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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"




THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA 



VOL XIII. 
PALESTINE-PRINTING. 



631 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DAM. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED 



VOLUME XIII. 
PALESTINE-PRINTING. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BROADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BEITAIK 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875,. by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 




Among the Contributors to the Thirteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are 

the following : 



JOSE DE AEMAS Y CESPEDES, Havana, Cuba. 

POET, FELIPE. 
POEY, ANDRES. 

PAUL AEPIN, late Editor of the Courrier des 
fitats- Unis. 

PALISSY, BERNARD. 
PASCAL, BLAISE. 

HOFFMAN ATKINSON. 

PIGEON ENGLISH. 

HEXEY OAEEY BAIED, Philadelphia. 

POLITICAL ECONOMY. 

S. L. M. BAELOW. 

PIQUET. 

WILLAED' BAETLETT. 

PAPUA. 
PERSIA. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Univer- 
sity. 

PECK, GEORGE. 

PECK, JESSE TEUESDELL. 

PEIRCE, BRADFORD KINNEY. 

THOMAS I. BIGHAM, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

PITTSBURGH, Pa. 

JULIUS BING. 

PARMA, 

PESTII, 

PETRARCH, FRANCESCO, 

PISA, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 
history. 

Commodore GEOEGE S. BLAKE, U. S. N., late 
Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Acad- 
emy, Annapolis, Md. 

PAULDING, HIRAM. 
PREBLE, EDWARD. 

FEANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 

PATTL, ADELINA MARIA CLORINDA. 
PATTI, CARLOTTA. 
PHILLIPS, ADELAIDE. 

Rev. CHAELES H. BEIGHAM, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

PAULICIANS. 
PHOTIUS. 

EDWAED L. BUELINGAME, Ph. D. 

PERIODICAL LITERATURE, 
POLAR SEAS (recent explorations), 

and other articles in biography and history. 

Rev. CHAELES P. BUSH, D. D. 

PARKER, PETER. 
PERKINS, JUSTIN. 
PRIME, SAMUEL IREN^EUS. 
PRIME, EDWARD DORR GRIFFIN. 
PRIME, WILLIAM COWPER. 

Prof. H. C. CAMEEON, D. D., Princeton Col- 
lege. 

PRINCETON COLLEGE, N. J. 

ROBEET CAETEE. 
PALESTINE, 
PARKMAN, FRANCIS, 
PARTHIA, 
PENN, WILLIAM, 
PIERCE, FRANKLIN, 
POE, EDGAR ALLAN, 
PRESCOTT, WILLIAM HICKLING, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

PALIMPSEST, 
PAPYRUS, 
PENSION, 
PIANOFORTE, 
PORTO Rico, 

and other articles in geography and history. 



Prof. E. II. CLAEKE, M. D., Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

PANCREATINE, 
PEPSIN, 

and other articles in materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Michigan Univer- 
sity, Ann Arbor. 

PARLIAMENT (in part), 
PARTNERSHIP (in part), 
PAYMENT, 
POWER, 

and other legal articles. 

Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 

PANCREAS, 

PARALYSIS, 
PHYSIOLOGY, 
PLICA POLONICA, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

Rev. H. M. DEXTEE, D. D., Editor of the 
" Congregationalist," Boston, Mass. 

POND, ENOCH. 

Prof. JOHN W. DEAPEE, M. D., University 
Medical College, New York. 

PHOTOGRAPHY. 

EATON S. DEONE. 

PATENTS, LAW OF, 

PENNSYLVANIA, 

POLICE, 

POST, 

and other articles. 

Capt. C. E. BUTTON, U. S. Ordnance Corps, 
Washington Arsenal, D. C. 

POWELL, JOHN WESLEY. 

ROBEET T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

W. M. FEEBISS. 

PERSONAL EQUATION. 

PORISMS. 

Prof. G. P. FISHEE, D. D., Yale College. 

PORTER, NOAH. 

Gen. "W". B. FEANKLIN, Superintendent Colt's 
Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company, 
Hartford, Conn. 
PISTOL. 

Prof. E. H. GILLETT, D. D., University of the 
City of New York. 
PHILOSOPHY (in part). 
PRESBYTERIANISM. 

Prof. B. A. GOULD, Director of the National 
Observatory of the Argentine Republic at 
Cordova. 

PEIRCE, BENJAMIN. 

Lieutenant-Commander HENEY H. GOEEINGE, 
U. S. N., Washington, D. C. 

PLATA, Eio DE LA. 

ALFEED H. GTJEENSEY. 

PETERSBURG, SIEGE OF, 
POLK, LEONIDAS. 
POPE, JOHN. 
PORTER, FITZ JOHN. 
PRINTING. 

JOHN R. G. HASSAED. 

PARRY, Sir WILLIAM EDWAED. 
PEREZ, ANTONIO. 
POPE, ALEXANDER. 
J. W. HAWES. 

PHILADELPHIA, Pa., 
PORTLAND, Maine, 
PORTLAND, Oregon, 
PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, 

and other articles in American geography. 



n 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE THIRTEENTH VOLUME 



Prof. FBEDEEICK H. HEDGE, D. D., Harvard 
University. 
PAUL, SAINT. 

M. HEILPBIN. 
POLAND. 
POLAND, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF. 

CHABLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

PALLADIUM. 

PHOSPHORESCENCE. 

PHOSPHORUS. 

PLATINUM. 

POTASSIUM. 

POTTERY AND PORCELAIN (manufacture). 

W. H. HUNTIXGTON, Paris, France. 

PARIS. 

ROSSITEE JOHNSON. 

PHILLIPS, WENDELL, 
POLLOK, ROBERT, 

and other articles ia biography and geography. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 

New York. 

PARAFFINE, 
PICRIC ACID, 
POTASH, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. A. C. KENDEIOK, D. D., Rochester Uni- 
versity. 

PLATO. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

PARROT, 

PARTRIDGE, 

PHILOSOPHICAL ANATOMY, 

PLANARIANS, 

POLYP, 

PORCUPINE, 

and other articles in zoology. 

Rev. SAMUEL LOOKWOOD, Ph. D., Freehold, N. J. 

PETERS, CHRISTIAN HENRY FREDERICK. 

Prof. BENJAMIN W. MCCEEADY, M. D., Belle- 
vue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

PLAGUE. 

PLEURISY. 

PNEUMONIA. 

JAMES E. MTJNSON. 

PHONOGRAPHY. 

Rev. FBANKLIN NOBLE. 

PHELPS, AUSTIN, 

PIIELPB, ELIZABETH STUART (two), 

PlSGAH, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

FEEDEEICK LAW OLMSTED. 

PARK. 

Rev. BEENAED O'REILLY, D. D. 

PASSAGLIA, CARLO, 
PAUL, Popes, 
PERRONE, GIOVANNI, 
Pius, Popes, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

Prof. S. F. PECKHAM, University of Minnesota. 

PEAT. 

PETROLEUM. 

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS. 

Count L. F. DE POUETALES, Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

POLAR SEAS (geography). 

WILLIAM C. PEIME. 

POTTERY AND PORCELAIN (history). 

RICHARD A. PROCTOE, A.M., London. 

PARALLAX, 
PLANET, 

PRECESSION OP THE EQUINOXES, 
and other astronomical articles. 

Prof. A. RAUSCHENBUSCH, D. D., Rochester 
Theological Seminary. 

PEASANTS' WAR. 



Prof. C. V. RILEY, State Entomologist, St. 
Louis, Mo. 

PHYLLOXERA. 
POTATO BUG. 

HENEY M. ROBEET, Major of Engineers, U. S. 
A., Milwaukee, Wis. 

PARLIAMENTARY LAW AND PRIVILEGES (in part). 

Prof. OGDEN N. ROOD, Ph. D., Columbia Col- 
lege, New York. 

PENDULUM, HORIZONTAL. 

F. B. SANBOEN, Concord, Mass. 

PAUPERISM. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

PELAGIUS, 

PENTATEUCH, 
PLYMOUTH BRETHREN, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

J. W. SCOTT. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

PAWNEES, 
PEQUOTS, 
POTTAWATTAMIES, 

and other articles on American Indians. 

WILLIAM GILMOEE SIMMS, LL. D., Charleston, 
S. C. 

PICKENS, ANDREW. 
PICKENS, FRANCIS W. 
PINCKNEY, Family of. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCEE, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

PEARSON, JOHN. 
POTTER, ALONZO. 
POTTER, HORATIO. 

Rev. WILLIAM L. SYMONDS, Portland, Me. 

PHILOSOPHY (in part). 

Prof. GEOEGE THUEBEE. 

PALM, 

PASSION FLOWER, 

PEACH, 

PINE, 

PITCHER PLANTS, 

PLANT, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

PAPUAN RACE AND LANGUAGES, 

PHOENICIA, 

PHONETICS, 

POMPEII, 

and other archaeological, oriental, and philological 

I. DE YEITELLE. 
PANAMA, 

PARAGUAY, 

PATAGONIA, 
PERU, 
PORTUGAL, 

PORTUGAL, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF, 
and other geographical articles. 

Major W. T. WALTHALL, Mobile, Ala. 

PENSACOLA. 
PENSACOLA BAY. 

Rev. JOHN WEISS, Milton, Mass. 

PAUKER, THEODOEE. 

S. R. WELLS. 

PHRENOLOGY. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

PEEL, Sir ROBERT (two). 
PERCIVAL, JAMES GATES. 
PORTUGAL, WINES OF. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College, 
New Haven, Conn. 

PERSIA, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF. 

Gen. JAMES HAEEISON WILSON. 

PARROTT, ROBERT PARKER. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



PALESTINE 



T)ALESTI]VE (Gr. HahatGrivij, derived from the 
JL Heb. Pelesheth, Philistia), a country of 
western Asia, now forming a part of the Turk- 
ish empire, bounded N. by the Lebanon moun- 
tains, which separate it from Ccele-Syria, E. 
and S. by the desert which separates it from 
Arabia and Egypt, and W. by the Mediterra- 
nean. It lies between lat. 30 40' and 33 15' 
K, and Ion. 33 45' and 36 30' E. ; length 
about 200 m., average breadth 60 m. ; area, 
12,000 sq. m. ; pop. estimated at 300,000. The 
name Palestine was never applied by the an- 
cient Hebrews to anything more than the 
southern portion of the coast region, as synony- 
mous with Philistia; and when it occurs in 
the English translation of the Bible it has this 
sense. The earlier Greek usage was the same ; 
but under the Romans it became the general 
name for the whole country of the Jews, and 
Josephus nses it in both the early and the later 
application. Modern Palestine is included in 
the vilayet of Syria, and contains the two sub- 
pashalics of Acre and Jerusalem. It is a " land 
of hills and valleys." It is remarkably sepa- 
rated by mountain and desert from other coun- 
tries, and its seashore is without any good 
harbor. The ancient harbor of Caasarea, the 
principal port during the Eoman dominion, 
was entirely artificial, and the ruins of its break- 
water are now only a dangerous reef. From 
Tyre, which is N. of Palestine proper, to the 
borders of Egypt, there is now but one port, 
Jaffa, and this only allows landing by boats 
under favorable circumstances. From the coast 
on the west the land rises rapidly to a moun- 
tainous height in the centre, and declines on 
the other side to the low level of the desert, 
being cleft through the centre IT. and S. by the 
deep valley of the Jordan. This depression, 
called by the Arabs el-Ghor, is the most char- 
acteristic feature of the physical geography of 
Palestine, and corresponds with the valley of 



the Orontes and Leontes in Coele-Syria, and 
with the wady Arabah in Arabia Petraaa. The 
coast level varies much in breadth, being in 
some places only a narrow pass between the 
mountains and the sea, and in others expand- 
ing into plains of considerable width. The 
southern portion of the coast level is termed 
in the Scriptures the plain or low country 
(Heb. SJiefelaJi), and the western part of it was 
the abode of the Philistines. This plain is very 
fertile, and is covered with corn fields. N". of 
it is a plain less level and fertile, the Sharon 
of the Scriptures, a land of fine pastures, 
which under the Eoman empire contained 
Cassarea, the Roman capital of Palestine. Be- 
yond Csesarea the plain grows narrower, un- 
til it is terminated by Mt. Oarmel, N. of which 
lies the plain of Acre, about 15 m. long from 
N. to S., and about 5 m. in average breadth 
from the seashore to the hills on the east. 
Mt. Carmel is a ridge about 10 m. long and 
1,500 ft. high, stretching N. by W., and ter- 
minating at the sea in a high promontory 
which encloses on the south the bay of Acre. 
North of Mt. Carmel are the Lebanon moun- 
tains (in the wider sense), which consist of two 
parallel ranges running N. into Syria, and en- 
closing between them a beautiful and fertile 
plain, called in Scripture the valley of Leba- 
non, and by the classic writers Coele-Syria, the 
" hollow or enclosed Syria." This plain, only 
the extreme southern portion of which is in 
Palestine, is 90 m. long and from 10 to 20 m. 
broad, except at the S. end, where it is nar- 
rower. The western range of these mountains 
runs nearly parallel to the sea, into which it 
projects several promontories ; and its average 
elevation is about 7,000 ft., while its loftiest 
summits, including Jebel Timarun (10,533 ft. 
according to Burton) and Jebel Makmel (9,998 
ft.), are covered with perpetual snow. These 
summits are outside of Palestine, as is the nat- 



6 



PALESTINE 



ural amphitheatre in which grow the finest 
specimens that remain of the famous cedars 
that once covered all the mountains of Leba- 
non. This great western range was called Li- 
banus by the classic writers, and to the eastern 
range they gave the name of Anti-Libanus. In 
the Scriptures both ranges are called Lebanon. 
They are composed of masses of limestone rock. 
The general elevation of Anti-Libanus is less 
than that of Libanus, but at its southern ex- 
tremity rises the conical snow-clad peak of 
Ilennon, called by the Arabs Jebel esh-Sheikh 
(the chief), or eth-Thelj (the snowy), to the 
height of about 10,000 ft., rivalling the highest 
peaks of Libanus, and overlooking all Pales- 
tine. S. of Hermon the Anti-Libanus sinks 
into the hills of Galilee, which rise from a 
table land elevated about 1,000 ft. above the 
sea, and sloping on the east to the Jordan, on 
the west to the plain of Acre, and on the south 
to the plain of Esdraelon. The last named 
plain, extending from the sea to the Jordan, 
is often mentioned in the Scriptures under the 
names of Megiddo, Jezreel, and others, and 
was the great battle field of Jewish history. 
It is traversed by ridges known as the moun- 
tains of Gilboa and Little Hermon. On its N. 
E. border stands Mt. Tabor, now known as 
Jebel et-Tur, the traditional scene of the trans- 
figuration. Though only 1,800 ft. high, it is 
one of the most remarkable and interesting of 
the mountains of Palestine. It is sometimes 
called the southern termination of the Lebanon 
range, but rises abruptly from the plain, and 
is entirely insulated except on the west, where 
a narrow ridge joins it to the rocky hills about 
Nazareth. It is densely covered with trees 
and shrubs, except a small tract on the top. 
Its isolated summit commands a panoramic 
view of the principal places of Samaria and 
Galilee, and was the rendezvous of Barak from 
which he rushed down to the defeat of Sisera. 
In the middle ages it was the resort of many 
hermits. It is now covered with ruins of a 
fortress of Saracenic architecture, while there 
are also remains of a far earlier period. S. of 
the plain of Esdraelon stretches an unbroken 
tract of mountains, about 30 m. in breadth, 
and rising in height toward the south till near 
Hebron it attains an elevation of 3,000 ft. 
above the sea. The northern part of this 
region comprised Samaria, and the southern 
Judea. The principal mountains of Samaria 
are Ebal and Gerizim, which rise to the height 
of about 2,700 and 2,600 ft. respectively above 
the sea, the former N. and the latter S. of a 
narrow valley in which stands the town of Na- 
blus, the ancient Shechem, the capital of the 
ten tribes after their secession from the rest of 
Israel. The hills of Judea are masses of bar- 
ren rock, for the most part of moderate ap- 
parent elevation, though their general height 
above the sea is 2,000 or 3,000 ft. On their E. 
face these mountains descend abruptly to the 
great valley of the Jordan, their general slope 
baing furrowed by steep and rugged gorges, 



which form the beds of winter torrents. The 
precipitous descent from Jerusalem to Jericho 
is famous for difficulty and danger, and is an 
example of the valleys descending to the Jor- 
dan through all its length. The W. slope of 
the hills is more gradual and gentle, but still 
difficult of passage, and the central heights of 
Palestine are a series of natural fastnesses of 
great strength ; and both in ancient and mod- 
ern times armies have traversed the western 
plains from Egypt to Phoenicia without dis- 
turbing the inhabitants of the hill country. 
The Jordan is the only important river of 
Palestine. Its sources are mainly on the south- 
ern and western declivity of Mt. Hermon, and 
after a short course its head streams unite and 
flow into Lake Merom, now called Lake Huleh. 
After quitting this the river is sluggish and 
turbid for a short distance, till it passes over 
a rocky bed where its mud is deposited, and 
then rushes on through a narrow volcanic val- 
ley. About 13 m. below Lake Huleh it enters 
the lake of Gennesaret or Tiberias, or sea of 
Galilee, which is between 600 and TOO ft. lower 
than the level of the Mediterranean. On is- 
suing from the S. end of this lake the river 
enters a valley from 5 to 10 m. wide, through 
which its course is so winding that within a 
space of 60 m. in length the river traverses 200 
m. and descends 27 rapids through the ever 
deepening valley, until it finally enters the 
Dead sea at a depression of a little over 1,300 
ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, after 
a total direct course from N. to S. of 120 m. 
At the mouth the river is 180 yards wide. 
Except the Jordan, Palestine has no streams 
considerable enough to be called rivers ; those 
so called in its history are mere brooks or 
torrents which become dry in summer. The 
Kishon, now Nahr el-Mukutta, which enters 
the bay of Acre near Mt. Oarmel, flows from 
Mt. Tabor, and in winter and spring is a large 
stream, while during the rest of the year it 
has water only in the last 7 m. of its course. 
The Kanah enters the Mediterranean between 
CtBsarea and Jaffa. The Arnon, o$en men- 
tioned in Scripture, is now called the wady 
Modjeb ; it rises near the S. E. border of the 
country, and flows circuit ously to the Dead 
sea. The Jabbok, now the wady Zurka, N. 
of the Arnon, flows a parallel course into the 
Jordan. The brook Kedron flows through the 
valley of Jehoshaphat, on the E. side of Je- 
rusalem, to the Dead sea, but is merely a tor- 
rent and not a constant stream. Springs and 
fountains of remarkable size, however, are 
found in different parts of the country. The 
principal lakes are the Dead sea in the south 
and the lake of Gennesaret in the north. In 
many parts of the country, and especially in 
the valley of the Jordan and the vicinity of 
the Dead sea, there are indications of volcanic 
origin, and earthquakes are often felt. The 
mountains are mostly of oolitic limestone of a 
light gray color. Black basalt is very com- 
mon. The general character of the scenery is 



PALESTINE 



stern and sombre. " Above all other countries 
in the world," says Dean Stanley, " it is a land 
of ruins. In Judea it is hardly an exaggera- 
tion to say that, while for miles and miles 
there is no appearance of present life or habi- 
tation, except the occasional goatherd on the 
hillside or gathering of women at the wells, 
there is hardly a hilltop of the many within 
sight which is not covered with the vestiges of 
some fortress or city of former ages. The ruins 
we now see are of the most distant ages : Sara- 
cenic, crusading, Koman, Grecian, Jewish, ex- 
tending perhaps even to the old Canaanitish 
remains before the arrival of Joshua." (See 
BASHAN.) Palestine has a mild and steady cli- 
mate, with a rainy season in the latter part of 
autumn, winter and a dry and almost rainless 
season constituting the rest of the year. The 
heat of summer is oppressive in the low lands, 
especially in the deep depression of the Jordan 
valley, but not among the hills ; and the cold 
of winter is not sufficient to freeze the ground, 
though snow sometimes falls to the depth of 
a foot at Jerusalem. Though the mountains 
have an exceedingly barren appearance, the 
plains and valleys are remarkably fertile. The 
valley S. of Bethlehem is irrigated and culti- 
vated with care, and has a rich and beauti- 
ful appearance. The hill country of the south 
is dryer and less productive than that of the 
north. In ancient times even the mountains 
were cultivated by means of terraces ; but in 
consequence of wars and the depopulation of 
the country, the terraces have been neglected 
and broken down, and the soil of the mountains 
swept by rains and torrents into the valleys. 
On some of the hills, however, the terraces 
have been rebuilt, and planted with olives, 
figs, and the vine ; but the greater part are 
either bare or covered with a rough growth of 
stunted oak. There are now no forests, and 
most of the trees of the country are small. 
The olive, fig, and pomegranate are largely 
cultivated, and are the most common trees. 
Besides these are the terebinth or turpentine 
tree, the oak, sycamore, mulberry, pine, pis- 
tachio, laurel, cypress, myrtle, almond, apri- 
cot, walnut, apple, pear, orange, and lemon. 
The number of shrubs and wild flowers is very 
great, and always attracts the attention of 
travellers; and there is such a prevalence of 
anemones, wild tulips, poppies, and other red 
flowers, as to give a scarlet color to the land- 
scape. Palestine has always been famous for 
its grapes, which are remarkable alike for size 
and flavor. The chief agricultural productions 
are wheat, barley, maize, and rye. Eice is 
grown on the marshy borders of the Jordan 
and some of the lakes. Peas, beans, and pota- 
toes are cultivated, and also tobacco, cotton, 
and sugar cane. The agriculture is of a rude 
and negligent character ; the fields are seldom 
fenced, the few divisions being by dilapidated 
stone walls, or by irregular hedges of the 
prickly pear. More attention is paid to pas- 
toral pursuits, and flocks of sheep and goats 



are very numerous. Cattle are few and poor. 
The roads being impracticable for wheeled 
vehicles, camels are the principal beasts of 
burden. Asses and mules are much used for 
riding, and fine Arabian horses are sometimes 
met with. The chief wild animals are bears, 
wild boars, panthers, hyaenas, jackals, wolves, 
foxes, and gazelles. Lions, which were found 
here in ancient times, are now extinct. Birds 
are few in number, though there are many dis- 
tinct species, among which may be mentioned 
the eagle, vulture, osprey, kite, hawk, crow, 
owl, cuckoo, kingfisher, woodpecker, wood- 
cock, partridge, quail, stork, heron, pelican, 
swan, goose, and duck. Venomous serpents 
are unknown, and the most noxious animals 
are scorpions. Mosquitoes are very common, 
and bees are extremely plentiful, depositing 
their honey in hollow trees and holes in the 
rocks. Locusts occasionally appear in vast 
swarms and devour every species of vegeta- 
tion. The present inhabitants of Palestine 
are a mixed race of very varied origin. The 
Mohammedans are the dominant and most nu- 
merous sect, and are composed of a few Turks 
who occupy the higher government situations, 
and of the great body of the common people, 
who are descended from mixed Arab, Greek, 
and ancient Syrian ancestors, the last element 
greatly preponderating. They are noble-look- 
ing, graceful, and courteous, but illiterate, 
fanatical, and indolent. The Christians are 
almost entirely of Syrian race, descendants of 
those who occupied the country when it was 
conquered by the Saracens. They belong 
mostly to the Greek church, of which there 
is a patriarch at Jerusalem, who has ecclesi- 
astical jurisdiction over the whole of Syria. 
Under him are eight bishops, whose sees are 
Nazareth, Acre, Lydda, Gaza, Sebaste, Nablus, 
Philadelphia, and Petra. There are also a 
few Maronites and Koman Catholics in the 
large towns, and in Jerusalem about 200 Ar- 
menians under a patriarch of their own faith. 
The Jews, mostly from Spain, with a few 
from Poland and Germany, are about 10,000 
in number, and live almost exclusively in the 
towns of Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias, and 
Safet. The population is less than one tenth 
of what it was in ancient times. Palestine 
was first known as Canaan. But this name 
was confined to the country between the Medi- 
terranean and the Jordan, the principal region 
E. of that river being called the land of Gilead. 
Palestine was subsequently called the land of 
promise, the land of Israel, Judah, Judea, and 
the Holy Land. The term Judea, though in 
later periods of Jewish history frequently ap- 
plied to the whole country, belonged, strictly 
speaking, only to the southern portion of it. 
In the earliest times in which Palestine or 
Canaan becomes known to us, it was divided 
among various tribes, whom the Jews called 
collectively Canaanites. The precise locality 
of these nations is not in every case distinctly 
known. The Kenites, the Kenizzites, the Kad- 



8 



PALESTINE 



monites, and a part of the Amorites lived E. 
of the Jordan ; while W. of that river dwelt 
the Hittites, the Perizzites, the Jebusites, and 
most of the Amorites, in the hill country ^of 
the south ; the Oanaanites proper, in the mid- 
dle ; the Girgashites, along the E. border of 
the lake of Gennesaret ; and the Hivites, most- 
ly in the north among the mountains of Leb- 
anon. The southern part of the coast was 
occupied by the Philistines and the northern 
by the Phoenicians. After the conquest of Ca- 
naan by the Israelites under Moses and Joshua, 
the land was distributed among the tribes. 
Judah, Simeon, Benjamin, and Dan occupied 
the south; Ephraini, half of Manasseh, and 
Issachar, the middle; and Zebulon, Naphtali, 
and Asher, the north. Keuben, Gad, and the 
other half of Manasseh were settled beyond 
the Jordan. After the division into two king- 
doms by the secession of the ten tribes (about 
975 B. 0.), the boundary line between them 
was the northern limit of the tribe of Benja- 
min. In the time of Christ Palestine was sub- 
ject to the Romans, and the country W. of the 
Jordan was divided into the provinces of Gali- 
lee, Samaria, and Judea. Galilee was that part 
of Palestine N". of the plain .of Esdraelon, and 
was divided into lower or southern and upper 
or northern Galilee. Samaria occupied nearly 
the middle of Palestine. Judea as a province 
corresponded to the N. and W. parts of the an- 
cient kingdom of Judah ; but the "S. E. portion 
formed a part of the territory of Idumssa. On 
the other side of the Jordan the country was 
called Perm, and was divided into eight dis- 
tricts, viz. : 1, Per&a in a limited sense, which 
was the southernmost district, extending from 
the river or brook Arnon to the river Jabbok ; 
2, Gilead, N". of the Jabbok; 3, Decapolis, or 
the district of ten cities, which, as nearly as 
can be ascertained, were Scythopolis or Beth- 
shan (which however was on the W. side of 
the Jordan), Hippos, Gadara, Pella, Philadel- 
phia or Rabbah, Dion, Canatha, Galasa or Ge- 
rasa, Raphana, and perhaps Damascus ; 4, Gau- 
lonitis, extending 1ST. E. of the upper Jordan 
and of the lake of Gennesaret ; 5, Batanea, E. 
and S. E. of Gaulonitis; 6, Auranitis, with 
Ituraa, N". E. of Batanea, now known as the 
desert of Hauran ; 7, Trachonitis, N". of Aura- 
nitis ; 8, Abilene, in the extreme north, among 
the mountains of Anti-Libanus. The earlier 
part of the history of Palestine is treated in 
the article HEBEEWS. The country remained 
subject to the Roman and Byzantine emperors 
for more than six centuries after Christ. The 
Jews, after frequent rebellions, in one of which, 
A. D. 70, Jerusalem was destroyed by Titus, 
were mostly driven from the country and scat- 
tered as slaves or exiles over the world. With 
the spread of Christianity, Palestine became 
the resort of vast numbers of pilgrims, and Je- 
rusalem was made the seat of a patriarch. The 
emperor Constantine and his mother Helena 
erected throughout the land costly memori- 
als of Christian faith, marking with churches, 



chapels, or altars every spot supposed to have 
been the scene of the acts of the Saviour. In 
614 the Persians under Chosroes II. invaded 
Palestine, and, assisted by the Jews to the 
number of 26,000, captured Jerusalem. It was 
regained by Heraclius, but was conquered by 
the Mohammedan Arabs in 637. For the next 
two centuries the country was the scene of 
civil war between the rival factions of the 
Ommiyade, the Abbasside, and the Fatimite 
caliphs. From the middle of the 8th century 
it was a province of the Abbasside caliphs of 
Bagdad till 969, when it fell under the power 
of the Fatimite rulers of Egypt. In 1076-7 
it was conquered by the Seljuk Turks, but in 
1096 it was regained by the Egyptian sultans, 
in whose possession it was when invaded by the 
crusaders in the following year. The crusaders 
made Godfrey of Bouillon ruler of Jerusalem, 
and he and his successors reigned in Palestine 
till Jerusalem was retaken by Sultan Saladin in 
1187, and the Christian kingdom overthrown. 
Two years afterward another crusade was un- 
dertaken under Philip, king of France, Richard 
I. of England, and the emperor Frederick Bar- 
barossa of Germany. It did not regain Jerusa- 
lem, but partially restored the Christian rule 
upon the coast. Another crusade in 1216, chief- 
ly of Hungarians and Germans, met with little 
more success. Still another, undertaken by 
the emperor Frederick II. in 1228, resulted in 
the recovery of Jerusalem, and the Christian 
dominion was reestablished over a considerable 
extent of territory ; but after various vicissi- 
tudes of fortune, and in spite of repeated suc- 
cors from Europe, it finally yielded to the arms 
of the Egyptian Mamelukes in 1291. The sul- 
tans of Egypt held it till 1517, when it was 
conquered by the Turks, in whose possession 
it has remained till the present time, with the 
exception of a brief occupation in 1839-'41 by 
the forces of the rebellious pasha of Egypt, 
Mehemet Ali. Much attention has been given 
in recent times to the careful exploration of 
Palestine, with important results in the identi- 
fication of places named in Scripture. This 
began with the work of Dr. Edward Robin- 
son, the results of which were published in his 
"Biblical Researches" (3 vols. 8vo, Boston, 
1841) and " Later Researches " (1856). Among 
the most recent explorations have been those 
of the British society organized in 1865 under 
the name of the " Palestine Exploration Fund," 
the reports of which appear in the work of 
Captains Wilson and Warren, entitled "The 
Recovery of Jerusalem" (8vo, London, 1871), 
and in quarterly statements issued since that 
work. Among the results of the English ex- 
plorations have been the trigonometrical sur- 
vey of a great part of Samaria and Judea, the 
discovery of some remarkable Greek inscrip- 
tions of Christian origin within the Haram 
enclosure at Jerusalem, and the identification 
of a great number of Biblical and classical sites, 
among which are the rock Etam, Alexandrium, 
Chozeba, Maarath, the cliff of Ziz, Hareth, 



PALESTRINA 



PALEY 



9 



Ziph, Maon, the hill of Hachilah, the Levitical 
city of Debir, Ecbatana (a Roman city on Mt. 
Oarmel), Archelais, Sycaminum, Eshtaol, Seneh 
(the scene of Jonathan's victory and the site of 
the Philistine camp), the rock Oreb, the wine 
press of Zeeb, the altar of Ed, the high place 
of Gibeon, the city of Nob, and the cave of 
Adullam. Among the latest identifications is 
Bethabara, the scene of the baptizing by John, 
which Lieut. C. E. Conder in 1875 fixed at the 
ford known as Makhadet Abara, holding that 
it is a different place from the Bethabara of 
the book of Judges. The American " Pales- 
tine Exploration Society," organized in 1871, 
sent out expeditions in 1872 under command 
of Lieut. Edgar L. Steever, jr., and in 1874 
under Prof. II. M. Paine. This society has 
left the region about Jerusalem to the British 
organization already in the field, and has un- 
dertaken to survey the region E. of the Jor- 
dan. It has published the results of its work 
in three " Statements," issued in 1871, 1873, 
and 1875. The report of 1875 states that Mt. 
Pisgah has been identified with the S. W. sum- 
mit of a triple mountain called by the Arabs 
Jebel Siaghah, about 10 m. E. of the N. end of 
the Dead sea. (See PISGAH.) Among the most 
important works on Palestine, besides those 
already named, are those of Kitto, " Palestine " 
(London, 1841); Munk, Palestine: description 
geographique, historique et archeologique (Paris, 
1845; German ed. by M. A. Levy, Breslau, 
1871) ; Lynch, " Official Report of the Expedi- 
tion to the Dead Sea" (8vo, Philadelphia, 1849) ; 
Churchill, "Mount Lebanon" (4 vols. 8vo,' 
London, 1853-'62); Stanley, "Sinai and Pales- 
tine" (8vo, 1856); Prime, "Tent Life in the 
Holy Land " (12mo, New York, 1857) ; Porter, 
" Handbook for Travellers in Syria and Pales- 
tine " (2 vols., London, 1858; 2d ed., 1868); 
Thomson, " The Land and the Book " (2 vols. 
8vo, New York, 1859); Tristram, "Topogra- 
phy of the Holy Land " (8vo, 1872) ; and Rit- 
ter, Die Erdkunde, vols. xiv.-xvii., translated 
into English under the title of " Comparative 
Geography of Palestine and the Sinai tic Pen- 
insula" (4 vols. 8vo, Edinburgh, 1866). 

PALESTRINA (anc. Prceneste), a town of Ita- 
ly, in the province and 23 m. E. S. E. of Rome ; 
pop. about 6,000. It is built almost entirely 
on the site of the ancient temple of Eortune, 
which after its restoration by Sulla occupied 
the whole lower slope of the hill, more than 
2,000 ft. high, with a citadel on the summit, 
which was replaced by a mediae val castle. The 
only notable buildings are the deserted Bar- 
berini palace and the church of San Rosario, 
with tombs of the Barberini and Colonna fam- 
ilies, the latter preponderating here during the 
middle ages. (See PE^NESTE.) 

PALESTRINA, Giovanni Pietro Aloisio da, an Ital- 
ian composer, born in Palestrina in 1524, died 
in Rome, Feb. 2, 1594. In 1551, having gained 
some distinction as a composer, he was admit- 
ted among the singers of the pontifical chapel, 
and a few years later was made chapelmaster 



by Pope Julius III., to whom he had dedi- 
cated four masses for four voices. He was 
the first upon whom this title was conferred. 
In 1555 he was dismissed from office by Paul 
IV. for having married, and for several years 
he was successively chapelmaster at the church- 
es of St. John Lateran and Santa Maria Mag- 
giore. In 1571 he was appointed chapelmas- 
ter of St. Peter's, and shortly after maestro 
to the congregation of the Oratory. The sub- 
ject of improving ecclesiastical music having 
been referred by the council of Trent to a 
committee, a discussion arose respecting the 
secular tunes which then formed the principal 
themes of most masses and psalms. Palestri- 
na, being called upon to compose a work in a 
more simple and devotional style, for the sake 
of contrast, produced his celebrated "Mass of 
Pope Marcellus." His music, consisting chief- 
ly of masses, psalms, motets, and madrigals, 
is grave and learned. A Stdbat Mater, and 
specimens of his masses, motets, and madri- 
gals, have been published by A. E. Choron, 
but the greater part of his works are to be 
found only in the large libraries of Europe. 
Some of his masses and motets are still em- 
ployed in the service of the Roman Catholic 
church, and three of his motets adapted to 
versions of the Psalms are in use in the Eng- 
lish cathedral service. See Baini, Memorie 
della vita e delle opere di Palestrina (2 vols. 
4to, Rome, 1828; German, Leipsic, 1834). 

PALEY. I. William, an English theologian, born 
in Peterborough in July, 1743, died May 25, 
1805. He graduated at Christ's college, Cam- 
bridge, as senior wrangler, in 1763, and after 
teaching for three years returned to his college 
as fellow, became a tutor, and lectured on moral 
philosophy and divinity. In 1775 he became 
rector of Musgrove in Westmoreland, and short- 
ly after married. After other preferments, he 
was made in 1782 archdeacon of Carlisle. In 
1785 appeared his "Principles of Moral and 
Political Economy," the copyright of which 
brought him 1,000. He published " Horse Pau- 
linas " in 1790, and " Reasons for Contentment " 
in 1791. In 1794 appeared his "View of the 
Evidences of Christianity," and three addition- 
al preferments were immediately conferred on 
him, one of them worth 1,000 per annum. 
His political sentiments prevented his prefer- 
ment to a bishopric. In 1802 he published his 
" Natural Theology." His ethical theory denies 
the existence of a moral sense or any original 
moral constitution of human nature, and makes 
the expectation of future reward or punish- 
ment the only motive of virtuous action. Util- 
ity is the ground of obligation, but it must be 
determined with reference to remote as well 
as direct efforts, to eternity as well as time. 
Applying this principle to politics, he makes 
the " will of God as collected from expedien- 
cy" the ground of civil obedience. If an ille- 
gitimate government has become peaceably es- 
tablished so that it advances the good of the 
subjects, public utility requires that it should 



10 



PlLFFY 



be obeyed ; but if a legitimate government is 
injurious to the public welfare, it should be 
overthrown. He affirms that the " divine right 
of kings is on the same footing with the divine 
right of constables," namely, the law of the 
land. " The final view," he says, " of all natu- 
ral politics is to produce the greatest amount 
of happiness." Expediency prevails even in 
his view of religious establishments, no one 
form of which, he contends, is a part of Chris- 
tianity. The authority of the church is found- 
ed on its utility. His greatest work is his 
"Natural Theology," designed to demonstrate 
the existence and perfections of God from 
the evidences of design in the adaptations of 
nature. The proof is entirely a posteriori, no 
appeal being made to man's moral instincts or 
a priori ideas. An annotated edition by Lord 
Brougham and Sir Charles Bell was published 
in 1836 (2 vols. 8vo), to which were added by 
the former in 1839 " Dissertations on Subjects 
connected with Natural Theology" (2 vols.), 
and a "Discourse of Natural Theology." A 
complete edition of his works was edited by 
his son, the Rev. Edmund Paley (4 vols., Lon- 
don, 1838). The best biography is that by 
Meadley (1839). II. Frederick Apthorp, an Eng- 
lish author, grandson of the preceding, born 
at Easingwold, near York, in 1816. He grad- 
uated at St. John's college, Cambridge, in 
1838, continuing his residence till.1846, when 
he became a Roman Catholic. 'lie is now 
(1875) classical examiner in the university of 
London. He has published several architec- 
tural and ecclesiological works, the most im- 
portant of which are a "Manual of Gothic 
Mouldings" (8vo, London, 1845), and "A 
Manual of Gothic Architecture" (1846). He 
has edited with notes JEschylus, Euripides, 
Hesiod, Ovid's Fasti, Propertius, Theocritus, 
Homer's Iliad, and other works, and has trans- 
lated into English the plays of ^Eschylus (1864) 
andjihe odes of Pindar (1869). 

PALFFY, a Hungarian family founded by Count 
Conrad of Altenburg, ambassador of the em- 
peror Conrad II. in Hungary, in the llth cen- 
tury, whose descendants formed in the fol- 
lowing century the houses of Konth and 
Hedervar. Paul II. of the former branch as- 
sumed the name Palffy (son of Paul), to which 
his descendant Paul III. added that of Erdod, 
the family name of his wife. Nicholas II., 
grandson of the latter (1550-1600), gave celeb- 
rity to the family by his prowess against the 
Turks; and his son Stephen II. was made a 
count in 1634. Subsequently there were other 
branches of the house, and the representative 
of the elder branch, Joseph Francis (1764- 
1827), a descendant of Nicholas II., was made 
a prince in 1807. The most distinguished sol- 
dier among the younger branch was Count 
John IV. (1659-1751), who restored peace in 
Hungary in 1711 by the treaty of Szatmar, 
and was appointed governor general there by 
Maria Theresa in 1741. The family is still 
prominent in Hungary. 



PALGEAVE 

PiLFFY, Albert, a Hungarian author, born in 
Grosswardein in 1813. He studied law, but 
devoted himself to literature at Pesth, and 
after the revolution of March, 1848, founded 
the ultra-radical journal Marczius tizenotodilce 
("The 15th of March"), which promoted the 
patriotic excitement. He received an office 
from the revolutionary authorities, but de- 
nounced them as too conservative, and was 
imprisoned for a time in 1849. He afterward 
lived abroad till 1861, when he returned to 
Pesth. He has published several novels. 

PALFREY, John Gorham, an American author, 
born in Boston, May 2, 1796. He graduated at 
Harvard college in 1815, studied theology, and 
in June, 1818, was ordained minister of the 
Congregational church in Brattle square, Bos- 
ton. From 1831 to 1839 he was professor of 
sacred literature in Harvard university, and 
from 1835 to 1842 was editor of the " North 
American Review." In 1842 he delivered be- 
fore the Lowell institute in Boston a course of 
lectures on the "Evidences of Christianity," 
which were afterward published (2 vols., 1843). 
This was followed by " Lectures on the Jewish 
Scriptures and Antiquities" (4 vols., 1838-'52). 
He had previously published " Harmony of the 
Gospels " (1831), " Sermons " (1834), and "Aca- 
demical Lectures" (1838), besides occasional 
sermons, &c. In 1842-' 3 he was a member 
of the Massachusetts legislature, and from 1844 
for several years secretary of state of Massa- 
chusetts. In 1846 he wrote a series of news- 
paper articles on " The Progress of the Slave 
Power," which were collected into a volume. 
He was elected to congress as a whig in 1846 ; 
but having in December, 1847, refused on anti- 
slavery grounds to vote for Robert C. Win- 
throp as speaker, he was defeated at the next 
election (1848), after an animated contest in 
which there were 17 ballotings. Meanwhile 
he had become a leader of the freesoilers, and 
in 1851 was one of the editors of the " Com- 
monwealth," the chief organ of that party in 
New England. He was also the unsuccessful 
candidate of the party for governor of the state. 
He afterward devoted himself to literature, but 
from 1861 to 1866 was postmaster at Boston. 
In 1852 he published a review of Lord Mahon's 
" History of England," and in 1854 " Remarks 
on the proposed Constitutional Amendments," 
and " The Relation between Judaism and Chris- 
tianity." The first volume of his "History 
of New England" was published in 1858, the 
second in 1860, and the third in 1865, bring- 
ing it down to 1688. His daughter, SAEAH 
HAMMOND, under the nom de plume of E. Fox- 
ton, has published " Premices," a volume of 
poems (1855), "Herman" (1866), and "Agnes 
Wentworth" (1869). 

PALGRAVE. I. Sir Francis, an English author, 
born in London in July, 1788, died at Hamp- 
stead, July 6, 1861. He belonged to a Jewish 
family named Cohen, which name he exchanged 
for that of Palgrave, the maiden name of his 
wife's mother. He studied law, and was man- 



PALGEAVE 



PALIMPSEST 



11 



aging clerk in a law office till 1822, when he 
was employed by the commissioners of rec- 
ords. He had edited a collection of Anglo- 
Norman chansons in 1818, but first became 
known as the editor of the "Parliamentary 
"Writs," published by the commissioners of 
public records (4 vols. fol., 1827-'34). He 
was admitted to the bar at the Inner Tem- 
ple in 1827. In 1831 he published a pamphlet 
on " Conciliatory Reform," and a " History of 
England: the Anglo-Saxon Period," in Mur- 
ray's " Family Library." About the same time 
he was elected fellow of the royal society and 
of the society of antiquaries. In 1832 he was 
knighted "for his general services and his 
attention to constitutional and parliamentary 
IRerature." His "Rise and Progress of the 
English Commonwealth" (2 vols. 4to, 1832) is 
devoted to the Anglo-Saxon polity and man- 
ners, and is especially valuable to the student 
of English jurisprudence. In 1833 he was ap- 
pointed by the king one of 20 commissioners 
to inquire into the existing state of the muni- 
cipal corporations of England and Wales ; but 
dissenting from the report of the majority of 
the commission, he presented his own views 
in a " Protest" (1835). On the reconstruction 
of the record office in 1838 he was appointed 
deputy keeper of her majesty's public records, 
and continued in this office till his death. His 
other works are : Eotuli Curia Regis (2 vols., 
1835) ; " Calendars and Inventories of the Trea- 
sury of the Exchequer" (3 vols., 1836) ; "Doc- 
uments illustrating the History of Scotland" 
(1837); "Truths and Fictions of the Middle 
Ages: the Merchant and the Friar" (1837); 
" Essay upon the Authority of the King's Coun- 
cil" (1844); and " History of Normandy and 
England" (4 vols., 1851-'64). He also wrote 
the first edition of Murray's "Handbook to 
North Italy," and was for many years a con- 
stant contributor to the " Quarterly Review." 
II. Francis Turner, an English poet, son of the 
preceding, born in London, Sept. 28, 1824. He 
completed his education at Oxford, and was 
successively vice principal of a normal college, 
assistant in the educational department of the 
privy council, and private secretary to Earl 
Granville. His principal works are: "Idyls 
and Songs " (London, 1854) ; " Essays on Art " 
(1866) ; "A Life of Sir Walter Scott" (1867) ; 
"Hymns" (1867; enlarged ed., 1868); and 
"Lyrical Poems" (1871). III. William Clifford, 
brother of the preceding, born in Westminster, 
Jan. 24, 1826. He graduated at Oxford in 
1846, and in 1847 was commissioned as second 
lieutenant in the 8th Bombay native infantry. 
He left India in 1853, resigned his commis- 
sion, joined the Roman Catholic church, and 
became a member of the society of Jesus. 
After his novitiate he completed his theologi- 
cal studies in the Jesuit seminary at Laval, was 
ordained priest, and at his own request was 
sent to the Jesuit mission in Syria, where his 
intimate knowledge of Arabic gave promise 
of special usefulness. Wishing to extend the 



field of missionary enterprise into the unex- 
plored countries of central Arabia, he sub- 
mitted his project to the general of the society 
and the propaganda, who gave it their appro- 
bation, while the French government, as the 
protector of the Syrian missions, furnished the 
necessary funds. He set out from Maan on the 
western verge of the Sherarat desert June 16, 
1862, travelled under the disguise of a physi- 
cian through the territories subject to the Wa- 
habees, escaped from their capital, Riyad, with 
great risk to his life, Nov. 24, and arrived at, 
Katif, in Hasa, Dec. 22. After having suf- 
fered shipwreck on the coast of Oman, he re- 
turned to Europe through Bagdad and Aleppo. 
He left the society of Jesus in 1864, and pub- 
lished "Personal Narrative of a Year's Jour- 
ney through Central and Eastern Arabia " (2 
vols., London, 1865), receiving for it the gold 
medal of the French geographical society. In 
July, 1865, Palgrave was sent to the East on 
a special mission for the release of the English 
and other prisoners held by the Abyssinian 
monarch Theodore. He remained in Egypt 
till June, 1866, when he returned to England, 
and was appointed consul at Sukhum-Kall July 
23, and at Trebizond May 20, 1867. He is at 
present (1875) consul at St. Thomas, West In- 
dies. In 1 872 he published ' * Essays on Eastern 
Questions " and " Hermann Agha," and in 1875 
" Alkamah's Cave, a Story of Nejd." 

PALIKAO, Charles Gnillanme Marie Apollinaire 
Antoine Consin-Montauban, count de, a French 
soldier, born in Paris, June 24, 1796. In early 
life he served in the French army in Spain, and 
afterward in Algeria, where he became a gen- 
eral of division in 1855. In 1858-'9 he held 
various commands in France, and in 1860 dis- 
tinguished himself as commander in China, in 
conjunction with the English forces, especial- 
ly at Pa-li-kia-ho (Sept. 21), whence his title. 
The spoliation of the Chinese summer palace 
near Peking caused the legislative body to dis- 
allow the annuity of 50,000 francs which had 
been proposed for him ; but it was discovered 
in 1872 that the emperor had appropriated 
600,000 francs from the Chinese indemnity 
for the benefit of Palikao, without a shadow 
of authority. In August, 1870, after the 'first 
reverses of the French arms, he succeeded 
Emile Ollivier as prime minister, and acted at 
the same time as minister of war. He organ- 
ized a large force at Chalons, formed several 
new army corps, placed Trochu in command 
of Paris, published fictitious reports of victo- 
ries, and was held in a great measure respon- 
sible for the disaster of Sedan, after which he 
fled to Belgium. In December, 1871, he pub- 
lished a vindication of his administration. 

PALI LANGUAGE. See INDIA, RACES AND 
LANGUAGES OF, vol. ix., p. 216. 

PALIMPSEST (Gr. Tra/U'^^ffrof, from TraAw, 
again, and T/^V, to rub), a parchment which 
has been written upon twice or oftener, the 
prior writing having been erased and the sur- 
face prepared for the new by rubbing. The 



12 



PALIMPSEST 



PALISOT 



ancients used the word in this sense, but they 
also applied it to leaves or books used by au- 
thors for a preliminary writing of their works, 
which were so made that the ink could be 
wiped off in order to make corrections and re- 
visions. After the conquest of Egypt by the 
Saracens, western Europe was cut off from the 
papyrus which it had previously drawn from 
that country, and the supply of parchment 
being limited, recourse was had to the erasure 
of ancient manuscripts. This practice, which 
prevailed in the West from the 7th or 8th cen- 
tury throughout the dark ages, and in the East, 
which was not deprived of papyrus so soon, 
from about the llth century, was long sup- 
posed to have caused the destruction of a vast 
amount of classical literature, sacrificed by the 
monkish transcribers to the needs of missals, 
antiphonaries, and other religious writings; 
but it has resulted rather, through the de- 
ciphering of the expunged works, in the re- 
covery of important fragments of ancient au- 
thors, many of which would otherwise have 
been lost irrecoverably. Two processes were 
used by the mediaeval scribes in the preparation 
of palimpsests, in the first of which the writing 
was washed off with a sponge and the parch- 
ment smoothed when dry by rubbing with 
pumice stone ; in the second either entire lines 
were scraped off with a sharp blade, or each 
letter was erased separately, the surface being 
afterward rubbed smooth with pumice stone 
or with a polishing tool. The success of the 
erasure depended materially on the kind of 
ink with which the writing was executed. If 
vegetable, it was easily expunged, as it did not 
strike into the body of the skin ; but if it con- 
tained animal or mineral matter, it was im- 
possible to remove entirely the original writing, 
traces of which could be distinctly seen in 
many cases even after the surface had been 
rubbed off. Most of the ancient manuscripts 
were written with ink composed of lampblack, 
gum, and vitriol, which so penetrated the skin 
that it could not be entirely removed ; for, if 
invisible to the eye, its presence can still be 
detected by proper chemical treatment. Vari- 
ous jnearis have been adopted in modern times 
to revive the erased writings of palimpsests. 
Among the first was to wash the parchment 
with an infusion of galls and to expose it after- 
ward to the light. This process frequently 
reproduced the ancient characters so that they 
could easily be read ; but in some cases it black- 
ened the entire parchment so as to render 
illegible both the old and the later writing. In 
1787 Sir Charles Blagden proposed a "new 
method of recovering the legibility of decayed 
writings," viz., to dip the manuscript, after a 
careful washing in water, into diluted muriatic 
acid and afterward into a solution of prussiate 
of potash. A similar treatment was proposed 
by Prof. Gioberti of the university of Turin, 
and a preparation founded upon it received the 
name of tinctura G-iobertina. A preparation 
of sulphuretted ammonia has also been used 



with success. "When the ink contains some 
animal substance, such as the blood of the 
cuttle fish or milk, Prof. Mone recommends 
that the parchment be immersed in oil in a 
close vessel and subjected to a heat of 400 E. 
By means of these and other modes of treat- 
ment the ancient writing of many palimpsests 
has been rendered legible enough to be deci- 
phered by experienced palaeographers ; and in 
several cases two writings have been brought 
to light under the superficial one. Among the 
earliest to direct attention to palimpsests was 
Louis Boivin, who thoroughly examined and 
described the text of the Ephraem palimpsest 
(see MANUSCRIPT, vol. xi.,p. 133), discovered by 
Peter Allix near the close of the 17th century. 
Montfaucon also called attention to the impor- 
tance of palimpsest manuscripts in his Palato- 
grapliia Grceca (1708) ; but it was not until the 
last half of the 18th century that much pro- 
gress began to be made in their decipherment. 
In 1762 F. A. Knittel published a portion of 
the Epistle to the Romans in the Gothic text of 
Ulfilas, found under a copy of the Origines of 
Isidorus in a manuscript preserved in the li- 
brary at Wolfenbtittel ; and in 1773 P. J. Bruns 
recovered and published a part of the 91st book 
of Livy from a palimpsest in the Vatican. But 
by far the greatest explorer in the field of pa- 
limpsest literature was Cardinal Angelo Mai, 
who published from 1814 to 1853 many in- 
valuable fragments of classic authors before 
reckoned as lost; among them were the De 
Republica of Cicero and portions of the his- 
tories of Polybius, Diodorus Siculus, Diony- 
sius of Halicarnassus, Dion Cassius, Appian, 
and lamblichus. His success gave zest to the 
study, and through the labors of Niebuhr and 
others the greater part of the Institutes of 
Gaius were recovered from a manuscript at 
Verona and published in 1820. Other inves- 
tigators who have rendered important service 
to literature in this department are Barrett, 
Blume, Peyron, G. H. Pertz and his son Karl 
Pertz, Gaupp, F. J. Mone and his son Fridegar 
Mone, Cureton, Hase, Tregelles, and Tischen- 
dorf. (See MANUSCRIPT.) 

PALIMJRUM, a promontory of Lucania in 
Italy, on the Tyrrhenian sea, about half way 
between Velia and Buxentum; lat. 40 N., 
long. 15 15' E. It derived its name from the 
tradition, recorded by Virgil, that on this spot 
Palinurus the pilot of ^Eneas was buried. Some 
ruins of ancient buildings, still visible on the 
summit of the headland, are popularly known 
as the tomb of Palinurus. Near this promon- 
tory, during the first Punic war, 253 B. C., a Ro- 
man fleet under the consul Cervilius Caepio and 
Sempronius Blaesus was wrecked and 150 ves- 
sels lost ; and again in 36 B. 0. a portion of the 
fleet of Octavius was lost on the coast between 
Velia and Palinurus Portus, a harbor formed 
by the cape, and now called Porto di Palinuro. 

PALISOT, imbroise Marie Francois Joseph Beau- 
vois de, a French naturalist, born in Arras in 
1752, died in Paris, Jan. 21, 1820. He sailed 



PALISSY 



PALLADIUM 



13 



for the coast of Guinea in 1786, and was the 
first naturalist to explore the kingdom of Benin. 
His health having broken down, he went in 
1788 to Santo Domingo, and in 1790 obtained 
a place in the colonial council. In 1791 he 
was sent on an unsuccessful mission to Phila- 
delphia for assistance against the revolted ne- 
groes of Santo Domingo, and on his return to 
the colony in June, 1793, he was imprisoned and 
barely escaped being murdered by them. He 
reached Philadelphia in great destitution, and 
supported himself as a teacher of music and 
languages; but the French charge^ d'affaires 
enabled nim to make a botanical excursion 
through some of the United States. Permitted 
to return to France in 1798, after having been 
proscribed during the revolution, he became in 
1806 a member of the institute, and in 1815 of 
the council of the university. Among his illus- 
trated works are : Flore d? Oware et de Benin (2 
vols., Paris, 1804-'21); Insectes recueillies en 
Afrique et en Amerique (1805-'21) ; and Mus- 
cologie, ou traite sur les mousses (1822). 

PALISSY, Bernard, a French potter, born at 
Capelle-Biron, near Agen, about 1510, died in 
Paris in 1590. He was first employed, as we 
learn from himself, in "portraiture and vitri- 
f action," which probably means that he paint- 
ed on glass; and being acquainted with geom- 
etry, he was occasionally employed in survey- 
ing and in drawing maps. Having seen some 
ornamented pottery from Nuremberg as some 
think, or as others suppose from Italy, he re- 
solved to discover the method of enamelling 
which had been brought to such perfection in 
the latter country. Regardless of expense, la- 
bor, disappointment, and hardship, he reduced 
himself and family to poverty rather than give 
up his undertaking, and about 1555 succeeded 
after 16 years of exertion. Having in the mean 
time become a Protestant, he was imprisoned 
at Bordeaux during the reign of Henry II. ; 
but through the intervention of some of the 
nobility, among others the constable de Mont- 
morency, he was released, and appointed "ma- 
ker of the king's rustic potteries" (rustiques 
figulines). He removed to Paris, and resided 
in the neighborhood known as the Tuileries. 
On the building of the palace of the Tuileries 
he had charge of the decoration of the gar- 
dens. This post saved him from the massacre 
of St. Bartholomew. He improved his dis- 
covery, and manufactured earthen figures and 
ornaments, .which in artistic perfection rival- 
led those of Faenza or Oastel Durante, and 
were generally used in the decoration of castles 
and palaces. His other works, such as vases, 
jugs, ewers, and salvers, were eagerly sought 
for, and are still highly valued. Meanwhile he 
was engaged in scientific pursuits, and it has 
been appropriately said that he was to chem- 
istry what Lord Bacon was to philosophy, and 
that his Traite de Vart de terre is the Novum 
Organum of the science. In his other treatises, 
De la marne, De la nature des eaux etfontaines, 
&c., anticipating modern scientific discoveries, 



he expounded a method of taking soundings, 
and gave the theory of artesian wells and strat- 
ifications. Toward the end of the reign of 
Henry III. he was again involved in serious 
difficulties on account of his religion. Proba- 
bly through the enmity of the leaguers, he was 
arrested in 1588 and confined in the Bastile, 
where he died. The name of Palissy, scarcely 
noticed by his contemporaries and completely 
ignored during the 17th century, was brought 
again to light by Fontenelle, Buffon, and others, 
who pointed out the value of his scientific re- 
searches. Being ignorant of Greek and Latin, 
he wrote altogether in French. An edition of 
his works was published in 1777 by Faujas de 
St. Fond and Gobet, and reprinted in part in 
1844 by A. Cap (Paris). J. Salles has written 
Mude sur la me et les travaux de B. Palissy 
(8vo, Nimes, 1855), and his life has also been 
written by H. Morley (2 vols., London, 1852). 
Specimens of his art are preserved in the mu- 
seums of the Louvre, of Sevres, of the hotel 
Cluny in Paris, and of the Favorite near Mu- 
nich. His oven, with some other relics, was 
discovered in 1865 in the place du Carrousel. 

PALE STRAIT. See CEYLON. 

PALL, or Palla. See PALLIUM. 

PALLADIO, Andrea, an Italian architect, born 
in Yicenza, Nov. 30, 1518, died there in August, 
1580. He was brought into notice by his de- 
sign for the loggie or open porticoes surround- 
ing three sides of the palazzo della Ragione at 
Vicenza, after which he was for many years 
busily employed in the construction of private 
mansions, developing the still popular Palladian 
style. The most famous is the Rotonda Capra, 
known as Palladio's villa, just outside of Vi- 
cenza. After a time he was invited to Venice, 
where he designed two churches, San Giorgio 
Maggiore and II Santissimo Redentore, as well 
as the atrium for the convent della Carita and 
the facade of San Francesco della Vigna. He 
also designed the Palazzo Barbaro at Maser in 
the Trevigiano, and a palace at Montagnana for 
Francesco Pisano. His last work was the Tea- 
tro Olimpico at Vicenza, which has been the 
subject of very conflicting criticisms ; it was 
not finished until after his death. He wrote 
a treatise on architecture (fol., Venice, l70), 
several times reprinted in costly style. 

PALLADIUM, in Greek legends, a wooden im- 
age of Pallas or Minerva, thrown down to 
earth by Jupiter. It fell in the neighborhood 
of Troy, where Ilus the founder of that city, 
who had just prayed for favorable omens, re- 
garding it in that light, took possession of it 
and built for it a sanctuary. It was a tradition 
that Troy could never be taken while this im- 
age remained in the city, and therefore Ulysses 
and Diomedes were commissioned to steal it, 
and succeeded. There are numerous other ac- 
counts of its fate. 

PALLADIUM, a metal of the platinum group, 
discovered by Wollaston in 1803. It is some- 
times found pure in small quantities in the form 
of octahedrons, mixed with grains of platinum 



PALLADIUM 



PALLADIUS 



in Brazilian ore, but usually as an alloy. It 
exists in platinum ore from the Ural and Santo 
Domingo, and it is also found, mixed with gold 
and selenide of lead, in the Hartz, and in aurif- 
erous ore from Zacotinga and Coudonga in Bra- 
zil, mixed with specular iron. It is also alloyed 
with gold and silver in the oro pudre of Por- 
pez, Brazil, often amounting to 10 per cent. 
It is extracted from platinum ore by digesting 
this in nitro-muriatic acid, precipitating the 
platinum from the decanted liquor by chloride 
of ammonium, and the palladium from the fil- 
trate by cyanide of mercury, and then calcining 
the cyanide thus obtained. From the pallado- 
auriferous ore of Brazil it is extracted by fu- 
sing this with an equal weight of silver and 
some nitre, which reduces the baser metals and 
earthy parts to slag. The alloy is cast into 
bars and again fused in black-lead crucibles 
with an equal weight of silver, so that the gold 
shall amount to one fourth of the mixture. 
This alloy is then granulated by pouring it into 
water through a sieve, when it is heated with 
twice its weight of equal quantities of nitric 
acid and water, the liquor decanted, and the 
residue boiled with pure nitric acid in quantity 
equal to two thirds the weight of granules 
used. From these nitric acid solutions the sil- 
ver is precipitated by common salt, and the 
palladium and copper from the filtrate by zinc, 
in wooden vessels. The resulting black pow- 
der is dissolved in nitric acid, the solution 
supersaturated with ammonia, and the filtrate 
from this saturated with hydrochloric acid, 
which precipitates the greater part of the 
palladium as a yellow ammonio-protochloride, 
which is then washed in cold water and re- 
duced to a metallic state by ignition. The re- 
mainder of the palladium and the whole of the 
copper may be precipitated from the hydro- 
chloric acid solution by iron. The symbol of 
palladium is Pd: its atomic weight, 106*5; sp. 
gr., 11-4 to 11-8. It is the most fusible of all 
the metals of the platinum group, beginning 
to fuse in the forge, and easily melting before 
the oxyhydrogen blowpipe at 2,480. Its col- 
or is intermediate between silver and platinum. 
When obtained from the cyanide, or from the 
ammonio-protochloride by ignition, it has the 
form of a spongy gray mass, which when fine- 
ly divided floats on water, and has a blood-red 
color by transmitted light. It is dimorphous, 
having the form of cubes and octahedrons, and 
also of six-sided tables, with cleavage parallel 
to the terminal faces. It is about as hard as 
platinum, but somewhat less ductile. "When 
heated on lime to the melting point of iridium, 
it volatilizes in green vapors, which condense 
to a bistre-colored dust of metal and oxide. It 
oxidizes at a lower temperature than silver, and 
is easily oxidized by hydrated alkalies. Its al- 
loys with iron, tin, lead, arsenic, and bismuth 
are very fusible and brittle. With twice its 
weight of silver it forms a ductile alloy not lia- 
ble to tarnish, and well adapted for the con- 
struction of small weights. Palladium is also 



used for the construction of graduated scales 
for astronomical instruments. Its alloy with 
gold is hard, and remarkable for its whiteness. 
With mercury it forms a fluid amalgam. Pal- 
ladium has the remarkable property of absorb- 
ing many times its volume of hydrogen, yield- 
ing it again at a high temperature, and was 
employed by Graham in experiments on the 
occlusion of hydrogen. Palladium foil heated 
for three hours between 195 and 106 F. ab- 
sorbed 643 volumes of hydrogen; and if the 
metal after having been heated to redness was 
allowed to cool in vacua, it absorbed at com- 
mon temperatures 376 volumes of the" gas. No 
alteration was produced in the metallic appear- 
ance of the foil. Spongy palladium absorbed 
686 volumes of hydrogen, but no oxygen or 
nitrogen. When a wire of the metal is made 
the negative pole of a voltaic cell decompo- 
sing water acidulated with sulphuric acid, a 
still greater quantity of hydrogen can be ab- 
sorbed, as much as 936 volumes to one of pal- 
ladium, the metal increasing in bulk from 100 
to nearly 105 volumes, or 16 times as much as 
if heated from 32 to 212. When the galvanic 
current is reversed, and the piece of palladium 
becomes the positive pole, the hydrogen is rap- 
idly converted into water by union with the 
nascent oxygen ; and by applying a clamp with 
a movable index, the expansion and contrac- 
tion of the metal on changing the current can 
be easily observed. Palladium, like platinum, 
forms two classes of compounds: the palla- 
dious compounds, in which it is bivalent, and 
the palladia, in which it is quadrivalent. The 
dichloride, or palladious chloride, Pd01 2 , is ob- 
tained by the action of nitro-muriatic acid. The 
tetrachloride or palladic chloride exists only in 
solution and in combination with alkaline chlo- 
rides. It is formed by digesting the dichloride 
in nitro-muriatic acid, has an intense brown 
color, and is decomposed by evaporation. Pal- 
ladious iodide is precipitated from the chloride 
or nitrate, as a black mass, by soluble iodides. 
Palladium salts are employed for the quantita- 
tive analysis of iodine, as chlorine and bromine 
are not precipitated by them. The oxides of 
palladium are the monoxide, or palladious oxide, 
PdO, and the dioxide or palladic oxide, PdO 2 . 
The latter is not obtainable in a separate con- 
dition, but exists as a hydrated palladic oxide, 
which obstinately retains a portion of alkali 
when precipitated from solutions of palladic 
chloride by the action of alkalies. There are 
three sulphides, PdS, PdS 2 , and Pd 2 S. Palla- 
dious nitrate has the form of rhombic prisms, 
soluble in a small quantity of water, but decom- 
posing and forming a basic nitrate in a large 
quantity. The other salts are of little interest. 
PALLADIFS. I. Surnamed SopMsta or latro- 
sophista, a Greek medical writer, of whose life 
nothing is known except that he must have 
flourished between the 2d and 9th centuries. 
He wrote commentaries on the works of Hip- 
pocrates " On Fractures " and " On Epidem- 
ics," and a treatise " On Fevers," all of which 



PALLAS 



PALLISER 



15 



are extant. II. Rutilins Taurus JCmilianus, a Ro- 
man writer on agriculture, who lived about the 
middle of the 4th century A. D. His treatise 
De Re Rustica, in 14 books, was very popular 
in the middle ages. There is an English trans- 
lation by Thomas Owen (London, 1803). III. 
An early Christian father, born probably in 
Galatia about 367. At the age of 20 he set 
out on foot to visit the solitaries of Upper 
Egypt, Libya, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, 
and Italy. In 400 he was appointed bishop of 
Helenopolis in Bithynia, whence he was trans- 
lated about 20 years afterward to the see of 
Aspona in Galatia. He was an adherent of 
Origen. He wrote a collection of biographi- 
cal notices and anecdotes, generally known as 
"the Lausiac history," from being addressed 
to Lausus, a chamberlain at the imperial court. 
It was imperfectly edited by Meursius (Ley- 
den, 1616). A better edition is contained in 
the Auctarium of Fronto Duceeus, vol. ii. 
(Paris, 1624). 

PALLAS. See MINERVA. 

PALLAS, Peter Simon, a German naturalist, 
born in Berlin, Sept. 22, 1741, died there, Sept. 
8, 1811. He studied medicine, but afterward 
devoted himself to natural history, and after 
a year's residence in England settled at the 
Hague. In 1766 he published Elenchus Zoophy- 
torum and Miscellanea Zoologica, and in 1768 
became professor of natural history in the im- 
perial academy of sciences in St. Petersburg. 
The same year he joined a scientific expedi- 
tion to observe the transit of Venus and to ex- 
plore the countries visited. He traversed a 
considerable part of southern Russia, the Cau- 
casus, and central and southern Siberia, pene- 
trating as far eastward as the frontiers of 
China, and returned in 1774. In 1777 he was 
appointed one of a commission to draw up a 
map of Russia. In 1795 he went to the south- 
ern part of the Crimea and built a handsome 
seat, in which he resided for 15 years ; and in 
1810 he removed to Berlin. Among his most 
important works are the Spicilegia Zoologica 
(2 vols. 4to, Berlin, 1767-'80); Reisen durch 
verschiedene Promnzen des russischen Reichs (3 
vols. 4to, St. Petersburg, 1771-'6) ; Nova Species 
Quadrupedum (4to, Erlangen, !778-'9) ; Samm- 
lungen historischer Nachrichten uber die mon- 
golischen Vollcerschaften (2 vols. 4to, St. Peters- 
burg, 1776-1802); Nordische Beitrage, Neue 
nordiscJie Beitrage, &c. (7 vols. 8vo, 1781-'96) ; 
Flora Rossica (2 vols. fol., 1784-'8), never 
completed ; Bemerkungen auf einer Reise 
durch die sudlichen Statthalterschaften des 
russischen Reichs in den Jahren l793-'4 (2 vols. 
4to, Leipsic, 1799-1801 ; English translation, 
" Travels through the Southern Provinces of 
the Russian Empire," 2 vols. 4to, London, 
1812) ; and Zoographia Rosso- Asiatica (3 vols. 
4to, St. Petersburg, 1831). He assisted in pre- 
paring the vocabulary of all the languages of 
the empire, Lingua/rum totius Orbis Vocabula- 
ria (2 vols. 4to, St. Petersburg, l786-'9 ; 2d 
ed., 4 vols., 1790-'91). 

632 VOL. xm. 2 



PALLAVICDfO, Ferrante, an Italian author, 
born in Parma or Piacenza about 1615, execu- 
ted at Avignon, March 5, 1644. He became an 
Augustinian friar, and at first was reputed one 
of the most devout and learned members of his 
convent; but falling in love with a fair Vene- 
tian, he plunged into a career of licentious- 
ness, supporting himself for some time by wri- 
ting immoral books. He afterward went to 
Germany as chaplain to the duke of Amalfi, 
but without interrupting his debaucheries, and 
on his return put secretly to press at Villafran- 
ca a satirical work entitled II corriere svalli- 
giato, to which the secretary of the Venetian 
republic had previously refused nis imprima- 
tur. The transaction being discovered, he was 
thrown into prison, but obtained his liberty 
mainly by the assistance of one of his mistress- 
es. When the war broke out between Pope 
Urban VIII. and the duke of Parma, he wrote 
in favor of the duke, using the most violent 
expressions against the pope and his nephews 
the Barberinis, and among other pamphlets 
published II divorzio celeste, in which he inti- 
mated that a divorce had taken place between 
Christ and the church. Afraid to remain in 
Italy, he resolved to visit France ; but a fel- 
low traveller betrayed him into the hands of 
the papal authorities at Avignon, and he was 
tried, condemned, and beheaded for apostasy 
and treason. His Opere permesse, edited by 
Brusoni with a life of the author (4 vols. 
12mo), appeared at Venice in 1655, and his 
Opere scelte at Geneva in 1660. 

PALLAVICINO, Sforza, an Italian author, born 
in Rome, Nov. 20, 1607, died there, June 5, 
1667. He was heir to a marquisate, but took 
orders, and about 1637 became a Jesuit. He 
was made cardinal by Pope Alexander VII. 
His principal work is Istoria del concilia di 
Trento, written to counteract the work of Pao- 
lo Sarpi on the same subject. The first edi- 
tion (2 vols. fol., Rome, 1656-7) is the best, 
j and it has been frequently reprinted. Among 
his other works are: Vindicationes Societatis 
Jesu (Rome, 1649) ; Gli avvertimenti gram- 
maticali (1661) ; and Trattato dello stilo 
(1662). The manuscript of his Arte della per- 
fezione cristiana is in Parma. 

PALLISER, Sir William, a British inventor, 
born in Dublin, June 18, 1830. He entered 
the army in 1855, and retired from it as major 
in 1871. He became known by the projectiles 
and guns which bear his name, the former used 
for piercing armor-plated ships, and the latter 
now generally introduced in the army. He 
improved the construction and rifling of can- 
non used in ironclads and on fortifications. 
He was knighted in 1873, and in 1875 received 
the cross of commander of the crown of Italy. 
His brother JOHN (born Jan. 29, 1817) ex- 
plored western America, and published in 1853 
"Sporting Adventures in the Prairies." He 
conducted an expedition to the Indian country 
in 1856-'7, and was employed in 1857-'60 in de- 
termining the British boundary line from Lake 



16 



PALLIUM 



PALM 



Superior to the Pacific. His report was pub- 
lished among the parliamentary papers of 1861. 

PALLIUM, or Palla, an outer garment worn 
by both sexes among the Greeks, and occasion- 
ally among the Romans. It was a square or 
rectangular piece of woollen, linen, or cotton 
cloth, varying in color, texture, and ornament, 
and was sometimes merely wrapped around 
the body without regard to grace or appear- 
ance, sometimes fastened over the right shoul- 
der with a brooch, and sometimes thrown over 
the left shoulder, brought across the back and 
under the right arm, and then thrown over the 
left shoulder again. The women's pallium was 
generally of a finer texture and more elaborate 
ornamentation than the men's; and the fops 
of ancient Athens used not unfrequently to 
array themselves in this effeminate costume. 
The pallium among the Greeks supplied the 
place of the toga among the Romans. Pal- 
lium is also the name of an ecclesiastical orna- 
ment in the Roman Catholic church, reserved 
to archbishops who are not merely titular, 
and to bishops who are the occupants of priv- 
ileged sees, or on whom it is bestowed as a 
mark of special distinction. It was originally 
a sort of mantle or cape, but at present it con- 
sists only of a white woollen band about 2 in. 
wide, which is worn around the shoulders and 
crossed in front. Crosses are worked upon it 
in black, and ornaments are attached to the 
ends. It is fastened by golden pins. The pal- 
lium is made at Rome of the wool shorn from 
two lambs which the sisterhood of Santa 
Agnese on the via Nomentana offer every year 
on their patronal feast while the Agnus Dei is 
sung at mass. It is sent by the pope to every 
newly appointed archbishop, and is considered 
the distinctive badge of the metropolitan dig- 
nity. The origin of the pallium as a badge of 
episcopal preeminence is obscure. The first 
ecclesiastical document relating to it is a con- 
stitution of Pope St. Mark (who died in 336) 
prescribing that the bishop of Ostia should 
wear the pallium when officiating as conse- 
crator of a pope elect. The most ancient ex- 
ample of the pallium in monumental history 
is from the sarcophagus of St. Celsus, arch- 
bishop of Milan, who died in the 4th century; 
his pallium bears a single cross. A mosaic of 
the 8th century represents St. Peter bestowing 
on Pope St. Leo a pallium with one cross, and 
differing but little in shape from that in use at 
present. At the council of Lateran in 1215 
Pope Innocent III. decreed it to be a mark of 
the plenitude of the apostolic power, and that 
no archbishop should exercise his functions 
until he had received it. 

PALM (Lat. palma, the ancient name of the 
date tree), the general name of plants of the 
palmacea or palm family. The species of palms 
number nearly 1,000, which are distributed in 
more than 50 genera ; as in other large fami- 
lies, there is great diversity among the gene- 
ra, and these are grouped according to their 
affinities in five well marked tribes or sub- 



families. The characters of the family in which 
all agree may be briefly stated. The palms are 
all perennial, woody, endogenous (monocoty- 
ledonous); the primary root of the seedling 




Inflorescence and Fruit of Palm. 1. Spathe and portion of 
spadix of Chamaerops. 2. Staminate flower. 3. Pistil- 
late flower. 4. Fruit. 5. Seed. 6. Seed cut vertically. 

decays early, but secondary roots appear at the 
base of the stem, which form a compact mass, 
and sometimes so raise up the trunk that it 
seems to be supported upon props, as in areca 
lutescens, p. IT. The stem, sometimes a mere 
rootstock not rising above the surface of the 
earth, is sometimes short and swollen, but more 
frequently tall, slender, and erect, in some spe- 
cies reaching the height of 250 ft.; in the 
cane palms the stem is so weak and slender 
that it climbs trees and is over 300 ft. long; 
while a diameter of 3 ft. is reached by some, 
others are not larger than a small reed; the 
stem is generally simple, but in a few genera is 
branched in a forked manner ; in two or three 
genera the stem is 
swollen near the 
middle. As in oth- 
er endogens, a cross 
section of a palm 
stem shows no con- 
centric circles of 
wood, but a mass of 
pith through which 
bundles of woody 
fibre are irregular- 
ly distributed, and 
these are more 
numerous toward 
the circumference 
than in the cen- 
tre ; as new leaves 
are formed these 
wofldy bundles ex- 
tend from them down through the central 
portion of the stem, and finally curving out- 
ward lose themselves in the circumference. 
They have no proper bark, but the exterior 




Palm Stem in Section. 



PALM 



17 



portion or rind, by pressure of the interior 
growth and by an induration which takes 
place, similar to that in the heart wood of ex- 
ogenous stems, becomes excessively hard, and 
in some cases almost impossible to cut with 
an axe. The leaves are from a terminal bud, 
the petioles sheathing the stem ; after the de- 
cay of the leaf the sheathing portion of the 
leaf stalk remains, usually as a fibrous net- 
work ; the blade of the leaf, often very large, is 
fan-shaped or pinnately divided, and presents a 
great variety of elegant forms ; the margins, 
often depressed, are frequently split into slen- 
der filaments. The flowers are very small, 
rarely perfect, but usually monoecious or dioe- 
cious, and in axillary clusters upon a simple 
or branched spadix, surrounded by a herba- 
ceous or almost woody spathe. The flowers of 
chamcerops excelm are used to illustrate the 
character of the inflorescence ; in this the 
spathe or sheath to the flowers is small and 
sheath-like, but in some it is several feet long 
and woody; within the sheath is shown a por- 
tion of the branching spadix or stalk to the 
flower cluster, with some flowers attached, 
while separate flowers of both sexes are given 
at one side. The number of flowers produced 
by the palms is astonishing ; 12,000 have been 
counted in a spathe of the date, and 207,000 in 
one of a species of Alfonsia. The perianth is 
double, and consists of a calyx of three distinct 
or coherent sepals, within which is a similar 
corolla ; stamens three to six ; ovary of one to 
three more or less united carpels, each with a 
solitary ovule, and becoming in fruit a berry or 
drupe, often with a fibrous covering ; seed with 
a cartilaginous or horny albumen. Palms are 
mostly tropical, a few being found in the hot- 
ter portions of the temperate zones; lat. 44 N". 
and 38 S. are the extreme distances from the 
equator at which they have been found, and 
very few grow in these localities; one species 
is a native of southern Europe, and four are na- 
tives of our southern states. (See PALMETTO.) 
Great heat and abundant moisture are essential 
to their growth, and hence they are rare in the 
arid regions of the tropics; they are not numer- 
ous in Africa, but are abundant in India and 
tropical America. The palms rank in usefulness 
next to the grasses, there being scarcely a spe- 
cies which cannot be utilized in some manner : 
the wood serves to build houses, and the leaves 
to thatch them ; almost all yield useful fibres, 
which may be used as textile material or for 
paper ; mats, baskets, and numerous utensils 
are made from the leaves; besides their various 
edible fruits, they yield food in the form of 
starch, sugar, and oil, and in their undeveloped 
leaves ; several produce alcoholic drinks by the 
fermentation of their sap. In order to notice 
the many useful products of the family, it will 
be convenient to group the genera in their sev- 
eral tribes or subfamilies. 1. The areca tribe 
(arecinece) consists of trees or shrubs with pin- 
nate or bi-pinnate leaves, the pinnules with 
curved margins ; the spathe, which is seldom 



wanting, is generally of several leaves, rarely 
monophyllous ; the deeply three-lobed fruit 
is a berry or a drupe. The betel-nut palm 
(areca catechu), also known as areca-nut and 




Fruit and Nut of Betel Palm, entire and in section. 

catechu palm, and called pinang by the Malays, 
is a large tree growing in India, Ceylon, and 
the Moluccas; it has very fragrant flowers, 
which are used in Borneo for decorating, and 
a drupe-like nut about the size of a hen's egg, 
with a fibrous rind half an inch thick ; the 
seed is about the size of a nutmeg, which it 
also resembles in the mottled appearance of its 
albumen ; the nuts are very astringent ; by 
boiling in water and evaporating the decoction 
a form of catechu is obtained ; the nuts yield 
a charcoal which is sometimes used for tooth 
powder, but it differs from other coal only in 




Areca lutescens. A young 1 specimen in pot, to show the 
ornamental character of small palms. 

its greater hardness ; the principal use of the 
nuts is as a masticatory. (See BETEL.) The 
cabbage palm of the West Indies, oreodooca 
oleracea. is so called because the terminal 



18 



PALM 



bud, consisting of closely packed, undeveloped 
leaves, is used as a table vegetable, and is re- 
garded as a delicacy ; in order to obtain this, a 
noble tree over 100 ft. high is sacrificed; the 
terminal bud in many other species is used in 
the same manner. The young unexpanded 
riower spikes of species of chamcedorea are used 
as a vegetable in Mexico, and the natives of 
New Zealand make a similar use of those of 
Kentia sapida, both of this tribe, and the last 
named interesting as being found further south 
than any other palm, in lat. 38 22'. Several 
species of the South American genus cenocarpus 
have fruits with an oily flesh, arid the oil ob- 
tained from them is used for cooking and for 




Toddy Palm (Caryota urens). 

* 

lamps ; it is said to be mixed in Para with olive 
oil as an adulteration ; the stiff nerves of the 
leaves of these palms furnish the Indians with 
arrows for their blow-guns, which are made 
by boring the leaf stalks of other palms of this 
tribe. The East Indian genus caryota, which 
includes lofty trees of great beauty, furnishes 
various useful products ; palm wine and sugar 
are obtained from the flower spikes, the trunks 
yield a good sago, and the leaves furnish a fibre 
of great strength called Mttul, used for making 
ropes and mats. The species of this genus are 
favorites in cultivation, as this is one of the 
few with bi-pinnate leaves. When the tree 
has completed its growth, the flowers are pro- 
duced in drooping tassels ; a flower cluster is 



produced at the base of the uppermost leaf, 
then one appears at the next lower leaf, and 
so on until the lowermost leaf has produced 
a cluster from its base, when the plant dies. 
The wax palm of Colombia, ceroxylon andico- 
la, is a lofty tree growing in elevated regions ; 
it is remarkable for its swollen trunk, which 
is larger in the middle than it is above or be- 
low, and is covered with a whitish wax-like 
substance, which is collected by felling the 
tree and scraping ; the product of each trunk 
is about 25 Ibs. ; it consists of a resin and a 
wax, and, though too inflammable to be used 
by itself, it makes good candles when mixed 
with tallow. 2. The calamus tribe (calamece) 
consists of sarmentose or runner-like plants 
and some trees ; the 
pinnate or fan-like 
leaves are often ter- 
minated by a long ap- 
pendage which is fur- 
nished with hooks; 
the spathe is usual- 
ly several-leaved, and 
the fruit a berry cov- 
ered with overlapping 
scales. The principal 
genus is calamus, of 
which more than 80 
species are described, 
all natives of Asia, es- 
pecially the Malayan 
peninsula, save one in 
Africa and two in 
Australia. They are 
known as rattan and 
cane palms, the stems 
of several being found 
in commerce under 
these names. Some 
are low bushes, while 
others, with stems 
seldom over an inch 
thick, climb to a great distance over trees, to 
which they cling by means of the hooked 
spines upon their leaf stalks. Some remark- 
able stories have been told of the great length 
of these stems; Rumphius's statement that 
they grow from 1,200 to 1,800 ft. long has not 
been verified, though it is not rare to find 
them 300 ft. long. Their leaves are mostly 
pinnate, with the leaf stalk prolonged into a 
long whip-like tail ; the rose-colored or green- 
ish flowers are in long branching spikes, and 
the fruit consists of a single seed, surrounded 
by an edible pulp, which is enclosed by a cov- 
ering of shiny scales. The stems of these palms 
are used in their native countries for numerous 
purposes ; they make ropes of great length and 
strength, used in catching elephants and as ca- 
bles for vessels ; in the Himalaya the stems are 
used for building suspension bridges. The rat- 
tans of commerce are afforded by calamus ro- 
tang, C. verus, 0. rudentum, and others; they 
are cut 12 or 16 ft. in length, once doubled, and 
made into bundles of 100 each ; immense num- 




Rattan Palm (Calamus 
rotang). 



PALM 



19 



bers of these canes are imported into Europe 
and America, and as new uses are constantly 
found for them, the consumption rapidly in- 
creases. The ease with which they are split, 
and the strength of very small splints, adapts 
them to a great variety of wares. One of 
their commonest uses is to make chair bot- 
toms ; chairs are often made entirely of rattans, 
the whole canes forming the framework, which 
is filled in with a fabric of split ones; sofas 
and lounges are made largely of rattans, as 
are the bodies of fancy carriages; the whole 
canes are used for making baskets requiring 
great strength, while the split canes are woven 
into the most delicate work baskets for ladies. 
The Malacca canes, highly esteemed as walk- 
ing sticks, are the stems of C. Scipiorium, the 
joints of which are so far apart that a good 
cane may be made from a single internode; 
they have a rich reddish brown color, which is 
due to their being smoked and varnished with 
the bark on. A portion of the resinous drug 
dragon's blood is obtained from the fruit of 
C. Draco, a species which some botanists place 
in the genus damonorops. The sago of com- 
merce is mainly furnished by species of sagus, 
but the pith of other genera affords this form 
of starch, some of them in sufficient quantities 
to supply the inhabitants of the countries where 
they grow with an important share of their 
food. (See SAGO.) The remaining genus of 
this group, valuable for its products, is mau- 
ritia, the moriche or Ita palm of tropical South 
America. M. flexuosa, especially abundant on 
the Amazon and other rivers, supplies nearly 
all the wants of the natives ; during the great 
inundations they even suspend their dwellings 
from the trunks ; the skin of the young leaves 
is spun into cord for making hammocks, the 
trunk supplies sugar in abundance, and both the 
sap and the fruit are converted into intoxica- 
ting beverages. 3. The borassus tribe (loras- 
sinece) consists of trees with fan-shaped or pin- 
nate leaves; a woody, fibrous, or (in one ge- 
nus) net-like spathe, and the fruit a drupe. 
The principal genus borassus consists of only 
two species, one of which, B. fldbelliformis, is 
the magnificent Palmyra palm, found through- 
out tropical Asia, and celebrated for the great 
number of its useful products. Its trunk, 
from 60 to 80 and even 100 ft. high, and 2 ft. in 
diameter at base, bears a magnificent crown of 
leaves of a circular fan shape, w r hich inclu- 
ding the petiole are 10 ft. long; these are used 
to thatch houses, to cover floors and ceilings 
when plaited into mats, and to form a great 
number of useful articles, from bags and bas- 
kets to umbrellas and hats; they also serve as 
paper, which is written upon with a style ; all 
the important books in Cingalese relative to the 
religion of Buddha are written upon the lami- 
nae of this palm. The fruit is in bunches of 
15 or 20, about the size of a child's head, and 
contains three seeds as large as a goose's egg ; 
the albumen of these is edible when young, 
but in the ripe seed it is horny; the coating 



surrounding the seeds is a thick fibrous pulp, 
which is roasted and eaten ; the young seed- 
lings of this tree are cultivated as an article of 
food, to be eaten in the green state, or they are 
dried and made into a coarse meal, which is 




Palmyra Palm (Borassus flabelliformis). 

regarded as very nutritious. The most impor- 
tant products of this palm are palm wine 
(toddy} and sugar (jaggery} ; these are yielded 
by many other species and in other countries, 
but the methods of obtaining them are essen- 
tially the same. When the flower spike makes 
its appearance, the operator ascends the tree 
by the aid of a vine or rope passed loosely 
around his own body and that of the tree ; he 
ties the spathe securely, so that it cannot ex- 
pand, and beats the base of the spike with a 
short stick ; this beating, which is supposed to 
determine a flow of sap toward the wounded 
part, is repeated for several successive morn- 
ings ; a thin slice is removed from the end of 
the spathe ; about the eighth day the sap begins 
to flow, and is caught in a jar ; the daily flow 
is two pints or more, and continues for four or 
five months, the jar being emptied every morn- 
ing, and a thin slice being at the same time 
removed from the end of the spathe. This 
juice readily ferments, and is then palm wine 
or toddy, which is drunk in that state or is dis- 
tilled to separate the spirit, known as arrack ; 
if allowed to pass into the acetous fermenta- 
tion, toddy is converted into vinegar. "When 
sugar is to be made from the juice, it is collect- 
ed several times a day, and the receiving jars 
are cleansed with lime to prevent fermenta- 
tion ; it is boiled down and treated in the same 
manner as cane juice. The remaining species, 
B. ^Ethiopum, of the central part of tropical 
Africa, furnishes products similar to those of 



20 



PALM 



the Asiatic species, but it is said that the na- 
tives are not acquainted with the process of 
extracting toddy. The doum palm of Egypt, 
which also grows in Arabia and Abyssinia, is 




Doum Palin (Hyphsene Thebaica). 

hyphc&m Thebaica (or cucifera) ; the genus is 
remarkable among palms in having branching 
stems ; in the doum palm the trunk is seldom 
over 30 ft. high ; it is simple when young, but 
in old trees forked three or four times, each 
branch being terminated by a tuft of large, 
fan-shaped leaves. The fruit is produced in 
large clusters of over 100, each the size of an 
orange, irregular in shape, with a highly pol- 
ished yellowish brown rind, enclosing a single 
horny seed; the rind, which is dry, fibrous, 
and mealy, is said to taste exactly like ginger- 
bread, and, though unpalatable from its dry- 
ness, forms a common article of food among 
the Arabs. The double or sea cocoanut was 
long a great puzzle to naturalists; its large 
deeply lobed nuts, appearing like two cocoanuts 
joined for about half of their length, were oc- 
casionally picked up at sea ; their origin being 
unknown, they were in olden times invested 
with remarkable virtues ; the albumen or meat 
of the nut was regarded as a preventive of 
various diseases, and the shell, used as a drink- 
ing cup, imparted similar power to the liquid 
it contained; enormous prices were paid for 
single specimens, and they were regarded as 
among the most costly of regal gifts. With 
the exploration of the Seychelles islands in 
1743, the source of this "wonderful miracle of 
nature, the most rare of marine productions," 
was ascertained ; it is the fruit of a palm, grow- 
ing only on the two small islands Praslin and 



Curieuse, which was named by La Billardiere 
Lodoicea Sechellarum. The tree is dioecious, 
of slow growth, the males attaining 100 ft. in 
height ; it does not blossom until 30 years old, 
and the fruit is 10 years from that time in 
maturing ; the fruits are borne in clusters of 5 
to 11 upon a strong zigzag stalk, and average 
about 40 Ibs. each ; they have a tough fibrous 
husk, which encloses usually one, but some- 
times two or three nuts; the nuts serve to 
make various domestic utensils, and the leaves 
afford material for the most delicate baskets, 
bonnets, and articles of fancy work ; the wood 
is valuable, and houses are made of the large 
leaves. It is feared that the felling of the 
trees to obtain the nuts, as well as the bud or 
" cabbage," will before long cause this remark- 
able species to become extinct. The bossu of 
the natives of the southern Amazon is mani- 
caria saccharifera, the only species of the 
genus, and grows in the tidal swamps; this is 
distinguished from other palms by its entire 
leaves, only occasionally divided when old by 
splitting ; they are frequently 30 ft. long, 4 or 
5 ft. wide, and strongly furrowed from the 
midrib to the margin; these leaves are used 
for roofing huts. The spathes of this palm are 
fibrous, and when cut around at the base of the 
flower cluster, they may be pulled off entire. 
The spathe is dark brown, and its very strong 




Hardy Palm (Chamaerops excelsa). 

fibres are so interwoven that it may be stretched 
to several times its proper diameter without 
tearing, and forms a very serviceable seamless 
bag ; or if cut, it may be used as a coarse cloth. 
4. The tribe coryphinece consists of trees or 
stemless plants with fan-shaped, rarely pin- 
nate leaves, the pinnules with erect margins ; 
spathes rarely perfect ; flowers usually perfect, 
sometimes polygamous; fruit a berry. The 
genus corypha includes several stately species, 
one of the best known being the talipot palm 
(C. umbraculifera) of Ceylon and other parts 
of the East ; its magnificent leaves are remark- 
able for their regular plaiting, and form a fan 
which is nearly a complete circle 4 ft. or more 
in diameter ; the numerous segments are split, 
and form a double fringe to the margin. These 
leaves require little preparation to make the 



PALM 



21 



fans used by the Cingalese as emblems of rank ; 
they are put to many other of the uses of palm 
leaves, including the making of paper. The 
trunk yields sago. The tura palm of Bengal 
(C. taliera) and the gebang palm of Java (C. 
gebanga) are both useful in various ways. The 
wax palm of Brazil, Copernicia cerifera, bears 
upon its young leaves a coating 01 wax ; this 
is collected by shaking the leaves, melted, and 
run into moulds; it is harder than beeswax, 
but no method of depriving it of its yellow 
color having been discovered, its use in candle 
making is limited. A kind of cane was known 
in commerce as Penang lawyers a long time 
before its origin was ascertained ; it is now 
known to be the stem of a small palm of this 
group, licuala acutifida, of the island of Pe- 
nang ; the stem is seldom much more than 5 ft. 
high, and has a diameter of an inch ; the canes 
are prepared for walking sticks by scraping 
the surface and polishing. The genus chamce- 
rops is noted as being the northernmost of the 
palm family; one species, C. Jiumilis, grows 
wild in southern Europe as far as Nice ; another 
{C. excelsa) is found in Asia as high as lat. 44 
ST.; and one of our southern palms belongs 
to this genus. (See PALMETTO.) The most 
important tree of this tribe is the date palm, 
phoenix dactylifera. (See DATE.) 5. The fifth 
tribe, cocoinece, includes both large and small 
trees, some with thorny trunks ; the leaves are 
pinnate, the pinnules with their margins turned 
downward ; the flowers at first enclosed in a 
spathe ; fruit a drupe, with its exterior por- 
tion (sarcocarp) fibrous or oily, the inner por- 
tion (endocarpj thick and woody, with three 
scars, from one of which the embryo issues; 
seed oily. This tribe takes its name from its 
most important genus, cocos, of which there are 
about a dozen species, including C. nucifera, 
the cocoanut palm. (See COCOANUT TREE.) 
The peach palm, Guilielma speciosa, a native 
of Venezuela, and cultivated in other parts of 
South America, is a lofty tree, its stem armed 
with sharp small spines ; its fruit, borne in large 
clusters, is about the size of an apricot, pear- 
shaped, and scarlet and orange-colored when 
ripe; the outer portion abounds in starchy 
matter, and when roasted is said to taste much 
like the potato ; it forms a considerable portion 
of the food of the natives, who also ferment 
the fruit with water and prepare an alcoholic 
beverage. The trees of the genus Maximili- 
ana form a striking feature in South American 
scenery; the Inaja palm of the Amazon, M. 
regia, reaches over 100 ft., and has a crown of 
immense leaves, which are 30 to 50 ft. long ; 
the spathes are 5 or 6 ft. long, woody, and 
about 2 ft. broad, tapering at each end to a 
narrow point ; these are used as packages in 
which to keep and transport flour and other 
articles, and will resist the action of heat 
sufficiently to serve as cooking utensils. The 
coquita palm of Chili is Jubwa spectabilis, one 
of the most southern species, and furnishes the 
palm honey so much used by the Chilians ; this 



is obtained by felling the tree, removing the 
crown, and catching the sap which runs from 
the wound ; the flow is kept up by removing a 
thin slice of the end each day, and it continues 




Coquita Palm (Jubsea spectabilis), 

for several months, each trunk yielding about 
90 gallons ; the sap is boiled down to the con- 
sistence of molasses, and used as a substitute 
for sugar ; the small nuts of the tree are edi- 
ble, and are a considerable article of export to 
other parts of South America. They are de- 
prived of their husks in a singular manner; 
cows and oxen, which are very fond of the 
green husks, are allowed to feed upon the 
nuts ; they only masticate the husk and swal- 
low the nuts whole ; when afterward they 
chew the cud they reject the nuts, and when 
the animals have finished ruminating these are 
found deposited in small heaps, perfectly free 
from the husk. The piassata of Brazil, Atta- 
lea funifera, furnishes a strong and valuable 
fibre in the decayed bases of the leaf stalks ; it 
is also called monkey grass and Para grass, and 
is used for various purposes ; each fibre is the 
size of a small quill, smooth and stiff ; consid- 
erable quantities are sent to England, where 
it is made into coarse brooms ; the brushes of 
street-cleaning machines are made of it. The 
fruit of this is different from that in any 
of the allied genera, it being three-celled and 
three-seeded. The nuts are an article of com- 
merce, and known as coquilla nuts ; they are 
oval, about 3 in. long, of a rich brown color, 
and have an extremely hard and bony texture ; 



22 



PALM 



they are used for making knobs and other 
small wares, similar to those made from vege- 
table ivory. The vegetable ivory nut was long 
regarded as the product of a palm, but the 




Piassata Palm (Attalea funifera) and Fruit Coquilla Nuts. 

plant of which it is the fruit is found to be- 
long to a different family. (See PHYTELE- 
PHAS.) One of the most important products 
of this family is palm oil, which is obtained 
from the fruit of elceis G-uineemis of western 
Africa, where it grows in immense numbers ; 
its trunk, seldom over 30 ft. high, is covered 
with the remains of dead leaves, and sur- 
mounted by a tuft of long, pinnate leaves, with 
prickly petioles. The flowers are usually dioe- 
cious, densely crowded in clusters, and in the 
females succeeded by a cluster 1 to 2 ft. long, 
in which the fruit is so compactly crowded 
that the cluster has been compared to a large 
pineapple; the individual fruits are an inch 
and a half long, somewhat pear-shaped, and 
bright red; they consist of an outer fleshy 
portion containing the oil, and within, forming 
about one fourth of the whole, a hard stone 
from which an oil may also be extracted. (See 
PALM OIL.) A closely related species of elceis 
(E. melanococca) is found in South America. 
In this review of the great palm family only 
the species most valuable to man have been 
mentioned ; there are but few which may not 



be made useful in some manner, and the va- 
rious products afforded by those here referred 
to are to be found in more or less abundance 
and perfection in a multitude of other species. 
Palms are often cultivated in warm coun- 
tries for their useful products, but in northern 
; climates large specimens with their peculiar 
forms and strikingly tropical foliage can only 
be enjoyed, save in a few exceptions, under im- 
mense structures of glass ; and on account of 
the great height which the trees attain, a palm 
house is only within the reach of the very 
wealthy. The most notable structure of this 
kind is that at Kew, England, where the house 
is 362 ft. long, 100 ft. wide, and 64 ft. high, 
but must soon be raised to allow of the de- 
velopment of the larger specimens. Palms of 
small growth and young plants of the larger 
are often found in greenhouses and stoves. 
Well developed plants of various species are 
much used for decorative purposes. Palms 
may be used with fine effect upon lawns and 
near the entrance to the house ; but as the foli- 
age may be injured by heavy winds, only the 
more robust kinds should be used for this pur- 
pose. Two species of chamcerops are hardy in 
France and in portions of England ; these, C. 
excelsa from Nepaul (see p. 16) and C. Fortunei 
of north China, also called Chusan palm, are 
of great value in subtropical gardening, as their 
large fan-shaped foliage is unlike that of any 
other plants. These withstand a cold consid- 
erably below 32, and would be quite hardy in 
Virginia and southward; north of that they 
may be used for outdoor decoration if housed 
for the winter in a dry cellar or even in a barn. 
In very early times the palm was recognized 
as a token of victory, and in a more general 
sense of honor and preeminence, a use still re- 
tained. The custom of carrying palm branch- 
es (which of course are properly leaves) on oc- 
casions of festivity was an ancient one among 
the Jews, and its observance on Christ's entry 
into Jerusalem is still commemorated in all 
Roman Catholic churches on the Sunday be- 
fore Easter. A curious instance of the influ- 
ence of religion upon horticulture is in the 
cultivation of date palms at Bordighera, near 
Mentone on the Mediterranean ; the date is 
barely hardy in that locality, but is grown in 
considerable quantities for the purpose of sup- 
plying St. Peter's and other churches in Rome, 
of which it has the monopoly. The leaves of 
the date are no doubt the true palm branches 
of the Bible, but in other countries they are 
represented in the ceremony by such foliage 
as may be available at that season ; in south- 
ern and middle Europe the olive is used, and 
further north the holly ; in most parts of 
our northern states the branches of the hem- 
lock (abies Canadensis) serve for palms, and 
when nothing else is obtainable sometimes the 
willow has been employed. For an account 
of the palms of the East, reference may be 
made to Blame's Rumphia (fol., Amsterdam, 
1835-'46), Royle's "Illustrations of the Bot- 



PALM 

any of the Himalayas " (fol., London, 1839), 
and Griffith's "Palms of British East Indies" 
(8vo, incomplete, Calcutta, 1845). For the 
palms of tropical America, see Martius's Gene- 
ra et Species Palmarum Brasilia (fol., Munich, 
1823-'45), and his Palmetum OrMgnianum, in 
vol. vii. of D'Orbigny's Voyage (4to, Paris, 1843 
-'6), and Wallace's " Palm Trees of the Amazon 
and Rio Negro " (8vo, London, 1853). Kunth, 
Enumeratio Plantarum, vol. iii. (8vo, Stutt- 
gart, 1841), gives a systematic arrangement of 
all the species known at that time. A very 
full description of the family, with copious il- 
lustrations of the structure, is given in Maout 
and Decaisne's "General System of Botany," 
translated by Mrs. and edited by Dr. J. D. 
Hooker (4to, London, 1873). For instructions 
in the cultivation of palms see " Choice Stove 
and Greenhouse Ornamental-leaved Plants," by 
B. S. Williams (12mo, London, 1870). 

PALM, Johann Philipp, a German publisher, 
born at Schorndorf, Bavaria, in 1766, executed 
at Braunau, Austria, Aug. 26, 1806. In 1806 he 
received for transmission, in the course of Ms 
business as a bookseller at Nuremberg, a pam- 
phlet entitled Deutschland in seiner tiefsten 
Erniedrigung (" Germany in her Greatest De- 
gradation "), which reflected severely upon Na- 
poleon, and particularly upon the French troops 
stationed in Bavaria. The emperor caused him 
to be arrested and conveyed to Bernadotte's 
headquarters at Aiispach, and next to Braunau, 
where he was put to death. A subscription 
was raised for his family, and his biography 
was published in Munich in 1842. 

PALMA, the capital of the Spanish island of 
Majorca, in the Mediterranean, in lat. 39 34' 
N., Ion. 2 45' E. ; pop. about 50,000. It is 
situated on the S. W. coast, at the head of the 
bay of Palmas, which here forms a fine harbor, 
on the slope of a hill, with the large cathedral 
towering over the houses and fortifications. 
It is surrounded by a wall 36 ft. thick, with 13 
bastions and 8 gates. It is regularly built, and 
has handsome streets and promenades. It is 
the seat of the captain general of the Balearic 
islands, and of a bishop. Among the principal 
buildings are the captain general's palace, the 
exchange, the city hall, and several churches 
and convents. The public institutions embrace 
a naval school, a seminary, a theatre, and sev- 
eral hospitals. Wool and silk are manufac- 
tured, and cordage for the entire Spanish navy 
is now made here, with fibre imported from 
Manila. To the Vienna exhibition in 1873, 29 
kinds of wine and a great variety of natural 
and industrial productions were sent from Pal- 
ma, which took 49 prizes and diplomas. The 
total value of exports to foreign and domestic 
ports in 1873 was $6,076,340. The first rail- 
way in the island of Majorca was opened from 
Palma to Inca, Feb. 24, 1875. 

PALMA. I. Jaropo, the elder, an Italian paint- 
er, born near Bergamo, about the close of the 
15th century, died, according to Vasari, at the 
age of 48. He was educated in the school of 



PALMAROLI 



23 



Venice. His pictures are esteemed for com- 
position and expression. II. Jacopo, the young- 
er, grandnephew of the preceding, born in 
Venice about 1544, died in 1628. He was 
sent by the duke of Urbino to Rome, where 
during a residence of eight years he studied 
the antique and the works of Raphael and 
Michel Angelo. Returning to Venice at the 
age of 24, he found the public favor and em- 
ployment engrossed by Tintoretto and Paul 
Veronese; but after their death he was with- 
out a rival in Venice. Examples of his best 
style are the " Plague of the Serpents" in the 
church of San Bartolommeo, and the " As- 
sumption of the Virgin" in the Ospitaletto. 
His later works were very carelessly executed. 
He also made etchings. 

PALMA, San Miguel de la, an island of the Ca- 
nary group, about 50 m. W. of Teneriffe ; area, 
about 300 sq. m. ; pop. about 34,000. It is 
traversed by two mountain masses, divided by 
a depression 4,600 ft. above the sea, and reach- 
ing at their highest points about 7,000 ft. In 
the most northerly summit, rather resembling 
a truncated cone, is a vast and deep crater 
called La Caldera, 4 m. wide, and encircled 
by precipices varying from 1,500 to 2,000 ft. 
in vertical height. The exterior of the cone 
is gullied by deep ravines, and the lower por- 
tions of the flanks, as in the other mountains 
of the island, are covered with forests offering 
large quantities of building and cabinet timber. 
Pines, palms, and chestnut trees are especially 
abundant. Besides the perennial stream from 
the Caldera, there are few watercourses in the 
island, and there is a scarcity of fresh water, 
though there are many mineral springs. The 
few valleys and the lower portions of the coast 
are very fertile, producing the vine, many va- 
rieties of fruits, and the cactus on which the 
cochineal insect feeds. The sugar cane thrives 
on the elevated plain of Los Llanos. Wheat 
and other cereals are imported. The climate 
is mild and equable. The chief industries are 
the manufacture of ribbons, silk gloves, stock- 
ings, taffetas, and other tissues, and especially 
the fisheries on the coasts. The principal port 
is that of Santa Cruz, at the head of a fine 
bay on the E. side, with the best mooring 
ground in the Canaries. The exports amount 
to about $1,500,000 annually, mainly of cochi- 
neal of various grades. 

PALMA CHRISTI. See CASTOR OIL. 

PALMAROLI, Pietro, an Italian painter, born 
after 1750, died in Rome in 1828. He was the 
first to transfer frescoes from walls to canvas, 
and to his skill in the execution of this difficult 
process is due the preservation of Daniele da 
Volterra's famous "Descent from the Cross," 
accomplished in Rome in 1811. He restored 
, innumerable beauties in obscured paintings. 
Prominent among these were Raphael's Ma- 
donna di San Sisto in the gallery at Dresden, 
and the fresco of the "Sibyls," by the same 
master, in the church of Santa Maria della 
Pace in Rome. 






PALMAS 



PALMER 



PALMAS, Cape. See CAPE PALMAS 
PALMAS, Cindad Real de las, a fortified maritime 
city of the Canary islands, on the N. E. coast 
of -Grand Canary; lat. 28 7' N., Ion. 15 32' 
W. ; pop. about 14,500. It is situated on the 
river Angostura, at the head of a beautiful 
bay, and comprises an old and a new division. 
An aqueduct supplies the town with water. 
The chief public edifices are the cathedral, four 
churches, a convent (five others having of late 
years been appropriated to other purposes), the 
city hall, the court house (in the old inquisi- 
tion building), a general and a foundling hos- 
pital, and a hospital exclusively for elephantia- 
sis. There are a college, a seminary, and other 
schools. The climate is very mild and equa- 
ble, the temperature varying annually from 68 
to 90 F. The port, though not well sheltered, 
has a mole about 900 ft. long by 80 ft. wide, 
and is visited yearly by a large number of ships, 
the steamers averaging 100, and the sailing 
vessels 1,000. The annual value of the exports 
is about $1,800,000, chiefly in cochineal, and 
of the imports $2,000,000. The foreign trade 
is principally with Great Britain, Spain, and 
the Spanish West Indies. The chief manufac- 
tures are hats, woollens, linens, carpets, glass 
and earthern ware, with shipping tackle, chairs, 
&c. ; and ship building and fishing are exten- 
sively carried on. 

PALMBLAD,Vilhelm Fredrik, a Swedish author, 
born at Liljested, Dec. 16, 1788, died in Upsal, 
Sept. 2, 1852. He studied at the university of 
Upsal. In 1810 he bought the academic print- 
ing office, and began the publication of the 
"Phosphorus," in 1812 of the Poetisk Kalen- 
der, and in 1813 of the Svenslc Literaturti- 
dende, all of which periodicals had much in- 
fluence in the development of Swedish litera- 
ture, turning it from French to German mod- 
els. In 1830 he was made vice president and 
subsequently president of the Swedish literary 
society, and in 1835 professor of Greek litera- 
ture in the university of Upsal, and became 
editor of the biographical lexicon of distin- 
guished Swedes, completed in 23 vols. in 1857. 
He wrote, besides other works, Supplemented 
in Lexica Graca (1822), and several novels, of 
which Familjen Fallcensvard (2 vols., Orebro, 
1844-'5) and Aurora Konigsmark are the most 
deserving of mention. One of his most im- 
portant works was the uncompleted Hand- 
lok i pliysiska ocJi politislca OeograpJiia (5 
vols., Upsal, 1826-'37). He also contributed 
to Ersch and Gruber's Encylclop&dte, and to 
Brockhaus's Conversations-Lexicon. 

PALMELLA, Dom Pedro de SoHza-Holstein, duke 
de, a Portuguese statesman, born in Turin in 
1786, died in Lisbon, Oct. 12, 1850. In 1814- 
'15 he represented Portugal in the congress of 
Vienna. In 1816 he became minister of for- 
eign affairs in Brazil, in 1820 president of the 
regency of Portugal, and in 1823 minister of 
foreign affairs and marquis. In 1825 he was 
ambassador to England. In 1828 he adhered 
to Dona Maria, and the regent Dom Miguel sen- 



tenced him to death for high treason. Under 
the regency of Dom Pedro in 1832 he became 
premier, and shortly afterward was again am- 
bassador to England. He returned to Lisbon 
with Villaflor in 1833, and in 1834 Dona Ma- 
ria made him premier and raised him to the 
rank of duke. The insurrection of 1836 drove 
him into exile, but he returned in 1846. 

PALMER, Christian von, a German theologian, 
born at Winnenden, near Stuttgart, Jan. 27, 
1811. He completed his studies in Tubingen, 
became professor in 1852, and in 1853 was en- 
nobled. In 1869 he was vice president of the 
national synod of Wiirtemberg, and in 1870 
was elected to the diet. He is a represen- 
tative of the so-called conciliatory theology. 
His principal works are : Evangelische Homi- 
letik (Stuttgart, 1842 ; 5th ed., 1867) ; Evan- 
gelische KatecJietilc (1844; 5th ed., 1864); 
Evangelische Padagogik (1852 ; 4th ed., 1869) ; 
Evangelische Pastor aliheologie (1860 ; 2d ed., 
1861) ; Die Moral des Christenthums (1864) ; 
Evangelische Casualreden (4 vols., 4th ed., 
1864-'5) ; and Evangelische Hymnologie (1865). 

PALMER, Edward Henry, an English oriental- 
ist, born in Cambridge, Aug. 7, 1840. He 
graduated at Cambridge in 1867, accompanied 
the Sinai survey expedition in 1868-'9, and 
explored the land of Moab and other regions 
of the East in 1869-'70. In 1871 he became 
professor of Arabic at Cambridge. He has 
translated Moore's "Paradise and the Peri" 
into Persian, the Persian " History of Donna 
Juliana" into French, and various Persian po- 
ems into English. Among his prose writings 
are " The Negah, or South Country of Scrip- 
ture, and the Desert of Et-Tih" (1871), and 
" The Desert of the Exodus : Journeys on 
foot in the Wilderness of the Forty Years' 
Wanderings" (1871). 

PALMER, Erastns Dow, an American sculptor, 
born in Pompey, Onondaga co., N. Y., April 
2, 1817. He was brought up to the trade of a 
joiner, and at an early age attracted attention 
by ingenious carvings in wood of natural ob- 
jects, such as leaves and animals. At the age 
of 29, while working at his trade in Utica, in- 
cited by a cameo portrait, he procured a shell 
and made a similar head of his wife. The 
success of this work decided him, and after a 
few years' practice in cameo cutting he turned 
his attention to sculpture, having in the mean 
time settled in Albany. His first work in 
marble, an ideal bust of the infant Ceres, mod- 
elled from one of his own children, was exhib- 
ited at the New York academy of design in 
1850. This was followed by two bass reliefs 
of " Morning" and " Evening," and a statue of 
life size representing an Indian girl contem- 
plating a crucifix which she holds in her hand. 
Among his other statues in marble are " The 
Sleeping Peri," " The Little Peasant," " Mem- 
ory," a full-length recumbent statue of a young 
girl, a monumental work in Grace church, Uti- 
ca, and " The Angel at the Sepulchre," a statue 
of heroic size in the Albany rural cemetery, 



PALMER 



PALMERSTON 



one of his best works. " The White Captive " 
is a nude figure of a young American woman, a 
captive to savages who have tied her to a tree. 
Among his works in bass relief are " Faith," 
"Immortality," "Sappho," "Peace in Bon- 
dage," "Good Morning," and "The Spirit's 
Flight." He has made many fine portrait busts, 
among others, of Alexander Hamilton, Wash- 
ington Irving, Commodore M. C. Perry, E. D. 
Morgan, Moses Taylor, and Erastus Corning. 
He went to Paris in 1873 and modelled for the 
state of New York a statue of Robert R. Liv- 
ingston, which was cast in bronze in Paris, and 
placed in the old hall of representatives at 
Washington in March, 1875. His most com- 
prehensive design, representing the "Landing 
of the Pilgrims," including 16 statues of colos- 
sal size, is intended for the capitol at Washing- 
ton. He still lives in Albany. 

PALMER, John, an English clergyman, born 
in Southwark in 1729, died June 26, 1790. In 
1759 he became pastor of a Presbyterian con- 
gregation in London, with which he remained 
connected till 1780, when, having married a 
lady of fortune, he retired from the minis- 
try, and devoted himself to literary pursuits. 
In the latter part of his life he abandoned the 
doctrines of Calvin for those of Socinus. His 
principal works are : " Observations in defence 
of the Liberty of Man as a Moral Agent," in 
reply to Dr. Priestley's " Illustrations of Phi- 
losophical Necessity " (8vo, London, 1779); an 
appendix to that production, and a " Letter to 
Priestley" on the same subject; and a "Sum- 
mary View of Christian Baptism." 

PALMER, Ray, an American author, born at 
Little Compton, R. I., Nov. 12, 1808. He grad- 
uated at Yale college in 1830, studied theology 
at New Haven, and was ordained in 1835 as 
pastor of the central Congregational church in 
Bath, Me. In 1850 he became pastor of the 
first Congregational church in Albany, N. Y., 
and in 1866 secretary of the American Congre- 
gational union in New York, which office he 
still holds (1875). In 1852 he received the de- 
gree of D. D. from Union college. He has 
written many hymns and sacred poems which 
have gained a wide popularity, the best known 
being the hymn " My faith looks up to Thee." 
His principal works are: "The Spirit's Life," 
a poem (1837) ; " Spiritual Improvement " 
(1839), enlarged as "Closet Hours" (1851); 
"Doctrinal text Book" (1839); "Hints on 
the Formation of Religious Opinions" (1860); 
" Hymns and Sacred Pieces " (1865) ; " Remem- 
ber Me, or the Holy Communion " (1865) ; 
"Hymns of my Holy Hours" (1867) ; " Home, 
or the Unlost Paradise," a poem in four parts 
(1872); and "Earnest Words on True Success 
in Life" (1873). 

PALMER. I. Roundel), Lord Selborne, an Eng- 
lish statesman, born at Mixbury, Oxfordshire, 
Nov. 27, 1812. He was educated first at Rug- 
by and Winchester, and graduated at Trinity 
college, Oxford, in 1834, as first class in clas- 
sics, having previously gained several prizes, 



among which were those for Latin and Eng- 
lish verse. He was chosen to a fellowship at 
Magdalen college, in 1834 obtained the Eldon 
law scholarship, and in 1835 the chancellor's 
prize for the Latin essay. He was called to 
the bar in 1837, and was made queen's counsel 
in 1849. He was returned to parliament in 
1847 for Plymouth, was defeated in 1852, but 
was again returned in 1853, holding his seat 
until 1857. In 1861, having been knighted 
and made solicitor general, he was returned 
for Richmond, and in 1865 and 1868 was re- 
elected. He was made attorney general in 

1864, but went out of office in 1866 with the 
other members of the Russell administration. 
On Mr. Gladstone's accession in 1868, the chan- 
cellorship was offered to him ; but he declined 
on account of his difference with the premier 
on the question of the disestablishment of the 
Irish church. In 1872 he was the counsel of 
the British government at the Geneva court of 
arbitration, and was soon after raised to the 
peerage under the title of Lord Selborne, and 
became lord chancellor, retiring in 1874 with 
the Gladstone ministry. He has edited "The 
Book of Praise, from the best English Hymn 
Writers " (London, 1862). II. William, an Eng- 
lish clergyman, brother of the preceding, born 
July 12, 1811. He graduated in 1830 at Mag- 
dalen college, Oxford, where he became fellow, 
tutor, and public examiner. He subsequently 
took orders, travelled in the East, and endeav- 
ored to draw together the Anglican and orien- 
tal churches. In 1856 he joined the Roman 
Catholic communion. Besides several contro- 
versial pamphlets, he has published " Harmony 
of Anglican Doctrine with that of the East" 
(1844), and "The Patriarch and the Tsar," 
translated from the Russian (1871). 

PALMERSTON, Henry John Temple, viscount, 
a British statesman, born in London, Oct. 20, 
1784, died at Brockett Hall, Herts, Oct. 18, 

1865. He succeeded to the title as third vis- 
count (in the Irish peerage) in 1802, and after 
studying in the university of Edinburgh gradu- 
ated at St. John's college, Cambridge, in 1806. 
In 1807 he was returned to parliament for 
Newport, Isle of Wight, and from 1811 to 1831 
represented Cambridge university. He suc- 
ceeded Lord Castlereagh as secretary at war 
in the Perceval cabinet in 1809, and held the 
office under five administrations, retiring with 
Huskisson from the Wellington cabinet in May, 
1828. He soon afterward severed his connec- 
tion with the tory party, and was secretary 
of state for foreign affairs under Earl Grey 
from November, 1830, to December, 1834, and 
under Lord Melbourne from April, 1835, to 
September, 1841. In July, 1846, he was again 
called to that post in the Russell cabinet ; but 
offending the court and his colleagues by his 
friendly attitude toward the coup d'etat of 
Louis Napoleon, he retired in December, 1851. 
In 1852 he became home secretary in the co- 
alition ministry of Lord Aberdeen, whom he 
succeeded as prime minister in 1855. In 1857 



26 



PALMERSTON 



PALMETTO 



the house of commons censured his China pol- 
icy, but, the house having been dissolved, the 
new elections were in his favor. The defeat 
of the " conspiracy to murder bill," intro- 
duced with reference to the attempt of Or- 
sini against Napoleon III., in February, 1858, 
occasioned his retirement. In June, 1859, he 
was once more premier, and held the post 
till his death. In 1861 he was appointed lord 
warden of the cinque ports, and governor of 
Dover castle. In 1862 he received the degree 
of D. C. L. from Oxford, and was elected lord 
rector of the university of Glasgow. He mar- 
ried the widow of Earl Oowper in 1839, but 
the union was without issue, and the title is 
extinct. He was buried in Westminster abbey, 
Oct. 27, 1865. A bronze statue of him was 
unveiled at Eomsey in 1868, and another in 
Parliament square, London, in 1874. Politi- 
cally, from his accession to office in the whig 
ministry in 1830 till his death, he was a promi- 
nent leader of the liberal party. He had pre- 
viously supported Catholic emancipation. He 
was opposed to the settlement with the United 
States of the N". E. boundary, and stigmatized 
the treaty as the " Ashburton capitulation." 
In 1845 he declared in favor of the absolute re- 
peal of the corn laws, though previously he was 
for a fixed duty for revenue. As minister of 
foreign affairs he directed the diplomacy of the 
country in many difficult and delicate questions, 
such as the troubles in Portugal, the Swiss 
troubles, the revolutionary movements of 1848, 
the Greek imbroglio (1847-'50), the Hungarian 
war and the protection of the refugee chiefs, 
and in securing the recognition of Napoleon 
III. and the subsequent coalition with France. 
Personally he was a man of extraordinary ac- 
tivity of mind and body, indefatigable in busi- 
ness, fond of the pleasures of society, and of 
great culture. He preserved his health and 
strength almost to the close of his life. His 
last illness resulted from exposure to sudden 
cold weather, and was brief and nearly pain- 
less. His views and opinions are to be found 
in detail in parliamentary reports and in his 
occasional addresses. Multitudes of disserta- 
tions on the foreign policy of Lord Palmers- 
ton have been published, among the chief 
of which are the publications and speeches 
of David Urquhart accusing him of being se- 
cretly in the service of Russia and of betraying 
the interests of England in the eastern ques- 
tion, and Count Ficquelmont's Lord Palmers- 
ton, V Angleterre et le continent (1852). More 
elaborate works are : " Opinions and Policy of 
the Right Hon. Viscount Palmerston as Min- 
ister, Diplomatist, and Statesman, with a Me- 
moir by G. H. Francis" (1852), made up chiefly 
of extracts from his speeches ; " Thirty Years 
of Foreign Policy, a History of the Secretary- 
ships of the Earl of Aberdeen and Lord Pal- 
merston" (1855) ; and " Life of Viscount Pal- 
merston, with selections from his Diaries and 
Correspondence," by Henry Lytton Bulwer 
(3 vols., 1870-74). 



PALMETTO, the common name of the four 
species of palm indigenous to the United States, 
belonging to two genera of the tribe coryphi- 
nece. (See PALM.) The largest species is the 
tall palmetto or cabbage palmetto, sabal pal- 
metto ; the meaning of the generic name does 
not seem to be understood. This grows from 
20 to 50 ft. high and 12 to 15 in. in diameter ; 
it is found along the coast from North Carolina 
to Florida, not far from salt water ; its leaves 
are from 5 to 8 ft. long, fan-shaped, recurved 
at the summit, and usually shorter than the 
smooth concave petiole ; the divisions are deep- 
ly cleft with thread-like filaments among the 
divisions ; the flowers are perfect, followed by 
a small black drupe, less than half an inch in 




Cabbage Palmetto (Sabal palmetto). 

diameter. This tree is the emblem of the state 
of South Carolina. Its principal use is in the 
construction of wharves, for which in south- 
ern waters it is superior to all other wood, as 
it resists the attacks of the ship worm (teredo 
navalis), which so soon riddles and renders 
useless piles of other material ; the logs do not 
splinter, and have been employed in the con- 
struction of forts, such as that on Sullivan's 
island. As with many other palms, the bud 
of this is eaten, and is by some highly esteem- 
ed, while others do not regard it as desirable 
where other vegetables can be obtained ; how- 
ever great a delicacy it may be, it should only 
be indulged in when the tree is felled for its 
timber, as the removal of the " cabbage " causes 
the death of the tree ; palm wine or toddy has 



PALM OIL 



been prepared from its juice. Blocks from the 
interior and softer parts of the stem are used 
in the southern states as a substitute for scrub- 
bing brushes, the softer portions wearing away 
and leaving the hard fibres to act as a brush. 
The leaves serve for thatching out-buildings, 
and are woven into baskets and mats and plait- 
ed into hats, and the younger leaves afford ma- 
terial for light and delicate bonnets. The saw 
palmetto (S. serrulata), so called on account of 
the sharp spiny teeth along the edges of the 
petiole, has a creeping stem 4 to 8 ft. long, 
from which arise leaves 2 to 4 ft. high ; these 
are circular, bright green, the erect divisions 
slightly cleft, without thread-like filaments ; 
the fruit is about three fourths of an inch long, 
with a sweet pulp ; it is said that the Indians 
use it as food, but in whites it causes purging 
and griping. The leaves, shred with a hatchel, 
boiled, and dried in the sun, make an excellent 
material for beds. It is said that the creeping 
stem, when grubbed up, dried, and burned, 
yields a greater amount of potash than any 
other vegetable substance. This species is 
common in sandy barrens from South Carolina 
southward. The dwarf palmetto (S. Ander- 
sonii) has its short stem wholly under ground ; 
its leaves, 2 to 3 ft. high, are of a glaucous 
green, longer than the smooth petiole, with the 
numerous divisions slightly cleft at apex, with 
sparing filaments between them ; the drupe is 
a third of an inch in diameter. It is found 
from North Carolina to Florida, sometimes, 
especially on some of the sea islands, quite 
covering sandy tracts. The chief use made of 
this is for fans, for which the leaves answer 
excellently ; it is frequently called palmeet and 
palmeta. These three species were placed by 
older botanists in the genus chamcerops, but the 
structure of their flowers refers them to sabal. 
We have, however, one chamcerops, known as 
the blue palmetto ( C. hystrix) ; this has a short 
creeping stem, with somewhat glaucous leaves 
3 to 4 ft. high ; at the bases of the leaves are 
numerous erect strong spines, like porcupines' 
quills, which serve to distinguish it from the 
other palmettos ; the fruit is from one half to 
three fourths of an inch long. This does not 
appear to be put to any special use. It is 
found in the same states as the preceding, but 
prefers a richer soil, and is often found in moist 
shady woods and on the margins of swamps. 

PALM OIL, a fatty oil of the consistence of 
butter, of a rich orange color, sweetish taste, 
and odor like that of violets or orris root. It 
is the product of the fibrous fleshy coat of the 
drupe or stone fruit of the palm known as the 
elceis Guineemis of W. Africa, belonging to the 
tribe of cocoanut palms. The same oil is also 
obtained in Brazil, Cayenne, and the West In- 
dies, and is probably yielded by other species 
of palm besides that named. To obtain it, the 
negroes bruise the fruit and cover it with boil- 
ing water, upon which the oil rises and is 
skimmed from the surface. It retains the col- 
oring matter of the fruit, which is removed in 



the subsequent treatment of the oil in the Eng- 
lish factories, either by bleaching in shallow 
vats on the surface of hot water or by various 
chemical methods of treatment. Each drupe 
affording only about T \ of an ounce of oil, and 
each tree only 3 or 4 Ibs. of it, an immense 
amount of labor must be expended in secur- 
ing this product, and the forests of palm must 
be of great extent. The nuts were formerly 
rejected, but a clear limpid oil is now obtained 
from them, called palm-nut oil. Palm oil is 
very extensively used in the manufacture of 
candles and soap, and in the various kinds 
of axle grease. It melts to a very thin fluid 
at temperatures varying from 75 to 95 F. ; 
the older it is, the greater is the heat required 
to melt it. By age arid exposure it becomes 




Oil Palm (Elajis Guineensis) 

rancid and whitish. In ether it is perfectly 
soluble, slightly so in cold alcohol, and in boil- 
ing alcohol dissolves readily, but separates on 
cooling. It consists of margarine, oleine, and 
a solid fat resembling stearine and called pal- 
mitine, which constitutes about two thirds of 
its weight. This substance is further reduced 
to palmitic acid and oxide of glycerine. The 
change takes place in saponification ; and as 
these ingredients also exist uncombined in the 
commercial oil, this is in better condition than 
any other oil for the process of soap making. 
In the manufacture of candles, the oil, having 
been melted by steam pipes introduced into 
the casks, and freed from impurities, is mixed 
with one seventh to one sixth of its weight of 
sulphuric acid, and is briskly agitated for about 
two hours in copper boilers heated by steam 



PALM OIL 



PALMYRA 



to about 350. The glycerine and sulphuric 
acid by their mutual reaction are thus decom- 
posed and escape partially in carbonic and sul- 




Oil Palm. Part of Female Flower Spil^e, Fruit, and Nut 
with and without envelope. 

phurous acids, and the remainder by subsequent 
washing. The impure acids are next distilled 
in copper stills heated by steam injected at a 
temperature of 600. The dark residue in the 



retorts is made by pressure to yield further 
portions of oil at the close of the distillation, 
and the black solid mass which remains is used 
for fuel. The distilled fat, when cooled to 50 
or 54, is broken into cakes 18 in. square and 
about If thick, which are distributed upon 
squares of coir or cocoanut matting, and these 
being piled upon each other are submitted to 
the action of a hydraulic press at a temperature 
of 75. The fat thus obtained may be run at 
once into candles for the European markets ; 
but for tropical climates it is again submitted 
to pressure at a temperature of 120. The 
soaps made with palm oil retain the natural 
agreeable odor of the oil. In Africa palm oil 
is eaten to some extent by the natives as a sort 
of butter. In medicine it is recognized as an 
emollient, and employed sometimes in friction 
or embrocation, though possessing no specific 
virtue over other oleaginous substances. 

PALM SUNDAY. See HOLY WEEK. 

PALMYRA, an ancient city in an oasis in the 
Syrian desert, about 120 m. N". E. of Damas- 
cus. It is supposed to be the Tadmor founded 
or (according to Josephus) enlarged by Solo- 
mon, and its Hebrew name, like its Greek and 
Latin one, signifies "the city of palms." It 
was autonomous and early became an impor- 
tant emporium, but is seldom mentioned by 
the more ancient historians. Pliny refers to it 
as a city of merchants, carrying on the traffic 
between the Romans and Parthians. In the 
reign of Hadrian it formed an alliance with 
Rome. Its ruler Odenathus received the title 
of Augustus from the emperor Gallienus for 
his services against the Persians in A. D. 260. 




Ruins of Palmyra. 



He was assassinated in 266, and was succeeded 
by his widow Zenobia, under whom it reached 
its greatest prosperity. She extended her sway 



over considerable portions of Mesopotamia and 
Syria, and assumed the title of queen of the 
East. As she refused to acknowledge the su- 



PALO ALTO 



PAMPAS 



premacy of Rome, Aurelian defeated her at 
Antioch and Emesa, and besieged her capital 
in 273. Zenobia fled, but was captured, and 
Palmyra surrendered. Subsequently the peo- 
ple revolted and slew the garrison of 600 men, 
and Aurelian destroyed the city. Justinian re- 
stored it in 527 ; it was captured by the Sara- 
cens in 633, pillaged by them in 744, and taken 
by Tamerlane in 1400. The place now has a 
small population of Syrians and a Turkish gar- 
rison. The ruins are remarkable, and com- 
prise countless Corinthian columns of white 
marble extending a mile and a half, numerous 
tomb towers with separate compartments for 
the dead, and the remains of a grand temple 
of the sun, the surrounding columns of which 
are Ionic. The tombs appear to be of a date 
preceding the Roman conquest, most of them 
containing inscriptions in the Palmyrene char- 
acter and language, a branch of the Syriac. 
The ruins were visited by some English mer- 
chants in 1691, and an account was published 
in the "Transactions" of the royal society. 
They were explored in 1751 by Wood and 
Dawkins, who published an elaborate account 
with plates (foL, London, 1758); by Irby and 
Mangles in 1817-'18 ; and since then have been 
visited by many travellers, including Burton 
(1870) and Myers (187l-'2). Much informa- 
tion in respect to recently discovered remains 
is given in Vogue's Syrie centrale (Paris, 1869). 

PALO ALTO, a N. W. county of Iowa, drained 
by the Des Moines river and its tributaries; 
area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 1,336. The 
surface is generally level and the soil fertile. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 19,475 
bushels of wheat, 22,336 of Indian corn, 19,976 
of oats, 45,525 Ibs. of butter, and 7,432 tons of 
hay. There were 349 horses, 760 milch cows, 
1,642 other cattle, and 357 swine. Capital, 
Emmetsburg. 

PALO ALTO (Sp., " tall timber "), a wood in S. 
Texas, about 8 m. N. N. E. of Matamoros, near 
which a battle was fought, May 8, 1846, be- 
tween the Americans commanded by Gen. Tay- 
lor, and the Mexicans by Gen. Arista. Taylor 
had inarched on May 1 from Fort Brown, oppo- 
site Matamoros, for the relief of Point Isabel, 
where he had a depot of provisions which was 
threatened by the Mexicans. Having made 
this place defensible, he started to return on 
the 7th. At noon on the 8th the enemy ap- 
peared in his front in a position to cut him off 
from Fort Brown. The action began with an 
artillery fire from the Mexicans and a cavalry 
attack with the lance. They were forced back, 
and the Americans advanced. After an engage- 
ment of five hours the Mexicans retreated. 
They numbered about 6,000, and their loss in 
kilk-d was about 100. The Americans num- 
bered about 2,300, and their loss was 4 killed 
and 40 wounded. 

PALOMINO DE CASTRO Y VELASCO, Acislo Antonio, 
a Spanish painter, born in Bujalance in 1653, 
died in Madrid, April 13, 1726. He studied 
theology, philosophy, and jurisprudence at Cor- 



dova, but devoted himself secretly to paint- 
ing. In 1678 he went to Madrid, and in 1688 
was appointed painter to the king. Among 
his chief productions are the fresco in the 
church of San Juan del Mercado in Valencia, 
that of the "Triumph of Religion " in the con- 
vent of San Esteban in Salamanca, and others 
in Granada, and a series of altarpieces at Cor- 
dova. After the death of his wife in 1725 he 
took orders. He published El museo pictorico 
y escala optica (Madrid, l715-'24), and Vidas 
de los pintores y estatuarios eminentes espa- 
fwles (8 vols., London, l739-'42), translated 
into German, French, and English. 

PALO PINTO, a 1ST. W. county of Texas, inter- 
sected by the Brazos river ; area, 974 sq. m. 
The population was not returned in the census 
of 1870. The surface is broken and hilly, with 
much prairie land and some woodland. Sheep 
and stock raising are the chief industries. The 
county has suffered from Indian incursions. 
Capital, Palo Pinto. 

PJLLOS, a town of Andalusia, Spain, in the 
province and 5 m. S. E. of the town of Huelva, 
on the Tinto, near its mouth in the gulf of 
Cadiz; pop. about 1,200. It is remarkable as 
the port from which Columbus sailed (Aug. 3, 
1492) on his first voyage to America. Be- 
tween it and the sea is the old convent of La 
Kabida, noted in the earlier history of the 
navigator. 

PALPITATION. See HEAKT, DISEASES OF THE. 

PALSY. See PARALYSIS. 

PAMIERS, a town of France, in the depart- 
ment of Ariege, on the river Ariege, 10 m. N. 
of Foix; pop. in 1872, 8,690. It is the seat 
of a bishop, has two religious communities of 
men and four of women, and a communal col- 
lege. It was formerly the capital of Foix. 

PAMLICO, an E. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on the Neuse river and Pamlico 
sound, formed from portions of Beaufort and 
Craven cos. in 1872 ; area, about 300 sq. m. 
The surface is low and swampy. Capital, 
Vandemere. 

PAMLICO RIVER, an estuary receiving the 
waters of Tar river and Tranter's creek, and 
opening into Pamlico sound, N. C. It is from 
1 to 8 m. broad and 40 m. long, and navigable 
for all vessels which can enter the sound. 

PAMLICO SOUND, a shallow body of water on 
the coast of North Carolina, separated from 
the Atlantic by long and narrow sandy isl- 
ands, whose outermost point is Cape Hatteras ; 
breadth from 10 to 30 m., length about 80 m. 
The principal entrance is by Ocracoke inlet on 
the southwest. It communicates with Albe- 
marle and Currituck sounds on the north, and 
receives Pamlico and Neuse rivers on the west. 

PAMPAS, the great plains of South America, 
stretching from lat. 50 S. in Patagonia north- 
ward through the Argentine Republic to the 
Bolivian frontier, about 27 degrees of latitude, 
and covering an area of about 600,000 sq. m. 
The northern portion is occupied by the vast 
unexplored territory of the Gran Chaco ; the 



30 



PAMPAS GRASS 



southern forms an immense desert interspersed 
with sand pools ; the eastern, extensive plains 
and marshes, with tracts entirely inundated; 
while the western border rises gradually into 
the elevated region of Salta, Tucuman, Santi- 
ago, Cordova, and San Luis, in the Argentine 
Republic, and into the Andes proper in Pata- 
gonia. The natural features of the northern 
and northwestern parts are plains of magnifi- 
cent pasture, dense timber forests, and numer- 
ous lagoons and rivers, chief among the last 
being the Pilcomayo and the Bermejo. The 
central portion is distinguishable into several 
subdivisions, differing in climate and products, 
although under the same parallel. Proceeding 
westward from Buenos Ayres, the first of these 
presents for nearly 200 m. an alternate growth 
of clover and thistles ; the next, a covering of 
long grass and brilliant flowers extending with- 
out a weed some 400 m. further westward; 
the third, reaching to the base of the Andes, 
one continuous grove of shrubs and small 
evergreen trees, so evenly set that a horseman 
may gallop at random between them without 
inconvenience. Change of season brings little 
variation in the aspect of the two regions last 
referred to ; but in the first remarkable muta- 
tions occur. During the winter months the 
thistles and clover are exceedingly rich and 
strong, and support countless herds of wild 
cattle. On the approach of spring the clover 
disappears, and nothing is distinguishable save 
an immense forest of giant thistles, so closely 
set and so strong as to form an impenetrable 
barrier. In summer the thistles give place to 
a new and luxurious growth of clover. Nu- 
merous rivers traverse the central and south- 
ern parts, but the only absolutely perennial 
stream is the Rio Negro, which forms the 
boundary line with Patagonia. The Andine 
regions abound in guanacos, llamas, and vicu- 
nas ; deer, wild hogs, and armadillos are every- 
where found; ostriches are plenty; and the 
rodent tocutuco and vizcacha render travel dan- 
gerous from their burrowings. 

PAMPAS GRASS (gynerium argenteum), a large 
perennial grass from the plains of South Amer- 
ica. It is dioecious, and the generic name (Gr. 
yw#, female, and eptov, wool, hair) is derived 
from the fact that the glumes of the female 
flowers are furnished with long hairs, which 
are lacking in the male flowers. An old and 
well established specimen of this grass presents 
an enormous tuft 4 to 6 ft. high and as much or 
more across, of very long narrow leaves, with 
rough edges, which curve gracefully and make 
the plant highly ornamental for its foliage 
alone. It flowers at the end of summer or in 
early autumn, throwing up numerous stalks, 
sometimes in an old plant as many as 40 or 
50, which are from 4 to 15 ft. high, according 
to the strength of the plant, each surmounted 
by a dense panicle of flowers 1 or 2 ft. long, 
which in the pistillate plant are of a beautiful 
silky, silvery lustre. The flowers are similar 
in structure to those of our common reed 



PAMPHILUS 

(phragmites), to which it is closely related, 
with but two florets in each spikelet. This 
grass was first introduced into cultivation by 
seeds sent from Buenos Ayres to England in 




y, 

I 



Pampas Grass (Gynerium argenteum). 

1843, and is now quite common;. it is easily 
raised from seed; but as female plants are 
much more ornamental than the males, and as 
there is no way of telling the sex of the plants 
until they bloom, it is customary to multiply it 
by division of old plants, the sex of which is 
known. It is barely hardy in the climate of 
New York. Further south no protection is 
needed. Varieties have been obtained in which 
the plumes are tinged with purple, others with 
ellow, and there is one form in which the 
eaves are variegated with white. 
PAMPELUNA. See PAMPLONA. 
PAMPHILUS, a Greek painter, born in Am- 
phipolis, flourished between 390 and 350 B. C. 
Not more than four or five of his pictures are 
specified by ancient authors, but Quintilian 
says he was one of the most celebrated among 
the Greeks for composition. He was the mas- 
ter of Apelles and Melanthius. 

PAMPHILUS, an early Christian writer, born 
probably in Berytus, suffered martyrdom in 
Csesarea, Feb. 16, 309. He studied in Berytus, 
and under Pierius in Alexandria, and became a 
presbyter of Csesarea in Palestine. About the 
close of 307 he was imprisoned, and finally put 
to death, for refusing to sacrifice to thp gods. 
With his most intimate friend Eusebius, who 
: attended him in his imprisonment and assumed 
! his name, he probably wrote five books of " The 
I Apology for Origen." At Caesarea he formed 
a public library, chiefly of ecclesiastical works, 
which became very celebrated, and founded a 
theological school. In conjunction with Euse- 
bius he prepared an edition of the Septuagint, 
which was commonly used in the eastern church. 
The Expositio Capitum Actuum Apostolicorum 



PAMPHYLIA 



PANAMA 



31 



has been ascribed to him, but doubtfully. The 
life of Pamphilus was written by Eusebius, but 
only a few doubtful fragments remain. 

PAMPH1LIA (Gr. Trav, all, and <[>vhov, tribe), 
an ancient division of Asia Minor, on its S. 
coast, now comprised in the Turkish vilayet of 
Konieh. It is said to have been first called 
Mopsopia, from Mopsus, its first Greek colo- 
nizer. The later name referred to the mixed 
character of its inhabitants, among whom 
were many aboriginal tribes from the interior. 
Pamphylia was bounded E. by Cilicia, N. by 
Pisidia, from which it was divided by Mt. 
Taurus, and W. by Lycia. It was a narrow 
strip about 90 m. long, and formed an arch 
around the Pamphylian gulf (now gulf of Ada- 
lia). The eastern extremity is flat and sandy, 
the western hilly with the ramifications of Mt. 
Taurus that run down to the coast. The west- 
ern part of this district is a mass of incrusted 
vegetable matter, beneath which its rivers, the 
ancient Catarrhactes, Oestrus, Eurymedon, and 
Melas, find their way to the sea. Pamphylia 
was conquered by Cyrus, and when the Persian 
empire was destroyed by Alexander it became 
subject to Macedon, and then to Syria. It 
subsequently became a part of the kingdom of 
Pergamus, and finally a Roman province. The 
principal towns were Attalia (now Adalia), Ol- 
bia, Corycus, Aspendus, Perge, Syllium, Side, 
Cibyra, and Ptolemais. The language spoken 
was a mixture of Greek and a native (probably 
Semitic) dialect. 

PAMPLONA, or Pampelnna (anc. Pompelori), a 
fortified city of Spain, capital of the province 
of Navarre, on the left bank of the Arga, 197 
m. N. E. of Madrid ; pop. about 23,000. It 
stands in a plain flanked on three sides by the 
Pyrenees, is entered by six gates, and has 29 
streets. The cathedral was founded in 1100, 
and rebuilt three centuries later by Charles 
III. of Navarre. The university was founded 
in 1608. The best public library is that at- 
tached to the cathedral. Water is conveyed 
from the mountains of Subiza, 12 m. distant, 
by a superb aqueduct, one portion of which 
rests on 97 arches, each of 35 ft. span and 65 
ft. high. The citadel, separated from the town 
by a vast esplanade, occupies a commanding 
site. Cloth, leather, wax, and earthenware are 
manufactured, and there is much trade in flour 
and wool. Pamplona was anciently the chief 
town of the Vascones in Hispania Tarraconen- 
sis. The Goths under Euric wrested it from 
the Romans in 466, and the Franks captured it 
in 542. Charlemagne seized it in 778 ; and af- 
ter falling into the hands of the Saracens under 
Al-Hakim, it was recaptured by the Franks in 
806, and became the capital of Navarre about 
the middle of the century. It has since been 
many times besieged and captured. The Car- 
lists blockaded it Sept. 1, 1874, half the popu- 
lation was driven away, and the city now (1875) 
presents a most desolate appearance. 

PAN, in Grecian mythology, the god of flocks 
and shepherds. He was the son of Mercury 
633 VOL. xni. 3 



by Callisto, Dryops, (Eneis, or Penelope, or 
according to some authorities of Penelope by 
Ulysses or by all her suitors in common. He 
is represented with horns, a pug nose, and a 
goat's beard, feet, and tail, and was perfectly 
developed from his birth. When his mother 
first saw him she ran away in fright, but Mer- 
cury carried him to Olympus, and the nymphs 
nursed him. He was a favorite with all the 
gods, and was especially the companion of Bac- 
chus. He had a terrific voice, by which he 
frightened the Titans in their struggle with 
the gods. Phidippides asserted in Athens that 
Pan promised him to frighten away the Per- 
sians if the Athenians would worship him; 
and hence originated the expression "panic 
fear." He played upon the syrinx or shep- 
herd's flute, of which he was the inventor, and 
was the patron of hunters, but was dreaded 
by travellers. He was the god of bee-keepers 
and fishermen, and according to Servius was 
considered as the god of nature generally, or 
a personification of the universe (Gr. TO 7rai>), 
whence his name, though Pan is also associated 
with the Greek rrdeiv, Latin pascere, to feed or 
pasture. He loved the nymph Echo, by whom 
or by Pitho he became the father of lynx, the 
nymph Pitys, who was metamorphosed into 
a fir tree, and Syrinx, after whom he named 
his flute. His worship, native in Arcadia, ex- 
tended thence over other parts of Greece, and 
after the battle of Marathon was introduced 
into Athens. In Rome he was honored under 
the names of Inuus and Faunus. The fir tree 
was sacred to him, and sacrifices were offered 
to him consisting of cows, rams, lambs, milk, 
and honey. The satyrs were his attendants. 

PAMEMS, a Greek painter, who flourished 
in Athens about 448 B. C. He was a nephew 
of Phidias, and when that sculptor made the 
statue of the Olympian Jupiter, Pansenus orna- 
mented the base with a series of mythological 
pictures. He also painted the roof of Miner- 
va's temple at Elis. His principal work was 
the battle of Marathon in the Pcecile at Ath- 
ens, representing four periods of the combat. 

PANAMA (Sp. Panama). I. A state of the 
United States of Colombia, occupying the isth- 
mus connecting North and South America, be- 
tween lat. 6 45' and 9 40' N., and Ion. 77 
and 83 W. ; area, 31,921 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
220,542. Its general form is an arc curving 
from E. to W. with its convex side toward the 
north. On the southeast it joins the state 
of Cauca ; on the west it is bounded by Costa 
Rica. In its widest part the distance from sea 
to sea, through the peninsula of Azuero, is 
about 120 m. ; in the narrowest, between the 
gulf of San Bias and the mouth of Bayano 
river, about 30 m. ; following the line of the 
Panama railway, 47-J- m. The coast line on 
the Caribbean sea is about 450 m. long, and 
forms a reverse curve, convex from the gulf 
of Darien to Point Manzanillo, and concave 
from thence to the Doraces river. The prin- 
cipal bays are Caledonia bay and the gulf of 



32 



PANAMA 



San Bias, in the latter of which are the isl- 
ands forming the Mulatas archipelago, Limon 
or Navy bay, and the Chiriqui lagoon. The 
chief ports are Puerto Escoces in Caledonia 
bay, San Bias, Portobello, Colon or Aspinwall 
in Limon bay, and Chiriqui. On the Pacific 
coast the bay of Panama makes an indenta- 
tion about 110 m. deep and 122 m. wide at 
its mouth. Its W. coast is formed by the pen- 
insula of Azuero, which extends S. E. from 
the mainland about 75 m. There are many 
islands in the bay, the principal of which are 
the Pearl islands. At its N. extremity are the 
city and port of Panama, and on its E. coast is 
the gulf of San Miguel, which contains a good 
port. There are also several smaller ports on 
the W. coast. Beyond the peninsula of Azue- 
ro the coast of the isthmus is broken by the 
bay of Monti jo, which contains several islands. 
The largest of these, Coiba, has an area of 
180 sq. m., and contains the port of Damas. 
From the Atlantic coast the isthmus appears 
to be traversed through its entire length by a 
range of high mountains, the continuation of 
the Andes, but surveys have proved that in 
some parts the elevation does not exceed 300 
ft. above the level of the sea. From this divi- 
ding ridge about 150 streams flow into the At- 
lantic, and more than twice as many into the 
Pacific. The largest of these is the river Tui- 
ra, which rises in the sierra on the borders of 
Cauca, and empties into the gulf of San Mi- 
guel ; it is 162 m. long, and is navigable for 
barges for 102 m. The Chagres, which falls 
into the Caribbean sea a little W. of Limon 
bay, is navigable by bongos for about 30 m. 
The Chepo, after a W. N. W. course of about 
75 m., turns S. and empties into the bay of 
Panama. Among the minerals of Panama are 
gold, mercury, copper, iron, salt, gypsum, lime, 
and coal. The product of the gold mines 
once considerable, as is attested by the ancient 
name of the isthmus, Castilla de Oro, and by 
the large quantities of the metal formerly ex- 
tracted from the huacas of Chiriqui is now 
insignificant, being probably less than $100,- 
000 annually. Coal is mined in Bocas del 
Toro and other places. There are several ther- 
mal springs, and salt is an important product. 
The climate is very hot on the coasts ; on the 
flanks of the mountains in the interior it is 
relatively cool, but miasmatic fevers prevail 
everywhere. The seasons are the wet and the 
dry, the former lasting from May to Decem- 
ber inclusive ; July, August, and September 
are the hottest months. Nearly all the vege- 
table products of the torrid zone grow luxuri- 
antly, and much of the surface is covered with 
dense forests, in which are found many of the 
most valuable kinds of timber, dye, cabinet, 
and medicinal woods, and shrubs. Codazzi 
enumerates 55 varieties of fruit trees. Con- 
spicuous among the trees are the giant cedars 
and the palms, among the latter of which are 
the wine, sago, ivory, glove, cabbage, and 
cocoa palms. In the rainy season, when the 



blossoming trees are festooned with flowering 
vines and epiphytes, the forests are magnifi- 
cent almost beyond description. The fauna 
corresponds with that of the lower Magdalena 
valley, excepting the monkeys and parrots, 
which are not equalled in variety and number 
elsewhere N. of the forests of the Amazon. 
Taboga island in the bay of Panama is noted 
for the number and great size of the turtles 
found there. The Pearl islands were once 
celebrated for their pearl fisheries, but the 
oysters are now nearly exhausted, and in 1874 
the fishing was prohibited by law for a term 
of years. Agriculture is very backward, and 
not more than one tenth of the surface is 
cultivated. Maize and rice are the principal 
grains ; coffee, cacao, tobacco, and sugar cane 
are raised for home consumption ; cotton is 
indigenous and perennial, and the indigo plant 
grows spontaneously. Manufacturing indus- 
try is limited to the production of cloth and 
grass hammocks, coarse linen, grass hats and 
knapsacks, pack saddles, matting, tiles, small 
boats, sails, soap, and a few other articles. 
Among the products exported are cocoanuts, 
cocoanut oil, bananas, caoutchouc, and tor- 
toise shells. The foreign trade is carried on 
principally through the ports of Panama and 
Aspinwall, the termini of the Panama rail- 
way. As no official accounts are kept, the 
commerce proper of the isthmus cannot be dis- 
tinguished from the transit trade. The lat- 
ter amounts to the estimated annual value of 
$50,000,000, about two thirds of which rep- 
resents that from the Pacific to the Atlantic. 
The only railway is that from Panama to As- 
pinwall, 47i m. long, which is owned and con- 
trolled by an American company. It was be- 
gun in 1850, and on Jan. 28, 1855, the first 
train passed over it. Its cost was $7,500,000. 
The finest work on the road is the iron bridge 
over the Chagres, which is 625 ft. long and 40 
ft. above the water, and cost $500,000. The 
only advantages reserved from the railway 
company by the government are 3 per cent, 
of its net revenues, and $10,000 annually as a 
compensation for the free transit of all foreign 
mails. In connection with the railway are 
lines of steamers between Aspinwall and New 
York, and Panama and San Francisco ; and 
other lines, British, French, and Chilian, touch 
at one or the other of these ports. All the 
ports are now free. A submarine cable con- 
necting Aspinwall and Kingston, Jamaica, was 
broken in 1872, and has not yet (1875) been 
repaired. A cable from Valparaiso to Pana- 
ma, touching at the principal intermediate 
ports, is projected. Public education is begin- 
ning to receive attention. At the commence- 
ment of 1874 there were no public schools, but 
before its close there were 16, well attended. 
The isthmus was formerly divided into the 
provinces of Azuero, Chiriqui, Panama, and 
Veragua, but in 1865 the several provinces 
were formed into the state of Panama, of 
which each now constitutes a department. 



PANAMA 



33 



Besides the capital, Panama, the other chief 
towns are Santiago, Montijo, David, Porto- 
bello, Colon or Aspinwall, Chagres, and San- 
tos. Columbus, in his last voyage in 1502, 
discovered Chiriqui lagoon, and established a 
colony at Belen, but it was soon abandoned. 
The first permanent settlement was that of j 
Portobello by Nicuesa, in 1510. The Pacific 
was first reached by Balboa, Sept. 26, 1513. 
In 1514 reports of the immense riches of Cas- 
tilla de Oro, as the country was then called, 
led to the expedition of Pedrarias Davila, who 
transferred the seat of government in 1518 to 
Panama. In 158(5 Drake sacked Portobello ; 
the buccaneers under Morgan took it in 1665, 
and in 1670 reduced the castle of San Lorenzo 
at Chagres and burned Panama. In 1680 they 
crossed the isthmus under Sharp, Ringrose, 
and Dampier, and took the city of Santa Ma- 
ria, which led to the closing of the gold mines 
of Cana in 1685 by royal decree In 1698 
William Paterson founded a Scotch colony 
at Puerto Escoces, on Caledonia bay. (See 
DAKIEN, COLONY OF.) In 1719 the Catholic 
missionaries had established several towns on 
the Atlantic coast and on the rivers flowing 
into the gulf of San Miguel, but they were all 
destroyed by the Indians. In 1790 a treaty of 
peace was made with the Indians of Darien, 
in compliance with 
which the Spaniards 
abandoned all their 
forts in that district. 
The isthmus of Pa- 
nama has derived its 
chief importance from 
its supposed facilities 
for the construction 
of an interoceanic ca- 
nal. Since 1528 the 
idea has been mooted 
of opening a canal be- 
tween the river Cha- 
gres (falling into the 
Caribbean sea at the 
town of that name) 
and the Grande, fall- 
ing into the Pacific 
near Panama, or the 
Trinidad and Caimito. 
The route was exam- 
ined by two Flemish 
engineers under the 
orders of Philip II. ; 
but for political rea- 
sons the king ordered 
that no one should 
revive the subject un- 
der penalty of death. 
In 1826 Domingo Lo- 
pez, a native of Colombia, traced a new line ! 
for a canal between Panama and Portobello. 
But the first formal exploration was made in 
1827, under the orders of Gen. Bolivar, by the 
engineers Lloyd and Falmark. Their labors, 
concluded in 1829, proved that a railway, if 



not a canal, could readily be built between 
Chagres and Panama. In 1843 the French 
government sent out Messrs. Garella and Cour- 
tines to make examinations. Garella report- 
ed in favor of a canal from Limon bay, to pass 
under the dividing ridge of Ahogayegua by a 
tunnel 120 ft. high and 17,390 ft. long, to the 
bay of Vaca del Monte, 12 m. W. of Panama. 
In 1852 the government of New Granada con- 
ceded to Dr. Cullen and others the privilege 
of building a canal between Caledonia bay and 
the gulf of San Miguel. In 1864 Mr. Kelley 
of New York surveyed a route from the gulf 
of San Bias to the river Chepo, which would 
require a long tunnel. In 1865 M. de la Charme 
surveyed a line from the S. part of the gulf of 
Darien to the gulf of San Miguel, ma the river 
Tuira. In the same year M. de Puydt, an engi- 
neer employed by the French international Co- 
lombian company, announced the discovery of 
a favorable passage from the port of Escondido 
to the Tuira, and thence into the gulf of San 
Miguel. In 1870 Capt, Selfridge, U. S. N., sur- 
veyed two lines from Caledonia bay by different 
routes to the mouths of the rivers Sabana and 
Lara on the Pacific, but found no lower level 
on the Cordillera than 1,000 ft. Another line 
run from the bay of San Bias to the Chepo river 
was still more unfavorable. In 1871 he exam- 




Cathedral of Pan 



ined the line of M. de Puydt and found it im- 
practicable. In 1874 two other expeditions 
were sent out by the United States govern- 
ment, one to survey a line between the Atrato 
and the Pacific, across the Colombian state of 
Cauca, and the other a line parallel with the 



PANATHEN^EA 



PANCREAS 



Panama railway. Their reports are about to 
be published. II. A city, capital of the state, 
situated on the bay of the same name, in lat. 
8 56' N., Ion. 79 31' 2" W. > pop. about 11,000. 
It occupies a rocky peninsula extending from 
the base of the volcanic hill of Ancon about 
one fourth of a mile into the bay. The houses 
are mostly of stone, built in the Spanish style, 
the larger ones with courtyards and balconies, 
and the smaller with but one story. The only 
buildings of note are the cathedral, the churches, 
the cabildo or town hall, and the warehouses 
of the Panama railway. The bay is shallow, 
so that only small vessels can approach the 
shore, and the roadstead, though protected by 
several small outlying islands, is dangerous on 
account of the frequency of northers ; but ships 
find excellent anchorage at the neighboring 
island of Taboga, where they take in water. 
About 2 m. from the town are the islands of 
Perico and Flamenco, the stations of the Cali- 
fornia and Central American company's steam- 
ers. On the latter island are docks and other j 
facilities for repairing vessels. Passengers and 
freight are carried from the steamers on steam 
tugs and landed on a pier which extends 450 
ft. into the bay. The average rise and fall of j 
the tide is 12 ft. Panama has a large com- j 
merce, but most of it is due to the transit trade. 
The arrivals of steamers average 13 a month, 
and of sailing vessels not more than 100 a 
year. The steamers comprise two American 
lines connecting with San Francisco and the 
Mexican and Central American ports, and 
British, French, and Chilian lines running to 
Guayaquil, Callao, Valparaiso, and intermedi- 
ate ports. The coasting trade is carried on 
in schooners and bongos, their freight consist- 
ing principally of caoutchouc and provisions. 
Panama was founded in 1518 by Pedrarias 
Davila, about 6 m. N. E. of the present site, to 
which it was transferred after the destruction 
of the old city by the buccaneers in 1670. It 
has suffered much from disastrous fires: in 
1737, when it was almost entirely destroyed, 
and in 1864, 1870, and 1874, the loss in the 
last year amounting to $1,000,000. 

PANATHENvEA, the most splendid of the Athe- 
nian festivals, celebrated in honor of Athena 
(Minerva) Polias, protectress of the city. Ac- 
cording to tradition, it was instituted by Erich- 
thonius under the title of Athenaea. It retained 
this name, and the celebration was confined to 
Athens, until the reign of Theseus, who united 
all the Attic tribes, and this, becoming their 
common festival, was called Panathensea. The 
festival was divided into the lesser and the 
greater, the former taking place every year, 
the latter in the third year of each Olympiad. 
The difference between the two consisted in 
the greater splendor and solemnity of the lat- 
ter. The exercises consisted of foot, horse, 
and chariot races, gymnastics, and musical and 
poetic contests. The sacrifices were very costly, 
for every town in Attica and every colony of 
Athens was obliged to send a bull for the cele- 



bration. The duration of the festival was 
gradually extended from two to twelve days. 
The great attraction of the Panathensea was 
the procession, in which nearly all the in- 
habitants of Attica took part, to carry to the 
temple of Athena Polias the peplus of the god- 
dess, a crocus-colored garment in which were 
woven representations of her victorious acts. 
Phidias and his disciples represented this pro- 
cession in the frieze of the Parthenon. 

PANAY. See PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

PMCROUCRE. I. Charles Joseph, a French 
editor, born in Lille, Nov. 26, 1736, died in 
Paris, Dec. 19, 1798. His father, ANDRE JO- 
SEPH PANOKOUCKE (l700-'53), a publisher, was 
a prominent Jansenist and compiler of numer- 
ous works. The son became one of the most 
eminent booksellers of Paris, and edited Buf- 
fon's works and other celebrated publications, 
including Le grand vocabulaire francais, Le 
repertoire de jurisprudence, and Le voyageur 
francais, comprising an aggregate of about 
100 volumes. Voltaire and his literary execu- 
tors designated him as the editor of his works ; 
but Panckoucke ceded the editorship to Beau- 
marchais, though he supervised the publica- 
tion. He translated Tasso's Gerusalemme li- 
berata, Ariosto's Orlando, and Lucretius. His 
greatest enterprise was the Encyclopedic metho- 
dique, published conjointly with Agasse (201 
vols., 1781-1832, comprising 47 vols. of plates). 
He was proprietor of the Mercure francais, 
which he edited in conjunction with his broth- 
er-in-law Suard; and in November, 1789, he 
founded the Moniteur, with La Harpe, An- 
drieux, Regnier, and other eminent men as col- 
laborators. II. Charles Louis Flenry, a French 
editor, son of the preceding, born in Paris, 
Dec. 23, 1780, died July 12, 1844. He studied 
jurisprudence, and early held an office, but af- 
terward engaged in the publishing business. He 
published the Dictionnaire des sciences medi- 
cales (60 vols., 1812 et seq.), followed by Biogra- 

Shie medicale and Flore medicale (the latter 
ustrated by his wife, who died in 1860) ; 
L 1 Expedition des Francais en JEgypte (26 vols., 
1820-'30, besides 12 vols. of plates); Les lar- 
reaux francais et anglais (19 vols., 1821); and 
18 editions of the complete and separate works 
of Tacitus, including a superb one of the Latin 
text (80 copies, 1826-'7). His most celebrated 
publication was the Bibliotheque latine-fran- 
faise, with translations (174 vols., 1828 et seq.}, 
for which he translated the works of Tacitus 
(7 vols., 1830-'38). The publishing house has 
been continued by his son EENEST (born in 
1806), who was for some time managing direc- 
tor of the Moniteur, and who has made a met- 
rical translation of Horace (1834; new sd., 
1855), and edited many important works. 

PANCREAS, a single, non-symmetrical glan- 
dular organ, situated in man transversely across 
the upper part of the abdomen, about on the 
level of the last dorsal vertebra ; it is behind 
the peritoneum, at the posterior part of the 
epigastric region, on the spine and great ves- 



PANCREAS 



35 



sels, between the three portions of the duo- 
denum, behind the stomach, and on the right 
of the spleen. It is of an irregular, elongated 
form, flattened from before backward, the left 
extremity very thin and prolonged to and some- 
times beneath the spleen ; the right extremity 
rounded, resting against the second portion of 
the duodenum ; the color is grayish white ; the 
length is about 7 in., width 1, and thickness 
1 in., and the weight 3 to 4 oz. ; it is rather 
smaller in woman. The duct is in the interior, 
going from left to right, receiving in its course 
the excretory canal which comes from the lar- 
ger end, or little pancreas as it is sometimes 
called; it opens into the duodenum, at the 
lower part of the second curve, by a special 
orifice, or one common to it and the bile duct; 
its arteries come principally from the splenic 
branch of the coeliac axis, and its nerves from 
the solar plexus. It closely resembles in struc- 
ture the salivary glands, like the parotid ; it is 
made up of clusters of secreting follicles form- 



Ao. 



S/ll 




The Spleen (Spl.) with the splenic artery (Sp. A.). Below this is seen 
the splenic vein running to help to form the vena portcz ( V. P.). 
Ao., the aorta ; D., & pillar of the diaphragm ; P. Z>., the pancreatic 
duct exposed by dissection in the substance of the pancreas ; Dm., 
the duodenum ; B. Z>., the biliary duct opening with the pancreatic 
duct at ar ; y, the intestinal vessels. 

ing the ends of the finely branching divisions 
of the duct; each cluster, with its vessels, 
nerves, and connecting areolar tissue, forms 
a lobule, and the several lobules are held to- 
gether by the ducts, vessels, and areolar tissue ; 
its development begins by a budding forth of 
cells from the intestinal canal. The secretion 
of the pancreas, called the pancreatic juice, is 
a colorless, alkaline fluid, possessing a consid- 
erable degree of viscidity ; it consists of nearly 
10 per cent, of solid matters, of which by far 
the most abundant and important is an organic 
substance, termed pancreatine, resembling al- 
burnen in being coagulable by heat, by nitric 
acid, and by alcohol, but differing from it in 
being also coagulable by sulphate of magnesia 
in excvss. The pancreatic juice has been ob- 
tained in the lower animals by introducing a 
silver canula into the pancreatic duct, and col- 
lecting the fluid discharged from its orifice du- 
ring digestion. Its most remarkable property 
is that, when brought in contact with oleagi- 



nous matters, it at once reduces them to a state 
of emulsion, the fatty substance being broken 
up into finely divided particles, and held sus- 
pended in this condition in the animal fluid; this 
intimate mixture of the oily and albuminoid 
matters forms a white, opaque, milky liquid, and 
is known as the chyle ; it is also true that the 
chyle makes its appearance in the intestines 
only after the pancreatic juice has had access 
to the alimentary matters. From these experi- 
ments there is little doubt that the main office 
of the pancreatic juice in digestion is to act 
upon the oleaginous ingredients of the food, 
and to prepare them for absorption by the 
emulsifying process. (See CHYLE, and DIGES- 
TION.) The daily quantity of pancreatic juice 
secreted and discharged into the intestine is 
estimated at rather more than half a pound in 
the dog, and between a pound and a half and 
two pounds in the human subject; the secre- 
tion is most abundant at the commencement of 
and during the digestive process, and the prob- 
ability is that it is very much dimin- 
ished, if it does not cease entirely, in 
the intervals of digestion. The pancreas 
is liable to hypertrophy, atrophy, soft- 
ening, induration, inflammation extend- 
ing from neighboring organs, simple and 
malignant tumors, fatty degeneration, 
and calculous growth. That it performs 
some essential function is evident from 
its existence in all vertebrates, whether 
carnivorous or herbivorous, and from its 
presenting a constant relation to the duo- 
denum, whatever be the proportions of 
the alimentary canal or the form of the 
organ ; it is even found in a rudimentary 
condition in the invertebrates, and as low 
as the worms (rotatoria) ; also in the 
annelids proper, the gasteropod and ce- 
phalopod mollusks, and in many insects; 
it exists here as csecal appendages with 
thick walls, lined with ciliated epithe- 
lium, and opening into the beginning of 
the intestine. The pyloric caecal appendages 
of most osseous fishes have generally been re- 
garded by anatomists as the analogue of a 
pancreas; they become more and more nu- 
merous and complex, from the simple ones in 
the turbot to the 60 in the salmon with a 
secreting surface of more than 32 ft. ; in the 
sturgeon they become united into a glandular 
organ. In some orders these caeca are ab- 
sent, as in the sharks and rays, pike, and eel, 
in which the pancreas has the ordinary glan- 
dular form. Some authors deny the pancrea- 
tic nature of these caaca, and maintain that 
they secrete a fluid only accessory to the true 
pancreatic secretions. In reptiles the pancreas 
is always present, often large, and in the higher 
orders more or less in contact with the spleen. 
In birds it is larger than in any other class, and 
it probably performs also the office of salivary 
glands, which are here wanting; it communi- 
cates with the intestinal canal by two or three 
openings ; as a general rule the pancreatic se- 



36 



PANCREATINE 



PANDANUS 



cretion is poured in before the bile, though the 
ducts are so near together that no physiological 
conclusions can be drawn as to their separate 
actions ; the greatest separation is probably in 
the ostrich, in which the bile duct opens close 
to the pylorus and the pancreatic duct 3 ft. 
lower down; it is generally whitish red, large, 
elongated, and usually with two lobes. In 
mammals it differs from that of man chiefly in 
color and in its more or less division into lobes ; 
in rodents, and especially in the rat, it is spread 
out in an arborescent manner; in the rabbit 
the duct enters the intestine from 9 to 13 in. 
from the pylorus, affording special facilities 
for studying its secretion, since in this animal it 
has been found that the chyle does not make its 
appearance in the intestine or the lacteals until 
the food has passed the orifice of the pancreatic 
duct ; in other species, where this duct opens 
into the intestine higher up, the chyle is also 
found at a higher level. The pancreas is often 
called sweetbread in the calf, but this term 
more properly belongs to the thymus gland. 

PANCREATINE, a name given to various prep- 
arations representing the activity of the pan- 
creatic juice, and containing its peculiar fer- 
ment in greater or less purity. The processes 
by which pancreatine is formed are not offi- 
cinal, and some of them are secret. A gly- 
cerine extract may be made, and it is said that 
pancreatine may be prepared by a process sim- 
ilar to that employed for pepsin. (See PEP- 
SIN.) The pancreas itself chopped up with 
meat makes a good digestive for certain pur- 
poses. Pancreatine digests albuminoid mate- 
rials, and assists in transforming starch into 
sugar. Its peculiar function however is the 
digestion of fat, which it forms into a fine 
and permanent emulsion capable of being ab- 
sorbed. It possesses the special advantage over 
pepsin, that it does not require an acid me- 
dium for its action, but digests in an alkaline, 
neutral, or even acid fluid, although the pan- 
creatic juice itself is alkaline. Pancreatine 
has been somewhat used in medical practice, 
especially with fatty articles of food or medi- 
cine. It may be given with cod-liver oil, and 
may be used in the wasting diseases of chil- 
dren. The fresh pancreas chopped fine with 
meat has been recommended as a highly di- 
gestible and consequently absorbable material 
for injection into the rectum when it is neces- 
sary to sustain life in this way. Pancreatine 
is sometimes combined with pepsin. Mixed 
with cream it forms an emulsion, which has 
been used as a substitute for cod-liver oil. 

PANCSOVA, a fortified market town of S. 
Hungary, in the late Military Frontier, near 
the mouth of the Temes in the Danube, 67 in. 
S. S. W. of Temesvar; pop. in 1870, 13,408. 
It has Roman Catholic and Greek churches, 
and several schools of a high grade. There 
are extensive manufactories of beet sugar. It 
is a station of the Danube steam packet line, 
and has an active trade. Here, on July 30, 
1739, the Austrians under Field Marshal Wallis 



gained a great victory over the Turks ; and on 
Jan. 2, 1849, the Austrian general Meyerhofer 
defeated the Hungarians under Gen. Kiss. 

PANDA, a carnivorous plantigrade mammal, 
of the genus ailurus (F. Cuv.), which seems to 
connect the bears with the civets ; by some au- 
thors it is placed with the civets. The teeth 
resemble those of the bears ; the molars f if , or 
perhaps |c , a single unicuspidate false molar 
on each side above, the others tuberculate, and 
two tuberculate on each side below; the ca- 
nines are nearly straight ; the ears rounded and 
small; claws curved and semi-retractile; tail 
thick at the base and bushy ; feet five-toed, and 
the soles covered with thick fur. The only 




Panda (Ailurus fulgens). 

species described is the A. fulgens (F. Cuv.), 
inhabiting the snowy regions of Nepaul ; it is 
about the size of a large cat, with full and soft 
fur ; the color above is chestnut brown, bright- 
est on the shoulders, with throat, belly, and 
legs black ; head whitish, with a reddish brown 
spot under the eyes; tail like a lady's boa, 
banded with red and yellow ; it is rather an 
elegant animal.' It is found in the neighbor- 
hood of rivers and mountain streams, living 
much on trees, and feeding on small birds and 
mammals ; it is called wall from its cry. 

PANDANUS (Malayan, pan-dang), the generic 
name of the screw pines, so called not because 
of their resemblance to the pines proper, but 
from the leaves, which are arranged spirally, 
somewhat like those of the pineapple. The 
genus is the principal one of the order panda- 
nacea, which as at present restricted consists of 
only three genera of arborescent plants, with 
simple or branched stems and simple leaves 
arranged in three very close spirals ; the flow- 
ers are dioecious, without calyx or corolla, and 
arranged very compactly upon a spadix; the 
fruit consists of numerous fibrous drupes close- 
ly crowded and cohering. The trunks in this 
family are supported by strong adventitious 
roots, and appear as if set upon a cone of props. 
The screw pines are natives of the East, espe- 
cially the islands of the Indian archipelago, 
abounding along the banks of rivers and the 
littoral marshes, often occupying large tracts 
to the exclusion of other vegetation. There 
are 30 or more species, some being 20 or 30 
ft. high, but the majority do not exceed 10 or 
15 ft. One of the finest is pandanus cande- 



PANDECTS 



PANGOLIN 



37 



labrum, the chandelier tree, so named on ac- 
count of its manner of branching. The most 
useful species, P. utilis, is the vacoa of Mauri- 
tius, where it grows wild, and is also cultivated 
to a great extent; its leaves are used in manu- 
facturing the sacks in which sugar is exported, 
and in England the empty sacks are converted 
into fish bags. The flowers of P. odoratissimus 




Pandanus candelabrum. 

are exceedingly fragrant, and the tree is culti- 
vated in Japan for the sake of their perfume. 
A number of species and varieties are in culti- 
vation ; their handsome and peculiarly arranged 
leaves make the plants conspicuous ornaments 
in a stove house ; the leaves, from 3 to 6 ft. long, 
are generally gracefully recurved and pendu- 
lous, with their edges and the midrib upon the 
back armed with very sharp recurved prickles, 
which, while they render the plants trouble- 
some to handle, add much to their beauty, as 
they are white, brown, or red, and in fine con- 
trast with the green leaf; in some the leaf is 
marked with white longitudinal stripes. Small 
plants of screw pines are used for decorating 
tables and rooms. 

PANDECTS. See CIVIL LAW, vol. iv., p. 623. 

PANDORA (Gr. TTOV, all, and ti&pnv, a gift), in 
Grecian legends, the first created woman. Ac- 
cording to Plesiod, Jupiter, angry because Pro- 
metheus had stolen fire from heaven, ordered 
Vulciin to make a beautiful virgin, who was 
dressed by Minerva, adorned with fascinations 
by Venus and the Graces, and endowed with a 
deceitful mind by Mercury. She was brought 
to Epimetherts, who, disregarding the command 
of his brother not to accept from Jupiter any 
present whatever, received her while Prome- 
theus was absent. When admitted among men, 



she opened a casket enclosing all the evils of 
mankind, and everything escaped except delu- 
sive hope. Another version of the story makes 
Pandora open a casket containing the winged 
blessings of the gods. In the Orphic poems, 
Pandora is ranked along with Hecate and the 
Erinnyes as an infernal divinity. 

PANEL. See JURY, vol. ix., p. 724. 

PANGAUM. See GOA, NEW. 

PANGOLIN, or Scaly Ant-Eater, a burrowing 
edentate mammal of the old world, whose spe- 
cies constitute the genus manis (Linn.). These 
animals have the long pointed snout, toothless 
mouth, and extensile tongue of the ant-eaters, 
and the upper parts of the body and the tail 
armed with scales like the armadillos ; the ex- 
ternal ears are hardly perceptible; the scales 
are corneous and imbricated, permitting the 
body to be rolled up in a ball secure from the 
teeth of the largest carnivora; the limbs are 
short and robust, the hind ones the longest; 
the claws curved and formed for digging; the 
tail long, thick at the base. The skeleton has 
no clavicles, the stomach is simple, and the cae- 
cum is absent. They are found in the warm 
parts of Africa and Asia, living in holes which 
they dig in the ground or in the hollows of 
trees, and feeding upon insects, especially ants, 
which they capture on their long, round, and 
viscid tongue ; the gait on the ground is awk- 
ward, as they walk on the outer side of the 
feet, with the claws turned in ; they are harm- 
less, though they display great strength and 
activity in tearing to pieces the hills of termites 
and ants. The largest species is the short-tailed 
pangolin (M, pentadactyla, Linn.), 3 or 4 ft. 
long, with five toes, and the thick tail about 
as long as the head and trunk ; it is found in 
India and Ceylon; the scales are deep brown 




Short-tailed Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla). 

in the adult animal, and hard enough to turn 
a musket ball. The long-tailed pangolin (M. 
tetradactyla, Linn.), from the coast of Guinea, 
is four-toed, with a flatter tail nearly twice 
as long as the rest of the body ; the scales are 
large, dark-colored, with yellow margin, ar- 
ranged in 11 rows on the body, and armed 
with three points at the end ; under parts cov- 
ered with rough brown hairs; the whole length 
is between 2 and 3 ft. From their external 
covering and shape they resemble scaly lizards 
more than mammals ; both surfaces of the tail 



38 



PANINI 



PANTHEON 



are covered with scales. The flesh of the pan- 
golins, which are probably the best protected 
of mammals against carnivora, is delicate and 
much prized by the natives of Africa. 

PANINI, a Sanskrit grammarian, probably of 
the 4th century B. 0., according to a passage 
in Vedic literature which speaks of him as a 
contemporary of King Nanda. Little is known 
of his history, for the biography found in the 
Kathdsaritsdyana, of the 12th century bears 
every mark of a fanciful composition. Of his 
celebrated grammar Max Miiller says : " It is 
the perfection of a merely empirical analysis of 
language, unsurpassed, nay, even unapproached, 
by anything in the grammatical literature of 
other nations." See Max Miiller, " History of 
Ancient Sanskrit Literature " (London, 1859); 
Goldstucker, "Panini, his Place in Sanskrit 
Literature " (London, 1860) ; and Benfey, Q-e- 
schichte der Sprachwissenschaft (Munich, 1869). 

PANIPCT, a town of British India, in the dis- 
trict and 60 m. N. N. W. of Delhi ; pop. about 
23,000. It is in a fertile, well irrigated tract, 
is surrounded by an irregular line of walls, 
and has considerable trade. It contains many 
temples and several large and animated cara- 
vansaries. The adjacent plain has been the 
scene of several battles, the most important 
of which are the rout of Ibrahim by Baber in 
April, 1526, and the great battle between the 
Afghans and Mahrattas, in January, 1761, in 
which the latter were defeated and the way 
was prepared for British supremacy. (See IN- 
DIA, vol. ix., p. 209.) 

PANIZZI, Sir Anthony, librarian of the British 
museum, born at Brescello, in the duchy of Mo- 
dena, Sept. 16, 1797. He was educated at the 
university of Parma, which he left in 1818 and 
devoted himself to the practice of law. Hav- 
ing taken part in the Piedmontese revolution 
of 1821, he fled to England, and taught Italian 
at Liverpool. In 1828 he was called to the 
chair of Italian language and literature in Lon- 
don university, which he held three years. In 
1831 he was chosen assistant librarian of the 
British museum, and in 1837 was appointed 
keeper of the printed books. During his super- 
intendency of 19 years in this department, 
through his influence the parliamentary grants 
for purchases were greatly augmented, and the 
number of books was more than doubled. In 
1856 he succeeded Sir Henry Ellis as principal 
librarian. In 1866 he resigned, the govern- 
ment awarding him his full salary as a retiring 
pension, and in 1869 he was knighted. He has 
edited Boiardo's Orlando innamorato and the 
Orlando furioso of Ariosto (9 vols., London, 
1830-'34), Boiardo's Sonetti e canzoni (1835), 
and Dante's Inferno (1860). 

PANJIM. See GOA, NEW. 

PANNONIA, a province of the Roman empire, 
bounded N. and E. by the Danube, which sepa- 
rated it from Germany and Dacia, S. by the 
Save (Savus), separating it from Illyria, and W. 
by the Julian Alps and Mt. Cetius (now Wie- 
ner Wald), separating it from Italy and Nori- 



cum. It thus embraced the Trans-Danubian 
circle of Hungary, the whole of Slavonia, and 
parts of Croatia, Carniola, Styria, and Lower 
Austria. The inhabitants, mostly of Illyrian 
race, were divided into numerous tribes, and 
are described as brave and warlike, but cruel 
and treacherous. The Romans, by whom they 
were conquered under Augustus, and recon- 
quered after a revolt and desperate struggle' 
during the same reign, not only kept strong 
garrisons, but also built numerous towns and 
fortresses in Pannonia, among which were 
Vindobona (now Vienna), ^Emona (Laybach), 
Taurunum (Sernlin), Sirmium on the Save, 
and Mursa (Eszek). A dangerous mutiny of 
the Pannonian legions was quelled by Drusus 
shortly after the death of Augustus. The 
province was subsequently divided into Upper 
and Lower Pannonia, the former being the 
western, and partly separated from the latter 
by the Arrabo (Raab). In the reign of Gale- 
rius a part of Lower Pannonia was erected 
into a province under the name of Valeria. 
The three provinces subsequently formed part 
of the Illyrian division of the empire. During 
the last period of the western empire Panno- 
nia was successively occupied by the Huns and 
the Ostrogoths, and after its fall by the Longo- 
bards and other barbarians. The name Pan- 
nonia is frequently used for Hungary by wri- 
ters of that country. 

PANOLA. I. A N. W. county of Mississippi, 
intersected by the Tallahatchie river; area, 
about 750 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 20,754, of whom 
12,585 were colored. Its surface is generally 
level or rolling, and the soil fertile, especially 
in the low lands. The Mississippi and Tennes- 
see railroad passes through it. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 20,408 bushels of wheat, 
390,767 of Indian corn, 36,531 of Irish and 
58,395 of sweet potatoes, and 15,764 bales of 
cotton. There were 2,147 horses, 2,361 mules 
and asses, 3,085 milch cows, 6,137 other cattle, 
2,952 sheep, and 17,385 swine. Capital, Pano- 
la. II. An E. county of Texas, bordering on 
Louisiana, intersected by the Sabine river and 
drained by its branches ; area, 750 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 10,119, of whom 3,727 were colored. 
It has a gently rolling surface covered with ex- 
tensive forests of pine, oak, walnut, ash, and 
hickory, and a fertile soil.. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 306,665 bushels of Indian 
corn, 66,828 of sweet potatoes, 60,280 Ibs. of 
butter, and 9,367 bales of cotton. There were 
1,739 horses, 1,174 mules and asses, 3,806 milch 
cows, 8,811 other cattle, 4,492 sheep, and 18,796 
swine. Capital, Carthage. 

PANORMCS. See PALERMO. 

PANSY. See VIOLET. 

PANTHEISM. See PHILOSOPHY. 

PANTHEON (Gr. Trav, all, and 0e6g, a god) r 
literally, a temple dedicated to all the gods. 
The most famous structure of this kind is that 
in Rome, erected by M. Agrippa, the son-in- 
law of Augustus, 26 B. 0., and consecrated in 
608 by Boniface IV. as a Christian church, un- 



PANTHER 



PAOLI 



39 



der the name of Sancta Maria ad Martyres, | 
but which is still commonly called the Panthe- 
on. It stands in a piazza between the Corso 
and the piazza Navona, near the centre of the 
ancient Campus Martius, and after the lapse 
of 19 centuries is the best preserved of the 
monuments of ancient Rome. It is a rotunda, 
143 ft. in diameter, surmounted by a dome, of 
which the summit is 143 ft. above the pave- 
ment. (See DOME.) The most remarkable 
feature of the Pantheon is its Corinthian por- 
tico, 110 ft. in length by 44 in depth, composed 
of 16 granite columns, with marble capitals 
and bases, disposed in a triple row, each column 
being 46 ft. high and 5 ft. in diameter. These 
columns support a pediment, a large portion of 
the bronze roof of which was removed by the 
emperor Constantius II. and the remainder by 
Pope Urban VIII., to make columns for altars 
and cannons for the castle of Sant' Angelo. 
Benedict XIV. removed many fine marbles 
from the interior to decorate other buildings. 
Other features of the Pantheon, such as the 
bronze doors, the niches and adiculm, the mar- 
ble cornice and the mosaic pavement of the 
interior, are in excellent preservation, and give 
an adequate idea of the original splendor of 
the edifice. An inscription on the frieze of 
the portico shows that it was erected by Agrip- 
pa in his third consulate, while another below 
records repairs by the emperors Septimus Seve- 
rus and Caracalla. It contains the tombs of 
Raphael, Annibale Carracci, and other cele- 
brated painters. The Pantheon or Ste. Gene- 
vieve's in Paris is in the shape of a Greek 
cross formed of four aisles uniting under a 
dome 66 ft. 8 in. in diameter at the base, and 
258 ft. in height from the floor to the top of 
the lantern. (See DOME.) The height of the 
edifice is 190 ft. from the ground, the length 
externally 340 ft. It was built at the instance 
of Mme. de Pompadour to replace the old church 
of Ste. Genevieve, the patron saint of Paris. 
It was begun by the architect Soufflot in 1764, 
was finished in 1790, was dedicated in 1791 as 
a Pantheon to perpetuate the memory of illus- 
trious citizens, was made a church in 1822, be- 
came once more a Pantheon in 1831, and in 
1853 was restored to religious purposes. In 
the insurrection of June, 1848, it was a refuge 
for some of the insurgents, and the interior 
was somewhat injured by cannon balls fired 
at them through the west doors. In 1871 the 
vaults were stored with vats of petroleum and 
barrels of powder, the communists intending 
to blow up the building ; but it was taken from 
them on May 24, and the explosion was pre- 
vented. The crypts contain cenotaphs and 
tombs of Voltaire, Rousseau, Souiflot, Lannes, 
Lagrange, and other eminent men. 

PANTHER (fells pardus, Linn.), a large Af- 
rican spotted cat, considered by Temminck and 
most modern naturalists as a variety of the 
leopard (F. leopardus, Linn, or L. varius, 
Gray), but regarded by Cuvier, Hamilton Smith, 
and others, as a true species. Skins of all the 



spotted cats vary so much, even the two sides 
of the same animal being unlike, that it is 
difficult to pronounce on the identity of these 
two animals; travellers and furriers consider 
them the same, and naturalists have been ready 
to follow their opinion. The description of 
the panther by Linnaeus is false, and others of 
the older naturalists confound this animal with 
the jaguar (F. onca) of South America. Cuvier 
gives them as separate, this animal being the 
pardalis of the Greeks and the panthera of the 
Romans, and says if any leopard was by them 
confounded with it, it was the cheetah or hunt- 
ing leopard (F. jubatd). If not distinct spe- 
cies, the panther and leopard are very marked 
varieties. The former is more powerful, dark- 
er colored, with the crowded markings ar- 
ranged with considerable regularity, and the 
tail longer in proportion; H. Smith describes 
one as 5 ft. long without the tail, and 2| ft. 
high at the shoulder ; of a buff yellow color, ap- 
proaching to ochrey on the back and sides, and 
with no white anywhere ; with seven vertical 
rows of imperfect dark rings on the sides, each 
formed by an assemblage of five or six sim- 
ple spots, darkest within the rings, descending 
even to the knees ; the tail spotted to the end, 
and a narrow black bar across the lower part of 
the throat; in the leopard the rings are more 
numerous and the spots smaller. This is prob- 
ably the animal so abundantly supplied to the 
public spectacles of ancient Rome, hundreds 
having been exhibited together. The panther 
is less common than the leopard, and confined 
chiefly, if not entirely, to Africa ; it is an ex- 
pert climber, very active, and readily trained; 
the female is gravid nine weeks, and the young 
are born blind. The panther of South America 
is the jaguar, and of North America the cou- 
guar. (See LEOPAED.) 

PMTICARffilM. See KEETCH. 

PAOLI. I. Pasquale, a Corsican patriot, born 
near Morosaglia in 1726, died in London, Feb. 
5, 1807. His father Giacinto was a leader of 
the Corsicans in their struggles against the 
Genoese and the French. Being exiled, he 
went in 1739 to Naples. There Pasquale was 
educated, and subsequently served as an officer 
in one of the Corsican regiments of Naples, 
formed of refugees from that island. In 1755 
he returned to Corsica, was unanimously chosen 
for the annual magistracy, and in a consulta, 
held July 16, was offered the supreme com- 
mand of the troops. He shared the command, 
however, with Mario Matra, who was killed in 
1757, when Paoli procured from the consulta 
the confirmation of his rank as general for life, 
and, pursuing the war against the Genoese, 
beat them back from the interior of the island, 
hemmed them in within a few seaports, de- 
feated their army under Grimaldi, and organ- 
ized a navy that seriously interfered with their 
trade. Turning his attention next to civil 
affairs, he established permanent courts, in- 
troduced uniformity of weights and measures, 
regulated the coinage, encouraged agriculture, 



PAOLO 



PAPAL STATES 



manufactures, and commerce, instituted a na- 
tional printing press, and opened a university 
at Corte. In 1765 he was visited by Boswell, 
whose journal, published in 1768, contributed 
much to Paoli's European reputation. In 1767 
he again repelled the Genoese, and captured 
the island of Capraja. The Genoese then sold 
their right to the French, and another and 
more terrible conflict began. At first Paoli 
checked the advance of the invaders under 
Marboenf and Chauvelin, and routed them at 
San Nicolao and at Borgo, forcing them to 
seek refuge within the walls of Bastia. But in 
1769 an army of 22,000 men, under the count 
de Vaux, landed in the island, and soon com- 
pletely subdued it. Paoli went to Holland, 
and finally to England, where he received a 
pension of 1,200. and lived for 20 years. 
The constituent assembly of France having 
allowed the Oorsican exiles to return home, 
Paoli went to Paris, and was made a lieuten- 
ant general and military governor of Corsica. 
When the island was formed into a depart- 
ment, he became president of the administra- 
tion and commander of the national guard. 
But the lawless and sanguinary proceedings 
of the convention soon estranged him; and, 
assisted by Great Britain, he organized a re- 
volt, and was elected in June, 1793, generalis- 
simo and president of a consulta which met 
at Oorte. The French garrisons were driven 
from the island; English troops were landed 
there, and George III. was proclaimed " king 
of Corsica," but Paoli was treated with neg- 
lect. In 1795 he removed to England, and 
in the following year the island was perma- 
nently annexed to France. His biography has 
been written by Arrighi (2 vols., Paris, 1843), 
by Klose (Brunswick, 1853), and by Bartoli 
(Ajaccio, 1867). He bequeathed a large part 
of his fortune to establish schools in Corsica. 
II. Clemente, a Corsican patriot, elder brother 
of the preceding, born at Rostino in 1715, 
died there in 1793. During his exile he be- 
came a Franciscan friar. He accompanied his 
brother in 1755 to Corsica, was a prominent 
leader in the war of independence against the 
Genoese and French, and greatly distinguished 
himself in the battle of Borgo. After the bat- 
tle of Ponte Nuovo he retired to a convent 
near Vallombrosa, and there remained 20 years, 
returning to Corsica an old man. 

PAOLO, Fra, or Paolo Sarpi. See SARPI. 

PAOLO VERONESE. See CAGLIARI, PAOLO. 

PAPA, a town of S. "W. Hungary, in the coun- 
ty and 26 m. N. W. of the city of Veszprem, 
from which it is separated by the principal 
range of the Bakony; pop. in 1870, 14,223, 
chiefly Magyars. It is on a small affluent of 
the river Marczal, and contains a castle belong- 
ing to the family of the Esterhazys, several 
churches, synagogues, convents, and hospitals, 
a Catholic and a Reformed gymnasium, and 
other institutions of learning. The neighbor- 
ing country produces wine. Cloth, paper, and 
stone ware are manufactured. 



PAPACY. See POPE, and PAPAL STATES. 

PAPAGOS, a tribe of Indians in Arizona, be- 
longing to the Pima family, and calling them- 
selves Papapootarn. They were enemies of the 
Apaches and friendly to the Spaniards from 
an early period, and Jesuit missions were estab- 
lished among them; but the tyranny of the 
whites led to several revolts of the Papagos 
and other tribes. They drove the Spaniards 
out in 1694, but made peace soon after. On 
the suppression of the Jesuits the Franciscans 
continued their work, and the mission has 
lasted to the present time, the tribe being 
Catholic. The Mexican revolutions left the 
frontier exposed, and the Papagos lost heavily 
in war with the Apaches. They had become 
partly civilized. When Arizona was annexed 
to the United States, the Papagos were really 
Mexican citizens, but their status as such has 
not been recognized, and no treaty was made 
with them for their territory. Settlers entered 
it, and the very sites of their towns were open 
to preemption. They were industrious and 
friendly, cultivating their small farms and 
working for the settlers, whose esteem they 
soon gained. After a time an agency was estab- 
lished for them, and was assigned to the Cath- 
olic church, which had been laboring among 
them since 1689. President Grant, by execu- 
tive order of July 1, 1874, set apart a reser- 
vation of 70,400 acres for them, on the river 
Santa Cruz, between Tucson and Tubac, but 
their individual rights are not recognized. 
They have made peace with the Apaches, and 
in 1874 numbered 5,000 in 800 houses, had 89 
children at school under Sisters of St. Joseph, 
and possessed 200 horses and 500 cattle. 

PAPAL STATES, or States of the Church, the name 
formerly given to a territory of central Italy 
subject to the pope. In 1859, before the an- 
nexation of most of the territory to the domin- 
ions of Victor Emanuel, it extended from lat. 
41 15' to 45 N., and from Ion. 11 25' to 13 
55' E., and was bounded N". by Venetia, E. by 
the Adriatic, S. and S. E. by the former king- 
dom of Naples, S. W. by the Mediterranean, 
and W. and K W. by Tuscany and Modena. 
It was 260 m. long from the mouth of the Po 
to Monte Circello, and 136 m. broad from An- 
cona to Civita~ Vecchia; area, about 16,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. 3,000,000. It was divided into a 
comarca, including Rome and the Agro Ro- 
mano, governed by a cardinal president, six 
legations governed each by a cardinal legate, 
and 13 delegations placed under inferior pre- 
lates. Of these the legations of Ferrara, Bo- 
logna, Ravenna, and Forli constituted the dis- 
trict of Romagna ; Spoleto and Perugia formed 
that of Umbria ; while Pesaro, TJrbino, Anco- 
na, Macerata, Fermo, and Ascoli were called 
the Marches (It. marca, an old term denoting a 
frontier territory governed by a marquis). The 
principal cities were Rome, Bologna, Ancona, 
Ferrara, Ravenna, Sinigaglia, Faenza, Jesi, Pe- 
rugia, Benevento, Pesaro, Macerata, Rimini, 
Fano, Forli, and Fermo. In 1859 the Roma- 



PAPAL STATES 



gna detached itself from the papal rule, and in 
1860 the Marches and Umbria were occupied 
by the Sardinians, and the Papal States were 
thus reduced to the divisions of Rome, Viterbo, 
Civita Vecchia, Velletri, and Frosinone (area, 
about 4,500 sq. m. ; pop. 700,000). This rem- 
nant was annexed to the kingdom of Italy in 
1870. For the description of the coast lines 
on the Mediterranean and Adriatic as well as 
of the physical aspect and geological features j 
of the country, see ITALY. The temporal sov- | 
ereignty of the pope grew up imperceptibly 
out of his spiritual authority. About the time 
of Constantine some landed possessions seem 
to have been attached to the see of Rome. 
By the time of Leo the Iconoclast (718-'41) 
and Gregory II. the power of the popes had 
acquired importance. " Their popular elec- 
tion," says Gibbon, " endeared them to the 
Romans; the public and private indigence was 
relieved by their ample revenue ; and the weak- 
ness or neglect of the emperors compelled 
them to consult, both in peace and war, the 
temporal safety of the city." The invasion 
of the Lombards, who, after capturing Raven- 
na, the seat of the exarch or imperial vicere- 
gent, finally laid siege to Rome itself in 741, and 
the neglect of the Byzantine emperors to take 
any measures for the protection of their Ital- 
ian subjects, compelled the pope to look else- 
where for help. Gregory III. accordingly sent 
an embassy to Charles Martel, offering him 
in the name of the Roman senate and people 
the dignity of patrician, and imploring his as- 
sistance. Charles was preparing to cross the 
Alps with an army when he died, and the 
pope died in the same year; but Gregory's 
successor Zachary kept back the invaders, re- 
established the exarch, and obtained the res- 
toration of the captured cities. On his death 
the Lombards made a fresh invasion, the ex- 
archate was finally overthrown, Rome was 
again attacked, and Pope Stephen III. called 
in the assistance of Pepin. The Frankish ru- 
ler marched into Italy, defeated the Lombard 
king Astolphus, and obliged him to give up to 
the pope the greater part of the exarchate of 
Ravenna, comprising the Pentapolis (or five 
cities of Rimini, Pesaro, Fano, Sinigaglia, and 
Ancona), and 17 other towns situated chiefly on 
the Adriatic. From this time the popes in all 
their proceedings assumed the style of temporal 
sovereigns. Their authority, however, was lit- 
tle more than nominal until Charlemagne, hav- 
ing completed his father's work by the total 
destruction of the Lombard monarchy in 774, 
secured to the Roman pontiffs the exarchate 
of Ravenna, the island of Corsica, the prov- 
inces of Parma, Mantua, Venice, and Istria, 
and the duchies of Spoleto and Benevento. 
But with this new order of things arose a new 
source of dispute. Charlemagne was crowned 
by Pope Leo III. in 800 " emperor of the Ro- 
mans.-' and for many years his successors con- 
tinued to assert an imperial authority over 
Italy, which was retained in name by the Ger- 



man emperors down to the beginning of the 
19th century. In the mean time, under cover of 
papal grants of territory to lay barons, several 
powerful families had grown up in Rome and 
other dominions of the church, who acted as 
politically independent. Thus, between the 
pretensions of suzerainty of the emperors, the 
turbulence of factions, and the insubordination 
of petty princes, the popes of the middle ages 
were incessantly involved in quarrels. Many 
of them were exiled, imprisoned, or put to 
death. The party for the time dominant raised 
its own favorite to the pontificate, and not un- 
frequently there were two or more claimants 
for the sacerdotal crown. Gregory VII. (Hil- 
debrand), who reigned from 1073 to 1085, 
made the liberation of the church from tem- 
poral oppression the chief aim of his pontifi- 
cate ; but his famous struggle with Henry IV. 
! resulted in no accession of independence to 
; the Roman states, though during his time the 
j countess Matilda of Tuscany, Parma, Modena, 
and Mantua granted all her territories to the 
pope, renewing the grant afterward to Pas- 
chal II. The emperors refused to sanction 
the grant, inasmuch as Matilda, being a vassal 
; of the empire, could not alienate her rights 
I of sovereignty. Innocent III. was the first 
I pope who made his states really independent. 
| After the death of Henry VI., being appointed 
guardian of that monarch's infant son Fred- 
erick II., he sent his legates to many of the 
principal cities and towns, and the inhabitants 
joyfully threw open their gates, took the oaths 
of allegiance, and received full guarantees of 
their municipal rights. Otho IV. afterward 
ceded to him the disputed territory of the 
countess Matilda, but having seized several of 
the pope's cities he was excommunicated in 
1210 and deposed. The enemies whom In- 
nocent had now chiefly to fear were his own 
subjects. The feudal rights of the nobles and 
the municipal rights of the cities left him lit- 
tle direct authority; and in Rome especially 
his power was closely circumscribed. The sen- 
ate was abolished about this time by the Ro- 
mans themselves, and in its place a single 
officer was elected with the title of senator, 
and with control of the militia and judiciary. 
Innocent contrived to have an oath imposed 
upon this functionary to defend the rights of 
the Roman pontiff, and took into his own 
hands the appointment of the prefect. But 
in other parts of Italy the imperial power 
was little if at all weakened. Bologna, Pe- 
rugia, and Ancona were virtually republics; 
and although Pope Nicholas III. in 1278 ob- 
tained from Rudolph of Hapsburg a recogni- 
tion of the papal sovereignty over a certain 
specified territory, and a renunciation of all 
rights within the same which might still per- 
tain to the imperial crown, the popes did not 
thereby acquire any real authority. In 1309 
the papal residence was removed to Avignon, 
and the Roman states were torn by contend- 
ing factions, of which the Guelphs were sup- 



PAPAL STATES 



ported by the popes and the Ghibellines by the 
emperors. In the midst of these disorders 
Cola di Rienzi succeeded in establishing him- 
self at Rome (1347), and with the title of tri- 
bune of the people enforced the laws, curbed 
the license of the barons, and restored peace 
and prosperity to the commonwealth. But his 
reign was short. Driven from Rome by the 
citizens, he languished several years in prison 
at Avignon, until the disorders in Italy became 
so violent that Pope Innocent VI. sent him 
back with the title of senator in 1354, in com- 
pany with the legate Cardinal Gil Albornoz. 
Rienzi was received in triumph at Rome, but 
was killed in a popular insurrection at the end 
of four months. Albornoz gained several vic- 
tories in the field, and reduced the Romagna, 
the Marches, and the Oampagna to obedience ; 
but his successes were only temporary. The 
confusion was increased soon after by a series 
of antipopes, who for many years divided with 
the legitimate pontiffs the obedience of the 
Christian world, appointed their own cardinals, 
and were sometimes in possession of Rome, 
whither the throne was carried back by Greg- 
ory XI. in 1377. The schism was healed in 
1417 by the council of Constance, which award- 
ed the tiara to Martin V., and the Roman states 
began to enjoy a more regular form of gov- 
ernment. But Eugenius IV. (1431-'47) was 
driven from his capital by a popular insurrec- 
tion, and a short-lived republic was instituted, 
which his minister Vitelleschi suppressed with 
great cruelty. Alexander VI. (1492-1503) sub- 
dued the turbulent nobles of the Marches ; and 
a still further advance toward the consolidation 
of the state was made by the warrior pontiff 
Julius II. (1503-'13), who reduced the barons 
to obedience, joined the league of Cambrai 
with France, Austria, and Aragon against the 
Venetians, and, having secured his objects, then 
united with Venice to expel the French. At 
the time of his death the great sources of dis- 
turbance in central Italy were the wars of the 
French and Spaniards in the N". and S. extrem- 
ities of the peninsula. His successor Leo X. 
(1513-'21) not only restored peace, but made 
some additions to his territory; and from 
this time the States of the Church acquired 
a more compact and homogeneous character. 
Clement VII. (1523-'34) formed a league with 
Venice, France, and England against the em- 
peror Charles V., which entailed numerous 
misfortunes upon him. Rome in 1527 was 
stormed and pillaged by the imperial troops 
under the constable de Bourbon, and the pope 
was seven months a prisoner. Under Clem- 
ent XI. (1700-'21) the States of the Church 
were invaded by the Austrian archduke 
Charles, and Sicily, Sardinia, Parma, and Pia- 
cenza, ancient nominal fiefs of the holy see, 
were transferred to other hands. Clement 
XIII. (1758-'69) was deprived of Avignon, 
Benevento, and other places, and involved in 
contests with nearly every state in Europe on 
account of his protection of the Jesuits ; but 



Clement XIV. (1769-'74), by suppressing the 
obnoxious order, recovered what his prede- 
cessor had lost. The liberality and virtues 
of Pius VI. (1775-' 9 9) were no safeguard 
against the violence of revolutionary France ; 
and after Bonaparte had wrested from him 
Bologna, Ferrara, and Ravenna, and added 
them to the Cisalpine republic, he was de- 
throned in February, 1798, and carried captive 
to France, where he died. A republic was pro- 
claimed at Rome by the French general Ber- 
thier, but it came to an end in 1799. In March, 

1800, Pius VII. was elected at Venice, Rome 
being then in a state of anarchy ; and in July, 

1801, after the peace of Luneville, he made a 
concordat with Bonaparte. The refusal of Pius 

VII. to expel from his dominions the subjects 
of all those powers who were at war with 
France led to a fresh invasion; in February, 
1808, Bonaparte's troops took possession of 
Rome; in April, Ancona, Macerata, Fermo, 
and Urbino were united to the " kingdom of 
Italy ;" in May, 1809, Napoleon declared the 
remainder of the Roman states annexed to the 
French empire ; and soon afterward the pope 
was carried prisoner to France, and did not 
return till 1814. The congress of Vienna re- 
stored to him all the territories of the church. 
The pontificates of Leo XII. (1823-'9) and Pius 

VIII. (1829-'31) were comparatively tranquil. 
In February, 1831, soon after the accession of 
Gregory XVI., an insurrection broke out in 
Bologna and other places, but by the assistance 
of Austrian troops it was speedily suppressed. 
Pius IX. was elected June 16, 1846, and at 
once inaugurated a series of reforms and con- 
cessions. The revolution which broke out in 
France and northern Italy in 1848 produced a 
powerful effect at Rome. The pope in March 
issued a proclamation promising a constitution 
on a liberal basis, with deliberative chambers, 
and at the same time formed a new cabinet 
composed of ten laymen and only three eccle- 
siastics. He could not avoid taking part with 
Charles Albert in hostilities against Austria ; 
and in September it became necessary to con- 
struct a new ministry. On Nov. 15, the day 
appointed for the opening of the chambers, 
the prime minister Rossi was assassinated, and 
the next day the populace, assisted by the 
civic guard, forced their way into the Quirinal 
and compelled the pope to accept a radical 
ministry. On the 24th he escaped in disguise 
to Gaeta, and after some ineffectual negotia- 
ting to induce him to return, the chambers at 
Rome appointed a triumvirate; a constituent 
assembly was called, which on Feb. 9, 1849, 
dethroned the pope and proclaimed a repub- 
lic. The Roman states now entered heartily 
into the Italian war of independence. The 
government was nominally administered by 
Mazzini, Armellini, and Saffi, but the power 
was really shared between Mazzini, Garibaldi, 
and Avezzana. The French government re- 
solved upon restoring Pius IX., and in April 
an army under Gen. Oudinot landed at Civita 



PAPAL STATES 



Vecchia, and by July 1 the French were com- j 
plete masters of the city ; but the pontiff did 
not return to his capital until April, 1850. ! 
Supported by the French army of occupation 
and by the Austrians who held the Romagna, ! 
the government maintained tranquillity till : 
1859, when the withdrawal of the Austrian j 
garrison from Bologna, June 12, subsequent to 
the defeat of the Austrians at Magenta, was 
the signal for a peaceful revolt of the whole 
Romagna, and the organization of a provisional 
government, which offered the dictatorship to 
the king of Sardinia, who in March, 1860, for- 
mally declared them annexed to the Sardinian 
monarchy in accordance with a vote of the 
inhabitants. They now constitute, with Par- 
ma and Modena, the division Emilia, so called j 
from the ancient Via ^Emilia, which traversed 
them. The pope enlisted a considerable force 
of foreign troops, and offered the command of 
his army to the French general Lamoriciere, 
who accepted the post in April. Early in 
September, following close upon the successes 
of Garibaldi in Sicily and Naples, revolt broke 
out in Umbria and the Marches, and the insur- 
gents on the llth placed themselves under the 
protection of Victor Emanuel. Accordingly a 
Sardinian force under Gen. Fanti took posses- j 
sion of Perugia and Spoleto, while Cialdini with I 
50,000 men made himself master of Pesaro and | 
Urbino, and defeated Lamoricidre at Castel Fi- j 
dardo (Sept. 18). After a short siege Ancona { 
capitulated Sept. 29, Lamoriciere and the troops j 
then with him becoming prisoners of war. In 
November a vote of the population of the re- 
volted provinces was taken on the subject of 
annexation to Sardinia, and resulted in an over- 
whelming majority in favor of that measure. 
The proclamation of Victor Emanuel as king 
of Italy by the parliament of Turin, Feb. 26, 
1861, was followed on March 27 by a reso- 
lution affirmative of Cavour's declaration that j 
it was essential to Italian unity that Rome 
should become the capital of Italy. The pon- 
tifical government vainly protested in April j 
against the title of king of Italy assumed by 
Victor Emanuel ; he was recognized as such 
by the great powers, and it now became the 
fixed purpose of the Italian patriots to ob- 
tain the withdrawal of the French troops from | 
Rome and to annex that city and its territory j 
to the new kingdom. A proclamation was I 
issued by Garibaldi in August, 1862, and an | 
expedition which he made to Calabria toward ! 
the end of that month to organize a general 
rising against the French in Rome and the 
temporal sovereignty of the pope, was defeat- 
ed by the Italian government. The king and 
his ministers from that moment entered into 
more active negotiations with France lor the i 
withdrawal of the French flag from Italian 
territory, while the pope by allocutions and 

'icals appealed to the conservative sense 
of Christendom. On Sept. 15, 1864, a treaty 

'>ncluded with Napoleon III., stipulating 
for the evacuation of Rome by the French 



within two years. Florence became the seat 
of the Italian government in May, 1865. A 
special envoy sent by the king to the pope in 
April, and again in June, failed to effect either 
a reconciliation or a compromise; the pope 
feeling bound to fulfil the oath made at his 
coronation of preserving his temporalities in 
their entirety, and securing thereby the inde- 
pendence of his spiritual government. The lib- 
eration of Venetia by the war against Austria, 
in alliance with Prussia (June and July, 1866), 
almost completed the unity of Italy. On Oct. 
29 the pope issued a solemn protest against the 
aggressions of the Italian government. The 
French army began to leave the Roman terri- 
tory on Dec. 2, a small garrison being left at 
Rome and Civita Vecchia till such time as the 
holy see could recruit a sufficient volunteer 
force of Italians and foreigners to hold the few 
remaining fortresses. The advance of Gari- 
baldi in October, 1867, was counteracted by 
the Italian ministry, and a French contingent 
was sent to Rome for the defence of the papal 
territory. But the defeat of Garibaldi at Men- 
tana on Nov. 3 only increased the agitation 
and fury against the foreigners, the flame be- 
ing fanned by the presence and publications of 
Mazzini. At length, after the withdrawal of 
the last French soldier, Aug. 21, 1870, in con- 
sequence of the French reverses in the Ger- 
man war, Victor Emanuel wrote to Pius IX. 
declaring that the occupation of Rome by Ital- 
ian troops had become an imperative necessity. 
This event took place on Sept. 20, the pontifical 
garrison making but a brief resistance. The 
great powers were notified of it on Oct. 18 ; in 
December the Italian chambers at Florence de- 
clared Rome the capital of Italy, and on May 
13, 1871, passed a law known as ''the bill of 
the papal guarantees." By this law the pope 
is permitted to enjoy the rank of a sovereign, 
and occupy the palace and basilica of the Vati- 
can, with a yearly revenue from the Italian 
treasury of $625,000. All church property in 
Rome and its immediate territory became the 
property of the nation in 1873, and a large 
portion of the numerous establishments have 
since been sold to help pay the heavy pub- 
lic debt. This complete change was vigorous- 
ly resisted by Pius IX. Refusing to accept any 
portion of the revenue assigned to him, he 
continues to depend for his support and that 
of his court on gifts collected for him among 
Roman Catholics everywhere. With the ex- 
ception of a mutual understanding between 
the Vatican and the royal court established in 
the Quirinal, for the appointment of bishops to 
the vacant sees in Italy, no direct intercourse 
had taken place between the pope and the 
Italian government up to April, 1875. See 
Calindri, Sdggio geografico, statistico e storico 
dello State Pontificio (Perugia, 1829) ; Sugen- 
heim, Oeschichte der EntsteJiung und Aitsbil- 
dung des Kirchenstaats (Leipsic, 1855); and 
Cardinal Manning, " Temporal Power of the 
Pope " (London, 1874). 



PAPAW 



PAPAW (Fr. papayer), a name applied to two 
very different trees and their fruits, the one 
purely tropical, the other North American, 
and especially belonging to the middle states. 
The common papaw of this country is asimi- 
na triloba, of the custard-apple family or ano- 
nacecB, a family of trees and shrubs having 
alternate leaves, without stipules ; flower of a 
calyx with three sepals, and six petals in two 
rows; stamens numerous, with short filaments 
and several pistils, separate or coherent, ripen- 
ing into a fleshy or pulpy fruit. The family, 
except one genus, is tropical ; the soursop, 
cherimoyer, and other favorite fruits of warm 
countries belong to it. (See CUSTARD APPLE.) 
Our genus asimina derives its name from the 
fact that the papaw was called asiminier by 
the French colonists; in the older botanical 
works it is variously called anona, porcelia, 
orckidocarpum, and uvaria ; there are four 
species of asimina, r all except the papaw (A. 
triloba) being low shrubs, a form in which this 
is frequently found, but in favorable localities 
in the southwestern states it is a tree 30 ft. 
high, with a diameter of 6 in. or more; the 
presence of large papaw trees is regarded as 
indicative of a soil of great fertility. The 
trunk has a gray smooth bark, and the young 
shoots are covered with a rusty down, but soon 
become smooth ; the thin obovate-lanceolate 
leaves are 6 to 9 in. long with short petioles ; 
the flowers, which appear before or with the 
leaves, are an inch and a half across, the outer 
petals three or four times as long as the calyx, 
dull purple and veiny when fully developed, but 
greenish or yellowish at first ; the pistils few, 
ripening from one to four large pulpy fruits, 
which contain numerous horizontal seeds. The 
wood is soft, spongy, and of no value ; but the 
inner bark, which is very tough, is a strong 
tying material. The fruit, ripening usually in 



rows of four to nine in each ; these at matu- 
rity are invested by a fleshy arillus, and all 
imbedded in the flesh of the fruit, which when 
completely ripened is of a soft, custard-like 
consistency and very sweet; the albumen of 




Papaw (Asimina triloba). 

September, is 3 or 4 in. long and about a third 
as thick, uneven as if slightly swollen in places, 
its rather tender skin yellow when quite ripe ; 
within are large flat seeds, arranged in two 




Papaw, Fruit. 

the seeds is divided into plates by the projec- 
tion into its substance of the inner seed coat, 
producing the kind of albumen called rumina- 
ted, of which the nutmeg is a familiar exam- 
ple. The fruit is considered too sweet and 
mawkish by many, while some prefer it to the 
banana. Some trees produce in the wild state 
fruit of superior size and excellence, and doubt- 
less it could be greatly improved by selection 
and cultivation. The resemblance in the taste 
of the fruit to that of the tropical papaw is 
probably the reason for its bearing the name. 
In some localities the fruit has been ferment- 
ed and distilled to produce a spirituous liquor. 
The tree is hardy near Boston, Mass., and in 
central Michigan, and is sufficiently ornamental 
to have a place in a large collection. The re- 
maining species are not found north of North 
Carolina, and extend southward to Florida. 
The small-flowered papaw (A. parmflora) is 2 
to 5 ft. high, with greenish purple flowers half 
an inch across, and a fruit the size of a plum. 
The large-flowered papaw {A. grandiflora) is 
only 2 or 3 ft. high, with leaves 3 in. long, and 
the flowers, about 4 in. across, yellowish white. 
In the preceding species, the flowers appear in 
the axils of the leaves of the previous year, or 
rather just above the scars left by them, but 
in the dwarf papaw (A. pygmcea) they are pro- 
duced in the axils of the present leaves ; this 
grows in pine barrens to the height of 3 ft., 
but often flowers when less than 1 ft. high ; it 
leaves are variable in size, and in the far soul 
nearly evergreen ; the flowers are pale yello\ 
the inner petals purplish within. The tropi( 
papaw is Carica papaya. The genus Caric 
(so named because thought erroneously to be 
native of Caria) was formerly placed in a small 
family, the papayacem ; but this, with several 
other small orders, has been by Hooker and 



PAPAW 



PAPER 



Bentham merged in passifloracece. (See PAS- 
SION FLOWER.) This genus consists of about 20 
trees and shrubs, all natives of tropical Amer- 
ica. This papaw is seldom over 20 ft. high, is 




-' ;iijt v?^' ^. .->" ~~ 
^ 1' .- *--v--c,.^?9' .>. ^--^''-x - 

r - , i-fy ^>" '. ^~ 

Carica papaya. 

a foot in diameter at the base, and gradually 
tapering upward without branching, bearing at 
the summit a crown of long-petioled leaves, the 
limb to which is often 2 ft. across, deeply cut 
into seven irregularly gashed lobes, which gives 
the tree much the aspect of a palm. The flow- 
ers, which are d'nvoious, are in long racemes, 
the males with funnel-shaped corollas, and the 
females with five distinct petals ; the fruit is a 
large berry, about 10 in. long and half as broad, 
externally ribbed, and of a dull orange color ; 
it has a thick fleshy rind, and numerous small, 
black, wrinkled seeds, arranged in five longitu- 
dinal lines along the central cavity ; it is some- 
times eaten raw with pepper and sugar, but is 
more generally cooked with sugar and lemon 
juice ; the unripe fruit is boiled and eaten as 
a vegetable, and is also pickled. The juice of 
the ripe fruit is said to be used as a cosmetic 
to remove freckles, and that of the green fruit 
is a remarkably efficient vermifuge ; the leaves 
are used in the French West Indies as a sub- 
stitute for soap for washing linen. The tree 
abounds in a milky, bitter juice, which is re- 
markable as containing fibrine, a principle 
otherwise found only in the animal kingdom ; 
Vauquelin compares the juice to blood de- 
prived of its coloring material. Endlicher says 
that a few drops of this juice mixed with 
water will in a few moments render recently 
killed or old and tough meat tender, and that 
tine effect is produced by wrapping a 
piece of meat in a leaf of the tree and keep- 
ing it thus over night. It is also said that if 
old swine or poultry be fed upon the leaves 
of the tree, their flesh will be tender when 
killed. The root has the odor of decaying 
radishes. The tree is found in the extreme 
southern part of Florida, probably introduced 
from the West Indies, and it is cultivated in 



various tropical countries. Some other spe- 
cies are mentioned under OAKIOA. 

PAPENBIRG, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince of Hanover, near the right bank of the 
Ems, with which it is connected by canals, 23 
m. S. E. of Emden; pop. in 1871, 6,077. It is 
situated in the midst of a moorland, and is 
neatly built in the Dutch style. It is the seat 
of an active commerce, and, after Emden, the 
chief port in the province, its shipping em- 
bracing about 200 sea-going vessels. It con- 
tains a school of navigation, numerous ship 
yards, and manufactories of sails, chains and 
anchors, lime and tobacco. The principal ex- 
port is oak. 

PAPER (Gr. TraTTu/oof, papyrus), a material 
made in thin sheets from a pulp prepared from 
vegetable fibre and cellular tissue. MATERIALS. 
The first paper was probably made in Egypt 
from papyrus, a species of reed. The stem of 
the plant in growing is covered at its lower 
portion by mud, and the layers of the outer 
skin at this point are whiter and more compact. 
Under these layers are thin pellicles, which 
being removed and laid side by side, their over- 
lapping edges may be cemented together by 
pressure, the thickness of the sheet depending 
upon the number of layers placed one upon an- 
other. (See PAPYRUS.) The ancient Mexicans 
used a kind of paper prepared from the agave 
Americana, or maguey plant, which grows upon 
the table lands. It resembled the Egyptian pa- 
pyrus, and took ink and color well, as preserved 
specimens attest. The Chinese rice paper is 
prepared from the pith of the ceschynomene 
paludosa, cut spirally into a thin slice, which 
spread out and compressed forms a sheet of pa- 
per, sometimes a foot in length and five or six 
inches in breadth. The Chinese were the first 
to form from vegetable fibre the web which 
constitutes modern paper. They used the in- 
ner bark of several trees, especially the mul- 
berry, the bamboo reduced to pulp by beating, 
rice and other straws, silk, cotton, and rags. 
The Japanese exhibited in the Paris universal 
exposition of 1867 beautiful specimens of paper 
made from the bark of the paper mulberry tree 
(Broussonnetia papyri/era). Among the nu- 
merous materials of which paper has been made 
are acacia, althaea, American aloe or maguey, 
artichoke, asparagus, aspen, bamboo, banana, 
bass wood, bean vines, blue grass, broom, buck- 
wheat straw, bulrushes, cane, cattail, cedar, 
China grass, clematis, clover, cork, corn husks 
and stalks, cotton, couch grass, elder, elm, es- 
parto grass, ferns, fir, flags, flax, grape vine, 
many grasses, hemp, hop vines, horse chestnut, 
indigo, jute, mulberry bark and wood, mummy 
cloth, oak, oakum, oat straw, osier, palm, pal- 
metto, pampas grass, papyrus, pea vines, pine, 
plantain, poplar, potato vines, rags of all kinds, 
reeds, rice straw, rope, rye straw, sedge grass, 
silk, silk cotton (bombax), sorghum, spruce, this- 
tles, tobacco, wheat straw, waste paper, willow, 
and wool. The principal materials are : 1, cot- 
ton and linen rags ; 2, waste paper; 3, straw; 4, 



PAPER 



esparto grass ; 5, wood : 6, cane ; V, jute and ma- 
nila. PREPARATION OF PAPER PULP. In the 
manufacture of paper, the first object is to pre- 
pare the raw materials for the processes by 
which they are brought into a pulpy condition. 
1. Cotton and linen rags. These are placed in 
cylindrical machines and tossed about by long 
teeth fixed on revolving cylinders, an operation 
called thrashing. They are then sorted accord- 
ing to texture, fibre, and color ; next they are 
passed through the rag cutter, a machine which 
somewhat resembles a straw cutter, and are 
then placed in the duster, an octagonal drum 
covered with wire netting and revolving in a 
box, one end being a little elevated. After this 
they are usually washed preparatory to boiling. 
In boiling, an alkaline solution is used of varia- 
ble composition, according to the nature of the 
rags, those more highly colored, or contaminated 
with grease, resin, or pitch, requiring a strong 
lye. Ordinarily, for 100 Ibs. of rags from 6 to 
10 Ibs. of carbonate of soda is used, with half 
as much quicklime. The lye reduces the fine 
hard particles of the vegetable fibre, which if 
allowed to remain would cause knotty places in 
the paper, removes much of the dust which still 
adheres to the rags, and partially whitens them. 
The solution is best heated by steam pipes. 
Large cylindrical iron boilers are in use in the 
best mills in Europe and the United States. 
These are provided with compartments perfo- 
rated with holes for draining off the water, and 
they are charged at the ends with several hun- 
dred weight of rags at a time, and then the 
steam is admitted under a pressure usually of 
about 50 Ibs. to the square inch. The opera- 
tion for the full charge requires from eight to 
ten hours, when the rags are ready for the pro- 
cess by which they are to be converted into 
pulp. This is done in what is called the engine 
or hollander, a Dutch invention substituted for 
what was previously known as the beating ma- 
chine. An oblong vat of the shape represented 



turned by a shaft resting in journals,/^. Be- 
neath the cylinder is a block, also armed with 
knives similar to those in the 'cylinder, and hav- 
ing very nearly the same direction, the action 




W 



d 




. 1. Horizontal Section of Engine. 



in figs. 1 and 2, in both horizonatal and vertical 
section, is divided longitudinally in the middle 
by a partition so that a continuous channel is 
formed, as shown by the arrows. In one side 
is placed a solid wooden cylinder, a, fig. 2, 
armed with blunt-edged knives placed longi- 
tudinally upon the periphery. This cylinder is 



FIG. 2. Vertical Section of Engine. 

of the two sets being such as to tear and sepa- 
rate the fibres. On the other side of the vat, 
opposite the beating cylinder, there is a hollow 
drum or prism of eight sides, covered at the ends 
with wire gauze for the purpose of discharging 
the water from the machine, so constructed 
that a slow revolution raises the water into 
the hollow shaft from which it is discharged. 
This is the general construction of the engine 
or hollander, and in nearly the same form it 
is used for three distinct purposes, washing, 
bleaching, and beating or reducing to pulp; 
and in these three uses it is respectively called 
the washing engine, the bleaching engine, and 
the beating engine. The rags are first placed 
in the washing engine, the knives in the cylin- 
der of which are not brought down so closely 
upon the block as in the beater, but still close 
enough to tear the rags and separate the fibres 
to a considerable extent. Water is turned in 
at the cock W, and the engine set in motion, 
the cylinder a making about 150 revolutions a 
minute. The rags are carried around the cir- 
cuit of the vat, passing beneath both cylinder 
and drum, the latter of which discharges the 
water as fast as it is received at the cock. A 
pipe covered with gauze in the bottom of the 
vat is also often used to convey away water, 
either during the process of washing or at its 
close. The washing usually takes three or four 
hours, when the rags are drained and placed 
in the bleaching engine, which differs from the 
other two in not having a drum for discharg- 
ing water, because the bleaching solution is 
retained in the vat till the operation is com- 
pleted. The bleaching, which is performed 
with a solution of chloride of lime, usually oc- 
cupies about three hours. The material is at 
the same time made finer, and the fibres further 
separated, so that they will be fitted for the 
action of the beating engine. The half stuff, 
as it is called while on its way from the washer 
to the beater, is then let down into cisterns to 
drain, after which it is carried to the beat- 
ing engine, and subjected to its action after 
the chlorine and chloride of lime and salts 
associated with it have been neutralized with 
a solution of soda or of "antichlor," a com- 
pound of sulphite of soda, chloride of tin, and 



PAPER 



hyposulphite of soda; sulphite of calcium is 
also used. The engine heing put in motion, 
the cylinder is brought down upon the block 
by degrees, so that in the course of three or 
four hours the rags are beaten into a fine pulp. 
When the operation is nearly completed, the 
paper may be colored or given a bluish tint, by 
the use of ultramarine, Prussian blue, indigo, 
aniline blue, or oxide of cobalt. Paper may be 
sized in the engine or in the paper-making 
machine; the materials used are different in 
the two cases. There are various prescriptions 
for engine size; the most common is called 
resin size, made by adding a solution of alum 
to a resin soap dissolved in soda. It is beaten 
up and mixed with the pulp in the beating 
engine before being delivered to the vat from 
whence it is distributed to the paper-making 
machine. Sizing for the machine, where the 
size is applied to the paper, is made of gelatine ; 
and manufacturers generally make their own 
size, in a room adjoining that which contains 
the machine, so that it may be used while in 
solution, by which time in dissolving and pre- 
paring and other expense is saved. It is made 
of the best hide clippings, which, being soft- 
ened and soaked several days in large wood- 
en tubs of water, are then put into wooden 
cylinders from 4 to 6 ft. in diameter and about 
10 ft. long, revolving on a horizontal shaft, by 
which means they are washed and cleansed of 
dirt. They are then put into a tub 6 or 8 ft. 
in diameter, made of wood or galvanized iron, 
and having a perforated false bottom, beneath 
which steam is introduced through a coil of 
pipe perforated with many holes. The water 
is not boiled, but raised to about 185 F. and 
kept at that point for 12 or 18 hours, dissolving 
the gelatine. The latter being strained, enough 
alum is added to it to give a slight astringent 
taste, which prevents fermentation and also 
stickiness, and adds body to the paper. Within 
a few years clay, china clay, and kaolin have 
been added to the pulp, mainly to increase the 
weight of the paper. The alumina of these 
substances has a strong affinity for vegetable 
matter and adheres closely to the fibres. The 
clay must be put into the engine before the 
size, as it will then reach the fibres, and the 
size surrounding both will better fasten the 
clay. All kinds of paper will carry from 5 
to 15 per cent, of clay without size, and it is 
asserted that a small addition of it to the pulp 
improves some kinds of paper, making them 
smoother and more opaque; but too great a 
quantity weakens the paper and makes it brittle. 
2. Waste paper is dusted and sorted in the same 
way as rags. It is then boiled and printers' 
ink stains removed by soda, which unites with 
the oil, leaving the color to subside. The boil- 
ers are stationary, so that the paper shall not 
be reduced to pulp too soon, and thus incorpo- 
rate the coloring matter of the ink. The wa- 
ter is continually changed, producing a current 
which after a while removes the dirt. The 
material is put through the washing, bleach- 
634 



ing, and beating engines as in the reduction of 
rags, although the bleaching and beating pro- 
cesses occupy much less time. 3. Straw is cut 
into short lengths with cylindrical cutters and 
then boiled with caustic soda. (See SODA.) It 
may here be stated that straw, wood, and other 
coarse vegetable fibre is generally boiled with 
caustic soda under high pressure to dissolve the 
resinous and gummy matters which hold the 
fibres together. The caustic soda, or soda ash 
of commerce, contains too much carbonic acid 
to answer the purpose of the paper maker. It 
must be made more caustic, and this is ac- 
complished by the addition of caustic lime, by 
which the carbonic acid is removed in the form 
of carbonate of lime. The soda solution, after 
having been sufficiently acted upon by cream of 
lime, and the resulting carbonate having sub- 
sided, is let into revolving boilers (which may 
be heated by steam or by the direct application 
of fire, the latter being preferred), which have 
been previously carefully packed full of the 
cut straw. A boiler 16 ft. long and 6 ft. in di- 
ameter will hold about 2,500 Ibs. of the straw, 
if carefully packed. Two or three boilers are 
sometimes connected for the purpose of saving 
fuel by blowing out the steam from one to 
another. After digestion the material, which 
answers to half stuff, is washed, bleached, and 
reduced to pulp in engines in much the same 
way as with rags. This process is known as 
Mellier's ; more recent ones by Dixon, Ladd, 
Cresson, Keene, and others, by which the boil- 
ing is performed under much greater pressure, 
thus shortening the time, have been introduced. 
The pulp is usually made into paper on a cyl- 
inder machine. 4. Esparto grass, a spontane- 
ous growth of the gravelly and sandy soils of 
eastern Spain and northern Africa, where it 
has for centuries been made into matting and 
baskets, is treated in a similar manner to straw, 
but makes a superior paper, as its fibres are 
tougher. It may be made into paper either on 
a cylinder or a Fourdrinier machine. 5. Wood. 
Paper was made from wood as early as from 
straw, but only on a small scale till the erec- 
tion of the works of the American wood paper 
company. Charles Watt and Hugh Burgess 
patented the invention in England in 1853 
and in the United States in 1854. One of the 
establishments of the company, at Manayunk, 
Pa., has a capacity for making 15 tons of wood 
pulp a day. The works were built in 1865, at 
a cost of $500,000. The wood used is chiefly 
American poplar or whitewood. It is cut into 
slices about half an inch thick, across the grain, 
being fed to a rotary disk cutter armed with 
strong knives in the form of cord wood 5 ft. 
long. One of the cutters will daily reduce 40 
cords of wood to chips. The chips are placed 
in upright cylindrical boilers about 5 ft. in 
diameter and 16 ft. high, with hemispheri- 
cal ends, and provided inside with perforated 
diaphragms, each space holding a quantity of 
chips equal to a cord of wood. A solution of 
caustic soda having a strength of 12 Baum6 is 



VOL. XIII.- 



PAPER 



then introduced, and fires are started under- 
neath. The digestion is completed in about 
six hours, when the contents are suddenly 
emptied with violence, under a pressure of 65 
Ibs. to the square inch, into a sheet-iron cylin- 
der at the side of the boiler. It is now in the 
form or condition of half stuff, and is passed 
through a washing engine ; and if it is imme- 
diately used upon the spot, it is also passed 
through a bleaching engine and mingled with 
rag pulp in the beating engine, in the propor- 
tion of from 60 to 80 per cent., when it is 
formed into paper in the same way as pure 
rag pulp. If the wood pulp is to be trans- 
ported to a distance, it is only passed through 
the washing engine, and made temporarily into 
a thick kind of paper on a cylinder machine 
for the purpose of drying and giving it a con- 
venient form for transportation. A method of 
mechanically making wood pulp was invented 
several years ago by Heinrich Yoelter of Wur- 
temberg, and there are in Germany more than 
30 establishments using his machines. The 
defibrer or mill consists of a coarse cylindrical 
stone, revolving rapidly, against which billets 
of wood are held by springs. The action of 
water which flows through the mill assists in 
reducing the fibre so finely that the subsequent 
chemical treatment is simple. The mechanical 
is, however, inferior to the chemical method, 
as it breaks up the fibres into shorter particles, 
so that not half as much can be mixed with 
rag pulp. The woods which furnish the best 
fibre, that is, the longest and the best adapted 
to felting, are pine and fir ; but it is more diffi- 
cult to separate the resin from them than from 
other woods; and as poplar and basswood, 
among the soft woods, make the whitest pulp, 
they are usually preferred. 6. Cane. Thearun- 
dinaria macrosperma, the kind of cane which 
grows in the Dismal swamp and along the 
rivers of North and South Carolina, and also 
along the Mississippi, is about 12 ft. high, near- 
ly white, and composed of tough strong fibres. 
The supply of this material is immense, and the 
American fibre company have patented meth- 
ods for converting it into, paper pulp. The 
Norfolk fibre company, near Norfolk, Va., and 
the Cape Fear fibre company, near Wilmington, 
N. C., are working under these patents. The 
Norfolk company's works are on the Dismal 
swamp canal and Norfolk and Weldon railroad, 
about 4 m. from Portsmouth. The cane is dis- 
integrated by the Lyman process, patented in 
August, 1858. Strong cast-iron cylinders, 22 ft. 
long and 12 in. inside diameter, having strong 
heads at both open ends, are laid horizontally 
on heavy frames. Each cylinder has a dome 
on the top to give steam room. The cane, after 
having been stripped and cleaned, is introduced 
into both ends, and the covers fastened, when 
steam is admitted into the cylinders, or "guns" 
as they are called, until a pressure of 180 Ibs. 
to the square inch is reached. This pressure 
is maintained for about 12 minutes, when by 
pulling a trigger the covers are suddenly un- 



fastened, and the steam rushes out with a tre- 
mendous explosion, carrying the disintegrated 
cane before it. A target placed about 30 ft. 
from the guns receives the charge, which is 
reduced to a mass of brown sugary-smelling 
fibre. The report is equal to that of a large 
cannon, and may be heard many miles. The 
concussion of the air is so great that it is im- 
possible to stand in the gun room without sup- 
port. A gun loaded with 100 Ibs. of cane can 
be discharged every 15 minutes. Four guns of 
the size above described can turn out from 16 
to 24 tons of stuff in 24 hours. Nearly the 
full weight of the dry cane is obtained in fibres 
having somewhat the appearance of oakum, 
and in this form will make a strong spongy 
paper, easily saturated with liquids, and suitable 
for roofing and wrapping paper, boards, &c. 
The material may also be bleached and treat- 
ed after the manner of rags, and made into 
a strong white paper. 7. Manila and jute. 
These fibres are products of eastern Asia, and 
are made into ropes and coarse bagging, which 
after being worn reach the paper maker. The 
raw material of course may also be used. The 
butts of the jute have recently been utilized. 
The process of manufacture for both materials 
is much the same. They are boiled in rotary 
boilers, although for jute butts some prefer 
stationary boilers like those for waste paper, 
believing that the revolving motion injures 
the fibre. The material is usually treated 
with milk of lime, from 15 to 25 Ibs. of lime, 
and sometimes 50 Ibs., being used for every 
100 Ibs. of raw material. If boiled with caus- 
tic soda, like straw, the fibres may be obtained 
pure and bleached and made into white paper. 
For ordinary brown paper the pulp may be 
washed and beaten ready for the machine in 
one engine. By partial bleaching a fine buff 
color may be imparted. Both Fourdrinier and 
cylinder machines are used in making manila 
and jute papers. The cylinder machine causes 
the fibres to be laid in one direction, so that the 
paper has much less strength in one than in 
the other direction. MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. 
For wrapping, writing, or printing paper, the 
pulp, prepared with or without size, is carried 
to a vat and mingled with sufficient water to 
make it thin enough for spreading. Up to 
nearly the beginning of the present century 
paper was made by hand. In this process the 
workman uses, holding it in both hands, a 
shallow mahogany box somewhat larger than 
the sheet of paper, covered with parallel wires 
placed near together, and crossed by a few 
others. The wires thus arranged produced what 
is called "laid paper," but with a woven wire 
cloth the product is known as "wove pa- 
per." The " water mark " upon paper, used to 
designate the peculiar kinds, is produced by 
coarse wires of the required figures attached to 
the moulds, so as to cause the layer of fibre to 
be somewhat thinner on their lines. Various 
devices formerly made use of in this way gave 
names to the sorts of paper to which they 



PAPER 



49 



were applied, and the papers have retained 
these names. Thus " cap " or "foolscap pa- 
per " was so called from the water mark rep- 
resenting a fool's cap and bells ; "post paper," 
from the design of a postman's horn ; what 
was called "pot paper" had the design of a 
pot or jug; and "hand paper" was distin- 
guished by the figure of a hand. "Water marks 
on bank notes, checks, and other commercial 
papers rendered forgeries more difficult. With 
the mould in the workman's hands, a loose 
frame called a deckle, of the exact size of the 
mould, is held down upon its upper surface, 
serving as a margin to the wires, and deter- 
mines the size of the sheet. A proper quan- 
tity of pulp being dipped up and shaken with 
a peculiar motion acquired by experience, the 
fibre is spread evenly over the wires, and the 
water in great part flows through. The vat- 
man then slips off and retains the deckle as 
he slides the mould along the edges of the vat 
to another workman called the coucher, and 
taking another mould to which he adjusts the 
deckle, he repeats the operation. The coucher 
meantime sets the mould on its edge to drain 
while he arranges on the table close by a sheet 
of felt cloth on which he lays the sheet of fibre 
by overturning the mould. This is returned 
to the vatman, who passes along another mould 
and sheet, and this is laid upon another felt 
with which the first sheet is covered. About 
130 sheets are thus piled up alternately with as 
many felts, and the whole pile is then slipped 
under a press, by the action of which much 
water is squeezed out and the sheets acquire 
tenacity. These are then separated and piled 
up by themselves, and again pressed ; and being 
again separated, or parted, they are piled and 
pressed a third time. Thus the marks of the 
felts are removed, and the paper is in good con- 
dition for drying, which is effected by hang- 
ing the sheets on hair lines in lofts or rooms 
specially devoted to this purpose. In favor- 
able weather the drying may be completed in 
24 hours, after which the paper is sized by dip- 
ping it several times in a preparation of glue 
and alum. The sheets are again pressed to re- 
move the superfluous size, and are returned to 
the drying rooms, where they are suspended 
upon the lines and dried much more gradually 
than before, several days' time being requisite 
for the size to become well incorporated with 
the paper. The finishing is effected by pressing 
the sheets laid alternately with glazed paper 
boards with some hot metal plates interspersed 
through the piles. This gives the name of 
"hot pressed." It may instead be rolled with 
smooth copper plates between the sheets. By 
this method it was often three weeks before 
the paper was finally finished from the first 
treatment of the rags, and for every vat, from 
which about 150 Ibs. of paper might be made 
in a day, there were employed eight men and 
about as many women. Paper making by hand 
een wholly abandoned in the United 
States, where even the finest bank-note paper 



is manufactured 
by machinery. In 
this process the 
pulp is thinned 
with water suffi- 
ciently for spread- 
ing it on the web 
of the machine. 
There are several 
forms of machines 
in use, but the 
Fourd rimer is the 
most common. As 
improved by Bry- 
an Donkin and 
others, its action 
is described as fol- 
lows in Knight's 
" American Me- 
chanical Diction- 
ary:" "Pulp from 
the beating cyl- 
inder is admitted 
to the chest a 
through a strain- 
er &, consisting of 
a sheet of metal 
through which 
strips are cut; it 
is here constantly 
agitated by a stir- 
rer c, and is caused 
to flow into a 
second and small- 
er chamber provi- 
ded with a small- 
er stirrer, which 
delivers it (after 
passing over a 
channelled plate 
by which extra- 
neous matters of 
greater specific 
gravity than the 
pulp are arrested) 
on to the endless 
wire web or apron 
df to this a sha- 
king movement 
is imparted, dis- 
tributing the pulp 
fibre evenly over 
its surface. It is 
supported on a se- 
ries of small roll- 
ers, and the width 
of the paper is 
governed by dec- 
kle straps e at each 
side, which are 
carried by rollers 
f, their tension 
ing regulated 
by the arrange- 
ment shown at g ; 
Ji is a vacuum box 



50 



PAPER 



from which the air is partially exhausted by 
a set of air pumps, and which withdraws in 
part the moisture from the paper as it passes 
over the box. It is then carried between the 
cloth-covered rollers i i, by the lower one of 
which and the rollers jjj the wire apron re- 
turns to receive a fresh supply of pulp, the 
paper being transferred to the blanket felt &, 
which conveys it to the press rolls II; these 
are solid, and over the upper one is a thin 
edge bar, which removes adhering particles of 
fibre from the roll, and also serves to arrest 
the progress of the paper should it stick to 
the roll, thus preventing injury to the blan- 
ket. The rolls are adjusted in their bearings 
by the screw m, so as to exert greater or 
less pressure. The blanket then conveys the 
sheet to a position where it may be received 
by the second press rolls n n, which further 
compress and expel the moisture from it, and 
the blanket returns by way of the rollers o o o 
to the point whence it set out. After pass- 
ing the press rolls the paper is received on 
a second endless blanket, which carries it to 
the first of a series of steam-heated cylinders, 
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, between which it is partially dried 
and conveyed between other pressure rollers, 
3, and thence to a second set of drying cyl- 
inders, 6, 7, 8, whence, after being subjected 
successively to the pressing and stretching ac- 
tion of the rolls pp, it is delivered on to the 
cylinder or reel r. Registering mechanism in- 
dicates when a certain quantity has been de- 
livered on to the reel, which is then removed 
and a fresh one substituted. The number of 
drying cylinders in a machine of this class may 
be indefinitely increased. In some cases more 
than 100 are employed, the object being to 
allow the sizing material to become thorough- 
ly incorporated, and to form a product resem- 
bling hand-laid paper in quality." Several im- 
provements have been made by which the Four- 
drinier machine has been brought almost to 
perfection, and is one of the most admirable 
pieces of mechanism in the arts. But it is very 
expensive, for which reason others have been 
constructed for making the cheaper kinds of 
paper from coarse material, such as straw and 
cane. Of such is the cylinder machine of Dick- 
enson, invented in England in 1809, improved 
from time to time, and attaining its present 
form in 1847. A cylinder covered with wire 
cloth revolves in the chest which receives the 
pulp from the beating engine, and performs the 
office of the wire web in the Fourdrinier ma- 
chine. Scanlan's machine unites the principles 
of the cylinder and Fourdrinier machines, and 
makes a double-web paper, the opposite sides 
of which may be of different colors. Harris's 
is a two-cylinder machine, which makes a two- 
web paper. Mr. James Harper of New Haven, 
Conn., has also patented a combination of the 
cylinder and Fourdrinier, for which he claims 
several advantages over other machines. Some 
of the latest English machines include a drying 
apparatus consisting of numerous large cylin- 



ders of wire net, each having a revolving fan 
in the inside. The wet web of paper passes 
around all the cylinders in turn, deprived of 
some of its moisture by each fan, so that when 
it leaves the last cylinder it is thoroughly dry. 
It is said that the paper is harder and stronger 
dried in this way than by steam-heated cylin- 
ders. Not many years ago paper received its 
finished surface by being placed between cop- 
per plates and then passed several times be- 
tween powerful iron rollers or calenders. But 
this method has been superseded by what are 
known as sheet super-calenders, in which the 
paper is passed between rollers, one of which 
is made of iron and the other of compressed 
paper surrounding an iron shaft. The paper 
used in the preparation of the cylinders is of 
the strongest kind, usually manila, and when 
placed on the shaft is subjected to immense 
hydraulic pressure. The varieties of paper are 
numerous. They may be classed in general as 
writing (including draw ing), printing, and wrap- 
ping ; and besides these are the filtering and 
blotting papers, which differ from the other 
kinds in an admixture of woollen rags, by which 
the product is rendered absorbent. Cartridge 
paper is a thick variety of white paper used for 
making cartridges. Bank-note paper is a very 
strong, flexible, and thin paper, made of the 
best linen rags ; and tissue paper is a thin trans- 
parent paper used for tracing drawings, mani- 
fold writing, and many other purposes. The 
distinctions of the varieties of writing paper 
are based on the paper being wove or laid, and 
on the shades of color and degree of finish. 
The cream laid and cream wove are of a slight- 
ly yellowish white, and are now regarded as 
the choicest varieties. Papers of a bluish tint 
are prepared by mixing ultramarine with the 
pulp. A very small amount of ultramarine 
counteracts the natural yellow color, and pro- 
duces the nearest approach to white. The light 
buff color is produced by oxide of iron of a low 
degree of oxidation, and paper of this shade 
has been recommended as more grateful to the 
eye than the glaring surface of the white varie- 
ties. The trade names of the different sorts 
of paper designate the different sizes furnished 
from the mills. The smaller sheets of letter 
and note paper are prepared from the com- 
mercial sheets by the stationers. The smallest 
sheets furnished by the mills, termed pot pa- 
per, measure 12 by 15 inches ; foolscap, the 
next size, 13$- by 17 ; post, 15 J by 18| ; copy, 
16 by 20; large post, 16^ by 20|; medium 
post, 18 by 23; sheet and a third foolscap, 13J 
by 23 ; sheet and a half foolscap, 13 J by 24 ; 
double foolscap, 17 by 27 ; double pot, 25 by 
30 ; double post, 19 by 30|- ; double crown, 20 
by 30 ; double medium, 24 by 38 ; demy, 15 
by 20; ditto printing, 17| by 22; medium, 
17 by 22 ; ditto printing, 18 by 23 ; royal, 
19 by 24 ; ditto printing, 20 by 25 ; superroyal, 
19 by 27; ditto printing, 21 by 27; imperial, 
22 by 30 ; elephant, 23 by 28 ; atlas, 26 by 34; 
columbier, 23 by 34 ; double elephant, 26| by 



PAPEE 



51 



40; antiquarian, 31 by 53. USES. Besides the 
manufacture of ordinary paper, the pulp, pre- 
pared from whatever materials, may be devoted 
to an infinite variety of uses, such as paper 
hangings, pasteboard, boards of different kinds, 
boxes, papier mache, sheathing for vessels, 
boats, furniture, car wheels, tubs, water buck- 
ets, and other household utensils. Both the 
Chinese and Japanese make furniture, cloth- 
ing, hats, shoes, umbrellas, handkerchiefs, nap- 
kins, twine, and many other useful articles from 
this material. The Japanese make a paper cloth, 
known as shifu, which is said to bear washing. 
Boxes, trays,' and even saucepans are made of 
it, and it is also made into bags for holding 
wine. The oil paper for water-proof clothing 
is prepared from a kind called seulca. The 
pieces are joined together by a cement made 
of young fern shoots, ground and boiled into 
a paste and thinned with the juice of unripe 
persimmons. The paper is softened by rub- 
bing in the hands, and is coated with an oil 
from a seed called ye-no-dbura. In England 
paper used for water pipes and tanks has been 
found to preserve water from freezing longer 
than lead will do. In 1868 Col. Muratori of 
the French army began experiments with a 
paper cuirass, light to wear, but tough enough 
to resist bullets. In the London international 
exhibition of 1872 there was shown a model 
house made of paper, with water flowing over 
it. In the United States the consumption of 
paper for collars and cuffs is enormous. HIS- 
TORY. Papyrus, chiefly of Egyptian manufac- 
ture, continued in use in European countries 
for some centuries after the Christian era, and 
was finally displaced by the charta bonibycina, 
or paper made of cotton, the Greek word pfyfivg 
being in ancient times used either for silk or 
cotton. According to Gibbon, who cites the 
authority of the librarian Casiri, in the Biblio- 
theca Arabico-Hispana, the art of manufac- 
turing paper from vegetable fibre was derived 
from Samarcand, where it was introduced from 
China in the year 651, and thence spread over 
Europe, having been introduced at Mecca in 
707. About the same time the Saracens are 
said to have learned to make paper from cot- 
ton, and they brought it to Spain in 711. The 
bulls of the popes in the 8th and 9th centuries 
were written upon cotton paper. The oldest 
manuscript written on it in England is in the 
Bodleian collection of the British museum, hav- 
ing the date 1049. The most ancient manu- 
script on cotton paper in the library of Paris 
is dated 1050. In 1085 the Christian successors 
of the Spanish Saracens made paper of rags in- 
stead of raw cotton. Linen rags appear to have 
been used at a somewhat later period, probably 
first in Spain. The oldest specimen of linen 
paper having a date is said to be a treaty of 
peace between the kings of Aragon and Castile 
of 1177. As stated in the " Chronology of Pa- 
per and Paper Making," by J. Munsell (Albany, 
L857), paper mills were in operation at Toledo 
in Spain in 1085, making paper from rags with 



the use of moulds for forming the sheets ; and 
in 1151 the best paper was made at Jativa from 
raw cotton and rags, which were reduced to 
pulp by stamping them in mills instead of grind- 
ing after the Moorish method. In France the 
manufacture dates as far back as 1314, and 
about the same time in Germany ; and in Italy 
it was conducted in 1367. Linen paper seems 
to have been common in Germany in 1324 and 
afterward. Though paper had long been known 
in England, parchment or vellum was in the 
time of Edward II. the writing material com- 
monly employed. In 1390 Ulmann Strother es- 
tablished a paper mill at Nuremberg, in which 
the fibre was reduced to pulp by the operation 
of 18 stampers. In 1498 this entry appears 
among the privy expenses of Henry VII. : "For 
a rewarde yeven at the paper mylne, 16s. 
8<Z." This mill was probably that spoken of in 
Wynkin de Worde's De Proprietatilus Rerum 
as belonging to John Tate. Tate's mill was 
at Harford, and he used a water mark, which 
was an eight-pointed star within a double 
circle. John Tate died in 1514. The first 
mill of which there is any particular account 
is one built at Dartford in Kent, by a German 
named John Spilman or Spielman, jeweller to 
Queen Elizabeth. This is celebrated in a poem 
on paper of the date of 1588. The business 
made but slow progress, and during the 17th 
century the supplies were chiefly from France, 
which country, with Holland and Genoa, main- 
tained a decided superiority in this produc- 
tion. As late as 1663 England imported from 
Holland 100,000 worth of paper. In Eng- 
land great improvements were introduced by 
the French refugees of 1685; and from this 
time the business advanced in importance. In 
1690 particular attention began to be directed 
to the production of white paper, almost all 
that was previously made being brown. The 
celebrated manufacturer James Whatman had 
his mill in operation at Maidstone in 1770 ; and 
from that time to the present its product has 
been famous for its superior quality. About 
the same period important improvements were 
made in the manufacture in Holland and Ger- 
many. Cylinders armed with steel blades for 
reducing the pulp were substituted by the 
Dutch, about the year 1750, for the stampers 
which were before in use. They were run with 
far greater ease by their windmills, and proved 
much more effectual. The Germans attempted 
the use of straw in 1756; and in France in 
1776 a book was printed upon paper of good 
white appearance made from the bark of the 
linden (basswood). As early as 1719 Reaumur 
had printed an essay suggesting wood as a ma- 
terial, his hint being derived from observing 
that the fabric of wasps' nests was from that 
material. The greatest advances in the manu- 
facture were now made by the French. In 
1799 Louis Robert, an employee of Francois 
Didot of Essonnes, France, introduced an in- 
vention, which was patented the same year, by 
which paper 12 ft, wide and of an indefinite 



52 



PAPER 



length, could be made. In 1801 the machine 
was again patented by Mr. Gamble, a brother- 
in-law of M. Didot, and was exhibited in Eng- 
land, where the stationery firm of Messrs. Four- 
drinier made arrangements for its purchase, at 
the same time expending 60,000 for improve- 
ments. The first machine was put into opera- 
tion by Mr. Donkin, who devised the improve- 
ments in 1803, and in 1804 the patents of Didot 
and Gamble were transferred to the Messrs. 
Fourdrinier. The expense incurred by this 
public-spirited firm was never returned in earn- 
ings of the machine. A bill for assistance was 
introduced into parliament, but was not passed, 
and the Messrs. Fourdrinier were obliged at 
last to go into bankruptcy. In 1800 good white 
paper to the amount of 700 reams a week was 
made for the first time from old waste and 
written and printed paper, such as had always 
before been thrown away. This was done 
in England by Matthias Koops. He also made 
better paper from straw, wood, and other vege- 
table matters, without the addition of any other 
known paper stuff, than had ever before been 
produced. He obtained a patent for the use of 
straw, hay, thistles, waste and refuse of hemp 
and flax, &c. Notwithstanding the largely in- 
creased use of other materials, in Great Britain, 
as elsewhere, rags are the chief material, the 
import in 1871 amounting to 26,757 tons, val- 
ued at 442,030, which was the largest impor- 
tation ever known in that country. William 
Rittinghuysen (now spelled Rittenhouse), a 
native of Holland, was among the early set- 
tlers of Germantown, Pa. In 1690, in company 
with William Bradford the printer, he estab- 
lished the first paper mill in America at Rox- 
borough near Philadelphia, on a stream called 
Paper Mill run, a. branch of the Wissahickon, 
about 2 m. above its junction with the Schuyl- 
kill. This mill supplied Bradford with paper 
while he lived in Philadelphia and after he set- 
tled in New York. The paper was made of 
linen rags. The second paper mill in America 
was erected in that part of Germantown called 
Crefield, on a small stream that empties into 
the Wissahickon near the manor of Springfield, 
by William De Wers, a brother-in-law of Nich- 
olas Rittenhouse, son of the first paper maker, 
in 1710. A paper mill was erected in 1714 
upon Chester creek in Delaware. It was after- 
ward owned by a Mr. Wilcox, who furnished 
Franklin with paper from it. In the colony of 
Massachusetts Bay, as appears from the state- 
ment of Salmon in his "Modern History" (vol. 
iii., p. 494), a paper mill was set up about the 
year 1717, and in 1720 was making paper to 
the value of about 200 per annum. But oth- 
er authorities give the year 1730 as the date 
of the first paper mill in Massachusetts, which 
was built at Milton under the encouragement 
of the bounty offered by the legislature in 1728. 
There was in 1728 a paper mill at Elizabeth- 
town, N. J., owned by William Bradford. In 
1768 a mill was completed at Norwich, Conn., 
by Christopher LeiSngwell, under official en- 



couragement. Another was in operation in 
1776 at East Hartford, belonging to Watson 
and Ledyard, which supplied about 8,000 sheets 
weekly for the press at Hartford, and most of 
the writing paper used in the state and the 
continental army. There were at this time 
three small mills in Massachusetts and one in 
Rhode Island, and not long after one at Ben- 
nington, Vt. The manufacture had made more 
rapid progress in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, 
and Delaware, where in 1770 the total num- 
ber of paper mills was about 40, and the annual 
product of paper was worth about 100,000. 
In New England and New York the supply 
was far short of the demand, and it was with 
the greatest difficulty that rags were procured 
for the mills. The first paper mill in north- 
ern New York was built in 1793 at Troy by 
Websters, Ensign, and Seymour, in which from 
five to ten reams were made daily. The next 
year one was constructed at Fairhaven, Vt., by 
Col. Lyon, and the bark of the bass wood was 
employed in it for making wrapping paper. In 
1810 the number of mills in the United States 
was estimated at 185, of which 7 were in New 
Hampshire, 38 in Massachusetts, 4 in Rhode 
Island, 17 in Connecticut, 9 in Vermont, 28 in 
New York, 60 in Pennsylvania, 4 in Delaware, 
3 in Maryland, 4 in Virginia, 1 in South Caro- 
lina, 6 in Kentucky, and 4 in Tennessee. They 
produced annually 50,000 reams of news paper, 
worth about $3 a ream; 70,000 reams of book 
paper, worth $3 50 a ream ; 111,000 reams of 
writing paper, worth $3 a ream; and 100,000 
reams of wrapping paper, worth 83 cents a 
ream. In 1828 the consumption of paper by 
the newspapers throughout the United States 
was estimated at 104,400 reams, costing $500,- 
000 ; and the total value of all paper made was 
nearly $7,000,000, and of the rags and other 
materials used about $2,000,000. The Four- 
drinier machine, imported from England, was 
in use in a number of mills, Massachusetts 
in 1829 having six of them, or one for every 
ten mills. These, and improved methods of 
cleansing and bleaching, principally by the use 
of chlorine, gave a great impulse to the busi- 
ness. The importation of rags continued to in- 
crease, their value in 1839 and 1840 exceeding 
$560,000 a year. The imports of paper in each 
of the same years amounted to about $150,000 
and the exports to $85,000. In 1850 the value 
of rags imported was $748,707, and of paper 
$496,563. Three fourths of the rags were from 
Italian and Austrian ports, and their cost was 
$3 61 for 100 Ibs. The capital invested in the 
manufacture was about $18,000,000, the an- 
nual product of paper about $17,000,000, and 
the number of mills about 700, all but two of 
which had Fourdrinier machines. The town of 
Lee in Berkshire co., Mass., beeame celebrated 
for its paper mills, having 25 mills in 1851, 
which produced about 25,000 Ibs. of paper 
daily and $2,000,000 worth per annum. The 
consumption of paper in 1852 equalled that of 
England and France together. In 1870 there 



PAPER HANGINGS 



PAPHOS 



53 



were in the United States, exclusive of pa- 
per-hanging manufactories, 669 establishments, 
mainly manufacturing printing, writing, and 
wrapping paper, with a capital of $34,365,014, 
and products valued at $48,676,935. Of these, 
174 in New York produced $10,301,563; 65 
in Massachusetts, $6,661,886; 75 in Pennsyl- 
vania, $5,176,646; 43 in Ohio, $3,799,505 ; and 
60 in Connecticut, $2,715,630. 

PAPER HANGINGS, a covering for interior 
walls of buildings, made of paper and usually 
printed with figures and devices, as a substitute 
for hangings of tapestry or cloth. They came 
into use in Europe about 200 years ago, but 
have been used by the Chinese for many cen- 
turies. Since the invention of the Fourdrinier 
paper machine, by means of which strips of pa- 
per of indefinite length may be made cheaply, 
they have been common in Europe and the Uni- 
ted States. Previous to this time squares of 
hand-made paper were pasted together. For 
most of the period during which paper hang- 
ings have been used they have been printed 
with blocks by hand, after the manner of calico 
printing or the printing of oil cloth by hand. 
The colors are opaque and mixed with size. 
In the better kinds of hangings the whole of 
the paper is covered and the figures are then 
applied. In the cheaper kinds a colored paper 
is used to print on. As many blocks are used 
as there are colors in the pattern, each block 
having the part of the pattern upon it which 
is of one color. One block is printed the 
whole length of the paper by a succession of 
impressions; the piece is then dried, and the 
next color applied. Cylinder printing ma- 
chines are now in use, which facilitate and 
cheapen the process. The pattern is engraved 
in parts on a series of copper cylinders, to 
each one of which a particular color is applied 
as the cylinder revolves. As the paper reach- 
es each cylinder in succession, it receives an 
impression of one part of the pattern in one 
color, the figure being completed by the last 
cylinder. The paper is dried after passing 
each printing cylinder by the back surface 
passing over plain heated cylinders. Copper, 
silver, and gold leaf are often applied, making 
some of the hangings very expensive. Pow- 
dered steatite or French chalk is used as the 
ground for satin papers, the gloss being pro- 
duced by polishing. A kind called flock pa- 
pers are made by coating the surface with a 
composition called encaustic, made of linseed 
oil boiled with litharge and ground up with 
white lead. The flock, made by cutting and 
grinding woollen colored fabrics, is sifted over 
the paper as it passes along covered with the 
encaustic, and is dried by warmed cylinders. 
Some of the finest French papers have the 
colors applied by hand. Many of the colors 
ns'd upon paper hangings are prepared from 
mineral substances, some of which are of high- 
ly poisonous character. This is especially the 
ith the rich greens of the flock papers, 
which are chiefly what is called Schweinfurt 



green, a very dangerous compound of arsenic 
and copper. Costly and elegant paper hang- 
ings of this character are now in use, the 
noxious influence of which seriously affects 
the workmen who put them up, and occasion- 
ally so vitiates the atmosphere of the apart- 
ments as to impair the health of the inmates 
of the house. 

PAPER NAUTILUS. See NAUTILUS. 

PAPHLAGONIA, in ancient geography, a coun- 
try in the north of Asia Minor, bounded N. by 
the Euxine sea, E. by Pontus, from which it 
was separated by the river Halys (the modern 
Kizil Irmak), S. by Galatia, and W. by Bithynia. 
The chief city was Sinope, founded by a Greek 
colony, on the Euxine; 'and other important 
places were Cytorus and Amastris on the coast, 
and Pompeiopolis and Gangra in the interior. 
The only important rivers, besides the Halys, 
were the Amnias (Kara-su), its tributary, and 
the Parthenius (Bartan-su), on the Bithynian 
border. The Olgassys mountains (Ilkaz Dagh) 
in the centre, an extension of the chain run- 
ning from Armenia to the Hellespont, send up 
to the northern part of the country numerous 
branches. Generally the surface is mountain- 
ous and rugged, especially in the southern por- 
tion, the northern containing many wide and 
fertile valleys. Paphlagonia was celebrated 
for its horses, and also produced mules and 
antelopes, and in some parts sheep breeding 
was common, while the vast forests in the 
south afforded an ample supply of timber. A 
kind of red ochre was obtained in the neigh- 
borhood of Pompeiopolis. The Paphlagonians 
appear to have been a Syrian race, and were 
rude and superstitious. The chase was a favor- 
ite pursuit in peace, and their cavalry was cele- 
brated in war. Paphlagonia was originally 
governed by native princes, but was annexed 
to Lydia by Croesus ; and after the conquest 
of that kingdom by Cyrus, it formed a portion 
of the third satrapy of the Persian empire, 
though various satraps made themselves inde- 
pendent rulers. After the death of Alexander, 
Paphlagonia fell into the hands of Eumenes ; 
but after his fall it was again independent until 
it became a part of the dominions of Mithri- 
dates, king of Pontus. The Romans united the 
coast districts with Bithynia, and subsequently 
incorporated the whole country with the prov- 
ince of Galatia ; but Constantine erected it into 
a separate province. It is now embraced in 
the Turkish vilayet of Kastamuni. 

PAPHOS, the name of two ancient towns in 
the S. "W. part of Cyprus, one of which was 
called Old Paphos, the other New Paphos, the 
former being the one usually denoted by the 
poets, the latter by the prose writers. Old 
Paphos, the seat of the worship of Venus, and 
reputed the place where she landed after hav- 
ing risen out of the sea, was about 1 J m. from 
the shore, and owes its legendary foundation 
to Cinyras, the father of Adonis. Here her 
worship was early established, and the huge 
foundations of the temple are still visible. New 



PAPIAS 



PAPIJSTEAU 



Paphos, the modern Baffa, was between 7 and 
8 in. N. W. of the old city, and was said to have 
been founded by Agapenor, chief of the Ar- 
cadians at the siege of Troy. It was also re- 
markable for the worship paid to Venus. This 
place is mentioned in the Acts in the account 
of St. Paul and Elymas the sorcerer. 

PAPIAS, an early Christian writer, bishop of 
Hierapolis in Phrygia. He wrote an "Explica- 
tion of the Speeches of the Lord," of which 
only a few fragments remain. He entertained 
the idea that there will be for 1,000 years after 
the resurrection from the dead a bodily reign 
of Christ on earth ; and from him millenarians 
were sometimes called Papianists. According 
to the Alexandrian chronicle, he suffered mar- 
tyrdom in Pergamus in A. D. 163. For the 
fragments of his writings see the Reliquim 
Sacra of Kouth^(8vo, Oxford, 1814). 

PAPIER MACHE, the pulp of paper mixed 
with glue or gum arabic, moulded, and dried, 
or paper pasted in sheets upon models. The 
cheaper articles of papier mache are made of 
white or brown paper mashed in water and 
pressed in oiled moulds. The better articles 
are produced by pasting or gluing together 
sheets of paper, which, when a proper degree 
of thickness is attained, are powerfully pressed 
and dried. While moist the preparation may 
be moulded into any form, and when dry it 
may be planed and rasped to shape. Several 
coats of varnish are next applied, and the ine- 
qualities are rubbed down with pumice stone. 
It is ornamented with gold, bronze powder, or 
colors, after which a varnish of shell lac is ap- 
plied and dried at a temperature of 280. A 
brilliant surface is obtained by polishing with 
rotten stone and oil, and by hand rubbing. 
For architectural ornaments, the sheets of pa- 

Eer prepared in layers with glue are pressed 
ito metal moulds. When removed, a compo- 
sition of paper pulp mixed with rosin and glue 
is put into the moulds, and the paper impres- 
sions being again inserted, the composition ad- 
heres to them permanently. Cartonpierre or- 
naments are similarly prepared, whiting being 
used in place of rosin, and are lighter and more 
durable than plaster of Paris. Papier mache 
is rendered to a great extent water-proof by 
mixing with the pulp a preparation of sulphate 
of iron and glue, and nearly fire-proof by add- 
ing to this borax and phosphate of soda. 
Papier mache is now used as a substitute for 
other materials in 'interior decorations. From 
a model made in clay or plaster a plaster mould 
is taken, into which a thin layer of the finest 
pulp is poured, which is backed by a thick, 
coarser pulp, generally made of bamboo. The 
casts are so strong that they can be made of 
great extent, and screwed to the walls or ceil- 
ings. When mixed with clay, glue, and an 
alkali, the material is fire-proof ; and if silicates 
are added, it is impervious to moisture. One 
of the most important properties of papier 
mache is the rapidity with which moulds can 
be taken with it from type, whereby the stereo- 



typing of daily newspapers has been rendered 
possible and common. (See PKINTING.) 

PAPILLON, Fcrnand, a French physiologist, 
born in Belfort in 1847, died in Paris, Jan. 2, 
1874. He studied at the lyceum in Colmar 
and at the college de France, attracting much 
attention by the ability displayed in his chemi- 
cal work. In 1864 he became attached to the 
staff of the Moniteur scientifique, and from 
that time was a frequent contributor to scien- 
tific periodicals. Several of his essays were 
also published in the Revue des Deux Mondes. 
His original investigations were chiefly in chem- 
ical physiology, but he also wrote on partly 
metaphysical topics. His principal writings 
have been translated into English and pub- 
lished in a volume entitled " Nature and Life " 
(New York, 1875). 

PAPDT, Denis, a French physicist, born in 
Blois in 1647, died in Marburg, Germany, about 
1712. He practised medicine in Paris for 
some time, but turned his attention to mechan- 
ics, and became the assistant of Huygens. He 
visited England in 1680, and while there pre- 
pared his Dissertation sur la maniere cPamollir 
les os, et de faire cuire toutes sortes de viandes 
en fort peu de temps et a pen de frais, avec la 
description de la machine (Paris, 1682). In 
this work he explained his digesteur or mar- 
mite, a contrivance for softening bones, the 
principle of which is still in use under the 
name of " Papin's digester." Having removed 
to Germany on account of the persecution to 
which he was exposed in France as a Protes- 
tant, he was appointed in 1687 professor of 
mathematics in the university of Marburg, and 
devoted his leisure to researches upon the use 
of steam. As early as 1690 he published the 
results of his labors in the Ada Eruditorum 
of Leipsic, proposing steam as a universal 
motive power, and describing a steam engine 
and even a rude paddle steamer. It appears 
from documents discovered by Prof. Kuhlmann 
in 1852 in the public library at Hanover, that 
in 1707 he had a vessel built in conformity 
with his invention, and tried it on the Fulda. 
His last published work was a Latin "Essay 
upon a new System for raising Water by the 
Action of Fire " (Frankfort, 1707): 

PAPINEAU, Louis Joseph, a Canadian politi- 
cian, born near Montreal in October, 1789, 
died at Montebello, near Quebec, Sept. 23, 
1871. He was admitted to the bar, but never 
practised. At the age of 22 he entered the 
provincial parliament, and in 1815 was elected 
speaker of the house. He was the leader of 
the radical party, and in order to neutralize 
his influence, the governor general, Lord Dal- 
housie, appointed him one of the executive | 
council ; but he never appeared at its sittings, 
and continued his opposition to the govern- 
ment. In 1823 he went to England to remon- 
strate against the union of Upper and Lower 
Canada. In 1827 he was reflected to the house 
and rechosen speaker. Eather than sanction 
this choice, Lord Dalhousie adjourned the par- 



PAPtNIANUS 



PAPPENHEIM 



55 



liament, and it was not till 1828 that Papineau 
could take his seat. He prepared a list of the 
demands and grievances of his countrymen, 
which was introduced to the house in 1834 by 
B6durd, and known afterward as the 92 resolu- 
tions. After supporting them in the house, at 
the close of the session he went through the 
country urging a constitutional resistance to the 
imperial government. He advised the colonists 
not to vote subsidies for more than six months, 
and this measure was carried out in the session 
of 1836 ; but the new governor, Lord Gosford, 
vetoed it, and decided upon administering the 
province without the assistance of parliament. 
While the other provinces were conciliated by 
concessions and favors, Lower Canada was 
threatened with harsh measures. Papineau 
strenuously advocated peaceful resistance, but 
the liberal party took up arms, and he was not 
heeded. He remained with the rebels, but did 
not share in their military operations. As the 
engagements of St. Denis, St. Charles, and St. 
Eustache, in November and December, 1837, 
had demonstrated the futility of armed resis- 
tance, and as his arrest for high treason was 
ordered, he took refuge in the United States, 
and afterward lived in Paris eight years, en- 
gaged in literary pursuits. In 1847 he re- 
turned, under the general amnesty of 1840, was 
again elected to parliament, retired in 1854, 
and thereafter took no part in public affairs. 

PAPDilAMS, ^rnilins, a Roman jurist, born 
about A. D. 170, put to death in 212. He suc- 
ceeded Septimius Severus as advocatus jisci, and 
when the latter became emperor (193) received 
the office of libellorum magister, and subse- 
quently that of prcefectus prcetorio. In the 
second year of the reign of Caracalla he was 
beheaded by order and in the presence of that 
tyrant. Papinian was one of the most eminent 
of the Roman jurists. Among his pupils were 
Ulpian, Paulus, and others ; and in the Digests 
are 595 extracts from his works. 

PAPIRIUS CURSOR, a Roman family of the 
Papiria gens, supposed to have derived its name 
from the fleetness of foot of its founder. The 
following are its chief members. I. LIN ins, mas- 
ter of the horse under the dictator L. Papirius 
Crassus in 340 B. C., the date of the first historic 
mention of his name. In 333 he was consul with 
Ppetelius Libo, and according to some author- 
ities held the consulship again in 326. In the 
second year of the second Samnite war (325) 
he was made dictator during the illness of Lucius 
Camillus, the consul. He had taken the field, 
and was about to engage the enemy, when some 
reason arising to throw doubt upon the aus- 
pices which he had taken before opening the 
campaign, he returned temporarily to Rome, 
giving strict orders to Q. Fabius Maximus, his 
master of the horse, not to join battle in his 
absence. Fabius violated the order, and won 
the signal victory of Imbrinium. Papirius, a' 
strict disciplinarian, and unpopular with the 
army on this account, hastened back to pun- 
ish his disobedient lieutenant; but the latter 



was sustained by the troops, and, on appeal- 
ing to them, by the senate and people. The 
ill feeling of the army toward Papirius caused 
his defeat in his first battle, but, having con- 
ciliated his soldiers, he conducted the rest 
of the campaign with great success, and re- 
ceived a triumph. In 320, when consul for 
the second or third time, he again conducted 
a campaign against the Samnites in Apulia, 
which, though he was at one time hard 
pressed, was ultimately successful, Luceria be- 
ing captured. He received a second triumph ; 
and he was afterward thrice reflected consul, 
the Samnite war continuing through all his 
terms. In 309 he was again made dictator 
under very peculiar circumstances, his old lieu- 
tenant Fabius, naturally hostile to him, being 
ordered to nominate him for the post. Fabius 
sacrificed his personal hate and made the nomi- 
nation ; and Papirius hastened to the relief of 
the hard-pressed Roman army under Marcius 
in Apulia. After some little manoeuvring he 
gained a decisive and final victory over the 
Samnites, and, returning to Rome, celebrated 
a third triumph of peculiar magnificence. His 
death is believed to have occurred soon after. 
II* Lucius, son of the preceding, possessed mili- 
tary talents hardly inferior to his father's; 
and, having been made consul in 293, con- 
ducted much of the third Samnite war, as his 
father had of the second. He ended a suc- 
cessful campaign in Campania by great victo- 
ries near Aquilonia, and celebrated a triumph. 
Soon afterward he dedicated a temple erected 
by his father in honor of Quirinus, and placed 
near it the first sun dial set up at Rome. In 
272 he was elected consul a second time, sub- 
dued the Bruttians and Lucanians, and was 
granted the honor of a second triumphal entry 
into the city. 

PAPPENHEIM, Gottfried Heinrich, count, an im- 
perial general in the thirty years' war, born 
May 29, 1594, died at Leipsic, Nov. 7 (new 
style 17), 1632. He received a liberal educa- 
tion at Altdorf and Tubingen, and travelled 
extensively. His zeal for the Roman Catholic 
faith leading him to adopt the profession of 
arms, he became a captain of cavalry, and was 
soon distinguished for his daring and courage. 
At Linz he joined the Bavarian army, and 
was made lieutenant colonel. At the battle of 
Prague, in 1620, he received 20 wounds, and 
was left for dead on the field. In 1623 the 
emperor appointed him commander of a regi- 
ment of cuirassiers, afterward celebrated under 
the name of Pappenheimers. He fought in 
Lombardy till 1626, when he was recalled to 
put down an insurrection of Protestant peas- 
ants in Upper Austria, who had resorted to 
arms to defend their faith. This revolt, in 
which 40,000 peasants perished, he crushed in 
a month ; the history of it he himself wrote. 
He assisted Tilly in his campaign in northern 
Germany against Christian IV. of Denmark, 
and in May, 1631, bore a leading part in the 
storming of Magdeburg. In the sack of this 



56 



PAPPUS 



city his troops acted with the greatest ferocity. 
In the defeat at Leipsic, Pappenheim received 
seven wounds and owed his life to a peasant. 
After the death of Tilly he joined Wallenstein, 
and in the battle of Liitzen (Nov. 6) received a 
mortal wound, and was carried to Leipsic. 
See Hess, Gottfried Heinrich, Graf 'con Pap- 
penheim (Leipsic, 1855). 

PAPPUS, Alexandrinus, a Greek geometer, who 
flourished according to Suidas in the latter part 
of the 4th century of our era, though by some 
modern critics he has been placed in the latter 
half of the 2d. He wrote several works, all 
of which have perished except the last six 
out of the eight books of the " Mathematical 
Collections." There is no edition of the Greek 
text, but two have been printed of the Latin 
version ; a portion of the original was printed 
by Dr. Wallis (London, 1688). 

PAPUA, or New Guinea, the largest island in 
the world, with the exception of Australia 
and possibly Borneo. It is included in the 
Australasian division of Oceania, and lies be- 
tween lat. 6' and 10 45' S., and Ion. 130 
45' and 151 E., directly E. of the Indian archi- 
pelago and N. of Australia, from which it is 
separated by Torres strait, bounded S. "W. by 
those portions of the Indian ocean known as 
the Banda and Arafura seas, and elsewhere 
by the Pacific. Its length N. W. and S. E. is 
about 1,500 m., maximum breadth 400 m. ; es- 
timated area, from 260,000 to upward of 300,- 
000 sq. m. Papua is less known to civilized 
man than any other region of equal extent on 
the earth. Until recently even the principal 
features of the coast had not been accurately 
determined, and no European had ever been 
able to advance more than a few miles into 
the interior. The island is of irregular out- 
line and deeply indented by several large bays, 
which form extensive peninsulas of its eastern 
and western extremities, while the more com- 
pact portion is situated between the 135th and 
145th meridians. Thus on the N. coast, near 
Ion. 135, Geelvink bay, over 150 m. wide at 
its mouth, penetrates 120 m. southward, ap- 
proaching within some 30 m. of the waters of 
Etna bay on the S. side of the island. The 
peninsula so formed trends "W. N". W. from 
the narrow isthmus between these bays, and is 
indented in turn by McOlure inlet from the 
Banda sea, which extends inland to within 18 
m. of Geelvink bay on the opposite coast. A 
second peninsula stretches thence westward to 
Galewo strait, 2 to 3 m. wide, between Papua 
and the neighboring island of Salawaty, and 
northward to a point called the cape of Good 
Hope, in lat. 6' S., Ion. 132 30' E. The 
great peninsula forming the eastern end of the 
island may be considered as beginning at a line 
drawn from Astrolabe bay on the N. coast, 
near Ion. 146, directly S. to the head of the 
gulf of Papua, on the S. coast, a body of wa- 
ter about equal in extent to Geelvink bay. It 
terminates near the Louisiade archipelago, not 
in a single point, as represented on all but the 



PAPUA 

latest maps, but in a broad fork consisting of 
two promontories, of which the northern is 
much the narrower, separated by Milne bay, 
an arm of the sea 20 m. long and about 8 m. 
wide. This appears by the survey made in 
1873 by Oapt. Moresby of the British navy. 
The N. E. coast of this large peninsula borders 
on Dampier strait, between Papua and the isl- 
and of New Britain, and is indented by Huon 
gulf. The most important inlet on the N. side 
of the main body of the island is Humboldt 
bay, near the 141st parallel of E. longitude, W. 
of which the Dutch claim dominion over the 
whole country. Jobie and several other islands 
of considerable size are situated near the mouth 
of Geelvink bay ; and Prince Frederick Hen- 
ry's island, close to the S. coast, from which it 
is separated by Dourga strait, is about as large 
as the Moluccan island of Booro. The Key 
and Arroo groups lie S. of the western portion 
of Papua. The sea surrounding the island is 
deep on the Pacific side, but shallow toward 
Australia, in which direction it does not ex- 
ceed 100 fathoms in depth. Papua is a moun- 
tainous island, subject to a hot, damp climate, 
and clothed with a luxuriantly rich forest ve- 
getation throughout its known extent. But 
few large rivers have been discovered. Moun- 
tains are visible in the interior from all parts 
of the coast. The principal chains are the Ar- 
fak range, in the N. W. peninsula, with a maxi- 
mum altitude- variously calculated at from 7,000 
to 9,500 ft.; the Snowy mountains, E. of 
Geelvink bay toward the middle of the island, 
of similar altitude, and so called because snow 
is said to have been seen upon their summits ; 
and the Stanley range, from 9,000 to 13,000 
ft. high, in the S. E. peninsula. Volcanic ac- 
tion is not known to occur in Papua, although 
Dampier reported volcanoes on the N. E. 
coast opposite New Britain -in 1699. Earth- 
quakes are infrequent, and seldom severe. The 
coast of the N. W. peninsula is of coral forma- 
tion, as also are the adjacent islands, but noth- 
ing is known of the geology of the interior. 
The great height of the Papuan mountains 
and their distance from the coast have led to 
the inference that there must be large streams 
in the country; among the most considerable 
as yet known is the Amberno, described by 
the German traveller Meyer as sending vol- 
umes of fresh water into the sea at the N. E. 
end of Geelvink bay. The climate of Papua 
is warm and moist. During the wet season 
the rains on the coast are exceedingly heavy, 
and malarial fevers are prevalent. The flora 
resembles that of Borneo in the varied and 
luxuriant vegetation of the hot and damp tropi- 
cal forests. Little is known, however, of the 
natural history of the island except what re- 
lates to its fauna. A dense growth of man- 
groves lines much of the S. coast W. of Torres 
strait, and the forest trees here reach a height 
of 200 to 250 ft. Of the 17 Papuan mammals, 
all are marsupials but three, of which two are 
bats and one is a species of pig (sus Papuensis). 



PAPUA 



PAPUAN EACE 



57 



The tree kangaroo is the most characteristic of 
the marsupials, which order is represented fur- 
ther by the flying opossum and four species 
of cuscus. According to "Wallace, the birds of 
Papua are more numerous, more beautiful, and 
afford more new, curious, and elegant forms 
than those of any other island on the globe. 
Eleven species of birds of paradise are known 
to inhabit the island, of which eight are not 
found elsewhere except in the closely contigu- 
ous island of Salawaty. There are 30 species 
of parrots, among them the largest and small- 
est parrots known to ornithologists ; 40 species 
of pigeons, including the beautiful crowned 
pigeons; and 16 species of kingfishers. The 
cassowary is also included among the 108 
genera of Papuan land birds. Meyer's recent 
researches on the herpetology of this region 
show that there are 63 different forms of rep- 
tiles and batrachians in Papua and the ad- 
jacent islands, comprising more than 30 spe- 
cies of lizards, 16 serpents, of which one is 
allied to the Australian carpet snake, and one 
tortoise besides the marine tortoise. Insects 
are exceedingly numerous and noted for their 
beauty of form and color. Wallace collected 
1,000 distinct sorts of beetles in a space of one 
square mile during a three months' residence at 
Dorey. The zoological affinities of Papua and 
Australia, together with the shallowness of the 
intervening sea, have been regarded as strong 
evidence of the former existence of land com- 
munication between these two vast islands. 
There is no means of forming any trustworthy 
estimate of the population of Papua. The in- 
habitants belong to the typical Papuan race, 
and have a facial expression not unlike that 
of Europeans. (See PAPUAN RACE AND LAN- 
GUAGES.) No other indigenous race has been 
met with on the island. The double extremity 
of the S. E. peninsula, visited by Capt. Mores- 
by in 1873, although very rugged and moun- 
tainous, is intersected by fertile valleys, which 
are well cultivated by the natives, who there 
excel as agriculturists. Their villages in this 
region are described as singularly neat, in 
which respect they contrast favorably with 
those in the N. W. part of the island near 
Dorey, where the houses are built on poles 15 
ft. above the ground. Recent travellers re- 
port the prevalence of cannibalism in numer- 
ous localities, but its existence does not seem 
to be proved. The government of the Nether- 
lands is the only European power having co- 
lonial possessions in Papua. The are'a under 
Dutch control is said to be about 29,000 sq. 
m., with an estimated population of 200,000. 
The territory which has long been claimed 
by the Netherlands, however, is much more 
extensive, comprising nearly half the island. 
Dorey, a small village situated on a fine harbor 
on the N. side of the N. W. peninsula, is one 
of the principal Dutch stations frequented by 
European and Mohammedan traders. There 
are missionary posts in this part of Papua. 
Birds of paradise, tripang, wild nutmegs, and 



tortoise shell are among the chief articles of 
export in the active trade carried on with the 
Moluccas. Papua was discovered in the early 
part of the 16th century by the Portuguese, 
by whom it was named New Guinea from the 
striking resemblance between its inhabitants 
and those of Guinea in Africa. The Dutch 
in 1828 built a fort called Dubus on the S. 
E. coast, but the climate proved so unhealthy 
that they were forced to abandon it. They 
subsequently succeeded, however, in establish- 
ing trading stations at various localities. The 
S. E. coast was explored in 1845 by the Fly, 
a British government vessel, and in 1846 by 
the schooner Bramble. Another expedition in 
the British ship Rattlesnake in 1848 discover- 
ed the Stanley range, one peak of which was 
ascertained to be 13,205 ft. above the sea. A 
successful effort to complete this survey was 
made in 1873 and 1874 by Capt. Moresby of 
the British navy, in the ship Basilisk, who 
carefully examined the S. coast from Torres 
strait to the E. end of the island, and the N. 
coast thence westerly to Astrolabe bay. A 
Dutch scientific commission visited the "W. part 
of Papua in 1858. The natural history of that 
region was investigated by A. R. Wallace in 
the same year; by D'Albertis and Beccari, in 
1872; and by Meyer, the German naturalist, 
in 1873. The most recent work on Papua is 
" Wanderings in the Interior of New Guinea," 
by J. H. Lawson (London, 1875), whose state- 
ments, however, have been called in question. 
PAPUAN RACE AND LANGUAGES. The Papuans 
are the original inhabitants of the islands of 
the Indian and Pacific oceans, but, driven out 
or extirpated from the coasts by the Malayo- 
Polynesian races, they are generally in pos- 
session of only the interior and inaccessible 
portions. The name Papua is derived from 
the Malay papuvaJi, crisp-haired, a descriptive 
term applied to the people. The Indian archi- 
pelago is considered the primitive home of the 
Papuans. Though the Malays have intermixed 
but little with the Papuan race, it is necessary 
to distinguish between pure Papuans and mix- 
ed Papuans. In the former class are counted 
the inhabitants of Papua, of the Key, Arroo, 
Mysol, Salawaty, and Waigioo islands, as well 
as the Aetas or negritos of the Philippines. 
(See NEGEITOS.) It is still doubtful whether 
also the inhabitants of Borneo, Celebes, and 
Gilolo belong to the pure division of the race, 
but most ethnologists agree in considering as 
such the Semangs on the peninsula of Ma- 
lacca, as well as the Andaman and Nicobar 
islanders. To the class of mixed Papuans 
really belong all the tribes of Oceania east of 
the aboriginal home of the Papuans. Conse- 
quently Wallace is inclined to treat all the Po- 
lynesian races as mixed Papuans, yet this des- 
ignation should be applied to them only where 
there has been a nearly complete typical change. 
As such are reckoned the Alfuros on the north- 
ern peninsula of Gilolo, the aboriginal popula- 
tion of Ceram, Booro, Timor, the islands west 



58 



PAPUAN RACE AND LANGUAGES 



of Timor as far as Flores, and the Sandalwood 
islands as far as Timorlaut. The principal seat 
of the mixed Papuans is Melanesia, and espe- 
cially the Feejee islands, where the straight- 
haired Malay has been totally absorbed by the 
crisp-haired Papuan. Wallace describes the 
typical Papuan as of a deep sooty brown or 
black, and having crisp hair, growing in tufts, 
attaining such a length as to permit the ma- 
king of a sort of peruke. The face has a crisp 
beard, and even the arms, legs, and chest are 
more or less covered with such hair. The 
stature equals or exceeds that of the average 
European. The legs are long and thin, and 
the hands and feet are large. The nose is 
bent, and the wide nostrils are somewhat con- 
cealed by the prolonged tip. The mouth is 
large, and the lips are thick and puffed up. 
The Papuan is impulsive and demonstrative in 
language and action. He is intellectually su- 
perior to the Malay, and his inferior position 
in civilization must be ascribed to a lack of 
contact with cultured races. A very wide 
difference seems to exist in the state of society 
in different parts of Papua. The inhabitants 
of the S. and W. coasts, having been for ages 
in communication with the people of the In- 
dian archipelago, more especially with those of 
the Moluccas, live in comparatively comfort- 
able dwellings, and are decently clothed ; they 
build large rowing and sailing .boats, and have 
a knowledge of iron; they cultivate some 
ground, and have two domestic animals, the 
hog and the dog. Toward the north the tribes 
become gradually more barbarous, and in some 
districts wear little or no clothing, though a 
covering of shells or leaves for the loins is not 
uncommon. They are very elaborate in their 
coiffures, and some apply a sort of caustic 
which turns the hair red or flaxen. Though 
tattooing with the needle is seldom practised, 
they produce little scars on the body which 
they burn black or red with a hot coal. Nose, 
ears, neck, and arms are adorned with rings, 
shells, bones, and similar appendages. Their 
villages, commonly on the banks of rivers, 
resemble the recently discovered lake dwell- 
ings of central Europe. The huts are built on 
poles, and are generally 5 ft. high, 6 ft. broad, 
and about 100 ft. long, and covered by a steep 
roof about 20 ft. high. The floor is laid with 
bamboo canes, but so widely apart that the 
river is seen flowing underneath. The interior 
is generally divided by a corridor into halves, 
and these again into various apartments. In 
several villages they have tracts of cultivated 
land planted with tobacco, palms, &c. Their 
arms consist of a bow and arrow, a lance, and 
a peculiar kind of club, 4 ft. long, very thin 
and narrow at one end, and broad and many- 
cornered at the other. They use a blow-gun 
made of a bamboo reed of considerable length, 
with which they blow dust into the air as a 
signal. Every man has as many wives as he 
can buy and maintain ; but it is said that the 
negritos live in monogamy, and that the women 



may refuse their suitors. After the dead have 
been buried two years their bones are unearthed 
and put into a grotto or cave, and until this 
has been done no widow is allowed to marry 
again. Of their religious conceptions but lit- 
tle is known. Their musical instruments are 
of the rudest kind, and the height of their 
art is to play very loudly on them. The lan- 
guages spoken by the Papuans are not suffi- 
ciently known to admit of treating them for 
comparative purposes, or to form a hypothesis 
as to their connection with other families of 
speech. The dialects spoken in Papua seem 
to possess a certain degree of relationship to 
each other, but to what degree they are re- 
lated to the negrito idioms cannot be deter- 
mined. In the districts of Minahasa and Go- 
rontalo in Celebes, and on the coasts of Tomini 
bay, no fewer than 23 dialects have been in- 
vestigated by Riedel, and on the whole island 
there are at least 100 dialects. The variety of 
the dialects in Papua is still greater, for, with 
the exception of the S. W. coast, no political 
organization has been formed on the island. 
Every village has its own dialect, and the 
terms for the commonest objects are entirely 
different. Dr. A. B. Meyer's treatise Ueber die 
Mafoor'seTie und einige andere Papua- Sprachen 
auf Neu- Guinea, read in 1874 before the Vi- 
enna academy of sciences, is the first attempt 
at a grammar of a Papuan dialect. Previous 
to this the only material furnished was a few 
short vocabularies of some dialects, like those 
contained in Ottow-Crooke wit's Nieuw- Guinea 
ethnographisch en natuurkundig onderzoclit en 
fieschreven (Amsterdam, 1862), which good au- 
thority pronounces untrustworthy, and the 11 T 
words given in A. R. Wallace's "Malay Archi- 
pelago " (London, 1869), comparing Papuan and 
Malayo-Polynesian dialects. The vocabularies 
added to his treatise by Dr. Meyer are so far 
the largest given. The Maf oor language is spo- 
ken by Papuans originally inhabiting the island 
of Mafoor, but now occupying the island of 
Manasvari, usually called Mansinam after the 
chief town, on the island of Rohn or Ruhn, and 
in Papua near the bay of Dorey. It is very 
rich, always having several terms for one and 
the same thing. In words denoting abstractions 
it is necessarily poor. There is no definite ar- 
ticle. The nouns are mostly stems ; but few are 
derived or compound. Gender is confined to 
the sex of organic beings. The plural number 
is formed by adding to the noun the personal 
pronoun of the third person plural. The gen- 
itive is formed by prefixing ro, and the dative 
by be. Adjectives follow their nouns, and are 
themselves followed by weer for the compara- 
tive, and by Icalcu for the superlative degree. 
The first ten cardinal numbers are : osseer, suru, 
lcior,fialc, rim, onem,fieTc, waar, sio, and sam- 
fur. The personal pronouns are : aja, j, j\ I ; 
awe, wa, w\ au, thou ; de, d\ i, he ; inJco, Tco, 
Jc\ we ; imgu, mgu, mg, you ; si, ', they. There 
are also dual forms : nu, ri 1 , we two ; mu, m\ 
you two ; su, s\ they two. Possessive, demon- 



PAPYRUS 



59 



strative, and interrogative pronouns are also 
used. Verbs are always used in connection 
with a personal pronoun affixed, but do not 
admit of inflection. Tense and mood are indi- 
cated by special words, and only the present, 
past, and future are distinguished. There are 
also various adverbs of place, time, affirma- 
tion, negation, and doubt, as well as a large 
number of prepositions, conjunctions, and in- 
terjections. See Friedrich Muller, Allgemeine 
Ethnograpliie (Vienna, 18V3); Peschel, All- 
gemeine Vdlkerlcunde (2d ed., Leipsic, 1875) ; 
and the works cited above. 

PAPYRUS, the ancient name for paper, and for 
the plant which furnished the material from 
which it was made. The papyrus plant or pa- 
per reed belongs to the family of cyperacece or 
sedges, nearly related to the grasses, and as re- 
markable for the small number of its useful 
plants as the grasses are for their many valua- 
ble species. The papyrus was named by Lin- 
na3us cyperus papyrus ; but later botanists, re- 
garding this and several other species as suffi- 
ciently distinct, admit the genus papyrus, and 
call it P. antiquorum, a name which is gen- 
erally adopted. It was called papu by the 
Egyptians, whence the Greek irairvpos and our 
paper. Herodotus calls it byllus ((3v(3%os, 
whence the Greek fiiflMov, book, and our word 
Bible), and Strabo "biblus hieraticus. It grows 
on the marshy banks of rivers in Abyssinia, 
Syria, and Sicily, and formerly abounded on 
the banks of the Nile ; but according to Sir 
Gardner Wilkinson, it has disappeared from 
Egypt, and some think it never was indige- 
nous there, but was a native of Syria and 
Abyssinia, and has become extinct from want 
of culture. It has been seen in modern times 
in Abyssinia, in the neighborhood of Jaffa, on 
the banks of the Anapus near Syracuse, and 
according to some on the borders of Lake Men- 
zaleh in the delta of the Nile ; but the last 
was probably another species, and it is doubt- 
ful if the Sicilian plant is the papyrus anti- 
quorum, although it closely resembles it. The 
plant has large and abundant rootstocks, which 
spread in the mud and throw up numerous 
stems from 5 to 10 ft. high, the lower portion 
being submerged; the stem is triangular and 
smooth ; the leaves all spring from near the 
the upper part of the stem being quite 
naked and bearing its inflorescence at the apex 
in the form of a large compound umbel ; this 
consists of numerous slender branching pedun- 
cles, bearing at their extremities the flowers 
in small heads or spikes, and forming a grace- 
ful drooping tuft, which has at its base an in- 
volucre of long narrow leaves ; the small flat- 
tened spikes consist of six or more glumaceous 
flowers. The papyrus is frequently cultivated 
as a stove plant, both as a curiosity and for 
crits as a decorative plant, its tall naked 
. each bearing a delicate waving green um- 
bel at the top, making a well grown specimen 
a splendid object. Though aquatic, it can be 
cultivated in pots if freely watered, and may be 



planted in the open ground in summer if it can 
have a moist place or sufficient water. Anoth- 
er plant is sometimes found in cultivation as 
the papyrus, the related cyperus alternifolius ; 
this is smaller in every respect, and its much 
smaller heads or umbels are coarser and lack 
the graceful drooping character of those of 
the papyrus, but it is much more hardy. The 
right of growing and selling the papyrus was 
a government monopoly in Egypt, where its 
cultivation was restricted to the Sebennytic 
and Saitic nomes. It was used for a great va- 
riety of purposes besides paper. Its graceful 
plumes crowned the statues of the gods and 
decorated their temples ; its pith was eaten as 
food ; wickerwork boats, boxes, and baskets 




Papyrus. 

were woven of its stalk, and of its bark were 
made sails, cordage, cloth, mats, and sandals 
for the priests ; it was applied as medicine to 
the cure of fistulas and ulcers; it furnished 
material for torches and candles, and its roots 
were used for fuel and manufactured into furni- 
ture and household utensils. Wilkinson thinks 
however that some species of cyperus, and not 
the P. antiquorum, was used for many of these 
grosser purposes. In making paper the inner 
cuticle of the stalk was separated into thin 
laminaB by a sharp point. The finest were 
those next to the pith, and the layers, of which 
there were about 20, decreased in quality as 
they approached the outer integument, which 
was coarse and fit only for making cordage, 
mats, &c. The slips were laid side by side 



PAPYRUS 



PARA 



on a smooth flat surface and covered with a 
second layer placed at right angles to them, 
after which they were pressed so as to cause 
the different laminas to adhere to each other 
and form a single sheet, which was then dried 
in the sun. Pliny says the laminae were made 
adhesive by wetting them with Nile water, to 
which he ascribes a glutinous quality, but their 
own sticky sap was sufficient to hold them to- 
gether. In the Roman times a thin sizing was 
used for this purpose. The sheets were finally 
beaten smooth with a mallet and polished with 
a piece of ivory or a shell. The breadth of the 
sheet was limited by the length of the papy- 
rus slips, but its length could be extended in- 
definitely by placing numbers of the laminae 
beside each other. When finished, the papy- 
rus was rolled upon a wooden cylinder (sea- 
pus), the ends of wh'teh projecting beyond 
the edges of the sheet were neatly finished 
and ornamented. Various qualities of papy- 
rus were manufactured, of which, according 
to Pliny, the hieratic, 11 digits in width, used 
for the sacred books, was formerly the best ; 
but under the Roman domination two finer 
kinds of 13 digits' breadth, the Augustine and 
Livian, were made. Another quality, the Fan- 
man, 10 digits wide, was manufactured from 
an inferior grade. The Saitic papyrus, made 
in the nome of that name, was of cheap qual- 
ity, and the Tanitic was so poor as to be sold 
by weight. An eighth grade, not more than 
six fingers wide, was used only for wrapping 
paper. In the reign of Claudius the papyrus 
was greatly improved in fineness, strength, and 
color, by putting a new layer of the best leaves 
over a sheet of coarser quality. The papyrus 
rolls taken from the Egyptian tombs differ in 
size and in quality, being from 4 to 18 in. in 
breadth, and varying in texture and color from 
a coarse yellowish brown, in which the fibre 
is visible, to a fine silky material of smooth 
surface and light color. In 1753 several hun- 
dred papyri were taken from an excavation at 
Herculaneum, a part of which are Greek and a 
part Latin manuscripts. The former are from 
8|- to 12 in. in width, and the latter wider. 
They are nearly reduced to carbon, and the 
pages are quite black, the letters being distin- 
guishable only in a favorable light. The ut- 
most care, patience, and ingenuity have been 
devoted to unrolling and deciphering them, 
but with results that scarcely repaid the trou- 
ble, as no works of any consequence have yet 
been recovered. Attention was first called to 
the papyri of Egypt when the history and an- 
tiquities of that country were developed by 
the French expedition. A great number have 
since been exhumed, and through their deci- 
pherment much light has been shed on the 
history, manners and customs, and literature 
of Egypt. Papyrus was used for writing at a 
very remote period in Egypt, as early probably 
as the third or fourth dynasty. It was an ar- 
ticle of commerce before the time of Herodo- 
tus, but it did not come into universal use in 



Greece before the time of Alexander. Under 
his successors it was one of the chief articles 
of Egyptian commerce. The plant was raised 
also, according to some authorities, in Calabria 
and Apulia, and in the marshes of the Tiber ; 
but according to others, the Romans only re- 
manufactured and improved the papyrus im- 
ported from Egypt. In the time of the repub- 
lic great numbers of hieratic papyri which had 
been written upon were sent from Alexandria 
to Rome, where they were cleaned and pre- 
pared anew for writing. Under Augustus the 
trade in both books and papyrus was very 
large. In the reign of Tiberius the demand 
often exceeded the supply, and it was neces- 
sary to appoint a committee of the senate to 
regulate its distribution. In the 7th century 
the conquest of Egypt by the Saracens put an 
end to the export, and western Europe was 
obliged to supply its place with parchment 
and vellum until the introduction of paper, 
although papyrus was occasionally used for 
several centuries after. To this general sub- 
stitution of parchment, and the transferring to 
it of works written on the perishable papyrus, 
is due in a great measure the preservation of 
ancient literature. (See EGYPT, LANGUAGE AND 
LITEEATUEE OF, and MANUSCBIPT.) 

PARi) or GrJio Par, a N". E. province of Bra- 
zil, bounded K by Guiana, K E. by the Atlan- 
tic, S. E. by Maranhao and Goyaz, S. by Mat- 
to Grosso, and W. by Amazonas ; area, 460,- 
000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 320,000. The coast, 
which is about 600 m. long in a straight line, 
comprises the most irregular portion of the 
Brazilian seaboard, being indented with numer- 
ous bays and inlets, the principal of which is 
the vast embouchure of the Amazon with its 
hundred islands, the most noteworthy of these 
being Maraj6, Caviana, and Maxiana. The in- 
terior is described as a vast plain intersected 
by mighty rivers, and with but few hills, save 
in the 1ST. E. and S. "W. corners, those in the 
former region being the more elevated. The 
Almeirim hills on the left bank of the Ama- 
zon, some 200 m. from its mouth, are of sin- 
gular formation, perfectly level on the top, 
and separated by wide openings with smooth 
sides. Their height is estimated at 1,800 ft. 
above the level of the river. Besides the 
Amazon, the more important rivers are the 
Tocantins, Araguay, Xingu, Tapajos, Trom- 
betas, Oyapok, Araguary, Gurupi, Maju, Ca- 
pim, Acara, Anapu, Pacaja, Anajas, Guama, 
Para, and Guajara. The climate is not gen- 
erally unhealthy, especially in the comdrcas 
or districts of Braganca and Cameta. On the 
Amazon rain falls almost every afternoon. 
The soil is fertile, and the vegetation the rich- 
est and most varied in the world. The pri- 
meval forests present inexhaustible supplies of 
timber and precious woods, including the va- 
rious species of jacarandd or rosewood, the 
itauba or stonewood, pao ferro or ironwood, 
300 or 400 kinds of palms and medicinal trees, 
dye woods, &c. (See BEAZIL.) The chief culti- 



PAKA 



PARADOXURUS 



61 



vated products are rice, cotton, the sugar cane, 
coffee, and some vegetables; and the export 
staples are caoutchouc in prodigious quanti- 
ties, cacao, Maranhao chestnuts, rice, sugar, 
honey, hides, tapioca, with urucu (said to be 
superior to Brazil wood as a dye), sarsaparilla, 
balsam copaiba, and many other drugs, isin- 
glass, &c. Cattle are largely reared. Besides 
the ocean steamers visiting Belem, there are 
about 12 lines of steamers plying between that 
city and the more important towns on the 
Amazon and its tributary streams. There are 
about 250 primary and 13 grammar schools in 
the province. Para is divided into nine dis- 
tricts: Para, Cameta, Marajo, Braganca, Gu- 
rupa, Macapa, Santarem, Breves, and Obidos. 
Capital, Belem or Para. (See BELEM.) 

PARA, Rio. See AMAZON. 

PARACELSUS (PHILIPPUS AUKEOLUS THEO- 

PHKASTUS BOMBASTUS VON HoHENHEIM), a 

Swiss alchemist, born at Einsiedeln, Schwytz, 
in 1493, died in Salzburg, Sept. 23, 1541. He 
was the son of a physician, from whom he 
learned something of medicine, alchemy, and 
astrology, and made himself proficient in the 
arts of conjuring and juggling. He travelled 
on foot through the principal cities of Europe, 
visited Constantinople in the suite of a Tartar 
prince to learn from a Greek the secret of the 
elixir of Trismegistus, and, having become ac- 
quainted with some remedies not in common 
use among the faculty, returned to Switzer- 
land, where he became celebrated for remark- 
able cures. In 1526 he was appointed profes- 
sor of physic and surgery in the university 
of Basel. He proclaimed himself the sole 
monarch of physic, publicly burned the works 
of Galen and Avicenna, and professed to know 
the art of prolonging life and curing all dis- 
eases, and to hold more learning in the hairs 
of his beard than was possessed by all the 
universities and medical writers united. To 
the four elements of Aristotle he opposed the 
three compound principles of salt, sulphur, and 
mercury. The soul, according to him, was 
united to the body by an animal fluid. Man 
an image of the Trinity, his intellect 
representing God, his body the world, and the 
fluid the stars. He recognized a mysterious 
harmony between the body and the earth and 
salt, between the soul and water and mercury, 
and between the intellect and the air and sul- 
phur. His lectures were delivered sometimes 
in Latin, but generally in German, which made 
him popular and for a while attracted large au- 
diences. Erasmus consulted him for the stone, 
and the correspondence between the quack and 
the philosopher has been preserved. In his 
personal habits as well as his language Para- 
elsus affected oddity. He slept in his clothes, 
and in later life became very intemperate. 
After the first year his lectures were deserted. 
About the end of 1527 he was compelled to 
leave Basel for abusing a magistrate, and after 
wandering through Germany for several years 
obtained a temporary success in Moravia. He 



next visited successively Vienna, Villach, Min- 
delheim, and Salzburg, where he closed his life 
in poverty. He published a few works, and 
left several which were printed posthumously. 
One of the latest editions of his writings is in 
Latin in 3 vols. fol. (Geneva, 1658). 

PARADISE (Sans. para-de$a, a foreign coun- 
try ; Heb. parties, park ; Arab. Jirdaus ; Gr. 
7rapd<fo<70f), literally, a garden or pleasure 
ground planted with trees and flowers, whence 
the ternris used metaphorically to express the 
abstract idea of perfect felicity and heavenly 
blessedness. In the Septuagint it is employed 
to express the Hebrew "garden of Eden." 
The nature and locality of the Biblical paradise 
have been discussed under EDEN. Metaphori- 
cally the word expresses the happiness of 
the righteous in a future state, an application 
adopted by the later Jews, and the general 
idea of which is to be found in the mytholo- 
gies of various races. The mediaeval rabbini- 
cal literature contains various fanciful descrip- 
tions of an earthly and a heavenly paradise, 
the latter being reserved for the final abode 
of the souls of the blessed. The celestial para- 
adise is generally regarded as identical with 
heaven, or the place of future bliss accord- 
ing to the Christian dispensation; but Bibli- 
cal critics have differed as to the signification 
to be given to the term in Luke xxiii. 43, 
where Christ says to the penitent thief, " To- 
day shalt thou be with me in paradise ;" some 
considering the existence of a distinct abode 
for the reception of the blessed previous to 
the last judgment to be indicated, while oth- 
ers have found a stumbling block in the 
supposed doctrine of the Scriptures that be- 
tween his death and resurrection the Saviour 
descended into hell. In the later history of 
the word it is to be observed that the narthex 
or atrium in which those who, on account of 
not being of the faithful in full communion, 
were assembled, was known as the paradise of 
the church; and Athanasius, speaking scorn- 
fully of Arianism, represents it as creeping 
into paradise, implying that it was befitting the 
low and ignorant. The paradise of the Moham- 
medans, termed in the Koran Gannah, or the 
happy gardens, is a place of infinite sensual 
delights conceived with all the warmth of ori- 
ental fancy, where devout followers of the 
prophet are received after death. 

PARADISE, Bird of. See BIRD OF PAEADISE. 

PARADOXURCS, a carnivorous mammal, allied 
to the ichneumons, inhabiting Asia and the 
neighboring southern islands. It 'has the habit 
of tightly coiling in a spiral manner its long 
tail, which however is not prehensile, whence 
the generic name given by Cuvier ; the claws 
are retractile and cat-like, and the teeth like 
those of the civets. In the best known species, 
the luwack (P. typus), about the size of a cat, 
the general color is yellowish black, with three 
longitudinal rows of dark spots on each side of 
the back ; it is plantigrade, and quick in its 
movements both on the ground and in trees; 



PARAFFItfE 



it is nocturnal in habit, and-preys upon small 
mammals and birds and eggs. The musang of 




Luwack (Paratjoxurus typus). 

Java (P. musanga) is an allied species, which 
does much mischief in the coffee plantations. 

PARAFFINE (Lat. parum affinis, of weak af- 
finity), a white, waxy substance, which was dis- 
covered in 1830 by Eeichenbach among the 
products of the distillation of wood. It has 
since been produced by the distillation of many 
organic substances, such as resins, bituminous 
shales, peat, and boghead coal, and has been 
found ready formed in some varieties of petro- 
leum, in the mineral ozokerite, in bitumen, and 
in earth wax. That paraffine existed in petro- 
leum was noticed by Buckner in Bavarian oil 
as early as 1820 ; but as he did not pursue the 
inquiry to practical results, the credit of the 
discovery is assigned to Keichenbach, who ten 
years later fully described its properties and 
gave it its name. It was found in Kangoon 
petroleum in 1831, by Ohristison of Edin- 
burgh, who had no knowledge of Reichen- 
bach's discovery, and was named by him petro- 
line. American petroleum contains very lit- 
tle, but the Rangoon and Java oil affords from 

10 to 40 per cent. Various methods are em- 
ployed for the preparation of paraffine, de- 
pending upon whether it is a direct or an in- 
cidental product. Crude petroleum is distilled 
until 25 per cent, has gone over ; the remain- 
ing portion is caught in tanks surrounded by 
ice or refrigerating mixtures, and the paraffine 
cake condensed by the cold. Enormous quanti- 
ties of paraffine are made from ozokerite, which 
is a yellow vegetable wax, of fibrous structure 
and light specific gravity, found in Austria, Mol- 
davia, the Caucasus, and near the Caspian sea. 
In its natural state it will melt readily, but it 
requires to be wrapped around a wick before 
it will burn. In the manufacture, 300 Ibs. of 
ozokerite are subjected at a time to fractional 
distillation in an iron still, provided with cool- 
ers and condensers ; the yield is 8 per cent, of 

011 and 60 per cent, of paraffine. The oil is 
reserved for illuminating purposes. A portion 
of the light oil, which boils below 212 F., is 
used in refining paraffine. The crude paraffine 
contains an oil which is removed under a hy- 



draulic press and distilled to save adhering 
paraffine and for other purposes. The press 
cakes are melted and treated with sulphuric 
acid ; the acid is neutralized with lime, and the 
paraffine distilled off. The product is again 
pressed, melted with the light oil mentioned 
above, and once more pressed. The final re- 
sult is a perfectly white, transparent, hard sub- 
stance, ready for the manufacture of candles. 
The manufacture of paraffine by the dry distil- 
lation of peat and boghead coal is divided into 
two operations : 1, the production of tar ; 2, 
the working up of the tar for illuminating oil 
and paraffine. Before the discovery of petro- 
leum in Pennsylvania, this industry was re- 
garded as one of great importance. The illu- 
minating oil was called kerosene, a trade name 
which has since been applied to refined petro- 
leum. After the introduction of petroleum this , 
industry declined in the United States, but in 
Scotland it is still extensively practised under 
the patent of Mr. Young. (See KEROSENE.) 
Pure paraffine is a white, inodorous, tasteless 
substance, resembling spermaceti, harder than 
tallow, softer than wax, and having a specific 
gravity of 0'877. Its melting point depends 
somewhat on its origin, and ranges from 109 
to 149 F. An ultimate analysis yields car- 
bon 85 and hydrogen 15 per cent. It is in- 
soluble in water, but readily soluble in warm 
alcohol, ether, oil of turpentine, olive oil, ben- 
zole, chloroform, and carbon disulphide. It 
is indifferent to the most powerful acids and 
alkalies, and can be distilled unchanged with 
strong oil of vitriol. It readily combines in all 
proportions with wax, stearine, palmitine, and 
resin. When required for candles, its melting 
point is raised by fusing it with stearine, wax, 
or spermaceti. Besides the consumption of pa- 
raffine in the manufacture of candles, its ap- 
plication in the arts is extensive. Meat several 
times immersed in a bath of melted paraffine 
will keep for a long time ; and when wanted it 
is only necessary to melt off the adhering film 
to prepare it for cooking. Further uses of pa- 
raffine are for stoppers to acid bottles, to coat 
paper for photographic uses, as a lubricator, as 
burning oil, to coat pills, to refine alcohol and 
spirits, for the preservation of timber, to pre- 
serve fruit, for oil baths of constant temper- 
ature, to prevent the oxidation of metals, to 
render fabrics water-proof, in the manufacture 
of matches, as a disinfecting agent, and as a 
varnish for leather. It is introduced into the 
sugar vacuum pans to prevent the frothing of 
the sirup. In some forms of the galvanic bat- 
tery paraffine is introduced to prevent the evap- 
oration of the liquid, and paraffine insulators 
are employed on telegraph lines. If paraffine be 
heated with sulphur, it is decomposed, and sul- 
phuretted hydrogen is evolved. This reaction 
is now employed in the preparation of sulphu- 
retted hydrogen gas for laboratory use. Heat- 
ed for about 60 hours with nitro -sulphuric 
acid, paraffine yields a liquid called paraffinic 
acid, which has the specific gravity of 1'14, is 



PARAGUAY 



63 



insoluble in water, soluble in ether and alco- 
hol, combines with alkalies, and burns with an 
illuminating flame. Chlorine gas decomposes 
paraffine, yielding hydrochloric acid. In medi- 
cine the preservative and protecting properties 
of paraffine are brought into frequent requisi- 
tion ; and in general, its chemically indifferent 
properties and permanent character render it 
one of the most useful products of industry. 

PARAGUAY, a republic of South America, ex- 
tending from lat. 21 57' to 27 30' S., and 
from Ion. 54 33' to 58 40' W., bounded K 
and K E. by Brazil, S. E., S., and S. W. by 



the Argentine Republic, and N". W. by Bolivia; 
area (exclusive of the triangular section of the 
Gran Ohaco lying mainly between the rivers 
Paraguay and Bermejo and the 22d parallel, 
one portion of which is claimed by Bolivia 
and the remainder by the Argentine Republic) 
variously estimated at from 57,000 (Almanack 
de Gotha, 1875) to 90,000 sq. m. The area 
was much larger before the war of 1865-'70, 
at the termination of which Paraguay ceded 
1,329 sq. m. of its territory as a war indem- 
nity to Brazil, the limits being fixed, by the 
terms of the treaty of March 26, 1872, as fol- 




lows : " The bed of the Parand river from the 
mouth of the Iguazti (lat. 25 30' S.) to the 
Salto Grande (lat. 24 7'). From these falls 
the line runs (about due W.) along the highest 
divide of the Sierra de Maracayu to the termi- 
nation of the latter ; thence as nearly as pos- 
sible in a straight line (northward) along the 
highest ground to the Sierra de Amambay, fol- 
lowing the highest divide of that sierra to the 
principal source of the Apa, and along the bed 
>f that river (westward) to its junction with 
the Paraguay. All the streams flowing K and 
E. belong to Brazil, and those S. and W. to 



Paraguay." Paraguay was thus constrained to 
surrender the very portion of her territory so 
long claimed by Brazil, and the northern limit 
of which was the mouth of the Rio Blanco, 80 
m. above that of the Apa. The computations 
of the population range from 100,000 to 1,300,- 
000. A census ordered by Dr. Francia in 1840, 
and regarded as tolerably accurate, returned 
220,000. The natural rate of increase till 1865 
would have doubled this number (440,000) ; 
but in the subsequent five years' war the losses 
may fairly be estimated at half the population : 
170,000 males by battle and disease (chiefly 



635 



VOL. XIII. 5 



PARAGUAY 



the latter), and 50,000 women and children by 
famine and exposure in the forests. Thus the 
census returns of Jan. 1, 1873, were probably 
nearly correct, viz., 221,079. Of this number 
28,746 were males and 106,254 females over 
15 years of age, and 86,079 of both sexes under 
that age. The average proportion of male to 
female births is nearly as 8 to 9. The popu- 
lation is chiefly Indian (Guaranis and a few 
other tribes), the Guarani being the dominant 
language throughout the republic. The few- 
hundred white natives preserve their blood tol- 
erably pure by intermarriage or by marriage 
with Europeans, and are for the most part 
gathered in or around Asuncion, the capital. 
Next to the Indians, the most numerous ele- 
ment is the mulatto or hybrid from the union 
of the early Spanish settlers and the Indian 
women, and further modified by Mamalucos 
from southern Brazil, and by the introduction 
of African slaves. The number of pure-blood- 
ed Africans is now inconsiderable. In 1873 
there were 2,300 foreigners resident in Para- 
guay, including 2,000 Italians, 100 Germans, 
100 English, and the remainder Austrians, 
Dutch, and Swiss. The face of the country 
comprises two great valleys : one, on the west, 
from the Apa to the Parana southward, forms 
a part of the basin of the Paraguay river; 
and the other, on the east, by far the smaller, 
extends from lat. 24 S. to the extreme S. E. 
limits of the republic. The Serra de Sao Joze", 
approaching Paraguay from the north, consti- 
tutes, under the name of Cordillera de Amam- 
bay, the N. E. boundary with Brazil as far as 
lat. 24; whence, taking successively the ap- 
pellations of Cordillera de Urucuty, Caaguazu, 
and Villarica, the last (called Cuchilla Grande 
in its S. half) beginning W. of the town of 
the same name, it divides the country into two 
unequal portions. In lat. 24 an extensive 
branch known as the Cordillera de Maracayu 
is detached due E., and crossing the Parana 
forms the magnificent cataract of Guayra, the 
noise of which is said to be distinctly audible 
at a distance of 30 m. The greatest elevation, 
supposed nowhere to exceed 3,500 ft. above 
the sea, is attained in the lower extremity of 
the Cordillera de Amambay, and in the Mara- 
cayu and Caaguazu systems. The upper part 
of the Paraguay river basin, like the Gran 
Ohaco territory on the opposite bank, is for 
the most part flat, save in the extreme north, 
where the serrated ridge of Quince Puntas 
traverses the plain, and sends down the waters 
of the Barriego and La Paz, and the diminu- 
tive southern tributaries of the Apa. In this 
region are comprised the celebrated yerbalez, 
or mat6 fields. Low hills, thrown off rib-like 
from either side of the central chain, are sepa- 
rated by well watered and extremely fertile 
valleys, rich in primeval forests of valuable 
timber, and abounding in game. The south- 
ern portion of the republic is a vast expanse of 
swampy ground, closely resembling the allu- 
vial detritus from the Andes which prevails in 



the pampas. The swamps are variously desig- 
nated, according to their nature and extent, 
as lagunaa, cafladas, pantanos, or esteros. The 
lagunas are genuine lakes or lakelets, with solid 
clay beds and replenished by floods ; the cafia- 
dos, tracts of deep adhesive mud and stagnant 
water; the pantanos, mere morasses with less 
water than the last; and the esteros, sluggish 
streams flowing through extensive swamps. 
These marshy regions, sometimes termed car- 
rizales, are intersected at intervals by wave- 
like mounds of inconsiderable height, and are 
covered with compact jungles, interspersed 
with woody copses, shrubberies, caHaverales 
or patches of reed grass of giant growth, 
and palm groves. No traces of volcanic ac- 
tion have been found in Paraguay. The riv- 
ers Paraguay and Parana are described in sep- 
arate articles. The largest river belonging 
exclusively to the republic is the Tibicuari, 
which rises by two branches in the Cordillera 
de Villarica, or more properly the Ouchilla 
Grande, and after a tortuous course of about 
250 m., and collecting the waters of numerous 
minor streams, discharges into the Paraguay 
in lat. 26 39' S., Ion. 58 10' W. Page says 
that this stream, which for 100 m. from its 
embouchure has a mean width of 300 yards, 
might with a small outlay be made naviga- 
ble for many leagues in all seasons for steam- 
ers of 2 ft. draught, and Lopez II. ordered 
small steamers in England for that purpose; 
but in 1868 a light-draught monitor grounded 
about 15 m. up. Other well known Paraguay 
feeders are the Jejuy, whose numerous head 
streams descend from the central mountain 
chain, and which coursing through the yerbales 
might afford easy means of transport for mate 
to San Pedro, below which town it empties 
into the Paraguay, about lat. 24 15' S., but in 
the dry season is only navigable by boats or 
canoes above the town ; the Ypan6, 5 m. S. of 
Concepcion, only available for boat navigation ; 
and the Apa, formerly called the Corrientes, 
the northern limit with Brazil, having a width 
of 300 yards and a depth of about 9 ft. for 
several miles. Many streams flow from the 
mountains to the Parana, but all have precipi- 
tous courses and are unfit for navigation. Of 
the lakes, which are numerous, the most im- 
portant is the laguna Ypua, about 100 sq. m. 
in extent, and drained by a branch of the Ti- 
bicuari and another small river. The mineral 
resources of Paraguay are but imperfectly 
known. Mr. Twite reports the occurrence of 
precious metals in several places, and a great 
abundance of iron. The iron of Caapucti and 
Quioquio yields from 30 to 36 per cent, of pure 
metal ; and the iron works of Ibicuy, with up- 
ward of 100 operatives, were of great service 
to Lopez during the recent war. Copper has 
been found in several places. The scarcity of 
salt has frequently been sensibly felt in Para- 
guay, especially in 1865-'70, when the lack of 
it had so enfeebled the constitutions of the 
soldiers that their simplest wounds could not 



PARAGUAY 



65 



be healed. The climate is hot from Novem- 
ber to February inclusive, when the mean tem- 
perature is 90 F. in the shade, but the maxi- 
mum seldom higher than 100 ; in the winter 
months, June, July, and August, the average 
temperature is 50, the minimum being 40. 
In the absence of sea breezes, the nearest point 
of the Atlantic from the centre of the state be- 
ing 500 m. and of the Pacific 900 m. distant, 
the only modifying winds are those from the 
north and the south, the former having a re- 
laxing tendency, and the latter being the pre- 
cursor of rain and storms. Goitre is report- 
ed by Burton to be common at Asuncion, one 
case occurring in almost every family; but 
yellow fever and other epidemics are almost 
unknown in Paraguay, whose climate, particu- 
larly in the cultivated regions, has been pro- 
nounced one of the most salubrious in the 
world. The soil is uniformly fertile, and every 
species of vegetation most luxuriant. A large 
portion of the country is covered with forests ; 
and Du Graty enumerates upward of 50 dis- 
tinct species of excellent building timber, some 
almost as hard as iron, as the lapacho, quebra- 
cho (axe-breaker), urunday, and catigua, and 
so heavy as to sink in water. The firm tex- 
ture of the morosimo, polo amarillo, tataiba, 
palo de rosa, and many others, peculiarly adapts 
them to the purposes of the cabinet maker. 
The fruits of the araJian and nangapare are 
pleasant and nutritious. The Indians powder 
the fruit of the algarroba and preserve it in 
skins, and from its juice they make a favorite 
beverage. The seringar yields India rubber, 
and the palo san to gum guaiacum. One species 
of cactus furnishes the food of the cochineal 
insect. The bark of many trees is useful for 
tanning, and is an important article of export. 
From a parasite, the guembe, and from an aloe, 
the curuguaty, ropes and cables are extensive- 
ly manufactured ; and the guembetaya bears a 
fruit similar in appearance and taste to Indian 
corn, and used like the latter for bread by the 
natives. The caranday palm (Copernicia ceri- 
fera) affords an excellent roofing material, 
flinty, and impervious to moisture, and lasting 
30 years. The varieties of the bamboo are 
numerous. The flora produces also many im- 
portant medicinal drugs, as copaiba, rhubarb, 
sassafras, jalap, sarsaparilla, nux vomica, dra- 
gon's blood, and liquorice, and many dyestuffs. 
Flechilla or arrow-cane grass, very common 
along the banks of the rivers, affords a seed 
somewhat like oats, said to be as good as 
lucerne for fattening cattle. The yerbales, 
covering about 3,000,000 acres far in the in- 
terior, were for many years worked by the 
Indians under the Jesuits, through whom the 
yerba mate, or Paraguay tea, became known 
in most parts of South America as a substi- 
tute for tea and coffee. Of late years the con- 
sumption of mat6 has much diminished in 
Buenos Ayres, where it now brings 25 cents a 
pound. The quantity shipped in the time of 
Lopez never exceeded 4,463,425 Ibs. per an- 



num, worth about $800,000. The exports for 
1870 were reported at 4,500,000 Ibs., valued 
at $1,450,000; but these figures are consid- 
ered exaggerated. (See MAT) Several varie- 
ties of parasitic orchids, and the mais del agua, 
somewhat resembling the magnificent Victoria 
regia, are among the most remarkable of the 
flowering plants. In prosperous times, before 
the war of 1865-'TO, there were few landed 
proprietors, three fourths of the cleared coun- 
try having been confiscated by the govern- 
ment from the Jesuits at the time of their ex- 
pulsion, and rented at nominal rates to small 
cultivators, whose plantations of maize, man- 
dioca, cotton, and tobacco were to be met at 
intervals along the principal highways. In 
1870 a survey of the republic was made, with 
the following results : 

( Arable 42,600 sq. m. 

Public lands.-; Mountain and forest 27,000 " " 

( Yerbales 5,040 " " 



Total 74,640 sq. 

Private lands 15,360 u 



Total 90,000 sq. m. 

Agriculture is still zealously carried on; but 
owing to the insufficiency of laborers, not more 
than half of the most fertile districts are un- 
der cultivation. The chief agricultural products 
are maize, a sure and abundant crop, often 
yielding 150 fold, and mandioca, of which 
there are extensive farms. Rice is grown for 
home consumption, and frequently yields 250 
fold. Tobacco, of which three crops are ob- 
tained annually, is largely cultivated both for 
export and for home consumption, the latter 
having been estimated at 15,000,000 Ibs. per 
annum, and the exports at 6,000,000. In the 
trade returns for 1870 the tobacco exported 
figured at 3,500,000 Ibs., valued at $750,000. 
Smoking is universal in Paraguay, by both 
sexes at all ages. Cigars, called peti-Jioli and 
peti-pard, are manufactured on a large scale 
at Villarica and Asuncion, for the Buenos 
Ayres market. Paraguay tobacco obtained a 
gold medal at the Paris exhibition in 1855. 
The sugar cane thrives well, but for want of 
suitable machinery the crop is comparatively 
limited ; a liquor called cafta and considerable 
quantities of molasses are made from it. Ac- 
cording to official reports, there were 550,000 
acres of land under cultivation in 1863, as fol- 
lows : with maize, 240,000 ; mandioca, 110,000 ; 
beans, 75,000 ; cotton, 32,000 ; tobacco, 23,000 ; 
sugar cane, 25,000; mam (peanuts), 11,000; 
and rice, vegetables, &c., 34,000. Of cotton, 
4,000 bales were produced in 1863. Wool, 
fruits, honey, and indigo and other dyes could 
be supplied in prodigious quantities, if there 
were adequate means of transport. Among 
the rich dyes are the iriburetuia or "vulture's 
leg," which gives a blue metallic tint, and the 
acuagay root, a bright scarlet. There are 
large herds of cattle, estimated at 300,000 head 
in the year preceding the war ; the iorses are 



66 



PAEAGUAY 



generally inferior to those of the Argentine 
Republic ; and there are some sheep and oth- 
er European farm stock. The felidce are the 
same as those of Brazil, comprising the jaguar, 
here called onza, puma, and ocelot. The pec- 
cary, tapir, aguara, ant-eater, and capybara 
(whose skin is fashioned into tiradores or belts 
used in lassoing) are found. There are four 
species of deer : the guazu pucu or cervus palu- 
dosus, guazu pita or G. rufus, guazu mini or 
small stag, and guazu bira, usually found in the 
forests. Other wild animals are, several varie- 
ties of armadillo, some of which are hunted for 
their flesh, the tatu, cavy, two kinds of otters, 
and howlers, red-furred bivjas, the dwarfish 
ouistiti, and other monkeys. The rivers and 
lakes swarm with caimans, of which there are 
two species ; several kinds of lizards are men- 
tioned, some attaining a length of 8 ft.; the 
serpents include the boa and two or three 
venomous snakes, one being a species of rattle- 
snake, probably the hideous and deadly tri- 
gonocephalus. Common bats are numerous, as 
are also vampires, of which 13 varieties have 
been described by Azara; myriads of locusts 
appear from time to time, devastating whole 
districts ; and clouds of mosquitoes, sand flies, 
and other noxious insects infest the marshes 
and river banks. A species of ant deposits 
nodules of wax upon the twigs of the guayava 
~blanca, which are gathered and made into 
candles. The predatory birds are represented 
by vultures, hawks, and buzzards; the most 
remarkable of the waders is a kind of giant 
stork, mycteria Americana ; there are two 
species of partridge, pheasants, wild ducks, a 
sort of bustard said to eat serpents like the 
Brazilian siriema, water hens, and scissor 
birds ; and seven or eight varieties of parrots 
and paroquets. The nandu or American os- 
trich is common; songsters are numerous; 
and foremost among the birds admired for 
their brilliant plumage is the tiny mudita or 
little widow, robed in jet black and snow 
white. Almost all the rivers afford abundance 
of fish of delicate flavor, those most esteemed 
being the pacu, dorado, and palometa. The 
manufactures are few ; they consist chiefly of 
coarse cotton and woollen fabrics, utensils 
made of wood and hides, cigars, preparations 
of gums and resinous substances, distillation 
of liquors from the sugar cane and algarroba, 
molasses and sugar, and ropes and cordage. 
The implements of agriculture are rude and 
primitive. In the three years 1861-'3 there 
were constructed in the arsenal at Asuncion 
seven mail steamers to ply to Montevideo, be- 
sides cannon, stores, bells, &c. During the 
Lopez administration commerce was hampered 
in various ways, such as government monopolies 
and other abuses which rendered freedom of 
trade unknown in the republic ; and the chief 
staples of export were purchased by the dicta- 
tor's agents. Nevertheless, and in spite of the 
natural difficulties in the way of transporting 
merchandise to the sea from this landlocked 



YEARS. 


Imports. 


Export*. 


1851 


$173,188 


$260,712 


1855 


328,891 


754,425 


1859 


1,154,736 


1,649,759 


1860 


664,881 


1,270,428 









state, the commerce of Paraguay had consider- 
ably increased during the decade following the 
downfall of Rosas, the Argentine dictator, and 
the consequent opening of the river traffic, as 
will be seen from the annexed table of imports 
and exports for three years of that period, 
compared with 1851 : 



The amounts are in dollars of the United States ; 
the Paraguayan dollar is equivalent to 75 cents. 
The excess in the value of the exports over im- 
ports was employed in the construction of an 
arsenal, the purchase of railway materials and 
arms, and the education of youths in Europe. 
The list of the imports and exports for the 
year 1860, with their values, is as follows : 



IMPORTS 


5. 


EXPORTS 




ARTICLES. 


Value. 


ARTICLES. 


Value. 


Silks . . . 
Woollens 


$28,464 
100 242 


Yerba mate 
Tobacco 


$820,395 
219,625 


Linens and cott'ns 


255,040 


Dry hides 


140,840 


Hardware 
Wines and spirits 
Groceries 


22,388 
59,262 
116,749 


Tanned hides 
Bark for tanning. 
Oranges 


17,154 
16,856 
17,599 


Dry goods boots 




Timber 


11,099 




42265 


Sundries 


26,871 














Total 


$1 270 43'J 


Total 


$664,382 







The custom house yielded in the same year 
$220,000, of which two thirds represented du- 
ties on imports at 20 per cent, ad valorem, and 
one third on exports at 5 per cent. Mate, 
which belonged to the government, paid no 
duty ; but gold or silver coin, although intro- 
duced by travellers to defray their current ex- 
penses, was subject to a duty of 10 per cent, 
on leaving the republic. The total value of 
the imports for the year 1873 was $750,000, 
and of the exports $710,500, showing an ex- 
cess of imports, contrary to the state of things 
before the late war. Sugar was imported to 
the amount of $54,000. The value of the 
mate, cigars, and hides sent out of the country 
in 1873 was $459,750, $99,750, and $99,750 
respectively, showing a diminution of from 64 
to more than 100 per cent, since 1860. Un- 
der Lopez I. there were comparatively good 
roads leading from the capital to some of the 
more important agricultural districts, a car- 
riage road from Villarica to the Parana was 
begun, and the railway intended to connect 
Asuncion and Villarica, and in operation to 
Paraguary, a distance of 45 m., was begun in 
1858. There is no bank or other institution 
of credit in the republic. In 1863 the nation- 
al revenue amounted to $4,275,000 ; in 1873 
it did not exceed $412,500, the chief sources 
being duties on imports ($348,000), exports 



PARAGUAY 



67 



($70,500), rents of state property, licenses, &c. 
The estimated expenditures for 1874 were 
$341,805. Previous to 1865 Paraguay had no 
national debt, but a large surplus income ; but 
she is now almost hopelessly bankrupt, being 
indebted, by virtue of stipulations arising out 
of the late disastrous war, in the sum of 
$150,000,000 to Brazil, $26,250,000 to the Ar- 
gentine Republic, and $750,000 to Uruguay, 
a total of $177,000,000 ; besides $14,518,500, 
principal and interest of a loan contracted 
in England in 1871. There is also a large 
home debt, the amount of which has not been 
reported. In 1861 Paraguay had as many 
public primary schools in proportion to her 
population as the most advanced Spanish 
American states; instruction was made com- 
pulsory and gratuitous, and the justices of the 
peace were ordered to aid in carrying out that 
measure; but the instruction was not made 
secular, and the result was unsatisfactory. 
Grammar schools were few ; of higher instruc- 
tion there was very little, and that confined 
to a single establishment at the capital. Since 
1870, however, well directed and determined 
efforts have been adopted for the extension 
of primary instruction, and in the budget for 
1874 figured an appropriation of $84,860 for 
schools. Books were meagrely supplied and 
mostly limited to religious subjects. The total 
value of the books imported in the ten years 
immediately preceding the war was but $3,299. 
Lopez had four newspapers, all edited under his 
supervision. The Roman Catholic is the reli- 
gion of the state, but all others are tolerated. 
By the terms of the new constitution of 
Nov. 25, 1870, mainly based upon that of the 
Argentine Republic, the legislative authority 
is vested in a congress composed of a senate 
and a chamber of deputies ; and the executive 
in a president elected for a term of six years, 
with a non-active vice president, and a cabinet 
of five ministers, viz., of the interior, foreign 
affairs, finance, public worship and public in- 
struction, and war and the navy. The present 
strength of the army is about 2,000 men, com- 
prised in two battalions, two regiments of 
cavalry, and a regiment of artillery. The esti- 
mated expenditure of the war department for 
1874 was put down at $98,918. Paraguay 
was discovered in 1530 by Sebastian Cabot; 
and the first Spanish colony was established 
under the auspices and direction of Pedro de 
Mendoza, whose lieutenant, Juan de Ayolas, 
founded Asuncion on Aug. 15, 1536 or 1537. 
The town was erected into a bishopric in 
1555. The country called Paraguay, which at 
first comprised the entire basin of the Plata, 
was governed till 1620 by adelantados subject 
to the viceroyalty of Peru; but in that year 
two distinct governments, Paraguay and Bue- 
nos Ayres, were formed by royal decree, ad- 
ministered by intendants likewise under the 
jurisdiction of Peru. This state of things con- 
tinued till 1776, when the two provinces were 
again united under the separate viceroyalty of 



Buenos Ayres. The Spaniards on their first 
arrival found the country in the possession of 
Guarani tribes, an intelligent and industrious 
people, readily amenable to the civilization of 
the new settlers. The first missionaries, Field 
and Ortega, reached Paraguay in 1557, and 
met with astonishing success in winning the 
confidence of the natives. They were soon 
followed by others; missions were established 
between the rivers Uruguay and Parana, ex- 
tending across the latter river to within the 
present limits of Paraguay ; the disciples were 
collected by thousands into villages, where 
splendid churches were built; and finally, by 
a mandate which the Jesuits obtained about 
1690, forbidding all other Spaniards to enter 
their. territory without their permission, they 
were enabled to establish an almost indepen- 
dent theocratic government. Before the middle 
of the 17th century 30 missions had been found- 
ed ; and in 1740 the number of civilized In- 
dians was ascertained to be upward of 140,000. 
Each mission was built in a uniform style, 
with a great plaza in the centre, and here were 
erected the church, college, arsenal, stores, and 
workshops of carpenters, smiths, and weav- 
ers, all under the immediate care of the priests. 
Once a week the male inhabitants went 
through military drill, prizes being given to 
the best marksmen. Church ceremonies were 
performed every day, the children beginning 
with morning prater, followed at sunrise by 
mass, at which the whole population attended. 
Baptisms took place in the afternoon ; vespers 
were sung every evening ; and holidays or fes- 
tivals were chosen for the celebration of mar- 
riages. The Indians were excellent musicians 
and singers. The dress of both sexes was of 
native cotton cloth, the men wearing shirts 
and short trousers, the women caps and loose 
gowns. The schools and workshops were ad- 
mirably managed, and the wood carving of the 
artisans still elicits admiration. The Spanish 
language was prohibited, and from the print- 
ing offices established at Santa Maria and San 
Javier in the 17th and 18th centuries were 
issued many works in Guarani, the following 
being still extant: "Temporal and Eternal," 
by P. Meremberg (1705); "Jesuits' Manual 
for Paraguay" (1724); "Guarani Dictionary" 
(1724); "Guarani Catechism" (1724); and 
" Sermons and Examples," by Tapaguay (prob- 
ably a native Jesuit). In 1767 the Spanish gov- 
ernment decreed the expulsion of the priests, 
who offered not the least resistance. In 
1801 Soria estimated the survivors of the 30 
missions at somewhat less than 44,000, two 
thirds of their population having disappeared 
in the space of 34 years. As early as 1628 
descents were made upon the missions from Sao 
Paulo in Brazil, and according to Page 60,000 
of the Indians were carried off in that and the 
two 'following years, and sold as slaves in the 
market of Rio de Janeiro. After the expul- 
sion of the Jesuits the converts were soon dis- 
persed; many took to the woods; the planta- 



68 



PARAGUAY 



lions were abandoned ; the cattle, sheep, and 
horses were destroyed ; and of the stately edi- 
fices only a few crumbling ruins now remain. 
In 1776, as has been said, Paraguay was in- 
corporated with Buenos Ayres in a viceroy- 
alty, with that city as the capital. After the 
destruction of the home government by the 
French, a provisional government was estab- 
lished at Buenos Ayres in 1809, which still 
acknowledged the sovereignty of Spain. The 
Paraguayans in 1811 took steps to secure their 
own independence, and defeated an army un- 
der Gen. Belgrano, sent by the authorities of 
Buenos Ayres to coerce them into submission. 
After Belgrano's expedition, the country was 
governed for a time by a junta composed of 
Generals Pedro Juan Oaballero, Fulgencio Ye- 
gros, and Dr. Jose Gaspar Rodriguez de Fran- 
cia. The junta was soon changed (1813) into 
a duumvirate, Caballero having been excluded, 
and Yegros and Francia receiving the title of 
consul. Two curule chairs were placed in the 
assembly, one bearing the inscription " Cassar," 
occupied by Francia, and the other that of 
" Pompey " for his colleague. In 1814 the gov- 
ernment was again changed, Francia securing 
his nomination as dictator, at first for three 
years, and afterward for life. Henceforth, un- 
til his death on Sept. 20, 1840, he. was the ab- 
solute ruler of Paraguay. He followed the 
example set by the Jesuits, and prohibited the 
entrance or exit of foreigners. His rule was 
rigorous and often cruel, but he introduced 
many reforms, established schools, and devised 
a code of laws. During a brief interim the 
country was governed by a junta gubernativa, 
successively presided over by Dr. C. L. Ortiz 
and Gen. Juan Jose Medina. On March 12, 
1841, the consular system was reestablished, 
and Don Carlos Antonio Lopez and Don Ma- 
riano Roque Alonso were named consuls. In 
1844 the title of the executive was again 
changed, and Lopez was made dictator for ten 
years; at the expiration of his term he was 
reflected for three years, and again in 1857 
for seven years. His domestic government 
seems to have been as strong as Francia's, but 
he was more liberal to foreigners, and sur- 
rendered the control of church matters into 
the hands of the priesthood. The independence 
Of Paraguay was not formally acknowledged 
by the other states of La Plata until Urquiza 
came into power in the Argentine confedera- 
tion, and made a treaty with Lopez, July 14, 
1852. It was recognized by Great Britain in 
January, 1853. In the same year the United 
States government sent the steamer Water 
Witch, under Commander T. J. Page, to survey 
the river La Plata and its tributaries. Capt. 
Page was^ well received by President Lopez, 
and his mission was successfully carried on un- 
til February, 1855, when the Water Witch, in 
the peaceful prosecution of her voyage up the 
Parana, was fired upon by the Paraguayan fort 
Itapiru, and one man killed. The fire was re- 
turned, but as the steamer was of small force 



and not designed for offensive operations, she 
soon retired from the conflict, and Capt. Page 
hastened to communicate the events to his 
government. Preparations were made at once 
to demand reparation, and a considerable fleet 
was sent to the Plata. A commissioner ap- 
pointed to accompany the fleet opened negotia- 
tions with President Lopez, and by the media- 
tion of Urquiza an arrangement was concluded 
by which Paraguay agreed to make compensa- 
tion. Capt. Page resumed his surveys, and 
completed them in December, 1860. In 1858, 
by a convention with Brazil, the waters of the 
Paraguay were declared to be open to the mer- 
cantile marine of all friendly nations. The 
efforts to establish a systematic and direct 
trade with Paraguay have not as yet been very 
successful. In 1853 an American company 
went out, but were forced to return the follow- 
ing year. A French settlement was established 
in 1855, but meeting with no encouragement 
from the Paraguayan president, the colonists 
abandoned it the same year. Lopez died on 
Sept. 10, 1862, and was succeeded by his son 
Francisco Solano, commonly known as Mar- 
shal Lopez, under whose administration the 
government, though still nominally republican, 
was as despotic and absolute as in the days 
of Francia. Nevertheless, great progress was 
made; and had Lopez not been blinded by 
ambition, the country would have rapidly risen 
to importance. But, not satisfied with the 
title of marshal, he aimed at an imperial crown 
and at foreign conquest. His measures for the 
latter were chiefly directed against Brazil, and 
the desired opportunity for hostilities offered 
in 1864. The Brazilian government, having 
claims to urge against Uruguay for damages 
to Brazilian citizens resident in that republic, 
seized the opportunity to do so when Monte- 
video was besieged by revolutionary troops 
under Gen. Yenancio Flores, chief of the colo- 
rados or liberal party, and late unsuccessful 
candidate for the presidency, against N. Aguir- 
re of the Wanco party. In spite of the repeated 
protests of Lopez, Brazil openly gave aid to 
Flores. Lopez, who had recruited a powerful 
army and erected fortifications along the river 
bank, on Nov. 11, 1864, captured a Brazilian 
steamer on its passage upward to Matto Grosso, 
detaining the passengers and crew as prison- 
ers of war. This offensive step was followed 
in December by the invasion of Matto Grosso 
by a Paraguayan army, which sacked Cuyaba, 
the capital, and other towns, and seized the 
diamond mines of that province. Meantime 
Lopez had promised aid to Aguirre, but Presi- 
dent Mitre of the Argentine Republic refused 
permission of transit for Paraguayan troops 
across the province of Corrientes. Flores, 
however, had been victorious, and entered 
upon the presidential functions early in 1865. 
Lopez, now fearing that the Argentines would 
take sides against him, captured two of their 
war vessels in the bay of Corrientes, April 13, 
1865, invested the town of the same name next 



PARAGUAY 



69 



day, formed a provisional government com- 
posed of Argentine citizens, and declared the 
provinces of Corrientes and Entre Eios to be 
annexed to the republic of Paraguay. On the 
18th a mutual declaration of war was made by 
the two republics ; and on May 1 an offensive 
and defensive alliance was secretly entered into 
by the Argentine Republic, Brazil, and Uru- 
guay, these powers " solemnly binding them- 
selves not to lay down arms until the exist- 
ing government of Paraguay should be over- 
thrown, nor to treat with Lopez, unless by 
common consent ; providing for the guarantee 
of Paraguayan independence ; fixing on that 
republic the responsibility for the expenses of 
the war; and agreeing that no arms or ele- 
ments of war should be left to it." The sud- 
den aggressions upon Brazil and the Argentine 
Republic, for which neither of those countries 
was prepared, and which led to the declaration 
of war, might easily have been followed by 
triumphs far above the expectations of Lopez, 
had his energy equalled his ambition; for he 
had at his command a well disciplined army 
80,000 strong. In June hostilities began ; the 
Paraguayan fleet was defeated on the llth by 
the Brazilians on the Parana ; and the Para- 
guayan troops were compelled to evacuate the 
Argentine territory on Nov. 3, the town of 
Uruguayana on the Uruguay having in the 
mean time surrendered to the allies. During 
the remainder of 1865, and in the course of 
1866 and 1867, numerous battles occurred both 
by land and on the river Paraguay, with vary- 
ing success, and with considerable loss to the 
allied ranks ; but the Paraguayan troops, who 
suffered equally in the field, were also con- 
siderably reduced by disease and privations. 
Thus, in spite of the undoubted courage of 
his soldiers, Lopez lost in quick succession his 
principal strongholds, and his capital was oc- 
cupied by the invaders on Feb. 21, 1868. In 
June Humaita, his best fortress, commanding 
the junction of the rivers Paraguay and Pa- 
rana, was bombarded and demolished. From 
that time Lopez, who had taken refuge in the 
mountain fastnesses of the interior, vainly 
persisted in a struggle which terminated only 
when he fell at Aquidaban on March 1, 1870. 
A provisional treaty, drawn up at Asuncion on 
June 20, declared peace to be restored between 
the belligerents, and the rivers Paraguay and 
Parana to be reopened to the merchant and 
military navies of the allies, free of all obsta- 
cles. A new constitution was adopted, and 
promulgated on Nov. 25, providing for the 
free exercise of all religions, the encourage- 
ment of immigration and protection of immi- 
grants, and the summary punishment of such 
persons as should in future attempt to assume 
the dictatorship. A provisional government, 
with C. A. Rivarola as president, was super- 
seded in December, 1871, by Salvador Jove- 
llanos, in the course of the first year of whose 
administration the peace was disturbed by three 
revolutions, the government being shut up in 



Asuncion by the insurgents. In April, 1874, 
aided by the Brazilian troops, which still oc- 
cupy Paraguay, the government was enabled 
to suppress the rebel movements ; but the 
country is virtually under a Brazilian protec- 
torate. In October, 1874, Jovellanos was suc- 
ceeded by Juan Bautista Gill. See Essai sur 
Vhistoire naturelle des quadrupedes du Para- 
guay, by Felix de Azara (Paris, 1801) ; " La 
Plata, the Argentine Confederation, and Par- 
aguay," by Thomas J. Page (New York, 1859) ; 
Histoire physique, economique et politique du 
Paraguay et des etablissements des Jesuites, by 
Dr. Alfred Demersay (Paris, 1860-'65); "The 
War in Paraguay," by George Thompson (Lon- 
don, 1869); "La Plata, Brazil, and Paraguay," 
by A. J. Kennedy (London, 1869); "Seven 
eventful Years in Paraguay," by G. F. Master- 
man (London, 1869) ; " Letters from the Bat- 
tle Fields of Paraguay," by Capt. R. F. Burton 
(London, 1870) ; and " History of Paraguay," 
by Charles A. Washburn (Boston, 1871). 

PARAGUAY, a river of South America, whose 
head waters descend from one of the seven 
lakes on the low swelling plateau commonly 
called the Serra Diamantina, in the Brazilian 
province of Matto Grosso, 160 m. N. of the 
city of Cuyaba, lat. 13 20' S., Ion. 55 50' W. 
The uppermost branch is the Rio Diamantino, 
and next are the Preto or Negro, the Sipotu- 
ba, and other smaller streams from the west, 
before the confluence of the Jauru, which 
doubles the volume of the Paraguay, in lat. 
16 23'. About 120 m. further S. it collects 
from the east the waters of the navigable river 
Sao Lourenco, a branch of which passes Cuy- 
aba. Here the Paraguay has a width of 600 
yards, which it retains, with a mean depth of 
15 ft., to Asuncion, the capital of the republic 
of Paraguay. Below the junction of the Sao 
Lourenco it traverses the marshy region of 
Xareyes or Xarayes, draining the lakes of 
Oberava, Gahiba, and Mandior6, and receiving 
the large river Taquary, the Rio Blanco (for- 
merly claimed by Paraguay as the northern 
boundary with Brazil), the Apa or Corrientes, 
the Ypane\ and the San Pedro from the east, 
and several from the west. In the remaining 
150 m. of its course, from Asuncion to its 
junction with the Parana from the east at Tres 
Bocas, lat. 27 13', it receives its most im- 
portant affluents, the Pilcomayo and the Ber- 
mejo, both from Bolivia. At Tres Bocas the 
main stream, after a course of over 1,000 m., 
exclusive of its numerous sinuosities, takes the 
name of the affluent ; for such the Parana evi- 
dently is, inasmuch as the direction and all the 
geological characteristics of the river, down 
to the confluence of the Uruguay, are those of 
the Paraguay. From Asuncion to Tres Bocas 
the general width is half a mile, though in some 
parts it narrows to a quarter of a mile ; the 
minimum average depth being 20 ft., and the 
maximum depth 72 ft. The ordinary velocity 
of the current is 2 m. an hour. Vessels draw- 
ing 16 ft. can generally ascend the Paraguay 



70 



PARAGUAY TEA 



PARALLAX 



to the Brazilian town of Corumba, lat. 18 55', 
and river steamers in all seasons to the junc- 
tion of the Sao Lourenco. The Paraguay and 
the Amazon feeders Xingu and Tapajos take 
their rise within a few miles of one another, 
and the watershed is so low that wooden ca- 
noes ascending the Tapaj6s from Santarem are 
constantly carried over, and descend to Villa 
Maria; so that, with hut little labor, almost 
uninterrupted navigation by steamers could 
be secured through the heart of the continent, 
from the mouth of the Plata to that of the 
Amazon. Up to Asuncion the navigation is 
easier than on the Parana; the waters are 
confined within narrower limits, the depth of 
the channel is more uniform, and no obstruc- 
tion is to be apprehended. The periodical rise 
of the river usually averages 13 ft., and occurs 
in January, February, and March, and in July, 
August, and September, thus almost corre- 
sponding to the periods of the fall in the Pa- 
rana; hence the volume of the stream result- 
ing from the union of the two rivers is near- 
ly always the same. The banks of the Para- 
guay are generally sloping, and rarely exceed 
25 ft. above the average height of the stream. 
They are clothed on both sides with a mag- 
nificent vegetation; forests with innumerable 
varieties of precious timber and ornamental 
woods alternating with palm groves and ex- 
tensive grassy plains. The portion of the riv- 
er comprised within the tropics abounds in ja- 
cares (caimans) and in excellent fish. Brazil- 
ian mail steamers ply monthly between Mon- 
tevideo and Ouyaba, a distance of 2,000 m., 
making the trip in from 10 to 12 days ; and 
there are several lines of steamers between 
Buenos Ayres and Asuncion. The Paraguay 
forms a portion of the dividing line between 
Brazil and Bolivia, and the entire boundary of 
Paraguay with Bolivia and with the Argentine 
Republic on the west. It was made free to 
ships of all nations in 1852, and has remained 
so to the present time (1875), except during 
the Paraguayan war of 1865-'70. 

PARAGUAY TEA, See MAT. 

PARAHYBA. I. A N. E. province of Brazil, 
bounded N. by Rio Grande do Norte, E. by the 
Atlantic, S. by Pernambuco, and W. by Ceara ; 
area, 31,500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871 (estimated), 
280,000. The coast is low, but inland the sur- 
face is traversed by several mountain ranges, 
the principal of which are the serras de Bor- 
borema and de Teixara. In the former rises 
the Rio Parahyba do Norte, which empties into 
the Atlantic after an E. N. E. course of 300 m. 
The Mamanguape, emptying 18 m. further N"., 
is the only other considerable river. The cli- 
mate inland is hot, but is considered healthful. 
Much of the country is fit only for pasturage, 
and many cattle are raised. The fertile tracts 
are partly covered with dense forests and 
partly cultivated. Cotton, sugar, and tobacco 
are raised to some extent. During the decade 
ending in 1873, the yearly average export of 
cotton was 196,568 Ibs. ; of sugar, 185,744 Ibs. 



Gums, resin, and timber are largely export- 
ed. In 1865 an English company was organ- 
ized to work the gold mines in the interior. 
In 1873 there were in the province 126 pri- 
mary and grammar schools, of which 33 were 
for females with an aggregate attendance of 
991, and 93 for males with 2,695 pupils; and 
there is a lyceum in Parahyba, and colleges in 
Mamanguape, Area, and Pombal. II. A city, 
capital of the province, on the right bank of the 
river Parahyba do Norte, 10 m. from the sea, 
and 65 m. N. of Pernambuco ; pop. about 14,- 
000. It is divided into an old and a new town, 
and has good streets and well built houses. 
The climate is salubrious. The port is good, 
but vessels of more than 350 tons seldom go 
up to the town. There is a large coasting 
trade, and the steamers of nearly all the Bra- 
zilian lines stop here on the trips between Rio 
de Janeiro and Belem. The principal exports 
are cotton, sugar, fish, hides, rum, tafia, coffee, 
and cacao. A railway to extend 60 m. inland 
was to be begun in 1875. 

PARALLAX, the apparent displacement of a 
heavenly body arising from a change of the 
observer's position. The angle subtended at 
the body by the line joining the two stations is 
the measure of the parallax. As the positions 
of the heavenly bodies have reference in prac- 
tical astronomy to the earth's centre, a correc- 
tion for parallax is necessary in every observa- 
tion, except when the body is in the zenith, 
where the parallax vanishes. It is greatest 
in the horizon, and is there termed horizontal 
parallax. It is manifestly equal to the angle 
subtended by the earth's radius as supposed to 
be seen from the body, as the earth's radius va- 
ries with the latitude, and the equatorial radius 
is commonly selected as the measure of paral- 
lax. By the mean horizontal equatorial paral- 
lax of the moon, for instance, is understood 
the angle subtended by the earth's equatorial 
semi-diameter at the moon's mean distance. 
The same is the case with the sun. And even 
if the word equatorial be omitted, it is to be 
understood that equatorial parallax is signified 
unless the contrary be implied. The parallax 
and the sine of the parallax are appreciably 
equal for all objects except the moon, and either 
is used indifferently. In the case of the moon 
there is a difference, and unfortunately two 
usages are employed. "Where the mean equa- 
torial horizontal lunar parallax is spoken of, 
the word parallax is used in its usual sense ; 
but what is called the lunar constant of parallax 
is in reality the angle which has for its circu- 
lar measure the sine of the true parallax. An- 
nual parallax is the variation of a star's place 
by being observed from opposite points of the 
earth's orbit. This is extremely minute, not- 
withstanding the great length of the base line, 
and is so difficult of determination that it long 
defied the endeavors of astronomers to detect 
it. (See ASTRONOMY.) The apparent absence 
of stellar parallax was considered by Tycho 
Brahe fatal to the Copernican doctrine of the 



PARALYSIS 



PARAMARIBO 



earth's orbital motion. Galileo suggested a 
mode of investigating the problem by observa- 
tions on two stars of different magnitudes situ- 
ated close together. This mode has been suc- 
cessfully applied by modern observers. Hooke 
was the first to use the telescope in this inves- 
tigation, but he failed. The aberration of light 
had not then been discovered, and the result 
he announced as parallax was probably due to 
this cause. The same is to be said of Flam- 
steed. The attempts of astronomers to deter- 
mine parallax led to two signal discoveries, the 
aberration of light by Bradley (1725), and the 
systems of double stars by the elder Herschel 
(1803.) The earliest approximately successful 
researches on this problem were made by the 
elder Struve, begun hi 1835 on the star a Lyrse, 
though his conclusions were not received with 
entire confidence by astronomers. The first 
unequivocal success was reached shortly after- 
ward by Bessel at Konigsberg on the star 61 
Cygni, and by Henderson at the Cape of Good 
Hope oh the star a Centauri. 

PARALYSIS, or Palsy (Gr. TrapdAwHf, relax- 
ation), a loss of the power of motion in any 
part of the body. As the contractile power 
of the muscles depends upon their healthy 
organization and the integrity of their struc- 
ture, anything which interferes with these 
qualities will diminish in a corresponding de- 
gree their power of action. Imperfect nutri- 
tion or atrophy of the muscles, their disuse, 
a fatty degeneration of their texture, and the 
action of certain poisons (see LEAD), will all 
have this effect and destroy the power of mo- 
tion by directly affecting the muscular fibres 
themselves. A paralysis of this kind is called 
44 muscular paralysis," since its cause resides in 
the substance of the muscular tissue, which has 
lost its natural properties. Paralysis, however, 
is oftener due to injury or disease of the nerves 
or nervous centres. As muscular contraction 
is naturally excited during life by a stimu- 
lus communicated to the muscles through the 
nerves, when this communication is cut off 
by injury or disease of the nervous fibres, the 
natural movements in the corresponding region 
of the body are at once suspended. This is 
most distinctly marked in paralysis of those 
parts which are the seat of the voluntary mo- 
tion, that is, the limbs and trunk. If the 
nerves going to the right arm be divided or 
contused, or constricted by a ligature, volun- 
tary motion is at once lost in the correspond- 
ing limb. The muscles themselves are unin- 
jured, and are as capable of contraction as ever ; 
but they cannot be called into action by any 
effort of the will, because the natural stimulus, 
which should be conveyed to them through 
the nerves from the brain, is cut off by the in- 
jury of the nervous trunks. A similar effect 
will be produced if the fibres of the brain it- 
self be injured at the point where these nerves 
take their origin. There are various forms of 
paralysis, corresponding to the different regions 
of the body affected and the extent of the 



affected portion. The following are the most 
important. 1. Hemiplegia, or paralysis of one 
lateral half of the body, that is, of the right 
arm and right leg, or the left arm and left leg, 
with the corresponding portions of the trunk. 
This is due to a circumscribed apoplexy or 
other injury which affects one side of the brain, 
and which, owing to the crossing of the fibres 
in the medulla oblongata, produces paralysis of 
the opposite side of the body. 2. Paraplegia, 
or paralysis of the two lower extremities with 
the lower part of the trunk. 'This results from 
an injury to the spinal cord about its middle 
portion, which of course paralyzes all the parts 
below the seat of the injury, while those above, 
still preserving their connection with the brain, 
continue to have the power of voluntary mo- 
tion. 3. Facial paralysis, or that affecting the 
superficial muscles of one lateral half of the 
face, so that the natural expression is lost in 
this region, and the features on the affected 
side are relaxed and vacant. This is owing to 
an injury of the seventh or facial nerve at some 
point in its passage from its origin in the brain 
to its termination in the muscles. 4. Local 
paralysis of any other part of the body, due 
to injury or disease of the special nerve dis- 
tributed to that part. Another important dis- 
tinction in regard to paralysis is whether it 
is accompanied with loss of sensibility of the 
part, as well as loss of motion. As these two 
properties are conferred by two different sets 
of nervous fibres, and as these fibres may be 
injured separately or together, we may have 
paralysis of motion without loss of sensibility ; 
loss of sensibility without loss of motion ; or, 
finally, a paralysis of both at the same time. 
The degree in which the power of motion and 
sensibility are affected in relation to each other, 
in any particular case of paralysis, will often 
throw much light on the precise seat of the 
injury or disease in the nervous system. (See 
BRAIN, DISEASES OF THE, and SPINAL DISEASES.) 
PARAMARIBO, a maritime city, capital of 
Dutch Guiana, on the left bank of the Surinam, 
20 m. from the sea ; lat. 5 50' N"., Ion. 55 
13' W. ; pop. about 18,000, half of whom are 
blacks. Three canals traverse the town ; the 
streets are regularly laid out and well kept; 
and the houses, many of which are of wood, 
are surrounded by gardens. The bank of Suri- 
nam, situated here, with a capital of $400,000, 
is the only one in the colony. The port is 
safe, commodious, and well frequented. Pa- 
ramaribo is the centre of the Dutch West India 
commerce. Its principal exports are sugar, 
molasses, and rum (all to Holland), coffee, cot- 
ton, and indigo, with cacao, fancy woods, and 
timber. Manufactured goods, machinery, pro- 
visions, ginger, drugs, wines, &c., are exten- 
sively imported. The total value of the ex- 
ports for the year ending Sept. 30, 1873, was 
$1,244,115, and of the imports, $1,452,330. 
The entrances for the same year were 36 steam- 
ers, tonnage 15,900, and 107 sailing vessels, 
tonnage 20,939 ; clearances nearly the same. 



PARAMATTA 



PARAPHERNALIA 



PARAMATTA, a town of Australia, in New 
South Wales, on the Paramatta river (an arm 
of the sea), 14 m. N. W. of Sydney ; pop. in 
1871, 6,103. Among the notable public build- 
ings are the government house, the benevolent 
asylum, the schools, the court house and town 
hall, several places of worship, among which 
the new Gothic Congregational church is prom- 
inent, and a school of arts. Its observatory 
has been transferred to Sydney. There are two 
orphan schools and two lunatic asylums, two 
woollen factories, and two flour mills. The 
walks are planted with oaks, the largest in Aus- 
tralia. The vicinity is famous for its orange- 
ries and orchards. Paramatta is next to Syd- 
ney the oldest town in the colony, and has 
been under municipal government since 1861. 

PARANA, a river of South America, formed 
by the union of the Paranahyba and Grande, 
both from the mountains of Minas Geraes in 
Brazil. From the point of junction of these 
rivers, about lat. 20 S., Ion. 52 W., the Parana 
flows S. W. by S. as a majestic stream to lat. 
24 4', where it forms the cataract of Guayra 
or Salto Grande, described by travellers as 
eclipsing in magnificence all others in the 
world, not even excepting Niagara. After 
collecting the waters of several rivers on both 
banks, and especially those of the Tiete and 
Paranapanema from the east, the Parana in- 
creases in width until it attains nearly 4,500 
yards a short distance above the falls; then 
the immense mass of water is suddenly con- 
fined within a gorge of 200 ft., through which 
it dashes with fury to the ledge, whence it 
is precipitated to a depth of 56 ft. It is com- 
puted that the volume of water per minute is 
equal to 1,000,000 tons; the velocity of the 
flood through the gorge is 40 m. an hour, and 
the roar of the cataract is distinctly audible 
at a distance of 30 m. The river continues 
in a southerly direction for nearly 200 m., 
forming the boundary between Brazil and the 
Argentine Republic on the E. and Paraguay on 
the W., and then turns S. W. and afterward 
"W., flowing between Paraguay and the Argen- 
tine Republic, till it is joined by the Paraguay 
at Tres Bocas, a little above Corrientes, 900 
m. above its mouth. Thence it pursues a S. 
course through the Argentine Republic to Santa 
Fe, where it separates, forming several islands, 
and flows S. E. till it unites with the Uruguay 
to form the Rio de la Plata, after a course of 
1,860 m., exclusive of that of the Paranahyba 
and Grande. Its principal tributary is the 
Paraguay (which is more voluminous, though 
shorter and narrower, than the stream in which 
its name is lost), and between their point of 
junction and Salto Grande empties the Igua- 
zti. The Parana is full of islands, which un- 
dergo a constant round of decay and renova- 
tion. Within the past century many have dis- 
appeared, and others have been formed and 
protected by vegetation. They are all well 
wooded, as are also the adjacent shores ; but 
being composed of mud and sand, without even 



a pebble, and extremely low, they are inun- 
dated during the periodical rises of the river. 
The Parana is in general more picturesque than 
the Paraguay, especially in the lower half of its 
course, where the cliffs are sometimes abso- 
lutely perpendicular, and of a reddish tinge, 
and at other times presented in large broken 
masses, clothed with cacti and mimosa trees. 
Several lines of steamers regularly ply be- 
tween Buenos Ayres and Rosario and Cor- 
rientes. It is navigable to Corrientes for ves- 
sels drawing 16 ft., for smaller craft to Can- 
delaria, and thence only for small boats up to 
the cataract. 

PARANA, a S. E. province of Brazil, bound- 
ed N. by Matto Grosso and Sao Paulo, E. by 
the Atlantic and Santa Oatharina, S. by the 
latter province and that of Sao Pedro or Rio 
Grande do Sul, and W. by Paraguay and Mat- 
to Grosso ; area, 72,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
90,000. The coasts are generally low, the 
country rising inward more or less abruptly to 
the plateau. The surface in the latter region, 
which forms part of the Brazilian highland, is 
generally undulating ; but there are no eleva- 
ted summits. The principal rivers are the Pa- 
ranapanema in the north, the Uruguay along 
the southern boundary, and the Parana in the 
west ; the interior is drained by the Tibagy, 
an affluent of the Paranapanema, and the Iva- 
hy and Iguazu, tributaries of the Parana. All 
these rivers are navigable by canoes. Little is 
known of the geology of Parana. Coal is sup- 
posed to exist on the coast ; mercury has been 
found near Paranagua, and gold and diamonds 
on the banks of the Tibagy, with emeralds, to- 
pazes, amethysts, turquoises, and rubies. The 
climate is mild and equable. There are exten- 
sive forests yielding valuable timber and cabi- 
net wood, and many trees and plants furnish 
useful drugs and dyes. (See BRAZIL.) Mate" or 
Paraguay tea thrives here, and is largely con- 
sumed ; coffee, the sugar cane, and tobacco 
yield good crops, the tobacco having been pro- 
nounced at least equal to that of Havana. Va- 
nilla grows spontaneously, and the Chinese tea 
plant thrives well, but the natives are igno- 
rant of the preparation of tea. Cotton gives 
two fine crops a year. The expenditure for 
public instruction in 1873 was $37,810 ; there 
were 121 primary schools (35 for females), 5 
private night schools, and 8 grammar schools 
(one for females) ; and the total number of 
scholars was 3,268, of whom 892 were females. 
The capital is Curitiba ; chief port, Paranagua. 

PARAPHERNALIA (Gr. irapd, besides, and fepvfa 
dowry), in law, all the personal apparel and 
ornaments of the wife, which she possesses, 
and which are suitable to her condition in life. 
The word was borrowed from the Roman law. 
The dos or dowry of a Roman wife was that 
portion which was contributed by her, or in 
her behalf, toward bearing the expense of the 
household (ad sustinenda matrimonii onera). 
That part of her property, over and above her 
dos, which she withheld, constituted her ~bona 



PARASITIC ANIMALS 



PARCHMENT 



paraphernalia (bona qua, prater dotem uxor 
habet). This property generally remained in 
the hands of her father or tutor (guardian), and 
the husband had no rights over it, except those 
which were expressly given him by the wife. 
The wife might dispose of it, or bring an ac- 
tion in respect of it, without his authority or 
consent. These, and the other rules of the 
Roman code upon the topic, remain without 
material modification in the modern civil law 
of Europe. In the English law paraphernalia 
has acquired a meaning which limits it to the 
personal apparel and ornaments possessed by 
the wife, and which are suitable to her rank 
and condition in life. It is essential that these 
things came to her from the husband, for ar- 
ticles given to the wife by any other, as by her 
father or other relative, or even by a stranger, 
are absolute gifts to her, and are secured to her 
separate use ; but the paraphernalia are gifts 
sub modo. During his lifetime the husband 
may dispose of all of them but her necessary 
apparel, and, with the same exception, they are 
subject after the husband's death to the claims 
of his creditors. Nothing however but insol- 
vency, or complete alienation or sale by the 
husband, will defeat the wife's right of owner- 
ship. Pledge of the goods will not suffice. 
Her right cannot be defeated by the husband's 
will bequeathing the paraphernalia. If they 
were in her possession at the time of her hus- 
band's death, she would hold them against his 
executors or personal representatives. Para- 

Ehernalia is quite an obsolete title in American 
iw, the common law rules on the subject 
being generally superseded by the provisions 
of state statutes ; and by these the wife sur- 
viving her husband is entitled to hold her wear- 
ing apparel and personal ornaments against the 
claims of all other persons. 

PARASITIC ANIMALS. See ENTOZOA, and 
EPIZOA. 

PARASITIC PLANTS. See EPIPHYTES. 

PARAY-LE-MONIAL, a town of Burgundy, 
France, in the department of Sa6ne-et-Loire, 
35 m. W. N. W. of Macon, and 180 m. S. E. of 
Paris; pop. about 3,500. It has a remarka- 
ble church and a Benedictine abbey founded 
in 973 ; but it is chiefly celebrated as having 
been the abode of Marguerite Marie Alacoque, 
whose tomb is in the chapel attached to the 
Visitation convent, in which she lived and 
died. As she was mainly instrumental in es- 
tablishing the devotions of the Sacred Heart, 
which have of late spread so rapidly in Roman 
Catholic countries, the occasion of her beatifi- 
cation by Pius IX. in 1865 gave rise to numer- 
ous pilgrimages to her shrine, which have in- 
1 in frequency and numbers ever since. 
In 1873 and 1874, besides the crowds of pil- 
grims from France and Belgium, companies 
went from Great Britain, Ireland, and the Uni- 
ted States, headed by distinguished prelates 
and laymen, their departure from home and 
their arrival at Paray-le-Monial being marked 
by impressive religious ceremonies. 



PARC3E (Gr. Moipai), or Fates, in Grecian 
and Roman mythology, daughters of Erebus 
and Night or of Jupiter and Themis. They 
had control over the universe, and particularly 
human destinies, presided over all great events 
in the lives of men, executed the decrees of 
nature, and punished criminals through their 
ministers the Furies, whose sisters they were 
sometimes said to be. In Homer MoZpa is fate 
personified, and is almost invariably mentioned 
in the singular; but Hesiod describes three 
fates : Clotho or the spinner, who spun out the 
thread of human life; Lachesis, the disposer 
of destinies, who twirled the spindle while Clo- 
tho held the distaff ; and Atropos the inevita- 
ble, who cut the thread when it had reached 
its proper length. They are sometimes regarded 
simply as the goddesses of the duration of hu- 
man life, in which case they are but two, one 
presiding over birth and the other over death. 
They were described by the poets as hideous, 
stern, and cruel old women. They had shrines 
in many parts of Greece. 

PARCHMENT (Lat. pergamena), the skins of 
sheep and other animals, prepared in sheets to 
render them fit for being written upon. Parch- 
ment was known at a very early period, and 
the manufacture of it is said to have been im- 
proved if not originated by Eumenes II., king 
of Pergamus (who reigned 197-159 B. 0.), 
whence its name. According to Herodotus, the 
ancient lonians wrote on skins many ages be- 
fore that time, and it is certain that its use was 
common in Egypt ages before the time of Eu- 
menes. The early Arabs inscribed their poe- 
try and compositions on the shoulder bones of 
sheep; but after their conquests in Asia and 
Africa they so profited by the inventions of 
the nations they subdued, that parchment was 
manufactured in Syria, Arabia, and Egypt, 
which in color and delicacy might vie with our 
modern paper. The ancients generally wrote 
only on one side of their parchment; but so 
valuable was it, that they not unfrequently 
erased the writing and used it a second time. 
To the present day no substitute has been found 
for a variety of purposes to which it is applied. 
The finer sorts of parchment called vellum, used 
for important writings, as deeds, wills, &c., are 
manufactured from the skins of calves, kids, 
and still-born lambs. The heavier parchment 
for drum heads is made from the skins of asses, 
older calves, wolves, and goats. All these are 
similarly prepared. The skin, being freed from 
the hair, is placed in a lime pit to cleanse it 
from fat. The pelt is then stretched upon a 
frame, care being taken that the surface be 
perfectly free from wrinkles, and dressed with 
knives, scrapers, and pumice stone. The skin 
is dried gradually, tightening being occasion- 
ally required. If traces of grease remain, it 
must be replaced in the lime pit for a week 
or ten days, and again stretched and dried. A 
green color is given to parchment by a solu- 
tion made with 30 parts of crystallized acetate 
of copper and 8 of bitartrate of potassa in 500 



74: 



PARDESSUS 



of distilled water, 4 parts of nitric acid being 
added when the mixture is cold. The parch- 
ment being moistened, this preparation is ap- 
plied with a brush, and the polish is given by 
white of egg or mucilage of gum arabic. Pa- 
per or vegetable parchment is a remarkable 
substance, first noticed in 1847 by Poumarede 
and Figuier, who called it papyrine. No prac- 
tical application was made of the discovery 
till 1857, when it was patented in England by 
W. E. Gaine. The material is manufactured 
in large quantities by De la Rue and co. It is 
made by dipping unsized paper for a few sec- 
onds in a mixture of equal volumes of strong 
sulphuric acid and water. Complete success 
requires attention to the strength of the mix- 
ture, which must also be allowed to cool be- 
fore the paper is dipped in it. Paper parch- 
ment is used for legal and other documents 
and maps, for connecting laboratory appara- 
tus, covering preserve jars, and various other 
purposes. 

PAUDESSUS, Jean Marie, a French jurist, born 
in Blois, Aug. 11, 1772, died in Paris, May 26, 
1853. He became an advocate, and in 1807 a 
member of the legislative body in the interest 
of Napoleon, and was repeatedly elected a 
deputy under the restoration. He was profes- 
sor of mercantile law from 1810 to 1830, and 
was one of the highest authorities on that 
branch of jurisprudence. His principal work 
is GOUTS de droit commercial (4 vols., Paris, 
1814-'16; 6th ed., 1856). He also published 
Traite des servitudes (1806), Traite du contrat 
et des lettres de change (2 vols., 1819), Col- 
lections des lois maritimes anterieures au 
XVIII' ne siecle (6 vols., 1828-'45), &c. 

PARDOE, Julia, an English author, born in 
Beverley, Yorkshire, in 1806, died Nov. 26, 
1862. She produced a volume of poems when 
she was 13 years old,, and a novel at 15; but 
her first important work was "Traits and 
Traditions of Portugal " (2 vols., 1833). She 
went to Constantinople in 1835, and published 
"The City of the Sultan" (3 vols., 1836), and 
furnished the letterpress for " The Romance of 
the Harem " (3 vols., 1839), and " The Beau- 
ties of the Bosphorus " (2 vols. 4to). She af- 
terward visited Hungary, and wrote " The City 
of the Magyar" (3 vols. 8vo, 1840), and the 
novel of "The Hungarian Castle" (3 vols., 
1842). Her other works include "Louis the 
Fourteenth, and the Court of France in the 
Seventeenth Century" (3 vols., 1847); "The 
Court and Reign of Francis I." (2 vols., 1849); 
" The Life of Mary de Medicis " (3 vols., 1852) ; 
" Pilgrimages in Paris " (1858) ; and " Episodes 
of French History during the Consulate and 
the Empire" (2 vols., 1859). In 1859 she re- 
ceived from the crown a pension of 100. 

PARDON, in its proper sense, the act of grace 
by which the sovereign declares that the guilty 
shall be regarded as innocent. In human polit- 
ical societies, this effect is accomplished, not 
by absolving the moral guilt of the criminal, 
but by removing or withholding those penal 



PARDON 

consequences which the law attaches to crime. 
Chief Justice Marshall's definition may not be 
altogether exact, but it is often quoted in our 
law books, and expresses the usual acceptation 
of the word. " A pardon," he says, " is an act 
of grace, which, proceeding from the power 
intrusted with the execution of the laws, ex- 
empts the individual on whom it is bestowed 
from the punishment which the law inflicts for 
a crime which he has committed." A pardon 
is then an act not of justice, but of grace. Par- 
don necessarily implies punishment, or the lia- 
bility thereto ; and punishment supposes guilt, 
ascertained in the due course of law, and justly 
visited with a penalty. For, as in the state it 
must be the theory that the courts have the 
monopoly of doing justice, so theoretically it 
must be assumed that he is guilty whom the 
courts declare to be so, and that the penalty is 
justly inflicted. If the punishment of such a 
one be but an act of justice, the remission of 
it, or a pardon, must be an act of clemency or 
grace. But it is the chief end of punishment 
to advance the public welfare. When then the 
commonwealth will derive more or as much 
advantage, or even will suffer nothing, from 
the remission of the punishment, this may well 
be granted ; and this consideration ought to 
be the measure and guide of the pardoning 
power. Forgiveness must come of course from 
the one who is injured, and that, in all states, 
is the sovereign. The ultimate power, the real 
sovereignty, whether it reside in a king or in 
the people, as it is the source of the law, so 
must it be the source of grace to him who 
breaks the law. In the forms of government 
which have most prevailed, the crowned prince 
has been regarded as the sovereign, and par- 
don has always been his prerogative. In demo- 
cratic states, the people are sovereign; but they 
have generally delegated the power of pardon 
to him who is placed at the head of the state, 
that is, to the chief executive magistrate, though 
in the absence of such delegation the power 
would pertain to the legislature. The consti- 
tution of the United States gives the power to 
the president alone. In some of the states it 
is to be exercised with the advice and consent 
of the council. Sometimes, where it is reserved 
to the legislature, the governor can only re- 
prieve temporarily. A pardon presupposes 
guilt, and though it is now well settled that it 
may be granted as well before trial and con- 
viction as afterward, yet in every case it is to 
defeat a punishment which the law has pre- 
scribed for an act committed, and therefore to 
defeat and annul so far the law itself. Owing 
to the imperfection of the laws themselves, or 
to the imperfect application of good laws, an 
innocent man may be condemned to punish- 
ment, or a slight offence may be visited with 
too severe a penalty. But remission of the sen- 
tence in these cases, whole or partial, according 
as the sentence is wholly or partially unjust, 
though regarded as an act of clemency, is, in 
the one class of cases, only that very justice 






PARDON 



PARE 



T5 



which the courts in the particular case sought 
i to do, and would have done if at the trial the 
i proofs of innocence had been as clear as they 
now are, and in other cases it is an equitable 
indulgence to those who, though within the 
i letter of the law, yet, could their cases have 
I been foreseen, would have been perhaps except- 
ed from its general rules, or who ought to have 
been excepted, but could never be, because of 
the necessary imperfection of legislation. But 
even in these cases, when justice alone is in- 
tended to be done, where the innocent, not the 
guilty, is to be relieved from penalties, it is 
hardly possible that the so-called pardoning 
power shall always be judiciously exercised. 
The indulgence of pardon extends only to 
crimes already committed. In no well gov- 
, erned state will the sovereign grant dispensa- 
tion to crimes to be committed in the future ; 
and in republics, unless the people, which is 
the sovereign, have expressly delegated such 
an authority, the executive, which is usually 
invested with the power of pardon, has no such 
right of dispensation. Further, as pardon is 
measured by and regards only the public wel- 
fare, it cannot intrude on private rights. There- 
fore a pardon which takes away other penal- 
ties cannot divest a private citizen's right in a 
forfeiture under a penal statute, or his share 
in the penalty which such statute secures to 
the informer. On the principle that the greater 
power includes the less, it is well established, 
though it has been sometimes questioned, that 
the power of pardoning absolutely includes 
that of* pardoning conditionally. Any condi- 
tions, therefore, precedent or subsequent, may 
be annexed to the offer of a pardon ; and on 
the performance of these the validity of the 
grant may be made to depend. Pardons are 
therefore sometimes very properly granted on 
condition that the subjects of them, who have 
been led into criminal acts by indulgence in 
intoxicating drinks, shall wholly abstain there- 
from ; and sometimes, very improperly and in 
utter disregard of state comity, on condition 
that they shall leave the state. In regard to 
the legal effect of a pardon, it may be observed 
that in its proper sense it completely rehabili- 
t he criminal ; but usually the executive 
clemency consists only in a remission of part 
of the sentence. Now, if the judgment which 
the law passed upon the offender consisted 
exclusively in fine or imprisonment, remission 
of these does in fact restore him to full enjoy- 
ment of all his civil rights. But when infamy 
attaches by particular laws to the conviction, 
as it does in the case of felonies, forgiveness 
of the fine or imprisonment only by no means 
makes the pardoned equal with the innocent ; 
in short, the pardon is partial, or it were per- 
haps better to say, it is no pardon at all. It 
must be remarked, however, that this distinc- 
tion is not invariably recognized ; yet the de- 
nial of it seems to have introduced a discord- 
ance into the decisions of the courts. Thus, 
in a Pennsylvania case, where the president of 



the United States had " remitted" to the party 
offered as a witness " the remainder of his sen- 
tence," it was held by the court that the par- 
don, as it was called, removed the sentence and 
also the infamy which attended the crime, and 
therefore restored the competency of the wit- 
ness. But in Massachusetts, in a precisely simi- 
lar case, that is, where the pardon "remitted 
the residue of the sentence," the court distin- 
guished between pardon and the mere annul- 
ling of a sentence of imprisonment, holding 
that the latter could not remove infamy and 
the consequent incapacity, because that could 
be effected only by an express forgiveness of 
the offence, that is, by words which distinctly 
imported a restoration to all civil rights, and 
showed the willingness of the pardoning au- 
thority to regard the criminal as entirely in- 
nocent. Quoting the language of an approved 
author on criminal practice, the court said the 
pardon, or rather remission of the punishment 
only, does not remove the blemish of charac- 
ter, and so does not revive competency. There 
must be full and free pardon of the offence, 
before these can be removed or revived. So 
the English law held that when attainder 
wrought corruption of blood, the party was 
not completely reinstated by the king's charter 
of pardon ; and generally it has been laid down 
in this country, that commutation to a shorter 
period than a life term to the state prison (which 
in the American law generally works the civil 
death of the criminal) does not restore marital 
rights, or entitle the party to the guardianship 
of his children. Where these disabilities re- 
main, the pardon is not complete. A pardon 
is regarded as a deed ; and delivery and accept- 
ance of it are essential to its validity in all cases. 
whether of capital offences or of misdemean- 
ors. It has therefore been held that where the 
president had granted a pardon which had been 
put into the hands of the marshal for delivery 
to the criminal in his custody, the authority to 
deliver it might be countermanded at any time 
before delivery had actually been made, and 
the pardon thereby become ineffectual. It has 
also been held in Pennsylvania that a pardon 
obtained by means of forged papers might be 
treated as void for the fraud ; but in the ab- 
sence of fraud, a pardon once granted and de- 
livered without condition can be recalled by 
no authority whatever. A peculiar remission 
of punishment has become established in some 
of the states, by statutes which permit prison 
authorities to shorten the term of convict im- 
prisonment for good behavior in confinement, 
the extent of the remission being graduated 
by fixed rules. This obviously is not pardon, 
and the laws which permit it do not encroach 
upon any exclusive power of pardon which 
may have been conferred upon the governor. 

PARE, Ambroise, a French surgeon, born at 
Bourg-Hersent, near Laval, in 1517", died in 
Paris, Dec. 22, 1590. He went to Paris in his 
17th year, and his progress in surgical study 
was so rapid that in 1536 the captain general 



76 



PAREGORIC ELIXIR 



PARIS 



of French infantry, Rene de Montejan, ap- 
pointed him surgeon to his troops and took 
him to Italy. After his return to Paris he 
was elected provost of the college of surgery. 
In 1552 he was appointed surgeon to Henry 
II., and afterward to Francis II., Charles IX., 
and Henry III. He exerted a great influence 
upon practical surgery, but his reputation rests 
mainly upon three important improvements : 1. 
The treatment of gun-shot wounds by simple 
dressings, instead of boiling oil or the actual 
cautery, which had been thought necessary on 
account of the supposed poisonous nature of 
such wounds. 2. The application of the liga- 
ture to blood vessels after amputation, to pre- 
vent haemorrhage, instead of the actual cautery. 
This was almost as great an improvement as 
the first, and one of still wider application. 3. 
The rule that in searching for a bullet the pa- 
tient should be placed in the same posture as 
at the moment of receiving the wound. The 
first edition of his complete works appeared at 
Lyons in 1562, and the last, edited by Dr. Mal- 
gaigne, with notes, at Paris in 1840-'41 (3 vols. 
8vo). They were translated into English by 
T. Johnson (fol., London, 1634). 

PAREGORIC ELIXIR (Or. iraprjyopiK.6^ sooth- 
ing), or camphorated tincture of opium, a prep- 
aration of opium and benzoic acid, each 1 
drachm; oil of anise, 1 fluid drachm; honey, 
2 ounces; camphor, 2 scruples; diluted alco- 
hol, 2 pints; macerated for seven days and 
filtered through paper. This is a popular med- 
icine, used as an anodyne and antispasmodic. 
It allays cough in cases of asthma and catarrh, 
and relieves slight pains in the stomach and 
bowels. It is especially used for children, on 
account of the weakness of the preparation 
permitting a more accurate graduation of the 
dose ; but it should be administered with the 
same caution as any other preparation of opium. 

PAREJA, Joan de, a Spanish artist, born in the 
West Indies in 1610, or according to Cean Ber- 
mudez in Seville, of parents who were slaves, 
in 1606, died in Madrid in 1670. He accom- 
panied Velasquez as his slave to Madrid in 
1628, and mixed the colors and prepared the 
palette of the artist. Secretly studying the 
style of Yelasquez, he soon painted creditable 
pictures, one of which attracted the attention 
of Philip IV. in a visit to the artist's studio, 
and resulted in the emancipation of Pareja. 
The slave became the pupil of his master, and 
imitated him so well that their pictures are 
sometimes confounded. His works include 
"The Calling of St. Matthew" at Aranjuez, 
"The Baptism of Christ" at Toledo, and some 
saints at Madrid. 

PARENT AND CHILD. See INFANT. 

PARENT DU CHATELET, Alexandra Jean Baptist*, 
a French physician, born in Paris, Sept. 29, 
1790, died there, March 7, 1836. Admitted to 
the practice of medicine in 1814, he made pub- 
lic hygiene his specialty, and published Several 
works, the more important of which are : Essai 
sur Us cloaques ou egouts de la mile de Paris 



(1824), and De la prostitution dans la mile dt 
Paris (2 vols., 1836). 

PAREPA-ROSA. See ROSA. 

PARHELIA. See HALO. 

PARIAHS, a low caste of the Tamil country 
and race, in southern India, whose name is er 
roneously applied by Europeans to the outsid< 
Hindoo castes generally, of which it is onli 
one, forming but a small part of the outcas 
population. These low castes are organize( 
under strict and exclusive regulations, like th< 
higher castes above them; and Max Miille; 
says that the lowest Pariah is as proud and ai 
anxious to preserve his own caste as the high 
est Brahman. The name Pariah is derive( 
from the bell which they were formerly obligee 
to carry about, to warn Brahmans of the ap 
proach of an outcast. The common domesti< 
dogs of India and Ceylon, mongrels of Euro 
pean descent which haunt the streets and sub 
urbs of cities and sometimes hunt in packs 01 
the plains, are known as Pariah dogs. 

PARIAN MARBLES. See ARUNDEL. 

PARINI, Giuseppe, an Italian poet, born at Bo 
sisio, near Milan, May 22, 1729, died Aug. 15 
1799. He was of humble birth and occupa 
tion, but acquired fame in 1752 by his Ri 
pano Eupilino, a volume of poems, and stil 
more by his II giorno, a didactic and drama 
tic satire. His works were edited by Reina (( 
vols., Milan, 1801-'4, and 2 vols., 1825). 

PARIS, the capital of France, and the seconc 
city in Europe in point of population, on botl 
banks of the Seine and on two islands in tha 
river, 111m. from its mouth ; lat. of the ob 
servatory, 48 60' 11" N., Ion. 2 20' 22" E. 
height of the city above the sea, 190 ft. ; are* 
enclosed within the fortifications, 18,315 acres 
or a little more than 28 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872 
1,851,792. With its suburbs it forms a specia 
department, that of the Seine, having an are* 
of 184 sq. m., and a population in 1872 o: 
2,220,060. The area of the city proper at dif 
f erent dates is shown in the following table : 



PERIODS. 




Acres. 


Sq.m. 


Under Julius Caesar 


...B. C. 56 


87 




" Philip Augustus 


..A. D. 1211 


625 




" Charles VI 
" Henry III 


... " 1383 
" 1581 


1,084 
1,193 


1-69 

1-86 


" Louis XIII. 


" 1634 


1403 


2-19 


" Louis XIV 


" 1686 


2728 


4-26 


" Louis XVI 


" 1784 


8,708 


13-60 


" Napoleon III. . . 


.. . " 1860 


18315 


2S'61 











The following table shows the increase of 
ulation of the city during the past 80 years 
the figures for the first two dates being fron 
the most trustworthy estimates, the others 
from official censuses : 



YEARS. 


Population. 


Pop. to 
the acre. 


YEARS. 


Population. 


Pop. to 
the acre 


1798... 
1802 
1806 
1817 
1827 


640,000 
672,000 
580,609 
713,966 
890,431 


78 

77 
66 
82 
102 


1886.. . 
1846. . . 
1856.. . 
1866.. . 
1872.. . 


909,126 
945,721 
1,174,346 
1,825,274 
1,851,792 


104 
108 
135 
100 
101 



PAKIS 



77 



The population in 1872 was divided according 
to nationality as follows : 


NATIONALITY. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


JBorn in the department of 
the Seine 


307,812 
527,028 
2,196 

19,929 

14.696 
2,901 

1,939 
7,284 
1,080 
17,215 
4,107 
1,441 
6,731 
7,538 
560 
1,686 
296 
507 
105 
784 
2,499 


334,906 
504,842 
1,836 

17,047 

16,919 
4,589 

2,181 
8,455 
773 
15,697 
3,645 
1.292 
2,358 
4,867 
531 
845 
176 
202 
26 
742 
2,608 


642,718 
1,081,865 
4,082 

86,976 

81,615 
7,490 

4,120 
15,789 
1,808 
82,912 
7,752 
2,733. 
8,089 
12,400 
1,091 
2,481 
472 
709 
167 
1,526 
5,102 


Born in other p'rts of France 
Naturalized foreigners 
fri 1 Alsatian and Lorrainian im- 
(_ migrants 


Persons from Alsace-Lorraine 
who are German citizens 
English Scotch, and Irish 


Americans (North and South 
America) 


Germans. 




Belgians. . 


Dutch 


Spaniards 


Italians. 


Swiss 


Russians 


Poles 


Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes. 
Turks, Greeks, Wallachs, &c. 
Asiatics 


Other nationalities 

Nationality unknown. 


Total 


927,224 


924,568 


1,851,792 




In regard to religions belief, the population 
was divided into 1,760,168 Roman Catholics, 
41,672 Protestants (Calvinists 19,423, Luther- 
ans 12,634, other sects 4,615), 23,434 Jews, 
13,905 professing no belief, 1,572 Mohamme- 
dans, Buddhists, &c., and 11,041 unascertained. 
Of the total population over 6 years of age 
(1,704,152), 175,510 (69,911 males and 105,599 
females) were unable to read or write, and 47,- 
467 (21,812 males and 25,655 females) were un- 
able to write ; of the former, 135,489 were over 
20 years, and of the latter, 28,426. The follow- 
ing table, taken from the figures of the census 
of 1872, sho'ws, though very generally, the oc- 
cupations and professions of the population : 


PROFESSION OR OCCUPATION. 


Persons actively 
engaged. 


Male. 


Female. 


Agriculture (and trades connected with it) 
Industries and manufactures 


2,361 
295,211 
148,651 

45,661 
9,076 
95,800 

51.589 
5,041 
15,484 

4,801 


655 
197,987 
52,207 

3,581 
6,659 
17,219 

59,899 
10,217 
12,265 

8,432 


Commerce and commercial pursuits 
Occupations connected with transportation 
(railways, &c.), with banking, brokerage, 
and commission 


Miscellaneous professions* 


Liberal professions. 


Persons living exclusively from the income 
of their capital 


\vithout profession or occupation. . 
Persons not classified t 
Persons whose professions are unknown or 
have not been determined 




Paris is divided for administrative and polit- 
ical purposes into 20 arrondissements, each 
of which is subdivided into four " Quarters." 



and its administrative officers. The official 
names and numbers of the arrondissements 
and quarters are shown below (the arrondisse- 
ments with Roman, the quarters with Arabic 
numerals) : 



I. LOUVRE. 

1. St. Germ. TAuxerrois. 

2. Halles. 

3. Palais Royal. 

4. Place Vendome. 

II. BOURSE. 

5. Gaillon. 

6. Vivienne. 

7. Mail. 

8. Bonne Nouvelle. 

III. TEMPLE. 

9. Arts et Metiers. 

10. Enfants Rouges. 

11. Archives. 

12. Ste. Avoie. 

IV. HOTEL DE VILLE. 

18. St. Merry. 

14. St. Gervais. 

15. Arsenal. 

16. Notre Dame. 

V. PANTHEON. 

17. St. Victor. 

18. Jardin des Plantes. 

19. Val de Grace. 

20. Sorbonne. 

VI. LUXEMBOURG. 

21. Monnaie. 

22. Odeon. 

28. Notre Dame des Champs. 

24. St. Germain des Pres. 

VII. PALAIS BOURBON. 

25. St. Thomas d'Aquin. 

26. Invalides. 

27. ticole Militaire. 

28. Gros Caillou. 

VIII. ELYSEE. 

29. Champs ^lysees. 

30. Faubourg du Roule. 

31. Madeleine. 
82. Europe. 

IX. OPERA. 

88. St. Georges. 

84. Chaussee d'Antin. 

85. Faubourg Montmartre. 

86. Rochechouart. 

X. ENCLOS ST. LAURENT. 

87. St. Vincent de Paul 
38. Porte St. Denis. 

89. Porte St. Martin. 
40. Hopital St. Louis. 



XI. POPINCOURT. 

41. Folie Mericourt. 

42. St. Ambroise. 

43. Roquette. 

44. Ste. Marguerite. 

XII. REUILLY. 

45. Bel Air. 

46. Picpus. 

47. Bercy. 

48. Quinze Vingts. 

XIII. GOBELINS. 

49. Salpetriere. 

50. Gare. 

51. Maison Blanche. 

52. Croulebarbe. 

XIV. OBSERVATOIRE. 

53. Mt. Parnasse. 

54. Sante. 

55. Petit Montrouge. 

56. Plaisance. 

XV. TAUGIRARD. 

57. St. Lambert 

58. Necker. 

59. Grenelle. 

60. Javelle. 

XVI. PASSY. 

61. Auteuil. 

62. La Muette. 

63. Porte Dauphine. 

64. Des Bassins. 

XVII. BATIGNOLLES- 
MONCEAUX. 

65. Ternes. 

66. Plaine de Monceaux. 

67. Batignolles. 

68. Epinettes. 

XVIII. BUTTE MONTMARTRE. 

69. Grandes Carrieres. 

70. Cliquancourt 

71. Goutte d'Or. 

72. La Chapelle. 

XIX. BUTTES CHAUMONT. 

78. La Villette. 

74. Pont de Flandre. 

75. Amerique. 

76. Combat 

XX. MENILMONTANT. 

77. Belleville. 

78. St. Fargeau. 

79. Pere Lachaise. 

80. Charonne. 



Each arrondissement has its mayor (maire) 

* The more detailed French tables include in this category 
landlords, kwpers of baths and gymnasiums, exhibitors, acro- 
bats, and other classes. 

h Foundlings, the sick in public hospitals, inmates of prisons 
and asylums, &c., &c. 



In spite of the official designations given above, 
some ancient names and others coined in re- 
cent times are always applied in popular par- 
lance to certain of the quarters. The most 
prominent examples of this are the old names 
quartier St. Antoine, applied to the whole re- 
gion surrounding the present place de la Bas- 
tille; de la Cit6, to the island on which the 
chief part of mediaeval Paris was built; fau- 
bourg St. Germain, to the greater part of the 
7th arrondissement and a small part of the 15th. 
Of coined names, the most commonly used 
are those of Latin quarter (quartier Latin), ap- 
plied to the former quartier St. Jacques (now 



78 



PARIS 



forming part of the quartier du Pantheon), and 
quartier Bre"da, to the region occupying the 
northern part of the quartier de 1'Opera and 
its vicinity. The climate of Paris is variable, 
but very healthful, moist rather than dry, with 
an average annual rainfall, in 105 rainy days, 
of 22 inches. Falls of snow are rare and slight. 



The mean temperature is 51 F., the average 
summer and winter extremes being respective- 
ly 96 above and 1 below zero. The city lies 
in a nearly level plain, broken on the right 
bank of the Seine by a range of hills (buttes) 
about two miles from the river. This plain 
extends above a singular geological formation 




Paris and its Environs. 



Bounds of city under Louis VFI. 
Bounds under' Philip Augustus. 



Bounds under Louis XIV. 

Barriers under Louis XVI. 



1. H6tel de Cluny. 2. Institnt de France. 3. Notre Dame. 4. Palais de Justice. 5. Place du Roi de Rome. 6. Avenue Bois de Boulogne. 7. An 
deTriomphe. 8. Avenue des Champs Elysfies. 9. Pare de Monceaux. 10. Palais de I'Elyse'e. 11. Palais de 1'Industrie. 12. Place de la Concorde 
13. Madeleine. 14. Grand Opera. 15. Place Vend&me. 16. Theatre des Italiens. 17. Bourse. 18. Palais Royal and Theatre Francais. 19 
Tuileries. 20. Louvre. 21. Halles Centrales. 22. H6tel de Ville. 23. Place Royale. 24. Place de la Bastille. 25. Cemetery of Montmartre. 26 
Bassin de la Villette. 27. Custom House. 28. Gare de 1' Arsenal. 29. Cemeterv of Pere Lachaise. 30. Place du Tr6ne. 31. Jardin des Plantei 
32. Wine Market. 33. Collfiee de France. 34. Sorbonne. 35. Pantheon. 36. Observatory. 37. Luxembourg Garden. 38. Palais du S6nat. 39 
St. Sulpice. 40. Corps Ugislatif. 41. Archiepiscopal Palace. 42. H&tel des Invalides. 43. Military School. 44. Champ de Mars. 45. Cemeterj 
of Mont Parnasse. 



called the Paris basin, the arrangement of which 
presents a peculiar assemblage of natural ad- 
vantages ; its different strata supply the city's 
water, its building stone, gravel, &c. Over an 
inexhaustible reservoir which, tapped by arte- 
sian wells, supplies extensive quarters of the 
town with water, spreads, first, the great chalk 



formation, to which succeed in ascending ordei 
the following layers : plastic clay, marine lime- 
stone, silicious (fresh-water) limestone, gyp- 
sum, alternating with marls abounding in f ossi] 
remains. The alluvial deposit is of great fer- 
tility, yielding incessant crops. It is estimated 
that 324,000,000 cub. ft. of building stone have 



PARIS 



been extracted from the now exhausted quar- 
ries, which underlie about one eighth of the 
surface of the city, and have been used as cat- 
acombs since 1784. (See CATACOMBS.) The 
Seine, approaching from the south, receives 
the Marne little more than a mile outside the 
enceinte, enters the city at its S. E. corner, 
flows N. W. and then S. W., leaves the en- 
ceinte at its S. W. extremity, and passes in 
great bends, like the letter S, across the fer- 
tile plain between Paris and the forest of St. 
Germain, 10 m. N. W. The steep hills of 
Montmartre and the Buttes Chaumont, both 
within the city limits, and both hollowed by 
constant quarrying for gypsum, form the only 
other noteworthy natural features of the city's 
site. Paris is surrounded by a complete belt 
(enceinte) of fortifications, broken by 57 gates, 
besides the entrances of railways. It consists 
of a bastioned and terraced wall, 21 m. in cir- 
cuit, presenting 94 bastions, designated by their 
numbers in order, proceeding N., W., S., and 
E. around the circuit from the entrance of the 
Seine back to that point. The whole is sur- 
rounded by a continuous ditch 22 m. in circuit 
and 49 ft. wide. The wall has 34 ft. of escarp- 
ment, faced with stone 11 ft. thick. This inte- 
rior system of defence is supplemented by the 
following 16 outlying forts, named in their or- 
der from the Seine in the direction described 
above in the case of the bastions, and the dis- 
tance from the enceinte being given in each 
case : Charenton, 3,600 yards ; Vincennes, 
2,290; Nogent, 5,342.; Eosny, 5,069; Noisy, 
3,270 ; Romainville, 1,570 ; Aubervilliers, 
2,071 ; Est, 3,815 ; Double Couronne du Nord, 
5,450 ; La Briche, 5,560 ; Mont Valerien, 4,360 ; 
Issy, 2,400; Vanves, 2,290; Montrouge, 1,690; 
Bicetre, 1,635; Ivry, 2,725. Forts de No- 
gent, Rosny, and Noisy are beyond the east- 
ern limit of the plan given with this arti- 
cle. According to the census of 1872, the 
city of Paris contained 3,619 streets, places, 
courts, squares, quays, and other places of pub- 
lic right of way ; 300 isolated public edifices, 
besides public buildings included in blocks 
or groups with other structures; and 63,963 
houses, of which 61,622 were inhabited, 1,947 
uninhabited, and 394 in process of construc- 
tion. Of the inhabited houses, 694 were oc- 
cupied by public establishments, and 60,928 by 
private citizens. In these houses were 851,513 
locations, or arrangements for separate dwell- 
ings (as these are usually arranged in continen- 
tal cities, a considerable number in each house), 
f these, 694,095 were occupied by private 
citizens. 05,257 were vacant, and 92,161 were 
occupied by industrial and commercial estab- 
lishments, &c. The most noteworthy of the 
thoroughfares are the boulevards (from 
the German Bollwerk, bulwark or rampart; 
the great thoroughfares passing round the bor- 
f many French towns are so designated 
from their having generally taken the place of 
old fortifications). The most famous and the 
oldest of these are the boulevards interieurs, 
636 VOL. XIIL 6 



on the site of the old walls destroyed about 
1670, and extending from the Madeleine to the 
place de la Bastille. Beginning at the church 
of the Madeleine, and going east, the succes- 
sive portions of their extent are called the 
boulevards de la Madeleine, des Capucines, des 
Italiens, Montmartre, Poissoniere, Bonne Nou- 
velle, St. Denis, St. Martin, du Temple, des 
Filles du Calvaire, and Beaumarchais ; lead- 
ing from the place de la Bastille to the Seine 
are the boulevards de 1' Arsenal and de Bour- 
don. The name boulevards is also applied to 
the following new and beautiful streets which 
were among the public works completed under 
Napoleon III. : boulevard du Prince Eugene, 
from the chateau d'Eau to the place du Trone ; 
Malesherbes, from the Madeleine to the place 
Wagram ; de la Reine Hortense, from the Arc 
de Triomphe to the Jardin Monceaux ; Hauss- 
mann, from the avenue de Friedland to the 
boulevard Montmartre ; Richard Lenoir, from 
the place de la Bastille to the Douane ; de Stras- 
bourg, continued by the boulevard de Sebasto- 
pol, from the Strasburg railway station to the 
Seine. The boulevards exterieurs form a line 
of broad and continuous road on the site of the 
old octroi wall. Distinctive names are also ap- 
plied to their various portions. The boulevards 
inter ieurs, and especially those of Montmartre, 
the Italiens, and the Capucines, are the very 
centre of the brighter part of the life of Paris. 
Along them, or near by, in the streets opening 
from them, such as the rue de la Paix, chaussee 
d'Antin, boulevards Malesherbes and Hauss- 
mann, the ruesLamtte, Vivienne, and Richelieu, 
are shops with the costliest silks, rarest jewels, 
and finest works of art ; restaurants and cafes 
wainscoted with mirrors, where the latest 
news and rumors of the day are reported or 
invented ; the great banking houses ; the best 
opera houses and theatres; the most fashion- 
able or otherwise noted loungers and celebrities 
of the town. " France is the centre of civil- 
ized nations, Paris is the centre of France, the 
boulevard des Italiens is the centre of Paris," 
says an enthusiastic modern Parisian. Besides 
the boulevards, there are in Paris a great 
number of other streets having, like the rue 
de Rivoli, rue Royale, rue Castiglione, &c., an 
almost world-wide fame for their beauty or 
the activity and life prevailing in them ; but 
what gives to the city its especial attraction 
is the multitude of beautiful and universally 
frequented promenades, places, gardens, and 
squares. The most noteworthy succession of 
these is the remarkable series which begins 
with the exterior gardens of the Louvre. From 
these lofty colonnaded archways give en- 
trance to the beautiful court of that palace ; 
beyond is the place Napoleon with its garden, 
surrounded by the ornate inner facades of the 
new Louvre, except on one side, that opens 
on the place du Carrousel. This is an immense 
palace court, the chief ornament of which is 
a triumphal arch, designed after the arch of 
Septimius Severus at Rome, adorned by eight 



80 



PAEIS 



Corinthian columns in red marble and sur- 
mounted by a triumphal car and four bronze 
horses, modelled after the horses of St. Mark 



in Venice. This court is bounded on the west 
side by what was the main body of the Tuileries 
palace, whose western facade, 1,000 ft. long, 




The Tuileries and Louvre, before 1871. 



now in ruins, looks on the gardens of the same 
name, with their flowers, fountains, statuary, 
orange trees, and groves of horse chestnut trees, 
through which the grand alley leads to the 
finest square in Paris, once named place de 
Louis XV., then baptized place de la Ee volu- 
tion in blood flowing from the guillotine set 
up there in the reign of terror, and since 
styled place de la Concorde. It is ornamented 
with balustrades and rostral columns, and with 
eight pavilions, each surmounted by a figure 
representing one of the principal French towns, 
Strasburg still among the rest. In the mid- 
dle of the place, between two fine fountains, 
rises the obelisk of Luxor, a monolith 72 ft. 
high, first set up in front of the great temple 
of Thebes 32 centuries ago by Eameses II. It 
stands on the spot where once stood a bronze 
equestrian statue of Louis XV., which was 
afterward melted into republican cannon, and 
where his grandson was executed. It was erect- 
ed here in 1836 by the orders of Louis Philippe. 
On the north of the square are two palaces, 
each 288 ft. front, with colonnaded facades rest- 
ing on arcades ; they are separated by the rue 
Eoyale, 90 ft. wide, which opens a view of the 
portico of the Madeleine. On the south and 
on the left bank of the Seine, crossed here by a 
fine bridge partly built of stone from the Bas- 
tile, are the Palais Bourbon and palace of the 
ministry of foreign affairs, beyond which are 
seen the spires of Ste. Clotilde and the gilded 
dome of the Invalides. On the W. side, be- 
tween two groups in white marble by Cous- 
tou, each representing an impatient horse re- 
strained by an attendant, is the entrance to the 



grand avenue of the Champs lys6es, which is 
a mile and a quarter long. The Champs lys6es 
are planted with trees and laid out in parterres 
profuse with flowering plants and shrubs. 
Here are cafes, open-air concerts, marionette 
theatres, apparatus for children's games, and 
a hundred tasteful booths stored with play- 
things and toothsome refreshments ; and on 
all pleasant days and evenings in the mild sea- 
son a multitude of old and young, strolling or 
sporting under the trees, or sitting on the rows 
of chairs along the sidewalks watching the 
carriages and horsemen that throng the ave- 
nue. For other tastes there are a circus and a 
panorama; and in close proximity the Mabille, 
the most brilliant and notorious of Paris dan- 
cing gardens. On the Champs Elysees also is 
the palais de ^Industrie, originally construct- 
ed for the world's fair of 1855, whose ample 
spaces are now put to use for national exhi- 
bitions of industry, horticulture, agriculture, 
the fine arts, &c., some one or more of which 
are held there yearly. Midway in its course 
the avenue spreads into a circular place, 
called the rond point, embellished with foun- 
tains, and thence continues, bordered now 
with stately houses, to the place de 1'fitoile. 
Here is the arch of triumph, begun by the 
first Napoleon for a monument to himself and 
the glory of the grande armee, but only com- 
pleted by that peace-loving monarch Louis 
Philippe. It is the grandest extant structure 
of its kind, rising in harmonious proportions 
from a base of 147 by 75 ft. to a height oi 
162 ft. The central archway is 48 ft. broad 
and 95 ft. high. The inner walls are inscribed 



PARIS 



81 



with the names of 384 generals and 96 vic- 
tories. Its most striking sculptured decora- 
tions are four groups of colossal figures in 
high relief, one of which, by Rude, symbol- 
izing the departure of the recruits for the army 




Arc de Triomphe de 1'^toile. 

in 1792, seems inspired by the patriotic fight- 
ing force and passion of that time. Radia- 
ting from the place de Tfitoile are ten broad 
avenues. One of these is the avenue Bois de 
Boulogne (formerly de rimperatrice), a mile 
long and 300 ft. wide. It consists of a carriage- 
way, footwalks, and a bridle road, and is bor- 
dered by continuous gardens, beyond which 
on either hand is again a carriage road, and 
yet beyond gardens and villas. This leads to 
the Bois de Boulogne, a park of 2,500 acres, 
just outside the fortifications. Laid out since 
1852 in the modern style of landscape garden- 
ing, its broad roads, mazy paths, and shaded 
groves are the resort of all classes of Parisians. 
Within its boundaries are artificial lakes, of 
which the largest is three fourths of a mile 
long, a respectable waterfall, two race courses, 
and the jardin cTacclimatation. This last, 
occupying 33 acres, tastefully laid out, is a 
model in its kind. The only other of the large 
"exterior" parks of Paris, besides the Bois 
de Boulogne, is the park of Vincennes, on the 
n side of the city. (See PARK, and VIN- 
KS.) The jardin des plantes, a botanical 
garden with zoological museum and menagerie, 
much like the zoological gardens of London, 
is on the left bank of and near the river, in the 
. part of the city. ^It is a parallelogram 
f 57 acres, and is admirably laid out and kept. 
The menagerie is one of the most perfect in 
the world. The gardens of the Luxembourg 
are also on the left bank, in the quarter and 
the palace of that name. They cover 85 
are beautifully laid out, and have some 
illy fine alleys of trees and flowers. The 
Nfonoeaux, at the extremity of the boule- 
vard de Malesherbes, is another pleasant gar- 



den, its present tasteful arrangement being the 
result of quite recent improvements by the 
municipality. Many of the squares through- 
out the city have something of the character 
of small parks, from the shade trees and flow- 
ers with which they are embellished; nearly 
all the larger ones have fountains, generally 
very tasteful and beautiful. Among the pub- 
lic places of Paris which have nothing of the 
park-like character, but are generally merely 
paved squares, the chief are, besides the places 
de la Concorde, du Carrousel, and others al- 
ready mentioned, the place de 1'Hotel de Ville, 
one of the largest ; place de la Bastille, on the 
site of that fortress, embellished by the tall 
"column of July," a bronze pillar 154 ft. high 
dedicated to the citizens who fell in the revo- 
lution of 1830; the place Vend6me, with the 
famous column Venddme in its centre, a shaft 
143 ft. high, of stone covered with bronze, 
on which are bass reliefs commemorative of 
Napoleon's campaigns in 1805, the whole be- 
ing in imitation of the column of Trajan at 
Rome; the broad place du Palais Royal, S. 
of the Palais Royal and between it and the 
Louvre ; the place du Chateau d'Eau, between 
the boulevards du Temple and St. Martin, an 
irregular but extensive open place ; the place 
de 1'Opera, deriving its chief beanty from the 
great opera house, before which it lies; the 
place du Tr6ne, an extensive place, but away 
from most of the centres of activity ; the place 
du Trocadero, a fine and elevated place opposite 
the Champ de Mars; the place Notre Dame, 
before the cathedral of that name ; the place 
St. Michel, on the left bank opposite the island ; 
the place des Victoires, with an equestrian 
statue of Louis XIV. ; the place du Chatelet, 
&c. Among the open spaces of the city, the 
Champ de Mars deserves special mention. It is 
an extensive parade ground, about 1,000 yards 
by 500, on the left bank of the Seine, between 
the river and the military school. It was laid 
out in 1790, and the rampart of turf around it 
was completed in the week between July 7 and 
14 of that year, by 60,000 volunteers, men and 
women, who worked night and day in their 
eagerness to prepare the field for the great 
fete de la federation when the king swore al- 
legiance to the constitution. It has been the 
scene of many very remarkable historic events, 
and is now used for great reviews, &c. The 
buildings of the universal exposition of 1867 
were erected upon it, but the greater part 
have been removed. The bridges of Paris, 
26 in number, are as follows, named in the 
order in which they cross the Seine, beginning 
at the entry of the river into the city : ponts 
National, de Bercy, d'Austerlitz, de Constan- 
tine, de la Tournelle (left of the ile St. Louis), 
Marie, Louis Philippe (these two right of 
the ile St. Louis), St. Louis (connecting the 
two islands), de 1'Archeveche, au Double, St. 
Charles, St. Michel (these four on the left of 
the ile de la Cite), d'Arcole, Notre-Dame, au 
Change (these three on the right of the ile), 



82 



PARIS 



Neuf, des Arts, du Carrousel, Royal, de Sol- 
ferino, de la Concorde, des Invalides, de 1' Al- 
ma, d'lena, and de Crenelle, besides a railway 
bridge. Among the finest of them are the 
seven shown in the accompanying illustration, 
those from the pont d'Arcole to the pont 



Royal, inclusive. The so-called passages form 
a noteworthy class of Parisian thoroughfares ; 
they are narrow streets or alleys, roofed with 
glass, intended for foot passengers only, and 
lined with shops, &c. The best known are the 
passage des Panoramas, the passage Vivienne, 




View of the Seven Bridges. 



and the passage Choiseul. Besides boulevards, 
avenues, streets, &c., the great quais along the 
banks of the Seine must not be forgotten in 
naming the Parisian public ways. These are 
too numerous to particularize here, but all 
afford wide promenades along the river, and 
are among the most lively and pleasant of the 
city thoroughfares. The streets throughout 
the city are paved with asphalt, which has 
proved remarkably successful as to durabil- 
ity and convenience. It is said that another 
motive to the use of this pavement, like the 
arrangement of the streets in radii easily com- 
manded by artillery from a central point, was 
found in strategic reasons ; the square stones 
of the old paving furnishing great facilities 
for barricade building, as proved on several 
occasions. Among the most remarkable pub- 
lic works of Paris is its great system of sew- 
erage. The main sewers, resembling enor- 
mous subterranean canals, are of recent date, 
nearly all the present ones, with most of 
their branches, having been constructed since 
1855. In general the network of sewers cor- 
responds to that of thoroughfares, the small 
sewers passing into the large ones as the streets 
into the boulevards and avenues, and the con- 
tents of the whole finally passing into a few 
enormous mains, like that under the rue de 
Rivoli. These again empty into two subter- 
ranean canals, which carry the sewage away 
from the city and debouche into the Seine 7 m. 
below. The aggregate length of main drainage 



in Paris now reaches the surprising extent of 
more than 250 m. For details of their con- 
struction, &c., see SEWEBAGE. The enormous 
quantity of water consumed by the city is drawn 
from the Seine and the canal de 1'Ourcq, the 
aqueduct of Arcueil, and the immense artesian 
wells of Crenelle and Passy. (See ARTESIAN 
WELLS, vol. i., p. 775.) Great aqueducts, begun 
in 1863, are still in progress, by which it is de- 
signed to supply in addition water from the 
Dhuys and the springs in the valley of the 
Vanne. There is now under the streets of 
Paris a total length of about 92 m. of water 
pipes, and the water brought by them is dis- 
tributed through more than 200 public foun- 
tains, about 60 ornamental fountains, nearly 
4,500 hydrants, and about 4,000 drinking places, 
watering troughs, public washing places, and 
other similar channels. Of the 220,000 cubic 
metres daily distributed, 135,000 are used for 
watering the streets, washing out sewers, &c., 
and for the public fountains; 15,000 are re- 
served for government and official uses; and 
70,000 are used for the ordinary supply to citi- 
zens. In 1874 there Vere employed in Paris 
10,000 hackney coaches, owned and directed 
by several large companies, 725 omnibuses, and 
about 250 railway omnibuses, besides a con- 
siderable number of horse cars. A line of rail- 
way encircles the city (the ligne de ceinture), 
affording important strategic as well as popu- 
lar facilities for communication. Among the 
beautiful or famous buildings of Paris, proba- 



PARIS 



83 



bly the best known are the palaces. Of these 
the two principal (now united) are described in 
special articles. (See LOUVRE, and TUILERIES.) 
Near them stands the lyse"e palace, at present 
the residence when he is in the city of the 
president of the republic. It was built early in 
the 18th century by a private nobleman ; was 
next purchased and for a time occupied by 
Mme. de Pompadour, who added to its pretty 
garden a part of the Champs Elysees ; it was 
afterward set apart for the use of ambassadors 
extraordinary sent to the court of France ; then 
fell into the hands of the rich banker Beaujon, 
and passed from him to the duchess of Bour- 
bon ; was used as a printing house during the 
early years of the revolution, and then sold 
to private speculators, who converted it into 
a place of public amusement; was afterward 
bought and inhabited by Murat, till he left it 
to be king of Naples, when it again became gov- 
ernment property, and was at different times 
occupied by Napoleon I. It has been inhabited 
by the duke of Wellington and Alexander I. of 
Russia. Louis XVIII. restored to it one of its 
earlier names, Elysee Bourbon, and gave it to 
the duke de Berry, after whose assassination 
it descended to the duke of Bordeaux. After 
December, 1848, it took the name of lys6e 
Nationale, and became the official residence of 
the prince president Louis Napoleon, who on 
becoming emperor changed its name to lys6e 
Napoleon, and intended it for the ultimate 
residence of the prince imperial. The palace 
on the quai d'Orsay was destined by Napoleon 
I. to be the residence of his son, the king of 
Rome ; Charles X. had more work done on 
this fine edifice with a view 
to fitting it for national in- 
dustrial exhibitions; Lou- 
is Philippe completed it; 
Louis Napoleon's imperial 
council of state occupied 
it while the second empire 
lasted ; the followers of the 
commune burned it. The 
still standing walls are beau- 
tiful. By its side, entirely 
restored from its injuries, 
is the ornate little palace of 
the legion of honor, built 
in 1784 by the prince of 
Salm, who was guillotined 
in 1794, when it was dis- 
posed of by lottery, and 
fell to a journeyman hair 
dresser. The Luxembourg 
palace is remarkable for 
its happy combination of 
graceful lines with solid- 
ity of effect; the gardens 
are not inferior to those of the Tuileries. 
The hotel de ville, between the rue de Rivoli 
and the river, opposite the upper end of the 
ile de la Cite", was, before its almost total de- 
struction under the commune in 1871, a beau- 
tiful building in the style of the renaissance, 



forming a quadrangle about 300 ft. by 250, and 
having three courts. Its exterior is profusely 
ornamented, several hundred statues in niches 
forming part of its decorations ; while the state 
apartments within were among the most mag- 
nificent rooms in the world, the great galerie 
des fetes being especially splendid. This struc- 
ture is connected with nearly every impor- 
tant event in the modern history of Paris. It 
was begun in 1533, and the first building, about 
one fourth the size of the subsequent one, 
was finished in 1628. It remained almost un- 
touched till 1837, when improvements were be- 
gun, and in 1842 it was enlarged to its great- 
est dimensions. Its whole cost has been esti- 
mated at 16,000,000 francs. In 1873 the gov- 
ernment selected for the reconstruction of the 
burned edifice the plans of Messrs. Ballu and 
Deperthes, who rebuild it very much in the 
old fashion. The Palais Royal is a very large 
quadrangular building, surrounding an exten- 
sive court or garden about 230 yards by 100, 
the scene of many historical events, notably of 
public meetings during the revolution, and of 
the speeches of Camille Desmoulins and others. 
The lower story is now occupied by ranges 
of shops, among the finest in Paris. The pal- 
ace has been the residence of various members 
of the successive ruling families of France. 
The H6tel des Invalides, occupying, with its 
courts, &c., an area of about 16 acres near 
the left bank of the Seine, W. of the faubourg 
St. Germain, was founded under Louis XIV., 
in 1670, as an asylum for veteran soldiers, 
and has been enlarged by later sovereigns. In 
the church of St. Louis, forming a part of 




The Bourse. 



the Invalides, is the tomb of Napoleon I., the 
great porphyry sarcophagus standing direct- 
ly under the dome which crowns the edifice. 
Other noteworthy public buildings are the 
Palais de Justice, the Bourse (shown in the 
accompanying engraving), the military school, 



PARIS 




New Opera House. 



and the magnificent and richly decorated opera 
house, built just before the end of the second 
empire. Many of the churches are remark- 




Church of Notre Dame, rear view. 

able for their architecture, paintings, or his- 
toric associations. Most impressive of all is 
the cathedral of Notre Dame, a noble specimen 



of the early pointed style of so-called Gothic ; 
it is cruciform, with an extreme length of 390 
ft., width of transepts 144 ft., height of vault- 
ing 105 ft., width of western front 
128 ft., flanked by two massive 
towers 224 ft. high. (See CA- 
THEDRAL, vol. iv., pp. 118, 119.) 
Near by is the arrowy spire of la 
Sainte Chapelle. This church was 
originally built in the surprising- 
ly short space of three years, 
1245-'8, by order of St. Louis, to 
contain the crown of thorns and 
piece of the true cross bought by 
that monarch from the emperor 
of Constantinople. Injured by 
the wear of time, wasted by fire, 
desecrated to a strange variety of 
base uses before, during, and after 
the revolution, the labor of re- 
storing it to almost more than its 
original splendor busied learned 
archaists and skilled architects 
from 1837 to 1867. " It now pre- 
sents," says the most eminent of 
them, "the completest, perhaps 
the finest, specimen of the reli- 
gious architecture of the middle 
of the 13th century." St. Ger- 
main des Pres is a venerable in- 
stance of the Romanesque style ; 
that of the renaissance is largely 
illustrated in St. Eustache, and 
more curiously in St. Etienne du 
Mont; the Italian or Palladian 
style beautifully in St. Paul et 
St. Louis. Ste. Genevieve, an im- 
mense pile, better known as the Pantheon, is 
distinguished for its Corinthian portico of col- 
umns 60 ft. high, supporting a sculptured ped- 



PAKIS 



85 



iment, and for its lofty dome, which, however, 
in every quality but size, is far inferior to that 
of the church of the Invalides, the masterpiece 




La Sainte Chapelle. 

in its kind of the time of Louis XIV. (See 
PANTHEON.) St. Germain 1'Auxerrois, apart 




The Madeleine. 



from its rich ornamentation, claims attention 
because from its belfry was given the signal 
for the St. Bartholomew massacre; St. Gervais 



for a singularly beautiful chapel. The exterior 
of the Madeleine presents a grand reproduction 
of pure antique forms. It stands on a raised 
platform 328 ft. long by 138 ft. broad, which 
is ascended at either end by a flight of 28 steps ; 
a surrounding colonnade of 52 pillars 49 ft. 
high, supporting a richly sculptured frieze and 
cornice, intercolumnar niches in the side walls 
filled with colossal statues of saints, the largest 
sculptured pediment in the world crowning the 
noblest portico the world has seen since the 
Athenian Parthenon, are the eminent features 
of this magnificent Christianized Grecian tem- 
ple. St. Vincent de Paul, Notre Dame de Lo- 
rette, Ste. Clotilde, St. Augustin, and the Trini- 
te are noteworthy, if not altogether admirable, 
as exemplifications of contemporary architec- 
tural talent ajid decorative taste in their ap- 
plication to religious purposes. In the spring 
of 1875 the assembly resolved upon the erec- 
tion of a magnificent "votive church," to cost 
10,000,000 francs, on the summit of Montmar- 
tre. The corner stone was laid June 29, 1875. 
Many of the hotels of the city (notably the 
Grand H6tel on the boulevard des Capucines, 
and the H6tel du Louvre on the rue de Eivoli, 
both belonging to a large stock company), 
and several of the club houses (especially that 
of the Jockey club on the corner of the boule- 
vard and the rue de Helder), are fine and lux- 
uriously fitted structures ; and there are many 
beautiful private residences, especially in the 
neighborhood of the Champs Elysees. Every- 
thing relating to the public charities of Paris is 
subject to the superior control of the general 
administration of public assistance, which is it- 
self a dependence of the ministry of the inte- 
rior. It has at its head a director and a council 
of general management composed of 20 mem- 
bers, presided over by the 
S=t prefects of the Seine and 

of police. Within its juris- 
diction, besides bureaux de 
Mewfaisance in each of the 
20 arrondissements, and an 
extensive system of out- 
door aid, are 34 general 
and special hospitals, alms- 
houses, asylums, and re- 
treats; five others are un- 
der the direct charge of 
the minister of the inte- 
rior, and three military 
hospitals under the direct 
charge of the ministry of 
war. The chief of the hos- 
pitals is the very ancient 
and famous institution of 
the Hotel-Dieu, founded 
early in the 9th century by 
the brothers of St. Chris- 
topher, who called it the 
hospital of St. Christopher. 
The names Notre Dame and Maison-Dieu de 
Paris were subsequently applied to it, that of 
Hotel-Dieu first occurring in an act of Louis 



86 



PARIS 



VII. It occupied successively a number of 
buildings, frequent changes to larger quarters 
being necessary on account of the rapid growth 
of its needs. Its present structure, begun in 
1868 and finished in 1874, stands on the ile de 
la Cit6 near the church of Notre Dame. It 
covers 22,000 square metres of land, and in- 
cludes three separate series of buildings. There 
are nearly 1,000 beds, under the charge of a 
medical and surgical staff of more than 100 
persons. Other general hospitals of note are 
la Pitie, la Charite, Lariboisiere, the hospitals 
St. Antoine, Necker, Cochin, &c. Special hos- 
pitals are those of St. Louis for cutaneous dis- 
eases ; du Midi and Lourcine, for the treatment 
respectively of males and females for syphilitic 
disease ; a hospital for children ; and la Mater- 
nite, for accouchements. The average annual 
number of admissions to the hospitals is 62,500 
medical and 23,000 surgical cases ; of cures, 
54,000 medical and 22,000 surgical cases; of 
deaths, 8,000 medical and 1,400 surgical cases. 
The whole number of beds in hospitals and 
hospices is 19,600. For an account of the ad- 
ministration of the Paris prisons and peniten- 
tiaries, see PRISON. The most famous prison 
building remaining since the destruction of the 
Bastile is the Oonciergerie, on the left bank of 
the Seine, adjoining the Palais de Justice ; the 
chief modern prisons are those of the Mazas 
and La Roquette. For accounts of several 
other noteworthy features of Parisian admin- 
istration see CEMETERY, MONT DE PIETE, and 
MORQUE. Paris is still honorably distinguished 
for its higher educational institutions, although 
under the late empire they somewhat declined, 
at least relatively, in respect of sciences and 
letters, from the capital rank they had attained 
before 1850. The academic universitaire, the 
much changed descendant of the famous old 
university of Paris (which embraced the col- 
lege of the Sorbonne), consists of five schools 
or faculties, theology, law, medicine, science, 
and letters, each with a numerous corps of 
professors. The number of students is ordi- 
narily between 7,000 and 8,000. The college 
de France has 36 professors in all departments 
of letters, philosophy, and science. Their lec- 
tures are public and gratuitous, as are those of 
the 16 professors who. lecture on natural his- 
tory, comparative anatomy, botany, geology, 
chemistry, and the connected sciences at the 
museum of natural history, and of an equal 
number at the conservatory of arts and trades, 
the principal object of whose teaching is the 
application of science to the industrial arts. 
Among other special schools worthy of men- 
tion are : the polytechnic school, corresponding 
somewhat to the American military academy 
at West Point ; the school of roads and bridges 
(ecole des ponts et chaussees), for instruction in 
all branches of civil engineering ; the school of 
mines, for instruction in the arts and sciences 
bearing upon mining operations; the central 
school, for the practical education of civil en- 
gineers, architects, and directors of manufac- 



turing establishments; the ecole d'etat major, 
for the education of military staff officers ; the 
normal school, with 27 professors; the school 
of charts, with seven lecturers on palaeogra- 
phy, political institutions, and diplomacy ; the 
school of fine arts, with a museum and courses 
of instruction in every department of the plas- 
tic arts by eminent theorists and artists ; the 
free school of design, mathematics, and orna- 
mental sculpture ; the free school of design 
for young women under the direction of Rosa 
Bonheur ; the conservatory or academy of 
music and declamation, with 600 pupils, which 
counts among its 70 teachers and masters 
in vocal and instrumental music, and in all 
branches of the histrionic art, many of the most 
eminent composers and professional artists of 
the day ; six schools for the education of Ro- 
man Catholic priests, of which the seminary 
of St. Sulpice with 14, and that of Notre Dame 
with 17 directors and professors, are the prin- 
cipal; and a seminary for the education of 
Israelitish pastors. The six lyceums of Paris 
are national institutions, where the course of 
classic and scientific instruction is shaped with 
a view to the pupil's further study for one 
of the liberal professions on his entrance to 
the polytechnic and other superior scientific 
schools. The colleges of Ste. Barbe (on the 
list of whose alumni are the names of Ignatius 
Loyola and John Calvin) and St. Stanislas are 
immense private establishments. The colleges 
Rollin and Ohaptal, and the e"cole Turgot, are 
municipal institutions, where the course of 
study looks rather to the pupil's career in the 
ordinary paths of business life. There are 
numerous large public libraries in Paris, six of 
which are daily open to all comers. The lar- 
gest of these, having for its only rival that of 
the British museum, is the national (formerly 
royal or imperial) library. It contains more 
than 2,000,000 printed volumes, 150,000 manu- 
scripts, 300,000 maps, charts, and topographi- 
cal views, 1,300,000 engravings, and a cabinet 
of coins and medals numbering over 150,000 
objects. This invaluable collection is constant- 
ly increased by gifts and purchases, and by the 
action of a law as old as the time of Henry II. 
(1556), which requires the deposit of a copy of 
every new thing printed in France. The libra- 
ries next in importance for the number and 
value of their printed and manuscript treasures 
are the Mazarin, the Arsenal, Sorbonne, and 
Ste. Genevieve. The large libraries belonging 
to some of the schools, ministries, and other 
national institutions are rich in special depart- 
ments of science and literature. They are not 
freely open to the public, but every reasonable 
application for access to them is generally 
granted. For an account of the five academies 
composing the imtitut de France, see ACAD- 
EMY. The observatory has been briefly de- 
scribed as " the headquarters of astronomical 
science," a name it long deserved. Besides 
public institutions, some of the more important 
of which are mentioned above, there is hard- 



PARIS 



87 



Iy a department of science, literature, or art 
which has not one or more societies or associa- 
tions for its study, encouragement, or exercise. 
Among the most notable museums of Paris, 
that of natural history connected with the 
jardin des plantes, the common name for large 
zoological as well as botanical gardens, is re- 
markably rich in comparative anatomy, anthro- 
pology, zoology, minerals, geology, and bot- 
any. The museums of morbid and compara- 
tive anatomy belonging to the medical school 
are of excellent fulness in their kind. That of 
the hotel de Cluny, itself a curious relic of the 
architecture of the 16th century, built partly 
over the foundations of an imperial Roman 
palace, is consecrated to furniture, arms, and 
works of art of the middle ages and the re- 
naissance, and to some Gallo-Roman antiquities. 
That of the conservatory of arts and trades 
contains models of old and newly invented 
machines and tools, together with illustrative 
specimens of mechanical and chemical products, 
and of natural materials within the domain of 
industrial processes. In the museum of artil- 
lery is a large collection of the instruments in- 
vented by men of all ages for their mutual 
destruction, from stone hatchets to rifled can- 
non. The mineralogy of France, geographi- 
cally arranged by her departments, is exhibited 
at the school of mines. The numismatic mu- 
seum at the mint displays the coins and medals 
struck in France from the time of Charlemagne 
to the present. The museum at the national 
printing house offers samples of early and 
modern printing in curious variety, of which 
not the least noteworthy are the productions 
of its own press, such as the Lord's Prayer in 
150 different languages, and copies of L* Imita- 
tion de Christ that approach the perfection of 
typography. The museum of the Louvre, wor- 
thily occupying the wide spaces of that magnifi- 
cent palace, is divided into twelve general de- 
partments, such as of painting, designs and en- 
gravings, ancient sculpture, modern sculpture, 
Assyrian antiquities, Egyptian antiquities, &c., 
to which are added large collections of rare and 
exquisite specimens of ceramic art, of carved 
work in wood and ivory, crystals, jewels, &c. 
Other European galleries are richer in the works 
of certain masters and of single schools, but 
none of them offers to the student so compre- 
hensively instructive a view of all the schools. 
The museum of the Luxembourg, filling but a 
small part of the palace of that name, though a 
fine and most interesting collection of works by 
contemporary French painters and sculptors, 
is not nearly sufficient as an exemplification of 
the present French school. The conditions of 
admission to these museums are most liberal. 
Those of the Louvre and of the Luxembourg 
are freely open to all comers six days, and to 
copyists five days in the week. Of the paint- 
ers, designers, sculptors, and engravers whose 
works are admitted to the yearly salon or ex- 
hibition of fine arts, the average for the past 
ten years of Parisian residents is about 1,200. 



It is hardly necessary to add, in view of the 
conditions of admission, that this number rep- 
resents but a fraction of the applicants, and 
that in no one year do nearly all resident art- 
ists- apply. Paris may be called the capital 
of dramatic art and literature. The first thea- 
tre of Paris, not to say of the world, is the 
Com6die Franchise, the French theatre par ex- 
cellence. It was founded in 1680 by the com- 
pany that had been directed by Moliere. There 
elocution, gesture, attitude, costume, compo- 
sition of stage groups, and whatever contrib- 
utes to the perfection of histrionic art, are ex- 
hibited in unrivalled completeness. The na- 
tional academy of music, or Opera, is famed 
for its orchestra, ballet, and scenic effects. 
These two are regarded as properly national 
institutions, and are sustained at their height 
of superiority by large government aid, which 
in less proportions is also granted to three 
other theatres. There are 33 theatres in Paris. 
On the receipts of theatres, balls, concerts, and 
all other places of public amusement, a tax, 
nominally of 10 per cent., but really in recent 
years of about 8 per cent., is levied for the 
benefit of the public charities. In 1869, an 
average year, their receipts amounted to 19,- 
500,000 francs, and the poor tax to 1,800,000. 
In round numbers the theatres can seat 30,000 
auditors, for whose entertainment 850 musi- 
cians and 2,000 actors proper, vocalists, and 
other performers are employed. For the prin- 
cipal journals of Paris, see NEWSPAPEKS. The 
government of Paris has varied in its charac- 
ter with the changes of national regime. At 
present (1875) there is a municipal council of 
80 members chosen by popular election, whose 
deliberations and acts are strictly limited to 
matters of local administration. The prefects 
of the Seine and of the police, both appointed 
by the general government, have the right at 
all times to be present and be heard, in certain 
cases with controlling voice, at their meetings. 
Sanitary regulations and measures for keeping 
the peace and political order are enforced un- 
der the general supervision of the prefect of 
police. Besides exercising functions of a wider 
national reach, he is the immediate chief of all 
the local police. This consists, besides special 
political and other agents, of the civil police 
proper or "guardians of the public peace" 
(formerly ser gents de mile}, now numbering 
about 6,000 ; of the two legions of the military 
garde repullicaine (formerly municipal guard 
and guard of Paris), numbering 6,000 foot and 
1,500 horse ; and of the military corps of sa~ 
peurs pompiers, specially trained to firemen's 
duty, which they perform admirably, numbering 
about 1,300 men and officers. Supplementary 
to these as preservers of order is the garrison 
of Paris, the strength of which varies accord- 
ing to circumstances. Not being yet relieved 
from the state of siege in which it was decreed 
to be soon after the declaration of the late war, 
the city has in addition to the officials above 
mentioned a military governor. Paris is the 



88 



PARIS 



financial and commercial centre of France; 
and its importance in this respect, in a country 
so centralized, is not exceeded by that of any 
capital, unless perhaps by London. Here are 
the bank of France, which has branches in the 
departments and in Algiers, and has the exclu- 
sive privilege of issuing bank notes in France ; 
the other principal financial institutions of the 
country ; and the administrations of the five 
great railways, which with their numerous 
branches cover France with a network of iron. 
In 1867 (a somewhat exceptional year) there 
were 31,308 arrivals of canal boats and oth- 
er vessels at Paris, gauging an aggregate of 
3,689,881 tons, or as much as the tonnage of the 
five .principal seaports of France. All edibles, 
potables, and combustibles, building materials, 
and some other classes of merchandise, pay on 
entering the city an octroi or customs duty, 
which is collected at an expense of less than 
5 per cent, of the total receipts. The city 
budget for 1873 presents the following among 
other figures: Receipts, 197,815,582 francs; 
expenditures, 197,080,082. The chief item of 
receipts is octroi, 102,286,000 francs. The 
principal expenditures were : interest on debt 
and sinking fund, 46,170,825 ; cost of tax 
collecting, salaries, &c., 8,420,000 ; primary 
schools, 5,966,000 ; public assistance (charities), 
22,346,000 ; promenades and works of art, 
3,267,000; repairs of public buildings, 1,703,000; 
new public works, 24,512,000 ; prefecture of 
police, 15,462,000 ; lighting streets, 3,917,000. 
The latest trustworthy statistics of the indus- 
trial condition of Paris are those obtained by 
the inquiry instituted by the chamber of com- 
merce in 1860. Between that time and 1870 
there was an increasing activity ; but this again 
received a check by the war and the commune, 
from which in some departments of business, 
especially in that of building and its connected 
group of trades, it is slow to recover ; mean- 
time the rate of wages has followed at an in- 
terval the rise in the cost of living. The fol- 
lowing table .of the principal trades arranged 
by groups is still worth regarding : 



INDUSTRIES CONNECTED 
WITH . 


No. of 
establish- 
ments. 


No. of 
hands. 


Value in francs 
of yearly 
production. 


Food . . . 


29.069 


83,859 


1 087 904,367 


Buildinf 


5378 


71 242 


315266477 


Furniture . 


7391 


87951 


199 825 948 


Clothing 


23,800 


78377 


454'538'l68 


Spinning and weaving 
Ordinary metals 


2,836 
3,440 


26,810 

28,866 


119,998,751 
163,852428 


Precious metals 


3199 


18 731 


188 390 553 


Chemicals and ceramics 
Printing, engrav'g, paper, &c. 
Clocks and watchwork, mu- 
sical, mathematical, and 
other " instruments of pre- 
cision" 


2,719 
2,759 


14,397 
19,507 


193,616,349 
94,166,528 

66 040 233 


Furs and leather 
Carriages and saddlery 
Cooperage ... . 


Uo,580 


82,071 


100,881,795 
93,849,195 
27 075 323 


Fancy articles (articles de 
Paris) 






127 546 540 


Sundry, ungrouped 






141,140,294 


Total 


101 171 


416 811 


3 369 092 949 











Of the 416,811 hands employed, 285,862 were 
men, 105,410 women over 16 years of age, 
19,059 boys, and 6,481 girls. Of the men, 1,588 
earned less than 1 franc daily, 18,266 from 1 
to 2 francs, 44,226 from 2 to 3, 82,337 from 3 
to 4, 98,527 from 4 to 5, 30,757 from 5 to 6, 
14,186 from 6 to 10; 221 earned 11 francs; 
380, 12 ; 216, 15 ; and 57, 20. Of the women, 
17,203 earned less than 1 francs, 49,176 from 
li to 2, 35,239 from 2 to 3, 3,925 from 3 to 4, 
and 767 from 4 to 10. The value of exports 
from Paris to foreign countries in 1861 was 
347,349,098 francs. The chief receiving coun- 
tries were: the United States, 81,024,729 fr. ; 
Great Britain, 34,750,393 ; Russia, 23,119,924; 
Spain, 17,763,921; Switzerland, 13,409,138; 
Italy, 12,613,720; Germany (exclusive of Prus- 
sia and Austria), 9,032,930; Belgium, 6,630,- 
484; all other countries, 13,942,230. The ex- 
ports from Paris to the United States have of 
late increased very rapidly. For several recent 
years their amount has been as follows: 1864, 
$16,469,000; 1865, $27,824,000; 1866, $36,- 
123,000; 1867, $29,998,000; 1868, $26,295,000; 
1869, $30,103,000; 1870, $26,696,000; 1871, 
$25,975,000; 1872, $38,680,000. Paris is cele- 
brated for its jewelry and other goldsmith's 
work, watches and ornamental bronzes ; its 
boots, shoes, and gloves ; its pianofortes, paper 
hangings, perfumery, artificial flowers, articles 
of female dress, and military equipments. Its 
mathematical, optical, and surgical instruments 
have a deservedly wide reputation for beauty 
and accuracy. The products of the Gobelins 
manufactory of tapestry and carpets do not 
enter into commerce. The manufactory be- 
longs to government, and like the porcelain 
factory at Sevres is not a rival of, but a bene- 
ficial model and pioneer experimenter for pri- 
vate enterprises. The government tobacco 
factory in Paris furnishes about one fifth of 
the snuff, cigars, and smoking tobacco con- 
sumed in France. Among the most interest- 
ing establishments organized and directly con- 
trolled by the municipal administration are the 
great central markets (holies centrales), consist- 
ing of 12 great pavilions or halls of iron and 
glass, covering a space of 87,790 square metres, 
and divided into stalls, &c., somewhat in the 
manner of our own markets. Each pavilion 
is devoted to the sale of some special class of 
provisions, and all are connected and traversed 
by passages and streets, all under cover, the 
whole forming as it were a small covered city. 
The halles are at the S. E. end of the rue Mont- 
martre, near the boulevard de Sebastopol. 
Underneath the pavilions are great vaults, 
where there are tanks for live fish, storage 
places for vegetables, &c. These vaults are 
connected with the railway termini by un- 
derground railways, by which the provisions 
arrive at the markets, and the garbage and 
refuse are carried away. The following sta- 
tistics of the sale of articles of food at these 
markets during 1874 are interesting as afford- 
ing some means of judging of the city's con- 



PARIS 



89 



sumption, as they supply the greater part 
of the capital. At the pavilion specially re- 
served for the sale of meat more than 15,- 
400,000 Ibs. of beef, 8,800,000 of mutton, 19,- 
800,000 of veal, and 5,500,000 of pork, form- 
ing in all a total of nearly 27,000 tons, were 
disposed of; while for poultry and game the 
figures are: chickens and capons, 3,226,885; 
rabbits, 1,281,017; pigeons, 1,593,347; larks, 
1,774,628; hares, 161,103; partridges, 405,281 ; 
deer, 7,014. The number of eggs sold reached 
the total of 213,500,000, and the weight of 
fresh and salt butter is estimated at 11,000 
tons. The sale of fish has increased immense- 
ly within 25 years, for while only 138,600 Ibs. 
were brought to the central markets in 1850, 
the total for 1874 is 50,600,000, an eighth 
of which was made up of fresh-water fish. 
The octroi duty upon oysters has risen from 
800 francs in 1848 to 12,000, the tax paid 
upon the 12,000,000 oysters consumed by the 
Parisians in 1874. The vegetables and fruit 
disposed of weighed more than 6,000 tons. 
The earliest historic mention of Paris is by 
Julius Cassar. On an island in the Seine he 
found a town of huts, the stronghold of one 
of the 64 confederate Gallic tribes. Much in- 
genious conjecture has failed to clear away 
the obscurity that involves the etymology of 
its name Lutetia, and the origin of its inhabi- 
tants, the Parisii. The former may be a Latin- 
ized corruption of three Celtic words, luth, 
ihoneze, y, or of two, louton hesi, signifying a 
dwelling in the waters; and the latter are 
supposed to be an offshoot of the Belgse. They 
were a fierce race of hunters and warriors. 
They burned their town rather than yield it 
to invaders in 52 B. 0. When physical re- 
sistance was finally overcome, they were slow 
to accept Roman laws and customs. The local 
genius was early manifest in opposition to im- 
posed authority. An insurrection broke out 
in A. D. 286, the two leaders of which, up- 
borne on shields, were proclaimed emperors by 
the people assembled near the present site of 
the hotel de ville. Between 358 and 360 the 
future emperor Julian, who retired here to win- 
ter quarters, and in the Misopogon has record- 
ed his affection for " dear Lutetia," confirmed 
old rights and granted new privileges to the 
town, which rose to the dignity of a city and 
took the name of Parisii. For centuries it 
was the residence of a Roman prefect. Its 
commerce, at first principally carried on by 
the river, was in the hands of a trading com- 
pany, the NautcB Parisiaci, which, existing as 
early as the reign of Tiberius, long outlived 
the Roman domination, contained the germs 
of the future municipal government, and has 
left in the city arms of to-day its symbolic 
mark, a galley with oars and sails, and the 
motto Fluctuat ncc mergitur. The palais des 
therm ts, some remains of which 'are still to be 
seen, was occupied. by several Roman empe- 
rors, who made Paris their headquarters while 
their legions were striving to repel the irrup- 



tions of the barbarians. As the vitality of the 
overgrown empire grew faint and fainter in its 
extreme members, Paris suffered greatly from 
these irruptions. In 451 it was saved from 
Attila's invasion only by the courage and wis- 
dom of St. Genevieve, and in 464 was stormed 
by Childeric L, king of the Franks. His son 
Clovis made Paris his residence, embraced 
Christianity, and built a church dedicated to 
St. Peter and St. Paul, which was afterward 
placed under the invocation of his wife's 
friend St. Genevieve, who died in his reign, 
and remains to this day the patron saint of 
the city. He broke the last weakened bonds 
of Roman domination, and Paris became in- 
dependently Frank. While under his feeble 
successors of the Merovingian dynasty Roman 
civilization was fading away, the church rose 
to wealth and power. According to the legend, 
Christianity was first preached in Paris in the 
middle of the 3d century by St. Denis, to the 
place and manner of whose death some wri- 
ters attribute the origin of the name of Mont- 
martre, which other etymologists deduce from 
a heathen temple of Mars that once stood on 
that hill. A chapel dedicated to the true God 
and St. Stephen was erected in the reign of 
Valentinian L, on the site of an earlier altar 
to Jupiter now covered by the cathedral of 
Notre Dame. The Carlovingian monarchs, 
like their predecessors of the Merovingian line, 
rarely inhabited Paris. Doubtful legend and 
conjecture ascribe to Charlemagne the merit 
of originating the university of Paris. The 
Normans repeatedly attacked the city in the 
9th century. The Parisians finally appealed 
for aid toEudes or Otto, count of Paris, whom, 
after he had repelled the invaders, they pro- 
claimed king in 885. His successor 100 years 
later, of his blood but not his direct heir, was 
Hugues or Hugh Capet, the first king of France 
properly so called, from whom directly or in- 
directly descended all French monarchs down 
to Louis XVI. Paris now increased in honors, 
privileges, wealth, influence, and population. 
Her schools, illustrated by such teachers as 
Peter Lombard and Abelard, were resorted to 
by the youth of all Europe. The powerful or- 
der of the templars erected a fortress on the 
ground where the Marche du Temple, with its 
2,000 dealers in old clothes and in every other 
conceivable second-hand article of economy 
one of the most curious of the curiosities of 
modern Paris now stands. The foundations 
of the cathedral of Notre Dame were laid. 
Philip Augustus (1180-1223) recognized the 
university as a corporation, and granted to its 
officers a jurisdiction independent of the royal 
courts, over the quarter of the city to which 
it gave its name. He caused a new wall to be 
built about the town enclosing 625 acres ; by 
a formal act he gave all the refuse straw of the 
royal apartments for the benefit of the patients 
of the Maison-Dieu ; he established two cov- 
ered markets, and even ordered pavements 
for the streets. Louis IX. greatly promoted 



90 



PAEIS 



the welfare of Paris by important reforms of 
customs, laws, and police, and by establish- 
ing many commercial, religious, and beneficent 
institutions, among which last were a hospital 
for the blind and a school of surgery. His 
chaplain, Robert de Sorbon, founded in 1250 
a school of theology, the origin of the famous 
Sorbonne, in the quarter of the university still 
known as the quartier Latin or Pays Latin. 
"While King John, taken prisoner by the Black 
Prince, was held captive in England, the city 
was governed for a time by Etienne Marcel, 
the provost of the merchants, independent- 
ly of the general state. For centuries before 
as for centuries after the brief reign of this 
popular leader, Paris was often disturbed by 
insurrections and popular tumults, and fierce 
quarrels between great lords and the king, 
or among themselves, with bloody fights and 
judicial massacres; its streets, despite royal 
reforms and new regulations of police in fre- 
quent succession, were until modern times un- 
safe for honest citizens after nightfall. Under 
Philip IV. there were brilliant, public fetes, for 
which Paris seems thus early to have been dis- 
tinguished, and "mysteries" were performed 
on stages set up in the open air, the first 
dramatic representations in Paris. Charles V. 
built a new palace, then called the hostel de St. 
Pol, afterward famous in history, with change 
of destination and name, as the Bastile. (See 
BASTILE.) The basement only of most private 
houses in those days was of stone ; on this rest- 
ed one -or more stories of timber filled between 
with mortar; when the proprietor's wealth 
permitted, the facade was covered with slates, 
and the projecting cornices and corner posts 
were adorned with carvings, representing foli- 
age, fantastic animals, the heads of angels, and 
Biblical personages. Chariots and even four- 
wheeled carriages, and disorders of swelling 
luxury, excess of gambling among the rest, are 
spoken of in contemporary documents. The 
city had overgrown its old limits, and the mon- 
arch caused a new fortified wall to be built, 
enclosing now 1,084 acres, to protect it against 
the incursions of the English; who, however, 
at the end of the reign of his insane succes- 
sor, marked in the annals of the city by pest, 
famine, and all the horrors of bloody faction, 
entered Paris amid Te Deum chants and great 
fetes, and proclaimed Henry of Lancaster king 
of France and England. The enthusiasm of 
the occasion was only surpassed by that which 
greeted the entrance of Charles VII. after the 
expulsion of the English in 1436. About this 
date Greek was first taught in the universi- 
ty, which then numbered 25,000 students. In 
1438 there were 5,000 deaths at the Hotel-Dieu, 
and in all the city 45,000; wolves prowled 
through its streets, desolated by war, plague, 
and famine. In 1466 malefactors and vaga- 
bonds of all countries were invited to fill up 
the broken ranks of its population, which num- 
bered 300,000 souls before 1483, the close of 
the reign of Louis XI. This astute ruler fa- 



vored trade and commerce of all kinds, protect- 
ed against violent opposition the new art of 
printing and its connected industries, confirm- 
ed the privileges of the citizens, endowed the 
capital with its first special school of medicine, 
favored the first attempt at lighting its streets, 
and inaugurated the first rude postal system, 
putting it in communication with all parts of 
France. Under Francis I. (1515-'47) the ad- 
vance of Paris in material prosperity, in arts 
and letters, in the refinements and in the vices 
of civilization, received a fresh impulse. The 
castle of the Louvre, begun by Dagobert and 
repeatedly enlarged and strengthened by suc- 
ceeding monarchs, was swept away, and the 
palace of the old Louvre begun upon its site ; 
the hotel de ville was commenced, new streets 
were opened, old quarters rebuilt, and a royal 
free college founded. The origin of the cha- 
teau and gardens of the Tuileries, the endow- 
ment of the college of Ste. Barbe, now one of 
the first high schools of Paris, and. the effec- 
tive constitution of what is now the national 
library, date from the reign of Henry II., in 
despite of whom a Protestant church also was 
established. The disasters of the so-called wars 
of religion, culminating in the horrors of the 
St. Bartholomew massacre, fell heavily upon 
Paris, barring its progress in all directions. It 
revived under the rule of Henry IV., whose ac- 
cession it had desperately resisted. The pal- 
aces of the Tuileries and the Louvre were great- 
ly enlarged, the place Royale formed, and the 
pont Neuf built. Under the reign of Louis 
XIII., or rather of his minister Richelieu, 
the Palais Cardinal, now Palais Royal, was 
begun. The Luxembourg palace, several fine 
quays and bridges, and numerous magnificent 
private hotels in the faubourg St. Germain, 
date from this period ; as do also the French 
academy, the jardin des plantes, and the col- 
lege that afterward took the name of Louis-le- 
Grand. More than 80 new streets were laid 
out and many of the old ones improved in the 
long reign of Louis XIV., from which date also 
the academies, with the exception of the French 
academy, the observatory, the opera, and the 
Comedie Francaise, the Hotel des Invalides, the 
eastern colonnade of the Louvre, the triumph- 
al arches of St. Denis and St. Martin built on 
the site of ancient city gates, the laying out of 
the boulevards as promenades, the planting of 
the Champs lys6es, the enlargement of the 
Tuileries and the arrangement of its gardens 
nearly as they now are, the forming of the 
place Vendome and the place des Victoires, 33 
churches, a foundling hospital, the hospice of 
the Salpetriere, the Gobelins tapestry manufac- 
tory, the first city post, the lighting of the thor- 
oughfares with u lanterns placed from distance 
to distance " (which was commemorated by a 
medal bearing the legend, Urbis securitas et 
nitor), the rudiments of the modern omnibus 
(an unsuccessful invention- of Blaise Pascal, in 
the shape of seven coaches in which "even 
women took their places," for five sous, but 



PARIS 



91 



from which soldiers and all persons in livery 
were excluded), and finally, to close the imper- 
fect catalogue of innovations, the first coffee 
house in Paris. At the accession of Louis XV. 
Paris occupied a spa'ce of 2,809 acres, and 
counted 500 grand thoroughfares, 9 faubourgs, 
100 squares and open places, 9 bridges, 22,000 
private houses, of which 4,000 had carriage en- 
trances (portes-cocheres), and more than 500,- 
000 inhabitants. It was the capital of science, 
art, literature, taste, and pleasure, not only for 
France but for Europe. During this reign the 
growth of the city went on in all ways. In 
the following reign, the duke of Orleans, better 
known in history as Philippe Egalite, enclosed 
the spacious gardens of the Palais Royal with 
a continuous quadrangle of uniform architec- 
ture, whose galleries, furnished with shops of 
every kind, and coffee rooms, gambling rooms, 
and wine rooms, became one brilliant bazaar. 
The famous orgies of the regency in the palace 

E roper were followed by revolutionary orgies 
i its gardens. It was, up to the first quarter 
of the present century, the central stage and 
sink of what was brightest and foulest in 
Paris. In 1784 the farmers general of the 
city customs erected about the enlarged city 
an octroi or customs wall, enclosing an area 
of 8,708 acres, containing more than 50,000 
houses, 967 lighted streets, 46 parish and 20 
other churches, 11 abbeys, 133 monasteries 
and religious houses, 15 seminaries, 10 colleges, 
26 hospitals and asylums, 60 fountains, and 12 
markets. This octroi wall formed the city 
boundary till Jan. 1, 1860. In the first years 
of the revolution many monuments of the mid- 
dle ages were demolished or mutilated; the 
fine arts generally were neglected in the fierce 
struggle about more essential things ; material 
growth was checked and the population dimin- 
ished. But the ground was cleared for future 
improvements, and many of the institutions 
of which Paris to-day has best reason to boast 
date their origin from the revolutionary pe- 
riod; such are the museums of the Louvre, 
the bureau of longitudes, the conservatory of 
arts and trades, the polytechnic school, and the 
national industrial exhibitions held in Paris. 
In the political order, the revolution finally 
crowned a work at which the ablest monarchs 
and statesmen of France had for centuries 
been more or less consciously laboring. It 
swiftly swept away the last obstacle to the 
completing of an administrative system which, 
centralized at Paris, extends its sovereign con- 
trol to the remotest corner of the land, vivi- 
fying and strengthening perhaps the nation 
by unity of impulse, but crippling the power 
and weakening the spirit of individual action 
in equal proportion, and unduly subordinating 
the country at large to metropolitan influence. 
Napoleon I. expended more than 100,000,000 
francs, when money for such purposes was of 
far greater productive value than at present, 
on works of public utility and ornament, but 
left some of the grander of them to be finished 



by his successors. Under the restoration and 
Louis Philippe private enterprise, encouraged 
by peace, vied with the government in enlarg- 
ing and adorning the city. An improved civil 
police, better drainage, paving and lighting of 
the streets, with increased attention to comfort 
and decency in domestic architecture, mark this 
period. During its latter part, too, the present 
fortifications were constructed, and the whole 
arrangement for the defence of Paris was thus 
placed upon an entirely different footing from 
the comparatively unprotected condition of the 
past. The city's material prosperity seemed 
but transiently dimmed at the close of the reign 
of Louis Philippe,, though the immediate effect 
of the revolution of 1848 was a check upon it. 
But a visitation of the cholera and the insur- 
rection of June furnished to the republican 
government early suggestions of the need and 
nature of certain changes afterward embraced 
in the general system of transformation car- 
ried nearly to completion under the second 
empire. The republic was suppressed by the 
coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851. Its name was 
abolished a year later, when Louis Napoleon 
" closed the era of revolution," and had him- 
self named emperor. Almost the only French 
monarch born and residing throughout his 
reign in Paris, he aimed to make of his birth- 
place the most salubrious, convenient, and 
sumptuous city of Europe, a monument of his 
reign and a fortress for his dynasty. The 
public works of this period cost the city and na- 
tional treasury, exclusive of certain special ap- 
propriations, from 1852 to 1859, an average of 
about $2,800,000 per annum, and for the next 
decade about $3,600,000. In the last year of 
the empire it is known to have surpassed the 
estimates. One of the early acts of Napoleon 
III. was to order that to be done which Louis 
XIV. had contemplated, Napoleon I. had la- 
bored at, Louis Philippe had talked of, and the 
provisional government had decreed, namely, 
the clearing away of the intervening huddle of 
old houses and the connecting of the Louvre 
with the Tuileries. "While this work of dem- 
olition and monumental construction was in 
progress, the palace of industry and the palatial 
central markets were built ; the rue de Rivoli 
was extended for miles through a labyrinth of 
dark streets ; much of the present great system 
of sewers was constructed ; a great number of 
new streets, parks, places, &c., were laid out ; 
and a large majority of those works mentioned 
in the earlier part of this article, as contribu- 
ting to the present beauty and convenience of 
the city, were planned and executed. Mean- 
time the efforts of individual and associated 
private capital, credit, and feverish speculation 
kept pace with their imperial progress. Of all 
the houses of Paris in 1870, less than one third 
had been built prior to 1852. The returning 
visitor might traverse broad thoroughfares for 
miles together, and, except for here and there 
a glimpse of a spared monument, hardly meet 
with a reminder of the places he knew 25 years 



92 



PARIS 



before. Little remains of what was then still 
left of old Paris: its crooked streets, close 
and dark, with their quaint gables, and storied 
fronts and corner towerets, so rich in histor- 
ical associations and foul flavors, so pictu- 
resque, so favorable to popular emeutes and 
epidemic maladies. In 18(30 the octroi wall was 
demolished, and the suburban towns and vil- 
lages grouped around it were annexed to Paris, 
which took for its boundary the fortifications. 
The prosperity of Paris seemed at its height ; 
the luxury of its shops, promenades, theatres, 
saloons, and court outshone those of all other 
European capitals ; the general government, of 
which the city administration was a branch, 
was deemed by throngs of admiring strangers 
perfection in its solidity as in other respects, 
when the declaration of war in July, 1870, 
suddenly changed the aspect of affairs. On 
Sept. 4 the empire fell without a drop of blood 
shed in its defence by its late beneficiaries. The 
alarmed empress fled to England ; and the rapid 
progress of the war (see FRANCE) soon brought 
the advancing German army within a short 
distance of the city, where the most energetic 
measures were in progress for defence. On 
Sept. 19 a sortie under Gen. Ducrot proved 
fruitless as a means of hindering the advance, 
and his troops were driven back. In the two 
weeks following, the investment of Paris by 
the German armies was made complete. The 
forces of the besieged at the time of the invest- 
ment were, according to the Journal Officiel, 
as follows : the 13th and 14th corps of the line, 
in round numbers 50,000 men, under Gens. 
Vinoy and Renault; a corps of government 
and railway employees and volunteers, and a 
body of cavalry, in all about 30,000, under 
Ducrot; 100,000 men of the garde mobile and 
10,000 marines, under various commanders; 
60 old and 194 new battalions of the national 
guard; grand total, about 400,000 men. Gen. 
Trochu, president of the government of the 
national defence, was commandant of the city. 
The forces of the besiegers, and their arrange- 
ment about the city, were as follows: the 
"third army" (5th, 6th, and llth Prussian 
corps, two Bavarian and two Wurtemberg 
corps), under the crown prince of Prussia, 
embraced the S. and S. E. front from Sevres 
to the Marne ; and the " army of the Meuse " 
(12th Saxon and two Prussian corps), under 
the crown prince (now king) of Saxony, em- 
braced the N. and N. E. front ; the whole be- 
sieging force numbering about 220,000 men. 
On Sept. 20 the Prussian crown prince, and 
on Oct. 5 the king, took up their headquar- 
ters at Versailles ; those of the Saxon crown 
prince were at Grand Tremblay. From Sept. 
20 the lines of the Germans were constantly 
drawn more and more closely about Paris, and 
the siege from their side presents little more 
than the regular progress of military opera- 
tions, hardly interrupted until their success- 
ful end. Its history from the side of the be- 
sieged, however, is entirely different. Every 



expedient for breaking the lines of the besiegers 
was debated; and desperate but unsuccessful 
sorties were made on Sept. 30 (Gen. Viuoy 
with 10,000 men in the direction of Choisy), 
Oct. 13 (reconnoissance under Trochu toward 
Chatillon), Oct. 21 (Gens. Noel and others to- 
ward Bougival, Malmaison, &c.), Oct. 28 (the 
French capturing Le Bourget, which was recap- 
tured after a violent conflict on the 30th), Nov. 
29 and 30 (fighting at Mont-Mesly, Champigny, 
Villiers, and Brie, all of which were taken by 
the French and retaken by the Germans with- 
in a few days), and Dec. 21 (Trochu toward Le 
Bourget). On Dec. 27, at 7i A. M., the Ger- 
mans, who had finally decided upon and pre- 
pared for this measure, began a vigorous bom- 
bardment of the city, directing it first of all 
against the forts on the E. side, the fire of which 
was practically silenced by Jan. 1. On the 5th 
of that month the bombardment of the southern' 
forts was begun, and on that day, too, the first 
shells fell in the city itself, in the Luxembourg 
gardens. On the 13th, 14th, and 15th the French 
made further unsuccessful sorties in various 
directions ; and on the 19th Trochu once more 
undertook a grand sally from Mont Valerien 
and that side of the city, against the German 
left wing, with more than 100,000 men. An 
obstinate conflict followed, but the French were 
finally driven back with heavy loss. All hope 
of saving the city was now over ; on the 20th 
Trochu resigned the governorship ; and on the 
evening of the 23d Jules Favre appeared at 
Versailles to begin negotiations for the capit- 
ulation. The terms of the surrender, and the 
account of the German entry and subsequent 
events connected with it, are given in the arti- 
cle FRANCE ; and the account of the great com- 
munistic insurrection, in which the whole his- 
tory of the city until the beginning of June is 
involved, is given in COMMUNE DE PARIS. The 
suffering in the city during the two sieges was 
very great, that of the majority of the people 
being far greater during the German than 
during the Versaillist investment. At the mo- 
ment of the former investment its population 
was in excess of 2,000,000, the depletion by 
the voluntary and forced withdrawal of many 
thousands of its ordinary French and foreign 
inhabitants being more than compensated by 
the influx of refugees from the neighboring 
region. The military conduct of the defence 
is still too much matter of grave and often of 
passionate discussion to be authoritatively pro- 
nounced upon here. What is indisputable is, 
that despite a bombardment of three weeks, 
which was constantly increasing in intensity, Pa- 
ris finally capitulated to cold and hunger. The 
winter was unusually severe. In the latter pe- 
riod of the siege the daily rations, purchasable 
of butchers and bakers only on presentation oi 
a personal certificate, were for an adult about 
two ounces of horse flesh and less than three- 
quarters of a pound of bread composed of one 
part wheat and two parts of whatever else 
could be got. There was no fixed scale of 



PARIS 



93 



prices for other articles in the desolate mar- 
kets; but the following "quotations" in francs 
for the third week in January, rather moderate 
than exaggerated, are historically accurate : a 
chicken, 40 francs; a rabbit, 50 ; a good onion, 
, very fine, 1 ; a turkey, 150 ; a goose, 140 ; a 
cat, 12 to 18; dog, 3 a pound. Rat, cat, and 
dog butcher shops were not uncommon. Ele- 
phant, while it lasted, was 40 francs a pound for 
choice pieces. Wood, green and very scarce, 
cost from 7 to 10 francs the 100 Ibs. ; charcoal 
was nearly and stone coal quite unobtainable. 
All that kept these prices from rising still higher 
was, that they were already out of reach of the 
empty or thin purses of the larger part of the 
two millions. The number of deaths during 
the 19 weeks of investment and the four weeks 
next following, i. e., from Sept. 18, 1870, to 
Feb. 24, 1871, was 64,154. The number of 
deaths in the corresponding period of the pre- 
ceding twelvemonth was 21,978. The high- 
est weekly bill of mortality was 4,761. A par- 
tial communication with the outer world was 
maintained by balloons and carrier pigeons. Of 
62 postal balloons sent out, bearing in all 159 
persons and 18,000 Ibs. of written and printed 
matter, only seven fell into the hands of the 
enemy, two are supposed to have been borne 
out by wind currents and lost at sea, and one 
landed in Norway. The return post by carrier 
pigeons, consisting of brief despatches micro- 
scopically reduced by photographic process, was 
scanty and precarious. Of 85 post-office mes- 
sengers attempting to pass the lines, only eight 
succeeded in getting out, and only three in en- 
tering. There was one fortnight in which no 
news of any description reached the city from 
without. (See AEKONAUTICS.) Among the pub- 
lic buildings burned during the commune insur- 
rection were the prefecture of police, grenier 
cTabondance, ministry of finances, hotel de ville, 
the palaces of the council of state, Tuileries, 
and legion of honor, and the Palais Royal. 
The last two have been restored. The column 
of the place Vendome, which was thrown down 
just before the week of blood, has been re- 
constructed. Several public libraries, of which 
the most important were those of the Louvre 
and of the h6tel de ville, and many valuable 
works of art, were also burned. The insurrec- 
tion of March, following on the revolution of 
September, confirmed a majority of the na- 
tional assembly in their fear of Paris, which, 
after being the seat of every successively sitting 
and unseated government, from that of Louis 
XVI. to that of Louis Napoleon, is now (by the 
constitutional enactments of February, 1875) 
legally decapitalized in favor of Versailles, 
-wlu-iv the national assembly has held its ses- 
sions and the chief of state has had his ordi- 
nary official residence since the peace with the 
Germans. The ministries, however, remain in 
ind the administrative machinery which 
controls the affairs of the country is still worked 
from its old centre. In 1873 the municipal 
authorities resolved to undertake several great 



schemes of improvement and public works, for 
which 7,000,000 francs were appropriated in 
June of that year, and large sums have since 
been added. These designs involve the length- 
ening of many of the present important ave- 
nues and streets, and the laying out of a large 
number of new ones; the rebuilding of the 
Tuileries, hotel de ville, and other edifices ; im- 
provements in the fortifications, &c. Most of 
these works are now in progress. The prin- 
cipal recent event in connection with the great 
edifices of Paris has been the opening of the 
grand opera house, which took place with much 
ceremony and success on Jan. 5, 1875. 

PARIS, also called ALEXANDER, a Trojan 
prince, second son of Priam and Hecuba. 
His mother having dreamed during pregnancy 
that she brought forth a flaming torch which 
set fire to the city, he was immediately after 
his birth exposed on Mt. Ida, where a she 
bear suckled him for five days. A shepherd 
then took him home and brought him up as 
his own child. He grew up handsome, accom- 
plished, and valiant, and when a dispute arose 
between Juno, Minerva, and Venus for the 
golden apple inscribed " To the fairest," which 
Eris (Strife) threw among the assembled divin- 
ities, Paris was selected by Jupiter to decide 
the quarrel. He awarded the prize of beauty 
to Venus, who promised him in return the 
fairest of women for his wife. Afterward the 
secret of his parentage was declared by his 
sister, the prophetess Cassandra, and he was 
received by Priam as his son. Hearing of the 
surpassing charms of Helen, the wife of Mene- 
laus, king of Sparta, he sailed to Greece with 
a fleet, and, aided by Venus, carried her off 
to Troy. This led to the siege of Troy, in 
which Paris showed little of his accustomed 
courage, but he twice met Menelausin conflict; 
once he fled, and again he was defeated, but 
was borne away by Venus. According to one 
account he killed Achilles. Being wounded by 
Phyloctetes with an arrow of Hercules, Paris 
repaired to his long deserted wife CEnone, 
whom he had married before the abduction 
of Helen ; but she refused to heal him, and he 
returned to Troy. (Enone repented and fol- 
lowed him with remedies, but being too late 
killed herself in despair. 

PARIS, Alexis Panlin, a French author, born at 
Avenay, department of Marne, March 25, 1800. 
He early went to Paris, translated Byron's 
works and Moore's memoirs (15 vols., 1827- 
'32), was employed in the royal library, of 
which he became one of the directors, and was 
elected to the academy of inscriptions and 
belles-lettres. A chair of mediaeval philology 
and literature was established for him at the 
college de France in 1853. He has edited Les 
grandes chroniques de St. Denis (6 vols., 1836- 
'8), Historiettes de Tallemant des Eeaux (in 
conjunction with Monmerqu6, 9 vols., 3d ed., 
1860), Les romans de la table ronde (1868 et 
seq.), and other works. He is a member of 
the commission to continue the Histoire litte- 



PARISH 



raire de France. His son GASTON has pub- 
lished several works on the French grammar, 
and received the Gobert prize for his Histoire 
poetique de Charlemagne (1866). 

PARIS, John Ayrton, an English physician, 
born in Cambridge, Aug. 7, 1785, died in Lon- 
don, Dec. 24, 1856. He graduated M. D. at 
Oaius college, Cambridge, in 1808, and in the 
same year engaged in the practice of his pro- 
fession in London. Soon afterward he settled 
in Penzance, Cornwall, and while there found- 
ed the royal geological society of Cornwall. 
In 1817 he returned to London, and delivered 
lectures on the materia medica and the phi- 
losophy of medicine, the matter of which 
was reproduced in his " Pharmacologia " (8vo, 
1819; 9th ed., rewritten, 1843). In 1844 he 
became president of the London college of 
physicians, which post he retained until his 
death. He published a memoir of Sir Hum- 
phry Davy (4to, 1810); a "Treatise on Diet" 
(8vo, 1826) ; " Philosophy in Sport made Sci- 
ence in Earnest;" and in conjunction with J. 
S. M. Fonblanque, "Medical Jurisprudence" 
(3 vols. 8vo, 1823). He invented the "tamp- 
ing bar," an iron implement coated with cop- 
per, which protected miners from the sparks 
evoked by the ordinary iron bar. 

PARIS, Louis Philippe d'Orleans, count de, a 
French prince, eldest son of the duke of Or- 
leans, and grandson of Louis Philippe, born in 
Paris, Aug. 24, 1838. He was educated under 
the direction of Regnier in Paris, and after 
the revolution of 1848 in Eisenach, and subse- 
quently in England. He travelled extensive- 
ly, and in 1860 visited the East together with 
his brother the duke de Chartres, who also 
accompanied him in 1861 to the United States. 
He served on the staff of Gen. McClellan from 
November, 1861, till after his retreat to the 
James river in the summer of 1862, when he 
returned to England chiefly because of the 
possibility of complications between the Uni- 
ted States and France in regard to Mexico, 
having received the warmest commendations 
for courage and military capacity. In 1864 
he married his cousin, a daughter of the duke 
de Montpensier, who has borne him several 
children. In 1870-'71 the count and countess 
were very active in London and afterward in 
Paris for the relief of French soldiers during 
the war. A sum of 500 was sent from New 
York to the countess for this purpose, contrib- 
uted by persons who desired by this means to 
attest their regard for the count's services to 
the Union; and a considerable amount from 
other American contributors was placed at 
the count's disposal for distribution. At the 
close of the war with Germany he took up his 
residence in Paris. He visited the count de 
Chambord at Frohsdorf in 1873, and was re- 
ported to have relinquished his claims to the 
throne for the present in favor of the latter, 
on condition of being recognized as the sole 
heir after Chambord's death to the regal rights 
of both branches of the Bourbons. He has pub- 



lished Damas et le Liban (London, 1861) ; Les 
associations ouvrieres en Angleterre (in French 
and English, 1869) ; and Histoire de la guerre 
civile aux Etats-Unis (4 vols., Paris, 1874-'5; 
authorized English translation to be made by 
Louis F. Tasistro). 

PARIS, Matthew, See MATTHEW PAEIS. 

PARIS, Plaster of. See GYPSUM. 

PARISH (law Latin, parochia). In English 
ecclesiastical law, this word has always meant 
a certain extent of territory, or " circuit of 
ground," committed to the spiritual charge of 
one parson, or vicar, or other ecclesiastic. 
All England is divided into parishes, and they 
number about 1.0,000. Camden says parishes 
began in England about the year 630. Sir 
Henry Hobart refers them to the council of 
Lateran in 1179. Selden places their origin 
between these periods. It seems, however, 
that about 1,000 years ago, while every man' 
was bound to pay tithes to the church, he paid 
them to whatever ecclesiastical division of the 
church he preferred ; but a law of King Edgar, 
about 970, seems to confine the payment to 
the parish to which the man belonged, and so 
it has remained ever since. In the United 
States the word parish is of frequent use, but 
it does not mean precisely the same thing as in 
England, nor does it mean the same thing in 
all the states. The legal importance of parish- 
es in England depends upon the fact that the 
rector of each parish is entitled to the tithes 
of agricultural produce within it, except so far 
as some qualification of this rule has been 
made by comparatively recent statutes. In 
this country tithes were never paid, or rather 
no legal obligation to pay them ever existed. 
But from the first settlement of the country 
we have had everywhere associations and bod- 
ies corporate or organized for ecclesiastical 
purposes, and these have been generally called 
parishes. In New England they were origi- 
nally the same as towns ; that is, the persons 
composing a town, and acting as a town in 
civil and political matters, also acted as one 
body in religious or ecclesiastical matters ; and 
the parish had therefore the same territorial 
limits as the town. As the towns grew more 
populous, they were divided for ecclesiastical 
purposes into different parishes, which were 
still territorial and were contained within local 
limits. At length, as a diversity of religious 
sentiment became developed, all religious opin- 
ions standing on the same footing in law, 
parishes began to be formed of persons asso- 
ciated by similarity of religious sentiment and 
not mere nearness of residence, and therefore 
with little or no reference to their place of 
abode. These were called poll parishes, in 
distinction from territorial parishes. In Loui- 
siana, the word parish is used to designate 
what in the other states is called a county. 

PARISH, Elijah, an American author, born at 
Lebanon, Conn., Nov. 7, 1762, died at Byfield, 
Mass., Oct. 15, 1825. He graduated at Dart- 
mouth college in 1785, studied theology, and in 



PARK 



95 



December, 1787, settled as pastor of the Con- 
gregational church at Byfield. He belonged 
to the party called in his day the Hopkinsian. 
In 1810 he preached the annual election ser- 
mon, in which he so bitterly inveighed against 
the policy of the government, that the legis- 
lature refused to ask it for publication ; it 
had nevertheless a large circulation. He pub- 
lished a " Gazetteer of the Eastern and West- 
ern Continents," in conjunction with the Rev. 
Dr. Morse (1802); a "History of New Eng- 
land" (1809); "System of Modern Geogra- 
phy " (1810) ; "Memoir of the Rev. Dr. Elea- 
zar "Wheelock, First President of Dartmouth 
College," in conjunction with the Rev. Daniel 
McClure (1811); and "Sacred Geography, or 
Gazetteer of the Bible " (1813). A volume of 
his sermons, with a memoir, appeared in 1826. 
PARR, a space of ground used for public 
or private recreation, differing from a garden 
in its spaciousness and the broad, simple, and 
natural character of its scenery, and from a 
"wood" in the more scattered arrangement 
of its trees and greater expanse of its glades 
and consequently of its landscapes. For the 
sake of completeness, recreation grounds not 
properly called parks will be considered under 
the same title. The grounds of an old Eng- 
lish manorial seat are usually divided into two 
parts, one enclosed within the other and sepa- 
rated from it by some form of fence. The 
interior part, immediately around the dwelling, 



is distinguished as the pleasure ground or kept 
ground, the outer as the park. The park is 
commonly left open to the public, and frequent- 
ly the public have certain legal rights in it, espe- 
cially rights of way. A parish church is some- 
times situated within the park. The use of the 
park as part of a private property is to put the 
possibilities of disagreeable neighborhood at a 
distance from the house and the more domestic 
grounds, to supply a pleasant place of escape 
from the confinement and orderliness of the 
more artificial parts of the establishment, and 
for prolonged and vigorous out-of-door exer- 
cise. The kept grounds, being used inciden- 
tally to in- door occupations, are designed in 
close adaptation to the plan of the house, rich- 
ly decorated, and nicely, often exquisitely, or- 
dered by the constant labor of gardeners. An- 
ciently the kept grounds were designed as a 
part of the same general architectural plan 
with the house, and were enclosed and decora- 
ted with masses of foliage clipped in imitation 
of cut and sculptured stone. Their lofty hedges 
often completely intercepted the view from the 
house toward the park. A recognition of the 
fact that the parks were much more beautiful 
than the kept grounds when thus fashioned, 
led early in the 16th century to the art of 
landscape gardening, or, as it is more gener- 
ally called out of England, landscape architec- 
ture. The aim of the new art was, while still 
keeping the park fenced off, to manage the 




Windsor Park. 



;re grounds in such a way that they would 
provide a harmonious and appropriate fore- 

>1 to landscapes extending over the park, 
and to make such changes in the park itself 

>ukl improve the composition of these 

apes. The scenery of the old parks often 



637 



VOL. XIII. 7 



has great beauty of a special character, which 
is the result of the circumstances under which 
the more ancient and famous of them have been 
formed. These were originally enclosed many 
centuries since for keeping deer. In choosing 
ground for this purpose, rich land having broad 



96 



PARK 



stretches of greensward pasturage, with trees 
more sparingly distributed than usually in the 
forest, was to be preferred, and this character 
would be increased intentionally by felling a 
portion of the trees, and unintentionally by 
the browsing of the deer ; water, either flow- 
ing or still, was a necessity. In process of 
time the proprietors of parks established resi- 
dences in them, and at length the size of their 
trees and the beauty of their grouping came 
to be matters of family pride. As the old de- 
cayed, new trees were planted, with the pur- 
pose of maintaining the original character, or 
perhaps of carrying it nearer its ideal. Prop- 
erties of this class, being associated with that 
which was oldest and most respectable in the 
land, came to be eagerly sought for, and to be 
formed to order as nearly as possible after the 
older type ; and they are to be seen now in 
England by thousands. As a general rule, each 
element in their scenery is simple, natural to 
the soil and climate, and unobtrusive ; and yet 
the passing observer is very strongly impressed 
with the manner in which views are succes- 
sively opened before him through the innumer- 
able combinations into which the individual- 
ly modest elements constantly rearrange them- 
selves ; views which often possess every qual- 
ity of complete and impressive landscape com- 
positions. It is chiefly in this character that 
the park has the advantage for public purposes 
over any other type of recreation ground, 
whether wilder or more artificial. Other forms 
of natural scenery stir the observer to warmer 
admiration, but it is doubtful if any, and cer- 
tain that none which under ordinary circum- 
stances man can of set purpose induce nature 
to supply him, are equally soothing and re- 
freshing; equally adapted to stimulate simple, 
natural, and wholesome tastes and fancies, and 
thus to draw the mind from absorption in the 
interests of an intensely artificial habit of life. 
Private and public parks differ only in the 
extent of their accommodations for certain 
purposes, and most of the public parks in Eu- 
rope are old private parks adapted to public 
use. "When this is not the case, and a park for 
public use has to be formed essentially from 
the bare ground, its value will chiefly depend 
on provisions that cannot be fully matured or 
have their best operation for many years after 
their groundwork is established. For this rea- 
son the selection of a site, the design for lay- 
ing out, and the system of continuous manage- 
ment of a public park should be determined 
with great caution. The aim should be to pro- 
duce the park rather than the more elaborate 
pleasure ground or garden style of scenery, not 
only for the reasons above indicated but be- 
cause a ground of this character can be con- 
sistently and suitably maintained at much less 
cost ; because, also, it will allow the necessary 
conveniences for the enjoyment of it by large 
numbers of persons to be introduced in such 
a way as not to be unpleasantly conspicuous 
or disastrously incongruous; and because it 



favors such a distribution of those who visit it 
that few shall be seen at a time, and that the 
ground shall not seem overcrowded. It is a 
common impression that the loftier and more 
rugged and mountain-like the site of a public 
ground may be, and the more wild, pictu- 
resque, and grand scenery can be imitated in its 
improvement, the better it will answer its pur- 
pose. A principle of art however interposes, 
which M. Taine, in a discussion of the un- 
impressiveness of certain forms of mountain 
scenery, explains as follows : "A landscape in 
order to be beautiful must have all its parts 
stamped with a common idea and contributing 
to a single sensation. If it gives the lie here 
to what is said yonder, it destroys itself, and 
the spectator is in the presence of nothing but 
a mass of senseless objects." It is extremely 
difficult to provide suitably extensive and va- 
ried conveniences for the public use of a piece 
of ground, the elements of which are strong- 
ly picturesque with an approach to grandeur, 
without destroying much of its original char- 
acter ; and the result of such attempts, unless 
under unusually fortunate circumstances and 
the guidance of unusual taste and skill, with 
the use of large means, is sure to be confusing 
and ineffective. Sites of much natural grand- 
eur or even of bold picturesqueness are, there- 
fore, to be selected for a park only where all 
necessary improvements for the convenience of 
a great number of visitors can be so managed 
that they will in some way strengthen rather 
than weaken the prevailing character. No in- 
stance of a public park exists in which this has 
been accomplished, but the principle is illus- 
trated in various landscapes of the great paint- 
ers. Examples may be found, for instance, in 
almost any book of engravings after Turner, in 
which the original effect of a crag of rock is 
shown to be augmented by buildings designed 
for the purpose, the bases of which are skilful- 
ly merged in its face, or where a single great 
building of very simple outline is given a firm 
and tranquil standing in a wild and broken land- 
scape of steep declivities and rugged heights. 
Under good direction, sites with features of 
much natural grandeur, on a scale so large and 
of such a character that the necessary construc- 
tions for the intended visitors can be insignifi- 
cant, are to be preferred to any other; but 
such sites have not yet been appropriated to 
the purpose with the advantage of a sufficient- 
ly long continued adequate direction of their 
improvement, and there can be but few cases 
where they will be. After them, and more 
commonly attainable, are sites the natural 
character of which would usually and signifi- 
cantly be termed "park-like." If the ideal of 
the old English park scenery is kept in view, 
rather than either that of a more picturesque 
or more artificially refined, finical, and elabo- 
rately embellished kind, it will be readily seen 
that in the site for a public recreation ground 
it is desirable that views of considerable extent 
should be controllable within its borders, and 






PARK 



97 



that in order to command them it should not 
be necessary that views beyond its borders be 
opened the elements of which cannot be con- 
trolled, and are liable, even in the distant fu- 
ture, to be made inharmonious with those of 
the park; especially so, where such elements 
will have urban rather than rural associations. 
It is generally better, therefore, that the outer 
parts should be the higher, the central parts 
the more depressed; that the surface should 
be tame rather than rugged, gently undulating 
rather than hilly. Water is desirable, and it 
will be best situated where it can be seen from 
the greatest number of widely distributed points 
of view. Relatively to the residences of those 
who are expected to benefit by it, the park 
will be best situated where there can be but lit- 
tle occasion to make thoroughfares through it. 
Otherwise, the less the distance and the more 
convenient and agreeable the intermediate 
roads, the better. As roads which radiate 
from a town are usually more important to be 
kept open than those which cross them, and 
as land near a town is relatively more need- 
ed for other uses than that more distant, it is 
commonly better that the breadth of the site 
should increase with its distance from the near- 
est point to the town, as in Prospect park, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. In the improvement of the 
site, attractive and suitable scenery has to be 
formed, and unsuitable elements of existing 
scenery changed or obscured ; and at the same 
time and on the same ground accommodations 
of various kinds are to be prepared for great 
numbers of people, many in carriages and on 
horseback, many ignorant, selfish, and wilful, 
of perverted tastes and lawless dispositions, 
each one of whom must be led as far as possi- 
ble to enjoy and benefit by the scenery with- 
out preventing or seriously detracting from 
the enjoyment of it by all others. The most es- 
sential element of park scenery is turf in broad, 
unbroken fields, because in this the antithe- 
sis, of the confined spaces of the town is most 
marked. In the climate of Great Britain turf 
will endure on favorable soils twice as much 
foot wear as it will in that of Paris or northern 
France or the United States ; yet in the more 
frequented London parks it is found neces- 
sary to surround with strong iron hurdles the 
glades on which their landscape attraction is de- 
pendent. For this and other obvious reasons, 
a great extent of ground must be prepared ex- 
pressly for the wear of feet and wheels. In 
the two principal recreation grounds of Paris, 
the woods of Boulogne and Vincennes, though 
both are suburban parks and not readily used 
by the mass of the people, the extent of such 
flooring, prepared by macadamizing, paving, 
and otherwise, is 480 acres, or ten times the 
whole recreation ground of Boston, " the Com- 
mon." In the Central park of New York it is 
) acres, and there is a constant public de- 
mand for its enlargement, which can only be 
met by reducing the verdant elements of land- 
scape, and consequently the benefit to be ob- 



tained by the use of the park. In a public 
park for a city, therefore, the purpose of es- 
tablishing such natural beauty as soil, climate, 
and topography would otherwise allow to be 
aimed at, must be greatly sacrificed under the 
necessity of providing accommodations for the 
travel and repose of many thousands of men 
and horses ; and on the other hand, the extent 
of such accommodations must be made less 
than would otherwise be thought desirable, in 
order that the special objects of the park may 
be secured in a suitable degree. A plan for a 
park is good, indifferent, or bad, mainly ac- 
cording to the ingenuity, tact, and taste with 
which these conflicting requirements are rec- 
onciled, and to the degree in which local cir- 
cumstances are skilfully turned to account if 
they can be made favorable, or skilfully over- 
come if unfavorable for this purpose. The 
problem is sufficiently difficult under the sim- 
plest conditions, and it is undesirable that it 
should be unnecessarily complicated by a re- 
quirement to provide for various purposes 
which have nothing in common with that of 
tranquillizing rest and exercise, and to which 
the element of landscape beauty is not essential. 
Soldiers, for example, drill and manoeuvre, 
horses race, gymnasts and ball players exercise, 
on a piece of flat ground surrounded by build- 
ings as well as in the glades of a wood. It is 
true that, when a suburban park is very spa- 
cious relatively to the number of people re- 
sorting to it for park recreation, a limited use 
of the larger turf areas for athletic exercises 
will injure it but little ; but their frequent use 
for such purposes, especially if large assemblages 
of spectators are likely to be attracted, will be 
destructive of the value of the ground as a 
park, in the specific sense of the term. It is 
also to be considered that the proper rules and 
police arrangements for a park are different 
from those for a parade, ball, or gymnasium 
ground, or for a race course. Hence, when 
the most suitable ground near a town for these 
purposes adjoins that which is most suitable 
for a park, it'is yet much better that there should 
be a marked division between them. Public 
buildings can be reconciled with the purposes of 
a park only in a limited degree. Ground about 
any building designed for an important pub- 
lic service should be laid out with a view, 
first, to convenience of communication with it ; 
secondly, to its best exhibition as a work of 
architectural art. The neighboring grounds 
should be shaped and planted in strict subor- 
dination to these purposes, which will involve 
an entirely different arrangement from that 
which the purpose of forming a quiet rural 
retreat would prescribe. A similar consider- 
ation will prevent monuments and statues from 
being placed profusely in a park, or at all in 
situations where they will be obtrusive. The 
same cautions apply to the introduction of 
botanic, zoological, and other gardens. Their 
main object is as different from that of a park 
as that of a billiard room from a library. Both - 



98 



PARK 



one and the other may serve for recreation, 
and there is an advantage in being able to pass 
from one to the other ; but the kind of recre- 
ation to be gained by one is not that of the 
other, the appropriate furniture of the one is 
not that of the other ; and their perfect com- 
bination being impracticable, the two can be 
much better used apart, one at a time. In the 
larger part of the civilized world, circumstan- 
ces are as unfavorable to park-like scenery as to 
frand scenery in the vicinity of large towns, 
'he climate of France is nowhere as favorable 
to it as that of Great Britain, and even in the 
north it cannot be found in perfection unless 
on unusually suitable soil. In the south of 
France, in Italy, and on all the borders of the 
Mediterranean, in Mexico and California, and 
in short wherever a rich close perennial turf 
cannot be established, parks properly so called 
ought not to be attempted. In these cases, the 
two natural elements of scenery to be devel- 
oped in a suburban public ground of great 
extent are forests (or " woods ") and water. 
While trees in woods are by no means as beau- 
tiful as trees in parks, and a forest is apt to be 
gloomy and to produce an oppressive sense t>f 
confinement, the mystery of this confinement, 
so different from that of the walls of a town, 
makes it interesting and recreative. In the 
midst of well grown woods, public accommo- 
dations, no matter how obviously artificial, 
nor within reasonable limits how large they 
may be, detract but little from the main im- 
pression, and if fairly well designed supply a 
grateful relief to what might otherwise be too 
prolonged a mass and too nearly a monotone of 
color. The introduction of long strips of clear 
ground, even if covered with gravel or poor 
herbage (as at Versailles and most of the great 
old gardens), giving vistas through which the 
light may stream in visible beams, touching 
the walls of foliage at the side with an in- 
finite number of lustrous flecks, produces a 
most, agreeable impression. Bodies of water, 
whether formal or naturalistic in outline, in 
the midst of deep dark tall " woods," are still 
more effective. For the same reason statues, 
monuments, and gardens of highly colored 
flowers may be introduced in the midst of 
woods to much better advantage than in parks. 
The use in America of the word park as a 
general designation for gardens, green courts, 
and all sorts of public places, is an exaggera- 
tion of a French application of the word to 
the more private or kept grounds of a chateau 
connected with a forest. To avoid confusion, 
open spaces for public use in a city may be 
termed "places;" grounds in turf and trees 
within places, " place parks;" and broad thor- 
oughfares planted with trees and designed with 
special reference to recreation as well as for 
common street traffic, " parkways." The value 
of public gardens, places, place parks, and park- 
ways, in distinction from parks and " woods," 
is dependent less on the extent of their sylvan 
elements than on the degree of convenience 



with which they may be used ; those being the 
most valuable, other things being equal, through 
which the greatest number of people may be 
induced to pass while following their ordinary 
occupations and without serious hindrance or 
inconvenience. Hence the most important im- 
provement made of late in the general plan 
of cities has been the introduction or increase 
in number and breadth of parkways which, 
if judiciously laid out, become principal chan- 
nels or trunk lines of common traffic, to which 
the ordinary streets serve as feeders, so that 
a man wishing to go to a considerable distance 
shall find it a saving of time and trouble to 
take one of them on his way. In this respect 
Paris has taken the lead, having formed since 
1855 over 80 m. of such trunk lines of com- 
munication from 100 to 300 ft. in width, pro- 
vided with borders of trees or shrubbery, walks 
and drives of a special character, seats, spe- 
cial lighting arrangements, and other condi- 
tions more interesting and agreeable than those 
of common streets. The total length of boule- 
vards and avenues lined with trees under the 
direction of the municipality within the en- 
ceinte of Paris is 120 m. Most of the large 
towns of Europe are making similar improve- 
ments, and at Washington, Chicago, Cleveland, 
Buffalo, Syracuse, and Brooklyn excellent ex- 
amples of them exist or are in process of for- 
mation. New York, with an area of about 
42 sq. m., has 7 m. of planted parkways, all 
of which are suburban and as yet but partly 
finished. Simple places, piazzas, or plazas (the 
two latter being equivalent terms derived from 
the Italian and Spanish) have the sanitary value 
of making a city more airy than it would be 
without them. If furnished with parks (place 
parks), they have the additional advantage of 
providing refreshment to the eye through the 
mind. If a .piece of ground of one or two acres 
in the midst of a busy town is laid out and 
managed with a view to providing upon it the 
greatest practicable degree of plant beauty in 
trees, shrubs, flowers, and turf, and on the 
same general principles that a private garden 
for the same purpose would be, it will be of 
comparatively little use; for the walks will 
probably be indirect, the low planting of the 
outer parts will obscure the general view for 
passers by, and there will be frequent crowding 
and jostling and disturbance of quiet. Neat- 
ness and the maintenance of orderly conduct 
among visitors in such a ground becomes also 
exceedingly difficult. Hence, as a rule, at least 
in the United States, public grounds designed 
with this motive soon become more forlorn 
than open places would be. It is much bet- 
ter to decorate them in such a manner as will 
not destroy their openness or cause inconve- 
nience to those who have occasion to cross 
them. For this purpose their plans should be 
simple and generally formal in style, their 
passages should be broad and direct, and they 
should be provided with seats in recesses or on 
the borders of the broader paved or gravelled 



PARK 



99 



spaces, leaving ample room for free movement. 
Their trees should be high-stemmed and um- 
brageous; conifers, except in rare instances, 
as permanent dwarfs, should be excluded, and 
flowers and delicate plants little if at all used 
except in vases and baskets (corbeilles) or as 
fringes of architectural objects. Interest will 



desirably centre in a fountain. Every consid- 
erable town in Europe now possesses grounds 
which are resorted to for public recreation, 
and most have several of different types spe- 
cially prepared and kept at public expense. In 
France the state has long held and managed 
extensive "woods and forests," remnants of 




Fontainebleau View from the Chateau. 



the original forests which covered the coun- 
try in the time of Caesar. More than 20 such 
are found within a distance from Paris which 
makes them available for a day's pleasuring 
by means of railway excursion trains. They 
vary in extent from about 1,000 acres, as 
at St. Cloud, to 41,000, as at Fontainebleau. 
Each of these contains a chateau which at 
some time has been a royal residence, in con- 
nection with which there is a " park " or gar- 
den of several acres, generally containing a 
lake, fountains, statuary, monuments, parterres 
(as in the above engraving), and sometimes 
i-vatories, aviaries, or other interesting 
objects. More or less historical interest also 
es to each, and in some quaint old cus- 
toms are maintained, by which visitors are 
attracted. The forest proper is wilder, and in 
its depths many animals are found in a state of 
nature. It is however divided, by a network 
of broad avenues crossed by first, second, and 
hiss roads and walks, into spaces of five 
D acres, so that in passing through it 
istas open at frequent intervals on both sides 
and in all directions. Some of these forests 
are distinguished for great rocks, trees, and 
picturesque scenery; some contain in their 
> broad meadows and savannas, others 
>r streams with cascades; all are guarded 
lepredations and policed by an organized 
body of men thoroughly trained in their du- 



ties under a military discipline. Among the 
more noted of these suburban resorts around 
Paris are those of Boulogne, Vincennes, St. 
Cloud, Marly, St. Germain, Rambouillet, Chan- 
tilly, and Compiegne, which together contain 
more than 170,000 acres. The first fiye are 
within 10 m. of the city, and may be reached 




Fontainebleau View in the Forest. 

by rail in less than half an hour. Versailles 
is another resort yet more famous, and in 
which the woods are of less importance than 
the palace and gardens. The woods of Bou- 
logne and Vincennes, being nearest the city, 
one at its west and the other at its east side, 



100 



PARK 



have since 1854 been placed under the jurisdic- 
tion of the municipality, and fitted by exten- 
sive and important improvements, the better 
to serve as recreation grounds for the daily 
use of the citizens. The wood of Boulogne 
contains about 2,500 acres, and the fortified 



line of the city forms its eastern boundary. 
The soil is naturally gravelly and poor, the 
trees are generally thickly sown, spindled, and 
weak, and the scenery flat and uninteresting. 
Several departmental roads (broad, straight, 
paved wagon ways) pass through it. Except 




Map of the Bois de Boulogne. 

A, Hippodrome; B, Bagatelle; C-, Zoological Ground; D, Military Magazine; E, Nursery; F, Upper Lake; G, G, Lower 
Lake; H, Pre Catalan; I, I, avenue Bois de Boulogne; J, J, the Seine; K, Palace and Park of St. Cloud. 



in the refreshing wildness of a forest, it offered 
as late as 1855 but little to attract a visitor. 
Yet because of its close vicinity to the city it 
was already much frequented by the Parisians, 
and Napoleon III. saw in the neglect to which 
it had been abandoned the opportunity of 
making one of those sensations, to the fre- 
quent succession of which he owed so much of 
his popularity. The coarse, silicious soil was 
less costly to handle than better earth ; good 
roads could be cheaply graded in it, and the 
materials of a sufficiently firm superstructure 
for so porous a base were to be had on the 
spot by simply screening its pebbles ; for the 
same reason scarcely any artificial drainage 
was necessary. There were open meadows 
which could be extended to the banks of the 
Seine. The plan of improvement was adroitly 
adapted to turn all these advantages to account, 
so that in a short time, to those who kept 



to certain routes, the character of the wood 
seemed to have been completely changed. On 
the immediate borders of the new roads, and 
on the lines of certain vistas opening from 
them, the surface of the ground and the foli- 
age appear varied and picturesque, and there 
are certain features of scenic interest, as a cas- 
cade and grotto, the rock of which was brought 
from the distant forest of Fontainebleau and 
skilfully wrought into masses with patches of 
concrete imitation of stone. The greater part 
of the old wood remained, as far as the oper- 
ations of improvement are concerned, little 
changed and as uninteresting as a wood might 
be. The approach to the improved ground from 
the central parts of the town is first through 
the Champs filysees, afterward for a distance 
of 1 m. by the new avenue Bois de Boulogne 
(formerly de rimperatrice). This consists of a 
driveway 60 ft. wide, a bridle road on one side 



PARK 



101 



of it 40 ft. wide, and a walk opposite of the 
same width, with borders of lawn-like ground 
on each side, the whole space being 300 ft. in 
width. In the original design this avenue was 
expected to become the fashionable prome- 
nade of Paris ; but, probably because it was not 
in the outset sufficiently well shaded, fashion 
pushed further out to the road on the south 
bank of a new lake in the wood If m. in 
length, where no tolerable provision had been 
made for it. To meet the demand, the original 
drive on the lake was widened to 45 ft., and a 
pad or bridle path introduced by its side, 40 ft. 
wide. Under ordinary circumstances the great- 
er part of the visitors to the wood concentrate 
on these roads and the adjoining walk. There 
were in the whole wood of Boulogne before 
1870, when a considerable space both of the 
old and new planting was cleared in prepara- 
tion for the defence of Paris against the Ger- 
mans, 1,009 acres of wooded land, 674 of un- 
shaded turf, 75 of water surface, and 286 of 
drives, rides, and walks (not including the 
race track). The race ground of Longchamps, 
which is a part of the property, contains 195 
acres, the ground leased to the acclimation 
society for a zoological garden, 50 acres, and 
the leased amusement garden, the Pr6 Catalan, 
in the midst of the wood, to which a charge for 
admission is made, 21 acres. There are 36 m. 
of public drive (including the old straight for- 
est and departmental highways), 7 m. of ride, 
and 15 m. of walk. The larger part of the plea- 
sure drives are 25 to 36 ft. broad, the widest 48 
ft. ; the rides 12 to 17 ft. ; the walks 8 to 12 ft. 
The wood of Vincennes, similar in other re- 
spects to that of Boulogne, contained an an- 
cient castle which was the centre of a great 
military establishment, and a large plain in the 
midst of the wood, used as a training ground. 



This has been maintained, but in other respects 
the design for improvement has been similar 
to that for the wood of Boulogne, the princi- 
pal difference being that the accommodations 
and attractions for foot visitors at Vincennes 
are relatively more important. The extent of 
the ground is 2,225 acres, of which about half 
is wooded. There is a race course on the 
plain, and a lake of 60 acres. The public ways, 
not including the race track, take up 183 acres. 
There are no large parks within the fortified 
lines of Paris, but several beautiful place parks 
and gardens. (See PARIS.) A detailed account 
of them and of their admirable method of 
administration may be found in Robinson's 
"Parks, Promenades, and Gardens of Paris" 
(London, 1869), and one still more complete in 
Les promenades de Paris, by M. Alphonse, the 
chief designer of the recent improvements. 
The extent of the public recreation grounds 
within the fortified lines of the city is about 
250 acres. The area of suburban grounds com- 
monly resorted to for recreation and main- 
tained at public expense, not including those 
too far away for an afternoon excursion, may 
be estimated at 20,000 acres. The extent of 
pleasure drive maintained by the municipal 
government is 87 m., being about 3 m. of 
roadway to each square mile of the city, or, 
counting the parkways (boulevards) shaded 
and with asphalt driveways, over 7 m. to the 
square mile. New York has less than a quarter 
of a mile to the square mile. The parks and 
open spaces of London are very numerous, and 
their total extent is larger perhaps than that 
of those belonging to any other metropolis 
of the first magnitude. They are very various 
in area, ranging from one to several hundred 
acres. It has been long recognized that London 
owes a great deal of its physical and political 




Map of Victoria Park. 



health to its parks and open spaces. All the 
year round they act as great lungs to the 
mighty city, while in summer and even to a 
lerable extent in winter they are the Sun- 
day resort of the weary workers. The open 
spaces of London are not confined to any 



quarter. The East End has Victoria park (300 
acres) ; Finsbury park (115 acres), too new to 
be so pleasant to the eye, but still rapidly be- 
coming what it is intended to be ; and the half 
dozen "downs," "fields," and "commons" 
that go under the general name of Hackney 



102 



PARK 



Downs (50 acres). It has also, lying just out- 
side its boundaries, the two forests of Ep- 
ping and Hainault, and several green breadths 
that may be called everybody's and yet no 
man's land. South London has some of the 
finest of the parks and open spaces. To the 
southeast lie Woolwich common, Greenwich 
park (174 acres), and Greenwich common, and 
nearer at hand Lewisham common, Peckham 
Rye, and Southwark park (63 acres). Direct- 
ly south lie Oamberwell (55 acres) and various 
little remnants of ancient greens and com- 
mons, while the grounds of the Crystal palace 
may almost be said to answer as a park for 
the wide districts of Sydenham, Norwood, and 
Penge. Southwest lie Clapham common (10 
acres), Wandsworth common (302), and Wim- 
bledon common (628). Tooting Beck and 
Tooting Graveney commons and Battersea park 
(230 acres) also belong to this district. In the 



north lie Hampstead heath (240 acres), the 
Greenlanes, the grounds of Alexandra park 
(192), and Primrose hill. In the west are 
found Hyde park (about 400 acres), the Green 
park, St. James's park, Regent's park (450), 
Kensington gardens (290), and several small 
" greens," such as Shepherd's Bush. All these 
parks, commons, and open spaces are within 
the actual metropolitan district. Taking in a 
little wider radius, the heaths, downs, parks, 
and greens within easy reach of London be- 
come almost innumerable. First, beginning 
at the southeast and sweeping round by the 
south, west, north, and east, we find Chisel- 
hurst common ; a little southwest of this Hayes 
common, a great resort of cockneys in sum- 
mer, where any day a score of pleasure vans 
may be seen ; a little further to the west Ad- 
dington common, also much frequented ; still 
further west Mitcham common and Banstead 




Map of Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens. A, Kensington Palace; B B, the Serpentine; C, Round Pond; D D, Eotten 
Eow; E E, the Ladies' Mile; F F F, the Eing; G, Hyde Park Corner; H, Marble Arch; I, Prince Consort's Memorial 



downs, not to speak of those of Epsom, famous 
for horse races, or of the score of small spaces 
kept " open " by the strong hand of the law 
and the general consent of the people. Ap- 
proaching the Thames by a northwest course, 
we next meet with Richmond park (2,253 
acres) the largest park near London except 
that at Windsor (3,800), Hampton Court park 
and Bushy parks (1,842), and Kew park and 
gardens (684), the finest botanic garden in Eng- 
land. Crossing the river, we come next upon 
Ealing and Acton greens (leaving Hownslow 
heath on the left as out of our radius), Worm- 
wood Scrubs, and numerous little greens and 
commons. North of Hampstead and Alexan- 
dra park the open spaces are fewer and smaller, 
and owing to a more scattered population less 
required. Northeast lie Epping and Hainault 
forests, mentioned before, each of them very 
large and full of natural beauty. Hyde park, 
the most noted of the public grounds of Lon- 
don, takes its name from the ancient manor 
of Hyde, which at one time belonged to the 
abbey of Westminster, became public property 



in 1535, was sold by order of parliament in 
1652, and again recovered to the crown on the 
restoration in 1660. It was originally of the 
usual character of English private parks, a 
broad piece of quiet pasture ground, with nu- 
merous fine great trees scattered over it singly 
and in groups and masses. In 1730-'33 a body 
of water was introduced (the Serpentine), but 
with no care to give it a natural or even a 
graceful outline. Roads have also been form- 
ed in the park from time to time, less with a 
view to public pleasure driving than for con- 
venient passages. What is called the Rotten 
Row (a corruption of the French route du roi) 
was originally the passage for the king and his 
cavalcade between Westminster and his palace 
of Kensington; it is a mile long and 90 ft. 
wide, has a surface of loose fine gravel, and is 
used by the public only on horseback ; it is sepa- 
rated from the Serpentine and "ladies' mile" 
(45 ft. wide), the fashionable drive of London, 
by a walk and strip of turf of variable width. 
It divides and overpowers what might other- 
wise be a pleasing landscape expanse, and no 



PARK 



attempt has been made to mitigate the harsh- 
ness of the invasion. Parts of Hyde park have 
lately been made into gardens, and in these 
during parts of the summer there is a very 
brilliant display of flowers, "specimens," and 
subtropical plants; but the old trees are dis- 
appearing more rapidly than young ones are 
brought forward; the turf is not well kept, 
and to avoid its destruction in many parts iron 
hurdles are placed along the walks. It is thus 
gradually losing its beauty as a park, for which 
its streaks of fine gardening here and there of- 
fer no compensation. The crystal palace was 
erected in Hyde park in 1851, and on the site 
now stands the Albert memorial, completed in 
1872. (See LONDON.) Regent's park, former- 
ly part of old Marylebone park, was laid out 
in 1812. There is a drive of nearly two miles 
around it, and within are the botanic and 
zoological gardens, and a lake. Victoria park 
in E. London was opened to the public in 1845. 
A fine drinking fountain, 60 ft. high and cost- 
ing 5,000, given by Lady Burdett-Coutts, was 
erected in it in 1862. St. James's park was 
formed and walled in by Henry VIII., was 
much improved under Charles II., and was ar- 
ranged as it now appears chiefly under George 
IV. The public property in many of the larger 
commons of London is so complicated by an- 
cient manorial and local rights that its extent 
cannot be accurately stated. The aggregate 
area of the several public and crown parks that 



have been named, together with so much of 
the commons lying within the metropolitan dis- 
trict as is under the board of works, is about 
13,000 acres. There is also in the squares 
and gardens (place parks), most of which have 
been established by landlords and are private 
property but of great public advantage, about 
1,200 acres. Liverpool and its suburb Birken- 
head have six parks, five of which are recent 
acquisitions and yet incompletely prepared for 
public use. The largest, Sefton park, contains 
387 acres. Birkenhead park contains 120 acres, 
besides the leased villa grounds (60 acres) by 
which it is surrounded. It was undertaken 
as a land speculation, and though too small 
in scale and too garden-like for the general 
popular use of a large community, is very 
pleasing, and is one of the most instructive 
to study in Europe, having been laid out and 
the trees planted under the direction of the 
late Sir Joseph Paxton, over 30 years ago. 
The corporation of Leeds has lately purchased 
a noble park of 800 acres, containing a fine 
stream of water and a lake, formed by the 
previous owner, of 33 acres. Its scenery is 
diversified, and it commands fine distant rural 
views. These advantages and its exemption 
from injury by factory smoke compensate for 
the necessity the citizens will be under of 
reaching it by rail, its distance from the town 
being 4 m. Birmingham, Manchester, Brad- 
ford, and other manufacturing towns of Eng- 




Map of Birkenhead Park and adjoining Yilla Sites. 



ave acquired parks by subscriptions of 
itizens or by joint-stock companies. At Hali- 
fax a park has been formed and given to the 
>wn by a benevolent citizen. Derby is pro- 
ided in the same way with an arboretum. 
The city of Lincoln is forming an arboretum 



on land purchased for this purpose. Most of 
the small towns of England have some place 
of recreation, as for instance the old city walls 
and the river banks above the town at Ches- 
ter, the common and the old castle grounds at 
Hereford, and the cathedral greens at Salis- 



104: 



PARK 



bury and Winchester. These consist in each 
case either of a long broad walk pleasantly 
bordered and leading to fine views, or a few 
acres of smooth turf with shaded borders. 
Most villages in England have a private park 
near them, which people are allowed to use. 
When this is not the case, even a hamlet al- 
most invariably has at least a bit of cricket 
ground or common, where, on benches under 
a patriarchal oak or elm, the old people meet 
to gossip and watch the sports of the vigorous 
youth. Phoenix park at Dublin (1,752 acres) 
is a fine upland meadow fringed and dotted 
with trees, but badly laid out and badly kept, 
being much larger than the town requires or 
can afford to take suitable care of. The old 
towns of the continent have generally provided 
themselves with recreation grounds by out- 
growing their ancient borders of wall and moat 
and glacis, razing the wall, filling part of the 
moat, and so, with more or less skilful manage- 
ment of the materials, making the groundwork 
of a garden in the natural style. This is done 
admirably at Frankfort, Leipsic, and Vienna. 
Elsewhere simple broad walks bordered with 
trees have been laid out upon the levelled 
parts. The principal promenade of Vienna is 
the Prater, the chief feature of which is a 
straight carriage road over a mile long, with a 
walk on one side and a riding pad on the other. 
It contains near the town a> great number of 
coffee houses and playhouses; but as it is 5 
m. long, considerable portions are thorough- 
ly secluded and rural. Before the recent im- 
provements of the Bois de Boulogne, it was 
the most frequented large recreation ground in 
the world. There are numerous other public 
grounds at Vienna, both urban and suburban. 
The English garden at Munich was laid out 
under the direction of Count Rumford by the 
baron von Skell. It has serious defects, but 
its scenery in the English style has been con- 
sidered more agreeable than that of any other 
public park on the continent; it is about 4 m. 
long and half a mile wide. The Thiergarten 
at Berlin contains over 200 acres of perfect- 
ly flat land, chiefly a close wood, laid out in 
straight roads, walks, and riding pads ; its sce- 
nery is uninteresting. The Prussian royal gar- 
dens of Sans Souci, Charlottenburg, and Heili- 
gensee are all extensive grounds, the two for- 
mer in mixed, the latter in natural style. Pub- 
lic grounds worthy of a traveller's attention ex- 
ist at Cologne, Dresden, Dusseldorf, Stuttgart, 
Hanover, Brunswick, Baden, Cassel, Darm- 
stadt, Gotha, Weimar, Worlitz, Schwetzingen, 
Teplitz, Prague, and Hamburg. Coffee or beer 
houses are important adjuncts of German pub- 
lic gardens. The refreshments furnished are 
plain and wholesome, and the prices moderate. 
Many families habitually resort to these for 
their evening meal, especially when, as is usual- 
ly the case, there is the additional attraction of 
excellent music furnished by the government. 
The gardens of Antwerp, the Hague, and War- 
saw, and the " city grove " of Pesth, are also 



remarkable. The famous summer gardens of 
St. Petersburg are not extensive, being but 
half a mile long by a quarter of a mile wide, 
and formal in style. They contain fine trees, 
are rich in statuary (boxed up in winter), and 
are the most carefully kept public gardens in 
the world, as shown in the exceeding fresh- 
ness and vigor of the plants and flowers and 
in the deep vivid green of the turf, the more 
fashionable promenade of St. Petersburg is 
in the gardens of Katharirienhof, where on 
the first of May an annual procession of pri- 
vate carriages of almost endless length is head- 
ed by that of the emperor. A remarkable 
ground is that of Tzarskoye Selo, in which 
is the residence of the imperial family, about 
two hours from St. Petersburg. Besides the 
palace, it contains temples, banqueting houses, 
and theatres, a complete village in the Chi- 
nese style, a Turkish mosque, a hermitage, and 
numerous monuments of military and other 
achievements. But beyond this museum of 
incongruous objects there is a part in which 
there is natural and very beautiful scenery 
both open and wooded, and much of it is 
simple. The keeping of the ground employs 
600 men. Stockholm has a great variety of 
delightful waterside rural walks ; but the chief 
object of pride with its people is the Djurgard 
or deer park, which is a large tract of undu- 
lating ground about 3 m. in circumference, 
containing grand masses of rock and some fine 
old trees. The Haga park, also at Stockholm, 
is picturesque, and has the peculiarity of nat- 
ural water communications between its differ- 
ent parts and the city, so that it is much visited 
in boats. The environs of Copenhagen contain 
many grounds of public resort, but the notable 
promenade of the city is the royal deer park 
(Dyrhave). In all the Italian cities, the chief 
public rural resorts are gardens attached to the 
villas of ancient noble families. The Cascine 
of Florence is an old pasture of the dairy of 
the former grand dukes on the banks of the 
Arno, passing through which are broad straight 
carriage drives. It contains little that is at- 
tractive, but commands delicious views. At a 
space whence several roads radiate, a band of 
music usually performs at intervals during the 
promenade hours. The municipality is now 
preparing promenades and recreation grounds 
which promise to be of remarkable interest. 
The fashionable promenade of Rome has been 
on the Pincian hill, which has few attractions 
except in its magnificent distant views. Since 
Rome was made the capital of the new king- 
dom of Italy, large public grounds in other 
quarters have been projected and in great part 
formed by the municipality. At Naples the 
fashionable promenade is the Riviera di Chi- 
aja, a public street. It is divided into a ride, a 
drive, and a walk, and is nearly a mile in length, 
with a breadth of 200 ft. A part of it is 
separated from the shore of the bay of Naples 
by the villa Reale, planted in the garden style. 
Most towns of Spanish or Portuguese origin 






PARK 



105 



are provided with a promenade of formal ave- 
nues, to which, generally at dusk, custom brings 
the ladies in open carriages and the gentlemen 
on foot or on horseback. Until some years 
after the middle of the present century no city 
in North America had begun to make provision 
for a park. To a certain extent cemeteries 
were made to serve the purpose. In 1849 Mr. 
A. J. Downing began in the " Horticulturist " 
a series of papers which were widely copied 
and did much to create a demand on this sub- 
ject. At length a large tract of land was pro- 
vided in New York, upon which in 1858 the 
preparation of the present Central park was 
begun. The topography of the ground was 
in all important respects the reverse of that 
which would have been chosen with an in- 
telligent understanding of the desiderata of a 
park. The difficulties presented could only 
have been tolerably overcome by an enormous 
outlay. The popularity of the parts of the 
park first prepared, however, was so great that 
the necessary means for improvements on a 
large scale were readily granted. The magni- 
tude of the operations (nearly 4,000 men being 
at one time employed on the works), the ra- 





Map of Central Park. 

A, the Mall; B, Belvedere; C, Terras; D, Green: E Ball Ground: F, East Green; G, site for Art Museum ; H, Ramble; 
I, I. I. Reservoirs of City Water Works; K, K, the Meadows; L, Harlem Heights; M, Mount St. Vincent; N, U, Sub- 
ways for street traffic; O, temporary Museum and Offices; P, temporary Museum, Kefectory, and Offices. 



106 



PARK 



pidity of the changes wrought, and the nov- 
elty of the scenes presented, soon gave the 
enterprise great celebrity; and the rapid rise 
in the taxable value of the land near it more 
than met the interest oh its cost. An efficient 
management of its public use was maintain- 
ed, and though frequented by great crowds of 
people it was found, contrary to general ex- 
pectation, that a degree of good order and of 
social amenity prevailed, nowhere surpassed 
and rarely equalled in the public places of Eu- 
rope. Philadelphia, Brooklyn, Albany, Prov- 
idence, Baltimore, Buffalo, Chicago, St. Louis, 
Cincinnati, Montreal, and San Francisco have 
since each acquired land for one or more parks 
of considerable extent, the average being over 
500 acres. As in the case of New York, the 
selection of ground has often been made more 
with reference to other considerations than 
to that of fitness for the intended use. Some 
are as yet only held for future use, while in 
others provisions essentially temporary, and 
which will be in the way of substantial im- 
provement, are made; none are so far com- 
plete and well fitted as fairly to illustrate the 
ends which a park should be designed to serve. 
The Central park of New York is 2 miles 
long and half a mile wide, but this space is 
practically divided by the reservoirs of the 
city water works, which are elevated above its 
general level and occupy 142 acres. Deduct- 
ing besides this certain other spaces occupied 
for special public purposes, the area of the 
park proper is 683 acres. Of this, 55 acres is 
meadow-like ground, 54 in smaller glades of 
turf, 400 of rocky and wooded surface, 43 in 
six pieces of water, the largest being of 20 
acres, 15 in riding ways, 52 in carriage ways, 
and 39 in walks. There are 5J- m. of rides, 
9| m. of drives, and 28 m. of walks. Omit- 
ting a few by-roads, the average breadth of the 
drives is 50 ft., and of the walks 13 ft. There 
are 8 bridges (over water) and 38 tunnels and 
subway arches, 15 of which are concealed from 
view by plantations carried over them, and all 
of which are expedients for reconciling within 
narrow limits the large amount of foot, horse, 
and wheel room required with sylvan and pas- 
toral landscapes. On the east side, near the 
middle of the parallelogram containing the park 
and reservoirs, ground is reserved for a great 
museum of art; and beyond its boundary on 
the west side another plot is held for a museum 
of natural history. The first block of each is 
now building. There are carriage and foot en- 
trances at the two southern corners, and be- 
tween them on the south end, at the termini of 
street railroads, there are two foot entrances ; 
and 14 other entrances are in use or provided 
for. From the S. E. or Fifth avenue approach, 
which is most used, the visitor is led by a 
nearly direct course to a slightly elevated point 
in the interior of the park, northwardly from 
which, at great cost in reducing the original 
rocky knolls, broad green surfaces have been 
prepared (D, E on the map), and views of a 



tranquil landscape character obtained of con- 
siderable extent. At the most distant visible 
point a small tower of gray stone (B) has been 
built to draw the eye, and the perspective effect 
is aided by the character and disposition of the 
foliage, and especially by an avenue of elms (A) 
leading toward it. At the end of this avenue, 
termed the mall, the ground falls rapidly to the 
arm of a lake, and here a structure called the 
terrace (C) has been introduced, which, though 
mainly below the general plane of the land- 
scape and unobtrusive, supplies a considerable 
shelter and place of reunion. It is designed to 
be richly decorated with sculptured works. On 
one side of it is the concert ground of the park, 
on the other a fountain surmounted by a bronze 
typifying the angel of Bethesda. The concert 
ground is overlooked by a shaded gallery called 
the Pergola, back of which is a small house of 
refreshment in cottage style. On the opposite 
side of the water is a rocky and wooded slope, 
threaded by numerous paths, called the ramble 
(F). These with the green (D), play ground 
reserved for the scholars of the public schools, 
two irregular bodies of water, and several rocky 
knolls (on one of which is the Kinderberg, a 
place for little children), form the chief fea- 
tures of the south park. Those of the north 
are a central meadow (K) divided by a rocky 
spur, the high wooded ground beyond it (L), 
with a steep rocky face on the north, and 
an intermediate glen with a chain of waters. 
T ; he number of visits to the park sometimes ex- 
ceeds 100,000 in a day, and is about 10,000,000 
a year. Prospect park of Brooklyn, N. Y., con- 
tains, with the adjoining parade ground, 550 
acres. There is included in it a considerable 
amount of old wood, and for this reason, and 
because of the better soil, climate, and early 
horticultural management, it has a finer rural 
and more mature character than the New York 
park, though its construction was begun eight 
years later. It has about 6 m. of drives, 4 m. 
of ride, and 20 m. of walks. Its artificial water 
covers a space of 50 acres, and is supplied from 
a well by a steam pump. It commands a fine 
view over the ocean. (See BEOOKLYN.) There 
are 33 smaller public grounds in New York and 
Brooklyn, all but three of which are improved 
and in use, the total pleasure ground space of 
the two cities being 1,600 acres. Fairmount 
park of Philadelphia is a body of land 2,740 
acres in extent, having a great variety of sur- 
face, all of it of considerable natural beauty. 
The heights command fine distant prospects; 
it bears many noble trees, and at the part most 
remote from the city there is a glen through 
which dashes a charmingly picturesque stream. 
It is divided by the Schuylkill river and cross- 
ed by a common highway and in two directions 
by railroads, the cuttings and embankments of 
which unfortunately completely break the nat- 
urally most quiet scenes. These with other 
structures, some of which have been recently 
erected and are designed to be permanent, 
greatly disturb its natural beauty. The object 






PARK 



107 



of the city in acquiring the ground was to con- 
trol it against such occupations as would peril 
its water supply, and its permanent disposition 
is not fully determined. Appropriations have 



been already made for two large reservoirs, for 
pumping works, and for a zoological garden. 
No measure has yet been taken looking to the 
permanent preservation or special preparation 




Map of Prospect Park. 

A, A, A, the Long Meadow; B, the Nether Mead; C, Deer Park; D, Lookout Hill; E, Breeze Hill; F, Concert Grove; G, 
Promenade; H, Children's Play Ground; I, Picnic Ground; K, Parade Ground. 



of any considerable part distinctly as a park ; 
but drives, rides, and walks have been formed, 
mainly temporary, by which all parts are trav- 
ersed or laid open to view. Several houses 
which were originally private villas are used as 
refectories; the river is well adapted to plea- 
sure boating ; the spaces are so large that few 
restrictions on the movements of visitors are 
necessary ; and in spite of the defects to which 
allusion has been made, the ground offers bet- 
ter and larger opportunities for popular rural 
; recreation than are possessed in a single prop- 
erty by any other city in the world. Druid 
lill park in Baltimore, of 600 acres, is a very 
: if nl old wood, acquired by the city in 
the original private improvements of 
which have been enlarged and extended for pub- 
9e. Buffalo is forming the most complete 
i of recreation grounds of any city in the 
i States. It will consist of an inland 
ban park of 300 acres, of very quiet rural 
rter, with an ample approach from the 
e of the city, and parkways 200 ft. wide 
-ling from it in opposite directions, one 
promenade overlooking Lake Erie, the 
- to a parade ground and a garden on the 
; opposite side of the town. There is a fine 
natural growth of trees in the main park, a 
i lake of 4fi acres has been formed, and several 
j miles of fair macadamized roads and walks 
constructed, together with various suitable 
buildings. The work was begun in 1871, and 
has been advanced very steadily and economi- 



cally. The aggregate area of ground occupied, 
including the parkways, is 530 acres. Chi- 
cago is situated in a region most unfavorable 
to parks, and should she ever have any that are 
deserving the name, it will be because of a per- 
sistent wisdom of administration and a scien- 
tific skill as well as art in the constant manage- 
ment of those which she is setting about, such 
as has been nowhere else applied to a similar pur- 
pose. The grounds appropriated are flat, poor 
in soil, and devoid of desirable natural growth, 
or, except two which look upon Lake Michigan, 
of any natural features of interest. In one it is 
proposed to transform a series of marshes part- 
ly overflowed by high water of the lake into 
lagoons, the quiet water surface of which is 
designed to take the place ordinarily given to 
lawns in sylvan landscapes ; this, if the idea is 
consistently carried out, will be unique and in- 
teresting. The Chicago park system contains 
nearly 1,900 acres of land in six parks of an 
average extent of 250 acres each, three in one 
chain, and all with one exception connected 
by parkways. About 20 m. of parkway, from 
200 to 250 ft. wide, has been laid out (in the 
city and suburbs), nearly half of which is al- 
ready provided with good macadamized or con- 
crete roads and well planted. St. Louis now 
controls 2,100 acres of lands held for recre- 
ation grounds, of which about 100 are in place 
parks, the greater part improved and in use, 
and the remainder suitable for parks proper, 
the smallest field being of 180 acres and the 



108 



PARK 



largest of 1,350. Of the latter, one only, Tower 
Grove park, containing 277 acres, is yet at all 
adapted to use. A parkway 120 ft. wide and 
12 m. long is under construction. Cincinnati 
has a little over 400 acres of public recreation 
ground, 207 being in Eden park, which lies on 
undulating ground commanding fine distant 
views, and 168 in Burnett wood, which has a 
similar surface with a fine growth of indigenous 
trees. There will be about 3 m. of pleasure 
road in each. Cincinnati possesses in Spring 
Grove cemetery the best example in the world, 
probably, of landscape gardening applied to a 
burial place; and her parks are likely to be 
improved with the same taste and skill. San 
Francisco holds 1,100 acres of land for recrea- 
ation grounds, of which over 1,000 acres is 
in one body, called the Golden Gate park. 
This borders on the ocean, and is very bleak 
and partly covered with drift sand ; no trees 
grow upon it except in an extremely dwarfed 
and distorted form, and turf can only be 
maintained by profuse artificial watering ; but 
wherever shelter, fertility, and sufficient root 
moisture can be secured, a low, southern, al- 
most subtropical vegetation may be maintained 
throughout the year, of striking luxuriance and 
beauty. Experiments in arresting the sand 
and forming a screen of foliage on the shore 
have been made with promising success. If 
steadily, boldly, and generously pursued, with a 
cautious humoring of the design to the unique 
natural conditions, and skilful adaptation of 
available means, a pleasure ground not at all 
park-like, but strikingly original and highly 
attractive, may be expected. Nearly 7 m. of 
carriage road has already been formed on the 
ground, and it is much used. A parkway 
stretching 3 m. along the shore is provided 
for, the reservation for it ranging from 200 
to 400 ft. in breadth. For other information 
concerning the parks mentioned above, see the 
articles on the cities where they are situated ; 
and for accounts of the so-called national parks 
see WYOMING (territory), and YOSEMITE. 

PARR, a central county of Colorado, situated 
amid the loftiest ranges of the Rocky moun- 
tains; area, about 2,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
447. It includes the South park, a plateau 
over 10,000 ft. high, nearly level except where 
crossed by spurs of the mountains that form 
its boundaries, watered by tributaries of the 
S. Platte, and covered with a luxuriant growth 
of grass and with forests of pine. The soil is 
fertile, and produces the hardiest cereals, po- 
tatoes, turnips, &c. Hot and warm mineral 
springs and extensive salt springs exist, and 
lignite has been found in the N". part. Gold 
is extensively mined. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 1,480 bushels of oats, 1,675 of bar- 
ley, 3,430 of potatoes, 281 tons of hay, and 
5,750 Ibs. of butter. The value of live stock 
was $45,025. Capital, Fair Play. 

PARR, Edwards Amasa, an American theolo- 
gian, born in Providence, R. L, Dec. 29, 1808. 
He graduated at Brown university in 1826, 



and at Andover theological seminary in 1831, 
when he was ordained pastor of the second 
Congregational church in Braintree, Mass. In 
1835 he became professor of moral and intel- 
lectual philosophy in Amherst college, in 1836 
Bartlett professor of sacred rhetoric at Ando- 
ver, and in 1847 Abbot professor of Chris- 
tian theology there, which post he still holds 
(1875). He has contributed extensively to 
periodical literature, and has been one of the 
editors of the " Bibliotheca Sacra 1 ' from the 
beginning. He translated with Prof. B. B. 
Edwards a volume of "German Selections" 
(1839); and has edited the "Writings of Rev. 
William Bradford Homer," with a memoir 
(1842) ; a volume on homiletics called " The 
Preacher and Pastor," with an introductory 
essay (1845); the "Writings of Prof. B. B. 
Edwards," with a memoir (2 vols., 1853) ; and 
with Drs. Phelps and Lowell Mason the " Sab- 
bath Hymn Book " (1858). In 1859 he assisted 
in editing a volume of " Discourses and Trea- 
tises on the Atonement," for which he wrote 
an introductory treatise on " The Rise of the 
Edwardean Theory of the Atonement." In 
1861, with Dr. Phelps and the Rev. D. L. Fur- 
ber, he published a critical volume on hym- 
nology, entitled " Hymns and Choirs." He has 
also published memoirs of Dr. Samuel Hopkins 
(1852), and Dr. Nathanael Emmons (1861), 
prefixed to editions of their works. 

PARR, Mango, a Scottish traveller, born at 
Fowlshiels, Selkirkshire, Sept. 10, 1771, killed 
in Africa probably in the early part of 1806. 
At the age of 15 he was apprenticed to a sur- 
geon in Selkirk. He afterward studied medi- 
cine at the university of Edinburgh, and made 
a voyage to Sumatra as assistant surgeon to an 
East Indiaman. On his return he offered his 
services to the African association for the ex- 
ploration of the river Niger, sailed from Ports- 
mouth May 22, 1795, and in one month an- 
chored at Jillifrey on the Gambia, whence he 
proceeded to the British factory of Pisania hi 
the kingdom of Yani. During an illness of 
five months he acquired the Mandingo language, 
and on Dec. 2, accompanied by six negroes, 
set out on horseback toward the east. Unable 
on account of wars to traverse the country of 
Bambarra to Timbuctoo, he resolved to make 
a detour toward the north in hopes of reaching 
the same destination through the Moorish king- 
dom of Ludamar. At Benowm, the capital, a 
wild boar was let loose upon him, but, to the 
surprise of the natives, it attacked the Moslems 
and let alone the Christian. He was then 
placed in a hut, in a corner of which the boar 
was tied, and it was debated between the king 
and his advisers whether he should lose hi; 
right hand, his eyes, or his life. After mor< 
than a month's captivity and torture, he mad* 
his escape alone, and reached Bambarra. GJ 
July 21, 1796, he struck the Joliba or Niger a 
Sego, a city of four distinct quarters, two 01 
each side of the river. Communication wa 
kept up by large canoes, and Park had to wai 






PARK 

two hours before there was room for him in 
the boat. Then came an order from the king 
forbidding him to cross, and he was indebted 
for relief to a woman who took him into her 
hut, gave him supper and a bed, and with the 
female part of her family sang a song 'about 
the "poor white man" which the traveller has 
preserved in his journal. The king sent him 
a guide and a present of 5,000 cowries, with 
which he pursued his journey down the left 
bank of the river to Kea, where he dismissed 
the guide and went by water to Silla on the 
opposite bank. Here he was again attacked 
by sickness, and despaired of advancing fur- 
ther into a country where the fanatical Mo- 
hammedans were paramount, and at a sea- 
son when the tropical rains rendered travel im- 
possible except by water. He set out on his 
return July 30, and after a long series of suf- 
ferings and robberies arrived at Pisania June 
10, 1797. An American vessel carried him to 
Antigua, whence he took ship for England, and 
on Dec. 22 landed at Falmouth. His unex- 
pected return, after he had long been given 
up for dead, created an extraordinary enthusi- 
asm. An outline of his adventures was drawn 
up by Bryan Edwards, accompanied with geo- 
graphical illustrations by Major Rennell (4to, 
London, 1799), but it threw little light upon 
the problem of the direction of the Niger. 
Park now returned to his father's farm in Scot- 
land, married, and commenced the practice of 
medicine at Peebles. In 1805 he undertook a 
second journey to the Niger under the auspi- 
ces of the British government. The king gave 
him the brevet rank of captain, and his com- 
panion and brother-in-law Mr. Anderson that 
of lieutenant. The other members of the ex- 
pedition were Mr. Scott, draughtsman, an offi- 
cer and 34 soldiers of the garrison of Goree, 
two sailors, and four artificers. They reached 
Pisania April 28, and at once pushed into the 
interior, keeping considerably to the south 
of Park's former route, and winding among 
the head streams of the Senegal and Gambia. 
They were not much molested by the negroes, 
but the climate proved a more deadly enemy, 
and before they came in sight of the Niger 
near Bammakoo 28 of the soldiers and three 
carpenters had died. With the remnant of 
his force Park floated down to Sansanding 
in canoes, where he sold some of his goods. 
There died Mr. Anderson. Scott had also died, 
and when a boat was prepared for resuming 
the voyage, Park's only companions were Lieut. 
Marty n and three soldiers, one of whom was 
deranged. About the middle of November 
set out, having first sent back their guide 
with a journal of their discoveries. In 
)6 rumors reached the British settlements of 
Mungo Park's death, but nothing was known 
f his fate until the governor of Senegal in 
10 despatched Isaaco into the interior to as- 
certain what had become of him. From a 
man at Sansanding who had accompanied the 
party from that place to Yauri, Isaaco received 



PARKER 



109 



a later journal, and learned that after passing 
Jennee, Timbuctoo, and Yauri, and repelling 
several attacks of the natives, they reached at 
Boossa a narrow pass where the river flows 
between precipitous rocks. Here they were 
set upon by the soldiers of the king of Yauri, 
with lances, arrows, and stones. Two negro 
slaves were killed in the canoe, and the white 
men jumping into the water were drowned. 
Clapperton found full confirmation of this sto- 
ry, and learned that Park's manuscripts were 
still in the king's possession, but was unable 
to obtain them. The narrative of Park's sec- 
ond journey, with a biography (London, 1815), 
has been translated into French and German. 
D'Avezac published in Paris in 1834 Examen 
et rectifications des positions determines as- 
tronomiquement par Mungo Park ; and an- 
other biography of the traveller appeared at 
Edinburgh in 1835. A monument was erect- 
ed in his honor at Selkirk in 1859. 

PARKE, a "VV. county of Indiana, bounded 
W. by the Wabash river and drained by Sugar 
and Raccoon creeks; area, 440 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 18,166. It has an undulating surface 
and a very fertile soil, with extensive beds 
of coal. The Logansport, Crawfordsville, and 
Southwestern railroad traverses it, and the 
Evansville, Terre Haute, and Chicago crosses 
the S. W. corner. The chief productions in 
1870 were 502,230 bushels of wheat, 982,628 of 
Indian corn, 48,391 of oats, 65,004 of potatoes, 
314,099 Ibs. of butter, 110,813 of wool, and 
14,512 tons of hay. There were 7,384 horses, 
5,104 milch cows, 10,277 other cattle, 31,583 
sheep, and 32,264 swine ; 4 manufactories of 
carriages and wagons, 8 of cooperage, 7 of 
saddlery and harness, 2 of woollens, 13 flour 
mills, and 19 saw mills. Capital, Rockville. 

PARKER, a N. county of Texas, intersected 
by the Brazos river ; area, 900 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 4,186, of whom 293 were colored. It 
consists of prairie and woodland in about equal 
proportions. The soil is productive. Wheat, 
corn, cotton, and fruits and vegetables thrive. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 13,658 
bushels of wheat, 70,685 of Indian corn, 10,905 
of oats, 13 bales of cotton,. and 20,050 Ibs. of 
butter. There were 1,497 horses, 1,222 milch 
cows, 10,348 other cattle, 944 sheep, and 4,383 
swine. Capital, Weatherford. 

PARKER, Matthew, the second Protestant arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, born in Norwich, Aug. 
6, 1504, died in London, May 17, 1575. He 
entered Corpus Christi college, Cambridge, in 
1520, and in 1527 was ordained, made M. A., 
and received a fellowship, and was offered by 
Cardinal Wolsey a professorship in his newly 
founded college at Oxford. In 1533 he received 
a license to preach, and soon after became 
chaplain to Anne Boleyn, dean of the college 
of Stoke Clare in 1535, chaplain to Henry VIII. 
in 1537, master of Corpus Christi college in 
1544, vice chancellor of Cambridge university 
in 1545, and dean of Lincoln in 1552. Upon 
the outbreak of Kett's insurrection in 1549, 



110 



PARKER 



he had the boldness to preach to the rebels 
in their camp, exhorting them to submission. 
Having married in 1547, he was deprived upon 
the accession of Queen Mary of his offices, and 
during her reign was obliged to remain in ob- 
scurity. Part of this time he spent in trans- 
lating the Psalms into English verse, and wri- 
ting a treatise entitled "A Defence of Priests' 
Marriages." On the accession- of Queen Eliz- 
abeth he was chosen archbishop of Canterbury, 
and on Dec. IV, 1559, consecrated in Lambeth 
chapel. He successfully combated the queen's 
lingering affection for the use of images, filled 
all the vacant sees with men of decided Protes- 
tant opinions, and strove to render the rites and 
ceremonies of the church as uniform as pos- 
sible. He founded several schools, and made 
many valuable presents to the colleges at Cam- 
bridge, besides establishing scholarships and 
fellowships. He was one of the first chosen to 
review the " Book of Common Prayer," and the 
revision called the "Bishop's Bible" was made 
in great part under his inspection, and pub- 
lished at his expense in 1568. He published a 
Saxon homily on the sacraments, and caused to 
be printed the chronicles of Matthew of West- 
minster, Matthew Paris, and Thomas Walsing- 
ham, and Asser's " Life of King Alfred." The 
work entitled De Antiquitate Britannicce Ec- 
clesm (1572) is commonly attributed to him, 
and without doubt he had much to do with its 
preparation. 

PARKER, Nathan, an American clergyman, 
born in Reading, Mass., June 5, 1782, died in 
Portsmouth, K H., Nov. 8, 1833. He grad- 
uated at Harvard college in 1803, became a 
tutor in Bowdoin college in 1805, and was or- 
dained pastor of the South church in Ports- 
mouth Sept. 14, 1808, which office he retained 
through life. When the division of the Con- 
gregational body in New England into two 
parties was recognized, he took his stand as a 
professed Unitarian. After his death a vol- 
ume of his sermons was published, with a 
memoir by the Rev. Henry Ware, jr. 

PARKER, Peter, an American missionary, 
born in Framingham, Mass., June 18, 1804. He 
graduated at Yale college in 1831, studied 
theology and medicine there, and was ordained 
and went to China in 1834. He established a 
hospital at Canton, intended particularly for 
the treatment of eye diseases ; but it was soon 
found impracticable to exclude patients suffer- 
ing from other maladies. Over 2,000 patients 
were admitted the first year. In surgery 
Dr. Parker manifested remarkable skill and 
wrought wonderful cures, and the fame of the 
hospital spread rapidly. He often preached 
to its inmates, and trained several Chinese 
students in the arts of medicine and surgery, 
some of whom attained considerable skill. In 
1840, on the occurrence of hostilities between 
England and China, the hospital was closed, 
and Dr. Parker revisited his native land. Re- 
turning to China in 1842, he reopened the hos- 
pital, and it was thronged as before. In 1845 



he resigned his connection with the American 
board, and became a secretary and interpreter 
to the new embassy from the United States, 
still keeping the hospital in operation. In the 
absence of the minister Dr. Parker acted as 
charge" d'affaires. In 1855, finding his health 
seriously impaired, he again visited this coun- 
try, but by special desire of the government 
returned the same year to China as commis- 
sioner, with full power to revise the treaty of 
1844. He acted in this capacity until a change 
of administration in 1857; and his health 
again failing, he has since resided in the United 
States. He has published " A Statement re- 
specting Hospitals in China" (London, 1841), 
and an account of his visit to the Loo Choo 
islands and Japan in 1837. 

PARKER, Theodore, an American clergyman, 
born in Lexington, Mass., Aug. 24, 1810, died 
in Florence, Italy, May 10, 1860. He worked 
on the farm which had been in his family for 
150 years, and in the tool shop, and at the age 
of 17 began to teach school in the winter 
months. In 1830 he entered Harvard college, 
but studied at home, only attending the exam- 
inations. In 1831 he was teaching a private 
class in Boston. Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Ger- 
man, French, Spanish, and metaphysics filled 
his leisure. In 1832 he opened a private school 
in Watertown with two scholars, one of whom 
was on charity; but he soon had more than 
50. For their benefit, and for his class in the 
Sunday school, he wrote a history of the Jews, 
which is still in manuscript. He entered the 
divinity school in Cambridge in 1834. Syriac, 
Arabic, Danish, and Swedish were here added 
to his list of languages ; and Anglo-Saxon and 
modern Greek were commenced. He was one 
of the editors of the "Scriptural Interpret- 
er," a magazine conducted by members of the 
school. During the autumn and winter of 
1836 he preached in various pulpits of Massa- 
chusetts, and was settled as pastor of the Uni- 
tarian church at West Roxbury in June, 1837. 
Here he formed views upon the authority and 
inspiration of the Bible which were not in 
harmony with those of his Unitarian brethren. 
At the ordination of Mr. Shackford in South 
Boston, May 19, 1841, Mr. Parker preached a 
discourse on the " Transient and Permanent in 
Christianity," which, assuming the humanity 
and natural inspiration of .Christ, gave rise to 
a controversy, during which Mr. Parker de- 
veloped his anti-supernaturalism in various 
writings and sermons. In the autumn of 1841 
he delivered in Boston five lectures, which 
were published under the title of "A Dis- 
course of Matters pertaining to Religion " 
(1842). During the autumn and winter of 
1842 he delivered six " Sermons for the Times " 
in Boston and elsewhere. He travelled in 
England, France, Italy, and Germany in 1843 
-'4 ; and after his return the controversy was 
renewed on occasion of his exchanging pul- 
pits with some of the more liberal Unitarian 
preachers. He began to preach at the Melo- 






PARKER 



PARKERSBURG 



111 



deon, Boston, Feb. 16, 1845, and was installed 
there over a newly organized parish, styled 
the 28th Congregational society, in the spring 
of 1846. Up to this time, besides the writings 
above mentioned, his more notable productions 
were articles in the "Dial" and other period- 
icals. His translation of De Wette's "Intro- 
duction to the Old Testament," with additions, 
appeared in 1843. Other translations, from 
Ammon, Eichhorn, and Gesenius, seem to have 
been preparatory to that work. In Decem- 
ber, 1847, appeared the first number of the 
" Massachusetts Quarterly," which he conduct- 
ed during its life of three years. He became 
popular as a lecturer, vigorously opposed the 
Mexican war, and was one of the earliest ad- 
vocates of temperance and anti-slavery. After 
the passage of the fugitive slave law in 1850, 
every case of attempted rendition in Boston 
enlisted his personal activity ; and at the time 
of the rendition of Anthony Burns (May 24 
to June 8, 1854), an indictment was brought 
against him for resisting an officer of the Uni- 
ted States in his attempt to execute process, 
based upon a speech delivered at Faneuil hall 
before an anti-rendition meeting. It was 
quashed upon a technicality ; but Mr. Parker 
had prepared an elaborate defence, which he 
printed. In November, 1852, his congregation 
occupied for the first time the great music hall 
in Boston, which was crowded every Sunday. 
He was now often ill, and compelled for a 
while to cease preaching and writing; but his 
persistent will carried him through till Jan- 
uary, 1859, when an attack of bleeding at the 
lungs brought to a close his public services at 
the music hall. On Feb. 3 he sailed for Santa 
Cruz, whence in May he sent a letter to his 
parish entitled " Theodore Parker's Experience 
as a Minister." Thence he sailed to Europe, 
spent some time in Switzerland, and went to 
Rome, where he passed the winter of 1859. 
Setting out thence in April, 1860, very much 
enfeebled, he reached Florence with difficulty, 
where he died. He was buried in the cem- 
etery outside the walls. Parker's published 
works are : "A Discourse of Matters pertain- 
ing to Religion " (1842) ; " Miscellaneous Wri- 
tings" (12mo, Boston, 1843); "Occasional 
Sermons and Speeches" (2 vols. 12mo, 1852); 
" Ten Sermons on Religion " (1853) ; " Sermons 
on Theism, Atheism, and the Popular Theolo- 
gy" (1853); "Additional Speeches, Address- 
es," &c. (2 vols. 12mo, 1855) ; "Trial of Theo- 
dore Parker for the * Misdemeanor of a Speech 
in Faneuil Hall against Kidnapping'" (1855) ; 
"Two Christmas Celebrations;" and "Expe- 
rience as a Minister " (1859). A collective edi- 
tion of his works was edited by Frances Power 
Cobbe (12 vols., London, 1863-'5), and a later 
edition by H. B. Fuller (10 vols. 12mo, Bos- 
ton, 1870). His "Life and Correspondence" 
was published by the Rev. John Weiss (2 vols. 
8vo, New York, 1864), and his " Life" by the 
Rev. O. B. Frothingham (New York, 1874). 
See also Albert R6ville's Theodore Parker, sa 
638 VOL. xiii. 8 



vie et ses ceuvres (Paris, 1865). His library of 
more than 13,000 volumes he bequeathed to 
the public library of Boston. 

PARKER, Willard, an American surgeon, born 
in Hillsboro, N. H., Sept. 2, 1800. He is the 
sixth in descent from one of five brothers who 
came from England in 1644 and settled at 
Chelmsford, Mass., to which place his father 
returned when Willard was five years old. He 
graduated at Harvard college in 1826, com- 
menced the study of medicine under Dr. John 
0. Warren, the professor of surgery in Har- 
vard university, and received the degree of 
M. D. there in 1830. He was at once appoint- 
ed professor of anatomy in the Vermont med- 
ical college, and in the same year accepted 
the chair of anatomy in the Berkshire medical 
college, and in 1833 also that of surgery. In 
1836 he was appointed professor of surgery in 
the Cincinnati medical college, and afterward 
spent some time in the hospitals of Paris and 
London. In 1839 he became professor of sur- 
gery in the college of physicians and surgeons 
of New York, which post he resigned after a 
service of 30 years, but accepted that of pro- 
fessor of clinical surgery, which he now holds 
(1875). In 1865 he was elected president of 
the New York state inebriate asylum at Bing- 
hamton, succeeding Dr. Valentine Mott. This 
was the first institution ever established for 
the treatment of inebriety as a disease. In 
1870 he received the degree of LL. D. from 
the college of New Jersey at Princeton. Dr. 
Parker was the first to point out a condition 
which is known as concussion of the nerves, 
as distinguished from concussion of the nerve 
centres, and which had been previously mis- 
taken for one of inflammation. The operation 
of cystotomy for the relief of chronic cystitis, 
and also that for the cure of abscess of the 
appendix vermiformis, are among his contri- 
butions to the art of surgery. 

PARKERSBURG, a port of delivery and the 
capital of Wood co., West Virginia, the second 
city in the state in population, on the Ohio 
river, at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, 92 
m. below Wheeling, and 65 m. N. of Charles- 
ton; pop. in 1850, 1,218; in 1860, 2,493; in 
1870, 5,546, of whom 447 were colored; in 
1875, about 7,000. The site rises gradually to 
a plateau 100 ft. above low-water mark, and 
extends more than a mile up the Ohio and 
nearly two miles along the Little Kanawha, 
embracing about three square miles. In the 
rear rises an isolated eminence, known as Pros- 
pect hill, affording extensive views. The city 
is regularly laid out in squares, with streets 
60 ft. and alleys 20 ft. wide. The principal 

Eublic buildings are the court house, market 
ouse, two brick school houses, and seven brick 
churches. A building for the accommodation 
of the United States courts, post office, and 
custom house is in course of erection. Par- 
kersburg is favorably situated for trade and 
manufactures. The tributary country, inclu- 
ding the valley of the Little Kanawha, is fer- 



112 



PARKMAN 



PARLIAMENT 



tile and well timbered, and contains petroleum, 
coal, iron, and salt. Four medicinal springs, 
6 m. from the city and 2 m. from the Little 
Kanawha, have been much frequented. There 
is a covered bridge across the Little Kanawha, 
and one across the Ohio costing $1,000,000, 
over which the Parkersburg division of the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad passes into Ohio. 
Regular lines of steamers run to Wheeling, 
Charleston, Cincinnati, and other points on the 
Ohio and Great Kanawha rivers. Recent im- 
provements in the Little Kanawha render it 
navigable 38 m. above Parkersburg, and afford 
abundant water power. One of the most im- 
portant interests is the refining of petroleum, 
for which there are six or seven establish- 
ments, producing about 200,000 barrels of illu- 
minating and 100,000 of lubricating oil annu- 
ally. The annual value of oil shipments is 
about $3,000,000. Other important establish- 
ments are a barrel factory, a chemical labora- 
tory, three founderies, with two of which ma- 
chine shops are connected, the repair shops of 
the railroad, two flouring mills, two saw mills, 
a mill for sawing, planing, and manufacturing 
doors, blinds, &c., a boat-building yard, a fur- 
niture factory, a carriage factory, a tannery, 
three tobacco factories, two potteries, two 
brick yards, and a sandstone quarry. There 
are three national banks, with an aggregate 
capital of $450,000, a fire insurance company, 
a high school, several free ward schools, sev- 
eral academies, two daily and three weekly 
newspapers, a monthly periodical, and ten 
churches : Baptist, Episcopal, Methodist, Pres- 
byterian, Roman Catholic, and United Breth- 
ren. The United States circuit court is held 
here annually. Parkersburg was incorporated 
as a town in 1820, and as a city in 1860. 

PARKJIAA, Francis, an American author, born 
in Boston, Sept. 16, 1823. He made in the 
latter part of 1843 and the beginning of 1844 
a rapid tour in Europe, graduated at Harvard 
college in the latter year, and studied law for 
.two years, but abandoned it in 1846 and start- 
ed to explore the Rocky mountains. He lived 
:for several months among the Dakota Indians 
and the still wilder and remoter tribes, and 
incurred hardships and privations which made 
him an invalid for the rest of his life. An ac- 
count of this expedition was given in "Prairie 
and Rocky Mountain Life " (New York, 1849), 
reissued subsequently as " The California and 
Oregon Trail." This was followed by "The 
Conspiracy of Pontiac" (Boston, 1851), the 
first of a series intended to illustrate the his- 
tory of the rise and fall of the French dominion 
in America. His next work was " Vassall 
Morton " (Boston, 1856), a novel the scene of 
which was partly in America and partly in 
Europe. He visited France in 1858, and again 
in 1868, to examine the French archives, and 
the result of his researches is given in " Pio- 
neers of France in the New "World" (1865), 
"Jesuits in North America" (1867), "Discov- 
ery of the Great West " (1869), and " The Old 



Regime in Canada" (1874). These works are 
distinguished for their brilliant style and for 
accurate research, and have been written under 
the disadvantages of feeble health and of an 
affection of the eyes which renders him often 
wholly unable to read or write. In 1866 Mr. 
Parkman published " The Book of Roses," and 
in 1871 he was appointed professor of horti- 
culture in the agricultural school of Harvard 
university, which post he resigned in 1872. 

PARLIAMENT (low Lat. parlamentum ; Fr. 
parlement, from parler, " to speak "), original- 
ly a meeting or assembly for conference or de- 
liberation ; afterward applied in France to the 
principal judicial courts, and in England to the 
legislature of the kingdom. The word, or one 
very like it, was long in use in France, and was 
first applied there to general assemblies in the 
time of Louis VII., about the middle of the 12th 
century. I. THE BEITISH PAELIAMENT. The 
earliest mention of the word parliament in the 
statutes of England occurs in the preamble to 
the statute of Westminster, 1272. Many wri- 
ters have asserted the identity of the modern 
parliament with the general councils of the 
Saxons, with their michel-gemote or great meet- 
ing, or their witena-gemote or meeting of the 
wise men ; and also with the commune conci- 
lium and magnum concilium of later times. It 
is indeed indisputable, as Blackstone says, that 
general councils are coeval with the kingdom 
itself ; but that those of early times bore any 
essential resemblance to the present parliament 
is far from certain. We may probably with 
safety assume that the present constitution of 
parliament existed early in the 14th century. 
In Magna Charta, King John promises to sum- 
mon all archbishops, bishops, abbots, earls, and 
greater barons personally, and all other tenants 
in chief under the crown by the sheriffs and 
bailiffs ; and there are still extant writs of the 
date of 1265, summoning " knights, citizens, 
and burgesses " to parliament. A statute passed 
in the reign of Edward II. (1322) declares that 
certain matters shall be established in par- 
liament " by the king and by the assent of the 
prelates, earls, barons, and the commonalty of 
the realm, as has before been accustomed." 
The imperial parliament of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland is composed 
of the crown and the three estates of the realm, 
the lords spiritual, the lords temporal, and the 
commons. It is the prerogative of the crown 
to convoke, continue, or dissolve it. Former- 
ly it was the theory of English constitutional 
law, that the power of the crown in these re- 
spects was measured only by its pleasure ; that 
the sovereign might omit during, his whole 
reign to call a parliament ; or if he called one, 
might keep it undissolved for the same period. 
But now, on the authority of statute and other- 
wise, it is established that no parliament can 
last longer than seven years, and that writs for 
summoning a new parliament shall issue within 
three years from the dissolution of the last one. 
The sessions of parliament may be suspended 






PARLIAMENT 



113 



by adjournment or prorogation, and ended by 
dissolution. The power of adjournment be- 
longs to each house respectively ; the sovereign 
may request but not command an adjournment. 
A royal proclamation may issue, however, sum- 
moning parliament to meet within not less than 
14 days, notwithstanding an adjournment be- 
yond that period. Parliament may be pro- 
rogued to a certain day only by the sovereign; 
it is effected through the lord chancellor, or 
by writ under the great seal, or by commission. 
The effect of a prorogation is to put an end to 
all proceedings pending at the time, except im- 
peachments by the commons and appeals and 
writs of error in the house of lords. On the 
meeting of parliament after prorogation, a bill 
pending before must be renewed as if it had 
never been introduced. The power of dissolv- 
ing parliament is vested in the sovereign ; its 
existence is ended by dissolution, after which 
writs of election for a new parliament must be 
issued. In practice, parliaments assemble an- 
nually, and must continue to do so while the 
legislation for the army, the judiciary, and the 
whole service of the kingdom has validity and 
makes appropriations for only a twelvemonth. 
Among the other constitutional prerogatives 
of the crown, as a branch of parliament, are its 
negative upon the choice of a speaker by the 
commons, and upon bills passed by both houses. 
But neither of these prerogatives could now 
with safety be arbitrarily asserted by the sov- 
ereign. House of Lords. This body is com- 
i posed of the lords spiritual and temporal, the 
former consisting of the archbishops of Canter- 
bury and York, and 24 bishops. Until the dis- 
solution of the monasteries in the time of Henry 
VIII., the mitred abbots and two priors had 
seats with the lords ; and after the union with 
Ireland one archbishop and three bishops of 
; the church of Ireland also had seats until the 
disestablishment of that church on Jan. 1, 1871. 
The whole number of peers in 1873 was 479. 
Most of the peerages are of recent creation. 
The three oldest date from the 13th century, 
j and only four others go back to the 14th. Up 
I to 1874, 239 had been created within the pres- 
i ent century. The bishops were excluded from 
;ment during the commonwealth, but were 
vd by statute. With this single interrup- 
hey have always been present in parlia- 
and with unquestioned right. The lords 
iial are lords of parliament, though not 
- of the realm. "When therefore a peer is 
tried, the bishops are entitled to take part 
i n the proceedings, though, in conformity with 
mons of the church, which forbid them to 
n capital causes, they are generally absent 
the judgment. Being not of noble blood, 
lie hereditary peers, for a capital offence 
ire tried by a jury like other commoners. 
:-d* temporal are divided into dukes, mar- 
3, earls, viscounts, and barons. They are 
* hereditary peers of the realm, ennobled in 
lood, and subject to loss of their dignities only 
taimler or by act of parliament. Since 



the union with Scotland in 1707, and with Ire- 
land in 1801, 16 Scottish and 28 Irish represen- 
tative peers have been returned to parliament 
by the peerages of those countries. The former 
sit during one parliament only ; the latter are 
chosen for life. They enjoy all the privileges 
of parliament, and may sit upon the trial of 
peers. A peer is made so by the royal patent 
or writ which summons him to parliament, and 
the dignity is usually made hereditary by limita- 
tion to the heirs male of his body, although it 
is sometimes provided that it may descend to 
others, as for instance to his nephew or brother. 
The power of the crown to create a life peer- 
age raised in 1856 an important question, which 
was earnestly debated. On retiring from the 
bench Sir James Parke (Lord Wensleydale) was 
created baron of the United Kingdom for and 
during his life, instead of the usual limitation. 
Government urged as a reason for granting 
life peerages, the convenience of adding to the 
number of law lords in the house, these being 
peers who have held high judicial office in the 
kingdom, and who substantially alone determine 
all judicial causes. It had happened in 1855 
that only two law lords, the lord chancellor and 
Lord St. Leonards, had sat to hear arguments. 
Upon some of the causes they differed in opin- 
ion, and as, upon a familiar maxim in the proce- 
dure of the lords, this equality of votes led in 
each case to affirmance of the decrees brought 
up from inferior courts, appellants argued that 
there was virtually no decision, and expressed 
great discontent. For the remedy of this and 
other mischiefs the creation of life peerages 
was proposed. After prolonged discussion, the 
lords decided, if not against the strict legality 
of the measure, yet against its constitutional 
expediency. The crown retreated from its po- 
sition, and Lord Wensleydale received a patent 
in the usual form. The peers of the realm 
possess titles of honor which give them the 
privileges of rank and precedence, and they are 
individually the hereditary counsellors of the 
crown; with the lords spiritual they form, 
when not assembled in parliament, the perma- 
nent council of the sovereign, though they may 
act in the same capacity when so assembled, as 
for example in addressing the throne upon mat- 
ters of foreign or of domestic policy. When 
sitting in parliament the peers form in con- 
junction with the lords spiritual a branch of 
the supreme legislature of the kingdom ; and, 
in the exercise of peculiar functions, they con- 
stitute a court of judicature. In its judicial 
office the house of lords has a distinctive char- 
acter as the highest tribunal of the realm. 
The lords have an original and exclusive juris- 
diction in the trial of peers, and under refer- 
ence from the crown upon claims of peerage 
and affairs of honors. By the acts of union 
they have a like jurisdiction over cases of con- 
tested elections, or the rotation of the Scottish 
or Irish representative peers. They also had 
until recently a general jurisdiction as the su- 
preme court of appeals. These judicial func- 



114 



PARLIAMENT 



tions the house of lords had as the representa- 
tive of the ancient concilium regis, or council 
of the king, which under the early Norman 
kings had jurisdiction both in civil and crimi- 
nal causes, especially in those relating to great 
persons and to officers of state, and by way of 
appeal from all other courts. In respect to 
the construction of the house for any legisla- 
tive purpose, there is no distinction between 
the lords temporal and the lords spiritual. 
The presence of three members who have been 
duly summoned and sworn constitutes a quo- 
rum ; and when a speaker has been appointed, 
the house may proceed to act either as a branch 
of the legislature or as a supreme court of ju- 
dicature. The lord chancellor or lord keeper 
of the great seal is speaker ex officio, and an 
ancient order declares it to be " his duty ordi- 
narily to attend the lords' house of parlia- 
ment." To make provision for his necessary 
absence, deputy speakers are appointed by 
commission from the crown, "to officiate from 
time to time during the royal pleasure in the 
room and place of the lord chancellor." The 
office is generally conferred upon the chief 
justice of the king's bench, or the chief baron 
of the exchequer. In the absence of both the 
lord chancellor or keeper and the deputy 
speakers, the lords themselves select a speaker 
pro tempore. The person who acts as speaker 
need not be a member of the house, nor in- 
deed of the peerage. Commoners have often 
been raised to the office. They may sit as 
speakers upon the woolsack, for constitution- 
ally that is not within the limits of the house. 
The lords answer " Content " or " Not con- 
tent" in voting, and on an equality of votes 
the effect is the same as if there were a ma- 
jority of " not content," for the maxim of the 
house is : Semper prcesumitur pro negante. 
Until the establishment of the supreme court 
of England (1873-'5) the lords had jurisdiction 
of writs of error and appeals from the com- 
mon law and equity courts. The former was 
of great antiquity ; the latter dates only from 
1621, and was not acquiesced in until after 
angry and prolonged disputes between the two 
houses of parliament. The right to exercise it 
was questioned by some of the first lawyers 
of the time, including Sir Matthew Hale. The 
triumph of the peers is usually ascribed to the 
earl of Shaftesbury, who insisted that the lords' 
power of review extended over all the courts 
in the kingdom, civil, criminal, and ecclesias- 
tical. But from the last named courts appeals 
have never been entertained. So orders made 
on motion OP petition in matters of idiocy, 
lunacy, or bankruptcy were not carried up to 
the lords, but to the king in council. Writs 
of error to the lords were confined to matters 
of law. They might lie from all judgments of 
the courts of exchequer chamber in England 
and Ireland, and from all judgments in com- 
mon law of the court of exchequer of Scotland ; 
from all such judgments of the courts of queen's 
bench in England or Ireland as were not inter- 



mediately reviewable by the courts of exchequer 
chamber of the two countries ; from all judg- 
ments of the common law or "petty bag" side 
of the high court of chancery ; and from the 
decisions of the commissioners of error appoint- 
ed to review the common law proceedings of 
the London municipal jurisdictions. The act of 
1873 (which as originally enacted was to take 
effect in November, 1874, but in August of that 
year was postponed to November, 1875), crea- 
ting the supreme court of England, takes from 
the house of lords its jurisdiction on writs of 
error and appeals from the several superior 
courts of England, and confers it upon " Her 
Majesty's Court of Appeal" thereby provided 
for. (See COUET.) House of Commons. The 
lowest branch of parliament, the third estate 
in dignity, but in fact the foremost in substan- 
tial power, is the commons ; or, to use the title 
which suggests the composition of this house, 
the knights, citizens, and burgesses. We have 
seen that the first clear intimation of two 
branches of parliament (not then necessarily 
sitting separate, however) is afforded by Mag- 
na Charta. That instrument provides a mode 
of summons according to rank. The greater 
barons were to be individually cited by special 
writs, while the other tenants in capite were 
to be called by general summons. That is to 
say, with regard to the former of these classes 
an individual and absolute right seems to be 
conceded; while with regard to the latter, 
those were considered to be entitled and sum- 
moned whom the general body should select 
as their representatives. Thus these inferior 
landed proprietors, or lesser barons as they 
have been called, ceasing gradually to be re- 
garded as peers, were allowed and sometimes 
directed to be summoned as knights of shires. 
Gradually, too, their privilege diminished, till 
they lost altogether the right of sitting with 
their superiors ; and, merging in the common- 
alty, they came, probably at the close of the 
13th century, to form with the representatives 
of cities and boroughs the lower house. Du- 
ring the reigns of the first three Edwards, the 
power of the commons was materially enlarged 
and firmly established ; and to the time of Ed- 
ward IV. Hallam refers the foundation of the 
principle that the assent of the two houses is 
necessary to every legislative act. But owing 
to the jealousy of the upper house, and to its 
opportunities for defeating the rights of the 
commons, the principle was for a long time 
not carried out. In the reign of Henry VI. it 
first became true in fact, as it had long been in 
the theory of the government, that " the law 
of the land is made in parliament by the king 
and the lords spiritual and temporal and all the 
commonalty of the realm." It is the exclusive 
right of the commons to originate all bill; 
which either directly or by construction impos< 
any burden or charge on the people ; and thes< 
bills include not only those which provide sup 
plies for the general administration of the gov 
ernment, but also all those which contemplat 



PAKLIAMENT 



115 



a tax upon the public for any purpose or in 
any mode. All other bills of whatever nature 
may originate in either house indifferently. 
In practice, each house appropriates to itself 
peculiar cognizance of those matters of which, 
from its experience and constitution, it is the 
most competent judge. For example, bills 
which concern the settlement of peerages be- 
gin naturally with the lords; while bills for 
regulating elections originate as naturally with 
the commons. The commons have not final 
appellate jurisdiction like the lords; yet in 
certain cases they exercise judicial functions, 
and when proceeding in such cases they are 
a court of record, and their journals bear the 
credit of public records. Examples of these 
functions are the consideration of cases of con- 
tested elections and returns, and the hearing 
and punishing of contempts. Acting in con- 
currence with the lords, they exercise higher 
powers of judicature, as in matters of attain- 
der and pardon, and until lately of divorce. 
The house of commons consists at present of 
658 members. Of these England and Wales 
send from counties 187, from the universities 
5, and from the towns 308. Of the Scottish 
members, 30 come from counties and 23 from 
towns. Ireland returns 64 members for coun- 
ties, 39 for towns, and 2 for the university of 
Dublin. Although the ordinary cost of an 
election to parliament is considerable, and im- 
mense sums are sometimes spent in a close 
contest, the members receive no salary. For- 
merly they were paid a prescribed amount by 
their constituencies, the poorer of which some- 
times got excused from electing members to 
avoid the expense. The religious disqualifica- 
tions which formerly excluded some persons 
from parliament were removed, partly by the 
repeal of the test act in 1828, and partly by 
the Catholic emancipation act of 1829. Un- 
til 1858 Jews were shut out from both houses 
by that clause which required the oath to be 
taken " on the true faith of a Christian." This 
disabling clause has not been stricken from the 
formulas of the oaths, but in the year just 
named a statute was passed which permits 
either house to dispense with it at its plea- 
sure in the administration of them. No peer 
of parliament is eligible to the commons ; yet 
any Irish peer, not of the number of the 28 
representatives, may sit in the lower house. 
This rule is not true of the same class of Scot- 
tish peers. No person officially employed 
about duties or taxes created since 1692 (ex- 
cept commissioners of the treasury), no officer 
of excise, customs, stamps, &c., no pensioner 
of the crown, no contractor with govern- 
ment, no judge of the king's bench, common 
pleas, or exchequer, no chancellor or vice 
chancellor (it is otherwise with the master of 
the rolls), and no police justice of London, is 
eligible ; and by statute 6 Anne, c. 27, it is pro- 
vided that no person holding any new office 
under the crown created since 1705 is eligible. 
If any member of the house of commons accept 



any office of profit under the crown while he is 
a member, his seat becomes vacant, but he may 
be again elected. The house of commons has 
given various constructions of this statute, and 
expressly excepted from it a large number of 
offices. The clergy of the church of England 
and Ireland are ineligible. Sheriffs of counties, 
mayors, and bailiffs of boroughs, as returning 
officers, are also incapacitated. Ministers of the 
crown, however, are required to hold seats in 
one house or the other ; and members of the 
lower house, on receiving a cabinet appoint- 
ment, resign their seats and appeal to their 
constituents for reelection, as an indication of 
confidence in the ministry. Until it was re- 
modelled in 1832 by the reform act, the parlia- 
mentary franchise remained as it had been fixed 
by statutes of the time of Henry VI. It had 
been narrowly restricted by these statutes, both 
in the counties and in the boroughs, and the 
necessity of a thorough change had long been 
insisted on. The tory ministry of the duke of 
Wellington in 1830 was brought to an end by 
the determined opposition of the premier to 
any change in the representation and suffrage, 
and was succeeded by a ministry headed by 
Earl Grey, who had been the steady advocate 
of parliamentary reform for 40 years, and who 
then stood at the head of the whig aristocra- 
cy. The first reform bill was introduced into 
the house of commons, March 1, 1831, by Lord 
John Eussell, and was carried on the second 
reading after great debates, by a vote of 302 to 
301. Subsequently the ministers were defeated 
on several questions, and parliament was dis- 
solved, April 22. The new house of commons 
was chosen under great popular excitement, and 
in a full house the ministerial majority was 
about 130. Another reform bill was brought 
forward, and after a discussion of many weeks 
was passed, 345 to 236. The house of lords 
threw out the bill by 41 majority. This caused 
great indignation. Immense popular meetings 
were held, and there were riots at Derby, Not- 
tingham, and Bristol. On Dec. 12 a third re- 
form bill was brought forward, which passed 
to a second reading by 162 majority. The lords 
passed it to a second reading by 9 majority, 
April 14, 1832 ; but on May 7, in committee, 
they defeated the ministry by a majority of 35. 
The court was almost entirely opposed to re- 
form, and the king's mind had been acted on 
by most persons who surrounded him adverse- 
ly to the popular cause. He had been averse 
to the creation of peers, and it was understood 
that the peers should allow the bill to pass. 
This understanding having been departed from, 
the ministry demanded a creation of peers 
from the king. He refused, and they resigned. 
Wellington undertook to form a government, 
but the house of commons set itself in resolute 
opposition to the duke, and advised the king to 
create as many peers as should be necessary to 
carry the bill through the upper house. On 
May 15 the whigs announced their return to 
power, and in June the lords passed the reform 



116 



PARLIAMENT 



bill. Fifty-six boroughs that had returned 111 
members were extinguished ; 30 others lost one 
member each ; and 2 united boroughs that had 
sent 4 members were reduced to 2. As no re- 
duction of the numbers of the lower house was 
made, this left 143 members to be disposed 
of, 65 of whom were given to counties, 22 to 
the metropolitan districts and other boroughs 
with populations of 25,000 and upward, and 
21 to boroughs having 12,000 inhabitants and 
upward. New and great constituencies were 
created in England and Wales. Numerous im- 
provements in elections were provided. In- 
habitancy was made the basis of the borough 
franchise. Under certain regulations occu- 
pants of houses of the yearly value of 10 
became electors. The county franchise was 
extended to copyholders and leaseholders, and 
under some circumstances to occupiers of the 
value of 40s., thus destroying the monopoly of 
the freeholders, who were not allowed to vote 
for both county and borough. It was also ex- 
tended to tenants at will of the annual value 
of 50. In 1867-'8 a new reform bill was car- 
ried through by the conservative ministry of 
Disraeli. Under this, voters may be classed 
as follows: In counties: 1, 40s. freeholders, 
or those owning property in fee of that value 
per annum ; 2, those possessing an estate for 
life or lives of the annual value of 40s., which, 
if not occupied by them, must have been pos- 
sessed before June 7, 1832, or must have been 
acquired by marriage, marriage settlement, or 
devise, or by virtue of some benefice or office ; 
3, those possessing an estate for life or lives of 
the annual value of 5 ; 4, lessees for terms 
not less than 60 years of the annual value of 5, 
or not less than 20 years of the annual value 
of 50; 5, occupiers of lands rated at 12 per 
annum. In boroughs: 1, the rated occupiers 
of dwelling houses within the borough who 
have duly paid their poor rates ; 2, rated occu- 
piers of premises other than dwelling houses 
of the annual value of 10; 3, occupiers of 
lodgings of the annual value of 10 if let un- 
furnished and in one and the same dwelling 
house. Following this reform bill others were 
passed for Scotland and Ireland, enlarging the 
franchise, but not in entire conformity to that 
in England. Voting for members of parlia- 
ment had always been by show of hands or 
viva voce until, after long agitation, the secret 
ballot was adopted under the Gladstone admin- 
istration in 1872. The presiding officer of the 
commons is called the speaker, who is chosen 
by the house from among its own members, 
subject to the approval of the crown, holding 
his office till the dissolution of the parliament 
in which he was elected. His salary is 6,000 
a year, exclusive of a furnished residence. At 
the end of his official labors he is generally re- 
warded with a peerage and a pension. Until 
1853 business could not be transacted in his 
absence; but in August of that year it was 
resolved that, during his unavoidable absence, 
the chairman of committees of the whole 



house should preside in his stead. Forty mem- 
bers must be present to constitute a house, 
excepting when the commons are summoned 
by the sovereign or the royal commissioners 
to attend at the bar of the lords, which per 
se constitutes a house, whether 40 members be 
present or not. According to ancient practice, 
the house always adjourns to 10 o'clock in the 
morning, and should the speaker take the chair 
(40 members being present) at any time be- 
tween that hour and 4 P. M., the appointed 
proceedings may immediately commence ; oth- 
erwise no business can be transacted on that 
day, and the house will consequently adjourn 
to 10 o'clock A. M. on the following day. The 
present general practice is to commence busi- 
ness at 4 P. M., with the exception of Wednes- 
days, when the house sits from 12 to 6. The 
house does not usually sit on Saturday. It was 
an ancient privilege of the house of commons' 
to judge of the qualification and return of its 
own members, and this has never seriously 
been questioned since the quarrel with James 
I. regarding it in 1603. The royal proclama- 
tion for the election of members to the first par- 
liament of that monarch expressly commanded 
that " care be had that there be not chosen any 
persons bankrupts or outlawed;" and when 
Sir Francis Goodwin, who had been outlawed 
in civil proceedings, was chosen by the electors 
of Bucks, the returning officer refused to re- 
turn him, and Sir John Fortescue was sent up 
in his stead. Nevertheless the house seated 
Sir Francis Goodwin, and refused to confer 
with the lords on the subject, or to defer to 
the opinion of the judges that his election was 
void, insisting upon its right to judge solely 
and finally in the premises. A prolonged con- 
troversy took place, ending in a compromise 
under which a new election was had. Under 
recent legislation, however, in the belief that 
the house is an unsuitable body to try contest- 
ed questions of fact, election cases are tried 
before judges assigned for the purpose. II. 
SCOTTISH AND IRISH PARLIAMENTS. Scotland 
while an independent kingdom had a parlia- 
ment, dating, it is supposed, from the 13th 
century, and very similar at first to that of 
England, but never like the English divided 
into two houses. It comprised the high eccle- 
siastics, the great nobles, and the representa- 
tives of the freeholders of the counties and of 
the citizens of the royal burghs, who all sat in 
one hall. The functions of a house of lords 
or higher house were performed in some de- 
gree by a committee called " the lords of the 
articles," consisting latterly of 32 members, 
who did all the work of parliament, the house 
doing scarcely more than to pass the acts pro- 
posed by the committee. The Scottish parlia- 
ment was abolished by the legislative union of 
Scotland with England in 1707. In Ireland a 
parliament was formed by the English settlers 
toward the end of the 13th century, but it was 
not till the reign of James I. that the whole 
island was represented. The Irish parliament, 






PARLIAMENTARY LAW AND PRIVILEGES 



117 



however, was held to be subordinate to that 
of England till 1Y83, when its exclusive au- 
thority in matters of legislation and judicature 
for Ireland was formally admitted. Its brief 
independence and its existence, however, ter- 
minated in 1800 by the union of Ireland with 
Great Britain. III. FEENCH PAELIAMENTS. 
These bodies were supreme courts of law, and 
were established at successive periods in the 
principal cities of the kingdom. The most 
ancient and important was the parliament of 
Paris, the foundation of which is ascribed to 
Louis VII. about the middle of the 12th cen- 
tury. It was at first a court of justice which 
accompanied the king wherever he went, till 
Philip the Fair fixed it at Paris by an ordi- 
nance dated March 23, 1302. The other prin- 
cipal parliaments 'of France were instituted 
in the following order : Toulouse, 1302 ; Gre- 
noble, 1451 ; Bordeaux, 1462 ; Burgundy, 1497 
(established in Dijon, 1494) ; Aix, 1501 ; Rouen, 
1499 and 1515; Rennes, 1553; Pau, 1620; 
Metz, 1633 ; Besancon (at first at D61e), 1676 ; 
Douai (at first at Tournay), 1713. The chief 
officers of these bodies were a first president 
and nine presidents d mortier, as they were 
called from the shape of their caps. The 
parliaments received appeals from the lower 
tribunals, and had jurisdiction over causes re- 
lating to peers, bishops, seneschals, chapters, 
communities, and bailiwicks ; and they regis- 
tered the laws, edicts, and orders promulgated 
by the king. The members of these courts 
were at first appointed by the crown. Francis 
I. introduced the practice of selling seats in 
them, and they continued thenceforth to be 
objects of purchase. The parliament of Paris, 
which was at first merely judicial, gradual- 
ly assumed a considerable degree of political 
power. It frequently refused to register laws 
which it did not approve, and held spirited 
contests with the crown on some occasions. 
But the king had the right to compel it to 
register his decrees by appearing in person in 
the court and giving the order to register, a 
proceeding which, from some of the attendant 
forms, was called holding a bed of justice. 
The parliament of Paris played an important 
part in the troubles of the Fronde at the be- 
ginning of the reign of Louis XIV., and also 
in the latter part of the reign of his successor. 
It was finally suppressed, with all the other 
parliaments of France, by a decree of the con- 
stituent assembly, Sept. 7, 1790. 

PARLIAMENTARY LAW AND PRIVILEGES. In 
the gradual establishment of parliamentary 
government in England the customary meth- 
ods of doing business by the two houses have 
resulted in rules of procedure which constitute 
a common law of parliament, and are recog- 
nized and enforced as obligatory. These rules 
supplement the written laws of parliamentary 
procedure much as the general common law 
of the land supplements the general statutes. 
At the same time certain privileges necessary 
to the proper independence of the legislature 



and to the free and unobstructed discharge of 
legislative duties have also become established, 
which are defined by the same customary law, 
and evidenced by parliamentary precedents. 
Among the most important of these privileges 
is that of each house to judge of the election 
and qualification of its own members. The 
house of commons cannot therefore intermed- 
dle with questions concerning the election or 
qualification of Irish or Scotch peers, neither 
will it permit the house of lords to question 
its own action in the admission or rejection of 
those claiming seats therein. Until the acces- 
sion of the house of Stuart to the throne it was 
not very definitely settled what authority, if 
any, the executive had to prescribe the quali- 
fications of members to the lower house, or to 
judge of the' returns ; but James I. having un- 
dertaken by the writs issued for his first par- 
liament to exclude bankrupts and outlawed 
persons, the house insisted upon its own right 
in the premises as being ample and exclusive, 
and admitted Sir Francis Goodwin, who had 
been outlawed in civil proceedings, and whom 
for that reason the sheriff had refused to re- 
turn. Although the controversy with the king 
that sprung up in consequence was finally de- 
termined by a compromise, the case is regarded 
as having settled the right beyond dispute. 
Another privilege is that of the members to 
exemption from arrest or detention on the pro- 
cess of courts during attendance upon its ses- 
sions, and for a reasonable time before and 
after the session for going to and returning 
from the same. This privilege extends to all 
civil process including subpoenas ad testifican- 
dum, and to all criminal process except on 
charges of treason, felony, or breach of the 
peace. Another privilege is that of complete 
exemption of the members from being ques- 
tioned elsewhere for words uttered in debate 
or as members of committees in the discharge 
of their duties. This, like the last, is the priv- 
ilege not of the individual members alone, 
but of the house itself; and any violation of 
it, whether by means of judicial process or by 
lawless violence, may be punished as a con- 
tempt of the house. Each house has also a 
right to judge of its own privilege, and in 
general its decision must be final, though it is 
quite possible that parliament, like any judi- 
cial tribunal, even the highest, may so clearly 
exceed its jurisdiction that its process may 
be treated as a nullity. Such a case was ad- 
judged to have arisen a few years ago, when 
the house of commons proceeded to punish 
sheriffs as for contempt in executing the pro- 
cess of courts in a suit brought against its 
printer for an alleged libel. The libel was con- 
tained in a report made to the house, and that 
body insisted upon its right to cause its publi- 
cation, and to protect those who should make 
it in obedience to its order. The courts, how- 
ever, denied that the publication of a libel could 
be justified on the order of the house, and dis- 
charged the sheriff from custody ; but an act 



118 



PARLIAMENTARY LAW AND PRIVILEGES 



was at once passed which established the privi- 
lege the house had insisted upon. The Eng- 
lish courts have also held that though a member 
was privileged in his utterances in the house, 
yet if his speech was libellous and he afterward 
published it for general distribution, this pub- 
lication was not privileged. Another privilege 
of each house is to protect itself against any- 
thing calculated to impede or disturb the regu- 
lar course of legislation. Disorder during one 
of the sessions might be such an impediment, 
and so might be the attempt to bribe a mem- 
ber, or to influence his action by threats. So 
also might be the refusal of a witness to give 
evidence before a committee, or the divulging 
by a member of any of the secrets of the house 
in violation of its injunctions, or an attempt to 
influence the action of the house by reporting 
the opinion or pretended opinion of the execu- 
tive on any measure or proceedings pending 
therein. To enumerate all the privileges of 
parliament is something it has never attempt- 
ed for itself. Blackstone says : " Privilege of 
parliament was principally established in order 
to protect its members not only from being 
molested by their fellow subjects, but also more 
especially from being oppressed by the power 
of the crown. If therefore all the privileges 
of parliament were once to be set down and 
ascertained, and no privilege to be allowed but 
what was so defined and determined, it were 
easy for the executive power to devise some 
new case, not within the line of privilege, and 
under pretence thereof to harass any refrac- 
tory member, and violate the freedom of par- 
liament." And these privileges can only be 
preserved intact by ample authority in parlia- 
ment to punish all breaches thereof under its 
own regulations and by the aid of officers sub- 
ject to its own exclusive control. The custom- 
ary law of parliament has been tacitly adopted 
in this country, and its leading rules and princi- 
ples were embodied and illustrated in a manual 
by Mr. Jefferson, prepared by him while pre- 
siding officer of the senate, and which has been 
a standard authority ever since, though in a 
measure superseded by the more elaborate work 
of Mr. L. S. Gushing on the " Law and Prac- 
tice of Legislative Assemblies." So much im- 
portance is attached to legislative privileges in 
this country, and so imperative the necessity 
to protect them against encroachments from 
any quarter, that the leading privileges are 
usually declared by constitution ; but without 
such declaration all customary privileges are 
covered by the constitutional principle which 
recognizes and protects the independence of 
each department of the government within 
the sphere of its proper action. Without ex- 
press adoption, the congressional rules of or- 
der and procedure are understood as in force 
for all deliberative bodies, except as changed 
by their own voluntary action or other com- 
petent legislation. Even political conventions 
and voluntary associations of every nature, 
when acting as organized bodies, are expected 



to recognize and obey the same rules, unless 
provided with a code of their own. Thus in 
an American assembly having no special rules 
for conducting business, the motion to adjourn 
would be undebatable as in congress, notwith- 
standing the English parliamentary law to the 
contrary ; so if the previous question were neg- 
atived, the debate upon the subject would 
continue as in congress, whereas in parliament 
the subject would be immediately dismissed. 
An assembly should be organized by the elec- 
tion of at least two officers: 1, a chairman or 
president, whose duty it is to preside, to an- 
nounce the business in its order, to state and 
put all questions properly brought before the 
assembly, and to preserve order and decorum 
and decide all questions of order (subject to an 
appeal), and who can vote in case of a ballot 
or where his vote would affect the result ; 2, 
a clerk or secretary, whose duty it is to keep 
the record of the proceedings and to have the 
custody of all papers in the possession of the 
assembly. It is a common practice in political 
meetings to organize temporarily, and then 
refer the subject of permanent organization, 
selection of officers, &c., to a committee, upon 
whose report the meeting organizes. It is not 
unusual to elect one or more vice presidents 
and several secretaries. In some legislative 
bodies, as the senate of the United States and 
some of the state senates, the presiding officer 
is not a member; in others, as the national 
house of representatives and the senate of 
Massachusetts, he is chosen by and from among 
the members. A quorum of members is neces- 
sary to the transaction of business. The num- 
ber requisite to a quorum is usually fixed by 
law ; if not, a majority of the members of the 
assembly is essential. Business is brought be- 
fore the assembly either by a communication 
to it or by a motion of a member. In order to 
make a motion, it is necessary for the member 
to rise and address the chairman by his title, 
and for the chairman to recognize him, which 
is usually done by announcing his name; if 
required by the chairman, the motion must be 
in writing. When made it must be seconded 
by another member to entitle it to any notice ; 
when it is seconded, the chairman states the 
question to the assembly, and it is then for- 
mally before the body to be disposed of as they 
see fit. In order to dispose of the question 
properly, various motions have come into use, 
which can be classified as follows : 1. To mod- 
ify. If it is desired to modify the question 
in any way, the proper motion to make is to 
amend either by adding words, by striking out, 
or by striking out certain words and inserting 
others, or by substituting a different motion 
on the same subject, or by dividing the ques- 
tion into two or more questions which the 
mover specifies, so as to get a separate vote on 
any particular point. When this motion to 
amend has been made, seconded, and stated by 
the chairman, it takes the place for the time 
being of the original question, and debate mu 






PARLIAMENTARY LAW AND PRIVILEGES 



119 



be confined to its merits. This amendment 
can itself be amended, but the amendment of 
an amendment cannot be amended. If the 
original question needs more amendment than 
can well be made in the assembly, it is then 
moved to refer it to a committee, and this mo- 
tion can be made even while an amendment is 
pending. 2. To defer action. When it is de- 
sired to defer action upon the question till a 
particular time, a motion is made to postpone 
the question to that time ; it can be made when 
either of the previous motions is pending, and 
can be amended by altering the time. A mo- 
tion that a question lie on the table is used 
when it is desired to lay the question aside 
temporarily and at the same time retain the 
privilege of taking it up at any moment. This 
motion is frequently used to destroy or " kill " 
a measure when it is known that a sufficient 
vote cannot be obtained to take it up during 
that session. It can be made when any of the 
previous motions are pending. 3. To suppress 
debate. The usual method of stopping debate 
is for a friend of the measure to call for the 
previous question, which if ordered brings the 
assembly at once to a vote on the questions be- 
fore it, in their order, until the main question 
is finally disposed of. If any one of the fol- 
lowing motions is pending, the previous ques- 
tion is exhausted by the vote on it, and does 
not cut off debate on any other motion that 
may be pending, viz. : to postpone to a certain 
time, to postpone indefinitely, to reconsider, 
and an appeal. The chairman states this ques- 
tion as follows: "Shall the main question be 
now put?" If it fails, the debate continues. 
Other methods of stopping debate are to adopt 
motions limiting the time allowed each speaker 
or the number of speeches on each side, or to 
appoint a time at which debate must cease and 
the question be put. In ordinary societies, 
where harmony is important, a two-thirds vote 
is usually required for the adoption of any of 
the above motions to cut off debate. 4. To 
suppress the question. As soon as a motion 
is introduced, before it has been debated, and 
only then, any member can object to the con- 
sideration of the question; this requiring no 
second, the chairman instantly puts the ques- 
tion, "Will the assembly consider it?" or, 
4 Shall the question be discussed ? " and if nega- 
tived the question is dismissed for the session. 
In ordinary meetings whose sessions are short, 
and where but few subjects can be considered, 
this motion is necessary to suppress irrele- 
vant, useless, or contentious questions. But it 
should require a two-thirds vote to suppress a 
question without debate. In congress the ques- 
tion is put as follows: "Will the house now 
consider it ? " and a negative vote dismisses the 
question for the time. The motion to postpone 
indefinitely is the usual one to suppress a ques- 
tion for the whole session, and the only one 
available after the question has been debated. 
It cannot be made while any motion is pending 
except the original or main question, and yields 



to all other motions mentioned except to amend. 
A motion to lay on the table is often used for 
this purpose, and, if there is no possibility of 
obtaining during the session a sufficient vote 
to take it from the table, it is the preferable 
one because of its high rank and its being un- 
debatable. 5. To consider a question a second 
time. When a question has been once adopted, 
rejected, or suppressed, it cannot be again con- 
sidered in the same session except by a motion 
to reconsider; and this motion can only be 
made by one who voted on the prevailing side 
and on the day the vote was taken which it is 
proposed to reconsider. In congress it can be 
made on the next day, and if the yeas and nays 
were not taken on the vote it can be made by 
any one. It can be made and entered on the 
record in the midst of debate, even when an- 
other member has the floor ; but it cannot be 
considered until there is no question before the 
assembly, when, if called up, it takes prece- 
dence of every motion except to adjourn and 
to fix the time to which to adjourn. The rule 
prohibiting the renewal of a motion does not 
apply to the motion to adjourn, which can be 
renewed if there has been mere progress in de- 
bate. The subsidiary motions already described 
can be again introduced if the question has 
changed in either matter or form. 6. Order 
and rules. If the assembly has directed that 
certain questions shall be considered at a cer- 
tain time, when that time arrives any member 
can call for the order of the day ; and as it re- 
quires no second, the chairman must at once 
put the question whether the assembly will now 
take up the order of the day ; if it is carried, 
the subject under consideration is laid aside, 
and the questions appointed for that time are 
taken up in their order. But where there is a 
rule adopted, it must be enforced by the chair- 
man without any question, and a motion to 
suspend the rules for a particular purpose must 
be adopted by a two-thirds vote in order to al- 
low that particular thing to be done if it con- 
flicts with the rules. It is the duty of the chair- 
man to announce the business in its order, to 
enforce the rules, and preserve order ; and when 
any member notices a violation of order, he can 
call for the enforcement of the rules. While 
in all such cases the chairman first decides the 
question, any member can appeal from his de- 
cision ; and if the appeal is seconded, the chair- 
man states the question thus : " Shall the de- 
cision of the chair stand as the judgment of 
the assembly?" The chairman can speak to 
the question without leaving the chair, which is 
prohibited in all other cases. 7. Miscellaneous. 
If a speaker wishes to read a paper, or a mem- 
ber to withdraw his motion after it has been 
stated by the chair, it is necessary, if any one 
objects, to make a motion to grant permission. 
8. To close the meeting. If it is desired to 
have an adjourned meeting of the assembly, it 
is best some time before its close to move to fix 
the time to which the assembly shall adjourn. 
The question is of this form : " That when this 



120 PARLIAMENTARY LAW 



PARMA 



assembly adjourns, it adjourn to meet," &c., 
specifying the time. A motion to amend by 
altering the time can be made. This motion 
takes precedence of all others. When it is 
desired to close the meeting, a member moves 
to adjourn, which, if unqualified, takes prece- 
dence of every motion but the preceding one. 
Debate must be confined to the question be- 
fore the assembly, the remarks being always 
addressed to the chairman and personalities 
avoided. The following motions are undeba- 
table, and excepting the first one they, togeth- 
er with the motion to postpone indefinitely, 
cannot be amended : to fix the time to which 
to adjourn ; to adjourn, when unqualified ; 
a call for the order of the day ; questions re- 
lating to the priority of business, or withdraw- 
ing a motion, or reading papers, or suspending 
the rules ; an appeal, if it relates merely to in- 
decorum or transgressions of the rules of speak- 
ing, or if made while the previous question is 
pending; an objection to the consideration of 
a question ; to lay on the table, and to take 
from the table ; the previous question ; and to 
reconsider a question which is itself undeba- 
table. All other questions are debatable, but 
debate is very limited on the motion to post- 
pone to a certain time, being confined to the 
propriety of the postponement ; while on the 
other hand the motions to commit, to postpone 
indefinitely, and to reconsider a debatable ques- 
tion, open for discussion the entire merits of 
the original question. In regard to precedence, 
the ordinary motions rank as follows, and any 
motion, except to amend, can be made while 
one of a lower order is pending, but none can 
supersede one of a higher order: to fix the 
time to which to adjourn ; to adjourn, when 
unqualified; a call for the order of the day; 
to lay on the table ; the previous question ; to 
postpone to a certain time ; to commit, amend, 
or postpone indefinitely. The privilege of a 
reconsideration has been explained under that 
motion. The other motions are incidental to 
any question, and take precedence of and must 
be decided before the questions which gave rise 
to them. In order to facilitate business, it is 
customary in all deliberative assemblies to form 
committees, whose duty it is to consider and 
report upon the subjects referred to them. The 
members are usually appointed by the presiding 
officer, but are sometimes elected by the as- 
sembly. Sometimes the assembly resolves it- 
self into a committee of the whole for the con- 
sideration of a particular subject. In this case 
the chairman is usually named by the presiding 
officer of the assembly, but he may be chosen 
by the committee. In the ordinary course of 
legislation in congress, a bill is introduced into 
the house of representatives or senate, on the 
report of a committee, or on motion for leave 
by a member after having given at least one 
day's notice. It must then be read three times 
on as many different days, unless it is other- 
wise specially ordered. Usually, however, the 
second reading immediately follows the first, 



it being taken for granted that it is by special 
order. After the second reading the merits of 
the bill are usually discussed, and it is deter- 
mined whether it shall be referred to a com- 
mittee, amended, or engrossed. If ordered to 
be engrossed, a day is appointed for the third 
reading. Having been read a third time, the 
question is whether the bill shall be passed. 
The second and third readings are commonly 
effected by simply reading the title. If the bill 
pass, it is certified by the clerk and sent to the 
other house. Having been passed by that body, 
it is enrolled on parchment, examined by a 
joint committee of two from each house, sign- 
ed by the speaker of the house and the presi- 
dent of the senate, presented to the president 
of the United States, and upon receiving his 
signature becomes a law. If it is vetoed, it is 
returned to that house in which it originated, 
and by receiving a two-thirds vote of each 
house will become a law without the executive 
approval. If not returned by the president 
within ten days (Sundays excepted) after pre- 
sentation to him, it becomes a law, unless con- 
gress by adjournment prevent its return. The 
procedure in regard to the progress of a bill is 
generally the same in the state legislatures. 
See Oushing's "Manual" (1847); "Digest of 
Rules and Practice of the House of Represen- 
tatives of the United States," by I. M. Barclay 
(1868); "Digest of Parliamentary Law," by 
O. M. Wilson (1869) ; " The Pocket Manual of 
Rules of Order for Deliberative Assemblies," 
by H. M. Robert (1875); and " Warrington's 
Manual," by W. S. Robinson (Boston, 1875). 

PARMA. I. A N. province of Italy, in the 
Emilia, separated N. by the Po from Cre- 
mona, E. by the Enza from Reggio, S. by the 
Apennines from Massa e Carrara and Genoa, 
and bounded N". W. by Piacenza; area, 1,251 
sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 264,381. More than 
half the province is covered by ridges of the 
Apennines, some of the mountains being over 
6,000 ft. high; one fifth of the territory is 
hilly, and the rest consists of fertile plains. 
The principal rivers are the Po and its afflu- 
ents the Taro and Enza. The agricultural 
products, though considerable, are not quite 
sufficient for the population. The most abun- 
dant productions are wine, oil, fruits, rice, 
timber, marble, alabaster, copper, and salt. 
The principal manufacture is of silk. Dairy 
products, particularly the celebrated Parmesan 
cheese, are largely exported. The province 
comprises the districts of Parma, Borgo San- 
donino, and Borgotaro. Under the Romans, 
who subdued this territory in 184 B. C., it 
formed part of Cisalpine Gaul. After the fall 
of the western empire it was held succes- 
sively by the Ostrogoths, the Longobards, and 
by Charlemagne, who ceded it to the pope. 
It became independent during the wars be- 
tween the holy see and the German emperors, 
and afterward passed under the dominion of 
local dynasties, until in 1346 it fell into the 
hands of the Visconti of Milan. In 1511 the 






PARMA 

congress of Mantua restored it to Pope Julius 
II. After being for a while occupied by the 
French under Francis I., it was in 1545 be- 
stowed by Pope Paul III. upon his natural son 
Pietro Luigi Farnese, whose successors held 
the duchies of Parma and Piacenza till 1731, 
when the male line became extinct. Eliza- 
beth Farnese, the wife of Philip V. of Spain, 
now obtained the duchies as a fief for her son 
Don Carlos ; but when he became king of the 
Two Sicilies they were annexed to Austria. 
The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) gave the 
duchies, along with Guastalla, to Don Philip, 
brother of Don Carlos. Philip was succeeded in 
1765 by his son Ferdinand, who was permitted 
to retain the territories even after the French 
invasion and until 1801, when the treaty of 
Lune" ville gave to his son Louis the grand duchy 
of Tuscany and the title of king of Etruria, 
instead of his father's duchies. On Ferdi- 
nand's death in 1802, France incorporated them 
under the name of the department of the Taro, 
although the formal annexation of Parma and 
Piacenza was not effected till July, 1805, and 
in 1806 Guastalla was annexed to the French 
kingdom of Italy. The three duchies were be- 
stowed in 1814 upon the ex-empress of France 
Maria Louisa. To meet the objections of Spain 
a separate treaty (June, 1817) vested the suc- 
cession to the ducnies on Maria Louisa's death 
in the descendants of the infanta of Spain (the 
queen of Etruria), who in the interval became 
ruler of Lucca ; but after the extinction of the 
house of Lucca the duchy of Piacenza was to 
revert to Sardinia and Parma to Austria, which 
latter power was in the mean time authorized 
to retain all the territory on the left bank of the 
Po and to garrison the fortress of Piacenza. 
Maria Louisa left Parma in consequence of the 
revolutionary movements in 1846, and after 
her death in December, 1847, Duke Charles of 
Lucca reigned in Parma and Piacenza till the 
revolution of 1848, when the country was for 
a short time occupied by Sardinian troops. 
The defeat of Charles Albert soon restored 
the duke, who resigned in favor of his son 
Charles III. in 1849. The latter was assassi- 
nated in March, 1854, and his minor son Rob- 
ert succeeded him under the regency of his 
mother, a sister of the count de Chambord, 
whose administration was not unpopular. The 
victories of the allied French and Sardinians 
in 1859 put an end to the rule of the house of 
Lucca. Parma and Piacenza became part in 
1860 of the kingdom of Sardinia, and in 1861 
of that of Italy, forming now two distinct prov- 
inces. (See FAENESE.) II. A city, capital of 
the province, 12 m. S. of the Po and 70 m. S. 
E. of Milan ; pop. in 1872, 45,511. The river 
Parma passes through the city, and is crossed 
by three bridges. Parma is divided into two 
almost equal parts by the Via ^Emilia. The 
most celebrated building is the Farnese palace, 
containing a large theatre and the academy 
of sciences, valuable collections, and a library 
with 140,000 volumes. In a hall of the li- 



PARMENIO 



121 



brary is one of Correggio's frescoes. The pal- 
ace contains also a museum of antiquities and 
the public printing establishment, where more 
than 50,000 of Bodoni's models of types are 
preserved. There are three other notable pal- 
aces in the city. The cathedral is an impo- 
sing edifice in the Lombard style, with Cor- 
reggio's " Assumption of the Virgin " and oth- 
er fine works. The church of Madonna della 
Steccata is built after the model of St. Peter's, 
and contains "Moses" and other paintings by 
Parmigiano, and tombs of the Farnese family. 
San Giovanni Evangelista has also good works 
of art. The baptistery, built between 1196 and 
1281, is one of the most splendid in Italy; it is 
built entirely of red and gray Veronese marble, 
is encircled with four tiers of open galleries 
outside, and has a painted dome. The university 
contains an observatory and cabinet of natural 
history. It was attended in 1875 by upward of 
300 students. A superior school of engraving 
was established in 1860. In the S. E. part of 
the city are the citadel and the botanic gar- 
dens. Parma is a city of palaces and beautiful 
gardens, but singularly lifeless except during 
the annual fair in June for the sale of silk, 
the principal article of trade. The construc- 
tion of the Via ^Emilia gave to Parma some 
importance under the Romans, but it was de- 
vastated by Mark Antony in 43 B. C. A set- 
tlement of Goths was formed here by Gratian 
in A. D. 377. During the middle ages it rose 
to importance among the capitals of Italy, and 
it was exceedingly brilliant under some of the 
princes of the house of Farnese. Petrarch re- 
sided here in 1341-'2, and Amadio Ronchini 
published on occasion of the celebration of the 
poet's anniversary in 1874 La dimora del Pe- 
trarca in Parma (Modena, 1874). 

PARMA, Alessandro Farnese, duke of. See 
FAENESE. 

PARMEGIANO. See PABMIGIANO. 

PARMENFDES, a Grecian philosopher, born 
in Elea in Italy about 513 B. C. He was the 
instructor of Empedocles and Zeno. He went 
to Athens at the age of 65, and Plato called 
him "the great," and Aristotle deemed him 
the chief of the Eleatics. His philosophical 
opinions (see ELEATIO SCHOOL) are embodied 
in a hexameter poem " On Nature," fragments 
of which have been published by Fillleborn 
(Zurich, 1795), by Peyron (Leipsic, 1810), and 
by Karsten in Philosophorum Grcecorum Vete- 
rum BeliquicB (Brussels, 1835). 

PARMMIO, a Macedonian general, born about 
400 B. C., killed in 330. He was the favorite 
of Philip of Macedon. He defeated the Illy- 
rians in 356, upheld the Macedonian influence 
in Euboea in 342, and in 336 was sent with 
an army into Asia. When Alexander invaded 
Asia, he was made second in command, and 
led the left wing in the battles of the Granicus, 
Issus, and Arbela. While the king was pur- 
suing Darius in Parthia and Hyrcania, he com- 
pleted the subjugation of Media ; but in the 
mean time his son Philotas was accused of con- 



122 



PARMIGIANO 



PAROPAMISAN MOUNTAINS 



spiring against Alexander's life, and when put 
to the torture implicated his father. Alexan- 
der caused the veteran to be assassinated. 

PARMIGIANO, or Parmigianino, an Italian paint- 
er, whose real name was Francesco Mazzuola, 
or Mazzola, born in Parma in 1503 or 1504, 
died in Casal Maggiore, Aug. 24, 1540. In his 
16th year he produced a picture of the " Bap- 
tism of Christ." His first works were in the 
style of Oorreggio. In his 20th year he went 
to Rome, where Clement VII., Cardinal Ip- 
polito de' Medici, and others employed him, 
and in 1527 he painted his "Vision of St. 
Jerome," now in the British national gallery. 
In the same year, after the sack of Rome by 
the constable de Bourbon, he took refuge in 
Bologna, where his best works were produced. 
Among these were the Madonna delta, rosa, 
in the Dresden gallery ; the Madonna del collo 
lungo, in the Pitti palace ; and the famous al- 
tarpiece, now in the gallery at Bologna, called 
the Santa MargJierita. In 1531 Parmigiano 
returned to his native city, and was commis- 
sioned to execute a series of frescoes in the 
church of Santa Maria della Steccata, which 
after a delay of several years he began but 
never finished. Among the figures completed 
is a celebrated one of Moses breaking the tables 
of the law. For his failure to execute these 
frescoes, for which he had received a sum in 
advance, he was thrown into prison, but he 
escaped into the neighboring territory of Cre- 
mona, where he died. 

PARNASSUS, in ancient geography, a moun- 
tain range of central Greece, which com- 
menced near (Eta and Corax, and, traversing 
Doris and Phocis in a S. E. direction, termi- 
nated at the Corinthian gulf. In a more re- 
stricted sense the name is applied only to the 
highest part of the range, which lies a few 
miles N. of Delphi in Phocis, and culminates 
in Mt. Lycorea (now Liakura, 8,068 ft. high). 
Its sides are well wooded and abound in cav- 
erns and picturesque ravines. Snow lies on 
the summit the greater part of the year. 
Apollo and the Muses were said to make this 
mountain their favorite haunt, and the latter 
held here their assemblies. The Castalian 
spring, in which the Pythia used to bathe, 
sprang from a cleft in the rocks between two 
of the summits. The Corycian cave, sacred to 
Pan and the Muses, was on Mt. Lycorea. Par- 
nassus was also sacred to Bacchus, and the thea- 
tre of the Bacchanalian revels of the Thyades. 

PARNELL, Sir Henry Brooke. See CONGLETON. 

PARNELL, Thomas, an Irish poet, born in 
Dublin in 1679, died in Chester in July, 1717. 
He was educated in the college of Dublin, 
took holy orders in 1700, and was created 
archdeacon of Clogher in 1705. He spent most 
of his time in England. With Pope, Swift, 
Arbuthnot, and Gay he was united in the clo- 
sest friendship, and was a member of the fa- 
mous Scriblerus club. He assisted Pope in his 
translation of Homer, and wrote the life of 
Homer prefixed to the Iliad. His only other 



considerable prose composition was a satire on 
Dennis and Theobald, under the title of " A 
Life of Zoilus." Archbishop King gave him a 
prebend in 1713, and in May, 1716, presented 
him to the vicarage of Finglass, in the diocese 
of Dublin. A selection from his poems was 
published by Pope in 1722, and a supplemen- 
tary volume, the authenticity of which is ques- 
tioned, appeared in 1758. The "Allegory on 
Man," " The Hermit," " A Fairy Tale, in the 
ancient English Style," "Hesiod, or the Rise 
of Women," and a translation of Homer's 
" Battle of the Frogs and Mice," are among 
his happiest productions. His life was writ- 
ten by Goldsmith. 

PARM, Evariste Desire Desforges, chevalier de, 
a French poet, born in St. Paul, island of 
Bourbon, Feb. 6, 1753, died near Paris, Dec. 
5, 1814. He went to France to study for the 
church, but became a soldier. In 1773, return- 
ing to his native island, he fell in love with 
Esther de Baif , whom he celebrated under the 
name of Eleonore. His father opposing the 
marriage, he went to Paris and devoted him- 
self to literature. In 17T7 he published his 
Voyage ^en Bourgogne, and a semi-satirical 
poem, Epitre aux insurgents de Boston. This 
was followed in 1778 by his first collection 
of erotic poems. In 1785 he went to India 
as aide-de-camp to M. de Souillac, governor 
general of the French possessions. Return- 
ing with despatches, he retired to Feuillan- 
court, near Paris, where he wrote Les fleur*, 
Lajournee champetre, Les dome tableaux, and 
other poems. In 1795 he was appointed to 
a subordinate office in the department of pub- 
lic instruction, and for one year held the post 
of administrator of the theatre des arts. His 
later poems were remarkable for their wit and 
obscenity. He was admitted to the French 
academy in 1803. Frangais de Nantes gave 
him an office in the administration of the 
droits reunis, and Napoleon bestowed upon 
him a pension of 3,000 francs. His complete 
works were published in Paris (5 vols. 18mo, 
1808) and Brussels (2 vols. 8vo, 1826) ; selec- 
tions, with notice of his life and writings by 
Tissot (Paris, 1826) ; and Elegies et poesies di- 
verses, with preface by Sainte-Beuve (1862). 

PAROL (Norman Fr., a spoken word), as an 
adjective, in law, by word of mouth, not writ- 
ten. (See CONTRACT, EVIDENCE, and FEAUDS, 
STATUTE OF.) 

PAROPAMISAN MAINTAINS, or Paropamisns, a 
name formerly generally applied to a western 
portion of the Hindoo Koosh range in central 
Asia. (See HINDOO KOOSH.) It is of very an- 
cient origin, having been used before the time 
of Alexander; but its application in ancient 
works is very indefinite, and there is a consid- 
erable difference of opinion among modern 
geographers as to what part of the western 
Hindoo Koosh it properly designated. On the 
best maps it appears as the name of the range 
along the N. boundary of Cabool, the N. E. 
district of Afghanistan, and extending from 



PAROQUET 



123 



the pass of Khawak on the east to the peak 
of Koh-i-baba on the west ; and it is also ap- 
plied to the more northerly of the two branch- 
es into which the main range divides still fur- 
ther westward. Many of the best classicists 
believe the name to have been used for the 
whole chain now known as the Hindoo Koosh, 
and some receive it as the designation of all 
the mountain group between the Caucasus 
and the Himalaya. 

PAROQUET, or Parrakeet, the common name 
of many old-world parrots of the subfamily 
pezoporincB. They all have a moderate bill, 




Crested Paroquet (Nymphicus Novae Hoflandte). 
a. Head, with crest erect. &. Tail spread. 

the tail long, broad, and more or less gradua- 
ted, with the ends of the feathers narrowed, 
the tarsi generally high and slender, and the 
claws nearly straight, enabling them to walk 
upon the ground more easily than the other 
subfamilies. In the Australian genus nym- 
pJiicus (Wagl.) the bill is strongly dentated, 
the wings and tail very long, the two middle 
feathers of the latter prolonged and pointed, 
and the tarsi stout. The crested paroquet (N. 
Nova Hollandia, Wagl.) is of an elegant form 
and grayish color, with the sides and top of 
the head bright yellow, a reddish orange spot 
below the eye, and a handsome yellow crest 
like that of the lapwing ; they are migratory, at 
times collecting in large flocks, and much upon 
the ground picking up seeds and grains ; they 
breed in holes in gum trees (eucalypti) in the 
neighborhood of water, depositing five or six 
eggs. The broad-tailed paroquets (platycer- 
cus, Vig.) of Australia, New Zealand, and New 
Guinea, are very elegant, graceful, and lively, 
with diminished powers of flight and climbing 
and more activity upon the ground; the bill 
is short and curved, with obtuse tip and sides 
very slightly if at all dentated ; the wings mod- 
erate, and the tail broad and long. They are 
usually seen in flocks upon the ground, and 
sometimes do much damage both to the newly 



sown and ripening maize and wheat. The 
nonpareil paroquet (P. eximius^ Shaw) is one 
of the handsomest of the family, having the 
head, neck, and breast scarlet, wings mazarine 
blue, throat and abdomen yellowish white, back 
undulated with blackish and yellowish green, 
and tail blue. More than 30 other species of 
this genus are described. The ground paroquet 
(pezoporus, Illig.) is the most terrestrial of the 
family, as evinced by the greater elongation of 
the tarsi and toes, the straighter claws, and 
the less depressed and more pointed tail. The 
P. formosus (Illig.) inhabits the bushy districts 
of Australia ; it is about a foot long, of a live- 
ly green color, varied and barred with black 
and yellow ; it lives entirely upon the ground, 
where it runs with great speed. Among the 
handsomest of the subfamily are the ringed 
paroquets (palceornis, Vig.), which have a short 
rounded bill, sharp-pointed, and the tail long 
and graduated, the two middle feathers long- 
est ; they are remarkable for the elegance of 
their form, their docility, and powers of imita- 
tion ; most of the species are found in India 
and its archipelago, and may be known by the 
collar-like ring around the neck. The Alex- 
andrine paroquet (P. Alexandri, Vig.) was so 
named from the supposition that it was the 
one brought to Europe by Alexander the Great ; 
it is about 15 in. long, green above, paler or 




Alexandrine Paroquet (Palseornis Alexandri). 

yellower below ; across each shoulder is a pur- 
plish red patch ; a black band from the low- 
er mandible descends and passes backward so 
as almost to encircle the neck, growing nar- 
rowest behind, where there is a red collar be- 
coming narrowest in front; the bill reddish. 
This bird was well known to the Greeks and 
Romans, who kept it in highly ornamented 
cages ; it is mentioned by Aristotle and Pliny, 
and Ovid has described it in one of his most 
beautiful elegies (on the death of Corinna's 
parrot). There are about a dozen other spe- 
cies in India, associating in flocks, and ofter 



124: 



PAROS 



PARK 



doing mischief to the crops ; they are all do- 
cile, imitative, and handsome. The grass paro- 
quets (melopaittacua, Gould) of Australia are 
remarkable not only for the beauty of their 
plumage but for their pleasing song ; the bill is 
very short and high, the tail graduated and cu- 
neiform, the tarsi long, and the toes slender. 
They pass most of their time on the ground, 
migrating with rapid flight from place to place 
in large flocks in search of grass and other 
seeds ; during the heat of the day they remain 
concealed in lofty trees ; they are often kept 
in cages, where their beauty, song, and gentle 
and loving habits make them pleasing pets. 
In the allied genus nanodes (Vig. and Horsf.) 
or euphema (Wagl.), also Australian, are about 
half a dozen elegant little grass paroquets, 
with habits like those of the preceding genus. 
The genus trichoglossus (Vig. and Horsf.), 
which seems to connect this subfamily with 
the lories, hence called "lorikeets," takes the 
place in Australia of the Indian lories, and con- 
tains some of the most beautiful of the parrot 
family; the prevailing color of the plumage 
is green, varied with scarlet, blue, and yel- 
low; the tail is elongated and graduated, and 
the wings are narrow and pointed ; the bill is 
slender and weak, but arched and hooked ; the 
tarsi short and robust, and the strong and broad 
toes armed with sharp claws ; t;he generic name 
is derived from the structure of the tongue, 
which has near the tip a pencil or brush of 
hair-like bristles, especially adapted for pro- 
curing the nectar of flowers, which forms their 
principal food; they also suck the juices of 
soft fruits, but do not attempt the hard seeds 
of which most parrots are fond. The blue- 
bellied paroquet (T. multicolor, Vig. and Horsf.) 
is about 13 in. long, of which the tail is 6 ; the 
head and throat are bluish purple, with a nuchal 
collar of bright green; breast vermilion red, 
passing on the sides into rich yellow ; abdomen 
deep purple in the middle, vermilion tipped 
with green on the sides; under tail coverts 
red, yellow, and green, and under wing coverts 
red ; upper parts grass-green, varied with ver- 
milion and yellow on the back of the neck ; 
tail green in the middle, with more or less yel- 
low on the sides. They live in large flocks, 
moving from place to place in search of the 
newly expanded flowers of the gum trees ; they 
are sometimes caged, but do not live long in 
confinement from the difficulty of supplying 
them with proper food. 

PAROS, or Paro, an island of Greece, in the 
Archipelago, one of the Cyclades, separated 
from Naxos or Naxia on the east by a strait 5 
m. wide ; length N. E. and S. W. 14 m., greatest 
breadth 11 m.; area, 80 sq. m.; pop. about 
6,000. Its highest point, Mount St. Elias, is 
2,530 ft. above the sea. There are several har- 
bors, Parikia on the west, St. Maria, Marmora, 
and Trio on the east, and Naussa on the north, 
the best in the Archipelago. There are also sev- 
eral villages, of which the principal is Parikia, 
on the site of the ancient Paros. The country, 



though hilly, is fertile, and produces principally 
olives and cotton, and also corn, wine, fruit, 
and legumes. In former times it was cele- 
brated for its marble, which was remarkably 
white and durable, and was considered second 
only to that 6f Pentelicus. The principal quar- 
ries were in Mount Marpessa. Paros, accord- 
ing to tradition, was first inhabited by Cretans 
and Arcadians, and obtained its name from 
Parus, a son of the Arcadian Parrhasius. It 
was early colonized by the lonians, and by 
means of its maritime trade became so pros- 
perous that it colonized Thasos, Parium on the 
Propontis, and Pharus on the Illyrian coast. 
Having submitted to the Persians after the 
battle of Marathon (490 B. C.), it was enabled 
to defy Miltiades, and after the sea fight off Sa- 
lamis (480) secured its safety by paying a fine 
to Themistocles. Subsequently it fell into the 
power of Athens, along with the other islands 
of the ./Egean. In the 13th century it became 
subject to Venice, constituting for a time a 
portion of the dukedom of Naxos ; but subse- 
quently it came into the possession of the Vene- 
tian family of Venier, and in the 16th century 
was taken by the pirate Barbarossa. Toward 
the close of the 18th it became a naval station 
for the Russian fleet, and it now belongs to 
the Greek nomarchy of the Cyclades. 

PAROTID GLAND. See SALIVAEY GLANDS. 

PARR, Catharine. See CATHABINE PAKE. 

PARR, Samuel, an English author, born at 
Harrow-on-the-Hill, Jan. 15, 1747, died March 
6, 1825. He entered the university of Cam- 
bridge in 1765, but the death of his father 
obliged him to accept in 1767 the post of first 
assistant master of Harrow school, and he re- 
mained there five years, when he opened a 
private school at Stanmore. In 1777 he be- 
came master of the school at Colchester, and 
was ordained priest, receiving the curacies of 
Hythe and Trinity church. In the following 
year he was appointed master of Norwich 
school. His first noteworthy publication was 
his "Discourse on Education, and' on the Plans 
pursued in Charity Schools " (1785). In 1786 
he removed to Hatton in Warwickshire, where 
he held a perpetual curacy, and here he passed 
the remainder of his life, engaged in literary 
pursuits, the care of his parish, and the instruc- 
tion of children. He was arrogant and quar- 
relsome, and an ardent whig at a time when 
whiggism was very unpopular with the ruling 
classes. He is said to have surpassed in con- 
versational powers all his contemporaries ex- 
cept Dr. Johnson. In 1787 he published an 
edition of Bellendenus de Statu, with a cele j 
brated political preface in Ciceronian Latin. 
His other writings comprise a controversy with 
Dr. White, whom he accused of plagiarism in 
his " Bampton Lectures " (1790) ; papers con- 
nected with the Birmingham riots of 1791 ; a 
controversy with Dr. Charles Combe in 1795 ; 
one with Godwin and others occasioned by 
Parr's Spital sermon in 1800; and "Charac- 
ters of the late Charles James Fox" (1809). 



PARR 



PARROT 



125 



An edition of his works, with a memoir and 
selections from his correspondence, was pub- 
lished by John Johnstone, D. D. (8 vols., Lon- 
don, 1828). 

PARR; Thomas, commonly known as Old Parr, 
an English centenarian, born at Winnington, 
Shropshire, in 1483, died in London, Nov. 15, 
1635. He was the son of poor parents, and 
after his father's decease continued his occupa- 
tion of husbandry. It is related in his biog- 
raphy that he was first married at the age of 
80, and begot two children ; and after the death 
of his wife, he married again when about 120 
years old. According to a current story, he 
was engaged in a love intrigue when about 105 
years old, and was compelled to do penance 
for the crime by standing in a sheet in Alder- 
bury church. When a little over 152 years 
old, he was taken to London by Thomas earl 
of Arundel, but soon died, and was buried in 
Westminster abbey. The common traditions 
with regard to him, which have been called in 
question by recent writers, are derived from a 
pamphlet published in 1635 by John Taylor, 
under the title of " The Olde, Olde, Very Olde 
Man ; or, the Age and Long Life of Thomas 
Parr, the Sonne of John Parr, of Winning- 
ton, in the Parish of Alderbury, in the Coun- 
ty of Salopp, who was born in the reign of 
King Edward the IVth, and is now living in 
the Strand, being aged 152 years and odd 
monthes. His manner of life and conversa- 
tion in so long a pilgrimage; his marriages, 
aiid his bringing up to London about the end 
of September last, 1635." 

PARRHASIUS, a Greek painter, born in Ephe- 
sus, nourished about 400 B. C. He was the 
son and pupil of Evenor, and, although be- 
longing to the Ionian school of art, passed the 
greater part of his life in Athens. He estab- 
lished certain canons of proportion for the 
human figure which were adopted by succeed- 
ing artists ; and Pliny says : " He first gave to 
painting true proportion, the minute details of 
the countenance, the elegance of the hair, the 
beauty of the face, and by the confession of 
the artists themselves obtained the palm in 
his drawing of the extremities." In epigrams 
inscribed on his own productions he called 
himself 'AfipodiaiToc, the elegant, claiming a di- 
vine descent, and announcing that in his works 
the art of painting had reached its highest 
excellence. His most celebrated work was 
an allegorical representation of the Athenian 

eople, in which every quality, good or bad, 
iscribed to the Athenians, found its expression. 
Among other famous works by him were a 
Theseus, "Ulysses feigning Insanity," a Mele- 
Hercules, &c. He also painted pictures 

>f a gross and licentious character, two of 

'hich, the " Archigallus " and the "Meleager 
1 Atalanta," were so highly prized by the 

emperor Tiberius that he caused them to be 
j in his own chamber. The story told 
Seneca, that Parrhasius, when painting a 

'Prometheus Chained," put anOlynthian cap- 



tive to the torture to obtain the proper ex- 
pression of bodily suffering, is unfounded. 

PARROT, the general name of the psittacidce, 
a family of scansorial birds, remarkable for 
the elegance of their form, the brilliancy of 
their plumage, and their docility and power of 
imitating the human voice. They have a large 
strong bill, much arched, with acute tip, and 
the lower mandible notched at the end; the 
upper mandible is movably articulated to the 
frontal bones, enabling them to seize larger 
objects than other birds of their size; the 
tongue is thick and fleshy, the wings and tail 
generally long, tarsi short and robust, and the 
strong toes directed two before and two behind, 
the former united at the base by a narrow mem- 
brane. These are the typical climbers, but are 
slow and generally awkward on the ground ; 
they use both bill and claws in climbing, and 
while feeding use one foot to hold their food ; 
though rather sedentary, most of them are 
good fliers ; the neck is short, and has usually 
12 vertebras ; the sternum is long and narrow, 
with generally an oval aperture on its infe- 
rior margin on each side ; the structure of the 
tongue and the complicated lower larynx en- 
able them to articulate with great distinctness. 
They are confined to the warm parts of Amer- 
ica, Asia, Africa, and Australia, and generally 
to the southern hemisphere ; their food consists 
of soft pulpy fruits, especially such as have 
hard kernels or seeds ; they are usually seen in 
large flocks, active in the morning and evening, 
noisy and quarrelsome, destructive to vegeta- 
tion in their wild state, and very mischievous 
in captivity ; they are monogamous, and build 
their nests generally in hollow trees. This is 
a very extensive family, numbering about 300 
species, and divided by Gray into the subfam- 
ilies of pezoporince, araince, Urines, cacatuince, 
and psittacincB ; the first four are described re- 
spectively under the titles PAROQUET, MACAW, 
LOET, and COCKATOO, leaving for this article 
only the psittacince, and the genus conurus of 
the macaws. Some of the parrots present rap- 
torial characters in the form of the bill, and 
especially in its soft skin or cere. Bonaparte 
makes of them a distinct order, placing them 
at the head of his system, separated from the 
typical scansores by the rapacious birds ; for the 
connecting links between the families see OWL 
and OWL PAEEOT. The only well ascertained 
species within the United States is the Caroli- 
na parrot (conurus Carolinensis, Kuhl) ; in this 
the length is about 14 in., and the alar extent 
22 ; the bill is short, bulging, and very strong ; 
the head is large, the neck robust, and the 
body and tail elongated, the latter wedge- 
shaped ; the bill is white and the iris hazel ; 
general color green with bluish reflections, 
lightest below ; fore part of head and cheeks 
bright red, extending over and behind the 
eye, the rest of the head and neck gamboge 
yellow; edge of wing yellow tinged with red; 
wings and their coverts varied with bluish 
green, greenish yellow, and brownish red ; two 



126 



PARROT 



middle tail feathers deep green, the others with 
the inner webs brownish red ; thighs yellow. 
This species has been seen as far north as Lake 
Ontario, though now it is chiefly confined to 
the southern and southwestern states, and as 
far as the Missouri to the west. They are very 
fond of the seeds of the cockle burr, and eat 
almost any kind of fruit and grain, from their 
immense flocks committing great havoc in the 
garden, field, and orchard, destroying in search 
of seeds far more than they consume ; they are 
killed in large numbers by the farmers, who 
consider their flesh a delicacy. The flight is 
rapid and direct, with great inclinations of the 
body and incessant noisy cries ; they generally 
alight close together on the trees bearing the 
desired fruit ; they are savage when wounded, 
but are easily tamed by immersion in water ; 
they are destructive in captivity, and incapable 
of articulating words. They are fond of sand 
and saline earths. . Many deposit their eggs in 
the same hollow of a tree, each laying two or 
three. Several other parrots are found in Mex- 




Carolina Parrot (Conurus Carolinensis). 

ico and Central America. To the subfamily 
of psittacince belong the parrots best known 
in the domesticated condition, especially the 
gray and green parrots so common as pets; in 
this group the head is without crest, the mar- 
gins of the bill are dentated or festooned, the 
wings pointed, and the tail short and square. 
In the old genus psittacus (Linn.) the bill is 
large, rather compressed, with biangular cul- 
men much arched to the tip, near which the 
lateral margin is deeply notched, the under 
mandible much sinuated and the anterior edge 
sharp ; wings generally reaching to the end of 
the tail, with second and third quills equal and 
longest. More than 40 species are found in 
the humid forests of Africa and South Amer- 
ica ; collecting at night in immense flocks, they 
leave their roosting places early in search of 
food, which consists chiefly of pulpy fruits 
and seeds, after which they bathe and retire 
to thick-leaved trees during the heat of the 



day, going in search of food again at night; 
they migrate in large flocks to warmer regions 
on the approach of the rainy season, rising to 
a great height and uttering the most discor- 




Gray Parrot (Psittacus erythacus). 

dant screams ; the young are fed with the dis- 
gorged half masticated food of the parents. 
The gray parrot (P. erythacus, Linn.) is the 
most remarkable for its docility and power of 
articulation; it is about 12 in. long, of an ash- 
gray color, with a bright scarlet tail, yellowish 
white irides, and grayish feet and toes. It is 
a native of W. Africa,. whence it has been im- 
ported from a very early period ; in captivity 
it feeds on bread and milk, nuts, and even 
meat, holding its food with one foot, and redu- 
cing it to small pieces by the bill and cutters on 
the palate ; it may reach the age of 70 and even 
90 years. It breeds readily in captivity. In 
the genus chrysotis (Swains.), of tropical South 
America, the bill is smaller but strongly denta- 
ted ; the wings reach to the middle of the tail, 
which is broad and rounded. The green par- 
rot (O. Amazonicus, Gmel.)is very often taken 
to the United States and Europe on account of 
its great colloquial powers ; it is 12 in. long, 
the bill orange yellow, as well as the cheeks 
and chin ; the general color is shining green, 
with a bluish purple band over the forehead, 
and the feathers of the hind neck edged with 
black ; it inhabits the country watered by the 
Amazon, where it often does great mischief to 
the plantations. The festive parrot (0. festi- 
0ws, Swains.), a native of the same forests, 
is 15 to 16 in. long, of a general green color, 
with a narrow red frontal band and eye streak 
blue above and behind the eyes, lower bad 
and rump vermilion, and the greater quill 
with blue outer webs and the inner greenisl 
black; it is docile, easily tamed, and learn 
readily to pronounce words and sentences 
The last two species are those most commonl; 
brought from South America; several other 
are described. In the genus psittacula (Briss 
the size is generally small; the bill is rathe 
large with the lateral margins festooned ; th 
pointed wings extend to the end of the tai 



PAEROT 



PARROTT 



127 



which is short and even ; about 30 species are 
described in South America, Africa, and Asia 
and its archipelago ; they are rapid fliers and 
expert climbers, often hanging head downward 
in their search for fruits ; while feeding they 
utter a shrill chirp, like that of a large grass- 
hopper ; when sleeping they generally suspend 
themselves by one or both feet, head down- 
ward. Here belong the beautiful little "love 
birds," the genus agapornis of Selby. Swin- 
dern's love bird (P. Swindereniana, Kuhl) is 
a native of S. Africa ; it is about 6 in. long, 
with a black strong bill whose upper mandi- 
ble is notched; the head and nape are bright 
green, bounded by a black nuchal collar ; neck 
and breast yellowish green, mantle and wings 
green, lower back and upper tail coverts azure 
blue ; the short and nearly even tail has a me- 
dian bar of vermilion edged with black and 
the tip green. These parrots are remarkable 
for their attachment to each other. 

PARROT, Johann Jakob Friedrich Wilhelm, a 
German physician, born in Oarlsruhe, Oct. 14, 
1792, died in Dorpat, Jan. 15, 1841. In 1811 
and 1812 he travelled in company with Engel- 
hardt over southern Russia and the Caucasus, 
and on his return published Reise in die JKrim 
und Kaulcasien (2 vols., Berlin, 1815-'18). In 
1821 he was appointed professor of physiolo- 
gy, pathology, and semeiology in the university 
of Dorpat, travelled in 1824 in the Pyrenees, 
and in 1829 was the first to make a successful 
ascent of Mt. Ararat. He wrote Reise sum 
Ararat (2 vols., Berlin, 1834; translated by 
Cooley, London, 1845) ; a treatise on " Gasom- 
etry" (Dorpat, 1814) ; and AnsicJiten uber die 
allgemeine Krankheitslehre (Riga, 1821). 

PARROT FISH, the common name of the nu- 
merous cyclolabroid fishes of the genus scarus 
Forsk.) ; the name is derived from the beak- 
like form of their jaws ; they also present the 
?arae brilliancy and variety of colors as do the 
wrots among birds. The form is oblong and 
with the lateral line branching and in- 
ted under the end of the dorsal fin. The 
are prominent, convex, each divided by 
median suture; the teeth are incorporated 
th the bone, arranged in an imbricated man- 
r in crowded quincunxes, the oldest forming 





2. Jaws, natural size. 

itting border, and succeeded by the low- 
s as the former are worn away ; their 
is generally smooth and polished ; the 
Seal teeth consist of trenchant trans- 

VOL. XIII. 9 



verse vertical plates, two above and one be- 
low, presenting when worn narrow ellipses of 
dentine surrounded by enamel ; the lips are 
simple and fleshy, in some species leaving the 
teeth exposed. The body is covered with large 
scales, as far as the gill covers and cheeks, 
there being from 21 to 25 in a longitudinal 
line and 8 in a vertical one at the region of the 
pectorals ; those at the base of the caudal fin 
are large and embrace a considerable portion 
of its rays ; there is a single conical dorsal, 
with 9 spiny and 10 articulated rays ; the anal 
has 2 spiny and 8 articulated rays. The muz- 
zle is obtuse, and the profile sometimes rather 
high ; there are no stomachal nor pancreatic 
caeca. About 100 species are described, living 
principally on the coral reefs of the "West and 
East Indian archipelagoes, about one quarter 
dwelling around the Molucca and Sunda isl- 
ands. The best known is the parrot fish of 
the Mediterranean (S. Cretensis, Rond.), red 
or blue according to season, highly esteemed 
by the ancients; it is about 15 in. long, of a 
general purplish color, roseous below, and vio- 
let brown on the back ; the pectorals orange, 
ventrals with transverse lines of violet, and 
dorsal violet gray with golden spots and bands. 
There is more said of this fish in the ancient 
writers than of any other; in Pliny's time it 
was ranked as the first of fishes, and large 
sums were expended to stock the Italian waters 
with it from the sea between Crete and Asia 
Minor. By the ancients it was believed to 
have a voice, to sleep at night (alone of fishes), 
to release its companions and other fishes from 
nets, and to have the power of ruminating ; the 
last belief naturally arose from the backward 
and forward movement of the jaws rendered 
possible by the mode of articulation, and ne- 
cessary for the complete mastication of the sea- 
weeds upon which it principally feeds. Its 
flesh is tender and easy of digestion, and the 
intestines and their contents were highly rel- 
ished; the modern Greeks call it scaro^ and 
consider it a fish of exquisite flavor, eating it 
with a sauce made of its liver and intestines, 
as the moderns eat plover and woodcock ; its 
liver entered into the composition of the fa- 
mous dish called "the shield of Minerva," with 
the brains of the peacock and pheasant, fla- 
mingoes' tongues, and the milt of the munena 
eel. The red parrot fish of the West Indies 
(S. Abilgaardii, Val.), about 16 in. long, is a 
handsome species. The great parrot fish (S* 
guacamaia, Val.), from the same locality, at- 
tains a length of 2 or 3 ft., and a weight of 
30 Ibs. ; the colors are red, blue, and green. 
Many other beautiful species are described 
from North America in Dr. Storer's " Synop- 
sis," and the whole genus is treated at length 
in vol. xiv. of the Histoire naturelle des pois- 
sons by Cuvier and Valenciennes. 

PARROTT, Robert Parker, an American in- 
ventor, born in Lee, K H., Oct. 5, 1804. He 
graduated at the United States military acad- 
emy in 1824, became second lieutenant of ar- 



128 



PARRY 



tillery, and served at the academy from 1824 
to 1829 as assistant professor of mathematics, 
and as principal assistant professor of natural 
and experimental philosophy. He afterward 
served with his regiment at Fort Constitution 
and Fort Independence. He was detailed for 
ordnance duty in 1834, took part as a staff 
officer in the war against the Creeks, and was 
appointed captain in the ordnance corps in 
1836, from which he resigned shortly after- 
ward to become superintendent of the West 
Point iron and cannon foundery, situated at 
Cold Spring, Putnam county, N. Y. He served 
as first judge of the court of common pleas 
for that county from 1844 to 1847. While in 
charge of the West Point foundery he invented 
and perfected the Parrott system of rifled guns 
and projectiles, which were first introduced 
into actual use at the battle of Bull Run, July 
21, 1861 ; they were extensively used by the 
national army and navy till the end of the 
civil war. (See ARTILLERY, vol. i., p. 796.) 
One 30-pdr. gun of this system, mounted at 
Cumming's point, was used against Charleston, 
and withstood the extraordinary test of being 
fired 4,606 times before bursting. 

PARRY, Sir William Edward, an English navi- 
gator, born in Bath, Dec. 19, 1790, died in 
Ems, Germany, July 8, 1855. lie entered the 
navy in 1803, and became a midshipman in 
1806, serving in the Baltic fleet. In 1810 he 
was commissioned lieutenant, and sailed to the 
polar seas about the North cape, where he cor- 
rected the admiralty charts of those waters. 
On the breaking out of the war between Great 
Britain and the United States he was sent to 
the North American station, where he remained 
till 1817, when he joined the arctic expedi- 
tion of Capt. John Ross as commander of the 
Alexander, consort of the Isabella, Ross's ship. 
They left England in April, 1818, and pro- 
ceeded to Lancaster sound, which they navi- 
gated for about 60 m., when Ross, imagining 
that he saw the way closed before them by 
a range of mountains, gave orders to return. 
Parry freely expressed his conviction that the 
range of mountains was an optical illusion; 
and as the public generally coincided in this 
opinion, it was determined in the spring of 
1819 to equip a new expedition under his com- 
mand. With the Hecla, 375 tons, and the 
Griper gun brig, 180 tons, under Lieut. Lid- 
don, he reached Lancaster sound July 30, and 
sailed through it. He explored and named 
Barrow strait, Prince Regent inlet, and Well- 
ington channel, and, entering the water which 
has since been called Parry or Melville sound, 
reached on Sept. 4 Ion. 110 W., thereby earn- 
ing a reward of 5,000 offered by parliament 
to the first ship's company which should attain 
that meridian. He wintered at Melville island, 
and his expedients to preserve the health and 
spirits of his crews during the long arctic night 
were scarcely less deserving of mention than 
his achievements as a discoverer. Exercise 
was rigorously enforced, all possible precau- 



tions were taken against scurvy, and a newspa- 

S3r and theatre were provided as amusements. 
n Aug. 2, 1820, after being frozen in for 10 
months, the ships were released ; but the ice 
precluded the hope of further progress west- 
ward, and Parry returned to England. He was 
promoted to the rank of commander and elect- 
ed a member of the royal society, and the 
narrative of his adventures was published by 
order of the admiralty. In May, 1821, Parry 
sailed again with the Fury, accompanied by 
Capt. Lyon in the Hecla. They were twice 
frozen in for several months, but made many 
explorations and discoveries by sea and land. 
(See ARCTIC DISCOVERY.) Returning, he ar- 
rived at Brassa sound, Shetland, Oct. 10, 1823. 
During his absence he had been made post 
captain (Nov. 8, 1821) ; and in December, 
1823, he was appointed acting hydrographer 
to the admiralty. His " Journal of a Second 
Voyage for the Discovery of a Northwest Pas- 
sage " was published by the admiralty in 1824. 
The results of these voyages encouraged fur- 
ther search, and the Hecla and Fury were con- 
sequently refitted as speedily as possible. In 
May, 1824, Capt. Parry sailed again in the 
Hecla, with Capt. Hoppner in the Fury under 
his orders. His plan was to pass through 
Prince Regent inlet, but winter overtook him 
almost at the entrance of that channel ; and 
soon after the ice broke up, July 20, 1825, his 
vessels were caught in the drift and carried 
down the inlet. On Aug. 21 the Fury was driv- 
en ashore, and so badly damaged that she had 
to be abandoned. Her crew and stores were 
transferred to the Hecla, and Capt. Parry re- 
turned to England, having accomplished little 
or nothing. His "Journal of a Third Voyage 
for the Discovery of the Northwest Passage " 
appeared in 1826. He now turned his attention 
to a plan originally proposed by Scoresby for 
reaching the pole in boats that could be fitted 
to sledges, and set sail in the Hecla, March 27, 
1827, for Spitzbergen. Here the vessel was 
left in harbor with a part of the crew, while 
the remainder, led by Capt. Parry and Lieut. 
James C. Ross, set out for the pole in two 
boats, June 20. These boats were framed of 
ash and hickory, covered with water-proof 
canvas, over which were successive planks of 
fir and oak, with a sheet of stout felt inter- 
posed. They were flat-bottomed inside, and 
had runners so that they could be used as 
sledges. The adventurers sailed through an 
open sea for about 80 m., and then found, in- 
stead of a solid plain of ice, a surface half cov- 
ered with water, on which walking and sailing 
were almost equally difficult. With immense 
labor they reached Jat. 82 45' N., the nearest 
point to the pole as yet attained by any ex- 
pedition. At the end of September they ar- 
rived in England, where Capt. Parry published 
his "Narrative of an Attempt to reach the 
North Pole in Boats fitted for the Purpose" 
(1827), and resumed his duties as hydrographer 
to the admiralty. On April 29, 1829, he was 



PARRY SOUND 



PARSLEY 



129 



knighted at the same time with Sir John Frank- 
lin. Both also received from the university of 
Oxford the degree of D. 0. L. Parry was ap- 
pointed commissioner of the Australian agri- 
cultural company, and passed five years at Port 
Stephens, about 90 m. from Sydney. Return- 
ing to England in 1834, he was appointed as- 
sistant poor-law commissioner for the county 
of Norfolk; was employed by the admiralty 
in 1837 to organize the packet service between 
Liverpool, Holyhead, and Dublin ; and in April 
of the same year received the newly created 
office of comptroller of steam machinery for 
the royal navy. He retired from active ser- 
vice in December, 1846, with the appointment 
of captain-superintendent of the royal Clar- 
ence yard and of the naval hospital at Has- 
lar near Portsmouth. In 1852 he was obliged 
to vacate this office on attaining the rank of 
rear admiral of the white, and in 1853 he was 
made lieutenant governor of Greenwich hospi- 
tal. He wrote a treatise on " Nautical Astron- 
omy by Night," "The Parental Character of 
God," and a " Lecture on Seamen." His life 
has been written by his son, the Rev. E. Parry 
(London, 1857). 

PARRY SOOTD. See MELVILLE SOUND. 

PARRY SOUND, a judicial district of Ontario, 
Canada, on the E. shore of Georgian bay ; 
area, 3,420 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 1,519. It is 
watered by the outlet of Lake Nipissing and 
several other streams. Capital, Parry Sound. 

PARSEES (i. e., inhabitants of Fars or Per- 
sia), the modern followers of Zoroaster, mostly 
dwelling in Yezd and neighboring towns in 
Persia, and in Bombay and a few other places 
in India. While in Persia their number has 
decreased to about 7,000, they are steadily in- 
creasing in India, where they are variously 
estimated at from 150,000 to 200,000. The 
Mohammedans apply to them in contempt the 
name of Guebres or Ghaurs, meaning "infi- 
dels." (See GUEBRES.) When the empire of 
the Sassanides was destroyed by the Saracens 
(about 650), the Zoroastrians were persecuted, 
and most of them embraced Islamism. Only a 
small number clung to the old faith, and were 
finally allowed to settle in one of the most 
barren parts of Persia. Some of the Zoroas- 
trians fled or emigrated to Hindostan, where 
the rajah of Guzerat was their principal pro- 
tector ; but on the spread of Mohammedan- 
ism they became again subject to persecution. 
Since the occupation of the country by the 
British they have fared better, and form now 
quite an influential portion of the population. 
They keep up an intercourse with their breth- 
ren in Persia. Their worship in the course of 
time became corrupted by many Hindoo prac- 
tices, and the reverence for fire and the sun, as 
emblems of the glory of Ormuzd, degenera- 
ted into idolatrous practices. The sacred fire 
which Zoroaster was said to have brought 
from heaven is kept burning in consecrated 
spots, and temples are built over subterranean 
fires. Priests tend the fires on the altars, 



chanting hymns and burning incense. After 
an ineffectual attempt by the Parsee punchayet 
or council to purify the worship, a society 
called the RaJinumai Mazdiasna, or " Religious 
Reform Association," was organized in 1852 
for the regeneration of the social condition of 
the Parsees and the restoration of the creed of 
Zoroaster to its original purity. The meetings 
and publications of this society are said to have 
had a considerable effect. There is now a 
marked desire on the part of the Parsees to 
adapt themselves to the manners and customs 
of Europeans. The public and private schools 
of Bombay are largely attended by their chil- 
dren, and every effort is made to procure the 
translation of standard English works. Many 
follow commercial pursuits, and several of the 
wealthiest merchants of India belong to the 
sect. For their religious tenets and history, 
see ZEND-AVESTA, and ZOROASTER. 

PARSLEY, a common umbelliferous garden 
plant which has been in cultivation for centu- 
ries. The old English authors wrote the word 
percely, evidently from the Fr. persil, that be- 
ing derived from the Lat. petroselinum, which 
is from the Gr. nirpog, a rock, and c&ivov, some 
umbelliferous plant. In most works the bo- 
tanical name of parsley is given as petroseli- 
num sativum, but Bentham and Hooker, in 
revising this most difficult family for their Ge- 
nera Plantarum, found that petroselinum was 
not sufficiently distinct to rank as a genus, 
and united it with carum, the caraway ; their 
views are likely to be adopted, and parsley 
will hereafter be carum petroselinum. The 
family umbelliferce is often called the parsley 
family, and its members for the most part 
have a strong family resemblance ; the genera 




Single or Wild Parsley (Carum petroselinum). 

are founded upon minute differences in the 
fruit, puzzling to the botanist, and altogether 
too obscure for popular description. Parsley, 
like many others of the family, has hollow 



130 



PARSLEY 



stems, much divided leaves with sheathing 
petioles, and small fi ve-petalled flowers in com- 
pound umbels, followed by a fruit which splits 
into one-seeded halves; the coating of these 
half fruits contains an aromatic oil in long 
narrow receptacles or oil tubes, which are 
often placed between elevated ribs. Parsley 
is a biennial, sometimes lasting longer, with a 
thick white root, which with the leaves and 
all other parts has a peculiar aromatic odor 
and taste. The leaves are triangular in general 
outline, twice pinnate and in the garden varie- 
ties much subdivided and cut. The first year 
it forms a tuft of radical leaves ; the next year 
the flower stem appears and grows about 3 ft. 
high with umbels of small yellowish or green- 
ish flowers, followed by the fruits or seeds. 
Parsley is a native of the eastern Mediterranean 
region, and being much cultivated throughout 
Europe has established itself in various locali- 
ties ; in England it is quite naturalized on some 
of the rocky coasts. It is cultivated in most 
gardens for its aromatic leaves, which are used 
in seasoning soups and various dishes, and also 
for garnishing, the rich green color of the leaves 
and their elegantly divided and crisped foli- 
age making it superior to all other plants for 
this use. The original form of -the plant, with 
plain leaves, is seldom seen, several varieties 
with finely cut foliage, called curled and double 
parsley, being preferred on account of their 
greater beauty; in some of the recent kinds, 
called fimbriated or mossy, the leaves are re- 
markably subdivided. Hamburg parsley is a 
large-rooted variety, cultivated in the same 
manner as carrots ; its roots are used to flavor 
soups and stews, or are cooked separately like 
parsnips. The seeds of parsley are very slow 
in germinating, often remaining a month or 
six weeks before the plants appear. When 
the plants are large enough they are thinned 
to 10 in. apart, or transplanted and set at the 
same distance ; it is said that repeated trans- 
plantings tend to make the leaves more double. 
Parsley is sometimes used as an edging to beds 
in kitchen gardens with pleasing effect. Mar- 
ket gardeners supply it fresh all winter ; in 
September the foliage is cut away from the 
roots, and before cold weather a short dense 
tuft of leaves is formed ; the plants are dug 
before the ground freezes, and stored in trenches 
covered with straw. If kept in the open ground 
over winter, it should be protected by litter ; 
in spring it soon throws up its flower stalks. 
The leaves are the favorite food of the parsley 
worm, a green caterpillar marked with black 
and yellow spots; when disturbed it throws 
out, just behind its head, a pair of soft orange- 
colored horns, which emit a powerful and most 
repulsive odor; this is the larva of a large, 
handsome black butterfly with yellow mark- 
ings, papilio asterias. Parsley has long been 
used medicinally, and at one time remarkable 
powers were attributed to it; the root is now 
occasionally employed as a diuretic. Its odor 
has a remarkable power in neutralizing or 



PARSNIP 

masking other odors ; it is often chewed after 
eating onions, and it is said to render even the 
odor of garlic imperceptible. In some parts of 
England the superstition prevails among the 
rural people that to transplant parsley will 
entail bad luck. Fool's parsley, cethusa cyna- 
pium, is a highly poisonous plant of the same 
family, introduced from Europe and more or 
less naturalized in some of the older states ; as 
it resembles the plain form of parsley, serious 
accidents and even death have resulted in Eng- 
land from mistaking it for parsley. In flower 
the two are easily distinguished, as in the fool's 
parsley each partial umbel has an involucel of 
three long, narrow, pendent leaves beneath it, 
which the true parsley has not ; mistakes may 
be avoided by using only the curled parsley. 
PARSNIP (pastinaca sativa), an umbellifer- 
ous plant, cultivated for its edible root. The 
name was -written pastnip by the old herbalists, 
from pastinaca, the ancient Latin name. The 
parsnip is found wild in southern and central 
Europe and temperate Russian Asia and parts 
of Great Britain, and is introduced into this 
country ; it is usually a biennial, sometimes in 
the wild state flowering the first year. It has a 
hard tap root with strong branches ; an erect 
stem about 2 ft. high and branching ; lower 
leaves pinnate, and more or less downy on the 
under side, the divisions sharply toothed and 
more or less lobed ; the umbels of yellow flow- 
ers of eight to twelve rays, flat on top, without 
involucres ; fruit about three lines long, oval ; 
the conspicuous oil tubes run their whole length. 
In cultivation the root is much increased in 
size, almost without branches, and is soft and 
fleshy; the stem is much taller and the leaves 
longer and smoother than when wild. Prof. 
Buckman of the royal agricultural college, Eng- 
land, experimented on 
the improvement of 
the parsnip from the 
wild state. He found 
that the plants from 
seeds sown as soon as 
ripe, and those from 
the same lot of seeds 
kept until spring and 
then sown, showed 
marked differences ; 
and he regards the 
keeping of the seeds 
out of the ground, 
from the time they are 
ripe until they can be 
sown in spring, as an 
important step in cul- 
tivation, as it places 
the seeds in a condi- 
tion quite different 




generations from the wild seed showed dif- 
ferences in form, including specimens with 
tendencies in their shape toward that of the 
established cultivated varieties. Selecting a 



PARSONS 



131 



root of promising appearance, he continued to 
breed from this, and by careful selection es- 
tablished a variety which in ten years was put 
in the seed market as the student parsnip, 
which still maintains a high reputation. Pars- 
nips were held in much esteem by the Ro- 
mans, who boiled and ate them with honey ; 
the leaves were eaten to promote digestion, 
and it was believed that if a portion of the 
plant were carried about the person the wear- 
er would never be stung by serpents. In cul- 
tivation parsnips do best in a light rich soil, 
which is better if manured the previous au- 
tumn ; the seeds are not to be depended upon 
if more than a year old ; they are sown in drills 
15 in. apart, as early as the soil can be worked, 
thinned to 6 in. apart, and kept free from weeds 
until the leaves are so large as to prevent work- 
ing between the rows. As the root is perfect- 
ly hardy, it is harvested after more tender 
kinds have been cared for ; the roots are stored 
in trenches covered with litter, or placed in 
barrels or bins with sand or sandy earth among 
them to prevent drying. It is customary to 
leave a portion of the crop in the ground over 
winter, as many think the freezing it is sub- 
jected to renders the root more sweet and ten- 
der ; but such roots should be dug as soon as 
the frost is out, as growth starts early, and if 
they begin to grow their quality is impaired. 
The varieties are few. The common or Dutch 
parsnip has a root 20 to 30 in. long and 3 to 
4 in. in diameter at the shoulder, occasionally 
with a few strong fangs or branches. The 
Guernsey has very long tapering roots ; on the 
island of Guernsey, where they are an impor- 
tant crop, it is not unusual for them to be 4 ft. 
long. The hollow-crowned has a depressed 
ring around the insertion of the leaf stalks, for 
which reason it is also called the cup parsnip ; 
it is about 18 in. long and 4 in. in diameter at 
the shoulder, ending somewhat abruptly in a 
small tap root ; this is the variety most culti- 
vated. The round or turnip-rooted is very 
broad in proportion to its length. The student 
has a superior flavor. The yield is from 500 
to 800 bushels to the acre, according to the 
soil. The root contains water 85-05, albumi- 
noids 7'30, sugar 2*88, other carbohydrates 
6'77, besides a small amount of oil and inor- 
ganic matter. An infusion of the roots con- 
tains sufficient sugar to form when fermented 
with hops a kind of beer, and a marmalade 
and parsnip wine are made from them. 

PARSONS, a city of Labette co., Kansas, at 
the junction of the Sedalia branch of the Mis- 
souri, Kansas, and Texas railroad with the 
main line extending from Junction City to 
Denison, Texas, 120m. S. by E. of Topeka; 
pop. in 1875, 3,500. It is built on a high roll- 
ing prairie between and near the junction of 
the Big and Little Labette rivers. The chief 
manufactories are the shops of the railroad 
company, a large grist mill, a steam furniture 
factory, a plough factory, three wagon and 
carriage factories, a brewery, a cotton gin, and 



a chair factory. There are a national bank 
with a capital of $300,000, a savings bank with 
$100,000 capital, masonic and odd fellows' 
halls, two public school buildings costing $40,- 
000, graded public schools with 500 pupils, 
three weekly newspapers, and five churches : 
Congregational, Episcopal, Methodist, Presby- 
terian, and Roman Catholic. Parsons was laid 
out and the first lot sold, March 8, 1871. 

PARSONS. I. Theophilus, an American jurist, 
born in Byfield, Essex co., Mass., Feb. 24, 1750, 
died in Boston, Oct. 30, 1813. He graduated 
at Harvard college in 1769, and was admitted 
to the bar at Falmouth (now Portland), Me,, 
in 1774. The almost total destruction of Fal- 
mouth by a British fleet in October, 1775, 
having interrupted his career in that place, he 
returned to Byfield, and for several years re- 
ceived the instruction and assistance of Judge 
Trowbridge, called by Chancellor Kent "the 
oracle of the common law in New England." 
In the library of this jurist, one of the best in 
America, he laid the foundation of a vast ac- 
cumulation of legal learning. Settling in New- 
buryport, he entered upon a lucrative practice, 
which gradually embraced all the New Eng- 
land states. In 1778 he formed one of the 
so-called " Essex Junto," a body of citizens of 
Essex county who opposed the adoption of the 
state constitution recently framed by the Mas- 
sachusetts legislature; and he was probably 
the author of the pamphlet known as " The 
Essex Result," which contributed largely to 
the rejection of the constitution. In 1779 he 
was a delegate to the convention which framed 
the state constitution finally adopted ; and in 
1788 of the convention to ratify the federal 
constitution, which he actively supported, be- 
ing the author of the "Proposition" offered 
by John Hancock ratifying the instrument, 
and recommending certain amendments known 
as the "conciliatory resolutions." He occa- 
sionally served in the legislature after this, 
but took no prominent part in public affairs, 
although to the close of his life he remained a 
consistent federalist. In 1800 he removed to 
Boston, and in 1806 was appointed chief jus- 
tice of the supreme judicial court, which post 
he held at the time of his death. A collection 
of his judicial opinions was published in New 
York under the title of " Commentaries on 
the Law of the United States." His decisions 
threw much light upon the laws of pleading, 
marine insurance, and real property, and he 
rendered a substantial service to the commu- 
nity by discountenancing delays and expediting 
the trial of causes. He was distinguished as 
a classical scholar, and as a mathematician of 
considerable ability. An elaborate memoir of 
him has been published by his son (Boston, 
1859). II Theophilns, an American jurist, son 
of the preceding, born in Newburyport, Mass., 
May 17, 1797. He graduated at Harvard col- 
lege in 1815, studied law, and after a brief visit 
to Europe entered upon the practice of his 
profession, first in Taunton, and afterward in 



132 



PARSONS 



Boston. For several years he was a constant 
contributor to the " North American Review," 
writing also for other periodicals, and founded 
and edited the "United States Literary Ga- 
zette." He was an early convert to the doc- 
trines of the New Jerusalem church, and has 
written much in exposition and defence of 
them. Three volumes of "Essays" (1845 et 
8 eq.\ "Deus Homo" (1867), and "The Infinite 
and the Finite " (1872), are his chief S wedenbor- 
gian works. In 1847 he was appointed Dane 
professor of law in the Harvard law school, 
and he has since resided at Cambridge, occu- 
pying his leisure in the preparation of legal 
treatises. He has published " The Law of Con- 
tracts" (2 vols., 1853; 5th ed., 3 vols., 1864); 
" Elements of Mercantile Law " (1856) ; " Laws 
of Business for Business Men" (1857); an 
elaborate and comprehensive treatise on mari- 
time law, including the law of shipping, the 
law of marine insurance, and the law and prac- 
tice of admiralty (2 vols., 1859) ; " Notes and 
Bills of Exchange" (2 vols., 1862); "Law of 
Partnership" (1867); "Marine Insurance and 
General Average" (2 vols., 1868); "Shipping 
and Admiralty" (2 vols., 1869); and "The 
Political, Personal, and Property Rights of a 
Citizen of the United States" (1875). 

PARSONS, Thomas William, an American poet, 
born in Boston, Aug. 18, 1819. He was edu- 
cated at the Boston Latin school, and in 1836 
visited Italy, where he studied Italian litera- 
ture and translated the first 10 cantos of Dante's 
Inferno (Boston, 1843). He took the degree 
of M. D. at Harvard university in 1853, and 
for some years practised as a dentist. In 1854 
he published " Ghetto di Roma," a volume of 
poems. His translation of the Inferno was 
completed and published, with illustrations, in 
1867 (4to, Boston). He resided for some years 
in England, but returned to Boston in 1872. 
His later volumes of original poems are " The 
Magnolia" (printed privately, 1867), " The Old 
House at Sudbury" (1870), and "The Shadow 
of the Obelisk" (London, 1872). 

PARSONSTOWN, or Birr, a town of King's co., 
Ireland, 69 m. W. S. W. of Dublin ; pop. in 
1871, 4,939. It contains two national schools 
(one for girls and one for boys), a hospital, a 
reading room, and a mechanics' institute. Near 
it is Birr castle, the residence of the earl of 
Rosse, with his celebrated observatory. 

PARTHENOGENESIS (Gr. irapdivog, virgin, and 
ytveoig, birth), a name given to the phenome- 
non in the organic world, believed by many to 
occur, though still questioned by others, of a 
production of successive generations of pro- 
creating individuals, originating from a sin- 
gle fertilized ovum, but without any renewal, 
through such series, of fertilization. Ordinari- 
ly careful observations seem at first to result 
in the rule that, certainly in the animal realm, 
and probably in the vegetable, offspring can 
only arise by means of a union of sexual ele- 
ments, though this union may be either obvious 
or concealed. Yet there were those among 



PARTHENOGENESIS 

the earlier writers who held to be possible 
what they called a lucina sine concubitu. M. 
Bonnet, about the middle of the 18th century, 
first gave a scientific standing to this opin- 
ion, by discovering that the aphis (plant louse) 
may produce a numerous offspring, and these 
be followed by several generations, without 
the intervention in any known or conceivable 
way of the masculine fertilizing principle. M. 
de Quatrefages proposed to name this result 
agamogenesis, or production without union. 
The name at the head of this article was ap- 
plied to certain cases of this kind by Prof. 
Owen. Of Siebold's work on this subject a 
translation appeared in London in 1857. Strict- 
ly, the name parthenogenesis is hardly ap- 
propriate, since either the producers in these 
cases are not perfect ordinary females, or the 
production is not that of perfect ordinary off- 
spring ; or both these circumstances may be 
true. Siebold investigated this unisexual, or at 
least unusual generation in certain sac-bearing 
lepidoptera, in the silkworm moth, and in the 
honey bee. In the first, females only result ; 
in the second, both sexes. Along with Dzier- 
zon, he obtained in relation to the honey bee 
the most complete set of observations. The 
queen bee, impregnated once for all for her 
five or six years of life, deposits thereafter, at 
proper periods, the germs of successive swarms 
or colonies ; and the microscope reveals the 
fact that the eggs destined to become work- 
ers (imperfect females) and queens (perfect fe- 
males) are fertilized, as ordinarily, by contact 
or penetration of spermatozooids, while those 
to become drones (males) undergo no such in- 
fluence ; so that the production of these last is 
agamogenetic. In further proof, if the queen 
have her wings crippled from the first, so that 
she takes no flight, she produces only males, 
thus ruining the hive ; and a like result may 
follow the pinching or freezing of one side of 
her body, and also, because the spermatozooids 
have become exhausted, in her old age. So, 
rarely, the workers may without fertilization 
produce eggs, but those of males only. But 
any of these males, though all directly agamic 
or fatherless, can become efficient in a return 
to the ordinary or bisexual mode of reproduc- 
tion. In his more recent work (Leipsic, 1871), 
Siebold has continued his observations to the 
wasps (polistes and vespa) and several other 
insects, showing that the males in many are 
developed from unfertilized eggs. According 
to Von Grimm ("Academy," 1870) parthenoge- 
nesis occurs in the pupa state in the dipterous 
genus chironomus, as Wagner had previously 
announced in miastor ; this kind of reproduc- 
tion is called by Von Baer pmdogenesis. In 
this insect the formation of two egg-like re- 
productive bodies begins in the larva, but the 
eggs are not extruded till the pupa state is 
reached ; and he thinks these cases may be due to 
self-fecundation. Bonnet's experiments with 
the aphis yield, as intimated above, more curi- 
ous results. He carefully isolated a newly 



PARTHENOGENESIS 



133 



hatched aphis by conveying it upon a twig be- 
neath a glass shade dipping into water. Of 
fourscore offspring produced alive by this in- 
sect, one was isolated in like manner, and with 
similar result; and this was repeated as long 
as the observations continued, or for nine 
successive broods. As the young aphides are 
ready for propagation in about two weeks, it 
follows that in the course of a summer a single 
parent may have a progeny of millions, and all 
without renewed intervention of the male ele- 
ment. Kyber found that when warmth and 
food were abundantly supplied, this agamic 
production would go on for two or three years ; 
but these broods, winged or wingless, consist 
almost wholly of imperfect females, seldom 
any males. The true females, always wingless, 
produce only after sexual union, and then eggs, 
not living offspring. And ordinarily, as the 
cold of autumn increases and the supply of 
food fails, the agamic young give place to true 
males and females, the latter laying eggs which 
the next spring hatch out again viviparous or 
imperfect females. Thus there is a cycle of 
changes ; a large but varying number of links 
of non-paternal, being interposed between any 
two of paternal generation. The imperfect 
females have, in place of ovaries, certain tubu- 
lar organs, the germs lying in which develop 
into living insects. Thus the case is only ap- 
parently, not really, anomalous ; the real indi- 
vidual of the aphides is the perfect male or fe- 
male only, and union of these must occur for 
the perpetuation of the race ; but under favor- 
ing conditions, by a sort of exuberance of vital 
activity, an intercurrent production by gem- 
mation or budding sets in, terminating finally 
in a return to the normal individual. Accord- 
ing to this view, the drone bees are another 
instance of production by budding ; and still 
others are said to be found in the dapJinice 
(water fleas), and in some species of butterfly. 
In plants, the occurrence of parthenogenesis, 
the development of an embryo in the ovule, 
and the production of perfect seed without 
the agency of the pollen or male element, was 
maintained in the last century by Spallanzani, 
who cited hemp and spinach as plants, among 
others, in which this took place. Since then 
the subject has been discussed by botanists, in- 
cluding some of the most eminent of the pres- 
ent day, without very decisive results ; as ex- 
periments by different observers upon plants 
of the same kind have led to decidedly opposite 
conclusions, the question of the occurrence of 
parthenogenesis cannot be regarded as settled. 
The great difficulty attending experiments on 
hermaphrodite or bisexual plants has led ob- 
servers to use those with separate sexes, and 
monoecious, or more generally dioecious plants, 
have been selected. A euphorbiaceous shrub 
from Australia, ccelebogyne (now alcTiornea) ili- 
cifolia, produced in Europe female flowers and 
perfected seed, while no male plant was known 
to be in the country ; the plant was supposed to 
be perfectly dioecious, neither male flowers nor 



stamens being detected, and the production of 
fertile seeds in this case was regarded as proof 
that, in this plant at least, the presence of pol- 
len was not necessary to their formation and 
development. In 1857 Baillon asserted that he 
had found a stamen in one of the female flow- 
ers of ccelebogyne, but this was denied by De- 
caisne, who asserted that Baillon had mistaken 
a glanduliferous bract for a stamen ; in 1860 
Karsten announced that he had discovered two 
hermaphrodite flowers upon the plant, in the 
Berlin botanic garden, between May and Au- 
gust, which was regarded as sufficient to account 
for the fruiting. It is said that figs developed 
in summer contain no male flowers, yet the 
pistils of these produce seed containing an em- 
bryo ; but both kinds of flowers in the fig are 
exceedingly small, and being enclosed within 
the hollow receptacle, accurate observation is 
surrounded with difficulties. The experiments 
of Naudin and Decaisne (Paris) with hemp 
were conducted with female plants, some in 
the open air surrounded by a high fence, and 
others in pots placed in a room in the second 
story of the house ; no male flowers could be 
discovered on these plants, yet all bore fruit, 
and the female plants from these seeds, simi- 
larly isolated, ripened seeds also. On the oth- 
er hand, Regel of St. Petersburg, in experi- 
menting upon spinach and mercurialis, which 
Naudin and Decaisne had cited as giving 
seeds upon the female plant when isolated, cut 
back his specimens of these in order to re- 
duce the number of flower clusters, and found 
that in every instance the female plants thus 
treated produced more or less male flowers, 
very much reduced and stunted, but with 
stamens which produced pollen, though the 
flowers containing them were so insignificant 
that they might have been unnoticed had not 
great care been taken in the search. Another 
instance cited by Naudin and Decaisne is bryo- 
ny, a dioecious plant of the gourd family ; the 
pistillate plants of this, from which access of 
pollen was carefully shut out, produced fruit 
in the greatest abundance; in 100 of these 
fruits 12 had no seeds, 45 had one seed, 29 two 
seeds, 11 three seeds, two had four, and one 
had five seeds. These illustrations are sufficient 
to show the difficulties in determining whether 
perfect seeds are formed without the influence 
of pollen upon the ovule. Besides the fact that 
male flowers may sometimes be developed upon 
female plants, and thus clandestinely supply 
pollen, there is another which must be taken 
into account: in flowers of separated sexes 
rudiments of the organs of the other sex are 
often distinctly seen ; in the staminate flower, 
a knob or protuberance stands in the place of 
the pistil, and in pistillate flowers we have the 
places of the stamens occupied by glands, or 
abortive filaments, as if one or the other series 
of organs had been suppressed to make the 
flower male or female. The many well known 
instances in which a plant produces all three 
kinds of flowers, staminate, pistillate, and per- 



134 



PARTHENON 



PARTHIA 



feet, show that these suppressed organs may 
be developed into activity ; and this happening 
in a single flower, or with a single stamen, 
might, unobserved, produce sufficient pollen to 
fertilize every ovary on the plant. Though 
the evidence cited to prove that parthenogene- 
sis exists in plants may be of doubtful value, 
there is no good reason why it may not occur ; 
indeed, analogy with animals, and the methods 
by which some plants reproduce themselves, 
indicate that its occurrence is not improbable. 
In many plants, especially some in high lati- 
tudes, small bulbs are produced in place of 
seeds, and in some abnormal flowers buds have 
been found occupying the place of the ovules, 
or prospective seeds ; a small bulb, or bulblet, 
consists of several rudimentary leaves crowded 
upon a very short stem, and a bud has almost 
the same structure ; the embryo within the 
seed is more simple than the bulblet and the 
bud, as it consists of a minute stem and only 
two leaves, or sometimes only one; that this 
embryo always requires the presence of pollen 
for its formation, while the more highly devel- 
oped bulblet or bud is produced without it, is 
assuming more than some of our most eminent 
physiologists will admit. Until within a com- 
paratively short time ferns and other cryp- 
togamous plants were consider-ed perfectly 
asexual, but it is now known that some if not 
all have organs corresponding in function to 
stamens and pistils; in ferns, for example, the 
spore produces a cellular plate, a sort of in- 
termediate plant called prothallus, upon the 
surfaces of which are produced organs called 
archegonia, which when fertilized by the con- 
tact of antherozoids, produced by other organs 
upon the prothallus called antheridia, give birth 
to a new fern, and the prothallus, having served 
its purpose, disappears ; here then is a regular 
sexual contact, and it has been supposed to be 
essential to the production of a new plant 
among ferns. Not long ago Prof. "W. G. Far- 
low, now of Harvard university, discovered 
minute fern plantlets issuing from a prothallus 
upon which no antheridia or archegonia were 
present; and continuing his observations, he 
found in the same collection of seedlings about 
50 which had been developed from prothalli 
destitute of both sexual organs, and showing 
very conclusively that in one fern at least 
asexual production of plants may take place. 

PARTHENON. See ATHENS. 

PARTHENOPE, in mythology, a siren, after 
whom the city of Neapolis in Campania (Na- 
ples) was believed to have originally borne 
the same name. The short-lived republic into 
which the French in 1799 transformed the 
Neapolitan kingdom was hence named the Par- 
thenopean. 

PARTHIA, an ancient country of Asia, which 
for several hundred years was the seat of an 
extensive and powerful empire. Parthia prop- 
er was a territory S. E. of the Caspian sea, 
now embraced in the northern portion of the 
Persian province of Khorasan, with an area of 



about 33,000 sq. m. It was bounded N. W. by 
Hyrcania, N. by the territory of the Choras- 
mii (Kharesm or Khiva), N. E. by Margiana, 
E. by Aria, S. E. by Drangiana or Sarangia, 
and S. and W. by the territory of the Sagartii. 
The soil of the valleys is fertile, producing 
large crops of wheat, barley, rice, and cotton ; 
the climate is severe in winter and hot in sum- 
mer. The mountains are extensive, but of no 
great height, none of them exceeding 6,000 ft. ; 
and besides many smaller streams there are 
three rivers of considerable size, including the 
upper course of the Tedjend. Parthia had no 
large cities. The chief was Hecatompylos, one 
of the cities founded by Alexander the Great, 
which when the Parthian kingdom had ex- 
panded into an empire was abandoned by the 
sovereigns, though it always retained to some 
extent the distinction of being the national 
capital, and a royal palace was maintained there 
for the occasional reception of the court. The 
site of Hecatompylos has not been ascertained, 
but it is supposed to have been near lat. 37 
and Ion. 56 30'. The early history of the 
Parthians is very obscure. They are not men- 
tioned at all in the Old Testament, nor in 
the Zend-Avesta, nor in the Assyrian inscrip- 
tions. In the inscriptions of Darius Hystas- 
pis (521-486 B. 0.) Parthia is enumerated 
among the provinces of the Persian empire. 
The inhabitants were a brave and hardy peo- 
ple, of Scythian origin, speaking a language 
half Scythian, half Aryan, were armed in the 
Scythian fashion, and displayed extraordinary 
skill in horsemanship and in archery. Their 
armies consisted chiefly of cavalry, and their 
favorite weapon was the bow, with which they 
fought while in motion, using it as formida- 
bly in retreating as in advancing. Herodotus 
speaks of them as a people subject to the Per- 
sians in the reign of Darius, and as taking part 
in the expedition of Xerxes against Greece 
(480 B. C.), armed with bows and with spears. 
They fought on the Persian side at Arbela 
against Alexander, and submitted to that con- 
queror without resistance after the death of 
Darius III. On the division of Alexander's 
empire among his chief generals, Parthia came 
for a time under the rule of Antigonus, and 
subsequently under that of Seleucus, king of 
Syria, whose dominion extended from the Med- 
iterranean to the Indus. His successors Anti- 
ochus I. and II. were almost constantly engaged 
in wars with their neighbors in Asia if inor and 
in Egypt, and paid little attention to the re- 
mote eastern provinces, which they governed 
by satraps in the Persian manner. About 255 
B. C. the satrap of Bactria, a Greek named Dio- 
dotus, revolted and proclaimed himself king. 
Antiochus II. made no effort to subdue him, 
and the independence of the new kingdom was 
established without bloodshed. A few year 
later (in 248, according to an inscription dis 
covered by George Smith in 1874) Parthif 
followed the example of Bactria, and becanu 
independent under a chief named Arsaces, of 



PARTHIA 



135 



whom contradictory accounts are given by the 
ancient historians. According to one account, 
he was a Bactrian who would not submit to 
Diodotus, and going into Parthia induced the 
natives to revolt and make him their king. An- 
other account says he was a Parthian of high 
rank, who, having been grossly insulted by the 
Greek satrap, killed him and headed a success- 
ful revolt. A third version says that Arsaces 
was a Scythian chief, who with a predatory 
band entered Parthia, drove out the Greeks, 
and made himself king with the consent of 
the natives, who hailed him as a deliverer. 
This version is accepted as most probable by 
George Rawlinson, the latest historian of Par- 
thia. Whatever his origin or however he ac- 
quired his power, Arsaces met with no oppo- 
sition from Antiochus, and would have quickly 
established his rule but for malcontents, prob- 
ably of Greek descent, in his new kingdom. 
He struggled with them for two years, and fell 
in battle in 247 or 246. He was succeeded by 
his brother, who in addition to his own name, 
Tiridates, took that of Arsaces, as did all the 
Parthian kings down to the fall of the empire 
under Arsaces XXXIV. (or XXX.). Arsaces 
II. reigned upward of 30 years, consolidated 
the monarchy, enlarged its boundaries by the 
conquest of Hyrcania, and made it a united 
and powerful nation. He repelled a formidable 
army which the Syrian king Seleucus Callinicus 
led to Parthia in 237, the victory over which 
was long celebrated by the Parthians as the 
second beginning of their independence. Ar- 
saces III., whose proper name was Artabanus, 
and whose reign began about 214, conquered 
Media, an aggression which led to immediate 
reprisals by the Syrian king Antiochus III., 
who with a vast army retook Media, advanced 
into Parthia, and occupied Hecatompylos with- 
out opposition. He then invaded Hyrcania and 
captured several towns. The record of what 
followed has perished with the lost books of 
Polybius. It is only known that after a strug- 
gle of several years Antiochus retired about 
206, having made a treaty acknowledging the 
independence of Parthia. For a considera- 
ble period after this Parthian history is almost 
a blank. Phraates I. (Arsaces V.), an active 
and warlike king, conquered several provinces 
from the Syrian monarchy. After a reign of 
seven years he was succeeded by his brother 
Mithridates I. (Arsaces VI.), the most distin- 
guished of the Parthian kings. During his long 
reign (174-136) the kingdom expanded by his 
conquests into a great empire, extending from 
the Euphrates to the Indus, and including, be- 
sides Parthia proper, Bactria, Aria, Margiana, 
Hyrcania, Media, Persia, and Babylonia. Mith- 
ridates met with little opposition from the 
Syrian kings whose eastern provinces he ap- 
propriated, because those monarchs were too 
much absorbed by civil war in Syria to attend 
to anything else. But at length Demetrius 
II. so far suppressed his domestic enemies as 
to deem it prudent to undertake a campaign 



against the Parthians, who had now passed 
the Euphrates and were threatening Syria it- 
self. He was received as a deliverer by the 
Greeks who occupied the cities, and who hated 
the Parthian conquerors; and with their aid 
and that of disaffected Persians and Bactrians, 
he won many battles at first, but was finally 
defeated in a great battle in which his army 
was destroyed and himself taken prisoner. 
Soon after this victory Mithridates died, and 
was succeeded by his son Phraates II. "(Arsa- 
ces VII.). Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of 
Demetrius, had become king of Syria on the 
captivity of the latter, and in 129 undertook 
to rescue the captive king and to chastise the 
Parthians. He accordingly crossed the Eu- 
phrates with a vast army, which at first met 
with some success, but was at last totally de- 
feated and destroyed, Antiochus himself be- 
ing killed. The Parthian king Phraates did 
not long survive his victory; he became in- 
volved in a war with the Scythian nomads on 
his northern frontier, and was defeated and 
slain by them in 127. His successor Artaba- 
nus II. (Arsaces VIII.) met with the same 
fate about three years later. Mithridates II., 
called the Great by ancient writers, repelled 
the Scythian hordes and added to the em- 
pire many provinces on its northern side. He 
also invaded Armenia, which brought him 
into contact with the Romans. He probably 
died about 89, after a reign of 35 years. A 
period of civil war seems to have followed, 
during which negotiations with the Romans 
were carried on with regard to Armenia, and 
a sort of alliance was formed between the 
Roman general Pompey and a Parthian king 
named Phraates III., who was assassinated by 
his sons Mithridates and Orodes about 60. 
Mithridates became king, but was deposed and 
put to death by Orodes about 55. In that year 
Crassus became consul at Rome, and being 
appointed to the command of the East an- 
nounced his intention of conquering Parthia. 
After a reconnoissance in force beyond the Eu- 
phrates in 54, he entered on his great campaign 
in 53 with a powerful army, which was totally 
defeated by the surena or general of Orodes 
near Carrhas in Mesopotamia. Crassus escaped 
from the battle, but was soon after entrapped 
into a conference and put to death. Of his 
army three fourths were killed or captured. 
The victorious Parthians now invaded Syria, 
which had become a Roman province ; but as 
their force was chiefly cavalry, they could not 
capture any of the cities, and were easily ex- 
pelled from the country by Cassius the pro- 
consul. Subsequently Orodes took part in the 
civil war that followed the death of Caasar, 
by sending a body of cavalry to the aid of 
Brutus and Cassius ; and in 40, having the aid 
of a Roman soldier of much experience, Labi- 
enus, one of the defeated party, he sent a great 
force to invade Syria under the joint com- 
mand of Labienus and his own son Pacorus. 
The Parthians under Pacorus overran Syria, 



136 



PARTHIA 



Phoenicia, and Palestine, in the last named 
country setting up Antigonus, an Asmonean 
prince, as priest-king, who governed Jerusalem 
for three years (40-87) as a Parthian satrap. 
Meanwhile Labienus with a portion of the Par- 
thian army invaded Asia Minor, defeated and 
slew the Roman general who opposed him, and 
conquered Cilicia, Pamphylia, Lycia, and Caria, 
and it is said pillaged even Lydia and Ionia. 
For about a year the Parthians were undis- 
puted masters of Asia, and Roman authority 
had disappeared. But in 39 Antony sent his 
lieutenant Ventidius with an army to the 
East. He landed on the coast of Asia Minor, 
and presently defeated and dispersed the in- 
vaders, capturing Labienus and putting him 
to death. He then turned his arms against 
Pacorus, defeated a Parthian force at the Sy- 
rian Gates, reconquered Syria, and drove Pa- 
corus across the Euphrates in 39 or 38. The 
next year Pacorus recrossed the Euphrates 
with a powerful army, but was met by Venti- 
dius and defeated and slain. His father Orodes, 
overwhelmed with grief, resigned the throne 
to his second son Phraates IV., who soon put 
him to death, killed his 30 brothers, and per- 
secuted the Parthian nobles so severely that 
most of them fled into the neighboring coun- 
tries. A body of them took refuge in Syria, 
where Antony was now in command, and per- 
suaded him to invade Parthia. He began his 
invasion in 37 with a force of more than 100,000 
men, whom he led through Armenia into Media. 
His expedition failed, and he was compelled 
to retreat with the loss of a third of his army. 
In 20 the emperor Augustus visited the East, 
and persuaded Phraates to restore to him the 
standards taken from Orassus, which were re- 
ceived in Rome with extravagant delight. Af- 
ter the death of Phraates, who was poisoned 
by his wife and son about the beginning of the 
Christian era, the history of Parthia for more 
than a century seems to have been chiefly a 
succession of revolutions and civil wars, end- 
ing in a disintegration of the empire, so that 
three or four monarchs, each claiming to be 
the true Arsaces, were ruling at the same time 
in different portions of the Parthian dominions. 
The Romans knew little of these divisions, 
their dealings being only with the Arsaces 
who reigned at Ctesiphon over Mesopotamia 
and Adiabene. About A. D. 108 the Arsaces 
at Ctesiphon bore the name Chosroes, and his 
nephew a few years before had been made 
king of Armenia by the Parthians without 
consulting the Romans, who had long claimed 
the right to nominate the occupant of the 
Armenian throne. Trajan, who was then em- 
peror, having the Dacian war on his hands, 
had borne this insult without seeking redress 
until the subjugation of Dacia left him free to 
act. He then resolved on the conquest of 
Parthia, and in 114, after long preparation, be- 
gan his expedition. Envoys of Chosroes met 
him at Athens with conciliatory proposals, 
which he rejected. He continued his march 



to Armenia, which submitted with little re- 
sistance and was declared a Roman province. 
The conquest of Mesopotamia speedily fol- 
lowed, together with that of some adjacent 
territories ; but the natives were so turbulent 
and harassed the Romans so much that Trajan, 
who had occupied Ctesiphon, found it prudent 
to retreat into Syria at the end of 116. In the 
following year he was taken ill, and leaving 
Hadrian in command in Syria he set out for 
Rome, but died on his way in Cilicia. Ha- 
drian, who succeeded him as emperor, relin- 
quished the conquests of Trajan and withdrew 
the Roman forces to the west side of the Eu- 
phrates. Peace between Rome and Parthia 
lasted till 161, when the Parthian king Volo- 
geses III. on the death of Antoninus Pius 
suddenly invaded the Roman territories, con- 
quered Armenia, and carried fire and sword 
through Syria into Palestine. Lucius Verus 
went to the East, and the Roman army, com- 
manded by Avidius Cassius, defeated Volo- 
geses in a great battle near the Euphrates and 
drove the Parthians across that river. Cassius 
then carried the war into Parthia. He cap- 
tured and burnt the great city of Seleucia, 
plundered Ctesiphon, and recovered all the 
conquests of Trajan. The war with Rome 
terminated in 165, and peace between the two 
empires was maintained till the commotions 
which followed the murder of Commodus in 
192 excited the Parthians of the provinces an- 
nexed by Cassius to rise in insurrection and 
massacre the Roman garrisons, and to besiege 
Nisibis, the Roman capital of Mesopotamia. 
The emperor Septimius Severus marched in 
195 to the relief of Nisibis, reduced Mesopo- 
tamia to subjection, and added Adiabene to 
the empire. In the following year he returned 
to Rome to suppress the insurrection of Clo- 
dius Albinus, who had been proclaimed empe- 
ror. On his departure the Parthians renewed 
hostilities, recovered Adiabene, swept the Ro- 
mans from Mesopotamia or shut them up in 
Nisibis, to which they laid siege, and even in- 
vaded Syria. Severus, having suppressed and 
slain his rival, returned to the East in 197, 
drove the Parthians across the Euphrates, 
which he himself passed with a powerful army, 
captured Babylon and Seleucia, and, after de- 
feating the Parthian king in a great battle be- 
fore the walls of Ctesiphon, took that capital 
by assault, gave it up to plunder, and before 
returning to Italy established a new Roman 
province in the region beyond the Tigris. His 
son Caracalla renewed the war, and after a 
campaign beyond the Tigris went into winter 
quarters at Edessa, but was assassinated in 
April, 217, by one of his officers. Macrinus, 
who succeeded to the command of the army 
and was proclaimed emperor, began to retreat 
toward Syria, but was attacked by Artabanus 
IV. (Arsaces XXXIV.), the last and one of the 
ablest of the Parthian kings. The Romans 
stood at bay at Nisibis, and the battle which 
ensued was the last and fiercest ever fought be- 



PARTITION" 



PARTNERSHIP 



137 



tween the forces of the two great empires. It 
lasted three days, and resulted in the defeat 
of the Romans, who were compelled to pur- 
chase permission to retire unmolested at a price 
equivalent to about $7,000,000. Three or four 
years after this great battle Artaxerxes, the 
tributary king or satrap of Persia, who claimed 
descent from Cyrus and Darius Hystaspis, re- 
volted against Artabanus, called the Persians 
and the followers of Zoroaster to arms, and, 
after a hard struggle which lasted five or six 
years, defeated and killed Artabanus in a 
great battle on the plain of Hormuz in 226. 
The Parthian empire thus perished after an ex- 
istence of nearly five centuries, and the Per- 
sian empire of the Sassanians took its place. 
See "The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy," 
by George Rawlinson (London, 1873). 

PARTITION, in law, the severance of common 
or undivided interests. It is particularly ap- 
plied to interests in realty. At common law 
lands held by two or more persons were held 
by them either in joint tenancy, in common, 
or in coparcenery. The first two of these es- 
tates were created by the act of the parties. 
The last was created by operation of the law, 
when in casting a descent it devolved a single 
estate upon two or more heirs; as, for ex- 
ample, when an estate in fee of one who left 
no male succession passed to his daughters or 
other female representatives. These persons 
were called coparceners. Theirs was the only 
joint estate of which the common law would 
compel a dissolution at the request of a single 
party. Joint tenants and tenants in common 
became so, said the law, by their own mutual 
agreement and act, and the tenancy could be 
justly severed only by their mutual consent. 
But coparceners are rendered so by operation 
of law, and lest any one of them be prejudiced 
by the perverseness of his fellows, the law will 
lend its aid, if he ask it, and help him, by par- 
tition, to the enjoyment of his separate inter- 
est. In the reigns of Henry VIII. and of Wil- 
liam IV. special statutes extended this com- 
mon law benefit, which hitherto coparceners 
alone had enjoyed, to joint tenants and tenants 
in common ; so that partition then became in- 
cident to all estates held in common. In the 
United States the technical joint tenancy is for 
the most part abolished ; joint ownerships be- 
ing, if not under express statutes, yet in effect, 
only tenancies in common. Therefore what 
in England would be estates in coparcenery 
are here estates in common, so that much of 
the English law of partition is inapplicable 
here. Yet as among us real property general- 
ly passes, on the death of an ancestor, to more 
persons than one, partition still retains an im- 
portance in respect to the tenancies in com- 
mon of heirs and devisees. In some parts of 
the country, the operation of this remedy is 
extended by statutes beyond the limits fixed 
for it by the common law or the statutes of 
Henry VIII. In England partition was made 
either by mutual consent or upon compulsion. 



In the latter case, the relief was sought either 
by a writ of partition, sued out by one party, 
at common law, or by his petition to the court 
of chancery. The latter is now the usual 
mode, and there is good reason for the prefer- 
ence of 'the chancery courts, as the procedure 
at law in a case of partition is far less effec- 
tive than that in equity. The courts of law 
are limited to a mere allotment according to 
the proportional shares of the parties in inter- 
est ; and this often causes a purely mechanical, 
and so prejudicial, division of an estate. But 
chancery, not restricted to the exact balancing 
of equivalent shares, but capable of all equita- 
ble adjustments of . the matter, may distribute 
among the claimants the separate, though un- 
equal, parcels of the estate, assigning to the 
several parties the portions which will best suit 
their respective condition, equalizing such a 
partition by decreeing pecuniary compensation 
to be made, or in other cases ordering equita- 
ble payments by some for improvements made 
in the common property by others. This ju- 
risdiction is exercised with peculiar fitness in 
all cases where purely equitable rights, con- 
flicting claims of parties, or modes of enjoy- 
ment are to be adjusted. Courts of equity 
will interpose only when the title of their pe- 
titioner is clear. If it be contested, he must 
try it at law. Wherever, in our states, dis- 
tinct equity courts exist, they probably have 
concurrent jurisdiction with courts of law in 
respect to partitions, and, in general, such a 
jurisdiction as has just been described. But 
in almost all the states the cognizance of par- 
titions is regulated by very minute statute pro- 
visions, and to these in each state reference 
must be made for the particular methods of 
procedure, and the powers of the courts. In 
some states the equity process is left undis- 
turbed; in some the writ of partition, with 
certain modifications, still remains. General- 
ly, however, the mode of obtaining partition 
is by petition to the higher courts of law. The 
courts of probate, too, are usually invested 
with the power to divide estates. 

PARTNERSHIP, in law, exists when two or 
more persons combine their property, labor, 
or skill, or one or more of these, for the trans- 
action of business for their common profit. It 
may be confined to a specific purpose or a sin- 
gle transaction; but when not so limited by 
the words of the partners, or by acts which 
imply limitation, it is general. All persons 
competent to do business on their own account 
may enter into partnership. Generally, the 
partners own the property and the profits joint- 
ly ; but one or more of them may own exclu- 
sively the property or capital, leaving only the 
profits to be owned jointly. So all kinds of 
property may be owned by a partnership. But 
when real estate is so owned, the laws of rec- 
ord title, of transfer by deed, of inheritance, 
and of dower, have still an important operation. 
Generally the rule is this : Real estate is part- 
nership property when it is bought with part- 



138 



PARTNERSHIP 



nership funds, for partnership purposes, and 
is used for these purposes. Then it will be 
treated as part of the capital of the firm, and 
just as personal property is treated, so far as 
liability for the partnership debts is concerned, 
and until the remaining balance is ascertained 
and divided among the partners ; but then its 
character as real estate is restored with all the 
incidents of dower and the like. The legal 
title must always be traced through the rec- 
ords. But if the property be, for example, in 
the name of one partner, he will be regarded 
as holding it in trust for the partnership ; and 
if he die, his heir will be held as trustee, and 
only so much as is not wanted to pay the debts 
of the firm, or satisfy the claims of the other 
partners, will be permitted to remain in his 
hands, as his own and free from the obliga- 
tions of the trust. So, the widow has her 
dower in the real estate after debts and claims 
are satisfied, and not before. The good will 
of a partnership is, for many purposes, a part 
of its property, and may be transferred by sale 
or assigned for the benefit of creditors; and 
it would undoubtedly pass to the assignees 
under insolvency, by operation of law. No 
partner, and no majority, can introduce a new 
partner without the consent of the others. A 
partner may sell out all his interest in a part- 
nership, or may assign it as security for a debt ; 
but the purchaser or assignee only acquires a 
right to have the balance due paid to him, and 
cannot acquire merely by the transfer a right 
to become a partner. A partnership may be 
formed by an instrument under seal, which is 
perhaps the most common, or by a written 
instrument without seal, or by oral agreement, 
without any writing. In general, a partnership 
is formed by an agreement that the parties shall 
enter together into a certain business, and 
share the profits and losses. In the absence 
of special stipulations, the partners share equal- 
ly, but may stipulate about this as they will. 
So the agreement may provide for its duration, 
but if the period appointed for its termination 
arrives, and it continues in fact, and without 
a new bargain, it will be held to continue upon 
the former terms. Persons may be partners 
as to third persons who deal with the firm, 
while they are not partners as between them- 
selves. Thus, A may agree with B and that 
A shall render certain assistance to the firm of 
B and 0, either of capital, credit, or skill, and 
not be held out as a partner, nor be a partner, 
and own a certain proportion of the profits, 
and not be liable for any share of the losses. 
Then, if the firm be not insolvent, A may 
claim of B and his share of the profits, and, 
if obliged to pay any debt or loss of the firm, 
may claim compensation from B and C. But 
nevertheless, he will be just as liable to the cred- 
itors of the firm as B or ; and all his prop- 
erty will be as liable as their property. There 
have been many cases turning on this point, 
but the principle of law is clear and certain, 
however difficult it may sometimes be to apply 



it. This principle is, that whether a person is 
a partner in the firm in regard to the rights 
and obligations among the partners, depends 
upon the agreements they have made; but, 
whatever these agreements are, he is a part- 
ner as to third persons, that is, he incurs as to 
them all the responsibilities of a partner, in 
two ways, and on two grounds. One is, that 
he was, by his own consent, or by his own 
fault, held out to the world as a partner, so 
as to justify the creditors of the firm in deal- 
ing with it as if he were a partner ; and the 
second is, that, without being so known or 
held out, he participates in fact in the profits 
of the concern. For it is a nearly universal 
rule, that one who participates in the profits 
as such is liable for the losses. The principal 
and most difficult question which has arisen 
on this subject, relates to clerks or salesmen 
who are paid by a share in the profits. For- 
merly it was held, that if such a person was 
paid, for example, " one twentieth part of the 
profits," this made him a partner, and liable 
as such ; but if he was paid " a sum equal to 
one twentieth part of the profits," this was 
only a payment of wages, which was indeed 
measured by the profits, but did not make him 
a partner. But this technical and irrational 
distinction has passed away; and now the 
question in every such case would be: Does 
his bargain with the partners merely provide 
that his compensation shall be measured by 
the profits ? for then he is only a person em- 
ployed by the firm and not a partner ; or does 
the bargain give him a property in the capital 
or in the profits? for this would make him 
liable as a partner. In other words, if the 
alleged partner has a right and property in one 
twentieth (or any other proportion) of the 
profits, while they remain undivided, he is a 
partner and liable as such ; but if he has no 
such right or property, but only a claim against 
the firm for so such money as, upon a settle- 
ment of the firm's profits, one twentieth of 
them shall amount to, he is not a partner, and 
has none of the liabilities of that relation. It 
is a general rule, both in England and in the 
United States, that no partner can sue another 
at law on any matter growing out of and con- 
nected with the transactions of the partner- 
ship business, and dependent for its determina- 
tion upon the partnership accounts. The prin- 
cipal reason for this is, that whether one part- 
ner owes another or has a claim against him 
must depend upon a settlement of all the busi- 
ness and an adjustment of all the accounts. 
This a court of equity can direct and super- 
vise by its machinery of masters, receivers, 
and the like, although a court of law cannot ; 
and therefore it is now settled, as a general 
rule, that questions between partners about 
partnership affairs must go before a court of 
equity and not a court of law. But a partner 
may sue a partner at law in any matter not 
involving the partnership accounts ; and so if 
a distinct part thereof is severed from the rest, 



PARTNERSHIP 



139 



and especially if a separate promise is made 
about this, a common action at law is main- 
tainable for the balance. If, as is not unfre- 
quently the case, a man is a member of two 
firms, one of those firms cannot sue the oth- 
er at law, because the same person cannot be 
plaintiff and defendant. But if one of the 
firms holds the negotiable paper of the other, it 
may indorse it to a third person, who may sue 
the other firm. Partners are of various kinds. 
They may be open or secret, active or dormant, 
retiring or new-coming. A secret partner is just 
as liable for the debts of the firm, when he is dis- 
covered, as an open and declared partner ; so a 
dormant partner who only lends his capital or 
his name, and takes his profits, is just as liable 
as an active partner ; for the one rule, which 
lies at the foundation of the whole law of part- 
nership, is, that each partner, and the whole of 
his property, is liable for the whole of the 
partnership debts. This rule was until recent- 
ly universal, and would be so. now but for the 
special partnership recently introduced into 
this country from Europe. (See PAKTNEESHIP, 
LIMITED.) A retiring partner who continues 
to receive a share of the profits continues to 
be liable for the debts of the firm, but is not 
made liable by receiving a certain definite sum, 
annually or otherwise, independently of the 
profits. He should give notice of his retire- 
ment ; for those who deal with the firm in ig- 
norance of his retirement, without their fault, 
may deal with it on his credit, and are author- 
ized to hold him "responsible. But a new cus- 
tomer, who had no dealings with the firm be- 
fore the retirement of this partner, cannot hold 
the partner after retirement without notice, 
unless it can be shown that he came to the 
firm on the credit of this partner, and that he 
was justified in trusting to this credit. So if a 
creditor of a firm, knowing of such retirement, 
receives for his debt the negotiable paper of 
the firm, the presumption of law is that he in- 
tended to discharge the retiring partner ; which 
presumption can be refuted only by evidence 
of an honest and actual intention to the con- 
trary. A nominal partner, who lends his name 
to a firm without any interest whatever, is, in 
general, just as liable as if he were actually in- 
terested. If one purchases goods separately, and 
owes for them, those who become subsequently 
interested in the goods jointly with the first 
purchaser are not thereby made liable for the 
debt, unless the purchase was made originally 
by their joint authority, and for the purpose 
of bringing it into the partnership ; for then 
the partnership existed at the beginning. 
Throughout the commercial world, it is a uni- 
versal rule, that each partner has full power 
and authority to act for the others and repre- 
sent the whole firm in all matters appertaining 
to the partnership. There is perhaps no ex- 
ception or limitation to this rule, other than 
by the principle that either partner's powers 
may be restrained by agreement, and all per-, 
sons to whom this agreement is communicated 



are bound by it. Hence, on the continent of 
Europe, it is very common for the circulars 
or cards announcing a firm to specify which of 
the members is authorized to make purchases 
in one place or in another, or to draw or accept 
bills, and the like. Where there is not this 
agreed and declared limitation, each partner 
may make purchases, sales, loans, assignments, 
pledges, or mortgages of the partnership prop- 
erty, and give or receive notes or bills or 
money therefor; and any such transaction, 
done in reference to and within the scope of 
the partnership business, and with honest in- 
tent on the part of the person dealing with the 
firm, binds the firm and all the partners in 
regard to that person, however fraudulent the 
transaction may be in reference to the other 
partners. But if a partner, who has borrowed 
money in his own name, brings that money 
into the partnership, the partners are not there- 
by made liable for the debt ; the firm owes the 
borrowing partner, and he alone owes the lend- 
er ; and one who lends money to a partner, for 
the very purpose of enabling him to contribute 
the same to their capital, cannot hold the oth- 
er partners without their assent. Some part- 
nerships are carried on in the name of an indi- 
vidual, who may also use his own name in his 
own business. In that case, paper bearing his 
name will be supposed to relate to his private 
and individual business, unless direct evidence 
or circumstances show it to have been on the 
firm's account. A release by or to one partner 
is a release by or to the firm, if there be no 
fraud ; so a notice by or to one is notice by or 
to all. The question sometimes arises, how far 
a new-coming member is responsible for a for- 
mer and existing debt. The general answer is, 
that he is not so liable without his adoption of 
the debt ; but this adoption may be shown by 
his express agreement, either with the firm or 
with the creditor, or it may be inferred from 
circumstances which distinctly indicate it ; and 
it has been held that a payment by the firm, 
after he enters it, of the interest on an old debt 
with his knowledge and without objection by 
him, implies his adoption of the debt as due 
from his firm. But the liability of a new-com- 
ing partner for the existing debts of the firm 
cannot be presumed from the mere fact of his 
entering into the firm. Whether a majority of 
the partners can bind a minority, and conduct 
the business of the firm at their pleasure, may 
not be quite settled ; but the later authorities 
seem to confine this power of a majority to 
what may be called the domestic affairs of the 
firm, as the hiring a room or store, keeping 
clerks or books, and the like. At the same 
time it seems to be now well established that 
a partner who dissents from an inchoate and 
incomplete transaction, and distinctly expresses 
his dissent to the outside parties concerned in 
the transaction, giving them notice that he 
shall not be bound by the action of the firm, 
may in this way protect himself from liability. 
It should be added, however, that the recu- 



140 



PARTNERSHIP 



sant partner, after such denial and notice, may 
waive it, and will be considered as doing so if 
he permits the proceeds or avails of the trans- 
action to be brought into the common account 
and the common fund for the common benefit. 
The dissolution of a partnership, however 
caused, has no effect upon its existing debts, or 
upon the liability of the partners for them; 
but it entirely prevents the contracting of any 
new debt by the firm, because that has ceased 
to exist. Hence the former partners can in no 
way bind one another by any new contracts. 
Thus, no partner can indorse a note ^ of the 
firm, either with the firm's name or his own, 
even if it be to pay a debt of the firm ; and 
even authority given by the firm to one part- 
ner to settle the affairs of the firm would not, 
generally, carry with it the power to make 
such indorsement. Dissolution may take place 
in many ways. 1. By the expiration of the 
time when it is to terminate by the articles ; 
but if it goes on as before, although nothing 
be said, the law will presume an agreement to 
continue it on the former terms. 2. It may 
certainly be dissolved at the pleasure of any 
partner, if there be no limited term in the 
articles ; and if there be, and even if there be 
a mutual covenant not to dissolve, we should 
say that any partner might dissolve the copart- 
nership at his pleasure, always being liable to 
respond in damages for any injury he may in- 
flict by his breach of contract. But a court of 
equity would probably interfere to prevent a 
causeless or fraudulent dissolution, especially 
if it were obvious that injury would be done 
which could not be adequately compensated by 
damages. So a court of equity would always 
decree a dissolution at the prayer of any part- 
ner, if he could show good cause, of sufficient 
magnitude; and in any such case the court 
would appoint a receiver if that were necessary, 
and do or order all other things which the in- 
terests and equities of the parties required. 3. 
An assignment by a partner of his whole share 
and interest in the copartnership property and 
business would of itself work a dissolution; 
and it would be so even if one partner assigned 
his whole share to another partner, because 
this would be equivalent to this partner's going 
out of the firm. 4. Any departure from a firm 
or 'copartnership by any partner dissolves that 
firm, however it be caused. The firm may go 
on as before, taking in or not new partners, 
but it is in law a new firm, for the simple rea- 
son that a partnership is in no sense or measure 
a corporation. Hence, the death of any mem- 
ber of a firm dissolves that firm. Even if the 
articles provide for that casualty, and it is 
agreed that the firm shall go on with unchanged 
name, and that no account shall be taken, but 
the share of the deceased be paid to his repre- 
sentatives by cash or notes to a certain amount, 
still in law the old firm ceased when the part- 
ner died, and a new one began. 5. Bank- 
ruptcy of the firm, or perhaps of any part- 
ner, dissolves the firm at once. Whether the 



insanity of a partner has that effect may not 
be certain, but we should say that insanity 
which would probably be permanent would 
unquestionably be a good ground for disso- 
lution by the court or by the parties, but 
that it would not of itself, and by its own 
force, effect a dissolution. If a partnership 
is dissolved by the death of a partner, the 
whole property and business pass to the survi- 
vor or survivors, but only for the purpose of 
settling up the business and closing the con- 
cerns of the partnership as soon as this can be 
done in a proper way. The surviving partners 
and the representatives of the deceased may 
come to some agreement about this, or the 
articles may provide for such an event. But 
in the absence of any such agreement or pro- 
vision, the survivors takfe everything, with the 
powers necessary for the speediest and best 
settlement, and no more; nor can they, even 
for the purpose of settlement, make new con- 
tracts binding the estate or representatives of 
the deceased. "When the settlement is finally 
and fully made, the survivors must pay over to 
the representatives of the deceased the share 
due to the estate ; but until then the represen- 
tatives cannot interfere with the management 
of the property, although a court of equity will 
interfere, on their petition, to prevent waste, 
delay, or other injurious conduct by the survi- 
vors. The rules of law in regard to the rights 
of creditors over the funds of the partnership, 
and the property of the partners, are very im- 
portant, but in some particulars they are not 
quite settled. It is certain that the joint funds 
of the partnership are, in the first place, to be 
applied and appropriated to pay the joint debts, 
that is, to pay the partnership creditors; and 
the private creditors of the individual partners 
cannot touch the partnership funds in any 
way until these have paid in full all the part- 
nership debts. It is also certain that the pri- 
vate creditors of an individual partner may 
reach by any proper process of law the private 
and separate property of the partner who is 
their debtor. So, too, it is certain that the 
creditors of the firm may, at some time, re- 
sort to the private property of the partners. 
The uncertainty is involved in this question : 
While the creditors of the firm have an ex- 
clusive right to the property of the firm, have 
the private creditors of the partners an equally 
exclusive right to the private property of the 
indebted partners ? Upon this it can only be 
said that the rulings of courts are greatly at 
variance. What right a creditor of a partner 
in a solvent firm has, and how he may effectu- 
ate his right, is a matter of much uncertainty. 
The prevailing principle may be stated in this 
way. The creditor can take only what his 
debtor has. This is not a several and distinct 
right to or property in any part of- the part- 
nership funds ; for it is only an ownership of 
the whole in common with the other partners,, 
and thence a right to have the accounts set- 
tled, and the debts of the firm paid, and then 



PARTNERSHIP (LIMITED) 

his share of the balance set off or paid to him 
in severalty. This right or interest his credi- 
tor may acquire by attachment or levy; and 
if it be done by attachment, a frequent, and 
generally speaking the better way, is to sum- 
mon all the partners as trustees or garnishees 
under the process of foreign attachment. 

PARTNERSHIP, Limited (or, as it is some- 
times called, special partnership), a partnership 
whereof one or more of the members con- 
tribute a certain amount to the capital, which 
may be lost by its being demanded for payment 
of the debts of the firm, but beyond which 
they have no further liability. This is utterly 
unknown to the common law, or to the law 
merchant as existing in England and the Uni- 
ted States; but it has been common on the 
continent of Europe for a long time. Recently 
it has been adopted in this country, and is now 
common. After much opposition, it has also 
to some extent become established in England. 
The statutes of no two states, perhaps, are 
precisely the same ; but they agree substantial- 
ly in the following provisions : 1, there must 
be one or more general partners, all of whom 
are liable in solido ; 2, there may be one or 
more special partners, and the specific sum con- 
tributed by each special partner must be actu- 
ally paid in ; 3, the arrangement or articles of 
partnership must be in writing, must generally 
be acknowledged before a magistrate, and must 
be published in one or more newspapers; 4, 
this advertisement, or publication, must state 
accurately the names and residence of the gen- 
eral partners, the names and residence of the 
special partners, the name of the firm, the sum 
which each special partner contributes, the 
business to be transacted, and the period for 
which the partnership is made or the time 
when it will terminate ; and during that time 
the special partner cannot withdraw his capi- 
tal. In some of the states there are provisions 
limiting special partnerships to mercantile busi- 
ness, and excluding insurance, banking, &c. 
If any of the requirements of law are disregard- 
ed, the special partner becomes a general part- 
ner, and is liable in solido. The courts apply 
these rules with much severity. Thus, a special 
partner has been held liable in solido because, 
by an error of one of the newspapers, the sum 
he contributed was stated erroneously. (See 
JOINT-STOCK COMPANY, and LIMITED LIABILITY.) 

PARTON. I. James, an American author, born 
in Canterbury, England, Feb. 9, 1822. At five 
years of age he was brought to New York, 
and at 19 he became a teacher in an academy 
at White Plains, Westchester eo., and after- 
ward in Philadelphia and New York. His first 
literary employment was on the staff of the 
"Home Journal" of New York, with which 
he was connected about three years. Since 
then he has devoted himself to literary labor 
and public lecturing. In March, 1875, he pur- 
chased a house in Newburyport, Mass., in- 
tending to make it his future residence. He 
has published a "Life of Horace Greeley" 



PARTRIDGE 



141 



(New York, 1855 ; new ed., 1868) ; a collec- 
tion of " Humorous Poetry of the English Lan- 
guage, from Chaucer to Saxe " (1857) ; " Life 
and Times of Aaron Burr " (1857 ; new ed., 2 
vols., 1864) ; " General Butler in New Orleans" 
(1863) ; " Life and Times of Benjamin Frank- 
lin " (2 vols., 1864) ; " Smoking and Drinking," 
and " People's Book of Biography " (1868) ; 
" Famous Americans of Recent Times " (1870) ; 
" Triumphs of Enterprise, Ingenuity, and Pub- 
lic Spirit" (1871); "Topics of the Time" 
(1871); " Words of Washington " (1872) ; and 
" Life of Thomas Jefferson " (1874). In 1875 
he was engaged upon a series of articles for 
"Harper's Monthly" on "Caricatures in all 
Times and Lands." For 15 years he has been 
collecting materials for a life of Voltaire. II. 
Sara Payson Willis, wife of the preceding, born 
in Portland, Me., July 7, 1811, died in New 
York, Oct. 10, 1872. Her father, Nathaniel 
Willis, was for many years editor of the " Bos- 
ton Recorder." She was married to Charles H. 
Eldredge, cashier of the merchants' bank, Bos- 
ton, with whom she lived for several years in 
affluence and happiness; but upon the death 
of her husband she was suddenly thrown upon 
her own resources to provide a maintenance 
for herself and two children. After unsuc- 
cessful attempts to procure employment as a 
teacher and in other vocations, she turned her 
attention in 1851 to literature, and prepared a 
short essay which was rejected by the editors 
of several Boston journals. One of them at 
length purchased it for half a dollar ; it proved 
successful, and was rapidly followed by others, 
which soon made her pseudonyme of " Fanny 
Fern" famous. A collection of her sketches 
was published in 1853 under the title of " Fern 
Leaves," of which 70,000 copies were sold in a 
short time. This was followed by " Little 
Ferns " (1853), " Fern Leaves, Second Series " 
(1854), "Ruth Hall," "Rose Clark," "Fresh 
Leaves" (1857), " The Play Day Book " (1857), 
"Folly as it Flies" (1868), "Ginger Snaps" 
(1870), and "Caper Sauce" (1871). For the 
last few years of her life she was chiefly em- 
ployed in writing for the " New York Ledger." 
She was married to Mr. Parton in January, 
1856. See "Fanny Fern, a Memorial Volume, 
containing her Select Writings and a Me- 
moir," by James Parton (1873). 

PARTRIDGE, the popular name of the family 
of perdicidce, which includes also the quails. 
They differ from the grouse in having the legs 
bare and the nostrils protected by a naked hard 
scale ; they are also smaller and the species are 
more numerous ; the head seldom has a naked 
space around the eyes, and the sides of the toes 
are hardly pectinated ; they are widely distrib- 
uted over the globe, but the true partridges, 01 
perdicince, have no representative in Ameri- 
ca. Great confusion exists in the application of 
the term partridge ; the spruce partridge is the 
Canada grouse (tetrao [canace] Canadensis, 
Linn.) ; the partridge of New England is the 
ruffed grouse (bonasa umbellus, Steph.) ; the 



PARTRIDGE 



partridge of the middle and southern states is 
the quail (ortyx Virginianus, Bonap.) ; several 
other quails are called partridges, as the plumed 
and Gambel's of California, the scaled or blue 
and the Massena of the valley of the Rio 
Grande in Texas ; on the other hand, the birds 
called quails in Europe belong to the partridges 
and to the genus coturnix (Mohr.) ; such of the 
so-called partridges, therefore, as are not de- 
scribed here will be found under GKOUSE and 
QUAIL, and the f rancolin partridges under FRAN- 
COLIN. The typical partridges belong to the 
genus perdix (Briss.) ; the bill is short, broad 
at the base, with the apex curved and vaulted ; 




Common Partridge (Perdix cinerea). 

the wings moderate and rounded, with the 
third, fourth, and fifth quills longest ; tail short 
and greatly concealed by the coverts; tarsi 
without spurs or tubercles; toes long, inner 
shorter than outer, hind one short and slender, 
and claws moderate and slightly curved. There 
are about a dozen species in the temperate 
parts of the old world, some constant residents 
and others migratory, some frequenting culti- 
vated lands and others forests ; though occa- 
sionally perching on trees, they are generally 
seen on the ground, searching for grain, seeds, 
bulbou roots, and insects ; the nest is a slight 
hollow on the ground, beneath some bush, 
and the eggs are from 12 to 20. The common 
or gray partridge (P. cinerea, Lath.) is about 
12 in. long, with an alar extent of 20 in. ; the 
body is round and stout, the head small, and 
the legs and tail short. Though the plumage 
has ^ no brilliant colors, it is very neat, and its 
intricate upper markings of ash-gray, yellow- 
ish brown, brownish black, and brownish red 
are pleasing to the eye; the scapulars and 
wing coverts are darker with whitish streaks ; 
the forehead, cheeks, and throat light red; 
neck ash-gray, with minute black undulations ; 
sides with broad bands of brownish red, 
and a large patch of the same on the breast. 
The female is a little smaller, with the up- 
per parts browner and the top of the head 
streaked with yellowish; both sexes present 



considerable variations. This species is spread 
abundantly over Europe, and is sometimes 
found in IS. Africa, generally in the vicinity of 
grain fields and very rarely in woods ; it runs 
with great speed, squatting close to the ground 
when alarmed; the flight is rapid, direct, low, 
and accompanied with a whirring sound ; it is 
wary, and easily frightened ; the affection for 
the young, or pouts, is very remarkable, and 
various devices are used by the parents to dis- 
tract attention from the brood. During win- 
ter they keep together in coveys, searching for 
food among the stubble ; they separate early in 
spring, pairing in March, the eggs being laid 
in June ; the males take no part in incubation, 
but watch the nest. The genus is monoga- 
mous. This is one of the best game birds, as 
its flesh is tender and well flavored ; shooting 
it forms a favorite and exciting amusement, 
especially in Great Britain ; the bird is so pro- 
lific that, with protection during the breeding 
season, their numbers do not materially dimin- 
ish, and the markets are so well supplied that 
the price brings them within the reach of the 
middle classes. The partridge thrives well 
in captivity, and its inclination to the neigh- 
borhood of man seems to indicate that with 
proper treatment and food it might be domes- 
ticated. It is not only the victim of man, but 
of carnivorous mammals and birds, to the last 
of which it is peculiarly exposed on account 
of its terrestrial habits and short flight. The 
Guernsey or red-legged partridge belongs to the 
genus caccabis (Kaup) ; in this the bill is more 
arched and the tarsi are armed with a blunt 
tubercle. This species (G. rufa, Kaup) is 14 




Guernsey Partridge (Caccabis rufa). 

in. long, with an alar extent of 21 in. ; the bill 
and feet are bright red; upper parts reddish 
brown tinged with gray ; a black band from 
the bill to the eye, and thence down the neck, 
becoming wider and meeting in front that of 
the opposite side; lower parts ash-gray and 
light red, and sides banded with the same and 
black and white. It is confined chiefly to the 
southern countries of Europe and to Asia and 



PARTRIDGE 

Africa ; it is found also in the islands of 
Guernsey and Jersey; its flesh is highly es- 
teemed, but it affords less sport than the com- 
mon species from the separation of the flock 
when pursued by dogs ; it is also believed to 
drive off the gray partridge. The Greek or 
rock partridge ( C. Grceca, Briss.) is larger than 
the last, and has the plumage more ashy ; it 
inhabits the mountainous regions of Greece, 
Turkey, and Asia Minor, and is probably the 
species alluded to in the Hebrew and other 
ancient writings ; the flesh is white and much 
esteemed, though it is occasionally bitter. The 
genus ithaginis (Wagl.) has a short stout bill, 
lengthened and rounded tail, long tarsi armed 
with two or three blunt spurs, anil the toes and 
claws long. Here belongs the sanguine par- 
tridge (/. cruentus, Hardw.), from the moun- 
tains of N. India ; it is slate-colored above 
with yellow streaks, and greenish yellow be- 
low irregularly spotted with red ; edge of 
tail coverts and vent red ; it is nearly as large 
as a pheasant. 

PARTRIDGE, Alden, an American soldier, born 
in Norwich, Vt., about 1785, died there, Jan. 
17, 1854. He graduated at West Point in 
1806, and acted as assistant professor and af- 
terward professor of mathematics in that insti- 
tution from that time till 1813. He was pro- 
fessor of engineering from 1813 to 1816, and 
superintendent from January, 1815, to No- 
vember, 1816, and from January to July, 1817. 
In 1818 he left the service, with the rank of 
captain. He was the principal of the ex- 
ploring survey sent out in 1819 to determine 
the N. W. boundary of the United States. He 
founded in 1820 at Norwich, Vt., a military 
academy, which was afterward removed for a 
time to Middletown, Conn., but restored to 
Norwich and incorporated as Norwich uni- 
versity, with Capt. Partridge as its president. 
He subsequently founded similar institutions 
in New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and 
Delaware, was chosen surveyor general of his 
native state in 1822, and was a member of the 
Vermont legislature from 1833 to 1839. 

PARTRIDGE BERRY, a name sometimes ap- 
plied to the common plant Gaultheria procum- 
lens (see WINTERGREEN), but which properly 
belongs and should be restricted to Mitchella 
repens. This genus was named by Linna3us in 
honor of Dr. John Mitchell, a resident of Vir- 
ginia and an excellent botanist. It belongs to 
the madder family (rubiacece), and consists of a 
single Japanese species besides our own, which 
extends from Canada throughout the states to 
Mexico, and is also found in the mountains 
of South America. The partridge berry is a 
small trailing evergreen, with a much branch- 
ing stem a foot or less long ; it is common in 
dry woods, forming a dense mat about the foot 
of trees ; the opposite short-petioled leaves are 
round-ovnte, dark green, and often variegated 

ith whitish lines; the flowers are in pairs, 
with their two inferior ovaries united, the tube 
of the funnel-shaped corolla about half an inch 
640 VOL. xiii. 10 



PARTRIDGE WOOD 



143 



long, the limb with four spreading lobes dense- 
ly_ bearded within, pearly white, often tinged 
with rose or purplish and very fragrant ; the 
four stamens and single pistil are dimorphous. 




Partridge Berry (Mitchella repens). 

i. ., in some flowers the stamens are long and 
protrude beyond the throat of the corolla, 
while in other flowers this is reversed, the 
pistil being long and the stamens hidden with- 
in the tube. The fruit is about the size of 
a whortleberry, broader than long, and being 
of two cohering ovaries shows the calyces of 
the two flowers ; it is bright scarlet, and each 
half contains four bony nutlets in a white 
pulp. The berries remain on the plant through 
the winter, and it is not rare to find ripe fruit 
at the same time with the flowers in June. 
Other local names are one-berry, two-eyes, 
winter clover, and in some parts of New Eng- 
land checkerberry. The berries, while edible, 
are almost tasteless, and few care to eat them, 
but they furnish food for birds. 

PARTRIDGE WOOD, a wood imported from 
South America and some parts of the West In- 
dies for the use of cabinet makers, by whom it 
is prized for fine work. It is reddish, beau- 
tifully marked with parallel lines and streaks 
of a darker color. Its toughness also makes 
it valuable for umbrella sticks and similar uses. 
Several trees, of different families, have been 
credited with furnishing this wood, and it is 
likely that the product of two or more differ- 
ent trees is known in commerce under the 
same name. According to Guibourt, the gov- 
ernment museums in France have specimens 
under the name of fiois de perdrix which be- 
long to different trees, and the wood known 
in the Paris market by that name appears to be 
different from the partridge wood of the Lon- 
don dealers. These woods are apparently from 
brees of the family of hguminosce ; andira in- 
ermis seems to furnish one of them, but the 
matter is involved in much confusion. 



144: 



PARTY WALL 



PARTY WALL, in law, a dividing wall be- 
tween lands of different proprietors, used in 
common for the support of structures on both 
sides. At the common law an owner who 
has occasion to build on the line of his prem- 
ises has no right to go beyond the exact line 
of division between himself and his neighbor, 
unless he has the neighbor's assent so to do. 
Nor, though he should erect a wall for his own 
buildings which is capable of being used by 
the adjoining proprietor, can he compel such 
proprietor, when he shall build next to it, to 
pay any portion of the cost of such wall. But 
on the other hand, the adjoining proprietor has 
no right to make any use whatever of such 
wall without the consent of the owner, and the 
consequence may be the erection of two walls 
side by side where one would answer all pur- 
poses. This inconvenience is often obviated by 
an agreement under which a wall for common 
use is erected, one half of which is on the land 
of each proprietor, and the expense is borne 
and the use shared equally ; or if only one is 
to build at the time, the wall may be con- 
structed by him at his own expense, but on 
the understanding that the other shall pay 
half the cost when he builds. Under such an 
agreement each has an easement in the land of 
the other while the wall stands, and this accom- 
panies the title in sales and descent. But if 
the wall is destroyed by decay or accident, the 
easement is gone unless by deed such a con- 
tingency is provided for. Repairs to party 
walls are to be borne equally, but if one has 
occasion to strengthen or improve them for 
more extensive buildings than were first cora- 
templated, he cannot compel the other to di- 
vide with him this expense. In some states 
there are statutes regulating rights in party 
walls, and one may undoubtedly acquire rights 
by prescription in a wall built by another 
which he has long been allowed to use for the 
support of his own structures. 

PASARGAD E, or Pasargada, the capital of an- 
cient Persia under Cyrus and Oambyses. Its 
name is translated by Stephen of Byzantium, 
"the encampment of all the Persians." Its 
site is not known. There are some who con- 
tend that Pasargaflsa and Persepolis were the 
same place ; others that it was situated to the 
southeast of Persepolis, at the modern Da- 
rabgerd or Fasa (which Spiegel prefers) ; and 
others again that it lay to the northeast of it, 
near the modern Murgab. (See PERSEPOLIS.) 
All of these views are more or less sustained 
by passages of ancient writers, but Murgab 
has the advantage of possessing many ruins 
and relics of the time of the ancient Persians. 
Among these is a tomb called by the natives 
the tomb of Solomon's mother, but which is 
supposed by Rawlinson and others to be that 
of Cyrus. On a square base, composed of im- 
mense blocks of white marble, that rise in steps, 
stands a quadrangular chamber, built of blocks 
of marble 5 ft. thick, shaped at the top into a 
sloping roof. The chamber seems to have held 



PASCAL 

a sarcophagus. Upon pillars near by repeat^ 
edly occurs the inscription in Persian and Me- 
dian: "I am Cyrus the Achtemenian." As 
the monument is of the style in which the Per- 
sians still build the tombs of women, Oppert 
is of opinion that it was probably erected by 
Cyrus, but was the tomb of a woman,' perhaps 
of Cassandane, mentioned by Herodotus. Pa- 
sargadse was esteemed by the people for its an- 
tiquity, and was under the especial protection 
of the magi. It contained the most ancient 
royal palace and the treasures. The Persian 
kings were inaugurated there. The city was 
the stronghold of a tribe of the same name, the 
noblest of the three principal tribes of the an- 
cient Persians'. The Achaemenidse, to whom 
Cyrus, Darius, and other kings belonged, and 
who were in fact the royal family of ancient 
Persia, were a clan of the PasargadaB. They 
were apparently the direct descendants of the 
original Persian tribe which emigrated from 
further east about 1500 B. C., and which as it 
rose to power imposed its name upon the peo- 
ple and the country. 

PASCAGOULA, a river of Mississippi, formed 
by the junction of the Leaf and Chickasahay 
in Greene co. It flows southerly through 
Jackson co. into Mississippi sound, through two 
mouths, its embouchure forming Pascagoula 
bay. It is navigable for 100 m. or more by 
small vessels, which export lumber, turpentine, 
and other products of the pine forests through 
which it flows. The name is derived from that 
of the Pasca-ogoulas ( u Bread-eaters ") or Pas- 
cagoulas, a tribe of Indians formerly inhabiting 
the vicinity. On the E. mouth of the river is 
the village of Pascagoula, or East Pascagoula, 
which has 500 inhabitants and a large hotel, 
and is much frequented as a summer watering 
place. There are extensive saw mills in the vi- 
cinity. The embouchure of Pascagoula river is 
celebrated for the " mysterious music " which 
may often be heard there on still summer even- 
ings. The listener being on the beach, or, yet 
more favorably, in a boat floating upon the 
river, a low, plaintive sound is heard, rising 
and falling like that of an JEolian harp, and 
seeming to issue from the water. The sounds, 
which are described as sweet and plaintive, 
but monotonous, cease as soon as there is any 
noise or disturbance of the water. The most 
plausible conjecture in explanation of its ori- 
gin is that it is occasioned by some species of 
shell fish or other marine animal. 

PASCAL, Blaise, a French author, born in Cler- 
mont, Auvergne, June 19, 1623, died in Paris, 
Aug. 19, 1662. His father was president of 
the court of aids in his native city, but sold 
his office in 1631 and removed to Paris to de- 
vote himself to the education of his son and 
two daughters. He directed the studies of the 
son to languages and general literature, avoid- 
ing everything connected with the exact sci- 
ences. But without assistance, and ignorant 
of the very rudiments of mathematics, the boy 
secretly applied himself to drawing and reflect- 



PASCAL 



145 



ing upon geometrical figures, until lie had gone 
through a series of definitions, axioms, and de- 
monstrations as far as the 32d proposition of 
Euclid. On discovering this, his father gave 
him mathematical instruction. Blaise was soon 
admitted to the meetings of scientific societies, 
where he astounded the most learned ; and at 
the age of 16 he composed a " Treatise on 
Conic Sections." In 1639 he accompanied his 
father to Eouen, where the latter had been ap- 
pointed superintendent of finance for the prov- 
ince of Normandy; and there he invented a 
calculating machine, which was improved by 
L'fipine and Boitissendeau, but it never came 
into practical use. He published an account of 
it in 1645, and in 1650 offered it to Queen 
Christina of Sweden. During his stay in 
Kouen he also invented the vinaigrette (wheel- 
barrow chair), the haquet (a kind of dray), 
and, according to some, the hydraulic press. 
His health was seriously impaired by his labors, 
and his subsequent life was a succession of suf- 
ferings. In 1648 his brother-in-law M. P6rier, 
in accordance with instructions given by Pas- 
cal in a letter of the previous year, executed 
on the Puy-de-D6me, near Clermont, and at 
Rouen, and Pascal himself at the tower of St. 
Jacques-la-Boucherie in Paris, a series of bar- 
ometrical experiments, which went far to con- 
firm the discoveries of Galileo, Torricelli, and 
Descartes respecting the weight and elasticity 
of air. Pascal was led by these experiments 
to use the barometer for levelling, and for 
ascertaining the pressure of fluids upon the 
sides of the vessels containing them, and estab- 
lishing the laws of their equilibrium. His Ex- 
periences touchant le vide were published in 
1647, and were assailed by Father Noel, a Jes- 
uit, who presented himself as the champion of 
the old system, and whom Pascal answered in 
two letters. About this period he had a stroke 
of paralysis by which he lost for a while the 
use of his legs ; at the same time he studied in- 
tensely devotional works. In 1654 he with- 
drew from society, and entered upon a course 
of self-denial and austerity, which character- 
ized the remaining years of his life. Amid his 
previous gayeties, however, in which he had 
engaged on the advice of his physician, he had 
written some of his philosophical works, such 
as his treatises De la pesanteur de la masse de 
Vair, and De V equilibre des liqueurs, which 
was first published in 1663. In 1654 he com- 
pleted an "arithmetical triangle," by which 
he illustrated mathematically certain laws con- 
nected with bets and games of chance ; it was 
an approach toward the binominal theorem 
of Newton. After his death three treatises 
of his were published (1665) in which he had 
laid down the principles of the calculus of 
probabilities. The F'ort Royalists were now 
the upholders of the doctrines of Jansenius, 
and Pascal frequently visited their house, and 
soon interested himself in their quarrel with 
the Jesuits. When, at the end of 1655, An- 
toine Arnauld was expelled from the Sorbonne 



on account of his letter in defence of Jansen- 
ism, Pascal published the first of the series of 
Lettres de Louis de Montalte a un provincial 
de sea amis et aux RR. PP. les Jesuites sur la 
morale et la politique de ces peres, which be- 
came so celebrated under the abbreviated title 
of " The Provincial Letters." The first of these 
letters, which appeared Jan. 23, 1656, was 
eagerly read and circulated ; it was followed at 
intervals by 17 others within a period of 14 
months. The replies of the Jesuits, the con- 
demnation of the letters by the holy see in 
1657, and the sentence of the council of state 
and the parliament of Aix that they should be 
burned by the hand of the executioner, could 
not check their popularity ; and 20 years later, 
as appears from Mme, de Sevigne"'s correspon- 
dence, the Petites lettres, as they were now 
styled, had lost nothing of their original attrac- 
tions. They may be said to have been the 
origin of that hostile feeling which, a century 
later, brought about the expulsion of the so- 
ciety of Jesus from France. They were trans- 
lated into several languages ; and one of the Port 
Royalists, Nicole, produced a Latin version un- 
der the name of Wendrock. Pascal's health con- 
tinued to fail, and his sufferings scarcely left 
him any respite; he nevertheless returned to 
his wonted pursuits, and studied the properties 
of curves, and especially those of the cycloid 
or roulette. He completed the researches of 
Galileo, Torricelli, Descartes, and Fermat on 
this particular point, and in 1659 published his 
Traite general de la roulette. He had also en- 
gaged in the composition of a new demonstra- 
tion of Christianity, but was able only to write 
occasionally detached thoughts, which were 
published in 1670, under the title of Penseessur 
la religion. Modern critics, especially Victor 
Cousin and Sainte-Beuve, availing themselves 
of previously neglected sources of information 
and original manuscripts, have succeeded in 
giving an outline of Pascal's design. The last 
four years of his life were an almost unbroken 
series of bodily suffering and charitable em- 
ployments; his alms absorbed more than his 
income. His remains were buried in the church 
of St. Etienne du Mont, where his tomb is still 
to be seen. There are two editions of Pascal's 
complete works, including his scientific trea- 
tises, namely, that of Bossut (5 vols. 8vo, 1779), 
and that of Lefvre (5 vols. 8vo, 1819). The 
Lettres provinciales, collected for the first time 
in 1657, were published in 1684 at Cologne 
under the supervision of Nicole, with Latin, 
Spanish, and Italian translations. The Pensees 
were reprinted from the original edition of 
1670, first in 1672 (2 vols. 12mo), and with a 
life of Pascal by his sister, Mme. Perier, in 
1684; by Desmolets, with some additions, in 
1729 ; and by Condorcet in 1776. These were 
the foundation of every subsequent edition un- 
til 1842, when Victor Cousin, in a paper read 
before the French academy, pointed out the 
alterations and omissions in every one of them, 
referring at the same time to the autograph 



146 



PASCHAL 



manuscript which is preserved in the national 
library at Paris. In 1844 Prosper Faugere, 
following up Cousin's suggestions, issued a 
more correct edition of the Pensees, lettres et 
fragments de Blaise Pascal (2 vols. 8vo). This 
gave rise to a controversy respecting the work 
itself and what has been styled the skepticism 
of Pascal, to which we are indebted for the 
following works among others : Cousin's Blaise 
Pascal (1849); Sainte-Beuve's Port Royal 
and Portraits litteraires ; and the abbe Flottes 
and A. Vinet's Etudes sur Pascal (1846 and 
1848). The Pensees, opuscules et lettres, edited 
by Plon in accordance with the original manu- 
script, appeared at Paris in 1873, and Pensees 
de Blaise Pascal, edition de 1670, with illus- 
trations by Gaucherel, in 1874. The life of 
Pascal by Mme Perier has been the foundation 
of numerous later biographies. The Pensees 
and Lettres provinciates have been several 
times translated into English. The younger 
sister of Pascal, JACQUELINE (1625-'61), left 
some miscellaneous works, letters, and verses, 
which have been collected by Faugere (Paris, 
1845), and by Cousin in his biography of her 
(Paris, 1849). 

PASCHAL II., pope (RANIERI OF BIEDA), born 
in Tuscany, died Jan. 21, 1118. He was a 
monk of the order of Cluny, and was made 
cardinal by Pope Gregory VII. He was elect- 
ed pope on Aug. 13, 1099, and almost imme- 
diately renewed the struggle with the German 
emperor on the subject of investitures. He 
excommunicated Henry IV. in 1102, where- 
upon that emperor's son revolted and caused 
himself to be acknowledged as Henry V. ; but 
in the matter of investitures he proved as 
unyielding as his father. Paschal proposed a 
compromise, but the bishops would not con- 
sent to it, and when Henry arrived at Rome to 
be crowned in 1110 the negotiation was bro- 
ken off, and the pope refused to perform the 
coronation ceremony. The emperor thereupon 
seized the pontiff's person, treated him with 
great indignity, and after keeping him prisoner 
two months extorted from him the permission 
to invest the prelates of his kingdom with ring 
and crosier, provided their election was free, 
received the imperial crown, and went back 
to Germany. Paschal, stricken with remorse, 
wished to abdicate, but was prevented by the 
cardinals. In 1112 he summoned a council in 
the Lateran basilica, and submitted his con- 
duct to its judgment. His cession of the right 
of investiture was solemnly condemned. The 
result was a rebellion of some of the turbulent 
German barons, but Henry soon subdued them, 
and marching upon Rome compelled the pope 
to flee to Benevento. After the emperor's re- 
turn, Paschal made vigorous preparations for 
war, but died before he could take the field. 
He had also been involved in a dispute with 
Henry I. of England on the same subject, but 
a compromise was effected in 1108, whereby 
the king surrendered the most obnoxious part 
of the ceremony of investiture, the collation of 



PASKEVITCH 

the ring and crosier, and retained the right of 
nominating bishops and abbots and exacting 
from them fealty and homage. 

PAS-DE-CALAIS, a N. department of France, 
formed principally from the old province of 
Artois, bordering on the strait of Dover (Fr. 
Pas de Calais} and the departments of Le Nord 
and Somme ; area, 2,550 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
761,158. It is intersected from S. E. to N. W. 
by a chain of hills which give rise to several 
rivers, the most important of which are the 
Scarpe and the Lys, branches of the Scheldt, 
and the Aa and the Canche, flowing respective- 
ly into the North sea and the English channel. 
These rivers are navigable and are united by 
canals. The Northern railway and its branch- 
es cross the department. Coal is found in 
small quantities. The soil is marshy in some 
districts, but is generally fertile. Much land 
is devoted to sugar beets. The manufactures 
are of tulles, cotton and linen stuffs and yarns, 
spirits, leather, gunpowder, soap, glass, and 
earthenware. The department is divided into 
the arrondissements of Arras, Boulogne, Mon- 
treuil, St. Omer, Bethune, and St. Pol. Capi- 
tal, Arras. 

PASHA, or Bashaw, in Turkey, a title given to 
a governor of a province, a minister, or a 
naval and military commander of high rank. 
Pashas of the first rank are called pashas of 
three tails, that number of horse tails having 
been formerly carried before them as a stand- 
ard when they appeared in public. Before 
those of inferior rank two horse tails were 
borne. This display has been discontinued 
except perhaps in some of the Barbary prov- 
inces. The title is probably of Persian origin. 
Some derive it from the Turkish lash, a head 
or chief ; others, and among them Vattel, from 
the Persian pai, foot, and shah, king, *. e., the 
king's subordinate. It is very ancient, a sim- 
ilar term, pe'ha, being used in the Hebrew 
Scriptures to designate the viceroys or gov- 
ernors of provinces of the Assyrian, Baby- 
lonian, and old Persian empires. The office 
corresponds to that of the ancient Persian 
satraps. Until recently the Turkish pashas 
were entirely absolute in the administration of 
their provinces, but now their power is check- 
ed by local councils and by courts of appeal. 

PASHT. See BTJBASTIS. 

PASIPHAE. See Mmos. 

PASKEVITCH, Ivan Fr dorovitcli, prince of War- 
saw, a Russian soldier, born in Poltava, May 
19, 1782, died in Warsaw, Feb. 1, 1856. He 
was educated at St. Petersburg, became a page 
of the emperor Paul, and in 1800 entered the 
army. He served with distinction in the earlier 
campaigns of the reign of Alexander I., and 
in those of 1812-'14 at Smolensk, Moscow, 
Leipsic, and in France. 'In 1826, on the out- 
break of the war against Persia, Jie was ap- 
pointed by Nicholas to command under Yermo- 
loff. Having achieved considerable successes 
over the Persians under Abbas Mirza, he suc- 
ceeded Yermoloff in the chief command in 1827, 



PASQUIER 



147 



and in October captured Erivan. He was re- 
warded by Nicholas with a million rubles 
and the title of count of Erivan. Paskevitch 
now crossed the Aras, and by a rapid advance 
entered the city of Tabriz. After the peace 
of Turkmantchai, concluded Feb. 22, 1828, he 
commanded in the east in the war against Tur- 
key, while the principal Russian army was 
engaged on the line of the lower Danube and 
the Balkan. Anapa, Poti, Kars, and Akhal- 
tzik were taken in the summer of that year; 
and advancing through mountain passes in 

1829, Paskevitch surprised a large army un- 
der the seraskier. Assisted by the treachery 
of the janizaries, he took Erzerum, July 9, 
and pushed forward toward Trebizond, in the 
vicinity of which he received the news of the 
peace of Adrianople. Made field marshal and 
governor of the province of Georgia, he check- 
ed the rising of the Lesghian mountaineers in 

1830, and in 1831 was appointed commander- 
in-chief of the armies in Poland. He crossed 
the Vistula near the Prussian frontier, and ad- 
vanced on the right bank of that river toward 
"Warsaw, which after a desperate struggle ca- 
pitulated (Sept. 8). The conqueror received the 
title of prince of Warsaw, and was made gov- 
ernor of Poland, which was now stripped of its 
constitutional semi-independence, and trans- 
formed into a Russian province, though main- 
taining some institutions of a separate adminis- 
tration. Paskevitch not only discharged his 
duty to the entire satisfaction of his master, 
but by his moderation also gained some popu- 
larity among the Polish people. Various at- 
tempts at a new rising, the most serious of 
which was that of 1846, were speedily sup- 
pressed. Nicholas, having already attempted 
an invasion of Hungary from the south in 
January, 1849, in the ensuing spring placed 
Paskevitch at the head of an army of more 
than 200,000 men, which simultaneously cross- 
ed the northern, northwestern, and southeast- 
ern Carpathians, acting in part independent- 
ly, and in part in conjunction with the Aus- 
trians. No brilliant victory was now achieved 
by Paskevitch, his principal merit consisting 
in cautiously avoiding dangers, while the Hun- 
garians were slowly crushed by the weight 
of converging masses. Gorgey's surrender at 
Vilagos (Aug. 13) having virtually ended the 
struggle, Paskevitch returned to Warsaw, where 
he received new honors. A grand jubilee soon 
after took place in that city on the 50th anni- 
versary of his entrance into the army, and he 
was made a field marshal by both the emperor 
of Austria and the king of Prussia. In April, 
1854, he took command of the principal Rus- 
sian army in the war against Turkey, after the 
first disastrous campaign on the Danube; but 
having been wounded before Silistria (June 8), 
which he failed to conquer, he resigned. 

PASQHER, ^tienne, a French author, born in 
Paris, April 7, 1529, died Aug. 31, 1615. He 
first appeared in 1549 in the capacity of attor- 
ney before the parliament of Paris. After 



publishing Le HonopJiile and Les colloques 
d* amour, in prose, and several miscellaneous 
poems, he produced in 1561 the first book of 
his SechercJies de la France. In 1564 he was 
counsel for the university in its lawsuit with 
the Jesuits. In 1585 he was appointed attor- 
ney general to the court of accounts, and in 
1588 was elected a deputy to the states general 
at Blois. He accompanied the royalist mem- 
bers of the parliament who, under Henry III., 
held their sessions at Tours, and returned to 
Paris with Henry IV. He now found himself 
involved in new quarrels with the Jesuits. In 
1603 he resigned his office of attorney general 
to his eldest son, and devoted his later years 
to revising and publishing his literary works. 
Most of these were printed in 2 vols. fol. (Am- 
sterdam, 1723). Besides his invaluable Re- 
cherches de la France in 9 books, they in- 
clude 22 books of familiar letters, affording 
ample information upon the manners of the 
time. Leon Feugere has edited his (Euvres 
choisies (2 vols. 18mo, Paris, 1849), with an 
excellent biographical and critical notice. Pas- 
quier's fame as a jurist has been fully vindi- 
cated by the publication of his Interpretation 
des Institutes de Justinien, edited by M. Charles 
Giraud (4to, Paris, 1847). 

P1SQIIER, Etienne Denis, duke, a French 
statesman, of the same family with the pre- 
ceding, born in Paris, April 22, 1767, died 
there, July 5, 1862. Before he became of age 
he was appointed councillor in the parliament 
of Paris. His father was beheaded during 
the revolution, and he himself was impris- 
oned. Under the empire he became succes- 
sively master of requests in the council of state, 
councillor, procureur general du sceau et des 
titres, and prefect of police. Charged by Na- 
poleon with neglect of duty at the time of the 
conspiracy of Malet in 1812, he was acquitted 
on trial, and kept in office until the first res- 
toration, when Louis XVIII. appointed him 
director general of roads and bridges. He stood 
aloof during the hundred days, and after the 
second restoration was keeper of the seals and 
temporary minister of the interior in the cabi- 
net of Talleyrand in 1815, minister of justice 
in that of Richelieu in 1817, and of foreign 
affairs in that of Decazes in 1819. He adhered 
to the revolution of July, 1830, and Louis Phi- 
lippe made him president of the chamber of 
peers, with the honorary title of chancellor of 
France. He had been made a baron by Na- 
poleon, became a count under the restoration, 
and finally in 1844 received the title of duke 
from Louis Philippe. Although he published 
nothing but a collection of discourses delivered 
in his capacity of minister or peer from 1814 
to 1836 (4 vols. 8vo, 1842), he was in 1842 
elected a member of the French academy. He 
left voluminous memoirs. His grandnephew 
and adopted son is the present duke Gaston 
d'Audiff ret-Pasquier, brother-in-law of Casimir 
Perier, an influential statesman, and in 1875 
president of the national assembly. 



148 



PASQUIN 



PASQUIN, the name given to a mutilated 
statue in Rome, standing at the end of the 
Braschi palace near the piazza Navona. In 
its immediate neighborhood, in the latter half 
of the 15th century, was the shop of a tailor 
named Pasquin, or Pasquino, which was much 
frequented bj people of consequence for the 
purpose of hearing the current gossip and 
scandal, and the facetious stories and satirical 
remarks of Pasquin and his workmen, to whom 
the utmost license of speech seems to have 
been allowed. So many caustic personalities 
emanated from this place, that gradually every 
bitter saying was attributed to Pasquin or his 
shop. Etiquette forbade the sufferer by such 
libels, or pasquinades as they were called, to 
exhibit any resentment. After Pasquin's death 
the statue was dug out and set up near his 
shop, and the populace declared that Pasquin 
had come to life again. The mutilated torso 
was called by his name, and thenceforth the 
custom arose of attaching to it bits of satiri- 
cal writing, which frequently took the shape 
of lampoons upon persons in high station, the 
pope and cardinals being favorite objects of 
attack. The statue of Marforio, supposed to 
be that of a river god, which about the close 
of the 16th century was 1 placed, in the palazzo 
de* conservatori on the Oapitoline hill, was 
made the vehicle for replying to the attacks of 
Pasquin ; and other statues in various parts of 
the city occasionally issued an epigram on pub- 
lic affairs. Pasquin, however, maintained his 
supremacy over all rivals. The first true pas- 
quinades date from the pontificate of Leo X., 
and after the lapse of three and a half centuries 
Pasquin still pursues his ancient avocation. 
Satirical epigrams however were published 
previous to Leo's accession. 

PASQUOTANK, a N. E. county of North Caro- 
lina, bordering on Yirginia, and bounded N". E. 
by the Pasquotank river, and S. by Albemarle 
sound ; area, about 300 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
8,131, of whom 3,951 were colored. Its sur- 
face is low and level, including a portion of 
the Dismal swamp, and in some places fertile. 
The Pasquotank river is navigable for small 
vessels to Elizabeth City, and a branch of the 
Dismal Swamp canal crosses the county. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 22,086 bushels 
of wheat, 434,985 of Indian corn, 23,937 of 
sweet potatoes, and 110 bales of cotton. There 
were 738 horses, 1,016 milch cows, 2,094 other 
cattle, 702 sheep, and 7,868 swine. Capital, 
Elizabeth City. 

PASSAGLIA, Carlo, an Italian theologian, born 
at San Paolo, near Lucca, May 12, 1812. He 
became a Jesuit in 1827, studied philosophy 
and theology in the Roman college, and taught 
successively canon law and theology there till 
1858, when he left the society of Jesus and 
was appointed by the pope professor in the 
Sapienza. In the discussions which preceded 
the proclamation of the dogma of the Immacu- 
late Conception, he and Padre Perrone, anoth- 
er Jesuit, were chiefly conspicuous, Passaglia 



PASSAIC 

having published at the expense of the Roman 
government an elaborate work on the subject, 
and having prepared the first draught of the 
bull of definition, Ineffabilis Deus. In 1859 
he published in Latin an appeal to the bishops 
of Italy pressing on their attention the claims 
of Italian unity, and urging the pope to abdi- 
cate his temporal power. He also undertook 
a journey to Turin to induce the ministry of 
Victor Emanuel to compromise with the pope. 
Meanwhile his appeal was placed on the In- 
dex, and his house was put under the surveil- 
lance of the police. These measures compelled 
him after his return to leave Rome in disguise, 
and he took up his residence in Turin. There 
he established the journal II Mediatore, which 
continued to appear from 1862 to 1866. He 
was appointed by the king professor of moral 
philosophy and subsequently of theology in the 
university of Turin, and was elected a member 
of the Italian parliament in January, 1863 ; 
but there his conciliatory views met with little 
favor from the majority. He caused no little 
excitement about the same time by the publica- 
tion of two papers, the one arguing the obliga- 
tion of the pope to reside in Rome even after 
its eventual conversion into the capital of Italy, 
and the second claiming the right of appeal 
against papal excommunications, and asserting 
that they can only be lawfully used for spirit- 
ual purposes. He strenuously opposed the 
declaration of papal infallibility. His principal 
works are : De Prcerogativis Beati Petri, Apos- 
tolorum Principis (Ratisbon, 1850) ; Commenta- 
rius Theologicus de Partitione Divince Volun- 
tatis (Rome, 1851) ; Pro Causa Italica ad 
Episcopos CatJiolicos (Florence, 1859) ; and La 
questione dell* independenza ed nnitd dinanzi 
al clero (Florence, 1861) ; besides remarkable 
treatises on the eternity of future punishments 
and other theological matters. 

PASSAIC, a N". county of New Jersey, border- 
ing on N"ew York, bounded S. W. by the Pe- 
quannock and intersected by the Ringwood, 
Ramapo, and Passaic rivers ; area, about 220 - 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 46,416. Its surface is 
diversified, and the soil is generally fertile. It 
is intersected by the Morris canal and the Erie 
railroad, the New Jersey division of the New 
York and Oswego Midland, and the Delaware, 
Lackawanna, and "Western railroad. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 15,223 bushels of rye, 
68,407 of Indian corn, 36,467 of oats, 13,308 of 
buckwheat, 87,950 of potatoes, 159,418 Ibs. of 
butter, and 11,396 tons of hay. There were 
1,539 horses, 3,299 milch cows, 2,402 other 
cattle, 1,886 sheep, and 1,694 swine. There 
are a large number of manufactories, chiefly 
at Paterson, the county seat. 

PASSAIC, a river of N"ew Jersey, which rises 
in Mendham, Morris co., flows S. for a few 
miles and then E. between Somerset and Mor- 
ris cos., then N. N. E. between the latter and 
"Union and Essex cos., crosses Passaic co. in an 
easterly direction, and turning S. after a very 
devious course of about 90 m. enters Newark 



PASSAMAQUODDY BAY 

bay. It is navigable a short distance for sloops. 
At Paterson it has a fall of 72 ft. (or 50 ft. per- 
pendicular), affording immense water power, 
which has been improved by dams and canals. 
It is much visited by tourists. 

PASSAMAQUODDY BAY, a body of water be- 
tween the S. E. extremity of Maine and the S. 
W. corner of New Brunswick, being about 12 
m. long and 6 m. wide at the entrance. It re- 
ceives the waters of the St. Oroix and Didge- 
guash rivers. Campo Bello island lies across 
the entrance of the bay, and Deer island and a 
cluster of small islets called Wolf islands lie 
within it. The bay is well sheltered and not 
liable to be obstructed by ice ; and it has good 
harbors and a sufficient depth for the largest 
vessels. The tide rises 25 ft. 

PASSAROYITZ (Serb, Pozharevatz), a town of 
Servia, 37 m. E. S. E. of Belgrade ; pop. about 
7,000. It contains a court and several schools, 
but is chiefly noted for the peace concluded 
here July 21, 1718, between Austria and Ven- 
ice on one side and Turkey on the other, in 
which the Porte, humbled by the victories of 
Prince Eugene, consented to considerable ces- 
sions of territory on both sides of the lower 
Danube. 

PASSAU (anc. Batava Castro), a town of Ba- 
varia, at the confluence of the Inn and the 
Danube, 92 m. E. N. E. of Munich ; pop. in 
1871, 13,389. It is divided by the rivers into 
three parts, the central one being the town 
proper, and the others, Innstadt on the Inn, 
and Ilzstadt on the Danube, being suburbs. 
The Ilz, a tributary of the Danube, flows be- 
tween Ilzstadt and Anger. Two castles and 
eight smaller works of defence constitute Pas- 
sau one of the most important strongholds on 
the Danube. It has a cathedral, a public libra- 
ry, a theatre, an old abbey, a bronze statue of 
King Maximilian Joseph, several schools and 
hospitals, a lunatic asylum, manufactories of 
porcelain, leather, tobacco, beer, paper, iron, 
and copper, and an active trade on the Danube, 
lis bishops were formerly independent princes, 
but it was secularized in 1803, and incorpora- 
ted with Bavaria in 1805. In 1552 a treaty 
guaranteeing religious freedom to the German 
Protestants was concluded here between the 
emperor Charles V. and Maurice of Saxony. 

PASSAVANT, Johann David, a German art his- 
torian, born in Frankfort in 1787, died there, 
Aug. 12, 1861. He studied art in Paris and 
Rome, and became inspector of the Stadel 
museum in his native city, an office which 
he held till his death. He painted several 
works of merit, and wrote Rafael von Urbino 
und, sein Vater Giovanni Santo (3 vols., Leip- 
sic, 1839-'58) ; Die christliche Kunst in Spa- 
nien (1853); Le peintre-graveur (in French, 6 
vols., I860-' 64) ; and several other works. 

PASSENGER PIGEON, or Wild Pigeon (ectopistes 
migratoria, Swains.), a well known columbine 
species peculiar to North America, where it 
exists in immense numbers. The family char-, 
actors are given under PIGEON; the generic 



PASSENGER PIGEON 



149 



characters are, a very small head, short bill, 
long wings, the first primary the longest, tarsi 
very short, and tail very long and wedge-shaped. 
The male is about 16J in. long, with an alar 
extent of 25 in.; the general color above is 
grayish blue, some of the wing coverts being 
marked with black spots; throat, fore neck, 
breast, and sides light brownish red, and the 
rest of the under parts white ; lower hind neck 
with golden, green, and violet reflections ; quills 
blackish, bordered with pale bluish, the larger 
coverts whitish at the tip; two middle tail 
feathers black, the others pale blue at the base, 
becoming white toward the end ; the bill black, 
iris bright red, and feet carmine purple. The 
female is smaller, and of duller colors. Their 
rapid and long continued flight enables them to 
pass over, and their keen vision to survey, a 
vast extent of country, when migrating at ir- 
regular periods in search of the mast which 
constitutes their principal food; the flight is 
high or low according to the region ; for an ac- 




Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratoria). 

count of the rapidity of their flight, see OAE- 
BIEE PIGEON. After feeding they settle on the 
trees, and toward sunset depart for their^ roost- 
ing places, often hundreds of miles distant; 
they build in forests where the trees are high, 
without much reference to season, and in places 
where food is abundant and water not far off ; 
the flesh is dark-colored, and highly esteemed ; 
according to Audubon, they lay two eggs. These 
birds are found throughout temperate North 
America to the high central plains. Their 
numbers are absolutely countless both in the 
roosting and breeding place. Wilson describes 
one of their breeding places in Kentucky ex- 
tending 40 m. through the woods and several 
miles wide, every tree bearing nests wherever 
they could be placed; they appeared about 
April 10 and left with their young before May 
25 ; they were killed in immense numbers by 
the people gathered from a wide extent of 
country. Wilson calculates the length of ^ a 
column of these birds which passed over him 



150 



PASSION FLOWER 



at 240 m., and estimates the number of pigeons 
in it at more than 2,000,0(30,000. 

PASSION FLOWER (passiflora), a genus of 
plants so named because the early Spanish mis- 
sionaries regarded them as emblematic of the 
passion or crucifixion of Christ and its attend- 
ant circumstances. It contains about 120 spe- 
cies of mostly climbing, herbaceous, or woody 
plants, all of which, save a few in Asia and 
Australia, belong to the American continent, 
especially to the tropical portions. Five species 
are found in the Atlantic states, one extending 
as far north as Pennsylvania and Illinois. In 
some species the flowers are large and showy, 
and among the most brilliant of the occupants 
of our plant houses ; in others they are small 
and inconspicuous ; and in all the structure is 
striking and peculiar. The leaves in some are 
remarkable for their form or markings, several 
species being cultivated for their foliage only ; 
the leaves, generally alternate, are entire or 
variously lobed or parted, with petioles which 
are often furnished with glands, and with or 
without stipules; the tendrils by which the 
plants climb are rarely wanting, and, being 
mostly axillary, are regarded as abortive flower 
stalks, as it is not rare to find them bearing 
flower buds. The flowers are axillary and 
solitary, or in racemes, the flower stalk or 
pedicel usually bearing three leafy bracts em- 
bracing the base of the flower. The structure 
of the flower, which is much out of the ordi- 
nary way, will be best understood by aid of a 
longitudinal section, as given in the engraving. 
The calyx consists usually of five sepals, uni- 
ted below to form a short cup or tube ; the free 
expanded portion is colored like the petals 
within, or on the upper side, and often having 
on the outside, just below the tip, a small hook 
or claw. The petals are usually five, some- 
times wanting, attached to the throat of the 
calyx tube, and with them is inserted a series 
of thread-like processes in two or more rows, 
forming a compound fringe, called the crown 
or ray; to this the great beauty of most of 
these flowers is chiefly due, as aside from the 
unusual appearance it imparts, sometimes ex- 
tending beyond the petals, and again quite 
short, it is often beautifully colored and marked, 
frequently in contrast with the color of the 
rest of the flower; the real nature of these 
filaments has been much discussed, but Dr. M. 
T. Masters, who has given special study to the 
family, regards them as abortive stamens, a 
view confirmed by the structure in related gen- 
era. The stamens are of the same number as 
the calyx divisions and opposite them; their 
filaments are united below to form a tube 
sheathing, and more or less united to the stalk 
which supports the pistil, but distinct above, 
their free portions widely spreading and ter- 
minated by large oblong anthers hung by the 
middle. In the centre of the flower arises a 
stalk or column (gynophore), which is a pro- 
longation of the receptacle and bears at its 
apex the pistil, consisting of a one-celled ovary, 



with three club-shaped styles, terminated by 
large button-like stigmas. The fruit is a berry, 
with a more or less hard rind, pulpy within, 
and containing numerous seeds on three pari- 
etal placenta, each seed surrounded by a pulpy 
covering (arillua) ; the fruit in many species 




Passion Flower, longitudinal section. 

is edible. From this outline of the structure, 
the origin of the name passion flower will be 
understood; in the palmate leaves of the plant 
are seen the hands of Christ's persecutors, and 
in the conspicuous tendrils the scourges ; the 
ten parts of the flower envelope, calyx and 
corolla together, stand for the disciples, two 
of whom, Peter and Judas, were absent; the 
fringe represents the crown of thorns, or ac- 
cording to some the halo of glory ; the five an- 
thers are symbolic of the five wounds, and the 
three styles with their capitate stigmas stand 
for the nails, two for the hands and one for 
the feet, with which the body was nailed to 
the cross. The showiest of our native species, 
passiflora incarnata, is found as far north as 
Kentucky and Virginia, and is especially abun- 




1. Seed surrounded by aril. 2. Transverse section of ovary. 
3. Fruit. 

dant further south, where it often remains 
cultivated land as a weed; its stems, trailii 
on the ground or climbing upon corn and oth< 
crops, are regarded as troublesome; it has 
perennial root, and spreads widely by means < 
underground stems ; its leaves are three-clei 



PASSION FLOWER 



151 



and the flower, 2 to 3 in. broad, pale purple 
or nearly white, with a purple or sometimes 
flesh-colored crown, is sufficiently handsome 
for cultivation ; the fruit, known throughout 
the southern states as "maypops," is about 
the size of a hen's egg, dull yellow when ripe, 
and edible; an extract of the leaves and an 
infusion of the root have been used medicinal- 
ly, particularly as a vermifuge. This species, 
especially if the roots are covered with litter 
during winter, is sometimes hardy in northern 
gardens, and is a fine vine for a low trellis, 
though its running under ground makes it 
troublesome, as the shoots in spring will often 
appear a yard or two away from the place 
where the plant stood the season before. The 
yellow passion flower (P. lutea), growing as 
far north as Pennsylvania and Illinois, is a 
smaller plant, and its greenish yellow flowers, 




Blue Passion Flower (Passiflora caerulea). 

scarcely an inch across, are more interesting 
than beautiful. Our other three species, na- 
tives of Florida, are not showy or of any known 
use. P. suberosa has greenish yellow flowers 
and small purple fruit; P. angustifolia has 
yellowish flowers half an inch across, and fruit 
the size of a pea ; and P. Warei is equally in- 
significant in appearance. The commonest ex- 
otic species is the blue passion flower (P. cce- 
rulea) from South America, which has been in 
cultivation for nearly two centuries ; it is hardy 
in parts of England and on the European con- 
tinent, but not in our northern states; it is 
cultivated in cool greenhouses, and treated as 
a bedding plant ; if planted out in warm 
weather, it grows very rapidly and produces a 
profusion of its handsome flowers, which are 
very pale blue, with a purple centre and a blue 
crown, which has a white band in the middle. 



Something over 100 named passion flowers are 
in cultivation, including hybrids and varieties 
from seed; of these only a few of the more 
common and striking can be noticed. The 
edible passion flower (P, edulis), called with 
several others granadilla, is a very old green- 
house plant, and, where climbers are desired, 
useful for its rapid growth, dark green abun- 
dant foliage, and numerous white and blue, 
sweet-scented flowers ; its purple fruit, the size 
of a goose egg, is esteemed for dessert. (See 
GEANADILLA.) The winged (P. alata) and 
the four-angled (P. quadrangularis) passion 
flowet-s both have four-sided branches, the an- 
gles of which are winged ; both are free-flow- 
ering stove climbers, with large, sweet-scented, 
red or crimson flowers, in which the crown is 
variously colored ; the two species differ in the 
structure of the crown, and the last named, 
called the large granadilla, has an edible fruit 6 
or 8 in. in diameter ; a variety, P. Decaisneana, 
with larger and more showy flowers than either, 
is supposed to be a hybrid between these two. 
The large-fruited passion flower (P. macro- 
carpa) has fruited in England, producing enor- 
mous berries weighing as much as 10 Ibs. each. 
Among the other choice species and varieties 
in cultivation are P. princeps, Buonapartea, 
Icermesina, coccinea, sanguinolenta, and circin- 
nata, the last named remarkable for the very 
long and slender wavy rays to the crown. 
Among those cultivated for their beauty of 
foliage is P. trifasciata, in which the dark 
olive-green leaves have three broad bands of 
greenish white corresponding to their three 
lobes, but the flowers are small and not showy. 
A few species are annuals; among them P. 
gracilis, remarkable for the rapidity of the 
movements of its tendrils, is one of the species 
observed by Darwin in studying the move- 
ments of climbing plants ; the intern ode car- 
rying the upper tendril made six revolutions 
at an average of 1 h. 1 m. ; a single touch near 
the tip of a tendril when in its most sensitive 
condition caused it to curve, and in two min- 
utes it formed an open helix. The genus tac- 
sonia (from tacso, the Peruvian name for the 
plants) differs from passiflora chiefly in having 
a long calyx tube, often over 3 in. long ; their 
habit of growth is similar, and their flowers 
often exceedingly brilliant; their horticultu- 
ral uses are identical with those of the passion 
flowers. In cultivation at least, some passion 
flowers are singularly self-sterile; though an 
abundance of active pollen is produced, this 
will not fertilize the pistils on the same plant, 
but it will those on a different species, and 
the pistils which refuse to accept their own pol- 
len readily become impregnated by that from 
another species. P. racemosa, ccerulea, and 
alata, in the botanic garden at Edinburgh, 
refused for many years to bear fruit, though 
the flowers of each frequently had their own 
pollen applied to them artificially ; but when 
these three were crossed in various ways with 
the pollen of either of the others, fruit was 



152 



PASSIONISTS 



PASSPORT 



abundantly produced. It is probable that this 
state of things does not exist among these 
plants in the wild state, but that, as the repro- 
ductive function is often affected by slight ex- 
ternal causes, self-sterility in these plants has 
been induced by the unnatural conditions of 
cultivation. This view is supported by the fact 
that P. alata in some greenhouses is inveter- 
ately self-sterile, while in other places it fruits 
abundantly by the aid of its own pollen ; and 
a plant known to be self-sterile was by graft- 
ing upon another species rendered ever after- 
ward self-fertile. But little is certainly known 
about the medicinal qualities of the passion 
flowers; the roots and leaves of several are 
employed in their native countries as expec- 
torants, narcotics, and anthelmintics ; the root 
of one of the granadillas, P. quadrangularis, 
very common in greenhouses, is said to be 
diuretic, emetic, and so powerfully narcotic as 
to be regarded as poisonous. Passion flowers 
are increased with the greatest ease from cut- 
tings of the young wood, and they may also be 
raised from seeds. If the plants are not set 
in the ground of the greenhouse, they should 
have very large pots or boxes, as the roots re- 
quire much room. 

PASSIONISTS, an order of regular clerks in 
the Roman Catholic church, founded in 1720 
by Paolo Francesco Danei, known as St. Paul 
of the Cross. He was born Jan. 3, 1694, at 
Ovada, near Genoa, and died Oct. 18, 1775. 
Having conceived the idea of a body of mis- 
sionaries uniting all the austerities of a clois- 
tered life with the active duties of the pastoral 
ministry, he retired in 1720 to a hermitage 
with a few companions. Their saintly life, 
the good effected by them among the neigh- 
boring population, and the recommendation 
of the bishops, induced Benedict XIII. to or- 
dain them priests in 1727. The order, now 
consisting of 11 priests, was approved by Bene- 
dict XIV. in 1741; and in 1746, under the 
name of "the Discalceated Clerks of the Cross 
and Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ," Danei 
established his first convent and novitiate on 
the Celian hill in Rome; and this establish- 
ment continued to be the mother house of the 
order till its suppression in 1873. Twelve con- 
vents were also founded by him in various 
cities of Italy, which became centres of home 
missionary labor, and a Passionist sisterhood 
was established at Corneto. The order and 
its constitutions were solemnly confirmed by 
Pius VI., Sept. 15, 1775. The Passionists, 
though much esteemed in Italy, did not extend 
beyond it till the present century. In 1841 
the first house of the order was founded at 
Highgate, near London, by Father Ignatius 
(George Spencer) ; and they multiplied rapidly, 
extending to Ireland and Australia. The first 
Passionist convents in the United States were 
established at Birmingham, Pa., in 1852, and 
at West Hoboken, K J. They also own estab- 
lishments in Pennsylvania and Maryland. The 
habit of the Passionists is a cassock of coarse 



black cloth, a large crucifix borne in the girdle, 
and an emblem of the passion wrought in red 
on the left breast. They go barefooted, rise 
during the night to sing the canonical hours, 
and devote themselves especially to giving 
" missions " or spiritual retreats. Their found- 
er, Paul of the Cross, was beatified in 1853 
and canonized in 1868. 

PASSION PLAYS. See MIRACLES AND MOEALI- 
TIES, and OBER-AMMEKGATJ. 

PASSION WEEK. See HOLT WEEK. 

PASSOVER (Heb. pesa'h, frompasa'h, to leap 
over, to pass by ; Aram, pas 'ha ; Sept. Traa^a ; 
Vul. paschci), a Hebrew festival, instituted by 
Moses in commemoration of the Israelites re- 
maining intact on the night of the destruction 
of the first born in Egypt, immediately pre- 
ceding the exodus from that country (Ex. xii.). 
Originally it was observed by sacrificing pass- 
over lambs toward the evening of the 14th of 
the first Hebrew spring month (now Msan), 
and eating them on the following night, as 
well as by excluding all leaven from the meals 
of that evening and the following seven days, 
the first and last of which were observed as 
holy. Since the final destruction of the temple 
of Jerusalem, the passover has been celebrated 
by eating unleavened bread during the seven 
(out of Palestine during eight) days, by absti- 
nence from labor on the first and last (out of 
Palestine on the first two and last two), and 
by the observance on the first evening (out of 
Palestine on the first and second) of various 
domestic rites commemorative of the deliver- 
ance from Egyptian bondage, including the 
recital of Scriptural and legendary narratives 
and familiar conversation on the same national 
event, and the chanting of psalms. 

PASSOW, Franz Ludwig Karl Friedrieh, a Ger- 
man philologist, born in Ludwigslust, Sept. 20, 
1786, died in Breslau, March 11, 1833. He 
studied theology and philology at Leipsic, in 
1807 became professor of Greek in the gymna- 
sium at Weimar, and in 1815 professor of an- 
cient literature in the university of Breslau. 
His most important work is the " Dictionary of 
the Greek Language" (4th ed., Leipsic, 1831). 

PASSPORT, a document given by the author- 
ized officer of a state, which permits a person 
or persons therein named to pass or travel 
either generally, or through a country named, 
or on certain routes, by land or water. Pass- 
ports must have been used by all civilized gov- 
ernments to some extent and in some form ; 
but in England and in the United States they 
have not been used within those countries, 
though their governments give them to those 
of their citizens who purpose to travel abroad. 
The United States secretary of state is charged 
with the duty of issuing passports, and au- 
thorizing and regulating their issue by diplo- 
matic or consular agents. Any one who is- 
sues a passport without authority, or who has 
authority and issues a passport to one not a 
citizen, is liable to punishment by fine and 
imprisonment. Passports are also given by 



PASTA 



PATAGONIA 



153 



collectors of ports to all vessels of the United 
States, and if any such vessel sails without a 
passport the master is liable to a fine of $200. 
Every passport gives the name, age, residence, 
and occupation of the holder, with a descrip- 
tion of his person and appearance, which is 
intended to afford the means of identifying 
him. It is supposed to assure the holder of 
the support of his own government, and asks 
for him and entitles him to the protection of 
all governments or nations at peace with his 
own. In many of the European states the 
passport system has until recently been kept 
up, to afford the authorities means of surveil- 
lance over suspicious characters, and thereby 
to prevent conspiracies against the govern- 
ment, or provide the means of detecting them. 
The belief that passports have little efficacy 
for this purpose has been confirmed by recent 
experience; and the growing conviction that 
they are not so useful as they are inconvenient 
and oppressive has generally led to a practical 
abandonment of their use. One may now trav- 
el over Europe, with the exception of Russia, 
without once exhibiting his passport, unless 
circumstances direct suspicion toward him. 

PASTA, Ginditta, an Italian singer, of Jewish 
origin, born at Saronno, near Milan, in 1798, 
died at her villa near Lake Como, April 1, 
1865. She received her first musical educa- 
tion from Bartolommeo Leotti, chapelmaster 
in the cathedral of Como. At the age of 15 
she was admitted to the musical conservatory 
of Milan, and in 1815 began her public career 
at the minor theatres in Leghorn, Parma, and 
Brescia. The next year, appearing at the Ita- 
liens in Paris, she failed to attract notice; she 
was equally unsuccessful in London, and deci- 
ded upon returning to her native country for 
further study. When, in 1819 and 1820, she 
appeared in Venice and Milan, she was greet- 
ed with applause. Returning to Paris in 1821, 
and visiting Verona during the session of the 
European congress in 1822, she was remark- 
ably successful. Her triumph in London was 
scarcely less brilliant, and for several years 
she continued to sing alternately in Paris and 
London. In 1827, some business difficulty 
having occurred between her and Rossini, then 
director of the Italian opera in Paris, she ac- 
cepted an engagement at Naples, where Pacini 
composed for her his opera of Niobe. Her 
dramatic powers did not please the Neapoli- 
tans, though they were afterward fully appre- 
ciated at Bologna, Milan, Trieste, and Verona. 
At Milan Bellini wrote for her La sonnambula 
and Norma. Pasta won her last triumphs at 
Vienna in 1832. Her voice, which had always 
been more remarkable for energetic than me- 
lodious qualities, was now impaired ; and her 
last engagement on the Italian stage in Paris, 
in 1833 and 1834, was not on the whole suc- 
cessful. In 1836 she retired to her villa on 
the lake of Oomo. Her last engagement, from 
which she received $40,000, was with the 
opera in St. Petersburg in 1840. 



PASTEUR, Louis, a French chemist, born in 
Dole, Dec. 27, 1822. He took his degree in 
1847, was professor of physical sciences at Di- 
jon from 1848 to 1849, and afterward of chem- 
istry at Strasburg till 1854, when he organized 
the new faculty of science at Lille. In 1857 
he went to Paris as scientific director of the 
normal school; subsequently he was elected 
a member of the institute ; and toward the 
end of 1863 he assumed the chair of geology, 
physical science, and chemistry at the school 
of fine arts, and afterward that of chemistry at 
the Sorbonne. He acquired great celebrity, 
and received in 1856 the Rumford medal for 
his researches on the relation of the polariza- 
tion of light with hemihedrals in crystal and 
other researches, a French prize for his works 
on fermentation in 1859, and a Jecker prize 
in 1861 for his chemical labors. In 1873 he 
was elected an associate member of the acad- 
emy of medicine, and the government granted 
him in 1874 a pension of 20,000 francs. He 
is most widely known for his opposition to 
the doctrine of spontaneous generation, and 
his researches in fermentation. He maintains 
that all fermentations are processes connected 
with life, and not of spontaneous production, 
but that the living organism must proceed 
from a parent of the same kind. Therefore 
fermentation can never take place if all access 
of germs to a fermentable substance is pre- 
vented. He has invented a new process for 
the fermentation of beer founded upon his 
theories, a part of which consists in exclu- 
ding atmospheric air from the fermenting wort, 
as he maintains that fermentation can be con- 
ducted without the presence of free oxygen, 
and under certain circumstances proceeds more 
satisfactorily in an atmosphere of carbonic acid. 
He discovered that glycerine is one of the pro- 
ducts of fermentation. (See FERMENTATION.) 
He also made interesting researches on racemic 
acid, discovering that when racemate of am- 
monium is mixed with a small quantity of beer 
yeast and exposed to a temperature of 85 F. 
fermentation takes place, and the racemic acid 
is converted into laevotartaric acid. His prin- 
cipal works, besides his contributions to the 
Annales de cJiimie et de physique, are : Nouvel 
exemple de fermentation determine par des ani- 
malcules infusoires pouvant vivre sans oxyaene 
libre (Paris, 1863) ; fitudes sur le vin, ses ma- 
ladies, &c. (1866) ; Etudes sur le vinaigre, &c. 
(1868) ; Jfitudes sur la maladie des ters a soie 
(2 vols., 1870) ; and Quelques reflexions sur la 
science en France (1871). 

PASTILLE. See PERFUME. 

PATAGONIA, a territory of South America, 
extending from lat. 38 42' to 53 52' S., and 
from Ion. 63 9' to 75 30' W. It is bounded 
N. by the Argentine Republic, from which it 
is separated by the Rio Negro, E. by the 
Atlantic, S. by the straits of Magellan, separa- 
ting it from Tierra del Fuego, and W. by the 
Pacific and the republic of Chili, the dividing 
line with which last is the cordillera of the 



154 



PATAGONIA 



Andes. The maximum length from N. to S. 
is 1,050 m. ; the maximum width from E. to 
W. near the northern extremity is 475 m., 
and near the southern extremity 175 m. ; area 
about 350,000 sq. m. The coast line is in- 
dented by numerous inlets, particularly S. and 
W., where the seaboard is the most irregular 
of any on the South American continent. 
The largest gulfs on the Atlantic are San Ma- 
tias, Nuevo, and St. George; and the ^ chief 
ports are those of San Antonio, San Jose, De- 
sire, San Julian, and Santa Cruz. On the Pa- 
cific are the gulfs of Trinidad, Penas, Corco- 
vado, and Ancud, the two latter being more 
properly straits separating the island of Chiloe 
from the mainland. None of the ports are 
described as being commodious for shipping. 
Islands are extremely rare on the E. coast; 
but the Pacific coast is fringed by a continuous 
chain, mostly in distinct groups. Wellington, 
by far the largest island, between lat. 47 30' 
and 50 5', has a maximum length of 165 m. 
from N. N. W. to S. S. E., and a mean breadth 
of nearly 40 m. To the north of this island 
is the gulf of Penas, to the south that of Trini- 
dad, and it is separated from the mainland by 
Mersier channel. Others of the larger islands 
are Queen Adelaide, Hanover, and those of 
the Chonos or Guaytecas archipelago. The 
eastern shores of most of the islands are high 
and rocky, and the western slopes covered 
with a comparatively rich arboreal vegetation, 
while the western edges are bare and subject 
to frequent storms. The only important penin- 
sula on the Atlantic is that of Valdes, some- 
times called San Jose ; in the straits of Magel- 
lan is that of Brunswick, and on the Pacific 
that of Taytao. On the E. coast, the more 
prominent points and capes are Medano at the 
embouchure of the Negro, Norte and Delgada 
on Valdes peninsula, Tres Puntas and Virgins 
at the entrance to the straits of Magellan, and 
Cape Froward in Brunswick peninsula, the 
southernmost point of the American mainland. 
The capes on the W. coast, though numer- 
ous, are unimportant. Patagonia, in common 
with the remainder of the western continent 
lying "W. of Ion. 62, is traversed from S. to N. 
by the Andes, which here lie nearer to the 
coast than almost anywhere else S. of the 
isthmus of Panama. From the southern ex- 
tremity of the territory to Mt. Burney, which 
has an elevation of 4,800 ft., there are few 
summits above 3,000 ft. ; but the snow line 
in this region of short summers and long win- 
ters being under 2,000 ft., the character of the 
mountains is Alpine, and glaciers are fre- 
quent, at times even down to the sea level in 
the valleys. Northward from Mt. Burney the 
Alpine character is more continuous, especially 
in that part of the cordillera sometimes called 
the Sierra de Sarmiento. According to Agas- 
siz, the glaciers, which here evidently had a 
greater extension at an earlier period, have left 
indications of a movement from S. to N., and 
were connected with a polar ice sheet similar 



to that the traces of which are so apparent in 
the northern hemisphere. An observer from 
high summits is struck by the number of small 
lakes at all elevations, and still more by the slen- 
der cascades formed by the water rolling over 
the transverse ridge by which almost every 
valley is barred at different heights. The lofti- 
est peaks are between lat. 43 and 45 S., where 
the most conspicuous eminences are Mt. Cay 
and the volcanoes Yanteles (8,000 ft.) and Corco- 
vado. The latter volcano was formerly, though 
erroneously, considered the loftiest mountain 
in the world below lat. 42 S. Like its neigh- 
bor Minchinmadiva, however, about one degree 
further N., it more properly belongs to Chili 
than to Patagonia, though commonly assigned 
to the latter. A system of spurs detached 
from the Andes in lat. 41 S. curves north- 
ward to the very banks of the Rio Negro, and 
again bends S. E., trending toward the Atlantic 
coast, where it forms a littoral zone extending 
into the peninsula of Vald6s. Terraced rocky 
ranges skirt the Atlantic coast from the pen- 
insula just named to the southern extrem- 
ity of the continent, rising here and there to 
a considerable elevation, as in the peaks Sala- 
manca (lat. 45 30'), Rivers (47 30'), and Wood 
(48 20'), and the singularly shaped hills in- 
land from Possession bay, known as Mt. Ay- 
mond and the Asses' Ears, supposed to be the 
easternmost of a chain of small extinct volca- 
noes. The mountains of the middle region of 
the straits, comprised in Brunswick peninsula, 
range from 1,000 to 3,000 ft. above the sea, 
but without glaciers, snow remaining only in 
patches on their summits. A low transverse 
chain, parallel to the bed of the Santa Cruz 
river in lat. 50 S., unites in Mt. Stokes, 
nearly 100 m. from the Pacific coast, with the 
true Andine cordillera. The space comprised 
within the mountains first traced embraces the 
sterile plains of Patagonia, consisting of a bed 
of shingle worn smooth and accumulated by 
the waves of the sea. The principal rivers 
are those emptying into the Atlantic. The 
Negro, forming the boundary with the Argen- 
tine Republic, disembogues at El Carmen de 
Patagones, after a generally eastward course of 
over 500 m., throughout nearly the whole of 
which it has been navigated. The Chupat, 
descending from the Andes, traverses the plains 
eastward and discharges into the ocean at the 
port of the same name. The St. George, from 
the same chain, crossing the territory in a 
like direction, empties into St. George's bay 
in lat. 46 30'. The Santa Cruz, after the Ne- 
gro by far the most important, as it is navi- 
gable throughout at all seasons, the depth be- 
ing nowhere less than 9 ft., forms the east- 
ern outlet of Lake Viedma (lat. 49 30' S.), 
whence by a gentle curve S. E. it flows to its 
estuary, into which it discharges through a 
mouth 3 m. wide. The tide here rises from 
35 to 50 ft. twice in the 24 hours. The few 
streams to the Pacific have short precipitous 
courses. Of the lakes existing in the interior, 



PATAGONIA 



155 



Viedma only is thoroughly known ; it was ex- 
plored in October, 1874, by Lieut. Feilberg of 
the Argentine navy, who found it to be 27 m. 
long and 100 m. in circumference, with a west- 
ern drainage to the Pacific 32 m. distant. The 
explorer reached it by the Santa Cruz, and on 
his return descended the river (which has a 
current of 6 m. an hour) to Port Santa Cruz 
at the mouth in 26 hours. The Rio Gallegos 
flows into the Atlantic at the port of the same 
name, in lat. 51 50' S. Some of the lagoons 
in the north are not perennial, but disappear 
on the subsidence of the floods at the end of 
the rainy season. The geology of Patagonia 
is at once simple and interesting. From the 
Rio Colorado, in the Argentine pampas, south- 
ward almost to lat. 51, extends one great de- 
posit including many tertiary shells, all appa- 
rently extinct, the most common of which 
is a colossal oyster often a foot in diame- 
ter. Overlying these beds, the thickness of 
which at Port San Julian is over 800 ft., is a 
peculiar soft stone, really pumiceous, though 
including gypsum and somewhat resembling 
chalk, and one tenth of whose bulk is com- 
posed of infusoria, among which last Ehren- 
berg discovered 30 oceanic forms. The white 
beds are everywhere capped by a mass of 
gravel, forming probably, according to Dar- 
win, one of the most extensive beds of shin- 
gle in the world. At the Santa Cruz river it 
reaches to the foot of the Andes, the thickness 
of the stratum half way up that river being 
over 200 ft. ; and it probably extends every- 
where to that cordillera, whence have been 
derived the well rounded pebbles of porphyry ; 
thus its mean breadth may be computed at 
200 m., and its mean thickness at 50 ft. The 
whole land from the basin of the Eio de la 
Plata to Tierra del Fuego has been raised in 
mass, to a height varying between 300 and 
400 ft., within the period of the now exist- 
ing sea shells; the old and weathered shells 
on the surface of the upheaved plain still par- 
tially retain their colors. The upward move- 
ment has been interrupted by at least eight 
long periods of rest, during which the sea 
ate deeply and uniformly into the land, form- 
ing at successive levels the rows of terraced 
escarpments. The lowest of these step-like 
plains is 90 ft. high, and the highest near the 
coast 950 ft. The plain beyond Lake Viedma, 
at the foot of the Andes, slopes up to an ele- 
vation of 3,000 ft. At Port San Julian, in 
some red mud capping the gravel on the 90 ft. 
plain, Darwin found half a skeleton of the 
macrauchenia Patachonica, a remarkable quad- 
ruped, as large as a camel; and Capt. Sulli- 
van of the British navy has since discovered, 
imbedded in regular strata on the banks of 
the Rio Gallegos, numerous large fossil bones, 
and some smaller ones, presumed to have be- 
longed to an armadillo. The middle portion 
of the straits region, from Peckett's harbor to 
Port Gallant, is mostly of secondary forma- 
tion, as far as determined by Mr. Pourtales, 



who visited the country during the Hassler ex- 
pedition (1871-'2), the coal of Punta Arenas 
(Sandy Point) being cretaceous. The moun- 
tains of the west are for the most part com- 
posed of primitive rock, immense fragments 
of which are numerous around the upper 
course of the Santa Cruz. According to Dar- 
win, it would be possible to prove that the bed 
of that river was once the bottom of a strait 
here joining the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, 
like that of Magellan. The mineral resources 
of Patagonia, though supposed by geologists 
to be comparatively extensive, are imperfect- 
ly known. Gold was found in 1874 in the 
region of the Gallegos and Santa Cruz rivers, 
and near Sandy Point ; but mining operations 
begun in that year were shortly suspended. 
Coal is abundant in Brunswick peninsula, 
though but small quantities have hitherto been 
extracted. Some diamonds have been dis- 
covered in the Gallegos river, and pronounced 
to be similar to those of Brazil. The climate 
in the north is extremely cold in winter and 
warm in summer ; and it is very dry, there 
being often no rain during nine months. In 
the south there is more moisture; the rainy 
and windy seasons are spring and summer; 
the remainder of the year is characterized by 
calm, interrupted only by light winds. Thun- 
der is not heard oftener than once in five years. 
Smallpox is unknown ; rheumatism is com- 
mon; and the climate is in general remark- 
ably salubrious. One of the striking charac- 
teristics of Patagonia is the similarity of the 
productions throughout, with the single excep- 
tion of the straits region. The same stunted 
plants are everywhere to be met with on the 
arid shingly plains, and the same spiny shrubs 
in the valleys. Some thorn-bearing shrubs oc- 
cur likewise in the north, where, not a tree 
being seen, they form, with salt pools here and 
there, the only relief to the dreary monotony 
of the grass-covered plains. In the east the 
vegetation consists of grasses and a few legumi- 
nous and composite plants and shrubs, with 
sweet berries of various kinds. In the south 
the forests present four species of trees : two 
beeches, the antarctic (fagm antarctica) and 
the evergreen (F. letuloides) ; the Winter's 
bark (drimys Winteri), known for the stimu- 
lant tonic properties of its aromatic bark ; and 
the libocedrus tetragona, akin to the Chilian 
tree furnishing the valuable alerce timber. 
Shrubs and climbers abound in the thickets, 
the ornamental species including the Fuchsia, 
Desfontainea, Perrottetia with small globular 
berries, philesia with its bell-shaped, rose-red, 
waxy flowers, and many others. Nearly all 
the species of the Patagonian flora are also 
indigenous to Chili, and are found in every 
part of the moist country from the north of 
the republic to Magellan straits. Ferns, moss- 
es, and lichens are found in great abundance ; 
and among the marine weeds should be men- 
tioned the gigantic macrocystis pyrifera so 
common in the straits and on the W. coast, and 



156 



PATAGONIA 



useful to navigators by indicating the presence 
of submerged rocks. Agriculture, hitherto 
confined to the colonies at Sandy Point and 
Port Santa Cruz, has only prospered in potatoes 
and garden vegetables ; but it was hoped that 
Swiss immigrants, expected in 1874, would by 
the use of fertilizers, and with efficient culture, 
succeed in raising wheat and barley, both of 
which were found to take three years to coine 
above ground at the now abandoned colony of 
Chupat. The puma lurks along the forest 
margins, or seeks, in the vicinity of the rivers, 
lakes, and pools, his favorite prey, the gua- 
naco. The latter animal roams in numerous 
flocks through the plains, never approaching 
the woods. Capybaras are very plenty, and the 
vizcacha and tucutuco, burrowing rodents, are 
here almost as common as in the Argentine 
pampas. Two species of deer are mentioned. 
A small delicately shaped fox, likewise very 
abundant, derives its support exclusively from 
several species of mice, externally character- 
ized by large thin ears and a beautiful fine fur, 
which swarm among the thickets in the valleys. 
Skunks and cavies are to be met with every- 
where. Among the amphibia are otters and 
two kinds of phocidce distinguished as eared and 
hair and fur seals ; whales are not uncommon ; 
and many varieties of excellent edible fish, in- 
cluding salmon, abound in some of the rivers 
and along the coasts. Shell fish are in great 
variety. The condor and some carrion hawks, 
especially the carranclia (polylorus Brazilien- 
818} and the chimango (P. chimangd), follow 
and prey upon the guanacos; large flocks of 
geese (chloephaga Hagellanica and C. antarc- 
'tica) feed upon the plains; and penguins are 
numerous on the shores of the straits and else- 
where, as are also cormorants, ducks, oyster- 
catchers, and sea gulls. The forest glades are 
enlivened by the warbling of small birds of 
many kinds, and the gorgeous plumage of paro- 
quets and humming birds. The ostrich (rhea 
Americana) frequents the great central plains, 
where it is taken by the Indians with the lasso 
and bolas. Recent travellers enumerate nine 
tribes of Patagonians S. of the Kio Negro: 
the Poyuches, Puelches, Cailliheches, Cheuches, 
Caflecaueches, Chaoches, Huilliches, Dilm aches, 
and Yakanaches. They all speak the same 
language, said to be akin to and strongly re- 
sembling the Araucanian of Chili, with slight 
dialectic modifications. They are tall (the men, 
according to Capt. Mayne, averaging 5 ft. 11 
in., or 5 in. over the mean stature of English- 
men), robust and powerful in proportion to their 
size, with large heads, high cheek bones, black 
eyes expressive of savage cunning, and straight, 
coarse, black hair, separated in front by a band 
and falling in wild disorder over the shoulders 
and back. The women are relatively much 
smaller, and with few exceptions ill-looking. 
Their costume usually comprises a beaded patch 
of cloth upon the head, the hair being divided 
into two long braided tresses reaching to the 
loins; huge ear rings with great square pen- 



dants attached, necklaces, armlets, and anklets 
of beads; and a woollen garment extending 
from the shoulders to below the knees, and 
fastened at the waist with an ornamental girdle 
and at the top with a tupu or brooch often 
of silver. The men swathe the middle of the 
body ; and their mantle, not always worn save 
in the south, is made of guanaco skins sewed 
together, with a hole for the head, and extend- 
ing below the knee. Both sexes paint the body 
with a species of volcanic earth furnished by 
the Araucanians, and pluck out all the hair of 
the eyebrows, beard, and all parts of the trunk. 
The Indians of the north are admirable eques- 
trians, and pass most of their time on horse- 
back; their offensive weapons are the lance, 
the sling, and the bow and arrow, all of which 
they use with dexterity and address, as they 
do also the lasso and bolas in the chase of the 
guanacos, ostriches, and cattle and horses on the 
plains. Their herds of these last and their flocks 
of sheep are numerous, being mainly stocked 
from the nearest Argentine farms, on which 
they make frequent raids. In the south the 
cattle are not so plenty, and there are no horses. 
The dress of the Indians is warmer, but, like 
their northern brethren, they are given to the 
use of intoxicating drinks, which, with tobacco, 
trinkets, and other commodities, they procure 
from the white colonists in exchange for os- 
trich feathers. The Fuegians, though of the 
same race as the Patagonians, are much smaller 
of stature, and differ essentially from them in 
their manner of living. One religion prevails 
through the whole of Patagonia; the people 
believe in two supreme beings, Vitauentru, 
revered as the author of all good, but to whom 
no fixed place of abode is assigned, and Hua- 
cuvu or Gualichu, the source of all human ills, 
and ruler of the evil spirits supposed to wan- 
der to and fro on the face of the earth. They 
have no priests, but there are diviners (of both 
sexes), whose pretended power to see into the 
bowels of the earth is gradually losing prestige 
with the multitude. Most of the tribes now 
possess cooking utensils, but the food, in the 
north mainly consisting of horse flesh, is still 
eaten almost raw, though with abundance of 
salt. They are fond of drinking the blood of an- 
imals ; and after each meal they smoke tobacco 
prepared with ox manure in a stone pipe, in- 
haling vast volumes of smoke until insensibility 
and even convulsions ensue. They have two 
religious festivals, one in honor of each of their 
divinities. They bury their dead with great 
solemnity, sacrificing the horse of the deceased 
(if a man) on his grave, besides which they 
leave a quantity of slaughtered animals for his 
food. They are fond of dancing, during which 
the women sing and beat a sort of tamborine, 
accompanied by the discordant notes of a reed 
fife, their only musical instrument. Altoge- 
ther the Patagonians have dwindled down to 
a few thousand. This region was discovered 
in 1520 by Magalhaens, who named it Pata- 
gonia (the country of the large- footed), in al 



PATAGONIA 



PATCHOULI 



157 



lusion to the presumed large size of the feet 
of the natives, judging from footprints seen 
upon the coast; but this was an unfounded 
presumption, the people being remarkable for 
proportionately small feet. The coast was 
visited by Drake in 1578, by Byron in 1764, 
and by Cook in 1774. Since that time the- 
territory has frequently been explored more 
or less extensively by a number of voyagers : 
by Darwin in 1834, Musters in 1869, and mem- 
bers of the American Hassler expedition in 
1871. The most accurate descriptions of the 
Patagonians are from the pens of Bourne, an 
Englishman, and Guinnard, a Frenchman, de- 
tained as captives by the natives, the first three 
months and the second three years (1856-'9). 
Three vocabularies of the Patagonian language 
have been compiled : by Pigafetta in the 16th 
century, by Schmid in 1863, and by Musters 
in 1870. In earlier days the territory nomi- 
nally formed part of the viceroyalty of Buenos 
Ayres. It has since been disputed by the 
Chilians and Argentines, but the latter have 
consented to the occupation by the former 
of the whole of the Pacific coast region. The 
Chilians established a colony at Port Famine 
in 1843, but removed it to Sandy Point on 
the E. shore of Brunswick peninsula in 1850 ; 
since then it has been comparatively prosper- 
ous. The population of the colony, which is 
administered by a governor, was officially giv- 
en in 1873 at 869 ; and a contract was signed 
for the introduction of 100 Swiss families, ex- 
pected to arrive in the following year. The 
value of the exports (mainly skins) for 1873 
was $34,632, and of the imports $48,534, 
almost exclusively from Valparaiso. In that 
year 86 steamers, 10 sailing vessels, and 10 war 
steamers touched at the port. Farm lots of 50 
acres each had been given to 117 settlers. The 
Chilian government has initiated numerous im- 
provements tending to facilitate steam navi- 
gation through the straits ; and $25,000 was 
appropriated in 1873 for a lighthouse to be 
built on Cape Virgins, at the Atlantic entrance 
thereto, a step regarded at Buenos Ayres as an 
audacious infringement upon Argentine sover- 
eignty. ' At Port Santa Cruz there has been an 
Argentine colony for several years ; but besides 
a fish-oil factory in the vicinity, no profitable 
industry is carried on there. A Welsh colony, 
founded under Argentine auspices in 1865 on 
the Rio Chupat, proved unsuccessful, and the 
settlers removed to the province of Santa Fe 
shortly afterward. Viedma, who visited Pat- 
agonia in 1779, and pushed his explorations 
inland to the foot of the Andes, built several 
forts along the coast; and these, with the 
settlements above enumerated, are the only 
civilized establishments in this dismal region. 
The Chilian congress in 1864 decreed the con- 
cession of 75,000 sq. m., embracing both coasts, 
to a Mr. Tornero, on condition of his introdu- 
cing 10,000 colonists and keeping four steam 
tugs in the straits ; but that and several similar 
schemes have never been carried out. It has 



been asserted that serious efforts to colonize 
Patagonia permanently must always fail, and 
that the territory will be unpopulated for cen- 
turies to come. 

PATAPSCO, a river of Maryland, which rises 
in Carroll co., flows southward and then south- 
easterly between Baltimore co. and Howard 
and Anne Arundel counties, and passing Balti- 
more opens into a broad estuary which en- 
ters Chesapeake bay 14 m. below the city. Its 
total length is about 80 in., and it affords valu- 
able water power. It is navigable for large 
vessels to Baltimore. 

PATCHOULI, a perfume, the name of which 
is said to be from patchey elley, the East In- 
dian name for the leaves of patchey. About 
the year 1825 there appeared in commerce the 
dried and broken leaves of a plant from the 
East Indies, which had a very powerful odor ; 
these were recognized as belonging to some 
labiate plant, but it was not till 1844, when 
the patchouli plant flowered in France, that 
its proper genus was known, and it was de- 
scribed by Pelletier as pogostemon patchouly. 
The genus pogostemon consists of herbs and 
somewhat shrubby plants, and is entirely Asi- 
atic; the plants have the general aspect of 
coarse labiates, and their flowers are borne in 
dense axillary and terminal spikes ; the patch- 
ouli grows in Penang, the Malay peninsula, and 
Silhet ; it is a shrubby herb about 2 ft. high, 
with broadly ovate, petioled leaves 4 in. long, 
slightly lobed and scallop-toothed on the mar- 
gins ; the flowers are white, tinged with pur- 
ple. The plant is prepared for commerce by 
cutting and drying in the sun, taking care not 




Patchouli (Pogostemon patchouly). 

to dry it so much as to crumble; the dried 
tops, which are about a foot long, are packed 
for exportation in boxes containing 110 Ibs. 
each. The odor of the leaves is to some per- 
sons quite insupportable, while others are pas- 
sionately fond of it; the perfume has long 



158 PATfi DE FOIE GRAS 

been popular in India, and soon became com- 
mon after its introduction into Europe and 
this country. It is due to a volatile oil, of 
which the plant by distillation yields about 2 
per cent. ; this, as essence de patchouly, is also 
found in commerce. The odor is peculiar and 
remarkably persistent. Sachets of patchouli 
are small bags filled with cotton and the bro- 
ken leaves, and used to perfume drawers and 
to put away with woollen clothing and furs 
to keep out moths ; the essence is sometimes 
used alone, but more frequently employed in 
combination with other essences to make com- 
pound perfumes. India ink and India shawls 
owe their peculiar odor to this perfume, and 
in India it is used to scent smoking tobacco. 
Accounts are given of injurious effects result- 
ing from an excessive use of patchouli as a 
perfume, such as nervous debility and loss of 
appetite and sleep. 

PATE DE FOIE GRAS (Fr.), literally, a pie of 
fat liver, made generally of the liver of the 
goose, and in N6rac, France, of the liver of the 
musk duck. Strasburg and Toulouse are famous 
for goose-liver pasty tureens. The method of 
producing the abnormally large liver is to take 
a young bird in autumn, confine it in a close 
cage which permits but little movement, gener- 
ally in a dark place, and feed the bird with 
beans, or more commonly with maize. Du- 
ring the last three or four weeks the bird 
is "crammed" twice or three times a day 
with parboiled maize seasoned with salt, the 
crammer forcing the food down its throat. 
Under this unnatural treatment the liver swells 
and attains a weight of from one to two 
pounds, and in exceptional cases even three 
pounds. The bird's throat is cut, and after 
being drawn the body is hung in a cold, airy 
place till the liver acquires sufficient firmness 
to be taken out. The pastry cook seasons and 
spices it, adds truffles and other ingredients, 
bakes the contents of the tureen, and pours over 
the mass a layer of fresh hog's lard to keep it 
from contact with the air. It is estimated that 
the trade of the Strasburg pastry cooks alone 
in these tureens amounts to $500,000 a year. 

PATELLA (Lat., a kind of dish), the knee- 
pan, a chestnut-shaped bone placed in front of 
the knee joint, the cavity of which it protects 
from external violence. It is attached above 
to the tendon of the extensor muscles on the 
front of the thigh, and below, by means of a 
strong and broad ligament, to the tuberosity 
on the upper and front part of the tibia or leg 
bone. Its anterior surface is convex and rough, 
while its back part presents a double articu- 
lar surface, invested with a thin layer of carti- 
lage, corresponding with the articular surface 
of the front part of the lower extremity of the 
femur. The patella thus takes part in the for- 
mation of the knee joint. It is liable to frac- 
ture and to lateral dislocation ; but neither of 
these accidents is very frequent. 

PATENTS, Law of. Letters patent are grant- 
ed by the governments of various countries to 



PATENTS 

secure to inventors, their heirs and assigns, for 
a specified period, the exclusive right to new 
inventions and discoveries useful to industry. 
The system was not known to the ancients, 
and in many countries does not now exist. It 
is much favored in the United States, is com- 
mon in Europe and the English colonies, and 
has been introduced into several South Amer- 
ican countries. In England the authority to 
grant patents for useful inventions rests upon 
a proviso in the statute of monopolies passed 
in 1624. This act prohibited the granting of 
exclusive privileges in trade, but excepted " let- 
ters patent and grants of privilege for the term 
of one and twenty years or under, heretofore 
made, of the sole working or making of any 
manner of new manufacture within this realm, 
to the first and true inventor or inventors of 
such manufactures." In France the earliest 
law in favor of new inventions was passed in 
1791. The patent system of the United States 
has grown up under a positive grant in the 
federal constitution. The first act was passed 
in 1790. The grant of a patent is in the na- 
ture of a contract between the government and 
the inventor, the former giving to the latter 
the exclusive usufruct of the invention for a 
limited term in consideration of the benefit 
received from it by the public. This benefit 
results from the immediate practice of the in- 
vention under the patent, the privilege of prac- 
tising it after the expiration of the patent, and 
the general encouragement given to industry. 
But it is disputed whether patent laws are for 
the public good. Neither Switzerland nor Hol- 
land has such laws. In Prussia the granting 
of patents is not regarded with favor by the 
government; and in England, Belgium, Sax- 
ony, and some other countries, the abolition of 
the system has been advocated. The United 
States patent office in Washington is a bureau 
of the interior department; here are kept all 
records, books, models, drawings, specifica- 
tions, and other things pertaining to patents. 
The officers are all paid, and comprise a com- 
missioner, assistant commissioner, and three 
examiners in chief, appointed by the president 
with the consent of the senate ; also one chief 
clerk, an examiner in charge of interferences, 24 
principal, 24 first assistant, 24 second assistant, 
and 24 third assistant examiners, a librarian, a 
machinist, and a large clerical force. The ex- 
aminers in chief must be persons of competent 
legal knowledge and scientific ability. The gen- 
eral law in force relating to patents is that of 
1870. Who may obtain a Patent. Any per- 
son, whether citizen or alien, whether resident 
in this or in a foreign country, being the origi- 
nal and first inventor or discoverer of anything 
patentable, may obtain letters patent there- 
for. A patent will issue to the assignee of the 
inventor, but the application must be made 
by the latter, and the assignment must be first 
recorded. In case of the death of the inven- 
tor, his legal representatives may apply for the 
patent. Joint inventors are entitled to a joint 



PATENTS 



159 



patent ; but the independent inventors of sep- 
arate and independent improvements in the 
same machine cannot obtain a joint patent for 
their distinct inventions. To be entitled to a 
patent as the inventor or discoverer, the claim- 
ant must be the real author of the invention ; 
and he is the real author who has conceived 
the essential plan or principle of the discov- 
ery. The inventor may, without prejudice to 
his rights, receive suggestions, hints, or practi- 
cal aid from others ; and he may avail himself 
of the practical knowledge or manual skill of 
others necessary to bring his invention into 
practical form. Thus Morse conceived the idea 
of the electric telegraph ; and it was held by 
the supreme court of the United States that 
the information obtained by him from men of 
science and mechanicians for the purpose of 
giving practical embodiment to the conception 
"neither impairs his rights as an inventor nor 
detracts from his merits." But if the principle 
or plan of the invention is substantially com- 
municated to the patentee, who contributes 
only the ordinary skill of the constructor or 
mechanic, he will not be regarded in law as 
the inventor. What may fie patented. Any 
"art, machine, manufacture, or composition 
of matter, or any new and useful improvement 
thereof," may be the subject of a patent. By 
" art " is meant the mode, process, or man- 
ner of doing a thing; the term "manufac- 
ture" embraces fabrics or substances, but not 
machinery; and "composition of matter" is 
usually applied to medicines, and less frequent- 
ly to compositions used in the arts, as metal- 
lic alloys, paints, chemical compounds, &c. A 
machine must not be a mere function or ab- 
stract mode of operation, separate from any 
particular mechanism, but a function or mode 
of operation embodied in mechanism designed 
to accomplish a certain effect. If this effect 
is new, the mechanism which produces it may 
be new or old ; or a new machine which pro- 
duces an old effect may be patented. The in- 
vention may embrace the entire machine, or 
one or more parts, or it may consist in a com- 
bination which may be entirely of old and well 
known things, or new ones, or old and new 
together ; but the combination must be new, 
and must produce a new and useful result, not 
due to the separate action of any one of the 
devices used, but to the cooperative action of 
all. In this case the patent protects only the 
combination and the new elements ; any one 
may use the old devices either separately or in 
a different combination. A patent for an im- 
provement covers only the improvement, and 
does not give to the patentee a right to use 
the original invention. The improvement of 
an existing machine must be real and material, 
and not merely a change of form. The im- 
provement need not be very great. The differ- 
ence between the old and the new may to all 
appearance be very slight, and yet be of great 
importance. Thus, when it was the practice 
to make cloths water-proof by immersing them 
641 VOL. xin. 11 



in a solution of soap and alum, a patent was 
obtained for immersing cloths first in a solu- 
tion of alum (with an ingredient or two added), 
and afterward in a solution of soap ; and this 
patent was sustained, because it was proved 
that the immersion into the separate solutions 
successively made the cloth much more com- 
pletely and permanently water-proof. Since 
1842 the law has provided for issuing patents 
for designs used in manufactures. In England 
this class of objects is protected by the law of 
copyright. By the act of congress of 1870 let- 
ters patent may be obtained for any new and 
original design for a manufacture, bust, statue, 
alto rilievo, or basso rilievo ; or for the printing 
of woollen, silk, cotton, or other fabrics ; any 
new and original impression, ornament, pat- 
tern, print, or picture intended for any article of 
manufacture ; or any new, useful, and original 
shape or configuration of any article of manu- 
facture. For a statement of what is protected 
by the law of trade marks see TEADE MARKS. 
The essential requisites of every patentable 
invention or discovery are novelty and utility. 
A valid patent will not issue to an applicant 
if what he claims as new was, before his in- 
vention, invented or discovered by another in 
this country, or if he has abandoned it to the 
public. Inventors, however, may permit the 
public use or sale of their inventions for two 
years before applying for a patent, without 
prejudicing their rights; but if this use ex- 
tends over a longer period, or if it amounts to 
an abandonment, a valid patent will not issue. 
In regard to a prior invention, it is not sufficient 
that another may have previously conceived 
the idea that the thing patented could be done ; 
he must have reduced his idea to practice and 
embodied it in some useful practical form ; it 
must have been not merely an experiment, 
but a completed invention or discovery put 
into practical form and capable of working 
successfully. "Whether it was in actual use is 
immaterial except so far as that fact may go 
to determine whether the invention was com- 
pleted and capable of use. Whoever restores 
an abandoned or lost art or invention may ob- 
tain a patent for it. If a person having made 
a discovery or invention applies for a patent 
in this country, his claim will not be defeated 
by the fact that the same invention has been 
previously known and in use in a foreign 
country, unless it has been patented or fully 
described in some printed publication. Any 
inventor or his assignee may obtain a patent 
for an invention which he has first patented 
in a foreign country, provided it has not been 
in public use in the United States for more 
than two years prior to the application. In 
this case the patent will expire at the same 
time as that in the foreign country, or, if there 
be more than one foreign patent, at the same 
time with the one having the shortest term ; 
but in no case will it last longer than 17 years. 
Thus if a patent is granted in this country 
for an invention previously patented in Prussia 



160 



PATENTS 



for three years, the American patent will not 
continue beyond that period. An invention 
is new, in the sense of the patent law, when 
it is substantially different from anything pre- 
viously known. In determining the question 
of novelty, the inquiry frequently arises wheth- 
er the supposed invention is really novel, or 
whether it simply consists in a double or anal- 
ogous use or application of something already 
known. The application of an old contrivance 
to a new use, or the producing of a new result 
or effect by known means, is not the subject 
of a patent if such new use or effect is anal- 
ogous to that already known. Thus it has 
been held that a patent will not issue to the 
person who first applies to railroad cars a 
kind of wheel that has been used for other 
conveyances; nor for a process of curling 
palm leaf for mattresses after hair had been 
prepared by the same means. Such uses may 
be new and useful, but they are analogous to 
the old, and therefore not patentable. The 
discovery of a principle, a natural law, scien- 
tific truth, or property of matter cannot in the 
abstract be the subject of a patent. But who- 
ever makes a new and useful application of 
any of these things by embodying the princi- 
ple or law in mechanism, or describing a new 
process by which the discovery may be made 
of practical utility, may obtain a patent for 
his invention, which consists not in the ab- 
stract principle but in its practical application. 
Thus the properties of electricity, the law of 
contraction and expansion produced in metals 
by heat and cold, the principle of centrifugal 
force, and the qualities of heated air, are well 
known things which cannot be patented ; but 
their novel application to practical uses by de- 
scribed means have come within the scope of 
the patent laws. The discovery of ether as an 
anaesthetic, and its application in surgical ope- 
rations to alleviate pain, was held to be not 
patentable, on the ground that the claim was 
for a new effect " produced by old agents, ope- 
rating by old means upon old subjects;" it 
appearing that the existence of ether had been 
before known, as well as a peculiar effect pro- 
duced when introduced into the lungs of animals. 
The principle, law, property, &c., may be newly 
discovered or well known ; and so the mecha- 
nism or process or means may be new or old. 
But it is essential that the practical application 
to the purpose specified shall be new ; that the 
patentee shall describe some means of applying 
the principle to a useful purpose ; and that the 
means described shall be such that the prac- 
tical application may be made by a person of 
ordinary skill. The law, property, or quality 
of matter is common property, which can be 
appropriated by any one to a new purpose by 
a new adaptation. No one can acquire exclu- 
sive property in the electric fluid, or in any 
one of its properties or powers; or in the 
sun's light, or that actinic power by which 
pictures are painted or impressed. But any 
one may devise a way of working with electri- 



city, and that way shall be his ; and so he may 
discover a way of making pictures or represen- 
tations by light, and that way also shall belong 
to the inventor. And then any other person 
is at liberty to discover some other way of using 
either of these forces or qualities of nature. 
The statute specifies that the invention shall 
be "useful;" but any degree of utility is suffi- 
cient, and patents are often granted for things 
of little or no value. The law simply requires 
that the invention may be capable of some 
practical use, however trivial, which is not 
noxious or mischievous. If the invention be 
new and useful, it is immaterial how much or 
how little thought, ingenuity, skill, labor, or 
money has been bestowed upon it. Whether it 
was the result of repeated experiments and pro- 
found study, or was merely an accidental discov- 
ery, is immaterial. The law looks to the result, 
and not to the manner in which it was pro- 
duced. How Letters Patent may 1)6 obtained. 
The applicant for a patent is required to file in 
the patent office a petition on oath or affirma- 
tion that the petitioner, if the inventor, believes 
himself to be the original and first inventor of 
the invention, and that he does not know and 
does not believe that it has been known or used 
before; and this must be accompanied by a 
full description of the invention, with draw- 
ings and a model where the case admits of it. 
The application must be in writing, addressed 
to the commissioner of patents, and signed by 
the inventor if living, or otherwise by his ex- 
ecutor or administrator. Even when the appli- 
cation is made by an assignee, it must be signed 
by the inventor if living. The specification is 
a written description of the invention or dis- 
covery, and of the manner and process of ma- 
king, constructing, and using it. It must be so 
full, clear, and exact as to enable any person 
skilled in the art or science to which it apper- 
tains, or with which it is most nearly con- 
nected, to make, construct, compound, and use 
the same. If a machine, the principle and best 
mode of operation must be fully explained, 
so as to distinguish it from other inventions. 
The description is followed by the "claim," in 
which the applicant must particularly specify 
the part, improvement, or combination which he 
claims as his own invention or discovery. Where 
there are drawings, the specification must refer 
by letters and figures to the different parts. In 
the case of a composition of matter, specimens of 
the composition and of the ingredients sufficient 
in quantity for the purpose of experiment, must 
accompany the application. The chief objects 
of the specification are to make known the pre- 
cise nature of the invention, and to enable the 
public from the specification itself to practise 
the invention after the expiration of the patent. 
The object of the claim is to fix with accuracy 
the extent of what is claimed as new. Two 
or more separate and independent inventions 
cannot rightly be claimed in one application ; 
but if they relate to the same subject and are 
necessarily connected, they may be included 



PATENTS 



161 



in one application. It is essential that the 
specification be a full and intelligible descrip- 
tion of the invention. Obscurity or ambiguity 
in this respect may defeat the patent. It is 
also of prime importance that the claim be co- 
extensive with the invention, and discriminate 
distinctly between the old and what is claimed 
as new. If it appear that anything claimed is 
not new, the patent will be broader than the 
invention and therefore void. It will also be 
a fatal defect if the claim is for a machine 
when the invention is a process; or for the 
discovery of a law in nature or property of 
matter, when the invention is the practical 
application of such law or property. Cases 
are numerous in which patents have been de- 
clared void on account of defective specifica- 
tions. It sometimes happens that two or more 
persons claim each to be the first inventor of 
the -same thing. Then the commissioner de- 
clares a case of u interference " to exist, and 
after due notice to the parties, they are heard 
in support of their several claims before a 
primary examiner, and if either party is dis- 
satisfied with his decision, before the board of 
examiners in chief, and if still dissatisfied, be- 
fore the commissioner on appeal. This may 
happen although one of the claimants has pre- 
viously received a patent; for the commissioner, 
if he comes to the conclusion that the second 
claimant has a better right, or an equal right, 
will give him also a patent, and leave the two 
to determine by legal measures which is valid. 
Appeals from the commissioner may be taken 
in all cases except interferences to the supreme 
court of the District of Columbia. If a patent 
is void by reason of a defective specification, or 
because the patentee claimed as his own inven- 
tion more than he had a right to claim as new, 
he may surrender his patent to the commis- 
sioner, and file with him a new and corrected 
specification, and the commissioner may there- 
upon issue to him a new patent, provided the 
error has arisen from inadvertence, accident, 
or mistake, and without any fraudulent or de- 
ceptive intention. Or the patentee may make 
a disclaimer in writing of such parts of the 
thing patented as he does not wish to claim ; 
and this disclaimer, being duly received and 
recorded, shall have the same effect as if it 
had been originally a part of such specification. 
Even without such surrender or disclaimer, a 
patent may still be sustained by the court for 
any material and distinguishable part for which 
the claim was valid, although there are other 
parts of the claim to which the patentee is 
not entitled ; but he can recover no costs for 
the infringement of such a patent without sur- 
render or disclaimer. There is a very wise 
provision to meet the frequent case where an 
inventor wishes to secure his right, but is not 
ready to present a full and complete specifi- 
cation, and needs time for experimenting or 
other purposes. He may file a caveat, which 
will be placed in the secret archives of the 
patent office ; and if there be any application 



within a year for anything which appears to 
interfere with his claim, he shall have notice 
and may appear and prove priority ; and by a 
second caveat he may renew it for another 
year, and so on successively. It is to be no- 
ticed, however, that a caveat cannot be filed 
by an alien, unless he has resided in the Uni- 
ted States one year, and has made oath of his 
intention to become a citizen, according to 
law. Even where caveats are not taken out, 
all pending applications are regarded as so far 
confidential that, until after a patent is issued, 
no information will be given to any one but 
the claimant respecting the existence of any 
application, or any questions which may have 
arisen in relation to it. To guard against de- 
ception of the public as to what inventions are 
protected by patent, all patented articles are 
to be marked with the date of the patent, and 
any person who shall put any word or remark 
upon a thing not patented which shall indi- 
cate that it is the subject of a patent, or put 
upon it the name of any patentee without his 
consent, is liable to a penalty of $100 for each 
offence. A fee of $15 is required on filing the 
application, and $20 when the patent issues; 
$10 on filing a caveat, and $30 when application 
is made for a reissue. The fees for designs 
are $10 for 3 years, $15 for 7 years, and $30 
for 14 years. Patents may be assigned by in- 
struments in writing, which must be record- 
ed in the patent office within three months 
from execution. The assignment may be of the 
whole or an undivided part of the patent, or a 
license may be given conferring the exclusive 
right to make, use, and sell the thing patented 
within any specified part of the United States. 
Term. By the act of 1836 patents were 
granted for 14 years, and provision was made 
for an extension in certain cases for 7 years 
more. In 1861 the original term was fixed at 
17 years, and extensions were prohibited for 
patents granted after that year. This provi- 
sion was retained in the act of 1870, so that 
patents are now issued for 17 years without 
the privilege of renewal. Patents granted 
prior to 1861 might formerly be extended by 
the commissioner after hearing the parties in- 
terested, and after public notice to others dis- 
posed to object, provided he was satisfied that 
the patentee, without neglect or fault on his 
part, had failed to obtain from the use and 
sale of his invention or discovery a reasonable 
remuneration. The last patent coming within 
the provisions of the law in regard to exten- 
sions expired March 2, 1875, so that no exten- 
sion can now be granted except by special act 
of congress. Such acts have been passed, but 
the practice is liable to abuses. Patents for 
designs may be taken out for 3, 7, or 14 years, 
as the applicant may elect. Infringement. To 
determine what constitutes an infringement is 
one of the most difficult matters connected with 
the subject of patents. So much depends upon 
the points of resemblance and difference be- 
tween the infringing and infringed matter, that 



162 



PATENTS 



few general rules can be given to determine 
the question. The statute affords no definition ; 
it grants to the patentee, for a term not exceed- 
ing 17 years, the " exclusive right to make, use, 
and vend " his invention or discovery through- 
out the United States. It is therefore an in- 
fringement either to make, use, or sell with- 
out license what another has patented. In 
determining the question of infringement, the 
leading inquiry is whether there is substantial 
identity between the two things ; if so, there 
is an infringement. If there is a difference, 
the inquiry is whether it is substantial or mere- 
ly colorable. When a machine or a process is 
patented, it is not an infringement to sell the 
article produced, unless the product is also 
patented. Thus, where one person owned the 
patent right for using a machine for making 
bedsteads in a certain county, it was held to be 
no infringement for another person operating 
a similar machine in an adjoining county to 
sell his bedsteads in the county first named. 
A combination is not infringed by the use of 
one or more of its parts, if those parts are not 
specially patented, and if they do not substan- 
tially constitute the combination. As to in- 
fringement by the sale of the thing patented, 
it must be a sale of the whole thing, and not 
of the different parts or materials out of which 
it may be made, unless they be sold with the 
intent that they should be put together and so 
make the whole machine. The owner of a 
patented machine may prolong its existence 
and utility by repair as long as he can; but 
he may not construct a new machine under 
pretence of repairing the old one. A patentee 
is seldom permitted to call that an infringe- 
ment which imitates nothing that is directly 
and explicitly stated in the specification. In 
case of infringement, the statute provides for 
the recovery of damages in the circuit courts 
of the United States. An injunction may also 
be obtained restraining the alleged offender 
from further using or selling the patented ar- 
ticle. Frequently an injunction will not be 
granted until the plaintiff's right and the de- 
fendant's wrong doing have been established 
at law. But when the infringement is certain, 
a court of equity will proceed at once; and 
sometimes, on petition of the patentee, they 
direct a trial at law, and order the defendant 
to keep an exact account of all that he makes 
or sells in supposed infringement of the pat- 
ent, to be rendered if the trhl results in estab- 
lishing the infringement. The average annual 
number of applications for American patents 
is about 20,000. In 1874 there were 21,602 
applications, and 13,599 patents were granted, 
including reissues and those for designs; 2,561 
applications were allowed for which patents 
did not issue on account of non-payment of 
fees. The number of caveats filed was 3,181. 
The receipts of the patent office amounted to 
$738,278, and the expenditures to $679,288. 
From 1836 to 1875 more than 158,000 patents 
were issued. Since 1866 illustrated specifica- 



tions have been printed by the government ; 
but information concerning patents granted 
prior to that year is accessible to the public 
only in manuscript records, the commissioners' 
annual reports, judicial reports, &c. Foreign 
Patent Systems. The English patent system 
and that of the United States have much in 
common, but there are some marked differ- 
ences. The former dates from the reign of 
James I.; but in 1852 the entire system was 
regulated by act of parliament. The term 
" manufactures " in the statute of monopolies 
has been construed to embrace anything made 
by the hand of man, including machinery and 
products, as well as processes or methods of 
producing manufactured articles, and improve- 
ments of the same. In recent statutes the term 
" inventions " is used, which has the same com- 
prehensive meaning. Prior to 1852 separate 
patents were necessary for England, Ireland, 
and Scotland, and were obtained, at a cost of 
between 300 and 400. One patent is now 
sufficient for the whole United Kingdom. It 
may be obtained for 14 years, and at the ex- 
piration of that term the owner, by petition to 
the queen in council, may have an extension 
for 7 or even 14 years. The cost of obtaining 
a patent for 14 years amounts to about 175 ; 
but the patentee may secure a term of three 
years for 25, or seven years for 50 more, 
to be paid at the end of the first three years. 
At the expiration of seven years he may ex- 
tend the patent for seven years more, by the 
payment of 100. By filing a provisional spe- 
cification, the applicant may secure protection 
for his invention for six months. The com- 
missioners of patents are the lord chancellor 
and master of the rolls, the law officers of the 
crown for England, Scotland, and Ireland re- 
spectively, and such other persons as the queen 
may appoint. A marked difference between 
the English and American system is, that the 
former gives a patent to any person who first 
introduces an invention into the realm, with- 
out regard to who is the inventor or in what 
country the .invention may have been patent- 
ed. The practice therefore has been common, 
when an invention has been patented or made 
public in a foreign country, for some other 
than the owner to send a description to Eng- 
land and obtain a patent for it there. In 1875 
a bill was introduced into the house of lords 
by the lord chancellor to amend the law con- 
cerning patents by removing several important 
defects, one of the most prominent of which 
was the granting of letters patent without any 
examination into the merits or novelty of the 
invention. It was proposed in the new law 
to issue patents only after examination of the 
invention ; to abolish the practice of granting 
patents to those who merely introduce inven- 
tions from abroad; and to fix the term at 14 
years without privilege of extension. The pol- 
icy of granting patents has been recently much 
questioned in England. The number of Eng- 
lish patents annually issued is between 4,000 



PATENTS 



163 



and 5,000. Only 68 applications were rejected 
in 1872, and 78 in 1873. About 70 per cent. 
of these are allowed to expire at the end of 
three years, and about 20 per cent, of the re- 
mainder cease to exist at the end of seven 
years. In 1873 the receipts from patents 
amounted to 144,760, which exceeded the 
cost of issue by 90,000. In the United States 
the number of patents annually issued is much 
greater than in England, but the surplus re- 
ceipts are materially less, because the fees re- 
quired are much smaller, and from 10 to 15 
American patents may be required to cover 
an invention which would be embraced in one 
English patent. In France patents are grant- 
ed for 5, 10, or 15 years, and cannot be ex- 
tended beyond the last named term except by 
a special law. The invention must be new and 
applicable to industry. Pharmaceutical prep- 
arations or remedies of any kind cannot be 
patented ; they can only be protected by the 
law governing trade marks. The application 
for a patent is made to the prefecture of the 
department in which the applicant resides, and 
embraces a petition to the minister of agricul- 
ture and commerce, a specification of the in- 
vention or discovery, and the necessary draw- 
ings or specimens. The demand must be lim- 
ited to a single principal object, and the term 
desired must be specified. The tax is 500 
francs for 5, 1,000 for 10, and 1,500 for 15 
years, payable in annual instalments. Letters 
patent are issued without previous examina- 
tion, their validity being at the risk of the 
patentee. Failure to work the inventions for 
two years causes forfeiture of the patent. Al- 
terations, improvements, or additions to the 
invention while the patent is in force may be 
protected by a certificate, which is obtained 
by the payment of 20 francs, and expires with 
the original patent ; or a new patent may be 
taken out for such improvements. Foreigners 
may obtain patents upon the same terms as 
natives. Patents are granted to the authors 
of inventions already patented abroad; but 
they expire with the foreign patents. The im- 
perial constitution of Germany of 1871 declares 
that questions concerning patents and patent 
laws are reserved to the Reichstag; but no 
uniform law for the German empire has yet 
(1875) been made, and patents are issued by 
the several states pursuant to their respective 
laws. The patent system of Prussia has some 
peculiar features. The invention or discovery 
must be new and must have industrial value. 
Inventions of an artistic nature are not patent- 
able. Patents are granted only to natives or 
to the citizens of such countries as have ac- 
quired special rights by treaty, as in the case 
of British subjects. Foreigners not within 
this rule may obtain a patent by appointing a 
Prussian as their representative, in whose name 
the patent will issue. Any person, native or 
foreign, may obtain a patent for an invention 
patented abroad, provided no description of 
the invention has been published in Prussia or 



elsewhere, and that the invention has not been 
in use in Prussia. As the details of patents 
granted in England or the United States are 
promptly published, the English or American 
inventor who wishes to have his invention 
patented in Prussia must make contempora- 
neous application there and at home. The ap- 
plication for a Prussian patent must be made 
to the minister of commerce in Berlin, and 
must be accompanied by full descriptions, and 
also models if necessary. These are kept from 
the knowledge of all persons except those 
whose special duty it is to examine and report 
upon them. All applications are carefully ex- 
amined by a special department under the min- 
istry of commerce, consisting of nine members 
under the presidency of a director of the min- 
istry. These decide whether a patent shall 
issue, and also for what period, which must 
not be for less than six months nor more than 
15 years, but may be for any period within 
these limits. The usual term for which pat- 
ents are granted is three years. The cost of 
obtaining a patent is almost nominal. The 
patentee is required to bring his invention into 
use in Prussia within the time fixed by the 
minister, which is usually six months and never 
more than a year; non-compliance with this 
requirement will render the patent void. The 
patentee also loses his rights if at any time 
during the term for which the patent is grant- 
ed the invention remains unemployed for 12 
consecutive months. A Prussian patent gives 
to the owner the exclusive right of making the 
article patented, and in the case of machinery 
the sole right of using it when made ; but the 
patentee cannot prohibit the sale or importa- 
tion of an article which is like that for which 
the patent is granted. Infringing articles, in the 
case of a second offence, are liable to confisca- 
tion. The number of Prussian patents annu- 
ally granted is less than 100 ; the number of 
applications is about 700 or 800. In Bavaria 
patents are granted for any number of years 
not exceeding 15 ; the cost ranges from $10 41 
for the first to $114 54 for the 15th year. In 
Saxony the term is five years, but may be pro- 
longed for five more. In the Austro-Hunga- 
rian empire the period for which patents are 
granted is limited to 15 years; but a patent 
may be taken out for a shorter term at the op- 
tion of the patentee. The taxes for 15 years 
amount to $341: for the first five, $48 72; 
second five, $97 44; third five, $194 88. The 
patentee may be a native or a foreigner. The 
application is made to the political authorities 
of the district or the provincial governors, and 
by them forwarded to the ministry of com- 
merce. It must be accompanied by an intelli- 
gible description of the invention, and models 
and drawings if practicable. The description 
will be kept from the knowledge of the public 
at the request of the applicant. If the pat- 
entee fails to make use of his patent for one 
year from the date of issue, or subsequently 
allows two consecutive years to elapse without 



164 



PATERCULUS 



PATERSON 



working his invention, the patent becomes 
void. A foreign invention can only be patented 
in case it is patented abroad ; and the patent 
will be granted only to the foreign patentee or 
his assignee. In Belgium patents are granted 
without previous examination, for a term of 
20 years. The author of an invention already 
patented in a foreign country may obtain a 
patent, which will expire with the foreign pat- 
ent. The fees are small, and are paid in pro- 
gressive annual amounts: first year, $1 90; 
second, $3 80 ; third, $5 70 ; and so on to the 
20th year, for which the tax is $38. Non-pay- 
ment of this tax causes forfeiture of the pat- 
ent. The proprietor of a patent must use his 
invention in Belgium within a year from the 
time it is introduced in a foreign country ; if 
the patented article is used in a foreign coun- 
try, and not in Belgium, the patent will be 
annulled unless the owner justifies such non- 
use. From 1,500 to 2,000 patents are annually 
granted in Belgium. In Denmark patents usu- 
ally run for 3, 4, or 5 years. Important inven- 
tions are protected for 10, and in special cases 
15 years. Patents are not granted to foreign- 
ers for more than 5 years. In Sweden, inven- 
tors only, whether Swedes or foreigners, are 
entitled to letters patent, the term being not 
less than 3 nor more than 15 years. In Rus- 
sia patents are granted for 3, 5, or 10 years. 
Any person who introduces an invention pat- 
ented in a foreign country may receive a pat- 
ent, but it will not continue longer than the 
foreign patent, and in no case will it last long- 
er than 6 years unless the application is made 
by the inventor, in which case the term may 
extend to 10 years. The cost of a patent for 
10 years is $357. In Portugal patents are 
granted for a term not exceeding 15 years; in 
Italy not more than 15 years nor less than one 
year, the tax being annual and proportional. 
Greece has no patent system ; monopoly is ob- 
tained only by a special law. Brazil issues 
patents for from 5 to 20 years; Venezuela, 
not more than 15 nor less than 6. Ourtis's 
"Law of Patents" (4th ed., 1873) is the stan- 
dard American work on this subject. The 
latest English treatise (1874) is by Agnew. The 
proceedings at the patent office in Washing- 
ton, with descriptions of all inventions pat- 
ented, are published weekly in the "Official 
Gazette," and since the beginning of 1875 all 
decisions of the United States courts in patent 
cases. In vol. iv. of that publication (July to 
December, 1873) may be found statements of 
the patent laws of various foreign countries. 

PITERCILUS, Cains Vefleius, a Roman historian, 
born about 19 B. 0. He attended 0. Caesar 
in his eastern expedition in A. D. 2, and sub- 
sequently served under Tiberius in Germany, 
Pannonia, and Dalmatia. He was quaestor in 
7, and prrator in 15. His Roman history, a 
brief compendium, of which a part is lost, 
appears to have been written in A. D. 30, 
and bears the title of 0. Velleii Paterculi 
Historice Romance, a:Z M. Vinicium Cos. Libri 



II. It is chiefly remarkable for its excellent 
style. The manuscript was discovered in the 
monastery of Murbach in Alsace by Beatus 
Rhenanus, who printed it at Basel in 1520. 

PATERSON, a city and the capital of Passaic 
co., New Jersey, on the Passaic river, at the 
falls, and on the Morris canal and the Erie, the 
Delaware, Lackawanna, and Western, and the 
New Jersey Midland railroads, 11 m. N. of 
Newark, and 17 m. by rail N. W. of New York ; 
pop. in 1850, 11,334; in 1860, 19,586 ; in 1870, 
33,579, of whom 12,868 were foreigners, in- 
cluding 5,124 natives of Ireland, 3,347 of Eng- 
land, 1,429 of Germany, and 1,360 of Holland. 
The river here describes a curve, forming the 
boundary of the city for more than 9 m. on all 
sides except the south, and is crossed by 14 
bridges, several of which are fine structures, 
one just above the falls having a single span 
of 260 ft. The falls have a perpendicular de- 
scent of 50 ft., and the scenery in the vicinity 
is very picturesque. There is a small and rug- 
ged park around them, and in the S. E. corner 
of the city, on a hillside sloping down to Dun- 
dee lake, a fine sheet of water 3 m. long and 
m. wide, is Cedar Lawn cemetery. Paterson 
is well built, with paved streets, generally wide 
and straight and lighted with gas, and contains 
a large number of handsome residences, par- 
ticularly in Broadway. The principal public 
buildings are the court house and jail, market, 
city almshouse, first national bank, and the 
opera house. In the vicinity of the falls are 
a monument to the citizens who fell in the 
civil war and a tower overlooking the city and 
surrounding country. Paterson is the resi- 
dence of many persons doing business in New 
York, but it owes its prosperity chiefly to its 
manufactures, for which the falls afford abun- 
dant power. The two most important indus- 
tries are the manufacture of silk goods and 
locomotives. The silks include ribbons, ma- 
chine twist, sewing silk, dress silks, handker- 
chiefs, veils, neckties, scarfs, fringes, braids, 
bindings, &c. The dyeing of silk is also an 
important branch of the business. There are 
about 25 corporations and firms engaged in the 
silk manufacture and three locomotive works, 
besides which there are five cotton mills, pro- 
ducing cloths, yarns, shoe lacings, tape, mos- 
quito nettings, buckrams, &c. ; a steam fire 
engine manufactory, a bridge-building com- 
pany, several iron works and rolling mills 
producing forgings and machinery of various 
kinds, a woollen mill, print works, a paper 
mill, a manufactory of Whitney sewing ma- 
chines, two of wire, one of brass steam and 
gas fittings, one of shawls, one of linen thread, 
one of ingrain carpets, two of chemicals, and 
several of flax, hemp, and jute goods, embra- 
cing twine, cordage, bagging, and ladies' hair 
switches. The locomotive works in prosper- 
ous times employ about 3,000 hands, but since 
the financial panic of 1873 this business has 
been much depressed. In that year the capital 
invested in the manufacture of silk amounted 



PATERSON 



PATKUL 



165 



to $4,000,000 ; the number of hands employed 
was 4,000, and the amount paid in wages $2,- 
000,000. All branches of iron work employed 
3,758 hands, paying wages to the amount of 
$2,511,000, and producing articles to the value 
of $8,517,000. In flax, hemp, and jute manu- 
factures there were employed 1,390 hands, and 
goods were produced to the value of $1,748,- 
000 ; the wages paid in these branches during 
the year amounted to $413,384. The city con- 
tains two national banks with a joint capital 
of $550,000, a loan and trust company, two 
savings institutions, and a fire insurance com- 
pany. It is divided into nine wards, is gov- 
erned by a mayor and board of aldermen, and 
has a small police force and a good fire depart- 
ment, with a fire alarm telegraph. It is sup- 
plied with water from three reservoirs near 
the falls, into which it is pumped from the 
river by the Passaic water company, a private 
corporation. Two lines of horse cars accom- 
modate local travel. There are nine large pub- 
lic school buildings, with good graded schools, 
including a high school; two daily and four 
weekly (two German) newspapers; and 39 
churches (in several of which the services are 
conducted in Dutch), viz. : 4 Baptist, 1 Con- 
gregational, 3 Episcopal, 1 Independent, 1 Jew- 
ish, 10 Methodist, 7 Presbyterian, 7 Reformed, 
4 Roman Catholic, and 1 Swedenborgian. 
Paterson was founded in 1792 by a company 
incorporated for manufacturing purposes, under 
the auspices of Alexander Hamilton. The act 
of incorporation as a town was signed by Gov. 
William Paterson on July 4 of that year, and 
in honor of him it was named. It received a 
city charter in 1851. 

PATERSON, William, founder of the bank of 
England, and of the Scottish colony of Darien, 
born according to tradition at Skipmyre, Tin- 
wald parish, Dumfriesshire, about 1660, died 
in January, 1719. He is said to have been 
among the Covenanters who were persecuted 
by Charles II. To escape from these persecu- 
tions he went to London as a merchant, and also 
visited America, where he acquired from the 
buccaneers much information in regard to the 
Spanish main. In 1692 he was a merchant in 
London, as is evident from a lease authorizing 
him and two others to construct the Hamp- 
stead water works. About this time he made 
proposals in regard to founding a bank of Eng- 
land, and a tract entitled " A Brief Account of 
the intended Bank of England " is supposed to 
have been written by him. He was one of the 
first directors of the institution, but resigned. 
He had long before conceived the project of 
founding "a free commonwealth in Darien," 
and after unsuccessful efforts in England it 
w;ts finally sanctioned by a Scottish act of par- 
liament in 1695 constituting the Darien com- 
pany. (See DARIEN, COLONY OF.) After the 
failure of the expedition he returned to Eng- 
land and devised a new plan for the colony; 
but the unexpected death of King William, 
over whom he had great influence, destroyed 



all possibility of reviving the project. He was 
an able advocate of the union of England and 
Scotland, and when the treaty to that effect 
was passed, an indemnity was recommended 
to be given him on account of the losses he 
had suffered in the Darien expedition, and of 
his " carrying on other matters of a public na- 
ture, much to his country's service." But it 
was not till the reign of George I., and after a 
long struggle with the government, that the 
indemnity was paid. Paterson was in 1708 a 
member of parliament for Dumfriesshire. The 
last years of his life were spent in Westmin- 
ster. He was an early and zealous advocate of 
free trade, and was a decided opponent of the 
schemes of John Law. His works have been 
collected under the title of " The Writings of 
William Paterson, with a Biographical Intro- 
duction " (2 vols. 8vo, 1858). See Bannis- 
ter's " William Paterson, the Merchant, States- 
man, and Founder of the Bank of England, 
his Life and Trials " (Edinburgh, 1858) ; and 
"The Birthplace and Parentage of William 
Paterson," by William Pagan (1865). 

PATKUL, Johann Reinbold, a Livonian patriot, 
born in a prison at Stockholm about 1660, exe- 
cuted at Kazimierz, near Posen, Oct. 10, 1707. 
He first served as a captain in the Swedish 
army. In 1689 he was one of a deputation of 
noblemen sent to Charles XI. to remonstrate 
against the encroachments of the royal officers 
upon the rights and privileges of Livonia. Hav- 
ing participated in other patriotic manifesta- 
tions, Patkul, in connection with the marshal 
and members of the Livonian diet, was sum- 
moned to Stockholm. Procuring a safe-con- 
duct, he obeyed the summons, but soon judged 
it necessary to flee to Courland; and a few 
weeks after his escape he was condemned to be 
beheaded as a rebel, his property was confis- 
cated, and his writings were burned by the exe- 
cutioner. He retired to the canton of Vaud, 
Switzerland, where he engaged in scientific pur- 
suits, and afterward visited France. In 1698, 
after the accession of Charles XII., he sued for 
pardon ; but his petition being rejected, he en- 
tered the service of the elector Augustus of 
Saxony, king of Poland, who appointed him one 
of his privy council. He participated actively 
in the coalition between his new master, the 
king of Denmark, and the czar of Russia against 
Charles XII., and at different times endeavored 
to rouse Livonia against the Swedish rule. 
Dissatisfied with the overbearing manners of 
Flemming, the principal minister of Augus- 
tus II., and having moreover, during a mission 
to Russia, won the favor of Peter the Great, 
he accepted from the czar the rank of general 
and the office of Russian ambassador to Dres- 
den. This roused the displeasure of Augustus, 
who caused him to be arrested in 1705. When 
afterward Augustus, defeated by Charles XII., 
was obliged to abdicate his Polish throne, one 
of the conditions of peace imposed upon him 
was the surrender of Patkul. Augustus gave 
secret orders that his prisoner should be suf- 



166 



PATMORE 



fered to escape, but they were not obeyed. By 
Charles's command, Patkul was taken to the 
convent of Kazimierz and condemned to death 
by a court martial. He was first broken on the 
wheel, and then, while still living, beheaded. 

PATMORE, Coventry Rearsey Dighton, an English 
poet, born in Woodford, Essex, July 23, 1823. 
He published in 1844 a small volume of poems, 
and in 1853 "Tamerton Church Tower, and 
other Poems," neither of which attracted much 
attention. He is best known by his "Angel in 
the House," an attempt to invest the common- 
place incidents of life with poetic interest ; it 
is in four parts, entitled "The Betrothal," 
"The Espousal," "Faithful for Ever," and 
" The Victories of Love " (1854-'62). In 1862 
he edited " A Garland of Poems for Children." 
From 1846 to 1868 he was an assistant libra- 
rian of the British museum. 

PATMOS (now PATMO), an island of the group 
called the Sporades in the Grecian archipelago, 
about 20 m. S. of the S. W. extremity of Sa- 
mos, and about 30 m. W. of the coast of Asia 
Minor; pop. about 4,000. It is an irregular 
mass of barren rock 28 m. in circumference, 
and in the time of the Roman emperors was 
used as a place of banishment. To this island 
St. John the apostle was exiled by Domitian, 
A. D. 95 ; and here, according to universal tra- 
dition, he wrote the Apocalypse, and perhaps 
his Gospel also. On the side of a hill a cavern 
is pointed out by the Greek monks, who have 
a monastery in the vicinity, as the exact spot 
where the evangelist received the revelation. 
The monastery, built by the Byzantine empe- 
rors in the 12th century, is inhabited by about 
50 monks, subject to the patriarch of Constan- 
tinople. On the E. side of the island there is 
a small village and a good port. The island is 
subject to the Turks, but the inhabitants are 
all Greeks. They subsist by fishing and com- 
merce, and by agricultural labor on the main- 
land or the more fertile islands, migrating for 
the purpose every summer. 

PATNA. I. A division of Bengal, British In- 
dia, comprising the districts of Patna, Gaya, 
Shahabad, and Sarun, S. of the Ganges, and 
Tirhoot and Chumparun, N. of that river; 
area, 23,732 sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 13,122,743, 
of whom more than half were agricultural la- 
borers. The territory of the native state of 
Behar is comprised in this and the neighboring 
division of Bhaugulpore. II. A district in the 
above named division, extending from lat. 25 
3' to 25 38' N., and Ion. 84 45' to 86 10' E. ; 
area, 2,101 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 1,559,638. 
The Ganges flows along its N. frontier, and the 
river Sone forms the W. and N. W. boundary. 
The growth of the opium poppy is the most 
important branch of cultivation carried on in 
the district. Patna was ceded to the English, 
with Bengal, the rest of Behar, and a small 
part of Orissa, in 1765. It was the scene of 
some of the most memorable events in the 
great mutiny of 1857, every part of the district 
except the capital having been for a long time 



PATRAS 

in the hands of the insurgents. The district is 
traversed by the East Indian railway. III. A 
city capital of the district, on the right bank of 
the Ganges, in lat. 25 33' N., Ion. 85 11' E., 
285 m. N. W. of Calcutta; pop. about 300,000. 
The city proper, or fort, is of rectangular form, 
surrounded by a wall which extends about 
1 m. along the bank of the river, and f m. 
inland. The suburbs are very extensive, and 
stretch 7 m. along the Ganges. The princi- 
pal thoroughfare, parallel to the river, is wide, 
though neither straight nor regular ; and the 
other streets and lanes are narrow and crooked. 
Some of the houses are built of brick, and have 
flat roofs and balconies ; but many of them are 
made of mud and covered with tiles and thatch. 
Patna is situated on the East Indian railway, 
and is an important centre of the opium trade, 
the government agency for Behar being loca- 
ted there. The town was permanently taken 
possession of by the British in 1764, after the 
defeat of the nawaub of Bengal under its walls. 
A monument is erected in the city to the mem- 
ory of 200 British who were cruelly murdered 
by the nawaub a few months before his defeat. 

PATON, Andrew Archibald, an English author, 
born in 1809, died in Ragusa, April 3, 1874. 
He early devoted himself to geographical and 
ethnological explorations and researches, and 
published " The Modern Syrians " (1843), " Ser- 
via" (1844), "The Highlands and Islands of 
the Adriatic " (1849), " The Goth and the Hun " 
(1850), and "The Bulgarian, the Turk, and the 
German" (1855), the last four collected un- 
der the title of "Researches on the Danube 
and the Adriatic " (2 vols., 1862). Among his 
other works are : " Mamelukes " (1851) ; " Me- 
lusina, a new Arabian Nights' Entertainment " 
(1861) ; and " Sketches of the Ugly Side of 
Human Nature " (1867). 

PATON, Sir Joseph Noel, a British painter, born 
at Dunfermline, Scotland, in 1821. He studied 
at the royal academy in London, was elect- 
ed associate member of the academy in 1846, 
academician in 1856, and queen's limner for 
Scotland in 1865. He was knighted in 1867. 
His "Spirit of Religion," a fresco (1845), and 
his oil paintings of " Christ bearing the Cross " 
and " Reconciliation of Oberon and Titania" 
(1847), commanded considerable prices, and 
his "Quarrel of Oberon and Titania" (1849) 
brought 700 for the Scottish national gallery. 
The best known of his numerous illustrations 
of the poets are " Dante composing the Story 
of Francesca da Rimini" (1852), "The Dead 
Lady" (1854), and six pictures illustrating the 
old border ballad, " The Dowie Dens of Yar- 
row" (1860). Among his many other pro- 
ductions are "Pursuit of Pleasure" (1855), 
"Home" (1856), "In Memoriam" (1856), and 
" Dawn : Luther at Erfurt " (1861). He has 
published " Poems by a Painter " and " Spin- 
drift" (Edinburgh, 1867). 

PATRAS (anc. Patrce), a fortified seaport town 
of Greece, in the N. W. part of the Morea, on 
the gulf of the same name, 107 m. W. N. W. 






PATRAS 



PATRICIANS 



167 



of Athens, capital of the nomarchy of Achaia 
and Elis; pop. in 1871, 19,641. It is situated 
partly on a spur of Mt. Voidhia, on which 
stood the ancient town, but principally on the 
level plain below it. The streets are broad 
and at right angles ; the houses mostly of one 
story on account of earthquakes. There is a 
castle on the site of the ancient acropolis. 
Patras is the principal seat of the foreign trade 
in the Morea. For the protection of the har- 
bor a mole has been constructed. The ancient 
city was founded by the lonians, from whom 
it was wrested by the Achasans under Patreus, 
from whom the city received its name. During 
the Peloponnesian war it alone of the Achaean 
towns embraced the side of the Athenians. In 
419 B. C. Alcibiades persuaded the inhabitants 
to join the city and port by a long wall. It was 
a member of the Achaean league, and during 
the war between the Achaeans and Romans it 
was reduced to insignificance. Augustus select- 




Patras. 

ed it as one of the two Roman colonies estab- 
lished on the W. coast of Greece. It was de- 
stroyed by an earthquake in the 6th century ; 
subsequently it was a dukedom of the Byzantine 
empire; was sold to the Venetians in 1408 ; and 
was taken by the Turks in 1446. It was after- 
ward taken and retaken several times by the 
Turks and Venetians. In 1716 it was captured 
by the Turks, in whose hands it remained until 
the Greek revolution. It was the first city to 
raise the standard of independence Feb. 12, 
1821, and in the following April it was burned 
by the Turks. It was recovered by the Greeks, 
but during the war the castle was held by a 
Turkish garrison, which in 1828 capitulated to 
a French force. Since the revolution the pro- 
gress of Patras has been very rapid, and its 
manufactures and trade have greatly increased. 
The gulf of Patras lies between ^Etolia and 
the N". \V. coast of the Morea and between the. 
gulf of Lepanto on the east and the Ionian sea 



on the west. Its length is 22 m., its greatest 
breadth 14 m. Its navigation is difficult, and 
during the winter months sometimes dangerous. 
PATRIARCH (Gr. irarpt&pxf)^ chief of a race), 
a title applied to the fathers or heads of gener- 
ations mentioned by the sacred writers from 
Adam to Jacob. After the destruction of Je- 
rusalem it was the title of the chief religious 
rulers of the Jews in Asia; and in early Chris- 
tian times it became the designation of the 
bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, 
Antioch, and Jerusalem. Certain other bishops 
were likewise termed patriarchs in course of 
time, especially those of newly converted na- 
tions. In modern times patriarchs have ju- 
risdiction over all the bishops and metropoli- 
tans or archbishops of their patriarchates, but 
their authority extends little beyond the right 
of convoking councils and exercising a general 
watchfulness over the conduct of their subor- 
dinate prelates. The patriarchs at present in 
communion with the 
see of Rome are those 
of Constantinople, Al- 
exandria, Antioch, Je- 
rusalem, the East In- 
dies, Venice, and Lis- 
bon, besides those of 
the Melchites, Maron- 
ites, and Syrians at 
Antioch, Armenians in 
Cilicia, and Nestorians 
(Chaldeans) nominally 
at Babylon. In the or- 
thodox Greek church 
the title of patriarch is 
attached to the sees of 
Constantinople, Alex- 
andria, Antioch, and 
Jerusalem ; and various 
Christian sects of the 
East have patriarchs. 

PATRICIANS (Lat. pa- 
triciiy from pater, a 
father), the members 

and descendants, by blood or adoption, of the 
original houses of which the populus Roma- 
nus was wholly composed until the establish- 
ment of the plebeian order. They were at 
first divided into the tribes of Ramnenses, Ti- 
tienses, and Luceres or Lucerenses, each tribe 
consisting of 10 curia, and each curia of 10 
gentes, or in regard to representation and war 
of 10 decuricB. The gens, all the members of 
which bore the same gentile name, sent its 
leader to the senate. Originally the two tribes 
of Ramnenses and Titienses enjoyed exclusive 
political privileges, but the Etruscan tribe of 
Luceres was admitted to the same rights by 
Tarquinius Priscus, and the number of senators, 
which before had been 200, was in consequence 
increased to 300. To distinguish the old sen- 
ators from the new, the former were called 
patres majorum gentium, and the latter patres 
minorum gentium. At this period all the pop- 
ulation who were not patricians were clients 



168 



PATEICK 



or slaves. After the formation of the plebeian 
order, the patrician became a real aristocra- 
cy, which held all civil and religious offices. 
No matter how poor he was, a patrician could 
not become a plebeian unless he voluntarily left 
his gens and curia, and gave up its obligations 
and privileges ; and no matter how wealthy he 
was, a plebeian could not become a patrician ex- 
cept in accordance with the lex curiata. At 
the end of the republic the number of patrician 
families had diminished to about 50, and both 
Julius Csesar and Augustus and the succeed- 
ing emperors found it necessary to raise plebe- 
ians to the patrician rank. The plebeians, in 
a struggle of centuries, had conquered all their 
political rights. The formation of the new 
aristocracy, founded upon wealth and upon the 
holding of the offices of consul, prsetor, and 
curule aedile, rendered the old patrician fami- 
lies of still less account. During the empire 
the Roman citizens were divided into the two 
classes of populm and patricii. At the acces- 
sion of Constantino the patrician families had 
almost entirely died out, and that monarch 
made- it a personal title instead of a heredi- 
tary distinction. It was granted to all who 
had made themselves eminent by their servi- 
ces to the empire or the emperors. With the 
exception of the consuls, they constituted the 
highest rank in the state. Those members of 
the patrician body who were in actual service, 
as usually most of them were, went under the 
name of patricii prasentales ; the others were 
dalled patricii codicillares or Jionorarii. This 
distinction was conferred by most emperors 
with much caution, but some granted it even 
to eunuchs. It was also conferred at times on 
foreign princes. The exarch of Ravenna was 
sometimes styled patrician. After the loss of 
Italy, the Romans conferred this title on their 
rulers and protectors. During the middle ages 
families entitled patrician sprang up in many 
of the cities. In Venice members of the great 
council and their descendants bore the title. 
After 1297 no person was created patrician, 
but all descendents of those who belonged to 
that body became members by right at the age 
of 25. In Rome, Genoa, and other cities of 
Italy, the title of patrician is still used. 

PATRICK, a S. county of Virginia, bordering 
on North Carolina, and drained by the Dan, 
Smith's, and North and South Mayo rivers, all 
of which have their sources in the Blue Ridge, 
which forms its N". W. boundary ; area about 
500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,161, of wHom 
2,325 were colored. It has a mountainous 
surface, and is noted for its picturesque scene- 
ry ; much of the soil is fertile, and iron ore is 
abundant. The chief productions in 1870 were 
9,657 bushels of wheat, 12,984 of rye, 147,329 
of Indian corn, 50,937 of oats, 17,166 of Irish 
and 8,205 of sweet potatoes, 85,545 Ibs. of but- 
ter, 8,096 of wool, 37,211 of honey, and 323,- 
886 of tobacco. There were 975 horses, 2,196 
milch cows, 3,279 other cattle, 5,028 sheep, and 
11,560 swine. Capital, Patrick Court House. 



PATRICK (Lat. PATRICIUS), Saint, the apostle 
and patron saint of Ireland. The place of his 
birth is uncertain. O'Curry discovered in the 
British museum a manuscript tripartite life of 
the 6th century, which affirms that Patrick was 
born in 372 at Bonavens Tabernise, thought 
by some to be the modern Boulogne. Oth- 
ers maintain that he was born near Kilpatrick 
in Scotland, in 373. He died in Down, Ulster, 
March 17, 493 or 495. The name of Patricius 
was bestowed on him in Rome by Pope Ccles- 
tine, his original name having been Succath. 
At the age of 16 he was carried captive to Ire- 
land by a band of marauders, but after six 
months escaped to Scotland. Carried off a sec- 
ond time, and again escaping, he resolved to 
become a missionary to the Irish, was ordained 
in Scotland, and after a long preparation was 
consecrated bishop. Having previously, ac- 
cording to some accounts, visited Gaul and 
perhaps Italy, he passed over to his chosen field 
of labor about 432, and preached the gospel 
with such extraordinary effect that, although 
not absolutely the first to introduce Christianity 
into that country, he has always received the 
credit of its general conversion. He baptized 
the kings of Dublin and Munster, and the seven 
sons of the king of Connaught, with the greater 
part of their subjects, and before his death had 
converted almost the whole island to the faith. 
St. Bernard testifies that he fixed his metro- 
politan see at Armagh, and it appears that he 
appointed several other bishops, with whom 
he held councils to settle the discipline of the 
church. He is said in his old age to have writ- 
ten his "Confession," but its authenticity is 
considered doubtful by many. It may be found 
in Sir James "Ware's edition of the works of 
St. Patrick (8vo, London, 1658). The Roman 
Catholic church keeps his festival on March 17. 
Patrick devoted the lands bestowed on him 
to the foundation of churches, of cloisters for 
both sexes, and of numerous monastic schools, 
which flourished during the next three centu- 
ries. He was also zealous for the suppression 
of slavery, which was one of the great incen- 
tives to the piratical expeditions so frequent 
in his day. 

PATRICK, Simon, an English author, born in 
Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, Sept. 8, 1626, died 
May 31, 1707. He was educated at Queen's 
college, Cambridge, where he became a fellow 
in 1648, and took orders in 1651. In 1658 he 
was presented with the living of Battersea, and 
from 1652 to 1704 he published more than 
30 sermons and devotional treatises. In 1662 
he became rector of St. Paul's, Covent Gar- 
den, in 1672 prebendary of Westminster, in 
1679 dean of Peterborough, in 1689 bishop of 
Chichester, and in 1691 bishop of Ely. Be- 
sides his translation of Grotius De Veritate, he 
wrote a "Commentary and Paraphrase on the 
Old Testament" (10 vols. 4to, London, 1695- 
1710) ; it extends to Canticles, and was com- 
pleted by Lowth and Whitby for the whole 
Bible. His autobiography was first printed in 



PATRIPASSIANS 



PATTESON 



169 



Oxford in 1839. The first collected edition of 
his works was printed by the Oxford press in 
9 vols. 8vo (1859), and a treatise on- "The Ap- 
pearing of Jesus Christ" was first printed from 
the original manuscript in 1863, at Cambridge. 

PATRIPASSIMS (Lat. pater, father, and pas- 
sio, suffering), the name given to those Chris- 
tians of the 2d and 3d centuries who attributed 
the sufferings of the incarnate Son to the Fa- 
ther. This doctrine was only one of the as- 
pects of Noetianism (see NOETIANS), its earliest 
advocates in Asia Minor and Italy being Prax- 
eas and Noetus. It originated among a class 
of men who were anxious, on the one hand, 
to uphold the divinity of the incarnate Son of 
God, and on the other, to guard Christian doc- 
trine against the imputation of polytheism. 
This they did by denying the personality of 
the Son as distinct from the Father. The Fa- 
ther, they taught, united himself with the man 
Jesus Christ, and suffered and died with him ; 
whence it followed that the same divine per- 
son was called indifferently sometimes the Fa- 
ther and sometimes the Son. The Patripas- 
sian doctrines were refuted by Tertullian and 
by Hippolytus ; but no full exposition of them 
remains. These sectarians were afterward con- 
founded with the Sabellians, and involved in 
their condemnation. 

PATROCLIS, a Greek legendary hero, the 
friend of Achilles, and son of Mencetius of 
Opus. While a boy he accidentally killed Cly- 
sonymus, and in consequence was sent to the 
court of his relative Peleus, and brought up 
with Achilles. He took part in the siege of 
Troy until his friend retired from action, w r hen 
Patroclus also withdrew ; but the affairs of the 
Greeks becoming desperate, he obtained from 
Achilles his armor and his troops, drove back 
the Trojans, and saved the ships. During the 
conflict he was struck senseless by Apollo, and 
was killed by Euphorbus and Hector, the lat- 
ter taking possession of the armor. The Greeks 
secured his body and buried it under a mound, 
which was afterward opened to receive the 
dead body of Achilles, who had avenged his 
friend by the death of Hector. 

PATRON (Lat. patronus, from pater, a father), 
an appellation given by the Romans to a pa- 
trician who had plebeians, called clients (see 
CLIENT), under his protection, or to a master 
who had freed his slaves. When a slave was 
manumitted, he himself was called libertus or 
freedman, and his master pair onus, and be- 
tween them existed certain duties and privi- 
leges, which however seem to have been more 
fixed by custom than by law. The patron took 
the freedman under his protection, and the 
freedman owed to his former master respect 
and gratitude, and was bound to support both 
him and his children in cases of necessity. By 
a special agreement the libertus after he was 
freed took an oath to make an offering to the 
patron of gifts and services, the latter being 
of two kinds, services of respect and services 
of labor. The former ended with the death 



of the patron, but the latter were due also to 
his heirs. The patron was not entitled to any 
services that were either dangerous or dis- 
graceful ; and by the lex Julia et Papia Pop- 
pcea freedmen, with a few exceptions, were 
discharged from all requirements as to gifts 
and services, if they were the parents of two 
children who were in their possession, or were 
the parents of one child five years old. The 
most important relation existing between the 
patron and freedman was the right of the for- 
mer in certain cases to become the heir of the 
whole or a portion of the property of the lat- 
ter. By the laws of the twelve tables, if a 
freedman died intestate without heirs of his 
own, the patron became his heir, as he was 
supposed to stand in the relation of an agnatus. 
By the lex Papia, when a freedman left prop- 
erty valued as high as 100,000 sesterces, some 
of it went to the patron whether a will had 
been made or not. If there were three chil- 
dren, however, the patron had no share. These 
rights of a patron extended to his direct but 
never to his collateral heirs, and the privileges 
of the liberti in regard to the succession of 
property extended only to those -who were 
Eoman citizens and not to the Latin freedmen. 
The latter "lost their life and their liberty at 
the same time," and their property passed into 
the hands of those who had manumitted them. 
In many other points the succession to their 
property differed from the succession to that 
of the Roman freedmen. Justinian gave to the 
Latin freedmen the same privileges as were 
possessed by the Romans. If a freedman was 
guilty of ingratitude, his patron might punish 
him summarily, and in later times he had the 
right to relegate him some distance from Rome. 
In the time of Nero an effort to pass a decree 
enabling a patron to reduce his freedman again 
to slavery failed, but afterward it was success- 
ful. The patron lost his rights if he neglected 
to support his freedman in a case of necessity. 
The libertus assumed on his manumission the 
gentile name of his patron. In the canon law, 
a patron is a man who has the right of dispo- 
sing of a benefice, from the fact that it was 
founded or endowed by him or by^ those to 
whose rights he has succeeded. This right is 
said to have sprung up about the close of the 
4th century, and was probably intended as an 
inducement to the wealthy to found church- 
es with the privilege of naming the person 
who should officiate. In the Roman Catholic 
church, a patron is a saint under whose pro- 
tection a person places himself, often from 
bearing the same name, or who holds that re- 
lation to a whole nation or a community ; or 
a saint to whom a particular church or order 
is dedicated. 

PATTESON, John Coleridge, an English mission- 
ary bishop, born in London, April 1, 1827, 
killed by Melanesians near Santa Cruz, Sept 
20, 18Y1. He was educated at Balliol college, 
Oxford, was a fellow of Merton in 1850, was 
curate of Alfington in 1852, accompanied Bishop 



170 



PATTI 



Selwyn in 1854 to New Zealand, and labored 
there and in neighboring islands as a mis- 
sionary till 1861, when he was consecrated at 
Auckland as bishop of the Melanesian islands. 
He devoted the rest of his life to cruising about 
among the islands of his diocese, laboring for 
the improvement of the natives and for the 
suppression of the kidnapping carried on to 
supply Queensland and other colonies with la- 
borers. In attempting to land at Santa Cruz, 
his boat was fired upon by the natives, he was 
killed, and his chaplain Mr. Atkin died from 
wounds a few days afterward. It is supposed 
that the natives mistook the missionary ship 
for a kidnapping vessel. See "Life of John 
Coleridge Patteson," by Charlotte Mary Yonge 
(2 vols. 12mo, London, 1874), and " The Story 
of a Fellow Soldier," by Francis Awdry (1875). 

PATH. I. ideltaa Maria Clorinda, an operatic 
singer, born in Madrid, April 9, 1843. Both 
her father and mother were professional sing- 
ers, and from birth she was surrounded with 
musical influences, receiving much of her in- 
struction in the art from Barili, her half 
brother, and Maurice Strakosch, husband of 
her elder sister Amelia, who was also distin- 
guished as a singer. In 1844 the Patti family 
removed to New York, where Adelina sang in 
concerts when she was eight years old, and on 
Nov. 24, 1859, made her debut as prima donna 
at the academy of music, in the character of 
Lucia di Lammermoor. Her success was im- 
mediate, and her brilliant future correctly pre- 
dicted. On May 14, 1861, she made her first 
appearance in London in Bellini's Sonnarribula ; 
and on Nov. 16, 1862, she appeared in the 
same opera at Paris. Her success was no less 
in Europe than in America, and her engage- 
ments at London and Paris were followed by 
others at the principal capitals, where, especial- 
ly in Russia, her popularity has been almost 
unrivalled. Besides a voice of exceptional 
beauty, range, and flexibility, she possesses rare 
powers as an actress. Though too small of 
stature adequately to personate the great char- 
acters of the highest style of tragic opera, 
her preeminence in parts requiring pathos and 
sentiment, such as Donizetti's Lucia and Gou- 
nod's Marguerite, or archness and coquetry, 
such as Mozart's Zerlina or Rossini's Rosina, 
is indisputable. On July 29, 1868, she was 
married in London to the marquis de Caux, a 
French nobleman. II. Carlotta, sister of the 
preceding, born in Florence in 1840. She pos- 
sesses a soprano voice extending to G sharp in 
alto, and her facility of vocalization is as re- 
markable as her range of voice. Owing to a 
slight lameness, she has confined herself almost 
entirely to concert singing, though she has oc- 
casionally appeared in opera, in such parts as 
that of the Queen of Night in Mozart's " Magic 
Flute," with great success. 

PATTISON, Robert Everett, an American clergy- 
man, born in Benson, Vt., Aug. 19, 1800, died 
in St. Louis, Mo., Nov. 21, 1874. He graduated 
at Amherst college in 1826, was appointed a 



PAU 

tutor in Columbian college, D. C., was ordained 
in 1829, and in 1830 became pastor of the first 
Baptist church in Providence, R. I. From 
this post he was called to a professorship in 
Waterville college, Maine, of which he was 
president from 1836 to 1840. He then be- 
came pastor of the second Baptist church of St. 
Louis, Mo., and in 1841 returned to his pastoral 
charge at Providence. In 1843 he was elected 
one of the corresponding secretaries of the 
Baptist board of foreign missions. He was 
president and professor of Christian theology 
in the western Baptist theological institute, at 
Covington, Ky., from 1845 to 1848, when he 
was appointed to a similar professorship in 
the Newton theological seminary, Mass., from 
which he was again called to the presidency of 
Waterville college in 1853. In 1858 he resigned 
and took charge of the Oread female institute, 
at Worcester, Mass. He was professor of sys- 
tematic theology in Shurtleff college, Alton, 
111., from 1864 to 1870, when he was called to 
a professorship in the Baptist theological semi- 
nary of Chicago, which he resigned on account 
of ill health in 1874. For one year he was 
acting president of the university of Chicago. 
He published a " Commentary, Explanatory, 
Doctrinal, and Practical, on the Epistle to the 
Ephesians" (Boston, 1859). 

PATUXENT, a river of Maryland, rising about 
20 m. from the city of Frederick, and, after a 
S. E. course of about 40 m. and a nearly S. 
course of 50 m., discharging itself through an 
estuary 2 or 3 m. wide into Chesapeake bay. 
It forms the dividing line between Montgom- 
ery, Prince George's, Charles, and St. Mary's 
counties on the south and west, and Howard, 
Anne Arundel, and Calvert counties on the 
north and east. Small vessels can ascend it 
40 m. to Nottingham. 

PAF, a town of France, capital of the depart- 
ment of Basses-Pyrenees, on the right bank of 
the Gave de Pau, 410 m. S. by W. of Paris; 
pop. in 1872, 24,800. It is delightfully situ- 
ated on a precipitous height, regularly laid out, 
and well built. The charm of the scenery and 
the mild and healthful climate attract to Pau 
many visitors, especially in winter ; and there 
are three Protestant Episcopal churches and a 
Scotch Presbyterian church. Linen cloths, cel- 
ebrated as toiles de Bearn, and fine table cloths, 
tapestry carpets, and cutlery are manufactured ; 
and the place is noted for its Jurancon wine. 
Pau was founded in the llth century ; a vis- 
count of Beam built a strong castle on the top 
of a hill, and having marked the limits of the 
ground with stakes or pans, the town took the 
appellation. In the 14th century the castle 
was rebuilt by Gaston Phoebus, count of Foix, 
and the place became the chief town of Beam. 
Near the place Royale in the centre of the 
town, with a statue of Henry IV., is a fine 
promenade, and a park is formed by a natural 
terrace along the right bank of the Gave, well 
wooded and shaded, and connected through a 
square planted with trees with the castle. The 



PAUL 



171 



latter is the most conspicuous edifice of Pau, 
and is remarkable for great historic associa- 
tions. It was the birthplace of Henry IV., and 



his cradle and other relics are preserved in it. 
The castle was sacked by the revolutionists in 
1793, and restored under the reign of Louis 




Castle of Pau. 



Philippe, Charles XIV. of Sweden (Bernadotte), 
a native of Pau, giving magnificent presents 
for the apartment leading to the chapel. 

PAUL, the name of five popes, of whom the 
most important are the following. I. Paul HI. 
(ALESSANDRO FAENESE), born at Canino, Feb. 
28, 1468, died in Rome, Nov. 10, 1549. Hav- 
ing completed his studies in Florence, he filled 
several important offices, was made cardinal in 
September, 1493, bishop of Parma by Julius 
II., and bishop of Frascati by Leo X. He was 
elected pope on Oct. 13, 1534. In 1535 he 
excommunicated Henry VIII., citing him to 
appear in Rome within 90 days; and in 1538 
he confirmed the excommunication. He sum- 
moned, June 2, 1536, a general council to meet 
at Mantua, but transferred it successively to 
Vicenza and Trent, where the first session was 
held in December, 1545. He made an abor- 
tive league with the emperor and the repub- 
lic of Venice against the Turks, and induced 
Francis I. and Charles V. to conclude a truce 
for ten years at Nice (1538), which however 
was not observed. He established the inquisi- 
tion at Naples, approved the society of Jesus, 
sent a contingent of 12,000 foot and 1,000 horse 
to join the emperor's forces in Germany against 
the Protestants, and opposed the religious paci- 
fication called the Interim granted by Charles 
V. in 1547. He exerted himself zealously to 
subdue the turbulent feudatories of the Papal 
States, and expelled the powerful Colonna fam- 
ily from Rome. Before becoming a priest he 
had a son and a daughter, the former of whom 
was created duke of Parma and Piacenza. lit 
Paul IV. (GIOVANNI PIETBO CAEAFFA), born at 



Capriglia, kingdom of Naples, June 28, 1476, 
died in Rome, Aug. 18, 1559. He was profi- 
cient in the Scriptures and the oriental lan- 
guages, became archbishop of Chieti in 1505, 
was sent to England by Julius II. to collect the 
"Peter's pence," founded with St. Cajetan the 
order of Theatines in 1524, and was created 
cardinal on Dec. 22, 1536. He was appointed 
archbishop of Naples on Dec. 15, 1549, and on 
May 23, 1555, was elected pope in spite of the 
opposition of Spain. He displayed an energy 
in his administration which had not been ex- 
pected from his advanced age and previous 
studious habits. He concluded an alliance with 
Henry II. of France against the emperor Charles 
V. (December, 1555), and afterward against 
Philip II., in consequence of which his domin- 
ions were invaded by the duke of Alva, and the 
Spanish troops advanced almost to the gates 
of Rome. A peace was concluded in 1557. 
The emperor Ferdinand I. having accepted 
the throne without consulting the holy see, 
the pope dismissed the imperial ambassador, 
and Ferdinand did not come to Rome to be 
crowned, an example which was imitated by 
all the succeeding emperors. Paul IV. was 
determined in his hostility to the Protestants, 
against whom he issued a bull in 1559, and co- 
operated earnestly with Queen Mary in her 
attempts to restore Catholicism in England. 
He introduced the inquisition into his domin- 
ions, and labored assiduously for the refor- 
mation of the clergy. He raised his nephews 
to the highest honors in the state, and made 
one of them a cardinal, though he had been a 
soldier and a libertine ; but hearing that they 



172 



PAUL 



abused their power, he banished them from 
Rome in 1559. He was hated by his sub- 
jects, who rose in tumult on the news of his 
death, and threw down his statue, crying: 
" Death to the Oaraffas." III. Paul V. (CA- 
MILLO BOEGHESE), born in Rome, Sept. 17, 
1552, died there, Jan. 28, 1621. He succeeded 
Leo XI. in 1605, and soon after his accession 
was involved in a dispute with the republic of 
Venice respecting the foundation of religious 
houses, the alienation of charitable bequests, 
and the trial of ecclesiastics by lay tribunals. 
He excommunicated the doge and the senate, 
and laid the republic under an interdict, which 
the senate forbade to be published, and which 
only the Jesuits, Theatines, and Capuchins ob- 
served. These three orders were consequently 
banished. The dispute was settled through the 
mediation of Henry IV. in 1607. Paul devoted 
himself with great zeal to reforming the ad- 
ministration of his temporal government, em- 
bellishing Rome, and restoring ancient monu- 
ments. He sent missionaries to the East, and 
received embassies from Japan, from several 
princes of India, and from Congo. 

PAUL, Father. See SABPI, PAOLO. 

PAUL L, Petroviteh, emperor of Russia, born 
Oct. 12, 1754, assassinated Marclj 23, 1801 . He 
was the son of Peter III. and Catharine II. , and 
when, after the assassination of Peter, Catha- 
rine assumed the reins of government (1762), 
she furnished Paul with good instructors, but 
kept him in ignorance of public affairs. As he 
grew up, her personal dislike of him became so 
great that she compelled him to live at a dis- 
tance from the capital, surrounded him with 
spies, and would have disinherited him if she 
could. Such treatment made him morose, re- 
vengeful, craven toward his mother, yet wilful 
and tyrannical toward inferiors. At the age 
of 19 he was married by order of his mother to 
a princess of Hesse-Darmstadt, and after her 
death in 1776 to a princess of Wurtemberg. 
His second wife bore him four sons (Alexan- 
der, Constantino, Nicholas, and Michael) and 
five daughters. In 1780 Paul travelled through 
Poland, Germany, Italy, France, and Holland. 
On his return he continued to live in retire- 
ment, 30 m. from St. Petersburg, while his chil- 
dren were brought up at court under the direc- 
tion of Catharine. Afterward he took part 
in the war against Sweden, but his mother de- 

S rived him of every opportunity of becoming 
imiliar with the duties of his position. Cath- 
arine died Nov. 17, 1796, and Paul ascended the 
throne. One of his first acts was to cause fu- 
neral honors to be paid to his murdered father, 
and he ordered the remains of his mother's 
former favorite, Prince Potemkin, to be disin- 
terred and thrown into a ditch. To undo what- 
ever Catharine had done seemed to be his gui- 
ding principle. He disbanded her armies, de- 
clared peace with Persia, disapproved of her 
policy toward Poland, liberated Kosciuszko and 
the other Polish prisoners, decreed that the 
female line should henceforth be excluded from 



PAUL (SAINT) 

succession, and invited his eldest son to assist 
in the administration. But his defective edu- 
cation, egotism, and nervous and fitful temper 
made him an execrable tyrant. His most pue- 
rile whims and caprices were raised to the dig- 
nity of laws, and a well organized secret police 
was constantly active in discovering victims for 
his wrath. His numerous petty oppressions 
exasperated the people even more than his ha- 
tred of liberal ideas, his decrees forbidding the 
importation of all books or newspapers printed 
in French, and similar measures. At first he 
became a party to the coalition against revolu- 
tionary France, and his armies obtained some 
successes in Italy, Switzerland, and Holland; 
but having afterward suffered severe reverses, 
Paul became disgusted with his allies, expelled 
the French refugees from Russia, and endeav- 
ored to get up a coalition against Great Brit- 
ain, In this he succeeded so far that Denmark, 
Sweden, and Prussia joined him in a treaty 
of armed neutrality. But his hatred of Great 
Britain had become so violent that he was far 
from being satisfied with this success. Through 
the "St. Petersburg Journal" he challenged to 
personal combat all those kings who were un- 
willing to take sides with him against England. 
At last his capriciousness and despotism seemed 
to border on insanity. A conspiracy was form- 
ed by a number of noblemen, among whom 
Counts Pahlen and Zuboff, Generals JBenning- 
sen and Uvaroff, and Lieut. Col. Tatisheff were 
the most conspicuous. To his son Alexander 
they represented that they had no other object 
than to compel the emperor, on the ground of 
mental incapacity, to abdicate the throne. They 
forced their way into Paul's chamber late at 
night, and presented for his signature a letter 
of abdication. He refused to sign, whereupon 
Zuboff knocked him down and kneeled upon 
him, and, the other conspirators assisting, the 
emperor was murdered within hearing of his 
eldest son and successor. All classes in St. Pe- 
tersburg received the news of his death with 
great rejoicing. 

PAUL, Regular Clerks of St. See BARNABITES. 

PAUL, Saint, the first Christian missionary 
who extended his labors beyond the limits of 
the Jewish people, and the first Christian teach- 
er who maintained the equality of Jews and 
gentiles under the new dispensation, and ad- 
mitted the latter to the full participation of 
Christian privileges without the exaction of 
the ceremonial law. Paul is ranked by the 
Christian church with the twelve apostles, and 
claims that rank for himself in his epistles. 
Our knowledge of his history is derived from 
the Acts of the Apostles and incidental notices 
in his letters to the churches. Many attempts 
have been made to arrange these materials in 
a systematic biography, of which the most 
comprehensive is the " Life and Epistles of 
St. Paul," by Conybeare and Howson (Lon- 
don, 1850-'52). For the critical student the 
works of Wieseler and Baur are the most im- 
portant. Paul was a Grecian or Hellenistic 



PAUL (SAINT) 



173 



Jew (that is, a Jew born beyond the limits of 
Palestine), but, until his conversion, a. rigid 
Hebrew of the sect of the Pharisees, by pa- 
rentage and training as well as by personal 
conviction. His original and Jewish name 
Saul appears to have been dropped and that 
of Paul adopted soon after his accession to 
the Christian ministry; for what cause it is 
not possible to say, nor whether the name 
Paul had ever been used as one of his appella- 
tions before his conversion. He was born in 
Tarsus, the metropolis of Cilicia. The precise 
date of his birth is unknown, but is proximate- 
ly determined by the circumstance that Paul is 
spoken of as a young man at the time of the 
martyrdom of Stephen. The best chronologists 
place that event about A. D. 38. According- 
ly, Paul may be conjectured to have been born 
about A. D. 10. His family enjoyed the right 
of Roman citizenship, either as libertini (slaves 
honorably manumitted), or in consequence of 
important services rendered to the state. The 
traces of philosophic thought in his epistles, and 
his evident familiarity with the Greek poets, 
show that he possessed gentile as well as Jew- 
ish learning. According to rabbinical law and 
custom, which required every male Jew to be 
taught some manual art, he learned the trade of 
a tent maker, to the practice of which he was 
afterward indebted in part for his support. 
(Acts xviii. 3, xx. 34 ; 1 Cor. iv. 12.) His knowl- 
edge of the law and the prophets and other 
essentials of a Jewish education was obtained 
at Jerusalem under Gamaliel, the most learned 
rabbi of his time. Paul's first appearance in 
history connects itself with the martyrdom of 
Stephen, to which he was a party, being at 
that time a student at Jerusalem, and heartily 
devoted to the Pharisaic interest in that city. 
From this time he became a zealous persecu- 
tor of the Christian church, volunteering his 
services to the sanhedrim for that purpose, 
and holding a commission from that body to 
ferret out, both at Jerusalem and in *' strange 
cities," and bring to trial the confessors of the 
new faith. While bound to Damascus on one 
of these errands, he was converted by a vis- 
ion, which changed the whole course of his 
life, impelling him to become the apostle of the 
faith he had persecuted. The three accounts 
of the matter in the Acts (ix. 7, xxii. 9, and 
xxvi. 14) differ in the manner of stating what 
was then observed by himself and his com- 
panions, but all agree in their representation 
of the impression made on Paul himself of 
a voice addressing him in the name of Christ 
and bidding him forbear the persecution of 
his church. Struck with temporary blindness 
by the vision, he was brought to Damascus, 
where after three days' sojourn he recovered 
his sight at the hands of a disciple named 
Ananias and received Christian baptism. The 
next three years were spent in Arabia and 
Damascus, after which the apostle made a brief 
visit to Peter at Jerusalem, and then returned 
to his native city. Meanwhile a new centre of 



Christian influence had established itself at 
Antioch, and thither Paul went at the solicita- 
tion of Barnabas, who had come to Tarsus to 
secure his cooperation. Here he remained for 
a year or more, expounding and propagating 
the new faith. A famine which visited Judea 
in 45 induced the church at Antioch to send 
pecuniary aid to the Christians at Jerusalem, 
and Paul and Barnabas were deputed to con- 
vey the money. (Acts xi. 29, 30.) Having 
accomplished this mission, he returned to An- 
tioch, and made that city his headquarters and 
the starting point of his missionary tours in 
Asia Minor and Europe. Three distinct jour- 
neys from this point are recorded. The first, 
in which Paul was accompanied by Barnabas, 
and for a portion of the way by John Mark, 
embraced the island of Cyprus from east to 
west, and three of the southerly provinces of 
Asia Minor, viz., Pamphylia, Pisidia, and Ly- 
caonia. In the principal cities of these coun- 
tries the missionaries established Christian 
churches after the model of that at Jerusalem. 
Some time after his return to Antioch, where 
Paul now resumed his home ministry, the at- 
tempt was made by Judaizing Christians, sent 
from Jerusalem for that purpose, to impose 
the Mosaic ritual on the gentile converts. The 
movement was strenuously resisted by the 
leaders of the Antioch church, and Paul and 
Barnabas were sent to Jerusalem to debate and 
arrange this difficulty with the apostles and 
elders in that city. This first Christian coun- 
cil is assigned by different authorities to dates 
ranging from the year 47 to the year 55. We 
incline with Wieseler to place it at 50. The 
two delegates, after a satisfactory adjustment, 
returned to Antioch accompanied by two mes- 
sengers from Jerusalem. With one of the lat- 
ter, Sylvanus or Silas, Paul soon after undertook 
his second missionary tour, having previously 
separated from Barnabas in consequence of a 
dispute between them relative to John Mark, 
whom Barnabas desired to take with them, 
but whom Paul rejected on account of his de- 
sertion of them at Perga in the first expedi- 
tion. The missionaries visited Cilicia and the 
regions already traversed by Paul, and the 
churches founded by him in Pamphylia and 
Lycaonia. At Lystra they were joined at 
Paul's solicitation by Timothy. They extend- 
ed their travels through the central provinces 
of Asia Minor, Phrygia and Galatia, then to 
Mysia, and so to the western coast. At Troas 
Paul resolved, in consequence of a dream which 
he interpreted as a call from God, to cross 
over to Europe. Accordingly the company, 
of which Luke, it is supposed from the use of 
the first person plural which occurs here for 
the first time in the narrative, was one, took 
ship at Troas, and after a short run landed at 
Neapolis on the Macedonian coast. They pro- 
ceeded thence to Philippi, where the Chris- 
tians came into collision with a gentile party 
who trafficked in divination, and who inflamed 
the minds of the people against Paul and Si- 



174 



PAUL (SAINT) 



las. The apostle and his friend were publicly 
scourged and thrust into prison, but honorably 
released the next day, when the jailer, whom 
Paul had baptized, represented to the magis- 
trates that they were Roman citizens. In 
Thessalonica, where they made many converts 
among the Hellenists, they met with a strong 
opposition on the part of the stricter Jews, who 
followed them to Berea, where also success had 
attended their efforts. The " brethren," think- 
ing that Paul's life was endangered, sent him 
away in the charge of friends, who brought 
him to Athens. Here he held public disputa- 
tions with philosophers of the leading schools, 
and at their invitation gave a public exposition 
of his doctrine in the areopagus, pronouncing 
on this occasion the remarkable speech on 
the nature of Deity, the most striking and im- 
portant of all the speeches recorded of him. 
From Athens he went to Corinth, then capital 
of the Roman province of Achaia, where he 
enjoyed the hospitality of a Jewish family re- 
cently banished from Rome under the edict of 
Claudius forbidding the residence of Jews in 
that city. He practised here his craft of tent 
maker, which was also that of his host (Aqui- 
la), and so relieved him of the burden of his 
support. He was soon joined by Silas and 
Timothy, and with their assistance, urged by a 
vision foretelling success, he ministered for 
nearly two years to the people of Corinth; 
and having established a flourishing church, to 
which two of the epistles in our collection are 
addressed, he returned to Antioch, touching 
at Ephesus and visiting Jerusalem by the way. 
After an interval of rest at Antioch, in the au- 
tumn, it is supposed, of the year 54, Paul en- 
tered on the third and last of his missionary 
journeys. Passing through various provinces 
of Asia Minor, he arrived at Ephesus, where 
he remained for three years, laboring with 
marked success, inducing, among other fruits 
of his ministry, the magicians to abandon their 
practice and to burn their books (a pecuni- 
ary sacrifice of 50,000 drachmas, equivalent to 
$8,000 or $9,000). A hostile encounter with 
the silversmiths of that city, who traded in 
models of the temple of Diana, and whose 
business was endangered by Paul's preaching, 
hastened his departure from Ephesus. He pro- 
ceeded to Macedonia, and thence to Greece ; 
then returning to Macedonia, he crossed over 
to Troas, and from there, by way of Assos and 
the islands of Chios and Samos, he went to 
Miletus, accompanied by Timothy, Luke, and 
other disciples. At Miletus he received a dep- 
utation of the elders of the church at Ephe- 
sus, whom he had invited to meet him, and to 
whom he communicated his parting instruc- 
tions, bidding them a final and affectionate 
farewell. He then embarked with his com- 
pany for Rhodes and Tyre on his way to Pales- 
tine, whither he went, as he says, "bound in 
the spirit;" his friends in every city where he 
stopped on the route endeavoring to dissuade 
him; "the Holy Spirit," in every city, "wit- 



nessing that bonds and afflictions " awaited 
him; his own instinct in spite of prophecies 
and entreaties urging him on. The party ar- 
rived at Jerusalem at the feast of Pentecost in 
the year 58 ; they presented themselves before 
James and the other elders of the church, and 
Paul reported the many-sided success of a 
mission embracing a considerable portion of 
the Roman empire in its wide endeavor. The 
Christian party at Jerusalem, under the influ- 
ence of the Jewish capital, and anxious to con- 
ciliate their countrymen, so far from renoun- 
cing the law of Moses, were especially scrupu- 
lous in their observance of it. Aware that 
Paul had rendered himself obnoxious to Juda- 
izing Christians by his liberal views in relation 
to this matter, the elders persuaded him by an 
act of public conformity to humor their preju- 
dices and disarm their hostility. At their sug- 
gestion he united with a party of four who 
were then discharging a Nazaritic vow, and 
was seen with them in the temple fulfilling 
the ritual purification prescribed by Levitical 
law. But the measure which was to have se- 
cured him against the zeal of his opponents 
only served to betray him into their hands. 
Seen in the temple, he was seized on a charge 
of plotting against the Mosaic religion, and 
accused of bringing gentiles into the sacred 
courts. The Rx>man guard rescued him, and on 
the discovery of a conspiracy against his life, 
he was sent to Csesarea to Felix, proconsul of 
the province of Judea. Felix, though seem- 
ingly satisfied of his innocence, for the sake of 
conciliating the Jews detained him a prisoner 
at Csasarea. After the expiration of two years 
Felix was succeeded by Festus, and Paul was 
then offered the opportunity of a trial before 
the national council at Jerusalem, which he de- 
clined, aware of the impossibility of obtaining 
a fair hearing from that tribunal. He appealed 
by right of his Roman citizenship to the gov- 
ernment at Rome, and to Rome accordingly he 
was sent. He arrived there in the spring of 
61, after the long and perilous voyage and ship- 
wreck described in the Acts (xxvii.). While 
there he was permitted as a special favor to 
reside in a hired lodging. Here he remained 
two years, and, though under constant military 
guard, was allowed free intercourse with his 
countrymen and others who chose to visit him, 
and was thus enabled to prosecute his mission- 
ary labors with success. Members of the im- 
perial household were among his converts. 
(Philipp. iv. 22.) Here the history leaves him. 
The supposition of Baur, Wieseler, and many 
others is that he never recovered his liberty, 
but remained a prisoner at Rome until he was 
put to death, a martyr to his faith ; but there 
is a widely accepted tradition that he was tried 
and acquitted, that he left Rome, made oth- 
er missionary tours, was once more arrested, 
brought to Rome, tried, condemned, and exe- 
cuted. It is even asserted that he passed two 
years in Spain, returning to Rome about 64, 
and suffering death by decapitation in 65, or 



PAUL 



175 



according to some authorities Feb. 22, 68. The 
attentive reader of the New Testament will 
'notice indications of the opposition, jealousy, 
and even persecution which Paul encountered 
at the hands of his fellow Christians of the 
Judaistic type. This circumstance should be 
taken into the account in estimating the worth 
and force of a character which in moral hero- 
ism has no superior, perhaps no equal, in the 
world's annals. Of the 21 epistles embraced 
in the canon of the New Testament, 14 are 
popularly ascribed to Paul and assigned to him 
in the current versions. Of these, the Epistle 
to the Hebrews is pronounced by many crit- 
ics to be the work of some other hand. The 
genuineness of the pastoral epistles (the two 
to Timothy and the one to Titus), and of Co- 
lossians and Ephesians, has also been called in 
question; and Baur even doubts the author- 
ship of Philippians, Philemon, and the two 
Thessalonians, allowing as indisputably genu- 
ine only Galatians, Romans, and the two Co- 
rinthians. In this extravagant judgment few 
critics will agree with him. Eenan (Saint 
Paul, Paris, 1869) doubts the authenticity of 
the Epistle to the Ephesians, and rejects the 
two to Timothy and the one to Titus. It is 
impossible to determine the chronological or- 
der of the epistles. The two to the Thessalo- 
nians are placed first by most of the critics 
who admit their genuineness, and after them 
the Epistle to the Galatians. Then follow, in 
Wieseler's arrangement, 1 Timothy, 1 Corin- 
thians, Titus, 2 Corinthians, Romans, Phile- 
mon, Colossians, Ephesians, Philippians, and 2 
Timothy. See, besides the works cited above, 
" The Life and Epistles of St. Paul," by Thom- 
as Lewin (2 vols. 4to, London, 1874). 

PAUL, Vincent de, a saint of the Roman Cath- 
olic church and founder of the congregation 
of sisters of charity, born at Pouy, Gascony, 
in 1576, died at St. Lazare, near Paris, Sept. 
27, 1660. His father was a peasant, who put 
him when 12 years old to learn Latin of the 
Franciscan friars at Acqs (now Dax). He 
afterward became tutor in the family of a law- 
yer, who sent him in 1596 to the university 
of Toulouse, where he passed seven years, was 
ordained priest in 1600, and received in 1604 
the degree of bachelor of divinity. In 1605, 
on a voyage from Marseilles to Narbonne, he 
was captured by Turkish pirates, carried to 
Tunis, and became finally the slave of a rene- 
gade from Nice. Through the influence of one 
of his wives, who had heard Vincent singing 
sacred songs at his labor, this man resolved to 
return to Christianity, and in June, 1607, fled 
from the country with his slave and reached 
France in a skiff. Vincent spent the succeed- 
ing year in Rome, whence Cardinal d'Ossat 
sent him to Paris on a secret errand to King 
Henry IV., and subsequently procured his nom- 
ination to the abbey of St. Leonard de Chaume 
in the diocese of Rochelle. About the same 
time he was appointed chaplain to the ex-queen 
Margaret of Valois. In 1613 he became tutor 
642 VOL. xiii. 12 



to the sons of Emmanuel de Gondi, count de 
Joigny, one of whom was afterward Cardinal 
de Retz. He also preached to the peasantry of 
his patron's estates, particularly on the neces- 
sity of confession ; and the success of this work 
induced the countess to offer 16,000 livres to 
any religious community which should under- 
take to perform it among her tenantry every 
five years. Being appointed chaplain to the 
galleys at Marseilles in 1622, Vincent devoted 
himself to the welfare of the convicts, and, 
after sensibly ameliorating their mental and 
bodily condition, went to Paris to extend his 
reforms to the prisons in which they were con- 
fined while waiting to be sent to the seaports. 
He fitted up a separate building for them, and 
when absent himself caused two priests who 
had joined in his charitable enterprise to live 
in the prison. He next appears at M&con, as 
the apostle of the multitudes of thieves and 
beggars for whom that city was then notorious. 
From 1622 till his death he was director of the 
nuns of the order of the Visitation in Paris. 
In 1624 the countess de Joigny revived the 
project of establishing stated missions among 
the poor, and with the cooperation of her 
husband and the archbishop of Paris proposed 
to Vincent to undertake the establishment of 
a new order, which she promised to endow 
with 40,000 livres. Accordingly in 1625 Vin- 
cent, accompanied by two other priests, took 
up his residence in the college des Ions en- 
fants, which had been given for the purpose by 
the archbishop, and founded the congregation 
of "Priests of the Mission," commonly called 
Lazarists from the priory of St. Lazarus which 
they acquired soon afterward. The associates 
received royal letters patent in May, 1627, at 
which time they had increased to five, and 
were erected into a congregation by Pope Ur- 
ban VIII. in 1632. (See LAZABISTS.) Vincent 
devoted himself also to the spiritual improve- 
ment of the clergy. He established religious 
exercises for candidates for orders, to which 
the archbishop of Paris afterward obliged all 
his ecclesiastics to apply themselves for ten 
days before ordination; he threw open his 
house to all who wished to spend a few days 
in prayer and meditation ; and every week he 
held spiritual conferences, to which the clergy 
resorted in great numbers. With the assist- 
ance of Cardinal Richelieu, who used to consult 
him in making ecclesiastical appointments, he 
opened in 1642 an institution in which young 
priests or candidates for the priesthood might 
fit themselves for the labors of the ministry by 
two or three years spent in study and pious ex- 
ercises. The result of these efforts answered his 
greatest expectations. Wherever he preached 
it had been his custom to establish "confra- 
ternities of charity," composed of women who 
took upon themselves to search out and relieve 
the distressed, but without forming themselves 
into a regular order. In 1633 he determined 
to create a sisterhood which should pursue the 
same objects under a sufficiently conventual 



176 



PAUL OF SAMOSATA 



organization to insure the permanence and 
most beneficial working of the enterprise ; and 
accordingly he placed four young women who 
had volunteered their services under the charge 
of Mine. Le Gras, who had been several years 
employed under his direction in labors for the 
poor. Such was the origin of the " Sisters of 
Charity." Their rule was drawn up by degrees 
in the course of some years, and Vincent lived 
to see 28 houses of the order established in 
Paris, besides others in various parts of Eu- 
rope. The reformation of the hospitals, the es- 
tablishment of an asylum for foundlings, the in- 
struction of idiots at his priory of St. Lazarus, 
and continual labors among the convicts, are 
the next events which we have to record in his 
history. During the famine which depopulated 
Lorraine in 1638-'9 he collected and distributed 
upward of 2,000,000 livres among the sufferers. 
He attended Louis XIII. in his last illness, and 
was appointed by Anne of Austria one of the 
four members of the " council of conscience " 
to whom was committed the distribution of 
ecclesiastical preferments. In the wars of the 
Fronde he incurred the groundless suspicion 
of being a favorer of Mazarin, and his convent 
of St. Lazarus was sacked by a mob. His last 
labors were the foundation of an asylum for 
aged artisans of both sexes, and a hospital for 
all the poor of Paris, which was opened in 
1657, a royal edict obliging every beggar in the 
metropolis either to enter this institution or to 
work for his living. Between 4,000 and 5,000 
chose the former alternative. Vincent was 
beatified by Benedict XIII. in 1729, and canon- 
ized by Clement XII. in 1737. See Maynard, 
Saint Vincent de Paul (4 vols., Paris, 1860). 

PAUL OF SAMOSATA, a heresiarch of the 3d 
century. He became patriarch of Antioch in 
260, and by extortion and bribery acquired 
great wealth. He affected extraordinary pomp, 
caused the hymns of the church to be abol- 
ished and others sung in praise of himself, and 
surrounded himself with young and beautiful 
women who attended him wherever he went. 
In defiance of the ecclesiastical canons he held 
the oifice of ducenarius, a sort of procurator- 
ship under the emperor. He was an especial 
1 favorite of Zenobia, the queen of Palmyra, who 
called him to her court, admired his eloquence, 
and disputed with him on religion. He taught 
that there is only one God, who is denomi- 
nated the Father ; that the Word or Wisdom 
of God is not a substance or person, but is 
in the divine mind as reason in men; that 
Christ was a mere man who acquired this 
Word or Wisdom of God, becoming by it both 
God and the Son of God, though both in an 
improper sense, and gradually acquiring his 
knowledge and virtues; and that the divine 
Word .withdrew from him when he suffered. 
His opinions were condemned in a council held 
about 264, but he was allowed to retain his 
see on promise of retracting them. Failing 
to keep his word, he was again condemned and 
deposed at.the council of Antioch in 269. The 



PAULDING 

favor of Zenobia enabled him to defy this sen- 
tence until 273, when she was conquered by 
the emperor Aurelian. The whole matter was 
now referred to the see of Rome, and Paul, 
expelled from his church, passed the rest of his 
life in obscurity. He had a few followers, 
who called themselves Paulianists. They dis- 
appear from history about the 5th century. 

PAULA, St. Francis of. See FEANOIS OF PAULA. 

PAULCON. See CONSTANTLY FATTLCON. 

PALLD1NG. L A N. W. county of Georgia, 
drained by branches of the Chattahoochee, 
Tallapoosa, and Etowah rivers ; area, about 300 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,639, of whom 556 were 
colored. Its surface is uneven and traversed 
by elevated ridges; the soil in the valleys is 
fertile. The productions in 1870 were 29,779 
bushels of wheat, 153,132 of Indian corn, 12,- 
887 of oats, 12,974 of sweet potatoes, 57,995 
Ibs. of butter, and 1,322 bales of cotton. There 
were 543 horses, 1,378 milch cows, 2,034 other 
cattle, 2,882 sheep, and 8,990 swine. Capital, 
Dallas. II. A N. W. county of Ohio, border- 
ing on Indiana, drained by the Maumee and 
Auglaize rivers ; area, 432 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
8,544. Its surface is level, covered with 
forests, and the soil fertile. It is intersected 
by the Wabash and Erie and the Miami Exten- 
sion canals, and the Toledo, Wabash, and West- 
ern railroad. The chief productions in 1870 
were 56,555 bushels of wheat, 55,499 of In- 
dian corn, 23,938 of oats, 20,002 of potatoes, 
135,131 Ibs. of butter, 19,107 of wool, and 
5,740 tons of hay. There were 1,662 horses, 
1,693 milch cows, 2,463 other cattle, 5,975 
sheep, and 3,898 swine. Capital, Paulding. 

PAULDING, Hiram, an American naval officer, 
born in Westchester co., N. Y., Dec. 11, 1797. 
He is a son of John Paulding, one of the cap - 
tors of Major Andre. He entered the navy as 
a midshipman in 1811, and was in the battle 
of Lake Champlain, for which service he re- 
ceived a sword from congress. In 1843 he 
attained the rank of captain, and in 1857, while 
in command of the home squadron, broke up 
an expedition against Nicaragua headed by 
William Walker. The main body of this ex- 
pedition, commanded by Walker in person, 
landed at Punta Arenas in the harbor of Grey- 
town, Nov. 25. Paulding arrived on Dec. 6 in 
his flag ship the Wabash, and on the 8th landed 
a force under the command of Capt. Engle, 
when Walker surrendered with 132 followers, 
who were disarmed and sent to the United 
States. Paulding acted on this occasion with- 
out specific instructions, and his arrest of 
Walker on foreign soil was not fully approved 
by the executive. In December, 1860, Nica- 
ragua presented him with a sword and also 
offered him a tract of land ; the latter, how- 
ever, the United States senate did not allow 
him to receive. In July, 1862, he was made a 
rear admiral on the retired list. From 1862 
to 1866 he was in command of the navy yard 
at New York, in 1866 was appointed governor 
of the naval asylum in Philadelphia, and in 



PAULDING 

1869 was port admiral at Boston. He has 
published "Journal of a Cruise among the Isl- 
ands of the Pacific" (New York, 1831). 

PAULDING, James Klrke, an American author, 
born at Nine Partners, Dutchess co., N. Y., 
Aug. 22, 1779, died at Hyde Park in the same 
county, April 6, 1860. After a village school 
education and a course of self-instruction he 
removed about 1800 to New York, residing 
with his brother-in-law "William Irving. In 
conjunction with him and with Washington 
Irving he produced the series of " Salmagun- 
di" papers, which terminated with the 20th 
number, June 25, 1808 ; and as no division of 
the contributions was attempted, they were 
afterward incorporated in Irving's works. In 
1814 he was made secretary to the board of 
navy commissioners ; subsequently for 12 years 
he was navy agent at New York ; and he was 
secretary of the navy from 1837 to 1841. His 
principal works are : " The Diverting History 
of John Bull and Brother Jonathan" and 
" The Lay of the Scotch Fiddle," a parody of 
" The Lay of the Last Minstrel" (1813) ; " The 
Backwoodsman" (1818), his longest and best 
poem; "Salmagundi" (1819), a second series 
wholly by himself; "A Sketch of Old Eng- 
land by a New England Man" (2 vols., 1822); 
" Koningsmarke, the Long Finne" (2 vols., 
1823 ; 2d ed., 1835) ; " Old Times in the New 
World," and " John Bull in America, or the 
New Munchausen" (1824); "Merry tales of 
the Three Wise Men of Gotham" (1826); 
" The Book of St. Nicholas, a Series of Stories 
of the Old Dutch Settlers" (1827), purporting 
to be translated from the Dutch; "Tales of 
the Good Woman, by a Doubtful Gentleman" 
(1829) ; " Chronicles of the City of Gotham, 
from the Papers of a Retired Common Coun- 
cilman" (1830); "The Dutchman's Fireside" 
(1831), a tale of the old French war and the most 
successful of all his works ; " Westward Ho ! " 
(1832) ; a "Life of George Washington " (1835) ; 
" View of Slavery in the United States " (1836) ; 
"A Gift from Fairy Land" (1838), illustrated 
by Chapman ; " Affairs and Men of New Am- 
sterdam in the Times of Governor Peter Stuy- 
vesant" (1843) ; " The Old Continental, or the 
Price of Liberty" (1846); and "The Puritan 
and his Daughter" (1849). In 1847 he pub- 
lished a volume of "American Comedies" in 
conjunction with his son, William Irving Paul- 
ding, who has published the " Literary Life " of 
his father (1867), and a posthumous volume 
entitled " A Book of Vagaries," which is in- 
cluded in an edition of Paulding's " Select 
Works" (4 vols., 1867-'8). 

PAULI, Georg Reinhold, a German historian, 
born in Berlin, May 25, 1823. He studied at 
Berlin and Bonn, went to Great Britain in 1847 
to pursue historical researches, and from 1849 
to 1852 was private secretary of Baron Bun- 
sen in London. He became Docent at Bonn 
in 1855, and professor of history at Rostock 
in 1857, and at Tubingen in 1859. The objec- 
tion of the Wiirtemberg authorities against his 



PAULICIANS 



177 



strictures on their political course put an end 
to his connection with the latter university in 
1866. In 1867 he received from the Prussian 
government the chair of history at Marburg, 
and in 1870 at Gottingen. His principal works 
are : Konig Alfred und seine Stellung in der 
GescUchte Englands (Berlin, 1851; English 
translation, edited by Thomas Wright, Lon- 
don, 1852 ; another, 1853) ; the continuation of 
Lappenberg's GescJiicJite von England from the 
12th to the 16th century (vols. iii.-v., Gotha, 
1853-'8); an edition of Gower's Confessio 
Amantis (3 vols., London, 1857) ; Bilder au8 
Alt-England (Gotha, 1860; English transla- 
tion by E. C. Ott6, London, 1861) ; GescMchte 
England's seit den FriedensscJilussen wn 1814 
und 1815 (2 vols., Leipsic, 1864-'7); Simon 
von Montfort, Graf wn Leicester, der Schopfer 
des Hauses der Gemeinen (Tubingen, 1867) ; 
and Aufsdtze zur englischen Geschichte (Leip- 
sic, 1869). 

PAULICIANS, a sect of eastern Christians, of 
obscure origin. It probably originated in the 
middle of the 7th century, its founder being 
Constantine, a Marcionite preacher of Mana- 
nalis, near Samosata on the Euphrates, who 
took the name of Sylvanus, as that of one of 
Paul's companions (Silas), and established the 
precedent, closely followed by the brethren of 
the sect, of assuming the names of those who 
were friends of the great apostle. After 27 
years of labor, Constantine was put to death as 
a heretic (about 684). The officer Simeon, sent 
to put down the heresy, became a convert, 
took the name of Titus, assumed the leadership 
of the sect, and was in his turn, after three 
years of toil, burned at the stake. His suc- 
cessor was Paul, under whose sons, Timothy 
and Theodore, the sect was rent by schism, 
Timothy holding to the transmission of spirit- 
ual gifts by apostolic succession, which Theo- 
dore rejected. Timothy (whose proper name 
was Gegna3sius), having adroitly evaded the 
charges of heresy, continued his preaching for 
30 years. On his death another schism arose. 
The sect had gradually increased and diffused 
itself, until it was found not only in Syria and 
Armenia, but in the provinces of Asia Minor. 
About the beginning of the 9th century the 
conversion of the Galatian Sergius by a Pauli- 
cian woman gave new life to the sect. Under 
the new name of Tychicus, he preached as an 
evangelist in every part of Asia Minor, imita- 
ting the apostle not only in his discourse, but 
in his manner of life. The Paulicians were 
now driven beyond the territories of the em- 
pire to find protection from the Saracens, and 
reprisals were made, until Sergius, though he 
had protested against this return of evil for 
evil, was in 835 assassinated by a fanatic named 
Izanio. Yet the sect continued to grow and 
spread. Under the empress Theodora, a new 
expedition was sent to exterminate them from 
Armenia, and 100,000 perished. About 970 
the emperor John Zimisces transported a large 
number of the sect to Philippopolis in Thrace, 



178 



PAULINUS 



whence they were able to extend themselves in 
Europe, not justifying by any change of faith 
the emperor's hope of their conversion. A 
similar attempt by Alexis Comnenus a cen- 
tury later had hardly better success. The. sect 
continued to nourish under other names, and 
the principles of the Paulicians were perpetu- 
ated by the Euchites, the Bogomiles, the Ca- 
thari, the Waldenses, and to some extent by the 
English disciples of Wycliffe. The Paulicians 
held that the evil spirit, born of darkness and 
fire, was the creator of the lower world ; that 
the soul of man, originally related to God, had 
been made liable to sin by its union with the 
flesh ; that all men are capable of recovery ; 
that Christ brought with him from heaven a 
body of finer mould, with which he passed back 
to heaven when his work of redemption was 
finished: that the mother of Christ was not 
sinless or a proper object of worship; that 
the cross was properly a symbol of Christ's 
diffusive love, and not of the curse which he 
bore or of his vicarious sufferings. They de- 
nied the validity of the sacraments, interpreted 
baptism and the Lord's supper spiritually, would 
not recognize any priestly dignity, and insisted 
upon simplicity both in the ritual and in the 
households of the church. They rejected the 
Hebrew Scriptures, but rated highly the study 
of the New Testament, and especially honored 
those who would multiply and expound its 
record. The ancient authorities on the Pauli- 
cians are Photius and Peter of Sicily, ambassa- 
dor to Armenia of the emperor Basil (868). 

PUUMS. I. Pontius Mesopins Anidus, Saint, 
bishop of Nola in Campania, born in Bordeaux 
about 353, died June 22, 431. He was de- 
scended from an ancient senatorial family, and 
his father was praetorian prefect of Gaul. He 
studied eloquence and law in Kome, and prac- 
tised with success at the Roman bar. In 378 
the emperor Gratian, at the instance of Auso- 
nius, bestowed on him the rank of consul, in 
which he distinguished himself chiefly by his 
benevolent use of his immense wealth and that 
of his wife Therasia. After his acquaintance 
with St. Ambrose and St. Athanasius he gave 
up all his dignities, and withdrew with his wife 
to a country residence near Barcelona, where 
he spent his time in study, prayer, and benefi- 
cence. In December, 393, the death of his 
only son induced him, with the consent of his 
wife, to ask the bishop of Barcelona to admit 
him to the priesthood ; and Therasia having 
soon afterward become a nun, Paulinus was 
ordained and went to Italy. Kepelled by Pope 
Siricius, Paulinus went to Nola in Campania, 
where in 409 he was forced to become bish- 
op. In 410 he was taken prisoner and carried 
away by the Goths, but they soon restored him. 
Pope Gregory the Great relates that Paulinus 
sold himself to the Vandals to redeem the son 
of a poor widow, having previously given all 
he could dispose of to purchase the freedom 
of other captives. He labored in a garden as 
a slave till his master discovered his merit 



PAULISTS 

and restored him to liberty. Paulinus wrote 
a large number of ascetic works and hymns ; 
but only his "Discourse on Almsgiving," 
" History of the Martyrdom of St. Genesius of 
Aries," and hymns are extant. These were 
first published by Josse Badius (Paris, 1516), 
andRosweyde (Antwerp, 1622, with Sacchini's 
" Life of St. Paulinus "). The best edition is 
that of Muratori (Verona, 1736). The feast of 
the saint is celebrated on June 22. II. Saint, 
bishop of Treves in 349, the first confessor who 
suffered and died in the West during the Arian 
persecution in defence of the divinity of Christ. 
In 353 he was among the few who resisted the 
bribes and threats of the emperor Constantius 
at the council of Aries. He was deposed by 
the emperor, and banished to Phrygia, where 
he died in 359. His feast is celebrated on Aug. 
31. III. Saint, first archbishop of York, died 
Oct. 10, 644. He was sent to England in 601 
by Pope Gregory the Great, ordained bishop 
of the Northumbrians in 625, and appointed 
archbishop of York in 627. He baptized King 
Edwin April 12 of the same year. In 633 he 
retired to Kent, and became bishop of Roch- 
ester in the autumn of that year. His life is 
included in Newman's " Lives of the English 
Saints." IV. Saint, a patriarch of Aquileia, 
born near Friuli about 730, died probably Jan. 
28, 804. He was distinguished as a teacher 
of the humanities when Charlemagne wrote 
him a complimentary letter in 776, and be- 
stowed on him a domain in Lombardy. That 
monarch also caused him to be elected patri- 
arch of Aquileia. With Alcuin he was intrust- 
ed with the examination of the writings of the 
heresiarchs Felix of Urgel and Elipandus of 
Toledo. Paulinus also preached with great 
success among the heathens of Carinthia and 
Styria. His works were published by Madrisio 
(1 vol. fol., Venice, 1737 ; 2d ed., 1782). His 
feast is celebrated on Jan. 28. 

PAULISTS, a society of missionary priests of 
the Roman Catholic church, founded in New 
York in 1858 by Isaac Thomas Hecker. Fa- 
ther Hecker and his first associates belonged 
to the order of Redemptorists, and were labor- 
ing in the home mission in New York, when 
they conceived the design of forming them- 
selves into a new society composed chiefly of 
men whose native tongue was the English, and 
whose intimate acquaintance with American 
institutions and customs would enable them to 
labor more efficiently. Their purpose was ap- 
proved by Archbishop Hughes, after the pope 
had granted their release from their religious 
vows in the Redemptorist order, and issued in 
their favor the letter of commendation which 
is preliminary to canonical approbation. They 
formed themselves into a society organized on 
the same principle as the Oratorians and Sul- 
picians, a strict union of the houses and mem- 
bers under one superior general, held together 
by a voluntary agreement, with rules and laws 
enacted by the whole body in general chap- 
ter. This society is called " The Congregation 



PAULOWNIA 



PAULUS 



179 



of the Missionary Priests of St. Paul the Apos- 
tle." Their first convent and church were es- 
tablished in New York at the corner of 59th 
street and 9th avenue. Their missions and 
retreats were attended with such success that 
they have been called to labor in many states 
of the Union, including California. They have 
published several volumes of sermons and 
discourses delivered by the members. Some 
works on theological subjects have been also 
published by Fathers Hecker, Stone, and Hew- 
it; and they have founded and edit "The 
Catholic World," the most important Roman 
Catholic periodical of America. In 1875 they 
numbered 15 priests. 

PAFLOWMA, the generic and common name 
(given in honor of the princess royal Anna 
Paulovna of the Netherlands, afterward queen) 
of an ornamental tree introduced from Japan 
in 1840; in this country it is sometimes cor- 
rupted into polony. It belongs to the scrophu- 
lariacea or figwort family, and is remarkable 
among plants of that order for attaining the 
stature of a tree. It grows 20 or 30 ft. high, 
and has much the habit of a catalpa, and the 
leaves are similar to those of that tree, but 
much more downy. The flowers, produced in 
April or early in May, in large clustered pan- 
icles, are somewhat cylindrical with rounded 
lobes at the mouth ; they are 1 to 2 in. long, 
violet-colored, with a slight, pleasant fra- 
grance ; the segments of the five-cleft calyx are 
very thick and leathery, and densely covered 
with a rusty down ; the flowers are succeed- 
ed by ovate, pointed, two-valved capsules, an 
inch or more long, containing numerous small 




Paulownia imperial!*. 

winged seeds. When this tree was first intro- 
duced into the United States, having been pre- 
ceded by glowing accounts from abroad, it 
made a sensation among horticulturists, and 
was extensively planted ; and indeed few trees, 
are more attractive than a well grown speci- 



men crowded with its large clusters of hand- 
some flowers, but it is attended by so many 
disqualifications that it is now comparatively 
neglected. It is barely hardy north of the city 
of New York, and even there it often fails to 
bloom for several seasons in succession; the 
flower buds are formed the previous season, 
and are so highly developed that a severe win- 
ter is quite sure to destroy them ; and the tree, 
on account of the dull color of its very downy 
foliage, is not especially ornamental unless it 
flowers. When it blooms after a favorable 
winter, it is loaded with pods, which remain 
until they are beaten off by the winds, often 
continuing on during the following summer 
and much disfiguring the tree by their large 
masses of brown color. In a favorable climate 
the growth of the young trees from the seed 
or from cuttings is remarkably rapid and vig- 
orous, and the leaves upon such trees are fre- 
quently 2 ft. across, but on old trees they are 
less than half that size. The better use for the 
paulownia is to disregard its flowers, and to 
cut it down to the ground every year; in 
spring several vigorous shoots will start from 
the base, one of which if allowed to remain 
will grow 15 ft. or more high in the season, 
with a spread of foliage of truly tropical luxu- 
riance ; or if a large clump is desired, several 
shoots may be allowed to grow; fine garden 
effects may be produced by this treatment. It 
is readily propagated by seeds or from cuttings 
of the roots. 

PAFLFS, Heinrich Eberhard Gotttob, a German 
theologian, born at Leonberg, Wtirtemberg, 
Sept. 1, 1761, died in Heidelberg, Aug. 10, 1851. 
He studied the oriental languages and divinity 
at Tubingen and Gottingen, and went to Eng- 
land to examine the manuscripts in the Iibrarie8 
of London and Oxford. In 1789 he became 
professor of oriental languages at Jena, and in 
1793 of theology; in 1803 professor of the- 
ology at Wiirzburg ; and from 1811 to 1844 he 
taught exegesis and philosophy at Heidelberg. 
Among his numerous works are : PMlologisch- 
Tcritischer und historischer Commentar uber 
das Neue Testament (4 vols. 1800-'4); Das 
Leben Jesu (1828) ; and Exegetisches EandbucJi 
uber die drei ersten Evangelien (1830-'33). 

PAILFS, Lucius JDinilios, surnamed MACEDONI- 
CTJS, a Roman general, the most celebrated mem- 
ber of the distinguished family ^Emilius Paulus 
(or Paullus), of the ^Emilia gens, born in Rome 
about 230 B. C., died there in 160. He was the 
son of the consul of the same name who fell in 
the battle of Cannae (216). In 194 he was a 
commissioner to found a colony at Croton, in 
192 was chosen curule sedile, and in 191 praetor, 
having the province of Further Spain assigned 
to him, and receiving the title of proconsul. 
He made a successful campaign against^ the 
Lusitani, and established order in his province. 
In 182 he was elected consul, and during the 
next year defeated the Ingauni, a people of 
Liguria, receiving a triumph on his return to 
Rome. In 1 68 the ill success of the war against 



180 



PAULUS .EGINETA 



Perseus of Macedon induced the people to call 
upon him to take the field again, and he was 
at once elected consul. Without delay he set 
out for Macedonia, and, meeting the enemy 
near Pydna, gained so decisive a victory as to 
end the war immediately, Perseus surrendering 
himself to his conqueror, whose treatment^ of 
him was kind and courteous. After governing 
Macedonia as proconsul for nearly a year, he 
made a journey through Greece, then formally 
settled the affairs of his province with 10 Ro- 
man commissioners at Amphipolis, gave up ^70 
towns of Epirus to pillage (almost the only in- 
justice recorded of him), and finally returned 
to Rome, bringing enormous quantities of trea- 
sure and plunder, nearly all of which he paid 
into the state treasury, and being received with 
a triumph. The only office held by him after 
this was the censorship in 164. 

PACLUS 1GINETA, a Greek physician, born in 
the island of ^Egina probably in the 7th cen- 
tury A. D. He was called "the traveller" 
(Trepiodevrfa), and appears to have visited Alex- 
andria, and obtained there his title of iarpoGo- 
fyLarfa or scientific physician. He compiled 
with materials from Galen and others a treatise 
in nine books on medicine, still extant, besides 
one on female diseases, mostly lost. His works 
were translated into Arabic by Honain ibn 
Ishak. There is an English translation of part 
of them by Francis Adams (London, 1834). 
PAUL VERONESE. See CAGLIARI. 
PAUMOTOU (or Touamotou) ISLANDS. See Low 
ABOHIPELAGO. 

PAUPERISM, that degree of poverty for which 
public relief is provided. Extreme poverty 
must always have existed, and among com- 
munities in any degree civilized has been pro- 
vided for by law and social customs. The 
Mosaic jubilee was an ingenious plan for pre- 
venting pauperism by a redistribution of land 
and a cancelling of debts every 50 years. In 
the Grecian states institutions of various kinds 
provided for the relief of the poor, and the 
same is most probably true of the Roman repub- 
lic and empire. It is true that in the ancient 
communities, as in some modern ones, slavery 
in a measure took the place of pauperism ; and 
at Rome the system of clients and patrons did 
something to relieve the poor without expense 
to the state. But in Rome during the historical 
period the relief of the poor was commonly one 
of the most important functions of the state, as 
it is now in England and other European coun- 
tries. ^ The favorite method of performing this 
function was by a cheap sale or an actual gift of 
corn to the people, under the so-called " corn 
laws " (leges frumentaricB), first formally en- 
acted at the instance of Oaius Gracchus, in 123 
B. 0. Two years later the patricians revoked 
this Sempronian law, but it was reenacted in 
73 B. 0., under the consuls Oassius and Teren- 
tius. Cato of Utica caused it to be amended 
a dozen years later, and at the time of Csesar's 
Gallic wars, Clodius made the distribution of 
corn wholly gratuitous. When Csesar became 



PAUPERISM 

dictator, he found 320,000 persons receiving 
this charity; he reduced their number to 150,- 
000, but even this was probably one tenth of 
the whole population. The civil war raised 
the number again to 300,000, which Augustus 
reduced to 200, 000. Under the Antonines there 
were sometimes 500,000, but then the whole 
population had greatly increased. Aurelian 
gave the poor bread and pork instead of the 
unground wheat, and in course of time the dis- 
tributions were extended from Rome to Con- 
stantinople, Alexandria, and Antioch. Mendi- 
cancy was common under the emperors. In all 
the early Christian societies it became a rule to 
apply that part of the church revenue which 
remained, over and above what was necessary 
for the maintenance of the clergy and the ex- 
penses of public worship, to the support of the 
needy. This was called the patrimony of the 
poor, and it was shared even with the hea- 
then. The first Christian emperor, in making 
Constantinople the chief centre of the gratui- 
tous distribution of bread and grain, did not 
interfere with the eleemosynary laws in exis- 
tence among the various churches. Julian the 
Apostate maintained the customary distribu- 
tions, and reproached his pagan subjects with 
not emulating the generous charity of "the 
Galileans," who " support not only their own 
but the heathen poor." These annual gratui- 
ties became so important that Theodosius the 
Younger made a special law to regulate them ; 
and any interruption in these supplies produced 
wide-spread misery, as happened in Africa 
when that province was cut off from the em- 
pire after its conquest by Genseric. Benefi- 
cent institutions were multiplied everywhere 
after the 4th century both by the charity of 
the sovereigns and that of private individuals. 
Monastic establishments were also multiplied 
throughout. the East and West ; and thus alms- 
giving soon became an abuse, and mendicity 
an evil which Charlemagne and other princes 
after him tried in vain to check. History 
of the Modern Poor Laws. By poor laws are 
here understood legislative enactments levying 
a rate in aid of persons unable to work or to 
find employment. There is no record of any 
such legislative measure of a general character 
in any European country before the 16th cen- 
tury. In England, in Saxon times, the house- 
holder was bound to provide for his laborers, 
and men who had no master were assigned to 
some householder. After the feudal times, by 
the common law, the poor were to be sustained 
in each parish by its pastor and inhabitants, 
so that none should die of hunger. A similar 
customary law existed everywhere on the con- 
tinent. The earliest laws relating to the poor 
throughout Christendom were directed against 
beggary and vagrancy ; they are anterior even 
to Charlemagne. The church assisted the legis- 
lator to arrest and localize the growing evil of 
mendicity. Thus the second council of Tours 
in 567 decreed that every city should make 
provision for its own poor, and that in every 



PAUPERISM 



181 



parish thereof the rector and parishioners 
should support their own paupers. In Eng- 
land more than a hundred laws against beg- 
gary and vagrancy were enacted successively 
till after the reign of Henry VIIL, and en- 
forced with extreme rigor. Still the evil 
grew. It was very great before the reforma- 
tion, and was still greater afterward ; but the 
suppression of the monasteries, though one of 
the causes, was not the chief cause of the in- 
crease of pauperism under the Tudors. As to 
the poor laws properly so called, the first re- 
corded instance of a rate in aid appraised and 
collected in England for the relief of the poor 
is that of a manor in Cambridge then and now 
belonging to Merton college. This manor in 
1319 was, together with other Cambridge par- 
ishes, subjected to an agistment for the relief 
of the sufferers by a famine then prevalent. 
The first known English statute for the relief 
of the disabled poor was that of 12 Richard 
II., c. 7 (1388). That of 27 Henry VIIL, c. 
25 (1535), first made compulsory assistance 
incumbent on each locality ; the parishes were 
obliged to provide for the disabled poor by a 
fund raised by voluntary contribution or alms, 
and to find work for the able-bodied. This 
disposition was confirmed by 1 Edward VI., c. 
3 (1547). By 5 Elizabeth c. 3 (1563), all who 
refused to contribute voluntarily to the parish 
poor fund were to be compelled by the magis- 
trates, who were empowered to tax the recu- 
sants and even to imprison them. In 1573 
another law authorized the justices to assess 
all parishioners, and houses of refuge were 
ordered to be provided for the helpless poor. 
Finally, in 1601, came the statute known as 
43 Elizabeth, which served as a basis for all 
subsequent legislation levying a rate in aid of 
the poor. For this purpose a tax was imposed 
on every parishioner, and a board of overseers 
was to be named by the local justices to aid 
the churchwardens in applying the poor fund 
to the relief of the helpless, the apprenticing 
of children, and the providing of work for 
the able-bodied. This was completed in 1662 
by the statute 14 Charles II., c. 12, known as 
" the law of settlement and removal," which 
will be more fully explained hereafter; it 
aimed at determining the parish or locality in 
which every pauper should be relieved. Thus 
relief to the poor and the prevention of men- 
dicity were made a parochial function and duty ; 
and subsequent legislation till the year 1723 
was only directed at so checking the powers of 
the overseers of the poor by the action of the 
local justices as to prevent the former from 
being either too liberal or too stringent, with a 
view of preventing the increase of pauperism. 
The act of 1723 (9 George I., c. 7), authorizing 
several parishes to unite in maintaining a 
workhouse and otherwise providing for their 
paupers, was the first step toward centraliza- 
tion. This law was relaxed by that of 1795 
(36 George III., c. 23), and still more by that 
of 1814 (55 George III., c. 137). But pauper- 



ism and the taxes necessary for its support 
increased so alarmingly, that in 1817 the fear 
was expressed by a royal commission of in- 
quiry that the assessment would end in swal- 
lowing up the profits of the land. After several 
other parliamentary inquiries, the basis of a 
new system of public relief was laid by the 
law of 1834 (4 and 5 William IV., c. 76) and 
by that of 1835 (5 and 6 William IV., c. 69). 
By these acts the superintendence of public 
charity was centralized in the three capitals of 
the United Kingdom, and the local service of 
the poor in parish unions created for that pur- 
pose. This system was at first put on trial for 
five years, and then continued by successive 
enactments. Retaining the best features of 
the act of 1601, it provides for a central board 
of three commissioners for the general super- 
intendence and control of all bodies charged 
with the management of funds for the relief of 
the poor. Subordinate to these are nine dis- 
trict commissioners, and the whole are subject 
to the direction of the secretary of state for 
the home department. The commissioners are 
empowered to order workhouses to be erected 
or hired, enlarged or altered, with the consent 
of a majority of the board of guardians. They 
may unite a number of parishes in a poor-law 
union, for the purpose of a more economical 
and effective administration, but in such a way 
that each parish shall defray the actual cost of 
the support of its own poor. The parishes 
composing a poor-law union elect their board 
of guardians, without the consent of a majority 
of whom money cannot be raised for building 
purposes ; but the masters of the workhouses, 
and other paid officers, are under the orders of 
the commissioners, and removable by them. 
No wages are paid to the poor* out of the poor 
rates, and except in extraordinary cases relief 
is only given to the able-bodied poor and their 
families within the walls of the workhouse, 
where labor is required of them in return for 
it. The provisions in regard to illegitimate 
children are intended to materially check bas- 
tardy. The putative father, if prosecuted, is 
required to pay the sum fixed by law 2s. 6d. 
per week) to the union instead of the mother, 
and the mother and child are received into 
the workhouse. The children of paupers are 
educated in workhouse schools. In two years 
after its passage this law had reduced the cost 
of the relief of the poor 40 per cent. A similar 
system was introduced into Ireland in the first 
year of Queen Victoria, and by 10 and 11 Vic- 
toria, c. 90, a central board of commissioners 
was established, distinct from the English 
board, but with analogous powers. There are 
about 180 poor-law unions in Ireland, support- 
ing by assessment infirmaries, hospitals, and 
workhouses. There are besides numerous free 
institutions maintained by private charity. In 
Scotland the old system of parish relief con- 
tinued in force till 1845, when a special statute, 
8 and 9 Victoria, c. 83, established a central 
board called the board of supervision, which 



182 



PAUPERISM 



has control of the parochial or union boards, 
as in England. No relief is afforded by the 
Scotch law to able-bodied adults. The mode 
of assessment denned by 24 and 25 Victo- 
ria, c. 37, leaves it optional to each board 
to have one half the poor rate paid by owners 
of land and one half by occupiers, or by the 
latter and all other inhabitants. In 1854, 
194 parishes still retained the old voluntary 
system, and 689 had adopted the new. In 
England, on the contrary, the poor rate is 
levied by the churchwardens and overseers 
on the occupiers of land, after such rate has 
been confirmed by the justices. This is a spe- 
cific sum in the pound according to the annual 
value of the land. Thereby the rate becomes 
a tax on the occupier, and not primarily on the 
owner. The law of settlement and removal 
also differs in Scotland from that which pre- 
vails in England. In the former a settlement 
can be acquired by a residence of five years. 
Children enjoy the settlement of their parents, 
and wives that of their husbands ; and in de- 
fault of these the birth settlement is always 
allowed. In England the law of settlement, 
based on the act of 1662, and subsequently 
modified, has given rise to much costly litiga- 
tion and occasioned great hardship to the poor. 
Its object is to determine the particular parish 
among the 600 in England and Wales bound 
to support a pauper, and to which such pauper 
can be removed in case of necessity. Edward 
V. was the first to add a law of removal to the 
old law of settlement, enjoining that the im- 
potent poor should be conveyed from constable 
to constable to their birthplace, or to the place 
in which they had dwelt for the last three 
years, there to be settled and maintained by 
charity. A settlement is at present acquired 
by birth, by parentage, by marriage, by residing 
as an indentured apprentice for 40 days in 
a parish, by renting a tenement for 40 and 
paying the poor rate on such rent for one year, 
and by acquiring in a parish an estate worth 
30 and residing on the same for 40 days. A 
woman acquires by marriage the settlement of 
her husband, and should he have none she re- 
tains her maiden settlement. Till 1834 it was 
customary to remove the impotent poor to 
their place of settlement as determined by law. 
Subsequently, but before 1850, it was enacted 
that no person should be removed from a par- 
ish after a residence therein of five years. At 
present no pauper who has been allowed to 
reside for one year in a parish or union is re- 
movable therefrom. The chief difference in 
the law of settlement before and since 1834 is 
that formerly a settlement was acquired by the 
exercise in any parish of a public annual office, 
such as that of constable, sexton, sheriff, over- 
seer, &c., by hiring or service and a residence 
of 40 days in a parish in such quality, and by 
indenture as^a sea apprentice ; while the new 
law, by making the impotent pauper irremov- 
able from a parish in which he has been allowed 
to reside for one year, thereby grants him a 



settlement for all practical purposes, while it 
is very difficult for a healthy workman to ac- 
quire a good new settlement, or to lose his old 
settlement when it happens to be a bad one. 
The history of pauper legislation in France 
before the close of the 16th century does not 
differ materially from that of England for 
the same period. During the middle ages it 
required the united efforts of the civil and 
ecclesiastical authorities to repress or restrain 
mendicity. As in England, the principle act- 
ed upon was that each city, parish, or district 
should support its own paupers, and that they 
should be sent there for relief. The edict of 
King John II. in 1350 is the basis of all sub- 
sequent legislation in France tending to alle- 
viate distress or restrain mendicancy. The 
ware and disorders of the 16th century having 
given rise to a great increase of pauperism, 
various measures were adopted by the gov- 
ernment and the provincial and municipal au- 
thorities to meet the exigencies of the case. 
The first institution resembling our modern 
central poor boards was Vaumone generale es- 
tablished in Lyons in 1531. This served as a 
model for the organization of le grand lureau 
des pauvres in Paris in 1544, which continued 
in existence till May, 1791. This board was 
empowered by Francis I. to levy a poor rate 
on all property, lay and ecclesiastical ; and this 
poor rate, the first ever raised in France, was 
confirmed by Henry II. in 1551, and again by 
the famous edict of Moulins in 1566, which 
made it obligatory on all the communes of 
France to establish similar boards, and to assess 
all property holders for their support. Under 
Francis I. and his two immediate successors 
workshops had been established for the em- 
ployment of pauper mechanics, and several 
public works undertaken by the government 
to afford labor to other classes of the able- 
bodied poor. Nevertheless in 1610 Paris con- 
tained 30,000 beggars. Louis XIII., Aug. 27, 
1612, decreed the erection in Paris of a num- 
ber of establishments, half hospitals, half work- 
shops, three of which were opened soon after- 
ward. This project was not fully executed till 
1653, when the poor in Paris numbered upward 
of 40,000, and Louis XIV. established the vast 
organization known as the "general hospital" 
to check or remedy the alarming increase of 
pauperism. To the board of administration 
appointed by the king were subjected not only 
the poorhouses and hospitals opened by Louis 
XIII., but several new ones. The workshops 
were directed and handicrafts taught by 52 
skilled workmen selected by the Parisian trades. 
In 1657 there were 5,000 persons in these in- 
stitutions, and 10,000 in 1662. In the latter 
year this system of relief and compulsory la- 
bor was extended to all cities and large towns 
in the kingdom. But pauperism had gone on 
increasing so fearfully in the last years of the 
reign of Louis XIV., that in 1719 the regency 
government decreed that all vagrants and able- 
bodied paupers should be sent to the colonies. 



PAUPERISM 



183 



This scheme was soon abandoned, and the au- 
thorities fell back on the old system of forced 
labor in institutions called "houses of correc- 
tion." Louis XVI. in 1777 decreed the erec- 
tion of a large number of these ; but he soon 
found himself powerless to realize his designs. 
A great and sincere effort was made by the 
national assembly in 1791 to find an effective 
remedy for French pauperism. In March, 
1793, after a succession of expensive experi- 
ments, it was decreed that central almshouses 
(depots de mendicite) should be established at 
the national expense, to which all able-bodied 
beggars without exception were to be sent ; 
but it was only by the law of July, 1808, that 
this measure received a thorough execution. 
This law enacted that a central almshouse 
should be erected and maintained by the gov- 
ernment in every department. In a short 
time 59 of these departmental almshouses were 
opened, calculated to accommodate 22,500 pau- 
pers ; but only 33 were applied to their origi- 
nal purpose, and even these gradually became 
asylums for the insane and incurable, or were 
converted into jails. These almshouses were 
entirely neglected under the restoration. Af- 
ter the revolution of 1830 the causes and rem- 
edies of pauperism were once more thorough- 
ly investigated by legislative commissions, and 
the system of departmental almshouses was 
revived on the principle that in future paupers 
should be incited to support themselves by 
their labor. Pauperism declined rapidly in 
consequence till 1848, when the withdrawal of 
government aid from the departmental alms- 
houses was considered a virtual abrogation of 
the law of 1808. Under the second empire 
the central almshouses were favored by the 
government, while in the cities and communes 
local boards of charity (bureaux de lienfai- 
sance) were established, with funds raised by 
voluntary contributions. In this way in 1860 
upward of 1,300 institutions supplied relief to 
the impotent adult poor ; foundlings, orphans, 
and abandoned children being provided for 
in appropriate asylums. The war of 1870-'71 
increased destitution and disease enormously, 
while the public resources were proportionately 
lessened. In 1872, besides several new hos- 
pitals and asylums erected by private munifi- 
cence, France possessed 46 departmental aims- 
houses, and 12,867 local boards of charity. 
The minister of the interior has the general 
control of all charitable institutions in France, 
besides directing more immediately certain 
large establishments of a special character. 
The charities of Paris are controlled by a di- 
rector acting under a council composed of emi- 
nent laymen and clergymen, the president of 
which is the prefect of the Seine. The local 
board of each city arrondissement distributes 
relief supplementary to that bestowed in the 
public hospitals and asylums ; and the society 
of St. Vincent de Paul is very efficient in dis- 
covering hidden distress and distributing pri- 
vate alms. The communal or parish boards 



are composed of the mayor and pastor, assist- 
ed by some of the principal parishioners ; and 
every means is taken by them to stimulate the 
generosity of the citizens. As Belgium was 
under French rule in 1808, the law establish- 
ing departmental depots de mendicite applied 
to that country, and is still in force there. 
These, together with the numerous religious 
establishments, and a few free pauper colonies 
supported by private associations, afford con- 
siderable relief to the large pauper population. 
In Holland the chief features of the system of 
public assistance are the three pauper colonies 
of Amsterdam, Middelburg, and Groningen, in 
which all vagrant and able-bodied paupers are 
forced to work for their own support. There 
are besides free pauper colonies for destitute 
families, which are supported by private char- 
ity. In the Scandinavian kingdoms the an- 
cient methods of parochial relief have been but 
little interfered with. The established church 
is still the principal minister of charity, the 
government only coming to the assistance of 
the parochial administration to check vagrancy 
and provide compulsory employment for the 
able-bodied. In Denmark assistance is given 
chiefly in the form of loans, which the poor are 
expected to repay by their labor. Throughout 
the German empire the laws against mendicity 
and vagrancy are strictly enforced. The ancient 
methods of parish relief are maintained, central 
workhouses and almshouses exist in every prov- 
ince, and the hospitals, asylums, &c., are aided 
by government grants. In most provinces a 
poor tax is raised by compulsory assessments, 
in others the property holders assess them- 
selves ; but if they do it too lightly, the rate 
is increased by the government. In the Aus- 
trian empire public assistance is also organized 
on the communal or municipal basis. The sys- 
tem of relief in general use outside of Hungary 
was first introduced in Bohemia in 1779 by 
Count Bouquoy, and was afterward sanctioned 
and propagated by the emperor Joseph II. 
The parish boards or " institutes of the poor " 
(Armen-Instituten) are composed of the pas- 
tor, two overseers or "fathers of the poor" 
(Armenvater), and an auditor, who is account- 
able to the parishioners. These confine them- 
selves chiefly, and in many places exclusively, 
to relieving the impotent, and supporting luna- 
tic asylums, lying-in and foundling hospitals, 
and orphanages. Switzerland in 1643 agreed 
upon a general law of settlement and removal, 
each canton binding itself to support its own 
poor, and mendicancy and vagrancy being se- 
verely punished. By the federal law of 1850 
each commune is obliged to provide aid for the 
impotent and work for the able-bodied. Young 
people of both sexes are to be apprenticed out 
when unprovided for by their parents, and 
these are held responsible for the conduct of 
children under 14, and masters for that of their 
apprentices. In European countries professing 
the Roman Catholic religion, the church until 
quite recently was the great administrator of 



184: 



PAUPERISM 



public charity through her numerous institu- 
tions of beneficence and her religious orders. 
Since the suppression of these in Spain, Portu- 
gal, and Italy, no legislative provision resem- 
bling a regular poor-law system has been in 
operation. In Rome while under pontifical 
rule a "commission of relief "was intrusted 
with the direction of public charities. It was 
composed of a cardinal-president and 15 mem- 
bers. The city was divided into 12 districts, 
each of them being under the immediate super- 
intendence of a member of the committee. In 
each parish within the district was a local board 
composed of the parish priest, two deputies 
(one a layman, the other a lady), chosen for 
two years, and a salaried secretary and trea- 
surer. Alms were given in money, tools, and 
raiment. In Spain the hospitals and asylums 
formerly endowed for lunatics, the blind, and 
deaf and dumb, as well as for foundlings, &c., 
are still maintained by the government. Be- 
fore the late revolutions the public treasury 
gave to each province a stated yearly sum 
in aid of the poor, the provinces themselves 
being bound to double this amount by vol- 
untary or compulsory assessment. British 
Poor-Law Statistics. Mr. N. W. Senior, who 
was one of the most active promoters of the 
poor-law amendment act of 1834, has pointed 
out the fact that the compulsory charity of 
England, from the time of Lord Bacon to that 
of the younger Pitt, was so cautiously admin- 
istered by the parochial authorities, under the 
rigid law of settlement, and after the reign 
of George I. by the use of the workhouse test, 
that pauperism did not increase inordinately, 
in proportion to the increase in population and 
wealth. The able-bodied and industrious poor 
were not fed from the public revenues, as was 
the case during the wars with Napoleon, but 
it was the aged, the infantile, and the invalid 
poor who were relieved. The poor rate of 
England and Wales in 1673 was estimated 
(perhaps too highly) at 840,000, the popula- 
tion then being 5,500,000, or about the pr,es- 
ent population of Ireland. Of these, Greg- 
ory King estimated in 1688 that no less than 
1 ; 300,000 were " cottagers and paupers," be- 
sides 30,000 vagrants ; the poor rate he cal- 
culated then as 665,000. Probably those 
strictly to be called paupers, in 1688 were 
not more than 500,000, or one in 11. In 1698 
Fletcher of Saltoun estimated the mendicant 
poor of Scotland at 200,000, and said that 
their average number in times past had been 
100,000; the population of Scotland did not 
then probably exceed a million. From these 
figures, and from the statements of Sir Josiah 
Child and Defoe, we may infer that pauperism 
in Great Britain 200 years ago was as great 
an evil proportionately as it now is. But be- 
tween 1792 and 1832 it was stimulated in Eng- 
land by a most imprudent administration of 
the original poor law of 1601. Certain acts 
passed in lT95-'6 at the instance of Mr. Pitt, 
allowing the parochial relief of " industrious " 



poor persons at their own houses, practically 
accomplished in a few years what the act 43d 
Elizabeth had not done in two centuries, and, 
in the words of Mr. Senior, " let in a flood of 
pauperism, which in the years succeeding the 
Napoleonic wars threatened the destruction of 
property and civilization." In France, during 
the revolution of 1792, the same laxity of poor- 
law administration prevailed, until checked by 
the prudent regulations of Napoleon, who rec- 
ognized the principle, laid down by Child and 
Defoe, that the first duty of charitable admin- 
istration is to prevent the need of charity. 
The division of landed property in the revolu- 
tion has doubtless done much to check the 
growth of pauperism in France, more than the 
absence of a compulsory poor law, upon which 
many writers have commented. A poor law 
in itself neither increases nor diminishes pau- 
perism, except as it is well or ill administered. 
There is no distinctive poor rate in France, yet 
the amount raised by taxation for public char- 
ity in that country is now more than 15,000,- 
000 francs yearly. No country has had, for 
the past hundred years, so high a poor rate as 
England. In 1773, Lord Kames estimated it 
at 3,000,000; but in fact it was only about 
1,600,000 in 1776. In 1801 it was more than 
4,000,000; in 1818, 7,870,801, the popula- 
tion at that time being 11,575,000, or some- 
thing more than twice as many as in 1688, 
when Gregory King's tables were made out. 
Thus in 130 years the population had doubled 
and the outlay for the poor had nominally be- 
come ten times as great. This state of things 
alarmed the government, and from 1818 to 
1834 persistent efforts were made to modify 
the poor laws, resulting (1834) in what has 
since been known as "the new poor law." 
Its first execution reduced the outlay for the 
poor from nearly 6,500,000 a year to 4,000,- 
000; but this has since risen to 8,000,000, 
though for 1874 it was but about 7,500,000, 
or less than in 1818, the population having in 
the mean time nearly doubled. The average 
yearly cost of pauperism in England in the 
ten years 1819-'29 was 6,300,000; 1829-'39, 
5,700,000; 1839-'49, 5,200,000; 1849-'59,- 
5,500,000; 1859-'69, 6,500,000; since 1869, 
7,750,000. The highest cost was in 1872, 
8,000,000; the lowest for 60 years was in 
1837, 4,044,741. The number of paupers on 
a given day in England and "Wales has some- 
times been more than a million, but for sev- 
eral years it has been decreasing. This de- 
crease has taken place in spite of the abolition 
of many of those restrictions on the freedom of 
the poor which were formerly imposed by the 
"law of settlement." It was supposed that 
the increase of the "irremovable" poor, as 
they are called, would work an increase of 
actual pauperism, but such does not seem to 
be the case. Relative Amount of Pauperism. 
In proportion to the population of England, 
there has been a great diminution of pauperism 
since 1870, when, with about 22,400, 000 inhab- 



PAUPERISM 



185 



itants, there were more than 1,000,000 paupers. 
At Christmas, 1873, there were but 781,470, 
of whom 106,879 were in London; and at 
Christmas, 1874, there were but 750,414 pau- 
pers in a population of more than 23,500,000, 
and 97,357 of these were in London. In four 
years, therefore, there was a decrease of more 
than 25 per cent, in all England and Wales, 
while in the same period the decrease in Lon- 
don had been 20 per cent. The cost of pau- 
perism in the United Kingdom in 1870 was 
9,593,000, or 6s. 4d. a head of the whole 
population. In the United States in the same 
year, with a population about one fourth 
greater, the cost of pauperism did not exceed 
3,000,000, or less than a third part of what 
was paid in England, Scotland, and Ireland. 
It may be noticed also that the number of 
paupers in the United States is much less in 
summer than in winter, while in England the 
season makes little difference in the number. 
Thus on July 1, 1873, there were supported 
and aided in England and Wales 822,000 per- 
sons, of whom 275,838 were children under 
16, and 384,468 were aged and infirm adults. 
On Oct. 1, 1874, there were 721,000 paupers; 
on Nov. 1, 720,000 ; and on Dec. 25, 750,000. 
Here we see 100,000 more paupers receiving 
aid in midsummer of one year than in mid- 
winter of the next year ; a thing that certain- 
ly never happened in the United States, and 
but rarely in England. In ordinary years the 
number of the poor receiving aid in England 
is greatest in the latter part of January and 
early in February, and least in the early part 
of October. Thus, on Oct. 12, 1870, the num- 
ber receiving aid in England was 882,660, of 
whom 134,087 were in workhouses, and 748,- 
573 were receiving outdoor relief or supported 
in lunatic asylums. But on Feb. 28 of the 
same year 1,092,578 were receiving aid, of 
whom more than 165,000 were in workhouses; 
and on Jan. 1, 1871, the whole number was 
1,085,963, of whom 168,073 were in work- 
houses. This would indicate that something 
less than 20 per cent, of the maximum number 
of English paupers drop off the list when the 
number reaches its minimum ; in other words, 
that more than four fifths of English pauper- 
ism is permanent, without regard to the sea- 
son of the year. In America it is probable 
that no more than three fifths of the pauper- 
ism is permanent. In most European coun- 
tries there has been an improvement in the 
condition of the poor, in consequence mainly 
of the large emigration to America and Aus- 
tralia. Thus Ireland and those parts of Ger- 
many from which there has been the largest 
emigration are also the regions that exhibit 
the greatest diminution of pauperism. In Ire- 
land during the famine of 1846-' 7, and for a 
few years afterward, the average number of 
paupers receiving aid ranged from 200,000 to 
250,000, while in 1874 the average number re- 
ceiving aid of all kinds did not exceed 75,000, 
a decrease of two thirds in a quarter of a cen- 



tury. The cost of relieving the Irish poor has 
not much diminished, however, being about 
1,100,000 in 1852 and about 1,000,000 in 
1874. Of the latter sum, 141,916 was for 
medical charities, and the number reported as 
under medical care during the year was 700,000, 
or an average of about 2,000 a day. The num- 
ber of Irish paupers admitted to workhouses 
in 1874 (the year ending Sept. 29) was 252,- 
000, against 249,000 in 1873 ; a slight increase 
for that year, in which the emigration to 
America fell off in consequence of the Ameri- 
can panic of 1873. The number of outdoor 
poor in Ireland during 1874 was 74,000, against 
69,500 in 1873; the total of both classes of 
paupers was 319,242 in 1873 fend 326,618 in 
1874. But in 1870 there had been 441,446, 
including 382,152 indoor and 59,294 outdoor 
paupers. The English pauper statistics do not 
give the whole number relieved and supported 
during the year, but only those at given dates ; 
a fact which should be borne in mind in ma- 
king comparisons between the two countries. 
If the English figures were made up as those 
of Ireland are, the total would probably ex- 
ceed 2,500,000 paupers in a year (or more than 
one in ten of all the inhabitants) who are either 
occasional or permanent paupers. It is in this 
sense, probably, that we must understand the 
percentage of pauperism in Belgium and some 
other countries, where it seems very large, 
sometimes one in seven of the population. 
Belgium, Switzerland, and France, countries 
from which there is comparatively little emi- 
gration to America, are precisely those which 
show but little decrease in pauperism, or even 
an increase. In 1856 Belgium had a popula- 
tion not much greater than that of the state of 
New York in 1870, namely, 4,529,461. Yet 
while New York in 1870 supported an average 
of less than 50,000 paupers, Belgium in 1856, 
according to official figures, supported more 
than 500,000, and an average probably of more 
than 100,000 ; and this number has not much 
diminished since. In France the number aided 
at home by the bureaux de lienfaisance in 1871 
was reported as 1,347,386, in a total popula- 
tion of 36,500,000. In 1861, when the popu- 
lation (before the separation of Alsace and 
Lorraine) was somewhat greater, the number 
aided was but 1,159,539, showing a considera- 
ble increase of poverty, in consequence of the 
Franco-Prussian war and other causes. In 
Prussia, however, and in Germany generally, 
and apparently in Austria, pauperism has de- 
creased, as in England and Ireland. The in- 
crease in the United States is but slight, and is 
caused apparently by the emancipation of the 
slaves in the southern states, and by the finan- 
cial troubles since the autumn of 1873. Up 
to that time, in the northern states, pauperism 
in proportion to the population was decreasing. 
Proportion of Paupers to Population. The 
statistics of pauperism are very deceptive for 
all purposes of comparison, because they are 
differently made up in different countries. It 



186 



PAUPERISM 



is customary, however, to compare the pauper- 
ism of different regions by ascertaining in each 
country the proportion which those persons 
who receive public charity bear to the whole 
population. Without vouching for the accu- 
racy of the computations made, we will pre- 
sent some of these statistics of proportionate 
numbers and cost, taken mainly from the work 
of A. Emminghaus, Das Armenwesen und die 
Armengesetzgebung in Europaiachen Staaten 
(Berlin, 1870). He quotes Hausner's " Statis- 
tics of Europe," which gives the proportion of 
paupers in Belgium as one to every 7i inhabi- 
tants, in Holland one to every 7, in Baden one 
to 16, in Switzerland one to 19, in Great Brit- 
ain one to 22, in South Germany about one 
to 25, in France one to 29, in North Germany 
about one to 30, and in Prussia and Austria 
about one to 34. In the United States the pro- 
portion of inhabitants to paupers is nowhere 
less (according to European modes of computa- 
tion) than 75 or 100 to one, and in the whole 
country there must be at least 150 inhabitants 
to one pauper. The population of Ireland in 
April, 1871, was 5,402,759, and the number of 
paupers from 60,000 to 75,000, giving a pro- 
portion of 72-90 to one. The English paupers 
then numbered 1,000,000, and the population 
of England (always including Wales) was 22,- 
704,108. This gives the proportion of inhab- 
itants to paupers as less than 23 to one, showing 
pauperism to be more than three times as com- 
mon in England as in Ireland. In Scotland 
the population in 1871 was 3,360,018; the 
number of paupers cannot be given very ex- 
actly, by reason of the method of computing 
them, but it was between 100,000 and 130,000, 
or at the rate of one pauper to every 26 or 33 
inhabitants. The foregoing statements relate 
to the average number of paupers; if the whole 
number relieved during the year is considered, 
the proportion of paupers to population will 
seem much larger. It is probably safe to say 
that in all the countries of Europe, save Russia, 
Turkey, and Greece, the proportion of paupers 
constantly supported or aided by public charity 
is as 3 to 100, and that the pauper class in all 
Europe numbers not less than 15,000,000, per- 
haps 25,000,000. Among the 42,000,000 who 
lived in the United States in the beginning of 
1875, it is not probable that the pauper class 
numbered more than 400,000, or that the aver- 
age number of paupers aided was so great as 
250,000. Indoor and Outdoor Relief. These 
terms, borrowed from the technical dialect of 
the English poor-law board, are used rather 
loosely to signify relief given in workhouses 
(indoor) and that given elsewhere, generally at 
the pauper's own home. The English work- 
house corresponds to the American poorhouse 
or almshouse, and it is a favorite theory of 
British political economists that all persons 
who apply for public charity should have their 
sincerity tested by sending them to the work- 
house. This of course cannot always be done, 
but some approach to the "workhouse test" 



is often found the best means to reform the 
administration of charity. The class of "in- 
door paupers" should also include those insane 
poor who are confined in hospitals and asy- 
lums ; but this is not done in England, where 
pauper lunatics are put down among those 
receiving outdoor relief. This is one reason 
why the cost of outdoor relief appears so large 
in England, as compared with the cost of 
maintaining the workhouses; for there are 
now about 50,000 pauper lunatics in England 
who are maintained from the poor rates at a 
cost of nearly 1,000,000 a year. This class 
of the poor is steadily increasing in all coun- 
tries. The number of indoor paupers during 
the year is much larger, of course, than the 
daily or average number. Thus, in 1871, al^ 
though there were but 42,375 persons in the 
workhouses of Ireland on Sept. 29, and only 
48,738 on Jan. 6, 1872, there were yet 183,135 
persons admitted to Irish workhouses during 
the year, including '2,103 births. This is an 
average of more than 15,000 admissions in a 
month, or nearly one third as many monthly 
admissions as the whole average number in the 
workhouses (46,000). In the city almshouses 
of the state of New York, in the same year 
(1871), the average number of inmates being a 
little more than 8,500, there were nearly 31,000 
admissions, including 700 births; a monthly 
admission of less than 2,600, or considerably 
less than one third of the average number sup- 
ported. Hence it would appear that the pau- 
per class in Ireland is more numerous, in pro- 
portion to the average number supported, than 
it is in the cities of New York, Albany, Buf- 
falo, &c. But while pauperism in New York 
is gaining ground, it is decreasing in Ireland. 
In Scotland it has been somewhat increasing, 
and its cost had advanced at such a rate for 
some years previous to 1870 as to occasion se- 
rious apprehensions, and lead to some impor- 
tant changes in the poor laws of that coun- 
try. This increase of cost in Scotland seems 
to be partly due to the fact that there are 
not in workhouses all the poor who ought to 
be maintained indoors, and consequently that 
outdoor relief is carried further than it ought 
to be. Thus, in the year 1872, while the av- 
erage number of the adult poor was 74,635, 
with 42,175 dependents, the whole number 
of indoor poor in winter was but little more 
than 8,000, and in summer 1,000 less ; so that 
only about one tenth of the adult poor of 
Scotland are supported in workhouses or poor- 
houses, unless we reckon the lunatic poor in 
asylums, which would make the proportion of 
indoor poor perhaps one fifth of the whole. 
In England, reckoning in the lunatic poor, the 
indoor paupers number about one fifth of the 
whole, but in Ireland they are almost four 
fifths. Thus, in 1872, out of 296,256 Irish 
paupers relieved during the year, no less 
than 232,236 were maintained in workhouses, 
and only 63,432 received outdoor relief. In 
the United States the proportion of indoor 



PAUPERISM 



187 



paupers to the whole number is about half way 
between that of Ireland and that of Scotland. 
In France, outdoor relief, or, as it is there 
more properly called, "aid to families" (se- 
cours d domicile), is the favorite form of pub- 
lic charity, and has been extended of late years 
to certain classes of the poor never before aid- 
ed in this way. For example, instead of sup- 
porting foundling children in hospitals, as for- 
merly, they are now put out to nurse in the 
country, or are left with their mothers (filles- 
m&res), who receive outdoor relief and nurse 
their own infants. On Jan. 1, 1861, out of 
94,413 infants supported by the public, 44,176, 
or nearly half, were entered as foundlings, and 
only 14,228 as aided at home ; but on Jan. 1, 

1871, of an almost equal number of infants 
(94,043), only 10,056 were classed as found- 
lings, while 30,894 were aided at home. More 
than nine tenths of the other infants who are 
received into hospitals, infirmaries, &c., are 
immediately boarded out in the country (in 

1872, 59,623 out of 63,149), and the money 
paid for them is practically outdoor relief. 
This amounts to more than 7,500,000 francs in 
a year, besides 2,750,000 francs paid for in- 
fants with their mothers, &c. ; so that, of 10,- 
750,696 francs paid in 1871 for these infants, 
all but about 500,000 francs went in the form 
of " aid to families " or outdoor relief. The 
great majority of adult paupers in France are 
also aided in the same way, by the local boards 
of relief (bureaux de bienfaisance). The 46 
almshouses in France cost in 1872 less than 
1,000,000 francs, and supported 5,470 persons; 
and the 12,867 boards of relief expended 
26,719,000, and gave nominal aid to 1,347,386 
persons. Many of these persons were un- 
doubtedly aided twice, thrice, or oftener, during 
the year, but the whole number of different 
persons aided was probably more than 1,000,000, 
including the infants above mentioned. In 
1840, when France had a population of 34,- 
100,000, against 36,102,000 in 1871, the num- 
ber of paupers aided by the bureaux was (nom- 
inally) 814,584, and the amount expended for 
them was 11,774,231 francs, or less than half 
what was paid in 1871. On Dec. 31, 1841, the 
number of paupers receiving outdoor relief in 
Paris was 62,705, and the amount expended 
in that city during the year for aid of this 
kind was 1,419,759 francs. Assuming that the 
average number during the year was 50,000, 
this would make the average cost of each per- 
son a little less than 30 francs. At this rate 
the average number receiving outdoor relief 
in France in 1841 would have been something 
above 400,000 persons; in 1871 it was prob- 
ably 750,000 persons. The average number of 
indoor paupers in France is hard to estimate 
from the official returns, but in 1871 it no 
doubt exceeded 150,000 persons. Thus there 
were more than 27,000 pauper lunatics, prob- 
ably more than 75,000 sick and infirm paupers 
in hospitals and infirmaries, and more than 
40,000 neglected children. The practice in 



France is to give indoor (full) support only to 
the insane, the sick, the old and infirm, and 
helpless children ; but the number and yearly 
cost of these classes is very considerable, per- 
haps three fifths as great, in proportion to the 
population, as the number and cost of the in- 
door poor of all classes in Great Britain and 
Ireland. The cost of indoor support in France 
also is greater than that of outdoor relief, 
even after the changes of late years. The sys- 
tem of indoor and outdoor relief established 
throughout the portion of the Austrian empire 
mentioned above is very effective. The Ar- 
meninstituten deal with all forms of distress, 
and minister to it intelligently. In 1845 they 
numbered 5,165 ; in 1866, 6,678 ; and in the 
latter year they distributed 2,577,563 Austrian 
florins in outdoor relief. In the same year 
1,115,155 florins were expended for found- 
ling children boarded out, making the total of 
outdoor relief 3,692,718 florins. The indoor 
maintenance reported for the same year was 
something more than 6,000,000 florins. In the 
kingdom of Prussia a little more than one third 
of the sum expended for the poor goes for in- 
door maintenance, and nearly two thirds for 
outdoor relief, but the cost of both kinds of 
relief is small compared with what is paid in 
France, England, and the United States. The 
number of indoor poor in Prussia averages 
less than 50,000, and has been reduced of late 
years by the practice of boarding out pauper 
children. In Norway the number fully sup- 
ported is about one third of the whole pub- 
lic poor, who increased greatly from 1851 to 
1866, but have since diminished somewhat. 
In 1851 there were 62,788 paupers relieved 
in Norway, among a population of 1,409,254, 
at a cost of 564,772 specie dollars; in 1855, 
when the population exceeded 1,600,000, 
there were 64,089 public poor, of whom 23,- 
809 were fully and 40,280 partially support- 
ed, at a total cost of 682,412 specie dollars. 
In 1866, when the population had increased to 
1,701,756, the poor numbered 84,678, or one 
in 20 of the population, the cost being 1,086,- 
891 specie dollars. It is not probable that the 
average number of the poor was more than 
50,000, if so many. In Sweden, in 1865, with 
a population of 4,114,141, there were 55,187 
paupers fully supported in the course of the 
year, and 92,601 partially in all, 147,788 pau- 
pers relieved, at a reported cost of about 3,857,- 
000 rix dollars, or 960,000 specie dollars; but 
i