

NARVA, a town and port of European Rus- 
sia, in the government and 80 m. S. W. of the 
city of St. Petersburg, on the left bank of the 
Narova ; pop. in 1867, 6,175. It is surrounded 
with a rampart, and has manufactories of nails, 
extensive saw mills, and productive fisheries. 
It was founded in the 13th century, and was 
formerly a member of the Hanseatic league, 
and celebrated for its commerce previous to 
the foundation of St. Petersburg. The inhab- 
itants of Narva proper are nearly all of Ger- 
man descent, while the suburb of Ivangorod 
is almost exclusively inhabited by Russians. 
Near this town Charles XII., on Nov. 30, 1700, 
with an army of 8,500 Swedes, defeated more 
than 50,000 Russians under Peter the Great. 

NARVAEZ, Pamfilo de, a Spanish explorer, 
born in Yalladolid about 1480, perished off 
the southern coast of Louisiana in 1528. He 
came to America apparently as early as 1501, 
served in Santo Domingo, and then passed to 
Cuba, where he stood next in command to 
Velazquez, the governor. Sent to Mexico to 
reduce Cortes, he was defeated, lost an eye, 



and was confined as a prisoner by Cortes 
for five years. He then went to Spain, ob- 
tained a grant of Florida, and sailed with a 
large force in 1527. He landed at Tampa bay, 
April 16, 1528, and marched to Appalache. 
Finding the country poor and thinly peopled 
with fierce tribes, he at last made for the 
coast, built rude boats, and endeavored to 
reach Mexico. Soon after crossing the mouth 
of the Mississippi he was blown out to sea 
in his boat and perished. Most of his force 
sank under hardship or hostilities, but his trea- 
surer Cabeca de Vaca and others made their 
way across the continent, and finally reached 
the Spanish settlement of San Miguel in So- 
nora in May, 1536. His accounts led to the 
exploration of New Mexico and California. 

NARVAEZ, Ramon Maria, duke of Valencia, 
a Spanish statesman, born in Loja, Andalusia, 
Aug. 4, 1800, died in Madrid, April 23, 1868. 
He was early engaged in military operations, 
and was wounded during the capture of Cas- 
telfollit in 1822. In 1823, when the French 
army of intervention entered Spain, he retired 
to Loja, but returned to the army in 1832, and 
in 1834 was wounded in the battle of Mendi- 
gorria. In 1836 he acted under the orders of 
Espartero, and the reputation which he gained 
by defeating the Carlist general Gomez (Nov. 
25, 1836) led to his advancement. In 1838, 
by his rigorous measures against the brigands 
who infested La Mancha, he restored tranquil- 
lity to that province ; and he was appointed 
captain general of Old Castile and general of 
an army of reserve. He had also been elected 
to the cortes from Seville, and on the formation 
in that city of a revolutionary junta by Cor- 
dova, he repaired thither to aid that general 
in his movements against Espartero ; but the 
insurrection was suppressed, and Narvaez was 
compelled to seek refuge in France (1840). 
While thert he continued his machinations 
against Espartero, in conjunction with the 
queen mother Maria Christina ; and in 1843, at 
the head of the Christinos, he landed at Valen- 
cia, defeated Gen. Seoane at Torrejon de Ardoz 
(July 22), and made his entry into Madrid, which 
led to the overthrow of Espartero. In 1844 he 
became prime minister, and was created field 
marshal, count of Canadas Altas, and duke of 
Valencia. Maria Christina was permitted to 
return to Madrid, and the opponents of the 
constitution of 1845 were put down rigorously. 
His arbitrary disposition gave offence to many 
members of his own party, and brought him 
into collision with Maria Christina, and he re- 
signed in February, 1846. After having served 
for a short time as ambassador in Paris, he was 
recalled to power in 1847, but was soon dis- 
missed on account of quarrels with the queen 
mother. On Oct. 21, 1849, he was restored to 
office, and opposed the British government's 
attempt to interfere in Spanish affairs with a 
firmness which led to the withdrawal of the 
British minister (Sir Henry Bulwer) from 
Madrid, and to the temporary interruption of 



148 



NARWHAL 



diplomatic relations between the two govern- 
ments. He resigned Jan. 10, 1851, and became 
ambassador to Vienna. After Espartero's with- 
drawal, July 14, 1856, and O'Donnell's brief 
term of office, Narvaez was again called upon 
to preside over the cabinet, Oct. 12, but with- 
out special office. The concordat of 1851 with 
the holy see, which had been variously modi- 
fied, was restored. The outbreak at Malaga 
on Nov. 16 was put down by force of arms, 
and a general amnesty to the Carlist rebels of 
1855 and 1856 was promulgated, April 8, 1857. 
Narvaez caused stringent laws to be enacted 
against the press, and made various dignita- 
ries of church and state ex officio members of 
the senate. Overthrown in November, 1857, 
he became once more chief of the cabinet in 
September, 1864; and in January, 1865, he pro- 
posed in the cortes the abandonment of Santo 
Domingo, which was adopted after protracted 
discussions. In June of the same year his min- 
istry was overthrown ; but in July, 1866, he 
was again prime minister, and held that post 
till his death. 

NARWHAL, a cetacean mammal, of the genus 
monodon (Linn.), frequenting the arctic seas ; 
its popular name is sea unicorn. It has no 
proper teeth, but in the males, and sometimes 
in the females, there are two tusks arising 
from the intermaxillary bone ; these are true 
incisors, but only one, usually the left, is de- 
veloped, the other remaining rudimentary in 
most cases ; the former is long, pointed, spirally 
twisted and grooved, and directed straight for- 
ward, growing through life from a permanent 
pulp as in the elephant. The tusk, of solid 
ivory and 6 or 8 ft. long, is a most formidable 
weapon when wielded by such an active and 
powerful animal, and is sometimes driven deep- 
ly into the timbers of a ship. According to 
Mulder there are two small teeth in the gum of 
the upper jaw. In the only well ascertained 




Narwhal. 



species (M. monoceros, Linn.) the body may 
attain a length of 15 or 16 ft., and the tusk 
from 6 to 10 additional ; there is no well marked 
separation between the head and body ; the 
forehead rises suddenly, and the blow-hole is 
on the top of the head ; the eyes and mouth 



NASCAPEES 

are small, and the lips unyielding ; the pecto- 
rals are small for the size of the animal; the 
caudal is transverse, bilobed, and about 4 ft. 
wide ; instead of a dorsal fin there is a low 
fatty ridge 2 or 3 ft. long in the middle of the 
back. The prevailing color is dark gray above 
with numerous darker spots, white on the sides 
and below, on the former with grayish spots ; 
some specimens are very light-colored, and the 
young are said to be bluish gray. The food 
consists principally of cephalopod mollusks, 
and, on the authority of Scoresby, of flat and 
other fishes, which it transfixes with its horn ; 
other uses of this weapon are for breaking the 
ice for the purpose of obtaining air, and for 
defence. Narwhals are sometimes seen in bands 
of 10 to 20, sporting about whaling ships, ele- 
vating their tusks above the water, and play- 
ing about the bows and rudder ; they are mi- 
gratory, and their appearance is hailed with 
delight by the Greenlanders, who consider 
them the certain forerunners of the right 
whale ; and this, the result of their experience, 
is probably due to both using the same kind 
of food. They are harpooned for their ivory, 
oil, and flesh ; the last is considered a delicacy 
as food by the Greenlanders. The blubber is 
from 2 to 4 in. thick, and yields a very supe- 
rior oil. The ivory of the tusk is very hard 
and white, and takes a high polish ; it was 
formerly a valuable article of commerce, when 
the origin of the horns was less known ; a 
famous throne of the kings of Denmark is said 
to be made of the ivory of narwhals' tusks. 

NASCAPEES, and Nehiroirini or Montagnais, In- 
dian tribes of Labrador, the most easterly di- 
vision of the great Algonquin nation. The 
Nehiroirini, called Montagnais by the French 
Canadians, now occupy the territory from the 
Saguenay to the straits of Belle Isle ; but when 
the French first settled Quebec they held the 
valley of the St. Lawrence from above that 
point. They were always friendly to the set- 
tlers, but were driven back by the Iroquois and 
the want of game to their present location, the 
Esquimaux retiring before them. The Catho- 
lic missions among them established in Cham- 
plain's time are still maintained; but they 
are hunters, and cannot be made cultivators. 
The caribou is their chief game. They dress 
well in skins or purchased clothing, but live 
in wretched cabins of poles covered with bark 
and branches, often pitched on the snow or 
damp grounds. La Brosse, the last of the old 
Jesuit missionaries, taught them generally tb 
read and write, and this knowledge is still 
maintained by family instruction. They num- 
bered in 1872 about 1,700 in various bands at 
Point Bleu, Chicoutimi, Moisie, the Seven Isl- 
ands, Cascapediac, and River Godbout. The 
Nascapees or Naskapis (i. e., people standing 
upright) occupy the table land in the interior 
from Lake Mistassini to the Atlantic. They 
are shorter and lighter than the Montagnais, 
with clear-cut features and large eyes. Their 
language is so near the Montagnais that they 



NASEBY 



NASH 



149 



talk with each other without difficulty. They 
are slovenly in their persons and careless, often 
in want, and driven even to acts of cannibal- 
ism. Missions have benefited some bands only. 
They telegraph by fires on high places, and 
mark their routes by poles with bark pendents. 
They believe in a great spirit and in Atshem, 
a spirit of evil. The government returns of 
1870 put their number at 2,860. These two 
tribes have been styled by Gallatin and others 
Sheshapootosh and Scoffies, names unknown 
in Canada and derived only from an ignorant 
Micmac boy. Grammars and dictionaries of 
the Montagnais by missionaries at various dates 
exist in manuscript, but only devotional works 
have been printed in the language. 

NASEBY, a village of Northamptonshire, Eng- 
land, 12 m. N. N. W. of Northampton, where 
was fought a decisive battle between Charles 
I. and the parliamentary forces under Fairfax, 
June 14, 1645. After the capture of Leicester 
by the royal army, Fairfax, who was besieging 
Oxford, marched into Northamptonshire. The 
two armies, about equal in number, confronted 
each other on the morning of June 14, the 
parliamentarians occupying a strong position 
near Naseby, and the king's troops being drawn 
up one mile south of Harborough. The royal 
centre was commanded by the king in person, 
the right wing by Prince Eupert, and the left 
by Sir Marmaduke Langdale. Fairfax, sup- 
ported by Skippon, commanded the centre of 
his army, with Cromwell on his right wing and 
Ireton on his left. The royalists made the at- 
tack, and Rupert with his cavaliers charged with 
such fury upon Ireton that his wing was broken 
and put to flight. Instead of supporting his 
royal kinsman, Rupert detached himself from 
the main battle to pursue the fugitives. The 
royal centre maintained an obstinate contest 
till Cromwell, having routed the forces of Sir 
Marmaduke Langdale, fell suddenly upon its 
rear, when, unsupported by either of its wings, 
it almost immediately surrendered. One regi- 
ment alone held out for the king, but was 
finally broken by repeated charges. At this 
moment Rupert returned from his needless 

Pursuit of Ireton's troops, with his men and 
orses exhausted and the time for effective aid 
gone by. The king saved himself only by a 
precipitate flight. The royalists lost 800 killed 
and 4,500 prisoners, besides their artillery and 
ammunition; the parliamentarians had 1,000 
killed. A number of private letters between 
Charles and his queen, subsequently published 
under the title of "The King's Cabinet Open- 
ed," also fell into the hands of the victors. 

NASH, a N. E. county of North Carolina, 
bounded S. W. by Contentny creek and N. by 
Swift creek, and intersected by Tar river ; area, 
640 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,077, of whom 
4,721 were colored. The surface is uneven. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 8,046 bush- 
els of wheat, 152,506 of Indian corn, 14,356 
of oats, 24,907 of sweet potatoes, and 3,697 
bales of cotton. There were 845 horses, 444 



mules and asses, 1,443 milch cows, 911 work- 
ing oxen, 2,073 other cattle, 2,619 sheep, and 
10,697 swine. Capital, Nashville. 

NASH, Joseph, an English water-color painter, 
born about 1813. He is chiefly distinguished 
as a painter of architecture, and his "Archi- 
tecture of the Middle Ages" (fol., 1838), and 
"Mansions of England in the Olden Time" 
(4 vols. fol., 1839-'49), lithographed in colors 
from his drawings, are among his works which 
have been published. He has painted histori- 
cal scenes from Shakespeare and Scott, and 
miscellaneous subjects, such as " The Queen's 
Visit to Lincoln's Inn Hall" (1846), "Charles 
V, visiting Francis I." (1865), "The Chapel of 
Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey " 
(1866), and " Louis Philippe's Bedroom at 
Claremont " (1867). 

NASH, Richard, known as Beau Nash, born in 
Swansea, Glamorganshire, Oct. 18, 1674, died 
in Bath, Feb. 3, 1761. After a preliminary 
education at Carmarthen school, he was en- 
tered at Jesus college, Oxford, where he dis- 
played some ability, but was chiefly distin- 
guished by dissipation. To preserve him from 
an imprudent marriage, he was at 17 years of 
age removed from the university, and his father 
purchased for him a commission in the army ; 
but wearying of the monotony of barrack life, 
he entered himself a student of law in the 
Middle Temple. Instead of studying, however, 
he devoted himself to pleasure, and with re- 
sources supplied from the gaming table he be- 
came a leader of fashion and a man about town. 
On the occasion of an entertaiment given by 
the members of the Middle Temple to William 
III., he conducted the pageant with so much 
tact and address that the king offered to knight 
him ; but Nash, sensible of his uncertain means 
of support, declined the honor. In 1704 he 
visited Bath, then just rising into importance 
as a watering place, and the citizens appointed 
him master of ceremonies. He succeeded in a 
short time in securing for the place the repu- 
tation of an agreeable resort for valetudinarians 
as well as mere seekers of pleasure. Decency 
of dress and civility of manners were enforced 
in the public resorts, an elegant assembly room 
was built, streets and buildings were improved, 
and in process of time a handsome city was 
established in place of what had been only a 
dull provincial town. Nash himself shared in 
the prosperity which he had promoted, and, 
from his influence and the deference in which 
he was held by citizens as well as visitors, was 
styled the " king of Bath." Supporting himself 
still by the gaming table, he lived in great style, 
travelling in a coach and six with outriders, 
and dispensing charities with reckless profu- 
sion. Toward the close of his life his glory 
waned, and after the act of parliament against 
gambling he lived in comparative indigence. 
He was honored by a public funeral, and a 
marble statue of him was placed in the pump 
room of the king's bath. Nash was ungainly 
in person, with coarse and ugly features, and 



150 



NASH 



dressed in a tawdry style. A life of him by 
Goldsmith was published anonymously in 1762. 

NASH, Thomas, an English dramatist, born in 
Lowestoft, Suffolk, about 1560, died in London 
in 1600 or 1601. He took the degree of B. A. 
at Cambridge in 1584, and in 1589 fixed his 
abode in London. The prelatists and Puritans 
being then engaged in a war of vituperation, 
Nash espoused the cause of the former, and 
wrote a series of pamphlets including "Pap 
with a Hatchet," "An Almond for a Par- 
rot," "A Countercuffe to Martin Junior," and 
"Martin's Month's Minde." He aided Mar- 
lowe in writing "Dido, Queen of Carthage," 
and produced a spectacle styled "Summer's 
Last Will and Testament," which was exhib- 
ited before Queen Elizabeth in 1592. Nash's 
plays were ill received, and he became very 
poor. He described his forlorn condition in 
his " Pierce Penniless, his Supplication to the 
Divell," which appeared in 1592. He then 
resumed pamphleteering, and assailed Dr. Ga- 
briel Harvey, who made a stout defence ; and 
finally the archbishop of Canterbury ordered 
the publications of both to be seized. In 1597" 
Nash produced a satirical play called "The 
Isle of Dogs," the representation of which led 
to his confinement in the Fleet prison. 

NASHUA, a city and one of the shire towns of 
Hillsborough co., New Hampshire, at the junc- 
tion of the Merrimack and Nashua rivers, 35 
m. S. of Concord, and 40 m. N. N. W. of Bos- 
ton; pop. in 1870, 10,543. The streets are 
broad, well lighted, and lined with trees, and 
many of the churches and residences are hand- 
some. Its prosperity depends upon its railroad 
facilities and its manufactures. The railroads 
meeting here are the Boston, Lowell, and 
Nashua; the Concord; the Nashua, Acton, 
and Boston; the Worcester and Nashua; the 
Wilton; and the Nashua and Rochester. Water 
power is obtained from the Mine falls in the 
Nashua river, from which a canal has been cut, 
3 m. long, 60 ft. wide, and 8 ft. deep, with a 
head and fall of 36 ft. The Jackson company, 
with 766 looms and 22,000 spindles, produces 
sheetings and shirtings ; the Nashua manufac- 
turing company, with 1,800 looms and 75,000 
spindles, manufactures sheetings, shirtings, 
prints, and flannels ; and the Vale Mills manu- 
facturing company, with 4,684 spindles, pro- 
duces shirtings. There are also extensive iron 
works, with the largest steam hammer in the 
United States, soapstone works, and manufac- 
tories of bedsteads, carpets, bobbins, spools, 
and shuttles, cards and glazed paper, edge tools, 
locks, shoes, marble-working tools and imple- 
ments, sash, doors, and blinds, &c. The city 
has two national banks and three savings banks. 
There are a high school and several grammar, 
middle, and primary schools, with an average 
attendance of 1,790; a city library, with about 
6,000 volumes; two daily and two weekly 
newspapers ; and 11 churches, viz. : 1 Baptist, 
3 Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 2 Methodist, 2 
Roman Catholic, 1 Unitarian, and 1 Universal- 



NASHVILLE 

ist. Nashua owes its origin to the organiza- 
tion of the Nashua manufacturing company in 
1823. It was incorporated as a city in 1853. 

NASHVILLE, a port of delivery and the capi- 
tal of Tennessee, seat of justice of Davidson 
co., the second city of the state in point of 
population, situated on the S. bank of the 
Cumberland river, 200 m. above its junction 
with the Ohio, a little N. of the centre of the 
state, and 240 m. S. S. W. of Cincinnati ; lat. 
36 10' N., Ion. 86 49' W. ; pop. in 1830, 
5,566; in 1840, 6,929; in 1850, 10,165; in 
1860, 16,988; in 1870, 25,865, of whom 9,709 
were colored and 2,809 foreigners. The river 
bluffs are here rocky, and rise 70 or 80 ft. 
above low-water mark. The land on which 
the city is built is irregular, rising in gradual 
slopes, with the exception of Capitol hill, 
which is more abrupt. This eminence is sym- 
metrical, resembling an Indian mound, and 
overlooks the entire city. Nashville is regu- 
larly laid out, with streets crossing each other 
at right angles, but mostly rather narrow. It 
is generally well built, and there are numerous 
imposing public and private buildings. One 
of the finest of the former is the capitol, situ- 
ated on Capitol hill, and constructed inside and 
out of a beautiful variety of fossiliferous lime- 
stone. It is three stories high including the 
basement. At each end there is an Ionic por- 
tico of eight columns, each 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter 
and 33 ft. 5 in. high, and each of the sides has 
also a portico of six columns. A tower rises 
above the centre of the roof to the height of 
206 ft. from the ground. It has a quadrangu- 
lar rusticated base, 42 ft. high, surmounted by 
a circular cell 37 ft. high and 26 ft. 8 in. in 
diameter, with eight fluted Corinthian col- 
umns, designed from the choragic monument of 
Lysicrates at Athens. The dimensions of the 
whole building are 239 by 138 ft., and it cost 
nearly $1,000.000. It is approached by four 
avenues which rise from terrace to terrace by 
broad marble steps. The edifice is considered 
one of the handsomest public buildings in the 
country. The court house is a large building 
on the public square, with an eight-columned 
Corinthian portico at each end, and a four-col- 
umned portico at each side. The market house, 
also on the public square, is a fine building. 
The county jail is a substantial structure of 
stone. The state penitentiary buildings, also 
of stone, occupy three sides of a hollow square 
enclosed by a massive stone wall, within which 
are numerous workshops. The Hermitage, the 
celebrated residence of Andrew Jackson, is 12 
m. E. of Nashville. The city has several lines 
of street railway. It is lighted with gas, and 
is supplied with water by expensive works, 
which raise it from the river to four reservoirs. 
The Cumberland is navigable below this point 
for about nine months in the year, and to Car- 
thage, 100 m. above, for about the same .time, 
and for four months to Point Burnside, 260 m. 
above Carthage, tapping the great Appalachian 
coal field. At Nashville it is crossed by an 



NASHVILLE 



151 




Nashville. 



iron railroad bridge, with an immense draw of 
280 ft., and two stationary spans, each of 200 
ft., and also by a wire suspension bridge. Rail- 
road communication with Louisville, St. Louis, 
Memphis, Chattanooga, Montgomery, and other 
points is furnished by the Louisville, Nashville, 
and Great Southern, the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga, and St. Louis, the St. Louis and South- 
eastern, and the Tennessee and Pacific lines. 
These railroads and the river enable the city 
to command the trade of an extensive and 
productive region. Its business is rapidly in- 
creasing. The value of its wholesale trade in 
1873 was as follows: 



BRANCHES. 


Value. 


BRANCHES. 


Value. 

$2.000,000 
1,043,250 

750.000 
500,000 
300,000 

250,000 
200,000 

2,500,000 
1,069,000 
110.000 
400,000 
500,000 

800,000 


Cotton 


$4,250.000 
416.320 
1,300,000! 
4,000,000' 
7,000.000; 
2,000,000 i 
300,000, 
1,500,000! 
10,000,000 

1,300,000 
1.000,000 
1,200,000 
5,000,000! 
688,000! 
175,000' 
210,000 
200,000 

200,000 


Cigars and tobacco 
Live stock . . 


Leaf tobacco 
Provisions 
Dry goods 
Liquors 
Boots and shoos. . . 
Hats 
Hardware 
Groceries 
Notions and white 
goods 


i Stoves and tin- 


Furniture . ... 


Paper 
Coach and saddle- 
ry hardware 
Saddlery and har- 
ness trade 
Other manufac- 


Drugs 


Clothing 




Flour and wheat.. 
Corn and oats 
Salt 
Leather 


Millinery 


Coal 


Books and station- 


Hides 




China, glass, and 
queensware 




Total $51,261,570 



Nashville has one large cotton factory, oper- 
ating in 1875 400 looms and 13,840 spindles, 
and employing 325 hands; in 1874 it produced 
2,628,907 yards, chiefly sheetings. There are 
seven saw mills, five flour mills, eight planing 



mills and sash and blind factories, two cotton- 
seed oil mills, two tanneries, two manufactories 
of chairs, four of furniture, three of wagons, 
four of carriages, one of cedar ware, one of fer- 
tilizers, several of mattresses, saddletrees and 
trunks, brooms, shoes, and clothing, six found- 
eries, six machine shops, two brass founderies, 
a brewery, distilleries, and paper mills. There 
are four national banks, with an aggregate 
capital of $900,000, a savings bank, and three 
fire and three life insurance companies. The 
city is divided into 10 wards, and is governed 
by a mayor and a board of aldermen of one 
member and a common council of two mem- 
bers from each ward. There is an efficient 
police force and a well organized fire depart- 
ment. The receipts into the city treasury, for 
the year ending Oct. 1, 1874, were $456,535 80 ; 
disbursements, $461,599 11 ; city debt, $1,630,- 
506 22; assessed value of property, $13,355,281, 
embracing about two thirds of the property of 
the city. The principal charitable and reform- 
atory institutions are the state institution for 
the blind, several hospitals, two orphan asy- 
lums near the city, the city workhouse, and 
a house of industry for females. About 6 
m. from the city is the county poorhouse, and 
about the same distance the state hospital 
for the insane. Nashville is the seat of sev- 
eral important educational institutions. The 
university of Nashville was incorporated in 
1785 under the name of Davidson academy, 
and in 1806 as Cumberland college ; it received 
its present title in 1826. The literary depart- 
ment was united in 1855 with the " Western 
Military Institute," and was conducted on the 
military plan until the breaking out of the 
civil war. After its close the Montgomery 



152 



NASHVILLE 



Bell academy, an endowed institution, was 
united with it. The main building is a hand- 
some Gothic edifice of stone. In 1873-'4 there 
were 9 instructors, 179 preparatory and 44 col- 
legiate students, and a library of 11,000 vol- 
umes. The medical department, opened in 
1850, also occupies a fine building; it has an 
extensive museum, and the charge of a miner- 
alogical cabinet of 20,000 specimens collected 
by Dr. Gerard Troost. The number of instruc- 
tors in 1873-'4 was 10 ; of students, 235. The 
funds and property of the university amount 
to $300,000. Fisk university was established 
in 1866 by several northern gentlemen for the 
colored youth of the state. The course em- 
braces the common and preparatory branch- 
es as well as those of collegiate grade. The 
number of instructors in 1873-'4 was 13 ; of 
students, 424. The Tennessee Central college 
(Methodist), also for colored people, was es- 
tablished in 1866, and in 1873-'4 had 8 pro- 
fessors and 28 students ; it embraces academic, 
normal, preparatory, collegiate, and theologi- 
cal departments. The Tennessee college of 
pharmacy, organized in 1872, in 1873-'4 had 

5 professors and 20 students. The buildings 
of Vanderbilt university, named in honor of 
Cornelius Vanderbilt of New York, -who gave 
$500,000 for its establishment, are in course 
of erection. It is under the control of the 
Methodist Episcopal church, South, and is in- 
tended to comprise theological, law, medical, 
and literary and scientific departments. Oth- 
er educational institutions are a young ladies' 
seminary, a select school, and the following 
under the control of the Koman Catholics: 
St. Cecilia's academy for young ladies, St. Ber- 
nard's academy, and a parochial school. The 
public schools are graded, embracing a high 
school department, and are in a flourishing 
condition. The number of children between 

6 and 18 years of age in 1873-'4 was 8,877; 
number enrolled in public schools, 3,656 (2,820 
white and 836 colored); average attendance, 
2,520 ; number of teachers, 70 ; total expendi- 
tures for school purposes, $75,170 53, of which 
$11,000 was for permanent improvements, and 
$48,180 25 for teachers' salaries; number of 
school houses, 6 (4 for white and 2 for colored 
children) ; number of sittings, 3,345 ; value of 
school property, $141,000. The state library 
in the capitol has 20,000, volumes and 5,000 
pamphlets, and the city library 6,000 volumes. 
There are two daily, two tri-weekly, and eleven 
weekly newspapers, and nine monthly and two 
quarterly periodicals. There are 34 churches, 
viz. : 6 Baptist (3 colored), 3 Christian (1 col- 
ored), 1 Cumberland Presbyterian, 3 Episcopal, 
1 German Lutheran, 2 Jewish, 5 Methodist 
Episcopal (1 German), 7 Methodist Episcopal, 
South, 4 Presbyterian, and 2 Eoman Catho- 
lic- The first permanent settlement at Nash- 
ville was made in 1779-'80, and the town was 
incorporated in 1784, and received a city char- 
ter in 1806. The state legislature met here 
from 1812 to 1815 inclusive, when it was trans- 



ferred to Murfreesbpro ; but since 1826 it has 
sat at Nashville, which was made the perma- 
nent capital of the state by a legislative act 
of 1843. In July, 1850, a convention of dele- 
gates from several of the southern states was 
held in Nashville, at which secession was open- 
ly urged. In February, 1862, the city was the 
headquarters of the confederate general A. 
S. Johnston, while he was awaiting the re- 
sult of Grant's operations against Fort Donel- 
son. When tidings came that the fort had 
been captured the legislature was in session ; it 
was immediately adjourned by the governor 
to meet at Memphis. It was Sunday; the 
churches were deserted, and the streets were 
piled up with property for removal. John- 
ston hastily abandoned the city, which was 
given over to the mob, and a scene of gene- 
ral plunder ensued. The Union forces moved 
upon Nashville, which was entered without 
opposition by a detachment under Gen. Buell, 
Feb. 26, Grant arriving the next day. An- 
drew Johnson was appointed military gover- 
nor of Tennessee, March 5, and reached Nash- 
ville on the 12th. The common council re- 
fused to take the oath of allegiance, and were 
removed ; the mayor was placed under arrest, 
and the press put under military supervision. 
During the ensuing summer several unsuccess- 
ful attempts were made by the confederates to 
regain possession of the city. In November, 
1864, Gen. Thomas being in command of the 
Union army of Tennessee, Gen. Hood, who 
had succeeded Gen. J. E. Johnston and lost 
Atlanta, commenced an invasion of that state. 
Gen. Schofield, with a large Union division, 
fell back. He was overtaken at Franklin, 18 
m. S. of Nashville, and a severe action en- 
sued, Nov. 30. The confederates assaulted the 
Union intrenchments and were repulsed, los- 
ing 4,500 men according to Hood's account, or 
about 6,000 according to Schofield's estimate. 
Schofield then joined Thomas at Nashville, 
which was strongly fortified. Hood followed, 
and early in December intrenched himself in 
front of the Union lines. On the 15th Thomas 
made an attack in force and drove the enemy 
from their works. During the night Hood 
took up another position, where he was at- 
tacked by Thomas in the afternoon of the 
16th. The confederates were driven off in 
almost total rout; but night coming on, the 
pursuit was suspended. It was resumed on 
the next day, mainly by cavalry. Hood main- 
tained a strong rear guard, and succeeded, after 
several sharp skirmishes, in reaching the Ten- 
nessee river, which he crossed on the 27th. 
No trustworthy reports have ever been made 
of the losses in these actions. Thomas puts 
his loss in killed, wounded, and missing du- 
ring the entire campaign at about 10,000. He 
states that he took 13,189 prisoners; the 
confederates lost several thousands by deser- 
tion ; and their entire loss was probably nearly 
25,000, besides 72 guns and a large number of 
small arms. For all practical purposes their 



NASMYTH 



NASSAU 



153 



army was entirely broken up, and Hood was 
removed from command Jan. 23, 1865. 

NASMYTH, James, a British inventor, born in 
Edinburgh, Aug. 19, 1808. He studied in the 
school of arts and at the university of Edin- 
burgh, and was employed in London previous 
to settling in Manchester in 1834, when he 
founded an extensive establishment for the 
manufacture of machinery, from which he re- 
tired in 1856. He invented the steam ham- 
mer, the steam pile driver, and a new and effec- 
tive kind of ordnance, and constructed pow- 
erful telescopes for investigating the moon. 
In conjunction with James Carpenter, he pub- 
lished " The Moon considered as a Planet, a 
World, and a Satellite " (2d ed., 1874). 

NASO, a town of Sicily, in the province and 
40 m. W. S. W. of the city of Messina ; pop. 
about 8,000. It is celebrated for its pictu- 
resque situation and its mediaeval appearance. 
It contains fine buildings, and the trade is ac- 
tive. In the vicinity are ferruginous springs. 
Some authorities identify Naso with the an- 
cient Agathyrnum or Agathyrna, but the site 
of the latter town is also assigned to another 
locality, and is altogether doubtful. 

NASR-ED-DIN, shah of Persia, born in 1829. 
He succeeded to the throne on the death of 
his father, Muhammad, Sept. 10, 1848. The 
principal events of his reign are his successful 
contests with some of the neighboring tribes ; 
his defeat in the war with England (1856-'7); 
a famine which broke out in 1871, and desola- 
ted a large portion of the country; and his 
visit in 1873 to European courts, the Russian 
and British cabinets both attempting to secure 
his good will. While in England he made 
concessions to Reuter for establishing railways 
and canals and working mines in Persia ; but 
differences arose between the contracting par- 
ties, and nothing has yet been effected (1875). 
The shah wrote a curious diary of his Euro- 
pean tour, which was translated verbatim into 
English by J. W. Redhouse (London, 1874). 

NASSAU, formerly a German duchy, bounded 
by the Prussian provinces of the Rhine and 
Westphalia, by Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Cassel, 
Hesse-Homburg, and Frankfort; area, 1,808 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1866, 468,311. It now forms 
the S. W. part of the Prussian province of 
Hesse-Nassau, including the beautiful valley of 
the Lahn, between the Taunus range in the 
southeast and the Westerwald in the north- 
west; the towns of Wiesbaden (the former 
capital), Diez, Dillenburg, and Herborn; the 
watering places Ems, Selters, and Schwalbach ; 
and the renowned vineyards of Johannisberg, 
Hochheim, Rtidesheim, and Asmannshausen. 
In Germanic antiquity Nassau was inhabited 
by various tribes of Alemanni. After their in- 
corporation with the Prankish empire various 
families rose into prominence, among which 
was that of Laurenburg or Lurenburg. Wai- 
ram I. (died in 1020) was by his two sons, 
Walram II. and Otho, the founder of two lines, 
the older of which subsequently assumed the 



title of counts of Nassau, after a small rural 
settlement of that name, which is mentioned 
in a public record as early as A. D. 794. The 
younger son became by marriage with the 
heiress of Gelderland the founder of the Guel- 
drian line, and from the latter are descended 
the Dutch princes of Orange, hence called of 
Nassau- Orange. Walram IV., of the elder line, 
was the father of Adolphus of Nassau, who 
was king of Germany from 1292 to 1298. The 
grandsons of the latter, Adolphus II. and John 
I., and their successors divided their inheri- 
tances into several branches, which were even- 
tually reunited by Louis II., who died in 1625. 
His sons again divided the house of Nassau 
into several branches, of which that of Nas- 
sau- Weilburg was the more immediate source 
of the German line of dukes, who acquired 
their new dignity by joining the confederation 
of the Rhine (1806). After the fall of Napo- 
leon, the German possessions of the Nassau- 
Orange line were acquired by the dukes of 
Nassau in exchange for territory ceded by 
them to Prussia. They also acquired at that 
time the hereditary right to the succession of 
Luxemburg, which however they sold to Hol- 
land in 1839 for about $350,000. In the war 
of 1866, Nassau sided with Austria, was occu- 
pied by Prussian troops in July, and by the de- 
cree of Sept. 20, 1866, was annexed to Prussia. 
The last duke, Adolphus (born July 24, 1817), 
succeeded his father in 1839, and after his dis- 
possession took up his residence in Frankfort, 
where he still resides (1875). 

NASSAU, the N. E. county of Florida, border- 
ing on the Atlantic, separated from Georgia 
on the N. and N. W. by St. Mary's river, and 
bounded S. by the Nassau river ; area, 610 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,247, of whom 1,970 were 
colored. It has a level surface and sandy soil. 
Amelia island, included in the county, occupies 
the whole of the coast. The county is trav- 
ersed by the Florida railroad. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 24,058 bushels of In- 
dian corn, 17,614 of sweet potatoes, 1,900 
Ibs. of rice, 984 of wool, and 4,198 gallons of 
molasses. There were 8,133 cattle, 777 sheep, 
and 3,447 swine. Capital, Fernandina. 

NASSAU, an island in the Pacific ocean, in 
lat. 11 30' S., Ion. 165 30' W., discovered by 
Capt. Sampson, of the American whaler whose 
name it bears, in 1835. It is low and ap- 
parently uninhabited, but wood and water are 
plentiful. It is supposed to be identical with 
Danger island, which an English whale ship 
so called reported in 1848 to be in lat. 11 35' 
S., and Ion. 166 45' W. 

NASSAU, a city, capital of the island of New 
Providence, of the Bahama group, in lat. 25 
5' N., Ion. 71 21 ; W. ; pop. about 9,000. The 
town is well laid out, has a library and museum, 
and its salubrious climate makes it a winter re- 
sort for invalids. In 1872 the entrances were 
43 steamers of 57,910 tons, and 196 sailing 
vessels of 20,104 tons; clearances, 43 steam- 
ers of 57,910 tons, and 186 sailing vessels of 



154 



NASSAU ISLANDS 



18,950 tons; imports, $911,582; exports, $1,- 
446,456, including cotton $915,297, pineapples 
$252,332, and sponge $91,953. A falling off of 
$558,567 from the imports of 1871 is due to a 
decrease in the number of wrecks. The increase 
in exports over 1871 was $456,627. Wrecking, 
formerly extensively followed, is now much less 
profitable, and more attention is paid to agri- 
culture. The French and Spaniards destroyed 
Nassau in 1703. It was rebuilt in 1718, fortified 
in 1740, and declared a free port in 1787. It 
was made a bishopric of the church of Eng- 
land in 1861. During the American civil war 
Nassau was a resort for blockade runners. 

NASSAU (or Foggy) ISLANDS, two islands off the 
W. coast of Sumatra; pop. about 1,000. The 
northern island is situated between lat. 2 32' 
and 2 52' S., and the southern between 2 50' 
and 3 20' S. ; they are separated by a narrow 
strait, and both are included between Ion. 99 
37' and 100 41' E. They consist of high steep 
hills, covered with timber of very large size, 
and well suited for masts and spars. Cocoa- 
nuts abound, and pepper is cultivated. The 
sago tree constitutes the chief article of food. 
The natives are divided into small tribes, each 
tribe living in one village. 

NASSAU HALL. See PRINCETON. 

NASS1CK, or Nashik, a town of British India, 
in the province and about 100 m. N. E. of the 
city of Bombay, capital of a collectorate of the 
same name (pop. in 1872, 672,791), on the Go- 
davery river and the Great India Peninsula 
railway; pop. about 25,000. It is celebrated 
for its Brahmanical temples and Buddhist ex- 
cavations. Its proximity to the sources of the | 
Godavery, and the legendary associations of the 
place, render it extremely sacred in the estima- 
tion of the Hindoos, who come as pilgrims to 
Nassick in large numbers. Their wealthy and 
numerous black basalt temples line both banks 
of the river. In the vicinity of the town, 
about 5 m. distant, are the Buddhist rock caves, 
which are believed to have been excavated in 
the 2d or 3d century of our era. There are 
more than 13 apartments, one of which is 45 
ft. square, profusely ornamented with sculptures 
and colossal stone figures. 

NAST, Thomas, an American artist, born in 
Landau, Bavaria, Sept. 27, 1840. He came 
to the United States in 1846, and at the age 
of 14 found employment as a draughtsman on 
"Frank Leslie's Illustrated Paper." In 1860 
he went to England to illustrate the Heenan 
and Sayers prize fight, his sketches appearing 
in the " New York Illustrated News." Imme- 
diately afterward he went to Italy to follow 
Garibaldi, entered Naples with him, was pres- 
ent at the sieges of Capua and Gaeta, and exe- 
cuted sketches of the war for the " New York 
Illustrated News," the "Illustrated London 
News," and Le Monde Illustre of Paris. Re- 
turning to New York, he began in July, 1862, 
a series of war and political sketches in " Har- 
per's Weekly," and since then has been one 
of the principal artists on that journal. In 



NASTURTIUM 

1866 he executed for the Bal d? Opera in 
New York 60 caricatures of prominent poli- 
ticians, editors, artists, and actors. Some of 
these pictures measured 3 ft. by 4, others 4 
ft. by 6, and all of them were painted in wa- 
ter colors in 30 days. In 1873 he appeared 
as a public lecturer in leading cities through- 
out the United States, illustrating his lectures 
by caricatures drawn on the stage. Among 
some of his best known sketches in "Har- 
per's Weekly" are "Santa Glaus in Camp " and 
" Christmas Eve " (1863) ; " New Year's Day 
North and South" (1864); "President Lin- 
coln entering Richmond" (1865); and an ex- 
tended series of political pictures. He illustra- 
ted " The Tribute Book " and Nasby's " Swing- 
ing round the Cerkle;" contributes a cartoon 
and other illustrations every month to the 
"Phunny Phellow;" and has issued annually 
since 1872 "Nast's Illustrated Almanac." 

NASTURTIUM, the generic name of a plant 
of the crucifercB or mustard family, and the 
common name of the widely different genus 
tropceolum. The genus nasturtium (Lat. nasus 
tortus, a tortured nose, some of the plants be- 
ing exceedingly pungent) includes among other 
plants the well known water cress and horse 
radish, both of which are described under their 
proper titles. The old herbalists, who classi- 
fied plants by their sensible properties rather 
than by their structure, finding the species of 
tropoBolum to possess a pungency similar to 
that of the cruciferous plants, included them 
under nasturtium, a name which in this or 
its altered form of sturtion they have retained, 
in spite of the fact that the books give Indian 
cress as their suitable common name. In the 
most recent revision of genera tropceolum (Gr. 
rp6Traiov, a trophy, the leaves of some resem- 
bling a shield, and the flowers a helmet) is 
placed in the geraniacece ; it includes tender 
South American herbs, most of which climb 
by means of their long leaf stalks, and have a 
pungent watery juice with the taste and odor 
of cress. There are about 35 species, most 
of which are in cultivation, besides numerous 
garden varieties. Some are treated as garden 
annuals, others as greenhouse plants ; a num- 
ber of the species produce tubers. The flow- 
ers consist of five sepals, united at the base 
and extended at the upper side of the flower 
into a long spur ; petals five or fewer, usually 
with claws, the upper two somewhat different 
from the others and inserted at the mouth of 
the spur ; stamens eight, unequal ; ovary three- 
lobed with a single style, and in fruit forming 
three fleshy separate carpels. The common 
garden nasturtium (T. majus) is one of the 
most generally cultivated annuals ; the stem 
climbs 6 or 8 ft., and is often planted near 
fences, or provided with brush, which it soon 
covers with its peltate foliage ; the flowers vary 
from yellow to orange, scarlet, and crimson; 
the three lower petals have longer claws than 
the others, and are fringed at the base. There 
is a double variety, and dwarf forms which do 



NASTURTIUM 



NATAL 



155 



not climb. The unexpanded flower buds, and 
the young fruit while still tender, are pickled 
in vinegar ; and the French, who call the plant 
capucine, use the gay-colored flowers to or- 
nament salads. The dwarf varieties of this 
form bushy rounded tufts about a foot high, 




Dwarf Nasturtium (Tropseolum minus). 

and are used for bedding ; some of the named 
varieties have flowers of exceedingly rich col- 
ors. The smaller nasturtium {T. minus) has 
smaller flowers, with petals pointed at the tip, 
and smaller seeds ; but it is so mixed up with 
the dwarf forms of the preceding that the true 
species is rarely met with. The canary-bird 
flower (T. peregrinum) is one of the most in- 
teresting of garden climbers, and very unlike 
the others ; it climbs high and spreads rapidly ; 
its leaves are five- to seven-lobed, and its small 
flowers have the two upper petals cut-lobed, 




Canary-Bird Flower (Tropseolum peregrinum). 

the lower ones fringed, and the spur curiously 
curved; when partly expanded the flowers may 
be fancied to resemble a little bird, an appear- 
ance which is aided by the lively canary-yellow 
color of the petals. It is an easily cultivated 
annual, which like the others is more produc- 



tive of flowers in rather poor than in rich soils. 
The tuberous nasturtium (T. tulerosum) has red 
and yellow tubers the size of a small pear, five- 
lobed leaves, short orange-colored petals, and 
an orange-red calyx with a heavy spur. This 
is the ysano of the Peruvians, with whom it is 
held in high esteem as an article of food ; and 
it has been introduced into Europe and this 
country as a garden vegetable, but has met 
with little favor. In South America the tuber 
is first boiled and afterward frozen, and is eat- 
en in the frozen state. The tubers are pre- 
served and propagated in the same manner as 
potatoes. Lobb's nasturtium (T. Lolbianum) 
is a favorite greenhouse climber, but it does 
not flourish so well in the open air as the com- 
mon species, which it much resembles ; it has 
smaller and slightly hairy leaves, and much 
fringed flowers, which in the many named 
varieties present a great diversity of color. 
Among the tuberous-rooted greenhouse spe- 
cies are T. tricolorum, with scarlet and black 
flowers ; T. azureum, blue and white ; and T. 
Jarattii, carmine and yellow. They are sum- 
mer-flowering, and remarkable for the exceed- 
ing delicacy of their stems, which near the 
tuber are scarcely larger than a thread ; they 
are trained upon low trellises, while T. penta- 
phyllum, also tuberous, can be trained to pil- 
lars and rafters. All the tropeeolums are raised 
from seed, which in some is very slow in ger- 
minating, and those with fleshy stems grow 
readily from cuttings. 

NATAL, a British colony in S. E. Africa, N. 
E. of Cape Colony, from which it is separated 
by Caffraria along the coast. It lies between 
lat. 27 30' and 31 30' S., and Ion. 28 30' and 
32 E., and is bounded N. E. by the Buffalo 
and Great Tugela rivers, beyond which is the 
Zooloo country, S. E. by the Indian ocean, S. 
and S. W. by Caffraria, and W. and N. W. by the 
Drakenberg range, with the Orange River Free 
State on the opposite slope ; length about 250 
m., breadth between the sea and the mountains 
150 m. ; coast line 170 m. long; area, accord- 
ing to the British parliamentary accounts of 
1872, 16,145 sq. m. ; pop. 250,352. In 1869 
the number of whites was 17,821, and of In- 
dian coolies introduced as agricultural labor- 
ers 5,227, but the native Zooloos make up the 
bulk of the population. Many of the 16 dis- 
tricts into which the colony is divided have 
been but partially explored. Pietermaritzburg, 
the capital, in lat. 29 35' S., Ion. 30 20' E. 
(pop. in 1869, 6,192), and D'Urban, the colo- 
nial port, about 50 m. distant (pop. 5,708), 
are the principal towns; while villages of va- 
rious sizes are scattered over the colony. 
I>'Urban is situated upon the coast, on the N. 
side of Port Natal, a circular basin about 10 
m. in circumference, communicating with the 
sea by a narrow channel. This is the only 
harbor of any importance, and efforts have re- 
cently been made to improve it. The coun- 
try rises from the coast in a series of terraces 
to an elevation of between 3,000 and 4,000 ft., 



156 



NATAL 



at the base of the Drakenberg, and presents 
many varieties of climate, soil, and scenery. 
Along the Indian ocean is a belt of undulating or 
hilly land about 25 m. broad, producing sugar, 
coffee, cotton, tobacco, and many other tropical 
plants, together with the mulberry, olive, vine, 
oats, beans, potatoes, and Indian corn, and di- 
versified with occasional tracts of forest. Suc- 
ceeding this belt is a higher tract displaying 
the productions of a temperate climate; still 
further inland is a fine grazing district, and 
back of this a succession of hills extending 
to the foot of the Drakenberg division of the 
Quatlamba mountains, which rises abruptly 
like a wall to a height of 8,000 ft. above the 
sea, and nearly 4,000 ft. above the country at 
its base, and over which there are but two 
practicable passes. Several offshoots of this 
range approach the coast. The climate is ex- 
ceedingly pleasant and healthful. In the neigh- 
borhood of the coast the weather is warm, the 
average temperature being about 74 in sum- 
mer and 63 in winter ; but in the elevated 
districts it is much cooler. The rainy season 
continues from March to the end of Septem- 
ber, during which violent thunder storms are 
frequent. The grazing country produces abun- 
dant crops of wheat, oats, and other cereals of 
the temperate regions, and excellent apples, 
pears, walnuts, peaches, apricots, and necta- 
rines. From the coast upward the whole is 
well watered by numerous streams and several 
considerable rivers, none of which are navi- 
gable. All the rivers are low in the dry season, 
but become full in a few hours in rainy weath- 
er, and rush down like torrents. Along the 
coast the soil is sandy, with masses of volcanic 
rocks and sandstone interspersed. The high 
lands are composed of stratified sandstone, 
with a vein of granite running in a N. E. di- 
rection ; and the soil is mostly a friable loam. 
The coast line, extending from high-water 
mark 5 or 10 m. inland, has proved to be well 
adapted to the cultivation of cotton, which has 
been raised in the colony since 1866, and now 
forms an important article of export. But 
little definite scientific knowledge yet exists as 
to the mineral resources of Natal. Coal de- 
posits of good quality are said to exist in the 
Tugela valley ; iron ore occurs in many places ; 
copper has been discovered ; beds of limestone 
are known to exist; and small quantities of 
gold have been obtained in the vicinity of 
D'Urban. The number of the larger wild ani- 
mals in the colony is diminishing. The ele- 
phant is met with in the remote forest dis- 
tricts, and the hippopotamus frequents some of 
the eastern rivers. The fauna also includes the 
leopard, hyaena, buffalo, eland, several other 
varieties of antelope, the crocodile, and a num- 
ber of snakes, some of which are venomous. 
The native Zooloo population, belonging to 
the same ethnological family as the Caffres, 
are a pastoral people and disinclined to agri- 
cultural pursuits, in which however, under 
European influence, they have extensively en- 



gaged. They are remarkable for their honesty 
and peaceable disposition. In 1871 the total 
number of acres under crops and grass was 
175,355, of which 106,300 were devoted to the 
growth of maize. Of sugar, which is one of 
the principal products, 7,661 tons, valued at 
159,430, were exported in the crop season 
of 1870-'7l, as against 857 tons, valued at 
21,286, in that of 1860-'61. In 1870 there 
were 1,014,210 Ibs. of coffee raised, while the 
product for 1869 amounted only to 4,058 Ibs. 
Sheep are raised in large numbers, and the 
value of the wool exported exceeds tht,t of 
any other article, amounting to 140,597 for 
4,814,710 Ibs. in the first nine months of 1871. 
The total value of the exports in 1870 was 
382,979, comprising the following principal 
articles in the order of value: wool, raw 
sugar, hides, ivory, butter, ostrich feathers, 
arrowroot, cured meat, raw cotton, and grain. 
The imports for the same year were valued at 
429,527, and included cotton, woollen, and 
leather manufactures, ironmongery, flour and 
meal, coffee, rice, and linen. Since the dis- 
covery of diamonds near the Vaal river, large 
numbers of these gems have been exported 
through Natal; but it has proved difficult to 
ascertain the aggregate value, as many of them 
are carried away without any declaration to 
the authorities. In 1870 the value of the dia- 
monds exported through the D'Urban custom 
house was 9,615; in the first 10 months of 
1871 it was 32,056. Exclusive of coasters, 
the tonnage of vessels entered at the ports of 
Natal in 1870 was 23,881, and of those cleared 
24.005. In 1870 there were 79 schools sus- 
tained wholly or partially by the government, 
with an average attendance of 1,797 pupils. 
Of these, 4 were classed as government schools, 
including high schools at Pietermaritzburg 
and D'Urban, 65 as aided schools, and 10 as 
itinerant schools. The school system is under 
the control of a superintendent of education. 
Excellent schools are also maintained by mis- 
sionaries in various parts of the country, prom- 
inent among which are the American mission 
schools in the coast range, and those of the 
church of England and of the Wesleyan 
church. At Pietermaritzburg there is a cen- 
tral training school belonging to the Free 
church of Scotland. The colony was made 
a diocese of the Anglican church in 1853, and 
is also the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop. 
The American mission is composed chiefly of 
Presbyterian and Congregational ministers ; in 
1870 it maintained 19 stations and out stations, 
with 12 churches, having about 500 native 
members. In the government of Natal, the 
crown retains the right to veto colonial legis- 
lation, and the public officers remain under the 
control of the home government. The execu- 
tive authority is vested in a lieutenant gov- 
ernor, who is assisted by an executive council 
of 8 and a legislative council of 16 members. 
The colonial secretary, the treasurer, the at- 
torney general, and the secretary for native 



NATAL 



NATCHEZ 



157 



affairs belong ex officio to both. The 12 addi- 
tional members of the legislative council are 
representatives from the counties and boroughs, 
elected by voters possessing freehold property 
worth 50, or occupying house or land at a 
rent of 10 a year ; all voters are eligible to 
membership. Two of these representatives, 
designated by the lieutenant governor, to- 
gether with the chief justice and the senior 
officer in command of the troops, constitute 
the four additional members of the executive 
council. The judicial system comprises a su- 
preme court with three justices, sitting at 
Pietermaritzburg, and local courts and magis- 
trates in the several counties. In 1871 the 
revenue, derived from customs, land sales, 
stamps, a native hut tax, and other sources, 
amounted to 180,498, and the expenditure to 
132,978. There is a public debt of 263,- 
000. The military expenses, with the excep- 
tion of about 4,000 per annum, are borne by 
Great Britain; they were 39,188 in 1869, of 
which the colony provided 4,272, besides ex- 
pending 1,061 for its volunteer forces. There 
is telegraphic communication between D'Urban 
and the capital, and a project for the construc- 
tion of 345 m. of railway has been approved 
by the government. The Portuguese discov- 
ered the coast of Natal on Christmas day, 
1497, and named it in honor of the day. It 
was visited and favorably reported upon, to- 
ward the close of the 17th century and later, 
by Dampier, Woodes Rogers, and several Dutch 
navigators. Subsequently a Dutch expedition 
purchased the territory from some native chiefs. 
Its actual colonization, however, was not pro- 
jected till 1823. In that year Mr. Thomson, a 
merchant of Cape Town, and Lieuts. Farewell 
and King of the English navy, in the course of 
a trading voyage to the E. coast of Africa, put 
into Natal harbor. In 1824 Lieut. Farewell, 
having visited it again, obtained from the chief 
of the Zooloos, who had conquered the coun- 
try, a grant of land around Port Natal, where 
he hoisted the British flag and took possession. 
In 1834, in consequence of an application to 
the governor of the Cape of Good Hope from 
the Zooloo chief for a white settlement to be 
formed at Natal, a few emigrants proceeded 
from that colony. In 1835 the American mis- 
sionaries commenced operations in the terri- 
tory ; but nothing was done on a large scale 
till about 1837, when the Dutch farmers who 
were dissatisfied with the British rule in the 
Cape Colony ascended to the sources of the 
Orange river, and found their way across the 
Quatlamba mountains under the leadership of 
Pieter Retief, who became engaged in a con- 
test with the chief of the Zooloos and was 
slain, together with many of his followers. 
The remainder, led by Andries Willem Preto- 
rius, defeated the Zooloo chief in the follow- 
ing year, and founded Pietermaritzburg with a 
view to make it the capital of their settle- 
ment, which they called the republic of Natal, 
delegating the necessary powers of govern- 



ment to a council of 24 with a president at 
their head. The men capable of bearing arms 
were enrolled as militia subject to the council. 
When the English government, in 1845, de- 
clared the British sovereignty to extend over 
Natal, and sent a military expedition to take 
possession of the country, after some resis- 
tance the more resolute of the emigrants, un- 
der Pretorius, abandoned the territory. Natal 
remained subordinate to the government of 
Cape Colony till 1856, when it was constitu- 
ted a separate and distinct colony. In 1873 a 
conflict with the Ama-Hlubi tribe, numbering 
about 10,000, charged with the illegal posses- 
sion of unregistered firearms, resulted in the 
killing of about 200 of them, the transporta- 
tion of as many more, including their chief Lan- 
galibalele, and the outlawry of the whole tribe. 
NATCHEZ, a tribe of North American Indians, 
known to Europeans from 1560, when Tristan 
de Luna aided the gulf tribes against them. 
"With the Tensas, a kindred tribe, they held a 
tract on the E. bank of the Mississippi. Ac- 
cording to their traditions, they came from 
the southwest, in consequence of wars with 
ancient inhabitants, and made a stand on the 
seacoast, where a part remained, while oth- 
ers pushed on to the spot where they were 
found. Their language, sabseism, and mound 
building connect them with -the Mayas of 
Yucatan. La Salle reached their country in 
March, 1683, and planted a cross. Iberville 
also visited them, and proposed to build a city 
there. They were mild and friendly, brave, 
though preferring peace to war, and very dis- 
solute. They were governed by the Great 
Sun, descended in the female line from a man 
and woman, their first civilizers, who came 
down from the sun, and first built the temple 
for perpetual fire, which was always afterward 
maintained. This temple was on a mound 8 
ft. high, with a pitched roof, and contained 
the bones of the suns and three logs elowly 
burning under the care of appointed guar- 
dians. The cabin of the sun was on a similar 
mound, but with rounded roof. His power 
was despotic, as was that of his sister and im- 
mediate kindred. He was never approached 
without special marks of reverence. Next to 
the suns were the nobles, while the Michemi- 
chequipy, called Puants by the French, formed 
the common people, and were evidently of the 
Choctaw race. They used bows and arrows, 
but had no metals, dressed in buffalo robes, and 
made feather robes for winter, and others for 
summer of the bark of the mulberry and of 
flax. They had many feasts, and on the death 
of a chief killed many to attend him. The 
dead were kept on raised platforms till the 
flesh was consumed. They rapidly declined 
after the appearance of the French and of 
English traders, who about the same time 
reached them. La Mothe Cadillac in 1715 re- 
fused the calumet, and they killed some French- 
men; but Bienville in 1716 compelled them to 
give up the murderers, and built a fort there. 



158 



NATCHEZ 



Hostilities were renewed in 1722, but Bien- 
ville burnt the Apple village and again com- 
pelled them to punish the. guilty. In 1729 the 
tyranny of Chopart, who wished the site of 
one of the villages for his own use, led to a 
. conspiracy in which apparently the Choctaws 
and Chickasaws were engaged. On Nov. 28 
the Natchez began a general massacre of the 
French, killing all the men except 20 who es- 
caped and two or three kept for service; a 
few women were killed, but most were kept as 
prisoners, and the negro slaves were adopted. 
Their kindred Tensas had disappeared before 
1712 as a distinct tribe, and do not appear in 
these troubles ; but the Yazoos and Chickasaws 
joined the Natchez, while the Choctaws joined 
the French and were first in the field. Lesueur, 
a Canadian officer, raised a large Choctaw force, 
and marching into the Natchez territory at- 
tacked the enemy Jan. 27, 1730, killed 80, and 
recovered many captives and slaves. The che- 
valier de Loubois soon after came up with the 
colonial troops that had been raised at New 
Orleans, moved slowly up the Mississippi to 
the Tonicas, and after some delay finally on 
Feb. 13 besieged the Natchez forts. He showed 
little vigor, and after obtaining the remaining 
captives allowed the Natchez at the end of 
February to escape. The fugitives in their 
flight cut off French parties, and at last made 
a stand on Black river, west of the Mississippi. 
Gov. Perrier on Jan. 25, 1731, reduced this 
fort and captured the sun, his brother and 
nephew, next in succession, 40 warriors, and 



387 women and children. These were sent to 
Santo Domingo and sold as slaves. The rem- 
nant of the nation, more furious than ever, 
fled to the Chickasaws, after killing many of 
the Tonicas and attacking the Natchitoches, 
where they were repulsed with heavy loss by 
Saint-Denis. But in spite of this repulse they 
with the Chickasaws kept up the war, and the 
French attempting to punish the Chickasaws 
were repulsed, and at last patched up a peace 
in 1740. The Natchez never again appeared 
as a distinct nation. After a time they moved 
to the Muskogees, and in 1835 were reduced to 
300 souls, retaining their own language and 
line of suns, but without restoring their tem- 
ple or worship. For their language the only 
materials are the words preserved by Le Page 
du Pratz and other French writers, and a vo- 
cabulary taken by Gallatin in 1826 from the 
chief Isahlakteh. Dr. Brinton traced the anal- 
ogy between it and the Maya. 

NATCHEZ, a city, port of entry, and the capi- 
tal of Adams co., Mississippi, the second city 
in the state in population, situated on the E. 
bank of the Mississippi river, 279 m. above 
New Orleans and 116 m. below Vicksburg by 
water, and 85 m. in a direct line S. W. of Jack- 
son; lat. 31 34' N., Ion. 91 25' W. ; pop. in 
1850, 4,434; in 1860, 6,612; in 1870, 9,057, of 
whom 5,329 were colored. It is built on the 
summit of a bluff 150 ft. above the water, and 
on the narrow strip of land between the foot 
of the hill and the river. The latter portion of 
the city, called Natchez Landing or Natchez- 




Natchez-on-the-Hill. 



under-the-Hill, has -some important business 
houses, but can make no claim to beauty. It 
communicates by broad and well graded roads 
with the upper quarters (Natchez-on-the-Hill), 
which are beautifully shaded and contain many 
handsome residences and other buildings. The 
streets are regular, lighted with gas, and gen- 
erally gravelled in the roadway. The houses 
are principally of brick, and the residences are 



adorned with gardens. The brow of the bluff 
along the whole front of the city is occupied 
by a park. The principal buildings are the 
court house, in a public square shaded with 
trees, the masonic temple, the Catholic cathe- 
dral, with a spire 182 ft. high, the Episcopal 
church, and the Presbyterian church, with a 
spire containing a clock. The city hall and 
market house are immediately back of the 



NATCHEZ 



NATURAL HISTORY 



159 



court house. In the suburbs there were for- 
merly numerous residences of wealthy planters, 
expensively furnished, and surrounded with 
beautiful lawns and gardens; but many of these 
were destroyed in the civil war. On the bluff, 
adjoining the city, there is a national cemetery, 
handsomely laid out and decorated. The cli- 
mate of Natchez is pleasant and very salu- 
brious. The winters are temperate, though 
variable, and the summers are long and equa- 
ble ; the thermometer seldom rises above 90. 
The business is mainly in cotton, which is 
brought to this market from the adjoining 
counties, and in the supply of provisions and 
implements for the neighboring plantations. 
From 13,000 to 20,000 bales of cotton are an- 
nually shipped to New Orleans. Regular lines 
of steamers connect with New Orleans, Vicks- 
burg, and Memphis, and a stage line runs to 
Brookhaven on the New Orleans, Jackson, 
and Great Northern railroad, 60 m. E. There 
are a Protestant and two Roman Catholic or- 
phan asylums, and a city hospital. The United 
States marine hospital is situated between the 
city and the national cemetery. There are sev- 
eral Roman Catholic schools, and good public 
schools, attended by about 1,000 pupils. Of 
the two school buildings, one is a handsome 
structure recently erected for colored chil- 
dren, while the " Natchez institute " for whites 
was used as a free school before the civil war. 
A daily and two weekly newspapers are pub- 
lished. The city contains eight churches, viz. : 
Baptist (2), Episcopal, Jewish, Methodist (2), 
Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic, besides 
several for colored people. The site of Nat- 
chez was selected by a party sent by Le Moyne 
d'Iberville in 1700 as the chief place of a num- 
ber of proposed settlements in the lower Mis- 
sissippi territory, and the name of Rosalie was 
given to it in honor of the countess of Pont- 
chartrain, whose husband had been one of 
Iberville's patrons. No settlement was made 
however until 1716, when Bienville, Iberville's 
brother, built Fort Rosalie on Natchez bluff. 
In November, 1729, the fort and adjacent set- 
tlements were destroyed by the Natchez In- 
dians and the inhabitants massacred ; but a few 
months later a force of French and Indian allies 
drove out the Natchez and rebuilt the fort, 
which continued to be a French military and 
trading post until it passed into the hands of 
Great Britain by the treaty of 1763. It was 
now called Fort Panmure. In 1779 it was oc- 
cupied by the Spaniards, who kept possession 
of it until March, 1798, although by the treaty 
of 1783 it was rightfully included in the terri- 
tory of the United States. In April, 1798, the 
territory of Mississippi was created by act of 
congress, and Natchez became its capital. It 
was incorporated as a city in 1803. In 1820 
the seat of government was removed to Jack- 
son. In 1840 a large part of the city was laid 
in ruins by a tornado. During the civil war 
Natchez was captured, May 12, 1862, by a 
portion of Farragut's fleet. It had never been 
588 VOL. xii. 11 



occupied by any considerable force of the con- 
federates, and being of little military impor- 
tance was soon abandoned by the Unionists. 

NATCHITOCHES, a tribe of American Indians, 
allied to the Caddoes, and formerly residing on 
Red river, Louisiana, with a fortified town on 
an island. The Washitas and Capichis were 
united with them. They worshipped the sun, 
had a. temple with perpetual fire, and made salt 
at a neighboring lake, which they traded to 
other tribes for grain and skins. They were 
always friendly to the French, who planted a 
fort near them. This led to an attack on them 
by the fugitive Natchez in 1731. They grad- 
ually united with the Caddoes, forming a band 
of that tribe. 

NATCHITOCHES, a N. W. parish of Louisiana, 
intersected by Red river and bounded E. by a 
branch, Saline bayou ; area, 2,260 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 18,265, of whom 10,929 were colored. 
It has a level surface and fertile soil, especially 
near the rivers. The chief productions in 1870 
were 231,746 bushels of Indian corn, 12,356 
of sweet potatoes, 15,671 bales of cotton, and 
3,189 Ibs. of wool. There were 2,949 horses, 
1,845 mules and asses, 3,527 milch cows, 1,644 
working oxen, 8,952 other cattle, 5,442 sheep, 
and 10,244 swine. Capital, Natchitoches (pop. 
in 1870, 1,401), a shipping point on Red river, 
about 500 m. by water N. W. of New Orleans. 

NATICK, a town of Middlesex co., Massachu- 
setts, on the Boston and Albany railroad, at 
the junction of the Saxonville branch, 17 m. 
W. by S. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 6,404. 
Charles river flows through the S. E. portion, 
and Cochituate lake, which supplies Boston 
with water, is partly within the town. Farm- 
ing is carried on to some extent, but the prin- 
cipal business is the manufacture of boots and 
shoes, for which there are 15 or 20 establish- 
ments. There are also a hat factory and a 
base-ball manufactory. The town has a na- 
tional bank, a savings bank, water and gas 
works, a fine public library and library building, 
a high school, a weekly newspaper, and eight 
churches. Natick was incorporated in 1781. 
The first Indian church in New England was 
erected here in 1660, on the site now occupied 
by the Unitarian church. John Eliot preached 
here, and in the cemetery is a monument to 
his memory. 

NATIONS, Law of. See LAW OF NATIONS. 

NATRON. See SODA. 

NATURAL BRIDGE. See BRIDGE, NATURAL. 

NATURAL HISTORY, strictly speaking, the his- 
tory of universal nature or of all natural ob- 
jects, their qualities and forces, their laws of 
existence, their origin (as far as possible), and 
their mutual relations to each other and to 
man. The study of the physical forces of na- 
ture, however, has been separated into distinct 
branches of science, under the names of nat- 
ural philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, &c. ; 
leaving for natural history proper the investi- 
gation of the structure, properties, and uses of 
the inanimate bodies called minerals, and of 



160 



NATURALIZATION 



the various kinds of living things, both ani- 
mal and vegetable, including their description, 
collection, preservation, determination, and ar- 
rangement in a natural series, and embracing 
as principal divisions zoology, botany, and 
mineralogy. For details on these divisions, 
see the articles ANIMAL, BOTANY, COMPABA- 
TIVE ANATOMY, GEOLOGY, MINERALOGY, PHYSI- 
OLOGY, ZOOLOGY, and the various animal and 
vegetable classes in their respective order. 

NATURALIZATION, the act of investing an alien 
with the rights and privileges of a native-born 
citizen or subject. It is of two kinds, collec- 
tive and personal. A collective naturalization 
takes place when a country or state is incor- 
porated in another country by gift, cession, or 
conquest. Thus, when England and Scotland 
were formed into one kingdom in the reign of 
Queen Anne, it was declared by the fourth 
section of the act of union that subjects of 
the United Kingdom possessed thereafter all 
the rights, privileges, and advantages enjoyed 
by the subjects of either kingdom ; and when 
Louisiana was ceded by France to the United 
States in 1803, it was provided by the third 
article of the treaty that its inhabitants should 
be entitled to all the rights and privileges of 
citizens of the United States; and a similar 
effect took place when the republic of Texas 
was annexed to and formed into one of the 
states of the American Union. Personal nat- 
uralization is where the privileges of a subject 
or citizen are conferred upon an individual by 
the license or letters patent of a sovereign or 
the act of a legislative body, or are obtained 
by the individual himself under a general law, 
upon his complying with certain conditions 
prescribed by the law. Naturalization was 
practised among the states of antiquity, and is 
found in the rudest forms of human society. 
The North American Indians frequently adopt- 
ed Europeans, and more frequently members 
of other tribes taken in war. The earliest ac- 
count that we have of naturalization is among 
the Jews. It formed a part of their early 
legislation, as embodied in the books of Moses. 
The knowledge we possess of the laws or customs 
of the great contemporary nations, the Egyp- 
tians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Phoenicians, and 
Persians, is too limited to enable us to know 
with certainty the policy they pursued upon 
this subject. In Greece, during the heroic 
ages, the people had few or no privileges, and 
whatever was allowed to them appears to have 
been as freely extended to strangers. In the 
convulsions which followed these ages, natural- 
ization was readily granted ; but as the differ- 
ent states settled down into compact and well 
organized communities, the value of citizenship 
became enhanced, and the privilege was more 
sparingly bestowed. In Athens, so far as can 
be gathered from the fragmentary information 
that has descended to us, there would seem to 
have been three kinds of naturalization : 1, the 
admission of an alien to membership in a deme 
or township by the vote of its inhabitants, at 



their convocation or general meeting, and the 
inscribing of his name upon the lexiarchic re- 
gister, or roll of the qualified citizens of the 
deme, kept by the demarch ; 2, citizenship con- 
ferred by the state as a mark of distinction 
upon foreigners eminent for their virtues or 
talents, or who had rendered important services 
to the republic; 3, privileges, more or less 
qualified, extended to the inhabitants of other 
states, or to particular persons. By the laws 
of Solon, none but those who were banished 
from their country for ever, and had with their 
families taken up their permanent abode in 
Attica, with the intention of practising some 
trade or profession, could be enrolled in the list 
of citizens. Afterward, however, the practice 
arose of bestowing citizenship as the gift of the 
state. It was conferred as an honorary dis- 
tinction upon foreigners, admitting them to 
every privilege except that of holding the office 
of archon or priest, and did not imply the ne- 
cessity of residence; but whether it entitled 
them to vote in the assembly is a point upon 
which authors are divided. The admission of 
aliens as members of a deme, which was the 
ordinary or general mode of naturalization, was 
very limited at first, as the Athenians, in com- 
mon with the other Grecian states, placed a 
high value upon citizenship, and were suspicious 
of and prejudiced against foreigners. When 
Clisthenes made a new division of the tribes, in 
509 B. 0., and of their subdivision into demes 
or local parishes, townships, or cantons, he, 
with a view of strengthening these separate 
political communities, added new citizens, 
among whom were included not only resident 
foreigners and strangers, but even slaves. It 
was not intended as a precedent, but was a 
temporary expedient to enable him to carry 
out more effectually his plan for the division 
of the people into local communities. The in- 
novation, however, was followed by the grad- 
ual extension of a more liberal feeling in regard 
to aliens. There was constantly at Athens a 
large body of resident foreigners, attracted 
there either by commercial pursuits, or a wish 
to profit by the instruction of its schools, or 
the love of amusement. This class, embracing 
persons from all parts of Greece and from other 
countries, were known, in contradistinction to 
transitory strangers or mere sojourners, by the 
appellation of metcaci, and were under many 
disabilities. They could not acquire landed 
property, and if engaged in industrial pursuits, 
they were subject to a heavier tax than the 
citizens. They were compelled to select a pat- 
ron as the mediator between themselves and 
the state in the transaction of all legal busi- 
ness, who was answerable for their good con- 
duct. They were obliged, like the citizens, to 
serve in the army or navy when the exigencies 
of the state demanded it, and occasionally com- 
pelled to perform degrading services, which 
were rather symbolical acts, designed to remind 
them of the inferiority of their relation to the 
citizen. Upon the payment of the tax imposed, 



NATURALIZATION 



161 



they were allowed to engage in trade and com- 
merce ; and nearly all commercial business was 
in their hands. To this class, who had made 
Athens their permanent abode, it was of the 
greatest importance to be admitted members of 
a deme, as it released them from a burdensome 
tax, enabled them to acquire land, to inherit, 
and generally to enjoy the privileges of citizens, 
except that of holding the office of archon or 
priest. So strong was this desire, that they 
were occasionally induced to get their name 
surreptitiously entered upon the register of a 
distant deme ; for a citizen was not obliged to 
reside in the one in which he was enrolled, 
and there were at least one hundred of these 
distinct commonalties distributed over Attica ; 
but if the fraud was discovered, the alien was 
liable upon conviction to be sold as a slave. 
Themistocles exerted himself strongly in favor 
of this class, and chiefly through his influence 
their admission into the denies was greatly 
facilitated, and it afterward became more gen- 
eral. When the number of the citizens was 
greatly diminished by war, the loss was sup- 
plied by the admission of the resident aliens or 
metoeci. After the disastrous defeat at Syra- 
cuse, which nearly depopulated the state, the 
ranks of the citizens were recruited by natural- 
izing the metoeci. The lexiarchic registers 
were filled with these names, and the naturali- 
zation was so extensive as nearly to abolish all 
distinction. The loss of citizens was again sup- 
plied in this way after the battle of Chseromjea; 
and perhaps no state, in proportion to its pop- 
ulation, ever naturalized so many aliens. It was 
the fixed policy of the Spartans, and the pecu- 
liar aim of their institutions, to retain to them- 
selves and to their descendants the exclusive 
exercise of political power ; and so rigidly was 
this policy pursued, that Herodotus declares 
that but two instances had occurred in which 
they had admitted foreigners to the full fran- 
chise. After the time of Herodotus, foreign- 
ers were occasionally admitted, and it is after 
this period that helots are supposed to have 
been raised to this dignity. Upon the revo- 
lution effected by Cleomenes, and the recon- 
struction by him of the constitution of the 
state, he admitted a considerable number of 
new citizens. They were selected from among 
the most worthy and deserving of the popu- 
lation, and embraced natives of Lacedsemon, 
Perioeci, and strangers, all of whom were ad- 
mitted to the full franchise. (See SPAETA.) In 
Rome citizenship, or the Roman burgess right, 
was originally limited to the patricians. It was 
at first sparingly bestowed on distinguished 
foreign clans, after their emigration from their 
homes or after the conquest of their cities ; 
but such grants became more rare as the privi- 
lege increased in value. During the republic 
citizenship was conferred by a vote of the 
senate upon aliens who had rendered eminent 
services to the state, of which several striking 
examples are mentioned by the Roman histo- 
is. After the social or Marsic war, 90 B. C., 



the right was extended to all the people of It- 
aly. Under the emperors, down to the reign 
of Caracalla, foreigners petitioning for citi- 
zenship were naturalized by an imperial de- 
cree ; but under a constitution promulgated 
by Caracalla, all the free inhabitants of the 
various provinces comprising the empire be- 
came thereafter Roman citizens; and as that 
empire embraced the civilized world, there 
could be few or no instances thereafter of per- 
sonal naturalization. The mode of obtaining 
naturalization in modern times, and the con- 
ditions upon which it will be granted, differ 
in different countries. In the United States 
the power of conferring it is exclusively vested 
in the national government. This power has 
been sometimes exercised by a collective natu- 
ralization, in cases where foreign territory has 
been acquired, and in respect to certain Indian 
tribes, as well as by the fourteenth amendment 
of the constitution, which made citizens of the 
f reedmen and other colored persons ; but the 
mode in which individuals obtain it on their 
own application is regulated by acts of congress. 
The policy of this country on the subject, which 
is characterized by a desire to admit all foreign- 
ers of good character to a full participation in 
all the rights enjoyed by our own citizens, after 
a period of probation sufficiently long to enable 
them to become acquainted with the nature of 
our institutions, is to be traced back to an early 
period of our colonial history. It was not de- 
rived, like many of our laws, from the enact- 
ments or the example of Great Britain, but 
grew out of the necessities attendant upon the 
settlement of a new country. At the period 
when the colonies were founded, the policy 
of England for more than a century had been 
hostile to conferring political privileges upon 
foreigners ; and so illiberal was its course in 
this respect through the whole period of our 
colonial history, that one of the acts of tyr- 
anny charged upon George III. in the Decla- 
ration of Independence was, that he had. en- 
deavored to prevent the population of the 
states by obstructing the laws for the nat- 
uralization of foreigners, and by refusing to 
pass others to encourage their migration hith- 
er. The only mode by which a foreigner in 
England could obtain naturalization, investing 
him with all the rights of a subject, was by act 
of parliament. He could obtain letters of den- 
ization by the king's special license, which was 
granted with certain restrictions. In the sev- 
enth year of the reign of Queen Anne an act 
was passed naturalizing foreign Protestants, by 
which persons of this class could be admitted 
to all the rights of subjects upon receiving the 
sacrament and taking the oaths of abjuration 
and allegiance ; but it was repealed in the short 
space of three years. The rights of foreigners 
settled in the colonies were in a very preca- 
rious state. By the law of England they could 
neither hold nor transmit real property, nor ex- 
ercise any political rights ; and by the naviga- 
tion act, unless they were naturalized or made 



162 



NATURALIZATION 



free denizens by the king's letters patent, they 
were forbidden to exercise in any of the colo- 
nies the occupation of a merchant or a factor. 
To remedy this state of things and to encourage 
immigration, the colonial legislatures exercised 
the right of passing naturalization laws. Mary- 
land was the first colony that took this course. 
In 1666 she enacted a law for the naturaliza- 
tion of the Dutch from Cape Henlopen and 
the French Protestant refugees who had set- 
tled in the colony, and continned to pass laws 
for the naturalization of aliens to the time of 
the revolution. In 1 671, in the reign of Charles 
II., the colony of Virginia passed an act for 
the naturalization of any one desiring to make 
that commonwealth his constant residence, who 
might apply by petition to the general assembly. 
Five acts were afterward passed, naturalizing a 
number of aliens who had petitioned for the 
privilege ; and in 1680 the governor was author- 
ized to grant letters of naturalization to any 
foreigner settled in the colony upon his taking 
the oath of allegiance. In 1705 a law was passed 
adding the test oath to the oath of allegiance to 
secure the Protestant succession, and in 1738 
another act naturalizing any alien who might 
settle upon the Roanoke. In South Carolina, 
in 1693, the French Protestants who had set- 
tled in the province were made citizens by the 
colonial legislature ; and in 1731 Massachusetts 
passed an act for the admission of foreign 
Protestants after a residence of one year. The 
colony of New York passed an act in 1683, 
declaring that all actual inhabitants of the 
province professing Christianity, of whatever 
foreign nation, should be entitled to all the 
privileges of natural-born subjects upon ta- 
king the oath of allegiance. Delaware in 1700 
passed an act empowering the governor to de- 
clare any alien, previously settled, or thereaf- 
ter coming to settle in the province, natural- 
ized, upon taking an oath to be true and faith- 
ful to the king and to the government of the 
province, and declaring that all Swedes, Dutch, 
and other foreigners settled in the colony be- 
fore its acquisition by the English were to be 
deemed fully and completely naturalized. Penn- 
sylvania also passed a naturalization law in the 
same year, and South Carolina a general act 
in 1696. These laws were not favorably re- 
garded in England. They were looked upon as 
encroachments upon the royal prerogative" or 
the rights of parliament ; and even in the col- 
onies, the more strenuous loyalists denounced 
them as disregarding the navigation acts, and 
as tending to an undue increase of the inhabi- 
tants, thereby creating formidable antagonists 
to English industry, and nursing a disposition 
to rebellion. In 1715 the colony of New York 
passed an act for the naturalization of all for- 
eign Protestants then inhabiting the province. 
The act was referred by the board of trade to 
Northey, the English attorney general, who 
condemned this mode of naturalizing "in the 
lump," but recognized the right of the colonial 
legislature to naturalize particular aliens by 



name, after inquiring into each case specially; 
and thereafter down to 1773 some 14 acts 
were passed*, by which an immense number of 
aliens were naturalized by name. In 1740 an 
act was passed by the British parliament for 
the naturalization of foreign Protestants set- 
tled in the colonies of America. It required 
a residence there of seven years, without hav- 
ing been absent at any time for more than two 
months ; all naturalized under it, except Qua- 
kers or Jews, had first to receive the sacra- 
ment of the Lord's supper in some Protestant 
communion ; and by an act passed in 1747, the 
benefit of the previous act was extended to the 
Moravian Brethren, and other foreign Protes- 
tants settled in America, who had conscientious 
scruples against taking an oath. This was un- 
doubtedly designed to supersede colonial legis- 
lation, but it did not have that effect. The 
long period of residence required was very ob- 
jectionable in a new country, and the Catholics, 
who had settled extensively in Maryland, were 
excluded from its provisions. The colonial 
legislatures still continued to pass naturaliza- 
tion laws, and the difficulties growing out of 
the subject continued to increase until the sep- 
aration of the two countries. During the rev- 
olution, and until the adoption of the federal 
constitution, the power of naturalizing aliens 
was exercised by the states. The constitution 
of the state of New York, adopted in 1777, s 
declared that it should be in the discretion of 
the legislature to naturalize all such persons, 
and in such manner, as they should think' prop- 
er. The legislature enacted no general law, 
but continued to pass acts for the naturalization 
of persons by name down to the year 1790. 
After the breaking out of the revolution, and 
especially after the independence of the United 
States was recognized by Great Britain, it be- 
came necessary both here and in England to 
determine who of those born in the colonies 
were to be deemed aliens. It was decided in 
the English courts that all persons of this class, 
adhering to the American government during 
the war and until after the treaty of 1783, 
ceased thereafter to be subjects of Great Brit- 
ain, and were aliens ; but in the American tri- 
bunals it was held that the colonies acquired 
all the rights and powers of sovereign states 
when they declared their independence on July 
4, 1776, and that the people of the respective 
states ceased upon that day to be subjects of 
Great Britain, and became members of the 
new nation then formed ; that none were ex- 
cepted unless, within a reasonable time after 
that event, they had placed themselves under 
the protection and power of the government 
of Great Britain in such a way as to indicate 
an election on their part to remain in alle- 
giance to that country. It was conceded by 
the tribunals of both countries that all persons 
born in the colonies had a right, upon the hap- 
pening of such an event as the revolution, to 
elect to which government they would adhere ; 
the point upon which they differed being that 



NATURALIZATION 



163 



the English courts considered the date of the 
treaty of 1783 as the period when we ceased 
to be subjects, while our courts adopted as the 
era the day of the declaration of independence. 
In some of the states laws were passed soon 
after the declaration of independence, setting 
forth that all abiding in the state after that 
event, or after a certain specified period, and 
deriving protection from the laws of the state, 
owed allegiance to it. This was the case in 
New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and 
New Jersey. In other states no special laws 
were passed, but each case was left to be de- 
cided upon its own circumstances according 
to the voluntary acts and the conduct of the 
party. It was also held that persons born in 
Great Britain who adhered to the American 
cause until the close of the war, became there- 
by American citizens ; and that the natives of 
the colonies absent and living under the pro- 
tection of Great Britain at the declaration of 
independence, but who returned to the country 
before the treaty of 1783, and continued here 
afterward, were citizens. This question of 
the alienage or citizenship of those born in 
the country before or during the war became 
a very important one, as it involved the right 
of succession to landed property, and was a 
fruitful source of litigation, until ultimately 
settled by the tribunals of both countries. In 
the articles of confederation there was a clause 
declaring that the free inhabitants of each state 
should be entitled to all the privileges and im- 
munities of free citizens in the several states ; 
and as each state had the power of determining 
for itself upon what condition aliens should be 
admitted, and as in some of the states higher 
qualifications were required by law than in 
others, it was felt that great inconveniences 
would arise in the practical operation of this 
provision. A single state had the power of 
forcing into another any alien upon whom it 
might confer the right of citizenship, though 
declared to be disqualified by the laws of that 
state. One state had but to naturalize him, 
and then, by the effect of the clause in the 
articles of confederation, he became a citizen 
in every other, thereby making the law of one 
state paramount to that of the rest. No actual 
difficulty occurred, but the most serious em- 
barrassments were likely to arise at any mo- 
ment. Therefore, when the federal constitu- 
tion was framed in 1787, a provision was in- 
serted without debate conferring upon congress 
the power of establishing one uniform rule of 
naturalization throughout the United States; 
and at the second session of the first congress 
after the adoption of the constitution, on March 
26, 1790, an act of the most liberal character 
was passed, authorizing the naturalization of 
any free white alien after a residence of two 
years under the jurisdiction of the United 
States, and of one year in the state where he 
applied for admission ; and from that time to 
the year 1872 some 18 acts were passed upon 
the subject. In 1795 the period of residence 



was increased to five years, and a previous 
declaration upon oath by the alien of his in- 
tention to become a citizen was required to 
be made before a court of one of the states, at 
least three years before the applicant's admis- 
sion. In 1798 the residence was increased to 
14 years, with five years' previous declaration 
of intention. In 1802 the residence was re- 
duced again to five years and the declaration 
of intention to three years; and in 1824 the 
declaration of intention was further reduced to 
two years. It was supposed in some of the states 
that they still had concurrent jurisdiction, and 
Virginia adopted a conflicting statute in 1790 ; 
but it was held by the supreme court of the Uni- 
ted States in 1817 that the power to naturalize 
was vested exclusively in congress. The sound- 
ness of this decision was much questioned at 
the time, but it is now universally acknowl- 
edged to have been correct. But though no 
state can confer upon any alien all the rights 
and privileges of a citizen of the United States, 
it may grant him any civil or political privileges 
within its own jurisdiction not inconsistent 
with the laws of the United States; and in 
many, especially in the western states, aliens 
are allowed to hold land, to exercise the elec- 
tive franchise, and to enjoy many of the privi- 
leges of citizens; a liberal policy which has 
contributed greatly to the rapid settlement of 
these states, and to their increase in wealth 
and prosperity. Until the enactment of the 
revised statutes in 1874, the laws of the Uni- 
ted States on the subject of naturalization had 
to be gathered from many statutes, some of 
them relating to other subjects ; and the want 
of one general act, in which the whole law 
should be embodied and clearly expressed, was 
much felt. The qualifications requisite, and 
the mode of obtaining naturalization, are at 
present (1875) as follows. The applicant must 
have resided in the United States for the con- 
tinued term of five years next preceding his 
admission, and one year at least within the 
state or territory where the court is held that 
admits him. Two years at least before his ad- 
mission he must declare on oath or affirmation, 
before a court of record having common-law 
jurisdiction and a seal and clerk, or before a 
circuit or district court of the United States, 
or before a clerk of either of the said courts, 
that it is lona fide his intention to become a 
citizen, and to renounce for ever all allegiance 
and fidelity to any foreign prince, potentate, 
state, or sovereignty, and particularly by name 
the prince, potentate, state, or sovereignty of 
which he is at the time a citizen or subject. 
This declaration is recorded by the clerk, and 
a certificate under the seal of the court and 
signed by the clerk that he has made such a 
declaration is given him, which is received 
thereafter as evidence of the fact. If the ap- 
plicant was a minor under the age of 18 years 
when he came to the country, this previous 
declaration of intention is dispensed with, and 
he is entitled to be admitted after he has ar- 



164: 



NATURALIZATION 



rived at the age of 21 years, if he has resided 
five years in the United States, including the 
three years of his minority, and has so con- 
tinued to reside up to the time when he makes 
his application, upon complying with the law 
in other respects. There is some obscurity in 
this latter provision. Some have thought that 
the three years of minority, from 18 to 21, is 
all that can be allowed as a part of the five 
years' residence demanded by the act, and that 
one naturalized as a minor was not entitled to 
be admitted until he had arrived at the age of 
23 ; but it has been decided in the New York 
common pleas (all the judges concurring) that 
he is entitled to be admitted at 21, if he had 
resided here since he was 15 ; that all that the 
statute requires is, that he must in every case 
have resided here between the ages of 18 and 
21, and if he has done that, and also resided 
here two years before that period began, it is 
a residence of five years within the meaning of 
the act. By an act passed in 1862 an alien who 
has enlisted in the armies of the United States, 
either in the regular or volunteer service, and 
who has been honorably discharged, may, upon 
proof of one year's residence in the United 
States and of good character, be naturalized 
without any previous declaration of intention. 
By the act of June 7, 1872, any seaman who 
declares his intention in a competent court to 
become a citizen, and who thereafter serves for 
three years on board of a merchant ship or 
ships of the United States, can, upon the pro- 
duction of a certificate of his discharge and 
good conduct during that time and of his pre- 
vious declaration, be naturalized ; and for the 
purpose of protection he is deemed a citizen 
after the filing of his declaration of intention 
to become one. When the applicant has com- 
pleted the necessary residence, he must prove 
the fact before one of the courts previously 
named by other testimony than his own oath. 
One witness, if he knows the fact, is sufficient. 
If entitled to admission without a previous 
declaration of intention, the alien must declare 
upon oath, and prove to the satisfaction of the- 
court, that for the three years next preceding 
his application it was bonafide his intention to 
become a citizen ; and every applicant must 
prove (which may be done by his own oath, 
unless the court should require other testimony) 
that he has behaved during the period of his 
residence as a man of good moral character, 
attached to the principles of the constitution 
of the United States, and well disposed to the 
good order and happiness of the same. The 
mode of admission is as follows. The appli- 
cant goes to the clerk of the court, and exhib- 
its the certificate of his having declared his 
intention. The clerk then prepares a written 
deposition for the witness, setting forth his 
knowledge of the applicant's residence and of 
his good character, and another for the appli- 
cant, declaring that he renounces all allegiance 
to every 'foreign power, and particularly that 
of which he is a citizen or subject, and, if he 



has borne any title of nobility, that he re- 
nounces it, and that he will support the con- 
stitution of the United States. The parties 
are then taken before the judge, who examines 
each of them under oath ; and if he is satisfied 
that the applicant has resided in the country 
for the requisite period, and is a man of good 
character, he makes an order in writing for his 
admission. The depositions are then subscribed 
by the parties and publicly sworn to in court 
in the presence of the judge ; and the certificate 
of the declaration of intention, the depositions, 
and the order of the judge are filed, and con- 
stitute the record of the proceeding. A final 
certificate under the seal of the court, signed 
by the clerk, is then given the alien, declaring 
that he has complied with all the requisites of 
the law, and has been duly admitted a citizen ; 
which certificate is conclusive evidence there- 
after of the fact. In the case of a minor the 
previous declaration of intention is dispensed 
with, but in all other respects the course of 
procedure is the same. The record of natu- 
ralization, if regular upon its face, is conclu- 
sive as to the naturalization of the alien, and 
cannot be contradicted by extrinsic evidence. 
It may be set aside, however, if fraudulently 
obtained, by the court in which the alien was 
naturalized; and a very elaborate and effective 
act was passed July 14, 1872, making it a felony 
to obtain or knowingly to assist in obtaining 
a fraudulent naturalization. Acts have been 
passed for the admission of persons residing 
in the United States before certain dates with- 
out previous declaration of intention ; but they 
have all become obsolete by lapse of time, ex- 
cept possibly the last, relating to those so re- 
siding prior to June 18, 1812. A child born 
out of the United States is a citizen if the fa- 
ther was one at the time of the birth of the 
child, but the right will not descend to one 
whose father has never resided in the United 
States ; and the minor children of persons nat- 
uralized, if the children are then dwelling in 
the United States, become citizens by the natu- 
ralization of the parent. It was formerly ques- 
tioned whether this latter provision applied to 
any but the children of parents naturalized 
before the passage of the act in 1802. Chan- 
cellor Kent, in his " Commentaries," inclined to 
the opinion that the act was prospective, and 
was designed to embrace the children of per- 
sons who should thereafter be naturalized ; and 
opinions to the same effect were expressed by 
many eminent jurists. But the point came up 
for decision in the court of chancery of the 
state of New York in 1840, in the case of chil- 
dren who were minors, living with their father 
in this country, when the father was naturalized 
in 1830, and whose right to succeed to his es- 
tate was denied upon the assumption that they 
were aliens. Chancellor Wai worth decided 
that they were not aliens, but became citizens 
in 1830 by the naturalization of their father. 
After an elaborate examination of the legisla- 
tion of congress, he held that the provision in 



NATURALIZATION 



165 



the act of 1802 was prospective, so as to em- 
brace the children of aliens naturalized after 
the passage of the act. as well as the children 
of those who were naturalized before. Deci- 
sions to the same effect were rendered by Chief 
Justice Daly in the New York court of com- 
mon pleas in 1847 ; by the supreme court of 
Arkansas in a case of great public interest in 
which the question was elaborately examined, 
in 1850; and by the supreme court of Florida 
in 1865.' Another important question under 
this provision is whether both parents should 
be naturalized to confer the right upon chil- 
dren. The importance of this question is 
greatly lessened in cases of naturalization after 
Feb. 10, 1855, as congress on that day passed 
an act declaring " that any woman who might 
be lawfully naturalized under the existing laws, 
married or who shall be married to a citizen of 
the United States, shall be deemed and taken to 
be a citizen ;" but before that time the Amer- 
ican courts had repeatedly held that a wife who 
was an alien did not become a citizen by the 
naturalization of her husband. These two ques- 
tions are of great practical importance, as vast 
numbers of persons since the enactment of 
this provision have inherited, purchased, and 
transmitted real property upon the assumption 
that they were citizens by the naturalization 
of their fathers, whose rights, and the rights 
which others have derived from them, would 
be disturbed if a different construction were 
now given to this provision ; and although 
these two questions have not been decided by 
the highest authority in this country, the su- 
preme court of the United States, it may never- 
theless be assumed that they are now settled, 
and the construction above stated universally 
acquiesced in. A doubt arose whether the act 
of 1855 applied to a woman who was mar- 
ried to her husband before he was naturalized, 
the language of the act being, " married or who 
shall be married to a citizen." The supreme 
court of the United States decided that these 
words refer to a state of marriage, and not to 
the time when the ceremony was performed ; 
that whether married before or after the natu- 
ralization of her husband, the wife becomes by 
his naturalization also a citizen, it being the 
manifest intent of the act that the citizenship 
of the wife should follow as a consequence of 
the naturalization of the husband ; and it was 
decided in North Carolina in 1869 that a white 
woman, a native of Ireland, who married an 
American citizen, was a citizen of the United 
States, although she had always resided in Ire- 
land. If an alien who has declared his inten- 
tion dies before he is naturalized, his widow 
and children may become citizens by simply 
taking the oath required of all naturalized citi- 
zens to support the constitution of the United 
States, and to renounce all previous allegiance. 
In this case the period of residence of the 
widow and children is immaterial, nor is any 
distinction made between minor children and 
adults. In certain cases aliens are disqualified 



from becoming citizens. No alien can be ad- 
mitted while his country is at war with the 
United States, nor could one be admitted who 
was legally convicted of having joined the 
British army during the American revolution, 
.or who was proscribed by any state before 
1802, unless with the consent of the state. The 
statutes formerly provided only for the natural- 
ization of "free white" persons, which is sup- 
posed to exclude all that can be denominated 
colored races the copper-colored natives or 
Indians of America, the African races, and the 
yellow races of Asia. It has been held by the 
courts of California that a Chinese is not a 
white person within the meaning of the act, 
and cannot therefore be naturalized. In the 
celebrated Dred Scott case the supreme court 
of the United States in 1856 held that the 
Africans imported into the country and their 
descendants were a subjugated race, and not 
the people by whom the government was es- 
tablished ; that they were not and never were 
intended to be embraced under the denomina- 
tion of citizens; and that when the right to 
naturalize was surrendered by the states to the 
federal government, it was meant to be con- 
fined to persons of foreign birth, and not a 
power to raise inferior races here to the rank 
of citizens, such as Indians, negroes, and mulat- 
toes, though upon this latter point the judges 
differed. Indians, and persons of mixed Indian 
and African blood, have however been admitted 
to the rights of citizenship by special treaties 
and acts of annexation. This was done by ar- 
ticle 14 of the treaty with the Choctaws of Sept. 
27, 1830 ; by article 12 of that with the Chero- 
kees of May 23, 1836 ; and in the treaties by 
which Louisiana, Florida, and California were 
acquired. A delicate question arose as to the 
degree of mixture or color which would pre- 
clude one from being denominated a white per- 
son. There was no agreement on the subject 
even in the slave states. In some the propor- 
tion was one eighth, in others one fourth ; and 
in South Carolina any distinct and visible* ad- 
mixture of negro blood, to be determined by the 
evidence of features, complexion, and parent- 
age, was sufficient. On the other hand, in the 
free state of Ohio any one being nearer white 
than black, that is, having more than one half 
white blood, was declared to be white. The 
question has ceased to be of its former impor- 
tance since the adoption in 1868 of the four- 
teenth amendment of the constitution of the 
United States, which declares that all persons 
born or naturalized in the United States and 
subject to the jurisdiction thereof are citizens 
of the United States and of the state wherein 
they reside, and that no state shall make or en- 
force any law which shall abridge the privileges 
or immunities of citizens of the United States. 
It was held by the supreme court of the United 
States in 1872, in the slaughter house cases, 
that this enactment was primarily intended to 
confer citizenship on the negro race ; secondly, 
to give definitions of citizenship of the United 



166 



NATURALIZATION 



States and of the states ; and that it recognizes 
the distinction between the two. Since the 
act of July 14, 1870, aliens of African nativity 
and persons of African descent may be natu- 
ralized. The question however remains, under 
the laws, what admixture of color will preclude 
one from being denominated a white person, 
and may arise when persons of mixed Indian 
blood born out of the United States apply to 
be naturalized. The residence required by the 
naturalization laws is a permanent abode in 
the country; and when that is 'established or 
begun, it will not be affected by a temporary 
absence upon business or pleasure, if the inten- 
tion to keep up the residence here and return 
has always existed, and no residence has been 
established elsewhere. A man's residence may 
be denned to be the place where he abides, 
with his family if he has one, and makes the 
chief seat of his affairs and interests. In re- 
spect to seamen who have no fixed place of 
residence, they are provided for in the act of 
1872 before referred to. Many questions have 
been decided by the courts in respect to nat- 
uralization, which will be summarily stated. 
Foreigners by birth are prima facie aliens, 
and must show that they have been natu- 
ralized before they can inherit; and if not 
entitled to inherit, being aliens, they cannot 
become so by afterward getting naturalized. 
The marriage of an American woman with an 
alien does not make her an alien ; but if she. 
emigrates to a foreign country with her hus- 
band and takes up her abode with an intention 
to remain there permanently, she would prob- 
ably be regarded as having lost the character 
of an American citizen, at least while such a 
state of things existed, especially if in the 
country in which she dwells she is by its laws 
a citizen or subject there, by being married to 
a citizen or subject of that country. Emigra- 
tion to another country, swearing allegiance to 
it, and entering and uniformly continuing in 
the service of its government, are sufficient to 
show expatriation, and that the person has lost 
the character of an American citizen. A child 
born in a foreign country, whose mother was a 
native of that country, and whose father was 
an American citizen who went there with the 
intention of remaining, but was never natural- 
ized there, is an American citizen, and can in- 
herit property in the United States. A child 
born of non-resident parents, if born in one of 
the United States, is prima facie a citizen, al- 
though his mother was in the state merely for 
the purpose of being confined. A child born 
abroad of an American citizen is subject to a 
double allegiance ; but upon arriving at ma- 
turity he may elect one and repudiate the 
other, and such election is conclusive upon him. 
Allegiance in the United States is twofold, to 
the Union and to the particular state ; but that 
to the Union is paramount. Where a territory 
is conquered, it operates to change the alle- 
giance of the people; but their relation and 
rights in respect to each other remain undis- 



turbed. Citizens of Texas before the annexa- 
tion became citizens of the United States by 
that act, which operated as an act of naturali- 
zation; and it was decided in Pennsylvania 
that a native of Saxony who went to Louisiana 
in 1801, and was residing there when the terri- 
tory was ceded to the United States in 1803, 
and continued to reside there afterward, be- 
came by the act of cession a citizen of the 
United States. A court having neither clerk 
nor recording officer distinct from the judge is 
not a court entitled to naturalize. As to the 
right of a citizen or subject to expatriate him- 
self and renounce his allegiance to his native 
country, there was formerly even in the Uni- 
ted States great difference of opinion. The 
most authoritative writers upon the law of 
nations treated it as an inherent right, and it 
was so regarded in many of the European na- 
tions. In England, however, it was held by 
the courts that the allegiance of a native-born 
subject was intrinsic and perpetual, of which 
he could never divest himself by any act of his 
own, and that it was not in the power of any 
foreign prince or nation, by naturalization, to 
dissolve the bond between a British subject 
and the crown. In the supreme court of the 
United States the question was elaborately 
discussed in three cases, but was not passed 
upon, while in the state courts there were con- 
flicting decisions. Chancellor Kent in his 
"Commentaries," after reviewing all the de- 
cisions, declared the better opinion to be that 
an American citizen could not renounce his al- 
legiance without the consent of the govern- 
ment in a mode prescribed by law; and as 
congress had passed no law, that the rule of 
the English common law remained unaltered. 
On the other hand, the executive branch of the 
government recognized the right. Gen. Cass, 
the secretary of state, did so in 1859; and At- 
torney Generals Cushing and Black both offi- 
cially advised the government that an Ameri- 
can citizen could renounce his allegiance. Fi- 
nally an act of congress was passed July 27, 
1868, declaring expatriation to be an inherent 
right in all men, and that any act of any officer 
of the government which denied, restricted, 
impaired, or questioned it was inconsistent 
with the fundamental principles of the gov- 
ernment. In the same year it was settled by 
treaty between the United States and the North 
German Union that if a citizen or subject was, 
after a residence of five years, naturalized in 
either country, he was to be deemed a citizen 
of that country; that if he returned to the 
land of his birth, he could not be prosecuted 
for any criminal offence unless it was commit- 
ted before his expatriation ; and that by a resi- 
dence of two years in the country to which he 
originally belonged, with no intention of re- 
turning to the one of his adoption, he would 
be presumed to have renounced his naturaliza- 
tion. In 1870 Great Britain, by an act of par- 
liament, which will be hereafter referred to, 
abandoned its former policy ; and the right of 



NATURALIZATION 



167 



expatriation and the renunciation of allegiance 
is now recognized in the United States, Great 
Britain, France, Russia, Germany, Austria, 
Italy, Spain, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Swe- 
den, and Norway ; but in some of these coun- 
tries it is subject to the condition that the na- 
tive has fulfilled the obligations imposed by 
his former allegiance, such as military service. 
In Great Britain, prior to 1844, naturaliza- 
tion could be effected only by act of parlia- 
ment. Originally it conferred all the rights of 
a natural-born subject, but by an act dictated 
by the jealous policy of the government upon 
the accession of the house of Orange, passed 
in 1701, it was declared that no one, though 
naturalized, should be of the privy council or 
a member of parliament, or hold any office 
civil or military, or be allowed to receive any 
grant of land from the crown. As before 
stated, the king might grant letters of deniza- 
tion conferring certain limited rights, in the 
exercise of his royal prerogative. In this 
state the law remained until the reign of Vic- 
toria. Great desire having been expressed for 
more liberal enactments, the subject was re- 
ferred to a committee of parliament, who 
made an elaborate investigation, and a law 
was passed in 1844 defining the privileges of 
aliens upon some questionable points, and pro- 
viding for the naturalization of all aliens re- 
siding in or coming to Great Britain with in- 
tent to settle. The provisions of this act need 
not be enumerated, as they were superseded 
by a more comprehensive act passed in 1870, 
which repealed a number of the preceding 
laws. By the latter act any alien who has re- 
sided for five years in the United Kingdom, or 
has been for that period in the service of the 
crown, and intends after naturalization to con- 
tinue in that service or to reside in the United 
Kingdom, may, upon producing such evidence 
of his residence, service, and intention as shall 
be satisfactory to one of her majesty's prin- 
cipal secretaries of state, receive from such 
secretary a certificate of naturalization, which 
shall take effect after the alien has taken the 
oath of allegiance; upon which he shall be 
entitled to all the rights and be subject to 
all the obligations of a natural-born subject, 
but shall not within the limits of the foreign 
state of which he was a subject be deemed a 
British subject, unless he has ceased to be a 
-subject of that state by its laws or by treaty. 
The secretary of state may grant or refuse the 
certificate without giving any reasons, and 
from his decision there is no appeal ; and he 
may grant a special certificate of naturalization 
to any person, in respect to whose nationality 
as a British subject there is any doubt, which 
is not to be an admission that he was not pre- 
viously a British subject. This act contains 
many important provisions in respect to alien- 
age and expatriation. It provides that aliens 
may acquire, hold, and dispose of real and per- 
sonal property in the same manner in all re- 
spects as naturalized British subjects, and that 



it may be derived from or through them in all re- 
spects as from or through natural-born subjects. 
This however does not extend to property out 
of the United Kingdom, nor confer upon them 
any municipal, parliamentary, or other fran- 
chises, or entitle them to hold office. It de- 
clares that any British subject in a foreign 
state, who was not under any disability, and 
who has voluntarily become naturalized in that 
state, shall cease to be a British subject ; that 
any person who by his having been born in 
the dominion of the queen is a British sub- 
ject, but who at the time of his birth was also 
by its laws, and is still, a subject of a foreign 
state, may cease to be a British subject by ma- 
king a declaration of his alienage in the pres- 
ence of any diplomatic or consular officer in 
the service of the queen, or if such person is in 
the United Kingdom before a justice of the 
peace, or if he is elsewhere in her majesty's 
dominions before any officer authorized to ad- 
minister an oath ; and that where a convention 
to that effect has been entered into by the 
queen with a foreign state, any subject or cit- 
izen of that state who has been naturalized as 
a British subject may in like manner make a 
declaration of alienage, upon which he shall 
cease to be a British subject, and shall be 
thereafter regarded as a citizen or subject of 
the country to which he originally belonged. 
Under this act also a married woman is to be 
deemed a subject of the country of which her 
husband is a subject. If she is a widow and 
was born a British subject, she may obtain a 
certificate of admission to British nationality. 
The children of British subjects naturalized in 
a foreign country, who during infancy became 
resident of the country where their father or 
mother was naturalized, and who according to 
the laws of the country became naturalized 
therein, are to be deemed citizens or subjects 
of that country and not British subjects : and 
when the father, or the mother if a widow, 
has been readmitted to British nationality, the 
children, if they have become residents during 
infancy in the British dominion with the father 
or the mother, resume their position of British 
subjects ; and if the father, or the mother if 
a widow, become naturalized, the children are 
deemed British subjects if they during infancy 
become residents with their father or their 
mother in any part of the United Kingdom. 
And finally all laws made in the British co- 
lonial possessions respecting naturalization are 
to have the authority of law, but are subject 
to be confirmed or disallowed by the queen 
like other colonial laws. In the various Brit- 
ish colonies naturalization is either granted by 
the governor, or by a special act or ordinance 
of the colonial legislature or council, in each 
instance, or it is regulated by a general local 
law. It is granted by the governor in Ja- 
maica, the Bahamas, Antigua, Turk's and Oai- 
cos islands, Newfoundland, Victoria, South 
Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand ; by a 
special act or ordinance in each case in West- 



168 



NATURALIZATION 



ern Australia, British Guiana, Barbadoes, St. 
Vincent, St. Lucia, Grenada, Trinidad, and 
generally in the minor West India islands. In 
Antigua, Grenada, and St. Vincent immigrants 
from the United States and British North 
America, of African descent, who have served 
under a contract for a year, can after three 
years' residence become naturalized by taking 
the oath of allegiance before the governor and 
secretary of the colony. In Sierra Leone it is 
regulated by an act of the imperial parliament. 
In New South Wales, Bermuda, and Honduras, 
it is, making the necessary changes, the same 
as under the English act of 1844. In the fol- 
lowing colonies it is regulated by a general lo- 
cal law : Canada, St. Christopher and Anguilla, 
Turk's and Caicos islands, and Cape Colony. 
In Canada and Cape Colony a certain period 
of residence is required. In all the colonies an 
oath of allegiance is taken and a few other for- 
malities are requisite. In Canada an oath by the 
applicant of three years' residence with intent 
to settle, and an oath of allegiance, are taken be- 
fore a justice of the peace. The justice trans- 
mits a certificate that the requisite oaths have 
been taken to the court of the city or place 
where the applicant resided on the first day of 
its sitting ; this is publicly read in court, and if 
no valid objection is made the certificate is filed 
and the act of naturalization is complete. The 
effect of naturalization by the local government 
of a colony or country forming part of the do- 
minions of the crown of England, was consid- 
ered iu a case arising in the reign of Charles II., 
Craw against Ramsey, reported in Vaughan's 
Reports. It was declared in that case that a 
person naturalized by the parliament of Ire- 
land, or naturalized in Scotland, which at that 
period was an independent kingdom, connected 
with England only by the circumstance that 
the crowns of both kingdoms centred in one 
person, did not thereby become a naturalized 
subject in England; that the effect of such 
a naturalization did not extend beyond the 
limits of the country where it was conferred, 
and that this applied to all the colonies or de- 
pendencies of the crown of England. It was 
also held in two cases before the privy council, 
in 1834 and 1837, one of which arose in the 
island of Mauritius and the other in Canada, 
that the status or political condition of a per- 
son resident in one of the British dependencies 
was to be determined by the law of Great 
Britain, but that the rights or liabilities which 
attached to it, when ascertained, depended 
upon the law of the particular colony. The 
policy of France upon this subject has been 
restrictive, which may be traced in a great de- 
gree to the unfavorable influence exercised by 
foreigners at various periods of her history. 
Many Italian adventurers were naturalized in 
the reign of Charles VIII., but their characters 
were so worthless that their certificates of 
naturalization were annulled -by his successor 
Louis XII. in 1499. At the time of the league 
great numbers of naturalized Spaniards and 



Italians mingled in public affairs, and gave 
such offence, especially as a branch of the 
clergy, that a law was passed in 1579 prohibit- 
ing foreigners from holding ecclesiastical of- 
fices. Their participation in the civil adminis- 
tration of the state reached its climax when 
the notorious Italian Concini, the protege of 
Maria de' Medici, became a marshal without 
ever having drawn a sword, and minister, 
ruling with capricious insolence a people of 
whose laws he was ignorant. After his tragical 
end in 1617, an act was passed debarring for- 
eigners from holding a seat in the administra- 
tion; and the mischief wrought by Mazarin 
and his foreign camarilla led to a still more 
stringent law in 1651. No material change 
took place until the revolution, when in 1791 
the legislative assembly was authorized to nat- 
uralize foreigners upon the condition that they 
fixed their residence in the country and took 
an oath of allegiance. In 1793 a law was 
enacted admitting all to the rights of French 
citizens who had been domiciled in the country 
one year, over the age of 21, who supported 
themselves by their labor, or acquired prop- 
erty, or who should marry a native, or adopt 
a French infant, or support an aged person, 
and all others whom the convention regarded 
as meriting well of humanity. In 1798 a res- 
idence of seven consecutive years was made 
necessary; and as the country gravitated to- 
ward monarchy in 1800, the residence was ex- 
tended to ten consecutive years. In 1803 the 
residence was reduced to one year, if the alien 
had rendered important service to the state by 
his talents, inventions, useful industry, or by 
forming large establishments therein. In 1808 
it was provided that naturalization upon the 
ground of important services to the state, 
thereafter known as la grande naturalisation, 
should be conferred by a decree ratified by the 
council of state. In 1814 it was declared that 
no naturalized subject should be eligible to 
a seat in the legislative chambers, unless he 
had received the grand naturalization. Af- 
ter the revolution of 1848 the term of resi- 
dence was reduced to five years, and in 1867 it 
was further reduced to three years. As the law 
now stands, the grand naturalization after the 
residence of a year, in the cases already men- 
tioned, is conferred by a decree of the execu- 
tive, and ratified by the legislature. In other 
cases the alien must have attained the age of 
21, must have resided in France for three 
consecutive years under the authorization of 
the government, and have declared his inten- 
tion of fixing his residence there ; and the ap- 
plication must be made in the manner pro- 
vided for by the decree of 1809. A child born 
in France of foreign parents, or the child of 
French parents born abroad, may reclaim the 
rights of citizenship on attaining the age of 21, 
if he resides in France and declares his in- 
tention of there fixing his domicile, or if, re- 
siding abroad, he makes a similar declara- 
tion and establishes himself in France within 



NATURALIZATION 



169 



the year that he makes his declaration. A for- 
eign woman marrying a native becomes a 
French subject, and a French woman marrying 
a foreigner follows the condition of her hus- 
band ; but becoming a widow, she recovers 
her nationality if living in France, or if she 
returns to it with the authority of the execu- 
tive, and declares her intention of fixing there 
her residence. A foreigner living in France 
enjoys the same civil rights that are accorded 
to Frenchmen in the country to which the for- 
eigner belongs. Citizenship is lost by natural- 
ization elsewhere, by accepting office or a pen- 
sion under another government without the 
authority of the executive, or by so establish-, 
ing one's self abroad as to indicate an inten- 
tion not to return ; but dwelling abroad for 
commercial purposes does not have that effect. 
Citizenship may be recovered by renouncing 
the foreign office and domicile, on due applica- 
tion to the state, upon declaring an intention 
to fix a residence in France and renouncing all 
distinctions contrary to its laws. A difference 
is recognized since 1823 between letters of 
naturalization and letters of nationality, the 
former conferring a new right, the latter mere- 
ly restoring a right that was lost or in abey- 
ance. All Frenchmen, whether naturalized or 
holding office abroad with the consent of the 
executive, who are taken bearing arms against 
France, suffer the penalty of death ; it consti- 
tutes no exemption that they were serving in 
obedience to the laws of their adopted country. 
Not only in this provision, but upon naturali- 
zation of foreigners generally, the policy of the 
government is in practice very illiberal. In 
1852 a difficulty arose between the govern- 
ments of the United States and France, upon 
the claim of the latter to compel a Frenchman 
naturalized in the United States to serve in the 
French army. At the earnest remonstrances of 
the American minister, the case was investiga- 
ted by the French minister of war, and he was 
of opinion that the claim of the government of 
France could not be supported, but he left the 
matter to be determined by the judicial tribu- 
nals. The question afterward came before the 
French courts in the case of two natives of 
France naturalized in the United States, who 
upon their return to their native country had 
been compelled to enter the French army ; and 
after a full examination of the whole subject, 
it was decided that as France recognized the 
right of expatriation, it followed as a conse- 
quence that it could have no claim upon a na- 
tive of France who by naturalization became 
the citizen of another country ; that by being 
naturalized a Frenchman changed his allegiance 
and lost his native character, and could not on 
returning to France be compelled to serve in 
the army, or perform the obligations required 
of a French subject or citizen. The decision 
was approved by the imperial government, and 
the men were discharged. In Belgium natu- 
ralization is granted by a legislative act. It is 
of two kinds, grand and ordinary. The first 



is conferred only where eminent services have 
been rendered to the state, and the person to 
whom it is granted is placed in every respect 
upon an equality with a native. The second 
naturalization, ordinaire or petite, admits to 
every privilege except the exercise of those 
political rights which are reserved for the grand 
naturalization. In contradistinction to France, 
the policy of the Belgian government on this 
subject is distinguished by great liberality. In 
the Netherlands, by the fundamental law of 
1848, a foreigner can be naturalized only by 
an act of the states general, approved by the 
king; but he acquires substantially the privi- 
leges of a subject if he has permission from the 
king to establish a domicile, and gives notice 
to the administration of a commune that he has 
established his domicile in that commune, with 
a declaration of his intention to settle in the 
kingdom, and retains his domicile in the same 
commune for six years. In neither country is 
any stated period of residence demanded, or any 
other special condition required ; and citizenship 
in both may be lost for the same causes as in 
France, and restored in the same way. In Swe- 
den, by a law passed in 1858, an application must 
be made by petition to the king, accompanied by 
proof of the age of the petitioner, his religion, 
his native country, the time of his immigra- 
tion, the places where he has resided in Swe- 
den, and his general good conduct. He must 
be 21 years of age, of good character, a resi- 
dent of Sweden for three years, must have the 
means of supporting himself, and must not be 
of the Roman Catholic religion. If he has 
been previously admitted into the service of 
the state, or is known as a man of more than 
ordinary ability in the arts or sciences, or in 
the industrial pursuits of agriculture or mining, 
or if for other reasons it is considered that his 
adoption as a Swedish subject would prove 
useful to the state, the three years' previous 
residence may be dispensed with. In Norway 
naturalization is granted by the storthing, the 
national legislative assembly, in which this 
power is exclusively vested, the assent of the 
king in this case not being necessary ; but any 
one who has definitively fixed his domicile in 
Norway, and resided there for ten years, has 
all the civil and political rights of a Norwe- 
gian subject. In Denmark a petition must be 
addressed to the president of the rigsraad, 
with a certificate of two citizens that the pe- 
titioner has resided one year in the country. 
An act is then passed by the rigsraad, decla- 
ring that the petitioner may reside and trade 
in the kingdom, with all the rights and sub- 
ject to all the duties of a native-born sub- 
ject. It must be approved by one of the min- 
isters and receive the sanction of the king, 
and the privilege is almost invariably granted 
as a matter of course whenever applied for. 
In Russia, by the law of 1864, a domicile of 
five years is requisite, which may be shortened 
in special cases. To acquire a domicile the 
foreigner must declare his wish to the gover- 



170 



NATURALIZATION 



nor of the province where he intends to re- 
side, and explain the nature of his occupation 
in his own country and the pursuit he pur- 
poses to follow in Russia; upon the receipt 
of which declaration he becomes domiciled. 
When the requisite time has elapsed applica- 
tion for naturalization must he made to the 
minister of the interior, with whom it is op- 
tional to refuse or grant the petition. If grant- 
ed, the alien becomes naturalized by taking an 
oath of fidelity to the emperor, and is then 
in respect to his rights and obligations upon 
a perfect equality with native-born Russians. 
He may if he wishes afterward renounce his 
naturalization on payment of all claims against 
him, governmental or private, and return to 
his native country or remain in Russia as a 
foreigner. Foreigners in the military or civil 
service of- Russia, and ecclesiastics of foreign 
persuasions, are naturalized by taking the oath 
of allegiance without any fixed period of domi- 
cile. The oath of allegiance is merely per- 
sonal, and does not affect children previously 
born, who however may be admitted upon the 
same terms as their parents. Children who 
are born afterward are Russians. Children 
of foreigners born and educated in Russia, or 
born abroad and educated in a Russian upper 
or middle school, may be naturalized a year 
after they have attained their majority. As 
most of the German states are now incorpo- 
rated in the German empire, their previous 
regulations respecting naturalization and citi- 
zenship, have been modified by a comprehen- 
sive provision preserved from the constitution 
of the North German confederation adopted 
in 1867, which declared that citizenship should 
thereafter be subject to the regulations of the 
confederation and of its legislature ; that a com- 
mon right of citizenship prevailed in the con- 
federation, and that the citizens of each con- 
stituent member of it should be treated as na- 
tives in all the others. A bureau has recently 
been established by the national government 
to which, it is said, this whole subject has been 
committed. As a general rule, under the regu- 
lations formerly in force, naturalization was 
granted if the applicant had been released from 
his former allegiance, or had been allowed by 
his government to emigrate; if he were of 
good character, and had discharged all his ob- 
ligations in the particular state to which he be- 
longed, such as paying his debts and fulfilling 
his military duty, which latter condition was 
required only of those from other German 
states. Application was made in writing to 
the council of the city or village where the ap- 
plicant resided, showing that he came within 
the above requirements. The petition was 
closely scrutinized, and if favorably regarded 
was sent with a report to the highest authority 
in the state, and a diploma signed by the prop- 
er minister was transmitted and given to the 
petitioner upon the payment of a small fee. 
If the petition was refused by the local author- 
ities, it was simply sent back, but the reasons 



were given if applied for. An Appeal might 
be taken, but was of little value, as the deci- 
sion of the local authorities was almost inva- 
riably affirmed. In Prussia, by a law of 1842, 
the superior administrative authorities are em- 
powered to naturalize any stranger who satis- 
fies them of his good conduct, certain excep- 
tions being made. Citizenship is acquired by 
nomination to a public office, or by the mar- 
riage of a foreign woman with a Prussian. 
The quality of a Prussian subject is lost by His 
being discharged upon his request, which is 
not granted to males between the ages of 17 
and 25 years without a military certificate that 
the application is not made to avoid the per- 
formance of their military duty. It is also 
lost by the sentence of a court, by living ten 
years in a foreign country, by entering a for- 
eign service without the permission of Prussia, 
or by the marriage of a female subject wipi a 
foreigner. If there is no special exemption, 
the certificate of discharge comprehends the 
wife and the minor children that are still un- 
der their father's authority. In Austria, a 
foreigner acquires the rights of citizenship if 
employed as a public functionary, but not by 
mere admission into the military service, nor 
by receiving a title of distinction or honor, 
but is treated as a citizen if maintained by 
the government on account of military ser- 
vices. The right may be conferred by the 
superior authorities upon an individual after 
ten years' residence without interruption, upon 
proof of the fact and upon taking the oath 
of allegiance. The authorities, however, may 
grant it before the expiration of that period 
upon proof of good moral character and of 
the applicant's ability to support himself ; and 
foreigners acquire the rights of citizens by 
entering into business requiring a permanent 
residence. The temporary possession of a 
farm, however, of a house or other real estate, 
or the mere establishment of a manufactory, 
or a commercial business, or a partnership, 
does not confer the right. An emigrant who 
has left the empire by permission of the au- 
thorities, with the intention not to return, for- 
feits his privileges as a subject. Marriage 
with an Austrian confers citizenship upon the 
wife. In Switzerland, under the constitution 
of May 29, 1874, a foreigner obtains citizen- 
ship, and thereby equal rights with the citizens 
in all cantons, by paying a fee in any commune, 
varying from about $4 to $300, according to the 
amount of communal property. In Portugal, 
an application must be made to the king through 
the secretary of foreign affairs, which is re- 
ferred to the council of state. The applicant 
must be over 25 years of age, have resided in 
the country one year, and have the means of 
subsistence. The year's residence may be dis 
pensed with if he is of Portuguese blood, 01 
upon proof that he has married a Portuguese, 
or been useful to the state by embarking in 
commerce, improving any branch of the arts, 
or introducing any new trade, manufacture, or 



NATURALIZATION 



171 



invention, or by opening or improving a public 
road ; and they are generally dispensed with in 
the case of mariners, as it has been the constant 
policy of Portugal to encourage foreigners to 
enter and augment its marine. In Spain, by 
the ancient law of the realm, no foreigner could 
be naturalized. The constitutions of 1837 and 
1845, however, included in their classification 
of Spanish subjects those who should receive 
letters of naturalization, and provided for the 
enactment of a law declaratory of the condi- 
tions upon which such letters would be granted. 
The present state of the law appears to be 
unsettled or difficult to ascertain. Before the 
various Italian states were formed into the 
kingdom of Italy, each state had its own reg- 
ulations in respect to naturalization. In the 
Two Sicilies ten years' consecutive residence 
was required, but special naturalization might 
be granted after one year's residence to any one 
who had rendered important service to the state. 
In Sardinia it was granted after five years' resi- 
dence if the applicant had purchased real estate 
or was engaged in some useful commercial busi- 
ness. The pope in the Papal States and the 
king in the Neapolitan dominions might natu- 
ralize whom they thought proper ; but the ex- 
ercise of the power was rare, and when it took 
place was usually upon the same conditions as 
in Sardinia, except that none could be admitted 
but Roman Catholics, while in Sardinia no' dis- 
tinction was made on the ground of religion. 
According to the revised code of the kingdom 
of Italy of 1866, aliens may become naturalized 
citizens either by a special act of parliament or 
by a royal decree. The decree to be effectual 
must within six months after its date be regis- 
tered with the proper civil authority of the 
state in the place where the alien has estab- 
lished or intends to establish his domicile, and 
the alien must also within that period take 
an oath before the same authorities that he 
will be faithful to the king and observe the 
statutes and laws of the realm. The code does 
not contain any further regulations on the 
subject, but the government has discretionary 
power for taking such informations as each 
application may seem to require. Hence the 
necessity of a special act of parliament or a 
royal decree for each individual naturalization. 
There is in Italy, besides the national citizen- 
ship, a local one, as every Italian citizen must 
be enrolled in the lists of the district in which 
he is subject to taxation and conscription; 
citizenship in fact being of the same general 
nature as the German burgher right. By the 
national code above referred to of 1866, if 
the father is unknown, the child of a citizen 
mother is a citizen ; and if the mother is un- 
known and the child was born in the kingdom, 
it is a citizen. A child of an alien who has had 
an uninterrupted domicile in th6 kingdom for 
ten years is a citizen ; also the child of a citi- 
zen who has lost his citizenship before the birth 
of the child, if the child was born and resides 
in the kingdom. In such cases, however, the 



child may elect to be considered an alien, upon 
making a declaration to that effect in a mode 
prescribed. A child born abroad before his 
father lost his citizenship is an alien ; but he 
may elect to take the quality of a citizen by 
making a declaration in a form prescribed and 
establishing a domicile in Italy for a year ; or 
he is regarded as a citizen if he has served in 
the Italian army or navy, or accepted public 
employment in the kingdom, or satisfied the 
requirements of the conscription without seek- 
ing exemption as an alien. If an alien has not 
established his domicile for ten years, his child 
is an alien, but by making the prescribed dec- 
laration may become a citizen. Citizenship is 
lost: 1, by making a formal renunciation of it 
before the civil authority of the province where 
the person resides and emigrating; 2, by ac- 
cepting employment from a foreign state or 
entering its army, without permission of the 
Italian government; 3, by naturalization in a 
foreign country. The wife and minor children 
of one who has lost his citizenship are aliens, 
unless they have continued to reside in the 
realm. Citizenship may be restored: 1, by 
returning to the realm with the permission 
of the government; 2, by renouncing foreign 
citizenship, or the employment or military ser- 
vice of a foreign power; 3, by declaring an 
intention before the proper authority to estab- 
lish a domicile in the realm, and establishing 
it within a year. In Greece, by a law passed 
May 15, 1835, any foreigner may become a 
Greek citizen by making a declaration of his 
intention before the authorities of the deme 
in which he resides, and after a continued 
residence in the country for three years from 
the day when he declared his intention. Upon 
the expiration of the three years he is natural- 
ized by taking an oath before the prefect of 
obedience to the laws and of fidelity to the 
king. From the period of declaring his inten- 
tion he enjoys all civil rights, and Grecian cit- 
izenship may be conferred without expense 
upon any foreigner who has rendered' dis- 
tinguished service to the state. Any person 
born in Greece of foreign parents may, when 
arriving of age, become a Greek citizen by 
declaring his intention to make Greece his per- 
manent home, and registering his name in a 
deme, or, if residing abroad, by making a simi- 
lar declaration, and returning within one year 
thereafter to Greece and registering his name 
as above. Every one born abroad of a Greek 
father is a citizen of Greece ; or if the father 
has lost his nationality, the son may become a 
citizen by making the declaration and register- 
ing his name as above stated. This law de- 
clares Greek citizens to be those born in the 
kingdom and of parents having the Greek na- 
tionality, and those who have acquired it by de- 
claring their intention to become citizens ; and 
that the nationality is lost by becoming a citi- 
zen of a foreign country, by bearing arms 
against Greece, or by entering the civil or 
military service of another nation without ob- 



172 



NATURALIZATION 



taming special permission from the king, or 
by a citizen establishing himself abroad in a 
manner which indicates an intent not to return, 
but no such intent is to be inferred simply from 
the fact that a citizen has established himself 
in another country for commercial purposes. 
In Turkey the population is divided into two 
great classes, the Turks or Mohammedans, the 
ruling race, and the Eayas (the flock), who 
with the exception of some few tribes are 
Christians or Jews. The Rayas are organized 
in distinct communities, having their own mu- 
nicipal regulations, as Armenians, Bulgarians, 
Bosnians, Serbs, Latin Christians, or Jews, 
under a recognized head, as a bishop, pa- 
triarch, or other ruler, who is responsible to 
the sultan for the good conduct of his com- 
munity. Resident foreigners might become 
members of one of these communities with 
the consent of the body, upon giving due no- 
tice to the Porte, and when admitted were en- 
titled to the privileges and bound to the ob- 
ligations of Turkish subjects. This however 
has probably been modified by a decree of the 
Ottoman empire of Jan. 19, 1869, which pro- 
vides that the character of a Turkish subject 
may be obtained on application to the minister 
for foreign affairs, if the applicant is of age 
and has resided five years consecutively within 
the Ottoman empire, and that this condition 
may be dispensed with by the government in 
exceptional cases. By this decree also the 
nationality of the parents, or of the father, 
alone determines that of the child, irrespec- 
tive of the place of birth ; and it further pro- 
vides that a person born of an alien on Turkish 
territory may within three years after arriving 
at age claim to become a Turkish subject. 
Foreigners, not members of one of the Raya 
communities, are aliens and under the protec- 
tion of their respective consuls. The Moham- 
medans enjoy greater privileges than the Rayas, 
and foreigners of whatever creed or nation 
may be received into this class upon embracing 
Mohammedanism. Their naturalization was 
formerly both a civil ceremony and a religious 
rite. It consisted in going first to the Porte or 
the executive authority representing it, in put- 
ting on the fez cap, and making a public decla- 
ration of faith in the words: "There is no 
God but God, and Mohammed is his prophet;" 
and then repeating the same ceremony in the 
mosque. Circumcision was also required ; and 
when these conditions had been fulfilled, the 
proselyte was invested with all the rights of a 
native-born Mohammedan subject. Whether 
this continues, or has been superseded by the 
decree of 1869, is not known. In Egypt, Per- 
sia, and throughout all the Mohammedan coun- 
tries, naturalization is effected in the same 
way, either by embracing Mohammedanism or 
by being formally admitted a member of one 
of the other organized communities. In the 
European states, with but a few exceptions 
which have been mentioned, a naturalized 
foreigner enjoys every civil and political right, 



and may hold the highest office. In all of them 
naturalization is a thing of rather unusual oc- 
currence, the number of foreigners who be- 
come permanent residents in any one of them 
being very limited. Those who do are chiefly 
devoted to commercial pursuits ; and as natu- 
ralization, as a general rule, is not essential to 
enable them to carry on trade or commerce, it 
is not generally applied for. In the different 
West India islands belonging to European 
powers, the authority to naturalize is generally 
either vested in the sovereign or his representa- 
tive, or regulated by a local law. In the island 
of Cuba, by the Spanish ordinance of Oct. 21, 
1817, the captain general may grant letters of 
license for domiciliation to all resident foreign- 
ers, upon their taking an oath of fidelity and 
submission to the law. These letters entitle 
them to hold real and personal property, and 
to the same protection in their persons and 
property as Spanish subjects ; but for the first 
five years of domiciliation they cannot engage 
in trade, open a shop, or become owners of 
ships or vessels, unless in partnership with 
Spanish subjects. After that time they can be- 
come naturalized. They must present their 
original letter of license to the captain general, 
and avow their intention to make the island 
their perpetual residence; and if it appear 
after due inquiry by the government that they 
have resided constantly on the island for five 
years, and are of good moral character, letters 
of naturalization are granted to them after they 
have sworn fidelity to the Roman Catholic re- 
ligion, to the crown, and to the laws, and re- 
nounced all foreign allegiance to and every 
privilege received from any other government 
When thus naturalized, they and their legiti- 
mate heirs and descendants acquire all the 
rights and privileges, and are placed upon the 
same footing as natural-born subjects. But the 
provision in respect to naturalization, though 
still in full force, has become practically a dead 
letter, as natives enjoy but few privileges which 
resident or domiciled foreigners do not possess. 
In Hayti, by a modification of the civil code 
adopted in 1860, any person who in virtue of 
the constitution wishes to become a citizen, 
must within a year after his arrival make an 
oath before a justice of the peace renouncing 
allegiance to every other government, upon 
presenting an official attestation of which at 
the office of the president of Hayti, he receives 
from that officer an act recognizing him as a 
citizen of the republic, In Mexico two years' 
residence is required, and one year's previous 
declaration of intention. This declaration is in 
the form of a petition to the ayuntamiento of 
the place where the applicant resides. Before 
he can be naturalized, the applicant must prove 
before the nearest circuit judge that he is of 
the Roman Catholic religion, and has a trade, 
profession, or income sufficient to support 
him. The documents containing this proof 
must then be laid before the governor or politi- 
cal chief of the district or territory, and, if 



NATURALIZATION 



173 



satisfactory, letters of naturalization are grant- 
ed by that officer to the applicant upon re- 
nouncing his former allegiance and swearing to 
support the constitution; but naturalization 
cannot be obtained while the country to which 
the applicant owes allegiance is at war with 
Mexico. Colonists who settle new lands can 
be naturalized a year after they have settled, 
and aliens in the naval service become citizens 
by taking the oath of allegiance. Citizenship 
in Mexico is lost by residing abroad for ten 
years without obtaining a prolongation of the 
permit to be absent ; by accepting honors or 
offices from a foreign sovereign ; by becoming 
naturalized in another country ; by a citizen so 
establishing himself abroad as to indicate a 
manifest intention not to return ; by a Mexican 
woman upon her marriage with a foreigner, 
and by the children of Mexicans born out of 
the country who do not claim the right before 
they arrive at the age of 26 years (but this is 
supposed to be unconstitutional since 1857). 
The adult children of Mexican parents who 
have lost their citizenship also lose the right, 
unless they claim it and reside one year in the 
country after their right to citizenship is recog- 
nized. Finally, any Mexican who in time of 
war hoists a foreign flag over his house, loses 
his citizenship, and is punished by banishment. 
The children of aliens born in Mexico follow 
the condition of their parents, and are not 
deemed citizens. In Brazil three years' previ- 
ous residence is requisite, after which naturali- 
zation is obtained by a joint resolution, which 
must pass both chambers of the general assem- 
bly and be affirmed by the emperor. By a law 
passed in 1860 children of foreigners born in 
Brazil have during their minority the politi- 
cal condition of their parents ; but on reach- 
ing their majority they acquire the rights and 
become subject to the duties of Brazilian citi- 
zens. A Brazilian woman marrying an alien 
follows his condition, but upon becoming a 
widow is considered a Brazilian subject if re- 
siding in Brazil, or if, returning there, she de- 
clares her intention to fix her residence in the 
country ; and a foreign woman marrying a Bra- 
zilian has the political condition of her hus- 
band. In the Argentine Republic two years' 
residence in the country is required, or the pe- 
riod may be lessened where services have been 
rendered to the state. In Peru the governor of 
a department may grant naturalization upon 
proof of good conduct, that the applicant has 
resided in Peru for one year, and that he comes 
within the requirements of the constitution, 
and upon his taking the oath of allegiance. In 
Chili five years' previous residence is necessary ; 
but where an alien has married a native, this 
period is reduced to four years. In Paraguay 
foreigners who establish a character for pru- 
dence and discretion, and who are not politi- 
cal propagandists, may be naturalized with the 
consent of the president. In Bolivia citizenship 
is granted to those who renounce their former 
allegiance and inscribe their names upon the 



civil register. In Venezuela it may be obtained 
by transmitting a memorial through the gov- 
ernor of a province to the executive, with legal 
proof of the applicant's good conduct and of 
his means of subsistence, the names of his 
wife and children if he have any, and that he 
has either resided one year in the territory or 
sailed for six months in a war or merchant 
vessel of the republic, or owns real estate of a 
certain value, or is married to a Venezuelan 
woman, or that he has rendered important 
service to the state. If approved, letters of 
naturalization are sent to the governor, who 
delivers them upon the applicant's taking an 
oath before him or before the jefe politico 
that he will obey the constitution and laws ; 
and the wife and minor children become 
naturalized with him, their names and ages 
being indorsed upon the letters. In Ecuador 
a foreigner may be naturalized if he owns real 
estate or $1,000 in money, or is engaged in 
some industrial pursuit, upon making known 
his intention to the governor of a province ; in 
Colombia, by sending a memorial through the 
governor of a province to the executive, sta- 
ting the applicant's nationality, and the names 
of his wife and children if he have any, and 
by taking an oath to obey the constitution and 
laws and renouncing his former allegiance, his 
wife and minor children becoming naturalized 
with him. In the states of Central America 
the more general rule is, as in Brazil, to nat- 
uralize the alien either by the executive or 
by a legislative act. In Costa Rica an applica- 
tion must be made to the president of the re- 
public, accompanied by proof that the peti- 
tioner has resided there six years, of his good 
conduct during that period, and of his having 
honest means of subsistence. Letters of natu- 
ralization are then granted him by the presi- 
dent on renouncing his previous national al- 
legiance. In Honduras a foreigner is natural- 
ized by acquiring real estate and a residence 
of four years, but if one marries a Hondurian 
wife this period is reduced to two years; or 
a letter of naturalization may be obtained 
from the legislature for services rendered to 
the state, for an important improvement in 
agriculture or the arts, or for introducing a 
new manufacture in the country. In San Sal- 
vador he is naturalized by acquiring real estate 
and a residence of five years, or by contract- 
ing marriage with a Salvadorian woman and 
a residence of three years, or by obtaining 
a letter of naturalization from the legislative 
body in the same way and for the same causes 
as in Honduras. In Nicaragua letters of natu- 
ralization may be granted by congress after 
two years' residence in the republic. . In most 
of the states of Central America naturalization 
is granted by the legislature to resident foreign- 
ers generally upon application, without insist- 
ing upon any conditions ; the clause that it is 
upon the ground of important services to the 
state, &c., being usually inserted in the letters 
of naturalization as a mere matter of form. 



174: NATURAL PHILOSOPHY 

In the foregoing enumeration some countries 
are omitted, because their laws could not be 
accurately ascertained, and many countries of 
Asia and Africa are not noticed for the reason 
that they have no regulations upon the_subject. 
In the largest of these countries, China, for- 
eigners are by the imperial code perpetually 
excluded, except within certain prescribed lim- 
its, unless where provision is made for more 
extended privileges by treaty. 

NATURAL PHILOSOPHY, a term formerly used 
to include all those sciences which relate to 
the material universe, in contradistinction to 
those which relate to the mind or metaphysics. 
The wide extent of the term and its conse- 
quent vagueness have led to a gradual restric- 
tion of its application, until at present it em- 
braces only mechanics and physics. For the 
former, see the article MECHANICS. The term 
physics is usually considered as including the 
sciences of hydromechanics, pneumatics, acous- 
tics, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. 
Each of these will be found treated in this 
Cyclopedia under its appropriate head. 

NAUHEIM, a watering place of Hesse-Darm- 
stadt, Germany, 17 m. N. of Frankfort; pop. 
about 2,500. The salt works here are of great 
antiquity, but baths were iirst established in 
1834, and the number of visitors is now about 
3,000 a year. A fountain bored in 1838 down 
to the bed of natural salt gave out in 1848, 
but a new one soon took its place. In Decem- 
ber, 1846, a slight shock of earthquake brought 
forth another fountain from a hole bored some 
years before. This affords water for the old 
and new bath houses, and produces annually 
75,000 quintals of salt. A still more recent 
fountain, the Friedrich-Wilhelm's Sprudel, dis- 
charges a column of water 12 in. in diameter 
from the top of a shaft 15 ft. high. These wa- 
ters, used both for bathing and drinking, are 
efficacious in diseases of the skin and bowels. 
The Kurhaus is a fine building surrounded by a 
park. Gaming tables, which formerly existed, 
have been abolished. The mineral waters of 
Nauheim and vicinity are largely exported. 

NAUMAM, Johann Friedrich, a German orni- 
thologist, born at Ziebigk, near Kothen, Feb. 
14, 1780, died in Kothen, Aug. 15, 1857. He 
was the son of the ornithologist Johann An- 
dreas ISTaumann, studied at Dessau, and devoted 
himself especially to the study of the birds of 
Germany. Besides other works, he published 
Naturgeschifhte der Vogel Deutschlands (13 
vols., Leipsic, 1822-'52), embellished by plates, 
a large number of which he engraved himself. 

NAUMAM. I. Johann Gottlieb, a German com- 
poser, born at Blase witz, near Dresden, April 17, 
1741, died in Dresden, Oct. 23, 1801. When 
13 years of age he went to Italy, and afterward 
settled in Venice, where he remained eight 
years, teaching and composing music. In 1765 
he returned to Dresden, and was appointed 
composer to the elector of Saxony. Shortly 
after he made a second journey to Italy, and in 
1772 a third, when he resided two years at 



NAUMBURG 

Rome, and in 13 months composed five operas. 
In his later years he composed much church 
music. Among his operas are " Cora," " Am- 
phion," " Orpheus," and " Gustavus Vasa." 
II. Karl Friedrieh, a German mineralogist, son 
of the preceding, born in Dresden, May 30, 
1797, died in Leipsic in January, 1874. He 
was educated at Freiberg, Leipsic, and Jena, 
made a scientific journey to Norway in 1821 
and 1822, and published Beitrdge zur Kennt- 
niss Norwegens (2 vols., Leipsic, 1824). In 
1826 he succeeded Mohs in the chair of crys- 
tallography at Freiberg, and in 1835 was also 
appointed professor of geognosy. In 1842 he 
went to the university of Leipsic as professor 
of mineralogy and geognosy, and in 1866 he 
was made privy counsellor of mines. Among 
his remaining works are: Anfangsgrunde der 
Krystallographie (Dresden, 1841 ; 2ded., 3 vols., 
Leipsic, 1854) ; Elemente der Mineralogie (8th 
ed., 1871) ; and Lehrluch der Geognosie (1850 ; 
2d ed., 3 vols., 1858-'67). III. Moritz Ernst Adolf, 
a German physician, brother of the preceding, 
born in Dresden, Oct. 6, 1798, died in Bonn, 
Oct. 19, 1871. He took his degree at Leipsic, 
and was adjunct professor there in 1824-'5, and 
subsequently in Berlin till 1828, when he be- 
came professor at Bonn. Among his works are : 
Handbuch der medicinischen Klinik (8 vols., 
Berlin, 1829-'39; 2d ed., 11 vols., 1839-'47); 
Pathogenic (3 vols., 1841-'5) ; Allgemeine Pa- 
tholog'ie und Therapie (1851) ; Ergebnisse und 
Studien aus der medicinischen Klinik zu Bonn 
(2 vols., Leipsic, 1858-'61) ; and Die Naturwis- 
senschaften und der Mater ialismus (Bonn, 1869). 
IV. Emil, a German composer and author, son 
of the preceding, born in Berlin, Sept. 8, 1828. 
He studied under Mendelssohn, and in 1848 
produced his first important work, the oratorio 
Ghristus der Friedensbote. About 1852 he pub- 
lished Die Umgestaltung der protestantischen 
Kirchenmmik, and was soon after appointed 
director of church music at Berlin. Among 
his compositions are the cantata Zerstorung 
Jerusalem's, the operas Judith and Muhlenhexe, 
the overture to Lorelei, and many pieces of 
church music. He has published Ueber die 
Einfuhrung des Psalmengesanges in der evan- 
gelischen Kirche (1856), and Die Tonkunst in 
der Culturgeschichte (1869-'70). 

XAO1BFRG, a fortified town of Prussia, in 
the province of Saxony, on the Saale, near 
the junction of the Unstrut, 23 m. S. S, "W. 
of Halle; pop. in 1871, 15,120. It is an ac- 
tive manufacturing and commercial town, but 
the once famous fair of Naumburg has lost 
its importance. Among the principal build- 
ings are the cathedral, one of the finest spe- 
cimens of German mediaeval architecture, re- 
markable for its lofty towers and -double choir, 
completed in 1349, and the restoration of 
which was begun in 1874, and the church of 
St. Wenceslas, with a famous picture of 
" Christ blessing Little Children," by Cranach. 
It is the seat of the Protestant cathedral chap- 
ter of Naumburg-Zeitz, and has one Roman 



NAUPACTUS 



NAUTILUS 



175 



Catholic and four Protestant churches, a gym- 
nasium, and several other schools of a high 
grade. An annual children's festival is cele- 
brated here, in commemoration of the raising 
of the siege by the Hussites under Procopius, 




Naumburg. 

which according to tradition took place July 
28, 1432, in consequence of the entreaties of 
the children of Naumburg. This event has 
been dramatized in Kotzebue's Die Hussiten 
vor Naumburg, but its authenticity has been 
called in question by recent historians. Sev- 
eral treaties were concluded at Naumburg in 
the 15th and 16th centuries, and the town was 
of strategical importance during the thirty 
years' war and the wars of 1806 and 1813. 

NAUPACTUS. See LEPANTO. 

NAUPLIA, or Napoli di Romania, a seaport town 
of Greece, in the nomarchy of Argolis and 
Corinth, and capital of an eparchy of its own 
name, on the gulf of Argolis, 58 m. S. W. 
of Athens; pop. in 1870, 8,543. The three 
forts which protect it make it the strongest 
maritime town of Greece. It is the seat of a 
Greek archbishop, of a court of appeal, and of 
a court of primary jurisdiction. The town has 
seven churches, a gymnasium, and an arsenal. 
From 1824 to the end of 1834 it was the seat 
of the government of Greece. In 1831 Capo 
d'Istria was assassinated here, and in 1833 
Otho, the first king of restored Greece, land- 
ed at the port. In antiquity Nauplia was the 
port of Argos. 

NAUSEA (from Gr. vav$, a ship, from its pres- 
ence in sea sickness), the sickening sensation 
at the pit of the stomach which usually pre- 
cedes vomiting. Nausea may be produced by 
a variety of causes : by the introduction into 
the stomach of nauseating or emetic drugs, by 
continued rotation or swinging of the body, by 
the unaccustomed motion of a vessel upon the 
waves, by food which disagrees with the stom- 
ach either in quantity or quality, sometimes 
589 VOL. xii. 12 



by a blow upon the head, and in sensitive 
persons by offensive odors, by sudden alterna- 
tions of temperature, and even by disagreeable 
news or moral impressions. When followed 
by vomiting, it is usually relieved immediately 

upon the evacuation of 

^ the stomach. If not 
so relieved, and if long 
continued, it becomes 
excessively depressing, 
and may even be dan- 
gerous to life. If the 
sensation of nausea be 
excited by any sub- 
stance which has been 
taken into the stomach, 
the best treatment is to 
favor the act of vomit- 
ing by copious draughts 
of warm water, and thus 
secure an early and com- 
plete evacuation of the 
stomach. If it depends 
upon any other of the 
causes named, quiet, 
a horizontal position, 
and freedom from all 
sources of disturbance, 
are most effectual. 

NAUSETS. See MASSACHUSETTS INDIANS. 
NAUSHON. See ELIZABETH ISLANDS. 
NAUTILUS (Gr. vavr'ikoq, from vovf, a ship), a 
name applied to both the tetrabranchiate and 
dibranchiate orders of the cephalopod mollusks. 
In the former the true or pearly nautilus is the 
best known species of the only living genus 
representing the extinct chambered shells (such 




Pearly Nautilus (Nautilus pompilius). 

as ammonites, orthoceratites, turrilites, &c.) 
which abounded during the primary and sec- 
ondary geological ages ; in the latter belongs 
the nautilus of the ancients (the paper nauti- 
lus of the moderns), more properly called ar- 
gonaut. For the characters of the class and 
orders see CEPHALOPODA, and MOLLUSCA. The 



176 



NAUTILUS 



genus nautilus (Linn.) has a discoid, symmet- 
rical, univalve shell, with simple aperture, su- 
tures, and siphuncle. The organization of the 
pearly nautilus (JV. pompilius, Linn.) was first 
made known by Prof. Owen in 1832, and after- 
ward by Gray, Grant, Be Blainville, Van der 
Hoeven, Valenciennes, and Huxley. The pos- 
terior portion of the body, containing the vis- 
cera, is soft, smooth, and adapted to the ante- 
rior chamber of the shell ; the anterior is mus- 
cular, including the organs of sense and loco- 
motion, and can be retracted within the shell ; 
the mantle is very thin behind, and prolonged 
through the calcareous tube of the occupied 
chamber as a membranous siphon, and through 
all the divisions of the shell to the central nu- 
cleus ; on the upper part of the head is a broad 
triangular muscular hood, the back part exca- 
vated for the involuted convexity of the shell, 
protecting the head when retracted, and used 
as a foot for creeping at the bottom of the sea 
with the shell uppermost. On each side of the 
head are 20 perforated digitated processes of 
a conical form, each containing a long finely 
ringed tentacle, whose inner surface is closely 
set with narrow transverse plates ; the eyes, 
large and prominent, are placed on short pedi- 
cels on the side of the head behind the digita- 
tions ; the subocular processes have no tenta- 
cles, and are rudimentary external ears, their 
cavity extending to the auditory capsule. The 
mouth has two horny mandibles, like the beak 
of a parrot reversed, the lower overlapping 
the upper, moving vertically, and implanted in 
thick muscular walls ; the surrounding circular 
fleshy lip has 4 labial processes, each pierced 
by 12 canals, containing each a small retrac- 
tile tentacle, making, with the 38 digital and 
4 ophthalmic, 90 tentacles on and around the 
head. The internal cartilaginous skeleton is 
confined to the lower surface of the head, a 
part of the cephalic nervous system being pro- 
tected in a groove on its upper surface, and 
the two great muscles which fix the body to 
the shell are attached to it. The funnel is very 
muscular, and is the principal organ of free 
locomotion, the animal being propelled back- 
ward by a succession of jerks occasioned by 
the reaction of the ejected respiratory currents 
against the surrounding water. The capacious 
crop opens into an oval muscular gizzard ; the 
intestine terminates in the branchial cavity 
near the base of the funnel ; the liver is bulky, 
and the bile is derived from arterial blood; 
there is no ink gland. Sea water is admitted 
into the pericardium; the branchiaa are two 
pairs without branchial hearts, the larger bran- 
chia supporting 48 vascular folded plates on 
each side, the smaller 36 ; the large veins near 
the heart have clusters of follicles attached to 
them, according to Owen seeming to be ho- 
mologous with the so-called renal glands of 
lower mollusks ; by some they are considered 
as diverticula to relieve the circulation du- 
ring the varying pressures to which the ani- 
mal is subjected. The tongue is furnished with 



numerous papillae and spines. The nautilus, 
though the lowest of the cephalopods, ap- 
proaches the vertebrate type nearer than any 
other invertebrate, in the perfect symmetry of 
the organs, the larger proportion of muscle, the 
increased bulk and concentration of the nervous 
centres in and near the head, the vertical op- 
position of the jaws, the gustatory papillae of 
the tongue, and the cartilaginous cephalic skele- 
ton. Its food consists of other mollusks and 
of crustaceans, showing that its natural habitat 
is the bottom of the sea, where it creeps about 
shell upward. The parts of the shell progres- 
sively vacated during the growth of the animal 
are successively partitioned off into air-tight 
chambers by thin smooth plates concave toward 
the opening, with sinuous margins, growing 
from the circumference toward the centre, 
and pierced by the membranous siphon. The 
young animal, before the shell becomes came- 
rated, cannot rise from the bottom ; but the 
older ones can come to the surface by changes 
in the expansion of the soft parts, by a slight 
vacuum produced in the posterior part of the 
occupied chamber, and according to some by 
the exhalation of some light gas into the de- 
serted chambers ; they rise in the water as a 
balloon does in the air, with the ability also of 
directing the motions to a certain extent by 
means of the funnel ; they float at the surface 
shell upward, and sink quickly by reversing 
the shell. The proportion of the air chambers 
to the dwelling chamber is such that the shell 
is nearly of the same specific gravity as the 
water; the siphon communicates with the 
pericardium, and is probably filled with fluid 
from that cavity ; it conducts small vessels for 
the nutrition of the shell, and perhaps for se- 
cretory purposes. A large and perfect shell 
will weigh 6 or 7 oz., and the soft parts 5 or 
6 oz. more ; the exterior crust of the shell is 
whitish with fawn-colored streaks and bands, 
and the interior has a beautiful pearly lustre, 
and is in request by cabinet makers and jewel- 
lers ; by removing the external coat by acids, 
the pearly surface is readily exposed, and shells 
thus treated and richly engraved were former- 
ly highly prized as ornaments for the mantle- 
piece and sideboard. This species is so com- 
mon in the S. Pacific, that at certain seasons 
of the year they are carried by the winds and 
currents to the island shores, where they are 
used, when smoke-dried, for food ; in the Pap- 
uan archipelago the shells are used as common 
utensils ; they are found from the Persian gulf 
and Indian ocean to the Chinese seas and the 
Pacific. In the umbilicated nautilus (N. um- 
bilicatus, Lester) the last whorl of the shell 
does not envelop and conceal the others ; the 
shape is ventricose, the surface reticulated, 
and the color dusky smoky, with numerous 
delicate chestnut flammules (five to the inch). 
A nautilus extended in a straight line would be 
a shell like a fossil orthoceratite ; in the am- 
monites the shell is coiled as in the nautilus, 
but is strengthened by arched ribs and dome- 



NAUTILUS 



NAUVOO 



irr 



shaped elevations on the convex surface. The 
paper nautilus or argonaut belongs to the oc- 
topod group of the dibranchiate cephalopods, 
or to the acetabulifera of D'Orbigny, from the 
arms being provided with sucking disks. It 
differs from the true nautilus in the arms of 
larger size and more complicated structure, 
partially connected by membrane at the base ; 
in the larger and more complex eyes, not pe- 
dunculated but lodged in orbits; in the gills 
being only two in number, each with a bran- 
chial heart ; in the funnel being an entire tube ; 
and in the presence of an ink gland and bag for 
its secretion. In the genus argonauta (Linn.), 
in the females, which alone have a shell as an 
egg receptacle, the first or dorsal pair of the 
eight arms are dilated into broad thin mem- 
branes, which secrete and sustain the very 
light, paper-like, calcareous, symmetrical, and 
single-chambered shell; like the other arms, 
these are provided with two rows of suctorial 
disks, extending around the whole circumfer- 
ence, by means of which the animal retains 
the shell in position; the six non-palmated 
arms serve as organs of prehension and loco- 
motion, as the animal drags itself along the 
bottom or climbs the rocks in search of food, 
and as anchors ; the shell, as in the nautilus, 
is carried above the body. The arms are at- 
tached to the anterior part of the cephalic car- 
tilage; the suckers are completely under the 
control of the animal, which can fasten or 
relax them instantly. Swimming is effected 
in a retrograde manner by the ejected currents 
from the funnel. The skin is soft and tender, 
and includes a great number of cells contain- 
ing pigment matter of different colors, whose 
contractions and expansions, with the surface 
movements, give it a remarkable power of rap- 
idly changing its tints. There is no internal 
shell, and it is now ascertained that the exter- 
nal shell is peculiar to the female, and is only 
an incubating and protective nest for the eggs ; 
it is not the homologue of the internal rudi- 
mentary shell of the cuttle fish, nor of the 
external chambered shell of the nautilus, but 
rather answers to the cocoon of leeches and 
other articulates, or to the egg-float of the 
delicate gasteropod janthina ; the eggs are 
attached by thread-like stalks to the involuted 




Paper Nautilus (Argonauta argo). 

spire of the shell, behind and beneath the body 
of the female. The best known species, the 
A. argo (Linn.), inhabits the Atlantic, Pacific, 
and Indian oceans, and the Mediterranean, 
especially about Sicily. In the last named lo- 
cality Mme. Jeanette Power made the experi- 



ments which determined that the argonaut is 
the maker of its own shell, and not a parasitic 
occupant like the hermit crab ; this question 
arose from the fact that the animal has no 
muscular or other attachment to the shell, and 
has been known voluntarily to quit it, and sur- 
vive in captivity a considerable time without 
any attempt to return to it ; it also repairs the 
shell when broken by the agency of the pal- 
mated arms. For an account of the arguments 
for and against parasitism (among the advo- 
cates of the former being Lamarck, Leach, De 
Blainville, Broderip, and Sowerby, and among 
those of the latter Cuvier, Duvernoy, Fe>ussac, 
and D'Orbigny), and for an extensive bibli- 
ography on this animal, see "Proceedings of 
the Boston Society of Natural History," vol. 
v., pp. 369-'81 (1856). Leach, who considered 
the animal a parasite, described it as the genus 
ocythoe. The sexes are distinct ; the specimens 
usually found are all females, the males hav- 
ving been until recently described as parasites 
under the name of hectocotylus ; this is a worm- 
like body, resembling the arm of a cuttle fish, 
the under surface bordered with 40 or 50 pairs 
of alternating suckers ; for a long time regard- 
ed as a parasitic annelid, it is now known to 
be the spermatophorous arm of the male argo- 
naut, deciduous during sexual congress, and 
attaching itself within the mantle of the fe- 
male ; in this genus it is the third arm of the 
left side which is thus deciduous and hollowed 
for the spermatic receptacle. The male argo- 
naut has no shell and no palmated arms, and 
is only about* one eighth of the size of the fe- 
male. The argonaut, according to Rang, rises 
to the surface shell upward, turning it down- 
ward when it floats on the water ; by retract- 
ing the six arms within the shell and placing 
the palmated ones on the outside, it can quick- 
ly sink, explaining why the animal is so rarely 
taken with the shell. The shell is flexible in 
the water, but very fragile when dry; after 
having been soaked in water for some time it 
may be bent as before. A specimen, one of the 
largest known, in the cabinet of the Boston 
society of natural history, is 10 in. long, 6 
broad, and the opening 4 in. wide ; it cost the 
donor $500. Many species are described. 

NAFVOO, a township of Hancock co., Illinois, 
on a bend of the Mississippi river, near the 
head of the lower rapids, 52 m. above Quincy 
and 220 m. above St. Louis; pop. in 1870, 
1,578. The city of Nauvoo was founded by 
the Mormons in 1840, and contained about 
15,000 inhabitants at the time of their expul- 
sion in 1846 by the neighboring people. It 
was regularly laid out with broad streets cross- 
ing at right angles, and the houses were built 
generally of logs, with a few frame and brick 
buildings interspersed. A temple 130 ft. long 
by 90 wide was erected of polished limestone. 
The baptistery was in the basement, and held 
a large stone basin supported by 12 colossal 
oxen. In 1848 this building was set on fire 
by an incendiary, and all destroyed except the 



178 



NAVAJOS 



walls, which on May 27, 1850, were overthrown 
by a tornado. In 1850 Nauvoo was occupied 
by M. Oabet, a French communist, with a small 
body of followers, called Icarians ; he died in 
1856, and his community was broken up in 
the following year. Two weekly newspapers 
(one German) are published. 

NAVAJOS, the most northerly band of the 
Apache Indians, inhabiting the table lands and 
mountains of a district on the San Juan and 
Little Colorado, called by the Spaniards Nava- 
joa, whence they were styled Apaches de Nava- 
joa. They call themselves Yutahenne. They 
are by far the most civilized tribe of the Atha- 
bascan stock, having evidently acquired many 
arts from the semi-civilized Indians of New 
Mexico. They cultivate the soil rudely but 
extensively, Col. Baker in 1859 estimating their 
farms at 20,000 acres ; and having at an early 
period obtained horses, cattle, sheep, and goats, 
they soon had large herds and flocks, and learn- 
ed to spin and weave cotton and wool. Their 
blankets are highly prized, bringing from $80 
to $150. Their houses however are very rude, 
being merely conical structures of poles, cov- 
ered with branches. Like all the Apaches, 
they have warred on the Mexicans from an 
early period. When they came within the lim- 
its of the United States they occupied Sevol- 
leta and nine other fixed towns, all under one 
head chief. The Mexicans frequently attempt- 
ed to reduce them. Doniphan's expedition in 
1846, Wilkes's in 1847, Newby's in 1848, and 
Washington's in 1849 were failures. Sumner 
in 1851 pushed into the heart of flieir country, 
and planted Fort Defiance at Canoncito Bonito, 
but was forced to retreat. A series of treaties 
were broken as soon as made ; and the Nava- 
jos kept on killing and plundering till Col. Car- 
son in 1863, in a winter campaign, conquered 
and compelled them to leave their country and 
remove to Bosque Redondo, on Pecos river, at 
a distance from their fastnesses. Here they 
were held as prisoners by government to the 
number of 7,000 for several years, at great 
expense. But they were constantly exposed 
to attacks from the Comanches and other hos- 
tile tribes; the site was unhealthy, the soil 
poor, and the water bad. On June 1, 1868, 
Gen. Sherman and Col. Tappan as commission- 
ers concluded a treaty, and the next month the 
Navajos were removed to Fort Wingate, and 
in 1869 to their old country around Fort De- 
fiance, 6,120 square miles being assigned as 
their reservation. One band, Sandoval's, has 
been friendly from the first. In 1872 the 
Navajos on the reservation numbered 9,114, 
with three outlying bands. They had 130,000 
sheep and goats, 10,000 horses, and some cat- 
tle. They were peaceful and well disposed, 
and received $91,000 a year in annuities. In 
1870 a Presbyterian mission and school were 
established, but the school soon ceased. The 
Navajos are distinguished by a full round eye. 
They dress decently, covering the whole body, 
in textures of their own weaving, generally of 



NAVARRE 

bright colors; and the warriors wear a hel- 
met-shaped deerskin cap with feathers. Their 
arms are bows, lances, and rawhide shields. 

NAVARINO, or Neocastro, a fortified town of 
the Morea, Greece, in the nomarchy of Messe- 
nia, at the S. extremity of the bay of Navarino, 
5 m. N. of Modon (Methone), and 3 m. from 
Old Navarino, which stands on the N. coast 
of the bay, near the ruins of Messenian Py- 
los ; pop. about 2,000. It has a citadel, situ- 
ated on a high rock. The chief objects of in- 
terest are the remains of an old aqueduct, and 
some antique marble pillars adorning the front 
of a former mosque. The bay of Navarino is 
about 3 m. long and 2 m. wide, with from 12 
to 26 fathoms of water. It is shut in by the 
island of Sphacteria or Sphagia, famous for 
the victory achieved there by the Athenian 
Cleon over the Spartans, 425 B. C. Here, on 
Oct. 20, 1827, the combined fleets of Great 
Britain, France, end Russia, under Codrington, 
Rigny, and Heiden, destroyed the Turkish- 
Egyptian fleet, which greatly promoted the 
success of the Greeks in their struggle for 
independence. 

NAVARRE (Span. Navarrd), a N. province of 
Spain, between Aragon, Old Castile, and Bis- 
cay, bounded N. by France and the Pyrenees, 
E. by the provinces of Huesca and Saragossa, 
S. by Saragossa and Logrofio, and W. by Alava 
and Guipuzcoa ; area, 4,045 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 318,687. The country generally is in- 
tersected by small mountain ranges project- 
ing southward from the Pyrenees; but near 
the banks of the Ebro, which forms a part 
of the southern frontier, there are wide and 
fertile plains. Besides that river, Navarre is 
watered by its affluent the Aragon, which, 
coming from the northeast, receives several 
smaller streams, running due S. from the 
mountains; in the southwest by the Ega, an- 
other affluent of the Ebro; .and toward the 
northwest by the Bidassoa, which falls into 
the bay of Biscay. While the mountainous 
region is mostly bleak, cold, and unsuitable 
for tillage, the valleys are fertile in wheat, 
maize, barley, and oats. Hemp, flax, oil, wine, 
and liquorice are also produced ; it is princi- 
pally a grazing and agricultural district, and 
manufactures are in a very backward state. 
The canal of Aragon, which connects Tudela 
and Saragossa, affords means of intercourse 
with the adjoining provinces on the east, and 
the province is also connected by railways W. 
and S. with the principal cities in Spain. It 
communicates with France by railway N. to 
Bayonne, and by roads through mountain passes 
or defiles, the most celebrated of which is that 
of Roncesvalles, where the army of Charle- 
magne was defeated. In the mountains, besides 
the Pyrenean limestone, jasper, slate, and mar- 
ble occur in large beds ; there are iron, copper, 
and lead mines, numerous thermal springs, salt 
springs, and mines of rock salt. The forest 
trees of the Pyrenees, chiefly consisting of 
pines, beeches, oaks, and chestnuts, furnish an 



NAVARRETE 



179 



abundant supply of building timber. Wolves, 
wild boars, foxes, and wild cats are found in 
the mountains. The principal occupation of 
the people is pasturing sheep, goats, and cattle. 
Wool, grain, hides, salt, and wine are the chief 
exports, and silk and cotton fabrics and colo- 
nial produce the most important imports. The 
Navarrese are tall and well formed, and evince 
an independent spirit and great attachment to 
their religion and ancient privileges. The Cas- 
tilian language is generally used among them ; 
but the Basque is spoken in the N. W. and W. 
districts. The principal towns are Pamplona, 
the capital, Tudela, Estella, and Tafalla. This 
province, which is sometimes termed Upper 
Navarre, once formed a kingdom, in conjunc- 
tion with Lower Navarre, which is situated on 
the northern slope of the Pyrenees, within the 
limits of France. It was one of the first Chris- 
tian principalities founded after the conquest of 
Spain by the Arabs, and, although occasionally 
overrun by those invaders, was never subdued. 
It acknowledged for a while the supremacy 
of Charlemagne and his immediate successor, 
Louis le Debonnaire ; but about the middle of 
the 9th century it vindicated its independence, 
which was sanctioned in 887 by the diet of 
Trebur. At the beginning of the llth century, 
under Sancho III., surnamed the Great, its limits 
were considerably enlarged ; and it was for a 
while the most powerful among the Christian 
kingdoms of Spain. In 1234 it fell by inheri- 
tance to Thibault, count of Champagne, whose 
granddaughter Jeanne in 1284 married the fu- 
ture Philip the Fair of France; and on the 
accession of that prince to the throne in the 
following year, Navarre was united to France. 
This union lasted 43 years ; and on the acces- 
sion of Philip VI. of Valois, Navarre returned 
to its own sovereigns. Jeanne, the daugh- 
ter of Louis X. of France, the lawful heir- 
ess, brought the Navarrese crown to the house 
of vreux, from which, by intermarriage, it 
passed in- succession to the houses of Aragon in 
1425, of Foix in 1479, and finally of Albret in 
1494. The whole of Spanish Navarre was in 
1512 seized by Ferdinand the Catholic, king 
of Aragon ; and henceforth the kingdom was 
limited to the small district known as French 
or Lower Navarre. By the marriage of Duke 
Antoine to Jeanne d' Albret Navarre was ac- 
quired by the house of Bourbon, and their son 
Henry of Navarre, in 1589, inherited the throne 
of France. His successors, until 1830, styled 
themselves kings of France and Navarre. Du- 
ring the Carlist struggles in 1834-'9 and in 
1872-'5 the province was a principal seat of 
war, it being mainly occupied by the Carlists. 
Estella, their chief stronghold, was captured ly 
the Alfonsists in February, 1875. 

NAVARRETE, Domingo Fernandez, a Spanish 
missionary, born at Pefiafiel in 1610, died in 
Santo Domingo in December, 1689. He joined 
the Dominican order, and in 1647 was sent to 
the Philippine islands, and became professor 
of theology at Manila. Visiting China, he 



penetrated into the interior of the empire, and 
was for some years superior of his order there ; 
but during a persecution he was apprehended 
and sent to Canton, whence he escaped to 
Macao, took ship for Europe, and reached home 
in 1673. In the same year he went to Rome, 
and protested to the pope against the policy 
of the Jesuit missionaries in China, whom he 
accused of accommodating themselves to the 
ceremonies of the natives. In 1678 he was 
appointed archbishop of Santo Domingo. He 
published Tratados Mstoricos, poltticos, ethicos 
y religiosos de la monarquia de China (fol., 
Madrid, 1676). A second volume of this work 
was suppressed by the inquisition, and a third 
was written but never printed. 

NAVARRETE, Juan Fernandez, surnamed EL 
MUDO (the Mute), a Spanish artist, born in 
Logrofio in 1526, died about 1575. He became 
deaf and dumb in his infancy, studied paint- 
ing in the monastery of the Hieronymites at 
Estrella, and afterward in Italy, and was a 
pupil of Titian. He devoted himself to sa- 
cred subjects, and nearly all his works are in 
the Escurial. 

NAVARRETE, Martino Fernandez, a Spanish his- 
torian, born at Abalos, Old Castile, Nov. 9, 
1765, died in Madrid, Oct. 8, 1844. He entered 
the navy in 1780, was present at the attack on 
Gibraltar in September, 1782, and afterward 
served against the Moors and Algerines. In 
1789 he was commissioned by the Spanish gov- 
ernment to compile from the national archives 
a collection of documents on the history of 
Spanish maritime discovery. He returned to 
sea when war was declared with France, and 
remained afloat until he was appointed in 1797 
to a post in the ministry of marine. On the 
French invasion in 1808 he retired to Seville. 
Returning to Madrid in 1814, he engaged in 
literary labors, proposed the new system of 
orthography adopted by the Spanish academy 
in its dictionary, and wrote a "Life of Cer- 
vantes" (Madrid, 1819). In 1823 he was made 
chief of the hydrographical department.' The 
first two volumes of the work to which he de- 
voted the best part of his life were published 
at Madrid in 1825, under the title of Coleccion 
de los majes y desculrimientos que Mcieron por 
mar los Espafloles desde fines del siglo XV. 
The third appeared in 1829, and the fourth and 
fifth in 1837. The sixth and seventh were left 
unfinished at the author's death. The first two 
volumes are devoted to the discoveries of Co- 
lumbus, concerning whom they brought to light 
from the national archives an immense wealth 
of information, consisting of letters, public doc- 
uments, (fee., which were the basis of Wash- 
ington Irving's "Life of Columbus." Navar- 
rete began in 1842, with two associates, a 
"Collection of Unpublished Documents for 
the History of Spain," of which five volumes 
appeared during his lifetime, and it was con- 
tinued after his death. He published a treatise 
on the Spanish discoveries on the Pacific coast 
of North America, prefixed to a narrative of 



180 



NAVARRO 



the " Voyage of the Sutil and Mexican on the 
Coasts of California" (1802). His Disertacion 
sobre la historia de la ndutica espanola was 
published in 1846, and his Biblioteca maritima 
espanola, in 2 vols., in 1851. 

NAVARRO, a N. E. county of Texas, bounded 
N. E. by the Trinity river, by branches of 
which it is drained; area, 1,040 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 8,879, of whom 2,245 were colored. 
It has a rolling surface, with a rich, dark soil 
along the watercourses, and a large portion of 
prairie. It is traversed by the Houston and 
Texas Central railroad. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 219,865 bushels of Indian corn, 
5,150 of sweet potatoes, 4,077 bales of cotton, 
and 2,935 Ibs. of wool. There were 9,244 
horses, 1,151 mules and asses, 4,875 milch cows, 
2,459 working oxen, 32,783 other cattle, 7,144 
sheep, and 16,419 swine. Capital, Corsicana. 

NAVEZ, Francois Joseph, a Belgian painter, 
born in Charleroi, Nov. 17, 1787, died in Brus- 
sels in 1869. He studied at Brussels, won a 
prize at Ghent, became a pupil of J. L. Da- 
vid in Paris, and subsequently visited Italy. 
On returning to Brussels he rapidly rose to 
be the most eminent master of the academi- 
cal school of painting, and became director 
of the academy of fine arts and professor in 
the normal school. Among his works are: 
"Hagar in the Desert," "Meeting of Isaac 
and Rebecca," " Raising of the Son of the Su- 
lamite Woman," " The Prophet Samuel," " The 
Ascension of the Virgin," "Marriage of the 
Virgin," "Jesus Sleeping," and "The Virgin 
and the Infant Jesus." 

NAVIGATION, the art or system of rules and 
practices by means of which vessels are direct- 
ed in their course upon the water. Prior to 
the invention of the mariner's compass naviga- 
tion was limited to enclosed seas like the Medi- 
terranean, to gulfs and archipelagos, and to the 
coasts. Beyond the sight of land, the mariner 
had no guide in cloudy nights, and no resource 
in stormy weather ; consequently, the most re- 
mote and venturesome expeditions only moved 
along the shore ; and the sea was avoided as 
much as possible, especially during the winter 
season, from the middle of November to the 
middle of March. The discovery of the mari- 
ner's compass changed this state of things en- 
tirely, by furnishing a never-failing guide, as 
useful and safe to the navigator in the night as 
during the day, and in storms as in fair weath- 
er. It is uncertain to whom the world is in- 
debted for the first observation of the directing 
powers of the magnet, and for their application 
to the purposes of travelling by land and sea. 
(See COMPASS.) The introduction to Church- 
ill's "Collection" contends for the honor of 
the discovery in behalf of Flavio Gioja of Pasi- 
tano, near Amalfi, in Campania. The date as- 
signed to Gioja's invention is about the begin- 
ning of the 14th century. There can be no 
doubt that to him belongs the merit of having 
invented something by which its adaptation 
to nautical purposes was very much promoted ; 



NAVIGATION 

but that it was used at sea before his time ap- 
pears from various passages in authors of an 
older date. It was known in China many cen- 
turies previous to its introduction into Europe, 
and was used in the eastern portion of the 
Mediterranean during the first half of the 13th 
century. When ships, carrying with them an 
unfailing guide to direct their course, began 
to traverse the great seas in all directions, the 
cross staff and the astrolabe furnished them 
with the means of measuring the altitude of 
the sun and stars, and thus of approximately 
determining the latitude and time. But the 
most serious inconvenience arose from the un- 
avoidable use of a plane chart to represent the 
sphere, the gross distortions and errors of which 
often misled the mariner, especially in voyages 
far distant from the equator. Recourse was 
had to globes to remove this evil, and a famous 
pair is mentioned which was made in 1592, 
under the direction of Mr. William Sanderson, 
a merchant, " commended for his knowledge as 
well as generosity to ingenious men." On the 
terrestrial one were described the voyages of 
Drake, Cavendish, and Frobisher. The plane 
chart, however, being so much more easy and 
convenient in practice, kept its place until the 
invention of the projection of the sphere upon 
a plane surface by Gerard Mercator, in 1569. 
Mercator's projection consists in keeping the 
meridians parallel, but augmenting the length 
of the meridians between the parallels of lati- 
tude, in receding from the equator, in such a 
manner that the just proportions of the merid- 
ians and parallels of latitude to each other are 
preserved. The signal advantage o.f this pro- 
jection is, that the directions of the compass, 
or what in technical language are called the 
"compass courses," are straight lines. The 
navigator works most conveniently upon a plane 
surface, and by means of Mercator's projection 
he is able to lay down his courses with a paral- 
lel rule, the points being taken from a compass 
drawn on the chart, and the line being one that 
cuts all the meridians at the same angle, and 
.marks the magnetic bearing of the objects 
through which it passes. This is called the 
rhumb line or loxodromic curve, and the defini- 
tion of it answers for the definition of the com- 
pass course. Such is the suitableness of Merca- 
tor's projection to the use of the mariner's com- 
pass, that the latter now seems to have been an 
incomplete discovery until the announcement 
of the former. It is suggested that Mercator 
arrived at his invention by simply observing on 
the globe where the meridians were cut at each 
par.allel of latitude by the rhumb lines ; and it 
is admitted that he never laid down, if he knew 
it, the mathematical theory on which it rests. 
This was first announced by Edward Wright, 
of Caius college, Cambridge. Shortly after 
this (1595), the famous navigator Capt. John 
Davis, who gave his name to the straits which 
he discovered, published a small treatise called 
" The Seaman's Secrets," at the end of which 
he gives a figure of a staff of his contrivance, 



NAVIGATION 



181 



to make a back observation; "than which in- 
strument," he said, " the seaman shall not find 
any so good, and in all clymates of so great 
certaintie." The celebrated Portuguese math- 
ematician Pedro Nunez, or Nonius, had as 
early as 1537 published his book, which, with 
additions, was printed 30 years afterward by 
Basil in Latin, and called De Arte et Eatione 
Namgandi. In this he introduces, among 
much of what was then very valuable matter, 
his method of the division of a quadrant by 
concentric circles. Davis's back staff main- 
tained the first place until it was superseded by 
the quadrant. Another important invention is 
the log, first mentioned by Pigafetta in the ear- 
ly part of the 16th century. About the year 
1620 logarithms were introduced into naviga- 
tion by Edmund Gunter, whose scales are of 
such general repute; and shortly afterward 
Richard Norwood published his method of set- 
ting down and perfecting a sea reckoning, with 
the use of a traverse table. In 1700 Dr. Hal- 
ley published a general map on which were 
delineated the lines of equal variation. It was 
hailed with great applause, as the means of 
determining the longitude at sea ; but this ex- 
pectation proved futile. But of all the gifts to 
the navigator, by far the greatest of this time 
is Hadley's quadrant. It has been superseded 
by the sextant, which does not differ from it 
in principle, but is very much more nicely con- 
structed, and more accurate, convenient, and 
generally useful. (See QUADRANT, and SEX- 
TANT.) For a long time the problem of the 
longitude engaged the attention of the men of 
science in Europe, and especially in Great Brit- 
ain. The British house of commons has at va- 
rious times offered rewards for the solution 
of this problem, one of which amounted to 
20,000 sterling. Newton's improvement of 
the theory of the moon led to the construction 
of Mayer's lunar tables, and to the publication 
of the "Nautical Almanac and Astronomical 
Ephemeris," by Dr. Maskelyne, in 1767. The 
appearance of the latter created a new era in 
navigation, to which it rendered essential ser- 
vice. The lunar method, as it is called, has 
since received great additions, corresponding 
to the advancing state of astronomical knowl- 
edge, and the improvements in the instruments 
of the seaman and the astronomer. The meth- 
od by the chronometer owes its highest suc- 
cess to the science and ingenuity of English 
artists and mechanics of the present genera- 
tion, and that immediately preceding. (See 
CLOCKS AND WATCHES, and LONGITUDE.) In 
our day the art or science of navigation has 
not failed to receive valuable accessions ; such 
as Suinner's method for determining the posi- 
tion by lines of bearing or of equal altitudes ; 
Chauvenet's great circle protractor, which fur- 
nishes great circle courses immediately by in- 
spection, saving a world of figures, and also 
solves in the same way the problems of nautical 
astronomy ; precise and trustworthy sailing di- 
rections and memoirs, like those of Horsburgh, 



the Blunts of New York, Findlay, and the in- 
valuable memoirs of Kerhallet; and valuable 
contributions to our knowledge of the laws of 
storms by Redfield, Reid, and Piddington, and 
of the currents and meteorology of the ocean 
generally by Berghaus, Keith Johnston, and 
Maury. Without attempting a scientific trea- 
tise on navigation, we may give the general 
reader a simple conception of the manner in 
which the place of a ship and her direction are 
ascertained upon the sea, under favorable cir- 
cumstances. When the ship has left port, the 
reckoning is begun by observing the compass 
bearing and distance of some conspicuous ob- 
ject, as a lighthouse; and from the time of 
taking this bearing the reckoning is continued 
by noting down (generally from hour to hour) 
the courses sailed, which are ascertained by 
observations of the compass, and the distance 
on each course, which is ascertained by the log. 
(See LOG.) The reckoning is made up with 
these data, from the time of any independent 
determination of the ship's position, by con- 
sidering the sum of the distances sailed in the 
N. and S. and E. and W. directions, and re- 
ducing the whole to one residual expression 
of the actual course and distance made good ; 
this is done by means of a traverse table in- 
vented for the purpose. The reckoning here 
described is called dead reckoning, and is sus- 
ceptible of error from so many disturbing 
causes, that it can only be depended upon for 
a short time. The navigator is provided with 
simple and easy methods of acquiring a knowl- 
edge of his position by independent observa- 
tions of the sun, moon, and stars. We will 
look only at the first of these luminaries. The 
elements of position are the latitude and lon- 
gitude. The determination of the latitude by 
the altitude of the sun at noon is readily "un- 
derstood, if it be remembered that if the sun 
moved always on the equator^ the height it 
reached at noon at any place would depend 
merely on the distance of that place from the 
equator ; but the sun "being removed from the 
equator more or less, according to the season 
of the year, the navigator reduces it to that 
circle by applying the declination, which is the 
astronomical expression in degrees and min- 
utes for the interval of its separation. For 
this declination and all his astronomical data, 
he is indebted to the nautical almanac. The 
longitude is determined by chronometers. A 
chronometer is expected to keep the time of a 
certain place, as Greenwich or Paris; but as 
all chronometers are subject to a slight rate of 
loss or gain, this rate, and the error at start- 
ing, are applied at the moment of observation, 
to obtain the correct Greenwich time. The 
change of a degree in longitude is equivalent 
to a change of four minutes in time ; the busi- 
ness of a navigator then is simply to compare 
his own time with the standard time, or the 
time at Greenwich ; he obtains his own time 
through an observation of the sun when its al- 
titude is changing rapidly. In the case of the 



182 



NAVIGATION LAWS 



determination of the longitude by the lunar 
method, the clock showing the Greenwich time 
is in the sky. Such observations are detached 
and disconnected. The navigator, if set down 
suddenly in the middle of the ocean, could de- 
termine his position as well as if he had pro- 
ceeded there gradually, and known it from 
day to day. -We have selected single and plain 
cases only ; but navigation, regarded as an art, 
is a copious and complex system of rules and 
practices, involving the use of numerous ta- 
bles. Bowditch's " American Navigator" is a 
large octavo of nearly 800 pages, containing 
over 50 tables. Raper's "British Standard 
Navigator" (edition of 1849), approved by the 
admiralty, numbers 900 pages and 74 tables. 
Navigation, regarded as a science, requires at 
the very least a knowledge of spherical trigo- 
nometry and algebra in the mathematics, and 
of the apparent motions and phenomena of 
'the principal heavenly bodies in astronomy. 
In addition to the above named authorities, 
see Peirce's " Plane and Spherical Trigonome- 
try ;" Chauvenet's "Trigonometry " and " Man- 
ual of Astronomy;" Francceur's Astronomic 
pratique; Boitard and Ansard-Deusy's Navi- 
gation pratique ; Churchill's "Collection," in- 
troductory discourse ; Dr. Wilson's " Disserta- 
tion," in Robertson's " Elements ;" and Hum- 
boldt's " Cosmos." (See SHIP.) 

NAVIGATION LAWS, the name usually given to 
those enactments by which commercial states 
have endeavored to regulate the navigation 
which left or visited their ports, seeking al- 
ways to favor and promote the commerce of 
the state enacting them. Such laws have ex- 
isted in some form among all the maritime 
states of Europe for many centuries. The first 
systematic effort of this kind was probably 
that of Spain, about three centuries ago, to 
preserve the exclusive possession of her very 
profitable commerce with her American colo- 
nies. In England, so far back as 1379, in the 
reign of Richard II., a statute was passed pro- 
hibiting the king's subjects from importing or 
exporting merchandise except in English ships. 
After this time sundry enactments were passed 
for a similar purpose. But the navigation laws 
of England, so called, properly began in Crom- 
well's time. Then the long pending conflict 
between Holland and England for the suprem- 
acy of the seas came to a crisis. The contest 
continued after the restoration of Charles II. 
But the fatal blow was given to Holland, and 
the superiority of England made certain, not 
so much by her naval victories as by the navi- 
gation laws, which, originating in the sagacity 
of Cromwell, and receiving then the form they 
have preserved until recent times, secured to 
England, first, the building of all her ships and 
their navigation by English seamen ; next, the 
absolute monopoly of her colonial commerce ; 
and finally, her full share of the general carry- 
ing trade of the world. For these purposes 
it was provided that no ship should be deemed 
a British ship that was not wholly built within 



NAYY 

the dominions of Great Britain, and wholly 
owned by British subjects, and navigated by a 
British commander and a crew of which at 
_east three fourths were British subjects ; next, 
that only British ships should carry any mer- 
chandise from any port of the British empire 
to any other; and thirdly, that no goods which 
were the growth, product, or manufacture of 
Asia, Africa, or America, should be imported 
into any of the ports of Great Britain except 
in British ships, or in ships of the countries of 
which the goods were the production. The 
rigorous execution of these laws, and the con- 
sistent adherence to these principles, are sup- 
posed by many to have done more than any 
other one cause in giving to Great Britain her 
enormous commerce. In order to ascertain 
what were British ships, and secure the exe- 
cution of these laws, an admirable system of 
registry was adopted and remained in force in 
England during almost two centuries, with no 
substantial change. But in 1849 the principle 
of free trade was permitted to break down 
this monopoly to some extent. By the act of 
that year and the subsequent amendments it 
is enacted, first, that ships which are not of 
British build may become British ships by 
registry, if .wholly owned by British subjects; 
and next, that any ship may bring to the 
United Kingdom any merchandise, excepting, 
however, that the king or queen, by order in 
council, may interpose such changes, restric- 
tions, or prohibitions upon ships of any country 
as will put the ships of that country when in 
British ports on the same footing on which 
British ships stand in the ports of that country. 
This subject was one of the earliest to which 
the American congress, under the present con- 
stitution, turned its attention ; and in the win- 
ter of 1792-'3 acts were passed which were 
substantially the same as the English acts 
then in force, but, so far as they differ, may 
be considered as more rigorous. These stat- 
utes are still in force, having never been ma- 
terially altered. The maritime nations of con- 
tinental Europe have their own systems of 
navigation laws, but these are not in any case 
quite so stringent as those of England and the 
United States. During the years which im- 
mediately followed the adoption of the federal 
constitution, England and France being con- 
stantly at war, the United States had almost 
the whole carrying trade of the world ; and its 
vast profits laid the foundation of the wealth 
of the country, and built up its commercial 
marine with a rapidity unexampled in the 
history of the- world. 

NAVIGATORS' ISLANDS. See SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

NAVY, a collective term for the vessels of war 
belonging to a nation. The sea-going vessels of 
Phoenicia and Carthage, of Greece and Rome, 
were flat-bottomed barges or galleys, unable to 
live in a gale ; sea room in a squall was de- 
struction to them ; they crept along the coasts, 
casting anchor at night in some cove or creek. 
(See GALLEY.) To cross over from Greece to 



NAVY 



183 



Italy, or from Africa to Sicily, was a dangerous 
operation. The ships were provided with but 




Prow of a Galley. 

little canvas, and oars were relied upon to pro- 
pel them sluggishly. The implements for offen- 
sive warfare were equally inefficient. Bows 
and arrows, javelins, 
clumsy ballistas and cata- 
pults, were the only arms 
that could be used at a 
distance. No serious 
harm could be done to 
an enemy at sea until 
the two fighting ships 
came into actual contact. 
Thus, there were but two 
modes of naval fighting 
possible : to manoeuvre 
so that the sharp, strong, 
iron - pointed prow of 
your own ship should be 
driven with full force 
against the enemy's 
broadside in order to 
run him down; or else to run on broadside 
to broadside, fasten the two ships together, and 
board the enemy at once. After the first Punic 



minion soon put an end to the possibility of 
further naval contests in the Mediterranean. 
In the naval encounters between the Ro- 
mans and Gauls described by Caesar, the for- 
mer used galleys and the latter merely sail 
vessels, from which fact it would seem that in 
the seas about Great Britain sail vessels only 
were used at that time. The invasion of Eng- 
land by the Anglo-Saxons was made in sail 
vessels. In the time of Alfred galleys were in- 
troduced, the effect of which was to diminish 
the length and boldness of voyages, for the gal- 
leys could not venture out to sea, although they 
made excellent coast guards. After the Nor- 
man conquest sail vessels came more into use, 
and voyages again became bolder. But the 
real birthplace of our modern navies is the 
German ocean. About the time when the 
great mass of the Teutonic tribes of central 
Europe rose to trample down the decaying 





Boman Galley. 

war, which destroyed the naval superiority of 
the Carthaginians, there is not a single naval 
engagement in ancient history offering the 
slightest professional interest, and Roman do- 



Norman Galley. 

Roman empire and to regenerate western Eu- 
rope, the Frisians, Saxons, Angles, Danes, and 
Northmen began to take to the sea. Their 
vessels were firm, stout 
sea boats, with a prom- 
inent keel and sMrp 
lines, relying mostly on 
sails alone, and not afraid 
to face a gale in the 
middle of that rough 
northern sea. It was 
with this class of vessels 
that the Northmen un- 
dertook their roving ex- 
peditions, extending to 
Constantinople on the 
one side and America 
on the other. The ves- 
sels in which the North- 
men made their excur- 
sions were probably of 
no very large size, per- 
haps not exceeding 100 
tons in any case, and car- 
rying one or at the outside two masts, fore- 
and-aft rigged. For a long time both ship 
building and navigation appear to have re- 
mained stationary; during the whole of the 



NAVY 



middle ages vessels were small, and the bold 
spirit of the Northmen and the Frisians had 
passed away; whatever improvements were 
made were owing to Italians and Portuguese, 




Henry Grace de Dien, from an old woodcut. 

who now became the boldest sailors. The 
Portuguese discovered the route by sea to 
India; two Italians in foreign service, Co- 
lumbus and Cabot, were 
the first since the times 
of Leif the Northman to 
cross the Atlantic. Long 
sea voyages now became 
a necessity, and they re- 
quired large ships ; at the 
same time the necessity 
of arming vessels of war, 
and even merchantmen, 
with heavy artillery, 
equally tended to increase 
size and tonnage. The 
same causes which had 
produced standing armies 
on land, now produced 
standing navies afloat ; 
and it is from this time 
only that we can proper- 
ly speak of navies. The 
era of colonial enterprise 
which now opened for 
all seafaring nations, also 
saw the formation of large 
fleets of war to protect 
the newly formed colonies and their trade ; 
and a period followed richer in naval strug- 
gles and more fruitful to the development of 
naval armaments than any that preceded it. 



The foundation of the British navy was laid 

by Henry VII., who built the first ship, called 
" The Great Harry." His successor formed a 
regular standing fleet, the property of the state, 
the largest ship of which was called 
the Henry Grace de Dieu. This 
vessel, the largest ever built up to 
that time, carried 80 guns, partly 
on two regular flush gun decks, 
partly on additional platforms both 
forward and astern. She was pro- 
vided with four masts ; her tonnage 
is variously stated at from 1,000 to 
1,500. The whole of the British fleet 
at the death of Henry VIII. consisted 
of about 50 sail, with an aggregate 
tonnage of 12,000, and manned by 
8,000 sailors and marines. In 1578 
it comprised 24 ships, of 10,395 tons, 
954 guns, and 6,570 men. The Tri- 
umph, of 1,000 tons and 100 guns, 
was the largest vessel; next to her 
ranked the Elizabeth and the White 
Bear, each of 900 tons and 80 guns. 
The large ships of the period were 
clumsy contrivances, deep-waisted, 
that is to say, provided with towering 
forecastles and poops, which rendered 
them exceedingly top-heavy. The 
Mary Eose was sunk off Sheerness in 
1588 while tacking, her lower ports 
being only 16 inches above the water. 
The first English three-decker was 
the Sovereign of the Seas, afterward 
called the Eoyal Sovereign, built in 1637. She 
bore the character of the best man-of-war in 
the world until 1696, when she was accidental- 




The Sovereign of the Seas. 

ly burned at Chatham. She is the first vessel 
of whose armament we get something like an 
accurate account. She had three flush decks, 
a forecastle, a half deck, a quarter deck, and a 



NAVY 



185 



round house ; on her lower deck she carried 30 
guns, 42- and 32-pounders ; 30 on her middle 
deck, 18- and 9-pounders ; on her upper deck 
26 lighter guns, probably 6- and 3-pounders. 
Besides these, she carried 20 chase guns and 
26 guns on her forecastle and half deck. But 
on her regular home establishment this arma- 
ment was reduced to 100 guns, the full com- 
plement being evidently too much for her. As 
to the smaller vessels, our information is very 
scanty. In 1651 the navy was classed in six 
rates ; but besides them there continued to ex- 
ist numerous classes of unrated ships, such as 
shallops, hulks, and later bombs, sloops, fire 
ships, and yachts. In 1677 we find a list of the 
whole English navy ; according to which, the 
largest first rate three-decker carried 26 42- 
pdrs., 28 24-pdrs., 28 9-pdrs., 14 6-pdrs., and 
4 3-pdrs. ; and the smallest two-decker (fifth 
rate) carried 18 18-pdrs., 8 6-pdrs., and 4 4- 
pdrs., or 30 guns in all. The whole fleet con- 
sisted of 129 vessels. In 1714 we find 198 
vessels ; in 1727, 178 ; and in 1744, 128. Af- 
terward, as the number of vessels increases, 
their size also gets larger, and the heaviness 
of the armament is augmented with the. ton- 
nage. The first English ship answering to our 
modern frigate was built by Sir Robert Dud- 
ley, as early as the end of the 16th century; 
but it was not till fully 80 years later that this 
class of ships, first used by the southern Euro- 
pean nations, was generally adopted in the Brit- 
ish navy. The particular fast-sailing qualities of 
frigates were little understood for some time 
in England. British ships were generally over- 
gunned, so that their lower ports were but 
3 ft. from the water's edge, and could not be 
opened in a rough sea, and the sailing capaci- 
ties of the vessels were also greatly impaired. 
Both the Spaniards and the French allowed 
more tonnage in proportion to the number of 
guns ; the consequence was that their ships 
could carry heavier calibre and more stores, 
had more buoyancy, and were better sailers. 
The English frigates of the first half of the 18th 
century carried as many as 44 guns, of 9, 12, and 
a few of 18 Ibs. calibre, with a tonnage of about 
710. By 1780 frigates of 38 guns (mostly 18- 
pdrs.) and of 946 tons were built. The French 
frigates of the same epoch, with a similar ar- 
mament, averaged 100 tons more. About the 
same time (the middle of the 18th century) the 
smaller men-of-war were more accurately 
classed in the modern way as corvettes, brigs, 
brigantines, and schooners. In 1779 a piece 
of ordnance was invented (probably by the 
British Gen. Melville) which changed to a great 
extent the armaments of most navies. It was 
a very short gun, with a large calibre, approach- 
ing in its shape a howitzer, but intended to 
throw solid shot, with small charges, at short 
ranges. These guns were first manufactured 
by the Carron iron company, in Scotland, and 
were hence called carronades. The shot from 
this gun, useless at long ranges, had fearful ef- 
fects upon timber at close quarters; from its 



reduced velocity (by the reduced charge), it 
made a larger hole, shattered the timber far 
more, and made numerous and more dangerous 
splinters. The comparative lightness of the 
guns, too, made it easy to find room for a few 
of them on the quarter deck and forecastle of 
vessels ; and as early as 1781 there were 429 
ships in the British navy provided with from 
six to ten carronades over and above their 
regular complement of guns. In reading the 
accounts of naval engagements during the 
French and American wars, it should be borne 
in mind that the British never include the car- 
ronades in the number of guns given as a ship's 
complement; so that, for instance, a British 
frigate, stated to be a 36-gun frigate, may in 
reality have carried 42 or more guns, including 
the carronades. The superior weight of metal 
which the carronades gave to the British broad- 
sides, helped to decide many an action fought 
at close quarters during the war of the French 
revolution. But after all, carronades were 
merely a make-shift to increase the strength of 
the comparatively small-sized men-of-war of 
a century ago. As soon as the size of the ships 
was increased for each rating, they were again 
cast aside, and are now superseded by other 
arms. At that period, in the construction of 
men-of-war, the French and Spaniards were 
decidedly ahead of the English. Their ships 
were larger and designed with far better lines 
than the British ; their frigates especially were 
superior both in size and sailing qualities ; and 
for many years the English frigates were cop- 
ied from the French frigate Hebe, captured in 
1782. In the same proportion as the vessels 
were lengthened, the high towering erections 
at the bow and stern, the forecastles, quarter 
decks, and poops, were reduced in height, the 
sailing qualities of the ships being increased 
thereby ; so that gradually the comparatively 
elegant and swift-sailing lines of the present 
men-of-war came to be adopted. Instead of 
increasing the number of guns to these larger 
ships, the calibre was increased, and so were 
the weight and length of each gun, in order to 
admit of the use of full charges, and to secure 
the greatest point-blank range, so as to allow 
the fire to be opened at long distances. The 
small calibres below 24 Ibs. disappeared from 
the larger vessels, and the remaining calibres 
were simplified, so as to have no more than 
two calibres, or at the outside three, on board 
of any one vessel. In ships of the line, the 
lower deck, being the strongest, was armed 
with guns of the same calibre as the upper 
decks, but of greater length and weight, in 
order to have at least one tier of guns avail- 
able for the greatest possible range. About 
1820 the French Gen. Paixhans made an inven- 
tion which has been of great importance in 
naval armaments. He constructed a gun of 
large calibre provided with a chamber at the 
breech for the insertion of the powder, and be- 
gan to fire hollow shot, at low elevations, from 
these " shell guns " (canons obusiers). Hither- 



186 



NAVY 



to hollow shot had been fired against ships from 
howitzers in shore batteries only; though in 
Germany the practice of firing shell horizon- 
tally from short 24-pdr. and even 12-pdr. guns 
had been long in use against fortifications. The 
destructive effects of shell against the wooden 
sides of vessels were well known to Napoleon, 
who at Boulogne armed most of his gunboats 
for the expedition to England with howitzers, 
and laid it down as a rule that ships must be 
attacked with projectiles which will burst after 
hitting. Now, Paixhans's shell guns gave the 
means of arming ships with cannon which, by 
throwing their shells as nearly as possible hori- 
zontally, could be used at sea, ship against ship, 
with nearly the same probability of hitting as 
the old round-shot guns. The new gun was 
soon introduced into all navies, and, after un- 
dergoing various improvements, for some time 
constituted an essential portion of the arma- 
ment of all large men-of-war. The first at- 
tempts were made to apply steam to the pro- 
pulsion of ships of war shortly after it had 
been applied by Fulton to that of commercial 
vessels. The progress from the river steamer 
to the coasting steamer, and gradually to the 
ocean steamer, was slow ; in the same ratio was 
the progress of war steamers retarded. As long 
as paddle boats were the only steamers in exis- 
tence, this was justifiable. The paddles and 
part of the engine were exposed to the enemy's 
shot, and could be disabled by a single lucky 
hit ; they took up the best portion of the broad- 
side room of the vessel ; and the weight of 
engine, paddles, and coal so much reduced the 
capacity of the ship, that a heavy armament 
of numerous long guns was entirely out of the 
question. A paddle steamer, therefore, could 
never be a ship of the line ; ' but its superior 
speed might permit it to compete with frigates, 
which are expected to hover on the flanks of 
an enemy, to collect the fruits of a victory, or 
to cover a retreat. Now a frigate has just the 
size and armament which enable it to go fear- 
lessly on any independent roving errand, while 
its superior sailing qualities enable it to with- 
draw in time from an unequal contest. The sail- 
ing qualities of any frigate were far outstripped 
by the steamer ; but without a good armament 
the steamer could not fulfil its mission. Regu- 
lar broadside fighting was out of the question ; 
the number of guns must, for want of space, 
be always inferior to that of a sailing frigate. 
The diminished number of guns on board a 
steam frigate was counterbalanced by their 
weight of metal and calibre. Originally these 
guns were intended to throw shells only, but now 
rifled guns have nearly superseded smooth-bores, 
and in a short time there will be no smooth- 
bores afloat in the navies of the great powers. 
Moreover, the reduced number of guns admits 
of traversing platforms and railways being laid 
down on the deck, by means of which all or 
most of the guns can be brought to bear in al- 
most any direction ; a provision by which the 
strength of a steam frigate for an attack is 



nearly doubled, and a 20-gun steam frigate can 
bring at least as many guns into action as could 
a 40-gun sailing frigate with but 18 working 
guns for each single broadside. Thus the large 
modern steam frigate is a most formidable 
ship ; the superior calibre and range of her 
guns, added to her velocity, enable her to crip- 
ple an opponent at a distance where no effec- 
tive return of fire would have been possible to 
the sailing vessel; while the weight of her 
metal comes in with crushing power when it is 
to her advantage finally to force the fighting. 
For smaller vessels, corvettes, advice boats, 
and other light craft, not counting in a naval 
battle, but very useful throughout a campaign, 
steam was at once found of great advantage, 
and there were many such paddle boats con- 
structed in most