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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

" 




THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



VOL. XIV. 
PRIOR-SHOE, 



685 



THE 



AMEKICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



OP 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED, 



VOLUME XIV. 
PRIOR-SHOE. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 651 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIK 

1879. 



ENTXRKD, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



t-5- 

UTf 

V.K 




Among the Contributors to the Fourteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are 

the following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. 0. 
RAIN. 
KAIN GAUGE. 

HENEY CAEEY BAIED, Philadelphia. 
SAVINGS BANK. 

Hon. GEOEGE BANCROFT, Washington, D. 0. 

SANDYS, Sir EDWIN. 
SANDYS, GEORGE. 

WILLAED BAETLETT. 

PUNJAUB. 

SAHARA. 
SARAWAK. 

A. M. BELL, M. D., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

PUSTULE, MALIGNANT. 
JULIUS BING. 

RABELAIS, 

ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES, 

SAINT PETERSBURG, 

SCIIILLEB, JOHANN ClIRISTOPH FR1EDRICH VON, 

SERVIA, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

WILLIAM BLAIKIE. 
ROWING. 

FRANCIS 0. BOWMAN. 
RUBINSTEIN, ANTON. 
SCHUBERT, FRANZ. 
SCHUMANN, ROBERT. 

EDWAED L. BUBLINGAME, Ph. D. 

PRUSSIA (in part). 
PUMPELLY, RAPHAEL. 
PYGMY. 

ROBEET OAETEE. 

PSALMANAZAR, GEORGE. 

PTOLEMY I., II., III. 
RALEIGH, Sir WALTER. 
SEWARD, WILLIAM HENRY. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

QUEENSLAND, 
RED SEA, 

ElNG, 

SAMOAN ISLANDS, 
SANTO DOMINGO, 
SCOTLAND (in part\ 

and other articles in geography and history. 

Prof. E. H. CLAEKE, M. D., Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

SARSAPARILLA (medical part), 
SASSAFRAS (medical part), 
SENNA (medical part), 

and other articles in materia medico. 

THEODORE P. COOK, Utica, N. Y. 
SEYMOUR, HORATIO. 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., Michigan Univer- 
sity, Ann Arbor. 
PRIZE (in part), 
PRIZE MONEY, 
RECORD (in part), 

and other legal articles. 

JOSEPH CROWDY, St. John's, Newfoundland. 

SAINT JOHN'S. 
Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D. 

PULSE, 

QUINSY, 

RESPIRATION, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

Rev. DAVID D. DEMAREST, D. D., New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH IN AMERICA. 

Prof. T. S. DOOLITTLE, Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, N. J. 
RUTGERS COLLEGE. 



M. J. DBENNAN. 

RENE I. 

SCHLESWIG and SCULESWIG-HOLSTEIN (history). 

SlIAMYL. 

EATON S. DEONE. 

PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE, 
REFORMATORIES, 

and articles in American geography. 

ROBERT T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

Elder F. W. EVANS, Community of Shakers, 
New Lebanon, N. Y. 
SHAKERS. 

W. M. FEEEISS. 

PROCTOR, RICHARD ANTHONY. 
ROIILFS, GERHARD. 
SEASONS. 

AUSTIN FLINT, Jr., M. D. 

PUGILISM. 

Gen. W. B. FRANKLIN, Superintendent Colt's 
Firearms Manufactory, Hartford, Conn. 

RIFLE. 

Lieutenant Commander HENRY H. GORRINGE, 
U. S. N., Washington, D. 0. 

Rio DE JANEIRO. 

Rio GRANDE DO NORTE. 

ROSARIO. 

Prof. W. E. GRIFFIS, late of the Imperial Col- 
lege, Tokio, Japan. 
SAGA. 
SAGHALIEN. 

ALFRED H. GTTEENSEY. 

RED RIVER (campaign). 
RICHMOND, Va. (military events). 
SHERIDAN, PHILIP HENRY. 
SHERMAN, WILLIAM TECUMSEH. 

Dr. ERNST HEINBICH HAECKEL, Professor of 
the University of Jena, Germany. 
PROTOPLASM. 

J. W. HA WES. 

PROVIDENCE, R. I., , 

QuEiiEC (province), 
RHODE ISLAND, 
SAINT Louis, Mo., 

and other articles in American geography. 

Prof. F. V. HAYDEN, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 
ROCKY MOUNTAINS. 

ANGELO HEILPRIN. 

SEDGWICK, ADAM. 

Louis HEILPRIN. 

PYRENEES. 

SEVEN YEARS' WAB. 

M. HEILPRIN. 

ROUMELIA. 

SAMNIUM. 

SELEUCIA. 

CHARLES ISIDOEE HEMANS. 

ROME (in part). 

JOHN S. HITTELL, San Francisco, Cal. 

SACRAMENTO RIVER. 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

CHAELES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 

PUERPERAL CONVULSIONS. 
PUF.RPERAL FEVER. 
PUERPERAL MANIA. 
SALTS. 
SAPPHIRE. 

Rev. J. H. HOPKINS, D. D., Pittsburgh, N. Y. 

RITUALISM. 



Prof. T. STEREY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

BOCKS. 
EOSSITEB JOHNSON. 

KnBlNSON, E/.EKIEL GlLMAN, 

ROCHESTER, N. Y., 
HOBBLING. JOHN AUGUSTUS, 

and other articles ID biography and geography. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 
RUBIDIUM, 
RUTHENIUM, 

and other chemical articles. 

Most Rev. FRANCIS PATRICK KENRIOK, D. D., 
late Archbishop of Baltimore. 

hi >MAN CATHOLIC CHCBCH. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

KADI AT A, 

REPTILES, 

SALMON, 

SEAL, 

SHARK, 

SllKKP, 

and other articles In zoology. 
CHARLES LINDSEY, Toronto, Canada. 

> UM LAWRENCE RIVER. 
SASKATCHEWAN. 

T. J. LOWRY, U. S. Coast Survey, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

PROTRACTOR. 
SKXTANT. 

Capt. S. B. LUCE, U. S. N., U. 8. Navy Yard, 
Boston. 

ROPE (In part). 
SHIP (In part). 

Prof. BENJAMIN W. MCCREADY, M. D., Belle- 
vue Hospital Medical College, New York. 

RHEUMATISM. 
SCROFULA. 

Prof. ALFRED M. MAYER, Stevens Inst. of Tech- 
nology, Hoboken, N. J. 

PYROMETER. 

DAVID J. MILLER, Santa F6, New Mexico. 

SANTA Ffi. 

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 

ROOERR, JOHN (sculptor), 

SCIIOOLTRAIT, HENRY ROWR, 

BIIEDD, WILLIAM GRKENOUGH THATER, 

and other articles in blofrraphy and geography. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 
QUEBEC (dtv), 

RELIGIOUS oiniKK*. Roman Catholic, 
SCHOOL BROTHERS AND SCHOOL SISTERS, 
and other articles In ecclesiastical history. 

Prof. S. F. PECKHAM, University of Minnesota. 

RED RIVER or THE NORTH. 

RESINS. 

SALT. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A.M., London. 

SATURN, 

and other astronomical articles. 

PENNOCK PPSEY, St. Paul, Minn. 

SAINT PAUL. 

A. A. PUTNAM, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

SALT LAKE CITY. 

Prof. C. V. RILKY, State Entomologist, Si 
Louis, Mo. 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOCTTBT. 

R. V. ROGERS, St. Augustine, Fla. 
SAINT AUGUSTINE. 

I. C. ROSSE, M. D., Washington, D. 0. 

QUARANTINE. 



Prof. PHILIP SCHAFF, D. D., Union Theological 
Seminary, New York. 

REFORMATION. 

REFORMED CHURCH (in part). 

Prof, A. J. SCHEM. 

PRUSSIA (in part), 

REFORMED CHURCH IN THE UNITED STATES, 

RELIGIOUS ORDERS, Protestant, 

SECOND ADVENTISTS, 

and various articles in geography and history. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 
PUEBLO INDIANS, 
SEMINOLES, 
SEN EC AS, 
BHAWNEES, 

and other articles on American Indians. 

Prof. HENRY B. SMITH, D. D., Union Theologi- 
cal Seminary, New York. 

REFORMED CHURCH (in part). 

SCHILLING, FRIEDRICII WILUELM JOSEPH VON. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

RAWLINSON, GEORGE. 
ROSE, HUGH JAMES. 
ROSE, HENRY JOHN. 
SEABURY, SAMUEL (two). 

W. L. STONE, Editor of " New York School 
Journal." 
1: 1 1. JACKET. 

RIEDESEL, Kitir.mtici! APOLPH VON, Baron. 
RIEDESEL, FRIEUEKIKK CHARLOTTE. 
SARATOGA. 

FRANCIS A. TEALL. 

ROLAND DK LA PI.ATIKUE. JEAN MARIE and MARIE, 

RUTLEDGE, JOHN and EDWARD, 

BouraoBM, 

SEVERUS, Lucius SEPTIMIUS, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

N. L. THIEBLIN. 

RUSSIA (in part). 

Prof. GEORGE TIIURBEB. 
QUINCE, 
RHODODENDRON, 



SEQUOIA, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. ROBERT II. THURSTON, Stevens Inst. of 
Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
ROOF. 

JOHN F. UIILHORN, Sacramento, Cal. 

SACRAMENTO. 

W. A. VAN BENTHUYSEN, Editor of the "Shoe 
and Leather Chronicle," New York. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RIIYN, Ph. D. 

PROVENCAL LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, 
PYRAMID, 

Bmnfc 

SEMITIC RACE AND LANGUAGES, 

and other archa-ologicaL, oriental, and philological 

articles. 

J. M. VARNUM, Secretary Board of Trade, St. 
Joseph, Mo. 
SAINT JOSEPH. 

Major W. T. WALTHALL, Mobile, Ala. 

SELMA. 
C. S. WEYMAN. 

RAPHAEL. 
SCOTT, fir WALTER. 
SCULPTURE. 

RICHARD GRANT WHITE. 
SHAKESPEARE. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College, 
New Haven, Conn. 

SANSKRIT. 
Gen. JAMES HARRISON WILSON. 

RAILROAD. 
ROCKET. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



PEIOK 

PRIOR, Matthew, an English poet, born at 
Wimborne-Minster, Dorsetshire, July 21, 
1664, died at Wimpole, Cambridgeshire, a seat 
of Lord Oxford, Sept. 18, 1721. He graduated 
at Cambridge in 1686. Here he formed an in- 
timacy with Charles Montague, afterward earl 
of Halifax, with whom he wrote "The City 
Mouse and Country Mouse " (1687), in ridicule 
of Dryden's " Hind and Panther." He was 
appointed in 1690 secretary of the embassy at 
the Hague, and became one of the -gentlemen 
of the bedchamber to William III. In 1695 
he wrote an ode on the death of Queen Mary. 
In 1697 he was appointed secretary of the com- 
missioners who concluded the treaty of Kys- 
wick, and in 1698 secretary of the embassy at 
the court of France. In 1699 he was made 
under secretary of state, but losing his place 
shortly after, received in 1700 the appoint- 
ment of commissioner of trade. The same 
year he published his Carmen Seculare, a pan- 
egyric on King William. In 1701 he was elect- 
ed a member of parliament from East Grin- 
stead, and soon after he changed his politics, 
becoming a violent tory. In 1711 he was sent 
on a private mission to Paris with proposals of 
peace. Bolingbroke went to Paris as ambassa- 
dor to hasten the negotiations; and Prior, who 
was in company with him, after Bolingbroke's 
return became the ambassador. When, in 
August, 1714, the whigs had regained office, 
Prior was recalled, and was at once arrested 
on a charge of treason. While a prisoner in 
his own house for two years he wrote " Alma, 
or the Progress of the Mind." After his re- 
lease he published his poems by subscription, 
through which he realized 4,000 guineas. Lord 
Harley, son of the earl of Oxford, added an 
equal sum for the purchase of Down hall in 
Essex, which was settled upon Prior for his 
life. He was buried in Westminster abbey, 
and a monument was erected to his memory, 



PRISCILLIAN 

for which he left 500 in his will. The best 
of the old editions of his poems is that of 1791 
(2 vols. 8vo). An edition with a life by Mit- 
ford (2 vols. 12mo) was published in 1835. 

I'KISCIAMS, a Eoman grammarian, who lived 
about A. D. 500, and is supposed from his sur- 
name Caesariensis to have been born or edu- 
cated at Ceesarea. He was a pupil of Theoc- 
tistus, and taught grammar at Constantinople, 
was in receipt of a salary from the govern- 
ment, and was probably a Christian. His Com- 
mentariorum Grammaticorum Libri XVIII 
contains a large number of quotations from 
Greek and Latin writers not otherwise known, 
and a parallel between the Greek and Latin 
languages. He also wrote a " Grammatical 
Catechism on twelve Lines of the ^Eneid," a 
"Treatise on Accents," one on "The Metres 
of Terence," some short poems, and several 
translations from the Greek ; and the acrostics 
prefixed to the plays of Plautus are ascribed 
to him. His name is familiar in the phrase 
diminuere Prisciani caput (to break Priscian's 
head), commonly applied to those who use 
false Latin. 

PRISCILLIAN, the founder of a religious sect 
in Spain and Gaul, born in the neighborhood 
of Cordova, died in Treves in 385. He was 
of high birth, and possessed wide learning and 
great rhetorical talents. It is said that he was 
instructed by a certain Egyptian called Mark, 
and by Elpidius and Agape. He appeared as 
a religious reformer with the pretension of 
having been called to preach the true doctrine 
and a spiritual asceticism, and to found within 
tjie Catholic church a special secret society of 
initiated and saints. He was excommunicated 
by a synod held at Saragossa about 380, but to 
no effect, as he was soon after ordained bishop 
of Avila. The emperor Gratian was thereupon 
persuaded to publish an edict exiling Priscillian 
and his friends, but a revocation of the edict 



c 



PRISM 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



was obtained by bribing some of the court 
officials. Another synod, held at the instance 
of Bishop Ithacius at Bordeaux in 384, when 
Maximus had usurped the throne, again gave 
an adverse decision. Priscillian appealed be- 
fore the emperor, who sentenced him to death 
and decreed the confiscation of his proper- 
ty. Priscillian's execution is the first instance 
of a Christian condemned to death for heresy. 
The doctrines held by the Priscillianists were 
a mixture of Manichseism and Gnosticism. 

PRISM, in geometry, a solid bounded by plane 
faces, of which two that are opposite are equal, 
similar, and parallel, and are called the bases 
of the prism ; the other surfaces are parallel- 
ograms. The axis is the line connecting the 
centres of the bases. The prism is triangular, 
square, pentagonal, and so on, according as the 
figure of the bases is triangular, square, pen- 
tagonal, &c. It is right or oblique according 
as the sides are perpendicular or oblique to the 
bases. A right prism is regular when its bases 
have the figure of a regular polygon. The 
prism corresponds among bodies with plane 
surfaces to the cylinder among bodies with 
curve surfaces. In optics, a prism is a portion 
of a refracting medium bounded by two plane 
surfaces inclined to one another. The line in 
which these two surfaces meet, or would meet 
if produced, is the edge of the prism; their 
inclination is called its refracting angle. The 
form commonly used is a triangular prism of 
glass. A good contrivance for delicate experi- 
ments may be made with two rectangular pieces 
of plate glass firmly set to form two sides of a 
triangnlar box which is to be filled with water 
or spirits of turpentine. The prism is essen- 
tial in apparatus for decomposing light. 

PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE. Peniten- 
tiary science, or the system of detaining, pun- 
ishing, and reforming criminals, is of modern 
origin. The Scriptures contain references to 
prison houses and to the punishment of offend- 
ers. In Greece and Rome punishments were 
inflicted by loss of caste, of citizenship, and 
of liberty, banishment, and penal labor, which 
was sometimes performed on public works, 
in quarries, mines, &c. In the Roman em- 
pire there were houses, called ergastula, used 
chiefly for the punishment of criminal and re- 
fractory slaves. In Rome there still remains 
a prison, known as the Mamertino caves, con- 
sisting of several vaults or apartments. (See 
ROME, vol. xiv., p. 411.) The feudal barons 
had towers in their castles called donjons, 
whence is derived dungeon, for the confine- 
ment of their captive foes or refractory re- 
tainers. Sometimes the prison vaults were 
out in the solid rock below the surface of the 
earth. A movement for the amelioration of 
the wretched condition of English prisons and 
prisoners was begun by John Howard, whose 
investigations led to the enactment of two 
laws by parliament in 1774, one abolishing 
prison fees (which up to that time had been 
exacted from all prisoners) and the protracted 



confinement of the prisoner until these were 
paid, the other providing for an improvement 
of the sanitary condition of jails. In 1777 
appeared the first work of Howard on pris- 
ons, "The State of the Prisons in England 
and Wales." The works of Beccaria on crime 
and punishment appeared about the same time 
on the continent ; and in England Sir William 
Blackstone, Mr. Bentham, and Mr. Eden en- 
tered upon the work of prison reform in ear- 
nest. The prisons were found to be in the 
most wretched condition, while the treatment 
to which the prisoners were subjected was de- 
moralizing in the highest degree. In 1776 a 
prison was built at Horsham by the duke of 
Richmond under Howard's advice and coupe-r- 
ation, and was a marked improvement upon 
any prison then existing. In 1778 an act for 
the establishment of penitentiary houses was 
passed through the efforts of Howard, Eden, 
and Blackstone. The leading principles of the 
new system were that " if any offenders con- 
victed of crimes for which transportation has 
been usually inflicted were ordered to solitary 
imprisonment, accompanied by well regulated 
labor and religious instruction, it might be the 
means under Providence, not only of deter- 
ring others, but also of reforming the individu- 
als and turning them to habits of industry." 
There was much delay in carrying out the pro- 
posed reforms. In 1791 Jeremy Bentham 
published his "Panopticon, or the Inspection 
House," containing a plan for a model prison; 
but it was not till 1821 that the great peniten- 
tiary at Millbank on his model was completed, 
though it had been opened in 1817. It com- 
prised six pentagonal structures radiating like 
the spokes of a wheel from a central hexagon, 
from which all the cells were visible. This 
prison was torn down in 1875. In 1842 was 
opened the cellular prison at Penton ville. Gov- 
ernment convict prisons have also been estab- 
lished at Brixton, Portland, Chatham, Ports- 
mouth, Parkhurst, Dartmoor, and Woking. The 
convict prison at Fulham is exclusively for fe- 
males, who are also sent to Woking. Early in 
the present century Mrs. Elizabeth Fry com- 
menced her mission to the female prisoners in 
Newgate ; and in 1818 Mr. (afterward Sir T. 
F.) Buxton published an " Inquiry whether 
Crime and Misery are produced or prevented 
by the present System of Discipline." From 
this work it appears that, notwithstanding 
Howard's exposures, Mrs. Fry's revelations, 
and the developments made by the committee 
of aldermen of London in 1815, the abuses of 
Howard's time still continued, and had in many 
particulars increased, and that a radical and 
thorough change was needed. The hulks of 
men-of-war were for a time used as prisons, 
but have been abandoned. In the United 
States, the work of reform was begun in 
Philadelphia in 1776, and has been steadily 
carried on by a large number of philanthro- 
pists and publicists. Chief among these have 
been Louis D wight, Roberts Vaux, one of 'he 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



founders of the cellular system, Edward Liv- 
ingston, Francis Lieber, Elam Lynde, the 
founder of the Auburn system, Amos Pilsbu- 
ry, for 40 years the head of the Connecticut 
state prison and the Albany penitentiary, and 
John W. Edmonds, the founder of the New 
York prison association. These are no longer 
living; but the work is still carried on by Dr. 
E. C. Wines, whose extended labors in behalf 
of prison reform are well known throughout 
the civilized world, by Sanborn, Brockway, 
Richard Vaux, and many qthers. In Europe 
. the subject of penitentiary reform has been 
earnestly discussed in recent years, and re- 
forms have been urged in all countries. Prom- 
inent among the leaders have been Sir Walter 
Crofton in Ireland ; Mr. Crawford, Alexander 
Maconochie, Gen. Jebb, Matthew Davenport 
Hill, and Miss Mary Carpenter in England; 
Stevens in Belgium ; Pols in Holland ; De Metz, 
Berenger (de la Drome), Bonneville de Mar- 
sangy, and Loyson in France; Obermaier, 
Varrentrapp, and Holtzendorff in Germany; 
Guillaume in Switzerland ; Count Sollohub in 
Russia; and Beltrani Scalia in Italy. Various 
prison congresses have been held in Europe 
since 1845, when the first, proposed by Ducpe- 
tiaux, then inspector general of prisons in Bel- 
gium, was convened at Frankfort. The most 
important of these was the international con- 
gress proposed by Dr. Wines and held in Lon- 
don in 1872. A second international congress 
is to be held in Europe in 1877. A permanent 
commission for the study of penitentiary re- 
form, organized by the congress of London, 
held sessions in Brussels in 1874 and in Bruch- 
sal in 1875. Commissions for the revision of 
the penal code and prison reform have been at 
work recently in France, Italy, and Russia. 
In the United States national prison congresses 
were held in Cincinnati in 1870, Baltimore in 
1872, and St. Louis in 1874. The leading prin- 
ciples which it is sought to introduce into pris- 
on management in all countries are thus epi- 
tomized by Dr. Wines : " Reformation of pris- 
oners as a chief end to be kept in view ; hope 
as the great regenerative force in prisons; 
work, education, and religion as other vital 
forces to the same end ; abbreviation of sen- 
tence and participation in earnings as incen- 
tives to diligence, good conduct, and self-im- 
provement ; the enlisting of the will of the 
prisoner in the work of his own moral regen- 
eration ; the introduction of variety of trades 
into prisons, and the mastery by every convict 
of some handicraft as a means of support after 
discharge; the use- of the law of love as an 
agent in prison discipline, to the exclusion, as 
far as may be, of the grosser forms of force ; 
the utter worthlessness of short imprison- 
ments, and the necessity of longer terms even 
for minor offences, when repeated ; and the 
intellectual, moral, and industrial education 
of neglected, vagrant, and vicious children, 
this last being, in aim and essential features, 
an anticipation of the industrial school and 



juvenile reformatory of our day." The refor- 
mation of the prisoner is sought primarily for 
the protection of society. A marked tendency 
of advanced American opinion on the subject 
of penal treatment is the centralization and 
unification of control of all the prisons of a 
state, and their correlation for preventive and 
reformatory ends. Under the law of 1873, all 
prisoners in Maine, except the boys in the 
state reformatory, are practically under one 
board of control. There is also a growing ten- 
dency toward the recognition of prenatal in- 
fluences producing the criminal impulse and 
transmitting it from one generation to another, 
and of the existence of physical causes of dis- 
ease and degeneracy. The prevalence of these 
views frequently induces great caution in in- 
flicting retributive punishment. Indeed, in 
some states the abolition of definite term sen- 
tences is urged, as being necessarily vindictive 
in some degree, and the substitution of indefi- 
nite committal to custody until such observa- 
ble modifications of character are wrought as 
give good hope of the criminal's reform. The 
association of convicts day and night was for- 
merly much practised, and still prevails to a 
limited extent in some prisons of Europe; but 
this plan is now generally condemned. Three 
systems are in use : 1, the separate or cellular, 
known also as the Pennsylvania or " individ- 
ual treatment;" 2, the associate or congregate, 
also called the Auburn; 3, the Irish convict, 
or Crofton. Transportation was practised in 
Great Britain as early as 1619, when 100 con- 
victs were sent to Virginia, and afterward 
small numbers were occasionally sent out and 
sold to the planters for 7 to 14 years, a prac- 
tice often alluded to by Defoe and other wri- 
ters; but the business was not-conducted sys- 
tematically till after 1718, when for a number 
of years as many as 2,000 convicts were annu- 
ally transported. In 1786 it was determined to 
establish a penal colony in Australia, and the 
first cargo, of 850 convicts, was sent out in 1787, 
to Port Jackson, near Sydney. The convicts 
died by hundreds of fever on the passage out ; 
or if they arrived they were unable to earn a 
subsistence, and perished of famine, or, to pre- 
serve life, adopted the savage habits of the 
native bush rangers. At length the influx of 
free settlers, the extensive sheep culture, and 
the building up of large towns, made their 
condition tolerable ; while the grants of lands 
to the emancipists, as those who had served 
their time were called, and the plan of allow- 
ing tickets of leave, which in some cases short- 
ened their term of punishment almost one 
half, soon gave to the convict settlers a pre- 
dominating influence in the colony. This led 
to the organization among the free settlers of 
a party opposed to the system, and in 1840 
transportation to South Australia ceased. It 
was maintained in Tasmania till 1853. In 
1857 an act was passed abolishing transpor- 
tation entirely as a means of punishment ; but 
convicts sentenced to penal servitude might 



8 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



still be sent beyond seas by order of the sec- 
retary of state. In 1807 transportation was 
altogether discontinued. Transportation to pe- 
nal colonies in Guiana and New Caledonia is 
now a part of the penal code of France, which 
has also agricultural penitentiaries in the island 
of Corsica. Under the penal laws of Spain the 
punishment of fetters for life is undergone 
with labor in designated places in Africa, in 
the Canary islands, or beyond the seas. Trans- 
portation into penal colonies in Africa was 
adopted by Portugal in 1852, and is still prac- 
tised. Italy has agricultural penal colonies 
in the islands of Gorgona, Capraiu, and Piano- 
sa, in the Tuscan archipelago, and also in the 
island of Sardinia. The penal code of Russia 
prescribes transportation with hard labor for 
life, or from 4 to 20 years, to Siberia, and be- 
yond the Caucasus. The foundation of the 
separate system, as it is now practised in this 
country and in Europe, was laid in Philadel- 
phia in the latter part of the last century. 
The abuses attending the treatment of prison- 
ers had been strongly condemned by a num- 
ber of philanthropists in that city. Prison- 
ers were associated together day and night, 
and made to work in the public streets. In 
1790 a law was passed by the legislature to 
try the system of "solitary confinement to 
hard labor," which was soon after adopted in 
the Walnut street jail. In 1821 the legisla- 
ture authorized the construction of the east- 
ern penitentiary there, which was opened in 
1829. The western penitentiary had been 
opened in Pittsburgh in 1827, and in both the 
separate system was adopted. It has been 
discontinued in the western, but in the eastern 
it is still maintained. This prison was visited 
by De Tocqueville, Beaumont, Demetz, Blou- 
et, Mr. Crawford, inspector general of the 
prisons of England, and other foreign publi- 
cists, and was taken as the model of the great 
English prison of Pentonville, and of other 
prisons in Paris, Belgium, Holland, Germany, 
Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and other coun- 
tries. The distinguishing features of the sep- 
arate or cellular system are individual separa- 
tion of the prisoners day and night during 
the entire term of their imprisonment, com- 
munication with the officials, visits and cor- 
respondence with persons outside under pre- 
cribed restrictions, individual walks in the 
open air, obligatory and remunerated work for 
the prisoners, and mental, moral, religious, 
and technical individual instruction. Not 
only is the association of convicts prevented, 
but even the opportunity of seeing one an- 
other. Each is kept in a separate cell, where 
he eats, sleeps, works, and passes the entire 
term of his imprisonment, except the time 
spent in exercise in the small yard attached 
to his cell. When he leaves his cell his face, 
except the eyes, is covered with a cap to pre- 
vent recognition. When religious services are 
held, the convicts in many prisons remain in 
their cells. In the Belgian prisons they can 



see the priest, but not one another; in the 
eastern penitentiary they hear but do not 
see the preacher. In the cellular prison at 
Bruchsal, Baden, they leave their cells to at- 
tend religious services and to receive secular 
instruction, but with their faces covered ; 
visitors are seen in a room assigned for that 
purpose. The advantages claimed for this 
system are that it prevents mutual corruption 
and other evil influences of the association 
of convicts, promotes the manhood and self- 
respect of the prisoner, especially after libera- 
tion, diminishes the chances of escape, admits 
)i variation of discipline by affording an oppor- 
tunity for the separate study and treatment of 
each prisoner, and in consequence of its re- 
pressive and reformatory efficiency permits a 
diminution of the period of imprisonment. 
Thus by the Belgian law of 1870 a sentence of 
one year, if to cellular imprisonment, may be 
reduced to 9 months, of 5 years to 3 years and 
5 months, of 10 years to 6 years and 3 months, 
of 15 years to 8 years and 5 months, and of 
20 years to 9 years and 8 months. Those 
sentenced to imprisonment for life can be com- 
pelled to pass only the first 10 years in separate 
confinement. In the eastern penitentiary in 
Philadelphia the prisoner is able by good con- 
duct to reduce his sentence one month in each 
of the first two years, two months in each suc- 
ceeding year to the fifth, three months in each 
following year to the tenth, and four months 
in each remaining year of the sentence. Chief 
among the objections urged against the system 
are that it wars against the social instinct in 
men, producing a morbid state of mind and 
increasing the percentage of insanity, and that 
it is more costly than the congregate system. 
In reply it is maintained that the first of these- 
objections is not supported by statistics, while 
the increase in cost is balanced by the decrease 
in the duration of imprisonment. In the United 
States the separate system has met with little 
favor outside of Pennsylvania ; in every other 
state the congregate plan has been adopted. 
In Europe, however, the former has many ad- 
vocates. When adopted, it is generally applied 
in the case of short sentences with provision 
for abbreviation. It has received its best de- 
velopment in Belgium, where it prevails almost 
entirely, having been first tried in the prison 
of Ghent in 1885. The penitentiary of Lou- 
vain, which has about 600 cells, is regarded as 
the model cellular prison of Europe. The sys- 
tem prevails in a few of the French, Prussian, 
Austrian, Norwegian, Swedish, and Italian 
prisons. Denmark has one cellular prison for 
male convicts in Seeland ; no person can be 
kept in isolation longer than three years and a 
half. In Baden sentences to hard labor and to 
imprisonment are served in cellular prisons, 
but such confinement cannot be extended be- 
yond three years without the consent of the 
prisoner. The convict prison of Bruchsal is 
strictly cellular. Bavaria has one cellular pris- 
on for convicts and three for persons awaiting 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



trial ; the former is at Nuremberg, and has a 
capacity for 400 men. In Holland the judge 
may sentence to separate or associated impris- 
onment, but the former must not exceed two 
years. The three great cellular prisons are in 
Amsterdam, with 208 cells, Utrecht, 186, and 
Rotterdam, 344. Many of the local prisons 
are also on the separate plan. The congregate 
system was first adopted in the United States 
in the state prison of New York at Auburn. 
This, however, was not the origin of the sys- 
tem ; for it had been practised as early as 
1703 at the prison of San Michele in Rome, 
.on the portals of which was inscribed: Pa- 
rum est improbos coercere posna nisi probos ef- 
ficias diseiplina ("It is useless to punish the 
bad without improving them by discipline"). 
An excellent prison of this kind was also 
opened at Ghent in 1775. Industrial labor, 
religious and scholastic education, abbreviation 
of sentence, participation in earnings, &c., 
were found by Howard in this prison when he 
visited it in 1775-'6, and again in 1781. But 
soon afterward the plan of conducting the 
prison was changed by the emperor Joseph 
II., and its reputation for excellence was lost. 
The construction of the Auburn prison was 
begun in 1816. The plan of idle seclusion in 
separate cells was at first adopted, and it was 
not till 1824 that the congregate system was 
fully established by Capt. Elam Lynde. Under 
this system the prisoners labor in association 
during the day, take their meals either togeth- 
er or in their cells, and attend religious exer- 
cises in a body. Strict silence is enjoined up- 
on the convicts. Communication may be held 
with the officers of the prison, and with visit- 
ors when permission is granted. The night is 
passed by the prisoners in solitary confinement 
in a small cell. It is asserted that this system 
is more economical than the separate, both be- 
cause the original cost of construction is much 
less in consequence of the cells being smaller, 
and because associated labor is attended with 
greater profit. It is also said to be better adapt- 
ed to the mental and bodily condition of the 
convict. It prevails extensively in Europe, and 
exclusively in the United States except in Phil- 
adelphia. The distinguishing features of the 
separate and congregate systems are united in 
the Irish convict or Crofton system, which was 
introduced by Sir "Walter Crofton into Ireland 
in 1854, where it has since prevailed with 
the most successful results ; and it has been 
accepted by many, and especially American 
penologists, as the best penal system yet de- 
vised. Its origin is attributed to Alexander 
Maconochie, who had expounded and advo- 
cated the fundamental principles of the system 
before putting them into practice in 1840 at 
the penal colony under his charge on Norfolk 
island. Maconochie was recalled in 1844, and 
the former system of cruelty was reestablished 
there. M. Bonneville de Marsangy of France 
Iso proposed and published as early as 1846 a 
plan of penitentiary treatment embodying the 



main features of this system. In perfecting a 
plan of penal treatment, Sir Walter Crofton 
had to deal with the three principles of sec- 
ondary punishment (i. e., by terminable im- 
prisonment) generally recognized by penolo- 
gists: 1, the deterrent principle, which by the 
application of pain is intended to impress the 
convict, as well as the community, with the 
belief that the profits of crime are overbal- 
anced by its losses, thus subduing by fear the 
desire of the criminal to do wrong; 2, the 
principle styled by Bentham that of " inca- 
pacitation," which is designed to render the 
culprit incapable of committing crime by re- 
moving him from society to the prison ; 3, 
the reformatory principle, by which the desire 
of the convict to do wrong is overcome. The 
union of these principles into one plan of 
treatment in order to attain the "twofold end 
of punishment, amendment and example," is 
the basis of the Crofton system. The term of 
imprisonment is divided into three stages, and 
is passed in three different prisons: Mount- 
joy prison in Dublin, which has a capacity 
for about 500 convicts ; Spike island, in the 
harbor of Queenstown, which will accommo- 
date 700; and Lusk, about 12 m. from Dub- 
lin, with accommodations for 100. The first 
stage continues eight or nine months in sepa- 
rate imprisonment in a cellular prison. The 
treatment here is made penal by a very re- 
duced dietary during the first four months, 
meat being entirely withheld, and by the ab- 
sence of interesting employment during the 
first three months, the convicts being occupied 
chiefly in picking oakum. Much time is spent 
in receiving religious and secular instruction, 
and each convict is taught the entire scope 
of the system of imprisonment he is under- 
going, and how much depends upon himself. 
The controlling feature of the second stage is 
the system of marks, by which the classifica- 
tion is governed and the abbreviation of the 
sentence determined. There are four classes 
in the second stage, and the time spent by a 
convict in each class is determined, within 
certain limits, by the number of marks gained. 
The maximum number to be attained is nine a 
month, three each for good conduct, attention 
to school duties, and industry at work. Skill 
is not rewarded by marks. The convict must 
gain 18 marks in the third class to pass to 
the second, 54 in the second for promotion to 
the first, and 108 in the first before entering 
the advanced class. Thus, as he can acquire 
only nine marks a month, he must spend at 
least 2 months in the first class, 6 in the sec- 
ond, and 12 in the first. The time passed in 
the advanced class depends upon the length of 
the sentence. It must be at least 13 months 
when the sentence is five years, 53 when it is 
10, and 93 when it is 15 years. During the 
second stage the convicts are employed in as- 
sociation, chiefly on public works. They do 
not receive any portion of their earnings, but 
are allowed certain gratuities, which are re- 



10 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



ceived on release. The chief punishments are 
loss of marks, forfeiture of gratuities, with- 
drawal of privileges, and remanding to a lower 
class or to the cellular prison at Mountjoy. 
The most remarkable feature of the (Jrofton 
system is the third or " intermediate " stage, 
passed at Lusk. Here are no walls, or burs, 
or police, or armed watchmen. There is no 
physical restraint, no check on conversation, 
no prison garb. The prisoner is here in a con- 
dition of semi-freedom, a state of probation 
before liberation. The convicts are employed 
in groups upon the farm under the supervision 
of a half dozen unarmed warders, who gener- 
ally work with them. There is nothing to 
prevent escape by day or night ; but the de- 
sire to escape has been manifested very rare- 
ly. The mark system is discontinued. There 
are no punishments, but the convict may be 
remanded back to separate and solitary con- 
finement at Mountjoy. The convicts hear fre- 
quent lectures, and attend the parish church in 
a body. The period of detention here varies 
with the length of the sentence; it is 6 months 
on a sentence of 5 years, 1 1 months on one of 

10 years, and 16 months on one of 15 years. 
The object of the treatment is threefold : 1, 
by exposing the criminal to the ordinary temp- 
tations and trials of the world, to test his re- 
form ; 2, to afford a guarantee to the public 
that the reform is real, and that the convict 
may be trusted ; 3, to supplement the previous 
discipline with a more natural training, and 
so by partial freedom to prepare the prisoner 
gradually for full liberty. The same princi- 
ples of progressive classification are applied to 
females, for whom there is a separate prison 
during the first stage at Mountjoy, and pro- 
vision for the associated labor of the second 
stage in the same prison; while the interme- 
diate or final stage is passed in " refuges." 
The amount of reduction which a convict 
may effect in the duration of his imprison- 
ment is determined by his conduct and in- 
dustry at Spike island. Suppose he is sen- 
tenced for five years: what is the maximum 
reduction within his reach ? He must pass 8 
months at Mountjoy, 33 months at Spike island 
(2 months in the 3d class, 6 in the 2d, 12 in 
the 1st, and 13 in the advanced) and 6 months 
at Lusk, making 41 months, in ordinary im- 
prisonment, and 6 in semi-confinement. His 
period of detention therefore is 3 years and 

1 1 months, and he i restored to liberty on a 
ticket of license IS months before the expira- 
tion of his sentenced term. In like manner he 
may reduce a sentence of 10 years to 7 years 
and 8 months, and one of 15 years to 11 years 
and 5 months. When the convict has passed 
through the system of penal treatment above 
described, and secured an abbreviation of his 
term of imprisonment, he is not restored to 
unconditional freedom, but is liberated upon 
a ticket of license. He is subject to the super- 
vision of the constabulary, to whom he must 
report at regular intervals for registration; 



PRISONS. 


Avmge 
number of 


A1IMUAL 

rui-. 


COST PER 

M-.I:. 




conrirti. 


Gnu. 


Hit, 


Mountjoy, male . . 


151 


54 8. M. 


46 19 Id. 


' female . . . 


295 


82 6 8 


26 15 5 


Sntke Island. . . 


i.U 


80 5 8 


14 7 11 


Lusk 


40 


68 1 9 


89 8 










Total 


1,180 


86 6 11 


22 17 4 











and if he fails to perform the conditions of 
the license, he may be remanded to prison for 
the remainder of his term of sentence. The 
nearest approach to the Crofton system out- 
side of Ireland is found in England, but with- 
out its crowning feature in the intermediate 
stage. It is regarded with favor in Switzer- 
land, where some of its features have already 
been adopted. Its introduction into the Uni- 
ted States, with certain modifications, is rec- 
ommended by high authorities, but is opposed 
by others as not being adapted to a govern- 
ment composed of separate states. The num- 
ber of inmates in the Irish convict prisons du- 
ring the year ending March 31, 1874, with the 
average cost of their support, was as follows : 



In the United States there are as many sys- 
tems of prison management as there are states. 
There is no national institution for the confine- 
ment of offenders against the national laws, 
who are consequently sentenced to the prisons 
of the several states. All places of confine- 
ment in the United States may be divided, ac- 
cording to their management, into municipal 
(town and city), county, and state prisons,; 
and according to the grade of offence, into 
juvenile reformatories, houses of correction, 
and state prisons. In general each county has 
one, and some of them two or three jails. 
These as well as the city prisons are generally 
houses of detention, though in some of the 
county prisons a system of industrial labor, 
instruction, &c., is established. The county 
prisons are generally considered unsatisfactory 
either for detention before trial or for the im- 
prisonment of offenders after conviction, and 
it is earnestly sought to provide something 
better in place of them. This want has given 
rise to the class of prisons called houses of 
correction, workhouses, and sometimes peni- 
tentiaries. Each of the 37 states has a state 
prison, except Delaware, which uses the coun- 
ty jails for the confinement of convicted fel- 
ons. New York and Indiana (including that 
for women) have three each, and Pennsylvania 
and Iowa two cadi, making 43 state prisons in 
the United States, exclusive of the convict pris- 
ons in the territories. The chief prison offi- 
cers are usually appointed by the governor to 
hold office during good behavior ; in New York 
they are appointed by the elective board of 
three prison inspectors. Most of the states 
have such boards, generally appointed by the 
governor. The New York prison association 
is also authorized to inspect all the prisons of 



11 



the state. Many of the prisons contain from 
300 to 500 cells. The largest are in New 
York, that at Auburn having 1,292 cells, and 
Sing Sing 1,200. The Ohio penitentiary at 
Columbus has 1,110 cells, and that of Illinois 
at Joliet 1,000. These institutions, however, 
as well as those in other states, frequently re- 
ceive a greater number of convicts than they 
have cells. The total number of cells in all 
the state prisons is about 16,000. Some of 
them are intended for two or more prisoners. 
Their average dimensions are 8 ft. long, 4J- 
ft. wide, and 7J ft. high, giving for the aver- 
age contents of each about 240 cubic ft. Those 
in the Pennsylvania prisons and the prison for 
women in Indianapolis are much larger; in 
those of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Massachusetts 
(a portion), New York, Ohio, and some other 
states, they are smaller. Penal or " hard " 
labor, as by the treadmill, the crank, the 
shot drill, &c., which has been so common in 
English prisons, hardly exists in the United 
States. Here the labor is industrial, of which 
almost every kind is practised, according to 
the requirements and opportunities of the lo- 
cality. The contract system of labor prevails 
exclusively in 1 9 of the state prisons, the leas- 
ing system in 6, state management exclusively 
in 9, and a mixed system in 7. Under the 
contract system the labor of the convicts is 
generally let at a fixed sum per day, which is 
often very small. Penologists find objections 
to this system on reformatory grounds, but it 
is generally less expensive to the government 
than the management of prison labor by the 
officers. In large prisons it is regarded by 
many as indispensable ; but it is thought that 
it can be safely dispensed with in prisons con- 
taining fewer than 200 convicts. According 
to the report of the national prison associa- 
tion, the total income of 29 convict prisons 
in 1873 was $1,413,073, including $1,328,882 
earnings from labor and $84,191 from other 
sources, chiefly for the board of United States 
prisoners. The average earnings for each of 
the entire prison population amounted to $121 ; 
for each engaged in productive labor, $173. 
The average per capita cost of the convicts 
was $172. Of the 29 states that reported, 12 
showed an excess of earnings over the total 
current expenses, including salaries, as follows: 



STATES. 


g 

!l 

- a, 

3 


fii 

llfj 

H a "5 "C 


e 
"eJi 

ii, 

11 
M 


Total income. 


Maine .... 


146 


$29 811 


$85 076 


$35 856 


New Hampshire 


82 


13,067 


22,106 


23679 


Vermont 


80 


13,312 


14830 


14380 


Massachusetts 


878 


117,918 


131,957 


141 345 


Rhode Island 


74 


8196 


TO 991 


11 996 


Connecticut 


180 


24.941 


25,572 


26452 


Maryland... 


587 


65,4fi6 


71,104 


71 104 


Ohio 


910 


152 164 


171,451 


174450 


Indiana (Michigan City).. 
" (Jeffersonville)... 
Michigan 


854 
895 
616 


49,748 

66,806 
90276 


50.069 
65,650 

88087 


57.465 

67.088 
91 065 


Mississippi 


288 


43,355 


43830 


44230 













The total excess of earnings over expenditures 
in these states was $85,588 ; total number en- 
gaged in productive labor, 6,544. The state 
prisons of Illinois, Iowa, Louisiana, and New 
Jersey are also self-sustaining. Since 1873 the 
expenses have exceeded the earnings in the Mas- 
sachusetts prison. The total ordinary expendi- 
tures of all the state prisons were reported 
at $3,045,789. The most economically admin- 
istered prisons were those in North Carolina, 
where the average cost per capita was $89 ; 
Virginia, $99 ; and Khode Island, $101. The 
most expensive were Nebraska, $454 ; Nevada, 
$383 ; South Carolina, $376 ; Minnesota, $352 ; 
Wisconsin, $313 ; Oregon, $312 ; Florida, $302 ; 
and Arkansas, $300. In Connecticut it was 
$128; Indiana, Michigan City $140, Jefferson- 
ville$170; Maine, $200; Massachusetts, $193 ; 
New. York, Auburn $161, Sing Sing $274; 
Ohio, $167. Disciplinary agencies in prison 
management may be divided into two classes, 
deterrent and reformatory, the former com- 
prising punishments and the latter rewards, 
secular and religious instruction, industrial 
training, &c. Extreme physical punishments, 
by the lash, rod, strait jacket, stocks, shackles, 
handcuffs, ball and chain, and shower bath, 
are still found in the codes, if not the prac- 
tice, of many states. These punishments are 
applied only as a last resort, and in many of 
the states mentioned are rarely, and in some 
perhaps never, put into practice. In many of 
the other states they are expressly forbidden 
by law. Public whipping still exists in Dela- 
ware. The most common punishments are the 
dark cell with reduced rations, deprivation of 
privileges, &c. The rewards are usually petty 
privileges, as the use of tobacco, a light in the 
cell, and better food. In a few prisons the 
convict is allowed a share of his earnings, and 
in many by good conduct may abbreviate the 
term of his imprisonment. By recent laws of 
Ohio and some other western states, the con- 
vict will be restored to citizenship if he passes 
the entire period of his sentence without vio- 
lating the rules of the prison. The pardon- 
ing power is generally vested in the governor ; 
civil rights are usually restored by pardon. 
The percentage of prisoners pardoned in 1873, 
exclusive of those discharged by commutation, 
was 5-J-. Most of the prisons have chaplains ; 
in nearly all weekly religious services are held, 
and many have Sunday schools and frequent 
prayer meetings. The provisions for the intel- 
lectual improvement of prisoners are very in- 
adequate, but have been considerably enlarged 
in recent years. Libraries are common, 33 
prisons in 1873 reporting 50,663 volumes, an 
average of 1,535 to each ; and in some prisons 
the convicts have the benefit of schools, indi- 
vidual instruction in their cells, and lectures. 
Secular instruction is regularly afforded in the 
prisons of California, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, 
Kentucky, Massachusetts, New York, New 
Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Isl- 
and, and Wisconsin. In some of these states a 



12 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLIXE 



school is held once a week ; in others two to five 
evenings a week. The regulations concerning 
correspondence and visits to prisoners vary 
greatly in different prisons. In some the fre- 
quency of both is optional with the warden ; 
in others the convict is allowed a letter and a 
visit only once in three months. Little has 
been done in the United States toward estab- 
lishing special prisons for women. The best 
institution of this class was opened in Indian- 
apolis in 1873; it is a state institution, and 
has penal and reformatory departments. New 
York has a prison for females at Sing Sing, 
under the same administration with the male 
prison, and the legislature of Massachusetts 
has authorized the construction of a reforma- 
tory prison for women. The state prisons of 
the United States, with the number of cells 
and average number of prisoners in 1873, as 
reported by the national prison association, 
were as follows : 



STATE. 


Whin rffcuud. 


N 
W Will. 


ATMM. 

,, ' 
prfcoOT 
In Ign. 


Alabama 




210 


200 


Arkansas 


Little Rock ... 


| 


200 


California. 




438 


915 


Connecticut . . . 


Weathersfleld 


. j 


ISO 


Florida. 


Cbattahoocbee. 


! 


48 


Georgia 


MilU-direviUe. 




478 


Illinois 


3 . 


1,000 


1,438 


Indiana, north 
" south 


Michigan City. . . 

rrtnuii-ai 


ft 
ttt 


MB 

. , 


u women's. . . 


\rntm M fe 


90 


j.' 


Iowa 


Fort Madison . . 


813 


270 










Kansas 




844 


831 


Kentucky 


Frankfort 


<T4 


, ., 


Louisiana 
Maine 


Baton Rouge 
Thotnaston 


l < 
174 


m 
14-; 


Maryland 


Baltimore. 


TOO 


5r>7 


Massachusetts 


Charieatown 


<KW 


573 


Michigan 
Minnesota 
Mississippi 
MUaourT . 


Jackson 
Stillwater. 
Jackson 
Jefferson City 


844 
168 
800 


C16 

n 

.- 

1.082 


Nebraska 


Lincoln 




44 


Nevada. 


Carson City 


46 


98 


New Hampshire ... 


Concord 


. : 


Si 


New Jersey 
New York 


Trenton 
Auburn 


Mo 
UN 


545 

1.120 




Dannemora 


513 


MO 


u 


- . . - _ . . 


1/J'I 


1,168 


u 


" " female . . . 


103 


103 


North Carolina. 


Mi%l 


8S 


401 


Ohio 


Columbus .. 


1,110 


910 


Oregon 


MM 


83 


95 


Pen ns y I vania. east' n. 


Philadelphia 




6-->5 


** west'n 




843 


4."-' 


Rhode Island 


Providence. .... 


S3 


74 


South Carolina 
Tenneae 
Texaj 


Columbia. 
Nashville 
Hunts vflle 


850 

M 


2:>0 
744 
1,150 


Vermont. 


Windsor 


104 




Virginia. 




78 


T3i 


West Vinrtnia. 


MoundsviOe 


i 


98 


Wisconsin 


Wapun 


590 


130 










Total 




1 i/.'N 


1-.4-J 



There is a class of prisons in the United States, 
generally called houses of correction, work- 
houses, and sometimes penitentiaries, which 
hold a middle place between the municipal or 
county jail and the state prison, and are in- 
tended for the treatment of those convicted 



* Large dormitory. 



t Recently constructed. 



of lighter offences, though felons are some- 
times confined in them. These institutions 
form an important link in any true prison 
system, and from them have sprung many of 
the practical reforms of prison administration 
wrought in America. They are preventive of 
crime by their wise and thorough treatment 
of misdemeants who are as a rule developing 
into felons. They are commonly managed and 
maintained by the county or city, but sonu- re- 
ceive state convicts. Most of them have sys- 
tems of discipline, labor, instruction, &c., simi- 
lar and sometimes superior to those of higher 
prisons. Institutions of this kind are main- 
tained in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, N\\v 
York, Pennsylvania, Michigan, Ohio, Wiscon- 
sin, Kentucky, Missouri, California, and per- 
haps some other states. New York has six 
under the title of penitentiaries. The most 
noted and best managed of these institutions 
are the Albany and the Monroe county peni- 
tentiaries in New York, the former brought 
to its high degree of excellence by Amos Pils- 
bury ; the Detroit (Mich.) house of correction, 
organized and conducted during the first ten 
years of its existence by Z. R. Brockway ; and 
the Allegheny county (Pa.) workhouse at Clare- 
mont, under the superintendence of Henry 
Cordier. In each of these there is an excess 
of earnings from the labor of the prisoners 
over the expenses of the institution ; and each 
has excellent schools. The house of correction 
in Boston, Mass., is sometimes self-sustaining. 
Another prison of this class, called the .-t:.te 
house of correction, is in process of construc- 
tion (1875) at Ionia, Mich. ; also one at El- 
mira, called the New York state reformatory. 
The Albany penitentiary is one of the principal 
places of confinement for United States prison- 
ers. For institutions for the treatment of ju- 
venile offenders, see REFORMATORIES. The sys- 
tem of penal treatment in England in many re- 
spects is similar to that of Ireland. The inter- 
mediate or probationary stage, which forms so 
important a feature in the Irish system, is not 
found in the English, except in the treatment 
of female convicts. All convicts sentenced to 
penal servitude are required to pass through 
three principal stages. The first is passed at 
Pentonville, and continues for nine months, 
during .which the prisoner spends his entire 
time, excepting that devoted to prayer and 
exercise, alone in his cell, working at some 
industrial or remunerative employment. The 
treatment here, especially the diet, is stern- 
ly penal ; but the convicts have the use of 
books, and, besides receiving religions instruc- 
tion, are taught reading, writing, &c. From 
here the prisoner is removed to one of the 
other convict prisons, where he works in as- 
sociation, but spends the rest of his time in a 
separate cell. The prisoners are chiefly em- 
ployed on public works, farming, clearing and 
reclaiming land, &c. ; but in some of the pris- 
ons boot making, tailoring, and other indoor 
employments are carried on. The convicts 



PRISONS AXD PRISON DISCIPLINE 



13 



are divided into four classes, the higher class- 
es having privileges not found in the lower. 
Promotion is determined by marks, which are 
given not for good conduct, but for industry 
alone. In addition to the privileges acquired 
by promotion to a higher class, the prisoner 
may gain a remission of about one fourth of 
his sentence, or if a female, about one third. 
The chief advantages offered by the higher 
classes are more frequent communications by 
visit or letter with friends, more freedom for 
exercise on Sundays, and higher gratuities of 
money to be paid on the prisoner's discharge. 
Convicts receive no share of their earnings, 
but each is allowed sufficient money on dis- 
charge to maintain himself while seeking em- 
ployment. There is no extra reward for good 
conduct ; but bad conduct is punished by deg- 
radation to a lower class and the loss of priv- 
ileges gained by industry, as well as by solitary 
confinement, reduction in diet, and corporal 
punishment. Only the governor and director 
have the power to punish, under limits defined 
by the secretary of state. Unusual punish- 
ishments are prohibited ; but whipping is prac- 
tised, and chains, handcuffs, or means of spe- 
cial restraint may be used in certain defined 
circumstances and under strict regulations. 
The privilege of petitioning the secretary of 
state is given to every convict. When the 
prisoner has secured a remission of a portion 
of his sentence, he is liberated on a ticket of 
license. He is now subject to police surveil- 
lance, and will be remanded to prison for a 
violation of the conditions of the license. For- 
merly it was the custom to transport convicts 
thus conditionally liberated .on a ticket of 
leave ; but since 1867 this practice has been 
discontinued. The same course of treatment 
is applied to females ; but they may earn a 
larger proportion of remission, viz., one third ; 
while those whose reform appears to be com- 
plete may pass the last six months of their im- 
prisonment in " refuges " established and man- 
aged by private effort, assisted by contribu- 
tions from the government. Of these there 
are three : the Carlisle memorial at Winches- 
ter, the Eagle house at Hammersmith for Ro- 
man Catholics, and the Westminster memorial 
at Streatham. The number of inmates of the 
English convict prisons during the year 1873 
was as follows : Brixton, 504 ; Chatham, 1,682 ; 
Dartmoor, 939 ; Fulham (females), 277 ; Mill- 
bank, 1,122 (908 males, 214 females); Park- 
hurst, 552; Pentonville, 911; Portland, 1,586; 
Portsmouth, 1,282; Woking, 1,390 (718 males, 
672 females) ; total, 10,245. The gross annual 
expenses were 342,158, and the net earnings 
of the convicts 220,490 ; balance, 121,668, 
making the net cost of supporting each con- 
vict during the year 11 14s. Qd. The earn- 
ings of the convicts exceeded the expenditures 
at Chatham and Portsmouth, and very nearly 
equalled them at Portland. The extensive gov- 
ernment works at these points, the sea walls, 
docks, &c., including both the skilled and un- 



skilled labor, have been constructed by con- 
victs. France has six classes of prisons : 1, 
the penal colonies of Cayenne (Guiana) and 
New Caledonia ; 2, central prisons (maisons de 
force et de correction), of which there are 16 
for men and 7 for women, corresponding to 
the state prisons in the United States ; 3, de- 
partmental prisons, about 400 in number, des- 
ignated also as houses of arrest, of justice, and 
of correction; 4, establishments for the cor- 
rectional education of juvenile delinquents; 

5, chambers and depots of safe keeping ; and 

6, prisons for the army and navy. The chief 
sentences, besides death, are hard labor for 
life or for a term of 5 to 20 years, reclusion 
for 5 to 10 years, and simple imprisonment 
for from 6 days to 10 years. Sentence to hard 
labor is attended with civil degradation and 
civil death, the property of the culprit being 
under the control of a guardian. After the 
expiration of a sentence to a limited term of 
hard labor, the criminal during the remainder 
of his life is under the supervision of the po- 
lice. Except women and men 60 years of 
age and over, who undergo imprisonment in 
the central prisons, persons sentenced to hard 
labor are transported to one of the penal col- 
onies. If the sentence is for less than eight 
years, the convict must remain in the colony 
after the expiration of his punishment during 
a period equal to the length of his sentence ; 
if the sentence is eight years or more, such 
residence is made perpetual. The transporta- 
tion of women is authorized by law in view 
of marriages to be contracted with the con- 
victs in the colony after liberation ; some 
women have been thus sent to Cayenne, but 
a majority undergo imprisonment in the cen- 
tral prisons of France. A sentence to the 
punishment of reclnsion deprives the criminal 
of civil rights. Every person so sentenced is 
confined in a central prison and employed in 
labor, which may be in part applied to his 
own benefit. Simple imprisonment is a cor- 
rectional punishment, which however may 
work partial or entire loss of civil rights. In 
case of relapse, the duration of the punish- 
ment may be doubled. If the sentence is for 
more than a year, the culprit is sent to a cen- 
tral prison ; if a year or less, to a departmental 
prison. The product of the prisoner's labor 
goes partly to the prison and partly to secure 
for himself, if deserving, certain privileges, or 
to form a fund to be used when discharged. 
Houses of arrest, of justice, and of correction 
are usually three departments of the same 
prison. Besides the punishments here de- 
scribed, the penal code recognizes that of de- 
portation, or transportation for life to a place 
without the continental territory of the repub- 
lic, upon pain of sentence to hard labor if the 
offender return ; and detention for from 5 to 
20 years in one of the French continental for- 
tresses. The cellular system does not prevail 
in any of the central prisons ; the convicts are 
here employed together in workshops during 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



the day, with cellular separation at night. A 
few of the departmental prisons are cellular, 
but even in these the strict separate system is 
not practised. Three prisons in Paris, how- 
ever, are constructed and conducted on the cel- 
lular plan : Mazas, a part of La Sante, and La 
Petite Roquette; the last named is a prison 
for persons under 16 years of age and persons 
sentenced to an imprisonment not exceeding 
six months. The law of May, 1875, provides 
that persons awaiting trial shall be confined 
in separate cells, subjects those sentenced to 12 
months' imprisonment or less to solitary con- 
finement, and gives those with longer sentences 
the privilege of choosing separate confinement. 
Penal as distinguished from industrial labor 
does not exist in the prisons of France. In- 
dustrial labor is obligatory upon those serving 
sentences, and optional with the arrested and 
the accused. Extensive workshops are organ- 
ized in the central prisons. In the male cen- 
tral prisons about 50 or 60 industries are car- 
ried on, the principal of which are weaving, 
tanning, and the manufacture of boots and 
shoes, buttons, hosiery, locks, and hardware. 
Three of the central prisons are " agricultural 
penitentiaries," or colonies in the island of 
Corsica where the convicts are employed in 
agricultural work. Sewing is the chief indus- 
try in the central prisons for females. The 
contract system of labor prevails in most of 
the prisons, but in several important establish- 
ments the industries are managed directly by 
the state. Convicts are allowed a portion of 
their earnings, being in the central prisons 
from three tenths to five tenths, according to 
the grade of the sentence. A portion may be 
used by the convict while in prison, and the 
balance is reserved till his discharge. The 
prisoners contribute about 50 per cent, of the 
cost of maintenance in the central, and about 
17 per cent, in the departmental prisons. A 
few of the central prisons are self-sustaining 
or nearly so. The more important prisons are 
generally provided with chaplains, schools, and ; 
libraries; but only about 12 to 15 per cent, of 
the population in the prisons for males, and 5 to 
8 per cent, in those for females, are admitted 
to the schools. Corporal punishment is pro- 
hibited in all prisons. All the prisons of Bel- 
gium are under the jurisdiction of the minister 
of justice, and are subject to the supervision 
and inspection of commissions. Nearly all are 
conducted on the separate plan. There are 
three general classes : houses of correction, 
houses of reclusion, and convict prisons. In 
the first are confined prisoners sentenced to 
simple imprisonment for terms of 8 days to 5 
years ; in the second, those sentenced for from 
5 to 10 years; and in the third, those sentenced 
to hard labor for life, from 10 to 15 years, 
or from 15 to 20 years. Industrial labor pre- 
vails in all prisons, penal in none. The labor 
is directed in part by the government, and in 
part is awarded to special contractors, pref- 
erence being given to the latter plan. A sys- 



tem of apprenticeship prevails, by which pris- 
oners are taught various trades. The prison 
industries are varied and extensive. The pris- 
oners receive a portion of their earnings, and 
rewards for good conduct, including reduction 
of sentence. Every prison with 50 or more 
inmates is provided with a school or a teacher, 
and school attendance is generally obligatory. 
Libraries are found in all prisons. The three 
great central or convict prisons of Belgium 
are those of Louvain, Ghent, and Antwerp. 
All the prisons of Prussia are subject to a 
central authority, the large penitentiary estab- 
lishments or central prisons being under the 
minister of the interior. There are 29 prisons 
exclusively for hard labor, 15 for imprison- 
ment and simple detention, and 11 of a mixed 
character. The capacity of all is about 26,500. 
In 47 there is an aggregate of 3,247 cells for 
solitary imprisonment by day and night ; but 
in only one of these is the separate system ex- 
clusively adopted ; in the other 46 the cellular 
and the congregate systems both exist. The 
punishments prescribed by the penal code are 
hard labor, simple imprisonment, imprison- 
ment in a fortress, and detention for minor 
offences. Sentence to hard labor may be for 
life or from one to 15 years. It subjects the 
prisoner to compulsory labor without restric- 
tion, both inside and outside the prison, and 
disqualifies him from serving in the army 
or navy, or in any public office. The judge 
may add civil degradation. In simple im- 
prisonment, limited to five years, the convict 
cannot be compelled to work outside of the 
prison, or at occupations not in accord with 
his capacity or previous social condition. If 
the sentence is for three months or more, the 
judge may add civil degradation. Prisoners 
sentenced to hard labor or to imprisonment 
may be liberated provisionally at the expira- 
tion of three fourths of their sentence, provi- 
ded they have been at least a year in confine- 
ment. Imprisonment in a fortress may be for 
life or for a term of years, not exceeding 15. 
The punishment is simply privation of liberty. 
The chief classification of prisoners in Prussia 
is the separation of the young from the old. 
Penal labor does not exist. Industrial labor 
comprises not less than 50 different trades car- 
ried on by men and 10 by women. The con- 
tract system prevails almost exclusively; the 
labor of the prisoners being let out, not to a 
few general contractors, but each industry to 
a special contractor. Prisoners are allowed a 
variable portion, not exceeding one sixth, of 
the product of their labor, to be used partly 
while in confinement and the balance after re- 
lease. Amopg the punishments permitted is 
castigation in the case of men, limited to 80 
lashes, anil only when authorized by the direc- 
tor of the prison at the request of the 'superior 
officers, including the chaplain and surgeon. 
Chaplains, all forms of worship, schools, and 
libraries exist in all important prisons. About 
15 per cent, of all the prisoners receive scho- 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



15 



lastic instruction ; those without trades must 
serve an apprenticeship. The prison libraries 
comprise upward of 150,000 volumes, about 
one half religious. In Cisleithan Austria all 
prisons are under the jurisdiction of the min- 
istry of justice ; matters of minor importance, 
however, are intrusted to the local and inter- 
mediate authorities. Since 1867 there has 
been an inspector general of prisons. There 
are 18 prisons (12 for males, having in 1872 
about 9,000 inmates, and 6 for females, with 
1,500 inmates) for persons sentenced to more 
than one year of imprisonment ; 62 for those 
sentenced to less than one year, which are also 
used for persons convicted of lighter offences ; 
and prisons of the district courts for minor 
offences. Separate prisons are used for men 
and women. Until recently only the associated 
system of imprisonment existed, and it now 
prevails in nearly all the prisons. The con- 
victs are classified in groups of 6 to 30, day and 
night, and are allowed to converse together ex- 
cept when at work. All prisons constructed 
since 1867 have been so arranged that associated 
imprisonment may be combined with cellular. 
Provisions for cellular treatment are found in 
the prisons of Gratz, Stein, Karthaus, and 
Pilsen. By the law of April 1, 1872, cellular 
imprisonment is limited to three years, with 
the provision that after three months of isola- 
tion two days passed in a cell are to be reck- 
oned as three in the term of the sentence. In 
all prisons where the collective system prevails, 
a classification of prisoners is maintained in the 
dormitories, based on the age, education, state 
of mind, and former life of the convict, and 
the kind of crime committed. There is no 
way in which a convict may secure an abbrevi- 
ation of his sentence except by being recom- 
mended for pardon to the emperor. Penal la- 
bor does not exist ; a wide range of industries 
are carried on within, and some without, the 
prisons. The contract system is preferred 
where suitable contractors can be found ; oth- 
erwise the industries are managed directly by 
the state. Convicts are entitled to a share 
of their earnings, to be used partly while in 
prison and partly after release. If the prison- 
er has property, it is liable for the cost of his 
imprisonment. Trades are taught to the un- 
skilled. Corporal punishment is not practised. 
The severest punishments are chains, diminu- 
tion of food, hard bed, isolated confinement, 
and dark cell. Banishment after the expira- 
tion of the sentence is recognized by the pe- 
nal code. The prisons are generally provided 
with chaplains, schools, and libraries, though 
the last are of recent origin. School atten- 
dance is obligatory upon convicts of a suitable 
age. Political prisoners are absolved from 
compulsory labor and from wearing prison 
clothes. In Switzerland most of the cantons 
prescribe three kinds of imprisonment: re- 
elusion, perpetual or temporary detention in 
a house of correction, and simple imprison- 
ment. Many of the cantons are introducing 
686 VOL. xiv. 2 



important reforms into their prison systems, 
including progressive classification and provi- 
sional liberation. In the penitentiary of Neuf- 
chatel, which has an average of 80 inmates, 
many of the features of the Crofton system 
have been adopted. The excellent system of 
discipline, labor, rewards, education, privi- 
leges, &c., adopted here by Dr. Guillaume, 
the director, has made this one of the model 
prisons of Europe. The penal system of 
Italy is in a state of transition. The t new 
code retains the death penalty, and prescribes 
as secondary punishments the bagnio for life 
(ergastolo), reclusion, and relegation. As a 
general rule ergastolo must be passed in one 
of the islands in continual separation for the 
first ten years, and afterward in congregate 
imprisonment. Sentences to reclusion and re- 
legation, which are penalties of temporary du- 
ration, are to be served upon the congregate 
plan. Not fewer than 3,000 convicts are en- 
gaged in agricultural work, and 1,500 employ- 
ed by private contractors or municipal bodies 
in the construction of ports and roads, in col- 
lecting and transporting salt from the mines 
of Cagliari and Portoferrajo, in working iron 
mines, in masonry, and in other outdoor occu- 
pations. At the penal settlement of Cagliari 
much attention is given to the rearing of the 
silkworm, and at Alghero the culture of to- 
bacco is a prominent industry. More than 
1,000 prisoners are employed at the three 
agricultural colonies on the islands of Pia- 
nosa, Gorgona, and Capraia, in the Tuscan ar- 
chipelago, chiefly in the cultivation of vines, 
olives, and cereals. The prisoner is entitled 
to a share of the product of his labor. He 
is required to attend school, where among 
other things he is taught the science of agri- 
culture. The agricultural colonies are intend- 
ed for those convicts who have been sen- 
tenced to reclusion, relegation, or simple im- 
prisonment, and who have distinguished them- 
selves in the penal establishments by good 
conduct. In nearly all the countries of Eu- 
rope efforts are made to aid liberated prison- 
ers by securing for them employment and 
protection. This work is generally done by 
prisoners' aid or patronage societies, aided 
sometimes by the government. In some in- 
stances direct efforts are made by the govern- 
ment in behalf of discharged convicts. The 
Netherlands society for the moral ameliora- 
tion of prisoners, both before and after dis- 
charge, has its seat in Amsterdam, with as 
many as 40 branches in different parts of the 
country. Denmark has prisoners' aid associa- 
tions in the vicinity of each of its four great 
prisons. In England much importance is giv- 
en to aiding convicts after discharge, and 34 
societies have been established for this pur- 
pose. A semi-official character is given to them 
by the fact that they hold in trust the gra- 
tuities allowed by law to discharged convicts. 
Prisoners are also placed for a limited time 
after discharge under the surveillance of the 



16 



PRISONS AND PRISON DISCIPLINE 



police. More than half of the male convicts 
discharged in 1873 applied to prisoners' aid 
societies, and more than three fourths of the 
females went to such societies or refuges. In 
the United States the organizations for aiding 
liberated prisoners are few. Massachusetts has 
an official agency. The other most efficient or- 
ganizations are the New York prison associa- 
tion, the Philadelphia prison society, the Mary- 
land prisoners' aid society, and the California 
prison commission. The prison association of 
New York was incorporated by the legislature 
in 1844 ; it is authorized to visit and inspect 
all the prisons of the state, and makes annual 
reports to the legislature. It has agents in all 
parts of the state to look after the interests of 
prisoners in confinement, and to aid them after 
discharge with money, board, clothing, tools, 
transportation, employment, &c. About 1,500 
discharged convicts were aided by this associa- 
tion in 1874. The marked lack of uniformi- 
ty in the returns made by different countries 
renders their criminal statistics only approxi- 
matively useful for purposes of comparison. 
A computation made by Beltrani Scalia, on 
returns from Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy, 
Saxony, and Sweden, shows about one half of 
the entire prison population of those countries 
to bo illiterate. According to recent returns, 
the percentage of those who could not read 
on entering prison was 56 in Austria, 49 in 
Belgium, 57 in France, 4 in Baden, 12 in Ba- 
varia, 17 in Prussia, 60 to 92 in Italy, about 40 
in the Netherlands, and 30 in Switzerland. In 
Ireland 22 per cent, both of males and females 
were illiterate. In Austria 8 per cent, of the 
male and 24 per cent, of the female convicts 
had no trade on entering prison ; in Belgium 
the percentage for both sexes was 60 to 70 ; 
in Franco, 5 per cent, among males and 12 per 
cent, among females ; Baden, 40 per cent. ; 
Bavaria, 3 ; Prussia, 5 ; the Netherlands, 25 ; 
Sweden, 90 ; Switzerland, 50 ; Ireland, 35. In 
Belgium and England, about 12 per cent, of the 
prison population are females ; in Baden, 15 ; 
in Bavaria, 20; in France, 19 ; in the Nether- 
lands, Prussia, and Sweden, about 18 ; in Nor- 
way, 24 ; in Russia, 10 ; in Switzerland, 20. 
The proportion of recidivists, or those who 
after imprisonment relapse into crime and are 
returned to prison, is reported at about 59 per 
cent, among men and 54 per cent, among wo- 
men in Austria, 78 per cent, in Belgium, 20 in 
Baden, 30 in Bavaria, 42i in France, 18 to 28 
in Italy, 25 to 28 in the Netherlands, 60 to 70 
in Prussia, 19 to 45 in Sweden, and 86 in Wur- 
temberg. More than 18 per cent, of the sen- 
tences to penal servitude in England, "Wales, 
and Scotland during the four years ending Jan. 
1, 1874, were reconvictions. It is stated that 
nearly 70 per cent, of the recidivists in Bel- 
gium were those who had been confined in the 
congregate prisons. Of those committed to 
convict prisons in the United States in 1873, 
21 per cent, were minors and 67 per cent, under 
80 years of age ; 75 per cent, were of native 



and 25 of foreign birth. Thus, while about 17 
per cent, of the total population of the United 
States are foreigners, not less than a fourth of 
the criminal population are foreigners. In the 
northern and especially the eastern states, whore 
there is a larger foreign element in the popula- 
tion, the percentage of foreign convicts is much 
larger than that given above. Thus in Massa- 
chusetts it was 55 per cent., Minnesota 42, 
New York 39'5, California 39, New Jersey 37, 
Indiana (males) 32, and Michigan 30. About 
one sixth of the prison population are women. 
In the southern states a large proportion of the 
convicts are colored ; 48 per cent, were illit- 
erate, and 70 per cent, had not learned a trade ; 
40 per cent, admitted intemperate habits, and 
39 per cent, more claimed to be moderate drink- 
ers, but acknowledged occasional intoxication, 
leaving only 21 per cent, claiming to be strictly 
temperate. The most satisfactory information 
on the penal systems of Europe and the United 
States may be found in the volume of transac- 
tions of the London congress (London, 1878), 
and in the three reports of proceedings of the 
three congresses held by the national prison 
association of the United States. Annual re- 
ports have been issued by the prison associa- 
tion of New York since 1844, and valuable in- 
formation and statistics relating to crime and 
the treatment of criminals are contained in 
the " American Journal of Social Science," of 
which seven numbers had been issued in 1874; 
in the reports of state boards of charities, 
which are organized in several of the states ; 
and in the reports published by the various 
penal and reformatory institutions of the Uni- 
ted States. The general principles of penal 
treatment and legislation are expounded in the 
works of Howard, Beccaria, Bentham, Edward 
Livingston, Francis Lieber, and others. Among 
more recent publications are : " Crime, its 
Amount, Causes, and Remedies," by Frederic 
Hill (London, 1855); "Suggestions for the 
Repression of Crime," by M. D. Hill (Lon- 
don, 1857); "On Cellular Separation," by W. 
Parker Foulke (Philadelphia, 1861) ; " Our 
Convicts," by Mary Carpenter (2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1864) ; De V amelioration de la loi crimi- 
nelle, by Bonneville de Marsangy (2 vols., 
Paris, 1864); Kritische Untersuchungen fiber 
die Orundsatze und Ergebnisse dcr irisfhen 
Gefangnisskunde, by Baron von Holtzendorff 
(Berlin, 1865) ; De* progrh et de Tetat actuel de 
la refonne penitentiare, et des institutions pre- 
ventives aux Stats- Unis, en France, en Suisse, 
en Angleterre et en Belgique, by Ducp6tiaux 
(8 vols. 18mo, with plates, Paris and Brus- 
sels, 1867); "History of the Albany Peniten- 
tiary," by David Dyer (Albany, 1867); Sul 
governo e sulla riforma delle careeri in Ita- 
lia, by Martino Beltrani Scalia (Turin, 1867); 
"Brief Sketch of the Origin and History of 
the State Penitentiary for the Eastern District 
of Pennsylvania at Philadelphia," by Richard 
Vaux (Philadelphia, 1872); "The Crofton 
Prison System," by Mary Carpenter (Lon- 



PBISEEND 



PRIVATEER 



17 



don, 1872) ; La question penitentiaire, by Ro- 
bin (Paris, 1873) ; " Causes of Criminal Re- 
committals and their Means of Prevention," 
by Olivacroua (Stockholm, 1873) ; " Peniten- 
tiary Studies," by Don P. Armengol y Cornet 
(Barcelona, 1873); "Swiss Prison Discipline," 
by J. K. Kiihne (St. GaU, 1873) ; " Works of 
Edward Livingston on Criminal Jurispru- 
dence" (2 vols., New York, 1873); "Report 
on the Working of the Separate System of 
Imprisonment in Holland," byDeVries (the 
Hague, 1874) ; "National Education and Pun- 
ishments," by C. B. Adderly (London, 1874); 
Les etablissements penitentiaires en France et 
aux colonies, by Viscount d'Haussonville (Paris, 
1875) ; and "Memorials of Millbank and Chap- 
ters in Prison History," by Arthur Griffiths (2 
vols., London, 1875). The Rimsta di disci- 
pline, edited by Beltrani Scalia, inspector gen- 
eral of Italian prisons, and devoted to peniten- 
tiary science, is published monthly in Rome. 

PRISREVD, or Perserin, a town of European 
Turkey, capital of a vilayet of the same name 
in northern Albania, on the Rieka near its 
confluence with the Drin, 75 m. E. of Scutari ; 
pop. variously estimated at from 20,000 to 
48,000. It is built at the foot of a mountain, 
which is commanded by a castle, where the 
governor resides ; a Greek bishop also resides 
here. It is chiefly noted for its manufacture 
of firearms and extensive traffic. 

PRIVAS, a town of Languedoc, France, capi- 
tal of the department of Ardche, 70 m. S. of 
Lyons ; pop. in 1872, 7,836. It is situated on 
a steep ridge near the junction of the Ouveze 
and M6zayon, and contains a prefecture with 
a park, a small geological museum, a college 
and primary normal school, and manufactories 
of silk and other goods. It was a stronghold 
of the Huguenots, with an almost exclusively 
Protestant population. A synod of all French 
reformed churches was held here in 1612. 
Louis XIII. exterminated the Protestants in 
1629, and razed the fortress in which they 
had taken refuge. 

PRIVATEER, an armed private vessel which 
bears the commission of a state to cruise against 
the commerce of its enemy. When one sov- 
ereign has duly declared war against another, 
all the subjects of the former are enemies of 
all the subjects of the latter. From this prin- 
ciple of the law of nations follows the unques- 
tionable corollary, that no citizen of one of 
the belligerent states can complain of the hos- 
tile acts of any citizen of the other. There- 
fore, as far as absolute international rights are 
concerned, it makes no difference whether a 
depredation or capture by a subject of the 
enemy has been expressly sanctioned by his 
sovereign. The universal practice of nations, 
however, condemns all unauthorized hostili- 
ties ; and a capture or other hostile act with- 
out the sanction of a competent sovereign 
power, although, strictly speaking, it would 
not be piracy, yet would be so much like it, 
or so irregular and odious, that it would un- 



questionably provoke the severest treatment at 
the hands of an enemy against those who en- 
gaged in it. Yet, though unauthorized cap- 
ture of enemy property is no offence under 
the law of nations, it is an infraction of the 
public law of the captor's own state. For the 
universal rule is that, except in self-defence, 
only those subjects may take part in hostili- 
ties who are thereto expressly or constructive- 
ly authorized by their sovereign. But the sov- 
ereign may, if he will, avail himself of the pri- 
vate vessels of his subjects by commissioning 
them to seize the merchant ships of the ene- 
my. These commissioned private ships or pri- 
vateers are in naval warfare much the same as 
the volunteer corps are in the land service. In 
both cases the commissions proceeding from 
the sovereign make those who bear them the 
instruments and servants of the state. On the 
sea it is the letters of marque which give that 
interest in the prize which, is the inducement 
to engage in the service. For, primarily, all 
prizes vest in the state, and it is the commis- 
sion alone which, under the municipal regula- 
tions of each state, defines the proportion of 
the captured property and the other rewards 
which shall fall to the privateersman. (See 
PEIZE.) To guard against the excesses and 
abuses which are incident to privateering, it has 
been subjected to various restrictions. Soine 
states have regulated the composition of the 
crews, and have forbidden all cruising in the 
rivers or along the coasts within the sea line 
of the enemy. Generally commissions are 
granted on condition that the rights of neu- 
trals shall be respected, and that belligerent 
rights shall in all cases be enforced according 
to the rules of war ; that prizes shall be brought 
for adjudication before the proper tribunal; 
and that the whole conduct of the cruise shall 
be confined to the instructions of government. 
Bonds are taken for the due performance of 
these engagements, and owners and officers 
are subjected to penalties for the violation of 
them. Privateering may be regarded in two 
aspects, or rather it may be said that there are 
two kinds of privateering, one of which is far 
more legitimate and defensible than the other. 
The former of these kinds is that in which the 
citizens of one of the states at war sail under 
their own flag against the enemy. They find 
employment in this way for the ships which 
during war must almost of necessity be with- 
drawn from trade ; and they contribute very 
materially to the maritime strength of their 
state. The other and more odious form of 
privateering is that in which a neutral accepts 
a commission from one of two belligerents. 
Here the legitimacy of the practice is not so 
clear, at least so far as affects the neutral. He 
can certainly have no patriotic motive in ac- 
cepting such a commission. Such a motive is 
rare probably even when the privateer sails 
under the flag of his own country ; but then 
the country does really derive some benefit 
from the service,. In the case supposed, the 



18 



PRIVATEER 



PRIVET 



neutral is a sort of legalized pirate, and so in- 
deed he is regarded by those conventions and 
treaties which, in condemnation of this abuse 
of the international laws of war, almost all na- 
tions have entered into. Indeed, by such con- 
ventions and treaties, and by the municipal 
statutes by which nations forbid their subjects 
from equipping privateers or enlisting men for 
service in any foreign war, this species of pri- 
vateering seems to be well nigh repressed. Not 
so the other. For nearly a century the expe- 
diency of its suppression had been at intervals 
elaborately discussed ; yet in all that period 
but little advance had been made toward the 
settlement of the question. In 1856 the sub- 
ject was revived at the congress which con- 
vened at Paris after the Crimean war, and the 
states there represented made mutual engage- 
ments to surrender the practice of privateering. 
The United States had early made an effort to 
abolish it. In 1785, and while he was negotia- 
ting with Prussia the treaty which was after- 
ward concluded, Dr. Franklin wrote : " The 
United States of America, though better situa- 
ted than any European nation to make profit 
by privateering, are, so far as in them lies, 
endeavoring to abolish the practice, by offer- 
ing in all their treaties with other powers an 
article engaging solemnly that in case of future 
war no privateer shall be commissioned on 
either side, and that unarmed merchant ships 
on both sides shall pursue their voyages unmo- 
lested." Dr. Franklin procured the insertion 
of both these propositions in the treaty with 
Prussia. In the subsequent treaty of 1799 
with that power, however, all provisions of 
this character were omitted. In 1792 the legis- 
lative assembly of France proposed that na- 
tions should agree by mutual conventions to 
abolish privateering and the seizure of private 
property on the ocean. The proposal met but 
little favor, and these practices were perhaps 
never more extensively carried on than during 
the wars which followed the French revolu- 
tion. Again in 1824 the subject was revived, 
when, on our part again, it was urged upon 
the attention of the English government. But 
the plenipotentiaries, Messrs. Huskisson and 
Stratford Canning, declined to entertain the 
propositions of our minister, Mr. Rush, and 
he reported to government that in his opinion 
Great Britain was unwilling, under any cir- 
cumstances, to accede to the abolition of pri- 
vate war upon the ocean. But a radical change 
in the sentiments of English publicists upon 
this question is indicated by the language of 
Lord Clarendon in 1854. In submitting to 
our ambassador, Mr. Buchanan, the declara- 
tion respecting neutrals which France and 
England afterward issued, the British minis- 
ter advocated the abandonment of privateer- 
ing, and expressed his condemnation of the 
practice as one which was " inconsistent with 
modern civilization." Mr. Buchanan replied, 
that under existing circumstances it did not 
seem possible for the United States to agree 



to a surrender of the practice, unless the naval 
powers of the world would go one step further 
and consent to the abolition of all war against 
private property upon the ocean, as was al- 
ready agreed upon as to private property upon 
the land. In answer to Mr. Buchanan's de- 
spatches, Secretary Marcy reminded the Brit- 
ish government that the United States laws go 
as far as and even further than those of any 
other nation in prohibiting its subjects from 
entering into foreign privateer service ; but he 
added that the country would not enter into 
any convention whereby it would preclude it- 
self from resorting to its merchantmen in case 
of war. Finally the submission to our govern- 
ment of the declaration which was signed at 
Paris in 1856, by the plenipotentiaries of the 
chief states of Europe, called for a new con- 
sideration of the question. Besides provisions 
affecting the rights of neutrals, the convention 
contained an article winch declared that priva- 
teering was abolished. The four points of the 
declaration were to be regarded as an entirety ; 
they were to be binding only between those 
powers which assented to them ; and the states 
that signed the convention undertook to in- 
vite the accession of those powers which were 
not represented at the congress. Most of the 
secondary states of Europe and America gave 
prompt adhesion to the articles of the declara- 
tion. The answer of our government to the 
declaration was, through Mr. Mnrcy, that the 
United States would accept the whole of it " in 
case the clause abolishing privateering were 
amended by adding that the private property 
of the subject or citizen of a belligerent on 
the high seas should be exempted from seizure 
by public armed vessels of the other bellige- 
rent, except it be contraband of war." This 
was declined, and there the matter was suffered 
to rest until the breaking out of the civil war 
in the United States in 1861, when Secretary 
Seward on behalf of the government, in view 
of the resolution of the confederate govern- 
ment to issue letters of marque to privateers, 
offered to assent to the declaration of Paris 
without the Marcy amendment ; but this was 
declined by the governments of England and 
France if coupled with the condition that it 
was to be made applicable to the case of the 
Confederate States. 

PRIVET (also called in England prim and 
primprint), a name formerly given to the 
primrose, and afterward unaccountably trans- 
ferred to ligtutrurn vulgare, the generic name 
being the classical Latin one. It is a shrub 
which has been so much cultivated that in 
Europe its limits in a wild state are quite lost, 
but it is thought to be indigenous in England ; 
it grows 6 or 8 ft. high, with long slender 
branches and opposite simple leaves, which in 
mild climates are evergreen, or remain until 
the new leaves appear. Its small white flowers, 
in compact panicles at the ends of the branches, 
have a four-toothed calyx and a four-lobed co- 
rolla, with a short tube ; the fruit ia a spheri- 



PKIVY COUNCIL 



PRIZE 



19 



cal, black berry, two-celled, with one or two 
seeds in each cell. It belongs to the same fam- 
ily with the olive, to which it is closely related. 
The privet is largely used in Europe for orna- 
mental hedges, and was early in the century 
planted as a hedge in this country; but while 




Privet (Ligustrum vulgare). 

it has many qualities which adapt it to the pur- 
pose, it is here subject to a sudden blight or dis- 
ease which has caused it to be abandoned. In 
the older states it has become thoroughly natu- 
ralized through the agency of birds. Planted 
in a shady place, it is a pleasing ornamental 
shrub, but if exposed to the full sun at noon, 
its flowers wither in a day; it grows well in 
the drip of deciduous trees, and is especially 
useful near the sea, where few ornamental 
plants flourish. The wood of the privet is 
hard and close-grained, and when of sufficient 
size serves for turning. The leaves and bark 
are bitter, and the smaller twigs are used in 
some parts of Europe for tanning leather. The 
young slender branches and shoots are em- 
ployed like osiers for basket making and as 
rithes. The berries afford a rose color which 
used in tinting maps and prints, and- dye 
reen if alum is used as a mordant ; they are 
Iso eaten by several kinds of birds. A green- 
sh oil fit for lamps or to make soap is extract- 
" from them by pressure. There are several 
varieties, such as the white-, yellow-, and green- 
berried, the narrow-leaved, and the variegated 
leaved. It is readily propagated by cuttings 
by seeds. The Japan privet (L. Japonicum) 
las large, thick, shining, evergreen leaves, 
hich are broader than in the common species, 
id larger, pure white, slightly fragrant flow- 
ers. This and a variegated form of it are 
charming greenhouse shrubs in the northern 
states, but grow in the open air at the south. 
PRIVY COUNCIL. See COUNCIL. 
PRIZE, any property captured in virtue of 
the rights of war. A difference exists in prac- 
ice between war on land and on the sea in 



respect to private property. At sea all the 
property of every citizen of a belligerent 
country is liable to capture ; but on land it is 
customary to respect private property. There 
is, however, no absolute rule on this subject, 
and in the late civil war both parties passed 
acts for the confiscation of enemy's property 
captured on land. Cotton in particular, being 
the chief resource of the Confederate States, 
was deemed to be peculiarly a proper subject 
of capture, and the acts of congress providing 
therefor were sustained and enforced by the 
courts. The general rights of a belligerent 
are to make captures by his public armed ves- 
sels of war, to grant commissions to private 
persons for the same object, and to establish 
tribunals of prize for the purpose of examin- 
ing into all maritime captures, and of judicially 
deciding upon their validity. .By the declara- 
tion of war all the citizens of the belligerent 
countries respectively become enemies, and the 
citizens of one country may seize any property 
of the other that they may meet with at sea. 
Property so seized belongs to the sovereign 
of the country, and not to the captors, unless 
it is given to them as an act of grace on the 
part of their sovereign. For this reason, and 
also that the government of the country may 
have the power to limit and control the ope- 
rations of the war, commissions are usually 
granted by the government to private persons, 
authorizing them to make such captures, and 
after adjudication by a competent tribunal 
they are entitled to the proceeds of the prizes 
thus taken. (See PEIVATEEE.) It is obviously 
necessary that when a capture has been made 
there should be some tribunal with authority 
to pass upon the validity of the capture, and 
to pronounce a decree of condemnation or ac- 
quittal. It is therefore the right and duty of 
the government of a country, on the declara- 
tion of war, to establish tribunals of prize ; 
and it is then responsible to all foreign nations 
for the correctness of the decisions therein 
made. So far as the property in question is 
concerned, the sentence of the prize court is 
conclusive upon all the world. If the sentence 
is one of condemnation, the title of the former 
owner is divested, and all nations are bound to 
respect the new title acquired under it. But 
to give the decision of the court this effect, it 
must appear conclusively that the court had 
jurisdiction over the property in question. 
The court must be established in the country 
of the captor, or in that of his ally in the war, 
but it is not necessary that the prize should 
be brought within a port of one of these coun- 
tries. It is the practice of Great Britain and of 
the United States to adjudicate upon captures 
which have been carried into a neutral port. 
The next question to be considered is: Who 
are enemies, and what property is liable to 
capture ? For this purpose not only the native- 
born citizens of the belligerent are considered 
as enemies, but all persons who have their 
domicile in the hostile country ; and the citi- 



20 



PRIZE 



zens of a country which is under the permanent 
or temporary dominion of the enemies of an- 
other country are considered as the citizens of 
the latter, and all trade with them is illegal, 
unless the government chooses to recognize 
the country as neutral, in which case courts of 
justice are bound hy such recognition. It is 
very doubtful whether a citizen of one country 
can expatriate himself on the breaking out of 
war, in order to acquire neutral rights and 
privileges ; but it is certain that if he removes 
in order to mask his mercantile projects under 
a neutral flag, such an act is fraudulent and of 
no avail. But if he has removed during peace, 
and acquired a domicile in a foreign country, 
he may engage in trade with a country which 
is at peace with his adopted country, although 
at war with that of his nativity. A citizen of 
one country residing and doing business in 
another, resumes his native character if, on 
war breaking out, he puts himself in itinereto 
return to the country of his birth or adoption ; 
but the mere intention without some overt act 
is not sufficient. A man may have a neutral 
residence, and yet his property may acquire a 
hostile character. So, he may be a merchant 
in more countries than one, and may thus ac- 
quire at least a quasi domicile besides that 
of his birth and parentage ; and this would 
be respected by the law, provided there was 
no indication of fraudulent intention, that is, 
of giving himself two national characters, be- 
tween which he could choose from time to 
time, as suited the exigencies of the moment. 
The property of a house of trade in an enemy's 
country is liable to condemnation, whatever 
be the domicile of the partners who consti- 
tute the house. If some of the partners have 
a neutral residence, their separate property 
will not bo affected by the fact of their being 
connected with a house of trade in a hostile 
country. And when a shipment is made by 
the house to a partner in a neutral country, or 
by a partner in a hostile country to a house 
in a neutral country, it depends upon the 
question to whose account and risk the goods 
are shipped, whether they are liable to be 
condemned as prize. Commercial factories 
in a foreign country, which are free from the 
control of the government of that country, are 
considered as belonging to the country by 
which they are established, and the nationality 
of persons engaged therein is determined ac- 
cordingly. But this exception does not apply 
where the government of the country has the 
control, although peculiar privileges are grant- 
ed to the subjects of a particular nation. A 
foreign minister does not lose his domicile in 
his own country by residing in the foreign one 
to which he is accredited ; but if he engages in 
trade there, he is, in respect to such trade, con- 
sidered as a citizen of the country where it is 
carried on. It sometimes occurs that circum- 
stances will not permit property captured at 
sea to be sent into port. The captor in such 
& case may destroy it, or allow the master or 



owner to ransom it. Such a contract is valid 
by the laws of nations, but it is prohibited in 
England by statute. By the ransom bill the 
vessel is protected from subsequent capture un- 
til she reaches her own country, or the country 
specified in the bill, provided there be no devi- 
ation from the course of the voyage. G enerally 
some of the officers and crew are retained as 
hostages, and if they die, or the vessel is lost 
by a peril of the sea before her arrival in port, 
unless it is otherwise stipulated in the bill, tho 
ransom is nevertheless due ; for the captors do 
not insure either the safe arrival of the ves- 
sel or the lives of the hostages. If the vessel 
deviates and is afterward captured and con- 
demned, the better opinion seems to be that 
the price of the ransom is to be deducted from 
the proceeds of the prize and given to the first 
captor, and the residue given to the second. 
If the captor himself should after the seizure 
be taken by an enemy's cruiser, together with 
the ransom bill, the ransom becomes part of 
the lawful conquest of tho enemy, and the 
debtors of tho ransom are consequently dis- 
charged from the contract under tho ransom 
bill. Tho right which a captor acquires by 
the seizure is an inchoate right merely, and 
is subject to be divested before condemnation. 
If there is a recapture, escape, or voluntary 
discharge of the property, a court of prize 
cannot proceed to adjudication. By the Ro- 
man law of jus pottliminii, persons or things 
taken by the enemy were restored to their 
former state upon coming again into posses- 
sion of the nation to which they had belonged. 
Formerly, as between the belligerents, the title 
to property captured passed after it had been 
in the possession of the captors 24 hours ; and 
if after that time it was recaptured by third 
persons, they became tho absolute owners of 
it. Now, however, the property of the origi- 
nal owners is not divested until condemnation, 
and tho recaptors are merely entitled to sal- 
vage, tho amount of which is in the United 
States fixed by statute for most cases, and 
when not so fixed is determined by the gen- 
eral principles of law. There is some conflict 
of authority whether the crew of a vessel who 
recapture it before condemnation are entitled 
to salvage. It would seem that in the United 
States they are not, because it is considered 
to be the duty of the crew to do all that they 
can to save the vessel until she is condemned. 
If a treaty of peace makes no particular pro- 
visions relative to captured property, it re- 
mains in the same condition in which the 
treaty finds it. In England, as between Eng- 
lish subjects, the right of postliminy subsists 
to the end of the war, and foreign nations 
are treated with the same liberality which they 
accord in similar circumstances to England. 
The property of a subject or an ally engaged in 
commerce with the enemy is liable to capture ; 
and it makes no difference whether the trade 
be direct or indirect. The law of nations per- 
mits vessels to sail and chase under false colors, 



PRIZE 



21 



but not to fire a gun or capture under them. 
It has become an established principle of the 
law of nations, that a nation which takes no 
part in a war shall have the same rights which 
it has in time of peace, except so far as the ex- 
ercise of these rights would materially inter- 
fere with the permanent rights of the belliger- 
ents. Within her own territory, which for this 
and for other purposes extends a marine league 
from the shore, a neutral nation is supreme. 
No belligerent has a right to make a capture in 
her waters, or to arm or equip his ships of war 
in her ports, and if either of these things is 
done the neutral is bound to redress the injury. 
A ship has no right to station itself in a neu- 
tral port and send out boats to make hostile 
seizures. The neutral nation may allow certain 
privileges to one of the belligerents, but only 
such as she is willing to allow to the other. 
She cannot lend money to one belligerent, but 
if she is under a previous stipulation, made in 
time of peace, to furnish a given number of 
ships or troops to one of the belligerents, the 
contract may be complied with. If a prize is 
brought into a neutral port, the neutral govern- 
ment may exercise jurisdiction so far as to re- 
store the property of its own subjects which 
has been illegally captured. And it has been 
held in the United States that foreign ships 
which offend against the laws of that country 
within its jurisdiction may be seized upon the 
ocean, and brought back for adjudication. In 
1793 the government of the United States es- 
tablished rules of neutrality which it required 
foreign belligerent powers to observe in their 
intercourse with this country. Among others 
was one which provided that if an armed ves- 
sel of one nation should depart from our juris- 
diction, no armed vessel within the same port 
and belonging to an adverse belligerent power 
should depart until 24 hours after the former. 
It is now a universally admitted principle of 
the law of nations that a belligerent has a 
right in time of war to visit and search all 
vessels on the ocean, in order to determine 
whether they or their cargoes are hostile or 
neutral. This right gives also as a necessary 
incident the right to seize and send in the ves- 
sel for adjudication, whenever its real charac- 
ter, or that of its cargo, is justly open to sus- 
picion. The neutral must submit, and if her 
crew rise and endeavor to recapture the ves- 
sel, it is a hostile act, which subjects the vessel 
and cargo to condemnation. Neutral goods 
may be carried in a belligerent vessel even if 
the latter is armed, according to the law in the 
United States ; and a neutral ship is not sub- 
ject to seizure if she has belligerent goods on 
board. Attempts have been made at different 
times to engraft on the law of nations the 
principle that free ships make free goods, but 
the law remains unchanged, except as it has 
been modified by treaties between particular 
nations. The question whether a country, 
which during peace confines the trade of its 
colonies to its own subjects, can during war 



open such trade to a neutral, has been much 
discussed. In England it has been held that 
it cannot; but this rule has been repudiated 
by the government of the United States. Neu- 
trals are not permitted to carry goods which 
are contraband of war, or to enter a blockaded 
port. (See BLOCKADE, and CONTRABAND.) 
Breach of blockade forfeits the vessel, and in 
some cases the cargo; but according to the 
modern practice, the carrying of contraband 
goods only forfeits the goods, and the owner 
of the vessel loses merely his freight and ex- 
penses, unless the same person owns both ship 
and cargo, or some fraud appears in the trans- 
action, in which cases both ship and cargo are 
forfeited. If an enemy's cargo is captured in 
a neutral vessel, the vessel has a claim on the 
captors for freight. But this rule is limited 
by the reason of it, and if the cargo be con- 
traband, or the voyage be quasi contraband, 
then the neutral vessel loses its freight. The 
rule that freight is not earned unless the goods 
are carried to their destination, applies to cap- 
ture. But if the captor takes the goods where 
they should have been carried, and even if he 
does this substantially though not precisely, 
as by bringing goods to Boston which were 
destined to New York, freight is due. All 
seizures at sea are made at the peril of the 
captors. If, on being sent in, the vessel and 
cargo are acquitted, the captors are responsible 
for all damages and costs, unless the capture 
was made with probable cause. What is prob- 
able cause is a question of some difficulty, and 
depends very much upon the facts of each 
particular case. In general, if the papers ap- 
peared false or colorable, or were suppressed, 
mutilated, or spoliated ; if the voyage were to 
or from a blockaded port ; or if other circum- 
stances of a like nature occurred, the captors 
would be justified in sending the vessel in for 
adjudication. After the vessel is captured, the 
captors are responsible for any loss which may 
occur by the negligence, fault, or misconduct 
of the prize officers and crew ; but they are 
not responsible if a loss occurs from accident, 
stress of weather, recapture, &c. While a ship 
is forfeited by the master's disguising belliger- 
ent property on board as neutral, without the 
authority, assent, or knowledge of the owner, 
this act does not operate as a breach of neu- 
trality as to the goods on board which are ac- 
tually neutral and proved to be so by proper 
documents, and belong to another owner than 
him who has forfeited the goods. If neutral 
interests or property are undistinguishably 
mixed up with belligerent interests or proper- 
ty, they become liable themselves to all the 
incidents and effects of a belligerent charac- 
ter. A resistance to search when rightfully 
demanded, an attempt at rescue, and seeking 
belligerent protection or receiving it, are all 
breaches of the duty of a neutral. Some ques- 
tion has arisen as to what is a rescue. It is the 
duty of the captors to put on board persons 
competent to navigate the vessel into port for 



22 



PRIZE 



PRIZE MONEY 



adjudication, and her own master and crew are 
not bound to do this. If the vessel is given up 
to them, and they pursue their original course 
against the wish of the captors, this is not a 
rescue. But if the neutral crew undertake and 
promise to navigate the vessel to the desired 
port for adjudication, and the vessel is given 
up to them for this purpose, and they violate 
their promise and take the vessel into their own 
hands for their own purposes, this is an unlaw- 
ful rescue. Generally a cargo is considered as 
liable to condemnation if any act has been 
committed by the master which subjects the 
ship to condemnation. But the cargo is not 
liable to condemnation if it is the property of 
a person other than the owner of the ship, and 
its owner was not cognizant of the intended 
violation. If, however, the owner of the car- 
go gave the master discretionary power, he is 
liable for his acts ; or if the cargo was loaded 
after notification of a blockade, the parties 
having full knowledge of the fact. Resistance 
to the right of search, the rescue or recapture 
of the ship by the master and crew, and the 
fraudulent suppression or spoliation of papers, 
affect the owner of the cargo as well as the 
owner of the ship. The principal grounds for 
condemning a ship as prize, where the ques- 
tion of nationality is in dispute, are : 1, the 
entire want of the necessary papers ; 2, their 
destruction ; 3, their material alteration or fal- 
sification ; 4, the time when the papers were 
made out, as whether before or after the war, 
is often material ; 5, next in importance is the 
conduct of the master and officers; 6, their 
prevarication or evident falsehood in the pre- 
liminary proof; 7, their refusal or inability to 
give a good account of the ship and cargo ; 8, 
the domicile of the master and officers. The 
spoliation of papers, by which is meant, not 
merely their total destruction, but such falsifi- 
cation as makes them useless or worse as evi- 
dence, is a circumstance of grave suspicion, 
though it is open to explanation. Possession 
by an enemy is presumptive proof, though not 
conclusive, of hostile character. Ships are pre- 
sumed to belong to the country under whose 
flag they sail ; and it has been thought that this 
presumption should be conclusive as against 
the person using the flag. In joint captures all 
public ships of war in sight are presumed to 
assist, and therefore they are entitled to share 
in the proceeds ; and this presumption extends 
to all the ships of a squadron united by au- 
thority for a specific purpose, as for a blockade 
for example, although not actually in sight ; 
but it does not apply to privateers, because 
they are not obliged to capture all vessels they 
meet, as are vessels of war. Revenue cutters, 
as they are generally employed to protect the 
revenue, and have no special injunction to 
capture enemy's vessels, come under the same 
rule as privateers in this respect. Every ship 
is expected to have on board the necessary 
papers to establish her nationality ; and these 
are the papers which the law of her own 



country requires as evidence of that character. 
The same rule applies to cargoes. The sale of 
a ship or cargo under a decree of admiralty, 
founded on condemnation as prize, is valid and 
binding upon all courts and parties, unless it is 
shown to be vitiated by fraud. But where an 
attempt is made to establish a revolutionary 
government, which fails, the adjudications of 
its prize courts and the sales based upon them 
will not be recognized, as was held in the case 
of the late Confederate States. 

PRIZE MONEY. The distribution of prize 
money, or of the proceeds of the sale of ships 
or goods adjudged by courts of admiralty to be 
good prize, is carefully regulated by statutes 
of the United States. The 10th section of the 
act of June 30, 1864, provides as follows : " The 
net proceeds of all property condemned as 
prize shall, when the prize was of superior or 
of equal force to the vessel or vessels making 
the capture, be decreed to the captors ; and 
when of inferior force, one half shall be de- 
creed to the United States and the other half 
to the captors : provided that, in case of pri- 
vateers and letters of marque, the whole shall 
be decreed to the captors, unless it shall be 
otherwise provided in the commissions issued 
to such vessels. All prize money adjudged to 
the captors shall be distributed in the follow- 
ing proportions, namely: 1. To the command- 
ing officer of a fleet or squadron, one twentieth 
part of all prize money awarded to any ves- 
sel under his immediate command. 2. To the 
commanding officer of a division of a fleet 
or squadron, on duty under the orders of the 
commander-in-chief of such fleet or squadron, 
a sum equal to one fiftieth part of any prize 
money awarded to a vessel of such division 
for a capture made while under his command, 
the said fiftieth part to be deducted from 
the moiety due to the United States, if there 
bo such moiety, otherwise from the amount 
awarded to the captors: provided that such 
fiftieth part shall not be in addition to any 
share which may be due to the commander 
of the division, and which he may elect to re- 
ceive as commander of a single ship making or 
assisting in the capture. 3. To the fleet cap- 
tain, one hundredth part of all prize money 
awarded to any vessel or vessels of the fleet 
or squadron in which he is serving, except in 
case where the capture is made by the vessel 
on board of which he is serving at the time of 
such capture, and in such case he shall share in 
proportion to his pay with the other officers 
and men on board such vessel, as is herein- 
after provided. 4. To the commander of a 
single ship, one tenth part of all the prize 
money awarded to the ship under his com- 
mand, if such ship at the time of the capture 
was under the command of the commanding 
officer of a fleet or squadron, or a division, and 
three twentieths if his ship was acting inde- 
pendently of such superior officer. 5. After 
the foregoing deductions, the residue shall be 
distributed and proportioned among all others 



PROBATE 



23 



doing duty on board (including the fleet cap- 
tain), and borne upon the books of the ship, 
in proportion to their respective rates of pay 
in the service. No commanding officer of a 
fleet or squadron shall be entitled to receive 
any share of prizes captured by any vessel or 
vessels not under his command, nor of such 
prizes as may have been captured by any ships 
or vessels intended to be placed under his 
command, before they have acted under his 
orders ; nor shall the commanding officer of 
a fleet or squadron, leaving the station where 
he had command, have any share in the prizes 
taken by ships left on such station after he 
has gone out of the limits of his said com- 
mand, nor after he has transferred his com- 
mand to his successor. No officer or other per- 
son who shall have been temporarily absent on 
duty from a vessel on the books of which he 
continued to be borne, while so absent, shall 
be deprived, in consequence of such absence, of 
any prize money to which he would otherwise 
be entitled. And he shall continue to share 
in the captures of the vessel to which he is at- 
tached until regularly discharged therefrom." 
PROBATE, in law, the proof, before the com- 
petent authority, that an instrument offered 
purporting to be the last will and testament 
of a person deceased is indeed his lawful act. 
Until the act 20 and 21 Victoria, c. 77 (1857), 
amended the law relating to probates and let- 
ters of administration in England, the custody 
of the estates of all deceased persons vested 
there primarily in the ordinaries or bishops of 
dioceses, subject only to the exceptional rights 
of the crown or of lords in respect to certain 
manors. The new act of 1857 abolished the 
ancient ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and conferred 
full and exclusive authority over all testamen- 
tary causes upon the queen, to be exercised in 
her name in a court to be called the court of 
probate. Ecclesiastical courts never existed 
in the United States ; but . from the very set- 
tlement of the country the office and functions 
of the English ordinaries have been exercised 
here by similar officers under various titles, 
such as surrogate, register of wills, judge of 
probate, and ordinary, and generally with larger 
powers than those functionaries possessed. In 
some states the county courts, and in others 
the orphans' courts, grant letters of probate. 
These several judicatures have different pow- 
ers, some only concerning themselves with 
the factum of a will, leaving its construction, 
or the operation and effect of its particular 
provisions, to the courts of law ; but others are 
vested with complete jurisdiction of all matters 
pertaining to the administration, subject to 
appeal to some higher court. In England the 
rule has been that probate was necessary of 
such instruments only as were testamentary 
and regarded personal property. If they af- 
fected lands alone they needed not to be proved 
in the spiritual courts. In this country the 
general rule by statute is that no will is effec- 
tual to pass either real or personal estate unless 



it has been duly proved and allowed in the 
probate court ; and so long as the probate re- 
mains unreversed on appeal, the due execution 
of the will, the sanity or capacity of the testa- 
tor, and the attestation of the witnesses, cannot 
be called in question in the courts of common 
law. The same rule is in some states observed 
in respect to wills once admitted to probate, 
though they were made and executed in other 
states according to forms not sufficient where 
they were approved. In some states the pro- 
bate of wills of lands is prima facie evidence, 
but not conclusive, of the due execution of 
these instruments ; in others the probate be- 
comes conclusive in these respects after the 
lapse of a certain number of years. In most 
of the states the procedure of the court upon 
probate is fixed by the legislature, and the 
common law distinction between probate in 
common form and in solemn form has in great 
measure disappeared. A will is said to be 
proved in common form when the executor 
presents it to the court, and, without summon- 
ing any of the parties interested, calls one or 
more witnesses to prove its execution. The 
objection to this mode of proof was, at common 
law, that at any time within 30 years the ex- 
ecutor might be called upon by any party in 
interest to make proof in solemn form. Proof 
is made in solemn form, or by form of law or 
per testes, when all persons whose interests are 
to be affected by the will have been duly noti- 
fied to be present, and have had opportunity 
to be heard in the premises. This is now the 
usual mode of proof in the United States, and 
after the will is approved in this way it is for 
ever binding. The method of proof, however, 
like many other points of probate practice, is 
often regulated by particular statute provisions. 
The testimony which the judge calls for at the 
hearing relates to the factum of the will, as 
the phrase is. The question being whether the 
instrument is a will or not, it is of the first 
importance to inquire into the capacity of the 
testator, and whether he did in fact execute 
the alleged will as it purports to have been 
executed. It is to furnish evidence on both 
these points that disinterested persons are in- 
vited to witness the execution of a will. These 
attesting witnesses are then most essential par- 
ties in a question of probate. Generally all 
of them must be summoned if they are living 
within the process of the court ; but if from 
death or absence from the country, or from 
incompetency arising since the attestation, any 
witness cannot be produced, the will may be 
proved by the others and by proof of the hand- 
writing of the party who fails. If all are 
dead, or out of the court's jurisdiction, the 
handwriting of all must be proved ; and prob- 
ably in such a case the handwriting of the 
testator also. The attestation clause is gener- 
ally framed with a regard to the requirements 
which the statutes of the state where it is 
made render essential to the valid execution 
of a will. If the evidence of the witnesses 



PROBOSCIDIANS 



PROCESS 



shows plainly that these requirements were 
not followed, the presumption of a valid exe- 
cution furnished by the recital of them is over- 
set ; but if the subscribing witnesses have 
lost all recollection of the particulars of the 
transaction, the formal execution will gener- 
ally be presumed and the will admitted to 
probate. Failure of memory on the part of 
one of the witnesses may often be supplied by 
the evidence of another or of the rest of them. 
In affixing his name, an attesting witness is 
regarded as certifying the capacity of the 
testator. His subsequent attempt to impeach 
the instrument by declaring that the testator 
did not execute the will with an intelligent 
and disposing mind is justly open to suspicion. 
Evidence of this character is not to be en- 
tirely rejected, though it avails little without 
the support of other testimony. When 30 
years have passed since the death of the testa- 
tor, a will is said to prove itself ; the subscri- 
bing witnesses being presumed dead, the bare 
production of the instrument suffices. The 
will must however have come from a custody 
which forbids question of its genuineness, and 
be in other respects free from suspicion, or the 
genuineness must in some way be proved. 
Wills alleged to have been lost, destroyed, or 
mislaid, may be admitted to probate on proof 
of those facts, and on clear and satisfactory 
evidence of their contents. For a noted in- 
stance of this, see GAINES, MYKA CLARK. 

PROBOSCIDIANS, a division of the old order 
of pachyderms, elevated by Owen into an 
order by themselves. They include the living 
elephant and the fossil mammoth and masto- 
don. They are characterized by the prolonga- 
tion of the nose into a cylindrical trunk or 
proboscis, at the extremity of which are the 
nostrils. The proboscis is very flexible and 
sensitive, terminating in a finger-like prehen- 
sile lobe. Prof. Cope in the summer of 1872 
discovered in the eocene of Wyoming several 
proboscidians, of the genus eobcuileut, largo 
and robust, seeming to connect the, elephant 
with the rhinoceros and dinotherium. (See 
"American Naturalist" for December, 1872.) 

PUOKI'S, Harms Anrflins, a Roman emperor, 
born in Sirmium, Pnnnonia, about A. D. 280, 
assassinated there in 282. While he was very 
young the emperor Valerian raised him to the 
rank of tribune. Ho commanded successively 
the 3d and 10th legions, and served in Africa 
and Pontus, on the Rhine, the Danube, the 
Euphrates, and the Nile. Under Aurelian he 
reconquered Egypt, which had fallen into the 
hands of Zenobia; and the emperor Tacitus 
made him commander-in-chief in the eastern 
provinces. On the death of the emperor in 
276 the armies of the East forced him to as- 
sume the imperial purple, and the death of his 
rival Florianns soon left him at the head of the 
Roman world. He recovered 70 towns from 
the Germans, destroyed 400,000 of the invaders, 
and drove the remainder across the Rhine. 
Penetrating into Germany, he exacted a heavy 



tribute of grain, cattle, and horses, and a resti- 
tution of the property carried away from the 
Roman provinces, and made a levy of 16,000 
recruits for the Roman army. He built a stone 
wall from the neighborhood of Neustadt and 
Ratisbon on the Danube to Wimpfen on the 
Neckar, and thence to the Rhine, nearly 200 
m. He secured the frontier of Rheetia, crushed 
the power of the Sarmatians, admitted the 
Goths to an alliance, and took several castles 
from the Isaurians. He suppressed the rebel- 
lion of Saturninus, the commander of the east- 
ern army, and the revolt of Bonosus and Pro- 
culus in the West, and returning to Rome cele- 
brated a triumph. To maintain the discipline 
of his troops, he constantly employed them in 
active labor, and the hills of Gaul and Panno- 
nia by their toil were enriched with vineyards. 
This system irritated the soldiers, and finally 
an unguarded remark, that the establishment 
of universal peace would render a standing 
army unnecessary, excited an insurrection in 
his camp near Sirmium, and Probus fled to a 
tower ; but the troops forced his retreat, and 
put him to death. He was succeeded by Carus. 
PROCESS, in law, a term which, in a large 
sense, signifies the whole proceedings in any 
action, civil or criminal, real or personal, from 
the beginning to the end. In a narrower and 
more technical sense, the term is applied to 
different stages of the procedure ; as is seen 
in the terms original process, which includes 
those precepts or writs by which one is called 
into court ; final process, or the forms of pro- 
cedure by which judgment is carried into exe- 
cution ; and mesne process, which covers the 
proceedings between the other two, and em- 
braces all proceedings properly so called, nil 
writs for compelling the attendance of jurors 
or witnesses, and for other collateral purposes. 
Mesne and final process are sometimes collec- 
tively described by the term judicial process, 
because proceedings in these stages of an ac- 
tion were authorized immediately by the courts, 
and issued under the hands and seals of their 
presiding judges. Original process, on the 
other hand, was so called because it was found- 
ed on the original writ, which, issuing out of 
chancery, and bearing the teste of the sovereign, 
conferred jurisdiction on the court to which 
it was addressed, and founded its authority 
over the matter in controversy. In the strict 
technical sense, process is the means employed 
for bringing the defendant into court to answer 
to the action. The first step therefore in the 
ancient procedure was to give the defendant 
notice of the issue and pendency of the origi- 
nal writ. This notice was given ordinarily by 
summons, which was a warning to the party 
to appear at the return of the writ, and was 
served upon him by the sheriff or some of his 
messengers. If the defendant disregarded this 
monition, the next step was a writ of attach- 
ment, bidding the sheriff to take certain of his 
goods to be forfeited if he failed to appear, or 
to take the pledges of certain sureties of the 



PROCESS 



PKOCLUS 



25 



defendant, who should be amerced in case of 
his non-appearance. If the sheriff made re- 
turn that the defendant had no goods whereby 
he could be attached, or if after attachment 
he failed to appear, the court issued a writ of 
capias commanding the sheriff to take the de- 
fendant's body. This writ and all others sub- 
sequent to it were called judicial, because, as 
we have already seen, they proceeded imme- 
diately from the court, and not from chancery. 
The proceedings before capias became in time 
merely formal, and it was usual to sue this out 
in the first instance upon a supposed return of 
the sheriff. The old and somewhat compli- 
cated and inconvenient process for the com- 
mencement of suits is now abolished in Eng- 
land, and a simple summons supplies the place. 
The proceedings in civil suits vary in the 
different states of the Union, and frequently in 
different courts of the same state. In some 
states the old common law procedure, modified 
more or less by statute, is in use, while in 
others a code of civil procedure similar to that 
of New York has been adopted. (See CODE, 
vol. v., p. 10.) The necessary proceedings in 
the regular course of a civil suit in the New 
York supreme court, to which a defence is in- 
terposed, are as follows: 1. The service, by 
delivering a copy to the defendant personally, 
of a summons, which may or may not be ac- 
companied with the complaint, and which re- 
quires answer to be made to the complaint 
within 20 days, and contains a notice, accord- 
ing to the nature of the suit, that in default 
of answer judgment will be taken for a spe- 
cified sum, or that application will be made 
to the court for the relief demanded in the 
complaint, a. The service within 20 days on 
plaintiff's attorney by defendant's attorney of 
a notice of appearance in the suit, with a de- 
mand for a copy of the complaint. &. The 
service within 20 days by plaintiff's attorney 
on defendant's attorney of a copy of the com- 
plaint, setting forth the grounds of the suit 
and demanding the appropriate judgment. 2. 
The service within 20 days on plaintiff's at- 
torney by defendant's attorney of a copy of 
the answer, containing a denial of the allega- 
tions of the complaint, or new matter, such as 
payment, constituting a defence to the plain- 
tiff's claim, c. If the answer, as is sometimes 
the case, contains an affirmative claim against 
the plaintiff, the service within 20 days by 
plaintiff's attorney on defendant's attorney of 
a reply interposing a denial or defence to such 
claim. 3. The service by the attorney of 
either party desiring to bring on the case for 
trial, on the attorney for the other party, of a 
notice of trial at least 14 days before the be- 
ginning of the term of court for which the no- 
tice is given. 4. The filing with the clerk of 
the court, at least eight days before the be- 
ginning of the term, by the attorney giving 
notice of trial, of a note of issue containing 
certnin particulars to enable the clerk to 
place the case on the calendar of the court. 



5. The trial, with or without a jury according 
to the nature of the suit, when the case is 
reached in its order on the calendar. 6. The 
filing in the clerk's office by the attorney for 
the prevailing party of the judgment roll, con- 
sisting of a certified copy of the clerk's min- 
utes taken on the trial and a statement of the 
judgment drawn up by the attorney, together 
with the summons, complaint, answer, &c. 
7. The issuing by the attorney for the prevail- 
ing party of an execution to the sheriff, who 
returns the same within 60 days, satisfied or 
unsatisfied as the case may be. When the 
complaint is served with the summons, a and 
5 are not required. There are numerous col- 
lateral and subsidiary proceedings which may, 
and some of which commonly do occur in a 
suit. The time for the service of papers may 
be extended by the court. When the losing 
party desires to appeal from the judgment, he 
must upon notice to the other party have a 
" case " settled by the judge, which shall pre- 
sent the question to be considered by the higher 
court. A notice of appeal must be served on 
the prevailing party by the appellant within 
30 days after he shall have received written 
notice of the judgment, and he must also serve 
on the prevailing party printed copies of the 
case. Either party may serve on the other a 
notice of argument and file a note of issue, 
when the case is placed on the calendar of the 
appellate court and argument had and judg- 
ment entered in due course. The appeal in 
the first instance is to the general term of 
three judges, and from their decision another 
appeal may be taken in similar manner to the 
court of appeals. When the appellant desires 
all proceedings to enforce the judgment to be 
stayed pending the appeal, he must furnish an 
undertaking with sureties to the effect that he 
will pay the judgment with costs and dam- 
ages if it be affirmed. In the criminal law 
process applies in an extensive sense to all 
those instruments which are used by compe- 
tent authority for the purpose of bringing a 
party into court, or of executing the judgment 
of the law upon him. 

PROCLl'S, a Greek philosopher of the Neo- 
Platonic school, born in Constantinople in A. 
D. 412, died in Athens in 485. In his child- 
hood he lived at Xanthus in Lycia, afterward 
for several years in Alexandria, studying un- 
der the most eminent teachers, and before he 
was 20 years old removed to Athens. On 
the death of Syrianus he succeeded him in 
the school at Athens, and hence is sometimes 
called Diadochus (the successor). He adopted 
the ascetic system which became common in 
the later Nee-Platonic school, abstained almost 
entirely from animal food, refused to marry, 
spent his money freely in acts of benevolence, 
and observed numerous fasts and vigils. He 
worshipped the sun and moon, the spirits of 
heroes and philosophers, and even the spir- 
its of the whole human race, and celebrated 
all important religious festivals, no matter of 



26 



PROCONSUL 



what nation. In addition to his religious ex- 
ercises, he delivered five lectures a day. He 
was distinguished as a mathematician and 
grammarian. His extant works consist chiefly 
of commentaries, principally on Plato. One 
of his original works is entitled "Twenty-two 
Arguments against the Christians," in which 
he endeavored to maintain the eternity of the 
universe. As a writer he is usually regarded 
as one of the clearest of his school, but as 
a philosopher his reputation has never stood 
high. There is no complete edition of his ex- 
tant productions; the best is by Cousin (6 
vols. 8vo, Paris, 1820-'27). Translations of 
several of his works have been made into 
English by Thomas Taylor. 

PROCONSUL, a Roman magistrate who acted 
for the consul in the government of a province, 
and was almost always one who had previously 
'been consul. The first proconsul was Q. Pub- 
lilius Philo, who in 327 B. C. was at the head 
of the army in the second Samnite war when 
his consular year closed, and was then contin- 
ued in the function beyond his time because 
his recall would have destroyed the advantages 
already gained. 

PROCOPIUS, a Byzantine historian, born in 
Coosarea, Palestine, about A. D. 500, died about 
5C5. He early removed to Constantinople, and 
became distinguished as an advocate. In 527 
he was chosen secretary by Beliaarius, and 
accompanied him in his wars against the Per- 
sians, the Vandals in Africa, and the Goths in 
Italy, where he had charge of the commissariat 
department, and was at the head of the fleet. 
Returning to Constantinople about 542, he re- 
ceived from the emperor Justinian the title of 
illustris and the position of senator, and in 
562 was made prefect of the city. The most 
important work of Procopius is his elegant 
and interesting "History" of his own times 
in eight books. It has been translated into 
English by Sir Henry Holcroft (fol., London, 
1653). Another work, entitled Anecdota, 
probably by Procopius, though the authorship 
is questioned, consists of a collection of anec- 
dotes portraying, and here and there perhaps 
spitefully caricaturing, the morals of the By- 
zantine court. An English translation of it 
was published anonymously under the title of 
" The Secret History of the Court of the Em- 
peror Justinian " (London, 1674). The best 
edition of Procopius's collected works is by 
Dindorf (3 vols., Bonn, 1833-'8). See Proco- 
pius von Uilsarea, by Dahn (Berlin, 1865). 

PROCOPIIS. I. Andrew, called the Great, a 
leader of the Hussites, born toward the close 
of the 14th century, died at Bohmisch-Brod, 
Bohemia, May 30, 1484. He was adopted and 
educated by his uncle, a nobleman in Prague, 
who travelled with him through France, Spain, 
Italy, and the Holy Land. On his return he 
received clerical orders, and at the outbreak of 
the Hussite war he joined the sectarians, rose 
to the rank of a captain, and relieved the be- 
sieged town of Lundenburg in Moravia. In 



PROCTER 

1423 he gained a victory at Kremsier, and in 
1424, on the death of Ziska, the Taborites 
elected him their leader. In conjunction with 
other Hussite captains he devastated Austria, 
Franconia, Saxony, and Silesia. Procopius the 
Small joined him in 1427, and the concentra- 
tion against them of German forces from all 
sides led to a general confederation of the va- 
rious Hussite parties under his banner. With 
this considerable army he defeated the Ger- 
mans, ravaged the whole of Silesia and Mora- 
via, and penetrated as far as Presburg in Hun- 
gary. In 1429 he turned to the north and 
pillaged and destroyed everything before him 
in order to weaken the power of the Germans. 
In 1430 he led un army of about 75,000 men 
into Franconia and Lower Bavaria, burning 
about 100 towns and castles and more than 
1,000 villages on his way. Cardinal Julian 
finally succeeded in gathering another army of 
German crusaders. Frederick of Brandenburg 
took the command, and occupied Bohemia; 
but when Procopins appeared with his forces, 
the Germans at once took to flight (Aug. 14, 
1431). Procopius continued his devastations 
in Silesia, Hungary, and Saxony, but finally 
sold a truce of two years to Silesia and Sax- 
ony for large sums of money. In 1483 he 
attended the council of Basel, where he de- 
fended with much spirit the creed of his party, 
attacking especially the order of the monks, 
which he called an invention of the devil. 
Tired of the long disputations, he finally re- 
fused further to attend the council, and re- 
turned to Bohemia. Ten theologians and sev- 
eral princely legates were thereupon sent to 
Prague to continue the conference, and they 
succeeded in bringing about a compromise with 
the Calixtines. Procopius, not satisfied with 
the new articles of faith, besieged the city of 
Pilsen, and when the Calixtinos had formally 
accepted the Compactata he turned his arms 
against them. The decisive battle was fought 
in the neighborhood of Bohmisch-Brod, E. of 
Prague, May 80, 1434, where Procopius was 
defeated and killed. (See HUSSITES.) II. The 
Small, the leader of the Hussite party of Or- 
phanites, joined Procopius the Great in 1427, 
shared with him the conduct of the war, and 
died at his side. 

PROCRISTES (Gr. TipoKpoliarriq, the stretcher), 
the surname of Polypemon or Damastes, a 
legendary robber of Attica, who had an iron 
bed upon which he placed all the travellers 
who fell into his hands. If they were longer 
than the bed, he cut enough from their limbs 
to make them fit; if they were shorter, he 
stretched them. He was slain by Theseus on 
Mt. Cphissus. 

PROCTER. I. Bryan Wader, an English poet, 
better known by his anagrammatic pseudonyms 
of Barry Cornwall, born in London about 1790, 
died there, Oct. 5, 1874. He was educated at 
Harrow, passed some time in the office of a 
solicitor in Wiltshire, removed to London, and 
in 1831 was called to the bar from Gray's Inn. 



PROCTOR 



PROKESCH-OSTEN 



27 



For several years he was a commissioner in 
lunacy, resigning in 1 86 1 . His first publication 
was a volume entitled " Dramatic Scenes and 
other Poems" (1819), which was followed by 
" Marcian Colonna, an Italian Tale ; with three 
Dramatic Scenes, and other Poems " (1820) ; 
" A Sicilian Story, with Diego de Montilla and 
other Poems " (1820) ; " Mirandola, a Tragedy" 
(1821); "The Flood of Thessaly and other 
Poems;" "Poetical Works" (3 vols., 1822); 
"Effigies Poeticse" (1824); "English Songs 
and other Small Poems" (1832); "Life of 
Edmund Ivean" (1835); "Essays and Tales in 
Prose "(1851); and " Charles Lamb, a Memoir" 
(1866). His "Mirandola" was produced with 
success at Covent Garden in 1821. He is best 
known by his songs, some of which are singu- 
larly well adapted to music, and are equally 
refined in sentiment and diction. All his pub- 
lications appeared under his assumed name of 
Barry Cornwall. II. Adelaide Anne, a poetess, 
daughter of the preceding, born in London, 
Oct. 30, 1825, died there, Feb. 2, 1864. She 
published " Legends and Lyrics, a Book of 
Verse" (1858), and "A Second Volume of 
Legends and Lyrics" (1860). Both series with 
new poems appeared in one volume in 1865, 
with an introduction by Charles Dickens. 

PROCTOR (Lat. procurator, agent), in a gen- 
eral sense, one who is commissioned to man- 
age the business of another. In a particular 
sense, a proctor is one who is commissioned to 
transact the business of his principal in the 
ecclesiastical or admiralty courts. He dis- 
charges functions similar to those of attorneys 
and solicitors in other courts. In England, 
the proctor can be admitted to practice only 
after a clerkship of seven years with a senior 
proctor of at least five years' standing, and he 
must produce a certificate of considerable pro- 
ficiency in classical education. Before the abo- 
lition of the probate and matrimonial courts of 
doctors' commons, the proctors were the only 
persons allowed to practise in them. (See 
DOCTORS' COMMONS.) Proctors are known in 
the United States only as officers of the courts 
of admiralty, whose duties, authority, and re- 
sponsibilities correspond to those of attorneys 
at law. The name proctor is also given in 
England, and in some American colleges, to 
university officers whose duty is to guard mor- 
als and order. 

PROCTOR, Richard Anthony, an English astron- 
omer, born in Chelsea, March 23, 1837. He 
was educated at home until his llth year, and 
then entered an academy in Milton-on-Thames, 
where he remained three years and became 
head boy of the institution. After the death 
of his father in 1850 the family became embar- 
rassed through chancery delays in a friendly 
suit, and in 1854 Richard accepted a clerkship 
in a London bank, devoting all his spare time 
to the study of mathematics. In 1855, the 
situation of the family having been improved, 
he entered King's college, London, and in 1856 
St. John's college, Cambridge. He took his 



degree in 1860, and married in the same year. 
For the next three years his studies were mostly 
historical and literary. In 1863 he wrote an 
essay on " Double Stars," which appeared in 
the "Cornhill Magazine." In 1865 he pub- 
lished a monograph on " Saturn," and early in 
1866 his "Gnomonic Star Atlas" and "Hand- 
book of the Stars." These works were of a 
scientific, but not popular nature. In 1866, by 
the failure of a bank in London, he lost the 
whole of his fortune, and his scientific work 
was considerably hampered by duties arising 
from this circumstance. In 1869 he made 
some suggestions to the astronomer royal, Sir 
George Airy, as to the best method of observ- 
ing the approaching transit of Venus ; and at 
a meeting of the principal astronomers of Eng- 
land at the Greenwich observatory in 1873 his 
views were unanimously approved. But his 
chief scientific work since 1867 has consisted in 
the investigation of the evidence available for 
determining the structure of the stellar and neb- 
ular universe. (See STAR.) In 1870 Mr. Proc- 
tor published a work entitled " Other Worlds 
than Ours," which had an extraordinary suc- 
cess and attracted the general attention of the 
scientific world. From that time he has been 
perhaps the most fertile and popular writer 
upon astronomical subjects of the present day. 
In 1873 he visited the United States and de- 
livered lectures, and again in 1875. His pub- 
lished books besides those above mentioned 
are : " Constellation Seasons " and " Sun Views 
of the Earth " (London, 1867) ; " Half Hours 
with the Telescope " (1868) ; " Half Hours with 
the Stars" (1869); "The Sun," a large "Star 
Atlas," "Elementary Astronomy," and "Light 
Science for Leisure Hours" (1870); "Essays 
on Astronomy " and " Orbs Around Us " (1871) ; 
"Chart of 324,000 Stars," "School Atlas of 
Astronomy," and "Elementary Physical Geog- 
raphy" (1872); "Light Science," &c., second 
series, "The Moon," and "Border Land of 
Science " (1873) ; and " The Universe and Com- 
ing Transits," "Transits of Venus, Past, Pres- 
ent, and Future," and "The Expanse of Heav- 
en "(1874). 

PROFERT. See OTER. 

PROHIBITION, a writ issued by a superior 
court to restrain the action of an inferior tri- 
bunal which is assuming to act in some matter 
not within its cognizance, or in disregard of 
the rules which govern the exercise of its 
jurisdiction. It is an extraordinary remedy, 
to which resort seldom becomes necessary. 

PROJECTILES. See GUNNERY. 

PROKESCH-OSTEN, Anton YOU, baron, a German 
author, born in Gratz, Dec. 10, 1795. In early 
life he served in the army, taught mathematics, 
and was secretary to Prince Schwarzenberg, 
whose Denkwurdigkeiten he edited in 1822. 
For his subsequent services in the East he was 
ennobled with the name of Von Osten, and at 
a later period was made privy councillor and 
general. He was ambassador at Athens 1834- 
'49, Berlin 1849-'52, Frankfort 1853-'5, and 



28 



PROME 



PROPAGATION OF THE FAITH 



Constantinople 1855-'67, and nuncio at Con- 
stantinople 1867-'72. His celebrated collec- 
tion of coins was bought by the Prussian gov- 
ernment in 1875 for the museum of Berlin, for 
$150,000. Among his works are : Erinner- 
ungen aus Aegypten und Kleinatien (3 vols., 
Vienna, 1829-'31) ; Denkicurdigkeiten und 
Erinnerungen aus dem Orient, edited by E. 
Munch from Prokesch's correspondence with 
Schneller (3 vols., Stuttgart, 1836-7) ; Kltine 
Schriften (7 vols., 1842-'4) ; and Geschichte 
des Alfalls der Griechen vom turkischen Reich 
(G vols., Vienna, 1867-'8). 

PROME, a town of British Burmah, in Pegu, 
on the E. bank of the Irrawaddy, 166 m. N. 
N. "W. of Rangoon ; pop. about 80,000. It is 
surrounded by a brick wall 1J m. in circum- 
ference, has several paper manufactories, and 
is a place of considerable commercial impor- 
tance. A railway is projected to Rangoon. 
In the suburbs are extensive rice grounds. 
Prome was taken by the British in 1825, and 
again in the second war with Burmah in 1852. 
It was nearly destroyed by fire in 1856, and 
in the same year suffered seriously from an 
inundation of the Irrawaddy. 

PROMKTIIEIS, in Grecian mythology, the son 
of Japetus and Clymene, and brother of Atlas, 
Menojtius, and Epimetheus. According to 
Hesiod, gods and men were in a dispute at 
Mecone in regard to what portion of the animal 
should bo offered in sacrifice. Prometheus, as 
the tutelary representative of man, divided a 
bull into two parts, one consisting of the flesh 
and intestines wrapped in the skin, and the 
other of the bones covered up by the white fat. 
Jupiter, having been asked which of the two 
he would choose, decided for the latter; and 
as the choice could not be revoked, those parts 
alone were thereafter offered on his altar. In- 
dignant at the deception, he withheld fire from 
mortals, but Prometheus stole fire from heaven 
in the hollow of a tube. Jupiter now sent 
Pandora to earth with her box of evils, and 
fastened Prometheus to a pillar, where he re- 
mained for many generations, an eagle every 
day feeding upon his liver, which every night 
grew again. At length Hercules was permitted 
to kill the eagle and free the prisoner. The 
most celebrated drama founded upon this myth 
is the trilogy of /Eschylus, of which the " Pro- 
metheus Bound " and a few fragments of the 
" Prometheus Loosed " are extant. In ^Eschy- 
lus, Prometheus appears not only as the pro- 
tector of the human race against the superior 
might of the gods, but as its teacher and bene- 
factor. Through his assistance, Jupiter over- 
comes the Titans ; but when Prometheus frus- 
trates the design of destroying mankind, he is 
chained to a rock in Scythia. There he is 
visited by the Oceanids and by lo, to whom he 
foretells her long wanderings. He is in posses- 
sion of knowledge which it is essential to the 
safety of Jupiter to gain ; but he bids defiance 
to his persecutor, and refuses to make known 
the secret. He is hurled into Tartarus, and 



afterward reappears chained to Mount Cau- 
casus, to undergo fresh torments. From this 
condition he can only be freed when some 
other god shall voluntarily descend into Tar- 
tarus for him, which finally happened when 
Chiron, wounded by Hercules, sought permis- 
sion to go into Hades. Another account says 
that Jupiter himself delivered Prometheus 
when the latter agreed to reveal the prophecy, 
according to which, if he were married to 
Thetis, she would give birth to a son greater 
than himself. 

PROMISSORY NOTE, a promise in writing to 
pay money. "When the promise is to pay it 
to the payee or his order, or to the bearer, the 
note is negotiable, and, as an exceedingly use- 
ful and important instrument of business, it is 
governed by a system of law which is quite 
peculiar. When not payable to order, or not 
negotiable, the rules of law applicable to it 
vary but little from those which are in force 
generally in relation to written contracts. (See 
EXCHANGE, BILL OF, and NEGOTIABLE PAPEE.) 

PRONG HORN. See ANTELOPE. 

PROPAGANDA, or Cougregatip de Propaganda Fide 
(congregation for propagating the faith), a 
board of 25 cardinals founded at Rome in 1622 
by Gregory XV. for the support and direction 
of foreign missions. It has a secretary, who 
is generally a bishop or archbishop, and priests, 
advisers, and under secretaries, who hold a 
consultation weekly. The cardinal prefect of 
the propaganda is the pope's representative in 
all matters concerning the affairs of foreign 
missions, including the final appointment of all 
bishops in missionary countries. Pope Urban 
VIII. in 1627 added to the congregation a col- 
lege for the education of missionary priests, 
where young men from every country in the 
world, with the exception of strictly Catholic 
countries, were educated, and ordained for the 
missionary work among their fellow country- 
men. A celebrated polyglot printing estab- 
lishment was attached to the propaganda, and 
besides a full corps of professors, it possessed a 
museum of antiquities and curiosities, a hand- 
some church, and a large library. This college 
was suppressed in 1873, and its property was 
sold by auction. 

PROPAGATION OF THE FAITH, Society for the 
(la soeiet^ pour la propagation de la foi), a 
Roman Catholic society in aid of foreign mis- 
sions founded at Lyons in 1829. It* plan is to 
raise, through committees and sub-committees, 
one cent a week from each subscriber, the 
money being forwarded to the central com- 
mittee at Lyons, by whom the funds are appor- 
tioned to bishops of the various missionary 
countries throughout the world. The society 
spread rapidly over the whole of Europe, and 
has now paying members in almost every 
country in the world. It is sometimes con- 
fused with the Roman propaganda, with which 
it has nothing in common except a similar ob- 
ject. The central committee at Lyons pub- 
lishes six tunes a year the Annulet de la pro- 



PROPERTIUS 



PROPHECY 



29 



pagation de la foi, to inform the subscribers 
of the use made of the funds and of the pro- 
gress of the missionary work. 

PROPERTIl'S, Sextus Aurelins, a Roman poet, 
born in Uuibria about 50 B. 0. He was rich 
until an agrarian division, in 36 B. C., reduced 
his fortune. He wrote four books of elegies, 
principally addressed to his mistress. The text 
of Propertius as we have it is exceedingly cor- 
rupt. One of the best editions is that of Hertz- 
berg (2 vols. 8vo, Halle, 1843-'5). His elegies 
have been translated into English verse by 
Charles Robert Moore (Oxford, 1870). 

PROPHECY (Gr. Trpo^reta, from irpotydvai, to 
foretell), the prediction of future events. The 
belief that certain men or classes of men had 
the faculty of prediction can be traced to the 
remotest antiquity ; and the priesthood in par- 
ticular were regarded as being endowed with 
it. But the term prophecy, in this sense, is 
generally restricted to the Old Testament the- 
ology. The word prophet in the languages of 
Christian nations is derived from the Greek 
Trpo^Tw, by which the Septuagint renders the 
Hebrew noli. But the term of the Septuagint 
does not fully correspond to the primary mean- 
ing of the Hebrew word, which denotes a man 
speaking by divine inspiration; though some- 
times the word is used in a bad sense of men 
who only pretend to inspiration, or are in- 
spired of an evil spirit. The prophets of the 
Old Testament appear as the privileged organs 
of communication between God and his people. 
Frequently, though for the most part indefi- 
nitely, they pointed to a glorious completion of 
the theocracy throagh a great descendant of 
David, the Messiah. They also acted as the 
interpreters of the law, and were guardians of 
the rights of the oppressed. Their mission, as 
a body of extraordinary teachers, became es- 
pecially important in times when the ordinary 
guardians of the law, the priests, sided with 
the apostates and idolaters. The germ of the 
prophetic office is found in the Mosaic econo- 
my, but the order was formally developed by 
Samuel, when the moral decline of the nation 
had made it necessary. In the age of the 
judges, prophecy, though existing only in scat- 
tered instances, exerted a powerful influence. 
But the conspicuous prophetic agency begins 
with Samuel, who founded schools of the 
prophets at Gibeah, Ramah, Bethel, Jericho, 
and Gilgal. Instruction was given in the inter- 
pretation of the divine law, and in music and 
sacred poetry. Samuel, Elijah, and Elisha are 
mentioned as principals of such institutions. 
The pupils are frequently called the " sons of 
the prophets. " The prophets wer e m ostly taken 
from these schools, yet not always ; for Amos 
relates of himself that he had been trained in 
no school, but was a herdsman when the Lord 
took him to prophesy unto the people of Israel. 
Sometimes, but rarely, it occurred that women 
came forward as prophetesses. The golden 
era of the prophets extends from the time of 
Samuel to the Babylonish captivity, and hardly 



any important event happened in which they 
did not appear as performing the leading part. 
After the time of Samuel they often held 
weekly and monthly meetings' for teaching, 
that work being tacitly transferred from the 
priests to the prophets. About 100 years after 
the return from the Babylonish captivity the 
prophetic profession ceased, and Haggai, Zech- 
ariah, and Malachi are uniformly mentioned 
by Jewish tradition as the last of the proph- 
ets. The manner of life of the prophets was 
conspicuous for strictness, austerity, and as- 
ceticism. Some of them appear to have been in 
possession of considerable physical and medi- 
cal knowledge, and to have occasionally made 
use of it. Later they often wrote down their 
prophecies, and many others compiled histor- 
ical works. Thus Gad, Nathan, and perhaps 
Samuel, wrote the history of David ; Nathan 
also the history of Solomon ; Shemaiah and 
Iddo the history of Rehoboam ; Jehu the his- 
tory of Jehoshaphat; and Isaiah the history 
of tlzziali and Hezekiah. The New Testament 
mentions the power of prophecy as one of 
the gifts of the Holy Spirit. We read of one 
prophet, Agabus, who predicted the famine 
under Claudius and the imprisonment of Paul ; 
but generally a foreknowledge and foretelling 
of futurity is not mentioned as characteristic 
of those men who, as Barnabas, Judas, and 
Silas, are called prophets in the Acts and the 
Pauline epistles. The object of the Christian 
"prophecy" was, according to 1 Cor. xiv. 3, 
" edification and exhortation and comfort." 
Among the books of the canon of the New 
Testament only one, the Revelation, bears a 
prophetic character. The mode in which the 
divine will was revealed to the prophets has 
been the subject of much discussion. The Bi- 
ble declares that sometimes God spoke to them 
in an audible voice, sometimes in dreams, 
sometimes by giving them an ecstatic eleva- 
tion in which they saw truths ordinarily un- 
seen, and sometimes by visions. Many wri- 
ters, especially since the middle of the last 
century, have endeavored to show that the 
Scriptures do not assert a direct and miracu- 
lous supernatural interference, and that the 
prophetic inspiration can be explained by a 
high degree of religious enthusiasm and ecstasy. 
Among these writers are Eichhorn, Die He- 
Iraischen PropJieten (3 vols., Gottingen, 1816- 
'20) ; Knobel, Der Prophetismvs der Helraer 
(Breslau, 1837) ; Ewald, Die PropJteten des 
Alien Bundes (Stuttgart, 1840) ; and Dr. Wil- 
liams in the Oxford " Essays and Reviews." 
With regard to the predictions occurring in 
the books of the prophets, this class of wri- 
ters either ascribe them (as Bunsen did) to a 
kind of spiritual clairvoyance, or they main- 
tain (with Dr. Williams) that few if any pas- 
sages can be claimed as strictly prophetic, the 
prophetic utterance containing only certain 
" deep truths and great ideas." The great ma- 
jority of Christian theologians maintain that 
this view is opposed by the plain intent of the 



30 



PEOPHETS 



PROTAGORAS 



Old Testament, by the counter testimony of 
Christ and the apostles in the New, and also 
by the concessions of unbelieving interpreters, 
such as Strauss, who say that the Scriptural wri- 
ters undoubtedly claim prophetic inspiration, 
but that the claim is absurd. Among the works 
written from this standpoint are Prof. Fair- 
bairn's treatise on "Prophecy, its Nature and 
Functions" (8vo, Edinburgh, 1856), and espe- 
cially Tholuck, Die Propheten und ihre Weis- 
sagungen (Gotha, 1860), who has reviewed the 
whole subject in a philosophical manner, and 
concludes that the prophecies cannot be in- 
terpreted " as the utterance of subjective reli- 
gious aspirations," and that " the very course 
of history lias impressed upon these declara- 
tions the stamp and confirmation of an objec- 
tive and supernatural inspiration." The reader 
may also consult various commentaries on the 
books of the prophets, and that class of works 
which limit themselves to an interpretation 
of the " Messianic prophecies " throughout 
the entire Old Testament, among which Heng- 
stenberg's Christologie (3 vols. 8vo, Berlin, 
1829-'35; English translation, 1836-'9, and in 
Clark's " Foreign and Theological Library," 
1854) is the best known. Besides the works 
already named, see Koster, Die Propheten de 
Alten und Neuen Tettament* (Leipsic, 1838) ; 
Davison, " Discourses on Prophecy " (Oxford, 
1839) ; Stuart, " Hints on the Interpretation 
of Prophecy" (Andover, 1844); Maurice, 
"Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament" 
(1853); Pusey, "The Minor Prophets" (Ox- 
ford, 1801); R. Payne Smith, "Messianic In- 
terpretation of the Prophecies of Isaiah " 
(1862); and Stanley, "Lectures on the Jewish 
Church" (1863). 

PROPHETS, Books of the, a division of the Old 
Testament. The rabbis divided the books of 
the Hebrew canon into three classes : 1. To- 
rah, law; 2, Nebiim, prophets; 8, Kethubim, 
writings, hagiographa. The second class was 
subdivided by them into " former " and " lat- 
ter" prophets. The former comprised the 
books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. 
Among the latter they again distinguished be- 
tween the three "great" (Isaiah, Jeremiah, 
and Ezekiel) and the twelve " minor " proph- 
ets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Mi- 
cah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Ilaggai, 
Zechariah, and Malachi). In the arrangement 
of modern Biblical criticism, Joshua, Samuel, 
and Kings are not counted among the books 
of the prophets, who are divided into the four 
great (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel) 
and the twelve minor prophets. See also the 
articles on the several prophets. 

PROPOXTIS. See MARMOBA, SKA OF. 

PROSERPINE, or Persephone, in Greek and Ro- 
man mythology, the queen of the infernal 
world. She was the -daughter of Jupiter and 
Ceres, and was beloved by Pluto, who forci- 
bly carried her off to Hades. There she was 
found by Ceres, who induced Pluto to consent 
that her daughter should pass six months of 



every year in the upper world with her ; and 
hence Proserpine became a symbol of vege- 
tation. The Eleusinian mysteries belonged to 
her in common with her mother, and she had 
temples at Corinth, Megara, and Sparta, and at 
Locri in the south of Italy. 

PROSPER (AQUITANUS), Saint, a church fa- 
ther of the 5th century, born near Bordeaux 
about 403, died about 464. He was distin- 
guished as a chronologist, poet, and theologian, 
and is chiefly known from the prominent part 
taken by him in opposing Cassian and the Semi- 
Pelagians of Marseilles. Among the many 
works written by him against these and in de- 
fence of St. Augustine is the Carmen de In- 
gratis, considered to be one of the best Latin 
poems written by a Christian author. It is as- 
serted, but on doubtful authority, that he be- 
came in 440 secretary or notariut to Leo the 
Great, and that he wrote the letters on Euty- 
chianism attributed to that pope. He drew up 
about 444 a paschal cycle of 84 years, whicn 
has perished, and a continuation of the chroni- 
cle of St. Jerome, from A. D. 879 to 455, un- 
der the title of Chronicon Contulare. Photius 
ascribes the final overthrow of Pelagianism to 
his unwearied labors. His feast is celebrated 
on June 25. St. Prosper appears to have lived 
and died a layman, though some writers have 
made him bishop of Riez (Rhegium) in Pro- 
vence. There are several complete editions of 
his works, the best being those of Maugeant, 
with a history of his life, translated from Til- 
lemont (fol., Paris, 1711), and Foggini (fol., 
Rome, 1752), reprinted in vol. li. of Migne's 
Patrologie latine. 

PROSTATE GLAND (Gr. irpooraTltv, to stand 
before), a solid, chestnut-shaped glandular 
body, rather more than one inch in diameter, 
situated in the male between the neck of the 
bladder and the membranous portion of the 
urethra ; so called because it stands in front of 
the neck of the bladder. The texture of the 
prostate gland consists of a large number of 
racemose or compound glandules, surrounded 
by and imbedded in an abundant fibro-muscu- 
lar tissue, and opening by several separate ori- 
fices into the first or prostatic portion of the 
urethra, which canal it embraces at this point 
for about an inch. The prostate is liable to 
become enlarged in advanced life, when it 
sometimes creates an obstacle to the evacua- 
tion of the urine. 

PROTAGORAS, a Greek philosopher, born in 
Abdera probably about 480 B. C., died about 
411. The common story in regard to his ori- 
gin was that he was a porter, and by the skil- 
ful manner in which he carried his load at- 
tracted the attention of Democritus, who un- 
dertook to educate him. He was the first who 
assumed the title of sophist, as denoting one 
who instructed others in the art of becoming 
wise, and in the arts of eloquence and politics, 
and was also the first who received pay for 
his lessons. According to Plato, ho received 
more money during the 40 years in which he 



PKOTECTOE 



PROTEST 



31 



taught than Phidias and 10 other sculptors. 
None of his works are extant. In his treatise 
" On the Gods," Protagoras started with the 
following proposition : " Respecting the gods, 
I am unable to know whether they exist or 
do not exist." For this he was banished from 
Athens, and his books were burned. 

PROTECTOR, in English history, a title several 
times conferred by parliament upon the chief 
officer of the kingdom during the king's mi- 
nority, in place of that of regent. The most 
celebrated protectors were John, duke of Bed- 
ford, and Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, in 
the minority of Henry VI. ; Richard, duke of 
Gloucester, whose protectorate ended in his 
becoming king as Richard III. after the death 
of Edward V. ; and Edward Seymour, duke of 
Somerset, in the minority of his nephew Ed- 
ward VI. Oliver Cromwell, as well as his son 
Richard, bore the title of lord protector. 

PROTEIDS. See PKOTEINE. 

PROTEINE (Gr. Trpwrof, first), a name given 
by Mulder to a product obtained by the action 
of potash on albuminoids, such as fibrin e, albu- 
men, and caseine, of which he considers it the 
base, the other factor being varying quantities of 
sulphimide, (NH 2 ) a S, and phosphimide, NH 2 P. 
It has, however, never been procured free from 
sulphur, and Liebig regarded Mulder's theory 
as not established, considering it only an albu- 
minous substance somewhat modified. But 
the bodies of which Mulder considered it the 
base are commonly called proteine bodies, or 
proteids, and are divided, according to Hoppe- 
Seyler, into seven classes, vi?. : 1. Albumens 
(soluble in water) : a, serum albumen ; 5, egg 
albumen. 2. Globulines (insoluble in water, 
but soluble in dilute acids and alkalies, and 
very dilute solutions of chloride of sodium and 
other neutral salts) : a, myosine ; ft, globuline ; 
c, fibrinogen; <?, vitelline. 3. Derived albu- 
men (insoluble in water and solutions of chlo- 
ride of sodium, but soluble in dilute acids and 
alkalies) : a, acid albumen ; ft, alkali albumen 
or caseine. 4. Fibrine (insoluble in water, 
sparingly soluble in dilute acids and alkalies 
and in neutral saline solutions). (See FIBRINE.) 
5. Coagulated proteid, formed by heating neu- 
tral solutions of proteids, or by the action of 
alcohol. 6. Amyloid substance, or lardaceine, 
a substance deposited in the liver and other 
organs in certain diseases. 7. Peptones, bodies 
formed from albuminous substances by the ac- 
tion of the gastric juice ; they are found only 
in the stomach and small intestines, disappear- 
ing as soon as they enter the lacteal vessels. 

PROTESILAUS, a legendary Thessalian prince, 
the first Greek slain in the Trojan war. It 
is said in the Iliad that he was the first who 
leaped from the ships upon the Trojan shore, 
and according to the ancient tradition recount- 
ed in Lncian he was killed by Hector. The 
great affection toward Protesilaus of his wife 
Laodamia is celebrated by the poets. After 
his death she prayed to be permitted to con- 
verse with him only for the space of three 
687 VOL. xiv. 3 



hours ; the prayer being granted, Mercury con- 
ducted Protesilaus to the upper world, and when 
he died a second time his wife died with him. 
PROTEST (Lat. protestari, to testify or de- 
clare against), a term used in many ways and 
for many purposes. One who is called upon 
to pay an import duty, a tax, a subscription, 
or the like, which he thinks he ought not to 
be required to pay, but is unwilling to encoun- 
ter the delay and expense of a lawsuit at that 
time, pays the sum demanded under protest ; 
that is, he accompanies the payment by a writ- 
ten and attested declaration of what he deems 
the illegality of the demand, and of his rights 
of defence and denial. This protest preserves 
all those rights ; and in any subsequent suit or 
other effort to get the money back, the pro- 
test will prevent him from being impeded by 
his payment. In legislation, the members of 
a deliberative body who dissent from the views 
of a majority, and have no power to prevent 
those views from going into effect, sometimes 
ask leave to put on the record of the body a 
declaration of their views, drawn up and signed 
by them. This is called their protest against 
the measure ; and leave to record it is usually 
given, if it is decent and temperate in its 
terms, and does not state what the majority 
regard as wilfully false or impertinent. If a 
vessel is wrecked, or meets with other injury 
from any peril of the sea, it is an ancient and 
nearly universal custom for the master, on his 
arrival at port after the injury, to appear be- 
fore a competent magistrate, and enter his 
protest against the accident or peril. In this 
protest he details the circumstances with suffi- 
cient fulness to sustain his declaration that the 
injury occurred, not through the fault of the 
vessel, but by reason of the peril stated. In 
the absence or disability of the master, the 
protest is made by the officers, or even by the 
seamen ; and when it is made by the master, 
he is usually accompanied by one or more of 
the officers, and by some of the seamen. A 
very important use of protest is made in the 
case of dishonored bills of exchange. (See 
EXCHANGE, BILL OF.) It is a universal law 
that a foreign bill of exchange, if not accepted, 
or if not paid at maturity, must be protested 
in order to hold all the parties to it. In this 
sense, the states of the Union are foreign to 
each other. Inland (or domestic) bills and 
promissory notes are often protested in the 
same way ; but this usage, so far as it exists, 
has grown up from the convenience of it, and 
not from any requirement of the law merchant. 
The protest should be made by a notary pub- 
lic ; and full faith is given in all countries to 
all the official acts verified by his seal, which 
acts are required by law merchant. He can- 
not properly delegate this power to any clerk 
or substitute. An acceptance or payment 
supra protest takes place when, a bill having 
been protested, a third person intervenes, and 
accepts or pays the bill for the honor of the 
party whose duty it was to accept or pay it ; 



PROTESTANT 



PROTEUS 



and this gives him a right to indemnity from 
the person for whom he accepts or pays. An 
acceptance or payment supra protest is some- 
times called an acceptance or payment for hon- 
or. Generally, where one accepts or pays for 
honor without designating for whose honor he 
acts, it will be deemed that he acts for all who 
were bound by the paper, and he acquires his 
right of indemnity against all whom he thus 
protects. But he may designate, if he chooses, 
the party for whose honor he acts, and then 
he protects only that party, and has no claim 
or rights against any other. 

PROTESTAXT, a collective name for a large 
body of Christian denominations, embracing 
in general all except the Roman Catholic and 
eastern churches. The name originated in 
1529 in Germany, at the diet of Spire. The 
majority of the members of the diet, in union 
with the representative of the emperor, had 
passed a resolution that those estates which 
had shown themselves favorable to the refor- 
mation should prohibit, until the convocation 
of an oecumenical council, all further innova- 
tions in religious matters, and in particular 
should not allow any alteration in the celebra- 
tion of the Lord's supper or the mass. To 
this resolution the evangelical estates, consist- 
ing of the elector of Saxony, the margrave of 
Brandenburg- Anspach, the duke of Brunswick- 
Liineburg, the landgrave of Hesse, the prince 
of Anhalt, and 14 imperial cities, refused to 
submit. They declared their readiness to obey 
the emperor and the diet in all "dutiful and 
possible matters;" but against any order con- 
sidered by them repugnant to " God and his 
holy Word, to their souls' salvation and their 
good conscience," they entered, on April 19, a 
solemn protest. Henceforth they were called 
Protestants. The signers of the first protest did 
not fully agree in all their theological views ; 
but they did agree in the protest against the 
authority of secular or ecclesiastical boards to 
compel obedience in matters of faith, and the 
name Protestant therefore came early into use 
as the collective name for all the Christian 
denominations in Switzerland, France, Eng- 
land, Scotland, Holland, and other countries 
which proclaimed the Bible to be the only 
rule of faith. (See Hauff, Die protestantische 
Eirche in Deutschland, Munich, 1861 ; Schen- 
kel, Das Wesen des Protestantisms, 2d ed., 
Schaffhausen, 1862; Frank, Ueber die G- 
schichte der protestantischen Theologie, 2 vols., 
Leipsic, 1862-'5 ; De Felice, Histoire des pro- 
testants de France, Paris, 1870; and Wylie, 
" History of Protestantism," London, 1874 et 
seq.) Protestantism is the predominant reli- 
gion in all the countries of the Teutonic race, 
excepting the German provinces of Austria; 
in the United States of America, the German 
empire, Great Britain, Holland, Denmark, 
Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, and most of 
the colonial possessions of these states. The 
aggregate population connected with or under 
the influence of Protestant churches at the 



close of 1874 is estimated in Schem's " Statis- 
tics of the World " (3d ed., 1875) as follows : 


DIVISIONS. 


PiotetUuU. 


Total population. 


America 


88,000,000 
71,800,000 
1,800,000 
1,200,000 
2,200,000 


84,600,000 
801.000,000 
798,000,000 
202,600,000 
4,400,000 


Europe 


Asia 


Africa 


Australia and Polynesia. . 
Total 


110,000,000 


1,891,000,000 





PROTECS (Laurenti), or Hypoehthon (Merr.), a 
perennibranchiate batrachian reptile, belong- 
ing to the same family as the axolotl and the 
menobranchus. The skin is naked and slimy, 
the body elongated and cylindrical, and the 
tail short, broad, and compressed laterally ; 
the branchial tufts are three pairs, and persis- 
tent during life; legs four, rather weak, the 
anterior three-toed and the posterior four- 
toed. The common proteus (P. anguinut, 
Laur.) is about a foot long and half an inch 
in diameter ; it is pale flesh-colored or white, 
with the branchial tufts bright crimson ; the 
teeth are small and sharp, in both jaws and on 
the palate ; the head triangular, and the snout 
obtuse; the eyes are very small, and without 
lids. It is found only in the subterranean 
waters of some caves of Europe, as in Carin- 




I'rotcus anguinua. 

thia and Tyrol, and especially in the Adelsberg 
cavern in Carniola. The respiration is essen- 
tially aquatic by means of the branchial tufts, 
though it has rudimentary lungs, rises to the 
surface to swallow air, and can live a short 
time out of the water, like the menobranchus ; 
its motions by means of the legs are sluggish 
and awkward, but it swims rapidly and with 
ease by lateral undulations; when the water 
of its subterranean retreat becomes low, it 
buries itself in the mud; the food consists of 
aquatic worms and insects, and soft-shelled 
mollusks. Several local varieties occur, gener- 
ally referred to the same species ; one of these 
is purplish with yellow spots, and larger, wide- 
ly extended, and coarsely divided gills ; these are 
described as species of hypochthon by Fitzinger 
in the Siteungsberichte of the academy of Vien- 
na for October, 1850. (See MKNOBEANOHTJS.) 
PROTEUS, in Greek and Roman mythology, 
a sea god subject to Neptune, whose flocks he 
tended. At midday he always arose from the 
flood and slept in the shadow of the rocks on 
the coast, and those who desired him to fore- 
tell the future were obliged to seize him at 



PROTOGENES 



PROTOPLASM 



33 



that time. He would assume various shapes 
to terrify or disgust, and thus drive away his 
questioner ; but when he found this subterfuge 
of no avail, he would yield to the demand. 

PROTOGEXES, a Greek painter, nourished 
toward the close of the 4th century B. C. 
He was born at Caunus in Caria, and for 
50 years lived unnoticed and poor at Rhodes, 
until through the intervention of Apelles the 
Rhodians became aware of his merit. When 
Demetrius Poliorcetes besieged the city, he 
was careful not to attack the most defence- 
less part, because it contained the works of 
Protogenes. He spent so much time on his 
works, that Apelles said he never knew when 
to take his hand off. The " lalysus " was con- 
sidered his masterpiece, and this when Pliny 
wrote was preserved in the temple of Peace at 
Rome. Protogenes was also a statuary, and 
according to Suidas wrote on art. 

PROTOPHYTES. See PEOTOZOA. 

PROTOPLASM (Gr. n-pwrof, first, and TrAdtr^a, 
form), & term applied to the supposed original 
substance from which all living beings are de- 
veloped, and which is the universal concomi- 
tant of every phenomenon of life. All that is 
comprehended for brevity under the term life, 
whether the growth of plants, the flight of 
birds, or a train of human thought, is thus 
supposed to be caused by corporeal organs 
which either themselves consist of protoplasm, 
or have been developed out of it. Wherever 
nutrition and propagation, motion and sensa- 
tion exist, there is as their material basis this 
substance designated in a general sense as pro- 
toplasm. The proof of it is held to be fur- 
nished by the protozoans called moners, the 
whole completely developed body of which 
consists solely of protoplasm. They are not 
only the simplest organisms with which we 
are acquainted, but also the simplest living be- 
ings we can conceive of as capable of existing ; 
and though their entire body is but a single, 
formless, small lump of protoplasm, and (each 
molecule of it being like the other) without 
any combination of parts, yet they perform 
all the functions which in their entirety con- 
stitute in the most highly organized animals 
and plants what is comprehended in the idea 
of life, namely, sensation and motion, nutri- 
tion and propagation. By examining these 
moners we shall gain a clear conception of 
the nature of protoplasm, and understand the 
important biological questions connected with 
the theory. Some moners live in fresh water, 
and others in the sea. They are as a rule in- 
visible to the naked eye, but some are as large 
as the head of a pin and may be distinguished 
without the aid of a microscope. When com- 
pletely at rest a moner commonly assumes the 
shape of a simple sphere. Either the surface 
of the body is quite smooth, or numerous ex- 
ceedingly delicate threads radiate from it in 
all directions. These threads are not perma- 
nent and constant organs of the slime-like 
body, but perishable continuations of it, which 



alternately appear and disappear, and may 
vary every moment in number, size, and form. 
For this reason they are called false feet or 
pseudopodia. Nevertheless, by means of these 
pseudopodia the moners perform all the func- 
tions of the higher animals, moving them like 
real feet either to creep, climb, or swim. By 
means of these sticky threads they adhere to 
foreign bodies as with arms, and by shortening 
or elongating them they drag their own bodies 
after them. Each thread, like the whole body, 
is capable of being contracted, and every por- 
tion of it is as sensitive and excitable as the en- 
tire form. When any point on the surface of 
the body is touched with the point of a pin, 
or with another body producing a chemical 
alteration, as for example a small drop of acid, 
or when a current of electricity is passed 
through it, the threads are drawn in, and the 
entire body contracts into the form of a spher- 
ical lump. The same threads perform also the 
function of providing alimentation. When a 
small infusorium or any other nutritive parti- 
cle comes accidentally in contact with the ex- 
tended pseudopodia, these run quickly over it 
like a fluid, wind around it with their numer- 
ous little branches, fuse into one, and press it 
into the interior of the body, where all the nu- 
tritive portions are rapidly absorbed and im- 
mediately assimilated, while all that is useless 
is quickly ejected. The variations among the 
different moners, of which so far 16 kinds 
have been described (Haeckel's Monographic 
der Monereri), consist partly in the various 
forms of the pseudopodia, but especially, in 
the different kinds of propagation. Some of 
them merely divide on reaching a certain size 
into halves ; others put forth little buds which 
gradually separate from them ; and others ex- 
perience a sudden division of the mass into 
numerous small spherical bodies, each of which 
instantly begins a separate existence and grad- 
ually reaches the size of the ancestral organ- 
ism. The chemical examination of the homo- 
geneous protoplasmic body shows that it con- 
sists throughout of an albuminous or slime-like 
mass, hence of that azotic carbonate of the 
character of the highly compounded connec- 
tive group called proteine, albuminoids, or plas- 
son bodies. Like other chemical compounds 
of this group, protoplasm exhibits several re- 
actions which distinguish it from all others. It 
is easy to detect it under the microscope, on 
account of the facility with which it combines 
with certain coloring matters, as carmine and 
aniline; it is colored dark yellow or yellow- 
ish brown by iodine and nitric acid ; and it is 
coagulated by alcohol and mineral acids, as 
well as by heat. The quantitative composition 
of protoplasm, though in some cases greatly 
varying, resembles as a whole that of other 
albuminoids, and hence consists of from 50 to 55 
per cent, of carbon, probably 6 to 8 of hydro- 
gen, 15 to 17 of nitrogen, 20 to 22 of oxygen, 
and 1 to 2 of sulphur. Protoplasm possesses 
the quality of absorbing water in various quan- 



PROTOPLASM 



titles, which renders it sometimes extremely 
soft and nearly liquid, and sometimes hard and 
firm like leather ; but it is usually of a medium 
degree of density. Its more prominent physi- 
cal qualities are excitability and contractility, 
which Kuhne and others have made a special 
subject of investigation. On examining the 
numerous substances constituting the various 
organs of the higher animals with the micro- 
scope, it appears that they all consist of a large 
number of minute elements, known since 
Schleiden and Schwann (1838) by the name of 
cells ; and in these cells protoplasm is the old- 
est, most primordial, and most important con- 
stituent. In every real cell there is, besides 
protoplasm, and while still alive and indepen- 
dent, a second important constituent, the cel- 
lular germ, so called (nucleus or cytoblast) ; 
but even this germ consists of an albuminous 
chemical compound which is closely related to 

Srotoplasm, and was originally produced from 
; by an exceedingly slight chemical alteration. 
The germ is usually a smaller and firmer forma- 
tion within the protoplasm of the cell. Inas- 
much as the idea of an organic cell, as now 
adopted by histologists, rests on the presence 
of two different essential parts in this ele- 
mentary organism, the internal cell and the 
external protoplasm, wo must distinguish also 
two different kinds of elementary organisms : 
gormless cytods, as moners for example, and 
the real germ-enclosing cells, which originate 
from the former by secreting in the inte- 
rior of the small mass of protoplasm a true 
germ or nucleus. Cells of the simplest kind 
consist only of protoplasm with a nucleus, 
while in general the cells of animal or vege- 
table bodies have also other constituents, par- 
ticularly and frequently an enclosing skin or 
capsule (the cellular membrane), also crystals, 
grains of fat, pigments, and the like, within 
the protoplasm. But all of these parts came 
into being only secondarily through the chem- 
ical action of protoplasm; they are but the 
internal and external products of protoplasm. 
(Raeckel's Qenerelle Morphologic, vol. i., p. 
279.) The single cell of the simplest kind is 
able to exist as an independent organism. 
Many of the lowest plants and animals, and 
also many neutral protista (which are nei- 
ther animals nor plants), retain for life the 
character of a simple cell. Such unicellular 
organisms of the simplest kinds are the anufba, 
found in large numbers as well in fresh as in 
salt water. Amoeba? are simple naked cells of 
various and varying forms. The whole differ- 
ence between them, especially protamceba, and 
certain moners, is that they have a germ. It 
is probable that this germ of the amoeba (as 
may be supposed to be the case with many 
and perhaps all other cells) is only an organ 
of propagation, and hence of heredity ; while 
all the other functions, alimentation, motion, 
and sensation, are performed by the proto- 
plasm. This seems to indicate that at the re- 
production of the cells, which is usually effect- 



ed by segmentation, it is the germ which first 
divides in two, and that the protoplasm after- 
ward gathers around each of the two sister 
germs till it also falls in two. It is impos- 
sible to distinguish from the common amoeba? 
the cellular ovules of many of the inferior ani- 
mals, as for example the sponges, medusa?, and 
other plant-like animals. "With these the eggs 
are simple naked cells, which, with the spon- 
ges especially, sometimes crawl about inde- 
pendently in the body of the animal, giving 
rise to the idea that they were a class of para- 
sitic amoeba?. But with other animals also, and 
with most plants, the eggs of which general- 
ly obtain subsequently special and often very 
complicated encasements and other additions, 
every egg is originally a simple cell. The semi- 
nal elements of the male are also only simple 
cells, and the entire mysterious process of fruc- 
tification is after all nothing but the fusion or 
concrescence of two different cells, the one a 
female egg cell, and the other a male semen cell. 
In consequence of this fusion the germs of the 
two combined cells dissolve, and therewith the 
young, newly generated individual begins his 
existence as a simple cytod, or a small gorm- 
less ball of protoplasm. But inside of this 
cytod soon arises a new germ, which turns 
it again into a cell, and this simple cell forms 
by oft repeated segmentation an accumulation 
of cells. Out of this heap are produced by 
secretion certain germinal layers or " germ 
leaves," and out of these proceed all the other 
organs of the complete being. Each of these 
organs again originally consists only of cells, 
and in all of these cells the essential constituent 
parts are only the germ and protoplasm : the 
germ as the elementary organ of propagation 
and heredity, protoplasm as the elementary 
organ of all the other functions, sensation, 
motion, alimentation, and adaptation. Cells 
and cytods, therefore, are true elementary or- 
ganisms, independent minute forms of life, 
which either in the lowest existences continue 
to live independently, or in the higher or- 
ganisms combine in numbers to form a com- 
munity. Cells and cytods are the veritable 
" formers " of life, or plastids. The most an- 
cient and primordial forms of plastids are 
cytods, the whole body of which consists of 
protoplasm, in which the germs are internally 
produced, and from which therefore the cells 
proceed. As a matter of course, to the infinite 
varieties presented by the organic forms and 
vital phenomena in the vegetable and animal 
kingdom, corresponds an equally infinite va- 
riety of chemical composition in the proto- 
plasm. The most minute homogeneous con- 
stituents of this "life substance," the proto- 
plasm molecules, or plastidules, as they are 
called by Elsberg, must in their chemical com- 
position present an infinite number of ex- 
tremely delicate gradations and variations. 
The atoms of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxy- 
gen, and sulphur, which compose each of the 
plastidnles, must enter into an infinite number 



PEOTOPLASM 



35 



of diverse stratifications and combinations. 
The chemistry of to-day, with its imperfect 
methods of investigation, is totally powerless 
before these intricate organic compounds, and 
it is possible only to surmise, from the infinitely 
varied physiological qualities of the number- 
less kinds of plastids, the infinite variety of 
plastidules out of which they are composed. 
According to the plastid theory recently 
advanced, the great variety of vital phenom- 
ena is the consequence of the infinitely deli- 
cate chemical difference in the composition of 
protoplasm, and it considers protoplasm to be 
the sole active life substance. This theory 
puts force and matter in living organisms into 
the same causal connection which has long 
been accepted for force and matter in inor- 
ganic bodies. This conception has been rap- 
idly matured, especially in the past 20 years, 
through the more exact information obtained 
in regard to the lowest kinds of organisms. 
Yet the idea had been grasped more than half 
a century ago ; for the " primordial slime " 
which Lorenz Oken proclaimed in 1809 to be 
the original source of life, and the material 
basis of all living bodies, possessed in all es- 
sentials the same qualities and the same im- 
portance now ascribed to protoplasm ; and the 
sarcode so called, which in 1835 was pointed 
out by the French zoologist F61ix Dujardin as 
the only living substance in the body of rhizo- 
pods and other inferior primitive animals, is 
identical with protoplasm. But when Schlei- 
den and Schwann, in 1838, developed their cell 
theory, they were not acquainted with the fun- 
damental significance of protoplasm. Even 
Hugo Mohl, who in 1846 was the first to apply 
the name protoplasm to the peculiar serous 
and mobile substance in the interior of vege- 
table cells, and who perceived its high impor- 
tance, was very far from understanding its 
significance in relation to all organisms. Not 
until Ferdinand Cohn (1850), and more fully 
Franz linger (1855), had established the iden- 
tity of the animate and contractile protoplasm 
in vegetable cells and the sarcode of the lower 
animals, could Max Schultze in 1858-'61 elabo- 
rate this protoplasm theory of the sarcode, so 
as to proclaim protoplasm to be the most 
essential and important constituent of all or- 
ganic cells, and to show that the bag or husk 
of the cell, the cellular membrane, and the in- 
tercellular substances, are but secondary parts 
of the cell, and are frequently wanting. In 
a similar manner Lionel Beale (1862) distin- 
guished such primary forming and secondary 
formed substances in all organic tissues, and 
gave to protoplasm, including the cellular 
germ, the name of " germinal matter," and to 
all the other substances entering into the com- 
position of tissues, being secondary and pro- 
duced, the name of "formed matter." The 
protoplasm theory received a wide and thor- 
ough illustration from the study of rhizopods 
which Ernst Haeckel published in 1862 in his 
MonograpMe der Radiolarien, and its complete 



application in the Generelle Morphologic der 
Organismen by the same naturalist. Haeckel 
distinguishes in these works, for the first time, 
between gormless protoplasm, consisting only 
of plastids called cytods by him, and the 
germ-containing real cells, the elementary or- 
ganism of which consists already of two differ- 
ent essential parts, germ and protoplasm. He 
conceived the cytods and cells as two differ- 
ent gradations of plastids, of organic elemen- 
tary individuals, or as " individuals of the first 
order," and adopted entirely, in regard to the 
individual independence of the plastids, the 
ideas which had been set forth by Eudolf Vir- 
chow and Ernst Brucke. Virchow, whose Cel- 
lular- Pathologic contains the most complete 
application of the cell theory to pathology, 
called the cells and the " cell territories " be- 
longing to them the individual hearth or source 
of life; Briicke designated them as "elemen- 
tary organisms." The plastids or individuals 
of the first order, identical with them, were 
determined by Haeckel phylogenetically, to 
the effect that eytods and cells must be dis- 
tinguished as two essentially different orders 
of formation; i. e., that cells were phylogenet- 
ically produced in a secondary manner from 
homogeneous cytods by means of the secretion 
of a germ by the protoplasm. This distinction 
is important for the reason that many of the 
lowest orders of organisms have no germ in 
the protoplasm; such is the case especially 
with the moners. These simplest of organ- 
isms were first discovered by Haeckel in 1864, 
and described by him in 1868 in his Monogra- 
phic der Moneren. Cienkowski and Huxley 
also made valuable investigations of various 
moners. The latter discovered in 1868 the fa- 
mous bachybius, a very remarkable kind of 
moner, which at immense depths covers the 
bottom of the sea in immeasurable numbers, 
and which consists of formless and variable 
protoplasm tissues of different sizes. Among 
the moners investigated by Cienkowski, the 
most interesting are the vampire cells, which 
are formless little bodies of protoplasm that 
bore into vegetable cells by means of their 
pointed pseudopodia, kill them, and absorb the 
protoplasm they find in them. On the basis 
of these discoveries Haeckel elaborated hia 
plastid theory and carbon theory, which give 
the extremest philosophical consequences of 
the protoplasm theory. In England the mo- 
nistic philosophy of protoplasm has received 
the most weighty support from Huxley, whose 
" Protoplasm, or the Physical Basis of Life " 
(1868), put it in its true light, and called forth 
numerous writings for and against it. One 
of the most recent treatises in favor of it is 
that of James Ross "On Protoplasm" (1874). 
Probably the name of plasson will be given to 
the primordial, perfectly structureless, and ho- 
mogeneous protoplasm of the moners and other 
cytods, in contradistinction to the protoplasm 
of germ-containing cells, which are produced 
only subsequently, by the differentiation of an 



36 



PROTRACTOR 



internal nucleus and external protoplasm by 
the plasson bodies of moners. Edouard van 
Beneden especially calls for this distinction in 
his Recherches sur revolution des gregarines ; 
and Haeckel has adduced new facts in favor of 
it in his Monographic der Ealkschwdmme. For 
the theory of " primordial generation," the 
spontaneous generation of the first vitality on 
earth, the distinction is of special importance, 
aa the first organisms thus produced could have 
been only structureless specks of plasson, like 
the bathybius and other moners. The great 
theoretical difficulties formerly in the way of 
the theory of primordial or spontaneous gener- 
ation have been removed by the discovery of 
the moners and the establishment of the plas- 
tid theory. As the protoplasm of the bathy- 
bius is not yet as much as individualized, while 
in the case of other moners there are individ- 
ual lumps of constant sizes, it follows that the 
moners are to be regarded as the natural bodies 
which effect the transition from inorganic to 
organic nature. The following list of publica- 
tions gives the literature of the important dis- 
coveries in this field in chronological order : 
Hugo Mohl, Ueber die Saftbewegung im In- 
nern der Zellc (in Botanitche Zeitung, 1846); 
Ferdinand Cohn, Nachtrdge zur Naturge- 
tchichte des Protococcu* plunialis (in Nora Acta 
Natures Curiotorum, 1850); Hugo Mohl, Grund- 
euge der Anatomic und Physiologic der tege- 
tabilwchen Zelle (1851) ; Franz Unger, Anato- 
mic und Physiologic der Pflamen (1855) ; Max 
Schultze, Innere Bewegungserscheinungen lei 
Diatomeen (in Troschel's Architftir Naturge- 
tchichte, 18(50), Die Gattung Cornuspira unter 
den Monothalamien, &c. (1860), and Ueber 
Muskelkorperchen und das was man eine Zell 
eu nennen habe (1861) ; Ernst BrQcke, Elemen- 
tar-Organism (in Sitzungsberichte der Wiener 
Akademie, 1861); Ernst Haeckel, Die Sareodc 
der Radiolarien : Monographic der Radiola- 
rien (1862); Lionel Beale, " The Structure of 
the Simple Tissues of the Human System" 
(1862); Mai Schultze, Das Protoplatma der 
Rhizopoden und der Pflamentellen (1863); 
Haeckel, Ueber den Sarcodekorper der Rhizo- 
poden (Zeittchrift fiir wissenschaftliche Zo- 
ologic, 1864); Wilhelra KQhne. Untersuchun- 
gen uoer das Protoplastma und die Contractili- 
tdt (1864); Haeckel, Oenerelle Morphologic der 
Organismen (1866), and Monographic der Mo- 
neren (in Jena ische Zeitschrtftfur Naturwissen- 
tchaft, 1867); Huxley, "Protoplasm, or the 
Physical Basis of Life " (1868), and " On some 
Organisms living at Great Depths in the North 
Atlantic Ocean " (in " Journal of Microscopical 
Science," 1868); Haeckel, Beitrdge *ur Phtsti- 
den Theorie (in Jenaiwhe Zeitxchrift, 1870) ; 
Rudolf Virchow, Die Cellularpathologie in 
ihrer Begrundung auf physiologische und pa- 
thologische Gewebelehre (4th ed., 1871) ; Edou- 
ard van Beneden, Recherches ur revolution det 
gregarines (in Bulletin de Facademie royale 
de Belgique, 1871) ; Haeckel, Monographic der 
Ealkschw&mme (1872) ; James Ross, " On Pro- 



toplasm " (London, 1874) ; John Drysdale, M. 
D., " The Protoplasmic Theory of Life " (1875) ; 
and H. Charlton Bastian, " Evolution and the 
Origin of Life" (1875). "As regards Proto- 
plasm," by J. H. Stirling (Edinburgh, 1869), is 
intended as a refutation of the theory. 

PROTOZOA (Gr. Trporo?, first, and ov, ani- 
mal), a subdivision of invertebrate animals, 
proposed by Siebold, since adopted by Leuck- 
art and Vogt, and now generally admitted by 
naturalists. As they include the lowest and 
in most cases the most microscopic of animals, 
the limits of this division are not well defined ; 
they comprise many of the so-called animal- 
cules, as well as the large sponges. They are 
composed of a nearly structureless, jelly-like 
substance, called protoplasm or sarcode, with- 
out distinct segments, internal cavity, or ner- 
vous system, and with no or a very rudimen- 
tary digestive apparatus. (See PROTOPLASM.) 
Dr. Engelmann has observed in arcella, a mi- 
nute amoeba-like protozoan, a periodical devel- 
opment of gas in the granular protoplasm, un- 
connected with the contractile vacuoles or the 
nuclei. He thinks this is a voluntary act, and 
that the bubbles are used in the manner of a 
float or air bladder. Its chemical composition 
and the mechanism of its production and ab- 
sorption were not determined. The usually 
accepted division is into the classes of gregari- 
nidce, rhitopoda (like amcebao, foraminifers, and 
sponges), and infusoria, the highest, with a 
mouth and digestive apparatus, like the bell 
animalcules and paramctcium. As these rep- 
resent the first step in animal organization, so 
do the protophytes tho first in vegetable life ; 
the former were called ouzoa by Carus, from 
their resemblance to the ova or germs of 
higher animals; the latter, as far as known, 
were microscopic seaweeds, without the radi- 
ate structure characteristic of plants, and are 
found in the lower Silurian strata. (See ANI- 
MALCULES, BATHYBIUS, COCCOLITHS, FORAMI- 
NIFERA, GLOBIOERINA, and GREQARINA.) See 
Prof. Packard on tho " Development of Pro- 
tozoa," in tho " American Naturalist," Decem- 
ber, 1874, to February, 1875. 

PROTRACTOR, an instrument for laying off 
angles in plotting. There are four principal 
forms of the protractor : the rectangular, the 
semicircular, the circular, and the reflecting. 
The rectangular consists usually of a thin rec- 
tangular piece of ivory or metal, three edges 
of which are graduated from to 180 degrees 
by portions of radii converging to the middle 
of the fourth edge as a centre ; it is used only 
where a loose approximation to accuracy suf- 
fices. The circular and semicircular protractors, 
with either two, one, cr no arms, are graduated 
circular arcs (usually metal), with or without 
flat straight-edged arms, turning about their 
perforated centres, and carrying verniers for 
the accurate reading of their arcs. But as they 
are only capable of protracting and measuring 
single angles on a map, they have not so wide 
a. range of usefulness in engineering and sur- 



PROUDHON 



37 



veying as the three-arm protractor. The three- 
arm circular protractor is a modification of the 
station-pointer, differing from it in having its 
verniers movable and its arcs fixed, instead 
of the opposite. It consists of a graduated 
circular arc fixed to the middle one of three 
long flat arms which turn about its centre, from 
which diverge their straight fiducial edges. 
Fixed to each of the side arms is an index and 
vernier, by means of which those arms can be 
set so as to make any required angles with the 
middle arm. This instrument furnishes the 
readiest and most accurate graphic solution of 
the three-point problem on which hydrogra- 
phers so universally depend for determining 
positions of the sounding boat. The reflect- 
ing protractor, invented in January, 1874, by 
T. J. Lowry of the United States coast survey, 
enables one observer to measure at the same 
instant two adjacent angles, and plot them with 
the same instrument. It is obtained by placing 
between the fixed and each of the movable 
arms of the three-arm protractor an index 
arm ; and each of these is so connected with 
those by means of jointed parallelograms that 
it always bisects the angle contained by the 
fixed arm and its corresponding movable pro- 
tractor arm. Each of these index arms carries 
a mirror mounted perpendicular to its plane 
(and over its centre) of motion ; these mirrors 
may be mounted to move either in the same 
or in parallel planes. (See SEXTANT.) Slightly 
forward of these mirrors on the line of sight 
is fixed a horizon glass, half silvered to admit 
of direct and reflected vision. As the angular 
distance moved over by a mirror while mea- 
suring an angle is only half of the actual angle 
measured, and as each of these movable pro- 
tractor arms is driven along its arc simulta- 
neously with and twice as fast as its corre- 
sponding index arm, the angles contained by 
the fixed and movable protractor arms are the 
actual angles measured. When using the re- 
flecting protractor the observer brings its face 
into the plane passing through his eye and 
three objects, and then sets his index arm so 
that the reflected and direct images of the 
objects (say left-hand and middle) of one of 
the desired angles are not coincident, yet ap- 
proaching on account of the progress of the 
boat, and with the second index glass he makes 
the images of the right-hand and middle ob- 
jects coincident, and keeps them so with the 
tangent screw till the first two objects become 
coincident, then clamps, and the angles are 
measured and also ready set off on the instru- 
ment. He now places the instrument on the 
map and shifts it until the fiducial edges of its 
protractor arms traverse the three points ob- 
served on, and dots the centre of the position. 
PROIDHON, Jean Baptiste Victor, a French jurist, 
born at Chanans, Franche-Comt6, Feb. 1, 1758, 
died in Dijon, Nov. 20, 1838. During the 
revolution he was judge at Pontarlier and as- 
sistant deputy to the legislative assembly, and 
afterward a member of the civil tribunal at 



Besan?on. In 1802 he delivered free lectures 
on law ; in 1806 he was appointed professor 
of civil law in the school of Dijon, and in 1809 
became dean of the faculty. His principal 
works are : Traite sur Vetat des personnel et 
sur le titre preliminaire du Code civil (1810) ; 
Traite des droits d'usufruit, &c. (9 vols., 
1823-'6) ; and Traite du domaine public (5 
vols., 1834-'5). 

PROtDHON, Pierre Joseph, a French political 
writer, born in Besancon, July 15, 1809, died 
at Passy, Paris, Jan. 19, 1865. He was edu- 
cated at the college of his native city, became 
apprentice to a printer, and in 1837 was taken 
into partnership by a printing firm at Besancon. 
He published an edition of the Bible with an- 
notations upon the principles of the Hebrew 
language, and reprinted Bergier's Elements 
primitifs des langues (1837), with an anony- 
mous Essai de grammaire generate, by himself, 
as an appendix. This essay received from the 
academy of Besancon a prize consisting of a 
triennial pension of 1,500 francs, which en- 
abled him to visit Paris. Here he became a 
contributor to Parent Desbarres's Encyclopedic 
catholique, and wrote for the Besangon acad- 
emy a prize essay, De la celebration du di- 
manche (1840), and a paper entitled Qtfest-ce que 
la propriete ? This pamphlet, which opened 
with the afterward celebrated dictum, La pro- 
priete c j est le vol, was censured by the academy, 
who at once cut short Proudhon's allowance ; 
but the economist Blanqui, who had been ap- 
pointed to examine it, declared that he found 
nothing objectionable in it. It was followed 
in 1841 by another pamphlet on the same 
question, and in 1842 by an Avertissement aux 
proprietaires, for which he was arraigned be- 
fore a jury at Besanc.on, but was acquitted. 
In the same year he went to Lyons, and from 
1843 to 1847 was director of a company run- 
ning freight boats on the Sa6ne and Rh&ne. 
In the mean time he continued to propagate 
his opinions in De la creation de Vordre dans 
Vhumanite (1843), presenting the theory of a 
new political organization, and Systeme des 
contradictions economiques (2 vols. 8vo, 1846). 
On the breaking out of the revolution of Feb- 
ruary, 1848, he was in Paris engaged in the 
publication of his Solution du probleme social, 
a plan of social reform by means of a new 
organization of credit and monetary circula- 
tion. On April 1 he became the editor of Le 
representant du peuple, a daily journal of radi- 
cal opinions, suspended in August. On June 
4 he was elected deputy to the constituent 
assembly, and on July 31 he came forward 
to urge a proposition which he had previously 
made for the establishment of a progressive 
income tax, the design of which was the 
abolition of interest on capital, and eventual- 
ly the consolidation of the republican govern- 
ment. This was almost unanimously voted 
down " as an odious attack upon the principles 
of public morality and an appeal to the worst 
passions." He closed his parliamentary career 



38 



PROUT 



PROVENCAL LANGUAGE, &c. 



by opposing (Nov. 4) the adoption of the con- 
stitution, which he looked upon as "dangerous 
to liberty." He next edited in succession three 
short-lived journals, the last of which expired 
Oct. 13, 1850. These papers were repeatedly 
condemned by the courts, but the fines imposed 
upon the editor were immediately paid by his 
admirers. His printed speeches and pam- 
phlets, including his Droit au travail (1848), 
Les Malthusiens, Demonstration du socialisme, 
and Ideea revolutionnaires (1849), found a 
ready sale among men of all opinions, and 
elicited answers from the ablest pens in the 
conservative party. In January, 1849, he had 
undertaken to establish la banque du peuple, 
an institution of gratuitous credit, by means 
of which he hoped to bring his theory into 
operation; but in this he was interrupted, 
March 28, by a sentence of three years' impris- 
onment for illegal publications, which he at 
first avoided by flight. After sojourning in 
Geneva for a few months, ho delivered him- 
self up (June 4), and was incarcerated succes- 
sively in the Conciergerie, at Doullens, and in 
the prison of Sto. P61agie, where in 1850 he 
married a merchant's daughter. During his 
imprisonment he wrote Confessions d'un revo- 
lutionnaire (1849), Actes de la revolution (1849), 
Oratuite du credit (1850), and Larerolution so- 
ciale demontree par le coup d'etat (1852), which 
created a deep sensation and was looked upon 
as a partial apology for Napoleon's policy. He 
was liberated on June 4, 1852 ; in 1856 pub- 
lished a Manuel des operations de la bourse, a 
satire on stockjobbers and speculators; and 
soon afterward De la justice dans la revolution 
et dans Teglise, nouteaux principes de philo- 
sophic pratique (3 vols., 1858), which he ironi- 
cally dedicated to the archbishop of Besanvon. 
This metaphysical work, a covert attack upon 
the established order of things, was seized by 
the police, and its author was sentenced to 
three years' imprisonment and a fine of 4,000 
francs ; but Proudhon was in Belgium, where 
he remained till November, 1860, when the 
amnesty granted to the press by Napoleon III. 
permitted him to return to Paris. His princi- 
pal later works are: La guerre et la paix (2 
vols., 1861) ; Theorie de Vimpot (1861) ; La 
federation et Punite en Italic (1862); and Du 
principe federattf et de la neeessite dereconsti- 
tuer le parti de la revolution (1863). Among 
his posthumous work's are : Les fivanyilet an- 
note* (1865), which was seized and the editor 
was sentenced to a year's imprisonment ; and 
France et Rhin (1867). See Proudhon, a vie, 
ses ceuvres et sa corrcspondance, by Charles 
Clement (1872). The first volume of his cor- 
respondence was published in 1874, and is to 
be followed by seven others, besides several 
additional posthumous works. 

PROrT, Father. See MAHONY, FRANCIS. 

PROUT, Samuel, an English water-color paint- 
er, born in Plymouth, Sept. 17, 1783, died in 
London, Feb. 10, 1852. Some sketches of Cor- 
nish scenery which he executed for Britton the 



antiquary first brought him into notice, and in 
1805 he removed to London. He published a 
series of studies executed in lithography (1816) ; 
" Facsimiles of Sketches made in Flanders and 
Germany;" "Sketches in France, Switzerland, 
and Italy;" "Antiquities of Chester;" "Hints 
on Light and Shade, Composition, &c., as ap- 
plicable to Landscape Painting;" "Microcosm, 
the Artist's Sketch Book of Groups of Figures, 
Shipping, and other Picturesque Objects;" and 
" Hints for Beginners." 

PROCT, William, a Scottish physician, born in 
1786, died in London, April 9, 1850. He re- 
ceived his professional education at the univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, but passed the greater part 
of his life in London. His researches on the 
application of chemistry to the explanation of 
the phenomena of life are contained in an im- 
portant work " On the Nature and Treatment 
of Stomach and Renal Diseases " (5th ed., 
1848). He also published "An Inquiry into 
the Nature and Treatment of Gravel " (1821) ; 
" Chemistry, Meteorology, and the Function 
of Digestion, considered with reference to Nat- 
ural theology," a Bridgewater treatise (1834 ; 
4th ed., 1855) ; and a number of papers in sci- 
entific magazines and transactions. 

PROVENCAL LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 
Provencal belongs to the Romance or Romanic 
group of the Aryan or Indo-European family 
of speech. (See ROMANCE LANGUAGES.) Its 
real home is the south of France, the boun- 
dary line running through Dauphiny, Lyou- 
nais, Auvergne, Limousin, Perigord, and Sain- 
tongo. It is spoken also in the east of Spain, 
Catalonia, Valencia, and the Baleares, and in 
Savoy and a portion of Switzerland. At pres- 
ent several dialects may be distinguished : 
New Provencal, Languedocian, Limousinian, 
Auvorgnian, Dauphinese, Waldensian, Gascon, 
and Catalan. The Provencal language sepa- 
rated from the idiom of northern France, des- 
ignated as la langue d*oil, from the use of the 
affirmation oil (Lat. illud), about the begin- 
ning of the 9th century. Probably there was 
once but one Romance language in the whole of 
Gaul, though some of the early literary monu- 
ments which are generally produced as exam- 
ples of the original uniform tongue, also dating 
from the 9th century, have a preponderance 
of French forms. In order to distinguish the 
newly formed dialect of the south of France 
from Italian, Spanish, and French, and to give 
it a geographically comprehensive name, it was 
natural to select for it the name of the largest 
province within its territory. Thus, in dis- 
tinction from romana, came into use la lengua 
proensal, la proewal, le proensaUs, and vulgar 
proensal ; and the people who spoke it were 
called Provincial**, though also Francigence. It 
received also the name of Limousinian (lemosi), 
after the province of Limousin, which was 
gradually transferred also to the Catalonian- 
Valencian idiom. As a large part of southern 
France came to be called Languedoc or Llen- 
guadoch, after the use of the affirmation oe 



PEOVENQAL LANGUAGE AND LITERATUEE 



(Lat. hoc), which is the origin also of the mid- 
dle Latin name Occitania and of the French 
adjective occitanien, later writers fell into the 
habit of applying the name of langue floe to 
the whole Provencal language, while it should 
be strictly confined to the Occitanian dialect. 
The middle of the 10th century furnishes the 
first monument of the Provencal language, but 
its principal development occurred in the 12th 
and 13th centuries, the flourishing period of 
the peculiar poetry of the troubadours. But 
as early as the middle of the 13th century the 
language ceased to be used by the higher 
classes. As the troubadours took particular 
pains to ridicule the clergy and the practices 
of the church, they drew upon themselves the 
ill will of the ecclesiastical party, and in 1245 
Innocent IV. issued a bull in which he called 
Provencal the language of heretics, and for- 
bade its use by students. The wars which 
during the early part of the 13th century deso- 
lated the south of France were also fatal to 
the language. The troubadours sought refuge 
at the court of Aragon and in Catalonia, and 
kept the language for a time from corruption ; 
but by the beginning of the 14th century Pro- 
vencal generally succumbed in Spain also to 
the adjacent dialects. An attempt was made 
to preserve the language by establishing con- 
sistories of the " gay science " in Toulouse and 
Barcelona, but their success was short. In 
Italy, in the northwest of which it was spoken, 
it was quickly forgotten on the revival of the 
ancient literature, and was superseded by Tus- 
can. The language thus passed into dialects 
spoken only by the peasantry in its former 
territory, and its use for poetical composition 
has come to be only a matter of caprice. 
Provencal is the earliest Eomance language 
which received grammatical treatment ; but 
the object was only to check the carelessness 
of expression on the part of the poets, and 
thus to counteract the threatening decadence 
of the language. Provencal scarcely ever de- 
veloped into a uniform literary language, as 
the poets lived at the various courts. But the 
efforts on the part of the troubadours to attain 
a certain elegance, ease, and variety of diction, 
causing them to reject many expressions as 
inelegant and impure, led to the formation of 
a choicer language than that used by the 
masses, which was called lo dreg proensal, or 
la dreita parladura ; this was not peculiar 
to any one province, though not without pro- 
vincialisms. The want of an orthography, and 
the indefiniteness of the dialectical variations, 
render it very difficult to determine either 
the pronunciation or the construction of the 
language. The grammatical treatises of Uk 
Faidit and Eaimon Vidal hardly touch upon 
these subjects. They contain discourses on 
long and short syllables, and there is an at- 
tempt to show the difference of pronunciation 
between French and Provencal. Only the 
Leys d'amors makes frequent reference to the 
value of the letters and to orthography. The 



forms fan and fatz, plai and plats, faire and 
far, conques and conquis, ditz and di, and the 
like, are used for the same words by one poet, 
and the rhymes follow accordingly ; yet such 
instances cannot be cited to prove that quar 
(Lat. quare) was pronounced differently from 
car, or altre otherwise than autre; for quar 
and altre may have been written according to 
etymology, while car and autre represented the 
pronunciation. Accordingly but little is said 
in modern philological works on Provencal 
about the pronunciation of it. "When Ray- 
nouard, the great student of the langue d'oc, 
was interrogated in regard to it, he replied : 
II n*y a pas de prononciation provencale 
(" There is no Provencal pronunciation ") ; and 
Diez, who has given the fullest treatise on 
Provencal vowels and consonants, admits that 
there is a great amount of truth in the reply. 
The characteristics of the modern Proven- 
cal dialects are the following. In the New 
Provencal many words ending in e in French 
have t, as agi, couragi; au is generally sound- 
ed oou ; I is changed into u and II (as in 
fille) into y ; and c before a is sometimes 
guttural and sometimes palatal. The Occita- 
nian dialects of Languedoc resemble New Pro- 
vencal very closely. In Toulouse oi is sound- 
ed instead of ei ; in Montpellier, io for ue ; 
the letter I is not always changed into u ; final 
n, preserved in Montpellier, is dropped in Tou- 
louse ; Latin ct and di change into ch, and 
into I. The Limousinian dialect may be di- 
vided into Upper and Lower Limousinian. In 
the latter a is generally sounded as o, ai as ei, 
ieu as iou, ch as ts, j and soft g as dz. In Au- 
vergne ai becomes one ; oi,'eu ; eu and iu, iau ; 
final I and n disappear; s, c, and z often be- 
come palatals; ch is sounded as in French, and 
final c as t ; I often becomes r. In Dauphiny, 
especially at Grenoble, the influence of the 
French pronunciation becomes more apparent, 
while the Waldensian dialect has experienced 
some changes through the influence of Italian. 
In fact, we may doubt whether the latter has 
been directly derived from Provencal, though 
the early Waldensian literary monuments be- 
token a near kinship to it. Gascon still shows 
its Provencal origin, but it has absorbed so 
many foreign elements that its parentage is 
greatly obscured. Prominent among its pe- 
culiarities are the preceding of r by a, open- 
ing II for I, internal r for I, ch for and , 
qua sounded with an audible u, 5 for , and h 
for f. Catalan is properly not a dialectical 
variation of Provencal, but rather an indepen- 
dent idiom closely related to it. Its peculiari- 
ties are the change of mute e into a ; the pres- 
ervation of e and o without change into diph- 
thongs ; the absence of ie, ue, iei, ieu, and the 
rare use of other diphthongs and triphthongs ; 
the softening of I into II; the dropping of 
Latin final n ; the palatal sounds of g, j, and 
x; ch in the beginning of words for c; the 
sound of e for c ; and the audible u in qua and 
gua. Valencian is almost the same as Catalan, 



PROVENCAL LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 



only somewhat softer in pronunciation. The 
first monument of the Provencal language be- 
longs to the middle of the 10th century. It 
is a fragment of 257 ten-syllable verses on 
Boethius, and has been preserved in a manu- 
script of the llth century, which, according 
to Paul Meyer, and as appears from the lan- 
guage and mode of writing, originated in Li- 
mousin or Auvergne. Next in historical order 
come a few partly Provencal poems, including 
a long poem on the passion of Christ, and the 
legend of St. Leodegar, published in Cham- 
pollion-Figeac's Documents hiatoriqv.es. Ray- 
nouard has collected several Latin documents 
with sentences of Provencal interspersed, da- 
ting from about 860 to 1080 ; and other docu- 
ments in part or entirely Provencal, of a later 
date, have been embodied in Bartsch's Chret- 
tomathie. Several minor poems on religious 
subjects and several sermons, dating from 
about the llth century, have been collected by 
Paul Meyer. Of the same date, or perhaps of 
the beginning of the 12th century, is a manu- 
script recently published by Konrad Hoffmann, 
containing a paraphrase of the discourse of 
Christ in John xiii. The main feature of the 
flourishing period of Provencal literature is 
the poetry of the troubadours. According to 
Quiraut Riquier, it would seem that the trou- 
badours were in a measure the successors and 
disciples of tho jongleurs, who made a sort 
of trade of rhyming and singing and dancing. 
Some account of the art d trobar (art of in- 
venting) is necessary for an adequate idea of 
the main characteristic of Provencal poetry. 
In one class of versification, the canson (canzo, 
canzoneta), the rhymes, pauses, and general 
manner of the first stanza had to be main- 
tained through all the succeeding stanzas, and 
at the close came a commiato, or summary 
of the whole, addressed by the poet to his 
friends, patrons, or mistress. The sircente 
permitted greater ease of composition, and 
while the canson was used chiefly for moral 
and amorous effusions, the office of the lat- 
ter poetic form was to serve as a vehicle for 
attacks on the secular and spiritual lords, as 
well as for love songs of a satirical or light 
nature. In the tensons, or poetic combats, 
two or more persons support opposite sides on 
some subject of philosophy or love. Though 
these combats were originally extemporary, in 
later times several troubadours would choose 
a common subject and metre ; the first would 
compose a stanza and transmit it to another, 
who would compose the second stanza, and so 
on ; and when each of the disputants had 
added his part, the whole would be submitted 
to competent judges, forming what was called 
a "court of love." There are also epistolary 
treatises on the subjects of love, friendship, 
and chivalry, which were called donaire, sa- 
lutz, and ensenhamen. The plarih is a kind 
of elegy celebrating the memory of a fallen 
knight, or mourning over disappointments in 
love. Little poems sung during the dance were 



called balada and dansa ; they were mostly of 
a very simple nature. The serena, serenade 
or evening song, gives utterance to the most 
passionate love, but only one has come down 
to us. The alba, or waking song, reminds the 
lovers that it is dawn. The pastoreta or pas- 
torela generally gives a conversation held be- 
tween a knight and a shepherdess, one com- 
plimenting the other, and always on the sub- 
ject of love. The earliest troubadour of whom 
any poetic remains have been preserved ia 
William IX. of Poitiers (1071-1127). Among 
the most important Provencal poets subsequent 
to him must be mentioned first of all Giraud 
de Borneil (1170-1220), who in the opinion of 
his contemporaries was the greatest of all. 
Richard Coeur de Lion of England, Alfonso 
II. of Aragon, and Robert I. of Anvergne 
were also celebrated troubadours. They were 
excelled, however, by Bertrand de Born, their 
contemporary, whom Dante and Uhland would 
have immortalized if his own fiery and warlike 
rhymes had not. Other famous troubadours 
toward the end of the 12th century were Mar- 
cabrnn, Jaufre, Randal, Count Rambaut III. 
of Orange, Peire of Auvergne, Peire Rogier, 
Peire Raimon of Toulouse, Arnaut de Marueil, 
Peire Vidal, Rambaut de Vaqueiras, Peirol, the 
monk of Montauban, and Arnaut Daniel. To 
the 13th century belong the names of Faidit> 
Raimon of Miraval, Savarik of Mauleon, Uk 
of Saint Cyr, Aimerik of Peguilain, Peiro 
Cardinal, Gnillem Figueiras, Sordel, Bonifaci 
Calvo, Bertolome Zorgi, and Quiraut Riquier. 
Among the treatises on the troubadour's art 
stands foremost La dreita maniera de trobar, 
" The Correct Art of Versifying," by Raimon 
Vidal, who seems to have been a famous trou- 
badour of the middle of the 18th century. 
Another, but more of a grammatical nature, is 
the Donatut Provincialis by Uk Faidit, extant 
in two editions, one Romance, the other Latin ; 
both have been published in Guessard's Gram- 
maires romanes inedites. A full grammar and 
science of poetry was published by the con- 
sistory del gay saber of Toulouse, and edited 
by Moulinier, entitled Leys d'amors, " Laws of 
Love," t. ., of the poetry of love. A portion 
of it, Lasflors del gay saber, appeared in 1856. 
But by this time Provencal verse was almost 
extinct. The troubadours had lost their most 
eminent patrons, and the attempt to revive 
them by distributing prizes for the best com- 
position in the floral games of Toulouse failed 
to establish the name of any Provencal poet. 
Still, there have always been some who used 
Provencal for their poetic compositions, and 
in the 19th century several have even gained 
celebrity as Proven9al poets. Foremost among 
these stands Jacques Jasmin, the barber of 
Agen (1798-1864), and after him come Jos6 
Roumanille, Theodore Aubanel, and the mar- 
quis de la Fare-Alais. The most eminent liv- 
ing Provencal poet undoubtedly is Frd6rio 
Mistral, the pupil of Roumanille, and one of 
the largest contributors to Li Prouvenfalo 



PROVENCE 



PKOVERBS 



(1852), a collection of modern Provencal poe- 
try. His fame rests principally on his charm- 
ing rustic epic entitled Mireio (1859), trans- 
lated by himself into modern French (Mireille), 
and set to music by Gounod, and of which 
there are versions in English by H. Crich- 
ton and by Harriet W. Preston. The earliest 
writers on the Proven9al literature were Car- 
dinal Bembo and Jean de Nostre Dame, or 
Nostradamus, brother of the astrologer. Nos- 
tre Dame collected a large number of manu- 
scripts, and composed a work on the lives and 
writings of the old Provencal poets. Lacurne 
de Sainte-Palaye expended a vast amount of 
time and labor in ransacking the libraries of 
France and Italy, and collecting materials on 
the subject, which the abb6 Millot published 
under the title of Histoire litteraire des trou- 
badours (3 vols., Paris, 1774; abridged English 
translation by Mary Dobson, London, 1779). 
But it is chiefly to M. Raynouard, a native of 
Provence, that we are indebted for our knowl- 
edge of the Provencal. In his Choix des poe- 
sies originates des troubadours (6 vols., Paris, 
1816-'21), he published vestiges of their early 
poetry, and lives and extracts from the wri- 
tings of about 350 poets. Previously he had 
written a grammar of the language (1816), 
end to this he added a lexicon which appeared 
after his death (6 vols., 1838-'44). In his foot- 
steps followed Charles Claude Fauriel, whose 
Histoire de la poesie provencale (3 vols. 8vo, 
Paris, 1846 ; abridged English translation, 
New York, 1860), delivered in a series of lec- 
tures as professor in the faculty of letters at 
Paris, is the most elaborate work on the sub- 
ject upon which it treats. In Germany the 
study of Provencal received a scientific foun- 
dation at the hands of Friedrich Diez, whose 
Die Poesie der Troubadours (Zwickau, 1826) 
and Leben und WirTcen der Troubadours (1829) 
have been translated into French and English. 
See also Mahn, Die WerTce der Troubadours in 
provemalischer Sprache (Berlin, 1846 et seg.\ 
Die Biographien der Troubadours (1853), and 
Gedichte der Troubadours (4 vols., 1856-'68); 
Paul Meyer, Anciennes poesies religiemes en 
langue d'oc (Paris, 1860), Cours d'histoire de 
la litterature provencale (1865), and JRecueil 
d'anciens textes bas-latins, provenfaux et fran- 
fais (1873 et seq.) ; Bohmer, Die provemalische 
Poesie der Gegenwart (Berlin, 1870) ; Karl 
Bartsch, Grundriss zur GescJiichte der pro- 
tenzalischen Liter atur (1872), and Ghrestoma- 
thie provencale (Paris, 1875); and Rutherford, 
" The Troubadours : their Loves and their 
Lyrics" (London, 1873). 

PROVENCE, an ancient province of S. E. 
France, bounded N. by Dauphiny and Venais- 
sin, E. by the Alps, S. by the Mediterranean, 
and "W. by Languedoc. It was a part of the 
territory to which the Romans gave the name 
of Provincia, and was divided into Upper and 
Lower Provence, watered by the Rh6ne, Du- 
rance, and Var, and celebrated for its delight- 
ful climate and rich fruits, though the soil 



is somewhat arid. Its capital was Aix. It 
now forms the departments of Basses-Alpes, 
Bouches-du-Rh6ne, and Var, and a part of 
those of Dr6me, Vaucluse, and Alpes-Mari- 
times. This territory passed into the hands 
of the Visigoths in the 5th century, and of 
the Ostrogoths in the 6th, and, after being for 
a while in the possession of Austrasia, fell to 
Lothaire on the division of the empire of 
Charlemagne. In the latter part of the 9th 
century it formed part of Cisjurane Burgundy, 
and in the 10th of the kingdom of Aries, which 
was subsequently united to Germany ; but 
Provence meanwhile was governed by virtual- 
ly independent counts, who about 1063 became 
hereditary. In the middle of the 13th century 
it passed by marriage into the possession of 
Charles of Anjou, afterward king of Naples. 
The last count, Charles, grandson of Ren6 the 
Good, bequeathed it in 1481 to Louis XL, and 
it was united to the crown of France by 
Charles VIII. in 1486. 

PROVERBS, a book of the Old Testament, 
entitled in the Hebrew original as well as the 
Septuagint and the Vulgate " The Proverbs of 
Solomon." Its real or final authorship, how- 
ever, is not ascribed to Solomon, for it is ex- 
pressly stated at the opening of chapter xxv. 
that the latter part, beginning with that chap- 
ter, was written and added to the previous 
portion by order of King Hezekiah. More- 
over, it is considered doubtful whether Sol- 
omon ever made any collection of his prov- 
erbs in writing. But it has hardly ever been 
contested that a large share in the composi- 
tion of the book may be ascribed to the wise 
king, who is said (1 Kings iv. 32) to have 
uttered 8,000 proverbs, and who was so cele- 
brated all over the eastern world for his wis- 
dom. The ancient writers of the Greek church 
frequently gave to this book the name Sophia 
(wisdom). The book is divided into several 
parts, which are distinguished from each other 
by separate headings. The first seven verses 
of the first chapter may be regarded as a head- 
ing for the entire book. Then begins the first 
part, closing with the end of the ninth chapter. 
This part does not contain a collection of 
proverbs proper, but rather a series of con- 
nected admonitions in a sententious form. 
They inculcate the love of wisdom, and de- 
scribe the glorious reward of wisdom and the 
pernicious consequences of wickedness. The 
second part, which extends from chap. x. to 
xxii. 16, contains the main collection of prov- 
erbs and the chief portion of the entire book. 
The proverbs, about 400 in number, contain 
moral precepts and rules of life for every age 
and every class of men. Generally one prov- 
erb is comprised in one short verse, of two 
members or clauses, and six, seven, or eight 
words. The two members form a parallel op- 
position, or occasional correspondence, to each 
other, which is generally carried out even to 
the single expressions; as for example x. 1 
(rendering the Hebrew literally) : 



PROVIDENCE 



A-wise son 
A-foolish sun 



gladdens 
(la) the-grief 



(his) father. 

of-hiu-inother. 



The grouping together of the proverbs in this 
part appears to have been accidental, except that 
occasionally two or three verses follow each 
other which have a characteristic expression in 
common. With xxii. 17 a kind of appendix be- 
gins. The proverbs of this section generally 
consist of two verses, and sometimes of three ; 
they are constructed with less regularity, some- 
times containing more than two members, and 
often without any parallelism. Sometimes 
proverbs of kindred contents are grouped to- 
gether. A second appendix to the first collec- 
tion begins at xxiv. 23, and is separated from 
the preceding by the heading, " These also are 
from wise men " (in the common English ver- 
sion, " These things also belong to the wise ") 
The second main collection begins with chap- 
ter xxv., which is headed, "These are also 
proverbs of Solomon, which the men of Heze- 
kiah, king of Judah, copied out." The prov- 
erbs, as in the first collection, consist generally 
of one verse each, and each verse of two or 
more members with parallel relation ; yet ex- 
ceptions to this rule occur more frequently than 
in the first collection. The proverbs of the 
second collection are not BO plain and intelligi- 
ble as those of the first, but more artificial and 
frequently even enigmatical. This collection 
extends over five chapters, and is again followed 
in the last two chapters of the book by three 
different appendices. It is impossible to decide 
whether the compilation and arrangement of 
the entire book were made at one time by one 
man, or whether the addition of the several 
parts took place at different periods. The ad- 
vocates of the former opinion adduce in their 
favor, that the arrangement of the whole seems 
to rest on a well conceived and thoroughly ex- 
ecuted plan. In either case it is considered 
probable that the book received its present 
form between the time of the death of King 
Hezekiah and the end of the 7th century B. C. 
There are commentaries on this book by Sala- 
zar (1641), Schultens (1748), Hodgson (1788), 
Lawson (1821), Umbreit (1826), Ewald (in vol. 
iv. of his Die poetitehen flucfier de Alien Svn- 
des) ; Bertheau, Exegeti*che Handbueh (1847) ; 
Hitzig, Die Spruehe Salomo't (1858); Ward- 
law (2 vols., 1860-'61); Kamphausen, in Bun- 
sen's Bibelwerk (1865); Zockler, in Lange's 
Bibelicerk (1867; translated for the American 
edition by Dr. Aiken, 1870) ; Delitzgch (1878), 
and others. German translations are added to 
the commentaries of Umbreit, Ewald, Hitzig, 
Kamphausen, Zockler, and Delitzsch. There 
is an English translation, with Ecclesiastes and 
Canticles, by Noyes (Boston, 1846; 3d ed., 
1867) ; and a revised version, with critical and 
explanatory notes, by Conant (New York, 1872). 
PROVIDENCE, the N. county of Rhode Island, 
bordered N. and E. by Massachusetts and W. 
by Connecticut, and drained by the Blackstone 
river, which runs partly along the E. border, 
and the Pawtuxet, which forms a portion of 



the S. boundary ; area, 380 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 149,190. It has an uneven surface and 
generally fertile soil. It is intersected by sev- 
eral railroads centring at Providence. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 9,887 bushels 
of rye, 85,114 of Indian corn, 15,386 of oats, 
9,900 of barley, 829,515 of potatoes, 38,606 
tons of hay, 8,330 Ibs. of wool, 296,128 of 
butter, and 80,235 of cheese. There were 
8,828 horses, 8,056 milch cows, 1,869 working 
oxen, 8,655 other cattle, 1,667 sheep, and 6,612 
swine. There are numerous manufactories, 
chiefly at Providence, the county seat. 

PROVIDENCE, a city, the principal port of 
entry, and one of the capitals of Rhode Isl- 
and, and the shire town of Providence co., 
at the head of navigation on an arm of Nar- 
ragansett bay known as Providence river, 85 
m. from the ocean, 43 m. S. S. W. of Boston, 
and 160 m. N. E. of New York; lat. 41 49' 
22" N., Ion. 71 24' 48" W. ; pop. in 1708, 
1,446; in 1730, 8,916; in 1774, 4,821; in 1790, 
6,880; in 1800, 7,614; in 1820, 11,745; in 
1830, 16,836; in 1840, 23,172; in 1850, 41,- 
518; in 1860, 50,666; in 1870, 68,904, of whom 
17,177 were foreign born; in 1874, 99,608; 
in 1875, 100,675. Of the population in 1874, 
3,557 were colored, 48,074 males, and 51,584 
females; 48,351 were of American and 51,257 
of foreign parentage, including 86,990 of 
Irish, 9,582 of English, Scotch, or Welsh, and 
2,212 of German descent. There were 16,088 
children between 5 and 15 years of age; 20,- 
934 families, with an average of 4'76 persons 
to each ; and 12,188 dwelling houses, with an 
average of 8 - 17 to each. The number of fam- 
ilies in 1875 was 21,578; of dwellings, 18,388. 
In population and wealth Providence is the 
second city in New England. It formerly 
covered 5-31 sq. m., but in 1867 3'61 sq. m. 
were annexed from Cranston, forming the 9th 
ward, and in 1874 5'84 sq. m. from North 
Providence, forming the 10th ward; the pres- 
ent area is therefore 14'76 sq. m. The city is 
bounded E. by the Seekonk river, here crossed 
by two bridges, and lies on both sides of Provi- 
dence river, which is crossed by a draw bridge 
and four fixed span bridges. Above this, and 
within the centre of the city, the river ex- 
pands into a beautiful cove nearly a mile in 
circuit, along which is a wall surmounted by 
an iron railing. A park planted with elms, 
with gravelled walks, surrounds the cove. Two 
small streams enter on the north, the Moos- 
hassnck and the Woonasquatucket rivers, upon 
which are many machine shops and manufac- 
tories. The land on which the city stands is 
very irregular. On the E. side a hill rises to 
the height of 204 ft. above tide water. On 
the west it is level, with little elevation for a 
quarter of a mile, when the land rises to the 
height of 75 ft. The hillsides, even to their 
summit, are covered with dwelling houses, in- 
terspersed with gardens and ornamented with 
trees. The larger portion of the dwelling 
houses in the city are of wood ; the remainder 



PROVIDENCE 



43 



are of brick and stone, among which are many 
mansions of great elegance. Several of the 
churches present fine specimens of architecture. 
The arcade, on the W. side, is the finest of the 
kind in the United States. It extends from 
Westminster to Weybosset street, 225 ft. in 
length by 80 in width, a portion in the centre 
being about 50 ft. wider; it is three stories 
high, has 78 shops, and is devoted chiefly to 
the retail trade, the principal articles sold be- 
ing dry goods, boots and shoes, hats, and jew- 
elry. The building is of granite, with two 
imposing Doric porticoes, one on each street. 
In the vicinity is the massive granite building 
of the custom house and post office. The 
state house is a brick building on the E. side 
of Providence river. Several of the school 
houses are handsome buildings. The new opera 
house and the Butler exchange are also fine 
structures. Near the railroad depot the state 
has erected a monument to its citizens who 
fell in the civil war; it was completed in 1871 
at a cost of $60,000, and consists of a base of 
blue Westerly granite, with five bronze statues. 
In the same vicinity a granite building for the 
city hall has recently been commenced, which 
will cost about $675,000. The present city 
hall is a three-story brick structure. A coun- 
ty court house is to be erected on the corner 
of Benefit and College streets. The Narragan- 
sett hotel, in course of construction, is to be 
of stone, brick, and iron, seven stories high, 
covering 22,000 sq. ft. There are several small 
public squares. Roger Williams park, con- 
taining about 100 acres, is near the W. shore 
of Narragansett bay, in the S. part of the 
city; it was devised to the city in 1871 by 
Betsy Williams, a descendant of Roger Wil- 
liams. The north burying ground, in the N. 
part of the city, is the property of the muni- 
cipality ; it contains 122 acres. Swan Point 
cemetery, on the E. bank of the Seekonk riv- 
er, embraces a large tract of beautifully diver- 
sified land, laid out at a great cost and elegant- 
ly ornamented. The following railroads con- 
nect Providence with the principal points in 
New England : Boston and Providence ; Hart- 
ford, Providence, and Fishkill ; New Bed- 
ford; Providence, Nantucket, and Cape Cod; 
Providence and Springfield; Providence and 
Stonington; Providence and Worcester ; War- 
wick ; Fall River, Warren, and Providence ; 
and Providence, Warren, and Bristol. All of 
these except the last two occupy the same 
passenger depot, a spacious and elegant struc- 
ture of brick nearly 700 ft. long, situated near 
the heart of the city on the S. side of the 
cove, and near the great bridge. Horse cars run 
through different parts of the city and to the 
adjoining towns. A daily passenger line and 
a semi- weekly freight line of steamers ply to 
New York, and steamers also run to Philadel- 
phia, Baltimore, Norfolk, and Charleston, and 
to Fall River, Newport, and various points on 
Narragansett bay. During the colonial pe- 
riod Providence enjoyed an extensive foreign 



TEARS. 


No. of pieces. 


TEARS. 


No. of pieces. 


1864... 


2,697,150 


1870... 


5.540.800 


1805 


4,112,700 


1671 .. 


6,612 800 


1666 


2,953,700 


1672. 


4,842,600 


1867 


2,688,000 


1873.. 


8 888 100 


1S6S 


4,701,900 


1874 


2 648 210 


1669 


9,178,000 















commerce, which has now greatly fallen off, 
and its commerce is chiefly confined to the 
coasting trade. The value of foreign com- 
merce for the year ending June 30, 1875, was 
$589,545 ($23,086 exports and $566,459 im- 
ports). The number of arrivals from foreign 
ports during the same year was 148 ; of coast- 
wise arrivals, 5,852 ; number of vessels be- 
longing to the port at the close of the year, 
142, tonnage 36,995. Providence is the lead- 
ing market for the trade in domestic printing 
cloths. The sales since 1864 have been as 
follows : 



The pieces average 43 yards each. Its manu- 
factures are very extensive, and include cot- 
ton and woollen goods, iron, gold, and sil- 
ver wares, and numerous other articles. The 
American screw company possesses five large 
mills and five storehouses, besides other build- 
ings; the mills have a capacity for the em- 
ployment of about 2,500 hands, and for the 
production daily of nearly 40,000 gross of 
wood screws, several tons of rivets, large 
quantities of machine screws, stove bolts, 
coach screws, tire bolts, &c. The Providence 
tool company produces heavy and ship chan- 
dlers' hardware, sewing machines, and the Pea- 
body breech-loading rifle ; the works cover 
more than five acres and employ 1,500 hands. 
The Providence steam engine company manu- 
factures the Greene cut-off engine, and also 
steam boilers and riveting machines. The 
works of the Barstow stove company cover 
more than two acres. The Allen fire depart- 
ment supply company manufactures steam fire 
engines, fire hose, hose carriages, hose coup- 
lings, discharge pipes, hydrants, fire escapes, 
&c. ; it has a brass foundery in connection 
with its works, in which brass finishing is 
extensively carried on. The manufacture of 
gold jewelry is the most prominent industry 
of the city ; more than 150 establishments of 
all sizes are engaged in it, and the annual pro- 
duct is about $5,000,000. The Gorham com- 
pany's manufactory of solid silver ware em- 
ploys nearly 400 hands, and is the leading sil- 
ver manufactory of the world. There are sev- 
eral establishments for the refining of gold and 
silver, in which are smelted large quantities 
of sweepings and refuse obtained from the 
jewelry establishments. About 25 establish- 
ments are engaged in the manufacture of wool- 
len cloths, yarns, &c., and worsted goods; an<J 
about 50, with 150,000 spindles, in the man 
ufacture of printing cloths, yarns, battings, 
thread, spool cotton, lacings, braids, and other 
cotton goods. The Fletcher manufacturing 
company employs 500 hands, and is the largest 



4-4 



PROVIDENCE 



establishment in the country, and probably in 
the world, engaged in the manufacture of 
"small wares," comprising boot, shoe, and 
corset lacings, lamp wicks, yarns, braids, &c. ; 
the buildings cover four acres. There are 
three large cloth-printing establishments, and 
several shops for the engraving of copper roll- 
ers for printing calicoes. Among other es- 
tablishments, the Rumford chemical works (in 
East Providence), the manufactory of Perry 
Davis'a "pain killer,'' the Corliss steam engine 
works, the stove works of Spicers and Peck- 
ham, and the Rhode Island locomotive works 
are noteworthy. There are also several bleach- 
ing and calendering establishments, and manu- 
factories of alarm tills, toilet and laundry 
soaps, ribbons, &c. Providence contains 23 
national and 12 state banks, with an aggregate 
capital of $17,707,850 ; 10 savings banks, with 
deposits to the amount of $25,807,905 ; 1 trust 
company, capital $500,000 ; 1 sate deposit 
company, capital $50,000; and 20 insurance 
companies, with assets to the amount of $13,- 
175,629. The city is divided into 10 wards, 
and is governed by a mayor, a board of alder- 
men of 10, and a common council of 40 mem- 
bers, elected annually. The mayor, aldermen, 
and common council in their joint capacity 
are styled the city council. At the close of 
1874 the police force numbered 190 men. The 
number of arrests during that year was 8,440, 
of which 4,950 were for drunkenness. There 
is an effective paid fire department, consisting 
of 146 officers and men organized into five 
steam engine companies, six hose companies, 
and three hook and ladder companies. The 
city is supplied with water from the Pawtuxet 
river, 6 m. distant, by works recently con- 
structed at a cost of about $4,260,000. Since 
1855 much attention has been given to vital 
statistics in Providence, and the returns of 
births, marriages, and deaths are probably 
more complete and perfect than those of any 
other city in America. During the same time 
special efforts have been made for the preven- 
tion of disease. In addition to this there are 
some peculiarities of natural location and in- 
ternal construction which make the city very 
healthy. During the year 1873, with a popula- 
tion of 80,592, there were 1,719 deaths, 1,150 
marriages, and 2,128 births; or one birth in 
87'83, one person married in 85*04, and one 
death in 46*88 of the population. The annual 
average for 19 years, 1855 to 1878 inclusive, 
was one birth in 34*19, one person married in 
38*10, and one death in 50*65 of the popula- 
tion. The valuation of real estate in 1874 was 
$81,040,300 ; personal estate, $42,642,500 ; 
total, $123,682,800 ; rate of tax, $14 50 per 
$1,000 ; amount of tax, $1,798,400 60. The 
receipts into the city treasury during the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1874, including a balance on 
hand of $177,159 67, were $7,968,238 86, of 
which $1,520,716 68 was from taxation, $5,- 
722,289 52 from loans, and $184,574 90 from 
water works. The expenditures were $7,506,- 



590, of which $6,158,854 05 were classed as 
extraordinary and $1,847,235 95 as ordinary; 
balance in treasury Sept. 80, 1874, $462,643 
86. The funded debt on Sept. 30, 1874, was 
$5,400,000; floating debt, $2,048,800; total, 
$7,443,800. Deducting $1,493,748 64 assets 
available for its reduction, the net debt was 
$5,950,051 36. Providence has many chari- 
table institutions and associations. The Butler 
hospital for the insane, founded in 1847, is on 
the W. bank of Seekonk river, surrounded by 
extensive grounds, 60 acres of which are under 
cultivation, with about the same extent of 
native woodland. The average number of pa- 
tients is about 130. The edifice was erected 
and the lands purchased by subscription, Cy- 
rus Butler contributing $40,000, and Nicholas 
Brown $30,000. Its annual not disbursements 
are about $55,000. The state of Rhode Island 
makes an annual appropriation of $2,000 to en- 
able the governor to aid poor insane persons 
there, and it also pays a portion of the ex- 
penses of all such poor insane as the town 
may choose to send. The Dexter asylum for 
the poor is situated on high land E. of the riv- 
er. It is a fine edifice of brick, 170 ft. long, 
including wings, and three stories high. The 
grounds, which comprise about 40 acres, are 
enclosed with a stone wall 8 ft. high. The 
land was devised by Ebenezer Knight Dexter 
in 1824, and the buildings erected by the city 
in 1828. The Rhode Island hospital, founded 
in 1863, has stately buildings surrounded by 
pleasant grounds, in the S. part of the city, 
fronting on the harbor. Other important in- 
stitutions are two homes for the aged, the nurse- 
ry, a Roman Catholic orphan asylum, and two 
dispensaries. The reform school, established 
in 1850, for juvenile offenders between the ages 
of 8 and 18, is in the S. W. part of the city. 
The number of inmates at its last annual re- 
port, 1874, was 220, of whom 179 were boys 
and 41 girls. Its expenses for the year were 
$40,753 ; earnings, $13,222. The state prison 
is on the N. side of the cove. At the close of 
the year 1874 it contained 67 convicts. The 
county jail is within the prison walls. The 
convicts are almost exclusively employed in 
cabinet work and shoemakiug. The following 
are the statistics of public schools for 1878-'4: 



SCHOOLS. 


No. of 
echooli. 


No. of 
room. 


Whole 
number of 
tetcben. 


No. of 
nude 
tMcben. 


No. of 
female 
teachen. 


No. of 
puplli. 


High school. 


1 


9 


19 


4 


8 


898 


Gnun'ar sc'ls 


7 


00 


68 


7 


01 


2.667 


Intennedia'e 


20 


00 


55 




U 


2.128 


Primary 


89 


04 


86 




86 


8,969. 


Evening 


7 


18 


87 


8T 


DO 


2,074 


Vacation.... 


6 


6 


17 




17 


1,200 


Total 


76 


80S 


829 


48 


277 


12,489 



There were also seven special teachers. The 
expenditure for school purposes in 1878 was 
$267,597 25, viz. : salaries, $146,656 13 ; house* 
and lota, $91,738 97; incidental expenses, $29,- 
202 15. The schools are under the immediate 



PROVIDENCE 



PROVOOST 



supervision of a superintendent, but the gen- 
eral control is vested in a school committee, 
consisting of the mayor and president of the 
common council ex officio and six members 
from each ward, whose term of office is three 
years. The Friends' yearly meeting boarding 
school, or " Quaker college," occupies a lot of 
43 acres in the E. part of the city. It consists 
of two spacious brick buildings, three stories 
high with wings of two stories. It is liberally 
endowed and in a prosperous condition. A 
legacy of $100,000 was bequeathed to it by 
the late Obadiah Brown. It was established in 
1819, and is under the direction of a commit- 
tee of the New England yearly meeting. The 
Eoman Catholics have three flourishing acad- 
emies, one male and two female. The grounds 
and buildings of Brown university occupy an 
elevated situation in the E. part of the city. 
(See BROWN UNIVERSITY.) The Athenssum, in- 
corporated in 1836, is a handsome granite 
building, containing a reading room and a well 
selected library of 34,000 volumes, to which 
large additions are annually made. The Ehode 
Island historical society, founded in 1822, oc- 
cupies a fine brick and granite building oppo- 
site the university grounds, erected in 1844, 
and containing a library of 6,000 volumes and 
85,000 pamphlets, besides a large collection of 
manuscripts and other memorials relating to 
the history of the state. The Franklin soci- 
ety, incorporated in 1823, has for its object the 
cultivation and dissemination of a knowledge 
of the natural sciences and the mechanic arts. 
The Franklin lyceum has a reading room and a 
library of 8,000 volumes. The mechanics' and 
apprentices' library numbers 6,500 volumes, 
and that of the young men's Christian as- 
sociation 5,000. Steps have been taken to- 
ward the establishment of a free public li- 
brary. Four daily, one semi-weekly, and five 
weekly newspapers, and three monthly period- 
icals are published. There are 76 churches, 
viz. : 13 Baptist, 2 Christian, 7 Congregation- 
al, 12 Episcopal, 1 Evangelical Lutheran, 5 
Free Baptist, 1 Friends', 2 Jewish, 10 Meth- 
odist Episcopal, 1 Presbyterian, 10 Roman 
Catholic, 1 Swedenborgian, 3 Unitarian, 1 Uni- 
ted Presbyterian, 2 Universalist, and 5 mis- 
cellaneous. The first Baptist church, the old- 
est in America, was founded here in 1638. 
Providence was first settled in 1636 by Roger 
Williams, who was banished from Massachu- 
setts on account of his religious opinions, and 
who, in his new colony, was the first to pro- 
pose and establish the principles of universal 
freedom in religious matters. The rock on 
the banks of the Seekonk river on which he 
landed, and where he was received by the In- 
dians, is about a mile from the centre of the 
city. The town received its first patent from 
Charles I., bearing date 1643. It suffered much 
in the famous war of King Philip, in 1675, 
when a considerable portion of it was burned. 
It again suffered severely in September, 1815, 
when a southeasterly storm forced an extra- 



ordinary tide into the harbor, raising the water 
12 ft. higher than the usual spring tides, spread- 
ing devastation and ruin along the wharves and 
the lower part of the town, overturning houses 
and stores, and doing much damage to the 
shipping. One large East Indiaman was driv- 
en up beyond the cove, and never removed. 
Providence received a city charter in 1832. 
The first printing press was established here 
by William Goddard in 1762, from whose office 
the " Providence Gazette " was issued. 

PROVIDENCE, Sisters of. See SISTERHOODS. 

PROVIMJETOWN, a town of Barnstable co., 
Massachusetts, occupying the extremity of 
Cape Cod, at the terminus of the Cape Cod 
division of the Old Colony railroad, 120 m. by 
rail and 55 m. by water S. E. of Boston ; pop. 
in 1850, 3,157 ; in 1860, 3,206 ; in 1870, 3,865. 
The town is 4 m. long by 3 m. in width at the 
widest part. The harbor is on the inner side 
of the cape, and is almost entirely landlocked. 
It is unsurpassed for size and depth of water, 
covering an area of 3 by 5 m., 30 fathoms 
deep in the deepest parts, without rocks, bars, 
or shoals. The village skirts the shore of the 
harbor, and is formed of wooden buildings, 
compactly built, presenting a beautiful view 
from the water. Provincetown is a popular 
summer resort. It is noted for its cod, mack- 
erel, and whale fisheries. In 1875 there were 
owned here 185 vessels, with an aggregate ton- 
nage of 16,000, of which 20 were employed in 
coasting, 19 in whaling, and 146 in the cod and 
mackerel fisheries. The average annual catch 
of codfish for the four years ending in 1875 
was 80,000 quintals ; of mackerel, 20,000 bar- 
rels. In whaling the town ranks with New Lon- 
don next to New Bedford. It contains three 
marine railways, 30 wharves, a national bank 
with a capital of $200,000, a savings bank 
with deposits amounting to $500,000, and 
three marine insurance companies with an ag- 
gregate capital of $250,000. It has a fine fire 
department. The assessed value of property 
in 1875 was about $2,000,000. There are 14 
public schools (1 high, 1 grammar, and 12 in- 
termediate and primary), supported at an an' 
nual cost of $7,400, exclusive of repairs of 
building ; a weekly newspaper ; a public library 
of 2,200 volumes; and six religious societies. 
In Provincetown harbor the Mayflower first 
cast anchor in America. Here the pilgrims 
signed the first compact of government, and 
here the first child in New England of English 
parentage was born. 

PROVOOST, Samuel, an American bishop, born 
in New York, March 11, 1742, died Sept. 6, 
1815. He graduated at Zing's (now Columbia) 
college in 1758, and in 1761 entered as fellow 
commoner of St. Peter's college, Cambridge, 
England. He was ordained in 1766, returned 
to New York, and was assistant minister ol 
Trinity church till 1768. In 1770 he retired 
to a small farm in Dutchess co., remained there 
till the close of the revolution, and was then 
elected rector of Trinity church. He was chap- 



PROVOST 



PRUNING 



lain to the continental congress in 1785, and 
to the senate of the United States in 1789. 
Having been elected bishop of New York in 
June, 1786, he accompanied Dr. William White 
to England, and was consecrated with him, 
Feb. 4, 1787, at Lambeth palace. In 1800, on 
account of his health, he resigned the rector- 
ship of Trinity church, and in 1801 the epis- 
copal office. The latter resignation was not 
accepted by the house of bishops, and Dr. 
Benjamin Moore was chosen his coadjutor. 

PROVOST, Jean Baptist* Franfote, a French 
actor, born Jan. 29, 1798, died Dec. 24, 1865. 
He studied at the conservatory in Paris, and 
became professor of elocution in 1839. He 
played at the Odeon theatre from 1819 to 1828, 
and at .that of Porte Saint Martin till 1835, 
when ho appeared at the Theatre Francais, of 
which he became a member in 1839. His most 
celebrated roles as a tragedian were Claude in 
Valeria (1852), the marquis de Rieux in Due 
Job (1858), the banker Oharrier in Augier's 
Ejfrontet, and the deputy marshal in the same 
author's Le Jilt de Oiboyer (1863-'4). 

PillI)E.\THS, Aurolins Clemens, a Latin poet, 
born in Spain in A. D. 848, died early in the 
5th century. He was a lawyer, became a 
civil and criminal judge, and was appointed to 
a high military station at court. In his later 
years he devoted himself to religious exercises 
and study. His extant poems are : Prctfatio, 
giving a catalogue of his works up to his 57th 
year, with a brief autobiography ; Cathemeri- 
non Liber, 12 sacred hymns, some of which 
have been inserted in the liturgy of the Ro- 
man Catholic church; Apotheosit, maintaining 
the divinity of Christ and the doctrine of the 
Trinity; Hamartigenia, on the origin of sin, 
directed against the Marcionites; Psychoma- 
ehia, representing the struggle between virtue 
and vice in the soul, and tho triumph of the 
former ; Contra Symmachum Liber /., an ac- 
count of the conversion of Rome, with an ex- 
posure of the folly of the ancient religion ; 
Contra Symmachum Liber II., a refutation of 
the argument of Symmochus in his petition 
to the emperor Valentinian ; Peri Stephanon 
Liber, 14 poems in honor of martyred saints; 
Diptychon or Dittochaon, 48 poems in heroic 
hexameters, 24 describing events and charac- 
ters in the Old Testament, and 24 in the New, 
about tho authenticity of which there has been 
much controversy; and the Epilogui. The 
earliest dated edition of his works is that of 
Deventer (1472); the best is thnt of Faustus 
Arevalus (2 vols. 4to, Rome, 1788-'9). His 
works are also published in vols. lix. and Ix. 
of Migne's Patrologie Intine. See Bayle, Ca- 
themerinon, traduit et annote., arec une etude 
sur Prudence (8vo, Paris, 1860). 

PRUD'OOX, Pierre Ptnl, a French painter, 
born at Cluny, April 4, 1758, died in Paris, 
Feb. 16, 1823. He was educated by charity, 
developed a taste for art, and was placed under 
the tuition of Devosges at Dijon. Having won 
a prize awarded by tho states of Burgundy, he 



went to Rome, where he became intimate with 
Canova. In 1789 he went to Paris, where he 
supported himself by painting miniatures and 
making drawings for concert tickets, bill heads, 
tradesmen's cards, and confectionery boxes. 
In 1794 he went to Rigney, near Gray, and 
executed a series of pastel portraits for which 
he received a handsome price. On his return 
to Paris he won a prize for an allegorical 
drawing, representing "Wisdom and Virtue 
descending upon earth." In 1805 he painted 
on a ceiling in the museum of the Louvre 
"Diana imploring Jupiter;" and in 1808, for 
the hall of the criminal court, "Justice and 
Divine Vengeance pursuing Crime." For this 
he received from Napoleon tho cross of the 
legion of honor, was appointed teacher to the 
empress Maria Louisa, and became a member 
of the institute. He painted " Psyche borne 
away by the Zephyrs" (1808), "Zephyr bal- 
ancing himself upon the Water," a portrait 
of the king of Rome, "Venus and Adonis" 
(1810), "Andromache" (1817), and "The As- 
sumption " (1819). In 1821 his pupil Constance 
Mayer, for whom ho entertained a warm affec- 
tion, put an end to her life, and thenceforth 
he pined away. He nevertheless completed 
"The Indigent Family," the rough draught 
of which had been left by his unfortunate 
pupil, and "Christ dying upon the Cross," 
which was exhibited after his death. 

PKIXK. See PLUM. 

PttlMXG, a most important horticultural 
operation, which consists in removing a por- 
tion of a plant for the benefit of that which re- 
mains. The operation may bo required by all 
plants which have an above-ground stem, even 
the most delicate. It is performed either to 
induce a vigorous growth, or to diminish vigor 
and dwarf a plant; a tree which does not 
bear is pruned to increase its fruitfulness, or 
it may be pruned to prevent over production. 
It requires to be done understanding!)' ; and so 
much injury has resulted from indiscriminate 
pruning, that certain cultivators go to an op- 
posite extreme, and advise not to prune at all. 
Where trees grow in a dense forest we find 
tall straight trunks without a branch for 50 ft 
or more, and at the top a small branching head, 
that in size is quite out of proportion to the 
trunk ; when such trees are felled and sawed 
into boards, we see by the knots that a natu- 
ral pruning has been carried on for years ; tho 
lower branches of the trees were so excluded 
from the light by the growing tops that they 
were smothered and fell away, while the 
wounds were closed so neatly that no external 
indication of their presence is manifest. Trees 
of the same species with those which grow in 
the forest, when found as isolated specimens, 
are much shorter, but clothed with branches 
from the base upward. In this country pru- 
ning has until recently been regarded as be- 
longing only to fruit trees, but in those parts 
of Europe where forestry is a distinct art, 
forest trees are pruned with a view to their 



PKUNING 



47 



future uses for timber, and while some are 
made to grow with a clear straight trunk, in 
other cases their branches are encouraged and 
so directed as to form knees required in ship 
building. In this country pruning is most fre- 




FIG. 1. A Young Tree Pruned and Unpruned. 

quently done upon old orchards, in which the 
trees have been left to themselves since they 
were first planted, and are unfruitful except 
on the extreme outer twigs on account of the 
crowded condition of their heads, in which 
branches cross one another in a confused mass, 
impenetrable to light and air. In such cases 
all that need be done is to remove the super- 
fluous wood in such a manner as to leave an 
evenly balanced and open head. The intelli- 
gent fruit grower will prefer to set trees only 
one year old from the bud or graft, and they 
will be either simple wands or stems, furnished 
with buds along their length, or a few of the 
upper buds may have pushed and formed 
branches ; with a tree like this to start with, 
he can form the head at such height as best 
suits him, and de- 
termine its branch- 
ing. The upper- 
most buds of a 
young tree or 
branch are the 
most vigorous, and 
start the soonest 
in spring ; if left 
to itself, such a 
branch or young 
tree will produce a 
few strong shoots 
at the top, those 
below will be grad- 
ually weaker, un- 
til those at its lower part, being robbed of all 
nourishment by the rapidly growing shoots 
above, will not start at all. Such a branch or 
tree as this may be cut back so that the lower 
buds only will start and produce shoots, which 
688 VOL. xiv. 4 




Fio. 2. Kisrht and Wrong In 
Pruning. 



will ripen into three or four branches, and 
these will be strong, from having all the nutri- 
ment that would have been divided among nu- 
merous shoots were it left unpruned. Simi- 
larly the ramification, and consequently the 
whole head of the tree, may be directed and 
controlled at will. The effects of judicious pru- 
ning upon young trees are strikingly shown in 
apple and pear trees, which at the end of four 
or five years of systematic pruning are com- 
plete pyramids, with the base near the ground, 
and the branches equally distributed and grad- 
ually diminishing in size to the top. Pruning 
is frequently resorted to when trees have be- 
come stunted and almost ceased to grow ; if the 
top of such a tree has its branches judiciously 
cut back, the remaining buds, having to them- 
selves the sap which was formerly divided 
among the whole, will produce vigorous new 
shoots, and this will be responded to by a new 
growth of roots, and 
the whole tree will be 
invigorated. These in- 
stances have reference 
to the wood growth of 
the tree ; whatever fa- 
vors that diminishes 
the production of fruit, 
and vice versa ; hence 
the pruning to induce 
fruit-bearing is quite 
different from that 
to promote vigor of 
growth. If a tree is 
severely pruned soon 
after its leaves are de- 
veloped, it receives a 
sudden check, and it 
is the tendency of all 
such shocks to induce 
the tree to propagate 
itself by seed ; instead 
of preparing for an 
extended growth of 
branches the next 
year, many of the buds, 
which would other- 
wise have produced leafy shoots, become fruit 
buds. In practice, pruning to produce fruit 
is not done in this severe manner, but by stop- 
ping the extension of a portion of the shoots 
after they have made a certain growth ; as 
this is done when the shoots are so tender as 
not to require a knife, it is termed pinching. 
By careful management the form and fruit- 
fulness of trees may be controlled with but 
little use of the knife; buds which would 
produce branches where they are not wanted 
are broken off soon after they start to grow, 
and by checking the prolongation of other 
branches at the proper point an equal dis- 
tribution of sap, and consequently of growth, 
is maintained over the whole tree. Eoot 
pruning, or removing a portion of the roots, 
is resorted to for the purpose of control- 
ling the size of the tree, to produce fruit- 




Fio. 8. A Pyramidal Tree, 
produced by proper Pru- 
ning. 



PRUNING 



PRUSSIA 



fulness, and to allow the tree to be trans- 
planted. Some trees, especially forest and 
ornamental ones, produce long roots with very 
few fine fibrous rootlets, and are difficult to 
remove unless prepared a year beforehand ; 
the long roots being cut off within a moder- 
ate distance of the trunk, the shortened roots 
will form numerous rootlets, and at the end 
of a season may be transplanted with safety. 
Root pruning is one of the readiest methods 
of checking the too vigorous wood growth of 
trees and throwing them into bearing ; it con- 
sists in opening a circular trench around the 
tree, at a distance governed by the kind and 
the vigor of the individual, and cutting off 
with a sharp spade all roots which extend out- 
side of this circle; sometimes half the roots 
are operated on one year and the other half 
the next. The proper time for pruning trees 
has been the subject of much discussion; 
wounds heal over most rapidly if made after 
the season's increase in length is completed, 
and the fully developed leaves are engaged 
in maturing the buds and preparing for the 
growth of another year. This time, since it 
occurs in summer, is usually an inconve- 
nient one, and the end of winter or very early 
spring, before vegetation starts, is the season 
generally selected; this has reference to the 
removal of branches. Summer pruning, or 
pinching, is done at the time when its objects 
can be best accomplished. "Whenever it may 
be performed, the utility of pruning will de- 
pend upon the intelligence of the operator, who 
should understand the laws of plant growth 
and the peculiar habit of each tree. The peach, 
for example, produces its flowers and fruit 
along the branches which grew the preceding 
year, and is generally much benefited by hav- 
ing these branches shortened in, or cut back, 
for one third or more of their length ; the 
horse chestnut, on the other hand, produces its 
flowers and fruit from buds at the ends of 
branches of the previous year, and if the cut- 
ting back so useful to the peach were practised 
on this, all the flowers would be destroyed. 
In some plants, like the grape, there are several 
different methods of pruning to obtain the 
same result. With the grape, pruning is so in- 
timately related to training that it is difficult to 
treat of the two separately, and this is espe- 
cially the case with fruit trees grown upon 
walls and trellises, whether as espaliers or by 
the cordon method. In this country the cli- 
mate does not require the highly artificial 
methods of training, and the pruning to effect 
them, so common in Europe ; these are given 
in various English and French works upon 
fruit culture, and with special completeness in 
Du Breuil's Court ilementaire d 1 arboriculture. 
As a mechanical operation, pruning requires 
some skill and care ; large cutting is done with 
a saw made for the purpose, the teeth of which 
are set wide. An axe should never be used. 
The wound made by the saw should be smooth- 
ed with a drawing knife or other tool, and 



covered with shellac varnish, melted grafting 
wax, or thick common paint, to prevent decay 
before a new deposit of wood and bark covers 
it. Every branch should be cut close- to the 
trunk, or other branch to which it is attached ; 
if a stub, or projection of a few inches, be left, 
this will not heal over, but in time decay will 
set in, which may extend to the whole interior 
of the tree. The decay of many orchards may 
be traced to this fault in pruning. For the 
removal of branches two inches in diameter 
or less, a heavy chisel made for the purpose, 
and driven from below upward with a mallet, 
makes quick and neat work. A heavy knife 
is used for the removal of twigs, and for 
shortening young growths ; shears made for 
the work do it quicker, but do not leave so 
clean a cut as the knife, though in many cases 
they answer. In shortening a twig or small 
branch, the cut should be made at a bud, and 
as the shoot from this will continue the upward 
growth of the branch, it is of some importance 
to cut to a bud pointing in the desired direc- 
tion, as the future shape of the tree will be 
materially influenced by it. Cutting must not 
be done too far above a bud, as this will leave 
a stub which, having no leaves to sustain it 
will die down to the bud ; if the cut is made 
too close to the base of the bud, there is 
danger that it will dry out or be otherwise 
injured ; the proper, cut is made by placing the 
knife at a point opposite the base of the bud, 
and bringing it out, with a slightly upward 
slanting cut, opposite the apex of the bud. 

FBI'S A, or Prnslts. See BRCSA. 

PKl'ssi \. the largest and leading state of the 
German empire, occupying a northern central 

Eortion of the European continent, between 
it. 49 and 56 N., and Ion. 5 45' and 23 E. 
It is bounded N. by the North sea, Denmark, 
and the Baltic ; E. by Russia ; S. by Cisleithan 
Austria, the kingdom of Saxony, the Thurin- 
gian states, Bavaria, Hesse, and Alsace-Lor- 
raine; and W. by Luxemburg, Belgium, and 
Holland. Its greatest length, from a point 
near where the Niemen or Memel crosses the 
N. E. frontier to the point of junction of its 
boundaries with those of Luxemburg and Al- 
sace-Lorraine, is 800 m. ; the longest line that 
can be drawn on its soil in a direction nearly 
at right angles to this extends from the Baltic 
coast N. W. of Stralsund to the 8. E. extremity 
of the province of Silesia, and measures a little 
more than 400 m. The area of Prussia, ac- 
cording to the official figures which are made 
the basis for the land tax (but which, owing 
to very recent territorial changes, are perhaps 
not absolutely accurate), is 186,656 sq. m. in- 
cluding the area of all the principal gulfs, bays, 
and arms of the sea, and 184,496 sq. m. ex- 
cluding all bodies of water except inland lakes. 
The kingdom is divided into 12 provinces (in- 
clusive of the detached Hohenzollern, and ex- 
clusive of Lauenburg), and these into adminis- 
trative districts named after their respective 
chief towns, as follows . 



PRUSSIA 



PROVINCES. 


Area, 
iq. miles. 


DISTRICTS. 


Prussia 


24,114 


Konigsberg, Gumbinnen, 


Brandenburg. . 


15,403 


Dantzic, Marienwerder. 
(Berlin), Potsdam, Frank- 


Pomerania 


11 680 


fort-on-the-Oder. 
Stettin, Koslin, Stralsund. 


Posen 


11.179 


Posen, Bromberg. 


Silesia 


15.556 


Breslau, Liegnitz, Oppeln. 


Saxony 


9,746 


Magdeburg, Merseburg, Er- 


Pehleswig-Holstein . . 
Hanover 


6,766 
14,856 


furt. 
Schleswig. 
Hanover, Hildesheim, Lune- 


"Westphalia 


7,799 


burg, Stade, Osnabruck, 
Aurich. 
Munster, Minden, Arnsberg. 


Hesse-Nassau 


6,138 


Cassel, Wiesbaden. 


The Rhine Province. 
Hohenzollern 


10,416 
440 


Coblentz, Dusseldorf, Co- 
logne, Treves, Aix-la-Cha- 
pelle. 
Sigmaringen. 








Total 


134,043 










Duchy of Lauenburg 


458 




Grand total 


184,496 





Until 1866 the territory of Prussia was not 
only divided into two portions by the king- 
dom of Hanover, the electorate of Hesse, and 
other foreign possessions lying in its midst, 
but was also dotted here and there by small 
independent principalities and duchies, which 
greatly hindered its unity of action and made 
its political geography extremely complicated. 
These have all been absorbed since the war 
of 1866, with the exception of the following 
small states and tracts of land, which are still 
subject to other German powers, though sur- 
rounded by Prussian territory: three com- 
munes in the province of Brandenburg, be- 
longing to Mecklenburg- Schwerin; the city of 
Hamburg and vicinity, with tracts belonging 
to it in Holstein and Hanover; the duchy of 
Anhalt, divided into eight portions ; the duchy 
of Brunswick, also in eight portions; the 
principalities of Schaumburg-Lippe (in two 
portions) and Lippe-Detinold ; the principality 
of Waldeck (in two portions) ; Allstedt and 
Oldisleben, a territory belonging to Weimar 
(in two portions); Volkerode, belonging to 
Gotha; territories belonging to Schwarzburg- 
Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstein ; 
the village of Mumsdorf, belonging to Alten- 
burg; the Hessian province of Upper Hesse, 
with a territory belonging to it in the province 
of Hesse-Nassau; the principality of Birken- 
feld in the Rhine province, belonging to Ol- 
denburg ; two tracts owned by Baden and three 
by Wurtemberg in the Hohenzollern domains. 
The larger territory of the duchies of Meck- 
lenburg - Schwerin and Mecklenburg - Strelitz 
(with the adjoining LUbeck and a detached 
portion of Oldenburg) in the north, and the 
grand duchy of Oldenburg {with the adjoin- 
ing Bremen) in the northwest, each surround- 
ed by Prussian territory on three sides, but 
having their own seacoast, are now the only 
states of consequence which break in upon the 
outline and territorial unity of the country. 



In addition to the united territory enclosed by 
the boundaries given above, Prussia has the 
following outlying possessions: six communes 
and domains in Mecklenburg-Schwerin ; Gross- 
menow in Mecklenburg- Strelitz ; a commune, 
formerly belonging to Hanover, in the terri- 
tory of Hamburg; seven communes in An- 
halt ; four tracts in Brunswick ; one in Olden- 
burg ; the town of Liigde between Lippe-Det- 
mold and Waldeck; two villages in Waldeck; 
Kischlitz in Saxe- Altenburg ; the circle of Zie- 
genriick, in six portions, lying near Meiningen, 
Weimar, Rudolstadt, &c. ; Moleschutz, Abtlob- 
nitz, and Barchf eld in Saxe-Meiningen ; Wan- 
dersleben and Muhlberg in Saxe-Gotha; the 
circles of Schleusingen and Smalcald in Thu- 
ringia, in several divisions; and the domains 
of the Hohenzollerns, in eleven portions, scat- 
tered through the territory of Baden, Wurtem- 
berg, and Bavaria. The duchy of Lauenburg 
belongs to the king of Prussia, without being 
consolidated with the kingdom. (See LATJ- 
ENBTJKG.) The coast line of Prussia on the 
North sea is about 250 m. long ; on the Bal- 
tic it measures about 750 m. On both seas 
the shore is almost uniformly flat and low ; so 
much so that at several points on the North 
sea, and where the province of Prussia borders 
on the Baltic, dikes have been built to protect 
the tracts of nearly level land that stretch 
away from the water's edge, parts of them 
lying lower than the surface of the ocean. The 
only exceptions to this formation are the more 
rugged coasts of N. E. Schleswig, and the high 
chalk cliffs of the island of Rtigen, lying in 
the Baltic off Stralsund. On the North sea 
the Dollart (the estuary of the Ems), the bay 
of Jade, and the estuaries of the Weser and 
Elbe, form excellent harbors, their ports be- 
ing respectively Emden, Wilhelmshaven, Bre- 
men, and Hamburg; while on the Baltic the 
best are those of Kiel, Stralsund, Stettin, 
and Dantzic, the last two respectively at the 
mouths of the Oder and Vistula. The chief 
gulfs and bays are formed on both seas by the 
broadening estuaries of the rivers named, the 
Oder and Vistula forming at their mouths 
large bodies of water almost enclosed by land, 
known respectively as the Stettiner Haff and 
the Frisches Haff, while the Kurisches Haff, 
at the extreme N. E. of the coast, is a similar 
body receiving the river Memel. The greater 
part of the surface of Prussia is flat and low ; 
an extended plain, sloping toward the north, and 
only broken by small detached ranges of hills, 
forms the northern portion. The direction of 
such ranges is in almost every case N. E. and 
S. W. ; but the highest of their summits in the 
north is the Thurmberg, near Dantzic, 1,131 
ft. The surface of the S. part is more varied, 
and some portions of it are mountainous and 
picturesque. The S. W. boundary of Silesia 
is formed by the Riesengebirge (highest peak 
about 5,300 ft.) and its various continuations. 
The N. and E. parts of the province of Saxony 
form almost a perfect level, interrupted only 



60 



PRUSSIA 



by inconsiderable hills; the S. W. portion is 
intersected by projecting spurs of the Hartz 
mountains (highest elevation the Brocken or 
Blocksberg, 3,737 ft.), and the Thuringian for- 
est. Westphalia, the Rhine province, and Hesse- 
Nassau contain the N. W. group of the moun- 
tain system of Germany, each of its numerous 
ridges having its own distinctive name. The 
more important are : on the right bank of the 
Rhine, the Taunus, the Weser hills, including 
the picturesque gap known as the Porta West- 
phalica, the Teutoburg forest (the battle 
ground of the Germans and Romans), the Roth- 
haar hills, the Sauerland hills (2,800 ft.), the 
Siebengebirge, the Westerwald, the Spessart, 
the Rh6n, and offshoots from the Vogelsberg ; 
on the left bank of the Rhine, the Hunsruck, 
Hohe Venn, and Eifel (2,500 ft.). The Ho- 
henzollern territory is intersected by the 
Rauhe Alp. Prussia contains a large number 
of lakes, especially in the level N. E. section, 
but none of them are of much importance. 
(For the principal lakes see GERMANY, vol. vii., 
p. 746.) There are large swamps on the lower 
course of the Havel, Oder, Warthe, and Netzo 
rivers, which many attempts have been made 
to drain. All the river systems of Prussia be- 
long to the basins of the Baltic and North 
seas. The principal rivers belonging to the 
basin of the Baltic are the Momol, Vistula 
(with its tributaries the Drewenz and Braho), 
and Oder (with its tributaries the Bartsch, 
Bober, Neisse, and Warthe). Independent of 
these are a number of coast rivers, viz., the 
Dange, Pregel, Passarge, Elbing, Leba, Lupow, 
Stolpe, Wipper, Persante, Roga, Ihna, Peene, 
Ucker, Recknitz, and Trave, nearly all of them 
navigable for some distance. Belonging to the 
North sea basin are the Eider, the Elbe (with 
its tributaries the Mulde, Saale, and Havel), the 
Weser, formed by the Werra and Fulda (with 
its tributary the Aller), the Ems (with the 
Vechto), and the Rhine. The Rhine flows 
through Prussian territory about 200 m., en- 
tering it at Mentz, forming about 29 m. of the 
boundary of Hesse-Darmstadt, receivingon the 
right bank the Main, Lahn, Wied, Sieg, Wipper, 
Ruhr, and Lippe, and on the left bank the Nahe, 
Moselle, and Ahr, and passing into Holland a 
little bolow Emmerich. Prussia has a large 
number of artificial watercourses, the Vistula 
and Oder being connected by the Bromberg 
canal, the Oder and Spree (an affluent of the 
Havel) by the Mullroso canal, the Havel and 
Elbe by the Plan canal, the Elbe and Trave by 
the Stecknitz canal, and the Eider and the Bal- 
tic by the Eider canal. Other canals connect 
small adjacent river systems in the western 
provinces. The climate is wholesome and tem- 
perate. The mean temperature at Kcmigsberg 
is 4:* F., at Berlin 48, at Aix-la-Chapelle 
49, and at Cologne and Treves 50. The 
soil, though in some mountainous districts of 
the western section extremely desolate and 
sterile, and in a large division of the middle 
provinces a poor loamy sand, is on the whole 



fertile, and preeminently so in the bottoms of 
the Elbe, Saale, Unstrut (an affluent of the 
Saale), Oder, Warthe, Netze, and some otlu-r 
rivers. Even where it is naturally poor, a woll 
developed system of agriculture, assiduously 
fostered by the government, renders it highly 
productive. The population of Prussia, ac- 
cording to the census of 1871 (corrected tables 
of 1873), was as follows: 

Prussia.... 8,187,546 

Brandenburg ^BSlH 

Pomeranla 1.4HUM8 

Posen... I,to8,t>48 

Silesia 8,77,li;7 

Saxony 2,1 (. 1 71 

Schleswig-Holsteln 15,s78 

Hanover (including the Jade district) 1,9(3,618 

Westphalia 1,775.175 

Hesse-Nassau 1,4(M).870 

Rhine Province 8,57'.V7 

Hohenzollern 65,558 

Soldiers and sailors not included above 87,4U9 

Total 24,648,951 

Duchy or Lauenburg 49,546 

Grand total 24,698,497 

The excess of females over males was 857,542. 
Of the entire population about 21,800,000 speak 
German, 146,800 are Lithuanians, 2,420,000 
(in Prussia, Posen, and Pomerania) Poles, 50,- 
000 (in Silesia) Czechs, 83,000 (in Silesia and 
Brandenburg) Wends, 10,400 (in the Rhine 
province) Walloons, and 145,000 (in Schleswig- 
Ilolstein) Danes. Prussia has one city (Ber- 
lin) of more than 900,000 inhabitants (in Au- 
gust, 1878, 909,580), 5 of from 100,000 to 210,- 
000 (Breslau, Cologne, Magdeburg, KSnigsberg, 
and Hanover), 12 of from 50,000 to 100,000 
(Frankfort-on-the-Main, Dantzic, Stettin, Bar- 
men, Elberfeld, Aix-la-Chapelle, Altona, Dus- 
soldorf, Crefeld, Posen, Halle, and Essen), and 
6 of from 40,000 to 50,000 (Cassel, Dortmund. 
Potsdam, Erfurt, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, and 
Gorlitz). The number of births in 1872 was 
1,023,005, of which 73,527 were illegitimate 
and 40,505 still-born ; of deaths, 765,360 ; of 
marriages, 255,421. The number of emigrants 
from 1844 to 1872 was 706,562 ; of immigrants, 
110,973. Of the total area of the kingdom, 
50'1 per cent, consists of tilled fields, gardens, 
vineyards, and orchards, 18-3 meadowg, 23'1 
woodland, and 8'5 unproductive land. All 
kinds of grain are produced in abundance in 
Prussia proper, Posen, Silesia, and Saxony, all 
of which export breadstuff's to the other prov- 
inces or to foreign countries. An average 
grain crop is estimated at 53,000,000 bushels 
of wheat, 194,000,000 of rye, 34,000,000 of 
barley, and 154,000,000 of oats. Of potatoes 
about 495,000,000 bushels are raised. Spelt, 
peas, rape seed, dyestuffs, herbs, flax, hemp, 
chiccory, hops, and" beets (chiefly used for the 
sugar manufacture) are cultivated in large 
quantities in all parts of the kingdom. Tobacco 
is largely raised in western and central Prus- 
sia, but has of late considerably decreased in 
amount; the produce of raw tobacco in 1869 
was about 17,000,000 Ibs. Of the vineyards 
full four fifths are on the Rhine and its tribu- 



PRUSSIA 



51 



taries ; their average yield is about 10,000,000 
gallons. Wine of good quality is produced 
only near the Rhine ; those brands which are 
produced in Saxony (Naumburg) and Silesia 
(Griineberg) are proverbially bad. The forests 
furnish an abundance of excellent timber and 
lumber. In the raising of domestic animals 
the progress of Prussia since its reconstruction 
after the wars of Napoleon has been more 
marked than in any other agricultural pursuit. 
The breed of horses has been so improved by 
government studs, that not only are all the 
horses wanted for army purposes obtained 
within the state, but large numbers are ex- 
ported to neighboring countries. In 1873 the 
total number of horses was 2,278,274, of cat- 
tle 8,612,150, of sheep 19,624,758, and of swine 
4,278,531. Hogs are most numerous in West- 
phalia, geese in Pomerania, bees in Branden- 
burg and Westphalia, and goats in the moun- 
tainous districts ; poultry is abundant every- 
where. The fisheries on the shores of the 
Baltic and on the lakes and rivers are impor- 
tant, and all kinds of game common to central 
Europe are found in the forests. Wolves are 
seen only in Prussia proper and Posen, where 
also a few specimens of the aurochs and elk are 
carefully preserved. The lynx, fox, badger, 
marten, beaver, otter, and wild fowl are met 
with in different parts of the kingdom. Seals 
are sometimes caught in the Baltic. Mining 
industry advanced with astonishing rapidity 
within the second quarter of the present cen- 
tury; it received a temporary check in 1858, 
but has since made great progress, especially 
in the production of coal, iron, and zinc. In 
1872 the total number of mines in Prussia was 
2,702, among which were 476 coal mines, 544 
of brown coal, 1,559 of iron, 130 of lead, 82 of 
zinc, 39 of copper, 5 of vitriol, 46 of man- 

ganese, and 1 of cobalt, employing 225,936 
ands, including women and children. The to- 
tal value of mining products was $82,460,000. 
The production of coal in 1872 amounted to 
581,000,000 cwt., that of brown coal to 146,- 
000,000 cwt. In the production of raw iron 
Prussia exceeds all other states of the Euro- 
pean continent ; in the production of zinc all 
the countries of the world. The value of the 
products of furnaces, founderies, puddling 
works, &c., in 1872, was $59,000,000. About 
9,280,000 cwt. of salt was produced in that year. 
A very small quantity of gold is found ; and 
agate, amethysts, alabaster, marble, gypsum, 
clays, &c., are obtained. Amber is found on 
the Baltic coast. Among the mineral springs 
of Prussia the following enjoy the widest 
reputation : Warmbrunn, Salzbrunn, Reinerz, 
and Landeck in Silesia; Freienwalde in Bran- 
denburg ; Lauchstadt in Saxony ; Driburg 
in Westphalia ; the sulphur springs of Aix-la- 
Chapelle; Wiesbaden, Ems, Selters, Schwal- 
bach, and Homburg in Hesse-Nassau. Up to 
the beginning of the present century Prussia 
was mainly an agricultural and military state. 
Even the efforts of Frederick the Great to 



introduce new branches of manufacture were 
in the main unsuccessful. It was only after 
the final abolition of serfdom (Oct. 9, 1807), 
the introduction of municipal self-government 
(Nov. 19, 1808), and the removal of the medise- 
val institution of trade guilds (Oct. 28, 1810), 
that manufacturing industry began to take root 
in Prussia. Soon after Napoleon's downfall 
the government turned its earnest attention to 
fostering home manufactures, and during the 
past 50 years the industry of Prussia has stead- 
ily and rapidly advanced. In 1806 the popu- 
lation of Prussia was 1D,000,000, with an 
average income of $10 to each inhabitant; the 
capital invested in manufacturing establish- 
ments little exceeded $200,000,000, and the 
number of free laborers was 480,000. In 1856 
the average income of over 17,000,000 in- 
habitants was $42 each, the capital invested 
in manufactures $770,000,000, and the number 
of free laborers 2,771,000. In 1872 the total 
income of the 24,600,000 inhabitants was es- 
timated at $1,880,000,000, an average of $76 
to each inhabitant. A powerful impulse has 
recently been given to Prussian industry by 
the results of the Franco-German war. The 
increase of capital and the strengthened con- 
fidence of the capitalists in the lasting prom- 
inence of Prussia and Germany led to the 
establishment of a large number of new manu- 
factories and the enlargement of many old 
ones. Among the new branches of industry 
the manufacture of beet sugar stands foremost, 
the number of factories in 1873 amounting 
to 257. The introduction of the cotton manu- 
facture has been attended with great losses. 
In 1846 the number of spindles was 194,290 ; 
in 1856, 289,000 ; in 1866, about 600,000. The 
linen manufacture has been developed to the 
greatest perfection in Silesia and Westphalia, 
and has of late assumed larger dimensions in 
the provinces of Hanover and Hesse-Nassau. 
Among the most prosperous manufactures of 
the kingdom is that of woollen goods, which 
is chiefly carried on in the two Rhenish dis- 
tricts of Aix-la-Chapelle and Dilsseldorf and 
in the provinces of Brandenburg, Saxony, and 
Silesia. Large manufactories of silks are found 
in the Rhine province, Westphalia, and Bran- 
denburg. Hardware of all kinds is manu- 
factured in all the provinces except Prussia 
proper and Posen. The machine shops of 
Berlin rival the largest establishments of the 
kind in England, while the great iron and steel 
works of Krupp at Essen are now the most 
extensive and famous in the world. Solingen 
and Suhl are celebrated for cutlery and guns ; 
Silesia for castings and sheet iron ; Westphalia 
for scythes and needles. In 1868 the iron 
works of Prussia produced 10,279,000 cwt. of 
bar and rolled iron, 2,408,000 of steel, 1,781,- 
000 of sheet iron, 862,156 of iron wire, and 
3,490,000 of castings. Rapid as the increase 
of the production of raw iron has been, it has 
not been able to keep pace with the increase 
of consumption. The manufacture of leather, 



62 



PRUSSIA 



morocco, cordovan, &c., flourishes in Saxony, 
in Berlin, and in Prussia proper. In the manu- 
facture of paper the progress has been more 
rapid even than in textile fabrics ; it is car- 
ried on in the Rhine province, "Westphalia, 
Brandenburg, Saxony, and Silesia. Chiccory 
and starch are manufactured principally in 
Saxony, tobacco in all parts of the kingdom. 
The most extensive copper and brass manufac- 
turing establishments are found in Saxony and 
on the Rhine. Glass ware, crockery, stone- 
ware, and china are produced in large quanti- 
ties, principally in the central and eastern prov- 
inces. The porcelain of Berlin rivals the best 
made in France. Tassels, fringes, trimmings, 
&c., are manufactured at Breslau, Magdeburg, 
Cologne, and Berlin ; furniture and pianos at 
Berlin. The postal arrangements of Prussia, 
which have long been celebrated for their ad- 
mirable convenience, economy, and exactness, 
have now, in common with those of the other 
states of the German empire, passed into the 
hands of the imperial government, by which 
however their leading features are retained. 
The telegraphs, all of which are under state 
control, followed the same course. The aggre- 
gate length of the railway lines in operation in 
May, 1874, was 9,042 m., of which 2,520 m. 
\rere comprised in roads belonging to the state, 
1,611 m. in roads of private companies managed 
by the state, and 4,911 m. in roads belonging 
to and managed by private companies. The 
rolling stock in 1872 consisted of 4,827 loco- 
motives, 6,794 passenger cars, and 95,296 freight 
cars. The number of passengers carried over 
the roads in 1872 was 86,442,679 ; total freight, 
1,550,000,000 cwt. In 1878 the commercial 
marine comprised 2,961 vessels (including river 
steamers), with an aggregate tonnage of 489,- 
890, of which 1,104 were steamers. The en- 
trances at the various ports in 1872 were 56,974 
vessels, tonnage 4,613,228; clearances, 55,088, 
tonnage 4,61 1,598. Until 1855 the Royal bank 
at Berlin (which had been transformed into a 
joint stock bank in 1846) was the only bank of 
issue. In December, 1873, the number of banks 
of issue was 12. The circulation of the Roy- 
al bank, which until 1850 had not exceeded 
$15,000,000, rose to $50,000,000 in 1857, and 
in December, 1878, amounted to $215,000,000. 
In all the principal cities there are branches of 
the Royal bank. The Frankfort bank, in Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main, had a circulation of about 
$10,000,000, and the Hanover bank of $2,800,- 
000 ; the note circulation of each of the other 
banks does not exceed $700,000. A pecu- 
liar moneyed institution of Prussia, first intro- 
duced by Frederick the Great, but since imi- 
tated in other countries, is the real estate bank 
(Hypothekeribanle), originally intended to save 
the large landholders from the usurious prac- 
tices of money lenders. These banks issue 
transferable mortgage bonds to the amount of 
one half or two thirds of the value of landed 
estates, the bank or association of landholders 
guaranteeing the principal and interest to the 



holders of the bonds. The aggregate amount 
of such bonds exceeds $380,000,000. The as- 
sociation of capital for commercial and \\ 
trial purposes, not including railways, turn- 
pikes, or canals, has of late greatly increased. 
In December, 1872, the total number of com- 
panies was 1,041, of which 762 had been found- 
ed since June 11, 1870, the date of the pro- 
mulgation of the new law on stock compa- 
nies. Of the latter number 126 were banking, 
28 insurance, 108 mining, 6 steamship, and 298 
manufacturing companies. A large number of 
these companies disappeared npain in conse- 
quence of the financial crisis of 1878-'4. The 
savings banks of Prussia are municipal institu- 
tions, belonging to the towns (stadtitche tijxtr- 
banken) or to the circles (Kreiuparbanken). 
The aggregate deposits in them amount to more 
than $113,000,000. -The system of public edu- 
cation in Prussia is one of the most thorough 
in the world. Instruction in the common 
branches is compulsory. It is difficult in Prus- 
sia to find adult persons unable to read. The 
number of common schools in 1878 was about 
35,000, with over 8,700,000 pupils. The num- 
ber of "middle schools," academies, appren- 
tices' schools, Sunday schools, and industrial 
schools is very large, and increasing from year 
to year. In 1878 there were 32 provincial 
technical schools (Gewerbeschuleri). The mid- 
dle schools embraced 218 Gymnatien (classical 
colleges), 8 Realgymnaiieit, 78 Progymnatien 
(preparatory colleges) and Latin schools, and 
246 Reahchuhn and hohere Burgerschulen, 
having together 120,000 pupils. There were 
nine universities, at Berlin, Konigsberg, Halle, 
Breslau, Greifswald, Marburg, GottSngen, Bonn, 
and Kiel, with more than 800 teachers and 9,600 
students ; two Roman Catholic academies ; 
and 128 normal schools, 94 for male and 34 
for female teachers. Besides these there are 
numerous educational institutions for special 
branches of science, as theological seminaries 
connected with the universities and at the 
seats of the Roman Catholic bishops, a philo- 
sophical academy at Paderborn, a polytechnic 
institution and an academy of architecture at 
Berlin, polytechnic schools at Hanover and 
Aix-la-Chapelle, mining academies at Berlin 
and Clausthal, academies of veterinary surgery 
at Berlin and Hanover, academies of forest 
culture at Neustadt-Eberswalde and Munden, 
agricultural colleges at Eldena, Proskau, Pop- 
pelsdorf, and GOttingen-Weende, 84 agricul- 
tural schools, and a great number of private 
commercial academies. All educational insti- 
tutions are controlled, more or less directly, 
by the government. Even private teachers 
must submit to a thorough examination before 
they are permitted to open schools. The com- 
mon schools are sustained and managed by the 
municipal corporations, but the teachers are 
appointed by government. Of charitable in- 
stitutions, there are 18 deaf-mute asylums, 16 
asylums for the blind, several orphan asylums 
and nurseries, Bible and missionary societies, 



PKUSSIA 



53 



&c. The highest branches of scientific culture 
are fostered bythe royal academy of Berlin 
and numerous associations of scholars. There 
are large public libraries in all the principal 
cities ; observatories and botanical gardens are 
connected with the universities; a zoological 
garden is kept near Berlin. The fine arts are 
taught by the royal academy of art at Berlin, 
the art academies of Diisseldorf, Konigsberg, 
Hanau, and Cassel, and five art schools. The 
number of musical academies and musical so- 
cieties is enormous. The press of Prussia is 
treated in the article NEWSPAPEKS, vol. xii., p. 
338. The dominant religion in Prussia is the 
Protestant. The two principal Protestant de- 
nominations, the Lutheran and the Reformed 
or Calvinistic church, united in 1817, assuming 
the common designation of Evangelical church. 
According to the census of 1871, there were 
in Prussia 16,041,215 Evangelical Christians, 
8,268,309 Koman Catholics, 325,565 Jews, and 
54,903 of smaller religious sects. Included in 
the latter number were 20,009 Lutheran dissent- 
ers, 14,052 Mennonites, 9,375 Baptists, 2,531 
Free Religionists, 1,354 German Catholics, and 
987 Free Congregationalists. The Old Catho- 
lics in 1874 numbered about 18,000. The 
Evangelical church constitutes a majority in 
the provinces of Schleswig-Holstein (99 per 
cent.), Pomerania (97), Brandenburg (95), Sax- 
ony (93), Hanover (87), Hesse-Nassau (70), and 
Prussia (70); the Roman Catholic church in 
Hohenzollern (96 per cent.), the Rhine prov- 
ince (73), Posen (64), Westphalia (53), and 
Silesia (51). The Evangelical church is gov- 
erned by the supreme ecclesiastical council 
at Berlin (established in 1850) in all spiritual 
matters, and by the ministry of public worship 
in temporal affairs. Each province has a con- 
sistory and a superintendent general, and is 
divided into dioceses, at the head of which 
stand superintendents. The Roman Catholic 
church has 2 archbishoprics (Gnesen-Posen and 
Cologne) and 10 bishoprics (Culm, Ermeland, 
Breslau, Minister, Paderborn, Treves, Osna- 
brilck, Hildesheim, Fulda, and Limburg). Of 
the Jews fully one half live in the eastern (for- 
merly Polish) provinces. The members of all 
churches recognized by government enjoy equal 
civil rights. The Old Catholics have been 
recognized by the government as a part of 
the Catholic church, and the bishop elected 
by them as a bishop of the Catholic church. 
Other denominations (Baptists, Methodists, 
German Catholics, and Free Congregational- 
ists) are barely tolerated, though the constitu- 
tion guarantees full religious liberty. Prussia 
is a hereditary constitutional monarchy. The 
constitution was promulgated Jan. 81, 1850, 
but has since received various modifications, 
the last, in reference to the ecclesiastical pro- 
visions, in May, 1875. In the territories an- 
nexed in 1866, the Prussian constitution was 
introduced on Oct. 1, 1867. It guarantees to 
all citizens equality in civil rights, the right 
of habeas corpus, religious liberty, freedom of 



the press, &c. The king is the chief execu- 
tive, clothed with all prerogatives of monar- 
chical power. He administers the government 
by the advice of nine responsible ministers, 
viz. : of the royal household, of foreign affairs, 
of finances, of public worship, education, and 
health, of commerce, industry, and public works, 
of the interior, of justice, of war, and of agri- 
culture. The legislature (Landtag) consists of 
a house of lords (HerrenJiaus) and a house of 
deputies (Abgeordnetenhaus). The former em- 
braces: 1, all princes of royal blood, including 
the princes of the formerly sovereign houses 
of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern- 
Sigmaringen; 2, the chiefs of the mediatized 
princely houses, recognized by the congress of 
Vienna, to the number of 16 in Prussia; 3, 
the heads of the territorial nobility, number- 
ing about 50 members; 4, eight titled noble- 
men, elected in the eight old provinces by the 
resident landowners ; 5, the representatives of 
the universities, the heads of the chapters, and 
the burgomasters of towns with more than 
50,000 inhabitants; 6, an unlimited number of 
members appointed by the king for life or for 
a restricted period. The chamber of deputies 
consists of 432 members, 352 for the old prov- 
inces, and the remainder for the new territories 
annexed in 1866. The deputies are elected by 
indirect universal suffrage for a term of three 
years. The king has an absolute veto power. 
At the head of the political administration of 
each of the 11 provinces stands an Oterprdsi- 
dent (chief president). The provinces are divi- 
ded into administrative districts called Regie- 
rungsbezirTce, except in the province of Han- 
over, where the former division into Land- 
drosteien is retained. At the head of each 
RegierungsbezirTc stands a Regierungsprasi- 
dent, at the head of a Landdrostei a Land- 
drost. The number of administrative districts 
is 34, besides the city of Berlin and Hohen- 
zollern, each of which forms a separate dis- 
trict. The districts are divided into Kreie 
or circles, except Hohenzollern, which is di- 
vided into four Oberamtsbezirke. At the head 
of a circle in all the old and some of the new 
provinces is a LandratJi; in parts of the new 
territories, the former titles of the heads of 
subdivisions, like Kreishauptmann and Amts- 
hauptmann, have been retained. Provincial 
assemblies exist, but their powers are only ad- 
visory. They cannot originate any measures, 
and must not even advise the government upon 
any subject unless called upon to do so. Their 
principal duty is to apportion the taxes to be 
levied from the provinces. The police through- 
out the kingdom is administered by the gov- 
ernment. The administration of justice has 
been completely reorganized since 1848. Pub- 
licity of judicial proceedings, trial by jury, and 
a new criminal code have been introduced, and 
all exceptional jurisdiction has been abolished. 
In Rhenish Prussia the code Napoleon and the 
French legal procedure, which were introduced 
under the rule of Napoleon, have been main- 



PRUSSIA 



tained. In the other provinces there are city 
or district courts, and 26 courts of appeal. 
The chief tribunal at Berlin is the court of last 
resort for all parts of the kingdom. Finan- 
cially Prussia is in a flourishing condition, and 
its financial administration is excellent. The 
annexation of large territories in 1866 and 
the establishment of the German empire under 
the Prussian dynasty in 1871, to whose budget 
some of the revenues as well as the expendi- 
tures of Prussia were transferred, render a 
comparison of the Prussian budgets of the 
years before 1867 with those of the following 
years of little value. The estimates of public 
revenue and expenditure submitted by the 
government tp the chambers are always pre- 
pared to show an even balance ; but in recent 
years the actual revenue has always largely 
exceeded the estimate, and shown even in 
years of war a constant and increasing sur- 
plus. In the budgets of 1868 to 1874, reve- 
nue and expenditures were each estimated at 
the following amounts: 1868, $115,000,000; 
1869,$120,600,000; 1870, $121,200,000; 1871, 
$124,500,000; 1872, $134,600,000; 1878, $151,- 
200,000; 1874, $167,500,000. The actual sur- 
plus amounted in 1870 to $6,700,000, in 1871 
to $7,200,000, and in 1872 to $8,900,000. Of 
late the income from railways and other state 
undertakings, such as mines, has been largely 
increasing, showing a tendency to become in 
the course of time larger than that from taxa- 
tion, direct or indirect. In the estimates for 
1874, the revenue of the ministry of commerce, 
chiefly from the railways and mines, was more 
than two fifths of the entire government re- 
ceipts. The exemption of a large number of 
landed proprietors (noblemen) from taxation 
on real estate was abolished in 1861, but the 
actual payment of taxes by them did not begin 
till 1865. The public debt of Prussia, which 
in 1787 was only $32,250,000, amounted in 
1820 to $152,491,000. In 1847 it had been re- 
duced to $98,000,000, but in 1862 it again 
amounted to $175,700,000. On the annexation 
of Schleswig-IIolstein, Hanover, Ilesse-Cassel, 
Nassau, and Frankfort to Prussia, it was ar- 
ranged that the incorporation of the debts of 
these states with that of Prussia should take 
place at some future period. This had not yet 
been done in 1874. The aggregate debt of the 
entire monarchy in that year amonnted to 
$259,400,000, of which $107,900,000 was rail- 
way debt. The interest on the latter debt is 
paid out of the profits of the state lines, the 
yearly increasing dividends of which likewise 
create a sinking fund for the gradual extinc- 
tion of the debt The Prussian military sys- 
tem, so elaborate and thorough that it has 
been chiefly instrumental in giving the state its 
present leadership among European countries, 
was in 1871 extended to the whole empire, and 
the Prussian became a part of the imperial 
army. The navy of Prussia has in the same 
way become the chief part of the imperial naval 
force. (See GERMANY, vol. vii., pp. 750, 751.) 



The country which gave its name to the 
kingdom of Prussia, of which it is now only a 
province, was in antiquity probably known to 
the Phoenicians, who either in their ships or 
through trading posts procured amber from its 
Baltic shores. The aborigines, a Lettic tribe 
kindred to the Lithuanians, appear to have been 
peaceable and quiet, and acquainted with agri- 
culture. During the first centuries of the 
Christian era they became dependent upon the 
Goths, who overran their country. In the 
10th century they are first mentioned under 
the name of Borussi or Porussi. Their re- 
ligion was polytheism, and human sacrifices 
were not uncommon. Bishop Adalbert, who 
attempted to convert them to Christianity, 
was slain by them while hewing down thoir 
sacred oak tree, in A. D. 997. Boleslas I. of 
Poland invaded their country and compelled 
them to profess the Christian faith in 1015, 
but neither he nor his immediate successors 
could retain a hold upon them. A large army 
which Boleslas IV. led against them was 
totally annihilated, and the Prussians even 
held a part of Poland in subjection for some 
time. In 1219 they repelled a crusade sent 
against them from Germany, and soon became 
the terror of all neighboring countries. The 
Teutonic knights finally conquered Prussia 
(1280-'83), founded cities, introduced German 
colonists and German laws, and by their firm 
rule made Prussia one of the most flourish- 
ing countries of its time. (See TEUTONIC 
KNIGHTS.) But about the middle of the 15th 
century the demoralization of the knights, 
their continual wars with Poland and Lithu- 
ania, and their reckless exactions created a 
powerful opposition. The nobility and the 
municipalities obtained the assistance of th 
king 01 Poland, Casimir IV., and by a war of 
12 years' duration (1454-'66) compelled the 
order to cede western Prussia and Ermeland to 
Poland. The remainder was left to them as a 
fief of Poland. In 1511 the margrave Albert 
of Brandenburg was elected grand master of 
the order. Having vainly striven to throw off 
the Polish rule, he turned Protestant, and in 
1525 accepted Prussia as a duchy from Poland. 
His son Albert Frederick becoming insane, 
the duchy was governed by his relatives, of 
whom John Sigismund, elector of Branden- 
burg, inherited it in 1618. He was a descen- 
dant of Frederick of Hohenzollern, burgrave 
of Nuremberg, who had become possessor of 
Brandenburg in 1415 by foreclosure of mort- 
gage. (See BRANDENBURG, and HOHEKZOL- 
LKBN.) The electorate of Brandenburg, not 
Prussia proper, must be considered the nucleus 
of the present monarchy of that name. The 
electorate, though frequently divided by the 
descendants of Frederick, played a conspicuous 
part in the history of Germany, especially du- 
ring the reformation. Frederick I. (1415-'40) 
subdued the robber knights, and obtained some 
additional territory from Pomerania and Meck- 
lenburg, but succumbed to the Hussites, who 



PRUSSIA 



55 



devastated his country with fire and sword in 
1432. Frederick II. (1440-'70) enlarged his 
possessions by purchases from neighboring 
states, but was unfortunate in his attempts to 
conquer Lusatia from Bohemia and Stettin from 
Pomerania. Albert Achilles (1470-'86) and 
John Cicero (1486-'99) contended energetically 
against the usurpations of the lords, and pro- 
moted industry, commerce, and science. The 
two younger brothers of the latter received 
the Franconian possessions of their father, and 
% founded the two branch lines of the house 
of Brandenburg, Anspach and Baireuth. Jo- 
achim I. Nestor (1499-1535) was noted as a 
scholar, and also as one of the most violent 
opponents of the reformation, and a persecu- 
tor of the Jews, of whom he had many burned 
at the stake or exiled. Joachim II. Hector 
(1535-'71) became a Protestant, secularized 
the bishoprics of Brandenburg, Havelberg, and 
Lebus, founded many educational or charitable 
institutions with the proceeds of the church 
property, and concluded a treaty of mutual in- 
heritance with the duke of Liegnitz in Silesia, 
which two centuries later became the founda- 
tion of the Prussian claims on Silesia. John 
George I. (1571-'98) expelled the Jews who had 
been readmitted by his predecessor, but invited 
the exiled Protestants from the Netherlands 
into his country, and by wise economy greatly 
improved the financial condition of his state. 
Joachim Frederick (1598-1608) acquired by 
marriage a claim on the duchy of Prussia, 
which his son John Sigismund (1608-' 19) per- 
manently united to the electorate of Branden- 
burg, having previously, after the death of the 
duke of Jiilich, acquired Oleves and other pos- 
sessions. Under the reign of George William 
(1619-'40), Brandenburg and Prussia suffered 
terribly from the thirty years' war. Having 
adopted a policy of neutrality, the elector was 
looked upon as an enemy by both contending 
parties. Prussia was ravaged by Swedes and 
Poles, Brandenburg by the imperial armies and 
those of the league, and during 12 years by 
the Swedes. From the lowest depth of misery 
and desolation the country was raised by the 
energy and wisdom of Frederick William, the 
Great Elector' (1640-'88). By marking out a 
vigorous and independent policy against France, 
Sweden, and Poland, and shrewdly taking 
advantage of dissensions among his enemies, 
he enlarged his dominions and obtained a posi- 
tion but little below that of the great powers 
of Europe. Of Prussia he made a sovereign 
duchy, severing its connection with Poland. 
At his death his possessions had increased 
to 42,000 sq. m. with 1,500,000 inhabitants. 
His son Frederick, the third elector of that 
name (1688-1713), by consent of the German 
emperor, assumed the title of king of Prussia, 
and was crowned as such Jan. 18, 1701. He 
acquired a few small territories, the princi- 
pality of Neufchatel in Switzerland among the 
rest. His son Frederick William I. (1713-'40) 
acquired from Sweden a part of Pomerania, 



with Stettin, increasing the area of the country 
to 48,000 sq. m. He left to his son Frederick 
II., the Great (l740-'86), $6,000,000 over and 
above all debts, and an army of 70,000 men, 
the best disciplined in all Europe. With these 
means Frederick began a war of conquest, and 
wrested Silesia from Austria. By a wise and 
prudent administration he strengthened and 
consolidated his kingdom, and elevated it to 
the rank of a great power by successfully re- 
sisting during a sanguinary war of seven years' 
duration (1756-'63) the combined aggressions 
of Austria, France, and Russia. In 1772 he 
took part in the first partition of Poland. To 
his successor he left a treasure of $50,000,000, 
an army of 220,000 men, and a territory of 
77,000 sq. m. On his accession he had 2,240,000 
subjects, and at his death the number exceeded 
6,000,000. Frederick William II. (l786-'97), 
though his reign was weak, harmful, and oc- 
cupied by imprudent and unsuccessful wars 
in alliance with Austria against revolutionary 
France, failed to destroy the prestige of Prus- 
sia, and by participating in the second and 
third partitions of Poland added to his posses- 
sions 40,000 sq. m. Frederick William III. 
(1797-1840), by a weak and vacillating policy, 
isolated Prussia and encountered the wrath of 
Napoleon, who, after the ignominious defeat 
of the Prussian armies at Jena in 1806, reduced 
the kingdom to less than half its former area. 
For six years Prussia was cruelly oppressed by 
Napoleon, who did his utmost to reduce the 
kingdom to insignificance. But during this 
period the statesmen of Prussia laid the foun- 
dation of its subsequent greatness by unfet- 
tering labor and commerce, by granting muni- 
cipal self-government, and basing the military 
power of the state upon the people. After 
the downfall of Napoleon most of its former 
possessions were restored to Prussia, and in 
addition to them it acquired parts of the king- 
dom of Saxony and of Pomerania, Berg, Julich, 
and several valuable territories on the Rhine. 
The promise of a liberal constitution, given by 
the king to his people, was not kept. The 
political condition settled down into a sort of 
patriarchal despotism. The establishment of 
the Zollverein was the only wise and states- 
manlike measure during 25 years of peace. 
Frederick William IV. (1840-'61), who had 
great natural talents and scholarship, but was 
weak and pusillanimous, destroyed almost to- 
tally the moral prestige of Prussia, and threw 
away the opportunity, offered to him by the 
revolution of 1848, of becoming the head of a 
united German nation. For nearly 10 years 
under his reign the reactionary party held al- 
most absolute sway, though the state had been 
converted into a constitutional monarchy. In 
1857 his mental faculties gave way, and his 
brother William was intrusted with the re- 
gency. Frederick William died Jan. 2, 1861, 
and was succeeded by the regent as William I. 
The accession of the new king, whose career 
had already shown him to be heartily devoted 



56 



PRUSSIA 



to the long cherished plan of securing com- 
plete Prussian leadership in Germany, found 
the country in the very height of jealous dis- 
sensions with Austria, which had become par- 
ticularly prominent after the peace of Villa- 
franca between Austria and France (1859). 
The acts which this mutual jealousy inspired, 
and by which every possible factor was brought 
into the struggle for control, are described 
at length in the article GERMANY. For seve- 
ral years there was no open rupture ; it was 
only with the entrance of Bismarck into the 
Prussian cabinet as minister of foreign af- 
fairs, in 1862, and the uncompromising attitude 
then assumed in certain questions of German 
politics, that the breach seemed to become 
irreparable ; and no sooner had it been thus 
widened than the Sohleswig-llolstein compli- 
cation (see AUSTRIA, DENMARK, GERMANY, and 
ScHLESwio-IIoLSTEix) arose to present a possi- 
ble and plausible easus belli. In apite of many 
attempts at mediation, the attitude of the 
great powers became more and more hostile, 
and after several arbitrary acts on both sides, 
the convention of Gastein, which gave the 
occupation of Holstein to Austria and that of 
Schleswig to Prussia, but which it seemed evi- 
dent neither power would long adhere to, 
placed affairs in precisely the position where 
another step on either side must mean war. 
The convention was signed on Aug. 14, 1865 ; 
but as early as January, 1866, the conduct of 
the officials in the duchies gave cause for a new 
quarrel. In April Prussia made an alliance with 
Italy, and began to arm. The smaller states of 
Germany generally sided with Austria. On 
June 1 Austria arbitrarily took the question of 
the Danish duchies out of the limits of the Gas- 
tein agreement, by suddenly declaring it to be 
referred to the federal diet; and Prussia, re- 
garding this as a breach of treaty, marched its 
troops into Hol.stein, and proposed to restore 
the joint occupation of both duchies. Austria 
declared this act to bo a violation of the federal 
constitution, and the federal diot, acting en- 
tirely under its leadership, ordered (June 14) 
the mobilization of all the federal troops except 
those of Prussia. On June 15 Prussia sum- 
moned Hanover, Saxony, and Ilesse-Cassel to 
retract their action at the diet ; they refused, 
and on the next day Prussian troops occupied 
their territory, and war was begun. The con- 
flict whioh followed was a remarkable proof of 
the condition of preparation in which the Prus- 
sian state had placed itself; and under the 
name of the "seven weeks' war" it has be- 
come famous as one of the shortest but most 
decisive struggles in history. On June 22 and 
23 the three divisions of the Prussian main army 
advanced toward the frontiers of Bohemia 
from two directions in Silesia under the com- 
mand of the Prussian crown prince, in Saxony 
under that of Prince Frederick Charles of 
Prussia and Gen. Herwarth von Bittenfeld. 
From the 26th to the 29th various minor en- 
gagements took place along the lines, at Podol, 



Huhnerwasser, Munchengratz, Gitschin, Trau- 
tenau, Nachod, Koniginhof, &c. In the moan 
while, on the 28th, the Hanoverian army, cut 
off from reinforcements or means of retreat 
by the Prussian forces about it, had surren- 
dered at Langensalza. On July 1 the Prussiaa 
armies were united near Koniggratz ; and on 
the 3d they encountered at Sadowa, near by, 
the main Austrian army under Benedek, and 
achieved the decisive victory of the war. (See 
SADOWA.) The armies of Austria at once re- 
treated to the south, and the northern prov-^ 
inces were left in the power of the enemy.* 
While these things were in progress, a simul- 
taneous campaign was carried on by Prussia in 
western Germany, but with far less bloodshed ; 
an army under Gen. Vogel von Falkenstein 
had opposed the Bavarians and the army of the 
smaller states, forced them to retreat after a 
battle near Eissingen on July 10, met an Aus- 
trian division near Aschaffenburg on the 14th, 
and entered Frankfort on the 16th. Another 
portion of the " army of the Main," under Gen. 
Manteuffel, met the 7th and 8th corps of the 
federal army, July 24-27, at Tauberbischofs- 
heiin, Helmstadt, and Wurzburg, and won mi- 
nor victories. On the 26th preliminary nego- 
tiations for peace were begun at Nikolsburg, 
and a truce with Austria was declared ; this 
was followed by truces with Bavaria, Hesse- 
Darmstadt, Wurtemberg, and Baden (Aug. 1-3). 
Definite treaties of peace followed with Wur- 
temberg (Aug. 13), Baden (Aug. 17), Bavaria 
(Aug. 22), and Austria (the peace of Prague, 
Aug. 23). The " seven weeks' war," and the 
treaty which ended it, placed Prussia at the 
head of Germany, and marked it as one of the 
first military powers of Europe. The treaty 
of Prague virtually established a new federa- 
tion of German states, soon definitely formed 
(Aug. 18 to Oct. 21) into the "North German 
Confederation" (Norddeuttcher Bund), inclu- 
ding all the states north of the Main. It shut 
out Austria from Germany, and left the South 
German states to take their own course as to 
the establishment of a Bund between them- 
selves. But Prussia gained an aggrandizement 
of territory as well as of prestige ; for it an- 
nexed Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Hesse- 
Cassel, Nassau, and Frankfort, and thus not 
only extended its boundaries, but removed the 
principal obstacles to its territorial unity. The 
chief measures of Prussian politics from the 
close of the war of 1866 till 1870 are again 
treated in the article GERMANY. The minor 
measures of its politics during this period com- 
prised treaties on points of administration, 
posts, military affairs, &c., with the other 
states, and regulation of its own educational, 
industrial, and financial affairs. The part of 
Prussia in the Franco-German war of 1870-'71 
(see FRANCE, and GERMANY) is inextricably in- 
volved with that of the whole German nation. 
The conflict served to precipitate the solution 
of the question which had always been the 
aim of the king and Bismarck : German unity 



PRUSSIAN BLUE 



PRYNNE 



under Prussian leadership. On Jan. 18, 1871, 
King William was crowned at Versailles as 
emperor of Germany, and on March 21 the 
first German Reichstag assembled at Berlin. 
From 1871 to 1874 Prussia had undertaken no 
important measures independently of the rest of 
Germany, and its most recent history is there- 
fore contained in the article on the empire. 
(See also WILLIAM I., of Prussia and Germany, 
and for fuller accounts on previous periods of 
Prussian history the notices on the principal 
monarchs under the head of FREDERICK.) 

PRUSSIAN BUT. See POTASSIUM. 

PRUSSIA PROPER, a great division of the 
Prussian kingdom, comprising East or Ducal 
Prussia, and West or Royal Prussia, now offi- 
cially united into one province ; area, 24,114 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 3,137,545. East Prussia 
is bounded N. E., E., and S. by Russia (Cour- 
land, Lithuania, and Poland), W. by West 
Prussia, and N. W. by the Baltic. Its surface 
is low and almost uniformly level, and there 
are numerous lakes formed by the rivers, the 
fall being insufficient to carry their waters to 
the ocean. The most important streams are 
the Memel or Niemen, which empties into a 
vast estuary or lagoon called the Kurisches 
Half, the Pregel, and the Passarge. The 
greater part of the soil is fertile, and the prin- 
cipal crop is potatoes. Nearly one third of 
the land is covered with forests. Fruit, flax, 
hemp, tobacco, grain, live stock, and fowls 
are largely produced, game is abundant, and 
amber is found in considerable quantities. 
East Prussia comprises the administrative dis- 
tricts of Konigsberg and Gumbinnen. Most 
of the inhabitants are Germans. West Prussia 
is bounded N. by the Baltic, E. by East Prussia, 
S. by Russian Poland and Posen, and W. by 
Brandenburg and Pomerania. The surface, 
soil, and productions are like those of East 
Prussia. The principal rivers are the Vistula, 
whose E. mouth, the Nogat, enters the Frisches 
Haff, the Drewenz, and the Brahe. There are 
numerous inland lakes, but they are not so 
large as those of East Prussia. This division 
comprises the administrative districts of Dant- 
zic and Marienwerder. About 67 per cent, of 
the inhabitants are Germans, and 33 per cent. 
Poles. Prussia proper was conquered and 
Christianized in the 13th century by the Teu- 
tonic knights. In 1466 they were forced by 
Casimir IV. to cede West Prussia to Poland, 
while keeping East Prussia as a fief of that 
kingdom. The latter division, when converted 
into a duchy by the last grand master of the 
order, Albert of Brandenburg (1511), was des- 
ignated as Ducal Prussia, and was united with 
Brandenburg by the elector John Sigismund 
(1618). Western or Royal Prussia was severed 
from Poland, in the first partition of that 
kingdom (1772), by Frederick the Great, with 
the exception of the cities of Dantzic and 
Thorn, which Frederick William II. received 
in the second partition (1793). 

PRUSSIC ACID. See HYDROCYANIC Aero. 



PRUTH (anc. Poras), a river of Europe, 
which rises in the N. E. Carpathians, on the 
boundary between the Hungarian county of 
Marmaros and Galicia, flows E. through the 
latter country and Bukowina, and S. S. E. 
along the boundary line of Roumania and Bes- 
sarabia, and joins the Danube at Reni, near 
the delta of the latter river. The length of its 
course is about 350 m. The Pruth figures con- 
spicuously in the history of every Turko-Rus- 
sian war since the times of Peter the Great, 
who in 1711 narrowly escaped being captured 
on its banks, with his army. 

PRIME, William, an English political writer, 
born at Swainswick, near Bath, in 1600, died 
in London, Oct. 24, 1669. He graduated at 
Oriel college, Oxford, in 1620, studied law, 
and was admitted a barrister of Lincoln's Inn. 
Having become a Puritan, he published pam- 
phlets against Arminianism ; and some passages 
in one entitled " Histriomastix, the Player's 
Scourge" (1632), appearing to reflect upon the 
king and queen, Bishop Laud brought him be- 
fore the star chamber, and by that court he was 
excluded from Lincoln's Inn, and condemned to 
pay a fine of 5,000, to have his ears cut off, to 
stand in the pillory at Westminster and Cheap- 
side, and to be imprisoned during the king's 
pleasure. His work was also ordered to be 
burned before his eyes by the common hang- 
man. This sentence was rigorously carried 
out, but from his prison he continued to issue 
tracts against the prelates. The publication 
of one of these, in 1637, entitled "News from 
Ipswich," stirred up anew the anger of Laud, 
and Prynne was again summoned before the 
star chamber, and fined 5,000. The remains 
of his ears were cut off, and the letters S. 
L. (seditious libeller) were branded on both 
cheeks. At the execution of this sentence 
in the palace yard, and afterward on his way 
to his prison, Carnarvon castle, a great crowd 
was present, which manifested its sympathy 
and respect for the sufferer. Such numbers 
also visited the castle, that after a residence of 
ten weeks he was removed by an illegal order 
to the castle of Mont Orgueil in the island of 
Jersey. On Nov. 7, 1640, he was released by 
an order of the house of commons, his sentence 
being reversed, and damages to the amount of 
5,000 being awarded him against his judges. 
His entrance into London had the appearance 
of a triumphal procession. Soon after he be- 
came a member of parliament for Newport in 
Cornwall, and in 1 647 he was elected recorder 
of Bath. He took a prominent part in the 
proceedings of the long parliament, zealously 
espousing the cause of the Presbyterians and 
opposing the Independents. Just before the 
king's trial he was ordered into the custody of 
the sergeant at arms for " denying the suprem- 
acy of parliament," and on Dec. 6, 1648, he 
was arrested by the army and ejected from the 
house. He now became a bitter opponent of 
Cromwell, and published articles of so virulent 
a character that he was twice imprisoned. He 



58 



PRZEMYSL 



PSALMS 



was discharged from his office of recorder of 
Bath in 1654, but was reflected after the res- 
toration. He was one of the excluded mem- 
bers who sat in the house of commons early 
in 1660, and was zealous in furthering the 
restoration, after which he was appointed 
keeper of records in the tower. Wood, in his 
AthencB Oxonienses, gives a catalogue of his 
writings, which comprises nearly 200 volumes. 
The most valuable are his " Collection of Rec- 
ords," " Calendar of Parliamentary Writs," 
and "Observations on the Fourth Part of 
Coke's Institutes." His " Records " he in- 
tended to bring down as late as the reign of 
Elizabeth, but he lived only long enough to 
complete the work as far as that of Henry III. 

PRZEMYSL, a town of Austrian Galicia, on 
the San, at the junction of the Lemberg and 
Cracow and the Hungaro-Galician railways, 
55 m. W. of Lemberg; pop. in 1870, 15,184 
(against 9,800 in 1857), including more than 
5,000 Jews. It is one of the oldest towns of 
Poland. It has many Gothic churches, inclu- 
ding two ancient cathedrals, is the seat of a 
Catholic and a Greek United bishop, and has a 
gymnasium and other schools. The principal 
trade is in timber, leather, and linens. 

Ps\LM lYl/AR, George, the assumed name of 
a French impostor, born about 1679, died in 
London in 1753 or 1703. Ho travelled over 
various parts of France, Germany, and the 
Netherlands ; was a soldier, a beggar, and a 
servant, pretending at first to be a Japanese 
and afterward a Formosan ; and at length 
went to England with one Innes, a chaplain in 
a Scotch regiment, who claimed the credit of 
converting him to Christianity. In 1704 he 
published at London a pretended " History 
and Description of the Island of Formosa off 
the Coast of China," in which the description 
of the island was given with such apparent 
fidelity, the manners and customs were illus- 
trated with so many engravings, and such 
copious specimens were given of a new lan- 
guage, that the belief in the story was general 
until the author revealed the imposition. He 
now applied himself seriously to study, and 
wrote a largo portion of the " Universal His- 
tory," a true account as far as known of For- 
mosa for the " Complete System of Geogra- 
phy," an " Essay on Miracles," and a version 
of the Psalms. He left in manuscript his own 
memoirs, published in London in 1765. 

PSALMS, Book of (in the Septuagint, *a?,/io/, 
hymns sung to the accompaniment of stringed 
instruments; in Hebrew collections, Tehillim, 
praise songs), one of the canonical books of 
the Old Testament, containing a copious col- 
lection of religious songs. Religious poetry 
among the Hebrews, as among the oriental 
nations in general, can be traced to a high 
antiquity. The Pentateuch contains several 
hymns and fragments of hymns ; in the book 
of Psalms we find one psalm which is as- 
cribed to Moses; and in the time of the judges 
we meet with the beautiful song of Deborah 



(Judges v.). But the religious poetry of the 
Hebrews attained its principal development 
through King David, who is represented in 
the Scriptures as having practised it from 
early youth until his death, and in particular 
as having introduced the singing of hymns 
into the service in the tabernacle. In the 
Hebrew original 73 psalms are ascribed to 
David, but none of the old ecclesiastical trans- 
lations, as the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and the 
Peshito, agree in this respect. Besides Moses 
and David, several other authors of psalms 
are named in the headings; thus, 2 psalms 
are ascribed to Solomon, 12 to Asaph, 11 to 
the sons of Eorah, a Levitic family, and one 
each to Heman and Ethan. The Alexandrine 
and Syriac versions mention also the prophets 
Haggai and Zechariah as the authors of some 
psalms. The collection of psalms, in the form 
in which it appears in the Old Testament, can- 
not have been completed until after the cap- 
tivity, as some of the psalms are obviously of 
subsequent origin. According to Hitzig, Len- 
gerke, and Olshausen, some of the psalms be- 
long to a time as late as that of the Macca- 
bees. The possibility of Maccabtean psalms 
is admitted by Delitzsch, while their existence 
is denied by Hengstenberg, Havernick, Keil, 
Ewald, and others. Particular collections, 
which were afterward embodied in the book 
of Psalms, may possibly have existed as early 
as the time of David. The book of Psalms is, 
according to the analogy of the Pentateuch, 
divided into five books, each of which closes 
with a doxology. The second book has a post- 
script, which seems to have been the conclu- 
sion of an old particular collection. The Sep- 
tuagint and the Vulgate, which follows it, dif- 
fer somewhat from the Hebrew in number- 
ing the psalms, the difference beginning with 
the 10th and extending to the 147th ; the en- 
tiro number in all these is 150. The contents 
of the book of Psalms are manifold. With re- 
gard to their object, they may be divided into 
six classes: 1, hymns to God, in which he is 
praised as the creator, preserver, and governor 
of the world, and in particular as the protector 
of his chosen people ; 2, national psalms, in 
which the people are reminded of the ancient 
history of Israel from the time of the patriarchs, 
especially of the history of Moses, of the many 
favors received from God, of the occupation 
of the promised land, of the signal assistance 
of God, and of the gratitude therefore due to 
him ; 3, the king's psalms, in which the theo- 
cratic king is praised as the representative of 
Jehovah, and the assistance of the Lord is in- 
voked for him ; 4, moral hymns, in which the 
fate of the pious and the wicked is described ; 
5, the psalms of lamentation, in which, some- 
times by individuals, sometimes by the entire 
people, misery and calamity, especially op- 
pression experienced from foreign or domestic 
foes, are lamented, with a prayer to God for 
deliverance ; a subdivision of this class is the 
penitential psalms, describing the Bufferings 



PSALMS 



PSYCHE 



59 



of the psalmist as deserved, recognizing the 
committed sin, and praying for pardon ; 6, 
prophetic psalms, which have reference to a 
Messianic future. A great difference of opin- 
ion prevails among exegetical writers as to the 
number of psalms belonging to this last class, 
and theologians of the rationalistic school have 
maintained that a directly predictive character 
cannot be claimed for a single passage in the 
Psalms. The collection of psalms seems to have 
come at once into public use at divine service 
both as prayers and hymns. The singers who 
were appointed by David for the service of the 
sanctuary sang psalms. In the time of Heze- 
kiah, psalms of David and Asaph are recorded 
as having been sung at religious solemnities 
(2 Chron. xxix. 30), and songs of David were 
also sung in the second temple, after the cap- 
tivity (Ezra iii. 10). In the Christian church 
the book of Psalms had likewise from the be- 
ginning a great importance. Christ himself, 
after the celebration of the last supper, sang 
psalms with his disciples; and soon afterward, 
when on the cross, he used the words of a 
psalm. Paul and Silas praised God in psalms 
in the dungeon at Philippi, and Paul exhorts 
the Ephesians and Philippians to praise the 
Lord with psalms and spiritual songs. The 
early Christians used the psalms both in public 
service and in their private devotions, and the 
church soon made them a prominent part of 
the liturgical books, in particular of the brevi- 
ary. In the Protestant churches the psalms 
have always been extensively used for congre- 
gational singing, and some denominations, as 
the Reformed Presbyterian church, do not al- 
low in divine service the use of any other re- 
ligious hymns. On account of the significance 
which has always been attached to the book of 
Psalms, it has in modern times called forth a 
larger number of commentaries than any other 
Biblical book. Le Long, in his Bibliotheca 
Sacra (Paris, 1723), enumerates more than 500 
commentaries, exclusive of those which form 
parts of larger works, as well as of the com- 
mentaries on a part of the book of Psalms. 
Among the English commentaries the work 
of Bishop Home has not been superseded for 
popular use, though its critical value is small. 
Of more critical worth are: Phillips, "The 
Psalms in Hebrew, with a Critical, Exegeti- 
cal, and Philological Commentary" (2 vols., 
London, 1846); and Browne, "The Book of 
Psalms, a new Translation, with Introduction 
and Notes Explanatory and Critical" (2 vols., 
2d ed., London, 1870). The exegetical litera- 
ture of Germany is rich in excellent commen- 
taries, of which the best known are those by 
De Wette, Hitzig, Hirzel, Ewald, Hengsten- 
berg, Delitzsch (new ed., 1867), Hupfeld (4 
vols., 1855-'61; new ed. by Eiehm, 1867-'7l), 
and Moll, Der Psalter (in Lange's Bibelwerlc, 
1869-'70). In America new translations have 
been published by G. R. Noyes, " A new 
Translation of the Book of Psalms, with an 
Introduction" (3d ed., 1867); J. A. Alexander, 



"The Psalms Translated and Explained" (3 
vols., 1850); and T. J. Conaut, "A new Ver- 
sion of the Psalms, and Philological Notes " (in 
the American ed. of Lange's Bilelwerk, 1872). 

PSALTERY (Gr. i(>afaj/piov), a stringed musical 
instrument in use among the ancient Jews, 
and supposed to have been identical with the 
nebel mentioned in the Psalms. Burney says 
it resembled partly the lyre and partly the 
harp, but according to others it was in shape 
a trapezium, not unlike the dulcimer. (See 
DULCIMER.) 

PSAJOIEMTCS (PsAMMETix III.), the last king 
of Egypt of the 26th dynasty, succeeded his 
father Amasis in 526 B. C. He had scarcely 
begun his reign when Egypt was invaded by 
Cambyses, king of Persia, who defeated him 
near Pelusium, shut him up in Memphis, and 
soon forced him to surrender (525). He was 
at first spared, but, being suspected of treason- 
able designs, was condemned to put an end to 
his life. 

PSAMMETICHrS. See EGYPT, vol. vi., p. 463. 

PSKOV, or PleskOT. I. A W. government of 
European Russia, bordering on St. Petersburg, 
Novgorod, Tver, Smolensk, Vitebsk, and Livo- 
nia; area, inclusive of lakes, 17,067 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 775,701. The Valdai hills trav- 
erse the S. E. part, but the surface is gen- 
erally level. There are several lakes, the 
most important of which, Lake Pskov, form- 
ing the southern part of Lake Peipns, comes 
within the limits of the province on the N. W. 
frontier; and in the southeast there are nu- 
merous marshes. A great part of the coun- 
try is covered with forests of pine, which 
yield large quantities of pitch. The principal 
crops are rye, oats, barley, and pulse. Hemp 
and flax are cultivated. The only important 
manufacture is leather, and the inhabitants 
excel in dressing skins. The population is 
chiefly of Russian origin, but there are a few 
of other races, including some Mohamme- 
dans. II. A city, capital of the government, 
situated on the left bank of the Velikaya, 
about 5 m. from its mouth in Lake Pskov, and 
on the St. Petersburg and Warsaw railway, 
165 m. S. S. W. of St. Petersburg; pop. in 1867, 
12,981. It is enclosed by a wall 5 m. in cir- 
cuit, and the Kremlin, or citadel, stands in the 
centre. It is the seat of a Greek archbishop, 
whose diocese embraces also the governments 
of Livonia and Courland, and has a cathedral 
and about 30 other churches, several of which 
are in a ruinous condition, three convents, sev- 
eral schools, and some charitable institutions. 
There are many tanneries, and a brisk trade is 
carried on in lumber, hemp and flax. Pskov 
is very conspicuous in the early history of 
Russia. It has been often besieged; in 1614 
Gustavus Adolphus was obliged to retire from 
before its walls. 

PSYCHE (Gr. Tjn>xh breath, or the soul), a 
character of Greek romance, generally accepted 
as a personification of the human soul. A cer- 
tain king, says Apuleius, had three daughters, 



60 



PSYCHOLOGY 



PTAKMIGAN 



of whom the youngest, named Psyche, was a 
marvel of beauty, and altars were consecrated 
to her that properly belonged to Venus. The 
anger of that goddess was excited, and she 
commanded her son Cupid to inspire Psyche 
with a passion for some frightful monster ; but 
he himself fell in love with her, and bore her 
away to a delightful place, where she was vis- 
ited every night by the young god, who left 
her at dawn. Her sisters persuaded her that 
he who came to her every night, and whom she 
had never seen, must be a loathsome creature, 
and urged her to destroy him while he slept ; 
but when she brought a lamp and beheld his 
beauty, her joy deprived her of the power of 
motion, and while she stood a drop of hot oil 
falling from her lamp upon his shoulder awoke 
him. "With a few words of reproach he fled. 
Psycho now endeavored to destroy herself, but 
nothing in nature would injure her. At length 
she came to the temple of Venus, who made 
her a slave. Cupid finally delivered her, and, 
being now sufficiently purified through suffer- 
ing, she was united to her beloved by Jupiter 
himself. In works of art Psyche is represent- 
ed with the wings of a butterfly. 

PSYCHOLOGY. See PHILOSOPHY. 

PT1H, or Phthfth, one of the principal divini- 
ties of ancient Egypt. lie was believed to be 
the author of everything visible, the father of 
the god of the sun, and the ruler of light and 
fire. His seat of adoration was at Memphis, 
and his temple, said to have been founded 
by Menes, was one of the largest and most 
magnificent in Lower Egypt. At Hermopolis 
Magna were worshipped eight children of Ptah, 
representing the elements, and the immediate 
rulers of the world. Ptah's symbol was the 
scardbceui sacer, which insect was supposed 
to multiply without bearing, and many monu- 
ments depict Ptah with this animal instead of 
a head upon the shoulders. lie is sometimes 
represented in the diminutive form of a child 
or a dwarf, presumably as suggestive of his 
being the god of the beginning, and occasion- 
ally also in the swaddlings of a mummy, which 
was probably intended to suggest his attribute 
of immutability. The Greeks compared him 
to their god Ilephaostus. (See VULCAN.) 

PTARMIGAN, the popular name of the galli- 
naceous birds of the grouse family embraced 
in the genus lagopus (Briss.), which differ from 
the ordinary grouse in having the legs feath- 
ered to the claws, giving somewhat the appear- 
ance of a hare's foot (whence the generic name, 
Gr. Aayuf, a hare, and n-otif, foot), in the trun- 
cated tail about two thirds as long as the wings 
and of 16 to 18 feathers, in most of the species 
becoming white in winter, and in the nasal 
groove being densely clothed with feathers; 
the family characters have been given under 
GROUSE. There are six or eight species de- 
scribed, inhabiting the northern and snow-cov- 
ered regions of both hemispheres, being one 
of the few genera characteristic of the arctic 
fauna ; they are as much at home in snow as 



are the web-footed birds in water, and their 
plumed feet enable them to run over its sur- 
face without sinking. They live in families 
during most of the year, and are monogamous ; 
the females incubate, but the males assist in 
rearing and feeding the young ; the males have 
a loud harsh cry, and the females cackle like a 
hen. They are rapid fliers, without making a 
whirring noise, and swift runners ; they feed 
upon berries, buds, mosses and lichens, and 
even insects; their flesh is good, and their 
pursuit affords an exciting sport ; they are very 
shy, but when started are easily shot on ac- 
count of their regular flight. The summer 
plumage is varied with brown, black, and gray, 
most of the wing remaining white ; in the males 
the mottling is finer and the colors brighter. 
It is very difficult to ascertain the exact num- 
ber of species, from the rarity of specimens in 
summer plumage, and the absence of accurate 
determination of sex. There are three well 
ascertained species in America. The white 
ptarmigan or willow grouse (L. allu, Aud.) is 




Willow Grouse (Lagopus albas). 

about 15| in. long and 24^ in. in alar extent; 
the bill is black, very stout and convex, and 
broad at tip; the general plumage in summer 
is rufous or orange chestnut on the head and 
neck; feathers of back black, closely barred 
with yellowish brown and chestnut; most of 
wings and lower parts white; tail brownish 
black; in winter white, with black tail; no 
black stripes through the eye. It occurs in 
the northern parts of America, and is common 
in eastern Labrador, Newfoundland, and the 
Northwest territories, and in rare instances in 
the northern United States ; it is found in open 
rocky grounds and among dwarf willows and 
birches. In winter they scratch in the snow 
down to the mosses and lichens on which they 
feed, collecting often in considerable flocks. 
In winter the flesh is dry, but is tender and haa 
an agreeable aromatic flavor in summer. Thej" 
breed in Labrador about the beginning of June, 
placing the nest under the creeping branches 
of low firs; the eggs are from 6 to 14, of a 
fawn color or rufous ground with irregular 



PTARMIGAN 



PTERODACTYL 



61 



spots of reddish brown ; only one brood is raised 
in a season. The rock ptarmigan (L. rupea- 
tris, Leach) is 14 in. long; the bill is slender, 
rather compressed at tip ; in summer the feath- 
ers of the back are black banded with yellow- 
ish brown and tipped with white; in winter 
white, with the tail black (the four middle 
feathers white), and the male with a black bar 
from the bill through the eyes. It occurs in 
arctic America, rarely coming further south 
than lat. 63 K in the interior, but to 58 on 
Hudson bay, and in the Rocky mountains, ac- 
cording to Richardson, to 55 ; the same spe- 
cies is said to occur in the northern parts of 
the eastern hemisphere ; the eggs are pale red- 
dish brown, with darker spots, and are If by 
1 in. The white-tailed ptarmigan (L. leucu- 
rus, Swains.) has a slender bill, the plumage in 
summer blackish brown barred with brownish 
yellow, and in winter entirely white; it is 13 
in. long and 21 in alar extent; it is found 
in the N. W. portions of America, and to the 
south along the Rocky mountains to lat. 39. 




.European Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) winter plumage. 

The common European ptarmigan (L. mu- 
tus, Leach) is about 15 in. long; the bill is 
black, short, and robust ; the summer plumage 
is ashy brown mottled with darker spots and 
barred with orange yellow and dark brown on 
the sides of the neck and back, and the tail, 
with the exception of the two middle feathers, 
grayish white with a narrow terminal white 
band. It is fond of lofty and northern re- 
gions, going as far as Greenland and coming 
down to the highlands of Scotland ; when pur- 
sued, like the other species, it is apt to dive 
under the soft snow; it sometimes does this 
for protection from the cold, and in damp 
weather is sometimes imprisoned and destroyed 
under the frozen surface of the snow; the 
ruffed grouse has the same habit. A species 
much resembling this, if not identical with it, 
occurs in America, in the neighborhood of 
Baffin bay, and has been described by Audu- 
bon as L. Americanm. The Scotch ptarmigan 
or moorcock (L. Scoticus, Steph.) seems pecu- 



liar to Great Britain, and is abundant in the 
hilly districts of Scotland ; the general color is 
chestnut brown, with black spots on the back 
and undulating black lines below ; the winter 
plumage is the same. It is highly esteemed as 
game ; where not much pursued it is not very 
shy, but its plumage is so like the surrounding 
dark moss and heaths, that it can hardly be 
discovered without the aid of a pointer ; it 
feeds upon heath tops and mountain berries. 

PTEBICHTHYS. See GANOIDS. 

PTERODACTYL (pterodactylus, Cuv. ; Gr. 
nripov, wing, and d<krivlof, finger), a genus of 
fossil flying reptiles, possessing essentially the 
characters of saurians, with some only appa- 
rent relations to bats and birds. They have been 
divided into three genera according to the 
number of joints in the wing-bearing finger 
and the disposition of the teeth ; all are char- 
acteristic of the secondary epoch, being found 
principally in the lithographic schists of So- 
lenhofen, and in the oolite, lias, wealden, and 
chalk of Europe and the United States. In 
the genus pterodactylus the jaws had teeth 
even to the extremity; the skull was elon- 
gated, with the intermaxillaries large ; nasal 
opening wide and near the middle of the muz- 
zle, partly closed in front by a small bone as 
in the monitors, and with a surrounding circle 
of small bones and a small opening into the 
orbit as in birds ; the lower jaw, as in croco- 
diles, had n@ coronary process, and was articu- 
lated behind the eyes ; the teeth, 5 to 17 on 
each side, were conical, slightly arched, com- 
pressed, inserted in separate cavities, and hol- 
lowed at the base ; neck of 7 stout vertebrae ; 
dorsals 13 to 15, and, with the ribs, weak; 
lumbar 2 or 3, sacral 6, anchylosed together, 
and caudal 10 to 15; the shoulder blade 
and coracoid bone separate and weak ; scapu- 
lar arch and pelvis as in lizards, except that 




Pterodactyl. 



the last seems to have had marsupial bones, 
according to Pictet; the long bones hollow 
and with air openings, as in birds ; humerus 



62 



PTERODACTYL 



PTOLEMY 



short and stont, and forearm twice as long; 
bind limbs slender, with 5 moderate toes of 
the same length ; 5 or 6 bones in the wrist, 5 
metacarpals, 5 fingers, with respectively 1, 2, 
3, 4, and 4 joints ; the first 4 short and with 
hooked nails, the external very long, eqnal to 
the neck and body, and nailless ; the gape of 
mouth very large. This singular animal was 
referred to the swimming birds by Blumen- 
bach and to the bats by Sommering, and was 
determined to be a reptile by Ouvier. The 
nearly equal and conical teeth, very small cra- 
nial cavity, different number of joints in the 
fingers, and reptilian shape of sternum and 
scapula show that it was not a bat-like mam- 
mal ; the existence of teeth, the small number 
of the vertebras in the neck, the thinness of 
the ribs and tail and the absence of recurrent 
processes in the latter, the form of the ster- 
num and number of the fingers, prove that 
it was not a bird. These characters place it 
among reptiles, but it had also a modification 
of the anterior extremities in the form of 
wings, which are not possessed by any existing 
or any other fossil members of the class, the so- 
called wings of the dragon being merely mem- 
branous expansions from the sides of the body 
supported by the ribs. The form of the wings 
is also remarkable and unique ; in birds the 
fingers are very little separated, and serve as a 
basis for the plumes ; in bats the flying mem- 
brane is stretched upon the four elongated 
fingers, the thumb remaining rudimentary; 
but in the pterodactyl the external finger alone 
is greatly developed and supports the flying 
membrane, the other four having the usual 
short dimensions; the membrane extended 
probably from the long finger along the sides 
of the body to the hind limbs and beyond, in- 
cluding the tail. About 20 species are de- 
scribed, varying in alar extent from a few 
inches to four or five yards; they probably 
flew and crept about in the manner of bats ; 
the form of the teeth and strength of the 
jaws indicate a carnivorous animal, but of 
feeble powers; the smaller species must have 
been insectivorous, and the largest may have 
seized fish or small reptiles of their own or 
other genera. The great size of the eye in- 
dicates nocturnal habits; the posterior limbs 
were so far developed that they could doubt- 
less assume an erect position like birds, and 
perch on trees; the claws of the fore and 
hind feet would also enable them to climb 
along the rocks ; the body was probably scaly, 
as in lizards. From the weakness of the scap- 
ular arch some have doubted the power of 
active flight in the pterodactyl, believing that 
the wing membranes could only support it in 
the air when leaping, in a little more perfect 
manner than in the dragons; but it must be 
remembered that the atmosphere of the sec- 
ondary geological age was much more dense 
than the present, requiring proportionally less 
muscular force for aerial locomotion. The 
most anciently known species is the P. longi- 



rostris (Oken), about the size of a woodcock, 
with a length of 10 in. and an alar extent of 
21 in.; the teeth were 4-f on each side. The 
P. breviroatria (Cuv.) had a shorter muzzle, 
the head resembling more that of a goose just 
hatched than of a reptile ; the teeth were very 
small, ; the total length was less than 3 in., 
and there were only four posterior toes. Other 
species were less than 2 in. long, while on the 
contrary the P. ornis (Giebel) of the wealden 
was 2 ft. in length ; in the chalk of Maidstone, 
England, Mr. Bowerbank detected bones of a 
species which he named P. giganteut, 6 to 7 
ft. in alar extent; the P. Cuvieri (Bowerb.) is 
believed to have spread 16| ft. In 1871 Prof. 
Marsh found in the upper cretaceous rocks of 
western Kansas a species with an expanse of 
wing of 20 ft., which he named P. Owenii. 
Since 1869 Prof. Marsh has discovered the re- 
mains of three different species in the same 
regions. The genus rhamphorhynchus (II. von 
Meyer) or ornithocephalus (S6mm.) was sep- 
arated for a few species of the Jurassic age, 
having the anterior portion of the jaws with- 
out teeth, and probably with a horny beak ; 
the scapula and coracoid were consolidated 
together, and the tail long and stiff, with about 
30 vertebra ; there were four joints in the 
wing finger; the largest species was about 18 
in. long. The genus omithopterus (H. VOE 
Meyer) had only two joints in the wing finger. 

PTEROPODS. See MOLLUSCA. 

PTOLEMAIS. See ACRE. 

PTOLEMY (Gr. IlroAe^aZof), the name of 18 
Greek kings of Egypt, of whom the first three 
were the most important, and are treated in 
separate articles. Ptolemy IV., Philopator 
(222-205 B. C.), son of Ptolemy III., was 
mainly distinguished for cruelty and debauch- 
ery. The reign of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes, his 
son (205-181), was marked by the rapid de- 
cline of the Egyptian monarchy. His son Ptol- 
emy VI., Philometor (181-146), by Cleopatra, 
daughter of Antiochus the Great of Syria, was 
aided in his wars with Syria, where he was 
some time a captive, by the Romans. Ptolemy 
VII., Physcon (the Fat, his usual cognomen, but 
called by himself Euergetes II., 146-117), bro- 
ther of the last, with whom he reigned jointly 
for a time, and whose son he murdered, was 
driven to Cyprus by a rebellion of the Alex- 
andrians on account of his cruelty, and after- 
ward restored. He married his sister Cleopatra 
II., and afterward his niece Cleopatra III., and 
was a patron of letters and himself an author. 
Ptolemy VIII., Lathyrus, ruled in conjunction 
with his mother Cleopatra III. at intervals from 
117 to 81, and married his sister Cleopatra IV. 
During his reign Thebes, having revolted, was 
destroyed. Ptolemy IX. (Alexander I.), bro- 
ther of the last, ruled for a while in conjunc- 
tion with his mother. His wife was his sister 
Berenice III. Ptolemy X. (Alexander II.), 
step-son and husband of Berenice III., whom 
in 81 he put to death, was himself expelled 
and slain after a reign of 19 days. With him 



PTOLEMY I. 



PTOLEMY II. 



63 



expired the legitimate line of the Ptolemies. 
Ptolemy XL, Nothus or the Bastard, also called 
Auletes or the Flute Player (80-51), an ille- 
gitimate son of Lathyrus, was one of the worst 
of the Ptolemies, and his reign was marked 
by complications with the Romans, whom he 
courted. He was expelled in 58, and restored 
in 55 by A. Gabinius, proconsul in Syria, for a 
bribe of 10,000 talents. Ptolemy XII. (51-48), 
his son, ruled in conjunction with his sister 
Cleopatra VI., whom he expelled in 49 ; for 
this the Eomans made war, and he was lost in 
attempting to escape. Ptolemy XIII., Puer, 
younger brother of the last, married his sister, 
widow of Ptolemy XII., and was poisoned by 
her in 43. With him closes the line, although 
some reckon CaBsarion, the son of Cleopatra 
by Cajsar, as Ptolemy XIV. (See CLEOPATRA.) 
PTOLEMY I., surnamed SOTEE, son of Lagus, 
and founder of the GraBCO-Egyptian dynasty, 
born near the court of Philip of Macedon in 
367 B. C., died in Alexandria in 283. His 
mother Arsinoe had been a concubine of Philip, 
and many therefore supposed him to be his 
eon. He was one of the principal generals of 
Alexander the Great in his Asiatic campaigns. 
After the death of Alexander in 323, he be- 
came governor of Egypt during the nominal 
reigns of Philip Arrhidseus and Alexander IV., 
and the regency of Perdiccas. One of his first 
acts was to put to death Cleornenes, who as 
receiver general of tributes had amassed an 
enormous fortune, and was a partisan of Per- 
diccas. In 322 he annexed the city and province 
of Cyrene. To oppose Perdiccas, he leagued in 
321 with Antigonus, Antipater, and Craterus. 
Perdiccas invaded Egypt, but Ptolemy defeated 
him and prevented him from crossing the Nile. 
Subsequently, when Perdiccas was murdered 
by his own soldiers, Ptolemy sent wine and 
provisions to the invading army, and so won 
them that they offered him the regency, which 
he declined. In 320 he seized upon Phoenicia 
and Ccele-Syria, and it was probably during 
this expedition that he took possession of Jeru- 
salem without opposition by attacking it on 
the sabbath. To resist Antigonus, he formed 
a coalition in 316 with Seleucus, Cassander, 
and Lysimachus ; and after a struggle of four 
years, during which he lost Phosnicia, peace 
was concluded (311). In 310 Ptolemy renewed 
hostilities under the pretext that Antigonus 
had violated the treaty by keeping his garri- 
sons in the Greek cities of Asia Minor and the 
adjacent islands, and in the long war which 
followed he lost Cyprus by his defeat in the 
sea fight near Salamis in 306. Antigonus as- 
sumed the title of king, and Ptolemy followed 
his example. Demetrius, the son of Antigonus 
and conqueror of Salamis, now invaded Egypt, 
but, baffled at the banks of the Nile, turned his 
arms against Khodes, which had refused to join 
in the attack. Ptolemy eTnabled it to hold out 
by furnishing troops and provisions, and out of 
gratitude the Rhodians gave him the title of 
saviour (Soter). The death of Antigonus at 
689 VOL. xiv. 5 



the battle of Ipsus in 301 terminated the war, 
and added Syria and Palestine to Ptolemy's 
dominions ; and in 295 Cyprus was recovered. 
In 287 he was in league with Seleucus and 
Lysimachus against Demetrius, but the rest of 
his reign was peaceful. He made Memphis his 
capital, took measures to promote the happi- 
ness of his Egyptian subjects, revived their 
ancient religious and political constitution, and 
restored to the priestly caste some of its for- 
mer privileges. He showed equal toleration 
to the Jews and the Greeks, and great numbers 
of both, among them scholars of the greatest 
renown, were attracted to Alexandria. He 
laid the foundation of literary institutions, the 
most celebrated of which were a library and 
a museum, a kind of university whose profes- 
sors and teachers were supported at the public 
expense. Ptolemy wrote a history of the wars 
of Alexander. He wished his youngest son 
Ptolemy Philadelphus, the offspring of his fa- 
vorite wife Berenice, to succeed him, to the 
exclusion of his elder son by his former wife 
Eurydice, and effected his purpose by abdica- 
ting in his favor in 285, continuing however 
to exercise sovereignty until his death. 

PTOLEMY II., surnamed PHILADELPHUS, king 
of Egypt, youngest son of the preceding by 
Berenice, born in the island of Cos in 309 B. 0., 
died in Alexandria in 247. He was carefully 
educated, and was thoroughly imbued with his 
father's policy. He cleared Upper Egypt of 
robbers, penetrated Ethiopia, establishing traf- 
fic with the tribes, and opened southern Africa 
to the Alexandrian merchants. To command 
the Red sea, he founded Arsinoe (near Suez), 
and connected it with Alexandria by restoring 
and completing the canal begun by Necho. 
He constructed the ports of Myos-Hormos and 
Berenice, and connected the latter .with Coptos 
on the Nile by a road 258 m. long across the 
desert. The museum founded by his father 
was improved by the addition of botanical and 
zoological gardens, works of art were collected 
from Greece, and large additions were made 
to the library. (See ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY.) 
He spent vast sums on public works, built the 
celebrated lighthouse on the island of Pharos, 
and erected a magnificent royal mausoleum, 
to which he removed the remains of Alexan- 
der the Great from Memphis. The most dis- 
tinguished poets, philosophers, mathematicians, 
and astronomers resided at his capital. For 
the use of the Alexandrian Jews, the Septua- 
gint version of the Hebrew Scriptures is said 
to have been made by his command. His 
reign was disturbed by the revolt of his half 
brother Magas, viceroy of Cyrene, who suc- 
ceeded in maintaining his independence ; and 
by a contest with Syria for the possession of 
Phoenicia and Coele-Syria, which was kept up 
at intervals till near the close of his life, when 
these provinces at last remained in his posses- 
sion. He took part several times in the affairs 
of Greece, maintaining an unfriendly attitude 
toward Macedon, and established relations of 



PTOLEMT III. 



PUBERTY 



amity with the rising republic of Rome. He 
founded a gymnasium at Athens, and planted 
numerous colonies in various parts of his for- 
eign dominions, which comprised Phoenicia, 
Ccele-Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, the Cyclades, 
and portions of southern Asia Minor, Ethio- 
pia, Arabia, and Libya. The effeminacy of his 
court increasing with the wealth of the coun- 
try, he came at length to lead the indolent life 
of a refined voluptuary. Repudiating his first 
wife, Arsinoe, daughter of Lysimachus, he mar- 
ried his own sister Arsinoe, widow of Lysima- 
chus, which the Egyptian law allowed, but she 
brought him no children. Another stain on 
his memory is the execution of two of his 
brothers, for which his surname, which he him- 
self had assumed to signalize his attachment 
to his sister, became a subject of derision. 

PTOLEMY III., surnamed EUERGETES, eldest 
son and successor of the preceding, by Arsinoe, 
daughter of Lysimachus, died in 222 B. C. On 
coming to the throne ho found in the public 
treasury an immense amount of money, and at 
his command a vast army and navy. His war- 
like ardor was roused by the ill treatment and 
subsequent murder of his sister Berenice, wife 
of Antiochus Theos, king of Syria. With a 
largo army he ravaged Syria and its eastern 
provinces, advancing as far as Susa, and, with- 
out establishing his authority in any now pos- 
sessions, brought back immense booty in gold 
and silver, and the Egyptian idols which Cam- 
byses had carried off to Persia. For this the 
Egyptians called him Euergetes (benefactor). 
In right of his wife Berenice, daughter of Magas, 
Gyrene was united to his dominions, and he 
made large acquisitions of territory in Arabia 
and Abyssinia. lie inherited the religious lib- 
erality and love of learning of his progenitors, 
and was like them a proficient in letters. 

PTOLEMY, Claudius a Hellene-Egyptian math- 
ematician, astronomer, and geographer, said 
to have been born in Pelusium, flourished at 
Alexandria in the 2d century A. D. Scarcely 
any particulars of his life are known. His 
MfydX^ 2(jvrai;if TIK 'Aorpovo/w'af, or " Great 
Astronomical Construction," contains nearly 
all that is known of the astronomical observa- 
tions and theories of the ancients, and is gen- 
erally cited under the Latin titles Syntaxu 
Jfathematica and Conttruetio Mathematica. 
The most important port of this work is a cat- 
alogue of stars, deduced from that constructed 
by Hipparchus. (See PRECESSION.) The Syn- 
taxis treats of the relations of the earth and 
heavens ; the effect of position upon the 
earth ; the theory of the sun and moon, with- 
out which that of the stars cannot be under- 
taken ; the sphere of the fixed stars ; and the 
determination of the planetary orbits. He 
places the earth in the centre of the universe, 
and the Ptolemaic system, based on the theo- 
ries of Hipparchus, was universally received 
till the time of Copernicus. During all that 
interval the history of astronomy presents 
scarcely anything more than comments on 



Ptolemy's writings. But for the Arabians the 
Syntaxis would probably hove perished. It 
was translated by them in the reign of the 
caliph Al-Mamoun, son of Haroun al-Rashid 
(about 827), and handed down under the title 
of Almagest. Translations from the Arabic 
were made into Latin, but the Greek text was 
subsequently also discovered in Byzantine man- 
uscripts. Ptolemy left a copious account of 
the manner in which Ilipparchus established 
his theories, and in most of the branches of 
the subject gave additional exactness to what 
that astronomer had done. He computed, 
notwithstanding the fundamental errors and 
the inaccuracies of his system, the eclipses of 
the next six centuries ; determined the plane- 
tary orbits; and is commonly said to have 
discovered the moon's second inequality or 
evection, though it is probable that Ilippar- 
chus really detected this inequality. Three 
observations cited by Ptolemy in support of 
his theory were borrowed from Ilipparchus, 
and the nature of one of them suggests that 
they were taken from a great mass of obser- 
vations, though Ptolemy himself says nothing 
to that effect. The astronomer who took a 
predecessor's star catalogue, and adding a con- 
stant correction to each star published it as 
the result of his own observations, would have 
left unnoticed all lunar observations by Hip- 
parchus not absolutely necessary to establish 
his own theory. As a geometer Ptolemy has 
been ranked as certainly the fourth among the 
ancients, after Euclid, Apollonius, and Archi- 
medes. He caused light to pass through media 
of unequal density, and thus discovered re- 
fraction, and he is said to have first recognized 
the alteration of the apparent position of a 
heavenly body which is due to this cause ; but 
here again it is probable that Hipparchus 
anticipated him. Ptolemy wrote a universal 
geography, which continued to be the standard 
text book till the 16th century. He was the 
first to use the terms latitude and longitude, 
by which he laid down the position of each 
country and town. He proved the earth to 
be a globe, and calculated its inhabited parts 
to extend from the meridian of Thin, Ion. 
119 30' E. of Alexandria, to the meridian of 
the Islands of the Blessed, 60 80' W. ; and 
from the parallel of Meroe, about lat. 16 80' 
N., to that of Thule (Iceland or the Shetland 
islands), 63 N. The maps of this geography 
have been preserved with it. After him no 
one attempted for many centuries to reform 
geography except in the improvement of de- 
tails. He was distinguished also as a musician, 
and wrote treatises on music, mechanics, chro- 
nology, and astrology; but probably most of 
these works were mere compilations. The 
best edition of the Almagest is by Halma 
(Greek text with French translation, 2 vols. 
4to, Paris, 1813-'16). 

PUBERTY, the period of youth characterized 
by the acquirement of functional power in the 
reproductive apparatus of the sexes; its ac- 



PUBLICOLA 



PtfCKLER-MUSKAU 



65 



tivity, however, cannot be called into exercise 
until the growth of the individual is comple- 
ted, on penalty of premature and permanent 
exhaustion of the vital powers, and the devel- 
opment of any latent disposition to disease. 
That puberty is not the period of completed 
growth is shown by the increase in stature 
after its attainment, the subsequent complete 
ossification and consolidation of the extrem- 
ities of the spinous and transverse processes 
of the vertebras, and the consolidation of the 
pelvic, sacral, and coccygeal vertebra, sternal 
pieces, and epiphyses of the ribs, scapula, clav- 
icle, and bones of the extremities. In the hu- 
man male puberty is established between the 
14th and 16th years; besides the increased 
sexual and muscular development, the beard 
makes its appearance, the larynx enlarges, giv- 
ing a lower, harsher, and stronger tone to the 
voice, and the thoughts, desires, and actions 
have a more manly character. In the female 
this period is arrived at between the 13th and 
16th years in temperate climates, and some- 
what earlier in the tropics and in the midst of 
the luxury and excitements of city life ; there 
is a similar development in the reproductive 
system, usually coincident with the appearance 
of the catamenia and mammary enlargement, 
and a deposition of fat over the whole surface 
of the body. In the male there is at this time 
no special tendency to disease, nor in the 
healthy female ; but, as a consequence of the 
defective physical training of most female 
youth, disorders of the menstrual function are 
very apt to occur, with numerous functional, 
nervous, and even organic complications ; in 
persons of naturally weak constitutions, of 
both sexes, and in those enfeebled by prema- 
ture exercise of the mental, physical, or gen- 
erative powers, the tuberculous diathesis is 
frequently developed soon after puberty. 

PUBLICOLA, Pnblins Valerius, a Roman law- 
giver of the semi-historical period of the foun- 
dation of the republic. He is said to have^ 
been present when Lucretia stabbed herself, 
and to have borne a prominent part in the ex- 
pulsion of the Tarquins. After the compul- 
sory resignation of Collatinus he was elected 
consul in his place (about 509 B. C.). In the 
war between the Tarquins and Veientes and 
the Romans, he gained a victory over the for- 
mer. Returning to Rome, he began building 
a house on the Velian hill overlooking the 
forum, which excited a popular fear that he 
was seeking to raise himself to royal power. 
Valerius therefore ordered the building to be 
demolished, and his lictors when they appear- 
ed before the people to lower their fasces ; 
whence he received the surname of Publicola 
or Poplicola, " the peopled friend." He now 
brought forward laws for the establishment of 
the republic, one of which declared that who- 
ever attempted to make himself king might 
be killed by any one ; another, that plebeians 
condemned by a magistrate might appeal to 
the people. He was afterward thrice elected 



consul ; and the expedition of Porsena is placed 
during his time of office. With T. Lucretius 
Tricipitinus, his colleague, he routed the Sa- 
bines and returned to Rome in triumph. 

PUBLIUS SYRUS, a Latin comic poet, who 
flourished at Rome at the time of Caesar's 
death (44 B. C.). He was a native of Syria, 
and was brought to Rome as a slave ; but his 
master had' him instructed and gave him his 
freedom. He improved the mimic art, and it 
is said by St. Jerome that a collection of moral 
sentences from the farces of Publius was a 
school book at Rome. A collection of this 
kind, comprising upward of 1,000 lines, each 
forming an apophthegm, extant under the title 
of Publii Syri Sententice, is in reality a com- 
pilation from various sources. 

PCCCOON, an aboriginal name applied to sev- 
eral plants with a yellow or reddish juice, but 
quite unlike in other properties. In the south, 
the bloodroot (sanguinaria Canadensis) is called 
puccoon. (See BLOODKOOT.) In some parts of 
the west the name is applied to two species of 
lithospermum, of the borage family, both yield- 
ing a red dye ; L. hirtum being the hairy, and 
L. canescens the hoary puccoon. The name is 
perhaps more generally used to designate Jiy- 
drastis Canadensis than either of the foregoing, 
which is called, besides yellow puccoon, golden- 
seal, yellow-root, orange-root, Indian paint, &c. 
The genus Jiydrastis (Gr. vfiup, water, and Spav, 
to act) belongs to the crowfoot family, or ra- 
nunculacece. It has a thick, knotted, yellow 
rootstock, from which rise a single radical leaf 
and a low, simple, hairy stem, bearing two 
leaves near the summit, and terminated by a sin- 
gle apetalous greenish white flower ; the three 
petal-like sepals fall away when the flower 
opens, leaving the numerous stamens, and the 
cluster of 12 or more pistils, which in fruit 
become berry-like, and, being bright crimson, 
the cluster has the appearance of a raspberry. 
There is but one species, which is found from 
New York westward and southward, and is 
nowhere very common. It was used by the 
aborigines as a stimulant application to ulcers, 
and also as a dye ; it is among the many re- 
puted cancer cures. It is a tonic, and is re- 
garded by some as having especial action on 
the liver and kidneys. In the western states 
it is used as an antiperiodic, as a substitute for 
quinine ; the dose in powder is 30 to 60 grains. 
The so-called hydrastin of the eclectics, preci- 
pitated from a concentrated infusion by mu- 
riatic acid, is used in doses of three to five 
grains ; it consists mostly of berberine. 

PfCKLER-MFSKAU, Hermann Ludwig Hdnrich 
von, prince, a German author, born at Muskau, 
Lusatia, Oct. 30, 1785, died at Branitz, near 
Kottbus, Feb. 4, 1871. He studied in Leipsic, 
served in various armies, and was made prince 
by the king of Prussia in 1822. He laid out 
magnificent parks at Muskau and Branitz, but 
in 1845 sold the former domain. His pri- 
vate life was marked by eccentric habits. 
Among his principal works, which chiefly de- 



66 



PUDDLING 



PUEBLO INDIANS 



scribe his extensive travels in Europe and the 
East, and are remarkable for racy delineations 
both of aristocratic and semi-civilized life, are : 
Briefe eines Verstorbenen (4 vols., 1830-'31 ; 
English translation by Mrs. Sarah Austin, " The 
Travels of a German Prince in England," 3 
vols., 1832); Andeutungen uber Landtchafts- 
gdrtnerei (1834); Tutti Frutti (5 vols., 1834; 
English translation by Edmund Spencer, 1834) ; 
Semilasso's torletzter Weltgang (3 vols., 1835) ; 
Semilasso in Afrika (5 vols., 1836); Sudo*t- 
licher Bildersaal (3 vols., 1840); Atu Mehemet 
Alfs Reich (8 vols., 1844); and Die Ruckkehr 
(3 vols., 1846-'8 ; English translation, " Mehe- 
met AH and Egypt," 3 vols., 1848). Ludmilla 
Assing has published Farst Puckler Mmkau, 
tein Leben tind Nachlass (4 vols., 1873-'4). 

IM DDLl.VU. See IBOX MANUFACTURE, vol. ix., 
p. 399. 

Pl'EBLA. I. A S. E. state of the republic of 
Mexico, bounded N. and E. by Vera Cruz, S. 
by Oajaca, S. W. by Guerrero, and W. by Mex- 
ico, Tlascala, and Hidalgo ; area, 9,598 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1869, 697,788. It is intersected from 
N. W. to S. E. by the Cordillera of Aniihuac, 
from which flow many small streams, but there 
are no large rivers. The drainage belongs 
partly to the gulf of Mexico and partly to the 
Pacific. The general elevation of the surface 
is about 6,000 ft., and a large part of the soil is 
fertile. The most valuable mineral produc- 
tions are silver, marble, and alabaster. Abun- 
dant crops of grain, fruit, sugar, and cotton 
are produced ; and iron, steel, glass, soap, and 
earthenware are manufactured. Many re- 
markable remains of ancient Mexican civiliza- 
tion are found in this state. II. A city (Lx 
PITEBLA DE LOS ANGELES), capital of the state, 
7,000 ft. above the sea, in lat. 19 5' N., Ion. 
98 W., 76 m. E. S. E. of Mexico ; pop. in 1869, 
75,500. The streets are laid out generally at 
right angles to each other, and are broad and 
well paved. There are many fine squares; 
fronting the Plaza Mayor are the cathedral, 
the governor's palace, and the exchange. Pue- 
bla is the sacred city of Mexico, and contains 
more than 60 churches, 13 nunneries, 9 monas- 
teries, 21 collegiate houses or higher theo- 
logical schools, and many academies, charity 
schools, hospitals, and other benevolent insti- 
tutions. Many of the churches and convents 
are rich in gold and silver ornaments, paint- 
ings, and statues, but some of them were in- 
jured by the French during the siege in 1868. 
The city is well supplied with water by a small 
stream on its E. side. The country around it 
is very fertile, it being easily irrigated by 
streams from the mountains. The climate is 
particularly mild and agreeable. Within sight 
of the city are the volcanic peaks of Popocate- 
petl, distant about 25 m. W. by S. ; IztaccihuatL, 
80 m. W. N. W. ; Malinche, 20 m. N. E. ; and 
Orizaba, 60 m. E. Puebla is connected with 
the railway from Vera Cruz to Mexico by a 
branch road to Apizaco, 29 m. long, and a road 
is now building (1875) to connect it directly 



with Vera Cruz. Puebla was founded after 
the reduction of Mexico by the Spaniards, who 
built it six miles from Cholula, the sacred city 
of the Mexicans. It is noted for its protracted 
defence against the French under Gen. Forey 
in 1863, when it withstood a siege of two 
months. It was surrendered by Gen. Ortega 
on May 17, after the destruction of many of 
its buildings by bombardment, and the French 
made a triumphal entry on the 19th. 

PIEBLO, a S. E. county of Colorado, inter- 
sected by the Arkansas river; area, about 
2,200 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,265. The tribu- 
taries of the Arkansas form fertile valleys, 
with intervening mesas or table lands, which 
afford excellent pasturage. The greater por- 
tion of the county is easily irrigated. The 
Denver and Rio Grande railroad traverses it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 24,451 
bushels of wheat, 99,390 of Indian corn, 89,- 
822 of oats, 8,353 of peas and beans, 6,000 
Ibs. of wool, 14,963 of butter, and 1,366 tons 
of hay. There were 555 horses, 4,269 milch 
cows, 6,162 other cattle, 2,166 sheep, and 
2,066 swine. Capital, Pueblo. 

Pl'EBLO 1M)IA\S a general name applied 
by the Spaniards, and subsequently by Ameri- 
cans, to several tribes of semi-civilized Indians 
found by the former early in the 16th centU' 
ry in what is now New Mexico, who lived in 
permanent villages (pueblos). Alvar Nunez 
(Cabeca do Vaca) passed through their country 
between 1529 and 1538 ; Friar Marco de Niza 
visited it in 1539, and Coronado in 1540. They 
were finally subdued by the Spaniards, who 
occupied the country in 1586. They were 
then as advanced as they now are, raising grain, 
vegetables, and cotton, which they spun and 
wove, and manufacturing pottery. Their houses 
are sometimes built of stone, laid in mortar 
made of mud, but more generally of sun-dried 
brick or adobe. These buildings are generally 
large, of several stories, and contain many 
families. In some of the pueblos the whole 
'community, amounting to from 800 to 700 
souls, are domiciled in one of these huge struc- 
tures. The houses are sometimes in the form 
of a hollow square ; at other times they are on 
the brow of a high bluff or mountain terrace, 
difficult of approach. The first or lower story 
is invariably without openings, entrance to the 
house being effected by ladders. Each upper 
story recedes a few feet from that , below it, 
leaving a terrace or walk around or along the 
whole extent of the structure, from which lad- 
ders lead to those above. The upper stories 
have doors and windows, but no stairways. 
In most instances a single family occupies one 
apartment, and as its number increases anoth- 
er apartment is added when there is sufficient 
space, or it is built above and reached by a 
ladder. This mode was practised by these In- 
dians three centuries ago. In every village 
there is at least one room large enough to con- 
tain several hundred persons, in winch they 
hold their councils and have their dances. 



PUERPERAL CONVULSIONS 



67 



These Indians constituted several distinct tribes 
with different languages. Some of them are 
now extinct; those still existing are: 1, the 
Zunis, inhabiting Zufii ; 2, the Toltos, inhabit- 
ing Taos, with whom some unite the Picuries 
and the people of Sandia and Isleta; 3, the 
Teguas in San Juan, Santa Clara, Nambe, San 
Hdefonso, Poiuaque, and Tesuque ; 4, the 
Queres in Cochiti, San Domingo, San Felipe, 
Santa Afla, Zia, Laguna, and Acoma; and 5, 
the Jemes, occupying a town of the same name. 
The population of these 19 pueblos, and some 
now abandoned, toward the close of the last 
century was given at 10,000 or 11, 000. Under 
the Spanish government schools were main- 
tained and religious instruction given by Fran- 
ciscan and other Catholic missionaries, who 
began their labors before 1600, and still con- 
tinue them. They were protected from hostile 
tribes and oppression, and supplied with cattle 
and sheep ; but under Mexican rule they were 
deprived of this support, and have declined till 
they now number only about 7,000. They were 
recognized as citizens under Mexican rule, but 
since New Mexico became a part of the United 
States the matter has been left in doubt. In 
1857 Chief Justice Slough decided that the 
Pueblo Indians were under the treaty citizens 
of the United States. An act of congress 
passed Dec. 22, 1858, had confirmed old Span- 
ish grants to the Pueblos. Their status as 
tribes has not, however, been recognized by 
any treaties; and though Judicially declared 
to be citizens, the laws of New Mexico deprive 
them of the suffrage. They retain their own 
government, each village having an elected gov- 
ernor, and a court consisting of three old men ; 
but executions for witchcraft have led to in- 
terference by the territorial authorities. A 
Baptist mission established a few years ago at 
Laguna led to dissensions and punishments 
there, which again called for interference. 
Under the division of tribes among the differ- 
ent denominations, the Pueblos, though Cath- 
olics, were assigned to the Christians, and, on 
their non-action, to the Presbyterians. This 
led to a protest from the governors of 15 
pueblos at Santa Fe, Aug. 16, 1872, and to an 
appeal to the government made through the 
Catholic commissioner in 1874. Under the 
new agency eight schools are supported, which 
number 298 pupils. The total wealth of the 
Pueblo Indians in 1873 was given at $535,750. 
PUERPERAL CONVULSIONS, or Pnerperal Eclam- 
psia (Lat. puer, child, and par ere, to bring 
forth), a dangerous disease occurring during 
the puerperal or lying-in period of women, 
either before, during, or after delivery. It has 
been the source of much discussion and dis- 
agreement, and although recent advances in 
physiological chemistry have shed much light 
on the causes of the disease, many points re- 
main in dispute. It has been asserted by Dr. 
Karl Braun of Vienna that it is commonly the 
result of ursemic poisoning, and is produced 
mostly by carbonate of ammonia in the blood, 



arising from decomposition of urea ; but al- 
though it is conceded that uraemic poison- 
ing is a frequent cause of puerperal convul- 
sions, the ammonia theory, which originated 
with Dr. Frerichs of Berlin, is not general- 
ly accepted, and many believe that a variety 
of causes other than urea in the blood are 
competent to produce convulsions by acting 
upon the highly developed nervous system of 
the puerperal woman. Even when the at- 
tacks are connected with organic or functional 
disease of the kidneys, and when the urine is 
albuminous, the presence of urea in the blood 
is not always made out ; and in many marked 
cases of albuminuria during pregnancy convul- 
sions do not occur. Constipation, retention of 
urine, extreme pain, and great mental distress 
may, it is contended, bring on in the puerperal 
state convulsions precisely similar in character 
to those produced by ura;mia. According to 
Braun and Wieger, more than half of all the 
cases occur during labor, but others consider 
the relative frequency during the three epochs 
to be in the order, pregnancy, labor, delivery. 
It is more likely to occur in first than in suc- 
ceeding labors. The frequency of the dis- 
ease, as indicated by statistics, is about one 
case in 350 labors. There are usually, but not 
always, premonitory symptoms. One of the 
most important and common of these is oede- 
ma or dropsy, especially of the ankles and 
feet, which is usually developed some weeks 
before the appearance of the first fit. "When 
this symptom is present, an examination of the 
urine is almost sure to reveal by the ordinary 
tests of heat and nitric acid the presence of a 
large quantity of albumen ; and there may gen- 
erally be found, by the aid of the microscope, 
several tube casts, sometimes accompanied with 
blood corpuscles, or there may be evidence 
of a more advanced stage of Bright's disease. 
Pregnancy disposes toward this condition by 
reason of obstruction to the circulation from 
pressure of the gravid uterus. There are three 
objective premonitory symptoms which are 
also important: extremely acute headache, de- 
rangement of vision, and pain in the epigas- 
trium. The headache is generally in the fron- 
tal region, at first intermittent, but gradually 
becoming continuous. Derangement of vis- 
ion is a grave symptom; sometimes there is 
cloudiness or dimness, at others objects ap- 
pear to change color; there is often double 
vision, or only half of an object may be seen ; 
there are flashes of light, and sometimes the 
sight is suddenly lost. The convulsive seiz- 
ure is characteristic, and to have witnessed 
it once will impress its prominent features 
upon the memory. After a few precursory 
symptoms the patient seems deeply absorbed 
and preoccupied ; then her gaze becomes fixed 
and her whole body motionless. This is soon 
succeeded by twitchings of the eyelids and fa- 
cial muscles. The eyeballs roll upward so that 
only the whites are seen. The contractions 
of the muscles from being spasmodic or clonic 



68 PUERPERAL CONVULSIONS 



PUERPERAL FEVER 



become tonic, as it is called; that is, they 
become more persistent. The angles of the 
mouth are strongly drawn to one side, the mus- 
cles of the neck drawing the head in the same 
direction. After a few moments these parts 
will be drawn in the contrary direction. From 
the head the convulsive phenomena rapidly ex- 
tend to other parts of the body. The extensor 
muscles of the trunk contract, producing the 
condition called optithotonos, and the whole 
trunk becomes perfectly rigid. The neck swells, 
the jugular veins becoming prominent, and the 
carotid arteries beat violently. Contraction of 
the muscles of the larynx causes suspension of 
respiration, the capillary circulation becomes 
impeded, and the face assumes a livid hue. 
The tongue is often severely bitten between 
the convulsively closed jaws. In about half a 
minute these tonic convulsions are generally 
succeeded by those of a clonic character, and 
jerking movements of all the muscles succeed, 
the countenance becoming frightfully distort- 
ed. The pulse, strong and full at the com- 
mencement, is rapidly accelerated by the con- 
vulsions, but at the height of the paroxysm is 
very feeble. It is during the middle stage, that 
of tonic convulsions, that death is immediately 
imminent, when the respiration is suspended 
and the condition is that of profound asphyxia. 
When recovery from the attack takes place, 
the symptoms gradually abate; the convul- 
sive movements become less violent and then 
less frequent; the respiration becomes more 
regular but stertorous, and the circulation more 
active ; and the skin resumes its natural color. 
The patient does not immediately regain con- 
sciousness, but remains in a comatose condi- 
tion, the duration of which depends upon the 
intensity of the paroxysm ; sometimes only a 
few minutes elapse, at others several hours. 
But recovery from the tonic stage may not 
take place, or there may bo a succession of fits 
with intervals so brief that consciousness is 
not recovered between them, and the patient 
dies in a state of coma. In case of recovery, 
on regaining sensibility a confused feeling with 
headache is complained of, and she has no 
recollection of what has taken place. Some- 
times there is impairment of vision or of hear- 
ing, or both. As to the effects of these con- 
vulsions, they may, if occurring before the 
lying-in period, bring on premature labor and 
destroy the life of either the mother or the 
child, or both, or they may happily terminate 
in recovery. When the attack precedes de- 
livery, it frequently happens that the birth 
of a child removes the conditions upon which 
the convulsions depend, and the patient is im- 
mediately relieved. After delivery the attack 
may be followed by dangerous haemorrhage, 
from non-contraction of the uterus, due to 
exhausted nervous energy or to the impov- 
erished state of the blood. In some cases the 
recovery is surprising, and it often takes place 
contrary to the predictions of the most ex- 
perienced. The treatment is prophylactic or 



preventive, and curative. The prophylactic 
treatment consists in eliminating the urea from 
the system when present, by the use of diuretics 
and purgatives, and in relieving excessive ple- 
thora by bloodletting, which may sometimes 
be freely employed with advantage. 

PUERPERAL FEVER, or Childbed Fever, a disease 
which attacks lying-in women, generally at- 
tended by an inflammation of the peritoneum, 
or of the uterus and its appendages, of a dan- 
gerous character. The name puerperal fever 
was given by Strother in his work on fevers 
(1716). Hippocrates gives accounts of cases 
of death in lying-in women which resembled 
the puerperal fever of to-day, as do Celsus, 
Galen, Avicenna, and others down to near the 
17th century. From observations extending 
through the last two centuries it has been gen- 
erally believed that the disease often prevails 
epidemically. It has been observed that lying- 
in women, attended by physicians coming from 
cases of erysipelas, gangrene, or sloughing sores 
of any kind, or from making post-mortem dis- 
sections, are very liable, sometimes almost 
certain, to be attacked with puerperal fever. 
These facts have caused several good authori- 
ties to regard the disease as due to the absorp- 
tion of septic matter by an abraded surface on 
the body of the patient. Denman, an English 
obstetrician, is said to have been the first to 
assert that puerperal fever is often propagated 
by the medical attendant ; and this view of the 
subject has been recently more particularly ex- 
amined, and, with others in regard to its prop- 
agation by septic contact, adopted in Germany. 
That absorption may occur, there must bo a 
fresh wound or abraded surface; if granula- 
tions have taken place, absorption is prevented. 
Now fresh wounds exist in every parturient 
woman in consequence of laceration or abra- 
sion during labor, and infection may take place 
by decomposition in the tissues of the patient, 
or it may have an external origin. The au- 
thorities who embrace those views do not 
therefore regard puerperal fever as contagious 
in the usual sense of the word, that is, spread 
by a specific contagion ; but admit that it is 
manually transferable, while the septic matter 
may be brought from an external source in 
which puerperal fever is not present. The viru- 
lence of cases which have been called puerperal 
fever has varied very greatly at different times 
and in the practice of different physicians, and 
the post-mortem appearances of the fatal cases 
have been unlike. Sometimes there would be 
found extensive lesions, not only in nearly all 
the pelvic viscera, but in other parts of the 
body. Sometimes there would be peritonitis 
alone, or with very few complications, and 
sometimes only the uterus would present much 
evidence of inflammation ; and in some of the 
most rapidly fatal cases no evidence of estab- 
lished inflammation would be found. More- 
over, the number of recoveries would be great 
in the practice of some physicians, and many 
of the cases would present symptoms indica- 



PUERPEEAL FEVER 



PUERPERAL MANIA 



69 






ting little more than inflammation of the con- 
nective cellular tissue of the pelvic cavity. It 
will therefore he seen that the subject is one of 
the most difficult and perplexing which writers 
on obstetrics have to meet. No system of clas- 
sification has been generally agreed upon, but 
several authorities, with the sanction of Sir 
James Y. Simpson and others, embrace within 
the term puerperal fever all those lesions of 
pelvic organs and tissues which in the puer- 
peral state, under favorable circumstances, are 
liable to engender and propagate septic poison. 
But it is asserted by many high authorities that 
there is a form of the disease which is charac- 
terized from the first by symptoms indicating 
the operation of a virulent poison, and which 
has received the name of malignant puerperal 
fever, or puerperal typhus. This may be re- 
garded as the true epidemic puerperal fever. 
Those who maintain these views also believe 
in the contagiousness of the disease, and in 
their classification they separate epidemic puer- 
peral fever from such affections as are specially 
named puerperal metritis, puerperal peritoni- 
tis, puerperal phlebitis, puerperal pelvic cellu- 
litis, and puerperal septicaemia and pyaemia. 
The symptoms of epidemic or malignant puer- 
peral fever usually commence with a chill be- 
tween the first and third days after delivery, 
rarely being deferred to the fifth day, although 
sometimes to the eighth or ninth ; but this is 
not one of the most important symptoms, for 
it is sometimes so slight as not to attract at- 
tention. In some cases, however, it is very se- 
vere and lasts 30 or 40 minutes or longer, and 
during the chill the pulse is small and quick ; 
afterward it becomes fuller but more compres- 
sible, ranging from 110 to 150. There is more 
or less delirium, and vomiting is quite common. 
Sometimes these symptoms are intensified, and 
the patient succumbs to the attack in 24 or 48 
hours. In cases of the epidemic disease post- 
mortem examination will sometimes reveal not 
many pathological changes, but sometimes they 
are quite extensive and similar to those in sep- 
ticaemia and pyaemia. In cases of puerperal 
peritonitis, there may be nothing found except 
indications of inflammation of the peritoneum ; 
but in cases of septicaemia and pyaemia there 
will usually be found abscesses in different 
parts of the body. The uterus will be found 
cedematous, and its lymphatics are usually dis- 
tended with purulent contents, which are of- 
ten traced to ulcers on the neck of the womb. 
There are often dilatations in the lymphatics 
as large as a hazel nut, filled with pus; and 
there are frequently abscesses in the body of 
the uterus causing perforations into the peri- 
toneal cavity. The cellular connective tissue 
becomes inflamed and filled with serum, and 
often pelvic peritonitis follows this, and may 
extend to the general abdominal cavity, its 
contents becoming more or less adherent to 
each other from the formation of false mem- 
brane. Changes occur in other cavities besides 
that of the peritoneum ; extravasations of blood 



are often found beneath the lining membrane 
of the heart and the mucous membrane of the 
intestines. There is also often found pericar- 
ditis and inflammation of the joints, most fre- 
quently in the shoulder and knee, the pus un- 
dermining the surrounding parts, often to a 
great extent. Embolism of the blood vessels 
is common, especially in the lungs, the throm- 
bi which form in these organs breaking up 
and passing on into the circulation. Pneu- 
monia is frequent, with a great tendency to 
gangrene, caused by the presence of putrid 
emboli. The spleen is frequently enlarged, of 
a pulpy, greasy consistence and of a chocolate 
color; and the liver presents marks of fatty 
infiltration, embolism, and disintegration of 
liver cells. The treatment in all these puer- 
peral diseases depends upon the extent and in- 
tensity of the attack, and upon the organs in- 
volved, and consists to a great degree in pro- 
phylactic measures, such as cleanliness, inclu- 
ding the prevention of the reabsorption of sep- 
tic matter, and a bland but not innutritions 
diet. The medical attendant should exercise 
the most extreme care not to approach the 
lying-in chamber after attending cases of ery- 
sipelas or scarlet fever, or any other conta- 
gious disease. If he has recently attended a 
post-mortem dissection, he should bathe his 
person, use carbolic or salicylic acid gargles, 
and change his entire clothing. See "Clini- 
cal Lectures on Diseases of Women," by Sir 
James Y. Simpson, M. D. (Edinburgh, 1871); 
"A System of Midwifery," by William Leish- 
man, M. D. (Glasgow, 1873) ; " On the Nature, 
Signs, and Treatment of Childbed Fever," by 
Charles D. Meigs, M. D. (Philadelphia, 1872) ; 
" The Puerperal Diseases," by Fordyce Barker, 
M. D. (New York, 1874); "Erysipelas and 
Childbed Fever," by Thomas 0. Minor, M. D. 
(Cincinnati, 1874); and "A Manual of Mid- 
wifery," by Dr. Karl Schroeder (New York, 
1875). 

PUERPERAL MANIA, a form of mental de- 
rangement which attacks women during the 
lying-in period. It is to be distinguished from 
the melancholia which occurs at the same pe- 
riod, although some authors treat both affec- 
tions under one head, either that of puerperal 
mania or puerperal insanity. It is also to be 
distinguished from the insanity of pregnancy 
and the insanity of lactation, affections which 
are liable to occur in the earlier stages of preg- 
nancy, or during lactation after the puerperal 
period has passed ; and it is also distinct from 
the delirium of labor. The insanity of preg- 
nancy, which generally occurs between the 
third and seventh months, may be caused by de- 
rangement of some of the bodily functions, usu- 
ally associated with an anaemic condition, and, 
according to Esquirol, dependent in more than 
one third of the number of cases upon hered- 
itary predisposition. The insanity of lactation 
generally occurs after the sixth month of that 
period, and therefore its principal cause, weak- 
ness from the exhaustion of nursing, is appa- 



70 



PUERPERAL MANIA 



PUFENDORF 



rent. The delirium of labor is caused by the 
over-excited or erethistic condition of the brain 
in consequence of the intensity of the pains of 
labor. It is of much rarer occurrence since 
the use of anaesthetics in labor than formerly. 
Puerperal mania generally conies on during 
the first two weeks after confinement, while 
melancholia is rarely developed until the latter 
part of the month. Among other prominent 
premonitory symptoms are sleeplessness, lo- 
quaciousness, and aversion toward friends ; and 
a short period before the attack there are often 
movements of the eyelids and facial muscles. 
At the moment of attack the facial expression 
is often peculiar, the features becoming drawn 
and pallid, with an expression of fright mingled 
more or less with that of rage. The patient 
then becomes boisterous, stares wildly and 
makes rapid gestures, clutches at things 'and 
persons near her, throws off her covering, and 
attempts to jump out of bed ; and her language 
will often bo so profane as to mortify her 
friends. The skin is cold, pallid, and clammy, 
and the pulse is small, quick, and irritable. 
There is great muscular weakness, which how- 
ever sometimes alternates with great spasmodic 
strength. Among the predisposing causes he- 
redity is the most frequent, and it is said to 
be generally traceable to the female side of the 
family. The pathological condition of the 
brain is therefore similar to that of insanity in 
general, but this cannot always be demonstra- 
ted by microscopical examination. The prin- 
cipal exciting cause is mental emotion, and it 
has been observed that those who possess the 
most sensitive organizations and have been 
particularly the victims of treachery are much 
more likely than others to be attacked. For- 
merly it was frequently held that the disease 
was of inflammatory origin, being a modifica- 
tion of phrenitis ; but the opinion advanced by 
Gooch, that " it is not a disease of congestion 
or inflammation," has been sustained by mod- 
ern experience. Dr. Ferriar believes that the 
loss of reason is often principally due to some 
interference with the establishment of lacta- 
tion. Convulsions which occur after labor are 
frequently followed by mania. It seems to bo 
well established that there is an essential con- 
nection between puerperal mania and albnmi- 
nuria ; but the indications of the presence of 
albumen are less persistent than in convulsions. 
Bleeding, which was once a common prac- 
tice, is now regarded as injurious in all but a 
very few exceptional cases, as the disease is 
nearly always associated with an anaemic con- 
dition of the blood and a state of nervous ex- 
haustion. The best therapeutic agent for re- 
lieving the cerebral excitement is perhaps the 
hydrate of chloral, and it is said to have a 
much better effect than pure chloroform. The 
most important remedial treatment, however, 
is the use of nutritious food to restore the ex- 
hausted nervous energy by reestablishing the 
organic functions. Ferruginous tonics may 
also be given with advantage. 



PUERTO BELLO. See PORTO BKLLO. 

PFERTO CABALLOS. See CORTES. 

PUERTO CABELLO, a seaport town of Vene- 
zuela, in the province of Carabobo, on Triste 
bay, 70 m. W. of Caracas; pop. about 8,000. 
The town is principally on an island, which 
is connected with the mainland by a bridge. 
The climate is hot and unhealthy, but the har- 
bor being fine, the place is the seat of a con- 
siderable trade. During the year ending Sept. 
80, 1873, the total value of the imports was 
$3,691,287; of the exports, $5,118,788; en- 
trances, 205 vessels, of an aggregate tonnage 
of 103,476, of which 50 were German, 38 Eng- 
lish, 82 Dutch, 27 Venezuelan, 19 Spanish, 18 
French, 12 Danish, 10 American, 2 Austrian, 
and 2 Italian. The principal exports are cot- 
ton, coffee, cacao, indigo, sugar, cocoanuts, 
hides, lumber, and cabinet and dye woods. 
Of 20,011,801 Ibs. of coffee exported in Ib73, 
6,212,890 came to the United States. 

PUERTO Li MAR. See COBIJA. 

PUERTO PLATA, or Porto Plata, a seaport town 
of Santo Domingo, on the N. coast, 100 m. 
N. N. W. of Santo Domingo city; pop. about 
8,000. It lies on the slope of a mountain at 
the foot of a crescent-shaped bay. The harbor 
has good anchorage, but shallows rapidly near 
the shore, and ships are loaded from lighters. 
The trade, principally in tobacco, is in the 
hands of foreign merchants, mostly Germans. 
In 1873, 201 vessels, of 12,191 tons, entered the 
port; of these 75 were English, 87 Spanish, 
84 German, and 20 American. The total uiluu 
of the imports in 1873 was $871,116; of the 
exports, $1,093,753. Puerto Plata is said to 
have been planned by Columbus on his first 
voyage. In the beginning of the 16th cen- 
tury it was largely resorted to by Spanish 
vessels. It has been destroyed several times, 
the last time by the Spaniards when they 
evacuated the island in 1865. 

PUERTO PRIM II'K. Santa Maria de, a city of 
Cuba, capital of the Central department, about 
midway between the N. and S. coasts, 805 m. 
E. 8. E. of Havana, and 45 m. W. 8. W. of Nue- 
vitas, its port, with which it is connected by 
railway ; pop. about 80,000. It lies between 
two small streams, the Tinima and the Jati- 
bonico, in a rich agricultural district, the chief 
products of which are sugar and tobacco. The 
climate is hot, moist, and unhealthy. The city 
is irregularly built. Its chief buildings are sev- 
eral churches and monasteries, a hospital, and 
two theatres. Its trade is inconsiderable com- 
pared with its population. Puerto Principe 
was formerly the seat of the supreme court of 
all the Spanish colonies in America. It has 
been threatened several times during the pres- 
ent war by the Cuban patriots, and two or 
three battles have taken place in its vicinity. 

PUFEXDORF (often spelled PTJFFENDORF by 
English writers), Samuel, a German jurist and 
publicist, born near Chemnitz, Saxony, Jan. 8, 
1632, died in Berlin, Oct. 26, 1694. He was edu- 
cated at Grimma, studied theology at the uni- 



PUFENDORF 



PUFF BIKD 



versity of Leipsic, and in 1656 went to Jena to 
devote himself to mathematics and philosophy 
under Erhard Weigel, at the same time apply- 
ing himself to the law of nature. On quitting 
Jena he became tutor to the son of the Swedish 
ambassador at Copenhagen, and while there 
prepared a work on general law, in which the 
principles of Grotius, Hobbes, and other ju- 
rists were combined with observations of his 
own. This was published in Holland in 1660 
under the title of Elementa Jurisprudentice 
Universalis. It was dedicated to the elector 
palatine, Charles Louis, who in 1661 founded 
at Heidelberg a professorship of the law of na- 
ture and of nations, and placed Pufendorf in 
the chair. His lectures were very popular, and 
the university recovered during his residence 
much of its ancient prestige. In his Severini 
a Monzambano, De Statu Imperil Germanici 
(Geneva, 1667) he showed that the Germanic 
system was an incongruous assemblage of dis- 
cordant parts, and the parent of many social 
and political abuses, and suggested practical 
remedies. The work was translated into the 
chief languages of Europe, but excited much 
hostile criticism in Germany, particularly in 
Austria, where it was ordered to be burned by 
the hangman. Pufendorf defended the work 
without acknowledging the authorship, but 
found his position so uncomfortable, in con- 
sequence of the acrimonious controversy with 
German publicists, that in 1670 he accepted 
from Charles XI. of Sweden the professorship 
of the law of nations at Lund. In 1672 he 
published there the work on which his reputa- 
tion now rests, the treatise De Jure Natures 
et Gentium (" On the Law of Nature and Na- 
tions"), of which in 1673 he prepared an abridg- 
ment with some variations, entitled De Officio 
Hominis ac Civis Libri duo (" On the Duties of 
a Man and a Citizen "). On the invitation of 
the king of Sweden he removed to Stockholm, 
was appointed councillor of state and royal 
historiographer, and published Commentarii 
de Rebus Suecicis ab Expeditione Gustavi Adol- 
pJii usque ad Abdicationem Christina (Utrecht, 
1676). In 1688 he accepted a similar office, 
with an annual pension of 2,000 crowns, at the 
court of Frederick William, elector of Bran- 
denburg, the history of whose reign he pub- 
lished under the title of Commentarii de Rebus 
Gestis Frederici Wilhelmi Magni, Electoris 
Brandenburgici. In 1694, shortly before his 
leath, and while he was in Berlin, the king of 
Sweden created him a baron. Of his great 
reatise, first printed in German at Leyden in 
1672, and afterward at Frankfort much aug- 
mented (1684), the best edition is that pub- 
lished at Leipsic cum Notis Variorum by G. 
"fascov (2 vols. 4to, 1744). The French trans- 
ition by J. Barbeyrac (2 vols. 4to, Amster- 
dam, 1712), with notes, is the version most es- 
emed. There is an English version by Basil 
Kennet, with Barbeyrac's preface and notes 
translated by Carew (London, 1749). Pufen- 
dorf wrote several less important works. 



PUFF BALL. See LYCOPEEDON. 

PUFF BIRD, an appropriate name for the 
bucconina, an American subfamily of diurnal 
fissirostral birds, placed by Gray in the king- 
fisher family, but by the older and some mod- 
ern writers in the scansorial family of barbets 
or capitonincB ; the generic name bucco is ap- 
plied by Cuvier to the latter. In the typical 
genus ~bucco (Linn.), as recognized by Gray, the 
bill is long, strong, elevated, and very broad at 
the base, where it is furnished with tufts of 
strong bristles, and suddenly curved at the tip, 
which is hooked ; the gape very wide ; nostrils 
concealed by the projecting plumes and bristles; 
wings moderate and rounded, the first quill 
short and the fourth the longest ; tail long, 
broad, even, rounded on the sides ; tarsi shorter 
than the middle toe, strong, and covered in 
front with transverse scales ; toes two before 
and two behind, the outer anterior the longest, 
and the claws long and acute. There are about 




Pied Puff Bird (Bucco macrorhynchus). 

a dozen species described, in tropical South 
America ; the name is derived from their habit 
of puffing out the plumage of the head, which 
gives them a heavy and ill balanced appear- 
ance. They are solitary, silent, and melan- 
choly-looking, living generally in retired woods, 
perching on some low and thickly leaved 
branch, with the large head drawn between 
the shoulders ; thus they remain for hours at a 
time, occasionally darting after insects, return- 
ing to the same perch, which they are said to 
frequent for months together ; they sometimes 
climb like woodpeckers, supported by the tail, 
in search of insects in the bark ; the nest is 
made in the hollows of trees ; they are not shy, 
and sometimes select spots near human habita- 
tions ; their colors are sombre, very different 
from those of the barbets, with which some 
authors have classed them. The collared puff 
bird (. collaris, Lath.) is 7J in. long ; rufous 
above, striated with black; whitish on the 
chest, terminated by a broad black band ; a 
similar band across the shoulders ; abdomen 



72 



PUFFIN 



PUGHE 



rufous white; bill 1| in- and horn-colored. 
The pied puff bird (li. macrorhynchu*, Gmel.) 
is black, with a black and larger bill ; general 
color black, with forehead, throat, abdomen, 
and tip of tail white. Figures of many of 
these puff birds may be found in Swainson's 
44 Birds of Brazil and Mexico " (London, 1841). 

PIFFIN. See ArK. 

PIGATCUEFF, YfaHyan, a Cossack chieftain 
and pretender to the throne of Russia, born at 
Simoveisk on the Don in 1726, executed in 
Moscow, Jan. 21, 1775. He first appeared as 
the leader of a band of disciplined robbers. In 
the seven years' war he served against the 
Prussians, and subsequently in the Russian 
campaign of 1769 against Turkey. Returning 
to his native land, he was imprisoned for sedi- 
tious conduct; but having recovered his lib- 
erty, he went to Yaitzkoi, where a striking re- 
semblance noticed between himself and Peter 
III. prompted him to puss himself off as the 
murdered monarch, to forge a tale about his 
escape from death, and to declare that he was 
now to set about the task of dethroning Cath- 
arine II. and regaining his crown. The insur- 
rection broke out in the middle of 1778, when 
a manifesto of Pugatchetf in the name of Pe- 
ter III. was published. After he had got pos- 
session of the fortress of Yaitzkoi, and the 
religious sect of the Raskolniks, of which he 
had become a member, had embraced his cause, 
the peasantry went over to his side in large 
numbers, and many Tartar and Finnish tribes 
joined him. With these he took numerous 
fortresses on the Ural, the Volga, and the 
Don, and marched upon Moscow ; but he was 
betrayed by his comrades for 100,000 rubles 
to Michelson and Suvaroff. In this insurrec- 
tion 100,000 lives were lost. 

PCGET, Pierre, a French artist, born in Mar- 
seilles, Oct. 31, 1022, died there, Dec. 2, 1694. 
He was apprenticed to a ship builder and wood 
carver, travelled on foot to Italy, and after 
suffering great hardships obtained admission 
to the studio of Pietro da Cortona in Rome. 
Returning to Marseilles in 1643, ho was com- 
missioned by the duke do Brez6 to design a 
magnificent ship, which, in honor of the queen, 
Anne of Austria, was called La Reine, and 
Pugut devoted three years to decorating it 
with carvings. He next went to Italy again, 
and spent some years in copying antique 
monuments and in art and architectural stud- 
ies. In 1658 ho returned to France, and 
painted many church pictures for Marseilles, 
Ai.x, Toulon, Cuers, and La Ciotat, Ill health 
obliging him to give up painting in 1655, he 
devoted himself to sculpture and architecture. 
The gate and the balcony of the city hall at 
Toulon, which he built and carved, were his 
first works. He then went to Genoa, where 
he executed many important works. In 1665 
he was recalled to France by Colbert, and ap- 

Sointed director of ship decorations at the 
ockyard of Toulon, where he also began to 
build an arsenal ; but its progress being hinder- 



ed by official intrigues, he retired to his native 
city. While at Toulon he had partly sculp- 
tured in Carrara marble the group upon which 
his fame mainly rests, his " Milo of Crotona 
devoured by a Lion." It was finished in 1683, 
for the gardens at Versailles. His group of 
Andromeda and Perseus was completed in 
1685, and brought to Versailles by his son; 
three years later he himself went there with 
his bass relief of Alexander and Diogenes. 
After his return to Marseilles, he superintend- 
ed the building of a church, executed his last 
work in bass relief, u The Plague of Milan," 
and spent his later years in retirement. 

PTGET SOl'XD, in a general sense, the body 
of water which extends S. from the E. end of 
the strait of Fuca, through which it communi- 
cates with the Pacific ocean, into the N. W. 
portion of Washington terrritory, for a dis- 
tance in a direct line of about 80 m. Its prin- 
cipal constituents are Admiralty inlet, Puget 
sound proper, the S. termination of this inlet, 
and Hood's canal. Admiralty inlet extends 
from the strait of Fuca a little E. of S., with 
an average breadth of nearly 6 m., for 70 
m., and communicates with the sound proper 
through the " narrows," 1 m. wide ana 4 m. 
long. The sound extends S. W. from the nar- 
rows, ramifying into numerous bays and inlets, 
and containing many islets. Hood's canal 
branches off from Admiralty inlet 18 m. S. of 
the strait of Fuca, and extends 8. W., with an 
average breadth of 2 m., for 50 m., when it 
bends abruptly and extends N. E. for 15 m., 
nearly connecting with tho waters of tho sound. 
Hood's canal on the one hand and Admiralty 
inlet and the sound on the other enclose a 
peninsula, of which Kitsnp co. forms the great- 
er part. As determined by tho United States 
coast survey, the coast line of Admiralty inlet 
measures 334 nautical miles; of Puget sound 
proper, 280; of Hood's canal, 192; total, 806. 
These bodies of water are all navigable, nnd 
the smaller inlets afford numerous safe, deep, 
and capacious harbors. The shores are fertile, 
and are covered with abundant timber. The 
chief towns are Olympia, tho capital of the 
territory, at tho S. extremity ; Steilacoom, 
Tacoma (tho N. terminus of the Pacific division 
of tho Northern Pacific railroad), and Seattle, 
on the E. shore ; and Port Townsend, at the 
N. W. extremity. The sound was named after 
an officer in Vancouver's expedition. 

PI (iHK, William Own, a Welsh author, born 
at Tyn y Bryn, Merionethshire, Aug. 7, 1769, 
died June 4, 1835. His original name was 
William Owen, to which he added that of 
Pughe late in life, on receiving an inheritance. 
At the age of 17 he went to London to earn 
his living, and there mado the acquaintance 
of Owen Jones, a tradesman, with whose sup- 
port and encouragement he entered upon the 
study of ancient Welsh literature. The two 
published in conjunction in 1789 tho poems 
of Dafydd ap Gwilym, a bard of the 14th 
century. This was followed by the works of 



PUGILISM 



other poets and by translations; and in 1801, 
a third Welshman, Edward Williams, being 
associated with them, they published the first 
two volumes of the "Myvyrian Archaiology;" 
a third volume appeared in 1807. Pughe 
also prepared a Welsh and English diction- 
ary (1793-1803), and the " Cambrian Biogra- 
phy " (1803) ; published a Welsh magazine 
entitled T Great; and translated into Welsh 
the "Paradise Lost," Heber's "Palestine," and 
other poems. His son, ANEURIST OWEN (1790- 
1851), who dropped the name of Pughe, edit- 
ed "Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales," 
printed by the record commission in 1841. 

PUGILISM (Lat. pugil, a boxer), the art of 
fighting with the fists, practised in modern 
times according to certain rules, known as the 
rules of the English prize ring. It is said that 
Theseus was the inventor of the art of boxing, 
or the skilled use of the fists and arms in as- 
sault and defence. Homer describes pugilistic 
encounters, and Pollux, Hercules, and others 
are mentioned as excelling in pugilism. Box- 
ing was one of the most important exercises 
in the Olympic games. The ancient pugilists 
fought with the cestus, formed of strips of 
leather wound around the fist and arm, fre- 
quently as far up as the elbow. This was some- 
times studded over the fist with knobs loaded 
with lead or iron, and was practically the same 
as the brass knuckles of the present day. The 
cestus used by the Greeks was of various kinds, 
called fieiMxai, CTrelpat, floeiai, aijtalpai, and piip- 
firjKE^. The peiMxcu were the softest, and the 
pbpfjiTjKEG the hardest. The rules of boxing in 
ancient times resembled those of the modern 
prize ring, except that wrestling was not per- 
mitted. The right arm was used chiefly in of- 
fence, the left arm serving to protect the person. 
The ears were much exposed to injury in the 
old games, and they were sometimes protected 
by covers. With the cestus, especially when 
loaded with knobs of metal, the ancient pugi- 
listic encounters must have been terribly severe, 
resulting often in mutilation, and sometimes in 
death. At the Olympic games the boxers were 
usually naked, or wore simply a girdle around 
the loins. In the earliest times boxing at the 
games was permitted only between freemen 
and those who had not committed crime. Con- 
tests between boys were early introduced at 
Olympia. The art of boxing, as now prac- 
tised, may be said to date from the building 
in London of a theatre for exhibitions of the 
" manly art of self-defence " by one Broughton, 
about 1740. Broughton, who for 18 years 
was champion of England, is said to have in- 
vented boxing gloves. He held exhibitions in 
his theatre, and laid down certain rules for 
fighting, quite similar to those of the pres- 
ent day. But for many years before the time 
of Broughton pugilistic encounters had been 
common at fairs and festivals in England. 
The funds for the erection of Broughton's 
theatre were provided by about 80 of the no- 
blemen and gentry of England, and the en- 



counters were witnessed by the best blood in 
the land, including the prince of Wales. Jack- 
son, who was champion in 1795, is now re- 
garded as having been one of the most skil- 
ful professors of the art. He gave instruc- 
tion to many of the aristocracy, among whom 
were Lord Byron and Shaw, the life-guards- 
man. The prominent points in Jackson's sys- 
tem were the use of the legs in avoiding blows 
and the correct estimate of distance, striking 
no blows out of range. In 1817 the future em- 
peror Nicholas of Eussia witnessed a prize fight 
in England, and shook hands with the victor. 
Since that time the prize ring has gradually fal- 
len into disrepute ; but for a long time the prin- 
ciple of " fair play " was strictly adhered to in 
England. At the present day prize fighting is 
practised only in Great Britain and America. 
The brutality of such exhibitions has at last ex- 
cited the general condemnation of society, and 
for more than half a century the practice has 
been under the ban of the law. The rough 
character of the assemblages on such occasions, 
and the frequent " selling out " and fraud 
in the encounters, have disgusted those of the 
patrons and professors of the "manly art" 
who believed in fair play. It is thought 
that very few of the fights which have oc- 
curred within the past few years have been 
honestly conducted. Although prize fighting 
has deservedly fallen into disrepute, many per- 
sons practise boxing for exercise and amuse- 
ment, the rules being essentially those of the 
prize ring (commonly abbreviated to P. E.). 
The present rules are briefly as follows. The 
ring shall be on turf, formed of a square of 24 
ft., bounded by a double line of ropes at- 
tached to eight stakes. The lower rope is 2 
ft. and the upper 4 ft. from the ground. The 
choice of " corners " is determined by the toss 
of a coin. The winner of the choice selects 
his corner according to the state of the wind 
and the position of the sun, it being an advan- 
tage to have the sun in his opponent's face. 
The loser takes the opposite corner. A space 
is marked off in each corner large enough to 
accommodate the man, his second, and his " bot- 
tle-holder," who are allowed to attend their man 
in the ring. The colors of the men are tied 
around the stakes at their respective corners. 
Each man names his second and bottle-holder. 
The seconds agree upon two umpires, one for 
each man. The umpires usually select a ref- 
eree, unless one be agreed upon in some other 
way. The referee directs the contest, and de- 
cides the fight and all questions of fairness, 
and his decision is binding and final. The 
umpires watch the fight in the interests of 
their respective men, and call upon the referee 
for a decision regarding all questions of fair- 
ness. The referee withholds all expressions of 
opinion until he is appealed to by the umpires, 
or until the close of the fight. The referee 
and umpires are so placed as to be able to 
watch the fight, but no one is allowed within 
the ring except the men with their seconds 



PUGILISM 



and bottle-holders. The men are stripped be- 
fore the fight by their seconds and dressed for 
the contest. The dress is usually knee breech- 
es or drawers, stockings, and shoes, the soles 
of the shoes being provided with spikes three 
eighths of an inch long and one eighth of an 
inch broad at the points. The men are naked 
above the belt. The seconds and umpires see 
to it that no improper articles are used in the 
dress. The men are allowed nothing in their 
hands, and no resin or other sticky substance 
is allowed upon the fists. One of the umpires 
is selected to act as time-keeper. It is his duty 
to call " time " at the expiration of 80 seconds 
after each round. If one of the contestants 
fails to come to "the scratch" within eight 
seconds after time has been called, he is con- 
sidered to have lost the fight. The scratch is a 
straight line drawn through the centre of the 
ring between the two corners. The bottle- 
holder is provided with a bottle of water and 
a sponge, and it is the duty of the second and 
bottle-holder to take their man to his corner 
at the close of each round, render him all 
needed assistance there, and bring him to the 
scratch when time is called. The second and 
the bottle-holder are not permitted to ap- 
proach their man during a round, or to give 
him advice at that time, and are cautioned 
not to injure the antagonist when they pick 
up their man at the close of a round. When 
the man cannot come to the scratch at the call 
of time, the second usually throws up the 
sponge as a token of defeat, and the victor 
takes his antagonist's colors as a trophy. The 
men being ready, time is called, and each man 
is conducted to his side of the scratch by his 
second. The men shake hands with each oth- 
er, the seconds do the same, the latter retire 
to their corners, and the fight begins. When 
time is called after a round, the principal rises 
from his second's knee, and walks unaided to 
the scratch. A round is considered closed 
when one or both men are down, either from 
a knock-down blow or from being thrown 
after they have closed. Unless there is a 
knock-down, the rounds usually terminate in 
a clinch. The following acts are considered 
foul : wilfully falling without receiving a blow 
at the time of falling, except that one may slip 
from the grasp of his antagonist after the men 
have closed; butting with the head, gouging, 
scratching, biting, kicking, or falling upon the 
antagonist when he is down; striking the an- 
tagonist below the belt, or grasping him by the 
. legs, and striking the antagonist when he is 
down (a man with both knees or with one 
hand and one knee upon the ground is con- 
sidered down). If one of the umpires claim a 
foul, the referee may caution the man and his 
second, or may declare that the man against 
whom the foul is claimed has lost the fight. 
The referee's judgment is usually based upon his 
opinion as to whether the foul was intentional. 
In case of disputes, the men retire to their 
respective corners pending the decision of the 



referee. In case any circumstance interfere 
with the progress of the fight, the referee may 
appoint another time or place of meeting, at 
which the fight is to be continued ; but unless 
it is concluded within a week, the battle is 
considered drawn. The referee has power to 
cause the men to be separated when one is 
in such a position across the ropes as to be 
helpless or in danger of his life. The first 
prize fight in the United States took place in 
1816, between Jacob Hyer (father of the cele- 
brated Tom Hyer) and Tom Beasley, the result 
of which was a draw. The rules of the ring 
were observed during the first part of this 
fight, but it soon degenerated into rough-and- 
tumble, and friends of the men interfered after 
one of Hyer's arms had been broken. This 
was followed by numerous fights of a more 
scientific character. Among the most cele- 
brated was the fight between Tom Hyer and 
" Yankee " Sullivan, in 1849. Numerous other 
fights occurred between 1849 and 1860, when 
the so-called great international fight took place 
in England between John 0. Heenan of New 
York and Tom Sayers, champion of England. 
This was very severe, and the general opinion 
has been that Heenan was the winner, although 
no decision was given by the referee, the fight 
being interrupted by breaking in the ring. 
In the accounts of fights, particularly those 
published in the earlier history of the English 
ring, the slang words and expressions used are 
peculiar, and some of them are quite de- 
scriptive and suggestive. The following are 
some of those commonly met with in pugilistio 
writings: "Bellows," lungs; "bellowser," a 
blow in the pit of the stomach, taking one's 
breath away; "blinker," a blackened eye; 
"bore," to press a man down by force of 
weight and blows; "brain canister," "knowl- 
edge box," "lob," "lolly," "nob," the head; 
" buff," the bare skin, as " stripped to the 
buff;" "cant," a blow; a "cant over the 
kisser," a blow on the mouth; "castor," a 
hat (before entering the ring, the pugilist gen- 
erally tosses in his "castor") ; " chancery," a 
position in which a pugilist gets his opponent's 
head under his arm ; " claret," blood ; " claret 
jug," " conk," " nozzle," " proboscis," " snuff 
box," "snorer," "snout," the nose; "cork," 
to give a bloody nose; "daylights," "gog- 
gles," " peepers," " squinters," the eyes ; " fan- 
cy," a general name for pugilists; "fibbing," 
striking blows in quick succession at close 
quarters; "fives," "a bunch of fives," the 
fist ; " fives court," a boxing hall ; " send to 
grass," to knock down ; " groggy," used to 
describe the condition of a pugilist when he 
comes to the " scratch " weak on his " pins;" 
"grubber," "kisser," " oration trap," "potato 
trap," " whistler," " ivory box," the mouth ; 
"mauley," the fist; "mill," a fight; "mourn- 
ing" " to put the eyes in mourning," to 
blacken the eyes; "painted peepers," black- 
ened eyes ; " pins," the legs ; " portmanteau," 
the chest; "rib roaster," a blow on the ribs; 



PUGILISM 



75 



" smeller," a blow on the nose. A closely 
contested prize fight taxes a man's strength, 
endurance, and "pluck" to the utmost; and, 
however courageous he may he, poor physical 
condition is so great a disadvantage that it 
can hardly he overcome in the face of good 
condition of an antagonist, the skill, courage, 
and strength of the men being equal. It 
has therefore been considered of the last im- 
portance to bring a man into the ring per- 
fectly trained. The duration of rigid training 
depends largely upon the previous muscular 
condition ; but two or three months are usu- 
ally sufficient. Without going into the minu- 
tiae of the different training systems, it will be 
sufficient to indicate the general method and 
the main objects to be attained. Fat is inert, 
useless matter during a fight, and is to be 
eliminated from the body as far as is possible 
without depressing the nervous energy. The 
muscular system should be developed to the 
highest degree. The nervous system should 
act promptly and perfectly, a condition essen- 
tial to endurance, which is probably the most 
important quality in a pugilist. The respira- 
tion should be free and performed with the 
smallest expenditure of nervous and muscular 
force. Finally, the temper and judgment should 
be clear, the skill as great as possible, and the 
man should have the moral and physical force 
to fight to the last extremity of endurance. To 
secure these ends, the diet is restricted to lean 
and easily digestible meats, stale bread or toast, 
a small quantity of vegetables, and a very mod- 
erate quantity of liquids ; but the amount of 
food should be sufficient to satisfy the appetite, 
never allowing the nervous system to become 
depressed. The exercise is such as to develop 
the general muscular system, particularly the 
muscles employed in hitting, and the legs. To 
secure perfect condition of the nervous power, 
all sources of mental irritation are avoided, 
sexual intercourse is interdicted, and stimu- 
lants, if taken at all, are used with care and in 
very small quantity. Tea may be use'd mod- 
erately once a day, without sugar or milk; a 
glass of sherry with a raw egg or a glass of 
old ale may be taken once a day, though it is 
generally best to avoid alcohol. It is of the 
greatest importance to secure perfect and tran- 
quil sleep, which is a good indication of the 
condition of the nervous system. If a man 
is in good health, purgatives, with which the 
training sometimes begins, are unnecessary. 
The bowels may be kept regular by varying 
the diet, and oat-meal gruel is frequently used 
with this end in view. Perfect action of the 
skin should be secured by proper ablutions 
after exercise. Fat may sometimes be removed 
from particular parts by local sweating with 
bandages. It is especially important to remove 
fat from the face and to harden the skin and 
subcutaneous cellular tissue, so that the " pun- 
ishment " will not puff up the face, particular- 
ly about the eyes, which sometimes become 
closed by swelling under the blows of the 



antagonist. A man is not in good condition 
unless the skin be bright, clear, and free from 
blotches or pimples. A constitutional taint, 
such as syphilis, usually shows itself during a 
course of severe training, and the man breaks 
down or "goes stale." The wind and endu- 
rance are developed by boxing and running. 
The man boxes with his trainer or strikes at 
the bag for several hours each day, and runs at 
a moderate pace from six to ten miles, doing 
a quarter or half of a mile at the top of his 
speed. This shakes the abdominal organs, 
promotes the removal of fat from the omen- 
turn, and gives play to the diaphragm, while 
at the same time it gives agility and power to 
the legs. The trainer should have his man un- 
der complete subjection, and never leave him, 
night or day, during the whole course of train- 
ing. He learns, if possible, the points and 
style of fighting of his adversary, and general- 
ly fixes upon a plan of battle. He boxes with 
his man constantly, hits him hard, and accus- 
toms him to bear punishment without loss of 
temper or judgment. His man should go into 
the ring confident that he will win the battle. 
For at least 24 hours immediately preceding 
the fight the man should rest. Many trainers 
bring down the weight of their men by diet 
and sweating below the point at which they 
are to fight, depressing the system somewhat 
at first, and then allow the weight to come up 
to the proper point, so that they fight when 
the system is at its maximum of reaction and 
in perfect condition. In the articles of agree- 
ment of a prize fight, the weight at which the 
men are to fight is iisually stipulated. When 
no such stipulation is made, the men are said 
to fight at " catch weight," or at such weight 
as they may think proper. A man may fight 
at less than the stipulated weight, but he is 
ruled out if he is over weight. Pugilists are 
usually classed with regard to weight as fol- 
lows : a man of 115 Ibs. or under is called 
a feather weight; between 115 and 130 Ibs., 
a light weight ; between 130 and 150 Ibs., 
a middle weight ; at 150 Ibs. or over, a heavy 
weight. Boxing, which is practised for ex- 
ercise and amusement and in training for a 
prize fight, is conducted according to the rules 
of the ring, and the hands are provided with 
gloves padded with hair on the back to the 
thickness of two or three inches, so that the 
blows are much less severe than with the naked 
fist. Glove fights are sometimes practised at 
public exhibitions in exact accordance with 
pugilistic rules, and these are frequently quite 
severe. Occasionally the gloves are blackened 
so as to leave a mark when a man is hit, each 
blow being counted by the judges. Boxing 
constitutes the greatest part of so-called pu- 
gilistic science, and different professors of the 
"manly art" usually have different method? 
or styles. The most important principles oi 
boxing are as follows. The position is with 
the left foot forward, the feet separated 16 or 
18 in. according to the size of the man. The 



76 



PUGILISM 



weight rests mainly upon the right leg, the 
left leg being free to advance. The body is 
erect, the head easily poised and erect, so that 
the movements are free, and the hands are 
placed at about the level of the upper part of 
the chest, with the fists closed and the arms 
slightly bent. The left hand is somewhat in 
advance of and lower than the right, and is 
used mainly for striking when the antagonist is 
just within distance. The right hand is used in 
guarding blows of the left and in close work. 
A boxer keeps his eyes constantly fixed upon 
the eyes of his opponent, ready to hit or guard 
when occasion offers. Sparring technically 
means the movements of the hands to and fro, 
which are constantly made when boxers are in 
position. The main point in striking a first 
blow, or " lead-off," is to deliver the blow with- 
out any "show" or warning, and so quickly 
that the opponent cannot defend himself. In 
boxing, feints are frequently made to direct 
the attention of the adversary from the place 
where the real blow is to be delivered. The 
blows of all good boxers are struck straight 
from the shoulder, and the most effective 
blows are those into which the whole weight 
of the body is thrown. It is not correct judg- 
ment to strike a blow unless the distance and 
position of the opponent be such that the blow 
will probably " get in." A " chopping " blow 
is one in which the fist is brought from above 
downward. This blow is frequently used by 
good boxers in returns, but is not a good blow 
as a lead-off. The great point in striking is 
to hit quickly, straight, and as hard as pos- 
sible. One solid blow is worth a hundred 
light taps. Rounding blows are seldom if 
ever used by good boxers, as these are not effi- 
cient and they expose the person. The most 
efficient blows are about the face and neck, on 
the pit of the stomach, and over the lower 
ribs. All blows below the waist are foul. 
Blows are avoided by guarding, jumping back, 
dodging with the head, &c. Dodging the head 
is very useful, and is practised in making many 
of tho so-called " points." A very slight move- 
ment of the arm upward in front of the face 
is sufficient to cause a powerful blow to glance 
off. A movement of the arm downward across 
the body wards off a body blow. In hitting, 
the large knuckles should strike, and the back 
of the hand should be turned downward. In 
real fights points are seldom used, and the 
practical work is done by plain hitting and 
guarding of the head and body. The " coun- 
ter " is a very effective blow, as it meets the 
man while he is advancing. This is a great 
practical point with good boxers. The man 
watches his opponent closely, and when he 
thinks he is about to lead off he strikes, hoping 
that his blow will get in before that of his 
adversary. At the same time he endeavors to 
guard his adversary's blow. A plain counter 
is when both men strike at nearly the same 
instant, with corresponding hands. If a man 
be remarkably quick in countering, he often 



demoralizes his adversary, who becomes afraid 
to make a full lead-off, under tho apprehension 
of the counter blow. A man may counter 
either upon his opponent's head or body. In 
countering, the opponent's blow is sometimes 
avoided by dodging the head to one side. If 
the head be dodged backward, the force of the 
counter is lost, and the opponent may get in 
a severe blow in following up. When the op- 
ponent has received a heavy blow, it is well 
to follow up the advantage with close work 
and to keep the man moving, so that he has 
no time to recover himself. Close work, rapid 
blows at close quarters, or " fibbing," requires 
great skill and judgment. The blows in close 
work should always be straight, as they protect 
from the blows of the adversary. Such quick 
work, however, is a great strain on the wind 
and endurance. Right-hand work is very ef- 
fective in close quarters. In making points 
the right hand is very useful. A man dodges 
his head to one side to avoid his opponent's 
lead-off with the left, and strikes his opponent 
with the right in the face (called a cross coun- 
ter, because the right, arm crosses the adver- 
sary's left), or he strikes his opponent in the 
body. Another point is to drop the head 
quickly under the arm of the opponent when 
he strikes, and to deliver blows right and left 
when the head is raised. Another point is to 
strike the opponent's left-hand blow aside with 
the palm of the left, and immediately strike 
with the right. Another is to strike the left- 
hand lead-off up with the left elbow, and strike 
immediately a chopping blow with the same 
hand ("peak and chop"). Numerous points 
such as those just mentioned are used, particu- 
larly in " fancy " boxing ; but they can hardly 
be described clearly, even with the aid of illus- 
tration by drawings. Most of these " points " 
require great confidence, as the man advances 
to meet his opponent as he strikes, avoiding 
the blows mainly by dodging, or " head work. 
There is no such thing as boxing without a 
master. A good boxer must have great prac- 
tice and must box with many different per- 
sons. Clinching, chancery, and throwing are 
fair, so long as a man does not grasp his op- 
ponent's legs ; but these manoeuvres are not 
often practised in friendly boxing with gloves. 
A man steps in with his left foot, throws his 
left arm around the neck or chest of his oppo- 
nent, and tosses him backward, the buttocks 
being crossed. This is called the " cross-but- 
tock throw." Another throw is to step in 
with the right foot, throw the right arm around 
the opponent's waist, and throw him over the 
hips (the " hip throw "). Many throws and 
trips are used in fighting, and each has its 
counter movement. Throwing in the ring 
differs from ordinary wrestling, as a man 
grasps his opponent wherever he can above 
the belt. The different kinds of chancery con- 
sist in rushing in when the opponent strikes, 
or in close quarters, and throwing either arm 
around his neck, striking him as hard and as 



PUGIN 



PULASKI 



77 



often as possible in this position. Each chan- 
cery has its counter movement, by which a 
man may sometimes extricate himself. The 
" upper cut " is generally used in close quar- 
ters. It consists in striking from below up- 
ward with the back of either hand, hitting 
the man under the chin or in the face, accord- 
ing to his position. Some boxers take a posi- 
tion occasionally with the right foot advanced, 
instead of the left; but this position is not 
considered good, and it is much more difficult, 
with the right foot advanced, to protect the 
body. See Egan, " Boxiana, a Sketch of An- 
cient and Modern Pugilism " (5 vols., London, 
1818) ; Brandt, " Habet ! A Short Treatise on 
the Law of the Land as it affects Pugilism " 
(London, 1857) ; " Fistiana " (24th ed., London, 
1863) ; Maclaren, " Training, in Theory and 
Practice" (London, 1866); Harrison, "Ath- 
letic Training and Health" (London, 1869); 
Flint, " Physiology of Man," vol. iii., p. 374 
et seq. (New York, 1870) ; " The Slang Dic- 
tionary " (London, 1870) ; and " American 
Fistiana, from 1816 to 1873" (New York, 
1874). " Bell's Life in London " contains ac- 
counts of the most important English prize 
fights, and Wilkes's "Spirit of the Times" 
(New York) of English and American fights. 
The "Spirit of the Times" for May 5, 1860, 
contains a full account of the fight between 
Heenan and Sayers. 

PCGIN. I. Augustas, an English architectural 
draughtsman of French extraction, born in 
Normandy in 1769, died in London, Dec. 19, 
1832. He made many architectural drawings 
for engraving, but is best known by a series of 
elaborate works on the Gothic architecture of 
the middle ages. These comprise " Specimens 
of Gothic Architecture selected from various 
ancient Edifices in England," &c. (2 vols. fol. 
and 4to, with 114 plates, 1821-'3), the descrip- 
tions of which were written chiefly by E. J. 
Wilson; "Architectural Illustrations of the 
Buildings of London" (2 vols. 4to, 1824), and 
" Specimens of the Architectural Antiquities 
of Normandy," &c. (1825-'8), both published 
in conjunction with John Britton the anti- 
quary. He also prepared, with the assistance 
of his son, " Gothic Ornaments selected from 
various Buildings in England and France." 
II. Angnstin Welby \ortlimoro, son of the pre- 
ceding, born in London, March 1, 1812, died 
at Ramsgate, Sept. 14, 1852. He designed or- 
namental Gothic furniture and metal work, 
and published " Designs for Gothic Furniture 
in the Style of the 15th Century " (1835), " De- 
signs for Iron and Brass Work in the Style of 
the 15th and 16th Centuries" (1835), "De- 
signs for Gold and Silversmiths' Work " (1836), 
and "Ancient Timber Houses" (1836), all of 
which had a material influence in promoting a 
revival of the taste for Gothic forms. He also 
published " Contrasts, or a Parallel betwen the 
Noble Edifices of the 14th and 15th Centuries 
and similar Buildings of the present Decay of 
Taste " (2d ed., 1841). Becoming a convert to 



the Roman Catholic faith, he devoted himself 
to the study of ecclesiastical Gothic architec- 
ture, and thereafter invariably declined to de- 
sign for Protestant places of worship, and sel- 
dom accepted commissions from Protestants. 
The chief exceptions to this rule were the gate- 
way to Magdalen college, Oxford, and the elab- 
orate mediaeval ornamentation of the new par- 
liament houses. He purchased an estate at 
Ramsgate, and erected a house, church, schools, 
&c., all of which were dedicated to St. Augus- 
tine. His chief publications besides those men- 
tioned are : " Examples of Gothic Architecture " 
(3 vols. 4to, 225 plates, 1838) ; " True Princi- 
ples of Pointed or Christian Architecture " 
(1841); "An Apology for the Revival of 
Christian Architecture" (1843); and "Glos- 
sary of Ecclesiastical Ornament " (1844). See 
" Recollections of A. W. N. Pugin, and his 
Father,- Augustus Pugin, with Notices of their 
Works," by Benjamin Ferrey, with an appen- 
dix by E. Sheridan Purcell (1861), and "Pho- 
tographs from 500 sketches by the younger 
Pugin" (2 vols., 1865). III. Edwin Welby, an 
English architect, son of the preceding, born 
March 11, 1834, died in London, June 7, 1875. 
He completed his father's unfinished works, 
and designed hundreds of churches and oth- 
er public buildings in England and Ireland. 
Among his works are the orphanages of Hel- 
lingly and Bletchingly, the Carmelite church 
at Kensington, and the cathedral at Queens- 
town, near Cork, in conjunction with Mr. 
AsTilin. In 1873 he was involved in a suit for 
libel with the painter Millais. 

PUJOL, Abel de. See ABEL DE PIJJOL. 

ITLASKI, the name of counties in seven of 
the United States. I. A S. W. county of Vir- 
ginia, bordered E. partly by New river, which, 
turning W., intersects it toward the south, 
Little river, a branch of New, completing the 
E. boundary ; area, about 300 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 6,538, of whom 1,809 were colored. It 
lies between two mountain ranges, Walker 
mountain on the northwest and the Blue Ridge 
on the southeast. The surface is broken and 
the soil generally fertile. The Atlantic, Mis- 
sissippi, and Ohio railroad passes through it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 38,411 
bushels of wheat, 96,690 of Indian corn, 27,- 
301 of oats, 2,817 tons of hay, 18,580 Ibs. of 
tobacco, 9,605 of wool, and 53,100 of butter. 
There were 1,104 horses, 1,147 milch cows, 
4,169 other cattle, 2,018 sheep, and 4,347 
swine. Capital, Newbern. II. A central 
county of Georgia, intersected by the Ocmul- 
gee and Little Ocmulgee rivers, and drained 
by their branches ; area, about 650 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 11,940, of whom 5,948 were 
colored. It has a level surface toward the 
south and rolling toward the north. The Ma- 
con and Brunswick railroad and the Hawkins- 
ville branch intersect it. The chief produc- 
tions in 1870 were 215,375 bushels of Indian 
corn, 13,646 of oats, 20,432 of sweet potatoes, 
17,320 Ibs. of butter, 15,444 of wool, and 6,617 



78 



PULASKI 



bales of cotton. There were 855 horses, 940 
mules and asses, 2,868 milch cows, 6,230 other 
cattle, 6,767 sheep, and 12,728 swine. Capi- 
tal, Hawkinsville. III. A central county of 
Arkansas, intersected by the Arkansas river 
and drained by its branches ; area, 1,200 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 32,066, of whom 5,948 were 
colored. In the south the surface is level, and 
in the north and west hilly, and the soil is 
moderately fertile. Lead, slate, and excellent 
granite are found. It is intersected by the 
Memphis and Little Rock, the Little Rock and 
Fort Smith, and the Cairo and Fulton rail- 
roads. The chief productions in 1870 were 
9,673 bushels of wheat, 516,519 of Indian corn, 
16,442 of oats, 26,252 of Irish and 41,743 
of sweet potatoes, 161,310 Ibs. of butter, and 
14,891 bales of cotton. There were 2,888 
horses, 1,913 mules and asses, 4,341 milch 
cows, 5,514 other cattle, 2,288 sheep, and 
24,977 swine ; 2 manufactories of boots and 
shoes, 1 of carriages and wagons, 4 of clothing, 
8 of furniture, 2 of iron castings, 2 of ma- 
chinery, 2 of sash, doors, and blinds, 3 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 2 of cigars, 1 
planing mill, nnd 10 saw mills. Capital, Lit- 
tle Rock, wliioh is also the capital of the state. 
IV. A S. E. county of Kentucky, bordered S. 
by the Cumberland river, and E. by the Rock 
Castle; area, about 550 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
17,670, of whom 1,075 were colored. It has a 
diversified surface, with several elevated ranges, 
and contains iron, lead, and coal. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 43,918 bushels of 
wheat, 466,379 of Indian corn, 176,016 of oats, 
34,790 of Irish and 21,709 of sweet potatoes, 
279,716 Ibs. of butter, 37,341 of wool, 47,749 of 
tobacco, and 2,252 tons of hay. There were 
4,854 horses, 1,187 mules and asses, 4,631 
milch cows, 1,055 working oxen, 4,747 other 
cattle, 21,579 sheep, and 22,570 swine. Capi- 
tal, Somerset. V. A N. W. county of Indiana, 
intersected by Tippecanoe river ; area, 435 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,801. It has a nearly level 
surface, about equally divided between prairie 
and oak openings, and a generally fertile soil. 
It is intersected by the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, 
and St. Louis, and the Louisville, New Albany, 
and Chicago railroads. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 87,640 bushels of wheat, 12,035 
of rye, 60,512 of Indian corn, 25,186 of oats, 
50,102 of potatoes, 147,015 Ibs. of butter, 22,- 
266 of wool, and 14,442 tons of hay. There 
were 2,576 horses, 8,341 milch cows, 5,427 
other cattle, 7,823 sheep, and 5,008 swine. 
Capital, Winamac. VI. A S. county of Illi- 
nois, separated from Kentucky by the Ohio 
river and bordered N. W. by Cache river ; 
area, about 175 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,752. 
It has a level and well wooded surface and a 
fertile soil. It is intersected by the Illinois 
Central and the Cairo and Vincennes railroads. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 44,922 
bushels of wheat, 195,735 of Indian corn, 16,- 
511 of oats, 24,652 of potatoes, and 157,000 Ibs. 
of tobacco. There were 871 horses, 842 milch 



cows, 1,736 other cattle, 1,880 sheep, and 
5,715 swine. Capital, Mound City. VII. A 
S. county of Missouri, intersected by the Gas- 
conade river and drained by several of its 
branches; area, 1,332 sq. in.; pop. in 1870, 
4,714, of whom 25 were colored. The surface 
is hilly and the soil generally fertile. It is in- 
tersected by the Atlantic and Pacific railroad. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 28,037 
bushels of wheat, 201,019 of Indian corn, 20,- 
873 of oats, 9,020 Ibs. of tobacco, 7,150 of 
wool, 75,580 of butter, and 6,052 gallons of 
sorghum molasses. There were 1,481 horses, 
1,271 milch cows, 2,949 other cattle, 3,886 
sheep, and 10,154 swine. Capital, Waynesville. 
Pl'LASKI, Casimlr (Pol. KAZIMIERZ I YI.AWSKI), 
count, a Polish soldier, born in Lithuania, 
March 4, 1747, died from a wound received in 
the attack on Savannah, Oct. 11, 1779. He 
was the son of a Polish nobleman, the starosta 
of Wareck, who was the chief organizer of the 
confederation of Bar, which was signed by his 
three sons (1768). Casimir, who had acquired 
military experience in the service of Duke 
Charles of Courland, entered heartily into the 
war for the liberation of his country. Forced 
to cross the Dniester, he took refuge after the 
storming of Bar in the monastery of Berditchev 
with 300 men, and after sustaining a siege 
of several weeks capitulated on the condition 
that the garrison should be set at liberty. Ho 
himself was not freed until he had pledged 
himself to bear proposals for a reconciliation 
to the chiefs of the confederates ; but as soon 
as he was set at liberty he refused to keep a 
promise extorted by force. Joining his father 
in Moldavia, ho made incursions across the 
Dniester, and attacked the Russians and forti- 
fied posts within the Polish borders. He car- 
ried on a desultory warfare in various parts of 
the country, until an unsuccessful attempt to 
gain possession of the person of King Stanis- 
las Augustus, in 1771, caused a sentence of 
outlawry and death to be passed against him, 
on the ground that it was his intention to 
assassinate the monarch. The coalition of 
Austria, Russia, and Prussia for the conquest 
and division of Poland was soon after com- 
pleted, and resistance became hopeless. Pu- 
laski, who had lost his father and brothers in 
the war, made his way to Turkey, and after- 
ward went to France, where he offered his 
services in the American cause to Franklin. 
With high recommendations to Washington he 
arrived at Philadelphia in the summer of 1777. 
He at first served in the army as a volunteer ; 
but four days after the battle of Brandy wine, 
in which he distinguished himself, he was ap- 
pointed by congress commander of the cavalry 
with the rank of brigadier general. After five 
months he resigned his command, and entered 
the main army at Valley Forge in March, 
1778, where he proposed to organize an inde- 
pendent corps of cavalry and light infantry, 
to which congress assented. By October 330 
men were in this corps, which was called Pu- 



PULCI 



PULSE 



79 



laski's legion. With this he marched, in Feb- 
ruary, 1779, to South Carolina, reached Charles- 
ton May 8, and vigorously opposed the project 
of surrendering the place to the British army 
then before the city. On May 11 he attacked 
with his legion the British advance guard, and 
was repulsed with considerable loss in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, he himself escaping 
with difficulty to the American lines. In Sep- 
tember the French under Count d'Estaing and 
the Americans prepared to besiege Savannah. 
On Oct. 9 it was determined to carry the town 
by assault. Pulaski was placed at the head of 
the French and American cavalry, and during 
the engagement received a mortal wound. He 
was taken on board the brig Wasp, which lay 
in the Savannah river, died after lingering two 
days, and was buried in the river. A monu- 
ment to his memory voted by congress has 
never been erected, but one was raised by the 
citizens of Georgia in Savannah. 

PULCI, Lnigi, an Italian poet, born in Flor- 
ence in 1431, died there in 1487. He held an 
inferior office under the republic, and was one 
of those for whom Lorenzo de' Medici kept a 
place at his table. His Morgante Maygiore, 
treating the legend of Charlemagne and his 
paladins, was first published in Florence in 
1481. One canto of it was translated into 
English by Lord Byron. Pulci also wrote 
sonnets and other short pieces. 

PULKOVA. See OBSERVATORY. 

PULLEY. See MECHANICS, vol. xi., p. 327. 

PULMONAR1A. See LUNGWORT. 

PULQUE, an aboriginal Mexican name for 
the fermented juice of agave Americana, the 
American aloe, maguey, or century plant (see 
AGAVE), which is cultivated in southern Mexico, 
as well as in Central and South America, 
for this and other products. The plant can- 
not be utilized for pulque until it has com- 
pleted its growth and is about to flower, a 
time which varies with the soil and location 
from 5 to 15 years. The sap stored up in 
the long and very fleshy leaves for the rapid 
development of the flower stalk abounds in 
sugar and mucilage. As soon as there are in- 
dications of the shooting up of a flower stalk 
from the centre of the plant, the central leaves 
and forming bud are cut out, a cavity being 
formed in their place, into which the sap will 
flow ; the cavity is shaded by drawing over 
some of the outer leaves and tying their points. 
A vigorous plant will yield about two gallons 
a day for four or five months ; as it quickly 
ferments, the juice is gathered from the plant 
three times a day in earthen jars, which are 
emptied into reservoirs made of raw hide 
tacked to a wooden frame. A portion of the 
juice is disposed of as pulque, i. e., simply fer- 
mented, while the greater part is distilled to 
form a strong alcoholic liquor, called pulque 
brandy, aguardiente, mezcal, and by other 
names. Pulque is a favorite drink with the 
Mexicans, and in the towns is sold in the 
market places and at shops called pulquerias, 
690 VOL. xiv. 6 



where the strong liquor is also kept. Taken 
in an early stage of fermentation, when the 
liquid is brisk with the bubbles of carbonic 
acid that are given off, pulque is a pleasant 
drink, not unlike spruce beer; but if allowed 
to complete its fermentation, which it does in 
three or four days, and reach the condition in 
which Mexicans like it best, no uneducated 
stomach can tolerate it; it contracts the odor 
of putrid animal matter from the skin in which 
it is fermented, and is exceedingly repulsive. 
Among the Mexicans the pulque from certain 
localities or plantations is especially esteemed, 
as among Europeans preference is given to the 
wine of certain vineyards. When the flow of 
sap ceases, the plant dies, but not without hav- 
ing formed innumerable offsets by means of 
which the plantation may be renewed. 

PULSATILLA. See ANEMONE. 

PULSE (Lat. pulsare, to beat), the throbbing 
of the arteries caused by the intermitting im- 
pulses communicated to the blood by the 
heart's contractions, propagated as a wave by 
the elasticity of the arteries, perceptible to the 
touch in all but the smallest vessels, and visi- 
ble when they are superficial or exposed ; the 
pulsation being nearly synchronous with the 
contraction of the left ventricle. At each pul- 
sation the capacity of the artery is augmented 
by an increase of diameter and by a partial 
elongation, the vessel being thereby lifted from 
its bed ; this increase has been estimated for 
the carotid artery as -fa part, but this can be 
only an approximation. The pulsation of the 
larger arteries in the immediate neighborhood 
of the chest, as for example the carotids, is 
perceptibly synchronous with that of the 
heart ; but for those at a distance, a slight in- 
terval of time is required for its propagation. 
Thus the pulse of the radial artery at the 
wrist is sensibly later than that of the heart, 
and that of the posterior tibial artery, at the 
ankle joint, later still. But this interval in 
each instance is very short, and requires care- 
ful attention to be distinguished. The pulse is 
liable to vary, within the limits of health, from 
the diversities of age, sex, stature, muscular 
exertion, condition of the mind, state of the 
digestive process, and period of the day. The 
following table is given by Carpenter as an ap- 
proximation to the average frequency of the 
pulse per minute at different ages: 

In the foetus 140 to 150 

Newly born infant 180 to 140 

During the 1st year 115 to 180 

" 2d u 100 to 115 

3d " 95 to 105 

" 7th to 14th year 80 to 90 

" 14th to 21st " 75 to 85 

" 21st to 60th " 70 to 75 

In old age 75 to 80 

According to Dr. Guy, the pulse of the adult 
female usually exceeds that of the adult male 
of the same age by 10 to 14 beats a minute; 
according to Volkmann, the pulse is less fre- 
quent as the stature is greater, about four beats 
for half a foot in height. It is well known 



80 



PULSE 



that muscular exertion increases the frequency 
of the pulse. The effect of posture has thus 
been expressed by Dr. Guy : 



Average temti per minute In 


Standing. 


Sitting. 


Lying. 




81 


71 


66 




91 


84 


79 











According to this, the difference between stand- 
ing and lying in the former is one fifth of the 
whole, in the latter one eighth ; when this 
change is effected by muscular effort the vari- 
ation is greater, accounting for many cases of 
sudden death in persons with disease of the 
heart or in very weak conditions on quickly 
assuming an erect position. Mental excite- 
ment, the digestive process, alcoholic drinks, 
and elevation above the sea level, accelerate 
the pulse ; as a general rule, though with nu- 
merous exceptions, it is more frequent in the 
morning than in the evening, and in sanguine 
than in lymphatic temperaments. The pulse 
is slower during sleep, and from the effect of 
rest, diet, cold, venesection, and the action of 
many drugs, especially digitalis, aconite, and 
hellebore. The pulse may be counted in any 
artery, and in a manner familiar to all, but 
most conveniently in the radial at the wrist, in 
the carotids, temporals, brachial, or femoral. 
The average numerical proportion of the arte- 
rial pulsations to the respiratory movements 
is 4 or 5 to 1 ; when this proportion is widely 
departed from, there is either some general 
diseased condition of the system accompanied 
with fever, some obstruction to the proper 
lUTHtion of the blood, or some disorder in the 
nervous system ; in inflammatory or acute 
diseases, the pulse may rise to 120 and 160 
in the adult, and so that it cannot be counted 
in the child; in pneumonia, with the quick- 
ened pulse the number of respirations in- 
creases more rapidly, the above proportion 
becoming as 3 or even 2 to 1 ; in hysteria a 
similar increase may occur in both without 
any serious cause. The exact form of the ar- 
terial pulse has been determined by means of 
a contrivance termed the " sphygmograph," 
which consists of a small metallic or ivory 
plate, held in contact with the integument im- 
mediately over the vessel by means of a deli- 
cate spring, and lifted from its bed by each 
pulsation of the artery. The plate carries an 
upright rod, which in its turn moves a long but 
light index, the end of which traces an alter- 
nately ascending and descending line upon the 
surface of a strip of paper moving with uni- 
form velocity. Thus the extent of the verti- 
cal motion measures the width of the arterial 
expansion ; and its greater or less obliquity, as 
traced upon the paper, indicates its rapidity 
or slowness, as compared with the horizontal 
movement of the paper itself. Such a trace is 
very useful, first by showing minute peculiari- 
ties of the arterial pulsation, too small to be 
distinctly perceptible by the touch; and sec- 



ondly, by leaving them in the form of a perma- 
nent record, suitable for subsequent study and 
comparison. The ordinary trace of the radial 
pulse, taken in this way, consists of a nearly 
vertical ascending line, which indicates the 
sudden and rapid expansion of the artery, fol- 
lowed by an oblique and somewhat undula- 
ting descent, showing the comparatively slow- 
er and more irregular collapse of the vessel. 
These two ascending and descending lines are 
repeated for every pulsation of the artory. 



FIG. 1. Trace of the Radial Pulse, taken by the 
Sphygmograph. 

Sometimes the undulations of the descending 
line become more perceptible, owing to an in- 
crease of temperature or some other cause 
which diminishes the resistance of the arterial 
walls to the heart's impulse ; and under these 
circumstances the expansion of the vessel is 
more sudden and vertical, while its collapse ia 
indicated by one or two well marked oscilla- 
tions, in the trace of the descending line. In 




FIG. 2. Trace of the Radial Pulse under the influence of 
Increased Temperature. 

certain cases of disease this oscillation of the 
artery at the period of collapse becomes so 
marked that a sort of secondary beat, or redu- 
plication of the pulse, is perceptible even to 
the touch ; and this constitutes what is known 
as the double or dicrotic pulse, in which there 
are two perceptible pulsations of the artery for 
every contraction of the heart. Of these two 




FIG. 8. Trace of a Dicrotic Pulae, in Typhoid Fever. 

pulsations, only the first is directly caused by 
the impulse of the heart ; the second is due to 
the oscillation of the blood in the relaxed ar- 
terial tube. Dr. E. R. Hun, who at that time 
was special pathologist to the New York state 
lunatic asylum at Utica, published in the 
" American Journal of Insanity" for January, 
1870, the results of a series of investigations, 
in which he found that the pulse of the insane 
" alwavs tends toward the dicrotic or mono- 



FIG. 4. Trace of Pulse In Dementia. 

erotic type, being never tricrotic in uncompli- 
cated cases. It becomes more characteristic as 
the mental condition degenerates, and assumes 



PULTENEY 



PUMP 



81 



its typical form in the most profound state of 
dementia," as shown in the following sphyg- 
mographic tracing of the pulse of a patient 37 
years of age. The trace given in fig. 5 shows 
a marked dicrotic form in a patient having 
slight symptoms of mania. This became ir- 




FIG. 5. Trace of Dicrotic Pulse in Mania. 

regularly tricrotic under excitement, and more 
regular after an outburst of excitement. 
Usually the pulsating movement of the blood 
is not continued into the capillary vessels ; but 
when the arteries are dilated in the glandular 
organs at the time of their increased func- 
tional activity, the pulsation is communicated 
to the capillaries, and even through them to 
the veins. This condition, however, lasts only 
during the period of increased vascular excite- 
ment ; and as it subsides, the movement of 
the blood in the capillaries again becomes uni- 
form, and the pulsation is limited as before to 
the arterial system. 

PULTENEY, William, earl of Bath, an English 
statesman, born in 1682, died in London, July 
8, 1764. He was educated at Westminster 
school and at Christ Church, Oxford, travelled 
on the continent, and in 1705 became member 
of parliament for the borough of Hedon in 
Yorkshire. This position he owed to his guar- 
dian, Henry Guy, who subsequently left him 
a legacy of 40,000 and landed estate to the 
amount of 500 a year. He acted as a whig 
throughout the reign of Queen Anne, partici- 
pated in the prosecution of Sacheverell, and 
defended Walpole in the prosecution against 
him in 1712. When that minister resigned in 
1717, Pulteney gave up his office of secretary 
at war, to which he had been appointed on the 
accession of George I. When Walpole resumed 
office in 1720, Pulteney was appointed coffer- 
er of the household ; but he went over to the 
opposition in 1725, was dismissed from his 
office, and became one of the most bitter ene- 
mies of the minister. He allied himself with 
Bolingbroke, and published pamphlets in which 
he attacked the ministry so virulently as to 
bring about a duel in 1731 between himself 
and Lord Hervey, in which both were slightly 
wounded. Through the brilliancy of his speech- 
es, and his patriotic sentiments, he became the 
most popular man in the nation ; and in 1742, 
when Walpole was driven from power, Pulte- 
ney constructed a new cabinet with the earl 
of Wilmington at its head, in which he took a 
seat, but without office, and accepted a peerage. 
The administration satisfied neither the people 
nor his partisans. Pulteney lost his popular- 
ity, and, as Chesterfield wrote, " shrunk into 
insignificance and an earldom." In 1746 the 
Pelham ministry resigned, and Pulteney became 



premier ; but he had so little influence that he 
was unable to obtain the assistance of any men 
of importance, and he held office only two 
days. In 1760 he published " A Letter to Two 
Great Men " (Pitt and the duke of Newcastle). 
As his only son had died before him, the peer- 
age in his family became extinct. 

PULTOCK, Robert, an English author, whose 
only known work is " The Life and Adventures 
of Peter Wilkins" (London, 1750), which de- 
scribes an imaginary race of flying islanders in 
the South Pacific. The name of the author 
was unknown till 1835, when, at a sale of books 
and manuscripts which had belonged to Dods- 
ley the publisher, the original agreement for 
the copyright tf the book was found, in which 
Pultock is described as " of Clement's Inn, 
gentleman." He sold his story for 20, with 
12 copies of the work, and a set of the first 
impressions- of the engravings. 

PULTOWA. See POLTAVA. 

PUMA. See COUGUAR. 

PUMICE. See OBSIDIAN AND PTJMICE. 

PUMP, a machine for raising liquids in pipes, 
either by direct action or by atmospheric pres- 
sure, and also for exhausting air from vessels. 
(See AIR PUMP.) The history of the hydraulic 
pump cannot be clearly traced. Methods of 
raising water by wheels with buckets attached 
to their peripheries, and also by means of end- 
less ropes moved by two drum wheels, were 
used by the ancient Egyptians and Assyrians ; 
and the chain pump was probably derived from 
the Chinese, or at least was first used by them. 
But there is no evidence of the employment 
of a valve pump until near the commencement 
of the Christian era, although a machine re- 
sembling a portable pump is often represent- 
ed in' ancient Egyptian sculptures. "Vitruvius 
ascribes the invention of the valve pump to 
Ctesibius of Alexandria, who probably lived 
in the latter part of the 3d century B. C. The 
water pump of Ctesibius was described by 
Heron, who flourished in the same century. It 
consisted of two single-acting solid-headed pis- 
tons moving up and down in two vertical cylin- 
ders with lift valves at the bottom, and a branch 
pipe with an outgoing valve placed between 
the piston and the lower valve, and was very 
much like the simple force pump of the present 
day. The motive power in large machines was 
an undershot paddle wheel. The employment 
of a valve in the piston head, and placing this 
below the discharge pipe, so as to constitute 
a lift pump, was probably of later date. Ac- 
cording to the manner in which pumps act, 
they may be divided into vacuum and force 
pumps; but it is more common to divide them 
into the force pump, the common suction 
pump, the lift pump, and the suction and force 
pump combined. The power may be applied 
by a piston moving to and fro in a cylinder, 
or by a wheel revolving in a box. Rotary 
pumps, in which the latter method is used, may 
be simply force pumps or suction and force 
pumps, the power being applied by direct 



PUMP 




Fio. 1 Force Pump. 



pressure or by centrifugal force. It is usual 
to denominate them rotary force pumps and 
centrifugal pumps. The cylinder and pis- 
ton pump will be described first. The Force 
Pump. It is probable, as has been intimated, 
that the earliest 
valve pump was a 
force pump, and was 
similar in construc- 
tion and action to 
that shown in fig. 
1 when the lower 
valve v is immersed 
in the reservoir, so 
that exhaustion, suc- 
tion, or atmospher- 
ic pressure has no 
essential connection 
with its working. 
When the piston P 
is raised, water will 
rush into the cham- 
ber through 0, and j 
when the piston is : 
depressed this valve will close, while the valve j 
w will be raised by the water, which is forced 
up into the pipe d. Upon raising the piston 
again, the pressure being removed from beneath 
the valve w, the weight of water above will 
cause it to close and thus prevent any return. 
But water from external pressure will again 
rush through the valve r, and the descending 
piston will again force it up through the valve 
w into the discharge pipe. The operation may 
be continued until there is enough water in 
the pipe d to exert a pressure per square inch 
equal to that exerted by the propelling power 
upon each square inch of the piston head. 
The Common Suction Pump. The functions of 
this pump depend upon the relative pressure 
of a column of water within the pipe and that 
of the atmospheric 
pressure upon the 
water outside of 
it. At the level of 
the sea the pressure 
of the atmosphere, 
when water boils 
at 212 F., is equal 
to sustaining a col- 
umn of mercury of 
29-922 in. when at 
a temperature of 
60. (See BOILING 
POINT.) The atmos- 
pheric pressure is 
therefore capable 
of sustaining, un- 
der the same condi- 
tions, a column of 
water 33'8 ft. high, 
or a little more than 13 times as high as the 
column of mercury, the specific gravity of the 
fluid metal being 13 -557 at 62-6 F. (See MER- 
CURY.) Consequently, if the lower end of a 
vertical tube of sufficient length is immersed 




FIG. 2. Common Suction 
Pump. 



in water and the tube completely exhausted of 
air, the water will rise to a height of 38'8 ft. 
above its level in the reservoir. The action of 
the common suction pump, fig. 2, will be easily 
understood from a consideration of this fact. 
The piston P, fitting the cylinder air-tight, on 
being raised will expand the air beneath it, and 
therefore diminish its pressure upon the water 
in the pipe beneath, according to the law of 
Boyle or Mariotte. (See PNEUMATICS.) "When 
the piston is depressed the lower valve will 
shut in consequence of the pressure being 
greater above than below, and the valve in 
the piston, opening upward, will open when 
the density of the air in the cylinder becomes 
greater than that of the external air, and its 
contents will thus be expelled. Succeeding 
motions of the piston will thus continue to ex- 
haust the air within the pipe until the pressure 
of the air on the water in the reservoir is suf- 
ficient to force the water in the pump up to 
the lower or suction valve. If the exhaustion 
is complete the water will rise to a height of 
83-8 ft. This effect 
can be secured by 
filling the pump with 
water at the top 
before commencing. 
Now, as a column of 
water 83'8 ft. high 
ordinarily measures 
the extent of the 
pressure of the at- 
mosphere at the 
level of the sea, it 
follows that if the 
suction valve is 
placed at a greater 
distance above the 
water in the reser- 
voir the pump will 
not work. At an 
elevation, as upon the side or top of a moun- 
tain, the atmospheric pressure being less, the 
valve must be placed lower. At a height of 
15,700 ft., where water boils at about 186 and 
the barometer stands at about IT'S inches, the 
lower valve requires to be within 19'7 ft. above 
the level of the water in the reservoir, this be- 
ing the height of a column of water which will 
balance the atmospheric column. The Lift 
Pump. By a slight change in the form of the 
suction pump, and the addition of a valve at 
z, fig. 3, the modern form of the lift pump is 
produced, and the water may be raised to a 
height corresponding to the amount of power 
applied. The form shown in this figure is that 
of a lift and suction pump combined. Remov- 
ing the lower valve e, and immersing the pump 
till the valve w in the piston is below the sur- 
face of the external water, the machine becomes 
simply a lift pump. The suction pump is also 
often called a lift pump. A form which is 
often figured in books employs an exterior 
frame supporting a piston rod which enters 
the pump at the lower end, pushing the piston 




Fio. 8. Lift Pump. 



PUMP 



83 




FIG. 4. Force Pump with Air 
Chamber. 



up instead of raising it through a packed box 
at the top of the cylinder. Such were the old 
pumps used by Kannequin in the water works 
at Marli, and by Lintlaer in the engines erected 
during the reign of Henry IV. at the Pont 
Neuf, to supply the 
Louvre from the 
Seine. The lift 
pump is in fact an- 
other kind of force 
pump, and in its 
simplest form may 
have been one of 
the first employed. 
The efficiency of the 
force pump, as well 
as of the lift pump, 
may be greatly in- 
creased by the em- 
ployment of an air 
chamber, as shown 
in fig. 4, by which 
means a constant 
and equable flow is 
secured and the sud- 
den shock of reaction avoided. A dome- 
shaped vessel is placed in the course of the 
discharge pipe, a short distance beyond the up- 
per valve. When the water in the discharge 
pipe is raised to a height of 33*8 ft. above the 
level of the water in the air chamber, the lat- 
ter will of course be half filled with water, the 
air being compressed to one half its original 
volume by the double pressure of water and 
atmospheric air upon it. It may be remarked 
that, as in the case of the hydraulic ram, the 
air in the chamber becomes gradually absorbed 
by the water as it passes through the pump, 
and must from time to time be replaced. The 
discharge pipe, instead of branching off from 
the base of the air chamber, may pass direct- 
ly into it through a 
hole in the dome, 
and down to near 
the base. In either 
case the air cham- 
ber is replenished 
by allowing the wa- 
ter to" run off by a 
cock at its base. A 
double-acting force 
pump is shown in 
fig. 5. This pos- 
sesses the advan- 
tage of producing a 
more uninterrupted 
stream than the 
form shown in fig. 
1, and if supplied 
with an air cham- 
ber the latter need 




FIG. 5. Double-Acting Force 
Pump. 



not be so large to effect the same equaliza- 
tion of current. Double-acting force pumps, 
either with or without the air chamber, are 
often employed at large town water works for 
raising water to the distributing reservoirs. 




FIG. 6. Plunger Pump. 



Such a pump acts as follows. When the solid 
piston head P descends, the valves a and e are 
forced shut, while d and c are opened, water 
entering behind the piston through d and be- 
ing forced in front of it through c, and up the 
pipe C D. When the pis- 
ton is raised the position 
of the valves is reversed, 
the water entering through 
a and being forced out 
through e. This is the 
position shown in the fig- 
ure. When water is to be 
raised to a great height or 
against great resistance, as 
in the hydrostatic or hy- 
draulic press, a plunger in 
place of the ordinary pis- 
ton with packed head is 
used, which passes through 
a tightly packed box, as 
shown in fig. 6. Such 
plunger pumps were em- 
ployed in the water works 
at York buildings, London, 
in the last century, but they are described in 
Commandine's translation of Heron's Spirita- 
lia. It is evident that the introduction of the 
plunger into the cylinder must expel an equal 
volume of water through the upper valve, and 
on being withdrawn allow the entrance of the 
same quantity through the lower valve. The 
fire engine is a combination of two force pumps, 
as shown in fig. 7, the water being forced from 
each into the common air chamber A, and so 
on through the discharge pipe E, to which may 
be attached the hose. The power applied as 
a motor may be various, as that of man, of 
animals, of water, or of steam. The earliest 
application of a steam engine to a pump was 
by Newcomen in 1713. The contrivance of 
Savary can hardly be called an application of 
a steam engine to a 
pump, because the 
steam cylinder was 
a part of the pump 
itself, the steam per- 
forming the func- 
tions of a piston 
head. Very large 
pumps are often used 
for drainage pur- 
poses, which are 
usually worked by 
steam engines sepa- 
rate from the pump 
itself. An enormous 
steam engine was em- 
ployed in the drain- 
age of Haarlem lake 
in Holland, which 




FIG. 7. Fire Engine. 



drove ten pumps having a united capacity of 
raising 112 tons of water at each stroke. (See 
DRAINAGE.) Large pumps are used for rais- 
ing water into reservoirs for supplying cities. 
(See WATER WORKS.) Most modern pumps 



.84 



PUMP 



of moderate size which are driven by steam 
are known as direct-acting steam pumps ; 
that is, there is no intervention of rotary 
motion, the reciprocating motion not being 
caused by the action of an eccentric, and the 
dead points or centres are avoided by the 
use of what is called an auxiliary valve. A 
good steam pump of this kind, constructed by 
the " Knowles Steam Pump Works " of War- 
ren, Mass., a company owning the patent for 
the auxiliary valve, is shown in fig. 8. The 
auxiliary valve, A, moves back and forth with- 
in the steam chest, and it also has a slight 
rotary motion by which the ports at each end 
are opened and shut to produce reciprocating 
motion. When steam is admitted into the 
steam chest, it enters the valve A at the mid- 
dle portion and passes out at one of the ports 
of the main flat valve v 0, this valve being 
moved over its seat by the motion of the aux- 
iliary valve, through the medium of the stem 
S, which plays in a slot wide enough to admit 
of the slight rotation of the auxiliary valve. 
Now, when the steam enters the cylinder C, 
we will suppose upon the left, the piston is 
driven in the direction GD. This carries the 
standard F in the same direction. In the top 
of this standard there is a hole which slides 
over the rod d' d", upon which there are two 
cams, w and o. When the top of the standard 
strikes one of these, it pushes the rod d' d" 
which is attached to the auxiliary valve A in 
one direction, and also rotates it sufficiently to 
reverse the ports in the steam chest. The main 
valve v is therefore reversed and steam is ad- 
mitted upon the other side of the piston head, 
by which means the standard F is moved in 
the direction opposite to its previous one, so 
that it will strike the opposite cam and cause 



into French mines by Belidor in 1739, and 
is described in his Architecture hydraulique. 
It consists of two cylinders, a larger, C, fig. 
9, and a smaller, D, with a piston in each, con- 
nected by a common rod. A supply pipe, A, 
conveys the descending column from its source 





FIG. S. Knowles'g Steam Puuip. 

the rod d' d" to move forward and rotate and 
again reverse the auxiliary valve A. The pump 
is simply a double-acting force pump with an 
air chamber, and its action needs no special 
explanation. A force pump called a hydraulic 
pressure engine was devised and introduced 



Fia. 9. Hydraulic Pressure Engine, from Belldor. 

to the three-way cock F, the air chamber E 
and the pipe B being the way of exit for that 
portion of the water which is raised. When 
the water from A enters the way leading into 
0, the piston in this cylinder, having, we will 
suppose, twice the area of cross section as the 
one in I), will force the water from the latter 
up the pipe B at each stroke until it has twice 
the elevation of the source supplying A. The 
three-way cock is so arranged that the pipe A 
is connected with the cylinder C or with the 
pipe H, and through it with the cylinder D by 
means of connections between the piston rod 
and a set of levers. When the piston in re- 
turns toward F, an opening at one side of the 
three-way cock allows the water to escape, 
the opening being closed 
when the piston begins 
to move in the direc- 
tion of D. A portion 
of the water therefore 
runs to waste, a neces- 
sary result of the laws 
of mechanics. Rotary 
Pumps. These are of 
two kinds, force pumps 
proper and centrifugal 
pumps. One of the old- 
est forms of rotary force 
pumps of which there 
is an account was con- 
tained in a collection of 
old models by Serviere, 
born at Lyons in 1598. 
It consists of two cog 
wheels within an ellip- 
tical box, fitting accu- 
rately, as shown in fig. 10. It will be readily 
seen that the water must be propelled in the 
direction taken by the cogs which are in con- 
tact with the box. The cogs, fitting to each 
other accurately in the centre of the box, pre- 
vent the return of water, and the machine 



PUMP 



85 



becomes both a force and a suction pump. 
When accurately made and used only in clear 
water, it is quite an efficient machine, and has 
since been employed as a form of rotary steam 
engine. It could not be used to raise water 
containing gravel or much solid matter. An- 




Fio. 10. Rotary Pump 
from Servifere's collection. 



FIG. 11. Rotary Pump of 
16th century. 



other old form of rotary pump of the 16th cen- 
tury is shown in fig. 11. A wheel of a diame- 
ter and thickness proportional to the capacity 
of the pump has its periphery formed into 
three cams, which give space for the passage 
of water between them and the inner surface 
of the cylindrical box in which it moves, and 
also raise and drop a broad sliding vertical bar, 
B (seen edgewise), which acts as a shut-off to 
the passage of the water within the box, di- 
recting it into the pipe A. The cams act the 
part of pistons, the water entering at the bot- 
tom of the cylinder and being forced in the di- 
rection of the arrows. To prevent its return 
on stopping the pump, a lift valve is placed 
in the discharge pipe, which shuts when the 
pressure above exceeds that below it. There 
are many other and recent forms of rotary 
force pumps, acting much upon the same prin- 
ciples, with the addition of devices which se- 




Fi(!. 12 FIG. 13. 

Bagley and Sewall's Rotary Pump. 

cure greater efficiency. One of the latest of 
these is Bagley and Sewall's, patented by L. D. 
Green, of which fig. 12 is a vertical longitu- 
dinal, and fig. 13 a transverse section. A is 
the main case, made in one piece, and having 
attached the ring B, seen in both sections. The 



space outside of B is the water space. This 
cylinder is enclosed by the disk D, which is 
attached to the shaft. An eccentric ring, E, is 
attached to the disk D so that in revolving its 
outer surface touches the inside of the case A, 
while the interior surface upon the opposite 
side of the ring touches the outside of the 
ring B. The eccentric ring E acts as the pis- 
ton of the pump. The suction and discharge 
are respectively shown in both sections at I 
and J, the direction of the water being indica- 
ted in fig. 12 by the arrows. The parts are sep- 
arated by the sliding valve H H, which is 
moved back and forth on its seat by means of 
two tumblers shown in fig. 13 between H and 
H. These tumblers are moved by the eccen- 
tric ring E, which passes between them. The 
centre ring B is made enough deeper than the 
casing A, as shown in fig. 12, to equalize the 
quantity of water within and without the ec- 
centric piston ring E. F is the cover or outside 
case, and contains a closed bearing for the end 
of the shaft. The inner part of the disk D 
forms a collar G to the shaft, and by means of 
a screw at the end this collar can be forced 
tightly against its seat K, thus avoiding the use 
of packing. In the centre of the seat there is 
a circular groove, shown in section at K K, 
which connects by a drilled channel with the 
suction part. Any tendency to escape of water 
at the seat by pressure is thus overcome by 
vacuum force. The chain pump consists of 
an endless chain carrying cups or disks around 
two drums, one beneath the surface of the 
water in the well or stream, and the other at a 
convenient elevation. The ascending part of 
the chain passes through a pipe just large 
enough to allow the cups or disks, which act 
as pistons, to move with little friction. It will 
thus be seen that the chain pump is little else 




FIG. 14. Old French Chain Pump. 

than a modified form of rotary pump. When 
the water is to be raised to a moderate height, 
it often becomes a convenient and useful ma- 
chine. Fig. 14 shows the form of an old French 
chain pump used in the ship yards at Mar- 
seilles, described by Belidor. It was worked 



86 



PUMP 



by two galley slaves, who were relieved every 
hour. It is uncertain where the chain pump 
originated, but it was probably first used in 
China in the form of an inclined trough with 
drums at either end, 
giving motion to a 
chain or rope with 
scoops or blocks at- 
tached. The centrif- 
ugal pump is a ma- 
chine which acts upon 
an entirely different 
principle from that 
of any pump so far 
described. The force 
which elevates the 
water is the centrifu- 
gal force developed by 
the revolution of a fan 




Fio. 15. Massachusetts 
Pump. 



wheel. An early efficient form of centrifugal 
pumps was constructed in Massachusetts in 
1818, and called the Massachusetts pump. It 
resembles an ordinary fan blower, as will be 
seen by the cut, fig. 15. It consists of a hori- 
zontal shaft to which are attached four eccen- 
tric blades, narrowed toward their extremities 
and located within a cylindrical-shaped box, 
from which a discharge pipe F passes upward. 
The water is received at the centre, around the 
shaft, which is so placed that the blades just 
graze the inner surface of the box at the junc- 
tion of the discharge pipe, into which the water 
is necessarily forced. The apparatus is placed 
below the level of the water, aa the vacuum 
power is small. A more recent form of centrifu- 
gal pump is Appold's, shown in figs. 16 and 17, 
which was first exhibited at the world's fair in 
London in 1851. The efficiency of a centrifu- 
gal pump depends upon the form of its blades, 
and Mr. Appold made a great improvement, 
nearly doubling the efficiency of the Massachu- 
setts pump, by giving them the form shown in 
section by the dotted lines in fig. 17. The re- 
volving fan wheel, shown in fig. 16 at c, is fixed 




FIG. 16. FIG. 17. 

Appold's Centrifugal Pump 

to the end of a shaft turned by the drum D. 
It plays between two circular checks, through 
the centre of both of which there is a circular 
opening to admit the water from the reser- 
voir, beneath the level of which the wheel is 
placed. The water enters at the central part 
of the fan, as shown in section in fig. 16 by 
the four curved arrows, two on either side, 



the whole being rotated in the contrary direc- 
tion. The lower part of the discharge pipe i 
enlarged into a drum somewhat similar to that 
of the Massachusetts and of the Gwynne pump, 
and the water issues from all parts of the pe- 
riphery of the fan wheel and is forced upward 
into the discharge pipe A. Calculations have 
been made as to the height to which water 
may be carried with one of these pumps, but 
they do not possess much practical value, as 
the power of each machine varies with its con- 
struction ; and 20 ft. is the practical limit, al- 
though by means of a very high velocity, not 
practicable for ordinary use, a height of 50 ft. 
has been reached. Gwynne and co.'s centrifu- 
gal pump is a modification of Appold's, and 
was shown at the same exhibition. A sec- 
tional view is given in fig. 18. Six equidistant 
arms, extending first in the direction of radii, 
but toward their outer ends curved and pointing 
backward as regards the direction of rotation, 
are fixed within a drum, which again moves, 
within an outer drum. 
The water enters at 
the centre, and taking 
the course of the ar- 
rows ascends the dis- 
charge pipe. Three 
of the arms commence 
at the axis, but the 
other three, alterna- 
ting, commence at the 
circle of admission. 
The two drums are 
only in contact at a 
small ring surround- 
ing the central open- 
ing. The arms dimin- 
ish in breadth toward 
their outer extremi- 




FIG. 16. tiwynne's Centrifu- 
gal Pump. 



ties to render the flow of water smooth, as 
the increase of centrifugal force at the pe- 
riphery causes an increase in the velocity of 
the water, and therefore it requires a less 
space through which to move. There are nu- 
merous practical points about the different 
kinds of pumps, to mention which would re- 
quire a too extended detail. It may be re- 
marked that a pump is one of the most diffi- 
cult machines to keep in order. It is exposed, 
if not constantly in use, to great changes of 
moisture and dryness, and its metallic parts, 
particularly if of iron, soon become rusty. It- 
is often convenient to have valves partly made 
of leather, but these cannot be expected to 
last long ; if constantly in use they soon wear 
out, and if they are allowed to become dry 
they shrink and cease to perform their office* 
well. A kind of steam pump without a pis- 
ton, called a " pulsometer," is the invention of 
Mr. C. H. Hall of New York. It consists of 
two long-necked chambers joined together at 
the top, where a ball valve by falling one way 
or the other opens one of the chambers to the 
admission of steam. The water is admitted at 
the bottom of the chambers, and passes into- 



PUMPELLY 



PUMPKIN 



87 



them alternately through two openings, which 
are also opened and closed by ball valves, the 
alternate expansion and condensation of steam 
in the chambers causing the movements. A 
delivery passage, common to both chambers, 
is also provided with a ball valve, which os- 
cillates from side to side as the lower valves 
alternately open and close. It is claimed to 
be peculiarly adapted to pumping water from 
mines, from its not being liable to get out of 
order, working very well, it is said, when the 
water contains grit and mud. Pumps for ships, 
mines, and submarine excavations, from their 
liability to become obstructed with solid sub- 
stances or corroded with salt water, should be 
selected with especial reference to the difficul- 
ties met with in each case. The valves should 
be constructed in such a manner that they 
will not be liable to become clogged, and, 
when they are so, can be easily reached and 
cleaned. For a further description of pumps 
and water engines, see Ewbank's "Hydrau- 
lics " (new ed., New York, 1863), the report on 
the Paris universal exposition of 1867 by F. A. 
P. Barnard, LL. D. (New York, 1869), and 
Spon's " Dictionary of Engineering " (Lon- 
don, 1874). 

PUMPELLY, Raphael, an American metallur- 
gist, born at Owego, N. Y., Sept. 8, 1837. 
He studied for several years in Hanover, Pa- 
ris, and Freiberg in Saxony, returning home 
in 1860. He afterward engaged in mining 
and smelting operations in Arizona and other 
territories, and was employed by the Japanese 
government to explore the mineral resources 
of the island of Yezo, and by the Chinese 
government to survey the coal fields of north- 
ern China. In 1866 he was appointed profes- 
sor of mining engineering in Harvard univer- 
sity, in 1870-'7l had charge of the state geolo- 
gical survey of the copper district of Michigan, 
and in 1871 was appointed state geologist of 
Missouri, which post he resigned in 1873. He 
has published "Across America and Asia" 
(New York, 1870); "Geological Survey of 
Missouri, Preliminary Eeport," with an atlas 
and plates (1873) ; " Geological Survey of 
Michigan," vol. i., part 2, "Copper District," 
with atlas (1873); and various monographs in 
scientific journals. 

PUMPKIN (formerly written pompion, from 
the old French pompon ; Gr. TreTrow), the plant 
and fruit of cucurbita pepo, an annual plant of 
the natural order cucurlitacece or gourd family, 
for the characters of which see GOURD. The 
genus cucurbita has large yellow flowers, with 
a bell-shaped or short funnel-formed, five-cleft 
corolla, its base adherent to the bell-shaped 
tube of the calyx ; the three long, much curved 
anthers united into a small head ; stigmas 
three, each three-lobed ; fruit fleshy, with a 
firm rind. The pumpkins, the squashes in all 
their great variety, and the vegetable marrows 
belong to this genus, in which the species are 
in great confusion. The term pumpkin is in 
different parts of the country very loosely ap- 



plied ; in the present article it refers to those 
varieties of C. pepo which are known in the 
agriculture of the northern states as pumpkin, 
leaving the others to be described under SQUASH. 
The plant is a vigorous one, often running 12 
ft. or more ; rough-hairy, and almost prickly ; 




Field Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo). 

the flower stalks are obtusely angled, and after 
fruiting have five to eight ridges with deep 
grooves between ; the fruit varies in shape, 
and is marked with longitudinal broad ribs and 
furrows; the interior is hollow, and traversed 
by coarse pulpy threads. In its most common 
form the fruit is a little longer than broad, 
flattened at the ends, and rather regularly rib- 
bed, and averaging about a foot in diameter, 
though often much larger ; the color a rich 
clear orange yellow. There is much doubt as 
to the native country of the pumpkin, it being 
claimed for the Levant and for Astrakhan, 
while Dr. Gray ("American Journal of Sci- 
ence," 1857) shows that there is good reason 
for believing it to have been cultivated in this 
country by the Indians before the coming of 
the whites. In the earlier agriculture of the 
country the pumpkin was a more important 
crop than at present ; it was then raised, as it 
is now to some extent, as a " stolen crop," a 
few seeds placed at intervals in a field of Indian 
corn or potatoes often giving, besides the regu- 
lar crop, a ton of pumpkins, which afforded 
a food much relished by cattle, and abundant 
supplies for the table. Before the introduction 
of the greatly superior squashes, or even the 
better varieties of the pumpkin, the common 
field variety was much used as food, not only 
as the basis of pumpkin pies, but for a table 
vegetable, as squash is now served ; stewed or 
baked pumpkin (the fruit divided, the seeds 
and stringy matter removed, and the halves 
baked) was a very common article of food, and 
is still preferred by some to the finer substi- 
tutes. For winter use it is cut into thin strips 
and dried in the sun, or in a warm room. Its 
use is at present mainly for feeding farm ani- 
mals, for which purpose the seeds must be 
removed, as they have a diuretic effect, which 
is especially undesirable for milking cows. The 



88 



PUNCH 



PUNCTUATION 



best variety for table use is the sugar pumpkin, 
which, though not large, is an abundant bear- 
er; it has a very long stalk, is of a bright 
orange color, and has a fine-grained, sweet 
flesh. Another esteemed variety is the cheese 
pumpkin, so called from its shape ; it is large, 
and of a deep reddish orange color. The long 
pumpkin is twice as long as broad ; the striped 
is like the common field pumpkin, but marked 
with alternate bands of green and yellow, while 
the Nantucket is deep green when ripe, and 
a little yellowish on the sunny side, while its 
surface is marked by warty excrescences ; this 
is much esteemed for its good quality and long 
keeping. The flesh of the pumpkin contains 
much sugar, and it is said that during the war 
of independence housekeepers boiled it in wa- 
ter and evaporated the decoction to a sirup, 
as a substitute for sugar. Besides the diuret- 
ic property already referred to, the seeds are 
among the most valued anthelmintics for the 
removal of tapeworm ; though this property 
was ascribed to them a long while ago, they 
have only recently come into very general use. 
Dr. Patterson of Philadelphia about 20 years 
ago published an account of a remarkable cure 
by their use, followed in an hour and a half 
by castor oil. The dose of the seeds is two 
ounces ; they are first deprived of their coats, 
and the kernels beaten in a mortar to a paste, 
to which water is gradually added. 

PUNCH, or Punchinello, a humorous character 
in a species of puppet show exhibited in the 
streets of European cities. The exhibition is 
of Italian origin, and its Italian name Polici- 
nella or Pulemella, according to Gallani in his 
Vocdbolario del dialetto Napoletano, was de- 
rived from Puccio d'Aniello, a buffoon of Acer- 
ra, near Naples, whose humorous eccentricities 
were in the 17th century transferred to the 
Neapolitan stage ; and the character continues 
to be the medium of local and political satire in 
the Italian exhibitions of fantoccini, or puppet 
shows. Another theory derives the name from 
pollice, thumb, a name of dwarfs in several 
languages. It is thought that the grotesque 
face is only a modification of the ancient comic 
mask, and that the character of Punch is kin- 
dred to the "Vice" of the old moralities, and 
the clown of the later drama. The modern 
drama of " Punch " is supposed to have been 
composed by Silvio Fiorello, an Italian come- 
dian, about 1 600. It embodies a domestic trage- 
dy followed by a supernatural retribution, the 
whole of which is treated in a broadly farcical 
manner. Punch is a short obese personage, 
with an enormous hump on his back, a wide 
mouth, long chin, and hooked nose, and wear- 
ing a three-pointed cap. His wife Judy and 
his dog Toby are important characters in the 
performance. A similar puppet show, con- 
taining the same leading characters, has been 
known for ages in China. It is managed by a 
single individual, who exhibits the theatre on 
his head, the moving wires being concealed un- 
der his gown. 



PUNCTUATION, in grammar, the art of divi- 
ding a written or printed discourse into sen- 
tences and parts of sentences, for the purpose 
of indicating the mutual relations of the words, 
by means of points. The principal points used 
in English composition are the comma (,), semi- 
colon (;), colon (:), period (.), note of interro- 
gation (?), note of exclamation or admiration 
(!), dash ( ), and parenthesis (). Of these, 
only the first four are marks of punctuation aa 
the term is usually understood, or grammatical 
points indicating the length and character of the 
pauses to be made in reading. The others are 
mainly rhetorical or syntactical aids, regulating 
the modulation of the tone rather than the sus- 
pension of the voice ; but the interrogation or 
exclamation point may take the place of either 
of the former, according to the structure of the 
sentence, and the dash partakes of both char- 
acteristics. The comma marks the smallest 
grammatical division in written or printed lan- 
guage. The semicolon separates such parts of 
a sentence as are somewhat less closely con- 
nected than those separated by a comma. The 
colon denotes a still longer pause than the 
semicolon. The period indicates the end of an 
assertive sentence which is grammatically in- 
dependent of any that follows, and is also used 
after every abbreviated word, after headings, 
titles of books, &c., and generally (though im- 
properly) after Roman numerals. The note 
of interrogation is placed after a question, and 
in Spanish is also placed inverted at the begin- 
ning of a question. The note of exclamation 
indicates an ardent wish, admiration, or other 
strong emotion, and is placed after interjec- 
tions, words used as interjections, and clauses 
or sentences expressing strong emotion of any 
kind ; it is also duplicated in Spanish like the 
preceding. The dash is employed where a 
sentence breaks off abruptly and the subject is 
changed ; where the sense is suspended, and is 
continued after a short interruption,; where 
there is an unexpected or epigrammatic turn 
in the sentiment; after a long member, or se- 
ries of phrases or clauses, leading to an im- 
portant conclusion; before a word or phrase 
repeated in an exclamatory or emphatic man- 
ner what elocutionists term an echo ; where 
there is an ellipsis of such words as " namely " 
and "that is;" where there is an ellipsis of let- 
ters or figures; and in numerous other cases. 
Sometimes, as in this work, it is used instead 
of paragraphs. The parenthesis encloses a 
word or phrase introduced into the body of 
a sentence with which it has no grammatical 
connection, or an explanatory or other sentence 
or passage independent of the context. Other 
marks in frequent use, and generally treated 
under the head of punctuation, though not 
strictly included in it, are the apostrophe ( ' ), 
used to indicate the omission of a letter or let- 
ters, and also as a sign of the possessive case ; 
the hyphen (-), placed between the constituent 
parts of a compound word, and at the end of 
a line when a word is divided ; quotation marks 



PUNJAUB 



89 



(" " or ' '), placed at the beginning and end 
of extracted passages, of the speeches in dia- 
logue, &c. ; brackets or crotchets [ ], generally 
enclosing an explanatory phrase or passage in- 
serted by one writer in a quotation from an- 
other ; and references (consisting of the char- 
acters *, t, J, , 1, and IT, called respectively 
asterisk or star, dagger, double dagger, section, 
parallel, and paragraph, or of figures or letters 
smaller than those of the text), pointing to 
notes correspondingly marked at the foot or 
margin of the page. The ancients were in the 
habit of writing without distinction of either 
sentences or words until about 364 B. C. Af- 
terward it became usual to place a mark of 
distinction at the end of every word, as in the 
following inscription found near Bath, England : 

IVLIVSv VITALISv FABRI, &c. 

Sometimes, as in the subjoined extract from an 
inscription given by Montfaucon, a letter laid 
horizontally was used as an interstitial mark : 

P. FERRARIVS HERMES 
CAECINIAE H DIGNAE 
CONIVGI H KARISSIMAE 
NVMERIAE H 

But there is reason to believe that sorie sys- 
tem of punctuation was known to the Greeks 
in the time of Aristotle. It probably consisted 
of a single mark, which changed its significa- 
tion according to a change of position. At the 
bottom of a letter (A.) it was equivalent to a 
comma ; in the middle (A-), to a colon ; and at 
the top (A'), to a period ; but this plan could 
only be followed as long as Greek manuscripts 
were written entirely in capitals. St. Jerome 
in his translation of the Scriptures used certain 
marks of distinction or division, which he called 
commata and cola; but it has been thought 
that they consisted simply in writing every 
clause on a separate line. The modern points 
came into use very gradually after the invention 
of printing, the comma, parenthesis, note of 
interrogation, and period being the earliest in- 
troduced, and the note of exclamation the last. 
The first printed books have only arbitrary 
marks here and there, and it was not until the 
16th century that an approach was made to a 
regular system by the Manutii of Venice. 

POJJAIJB, or I'anjab (Pers., the country of the 
five rivers), a province in the N. W'. portion 
of British India, between lat. 27 40' and 35 
5' N., and Ion. 69 30' and 78 30' E., and 
bounded N. by Kafiristan and Cashmere, .E. 
by the Himalaya range and Northwest Prov- 
inces, S. by Rajpootana and Bhawalpoor, S. W. 
by Sinde, and W. by Beloochistan and Afghan- 
istan. According to the official statement of 
the progress and condition of India submitted 
to the British parliament in June, 1874, the 
area of the Punjaub is 103,748 sq. m., evident- 
ly including the Bannu district, which was 
omitted in the statement of the previous year. 
(See INDIA.) According to the last census, 
taken in January, 1868, the population was 
more than 17,500,000, but is supposed now to 



have increased to 19,000,000. There are ten 
civil divisions, each under a commissioner, and 
subdivided into districts as follows : 1. Am- 
bala or Umballa Ambala, Loodiana, Simla. 

2. Amritsir Amritsir, Gurdaspoor, Sealkote. 

3. Delhi Delhi, Goorgaon, Kurnal. 4. Dera- 
jat Bunnoo or Bannu, Dera Ghazi Khan, 
Dera Ismail Khan. 5. Hissar Hissar, Rohtuk, 
Sirsa. 6. Jalandhar Hoshiarpoor, Jalandhar, 
Kangra. 7. Lahore Ferozepoor, Gujranwala, 
Lahore. 8. Mooltan Jhang, Montgomery, 
Mooltan, Mozuffergurh. 9. Peshawer Huzara 
(Abbottabad), Kohat, Peshawer. 10. Rawul- 
pindi Gujrat, Jhylum, Rawulpindi, Shahpoor. 
Under the supervision of the Punjaub govern- 
ment are 32 native Himalayan hill states, of 
which Cashmere is by far the most important. 
(See CASHMERE.) Of these, five in addition to 
Cashmere are beyond the river Sutlej ; among 
them Chumba, area 3,216 sq. m., pop. 110,- 
000, paying an annual tribute of 500 ; Mandi, 
area 1,080 sq. m., pop. 135,000, annual tribute 
10,000 ; and Sukhet, area 420 sq. m., pop. 
45,000, annual tribute 1,100. The remaining 
26 hill states lie S. of the Sutlej, and are geo- 
graphically arranged into four groups, known 
as the northern, east central, west central, and 
southern groups. Each of these states is very 
small, the most important being Nahun or Sir- 
mor, in the southern group, whose sovereign 
has 90,000 subjects. The affairs of the native 
state of Bhawalpoor are managed by a British 
political agent, whose administration is super- 
vised by the lieutenant governor of the Pun- 
jaub. The territory of the Punjaub is exceed- 
ingly irregular in outline, but consists mainly 
of the extensive plain which slopes S. W. from 
the highlands of Cashmere. This plain is 
drained by the Indus, and its five great trib- 
utaries, from which the country derives its 
name, though some geographers improperly re- 
gard it as derived from the Indus and its four 
larger tributaries, excluding the Beas. The 
Indus is the westernmost river; the tributaries, 
from W. to E., are the Jhylum, the Chenaub, 
the Eavee, the Sutlej, and the affluent of the 
latter, the Beas, all flowing into the Indus near 
Mittun Kote, lat. 28 58' N., Ion. 70 23' E., 
through the Punjnud, a broad stream in which 
their waters unite about 50 m. N. E. of this 
point of confluence. The Punjnud is formed 
by the union of the Chenaub from the north, 
bearing the accumulated waters of the Jhylum 
and the Ravee, with the Ghara, or united Sut- 
lej and Beas, from the east. These streams 
are all described under their own names. The 
only portion of the Punjaub not included in 
the Indus basin is the region about Delhi bor- 
dering the Northwest Provinces, which lie 
within the valley of the Ganges. The moun- 
tains of the Punjaub are confined to the N. E. 
and N. W. corners of the province. In the 
former region is the Himalayan district of 
Kangra, comprising Lahool, Spiti, and Kulo ; 
and in the latter the Salt range, about 2,000 
ft. high, trends westward from the Jhylum 



90 



PUNJAUB 



and crosses the Indus, beyond which it is 
known as the Kalabagh and extends to the 
Suleiman or Solyman mountains in Afghan- 
istan. The general aspect of the districts of 
the Punjaub N. of the Salt range is hilly and 
even mountainous. The elevation of the great 
plain at the foot of the mountains, however, is 
only about 1,000 ft., and thence the surface 
slopes gradually southward, diversified by 
scarcely an eminence, until it is little more 
than 200 ft. above the level of the sea in the 
southern part of the province, where the coun- 
try is for the most part an absolute desert. 
The plain is divided into five extensive doabs, 
as the natives term the spaces enclosed between 
the convergent rivers. Enumerated from W. 
to E., these doabs are : 1, the Sindh Sagur 
doab, the largest of all, between the Indus on 
the west and the Jhylum, Chenaub, and Punj- 
nud on the east; 2, the Jetch, between the 
Jhylum and the Chenaub; 3, the Richna, 
between the Chenaub and the Ravee ; 4, the 
Baree, which is the most densely populated and 
prosperous, between the Ravee and Chenaub 
and the Ghara ; and 5, the Jalandhar, between 
the Beas and the Sutlej. Fertility is diffused 
over the narrow plain along the base of the 
Himalaya range by the six rivers which there 
first enter upon it, and the abundant rainfall 
of not less than 40 inches in the year to which 
it is subject. Here artificial irrigation is need- 
less. In the northern dry zone, a strip of 
country below this, from 100 to 200 m. broad, 
and where the annual supply of rain is be- 
tween 15 and 30 inches, the rivers have worn 
down their valleys to a level from 10 to 50 ft. 
lower than the general surface of the plain. 
The width of these valleys varies from 4 to 10 
m., and they contain the fertile tracts of this 
portion of the province, called Khadar lands. 
Their borders are the loftier sterile expanses 
of the plateau, known as Bangar lands and 
forming the doabs. These are largely over- 
grown with grass and brushwood, and though 
they are fertile, cultivation is dependent upon 
an artificial supply of water. Near the con- 
fluence of the rivers the Khadar lowlands ex- 
tend from stream to stream and the high tracts 
disappear ; but the aridity of the climate in 
this region is such that the rivers alone do not 
suffice to maintain the productiveness even of 
their valleys, and without artificial irrigation 
the adjacent country would be a mere waste. 
Frequent changes occur in the course of each 
of the great rivers of the Punjaub, and from 
October, when the Indus is lowest, until spring- 
time, its capacious bed is occupied by a num- 
ber of shallow watercourses hardly navigable. 
In the plains the periodical rise of the river 
begins in February, when the melted snows 
of the Himalaya begin to come down, and its 
volume increases till July, when the river is 
in full flood. Three kinds of irrigation are 
practised in the Punjaub. In the Himalayan 
districts and elsewhere in the north, where 
water is less than 25 ft. from the surface, the 



supply for agricultural and horticultural pur- 
poses is obtained from wells. A system of 
irrigation through inundation canals, whereby 
the water is conducted from the rivers when 
they are highest, is applied in the comparative- 
ly rainless districts wherever the land is low 
enough. The inundation system comprises the 
canals of the lower Sutlej and Chenaub divi- 
sion, 39 in number and 632 m. in length, which 
water the garden-like district of Mooltan ; the 
upper Sutlei canals above Mooltan, 213 m. 
long ; and the Indus canals, of which 600 m. 
are in the district of Derajat on the right 
bank of the river, and 66 m. in Mozufergurh 
on the left. The inundation system, however, 
was not applicable to the higher lands of the 
doabs, which require perennial canals to make 
their natural fertility available. This want 
has been supplied only to the upper portion 
of the Baree doab, which is traversed by a 
canal from the Ravee at Madhopoor, where 
that river leaves the Himalaya, extending in 
three branches to Lahore, Kussoor, and So- 
braon. In 1872-'3 the main channel of this 
state canal was 212 m. long, with 692 m. of 
distributaries, watering 228,796 acres. All the 
canals are managed by the government irriga- 
tion department. The climate of the plains is 
dry and exceedingly warm. In the colder sea- 
son the midday temperature is seldom below 
70 F., and not infrequently 80, while in sum- 
mer it sometimes rises to 112 in the shade. 
In the higher northern districts the climate is 
proportionately cooler. The flora of the prov- 
ince is not abundant or varied. Characteris- 
tic forms of vegetation are acacias, tamarisks, 
a tree-like caper without leaves, the jujube, 
and a species of wild palm. There is a great 
deficiency of timber. The government leases 
and manages the deodar forests in the native 
tributary states of the Trans-Sutlej highlands, 
where this valuable tree grows only at a height 
of from 5,000 to 9,000 ft. The valleys of all 
the principal rivers also contain forests of deo- 
dar. The Indus is bordered by babul forests 
in the arid districts of the south near Sinde. 
In the doabs of the dry region are tracts of 
wood and jungle called rakhs, from which con- 
siderable fuel is obtained, and the management 
of which, to the extent of about 8,000 sq. m., 
has recently been undertaken by the forest 
department. The collection of waif and drift 
timber on the rivers is regulated by law. In 
1872-'3 the receipts from the government for- 
ests were but 65,800, against an expenditure 
of 79,594 upon them. Earnest efforts are 
being made to promote the growth of forest 
trees, and the forest administration has estab- 
lished several tree plantations, one of them 
on the Bari doab canal covering 7,200 acres. 
Fruit is grown in the vicinity of the towns 
and villages, the mangoes, oranges, and pome- 
granates of Mooltan being especially noted for 
their excellent quality ; almonds, figs, mulber- 
ries, dates, apricots, peaches, apples, quinces, 
and melons are also raised. At Lahore there 



PUNJAUB 



91 






is an agri-horticultural society, through whose 
efforts the olive and the Australian blue gum 
tree (eucalyptus globulus) have been introduced 
into the province. The tiger is the most for- 
midable of the wild animals found in the Pun- 
jaub. The lion has sometimes been enumera- 
ted among the carnivora of the region, but prob- 
ably does not now exist in India except within 
Or near the peninsula of Guzerat. The leopard 
and wild cat commit annoying depredations 
on the smaller domestic animals. Lynxes, 
wolves, hyeenas, jackals, porcupines, foxes, and 
hares are common. A species of black bear 
(helarctos Tibetanus) is met with in the Salt 
range, where also the wild pig is distributed 
in large numbers. Several species of deer and 
antelopes inhabit the province, and wild sheep, 
sometimes called deer-sheep on account of 
their shy habits and fleetness, are numerous 
in many districts. The fauna of the Punjaub 
is particularly rich in birds, among which are 
the Asiatic bald-headed eagle, the pea fowl 
and common jungle fowl, parrots, kites, ra- 
vens, jackdaws, owls, pigeons, pheasants, par- 
tridges, quails, and many kinds of water fowl, 
including geese, ducks, herons, cormorants, pel- 
icans, and the black ibis. The Indian alliga- 
tor haunts the rivers, which abound in many 
varieties of excellent fish. Fish is extensively 
eaten by the people. The principal mineral 
product is rock salt, which occurs on the S. 
side of the Salt range in deposits said to be un- 
surpassed elsewhere in the world in extent or 
purity. It is mined from considerable depths 
and also quarried at the surface, and there are 
at least 12 localities in the range at which vast 
deposits are known to exist. Salt of a black 
or dark green hue is quarried in the hills of the 
Kohat district. Small quantities of gold, quite 
insignificant in proportion to the labor required 
to obtain them, can be washed from the gravel 
of many of the streams. Petroleum has been 
discovered at Eawulpindi and elsewhere, but 
has not yet been put to any practical use. 
Among the more important agricultural pro- 
ducts are wheat, sugar, rice, barley, millet, 
maize, peas, beans, mustard, and hemp and oth- 
er fibres. In 1872-'3, 47,781 acres were plant- 
ed with crotalaria juncea, a leguminous annual 
yielding the fibre known as sunn, from which 
twine is made. Tobacco was grown on 90,000 
acres, and 7,732 acres are included within the 
28 tea plantations of the Kangra district, where 
the average yield is 130 Ibs. per acre. The crop 
of 1872 amounted to 428,655 Ibs. The breed- 
ing of horses is encouraged by the government, 
which keeps 37 stallions in the province. An 
important horse fair is annually held at Ra- 
wulpindi for market purposes as well as the 
distribution of government prizes. There are 
Iso great cattle fairs at Hissar and Sirsa, 
sometimes attended by more than 25,000 per- 
sons. Sheep are raised in the grazing districts 
from English imported stock. The manufac- 
tures of the province, valued at 5,315,400 in 
1872-'3, consist largely of cotton, which is 



made into white and colored cloths and thick 
striped cloth for floors ; woollen goods, from 
the fleeces of sheep, goats, and camels; and 
silk made at Amritsir, Lahore, and Mooltan, 
out of the raw material imported from Bengal, 
China, Afghanistan, and eastern Turkistan. 
The industrial progress of the country is ac- 
tively stimulated by the numerous fairs fre- 
quently held in various localities. Of these 
there are 128 in the Punjaub, each attended 
by at least 10,000 persons, and some by more 
than 100,000. In the year 1872-'3 the value 
of the trade up the Indus was 47,588, against 
a downward trade of 448,476, while the 
external trade of the province amounted to 
5,024,883. According to the parliamentary 
accounts for 1872-'3, there were in that year 
410 m. of railway in the Punjaub, 2,470 m. of 
water communication, and 20,798 m. of roads. 
The railway system is not yet completed. At 
present there is the great trunk road from 
Delhi to Lahore and thence to Mooltan, whence 
the broad gauge Indus valley line, 480 m. in 
length, now in process of construction, will 
run southward to Kotree and there meet the 
Sinde railway from Kurrachee. Lahore is also 
to be connected with Peshawer by a narrow 
gauge line, 270 m. long, with three costly 
bridges over the Ravee, Chenaub, and Jhylum 
rivers. Lines of telegraph are already in 
existence along all these routes. The ancient 
village communities have maintained their 
organization intact throughout a great part of 
the Punjaub, and the proprietors of the soil 
usually cultivate it themselves, paying the land 
tax through the elders of their village. Other- 
wise the land settlement is like that of the 
Northwest Provinces. The revenue derived 
from it is easily collected, and in 1872-'3 
amounted to 2,005,666. A revenue of 811,- 
190 was derived from the sale of salt and the 
duties on that mineral collected at the customs 
line, 982 m. long, which runs down the Indus, 
and is intended to restrict the importation of 
red salt from Peshawer. The opium excise and 
licenses for the sale of drugs and spirits yield- 
ed 87,633. In the same year, under a new 
arrangement, the local authorities received 
748,718 from the supreme government of 
India for provincial expenditure upon jails, 
police, education, hospitals, roads, buildings, 
miscellaneous public improvements, and other 
objects of a local character ; and the disburse- 
ments out of provincial funds amounted to 
515,153. The local revenue in that year was 
751,040, and the local expenditure 468,174. 
Municipal institutions for local taxation and 
expenditure have been organized by the British 
government in 125 cities and towns, and 189 
smaller places; a few of the more important 
municipalities elect their own officers. The 
population of the Punjaub is made up of Ma- 
hommedans and Hindoos in the proportion of 
about two to one. The Sikhs constitute about 
half of the smaller and Hindoo portion. The 
total number of native Protestant converts to 



92 



PUNJAUB 



Christianity in the province in 1872 was 1,870, 
of whom 14 were ordained ministers, and 707 
were communicants. There are two colleges 
in the Punjaub affiliated to the university of 
Calcutta : one at Lahore, with 52 students in 
1872-'3; the other at Delhi, attended by 36 
students. The government maintains three 
normal schools and aids six others ; of high 
schools it supports six and assists ten. There 
is a special educational institution at Ambala 
for instructing the wards of the government 
and the sons of natives of rank ; and the gov- 
ernment also manages an Anglo- Arabic school 
at Delhi endowed by a native nawaub. The 
entire number of government primary or vil- 
lage schools in the province is 1,046, having an 
average daily attendance of 51,251 pupils, in 
addition to which there are 188 aided schools 
of the same class with an average attendance 
of 20,825. There are 345 schools for girls, of 
which 91 are wholly sustained by the govern- 
ment, while the rest receive aid from it. No 
insignificant educational influence is exerted 
by the central museum at Lahore, which is 
visited by nearly 50,000 persons annually. 
There are 14 newspapers in the province, all j 
printed in native languages except two, which 
are in English. In 1872-'3, 344 books were 
published. About 20,000 men are employed 
as police, more than half the number being 
Mohammedans. There are 34 jails ; a ticket- 
of-leave system exists, and the prisoners are 
employed in industrial pursuits. The number ! 
of government hospitals and dispensaries is j 
116, including the Mayo hospital connected 
with the medical school at Lahore. A system 
of elementary medical instruction has been in- 
troduced for native physicians, who are sup- 
plied with the requisite medicines and paid for 
their services in times of epidemic. In a mili- 
tary sense, the position of the Punjaub is more 
important than that of any other province of 
India, lying as it does in the very highway of 
invasion from the interior of the Asiatic conti- 
nent. A large British force is constantly garri- 
soned there; in 1872-'3 it consisted of 35,885 
men, with 97 field guns. In addition to this, 
the lieutenant governor had under his orders a 
frontier force of 12,416 troops, principally 
Sikhs, Gorkhas, and natives of the Punjaub. 
The government of the province is adminis- 
tered by a lieutenant governor, whose official 
residence is at Lahore. The highest judicial 
authority is vested in a chief court composed 
of a barrister and a civilian judge. In ad- 
dition to Lahore, the chief towns are Delhi, 
Peshawer, Amritsir, Arabala or Umballa, Ra- 
wulpindi, Mooltan, Ferozepore, Leia, and Dera 
Ismail Khan. In the year 327 B. C. Alexan- 
der the Great invaded the Punjaub, crossed the 
Indus, Jhylum (anc. Hydaspes), Chenaub (Ace- 
sines), and Ravee (ffydraotes), and marched to 
the right bank of the Beas or of the Sutlej (to 
either of which the ancient name Hyphasix 
may be referred), which was the limit of his 
advance eastward. At that time the country 



was ruled by a Hindoo monarch named Taxiles 
in the west, and by a sovereign called Porus, 
whose dominions extended from the Jhylum to 
Delhi. After the Greek invasion the whole 
appears to have become a part of the kingdom 
of Maghada, which existed until about 195 B. C. 
For many centuries subsequently the history of 
the Punjaub is enveloped in much doubt and 
obscurity. About A. D. 1000 Mooltan appears 
as a Mohammedan state, though it is not clear 
how it became so. At this period Mahmoad 
of Ghuzni invaded India from Afghanistan, 
subjugated the Punjaub, and made Lahore the 
seat of his dynasty, which came to an end in 
1186. It was afterward subject to numerous 
different chieftains, principally Afghans, who 
ruled it until it was invaded and pillaged by 
Timour and his army in 1398. The Mogul 
dynasty was finally established over the coun- 
try by his lineal descendant Baber in 1526. 
Humayun, son and successor of Baber, lost 
the province temporarily, but recovered it in 
1555 from his Afghan rival, Shere AH Khan. 
The Punjaub was the scene of a considerable 
insurrection in 1709-'! 1 on the part of the 
Sikhs, who had long been persecuted by their 
Mohammedan rulers, and it was quelled with 
some trouble by Bahadoor Shah, who had not 
long previously succeeded his father Aurung- 
zebe on the throne. In 1752 the Afghan king 
Ahmed Shah Abdalli entered the province, 
exacted contribution from its inhabitants, and 
a few years later forced the Mogul emperor 
to cede it to him. Soon afterward the grow- 
ing power of the Sikhs was manifested by a 
fresh uprising in the districts E. of the Jhy- 
lum. The Afghan dynasty terminated in 1809, 
and by that time Runjeet Singh, the greatest 
chieftain of the Sikhs, had acquired Lahore 
and controlled the larger portion of the prov- 
ince through a confederacy of the various 
Sikh clans within its boundaries. He endeav- 
ored to force the Sikh hill states E. of the 
Sutlej into this confederacy, and only yielded 
his claim to their allegiance upon the advance 
of a British army to the banks of the river. 
He reigned till 1839, and in the interval con- 
quered Mooltan, Peshawer, and the Derajat 
district beyond the Indus. A period of an- 
archy followed the death of his son and suc- 
cessor Khuruk Singh in 1840, and the Sikhs 
finally determined to invade the British terri- 
tories in India. Thus, in 1845, began the first 
Sikh war, in which were fought the battles 
known as those of the Sutlej. The Sikh 
forces were defeated with heavy loss, and in 
1846 the English took possession of the Ja- 
landhar doab and the Sikh territories on the 
left bank of the Sutlej, and undertook tho 
guardianship of the young Maharajah Dhu> 
leep Singh, a grandson of Runjeet Singh and 
then a minor.. In 1848 the disaffection of the 
chieftains led to the second Sikh war, in 
which the most celebrated battle was fought 
at Chillianwallah, where the English were 
nearly defeated ; but the result of the contest 






PUNTA ARENAS 



PURCELL 



93 



was the annexation of the Punjaub to the 
British dominions, by a proclamation of the 
viceroy on March 29, 1849. (See SIKHS.) Du- 
ring the sepoy mutiny of 1857 Sir John Law- 
rence (now Lord Lawrence) was chief com- 
missioner of the Punjaub, and by his prompt 
action in disarming the native regiments, the 
confidence which he displayed in the Sikhs as 
friends of the British, and his judicious admin- 
istration generally, the rebellion was rendered 
utterly unsuccessful in that part of India. 

PCNTA ARENAS, the only seaport town of 
Costa Rica on the Pacific, situated on the E. 
side of the gulf of Nicoya, about 60 m. W. by N. 
of San Jos6 ; permanent pop. about 300. The 
town stands on a sandy point which projects 
into the gulf. Vessels drawing more than 7 
ft. of water are obliged to anchor 3 m. from 
shore, in the outer harbor, which is protected 
from the swell of the Pacific by two islands. 
An inner harbor, between the point and the 
mainland, is accessible only for vessels of very 
light draught. The climate is unhealthy, but 
less so than that of other parts of the coast. 
Punta Arenas is the port of San Jose, with 
which it is connected by a good carriage road, 
and a railway is projected. There is a tele- 
graph line to Cartago, which is to be contin- 
ued to Limon on the Atlantic. The steamers 
of the Panama railway company and those of 
the Pacific mail steamship company touch reg- 
ularly at Punta Arenas. In 1873 the entries 
at the port were 97 ships, of 15,464 aggregate 
tonnage. The port was established in 1840, 
when Caldera, S. of it, was abandoned on ac- 
count of its unhealthfulness. 

PUPA. See BUTTERFLY, and CHRYSALIS. 

PURBACH, or Penrbaeh, Georg, a German as- 
tronomer, born at Peurbach, Austria, in 1423, 
died in Vienna in 1461. He studied astronomy 
under Gmunden at the university of Vienna, 
went to Italy, and on his return succeeded his 
master in the professorship at Vienna. At the 
time of his death he was reputed the first as- 
tronomer in Europe. He began a new edition 
of Ptolemy's Almagest, based upon the Latin 
translation from the Arabic ; and though he 
neither understood Greek, in which the work 
was originally written, nor Arabic, his knowl- 
edge of astronomy enabled him to make his 
edition much better than previous ones. He 
left this work unfinished to his pupil Regio- 
montanus, who completed it. The most cele- 
brated of Purbach's own works is his posthu- 
mous Theoria Novae Planetarum (1472), which 
served as an introduction to Ptolemy. 

PCRCELL, Henry, an English composer, born 
in London in 1658, died Nov. 21, 1695. While 
a singing boy in the choir of the king's chapel 
he composed several anthems. At the age of 
18 he was appointed organist of Westminster 
abbey, and six years afterward one of the three 
organists of the chapel royal. His anthems 
previously written were very popular, and in 
1677 he composed the music for an operetta 
by Tate, entitled " Dido and JSneas," performed 



by the pupils of a female boarding school. The 
success of this work encouraged him to be- 
come a regular writer for the stage, and for the 
play of " Abelazor" (1677), ShadwelPs adapta- 
tion of "Timon of Athens" (1678), and Lee's 
"Theodosius" (1680), he composed the over- 
tures and songs. A number of hi instru- 
mental pieces in four parts were published by 
his widow in 1697, under the title of "A Col- 
lection of Ayres, composed for the Theatre and 
on other occasions, by the late Mr. Henry Pur 
cell." Next in order of his compositions was 
a series of 12 sonatas for two violins and a bass 
published in 1683, followed by another series 
of 10. Subsequently he produced the greater 
part of his dramatic music, and set the songs, 
dialogues, and choruses in several of Dryden's 
most successful plays. In 1690 he composed 
new music for the "Tempest," as adapted for 
the stage by Dryden and Davenant, and within 
the next two years he similarly embellished 
Dryden's " King Arthur," " Indian Queen," 
and " Tyrannic Love." For D'Urfey's three 
parts of "Don Quixote," produced in 1694-'6, 
he furnished the two songs, " Let the dreadful 
engines" and "From rosy bowers." He also 
furnished the music for " Bonduca," a tragedy 
by Beaumont and Fletcher made into an opera 
by Dryden, in which occurs the well known 
duet and chorus, " Britons, strike home ;" and 
vocal pieces for Beaumont and Fletcher's " Dio- 
cletian," altered by Betterton, Dryden's " Au- 
rungzebe," and Shadwell's " Libertine." These 
works were published by his widow in 1697 
under the title of " Orpheus Britannicus." 
His published anthems number 50, besides a 
celebrated Te Deum and Jubilate, with orches- 
tral accompaniments; and his church music 
includes a complete service and a number of 
hymns and psalms. His odes, glees, catches, 
rounds, &c., were also numerous and popular. 
Purcell died of consumption, and was buried 
in Westminster abbey. 

PDRCELL, John Baptist, an American arch- 
bishop, born in Mallow, Ireland, Feb. 26, 1800. 
He came to the United States at an early age, 
began his theological studies in Mount St. 
Mary's college, Emmettsburg, Md., completed 
them in St. Sulpice, Paris, and was ordained 
priest in that city in 1826. After his return 
to the United States he taught theology at 
Mount St. Mary's, and became president of the 
college in r829. He was appointed bishop of 
Cincinnati in 1833, when there was but one 
Roman Catholic church there, while the dio- 
cese comprised the entire state of Ohio; but 
the numbers of his flock rapidly increased, and 
he founded many important institutions. The 
diocese was divided in 1847 by the erection 
of Cleveland into an independent see, and the 
diocese of Columbus was separated in 1868. 
In 1860 he was made an archbishop. In 1869 
he attended the council of the Vatican, and 
voted against the opportuneness of defining the 
doctrine of pontifical infallibility. After his 
return to Cincinnati in 1870, he was involved 



PURCHAS 



PURPLE 



in a public discussion with the freethinker 
Vickers. Previously, in 1837, he had a seven 
days' discussion with the Rev. Alexander 
Campbell, which excited great interest, and an 
account of which was afterward printed in a 
volume. Archbishop Purcell has published a 
volume of "Lectures and Pastoral Letters," 
and edited Kenelm Digby's " Ages of Faith " 
and Donald Macleod's " History of the Devo- 
tion to the Blessed Virgin Mary in North 
America " (New York, 1866). 

PURCHAS, Samuel, an English author, born at 
Thaxted, Essex, in 1577, died about 1628. He 
was educated at St. John's college, Cambridge, 
and in 1604 became vicar of Eastwood in Es- 
sex. Removing to London, he received the 
rectory of St. Martin's, Ludgate, and became 
chaplain to Archbishop Abbot. He compiled 
from more than 1,300 authorities a work en- 
titled " Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations 
of the World, and the Religions observed in all 
Ages, and Places discovered, from the Crea- 
tion unto this present" (fol., 1613); and a col- 
lection of voyages under the title, " Purchas 
his Pilgrimmes " (4 vols. fol., 1625). The third 
and fourth volumes relate to America. He 
also wrote " Microcosmus, or the History of 
Man" (1619), and "The King's Tower, and 
Triumphant Arch of London" (1623). 

PURGATORY (Lat. purgatorium, a place for 
cleansing), in the belief of the Roman Catholic 
and the eastern churches, a state of temporary 
suffering in the next world, where the souls of 
the just expiate the offences committed in this 
life. The liturgies of the Latin church and of 
all the eastern churches, without exception, 
contain prayers for the repose of departed 
souls. According to Catholic theologians, 
every sin, no matter how slight, deserves and 
will receive punishment either before or after 
death. The absolution of a priest in the sac- 
rament of penance washes away the guilt of 
sin and remits the eternal punishment due for 
grave offences, but not the temporal penalty 
which has to be undergone as a satisfaction to 
God's justice. Baptism alone removes both 
the guilt and the penalty ; and as few or no 
adult persons depart this life without having 
committed sins after baptism, there must be 
some middle state for such as do not deserve 
hell and are yet not pure enough to enter 
heaven. The Catholic church has not defined 
the nature and duration of the punishment of 
purgatory, or declared that it is situated in any 
particular place. She believes that the suffer- 
ings of souls in the middle state may be abridged' 
by indulgences, masses, and the prayers of their 
friends on earth ; and one day in the year (All 
Souls' day, Nov. 2) is specially devoted to ser- 
vices and prayers for their benefit. Roman 
Catholic theologians commonly teach that the 
purification of departed souls is effected by fire, 
while the Greeks regard the soul after death 
as being purified " through tribulation." This 
point was left open by the council of Florence 
in 1439, as was the question concerning the 



duration of purgatorial suffering. The Wal- 
denses and other sects in the middle ages pro- 
tested against the belief in purgatory and the 
practices it involved. The reformed churches 
also rejected them. See Bellarmin, De Igne- 
Purgatorio ; Leo Allatius, De utriusque Eech- 
sice in Dogmate de Purgatorio perpetua Con- 
sentione ; Wiseman, "Lectures on the Doc- 
trines and Practices of the Catholic Church" 
(2 vols., Baltimore, 1852); and Hodge, "Dog- 
matic Theology," vol. iii. (New York, 1874). 
PURGSTALL, Hammer. See HAMMER-PURG- 

STAI.L. 

PURITAN, an epithet first applied in 1564 to 
English nonconformists, which continued to 
designate them during the reigns of Elizabeth 
and the first two Stuarts. During the reign of 
Mary the stricter nonconformist element of the 
church was driven out of the country, and a 
number of exiles at Frankfort resolved to use 
in public worship the Genevan service book, in 
preference to the book of King Edward VI. 
They were resisted in this by other exiles and 
failed, but renewed the struggle on their return 
to England after the accession of Elizabeth. 
There were different degrees of puritanism, 
some seeking a moderate reform of the English 
liturgy and discipline, others wishing to abol- 
ish episcopacy, and some declaring against any 
church authority whatever. Representatives 
from these three classes formed the bulk of 
the settlers of New England, and the union of 
them in the English civil wars effected the 
overthrow of royalty and the establishment of 
the commonwealth. At the time of the restora- 
tion the name became one of reproach. Since 
the relaxation in 1690 of the acts against the 
nonconformists, it has ceased to designate any 
particular sect. See Neal, " The History of 
the Puritans " (revised ed. by Joshua Toulmin, 
5 vols. 8vo, Bath, 1798-'7; American ed., with 
notes by John O. Choules, 2 vols. 8vo, New 
York, 1844), and Bacon, " The Genesis of the 
New England Churches " (New York, 1874). 

PURPLE (Gr. nop^AfM ; Lat. purpura), a color 
produced by the union of red and blue, and of 
various shades as one or the other of these 
predominates. The ancients esteemed it more 
highly than any other color, sometimes making 
it a distinctive badge of royalty, and again ap- 
propriating it to religious uses, as the decora- 
tions of the temple and of the garments of the 
priests. In the Old Testament it is frequently 
referred to in Exodus and other books. But it 
is supposed by some that the purple of the 
Israelites was a scarlet, or even that the term 
was used generally for any color in which red 
predominated. Tyrian purple, the purple of 
the Greeks and Romans, was obtained from the 
murex, a genus of gasteropod mollusks found 
in the Mediterranean. (See MUREX.) The 
use of this color passed away with the decline 
of the Roman empire, and a simple purple 
color, that is, one not made by using two 
separate dyes, was not known until a Floren- 
tine, Orchillini, discovered the dyeing proper- 






PURPLE OF CASSIUS 



PUKSLANE 



95 



ties of the lichen called orchilla weed. Oth- 
er lichens growing in different parts of the 
world now furnish the dye known as orchil 
or archil. (See AECHIL.) Shades of purple 
are abundantly obtained from coal-tar colors. 
(See ANILINE, DYEING, and MAUVE.) The 
compounds called "purpurates," especially the 
purpurate of ammonia, called by Liebig and 
Wohler murexide, from its resemblance to the 
Tyrian purple, present beautiful shades of pur- 
ple. (See PuRPtTEATES.) 

PURPLE OF CASSIUS. See CASSIUS, PURPLE OF. 

PURPURATES, salts of purpuric acid. Scheele 
in 1776 found that a solution of uric in nitric 
acid produced a beautiful deep red dye. Prout 
in 1818 obtained this coloring matter in a 
crystalline form, and regarded it as purpurate 
of ammonia. By double decomposition he 
obtained metallic purpurates having a similar 
color. The colorless substance which sepa- 
rated from purpurate of ammonia by the ac- 
tion of strong acids, he regarded as purpuric 
acid; but Liebig and Wohler showed that this 
did not possess the property of forming colored 
salts, and therefore held that Prout's com- 
pound was not an ammonium salt, but an amide, 
' which they called murexide. (See MUREX.) 
Later researches by Freitzsch and Beilstein in- 
dicate that it is a true ammonium salt ; still 
the purpuric acid has never been isolated, be- 
cause it is decomposed when its salts are treat- 
ed with a stronger acid. The formula of pur- 
purate of ammonia or murexide is OsHsNeOe^ 
KH^Cs^NsOe ; therefore the acid is repre- 
sented by the formula CsEUNsOe. Murexide 
is the principal salt, and is a beautiful purple, 
but is becoming superseded by rosaniline. 

PURSH, Frederick, an American botanist, born 
in Tobolsk, Siberia, in 1774, died in Montreal, 
Canada, June 11, 1820. He was educated at 
Dresden, came to America in 1799, and spent 
12 years in botanical explorations. In 1811 
he visited England, and published " Flora 
Americas Septentrionalis, or a Systematic Ar- 
rangement and Description of the Plants of 
North America" (2 vols. 8vo, London, 1814). 
He was engaged in the collection of materials 
for a flora of Canada when he died. 

PURSLANE, the common name (of obscure 
derivation) for portulaca oleracea, one of the 
most common weeds of our gardens, and often 
abbreviated to " pusley." Portulaca (the an- 
cient Latin name) gives its name to a small 
family of succulent annual or perennial herbs, 
the portulacacece, closely related to the pink 
family, from which they are mainly dis- 
tinguished by their two-sepalled calyx, and 
the often transversely dehiscent capsule, which 
opens by the falling away of the upper part as 
a lid. The common purslane is a prostrate, 
smooth, annual plant, its fleshy and often red- 
dish stems spreading in all directions, and 
forming a mat a foot or more across ; the 
alternate or opposite leaves are wedge-shaped 
or obovate, and half an inch to an inch long ; 
the axillary or terminal flowers sessile; the 
691 VOL. xiv. 7 



two-cleft calyx cohering with the ovary below ; 
petals five, yellow, and with the 7 to 12 sta- 
mens inserted on the calyx at the point where 
it becomes free from the ovary ; ovary one- 
celled, with a deeply five- to six-parted style, 
ripening to a many-seeded capsule, which 
opens by a lid ; the kidney-shaped seeds are 
shining and handsomely marked with a net- 
work. The flowers open only in bright sun- 
shine, usually about 11 o'clock A. M., and re- 
main but a short time. Purslane has been 
used as a pot herb from very ancient times, a 
fact recognized in its specific name, oleracea ; 
and though it is but little used in this country, 
it is cultivated in French gardens as pourpier, 
and seeds of the green, golden, and large golden 
varieties are offered in their catalogues. When 
grown rapidly in a rich soil, and properly 
served, it is to many a most acceptable vege- 
table. In this country it finds a congenial 
climate, and is everywhere one of the most 




Common Purslane (Portulaca oleracea). 

prominent weeds ; it gives but little trouble 
before hot weather sets in, but grows then 
with astonishing rapidity ; so tenacious of life 
is it, that it must be entirely removed from the 
ground or it will go on and perfect its seeds. 
Pigs are very fond of it. The hairy purslane, 
P. pilosa, with narrow cylindrical leaves and 
pink or purple flowers, is found in Florida; 
and P. retusa, which much resembles the 
common species, with its leaves notched at 
the ends, is common west of the Mississippi. 
The garden portulacas, probably all to be re- 
ferred to the South American P. grandiflora, 
though several different names have been given 
to them, have cylindrical leaves and very large 
showy flowers of the most brilliant colors, 
from white through yellow, orange, and red, 
to bright purple, and often striped or blotched 
with two colors ; the double ones are very 
fine, and deserve the name of "portulaca 
roses " given them by the German florists. 



96 



PURtfS 



The sea purslanes, sesunium portulacastrum, 
found along the shores of the southern states, 
and S. pentandrum, from Long Island south- 
ward, have much the habit of the common 
purslane, but have no petals, though the calyx 
is purplish inside, and usually numerous sta- 
mens. Black purslane and milk purslane are 
names given in some parts of the country to 
euphorbia maculata&nd E. hypericifolia, which 
are also common garden weeds, and have a 
prostrate habit like purslane ; they can at once 
be distinguished from purslane by their copious 
milky juice. They belong to a dangerously 
active family, and the term purslane should 
not be applied to them, as their proper name 
is spurge. Belonging to the purslane family 
are several interesting genera, including Clay- 
fonia, with two handsome species known in 
the eastern states as spring beauty, and a 
dozen or more on the Pacific coast. Calan- 
drinia is an allied showy genus, some species 
of which are cultivated in gardens. 

Pl'KlS, a river of South America, rising about 
lat. 14 S., in the mountains E. of Cuzco, Peru, 
and flowing in a northeasterly direction to its 
junction with the Amazon, into which it falls 
by two principal and three minor mouths, the 
extremes of which are over 100 in. apart. The 
most easterly branch is 125 m. W. of the Rio 
Negro. A part of its upper course is on the 
borders of Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil, and the 
lower, more than half of the whole, through 
the latter country. Its entire length is estima- 
ted, inclusive of curves, at upward of 2,000 m., 
and it flows through uninterrupted primeval 
forests of great beauty. The Purus, probably 
the Amam-mayu of the Incas and the Mad re 
de Dios of the early Spaniards, is the most im- 
portant of all the Amazon feeders W. of the 
Madeira, parallel to which it rolls and with 
which it communicates. It is navigable unin- 
terruptedly from the Amazon, about Ion. 60 
30', to southern Peru. 

PUSEY, Edward Bonverie, an English clergy- 
man, born in 1800. He is the second son of the 
Hon. Philip Bouverie (who assumed the name 
of Pusey), younger brother of the first earl of 
Radnor. He graduated at Christ Church, Ox- 
ford, in 1822, obtained a fellowship in Oriel 
college, took orders, and in 1828 became canon 
of Christ Church cathedral and regius pro- 
fessor of Hebrew in the university, a post 
which he still holds. He shares with Dr. New- 
man the reputation of originating the so-called 
Anglo-Catholic movement in the church of 
England in 1833, which finds its best exponent 
in the celebrated "Tracts for the Times." 
Many of these, including an elaborate treatise 
on baptism, were written by Dr. Pusey, who 
also published letters in defence of his views 
to the archbishop of Canterbury and the bish- 
ops of Oxford and London. The characteristic 
tenets of the " Puseyite " party are judgment by 
works equally as by faith, baptismal regenera- 
tion, the apostolic succession of the clergy, the 
supreme authority of the church, the expedi- 



PUSHKIN 

ency of auricular confession and conventual 
establishments, and an efficacy in the sacra- 
ments of the church not inferior to that claimed 
exclusively by the Roman Catholic church. 
They aimed also at certain innovations in the 
ceremonies of public worship. In 1843 Dr. 
Pusey preached a sermon before the univer- 
sity, in which he was understood to confess 
his belief in the doctrine of transubstantiation ; 
and after an examination before a board of 
judges he was accordingly suspended from the 
office of preacher within the precincts of the 
university for three years. He was one of the 
editors of the " Library of Translations from 
the Fathers" and of the "Anglo-Catholic 
Library," and has adapted to the use of the 
church of England several Roman Catholic 
devotional works. He has published " Causes 
of Rationalism in Germany" (1828); "Re- 
marks on Cathedral Institutions" (2d ed., 
(1833) ; " Royal Supremacy in Spiritual Mat- 
ters "(1850); "The Doctrine of the Real 
Presence, gathered from the Fathers" (1855); 
" The Real Presence the Doctrine of the Eng- 
lish Church" (1857); "History of the Coun- 
cils of the Church, A. D. 51-381" (1857); 
"Commentary on the Minor Prophets" (in 
numbers, 1860-'ti2); "Daniel the Prophet: 
nine Lectures" (1864); and "The Church of 
England a Portion of Christ's one Holy Cath- 
olic Church" (1865). 

PUSHKIN, Alexander Sergeyevtteh, a Russian 
poet, born in Pskov, June 6, 1799, died in St. 
Petersburg, Feb. 10, 1837. He was the son 
of a nobleman, studied at Tzarskoye Selo, and 
became a clerk in the foreign office. In 1820 
he was expelled on account of his " Ode to 
Liberty," and subsequently he was expelled 
from Odessa for his tirade against the governor 
general. The emperor Nicholas, after his acces- 
sion in 1825, reinstated him in his clerkship at 
St. Petersburg, and appointed him to prepare 
the history of Peter the Great. This shook his 
friends' belief in his liberalism, and his life was 
further embittered by what he fancied to be 
undue attentions paid to his beautiful wife by 
George Charles d' Anthes, a French officer in the 
Russian army (the future senator baron de Hee- 
keren). Although D' Anthes married Mme. 
Pushkin's sister to disarm the husband's suspi- 
cion, Pushkin fought a duel with him and was 
killed. The emperor gave a pension of 10,- 
000 rubles to the widow, and provided for the 
children's education, and for the publication 
of a superb edition of Pushkin's works. A 
public subscription for a monument in his 
honor amounted on Jan. 1, 1874, to about 75,- 
000 rubles. Among his earliest works were 
the poems " Ruslan and Liudmila," " The 
Prisoner of the Caucasus," a sketch, and " The 
Fountain of Bakhtchiserai," resembling By- 
ron's " Corsair." His masterpiece, " Eugene 
Onegin," a novel in verse, appeared between 
1825 and 1828. His other works include the 
narrative poems "The Gypsies" (1827) and 
" Poltava " (1829) ; the dramatic poems " Boris 



PUSTULE 



97 



Godunoff" and "The Stone Guest" (1836); 
and the novels "The Captive's Daughter" and 
"The Captain's Daughter." The latter and 
other novels are comprised in " Russian Ro- 
mance, from the Tales of Belkin," an English 
translation by Mrs. J. Buchan Telfer, nee Mura- 
vieff (London, 1875). Prosper M6rimee and 
Viardot have translated some of his works into 
French, and Bodenstedt and others into Ger- 
man. The best complete editions of Push- 
kin's works are by Anenkoff (7 vols., St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1854-'7) and Gennadi (6 vols., 1869 
et seq.). 

PUSTULE, Malignant, a specific disease, essen- 
tially septic and gangrenous, confined to the 
cutaneous tissue, and generally to those parts 
of the surface that are habitually uncovered. 
It appears most commonly on the face, and 
next on the hands, neck, and arms. It first 
appears in the form of a painful swelling, 
which, after a lapse of time varying from one 
to three days, rarely more, develops upon its 
central part a small reddish or purple spot, 
accompanied with itching. In the course of 
12 or 15 hours more this spot changes into a 
bleb or vesicle, not usually larger than the 
head of a pin, containing a reddish brown or 
yellowish fluid. Owing to continued itching, 
the vesicle is ordinarily ruptured soon after its 
appearance ; if otherwise, it dries up in about 
36 hours, leaving the exposed derma dry, and 
generally of a livid color. Itching now ceases ; 
and, after a time varying from a few hours 
to a day, the centre of this discolored and de- 
nuded surface begins to grow hard and becomes 
surrounded by an inflamed areola covered 
with numerous small vesicles similar to the 
vesicle which first appeared. The middle of 
this areola is depressed, and the color varies 
from yellow to black. It is now hard in the 
centre and more painful than at any other 
stage. But it is a remarkable feature of ma- 
lignant pustule that severe pain is generally 
absent; and this character, so different from 
all other acute inflammations of the skin, is a 
valuable negative diagnostic of the disease. 
During the next 24 or 48 hours the subcuta- 
neous tissue becomes involved; the tumor 
strikes deeper and rapidly extends in all direc- 
tions, yet it is so indurated as to be easily cir- 
cumscribed, and its confines determined with- 
out difficulty. Meanwhile the central point, 
now of brown or livid hue, exceedingly hard 
and insensible, becomes gangrenous. If the 
disease makes no further progress, an inflamed 
circle of vivid redness now surrounds the gan- 
grenous portion; the tumefaction, which had 
before rapidly extended, diminishes; and the 
patient experiences something like an agree- 
able warmth accompanied by a pulsatory mo- 
tion of the affected part. The pulse, which 
had before grown irritable and feeble, revives; 
strength increases ; if there has been some de- 
gree of fever, as occasionally happens, it is 
now resolved into a gentle perspiration ; sup- 
puration sets in between the living and the 



dead parts, and the detachment of the gangre- 
nous portion leaves a suppurating surface of 
variable extent in different cases. When the 
disease tends to an unfavorable issue, gener- 
ally no suppuration takes place ; the gangrene 
spreads rapidly from the centre to the circum- 
ference of the tumor ; the pulse becomes small- 
er and more contracted ; the patient complains 
of extreme lassitude with inability to sleep, is 
attacked with fainting fits, and becomes passive 
as to the result; there is disinclination to take 
food or medicine, or have anything done, and 
a total loss of appetite; the tongue is dry 
and brown ; the features shrink ; the skin is 
pkrched ; the eyes are glassy ; and increasing 
debility and a low delirium indicate a fatal 
termination. Such are in general the ordinary 
phenomena of malignant pustule, usually ter- 
minating in from five to eight days. Excep- 
tional fatal cases have been recorded, varying 
from 24 hours to 16 days. In the suddenly 
fatal cases, the forces of the constitution are 
so quickly and entirely subverted by the malig- 
nancy of the disease, that few symptoms are 
manifested; the powers sink under it, as it 
were, without resistance. It is most fatal when 
attacking the face or neck. Another variety, 
which commonly attacks the hands or arms, is 
of a less regular character, in some cases pre- 
senting an appearance and running a course 
V ery similar to a circumscribed phlegmon, while 
in others it is exceedingly violent and fatal in 
a few hours, and in others still runs on for 
several weeks, and finally proves fatal rather 
from the effects of the disorder than from the 
disease itself. In the majority of these cases 
there is intense local pain in the affected part 
from the commencement, with enormous swell- 
ing and more or less redness. A small vesicle 
or pustule forms in the centre, and takes on a 
gangrenous character. Sometimes it becomes 
circumscribed and limits its action to the skin ; 
but at other times numerous phlyctinaB cover 
the surface, and the destructive inflammation 
burrows into the cellular tissue which envel- 
ops the muscles, completely surrounding and 
disintegrating these organs, which become soft, 
black, and gangrenous. The blood vessels and 
nerves also become involved, and as a necessary 
consequence the death of the part ensues. The 
pathology of malignant pustule is distinguished 
by a fluid state of the blood, which is usually 
very dark-colored ; the texture of the heart is 
softened, and its surface covered with ecchy- 
mosed spots ; the veins are sometimes softened 
and ecchymosed, and usually contain black or 
yellowish white clots of blood, of gelatinous 
consistence. The lungs are covered with su- 
perficial ecchymoses, presenting over their 
surface a number of deeply penetrating black 
spots, produced by local sanguineous infiltra- 
tion. The inner coat of the stomach and in- 
testines presents in different places, correspond- 
ing to the course of the vessels, prominent, 
dark-colored spots, formed by blood effused 
between the inner coats and the peritoneal cov- 



98 



PUSTULE 



ering. Causes. It is the general conclusion 
of those who have investigated the nature of 
malignant pustule, that the germ of the disease 
consists in an animal poison, usually contracted 
by man from cattle or their remains. In sup- 
port of this view, it is found that the disease 
most frequently occurs among knackers, tan- 
ners, veterinarians, persons engaged in the 
removal of offal, and stevedores, particularly 
those employed in handling hides from dis- 
tricts and countries where the diseases of cattle 
most prevail. In other cases it has been at- 
tributed to eating diseased animal food. Yet, 
strange as it may appear, in the whole scope 
of veterinary medicine no disease is known 
which accurately resembles the malignant pus- 
tule of man. Certain herbivorous animals, 
especially beasts of pasture, are subject to a 
disease called malignant carbuncle, character- 
ized by the occurrence of a large uncircum- I 
scribed emphysematous tumor, which yields to ' 
pressure and crepitates under the fingers, and [ 
exhales a peculiar putrid odor. In its progress 
it turns black in the centre, and appears as if 
burned or charred ; it is infiltrated with a yel- 
lowish colored fluid, and distended with a fetid 
gas. This disease may be transmitted from j 
one animal to another by inoculation, and by 
absorption to man, in whom it runs a violent 
and dangerous course. MM. Salmon and Ma- 
noury of France have vainly attempted to limit 
the term malignant pustule to this disease only. 
Malignant carbuncle and other ulcers which 
occur in cattle are the eruptive symptoms of 
grave febrile disorders depending upon a dis- 
eased state of the blood, and always consecu- 
tive to the febrile symptoms ; and the inocula- 
lation of man with matter from such an ulcer 
is only equally dangerous with the blood, and 
possibly the milk, of the same animal in the 
febrile state before the ulcer appeared. In- 
deed, cases have occurred where the blood of 
animals not previously known to have been 
diseased has caused malignant pustules in man 
by absorption. It is the opinion of some ob- 
servers that malignant pustule may occur spon- 
taneously, without any contact with poisonous 
animal matter. But from the fact that dis- 
eased animal matter is known to cause the 
great majority of cases, many ways will read- 
ily suggest themselves by which inoculation 
might take place without any knowledge of 
the circumstance on the part of the person 
affected. As a general rule, cattle which feed 
on prairie meadows are exempt from malignant 
disease ; while those which are fed upon dried 
clover, lucern, and vetch are peculiarly liable 
to carbuncle. The same may be said of cattle 
that are fed upon semi-decomposed grain, the 
refuse of distilleries and breweries. All such 
things are actively predisposing agents to the 
blood diseases of cattle, and liable to engender 
malignant pustule in man. Treatment. Pro- 
mote suppuration in the pustule as rapidly as 
possible, and sustain the constitution. To this 
end, as soon as the nature of the disease is as- 



certained, the vesication formed on its surface 
should be opened, the fluid contents removed, 
and the denuded part covered with a dossil of 
lint dipped in a strong solution of muriate of 
ammonia or other caustic. Six hours after- 
ward this may be removed and a poultice ap- 
plied ; and 24 hours after this, if pain and 
burning heat have nearly or quite ceased, and 
no areola has formed, it may be safely con- 
cluded that the caustic has effectually perme- 
ated the whole of the diseased tissue, and that 
it will proceed to a healthy suppuration by the 
continued application of poultice. But if, on 
the contrary, a hard and deep-seated painful 
tumor has formed around the primary seat of 
the vesicle, we may take it for granted that 
the disease is extending itself. The tumor 
should be forthwith divided through the whole 
width and depth by a crucial incision, the gan- 
grenous parts removed if any have formed, and 
the nitrate of silver or fused potassa thor- 
oughly applied to the freshly divided surfaces. 
This proceeding is equally requisite when the 
slough which forms on the centre quickly be- 
comes hard and impermeable, like a piece of 
dry hide; this must be removed to admit of 
the unimpeded action of the caustic. Scarifi- 
cations and cauterizations, with the continued 
application of poultice, should be repeated 
daily until suppuration is established, or until 
the extent of the pustule as clearly defined. 
Internally, the bowels being first cleared by a 
mild cathartic, quinia (four or five grains every 
three or four hours), with wine or brandy, and 
as much food as the patient can be induced to 
take (there being generally disinclination to 
take food), and opiates with camphor, as much 
as may be necessary to allay pain and pro- 
duce sleep, constitute the basis of treatment. 
In spite of everything, the peculiar contagion 
of malignant pustule, being in the blood, fre- 
quently proceeds straight on to a fatal termina- 
tion ; and this is sometimes the case even when 
the pustule seems to have been checked. On 
recovery from malignant pustule, the deform- 
ities consequent upon its ravages sometimes 
require surgical operations for their relief. 
History. Malignant pustule was known to the 
ancients. Celsns and Paulus ^Egineta both 
described it under the head of carbuncle. Am- 
broise Pare, in the 16th century, distinguished 
it from plague. Yet it was not until the lat- 
ter part of the 18th century that physicians 
began to appreciate its nature. Thomassin, 
Boyer, Fournier, Montfiels, Veson, Sancerotte, 
Chambon, and especially naux and Chaussier, 
contributed to make the medical world acquaint- 
ed with the nature of malignant pustule. Du- 
ring the present century, Bayle, Bidault, Vil- 
liers, Reynier, Raver, Branell, Wagner, Raim- 
bert, Manoury, and Salmon, and more recently 
Bourgeois and Gaujot, have given valuable mo- 
nographs of cases and epidemics. In the United 
States, it has at least twice prevailed epidem- 
ically : in the vicinity of Philadelphia in 1834 
-'6, and in Louisiana in 1837-'9. It is also 



PUTLITZ 



PUTNAM 



99 



said to have prevailed in Louisiana soon after 
its settlement by the French. It is not known 
to have occurred in the northern portion of 
the United States otherwise than sporadically ; 
unless, possibly, the "malignant erysipelas" 
which prevailed in the northern part of the 
state of New York in 1825 was a variety of ma- 
lignant pustule ; it was immediately preceded 
by a fatal epizootic of slavers among horses. 
In the same region, and just subsequent to an 
epizootic among horned cattle in 1842, there 
were several cases of genuine malignant pus- 
tule, yet no one seems to have recognized its 
source. Since that time, and it may be added 
since the common practice of feeding cattle 
on the refuse of distilleries and breweries, and 
the more general spread of epizootic diseases, 
particularly in the northern part of the United 
States, malignant pustule has become more 
common. Both of the epidemics referred to 
were in conjunction with epizootics. 

PI TUT/, Gnstav Heinrich Cans zn, a German 
poet, born at Eetzien, Prussia, March 20, 1821. 
He studied in Magdeburg, Berlin, and Heidel- 
berg, and was employed in the civil service from 
1846 to 1848. In 1863 he became director of the 
court theatre at Schwerin. His exquisite fairy 
poem, Was sich der Wald erzaldt (Berlin, 1850 ; 
32d ed., 1872), served as a model for many 
similar works, and was followed by Vergiss- 
meinnicht (1851 ; 9th ed., 1872), Die Halben 
(1869), Walpurgis (1870), and Funken unterder 
Asche (1871). He has also written Branden- 
lurger Oeschichten (Stuttgart, 1862), Novellen 
(1863), and numerous dramas and comedies, 
the latter collected in many volumes, 1850-'69. 
His collected works appeared in 1872. 

PUTNAM, the name of counties in nine of the 
United States. I. A S. E. county of New 
York, bordered W. by the Hudson river, E. 
by Connecticut, and watered by Oroton river 
and Peekskill creek ; area, 234 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 15,420. Its surface is mountainous, 
several ranges crossing the county from S. W. 
to N.' E., and the deep valleys are fertile. 
There are several beautiful mountain lakes, 
the principal of which are Mahopac, Canopus, 
and Gleneida. Iron, granite, limestone, and 
other minerals are found in the mountains, and 
there are many mines and quarries. It is 
traversed by the Hudson River and the New 
York and Harlem railroads. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 2,599 bushels of wheat, 

J,934 of Indian corn, 49,673 of oats, 101,595 
of potatoes, 33,671 tons of hay, 3,707 Ibs. of 
wool, and 277,759 of butter. There were 
2,184 horses, 10,220 milch cows, 1,480 work- 
ing oxen, 2,141 other cattle, 2,119 sheep, and 
2,015 swine ; 3 flour mills, 3 paper mills, 2 
founderies, and 5 manufactories of tin, cop- 
per, and sheet-iron ware. Capital, Carmel. 
II. A W. county of West Virginia, touching 
the Ohio with its W. corner, intersected by 
the Great Kanawha, and drained by its tribu- 
taries; area, about 350 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
7,794, of whom 260 were colored. It has a 



rough and hilly surface and a generally fertile 
soil, and contains extensive beds of iron ore 
and bituminous coal. The Chesapeake and 
Ohio railroad crosses the S. corner. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 40,020 bushels of 
wheat, 232,126 of Indian corn, 49,879 of oats, 
28,090 of potatoes, 472,765 Ibs. of tobacco, 
14,992 of wool, 63,061 of butter, and 19,541 
gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 
1,463 horses, 1,565 milch cows, 3,035 other 
cattle, 6,291 sheep, and 6,999 swine. Capital, 
Winfield. III. A central county of Georgia, 
bordered E. by the Oconee and drained by 
Little river and several creeks ; area, about 
350 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 10,461, of whom 
7,445 were colored. It has a nearly level sur- 
face, abounding with forests of oak and pine, 
and a soil naturally fertile. The Milledgeville 
branch of the Central railway of Georgia ter- 
minates at Eatonton. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 11,040 bushels of wheat, 160,661 
of Indian corn, 7,872 of oats, 14,848 of sweet 
potatoes, 7,326 bales of cotton, 3,328 Ibs. of 
wool, and 29,047 of butter. There were 464 
horses, 1,100 mules and asses, 1,541 milch 
cows, 465 working oxen, 2,250 other cattle, 
1,538 sheep, and 4,346 swine. Capital, Eaton- 
ton. IV. An E. county of Florida, bounded 
E. by St. John's river and drained by its tribu- 
taries; area, 610 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 3,821, 
of whom 1,334 were colored. The surface is 
low and level, and the soil fertile. It contains 
several small lakes. The chief productions in 
1870 were 16,592 bushels of Indian corn, 11,- 
673 of sweet potatoes, 162 bales of cotton, 
1,125 Ibs. of rice, and 4,823 gallons of molasses. 
There were 1,055 milch cows, 5,526 other 
cattle, 360 sheep, and 2,710 swine. Capital, 
Palatka. V. A N. county of Tennessee, drain- 
ed by affluents of the Cumberland river ; area, 
about 500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,698, of 
whom 530 were colored. It has a hilly sur- 
face, and much of it is covered by forests. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 39,330 
bushels of wheat, 332,254 of Indian corn, 37,- 
854 of oats, 17,367 of Irish and 11,581 of 
sweet potatoes, 131,856 Ibs. of tobacco, 19,092 
of wool, 125,938 of butter, 18,945 of honey, 
and 17,772 gallons of sorghum molasses. There 
were 2,218 horses, 2,166 milch cows, 1,364 
working oxen, 2,865 other cattle, 10,460 sheep, 
and 21,568 swine. Capital, Cookville. VI. A 
N. W. county of Ohio, drained by Auglaize 
river and its tributaries, the Ottawa and 
Blanchard's fork ; area, about 500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 17,081. It has a level surface, 
is covered with large tracts of timber, and its 
soil is fertile. It is intersected by the Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton, and Dayton railroad. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 237,586 bushels of 
wheat, 434,948 of Indian corn, 105,896 of 
oats, 70,527 of potatoes, 16,331 tons of hay, 
78,605 Ibs. of wool, 330,078 of butter, 14,098 
of maple sugar, and 12,801 gallons of sorghum 
molasses. There were 5,437 horses, 5,242 
milch cows, 7,191 other cattle, 23,269 sheep, 



100 



PUTNAM 



and 15,466 swine; 8 manufactories of car- 
riages and wagons, 1 woollen mill, 6 flour 
mills, and 14 saw mills. Capital, Ottawa. 
VII. A W. county of Indiana, drained by a 
branch of Eel river and several creeks ; area, 
486 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 21,514. It has an 
undulating surface and fertile soil. It is inter- 
sected by the Indianapolis and Illinois canal 
and several railroads. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 297,797 bushels of wheat, 988,- 
919 of Indian corn, 68,565 of oats, 57,710 of 
potatoes, 15,990 tons of hay, 125,320 Ibs. of 
wool, 332,383 of butter, 33,289 of maple sugar, 
and 21,207 gallons of sorghum molasses. There 
were 8,274 horses, 2,416 mules and asses, 
5,729 milch cows, 19,236 other cattle, 34,227 
sheep, and 26,777 swine; 16 manufactories of 
carriages and wagons, 3 of furniture, 2 of cur- 
ried leather, 3 of pumps, 6 of tin, copper, and 
sheet-iron ware, 3 founderies, 1 woollen mill, 
4 flour mills, and 1 6 saw mills. Capital, Green- 
castle. VIII. A N. central county of Illinois, 
intersected by the Illinois river and drained by 
its branches; area, 200 sq. in.; pop. in 1870, 
6,280. It has an undulating surface and fer- 
tile soil. It is traversed by the Chicago, 
Rock Island, and Pacific railroad. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 28,933 bushels of 
wheat, 334,259 of Indian corn, 86,519 of oats, 
73,707 of potatoes, 10,571 Ibs. of wool, 47,6'.9 
of butter, 4,916 gallons of sorghum molasses, 
and 5,080 tons of hay. There were 2,420 
horses, 1,406 milch cows, 2,899 other cattle, 
1,987 sheep, and 5,431 swine. Capital, Hen- 
nepin. IX. A N. county of Missouri, border- 
ing on Iowa, bounded K. by the Chariton river 
and drained by its branches; area, about 550 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 11,217, of whom 9 were 
colored. It has an undulating surface, diver- 
sified by prairies and forests, and a fertile soil. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 62,308 
bushels of wheat, 458,582 of Indian corn, 146,- 
152 of oats, 34,979 of potatoes, 12,911 tons of 
hay, 39,200 Ibs. of tobacco, 63,800 of wool, 
194,098 of butter, 10.885 of cheese, 26,365 of 
honey, and 32,483 gallons of sorghum and 14,- 
731 of maple molasses. There were 5,329 
horses, 515 mules and asses, 4,137 milch cows, 
9,351 other cattle. 26,227 sheep, and 21,789 
swine. Capital, Unionville. 

PUTNAM, Israel, an American soldier, born 
in the part of Salem now constituting the town 
of Danvers, Mass., Jan. 7, 1718, died in Brook- 
lyn, Conn., May 19, 1790. He was the llth 
in a family of 12 children, and in his boyhood 
was noted for his physical strength and bra- 
very ; but he had few educational advantages. 
On coining of age he bought a farm in Pom- 
fret, Conn., and fixed his residence there. 
Here occurred his famous encounter with a 
she wolf that had for several years preyed upon 
the flocks and cattle of the neighborhood. 
Having discovered her den, Putnam entered it 
alone by creeping into a narrow opening, and 
shot and killed the wolf as she was advancing 
to attack him. This adventure, which gave 



him a wide reputation for courage, took place 
when he was 25 years old. The next 12 years 
he spent as a careful and successful farmer. 
In 1755 he was appointed by the legislature a 
captain in Col. Lyman's regiment, and fonned 
a strong company from among his neighbors, 
who were employed chiefly on special service 
as rangers. His first expedition was under Sir 
William Johnson against Crown Point. In 
1756 he was reappointed under his old com- 
mander Lyman, and in 1757 the legislature of 
Connecticut gave him the commission of major. 
Perhaps the most important service rendered 
by him during that year was the saving of the 
powder magazine of Fort Edward at the con- 
flagration of the barracks. For an hour and 
a half he contended with the fire, and he was 
severely burned in his efforts to arrest its 
progress. In 1758, to escape from a strong 
party of Indians, he descended with a few men 
the falls of the Hudson at Fort Miller in a 
bateau. The savages with admiration beheld 
him unharmed by their balls steering his boat 
down rapids never before passed. The same 
year, when returning to Fort Edward from an 
expedition to watch the enemy in the neigh- 
borhood of Ticonderoga, his corps was sur- 
prised by a party of French and Indians, and 
lie himself captured and bound to a tree. White 
in this situation a battle between his own party 
and the enemy raged around him for an hour, 
the tree being for part of the time in the hot- 
test fire. At length the French and Indians 
were forced to retreat, but carried with them 
their captive, whom the savages determined to 
roast alive. He was tied to a tree, and the fire 
was already blazing, when his life was saved 
by the French commander, Molang. The next 
day he was taken to Ticonderoga, and after- 
ward to Montreal, where among other prison- 
ers he met Col. Peter Schuyler, through whose 
intervention he was treated according to his 
military rank and exchanged. In 1759, having 
meanwhile been made lieutenant colonel, he 
served under Gen. Amherst. In 1762 he com- 
manded a Connecticut regiment in the expedi- 
tion against Havana. In 1764 Putnam, now a 
colonel, at the head of 400 Connecticut men ac- 
companied Col. Bradstreet to Detroit in the 
Pontiac war. For some years afterward he 
kept an inn at Brooklyn, the capital of Wind- 
ham county, and during the same period fre- 
quently represented the town in the legislature. 
In 1773 he was engaged in the expedition that 
went up the Mississippi to survey a tract above 
Natchez for settlement. In the revolutionary 
war Putnam from the beginning embraced 
zealously the cause of the colonists. In April, 
1775, at the alarm occasioned by the battle 
of Lexington, he left his plough in the field, 
turned loose the oxen, and rode to Boston in 
one day, a distance of 68 m. Learning that 
the British were besieged in Boston, he went 
to Hartford to meet with the legislature, of 
which he was a member. Being elected by 
that body brigadier general, he promptly gath- 



PUTNAM 



101 



ered and organized a regiment, and after drill- 
ing them for some days marched to Cambridge. 
The British officers offered him a commission 
as major general in the royal service and a 
large sum of money, both of which he indig- 
nantly rejected. In May he led a battalion of 
300 men to Noddle's island, now East Boston, 
and burned a British schooner, captured a 
sloop, killing and wounding 70 of the enemy, 
and brought off several hundred sheep and cat- 
tle. It was in great measure through his wish 
to bring on a general engagement while the 
spirit of the troops was high, that the determi- 
nation was taken to fortify Bunker hill. In 
the battle which followed he acted a conspic- 
uous part. When Washington arrived at the 
camp to take command in July, he brought 
with him commissions from congress for four 
major generals, one of whom was Putnam ; 
and to him alone did he deliver his commis- 
sion, the others being withheld on account 
of the general dissatisfaction attending these 
appointments. In March, 1776, Washington 
being about to take possession of Dorchester 
heights, Putnam was ordered to attack Boston 
with 4,000 men in case the enemy should at- 
tempt to dislodge the Americans. Soon after 
the evacuation of that city he was ordered 
to take command in New York. He par- 
ticipated in the battle of Long Island, Aug. 
27, and afterward went to Philadelphia to 
prepare for the defence of that place. After 
completing the necessary fortifications, he was 
stationed at Crosswick and subsequently at 
Princeton. In May, 1777, he was ordered to 
take command in the highlands of New York. 
While there he sent the following famous re- 
ply to Sir Henry Clinton, who claimed a lieu- 
tenant of a tory regiment as an officer in the 
British service: "Edmund Palmer, an officer 
in the enemy's service, was taken as a spy 
lurking within our lines ; he has been tried as 
a spy, condemned as a spy, and shall be exe- 
cuted as a spy, and the flag is ordered to de- 
part immediately. Israel Putnam. P. S. He 
has been accordingly executed." In the sum- 
mer of this year the British troops surprised 
and took Forts Montgomery and Clinton, and 
obliged Putnam to retire to Fishkill. Subse- 
quently he was removed from his command in 
the highlands, as Washington says, " on ac- 
count of the prejudices of the people," and the 
dissatisfaction of Hamilton and other officers, 
and also from the fact that a court of inquiry 
had been ordered to investigate the causes of 
the loss of Forts Montgomery and Clinton. 
This court decided unanimously that no blame 
could be attributed to Putnam, who not long 
afterward was stationed in Connecticut. In 
March, 1779, a corps of 1,500 British troops 
under command of Tryon made an incursion 
into that state and approached Horseneck, one 
of Putnam's outposts. To oppose him were 
150 men with two pieces of artillery, and with 
these Putnam took his position on the brow of 
a steep hill. After exchanging shots, as he saw 



the enemy's dragoons were about to charge, he 
ordered his men to retire to a swamp inacces- 
sible to cavalry. He himself was hotly pursued, 
and finding that the dragoons were gaining upon 
him, he rode down a steep declivity, receiving 
on his passage a ball through his hat. Riding 
on to Stamford, he called out the militia, and 
effecting a junction with his little party he 
hung upon the rear of Tryon in his retreat and 
took about 50 prisoners, whom he treated with 
a humanity customary on his park but so un- 
expected that the British general sent him a 
letter of thanks. During the summer of 1779 
Putnam held command of the Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, and Virginia troops in the highlands 
of New York, and, assisted by his cousin Rufus 
Putnam and others, completed the fortifications 
at West Point. After the army went into 
winter quarters, he returned home, and on 
setting out again for camp was attacked by 
paralysis of his left side. He then took up his 
residence on his farm in Brooklyn, and there 
remained until his death. He was of medi- 
um height and of great physical strength ; and 
decision and personal daring were his most 
marked characteristics. " He dared to lead 
where any dared to follow," is the inscription 
upon his tombstone. His life is contained in 
the " Miscellaneous Works " of Gen. David 
Humphreys (New York, 1790), and in Sparks's 
"American Biography," vol. vii., by O. W. B. 
Peabody. 

PUTNAM, Mary Lowell, an American authoress, 
daughter of the Rev. Dr. Charles Lowell, born 
in Boston, Dec. 3, 1810. She was married April 
5, 1832, to Samuel R. Putnam, a merchant of 
Boston, who died in 1861. She possesses a 
remarkable knowledge of languages, compri- 
sing not only Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and 
the modern tongues of western Europe, but 
Swedish, Danish, Polish, Russian, Hungarian, 
Turkish, Sanskrit, and other oriental tongues. 
She has published " Record of an Obscure 
Man " (Boston, 1861) ; a dramatic poem in 
two parts, " Tragedy of Errors " and " Tra- 
gedy of Success " (1862) ; and a memoir of her 
son William Lowell Putnam, killed at the bat- 
tle of Ball's Bluff in 1861. 

PUTNAM, Rufns, an American pioneer, cousin 
of Gen. Israel Putnam, born in Sutton, Mass., 
April 9, 1738, died in Marietta, O., May 1, 
1824. In 1757 he enlisted in the war against 
the French, and in 1760 was made ensign. He 
afterward worked as a farmer and millwright, 
and in 1773 went on an expedition to the new- 
ly created government of West Florida. In 
1775 he entered the continental army as lieu- 
tenant colonel, in 1776 was appointed engineer 
with the rank of colonel, and in 1777 com- 
manded a regiment in the Massachusetts line. 
He constructed the fortifications at West Point, 
and in January, 1783, was commissioned briga- 
dier general. He removed to Rutland in 1782, 
and for several years was a member of the legis- 
lature and employed in government surveys. 
After a visit to the Ohio country he called and 



102 



PUTREFACTION 



PYAT 



presided over a convention that met in Boston 
on March 1, 1786, and formed the Ohio com- 
pany, of which he was made a director. The 
company bought 1,500,000 acres of government 
land, and Putnam landed at the mouth of the 
Muskingum on April 7, 1788, and laid out the 
city of Marietta, the first permanent settle- 
ment in Ohio. In 1790 he was appointed judge 
'over the territory N. W. of the Ohio, and in 
1796 surveyor general of United States lands. 
In May, 1792, he had been appointed a briga- 
dier general in the United States army, and com- 
missioned to make a treaty with the tribes on 
the W abash. In 1803 Jefferson removed him 
from the surveyorship, and in the same year 
he was a member of the convention which 
framed the Ohio state constitution. 

PUTREFACTION. See FERMENTATIOX, 'vol. 
vii., p. 144. 

PUTTY, a kind of cement used for filling cav- 
ities in cabinet and carpenter's work, for fast- 
ening window panes in sashes, and kindred 
purposes. Ordinary glazier's putty is made 
of whiting (finely levigated chalk) and boiled 
linseed oil, kneaded into a doughy mass and 
beaten with a mallet. The addition of a small 
quantity of tallow prevents its getting too 
hard. French putty is made by boiling 4 Ibs. 
of brown umber in 7 Ibs. of linseed oil for 
about two hours, adding 2 oz. of melted wax, 
5 Ibs. of whiting, and 11 Ibs. of dry white 
lead, mixing well. This putty is very durable, 
and will adhere to unpainted wood. 

PUY, Le, a town of France, capital of the 
department of Haute-Loire, 270 in. S. S. E. of 
Paris; pop. in 1872, 19,532. It is at the junc- 
tion of the valleys of the Loire, Borne, and 
Dolaison, and is one of the most picturesque 
towns of France. It is on the steep southern 
acclivity of Mont Anis, which is crowned by a 
mass of volcanic rock with a flat top, called 
Rocher de Oorneille. On this was erected in 
1860 a colossal statue of the Virgin, made from 
213 iron cannon captured at Sevastopol. The 
principal part of the town occupies a series of 
terraces. The cathedral, a fine Romanesque 
building of the 10th century, is reached by a 
stairway of 118 steps. Le Puy has also two 
ecclesiastical seminaries, a lyceum, normal 
school, public library, museum, theatre, and 
institutions for the deaf and dumb and the 
blind. It manufactures lace, bells, and clocks. 

PUY-DE-DOME, a S. central department of 
France, in Auvergne, bordering on Allier, 
Loire, Haute-Loire, Oantal, Correze, and 
Creuse; area, 3,073 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 
566,463. It is traversed by the Forez moun- 
tain, branches of the Cevennes, and the Au- 
vergne group, among the highest summits of 
which are the Puy de D6me, nearly 5,000 ft., 
and Mont. Dor or Dore, more than 6,000 ft. 
There are many extinct volcanoes. The chief 
river is the Allier. A large part of the sur- 
face consists of the fertile valley of Limagne. 
Mineral springs, lead, antimony, coal, and tim- 
ber abound. The soil, though stony, is pro- 



ductive, particularly in the north; the hillsides 
are covered with orchards and vineyards, and 
there are extensive chestnut plantations. It 
is divided into the arrondissements of Ambert, 
Clermont-Ferrand, Issoire, Riom, and Thiers. 
Capital, Clermont-Ferrand. 

PYAT, Fflix, a French author, born in Vierzon, 
department of Cher, Oct. 4, 1810. He studied 
law in Paris, and was admitted to the bar in 
1831, but devoted himself entirely to literature 
and politics. He contributed to several jour- 
nals, furnished Jules Janin with one of the 
most striking chapters of his Hamate, and was 
connected as feuilletonwte with the Siecle, and 
afterward for several years as political editor 
with the National. His first play, composed 
in conjunction with Theodore Burette, Une 
revolution d'autrefois, was brought out at the 
Odeon, March 1, 1832, but was suppressed at 
once on account of its bold political allusions. 
Une conjuration (Tautrefois, printed in 1833 in 
the Retue des Deux Mondes, and Arabella, in 
which, under assumed names, he branded the 
supposed accomplices in the death of the duke 
of Bourbon, were of a similar political charac- 
ter. In conjunction with Luchet, he produced 
in 1834 Le brigand et le philosophe, and in 1885 
Ango. Politics now engaged his attention for 
about six years. In 1841 his Deux serruriers 
had an extraordinary run ; and his Cedric le 
Norvegien (1842), Diogene (1846), and Le chjf- 
fonnier (1847), his last play, were also success- 
ful. In 1844, for a violent pamphlet, Marie 
Joseph Chenier et le prince de critiques, against 
his former friend Jules Janin, he was sentenced 
to six months' imprisonment. He left the Na- 
tional for the more revolutionary Reforme, and 
on the proclamation of the republic in 1848 
sided with the socialists. Elected to the con- 
stituent assembly, he became one of its secre- 
taries, and voted with the party of the moun- 
tain. After his reelection in 1849, he signed 
Ledru-Rollin's "Appeal to Arms," June 13, 
accompanied him to the conservatoire dcs arts 
et metiers, and making his escape first took 
refuge in Switzerland, and then removed to 
Belgium, where he occasionally wrote political 
pamphlets, became connected with the " Euro- 
pean revolutionary committee," and wrote an 
apology for the attempt to assassinate Napo- 
leon III. He refused to profit by the amnesty 
granted by the emperor in 1859 ; but after that 
of 1869 he returned to France. In the same 
year, however, he was again forced to conceal 
himself on account of prosecutions brought 
against him for articles in the Rappel. At 
first he remained in hiding in Paris, but after 
the plebiscitum of May, 1870, more vigorous 
measures were taken against him, and he es- 
caped to London. He was found guilty of 
taking part in various revolutionary conspira- 
cies, and although safe from arrest was sen- 
tenced in contumaciam to five years' imprison- 
ment and a heavy fine. On the fall of the 
empire Pyat returned to Paris, and during the 
German siege edited the Combat and the Ven- 



PYDKA 



PYLOS 



103 



geur. After the surrender he was elected to 
the national assembly from one of the city 
districts; but he appeared only once at the 
debates. On the outbreak of the insurrec- 
tion of the commune (March 18, 1871), he was 
chosen a member of the communal body by the 
tenth Paris arrondissement. Here his course, 
throughout the insurrection, was very arbi- 
trary. Most of the acts of violence were sup- 
ported by him, and he was chiefly instrumen- 
tal in the suppression of many of the Paris 
journals for articles which he deemed hostile 
to the commune's rule. He was successively 
a member of the first executive committee of 
the commune, of several special commissions, 
and of the committee of public safety, under 
whose rule the last acts of the communists 
were perpetrated. On the capture of Paris by 
the Versailles troops he made his escape, and 
has since lived chiefly in London. Here, in 
June, 1874, after the artist Courbet had been 
condemned to pay the cost of reerecting the 
column Vendome, Pyat published a protest, 
assuming himself all responsibility for the de- 
cree under which the column was destroyed. 

PYDNA (now Kitro), an ancient town of 
southern Macedonia, near the W. shore of the 
Thermaic gulf. It was a Greek colony, but 
was repeatedly subjected by the Macedonian 
kings, and finally by Philip, who enlarged and 
fortified it. Here ^Emilius Paulus vanquished 
Perseus, the last king of Macedon (168 B. C.). 
Under the Romans it was also called Citrum or 
Citrus, from which its modern name is derived. 

PYGMALION, a legendary king of Cyprus, 
whom the licentious conduct of his country- 
women so disgusted that he conceived a hatred 
against the whole sex. According to Ovid, he 
made an ivory female statue of such exceed- 
ing beauty that he fell desperately in love with 
it himself, and prayed to Venus to endow it 
with life. The goddess granted his request. 
Pygmalion then married the object of his af- 
fections, and by her had a son called Paphus, 
who founded the city of that name. (For 
another legendary Pygmalion, see DIDO.) 

PIGMY, or Pigmy (Gr. Tn^uat'of, from Trvy//?, 
the fist, or a measure extending from the elbow 
to the fist, equal to about 13 inches), the name 
of a nation of dwarfs believed by the ancients 
to inhabit the interior of Africa. They were 
supposed to be about three spans high, and ac- 
cording to the favorite story they were engaged 
in constant war with the cranes, their invet- 
erate enemies. Herodotus speaks seriously of 
them (ii. 32) as an existing race ; and many 
recent commentators have believed that the 
accounts from which he took his information 
had confounded a small species of African apes 
with men. The story of a pygmy race was 
universally regarded as entirely fabulous until 
a very recent period. Dr. Krapf, a German 
missionary, was (about 1850) the first to revive 
the old myth, in accounts of a tribe of dwarf- 
ish negroes of which he had heard in the un- 
explored part of S. E. Africa. Du Chaillu's 



explorations enabled him to give still more 
definite statements, which were long doubted, 
but the mystery surrounding the subject was 
finally cleared away by the discoveries of Dr. 
Georg Schweinfurth. In the country of the 
Monbuttoos, between lat. 3 and 4 N. and Ion. 
28 and 29 E., during a long time passed at 
the king's residence (1870) he was brought into 
actual communication with a considerable num- 
ber of people from a pygmy race, inhabiting a 
district nearly corresponding to that indicated 
by the ancient story. The first of the pygmies 
whom he examined was brought by the Mon- 
buttoos to his tent. Dr. Schweinfurth says : 
" With his own lips I heard him assert that the 
name of his nation was Akka ; and I further 
learnt that they inhabit large districts to the 
south of the Monbuttoo, between lat. 2 and 
1 N. A portion of them are subject to the 
Monbuttoo king, who, desirous of enhancing 
the splendor of his court by the addition of 
any available natural curiosities, had compelled 
several families of the Akka to settle in the 
vicinity." Schweinfurth soon after saw many 
other representatives of this strange colony, 
and even succeeded in carrying away one of 
them ; but he died before the explorer reached 
the coast. No one of six specimens that he 
measured, some of whom were of advanced age, 
much exceeded 4 ft. 10 in. in height. Their 
heads were disproportionately large, their 
shoulders peculiar in shape, with crooked and 
singularly formed blades; the chest was flat 
and contracted above, but expanded below to 
support the belly, which Schweinfurth says is 
" huge and hanging." All the lower joints are 
angular and projecting except the knees, which 
are plump and round. The feet turn inward, 
and the Akka " waddle and lurch " in walking. 
The hands alone are remarkably well formed. 
The skulls of all examined were prognathous to 
an extraordinary degree, the facial angles of 
two of them being respectively 60 and 66. 
They have a snout-like projection of the jaws, 
with an unprotruding chin ; the upper part of 
the skull is wide and almost spherical. At the 
base of the nose there is an unusually deep in- 
dentation. Of their country he could only 
learn that it was scantily watered and probably 
flat ; that it was politically divided among a 
considerable number of tribes ; and that there 
were nine kings. (See DWARF.) 

PYLOS, the name of three ancient towns of 
the Peloponnesus, on or near its western shore, 
one of which was in Hollow Elis, another in 
Triphylia, and the third and most important in 
Messenia, on the promontory of Coryphasium. 
The earlier city on the promontory was for- 
saken by the inhabitants after the close of the 
second Messenian war, and the promontory 
remained deserted until the Peloponnesian 
war, when in 425 B. C. it was fortified by the 
Athenian general Demosthenes. It became 
memorable for the defeat of the Spartans not 
long after, but at the close of the war passed 
again into the hands of the Lacedemonians. 



104 



PYM 



PYRAMID 



The town of Navarino is near the site of the 
old city, which is considered by most critics 
as the Pylos of Nestor. K. O. Miiller, how- 
ever, decides in favor of the Triphylian Pylos. 

P1M, John, an English patriot, born at Bry- 
more, Somersetshire, in 1584, died in London, 
Dec. 8, 1643. He was of a good family, and 
was educated at Pembroke college, Oxford, 
but left without taking his degree, and applied 
himself to the study of common law. He be- 
came a clerk in the office of the exchequer, en- 
tered parliament in 1614, and in 1620 became 
conspicuous as a leader of the country party. 
In 1621 he was one of the 12 commissioners 
sent to James I. at Newmarket in behalf of 
the privileges of parliament, and at the close 
of that year was sentenced with Coke, Philips, 
and Mallory to imprisonment for his opposi- 
tion to the measures of the court. In the first 
parliament of Charles I. he was indefatigable 
in his support of the rights of the people, and 
in 1626 was one of the managers of the articles 
of impeachment against the duke of Bucking- 
ham. In 1639 he held communications with 
the commissioners sent to London by the 
Scotch Covenanters, and accompanied Hamp- 
den through the country to incite the people 
to send in petitions. In the short parliament 
of 1640 he was one of the most active mem- 
bers, and in the long parliament exerted great 
influence. On Nov. 11 he moved to impeach 
the earl of Strafford for high treason, and as 
one of the managers on the part of the house 
of commons he bore a prominent part in the 
proceedings which led to the execution of that 
minister. In the subsequent trial of Laud 
he also made a violent speech against the 
prisoner, and was the mover of the grand re- 
monstrance, which enumerated the faults of 
the royal administration from the accession 
of Charles. He was one of the five mem- 
bers of parliament whom the king attempted 
in person to seize ; and after the departure of 
Charles from London, he assisted in carrying 
on the executive branch of the government. 
Yet in 1643 he -put forth a vindication of his 
conduct in answer to the charges brought 
against him, from which it was thought doubt- 
ful with which of the two parties then divi- 
ding the kingdom he would go. In November, 
1643, just before his death, he was appointed 
lieutenant of the ordnance. He was buried in 
Westminster abbey. 

PYVAKER, Adam, a Dutch painter, born at 
Pynaker, between Delft and Schiedam, in 1621, 
died in 1673. In his youth he resided for sev- 
eral years at Rome, where he acquired an ideal 
or pastoral style of landscape painting. His 
pictures contain charming effects of sunlight, 
with clear, warm skies, and trees and other 
natural objects are painted with a broad, free 
pencil, and great richness of color. The best 
of his works are of cabinet size, and many of 
these are owned in England. 

PYRAMID (Gr. irvpaju.if), the geometrical term 
for any solid contained by a plane polygonal 



base and other planes meeting in a point, ap- 
plied to various monumental and temple struc- 
tures of several nations. The most famous 
pyramids are those of the ancient Egyptians, 
and with few exceptions are the tombs of 
kings. The theories that they were astronom- 
ical monuments, or large storehouses, or, as 
Prof. Piazzi Smyth holds, memorials of a sys- 
tem of weights and measures, intended to be 
universal, and built with the aid of divine in- 
spiration, are not supported by the accounts of 
the ancients, nor by the Egyptian inscriptions 
and other testimony. The facts that the pyra- 
mids are found in the midst of a necropolis, 
that they contain sarcophagi and mummies, and 
that the inscriptions on the tombs of many 
priests mention as a special honor that the de- 
ceased officiated at the funeral services held 
at the pyramids, seem to prove that they are 
tombs and nothing else. As the Egyptian 
tombs have always borne one and the same 
character, and only the manner in which they 
were adorned varied with the tastes of the 
period, their age may be determined with 
great certainty. For the first eleven dynas- 
ties, or previous to about 8000 B. C., the 
tombs were in the form of a mastaba, or mere- 
ly rectangular walls looking like unfinished 
pyramids, and their interior was richly deco- 
rated with sculptures and paintings, referring 
either to the life of the deceased or to the 
gods of the current religious system. During 
the middle empire, and until about 1600 B. 
C., the tnastnba was superseded by small pyra- 
mids, and by the gpeos or halls cut into the 
rocks, and the divinities were seldom repre- 
sented upon them. In the next period, until 
about 340 B. C., excavated tombs prevailed, 




and the statuary and images of the deceased 
were superseded again by those of a mytho- 
logical nature. The pyramids are only en- 
larged mattaba, and belong as such to the first 
period. Each one was commenced over a se- 
pulchral chamber excavated in the rock, and 



PYKAMID 



105 



during the life of the king for whom it was 
intended the work of building up the structure 
over this chamber went on, a very narrow and 
low passageway being kept open as the courses 
of the stone were added, by which access from 
the outside was secured to the central cham- 
ber. At the death of the monarch the work 
ceased, and the last layers were then finished 
off and the passageway closed up. The piles 
were constructed of blocks of red or syenitic 
granite from the quarries of Asswan, and also 
of others of a hard calcareous stone from the 
quarries of Mokattam and Turah. They were 
of extraordinary dimensions, and their trans- 
portation to the pyramids and adjustment in 
their places indicate a surprising degree of 
mechanical skill. Their thickness varied from 
more than four to less than two feet, and when 
arranged one upon another forming steps up 
the outer slopes, the thickness of the stones 
determined the height of these steps. Those 
near the top are of the thicker stones, but the 
blocks are of moderate length compared with 
those near the base. The foundations for the 
structures were excavated in the solid rock, 
sometimes to the depth of 10 ft., and upon 
this the great stones were arranged and built 
up layer upon layer, and one shell succeeding 
another, the spaces within being filled in with 
smaller stones closely packed. To quarry and 
move the immense blocks to the pyramids and 
then raise them to their places required no 
little engineering skill, notwithstanding an un- 
limited amount of human labor was at com- 
mand. Near the summits the number of men 
that could aid in raising the huge stones must 
have been comparatively small for want of 
room, and it seems that some mechanical pow- 
er must have been employed besides any which 
we know they possessed. The probability of 
this is confirmed by the fact that cavities in 
the stones have been found, which appear as 
though they might have been worn by the foot 
of derricks turning in them. The three pyra- 
mids of the Memphis group stand upon a pla- 
teau about 137 ft. above the level of the high- 
est rise of the Nile, not far apart, and nearly 
on a N. E. and S. "W. line. Like the other 
pyramids of Egypt, their four sides are direct- 
ed, toward the cardinal points. The largest 
of them, known as the great pyramid or the 
pyramid of Cheops (Khufu or Shufu), covers 
at present an area of between 12 and 13 
acres. Its dimensions have been reduced by 
the removal of the outer portions to furnish 
stone for the city of Cairo. Thus despoiled, 
the walls have lost their smooth finished sur- 
face, in which state they were left by their 
builders, who, beginning at the top, filled in 
with small stones the angles formed by the re- 
cession of each upper layer, and bevelled off the 
upper edges of the great blocks, till reaching 
the base they left each side of an even surface 
sloping at an angle of 51 50'. By stripping off 
the outer casing the courses of stone appear in 
the form of steps, which, though ragged and 



unequal, can be ascended even by ladies. The 
great pyramid has 203 of these steps, the lower 
ones being 4 ft. 1 in. high. The horizontal sur- 
faces were nicely finished, and the stones were 
joined together with a cement of lime without 
sand. The masonry of the great pyramid con- 




Section of the Great Pyramid. 

sisted originally of 89,028,000 cubic feet, and 
still amounts to 82,111,000 ft. The present 
vertical height is 450 ft., against 479 ft. origi- 
nally, and the present length of the sides is 746 
ft., against 764 ft. originally. The total weight 
of the stone is estimated at 6,316,000 tons. The 
only entrance is on the N. face, 49 ft. above 
the base, and about 24 ft. E. of the central 
line. The masonry about it is much broken 
away, and the piles of broken stones reach up 
from the ground nearly to its level. This pas- 
sageway (marked a in the adjoining illustration) 
is only 3 ft. 11 in. high and 3 ft. 5$ in. wide; 
it leads down a slope at an angle of 26 41' a 
distance of 320 ft. 10 in. to the original sepul- 
chral chamber, commonly known as the sub- 
terraneous apartment, and beyond this 52 ft. 
9 in. into the rock, with an area in this por- 
tion of only 2 ft. 7 in. in width and 2 ft. 8 in. 
in height. It is supposed that it was intended 
to excavate another chamber at the end of 
this passage, and that it was not done on ac- 
count of the monarch continuing to live until 
it was found expedient to close up the mouth 
of the passage with the external casing of 
masonry. The sepulchral chamber (c) is 46 
ft. long by 27 ft. in width, and its height is 
11$ ft. The entrance passage, 63 ft. long, 
connects with a branch passage, which rises 
at an angle of 26 18', and thus extends 124 
ft., when it becomes level and runs 109 ft. 
further. This connects with several chambers 
and passages. One situated nearly in the cen- 
tral portion of the pyramid, and 67 ft. above 
its base, is known as the queen's chamber (/). 
This measures 17 ft. by 18 ft. 9 in., and 20 ft. 
3 in. high, and has a groined roof. It appears 
to have been intended for a sarcophagus ; but 
the only one found was in what is called the 
grand or king's chamber (A). This is an apart- 
ment lined with red granite highly polished, 
single stones reaching from the floor to the 
ceiling, and the ceiling is formed of nine large 
slabs of polished granite, extending from wall 



106 



PYRAMID 



to wall. It is 34 ft. 3 in. long, 17 ft. 1 in. 
wide, and 19 ft. 1 in. high. Over it are five 
small chambers (Z), apparently built to shelter 
the larger room beneath from the weight of 
the masonry. The room is perfectly plain, 
and contains only a sarcophagus of red gran- 
ite, 7 ft. long, 3 ft. 3 in. wide, and 3 ft. 5 
in. high, which is too large to have been in- 
troduced through the entrance passage, and 
must therefore have been placed in the room 
when this was built. It contained a wooden 
coffin with the mummy of the king, which 
disappeared when the pyramids were first 
opened and plundered. In the construction 
of the pyramids arrangements were made 
for blocking up the important passages with 
huge masses of granite, and the obstacles thus 
interposed have greatly impeded their ex- 
ploration, and sometimes rendered it neces- 
sary to open new passages past the obstruc- 
tions. It is probable that on account of these 
extraordinary precautions there are yet un- 
discovered apartments in the immense body 
of these structures. Niebuhr (1761), Davison 
(1763), the French expedition (1798), Hamilton 
(1801), Caviglias (1817), Belzoni (1818), ahd 
Col. Howard Vyse (18:57) penetrated into the 
interior; but a forcible passage had been ef- 
fected into the pyramid long before any of 
these visits. It is not improbable that the 
Egyptians themselves violated the tomb of 
Cheops, or that Cambyses entered it; but Arab 
historians record that the caliph Mamoun, in 
the beginning of the 9th century, forced his 
way into the pyramid in order to rob it of its 
supposed treasures. Unable to discover the 
hidden entrance, lie caused a passageway to be 
broken through the masonry on the north side 
(&), and thus readied the passage coining from 
above. He found nothing hut empty cham- 
bers, and a stone sarcophagus, containing an- 
other of wood, which held a richly decorated 
mummy. The second pyramid, KingShafra's, 
stands on a base 33 ft. above that of the great 
pyramid, and in an excavation made for it in 
the rock. It measured originally 707 ft. 9 in. 
on the sides, and was 454 ft. 3 in. high; but 
these dimensions are now reduced respectively 
to 690 ft. 9 in. and 447$ ft. The angle of its 
slope is 52 20'. The upper portion of its 
casing is still preserved, and persons can as- 
cend this, though not without danger, espe- 
cially if liable to become dizzy by losing sight 
of the lower portion of the" structure. This 
pyramid has two entrances, one 37 ft. 8 in. 
above the base, and the other built out in 
front of the base, each leading by an inclined 
passage about 100 ft. in length to the same 
sepulchral chamber. This has a roof of the 
shape of the pyramid itself, and measures 46 
ft. 2 in. by 16 ft. 2 in., and is 19 ft. 3 in. 
high. It contains a granite sarcophagus 8 ft. 
7 in. long, 3$ ft. wide, and 3 ft. high. It was 
reached with great difficulty by Belzoni in 
1818, who found a Cufic inscription recording 
the visit of a caliph and the opening by him 



of the pyramid, A. D. 1196-'7. The only re- 
mains met with were those of a bull. The 
third pyramid is only 354$ ft. square and 203 
ft. high, but was originally 219 ft. high. It 
was explored in 1887 by Col. Vyse, who dis- 
covered several apartments, in one of which 
were a highly finished sarcophagus, a mummy 
case bearing the name of King Menkara, and 
the body of a workman. The last two are now 
in the British museum, but the sarcophagus 
was lost on the passage. This pyramid, though 
the smallest, is the best constructed of the 
three, and indeed the style of the work is more 
costly than that of any of the other pyramids 
of Egypt. In the same vicinity are six small- 
er pyramids, supposed to have been the tombs 
of some of the relatives of the kings who 
constructed the larger ones, and an immense 
number of tombs, some built up above the sur- 
face, some excavated in the rock, and some 
subterranean channels. Near the great pyra- 
mids is also the famous sphinx. Of the other 
: pyramids further S., the largest are of the Da- 
shoor group, of which there are five, two of 
stone and three of rough brick. One of the 
former is now reduced from 71 9$ to 700 ft. 
square, and from 342$ to 326$ ft. high, and the 
other is 616& ft. square and 319$ ft. high. Abu- 
sir has a group of 14 pyramids, but many of 
them are small and mere heaps of rubbish, and 
only two are more than 100 ft. high. The 
Sakkara field of pyramids is adjacent to that 
of Abusir, and contains 17 pyramids more or 
less preserved. The most remarkable and 
largest in this group is the pyramid in steps, 
which possibly may once have been as smooth 
as the other pyramids, but none of the stones 
which formerly filled the gaps are to be seen. 
Its situation in the immediate vicinity of the 
oldest portion of the city, its rude construc- 
tion, and its oblong rectangular form, originally 
measuring 351 ft. from N. to S. and 8!i." ft. 
from E. to W., indicate a very high antiquity. 
Its nucleus is still standing, and rises 190 ft. 
above the level of the desert, in five distinct 
portions. Instead of facing the cardinal points, 
it is turned 4 35' to the east, which seems to 
show that its erection dates from a time when 
the rules for the exact astronomical construc- 
tion had not been discovered. Egyptologists 
adduce many reasons for considering this pyr- 
amid either the tomb of Uenephes or the old- 
est burial place of Apis. As both Apis bones 
and the remains of royal mummies have lict-n 
found in it, the pyramid may have served first 
as the tomb of kings, and been afterward ap- 
propriated for the service of Apis. The other 
pyramids of Sakkara are almost entirely de- 
stroyed. One of them, an enormous mastaba, 
the Mastaba el-Faraoon, has recently been en- 
U-n-d by Mariette Bey, who discovered an in- 
scription dedicating the tomb to King Unas, of 
the fifth dynasty-. Among the minor fields of 
pyramids is that of Abu Roash, a village two 
hours from Gizeh, where there arc three which 
evidently date from the earliest dynasties. But 



PYRAMID 



PYRENEES 



107 



generally speaking there is little of interest in 
the pyramids outside of Gizeh, Abusir, Sak- 
kara, and Dashoor. Pyramids are frequently 
met with in the upper part of the valley of the 
Nile. There are many in Nubia about lat. 17 
and 18 N., the sepulchres of the monarchs of j 
Meroe and of Ethiopia ; a single group N. of 
Jebel Barkal comprises 120. Others are met 
with in other ancient countries of the East. 
At Birs Nimrud is the step-shaped pyramid 
built by Nebuchadnezzar of bricks of different 
colors, known as the temple of seven spheres. 
This was 235 ft. high with a perimeter of 2,286 
ft. The same monarch built the pyramidal brick 
structure of Mujellibe at Babylon, the ruins 
of which still remain. At Benares in India 
are also the ruins of pyramids ; and others 
were built in ancient times at Peking, and 
again at Suka in Java. At Rome one was con- 
structed 20 or 30 years B. C., in honor of 0. 
Oestius, in imitation of the Egyptian monu- 
ments, and furnished with a sepulchral cham- 
ber; it is 120 ft. high on a base of 95 ft. di- 
ameter, built of hewn stone and marble-faced. 
In Mexico are similar structures far exceed- 
ing in the area they cover the dimensions even 
of the great pyramid of Egypt. These monu- 
ments, called teocallis, literally " houses of 
God," are pyramids in terraces with flat tops, 
and surmounted by a chamber or cell, which is 
the temple itself. They seem to be of all ages ; 
that of Cholula is, according to tradition, as 
early as the Toltecs, while the great teocalli 
of the city of Mexico was finished only five or 
six years before the discovery of America by 
Columbus. (See CHOLULA, and MEXICO, vol. 
xi., p. 483.) There are two pyramids at Teoti- 
huacan, the largest of which is apparently a 
square of 645 ft. with a height of 171 ft, and 
there are others at Tezcuco of about the same 
dimensions, and like them divided into five or 
seven stories; but the most interesting of those 
yet brought to light is that of Xochicalco, on 
account of its sculptures and architectural or- 
naments. There are in Mexico also numerous 
pyramids of one story, but, like that of Oajaca, 
they are only devices to raise a temple to such 
a height as would enable the people to witness 
the ceremonies performed around it. While 
Egyptian pyramids are always tombs, and ter- 
minate in a point, without steps leading to the 
apex, the Mexican are always temples, and in 
terraces, with the upper platform crowned by 
a chamber or cell. Similar to the latter were 
the Assyrian pyramids, and the object of their 
construction was the same. In fact this form 
of temple has been found from Mesopotamia 
to the Pacific ocean. The resemblance has 
given rise to many theories on the racial con- 
nection of the builders, and Fergusson says : 
" If we still hesitate to pronounce that there 
was any connection between the builders of 
the pyramids of Suku and Oajaca, or the tem- 
ples of Xochicalco and Boro Buddor, we must 
at least allow that the likeness is startling and 
difficult to account for on the theory of mere 



accidental coincidence." See Vyse's "Opera- 
tions carried on at Ghizeh in 1837 " (3 vols., 
London, 1840-'42), and Piazzi Smyth's "Life 
and Work at the Great Pyramid " (3 vols., 
Edinburgh, 1867). Excellent accounts of the 
Egyptian pyramids will be found also in Pro- 
kesch-Osten's Nilfahrt (Leipsic, 1874), and in 
the new edition of Brugsch Bey's Histoire 
dSfigypte (Leipsic, vol. i., 1875). 

PTRAMUS AND THISBE, a youth and maiden 
of Babylon, celebrated in Ovid's Me tarn orphoses. 
Their parents opposed their union, but the 
lovers, living in adjoining houses, found means 
to converse with each other through a hole in 
the wall, and once made an agreement to meet 
at the tomb of Ninus. There Thisbe arrived 
first, but, terrified by a lioness which had just 
torn to pieces an ox, she hid herself in a cave, 
and in her flight lost her mantle, which was 
rent by the lioness and soiled with blood. 
When Pyramus came and found the garment 
torn and bloody, he imagined that Thisbe had 
been killed, and thereupon fell upon his sword. 
When Thisbe returned and found the body of 
her lover, she slew herself with the same sword. 
This tragedy was enacted under a mulberry 
tree, the fruit of which, before white, has ever 
since been of the color of blood. 

PYRENEES (Celt, fyrin, a steep mountain), a 
mountain range of Europe, separating France 
from Spain, and extending from Capes Creus 
and Cervera on the Mediterranean to the S. E. 
angle of the bay of Biscay. The divisions of 
the two countries along the boundaries are, 
beginning at the east : in France, the depart- 
ments of Pyren6es-Orientales, Ari6ge, Haute- 
Garonne, Hautes-Pyren6es, and Basses-Pyre- 
n6es; in Spain, Catalonia, Aragon, Navarre, 
and Guipuzcoa. The Pyrenees form the east- 
ern half of the great northern barrier of the 
Iberian mountain system, their prolongation, 
the Cantabrian mountains, stretching to Cape 
Finisterre, the N. W. point of the peninsula. 
On the N. E. the Cevennes form a connecting 
link with the Alps. The direction of the chain 
is from S. S. E. to N. N. W. ; its length is about 
250 m., and its greatest breadth, excluding some 
of the remoter slopes, about 70 m. Near the 
middle its axis is deflected by an elbow, so that 
the line of the western half, if prolonged, would 
run about 20 m. to the south of the eastern 
portion. The Pyrenees generally consist of 
two parallel main ridges, from which trans- 
verse spurs extend far on either side. The 
southern ridge is the more elevated. The chain 
is higher in the eastern than in the western 
portion, and attains its greatest altitude and 
extension in the centre. Here the double 
range encloses the valley of Arran, in which 
the Garonne takes its rise. Other streams 
break through the northern ridge, but the 
southern presents a vast unbroken wall. This 
main ridge lies S. of the political boundary, so 
that the loftiest peaks and most elevated passes 
belong to Spain. The highest summits are not 
found along this crest, but occupy projections 



108 



PYKENEES 



to the south. The mass of the Maladetta, on 
the frontiers of Aragon and Catalonia, pre- 
sents the two peaks of Nethou or Anethou 
and Maladetta, the former the culminating 
point of the chain (11,160 ft.). Mont Perdu 
(10,994 ft.), called in Spanish las Tres Sorores, 
and the Cylindre de Marbore lie further to the 
west. To the north of these are the Pic Posets 
and Pic de Vignemale, the latter the highest 
summit of the Pyrenees in France (10,791 ft.). 
Among the other principal summits are the 
Tour de Marbore, Pic Long, Montcalm, Pic 
de Neouvielle, Pic du Midi de Bigorre, and 
Pic du Midi de Pau, most of them upward 
of 10,000 ft. high. Mont Canigou (9,134 ft.), 
near the E. extremity of the range, on the 
meridian of Paris, forms a bold projection 
in France. The summit line, very uniform 
for long distances, has a mean elevation of 
about 8,000 ft., the passes being as elevated as 
those in the Alps. A remarkable feature of 
the Pyrenees is the almost complete absence 
of longitudinal valleys, the great depressions 
running transverse to the chain. These fre- 
quently meet near the crest, and form passes 
called cols or ports. Many of the valleys ter- 
minate abruptly in huge basins (cirque* or 
oules) enclosed by perpendicular walls of rock, 
and often one basin is continued by others on 
a higher level in the manner of an amphi- 
theatre, the streams descending from one into 
the other in magnificent cascades. There are 
about 12 such falls in the basin of Gavarnie, 
the descent of one being 1,400 ft. In places 
the peaks rise almost perpendicularly for thou- 
sands of feet, and the grandeur of the sce- 
nery is unsurpassed even in the Alps. The 
snow line is about 8,500 ft. on the N. side, and 
on the S. side about 1,000 ft. higher. The 
snow does not appear in continuous fields, but 
is rather confined to the summits. Glaciers, 
the existence of which was until recently un- 
known, extend on the N. slopes of the highest 
peaks, above an elevation of 7,000 ft. There 
are a number of small lakes on the side of 
France. The passes of the Pyrenees are very 
numerous, but only a few are practicable for 
carriages. The principal, beginning at the east, 
are : the col de Pertus, the great highway be- 
tween Perpignan and Gerona; the col de la 
Perche ; col de Puymorens ; port de Salo ; the 
pass of Viella; the port de Venasque; the port 
d'Oo; the Breche de Roland (9,193 ft.), almost 
inaccessible to the experienced smugglers of 
these mountains ; the port de Gavarnie ; the 
port de Canfranc, between Oleron and Jaca; 
the pass of Roncesvalles, between St. Jean- 
Pied-de-Port and Pamplona, memorable for the 
defeat of Charlemagne (see RONCESVALLES) ; 
and the pass of the Bidassoa, leading through 
Irun. The railroad from Bayonue to Vitoria 
passes the western extremity. The greater part 
of the range forms an unbroken watershed be- 
tween the Mediterranean and the bay of Bis- 
cay, but the eastern portion belongs exclusive- 
ly to the basin of the Mediterranean. The 



PYRENEES-ORIENTALES 

principal rivers flowing toward the north are 
the Adour, Garonne, Ariege, and Aude. The 
southern slope is tributary to the Ebro, which 
receives the Segre and other considerable 
streams, and to the Llobregat. The Bidassoa, 
which traverses the charming valley of Bastan, 
forms the westernmost portion of the boundary 
line. The opposite sides of the Pyrenees pre- 
sent a great contrast. Toward Spain the range 
rises in a succession of abrupt terraces, whose 
rugged faces support a scanty and stunted ve- 
getation. On the side of France the descent 
is much more gradual. Here the spurs en- 
close fruitful valleys enriched with fine pas- 
tures and orchards, and extensive forests stretch 
far up the slopes, affording good timber for 
ship building. The primary geological forma- 
tions are granite, forming the nucleus of the 
chain, micaceous schist, and primitive lime- 
stone, which are flanked by bands of clay 
slate, graywacke, and blue limestone. Oolitic 
and chalk formations occur, and trap, basalt, 
and porphyry appear in scattered masses. The 
mineral wealth of the Pyrenees is great, em- 
bracing iron, copper, zinc, and lead, but only 
the first of these metals is extensively worked. 
The Ariege rolls particles of gold. The min- 
eral springs, mostly sulphurous, have long been 
noted, the best known being those of Eaux 
Bonnes, Eaux Chaudes, Bagneres-de-Bigorre, 
Bagneres-de-Luchon, Bareges, and St. Sauveur, 
all in France. The climate is comparatively 
mild. The forest trees include the oak, beech, 
fir, yew, and pine, and in the more elevated 
regions are found the rhododendron, daphne, 
and willow. Among the wild animals are the 
bear, wolf, lynx, and the izard, a species of 
wild goat. The inhabitants of the mountains 
are a vigorous race. Toward the east the lit- 
tle republic of Andorra has long maintained 
an independent existence. The Basques in- 
habit the westernmost portion of the chain. 
The Pyrenees have repeatedly been traversed 
by hostile armies, from the time of Hanni- 
bal, who is supposed to have passed by the 
col de Pertus, to the present century. In 1813 
they were the scene of encounters between 
Wellington and Soult. The treaty between 
Louis XIV. and Philip IV., known as the 
peace of the Pyrenees, was concluded on an 
islet of. the Bidassoa, Nov. 7, 1659. 

PYBEXEES, Basses. See BASSES-PYRENEES. 

PYRENEES, Haute. See HAUTES-PYRENEES. 

PYREXEES-ORIECTALES, a S. department of 
France, consisting chiefly of the old province 
of Roussillon, bounded N. W. by Ariege, N. 
by Aude, E. by the Mediterranean, and S. by 
Spain; area, 1,591 sq. m; pop. in 1872, 191,- 
856. It is traversed by lofty ridges of the 
Pyrenees, especially in the south, and there 
are vast plains in the east, and many rapid 
streams. It abounds in minerals, is celebrated 
for its fine wines and excellent merino sheep 
and mules, and has productive fisheries. Fruit, 
grain, hemp, and flax are raised ; and coarse 
cloth, cutlery, and leather are manufactured. 



PYRITES 



PYROMETER 



109 



The commerce is chiefly with Spain. It is di- 
vided into the arrondissements of Perpignan, 
Ceret, and Prades. Capital, Perpignan. 

PYRITES (Gr. wvpirw, from irvp, fire), a name 
given to yellow sulphuret of iron because it 
struck fire with steel. The German name Kies 
is similar to that for flint, Kiesel, and in the 
earliest firearms the powder was ignited by a 
piece of pyrites, the use of flints being later. 
It is now extended to sulphurets of other 
metals, and also to certain arsenides and dou- 
ble compounds of metals with sulphur. There 
are three kinds of iron pyrites : cubic or yel- 
low, marcite or white, and magnetic pyrites. 
The first two are isomeric, having the for- 
mula FeS-z, but are not isomorphous. Cubic py- 
rites crystallizes in several monometric forms, 
of which the cube, octahedron, and dodeca- 
hedron are the chief; while marcite belongs 
to the trimetric or rhombic system. Magnetic 
pyrites when pure has the formula Fe 7 S 8 , and 
crystallizes in the hexagonal system. Cubic or 
yellow pyrites, or mundic as it is called in 
Wales, is found in all geological formations, 
from the most ancient crystalline to recent al- 
luvial. Very large cubes have been found in 
some of the Cornish mines, dodecahedrons 6 
in. in diameter in the island of Elba, and large 
octahedral crystals at Persberg in Sweden; in 
Connecticut, at Lane's mine in octahedrons, 
and at Orange and Milford in cubes in chlorite 
state ; and in Pennsylvania, at Cornwall, Leb- 
anon co., in cubo-octahedrons an inch in diam- 
eter. Cubic pyrites is largely used in the 
manufacture of copperas and sulphuric acid, 
and in Sweden for obtaining sublimed sulphur ; 
and enormous quantities are exported from 
Spain to Great Britain. Yellow pyrites, from 
its resemblance to the precious metal, by 
which many have been deceived, is sometimes 
called " fool's gold." In the chemical works 
of Yorkshire " coal brasses," as pyrites is 
called, are exposed in their beds, where by the 
action of air and moisture they are converted 
into copperas ; heat is developed during the 
process. In the coal fields subterranean fires 
are sometimes kindled by the conversion of 
masses of pyrites into copperas. At Quarrel- 
town in Renfrewshire, Scotland, is a deep hol- 
low where about 100 years ago the ground fell 
from a subterranean fire thus kindled. The 
conversion of pyrites into copperas is more 
conveniently conducted by roasting. (See SUL- 
PHUR, and SULPHURIC ACID.) Copper pyrites 
(calcopyrite of Dana) is the common copper 
ore of Cornwall, where from 10,000 to 12,000 
tons of copper are smelted from 150,000 to 
160,000 tons of ore. It is a double sulphuret 
of copper and iron, containing sulphur 84*9, 
copper 34' 6, iron 30 '5. It crystallizes in the 
dimetric system, often in tetrahedrons. Cop- 
per pyrites in massive crystals occurs at Ellen- 
ville, Ulster co., N. Y., composed of sulphur 
36-65, copper 32*43, and iron 31-25. Fire py- 
rites is found in the Cornish mines having the 
following composition : sulphur 30'0, tin 27'2, 



copper 29-7, iron 13-1. Leucopyrite (Dana) is 
an arsenide of iron, and mispickle is a sul- 
phuret of arsenic. 

PIRMONT, a watering place of Waldeck, 
Germany, on the Emmer, 34 m. S. "W. of Han- 
over. It has chalybeate springs, is the capi- 
tal of the county of Pyruiont (pop. in 1871, 
7,588), and contains a fine palace, a large 
bathing establishment, and a gas grotto emit- 
ting deadly vapors. 

PYROLIGNEOUS ACID (Gr. KV P , fire, and Lat. 
lignum, wood), also called pyroligneous and 
wood vinegar, the compound mixture of the 
volatile products from the destructive distilla- 
tion of woody matters, which when purified 
yield acetic acid, wood naphtha, creosote, tar, 
&c. The method of producing it is noticed in 
the article ACETIC ACID, vol. i., p. 62, as also 
its use in the crude state for furnishing com- 
pounds useful as mordants in calico print 
works, as pyrolignate of iron, alumina, &c. 
It has been applied to various other uses, as 
for example, in medicine, as an antiseptic and 
stimulant in a wash for gangrene and ulcers, 
although at present the more definite products, 
such as carbolic acid, are preferred. Its anti- 
septic qualities have led to its use in preserv- 
ing articles of food, as herrings and other 
fish. The process is auxiliary to drying in 
the shade, which precedes the dipping of the 
articles in the acid. Herrings first cured by 
a sprinkling of salt left upon them for six 
hours, and then drained, being immersed a 
few seconds in pyroligneous acid and then 
dried for two months, are in an excellent con- 
dition for preservation and retain a smoky fla- 
vor. The addition of a quart of the acid to 
the common pickle for a barrel of hams will 
cause the hams to acquire this flavor as if 
they had been smoked in the ordinary way. 

PYROMETER (Gr. nvp, fire, arid /serpov, mea- 
sure), any instrument for determining degrees 
of heat higher than those which can be mea- 
sured by ordinary thermometers. Pyrome- 
ters are required in the determination of the 
intensity of the heat of furnaces, and in as- 
certaining at what temperatures metals melt 
and chemical compounds are formed or are de- 
composed. They may be arranged, according 
to the principles on which they act, in the fol- 
lowing classes: 1, pyrometers using the expan- 
sion of solids as a means of measuring high 
temperatures, of which class Daniell's is a 
type ; 2, those using the contraction of baked 
clay, as Wedgwood's ; 3, those employing the 
expansion of air, as Pouillet's, Regnault's, 
and Jolly's; 4, those using the known melt- 
ing points of solids ; 5, those depending on the 
chemical decomposition of solids, as Lamy's; 
6, those measuring temperatures by heating a 
known weight of water, by allowing to cool in 
it a known weight of platinum or other metal, 
which has been heated to the temperature 
of the space or of the body to be tested, as 
Pouillet's ; 7, those which determine tempera- 
tures from the measures of the strength of 



110 



PYEOMETER 



thermo-electric currents produced by heating 
the junction of two different metals, as Bec- 
querel's; 8, those which determine tempera- 
tures by the measurement of changes, pro- 
duced by heat, in the electrical resistance of a 
length of platinum wire, as Siemens's ; 9, those 
which use the expansion of the wave length of 
a sound, which traverses a tube placed in the 
furnace whose temperature is to be measured, 
as Mayer's. We will restrict our detailed de- 
scription to the three pyrometers which ex- 
perience has shown to be most trustworthy, 
viz. : Dtiniell's pyrometer, the air pyrometer, 
and Siemens's pyrometer. Of the others we 
will give only general descriptions of the prin- 
ciples on which they depend. 1. The first py- 
rometer based on the expansion of solids ap- 
pears to have been invented by Mnsschenbroek 
about 1730. This instrument, which he called 
a "pyrometer," was formed of a metallic bar, 
fixed at one end, and connected at the other 
with wheel work which multiplied the motion 
of elongation caused by the elevation of its 
temperature. This was improved by others, 
who directed their efforts principally to the 
mechanism by which the motion was commu- 
nicated to the index. Many of these contri- 
vances are described in the article " Thermom- 
eter and Pyrometer " in vol. ii. of the " Natural 
Philosophy " published in the " Library of Use- 
ful Knowledge " (London, 1832). Daniell's py- 
rometer, called by its inventor "the register 
pyrometer," was first described in 
the " Transactions of the Royal So- 
ciety" for 1830. It consists of two 
parts, the register, fig. 1, and the 
scale, fig. 2. The register is a solid 
bar of black-lead earthenware, A, 
highly baked. In the axis of this a 
hole is drilled, reaching from one 
end of the bar to within half an 
inch of the other extremity. In 
this cylindrical cavity is placed a 
rod of platinum or of iron, a a, 6$ 
in. long. Upon the top of the bar 
rests a cylindrical piece of porce- 
lain, c c, long enough to project a 
short distance beyond the extrem- 
ity of the black-lead bar, to serve 
as an index. It is confined in its 
position by a ring or strap of plati- 
num, d, passing round the top of 
the black-lead tube, which is partly 
cut away at the top ; the ring is 
tightened by a wedge of porcelain, 
e. When it is exposed to a high 
temperature, the expansion of the 
metallic rod, a a, forces the index 
forward to a distance equal to the 
difference in the amount of expan- 
sion between the metallic rod and the black- 
lead bar, and when cool it will remain pro- 
truded to the same distance, which will be 
greater or less according to the temperature ; 
the exact measurement of this distance is ef- 
fected by the scale, fig. 2. This scale is in- 



Fio. 1. 

DanielPs 
Pyrometer, 

Register. 



dependent of the register, and consists of two 
rules of brass, f g, joined together by their 
edges accurately at a right angle, and fitting 
square upon the two sides of the black-lead 
bar. Near one end of this double rule a small 
brass plate, A, projects at a right angle, which 




f 



Fic. 2. 
Daniell's Py- 
rometer, Scale. 



when the instrument is used is 
brought down upon the shoul- 
der of the register, formed by 
the notch cut away for the pla- 
tinum strap. To the extremity 
of the rule nearest this brass 
plate is attached a movable arm, 
D, turning at its fixed extremity 
upon a centre, ', and at the oth- 
er end carrying an arc of a cir- 
cle, E, the radius of which is 
exactly 5 in., accurately divided 
into degrees and thirds of a de- 
gree. Upon this arm, at the cen- 
tre, , another lighter arm, C, is 
made to turn, carrying upon the 
extremity of its longer limb a vernier, II, 
which moves on the face of the arc, and sub- 
divides the graduation into minutes. The 
shorter arm, which is half an inch in length, 
crosses the centre, and terminates in an obtuse 
steel point, m, turned inward at a right angle. 
To use the instrument, the metallic rod is placed 
in the register, and the index is pressed firmly 
down upon its extremity and secured tightly 
by the platinum strap and the wedge. The 
position of the index is then read off on the 
scale, by placing the register in the reentering 
angle for its reception, with the cross piece 
firmly held against the shoulder, and the steel 
point, wi, resting on the top of the index, in a 
notch cut for it, which coincides with the axis 
of the rod. A similar observation, made after 
the instrument has been heated and allowed to 
cool, gives the value of the expansion. The 
scale of the pyrometer is compared with that 
of the mercurial thermometer, by observing 
the amount of expansion between two fixed 
points, such as the melting of ice and the boil- 
ing of mercury. In this pyrometer the tem- 
perature to which its register has been exposed 
is deduced from the amount of elongation of 
its metallic bar, on the supposition that the 
amount of elongation for an elevation of the 
same number of- degrees is the same whether 
these degrees occur in the lower or in the high- 
est regions of the thermometric scale. We now 
know, however, that the coefficient of expan- 
sion of a solid is not constant throughout the 



PYROMETER 



111 






range of available temperatures ; hence, to ob- 
tain accurate measures with Daniell's pyrome- 
ter, it should be graduated by noting its indica- 
tions at successive high temperatures, the ther- 
mornetric values of which have been determined 
with an air thermometer. We should also be 
sure that successive heatings and coolings of 
the metallic bar do not change its coefficient of 
expansion. 2. Wedgwood's pyrometer, using 
the contraction of baked clay as a measure, con- 
sists of a metallic groove or gauge, the sides of 
which gradually converge ; pieces of very pure 
clay are made into small cylinders, having one 
side flattened, and, being heated to redness, 
made just to fit the larger extremity of the 
groove. It is a property of clay permanently 
to contract and become harder by exposure to 
a high temperature, in consequence of its losing 
a portion of the water with which it is com- 
bined ; and it was supposed that the amount 
of the contraction was exactly proportioned 
to the intensity of the heat to which it is 
exposed. The amount of contraction in the 
clay cylinders, after being exposed to the tem- 
perature which it was desired to measure, 
was easily determined by allowing the cylin- 
ders to slide from the top of the groove down- 
ward, till they arrived at a point beyond 
which they would not pass. Mr. Wedgwood 
divided the whole length of this gauge into 
240 parts or degrees, each of which he calcu- 
lated to be equal to 130 of Fahrenheit's scale ; 
and the zero of his scale, indicating a red heat, 
corresponded, according to his experiments, 
to 1,077. The difficulty of obtaining clay of 
uniform composition is of itself an almost in- 
superable objection, to this method of estima- 
ting high temperatures ; and it has been since 
ascertained that the observation upon which 
it is founded is not correct, for clay will con- 
tract as much by the long continuance of a 
comparatively low heat as by a short continu- 
ance of a high one. Hence the degrees of 
heat which Wedgwood's pyrometer has been 
applied to measure have been enormously ex- 
aggerated. Thus, Daniell's pyrometer shows 
that the melting point of cast iron is 2,786, 
and the highest temperature of a good wind 
furnace about 8,300 ; points which were esti- 
mated by Wedgwood at 20,577 and 32,277 
respectively. In other words, Wedgwood's 
pyrometer gave figures nearly ten times higher 
than those obtained by Daniell's. 3. The ex- 
pansion of air is used in pyrometers contrived 
by Pouillet, Regnault, and Jolly. If thermom- 
eters carefully made of any number of solids 
and liquids are all simultaneously exposed to 
the same successive elevations of temperature, 
it will be found that no two of them agree in 
their readings throughout the range of tem- 
peratures ; but if we at the same time expose 
a set of thermometers made of the permanent 
gases (i. e., of gases which have never been 
liquefied by pressure and cold), as oxygen, ni- 
trogen, air, hydrogen, and carbonic oxide, we 
will find that they all agree in their readings. 
6G2 VOL. xiv. 8 



For this reason, if for no other, these perma- 
nent gases should have the preference as bodies 
to form the expanding material of thermome- 
ters ; but the theory of the thermodynamics 
of gases shows that from the expansion of 
these gases alone can we arrive at the knowl- 
edge of true temperatures. In short, it ap- 
pears that while the coefficients of expansion 
of solids and liquids increase with the temper- 
ature, the permanent gases have the same co- 
efficient of expansion, which also remains con- 
stant throughout the range of available tem- 
peratures. Indeed, men of science have agreed 
that the determination of temperature rests 
upon the assumption that the permanent, or, 
as they are now called, perfect gases, when 
subjected to a constant pressure, expand pro- 
portionately to the rise of temperature. This 
expansion, in the case of dry air, amounts for 
each degree centigrade to 0-003665, or ^-fg of 
the volume at C. ; or what is the same, the 
pressure of a mass of air kept at a constant 
volume increases 0'003665 of its pressure at 
C. for each rise of 1 C. in temperature. The 
simplest air thermometer, and the one best 
adapted to practical purposes, is that of Jolly. 
Its action depends on the law just given. A 
hollow globe of hard porcelain (platinum cannot 
be used by reason of its permeability to gases 
at high temperatures), A, fig. 3, communicates 
through the capillary tube E with the fixed 
vertical glass tube B. 
The tube B commu- 
nicates with the open 
glass tube C through 
the rubber tube D. 
The tubes B and 
and the connecting 
rubber tube contain 
mercury. The tube 
C moves upward and 
downward in a ver- 
tical direction, and 
carries with it the 
rubber tube D, and 
thus the surface of 
the mercury in B can 
always be brought to. 
coincide with a mark, 
R, on the capillary 
tube E ; so that the 
air in A and E is al- 
ways observed under 
a constant volume 
after it has been 
heated to any tem- 
perature. The height 
of the mercury in 
above R is read off on 
scale.s formed by cut- 
ting lines in the silvering of slips of glass mir- 
rors placed behind the tubes C and R. When 
the centre of the pupil of the eye is seen in the 
plane passing through the surface of the mer- 
cury, we know that the line of sight is perpen- 
dicular to the length of the columns of mercu- 




Fra. 8. Jolly's Air Ther- 
mometer. 



112 



PYROMETER 



ry, and that their true difference of levels has 
been correctly determined. To graduate the 
apparatus, the globe is surrounded with melt- 
ing ice and the mercury is brought to the level 
R in the tube E ; then the height of the ba- 
rometer, & , and the height, A , of the mercu- 
ry in C above the level R in E, are observed. 
We will call 5 + ^o=Ho. The heights bo and 
ho must be reduced to what they would be if 
the mercury in the apparatus were at 0. 
To measure any temperature, , we expose the 
globe to this temperature for a length of time 
sufficient to heat uniformly the contained air, 
which is .known to be the case when the mer- 
cury is stationary in B and in 0. When this 
condition has been reached we obtain the 
height A, which is the difference of the read- 
ings of the levels of mercury at R and in 
reduced to 0., and then read the height 
I of the barometer reduced to 0. Calling 
h + b=ll, we have for the sought tempera- 

ture * = .oo366 H 5 r-ri^TT in which formula 8c 
is the cubical expansion of the porcelain or 
other material forming the globe. In this 
formula the volume of air contained in the ca- 
pillary tube E, up to the mark R, is neglect- 
ed ; but when the most accurate determina- 
tions are desired, it must be remembered that 
this portion of air in the pyrometer remains 
at or about the temperature of the air sur- 
rounding the part of the apparatus outside of 
the furnace. This temperature, which we will 
call t', can be determined by means of a 
thermometer placed close to the tube E. Now 
to obtain the exact value of the tempera- 
ture to which the globe has been exposed, we 
must add to the value of t as given above 

the following correction : t. ' 

V' H 1 + -00360W" 

in which expression represents the volume of 
the globe, t' the volume of the capillary tube 
from its junction with the globe up to the mark 
R, and v the reading of the thermometer con- 
tiguous to the tube E. The ratio is found 

o 

by determining the weight of the globeful of 
mercury up to the junction with it of the capil- 
lary tube, and the weight of the mercury in 
the capillary tube from its junction with the 
globe to the point R. If p be the weight of 
the mercury in the globe alone, and P the 
weight when both globe and capillary tube are 

filled up to the mark R,'then -=-~^. The 

v p 

determinations thus made with the air pyrome- 
ter are universally accepted as standards with 
which to test all other methods of pyrometry, 
and the confidence placed in any pyrometer 
increases with the constancy and closeness of 
its agreement with the determinations made 
with the air pyrometer. 4. The range and ac- 
curacy of pyrometers using the melting points 
of solids are limited to the number of metals 
and definite alloys whose melting points have 
been determined with precision. The method 



evidently gives only successive steps in eleva- 
tion of temperature. Some of these steps ac- 
cording to the determinations of fusibility by 
Pouillet, who used an air pyrometer in his ex- 
periments, are given in the article FUSIBILITY. 

5. The method of pyrometry by the chemical 
decomposition of solids is described in the 
article DISSOCIATION, and more detailed infor- 
mation may be found in Lamy's papers pub- 
lished in the Compte* rendus of the institute of 
France, vol. Ixix., p. 347, and vol. Ixx., p. 393. 

6. In measuring high temperatures by the heat- 
ing of water with heated platinum or other 
metal, according to Pouillet's method, we heat 
to the temperature to be measured a mass of 
the metal and then suddenly immerse it in a 
mass of water. Knowing the weight of the 
metal and its specific heat, and the weight of 
the water and its temperature before and after 
the immersion of the metal, we can compute 
the temperature of the latter before its immer- 
sion as follows : Let m be the weight of the 
metal, c its specific heat, and t its high tem- 
perature before immersion in the water. Let 
m' be the weight of the water, and t' its tem- 
perature before the introduction of the hot 
metal. The specific heat of water is unity. 
The thin metallic vessel containing the water 
has a weight , and its specific heat is ft. 
The thermometer which shows the amount 
of elevation of temperature of the water by 
the heated metal has a portion of its length 
heated ; let us call the weight of this part of 
the thermometer , and its specific heat d. 
Finally let 6 be the temperature of water, met- 
al, vessel, and thermometer after the immer- 
sion of the heated metal, and at the moiiient 
they have all reached the same temperature. 
The metal in falling in temperature from t to 
has lost t 6 degrees, and a quantity of heat 
equal to mc(t6). The water in being heated 
from t' to 6 has gained in temperature 8 t' 
degrees, and a quantity of heat equal to m 1 
(Qf). For a similar reason the vessel and the 
thermometer which partake of the heating 
of the water gain respectively ab(6 t 1 } and 
ed(0t'). Hence the whole quantity of heat 
gained is (m' + ab + ed)(6 $'), or m,(0t') if 



we make m i = m' + ab + ed ; m t is then called 
the equivalent mass of water. In forming 
an equation between the quantity of heat re- 
ceived and the quantity of 'heat lost we have 
mc(t-e) = mtft 1 ) whence , the tem- 
perature of the heated metal, is expressed by 

t = ~~ - + 6- In using this method Pouil- 

let heated a ball of platinum in a crucible of 
the same metal, and the vessel containing tho 
water had a wire cup in its centre into which 
the heated platinum mass was thrown. One 
of the elements of accuracy in this method is 
the precise knowledge of the specific heat of 
platinum at high temperatures. Pouillet made 
this a special study, and determined it up to 
1,200 C., using an air thermometer in obtain- 
ing the successive temperatures. To obtain 



PYROMETER 



113 






precise results with this method requires care- 
ful attention to several operations in the pro- 
cess, such as allowance for loss of heat by 
radiation from the water vessel during the ex- 
periment, and loss of weight of water by evap- 
oration after weighing it and after the immer- 
sion of the heated platinum. We have also to 
guard specially against the projection of water 
from the apparatus by the generation of steam 
by the hot platinum. 7. Becquerel's pyro- 
meter, based on the strength of thermo-electric 
currents produced by heating the junction of 
two different metals, is an improvement on a 
similar one devised by Pouillet. Two wires, 
one of platinum and the other of palladium, 
each about two metres long and of one square 
millimetre of section, are firmly tied together 
with fine platinum wire for a distance of about 
a centimetre from their ends. The palladium 
wire is enclosed in a porcelain tube, while the 
platinum wire is on the outside of this tube, 
which is itself enclosed in another tube of porce- 
lain. The free ends of the palladium and plati- 
num wires are soldered to copper wires which 
lead to a tangent galvanometer, and the junction 
of the copper and the palladium and platinum 
wires are immersed in melting ice to keep them 
at a constant temperature, so that no thermo- 
electric current can be generated in the appara- 
tus except at the junction of the wires in the 
porcelain tube. In order to obtain the value 
of a high temperature, the end of the porcelain 
tube containing the junction of the wires is 
heated up to this temperature, and from the 
deflection of the galvanometer needle produced 
by the thermo-electric current thus produced 
we deduce the temperature of the junction of 
the wires. This apparatus, to be of any value, 
has to be graduated by exposing the junction 
of the metals along with an air thermometer 
to the same successive high temperatures, and 
thus fixing the relation connecting the indica- 
tions of each apparatus with the correspond- 
ing temperatures. 8. Siemens's pyrometer is 
thus described by the inventor : " In order to 
realize a pyrometer by electrical resistance, it 
is necessary to rely upon the absolute mea- 
surement of the electrical resistance of a coil 
of wire, which must be made to resist intense 
heats without deteriorating through fusion or 
oxidation. Platinum is the only suitable metal 
for such an application, but even platinum wire 
deteriorates if exposed to the direct action of 
the flame of a furnace, and requires an exter- 
nal protection. The platinum wire used has, 
moreover, to be insulated and supported by a 
material which is not fused or rendered con- 
ductive at intense heats, and the disturbing in- 
fluence of the varying resistance of the wires 
leading to thje platinum wire has also to be 
neutralized. These various conditions are very 
fully realized by the arrangement represented 
in %. 4. Thin platinum wire is coiled upon 
a cylinder of hard-baked porcelain, upon the 
surface of which a double-threaded helical 
groove is formed for its reception, so as to 




prevent contact between the coils of wire. 
The porcelain cylinder is pierced twice longi- 
tudinally for the passage of two thick plati- 
num leading wires, which are connected to 
the thin spiral wire at the end. In the upper 
portion of the porcelain cylinder the two spi- 
ral wires are formed into 
a longitudinal loop, and 
are connected crossways 
by means of a platinum 
binding screw, which ad- 
mits of being moved up or 
down for the purpose of 
adjustment of the electri- 
cal resistance at the zero of 
the centigrade scale. The 
porcelain cylinder is pro- 
vided with projecting rims, 
which separate the spiral 
wire from the surrounding 
protecting tube of plati- 
num, which is joined to 
a longer tube of wrought 
iron, serving the purpose 
of a handle for moving the 
instrument. If the tem- 
perature to be measured 
do not exceed a moderate 
white heat, or say 1,300 
C.=2,372 F., it suffices to 
make the lower protecting 
tube also of wrought iron 
to save expense. This low- 
er portion only, up to the 
conical enlargement or boss 
of iron, is exposed to the 
heat to be measured . Three 
leading wires of insulated 
copper united into a light 
cable connect the pyrome- 
ter with the measuring in- 
strument, which may be at 
a distance of some hundred 
yards f roni the same. They 



FIG. 4.; Siemens's Py- 
rometer, Coil Tube. 



are connected by means of binding screws at the 
end of the tube to three thick platinum wires 
passing down the tube to the spiral of thin pla- 
tinum wire. Here two of the leading wires 
are united, whereas the third traverses the spi- 
ral, and joins itself likewise to one of the two 
former, which forms the return wire for two 
electric circuits, the one comprising the spiral 
of thin wire, and the other returning imme- 
diately in front of the same, but traversing in 
its stead a comparison coil of constant resis- 
tance. By this arrangement of wires the ef- 
fect of the varying resistances of the leading 
wires is completely neutralized, for both bat- 
tery circuits comprise the leading wires up to 
the distant coil, and all variations of resistance 
by temperature to which the leading wires 
may be subjected affect both sides of the bal- 
ance equally. The measuring instrument may 
consist of a differential galvanometer if to the 
constant resistance a variable resistance be 
added. If the pyrometer coil were to be put 



PYROMETER 



into a vessel containing snow and water, the 
balance of resistance between the two battery 
circuits would be obtained without adding va- 
riable resistance to the coil of constant resis- 
tance, and the needle of the differential gal- 
vanometer would remain at zero when the 
current is established. But on exposing the 
pyrometer to an elevated temperature, the re- 
sistance of its platinum coil would be increased, 
and resistance to the same amount would have 
to be added to the constant resistance of the 
measuring instrument, in order to reestablish 
the electrical balance. This additional resis- 
tance would be the measure of the increase of 
temperature, if only the ratio in which plati- 
num wire increases in electrical resistance with 
temperature is once for all established. This 
is a question which I shall revert to after hav- 
ing completed the description of the pyrome- 
tric instrument. Although I have stated that 
by means of a differential galvanometer and 
a variable resistance (constituting in effect a 
Wheatstone bridge arrangement) the increas- 
ing resistance of the platinum spiral may be 
measured, it was found that the use of a deli- 
cate galvanometer is attended with consider- 
able practical difficulty in iron works and oth- 
er rough places where it is important to meas- 
ure elevated temperatures, or on board ship 
for measuring deep-sea temperatures. I was 
therefore induced to seek the same result by 
the conception of an instrument which is inde- 
pendent in its action from tremulous motion, 
or from magnetic disturbance caused by mov- 
ing masses of iron, and which require no care- 
ful adjustment or special skill on the part of the 
operator. This instrument is represented in 
fig. 5, and may be termed a chemical resistance 
measurer or 'differential voltameter.' Fara- 
day has proved that the decomposition of wa- 
ter in a voltameter, expressed by the volume 
of gases V, is proportionate in the unit of time 
to the intensity I of the decomposing current, 

rr 

or that 1=^ According to Ohm's general 

law, the intensity I is governed by the electro- 
motive force E, and inversely by the resistance 

R, or it is 1=^. It is therefore ^=T[, or 

ET 

V=-jj-; or the volume V would give a cor- 
rect measure of the electrical resistance R, 
if only the electromotive force E and time T 
were known and constant quantities. But the 
electromotive force of a battery is very vari- 
able ; it is influenced by polarization of the 
electrodes, by temperature, and by the strength 
and purity of the acid employed. The volume 
of gases obtained is influenced, moreover, by 
the atmospheric pressure, and it is extremely 
difficult to make time observations correctly. 
It occurred to me, however, that these uncer- 
tain elements might be entirely eliminated in 
combining two similar voltameters in such a 
manner that the current of the same battery 
was divided between the two, the one branch 



comprising tie unknown resistance to be meas- 
ured, and the other a known and constant 
resistance. The volume of gas V, produced 
in this second voltameter, having a resistance 

R*V 

R, in circuit, would be expressed by V t =- t 
and we should have the proportion of V : V,= 
: -^ ; but E and T, being the same in both 

K K 

cases, may be struck out, and the expression 
will -assume the simple form V : V, : : R : 11,. 
The constant resistance R of the one circuit 
being known, it follows that the unknown re- 

T>y 

sistance R, is expressed by - - ; that is to say, 

by a constant multiplied by the proportion of 
gas produced in the two voltameters irrespec- 
tive of time, or strength of battery, or tem- 
perature, or the state of the barometer. The 
resistances R and R, are composed each of 
two resistances, namely, that of the principal 
coils, which we may term R or R /? and of 
the voltameter and leading wires, which is 
the same in both cases, and may be expressed 
by y. The expression should therefore be 
written as follows : V : V, = R, + y t : R -f y, 
R, being the unknown quantity. The mechan- 
ical arrangement of the instrument will be un- 
derstood from the diagram, fig. 5; and the 




Fio. 5. Siemens's Pyrometer, Resistance Measurer. 

whole arrangement of the pyrometer, with its 
leading wire and resistance measurer, from the 
general view given in fig. 6. The voltaic re- 
sistance measurer, fig. 5, consists of two cali- 
brated vertical tubes of glass of about three 
millimetres diameter, which are fixed upon a 
scale showing arbitrary but equal divisions. 
The upper ends of the tubes are closed by small 
cushions of India rubber pressed down upon 



PYROMETER 



115 



the openings by means of weighted levers, 
whereas the lower portions of the tubes are 
widened out and closed by plugs of wood, 
through which the electrodes in the form of 
pointed platinum wires penetrate to the depth 
of about 25 millimetres into the widened por- 
tions of the tubes. By a side branch the 
widened portion of each vertical tube com- 
municates by means of an India-rubber con- 




Fio. 6. Siemens's Pyrometer, General View. 

necting pipe to a little glass reservoir contain- 
ing acidulated water, and supported in a ver- 
tical slide. In raising the weighted cushions 
closing the upper ends of the vertical tubes, 
and in adjusting the position of the small 
reservoirs, the acidulated water will rise in 
both tubes to the zero line of the scale. In 
turning a button in front of the tubes the 
battery current is passed through both pairs 
of electrodes, the one circuit comprising the 
permanent resistance R and the leading wires 
up to the pyrometer, and the other the lead- 
ing wires and the pyrometer coil. If the re- 
sistance of the pyrometer coil should be equal 
to the permanent resistance R, then R, + y 
will be equal to R + y, and therefore V= V, ; 
but as the resistances differ, so will the vol- 
umes. Necessary conditions are, that both 
reservoirs are filled with the same standard 
solution of pure water with about 10 per cent, 
of sulphuric acid, that all of the electrodes are 
of the same form and size, and that their po- 
larity is reversed frequently during the progress 
of each observation, in order to avoid unequal 
polarization. With these precautions, which 
involve no particular skill or knowledge of 
electrical observation on the part of the ope- 
rator, very accurate results are obtained ; but 
in order not to incur considerable error of ob- 
servation, it is advisable not to continue the 
current, reversing the same, say twice, until at 
least 40 divisions of gases are produced in the 
least activated tube, which operation will oc- 
cupy from two to three minutes, if a battery of 
from four to six Daniell elements is employed. 
The volumes V and V, being noted, after hav- 
ing allowed half a minute for the gases to col- 
lect after the current has ceased, the weighted 
cushions upon the tubes are raised in order to 
allow the gases to escape, when the water 
levels will immediately return to their zero 
position, to make ready for another observa- 



tion. By inserting the observed values for V 
and V y into the expression above given, the 
unknown resistance R / can be easily calculated ; 
but in order to facilitate the use of the instru- 
ment, I have prepared a table which gives at a 
glance the resistance due to any two observed 
volumes, the volumes V governing the vertical, 
V, the horizonal columns, and the resistance 
read off at the point of intersection. At each 
point of intersection the resistance is marked 
in black, and the corresponding temperature 
in red ink. It now remains only to be shown 
what is the relation between the resistance 
and temperature in heating a platinum wire. 
The researches of Dr. Matthiesen, who has 
made the latest investigation on the effect 
of temperature upon electrical resistance, are 
restricted to the narrow range of temperatures 
between and 100 C., nor do they comprise 
platinum. He adopted the following general 

expression for the pure metals : R<=j T~TV 

which, in determining the specific values of x 
and y for each metal, gives a close agreement 
with observation between the narrow limits 
indicated, but is wholly inapplicable for tem- 
peratures exceeding 200 C., when the value 
t* commences to predominate and to produce 
absurd values for R<. It was necessary for 
my purpose to undertake a series of elaborate 
experiments with a view of finding a ratio of 
general application. Coils of thin wire, of 
platinum, iron, copper, and some other met- 
als, were gradually heated and cooled in metal- 
lic chambers containing the bulbs of mercury 
thermometers, and for higher temperatures of 
air thermometers, and the electrical resistan- 
ces were carefully noted. The progressive in- 
crease of electrical resistance was thus com- 
pared directly with the increasing volume of a 
permanent gas (carefully dried) between the 
limits of zero and 470 C., and a ratio estab- 
lished which is represented by the formula 
R ( =aT 2 + /rr + y, in which T signifies total 
temperature counting from the absolute zero 
(272 C.), and a, /?, and 7 specific coefficients 
for each metal. According to this formula, 
the electrical resistance is a constant at the 
absolute zero, and progresses in a ratio rep- 
resented graphically by a tipped-up parabola, 
approaching more and more toward a uniform 
ratio at elevated temperatures. Although the 
comparison with the air thermometer could 
only be carried up to 470 C., the general cor- 
rectness of the ratio of increase just stated has 
been verified by indirect means in measuring 
progressive heats, and by comparison with the 
platinum ball pyrometer. It is important to 
mention here that great care must be exercised 
in the selection of the platinum wire for the 
measuring spiral, one of two samples, both of 
which were supplied by the same eminent ma- 
kers, Messrs. Johnson and Mathey, having con- 
ducted 8'2 and the other only 4'7 times better 
than mercury at C. The abnormal electri- 
cal resistance of some platinum wire is due 



116 



PYKOMETER 



chiefly to the admixture of iridium or other 
metals of the same group, and it appears that 
the platinum prepared by the old welding pro- 
cess is purer and therefore better suited for 
electrical purposes than the metal consolida- 
ted by fusion in a Deville furnace. This py- 
rometer has already received several useful 
applications. Through its first application an 
important telegraph cable was saved from de- 
struction through spontaneous generation of 
heat. Prof. Bolzani of Kazan has made some 
interesting applications of it for recording the 
temperature at elevated points and at points 
below the. earth's surface. Mr. Lowthian Bell 
has used it in his well known researches on 
blast-furnace economy; and at several iron 
works pyrometer tubes are introduced into the 
heating stoves, and permanently connected 
with the office, where the heat of each stove 
can at all times be read off and recorded." Ex- 
perience has shown that of all pyrometers, 
this is the best adapted for use in the arts. 9. 
By Mayer's pyrometer the expansion of the 
wave length of a definite sound, caused by ele- 
vation of temperature, is measured as follows : 
Opposite the mouth of an organ pipe is placed 
a Helmholtz resonator (see SOUND), which re- 
sponds to the note of the organ pipe. The 
sonorous pulses, emanating from the organ 
pipe, enter the mouth of the resonator, and 
are thence sent through a tube terminated by 
a spiral tube of platinum. The pulses which 
have passed through this spiral tube are led to 
one of Konig's vibrating manometric flames. 
Another flame placed directly behind the for- 
mer one is vibrated by pulses which have pro- 
ceeded directly from the organ pipe. If the 
temperature in the organ pipe and in the spiral 
tube is the same (as is the case before the latter 
is introduced into the furnace), on viewing the 
flames in a rotating mirror we shall see both 
flames vibrating together and presenting the 
appearance of a deeply serrated band of light. 
Now, on slowly introducing the spiral tube into 
the furnace, we shall see the serrations, pro- 
duced by the pulses which have traversed this 
tube, slowly sliding over the fixed serrations 
which are caused by the pulses led directly from 
the organ pipe to its special flame. After the 
air in the spiral tube has reached the tempera- 
ture of the furnace and is stationary, we shall 
observe the serrations stationary also. From 
this observation of the number of movable ser- 
rations which have glided over any one fixed 
serration we can deduce the temperature of 
the furnace, as follows : Let t = temperature 
centigrade of the air in and around the organ 
pipe ; t' = that of the air in the spiral or fur- 
nace tube ; v = velocity of sound at tempera- 
ture t ; v' = that of sound at temperature t' ; 
I = number of wave lengths in furnace tube 
at temperature t ; d = observed displacement 
of resonator serrations by an elevation of tem- 
perature t' t. Then <', the temperature of 

the furnace, will be t > = 



PYROPHORUS 

which gives t' in terms of t>, Z, and d. For 
fuller details concerning this method see the 
" American Journal of Science " for Decem- 
ber, 1872. The advantage of this process is 
that no correction has to be made for baro- 
metric pressure, and the precision of the meth- 
od depends alone on the accuracy of the de- 
termination of the coetficient -00367, which is 
the number arrived at by Regnault and Mag- 
nus for the expansion of air under a constant 
pressure ; and this is one of the most certain 
constants we have in physics. Hence, theo- 
retically, this method is as accurate as that of 
the air thermometer. For further information 
on this important subject of pyromctry, see 
an article entitled Pyrometrische Versuche, by 
A. Weinhold, in Poggendorff's Annalen, vol. 
xxix., 1873. In this the author gives the bib- 
liography of the subject and details of his ex- 
periments with all pyrometers to decide their 
relative values in practice. 

PYROPHONE (Gr. 7rfy>, and ijxjvJj, sound), or 
Flame Organ, a musical instrument invented by 
Frederic Kastner of Paris, in which the tones 
are produced by flames of hydrogen or illu- 
minating gas burning in tubes of different 
sizes and lengths, arranged similarly to those 
in the common pneumatic organ. The pro- 
duction of musical tones by means of the little 
apparatus called the philosopher's lamp, in 
which hydrogen gas is burned in a tube, is a 
popular and familiar experiment; but it has 
been hitherto difficult to produce the same ef- 
fects with illuminating gas in consequence of 
the carbon element interfering with the explo- 
sions of the gases. Kastner has overcome this 
difficulty by burning the gas in several small 
jets arranged in a circle, instead of a large 
one. He also made the discovery that when 
these flames were brought together the sound 
ceased, reappearing as soon as they were sep- 
arated, and that the position of the flames 
should be one third the distance from the base 
of the tube. By a mechanical contrivance 
keys like those of a pianoforte or organ are 
connected with jointed arms, at the end of 
which the flames are burned in such a manner 
that they may be spread apart or joined to- 
gether at will by a touch of the finger. The 
principles involved will be treated in the arti- 
cle SOUND. (See also FLAME.) 

PYROPHORUS (Gr. rip, fire, and jtpetv, to 
bear), a substance which takes fire on exposure 
to the air. This property is possessed by sev- 
eral substances and mixtures specially pre- 
pared. Finely divided metals, as iron when 
reduced from the oxide at the lowest possible 
temperature by a current of hydrogen, exhibit 
it in a remarkable degree. The effect appears 
to be produced in all cases by rapid combina- 
tion of the oxidizable substance with the oxy- 
gen of the air. An excellent pyrophorus is 
produced by calcining in a close crucible 6 parts 
of lampblack mixed with 11 of sulphate of 
potash ; the product is a mixture of carbon 
and sulphuret of potassium. Homberg's pyro- 



PYROTECHXY 



117 



phorus is made by stirring a mixture of equal 
parts of alum and brown sugar in an iron ladle 
over the tire till it becomes dry ; then heating 
the same in a red-hot vessel nearly closed as 
long as a flame appears at the aperture. It 
is then removed from the fire, and carefully 
stopped until required for the experiment. 
Tartrate of lead heated to dull redness in a glass 
tube becomes a brown powder, which when 
shaken out into the air ignites. It is prepared 
from the solution of acetate or nitrate of lead 
by adding to it tartaric acid or a tartrate. 

PlROTECmn (Gr. TTV/J, fire, and rkxyn, art), 
the art of making fireworks for public exhibi- 
tions or for military purposes. Until the in- 
vention of gunpowder, and before the proper- 
ties of saltpetre were understood, fireworks 
may be said to have been unknown in Europe ; 
but the Chinese from an early period were skil- 
ful in true pyrotechnic works. In Europe the 
art was first cultivated by the Italians ; and it 
was described by Biringucci Vanuccio in his 
work De la pirotechnia (1540). In France the 
subject was treated by J. Hanzelet in his Traites 
militaires (1598), who recommended the use 
of the rocket in war, thus anticipating Con- 
greve. The Chinese had from an unknown 
period employed the rocket as an offensive 
weapon, affixing to it a pointed barb like that 
of an arrow. Among the earliest pyrotechnic 
displays of much note in Europe were the ex- 
hibitions at Fontainebleau by Sully in 1606, 
and by Morel, commissary of artillery, in 1612. 
The rejoicings at the establishment of peace in 
1739 gave occasion for splendid exhibitions at 
the hotel de ville and the Pont Neuf in Paris 
and at Versailles. The compositions prepared 
for fireworks are too numerous to be even 
named in this article, and reference can be 
made merely to the materials commonly em- 
ployed, with exemplifications of the manner in 
which they are compounded in a few of the 
principal pieces. Gunpowder and- its ingre- 
dients, nitre, sulphur, and charcoal, are the 
chief constituents of fireworks. Iron and steel 
filings and cast-iron borings, which must be 
free from rust, are used to increase the vivid- 
ness of the combustion, and produce what is 
known as the Chinese " brilliant fire." It is 
these which are thrown out by rockets as they 
explode, and produce the bright sparks as they 
meet the oxygen of the air. Copper filings 
and the salts of copper give a greenish tint to 
the fire; zinc filings, a fine blue; sulphuret of 
antimony, a light greenish blue with much 
smoke; amber, rosin, and common salt pro- 
tected against dampness, are used to give a 
yellow fire ; a red is produced by lampblack, 
and a pink by nitre in excess; the salts of 
strontia also give a red color, and those of 
barytes a green. The most useful piece of fire- 
works is the sky rocket, employed as a signal, 
and under favorable circumstances visible for 
30 leagues. As a warlike missile it will be 
treated under ROCKET. In exhibitions of fire- 
works the rocket is aluminous projectile, made 



to dart upward with immense velocity and a 
loud hissing sound, and explode at the top of 
its flight. It is sent up singly or in volleys of 
great numbers together, and as they explode 
each one commonly discharges colored lights 
which descend in brilliant showers, or dart 
forth in every direction with the irregular mo- 
tions of the so-called fusees and serpents. It 
is made of various compositions, which are 
packed in tubes formed by rolling paper hard 
round a cylindrical core. The match by which 
the rocket is to be fired is introduced into the 
cavity at the bottom, and the whole exposed 
surface of the composition forming the walls 
of the cavity is instantly ignited. The gaseous 
products, being violently ejected from the open 
end, react with equal force, carrying the rocket 
forward in the other direction. The move- 
ment would be extremely wild if not con- 
trolled by some regulator. This is furnished 
in a long balance stick firmly tied to the rocket 
and projecting several feet behind. It is made 
of light wood, and when it is set free after 
the explosion it rarely falls with sufficient 
velocity to do any harm. Long triangular 
pieces of pasteboard have been secured by the 
edge to the sides of the rocket as a substitute 
for the stick, and have also served to steady 
its movement. Among the decorations or gar- 
nitures for the rockets are stars, small cylin- 
drical or cubical bodies variously compounded, 
as of 1 part of sulphuret of antimony, 2 of 
quartz, 2 of gunpowder, 15 of nitre, 6 of sul- 
phur, and 2 of zinc filings. The materials, 
being separately pulverized, are mixed into a 
stiff paste with gum water or glue, made into 
the desired shapes, rolled in gunpowder, and 
dried. Roman candles are cylindrical cases 
charged with stars alternating with a composi- 
tion like that of the rockets, and with gunpow- 
der. A small quantity of the composition is 
rammed into the bottom of the case, upon this 
a little gunpowder, and a star is then pushed 
down upon the powder. These charges are 
repeated in the same order until the case is 
filled. The end is then closed with a piece 
of match paper pasted round the outside and 
drawn to a point at the top. When this is 
fired the charges are shot at short intervals 
successively from the tube into the air. The 
effect is heightened by varying the composition 
and colors of the stars. A red fire adapted 
for this or other pieces may be made by mixing 
4 parts of dry nitrate of strontia with 15 of 
pulverized gunpowder ; or this may be varied 
with 40 parts of the strontia, 13 of sulphur, 5 
of chlorate of potash, and 4 of sulphuret of 
antimony. The usual precautions should be 
observed in pulverizing and mixing the chlo- 
rate of potash. A green fire like that burned 
in theatres, which gives to everything upon 
the stage a death-like aspect, is produced by 77 
parts of nitrate of barytes, 13 of sulphur, 5 of 
chlorate of potash, 3 of pulverized charcoal, 
and 2 of arsenic. Bengal lights, also called 
blue lights, and used by ships as night signals, 



118 



PYROXEXE 



are compounded of nitre 7 or 5 parts, sulphur 
2, antimony 1 ; or for the sparkling ones, 4 
each of sulphur and nitre, 1 of antimony, and 
2 of fulminating composition (of fulminating 
mercury and gunpowder). The proportions 
of these ingredients may be variously modified 
from those given. The published works on 
pyrotechny are mostly of the 17th and 18th 
centuries. Those of more recent date are: 
L'art defaire d peu de frais lesfeux (Tartifice 
(Paris, 1828) ; Manuel 'de Vartificier, by A. D. 
Vergnaud (Paris, 1828); and *" Pyrotechny," 
by G. W. Mortimer (London, 1853). The full- 
est work in English is "System of Pyrotechny, 
comprehending the Theory and Practice, with 
the Application of Chemistry," by James Cut- 
bush (large 8vo, Philadelphia, 1825). 

PYKI)XK\E (Gr. nvp, fire, and #vof, a stran- 
ger), a mineral species of Dana's augite section 
of the silicates, comprising numerous varie- 
ties. That to which the name was first applied, 
though found in the so-called igneous rocks, 
was supposed not to occur in modern lavas; 
whence the name. The species is interesting 
for its many varieties, which differ in physi- 
cal characters and chemical constituents, and 
consequently have been separated by differ- 
ent mineralogists among several species. They 
were first brought together under the head of 
pyroxene by Hatty, who recognized the iden- 
tity of the crystalline form common to them 
all ; and though for a time the relationship 
among them was not admitted by chemists, it 
was at last found that the differences in their 
composition resulted from the substitution of 
one isomorphous element for another, and that 
one general formula might be used to express 
the combination of silicic acid with one or 
more of the following bases (one replaced by 
another in any proportions), viz.: lime, mag- 
nesia, protoxide of iron, or manganese, and 
sometimes soda. Alumina may also enter into 
the composition, replacing it may be a portion 
of silicic acid, without essentially changing the 
crystallization. Among the varieties comprised 
in this species are the augites, coccolite, diop- 
side, sahlite, jeffersonite, and many others. 

PYROXYLIC SPIRIT (also known as pyrolig- 
neous spirit or ether, wood spirit or naphtha, 
methylic alcohol, hydrate of methyle, &c.), a 
spirituous liquid, not a product of fermenta- 
tion, but forming one of the most volatile con- 
stituents of pyroligneous acid, from which it is 
obtained in the process of purifying this acid 
by distillation; formula CH 4 O. (See ACETIC 
ACID, and NAPHTHA.) When purified, wood 
spirit is a colorless liquid of a penetrating em- 
pyreumatic odor, and a disagreeable burning 
taste. It is very inflammable, burning like al- 
cohol with a blue flame. It mixes with water, 
alcohol, and ether in all proportions. It boils 
at 150, and at 68 its specific gravity is 0'798 ; 
at 32, 0-8179. The substance was first recog- 
nized by P. Taylor in 1813; but its properties 
were first explained by Dumas and Peligot in 
1835. In Great Britain wood naphtha, not 



PYRRHUS 

being subject to the excise duty, has been a 
valuable substitute for alcohol in various man- 
ufactures. By repeated rectifications over lime 
or chalk, and rejecting the latter portions in 
the distillations, it was obtained of strength 
varying from 80 to 90 per cent, of pure spirit, 
and of specific gravity from 0*87 to 0-83. From 
its property of dissolving the resins it was 
much used in the production of varnishes, lac- 
quers, &c., and by the hatters for their solu- 
tions of shellac. The medical properties of 
wood naphtha have not been fully investigated, 
but it has been regarded as narcotic, sedative, 
and anti-emetic. At present it is little used, if 
at all. Berthelot has prepared wood spirit ar- 
tificially by acting upon marsh gas with chlo- 
rine, and decomposing the chloride thus ob- 
tained by means of a solution of potash. 

PYROXYLINE. See EXPLOSIVES, vol. vii., p. 
35. 

PYRRHA. See DEUCALION. 

PYRRUO, a Greek philosopher, a native of 
Elis, born about 360 B. C., died about 270. 
He was successively a painter, a poet, and a 
companion of Anaxarchus, under whose patron- 
age he joined the eastern expedition of Alex- 
ander the Great. He addressed a poem to 
that monarch, for which he received 10,000 
pieces of gold. After the Indian campaign he 
returned to Elis, where he was made high 
priest, and for his sake a law was passed ex- 
empting philosophers from the payment of 
taxes. The only condition which he deemed 
worthy of a philosopher was that of suspended 
judgment. A man, he taught, should be in- 
different to all external circumstances of life, 
and allow nothing to disturb his equanimity. 
Virtuous imperturbability was the highest aim 
of life, but truth, from a scientific point of 
view, unattainable. Ho developed his views 
only orally, and his name was bestowed on 
all who shared them. The Pyrrhonists were 
called inquirers, skeptics, ephectics, and doubt- 
ers. His doctrines were expounded by Timon, 
Philo of Athens, Nausiphanes of Teos, and 
many others. 

PYRRHCS, son of Achilles. See NEOPTOLE- 
Mrs. 

PYRRHUS, king of Epirus, born about 318 
B. C., killed at Argos in 272. He was the son 
of ^Eaoides and Plithia, and traced his descent 
from Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles, and was also 
connected with the royal family of Macedon. 
His father having been dethroned by the Epi- 
rotes, Pyrrhus was rescued and brought to 
Glaucias, king of the Taulantinns, an Illyrian 
people, who educated him with his own chil- 
dren. When Cassanders power in Greece 
waa weakened, his protector restored Pyrrhus 
to his throne; but he was again expelled by 
the Epirotes, and fled to his brother-in-law 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, who was then in Asia. 
He distinguished himself at the battle of Ipsus 
in 301, and subsequently went into Egypt ns a 
hostage for Demetrius. There he gained the 
good will of Ptolemy's wife Berenice, married 



PYRRHUS 



t 



PYTHAGORAS 



119 



her daughter Antigone, and was furnished by 
the king with a fleet and troops to recover 
Epirus. He found Neoptolemus in possession 
of the throne, and the two agreed to hold it in 
common; but presently, to prevent his own 
destruction, Pyrrhus put Neoptolemus to death 
(about 295). He now interfered in the quar- 
rels of Antipater and Alexander, the two sons 
of Cassander, and took the part of the latter 
on condition that he should receive Acarnania, 
Amphilochia, Ambracia, and some Macedonian 
districts. He then placed Alexander on the 
throne of Macedon, but the latter was soon de- 
throned by a powerful neighbor. Pyrrhus came 
and restored him to his kingdom. Soon after- 
ward Demetrius, to whom Alexander had also 
applied for aid, put him to death and made 
himself king in his place. Hostilities soon 
arose between Pyrrhus and Demetrius, who 
had formerly been close friends. In 291 Thebes 
revolted from Demetrius ; and while the Mace- 
donian king was engaged in the siege of that 
place Pyrrhus marched into Thessaly, but was 
forced to retire. Thebes fell in 290, and De- 
metrius invaded Epirus in 289, leaving Pan- 
tauchus in j^Etolia with a large force. Pyrrhus, 
advancing to meet Demetrius, but taking a dif- 
ferent route, entered ^Etolia, encountered Pan- 
tauchus, vanquished him in single combat, and 
routed his army. The next year he invaded 
Macedonia, and marched as far as Edessa, but 
was driven back, and soon after concluded a 
peace with Demetrius, who was now anxious 
to regain his father's dominions in Asia. Here- 
upon Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus en- 
tered into an alliance, which they persuaded 
Pyrrhus to join, to attack the Macedonian king 
in his European dominions. Demetrius fled, 
and his kingdom was divided, a large share of 
Macedonia falling to Pyrrhus ; but the Mace- 
donians soon drove him out again, and put 
themselves under Lysimachus. In 281 an em- 
bassy from the Tarentines implored Pyrrhus 
to come over to Italy and assist the Greek in- 
habitants against the Romans. He set out in 
280 with an army of 20,000 foot, 3,000 horse, 
2,000 archers, 500 slingers, and a number of ele- 
phants ; but a great storm scattered the fleet, 
and Pyrrhus arrived at Tarentum with only a 
small part of his army. There, while waiting 
for the dispersed ships to come in, finding the 
inhabitants indisposed to take their proper 
share in the war, he compelled them to enter 
the army, closed their theatres, and soon 
showed himself their master as well as ally. 
Failing to negotiate with M. Valerius La3vi- 
nus, the Roman general, Pyrrhus met him on 
the river Siris (now Sinno), and won a victory 
with the loss of a large number of his best 
troops. " Another such victory," he is re- 
ported to have said, "and I must return to 
Epirus alone." He now sent Cineas to Rome, 
offering peace on condition that the indepen- 
dence of the Italian Greeks should be recog- 
nized, and that the Samnites, Lucanians, Apu- 
lians, and Bruttians should regain the pos- 



sessions they had lost in the war. The Ro- 
man senate rejected the terms, and Pyrrhus 
marched to within 24 miles of Rome, plun- 
dering the country as he went; but the ar- 
rival of the Roman army from Etruria com- 
pelled him to retire. He took the field again 
in the spring of 279, and gained a hardly won 
victory at Asculum. Few of his Grecian 
troops were now left ; and, unable to obtain 
reinforcements from home, he was willing to 
conclude a truce in order to drive the Cartha- 
ginians from Sicily. Previously the Roman 
consuls Fabricius and ^milius had sent back 
to Pyrrhus a servant who had deserted and 
promised to poison his master, and in return 
for this Pyrrhus released all the Roman prison- 
ers. He now passed over into Sicily, and at 
first was so successful that the Carthaginians 
agreed to assist him against the Romans on 
condition of peace. He rejected this offer, but 
failing in an attack upon Lilybfeum returned 
to Italy in 276. His fleet was attacked by the 
Carthaginians, and 70 of his ships were de- 
stroyed. In 275 he was routed near Beneven- 
tum by Curius Dentatus, and obliged to return 
to Epirus. In 273 he invaded Macedonia, of 
which Antigonus Gonatas, the son of Deme- 
trius, was then king, and for the second time 
gained possession of that country. At the in- 
stance of Cleonymus, who had been excluded 
from the Spartan throne, he marched into 
Laconia in 272 with 25,000 foot, 2,000 horse, 
and 24 elephants. He arrived before Sparta 
at the close of day, but deferred the attack 
until the following morning. During the 
night the Spartans fortified themselves so 
strongly as to be able to hold the city until 
relieved by reinforcements. Taking up his 
winter quarters in Laconia, Pyrrhus was in- 
duced to interfere in the affairs of Argos, and 
in a conflict in the streets of that city he re- 
ceived a slight wound from a javelin. He was 
about to cut down the Argive who had attack- 
ed him, when the mother of the man hurled 
from the roof of a house a large tile which 
struck Pyrrhus on the back of the neck. He 
fell from his horse and was killed by soldiers 
of the enemy. Pyrrhus was regarded in sub- 
sequent times as one of the greatest generals 
that had ever lived. He wrote a work on the 
art of war, and his commentaries are quoted 
by Dionysius and Plutarch. 

PYTHAGORAS, a Greek philosopher, founder 
of a philosophical, religious, and political asso- 
ciation in southern Italy, born in Samos about 
580 B. C., died probably in Metapontum about 
500. He was the son of Mnesarchus, an opu- 
lent merchant, and according to some accounts 
was a disciple of Pherecydes of Syros, and of 
Thales and Anaximander. He is said to have 
spent 30 years in travel for the purpose of 
collecting all attainable knowledge, especially 
the esoteric doctrines of priests concerning the 
worship of the gods. Egypt, Arabia, Phoeni- 
cia, Judea, Babylonia, and even Gaul and In- 
dia, are among the countries in which he is said 



120 



PYTHAGORAS 



PYTHEAS 



to have travelled. Herodotus traces the doc- 
trine of metempsychosis and certain religious 
regulations of the Pythagoreans and Orphists 
back to the Egyptians, thus apparently imply- 
ing that Pythagoras visited Egypt. Aristotle 
testifies that the mathematical sciences origi- 
nated in Egypt, and were there cultivated by 
the priests ; and according to Callirnachus Py- 
thagoras brought his mathematical knowledge 
from that country. On the authority of Apol- 
lodorus, Diogenes Laertius ascribes to Pythag- 
oras, among other things, the discovery of the 
relation between the hypothenuse and the 
sides of the right-angled triangle. It is easy 
to see that many of the statements made by 
later writers are mere embellishments and fa- 
bles. Following Aristoxenus, Diogenes Laer- 
tius again says that Pythagoras emigrated to 
Orotona in lower Italy, in order to escape the 
tyranny of Polycrates, and according to Cicero 
he came to Italy about 529 B. 0. In Crotona he 
succeeded in winning the aristocratic party to 
his project of an ethical and religious reform, 
and in uniting them into a powerful political 
faction. Then it is said that about 20 years 
later the democratic party of Crotonians, under 
Cylon, obtained his banishment, and he with- 
drew to Metapontum, where he soon died. 
It is generally held that Philolaus, a contem- 
porary of Socrates, was the first to publish 
the Pythagorean system of philosophy; but 
though a considerable number of fragments 
that pass under his name are extant, their au- 
thenticity is very questionable. BOckh's col- 
lection of the fragments has baen in part, if 
not wholly, rejected by Zeller, Rose, and oth- 
ers. The writings reported to come from 
Pythagoras himself are undoubtedly spurious. 
The most important indications of his doc- 
trines are obtained from the writings of Aris- 
totle. The fundamental doctrines are, that 
the essences of all things rest upon numerical 
relations; that numbers are the principle of all 
that exists; and that the world subsists by the 
rhythmical order of its elements. Everywhere 
in nature appear the two elements of the finite 
and the infinite, which give rise to the ele- 
mentary opposites of the universe, the odd and 
even, one and many, right and left, male and 
female, fixed and moved, straight and curved, 
light and darkness, square and oblong, good 
and bad. The essence of number is unity, 
which is at once odd and even, and contains 
in itself in gorrn all the universe. It is both 
the form and the substance of all things, and 
identical with the Deity. Proceeding from 
itself it begets duality, and returning upon it- 
self it begets trinity. Added to itself it pro- 
duces the line; a third point placed on the 
other two gives the surface; and a fourth 
point placed on the other three gives the pyra- 
mid or solid. The quadrate or tetractys and 
the decade are, like unity, sacred numbers and 
first principles. The univers* was produced 
by the breathing of the first principle into the 
infinite void of the world, which thus became 



both finite and infinite, and therefore capable 
of development into a multiplicity of numbers 
or things. In the actual world every single 
whole is a unit, capable of further develop- 
ment by the vital process of breathing. Every 
abstract idea is a number, and material objects 
are symbols of numbers. Thus the Pythago- 
reans called justice a square number, intend- 
ing by this to express the correspondence 
between action and suffering or retribution. 
There are five elements, earth, fire, air, wa- 
ter, and ether, represented respectively by the 
cube, pyramid, octahedron, icosahedron, and 
dodecahedron. The universe is a harmonious 
whole, consisting of ten great bodies revolving 
around a common centre. The doctrine of 
the harmony of the spheres was based on the 
idea that the celestial spheres were separated 
from each otber by intervals corresponding 
with the relative lengths of strings arranged 
to produce harmonious tones. The centre is 
the sun, the seat of Jupiter, the principle of 
life, and the most perfect object in nature. 
That his hypothesis of the sun's immobility, 
and of the revolution of the earth around it, 
agrees with the facts of nature, was shown 
much later (about 280 B. C.) by the astron- 
omer Aristarchus of Satnos. The stars also 
are divinities, and men and even inferior ani- 
mals are akin to the Supreme Being. The 
souls of men are moving numbers, light parti- 
cles from the universal soul, capable of com- 
bining with any body, and destined to pass suc- 
cessively through several. They are chained 
to the body as a punishment, and dwell in it 
as in a prison. With the theory of metem- 
psychosis he combined the doctrine of moral 
retribution. The reason and understanding 
have their seats in the brain ; the passions are 
placed in the heart. Moral good is identified 
with unity, evil with multiplicity; virtue is 
the harmony of the soul and its similitude to 
God. The aim of life is to make it repre- 
sent the beautiful order of the universe. The 
whole practical tendency of Pythagoreanism 
was ascetic (according to some accounts in- 
cluding abstinence from animal food), and in- 
culcated a strict self-control, promoted, as is 
said, by a novitiate of silence, and an earnest 
culture, in which music was considered impor- 
tant. Though it seems to have been founded 
on the mysticism of numbers, yet Aristotle 
called the Pythagoreans a school of mathema- 
ticians. See Schaarschmidt, Die angelilirlie 
Schriftttelltrei de* Philolaut (Bonn, 1864); 
Zeller, Die Pythagorassage (Leipsic, 1865); and 
Ueberweg's " History of Philosophy " (trans- 
lated into English, New York, 1872). 

PYBCS. See APPLE, Asn, and PEAR. 

PYTHEAS, a Greek navigator of Massilia or 
Marseilles, who flourished about the age of 
Alexander the Great. He is said to have 
made two voyages, in one of which he visited 
Britain and Thule (perhaps Iceland), and in 
the second passed along the western and north- 
ern coast of Europe. He also wrote two 



PYTHIA 



QUADRANT 



121 



books, one of which, describing the ocean, 
was probably an account of his first voyage, 
and the other, entitled Periplus, of his second. 
Polybius and Strabo treat the statements of 
Pytheas with contempt ; but in modern times 
it has become evident that he was a bold navi- 
gator and sagacious observer. He was the 
first who determined the latitude of a place 
from the shadow cast by the sun, obtaining 
the position of Massilia by the gnomon. He 
was also aware of the influence of the moon 
upon the tides. The few fragments of Pytheas 
now extant were collected by Arvedson (TJp- 
sal, 1824). 

PTTHIA. See DELPHI. 

PITHIAN GAMES, one of the four great na- 
tional festivals of Greece, held at Delphi, which 
was originally called Pytho from the serpent 
Python killed by Apollo near there. The legen- 
dary account attributed the origin of these 
games to Apollo, although there were tradi- 
tions referring them to Amphictyon, Diomedes, 
and other heroes. At first the Delphians them- 
selves decided the disputes and adjudged the 
prizes, but after the Crisssean war the man- 
agement came into the .hands of the Ainphic- 



tyons. Once, in Ol. 122, the games were held 
in Athens by the advice of Demetrius Polior- 
cetes. They appear to have lasted as long as 
the Olympic games, or till about A. D. 394. 
They were held in the Crisssean plain, which 
had a theatre for the musical contests, a race 
course, a stadium 1,000 ft. long, and probably 
a gymnasium, prytaneum, and similar build- 
ings. Some ancient writers tell us that they 
were first called Pythian games in 01. 48, when 
the Amphictyons assumed their management. 
Previously they had been held at the end of 
every eight years, but afterward at the end of 
every four. They were probably solemnized 
in the spring, and lasted several days. There 
were other Pythian games of less importance 
held in various places in Greece, Asia Minor, 
and Italy, where the worship of Apollo was 
established. 

PITHIAS. See DAMON AND PYTHIAS. 

PYTHON (Daudin), a genus of large tropical, 
non-venomous serpents, replacing in the old 
world the boas of the new. The pythons dif- 
fer from the boas in having four teeth in the 
intermaxillary bone, and in most of the sub- 
caudal scales being in pairs. (See BOA.) 



Q 



QTHE 17th letter and 13th consonant of the 
? English alphabet. It corresponds with 
the Hebrew and Phoanician koph, and as it 
is seldom used except in conjunction with u, 
most grammarians are disposed to regard it as 
a superfluous letter whose place could be sup- 
plied by k. It does not occur in the Greek, 
old Latin, Slavic, Irish, or Saxon alphabet ; 
but it was introduced into the Latin at a pret- 
ty early period. The words which are now 
written with a q were spelt by the ancient 
Romans with a c, as anticus for antiquus, co- 
tidie for quotidie; and some words are still 
spelt indiscriminately with either, as locutus 
or loquutus. Varro and some other gramma- 
rians never consented to admit this letter into 
the Roman alphabet. Others regarded it not 
as a simple letter, but as a contraction of CD or 
cu; thus quis, according to them, was origi- 
lally cvis or qis. The Anglo-Saxons for qu 
wrote cw. Q never ends a word in English, 
but it does in French, as cinq. It is some- 
times used without u in the transcription of 
words from the Arabic and other oriental lan- 
guages, to represent a peculiar guttural sound. 
The letters with which it interchanges are c 
and Tc. As a Latin numeral it stands for 500, 
or with a dash over it (<j ) for 500,000. Used 
as an abbreviation, it signifies quantum, quod, 
qucB, que (and), Quintus, &c. 

QUA BIRD, or Quawk. See FIGHT HERON. 

QUACKEJVBOS, George Payn, an American edu- 
cator, born in New York, Sept. 4, 1826. He 
graduated at Columbia college in 1843, spent a 



year in North Carolina, and began to study 
law in New York. In 1847 he opened a private 
school in that city, and he continued to teach 
till 1868. He has been a contributor to various 
journals, and in 1848-'50 conducted the "Lit- 
erary American." He has published many 
popular school books, including text books of 
rhetoric and natural philosophy, arithmetics, 
grammars, and elementary histories. He re- 
ceived the degree of LL. D. from Wesleyan 
university in 1863. 

QIADI, a powerful ancient people of S. E. 
Germany, of the Suevic race. They inhabited 
the country between Mount Gabreta, the Her- 
cynian forest, the Sarmatian mountains, and 
the Danube (portions of Bohemia, Moravia, 
and Lower Austria), their neighbors being the 
Gothini and Osi on the northeast, the Jazyges 
Metanastfe on the east, the Pannonians on the 
south, and the Marcomanni on the northwest. 
Of the last named they were allies. In the 
reign of Tiberius the Romans erected a king- 
dom of the Quadi, and gave the crown to Van- 
nius ; but in the reign of Marcus Aurelius the 
Quadi joined the German confederacy against 
the empire, and in 174 were on the point of 
destroying the imperial legions in a great bat- 
tle when a sudden storm enabled the Romans 
to recover and gain a victory. The Quadi re- 
mained independent till their disappearance 
from history about the close of the 4th century. 

QIADRAM (Lat. quadrant, a quarter), the 
fourth part of the circle or an arc of 90, and 
hence an instrument employed for measuring 



122 



QUADRANT 



angles in any plane. The use of quadrants has 
been for surveying and for making astronomi- 
cal observations, and especially in navigation 
for determining the meridian altitude of the 
sun, and through this the latitude of the ob- 
server. They have been constructed of a great 
variety of forms and dimensions adapted for 
their several uses ; but at present the interest 
attached to them is historical only, as they 
have been entirely superseded either by the 
sextant or the full circle. The former, of more 
portable form than the quadrant, by the use 
of two reflecting mirrors doubles the angle in- 
cluded between the direct and reflected line of 
light, and thus with an arc of 60 or one sixth 
of the circle includes a range of 120 ; while 
the circle, on account of the symmetry of its 
form and the completeness of its graduated arc 
all around, secures greater exactness in its read- 
ings, and is less liable to the introduction of any 
unsuspected source of error. Ptolemy made 
use of a quadrant for determining the obliquity 
of the ecliptic. Tycho Brahe had a large mural 
quadrant (so called from its being suspended 
upon an axis secured in a solid wall of ma- 
sonry) with which he observed altitudes, and 
also another on a vertical axis for measuring 
horizontal angles. The mural quadrants of 
that period were of 6 or 8 ft. radius, and for 
some time continued to be employed in the 
principal observatories. Sir Isaac Newton is 
said to have constructed a reflecting quadrant 
as early as 1672; but the first instrument of 
this character brought before the public was 
that afterward known as Hadley's, the in- 
vention of which was claimed by Godfrey, a 
mechanician of Philadelphia. This instrument, 
which has been in general use in navigation, is 
a graduated octant of 90 half degrees, reading 
as 90. With the radial bars at each extremi- 
ty of the arc it forms a triangular frame, which 
is made of convenient dimensions for holding 
in the hands. A movable radial bar or index 
revolves in the plane of the sector upon a pin 
passing through the centre. At the centre it 
carries a mirror, the face of which is perpen- 
dicular to this plane, and which in making an 
observation is turned toward the object, as the 
sun or a star, and at the other end it carries a 
vernier for subdividing the angles on the grad- 
uated limb. On the outer edge of the radial 
bar, back of the movable mirror, is the sight 
vane, which is directed across to a second mir- 
ror fixed upon the opposite bar, its plane per- 
pendicular to that of the bar, and its face so 
adjusted that a ray reflected from the first mir- 
ror to the second is transmitted from this to 
the eye at the sight vane. Only half of the 
glass of the second mirror, called the fore hori- 
zon glass, is silvered, and consequently rays 
passing through it from any object, as the hori- 
zon at sea, meet the eye in a direct line ; and 
if at the same instant, while the instrument is 
held to this position, the index is moved so as 
to bring the reflected image of the sun upon 
the silvered part of the glass and from this to 



QUADRATURE 

the eye, the reading of the vernier is the eleva- 
tion of the sun above the horizon. Various 
other appendages are introduced in the quad- 
rant, as a telescope for the sight vane, colored 
glasses for diminishing the intensity of the 
light, and a third mirror called the back hori- 
zon glass, with its sight vane, for taking a bark 
observation. (For Gunter's quadrant, see Gr.v- 
TEK.) In gunnery, the quadrant or gunner's 
square is a rectangular frame with a graduated 
arc between the two limbs. One of the limbs 
is extended beyond the arc, so as to be set into 
the mouth of the piece, the elevation of which 
it is to measure. A plummet suspended from 
the point of meeting of the two arms marks 
by the intersection of its line on the graduated 
arc the degree of elevation. 

QUADRATURE, the finding of a square equal 
in area to that of any given figure. No math- 
ematical problem has excited so great interest 
as the quadrature of the circle, or the deter- 
mination of a square of the same area. As it 
is proved that the area of a circle is equal to 
that of a right-angled triangle, the altitude of 
which is the radius of the circle and the base 
its circumference, and as the side of the square 
of equal surface with the triangle is a mean 
proportional between the height and half the 
base of the triangle, the problem would bo 
solved if the circumference could be imme- 
diately calculated from the radius which is 
known. Thus the question of the quadrature 
of the circle is reduced to finding the propor- 
tion between the diameter and circumference. 
Archimedes undertook the solution of the prob- 
lem on tha principle of calculating the periph- 
eries of two polygons of many sides (as 96), 
one circumscribed about the circle and the 
other inscribed, between which must lie the 
circumference of the circle. He thus found 
that the ratio of the diameter to the circum- 
ference lay between 1 : 8| and 1 : 3f ?, and 
he adopted the former, which is also expressed 
7 : 22. The Hindoos at some early period, 
certainly before any improvement was made 
upon this result in Europe, obtained the pro- 
portion 1,250 : 3,927, or 3-1416, which is much 
more exact than that of Archimedes. Ptolemy 
gives 3-141552, which is not quite so correct. 
In modern times the first great step in extend- 
ing this calculation was made by Peter Metius, 
a Hollander, and was published by his son 
Adrian Metius. By calculating from polygons 
of about 1,536 sides he found that the propor- 
tion was less than 3 T y,r and greater than 3-JW ; 
and presuming that the mean of these was 
nearer the truth than either limit, he happily 
hit thus by chance on a near approximation, 
and determined a ratio convenient for practical 
purposes, and easy to recollect from its terms 
being made up of successive pairs of the first 
three odd numbers, viz.: 113 : 355. The error 
involved in this expression in a circle of 1,000 
miles circumference is less than one foot. Lu- 
dolph van Ceulen (or Keulen), another Holland- 
er, in 1590, about the same time that Metius 



QUADKATURE 



QUADRUMANA 



123 



made his calculations, extended the calculation 
to 36 figures, which are engraved upon his tomb- 
stone in Leyden. These are 3-1415926535897- 
9323846264338327950289. The last figure is 
too large, and 8 would be too small. This 
was obtained by calculating the chords of suc- 
cessive arcs, each one being half of the pre- 
ceding ; for the above result this was carried 
out so far, that the last arc was one side of a 
polygon of 36,893,488,147,419,103,232 sides. 
The method of calculation was greatly simpli- 
fied by Snell, who carried the computation to 
55 decimal places by means of a polygon of 
only 5,242,880 sides. By other mathematicians 
the computation was carried on, reaching suc- 
cessively during the last century 75, 100, 128, 
and 140 places of decimals ; and Montucla re- 
ceived from Baron Zach 154 figures, said to 
have been obtained from a manuscript in the 
Radcliffe library at Oxford, of the existence 
of which there is no other evidence. The 
figures, however, except the last two, have 
since been proved correct. (See Montucla, 
Histoire des recherches sur la quadrature du 
cercle, 1754.) Notwithstanding that Lambert 
in 1761, and still later Legendre in his Ele- 
ments de geometrie, proved that the ratio of 
the diameter to the circumference cannot be 
expressed by any numbers, the wish to satisfy 
those who still sought the exact expression of 
this ratio led other mathematicians to continue 
to add to these figures ; and some must have 
derived a singular gratification in the compu- 
tation itself and its never terminating result. 
In May, 1841, a paper was communicated to 
the royal society by Dr. Rutherford of Wool- 
wich, presenting 208 figures of decimals, of 
which however 56 were afterward proved to 
be wrong, so that the series was not really 
carried beyond the result obtained from the 
Oxford manuscript. In 1846 200 decimals 
were correctly made out by Mr. Base ; and 
the next year 250 by Dr. Clausen of Dorpat. 
In 1851 Mr. William Shanks of Durham cal- 
culated 315 decimals, which Dr. Rutherford 
verified and extended to 350. Mr. Shanks 
soon carried these to 527 decimals, of which 
411 were confirmed by Dr. Rutherford. Fi- 
nally in 1853 Mr. Shanks reached the num- 
ber of 607 decimals, and gave the result in 
"his "Contributions to Mathematics" (London, 
1853). When it was made evident that the 
arithmetical expression was impossible, it was 
still hoped by many that the ratio might be 
determined by geometrical construction ; and 
the bare possibility of this, which a few math- 
ematicians have admitted, has given encour- 
agement to some to seek the solution in this 
direction. But this, too, is now generally ad- 
mitted to be impracticable. Little benefit has 
resulted from the vast amount of time and 
labor that have been expended upon this fa- 
mous problem. Wallis, investigating it at a 
time when the nature of the subject was not 
so well understood, and the investigation was 
consequently a proper one, was led to the dis- 



covery of the binomial theorem ; but most of 
those who have since interested themselves in 
the question understood too little of the math- 
ematical sciences to avail themselves of any 
opportunity that might be presented of in- 
creasing the means of mathematical research. 
The academy of sciences at Paris in 1775, and 
soon after the royal society in London, to dis- 
courage this and other similarly futile research- 
es, declined to examine in future any paper 
pretending to the quadrature of the circle, the 
trisection of an angle, the duplication of the 
cube, or the discovery of perpetual motion. 

QUADROIAJVA (Lat., from quatuor, four, and 
manus, hand), a division of the mammalia em- 
bracing the lemurs and monkeys or apes, and 
forming the highest order of Owen's subclass 
gyrencephala, so called from the generally pre- 
hensile nature of their four extremities. Al- 
though, on anatomical grounds, the term quad- 
rumanous cannot be considered as strictly ap- 
plicable to the members of this extensive or- 
der, it is nevertheless retained by the majority 
of naturalists in contradistinction to bimanous 
(two-handed), as restricted to man alone. The 
restoration of the Linnrean term primates 
(limited so as to exclude the cheiroptera) has 
of late been advocated by Prof. Huxley, as 
more conformable to the true nature of struc- 
tural affinities, a view in which he has been 
sustained by St. George Mivart. This order, 
which has been conveniently divided into the 
three families of strepsirrliini, platyrrMni, and 
catarrhini, may be briefly defined as follows : 
Animals wkh a deciduate, discoidal placenta; 
clavicles complete ; orbital ring completely cir- 
cumscribed, and usually separated by an osse- 
ous septum from the temporal fossa; pollex 
(when present) often, and hallux generally op- 
posable, the latter provided with a flat nail (ex- 
cept in orang, in which the nail is often want- 
ing) ; cerebral hemispheres well developed and 
strongly convoluted, covering the cerebellum 
(except in mycetes and certain genera of the 
lemuridce, where the cerebellum is naked, and 
in the marmoset, where the external gyri and 
sulci are almost entirely wanting) ; stomach in 
most cases simple (complex in semnopithecus 
and cololivs) and furnished with csecal appen- 
dages ; teetli never in an unbroken series, but 
separated by a diastema. The strepsirrhini 
(lemurs, aye-ayes, loris, galagos, potos, and in- 
dris) constitute the lowest family of the order, 
and inhabit portions of Africa, Madagascar, 
and some of the Asiatic islands. They are 
characterized by the twisted nature of their 
nostrils, and by the presence of a claw on the 
second digit of the foot. The aye-ayes (cheiro- 
mys), which seem to connect the lemurs with 
the lower rodents, form an abnormal group 
by themselves, by reason of the true rodent 
type of their dentition, which is, incisors -fz-f, 
canines , premolars ^i, and molars fif = 18. 
The chisel-shaped incisors, moreover, agree 
with thoee of the rodents in growing from per- 
sistent pulps, but differ in being entirely in- 



124: 



QUADRUMANA 



QUAESTOR 



vested with a coat of enamel. The platyrrhini, 
American monkeys, are distinguished from the 
catarrhini, or monkeys of the old world, by 
several well marked characters, the most prom- 
inent of which is the broader development of 
the nasal septum. They also differ from them 
in the universal presence of a tail, which is 
generally prehensile, and in their dental for- 
mula, which is, incisors |if, canines f_^, pre- 
molars fig, and molars fc-=38. The mar- 
mosets form a sole exception to the general 
rule of dentition, in possessing but two molars 
in each side of both jaws, thereby reducing 
the total number of teeth to 32. The catar- 
rhini have the dental formula corresponding 
to that of man, namely, incisors jf, canines 
$~fa premolars fif, and molars J_-J=32. In 
this family the meatus auditorius eiternut is 
osseous, and the pollex is, with one excep- 
tion (colobus), always opposable, circumstances 
which would be by themselves almost sufficient 
to separate the monkeys of the old from those 
of the new world. The catarrhini have been 
divided into tho subfamilies cynomorpha and 
anthropomorpha. The former (baboons, ma- 
caques, &c.), which are essentially quadrupe- 
dal, are all possessed of ischial callosities, and 
in the majority of cases cheek pouches, serv- 
ing as temporary receptacles for food, are 
present ; the latter comprise tho anthropoid 
apes, which, like the gorilla, assume a semi- 
erect attitude. The skull in the quadrumana 
presents an extraordinary amount of diver- 
gence. It rarely assumes the rounded form 
observed in man, owing to tho disproportion- 
ate size of the face as compared to that of 
the brain case. The facial portion attains its 
greatest development in the dog-faced baboon 
(cynocephaliis) of Africa, where the jaws are 
prodigiously extended. The squirrel monkey 
(chrysothrix) of South America presents the 
opposite extreme, in having the face relatively 
smaller even than in man. In no instance does 
the absolute size of the brain approach that 
of the human subject. The cranial capacity, 
which is seldom as much as 26 or 27 cubic 
inches (orang and chimpanzee), reaches its 
maximum, 35 inches, in the gorilla. The num- 
ber of vertebrae entering into the composition 
of the dorso -lumbar region of the spinal col- 
umn is 17 in the orang, chimpanzee, and goril- 
la, 18 in ateles and hylobatfs, 22 in nyctipithe- 
cu, and 19 in the remaining monkeys; in the 
lemurs the number varies from 19 (typical) to 
24 in stenops tardiyradits. The caudal verte- 
brae are susceptible of a much greater variation, 
ranging from 3 in tho Barbary ape to 33 in the 
spider monkey. The muscular system of the 
quadrumana closely resembles that of man, 
differing most widely in the long-tailed mon- 
keys, where the muscles answering to the 
coccygeal in the human form are very greatly 
developed. The respiratory system presents 
some curious modifications, especially noticea- 
ble in the singular structure of the larynges. 
These are in many cases provided with air 



sacs, numbering five in the howlers, whereby 
the intensity of sound is greatly increased. 
The quadrumana are very extensively distrib- 
uted over the tropical regions of both hemi- 
spheres. The catarrhini inhabit almost the 
entire continent of Africa, a large portion of 
southern Asia, and most of the islands consti- 
tuting the Indian archipelago. It is a singular 
fact that Papua, an island rich in animal and 
vegetable forms, and presenting climatal and 
terrestrial conditions almost analogous to those 
of Borneo, Sumatra, or Java, should be en- 
tirely destitute of a monkey population ; nor is 
it less remarkable that Australia has thus far 
furnished not a single representative of this 
family. But one species, the macacut inuus, 
is found native of Europe. Brazil is pre-emi- 
nently the homo of the American monkeys, 
which however extend from Mexico to the 30th 
parallel of S. latitude. The West India islands 
present the same peculiarity as Papua. The 
limit of the vertical distribution of the quad- 
rumana appears to be about 1 1,000 ft. No une- 
quivocal remains of a monkey have as yet been 
discovered in any formation dating anterior to 
the miocene. The best known fossil forms are 
the dryopithecui and pliopithecus, from the 
fresh-water deposits of France. It is worthy 
of remark that the present divisions of catar- 
rhini and platyrrhini seem to have been as 
clearly defined in former ages as they are now, 
no representative of either family having as 
yet been found in the hemisphere other than 
that to which it is peculiar. The exact posi- 
tion of the quadrumana is still unsatisfactorily 
determined. Their close relationship to the 
bimana is obvious, but, as Mivart remarks, it 
may bo doubted whether, if the animal man 
had never existed, the highest point in the 
scale of perfection would have been conceded 
to the apes. The transition to the quadrumana 
from the lower orders is effected through the 
(jaleopithecus, a lissencephalous insectivore, in- 
habiting the Indian archipelago. For detailed 
descriptions of the different families, see the 
articles APK, ATE- ATE, BABOON, CHIMPANZEE, 
GIBBON, GORILLA, LEMUR, LORI, MACAQUE, 
MARMOSET, MONKEY, and ORANG-OUTANG. See 
also Owen, " Anatomy of Vertebrates," vols. 
i. and ii. (18G6-'8); Huxley, "Man's Place in 
Nature" (18fi3), and "Anatomy of Vertebra- 
ted Animals" (1872); Darwin, "Descent of 
Man" (1871); and the article "Ape" by St. 
George Mivart in vol. ii. of the " Encyclopae- 
dia Britannica " (9th ed., 1875). 

Ql.ESTOR (Lat., from quaerere, to seek), the 
name given to two classes of officers at Rome, 
the qucettores parricidii and the qucextores clat- 
sici. The former have sometimes been con- 
founded with the perduellionis duumriri, who 
had their origin in the time of the kings. Their 
duty was to bring accusations of capital of- 
fences, and to execute the sentence. After 
the establishment of the republic, qitcestoret 
parricidii were elected regnlarly^every year 
by the curise. After the decemvirate they 



QUAGGA 



QUAIL 



125 



were appointed by the' centuries, and at the 
passage of the Licinian laws their functions 
were transferred to the triumviri capitales, 
sediles, and tribunes. The qucestores classici 
had charge of the public money, registered and 
exacted fines, provided accommodations for 
foreign ambassadors and guests of the repub- 
lic, took charge of the funerals and monuments 
of illustrious men buried at public expense, and 
kept the books in which the copies of the sen- 
ate decrees were registered until the time of 
Augustus, when the originals were given into 
their hands. This office could only be held by 
patricians until 421 B. C., when the.number, 
which previously had been two, was doubled, 
and the choice was not confined to either or- 
der ; but it was not until ten years later that 
any plebeians were elected. Afterward the 
consuls in their campaigns were attended each 
by one quaestor, who originally took charge 
only of the sale of the spoils, but subsequently 
became the paymaster of the army. In 265 
B. C. the number of quaestors was raised to 
eight, one of whom resided at Ostia and sup- 
plied Rome with corn. After this the number 
varied. By Sulla it was raised to 20, and by 
Julius Caesar to 40. In 49 B. C. the latter also 
transferred the administration of the public 
treasury to the sediles, subsequently to the 
praetors, and sometimes to the prefects of the 
treasury, and sometimes again to the quaestors. 
During the empire some qusestors were entitled 
candidati principis, and their duty was to read 
to the senate the communications of the em- 
peror. From the reign of Claudius it became 
the custom of quaestors on assuming their office 
to give gladiatorial spectacles to the people, so 
that none but wealthy men were eligible ; and 
the custom also prevailed in Constantinople 
after it became a capital of the empire. Every 
praetor or proconsul was attended in his prov- 
ince by a quaestor, who, besides being paymas- 
ter of the army, raised the revenue not farmed 
out to the publicani, and controlled the latter 
also. When the praetor was away, the quaestor 
took his place, in which case he was attended 
by lictors. During the reign of Constantine, 
the title of quaestor sacri palatii was given to 
an officer in the imperial court, whose func- 
tions were somewhat analogous to those of a 
modern chancellor. Any person who had held 
the office of quaestor was entitled to a seat in 
the senate, unless excluded by the next censors. 
QUAGGA, a species of zebra, belonging to the 
asinine division of the horse family, and to the 
genus asinm as defined by Gray, characterized 
by a tail furnished with long hair only at the 
tip, the absence of horny warts on the hind 
legs, and a short and upright mane. The 
quagga {A. quagga, Gray) is about 4 ft. high 
at the shoulders ; the neck and anterior parts 
of the body are dark brown, elegantly striped 
with broad black bands ; the rest of the body 
paler brown, belly and legs white ; a dark 
median line on the back extending to the tail. 
This beautiful species associates in large herds 



with the gnu and ostrich, but not with other 
zebras, on the plains of S. Africa, and is rare- 
ly found north of the Gariep or Orange river ; 
it is the most horse-like in structure of any of 
the group, having the form, light figure, and 
small head and ears of the horse, with the tail 
of the ass; Buffon regarded it as a hybrid 




Quagga (Asinus quagga) 



between a horse and a zebra. It is swift, and 
rather shy in its native state, strong, robust, 
and bold when attacked by hyaenas or dogs ; 
the voice resembles a barking neigh more than 
a bray, and has given to the animal the Hot- 
tentot name of quagga. It is the most easily 
domesticated of the zebras, and is docile, gen- 
erally good-natured, and obedient, but disposed 
to kick at the sight of a dog. Its fiesh, though 
coarse, is eaten by natives and hunters. 

QUAHAUG. See CLAM. 

QUAIL, the common name of several genera 
of the partridge division of gallinaceous birds. 
The American quails constitute the subfamily 
of odontophorince or ortygince, which have a 
short, high, and arched bill, compressed on the 
sides, with obtuse tip, the upper overhanging 
the lower mandible, and the latter with two 
teeth on each side concealed when the mandi- 
bles are closed ; the wings moderate, concave, 
and rounded ; tarsi generally slender; shorter 
than the middle toe, and covered with divided 
scales ; toes long, the inner shorter than the 
outer ; claws slightly curved and acute. In 
the genus ortyx (Steph.) the head is without 
crest, the bill broad, the third quill nearly as 
long as the fourth, fifth, and sixth, which are 
longest ; tail short, broad, and rounded ; toes 
slender, slightly united at the base by mem- 
brane ; hind toe moderate and slightly eleva- 
ted. There are about a dozen species, found 
in North and Central America and in the "West 
Indies ; they seek their food on the ground 
among the leaves, eating grains, seeds, berries, 
and insects, which they swallow with small 
pebbles or fine sand. The common quail, or 
Bob White (0. Virginianus, Bonap.), is about 
10 in. long, with an alar extent of 15 in. ; the 



126 



QUAIL 



general color above is brownish red, especial- 
ly on the wing coverts, tinged with gray and 
mottled with dusky on the upper back ; chin, 
throat, forehead, and lines through the eyes 




Common Quail (Ortyx Virginianus). 

and along the sides of the neck, white ; a black 
band across the top of the head, extending 
backward on the sides, and from the bill be- 
low the eyes crossing on the lower part of the 
throat ; below white, tinged with brown an- 
teriorly, each feather with black bands; the 
female has not the black marks, and the white 
on the head is replaced by brownish yellow. 
It is abundant in the eastern United States to 
the high central plains ; the northern birds 
are largest and lighter colored, the southern 
with more black on the head, wings, and back ; 
a smaller and more grayish variety in Texas 
has been separated as a species. The flight 
is rapid, low, and with numerous quick flap- 
"pfngs. It takes to trees when alarmed, a flock 
dispersing in all directions and afterward com- 
ing together at the call of the leader. The 
males are very pugnacious, and in the breed- 
ing season utter the well known notes, " Ah 
Bob White," the first syllable rather low, but 
the others loud and clear ; by some these notes 
are thought to resemble u more wet," and are 
therefore regarded as omens of rainy weather. 
The eggs are 10 to 18, pure white; the young 
run about as soon as hatched, but follow the 
old birds till spring, when they acquire their 
full plumage, pair, and breed ; only one brood 
is raised in a season. They rest on the ground 
at night, arranged in a circle with their heads 
outward, so that each can fly off in a straight 
line, if alarmed, without interfering with the 
others ; they are easily caught in snares and 
traps or driven into nets; they are difficult 
to raise from the egg, chiefly on account of 
the impossibility of obtaining the insects on 
which the young feed, but adults fatten well 
in captivity, eating grain, seeds, and berries ; 
their flesh toward autumn is fat, juicy, and 
tender, white and highly esteemed ; many 
perish from cold and hunger and from being 



imprisoned under the snow during severe win- 
ters. There is great confusion a*bout the name 
of this bird ; it is called quail in the northern 
states, but in the middle and southern par- 
tridge ; where the former name prevails the 
ruffed grouse is called partridge, and where 
the latter this grouse is styled pheasant; as 
neither the name quail, partridge, nor pheas- 
ant is properly given to any American bird, 
Mr. Baird proposes to call this species Bob 
White, and the other mountain grouse. The 
genus lophortyx (Bonap.) has a crest of about 
half a dozen lengthened feathers, the shafts 
in the same vertical plane and the recurved 
webs overlapping each other ; the bill weak ; 
tail lengthened and graduated, of 12 stiff feath- 
ers, and nearly as long as the wings. Here 
belongs the beautiful California quail (L. Cali- 
fornicu*, Bonap.), about 9$ in. long, with 
back and wings olivaceous brown, the sec- 
ondaries and tertiaries edged with buff ; breast 
and neck above plumbeous, the imbricated 
feathers on the latter with an edge and middle 
stripe of black ; top of head brown, and crest 
black; throat black edged with white. This 
takes the place of the Bob White in California 




California Quail (Lophortyx Callfornicus). 

and Oregon. The European quail belongs to 
the genus coturnix (Mohr.) of the partridge 
subfamily; in this the bill is short, elevated 
at the base and arched to the obtuse tip ; wings 
moderate, with the second to the fourth quills 
the longest ; tail very short, pendant, and 
mostly hidden by the coverts. There are 
about 20 species, scattered over Europe, Asia, 
and Australia, migrating in large flocks to 
warm regions in winter ; some prefer culti- 
vated districts, among tufts of grass, others 
rocky places, and others elevated table lands; 
the food and habits are as in other partridges. 
The European -quail (C. communis, Bonn.) is 
8 in. long, with an alar extent of 14 in. ; the 
upper parts are variegated with reddish gra5 
and brownish black, with whitish longitudi- 
nal streaks; throat of male dark brown, and 



QUAKERS 



QUARANTINE 



127 



a double interrupted black band on the fore 
neck; throat of female yellowish gray; head 
completely feathered, with a white streak over 
the eyes. It is abundant in southern Europe, 







European Quail (Coturnix communis). 

India, and N. Africa; it was well known to 
the ancients, who employed it as a fighting 
bird for their amusement. The notes of the 
male, especially in moonlight nights in sum- 
mer, are very clear and pleasing, and have ac- 
quired for it the specific name of dactyloso- 
nans. The Chinese quail ( C. Chinensi#,~E<lw.) 
is a smaller species, used in the East Indies as 
a fighting bird, and also for warming the own- 
ers' hands in winter. The turnicince or bush 
quails of the old world have a moderate and 
usually straight bill, short wings, and tail al- 
most concealed by the dorsal feathers; tarsi 
strong; toes usually three, long, and free at 
the base. In the genus turnix (Bonn.) the 
bill is curved, the tertials shorter than the pri- 
maries, and the first, second, and third quills 
equal and longest. There are more than 20 
small species found in southern Europe, India 
and its islands, Africa, Madagascar, and Aus- 
tralia; they frequent open places near rivers, 
keeping near the ground when flying, and run- 
ning rapidly among the grasses ; the eggs are 
usually four. The T. puynax (Lath.) of Java 
has the body varied with reddish black and 
white, beneath streaked with white and black, 
amd throat black. 

QUAKERS. See FRIENDS. 

QUARANTINE (It. quarantine,, Fr. quaran- 
taine, a space of 40 days), a police regulation 
for the exclusion of contagious diseases from a 
city or state. Sanitary laws are founded upon 
the assumption that certain diseases depend 
upon a specific contagion, and their professed 
ends are to prevent the exportation, importa- 
tion, and spreading of contagious pestilential 
disease. For the first we have a process of 
purification, for the second quarantine and 
lazarettos, and for the third lines of circum- 
vallation and other modes of separation, seclu- 
sion, and restriction. The subjects of the 
693 VOL. xiv. 9 



sanitary code are epidemic and pestilential 
diseases generally, of which cholera, plague, 
yellow fever, smallpox, typhus, and dysentery 
are the principal; but its operations have 
chiefly been directed against the supposed con- 
tagions of plague and yellow fever, and of 
late years have formed a feature in the sani- 
tary police of domestic animals. Moses pre- 
scribed (Lev. xiii.) the most stringent precau- 
tionary measures to prevent the spread of dis- 
ease. He not only ordered the lepers to be 
set apart from the rest of the people, but re- 
quired that their clothes should be purified, 
and even that the garments belonging to the 
more aggravated cases should be burned. He 
gives explicit directions for the purification of 
the persons of those who have been cured of 
the disease, and also determines the time that 
the diseased shall dwell alone without the 
camp, as well as without their tent after be- 
ing permitted to enter the camp. A peremp- 
tory sequestration of seven to fourteen days 
is also ordered for all those who had diseases 
of the skin. Long after Moses the religious 
laws were rigorously executed ; and when the 
crusaders occupied Jerusalem, they established 
outside of the city an isolated place for the 
treatment of contagious diseases, called the 
hospital of St. Lazarus, whence the word laza- 
retto. Quarantine in Europe dates from the 
end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th 
century, when leprosy prevailed in Italy and 
France. A military expedition returning from 
the Holy Land brought with it the Egyptian 
plague, which was looked upon as a new dis- 
ease, and excited an unusual degree of atten- 
tion from its great mortality and contagious 
character ; it was soon discovered that those 
who avoided the sick escaped the disease. The 
first quarantine regulation originated with 
Viscount Bernabo of Reggio in Italy, and is 
dated Jan. 17, 1374. Yet the authorities of 
Florence are said to have used occasional pre- 
cautions as early as 1348, and we see in Fa- 
lasius that the emperors of the East had pre- 
scribed measures against those who arrived 
from places where plague prevailed, and it was 
at that time that the space of 40 days was fixed 
to observe them. The first quarantine regula- 
tions, founded on superstition and prejudice 
rather than reason and science, were most 
cruel and inhuman. The order of Bernabo 
required " every plague patient to be taken out 
of the city into the field, there to die or to re- 
cover." Their attendants were forbidden to 
associate with any one for ten days. Not only 
were these regulations strictly enforced, but in 
1388 Bernabo forbade the admission of people 
from infected places into his territory, on pain 
of death. In course of time the benefits of 
these precautionary measures began to be un- 
derstood and generally practised ; but we have 
no account of any well defined legal code of 
regulations until about the middle of the 15th 
century, when the commerce of Venice was 
at its highest point. Robertson says this city 



128 



QUARANTINE 



was not afflicted with plague while her com- 
merce was limited or when it was dulled by 
the rivalries of the orientals; but when she 
had become strong enough to undertake con- 
quests, when she covered the Mediterranean 
with her ships, and made commerce and war 
at the same time, she was invaded by a suc- 
cession of plagues which originated in the 
Levant. In six centuries (from 901 to 1500) 
she had 63 epidemics. The Venetian senate 
in 1448 enacted a digest of laws known as the 
laws of quarantine. This system obliged all 
ships and individuals arriving from suspected 
places to undergo a terra of probation before 
entering port and discharging their cargoes. 
The first organized lazaretto or pest house was 
erected in 1453 on the island of Sardinia, sub- 
sequently called il lazaretto vecchio ; another 
was erected in 1468, called il lazaretto nuovo. 
All persons arriving from places where the 
existence of plague was suspected were de- 
tained there. The sick from the city laboring 
under the disease were sent with their families 
to the former station, and when cured were 
kept still 40 days longer in the latter. At a 
later period the republic of Venice established 
the first board of health, consisting of three 
nobles, who were appointed by the grand coun- 
cil. They were called the council of health, and 
were ordered to investigate the best means 
for preserving health and for preventing the 
introduction of disease from abroad. The ef- 
forts of this council not being entirely suc- 
cessful, in 1504 they were invested with the 
power of life and death over those who vio- 
lated the regulations for health, and there was 
no appeal from their sentence. During the 
prevalence of plague in Italy about 1527 bills 
of health were first introduced, and in 1605 
they had become general. Quarantines and 
lazarettos began to multiply along the shores 
of the Adriatic, and other nations established 
similar laws. Though certain preventive regu- 
lations had existed in England from a very 
early period, no regular system of quarantine 
was enforced until about 1710, when plague 
was raging in the towns on the Baltic. Du- 
ring the dreadful plague at Marseilles in 1720 
the government appointed the celebrated Dr. 
Richard Mead to draw up quarantine regula- 
tions. Parliament, approving his suggestions, 
repealed the act of 1710, and passed an act 
establishing quarantine throughout the com- 
mercial kingdom. Yellow fever visited Phila- 
delphia in 1699, and in 1700 the general assem- 
bly enacted the first quarantine law in this 
country, imposing a fine of 100 for every un- 
healthy vessel that landed. In 1701 a health law 
partly quarantine was enacted in Massachusetts. 
The first law on the subject in New York was 
passed by the colonial legislature in 1758. Con- 
gress passed "an act respecting quarantines 
and health laws," approved Feb. 25, 1799, 
which still stands upon the statutes. In 1831 
cholera rode over all quarantine restraints; 
and these barriers being deemed antiquated, 



reforms were suggested. On Aug. 18, 1847, a 
royal ordinance of France declared the first 
recognition of the truth, based upon the opin- 
ions of medical men, that many of the restric- 
tions of quarantine were unnecessarily burden- 
some, and therefore they were abolished. Still 
other reforms were established by decrees of 
Aug. 10, 1849, and Dec. 24, 1850. Dupeyron 
suggested the idea of a sanitary congress. A 
convention of delegates from the principal 
countries in Europe met in Paris in 1851, and 
after a long discussion proposed an interna- 
tional code of quarantine laws, which was rati- 
fied by the nations represented. On the ap- 
proach of cholera in 1865 the French gov- 
ernment called an international sanitary con- 
ference at Constantinople. Since this discus- 
sion quarantine has been established on a sci- 
entific basis, and more in accordance with mod- 
ern notions of liberty and justice. Reviewing 
the history of quarantine, several periods may 
be distinguished. At first people, seized with 
terror, became panic-stricken ; they wanted to 
be protected at any price. During this first 
period of superstition and terror, plague- 
stricken cities were burned ; the sick were left 
alone to die; the shipwrecked from a suspected 
port were refused assistance; and physicians, 
afraid to appproach their patients, threw bis- 
touries at them from a distance in order to 
open their buboes. The second may be called 
the period of reaction. The atmosphere was 
considered as the vehicle of epidemics, and was 
supposed to transmit diseases to a great dis- 
tance. Going to the opposite extreme, quaran- 
tines were declared useless. The cholera of 
1830 furnished new arms to the adversaries of 
restrictive measures. The severe quarantines 
and cordons organized on a vast scale in Rus- 
sia and Prussia, and other parts of central Eu- 
rope, applied in the midst of dense populations, 
became mere propagating agents. With the 
conference of Constantinople the question en- 
ters on the third or scientific period, when the 
true principles of international hygiene became 
established. Why the term of 40 days was 
fixed upon as a proof whether people were 
infected, is not very clear. Some say it was 
chosen merely from superstitious notions, be- 
cause people were accustomed to it in Lent ; 
others that it arose from the doctrine of physi- 
cians in regard to the critical days of many dis- 
eases. Communication with a country where 
a contagious disease exists may be interdict- 
ed by lines of troops or detachments posted 
from place to place. Some happy results may 
be cited in favor of these sanitary cordons 
applied at an opportune time and rigorously 
observed. Forts and villages in Orenburg and 
Astrakhan have been preserved from cholera 
by this means, as well as other towns in Russia, 
and also in Palestine and Arabia. The original 
lazaretto at Venice was the model for most 
of those forming part of the quarantine estab- 
ment in nearly all European ports. The old 
lazarettos are more dangerous than useful ; 



QUAKANTINE 



129 






those of Ancona and the Dardanelles gave 
ample proof of this during the cholera epi- 
demic of 1865. At the present day temporary 
lazarettos are considered the most desirable. 
Floating ones have lately been used in New 
York. In England there is no such thing as a 
lazaretto, though the quarantine act of July 
28, 1800, provided for the erection of a lazaret 
on Chetney hill, in the county of Kent. A 
rigorous quarantine consists in the sequestra- 
tion and isolation of both ships and persons for 
a determined time, with disinfection of every- 
thing susceptible of concealing morbific germs. 
A quarantine of observation holds ship, crew, 
&c., under surveillance for a certain number of 
days ; it may be enforced against a ship from 
a suspected port, or a ship in a filthy or un- 
healthy condition, although there may be no 
case of actual sickness on board. When a 
ship is about to sail, she is furnished by the 
consul of her country or other competent au- 
thority with a bill of health, which is her pass- 
port. It shows the sanitary state of the place 
of departure and of the points at which she has 
put in. A foul bill is delivered in a port where 
cholera, plague, or yellow fever prevails; a 
clean bill, where none of these diseases exist. 
The duration of quarantine is regulated by the 
nature of these documents. The declaration 
of the captain or master of the vessel, upon 
all incidents of the voyage having reference to 
the public health, is an act in certain circum- 
stances of high importance. In 1865, upon 
false declarations made at Suez and at Constan- 
tinople, two captains obtained free entry into 
two ports; and the terrible consequences of 
these lying declarations are well known. Sev- 
eral countries where the cattle plague is re- 
garded as exotic have enacted laws to prevent 
its spread ; and an act of parliament is believed 
to have prevented its spread in Great Britain. 
Legal enactments of the same nature, only 
more stringent, prevail in France and Holland, 
and by the Ottoman government peste bovine 
is equally regarded with the plague, cholera, 
and yellow fever. An act of congress " to pre- 
vent the spread of foreign diseases among the 
cattle of the United States" was approved Dec. 
18, 1865, and an act amending this, March 6, 
1866. Cattle plague appeared simultaneously 
a few years ago in England and France, and 
the most rigorous methods were taken to strike 
at the root of the evil. In France it sufficed to 
kill 100 head of cattle to put an end to the 
progress of the epidemic. In England, owing 
to difference of opinion and insufficiency of 
legislation, things were allowed to take their 
natural course, and as many as 300,000 head of 
cattle were lost. In the United States quaran- 
tine is exceedingly defective. Each state has 
laws of its own, which in many cases are ab- 
surd and conflict with one another. The law 
deserving most attention is that of the legisla- 
ture of New York, Jan. 22, 1873, entitled "An 
act establishing a quarantine, and defining the 
qualifications, duties, and powers of the health 



officer for the harbor and port of New York." 
The quarantine establishment for the port of 
New York consists of warehouses, docks, and 
wharves, anchorage for vessels, a floating hos- 
pital, boarding station, burying ground, and 
residence for officers and men. Merchants are 
afforded facilities for overhauling and refitting 
vessels while in quarantine. Connected with 
the warehouses are apartments with appliances 
for special disinfection by forced ventilation, 
refrigeration, high steam, dry heat, and chemi- 
cal disinfection. The boarding station for sus- 
pected vessels, arriving between the first day 
of April and the first day of November, is in 
the lower bay below the Narrows. Vessels 
are boarded as soon as practicable after their 
arrival, between sunrise and sunset. The an- 
chorage for vessels under quarantine is in the 
lower bay, two miles from shore, and within 
an area designated by buoys. Quarantine ap- 
plies against yellow fever, cholera, typhus or 
ship fever, and smallpox, and any new disease 
of a contagious, infectious, or pestilential na- 
ture. The floating hospital, with a capacity 
sufficient to accommodate 100 patients, is an- 
chored in the lower bay from the first of May 
to the first of November ; at other times it is 
anchored in some more secure place. The hos- 
pital at "West bank, when so required, is used 
exclusively for yellow fever and cholera pa- 
tients. The buildings on Hoffman island are 
used as a place of reception and temporary de- 
tention of persons who have been exposed to 
contagious or infectious diseases, but who are 
not actually sick. The health officer is the 
custodian of the quarantine establishment ; 
his .jurisdiction extends within the limits of 
the city and county of New York. In ascer- 
taining the sanitary condition of a vessel he is 
authorized to examine under oath the captain, 
crew, and passengers, and to inspect the bill 
of health, manifest, log book, cargo, &c. Ves- 
sels liable to quarantine are required to dis- 
charge in quarantine, and be detained long 
enough thereafter for disinfection and aera- 
tion, such detention not to exceed ten days 
unless the disease occurs or reappears during 
that interval, in which event the time is x- 
tended ten days. But no vessel or cargo which 
has been in quarantine is allowed to proceed 
to New York or Brooklyn without the ap- 
proval of the mayor or board of health of 
those cities respectively. Filthy or unhealth- 
ful vessels are subject to quarantine for purifi- 
cation, not exceeding ten days. On Infected 
or suspected vessels all clothing, personal bag- 
gage, cotton, hemp, rags, paper, hides, skins, 
feathers, hair, woollens, and other articles of 
animal origin, are subjected to an obligatory 
quarantine and purification. Molasses, sugar, 
and live and healthy cattle are subjected to 
quarantine at the option of the health officer. 
All other merchandise is exempted from quar- 
antine and admitted without delay. The effects 
of persons who die in quarantine are taken in 
charge by the health officer, and if not claimed 



130 



QUARANTINE 



by the rightful heir within three months are 
delivered to the public administrator of the 
city of New York. All persons who have died 
are interred without delay in the quarantine 
burying ground at Seguin's point. A vessel has 
the right to put to sea before breaking bulk, 
in preference to going into quarantine ; but the 
health officer in such case indorses on her bill 
of health the circumstances under which she 
leaves port, the length of her detention, and 
her actual condition, and sends to the quaran- 
tine hospital such sick as may desire to remain. 
All passengers on board of vessels under quar- 
antine are provided for by the master of the 
vessel. Any person violating the quarantine 
regulations, or who shall oppose or obstruct 
the health officer or any of his employees in 
the performance of their duties, is guilty of 
misdemeanor and punishable by a fine of not 
less than $100, or by imprisonment not less 
than three nor more than six months, or by 
both such fine and imprisonment. Any person 
aggrieved by any decision of the health officer 
may appeal therefrom to the commissioners of 
quarantine, who constitute a board of appeal. 
On June 6, 1872, congress passed a joint reso- 
lution providing for a more effective system 
of quarantine on the southern and gulf coasts. 
Dr. Harvey E. Brown of the army, being de- 
tailed in obedience to the resolution, made a 
thorough report, on the strength of which a 
national quarantine was proposed, and " An 
act to prevent the introduction of contagious 
or infectious diseases into the United States " 
passed the house of representatives, but did 
not become a law. Quarantine in France, un- 
der the new organization of 1850, founded 
upon the departmental division, comprises two 
elements : the one, active and responsible, rep- 
resenting authority ; the other simply consul- 
tative, and representing the locality. The first 
is personified in an agent appointed directly by 
the minister, called director of health or prin- 
cipal agent, according as his duties are more or 
less circumscribed. The second is formed of 
a reunion of small functionaries and citizens 
taken from certain competent categories, and 
io particular from among the members of the 
council of hygiene and board of health. This 
organization is that of the large ports, which 
alone have a director and a special agent. In 
the others the service, reduced for economy to 
the strictest necessity, is done by secondary 
agents, principally employees of the custom 
house, who perform this service concurrently 
with their other functions. In India only 
limited measures have been taken to prevent 
the exportation of cholera. The " natives pas- 
senger act," promulgated by the government 
of India in 1858, only applies to the hygienic 
conditions and navigability of ships. The 
Dutch government, with a view to reducing 
the constantly increasing number of pilgrims 
who go from its possessions to Mecca, has es- 
tablished a regulation which may be beneficial 
in the future. Many intelligent scientific ob- 



QUARLES 

servers have not only suggested sweeping and 
radical reforms in quarantine, but have ques- 
tioned its utility and recommended its entire 
abrogation. In England, the general board of 
health, after close investigation, propose the 
entire discontinuance of quarantines, substitu- 
ting for them a strict code of international hy- 
gienic regulations, and they unhesitatingly as- 
sert that quarantines are no public security. 
The doctrine of a specific contagion, so univer- 
sally received when quarantines were first es- 
tablished, has lately undergone almost an en- 
tire revolution. Objections to new and more' 
comprehensive measures of protection on the 
part of the general government of the United 
States cannot now be raised, as in the days of 
Jefferson, who in 1804, in a communication to 
congress on the state of the Union, protested 
against the adoption of a code of laws to pre- 
vent the introduction of yellow fever. The 
conference at Constantinople, although estab- 
lishing the true principles of international hy- 
giene, was occupied exclusively with their ap- 
plication to cholera. It is proposed that any 
resolutions adopted by a future convention 
should have for their common end the preser- 
vation of the healthy individual, and be founded 
upon a different principle : to regulate the iso- 
lation and sequestration of the human species, 
and to systematize the destruction of animals. 
QUABLES. I. Frauds, an English author, born 
at Stewards, Essex, in 1592, died Sept. 8, 1644. 
He was educated at Christ's college, Cambridge, 
studied law at Lincoln's Inn, was cupbearer for 
a while to the queen of Bohemia, and in 1621 
went to Dublin, where he became secretary to 
Bishop Usher. Returning to England after 
several years' absence, he was appointed chro- 
nologer to the city of London, and devoted him- 
self to literary labors until the rupture between 
the king and parliament, when his attachment 
to the royal cause plunged him into difficulties 
from which he never recovered. His best 
known writings are his " Divine Emblems " 
(1035) and "Enchiridion" (1641). The for- 
mer, imitated from the Pin Detideria of the 
Jesuit Herman Hugo, consists of symbolical 
pictures with short moral lessons in verse ; the 
latter is a collection of brief essays and apho- 
risms, in vigorous and occasionally eloquent lan- 
guage. Among his poetical works are : " Feast 
for Worms, or the History of Jonah " (1620) ; 
"Quintessence of Meditation" (1620); "Ar- 
galus and Parthenia" (1621); "History of 
Queen Esther;" an "Alphabet of Elegies" 
(1632), in memory of his friend Archdeacon 
Aylmer; "Hieroglyphics" (1638); "The 
Shepherd's Oracles" (1644); and "The Virgin 
Widow" (1649), a comedy. "The School of 
the Heart," attributed to him, is a translation 
of a Latin poem by Van Haeften of Antwerp, 
published anonymously in London in 1635. In 
most of these works he evinces strength of 
thought and considerable wit, but frequently 
becomes absurd and grotesque. His " Enchi- 
ridion " has been republished in Smith's " Li- 



QUARTZ 



131 



brary of Old Authors ;" the " School of the 
Heart " and " Hieroglyphics " were reprinted 
in London in 1858, and the "Emblems" in 
1859 and 1868. II. John, son of the preceding, 
born in Essex in 1624, died of the plague in 
London in 1665. He was educated at Oxford, 
where he assisted in defending the town against 
the parliamentarians, was afterward a cap- 
tain of the royal forces, and retired to London 
after the king's final overthrow. He wrote 
" Regale Lectum Miseries, or a Kingly Bed 
of Misery" (1648); "Tons Lachrymarum, or 
a Fountain of Tears" (1648); a continuation 
of the "History of Argalus and Parthenia" 
(1659); "Divine Meditations" (1665) ; and 
other works in verse and prose. 

QUARTZ, the most abundant of all minerals, 
existing as a constituent of many rocks, as the 
granitic and the micaceous and silicious slates, 
composing of itself the rock known as quartz- 
ite or quartz rock and some of the sandstones 
and pure sand, forming the chief portion of 
most mineral veins, and found interspersed in 
crystals and crystalline fragments throughout 
many rocks, and especially in their fissures 
and cavities. In composition it is silica, and 
when uncontaminated with any foreign inter- 
mixture it appears in clear transparent crys- 
tals like glass or ice. The presence of a little 
oxide of manganese gives these a violet tinge, 
and they are then known as amethyst. Oth- 
er impurities which variously affect the ap- 
pearance and properties of quartz, even in 
the small quantities in which they enter into 
its composition, are oxides of iron, aluminum, 
nickel, and other metals. Through all its vari- 
eties quartz is distinguished by the same chemi- 
cal properties and degrees of hardness. This, 
which enables the mineral to scratch glass and 
to give fire when struck with steel, is repre- 
sented by 7 of the scale of hardness. Its spe- 
cific gravity is 2'5 to 2'8. Its lustre is vitreous, 
its colors various according to the impurities 
present, and its fracture conchoidal. It is fu- 
sible only at the intense heat of the oxyhy- 
drogen blowpipe, and of the furnaces invent- 
ed by Saint-Claire Deville; but it is readily 
fluxed with soda or lime. The quartz glass 
obtained by Deville, amounting to 30 grammes, 
possessed a density of only 2*2, or about one 
seventh less than that of the crystallized quartz 
from which it was melted. The colorless, 
transparent crystals impress circular polariza- 
tion upon a ray of plane-polarized light. They 
exhibit double refraction when the object is 
observed through two faces which are not 
parallel to each other. Milk-white varieties 
often give a phosphorescent light when rubbed 
together in the dark. The primary form of 
the crystal, which is very rarely seen, is a 
rhomboid. The common form is a hexagonal 
prism terminated by hexagonal pyramids. The 
crystals occur in groups of great beauty and of 
all sizes up to single crystals of several hundred 
pounds' weight. In the museum of the uni- 
versity at Naples is a group weighing nearly 



half a ton. In Milan is a crystal 3 ft. long 
and 5$- ft. in circumference, estimated to weigh 
870 Ibs. A crystal in the museum of natural 
history in Paris is 3 ft. in diameter and the 
same in length, and weighs 800 Ibs. Occasion- 
ally immense quantities of crystals are found 
collected in cavities in the rocks and in caves, 
loose and incrusting the walls. Such a collec- 
tion, discovered at Zinken more than a century 
ago, produced 1,000 cwt. of rock crystal, which 
at that period, when the article was more 
highly valued than now, brought $300,000. 
In the United States some rich deposits have 
been met with in the Ellenville lead mine, 
Ulster co., N. Y., and in some of the southern 
gold mines ; and large groups of fine crystals 
have been found in Moose mountain, N. H., 
and in Waterbury, Vt. Little Falls on the 
Mohawk in New York is a famous locality for 
the purest transparent crystals of complete 
forms, and they are met with in other places 
also in the same region, occurring in the cavi- 
ties of the calciferous sand rock, which over- 
lies the Potsdam sandstone. Trenton Falls 
also furnishes perfect transparent crystals, 
which are sometimes 5 in. long and contain 
drops of water. These are occasionally recog- 
nized in quartz crystals of various localities. 
In St. Lawrence and Jefferson cos., N. Y., in 
the deposits of iron ore, quartz crystals are 
ibund of dodecahedral forms. In Orange co., 
4 m. E. of Warwick, they occur in the primary 
form. Many of the varieties of quartz are 
known by other names, under which they have 
been particularly described in this work. (See 
AGATE, AMETHYST, CARNELIAN, OATS' EYE, 
CHALCEDONY, FLINT, GEODE, and JASPEE.) 
Clear crystalline quartz, called rock crystal, 
was in former times esteemed for ornamental 
objects. It was cut into vases, cups, lustres, 
&c., many of which are still preserved as cu- 
riosities. In the museum of the Louvre are 
great numbers of them, some belonging to the 
times of the ancient Greeks and Romans, but 
more generally of the period of the middle 
ages. The perfection to which the manufac- 
ture of glass and pastes has been brought and 
the cheapness of these materials have almost 
completely taken away the value of rock crys- 
tal, which requires a great amount of labor in 
its cutting and polishing, and after all is not 
really superior to the artificial products. But 
some use is still made of it, as for buttons, 
seals, breast pins, &c. It is procured from 
Madagascar, Switzerland, and Brazil. Very 
transparent specimens from the latter country 
are made into spectacle lenses called " Brazil- 
ian pebbles." They are superior to glass on 
account of their greater hardness. In Switz- 
erland quartz veins which occasionally yield 
rich cavities of crystals are regularly mined 
for this product. From Madagascar large clear 
masses are received, which sell for from $1 to 
$10 a pound. When cut and set by the jew- 
ellers, the stone is commonly sold as white 
topaz, and sometimes as " California dia- 



132 



QUASSIA 



monds." Pure quartz is largely employed in 
the manufacture of glass, and is commonly ob- 
tained for this purpose in the form of sand ; 
but metamorphic quartz rock of a granular 
structure and crumbly consistency is also used. 
(See GLASS.) Varieties of quartz of a cellular 
texture and great tenacity are used for mill- 
stones, the roughness and hardness of their 
surface and sharpness of the edges of the 
cells giving them a powerful grinding capacity 
combined with durability. (See BUHRSTONK.) 
Quartz veins with few exceptions form the 
gangues in which gold is found in situ, and it 
is probable that most of the gold which is ob- 
tained from alluvial and drift deposits came 
originally from the quartz veins. These gold- 
bearing quartz veins intersect various meta- 
morphic rocks, such as chloritic, talcose, and 
argillitic schist, hornblende schist, gneiss, por- 
phyry, and sometimes granite. (See GOLD.) 

QUASSIA, a bitter drug, the properties of 
which, it is said, were first made known to 
Europeans by a negro slave named Quassi ; the 
tree producing it was named Quassia amara 
by Linnaius, and belongs to the simarubecs. 
Its wood is intensely bitter, and is sold in bil- 
lets 2 to 4 in. in diameter. The supply of the 
drug originally came from Surinam ; small 
quantities are exported to Europe, and under 
the name of Surinam quassia it is still used 
in Germany and France. Toward the end of 
the last century it was discovered that a tree 
known in Jamaica and neighboring islands as 
bitterwood and bitter ash had properties al- 
most identical with the quassia; being much 
more abundant and in much larger pieces than 
the Surinam drug, this has almost entirely sup- 




Bitterwood (Plcrsena excelsa). 

planted it, and, though afforded by a differ- 
ent tree, the drug is called quassia. The tree 
is picrcena excelsa, an allied genus in the same 
family with the other, having the general ap- 
pearance of an ash, inconspicuous, greenish 
flowers, and black drupes the size of a pea. 



QUATREFAGES DE BREAU 

The wood is imported in logs, sometimes a foot 
thick, with a smooth brittle bark; it is kept in 
the form of chips or turnings, which are nearly 
white when first cut, but become yellowish by 
exposure ; it has no odor, and a strong, pure 
bitter taste, which is imparted to water and to 
alcohol. A neutral substance, to which the 
bitterness is due, has been separated and called 
quassiine. The properties of quassia are those 
of the simple bitters, and as a medicine it is 
adapted to cases of dyspepsia and the debili- 
tated state of the digestive organs which some- 
times succeeds acute disease. Animals have 
been killed by concentrated preparations of 
the drug. A sweetened decoction is some- 
times used for poisoning flies. It is given in 
the form of cold infusion and in tincture. 
Bitter cups or quassia cups were at one time 
very popular ; these are goblets turned from 
the wood, which quickly impart a bitter taste 
to wine, water, or other liquid placed in them. 
The decoction was formerly used in England 
by some of the brewers as a substitute for 
hops, but this is now prohibited under severe 
penalties. 

QIATRE BRAS. See WATERLOO. 

QtATREFAGES DE BKEAII, Jean Louis Armand 
de, a French naturalist, born near Valleraugue, 
department of Gard, Feb. 10, 1810. Ho gradu- 
ated doctor in medicine and science at Stras- 
burg in 1829, published papers Sur les aero- 
lithes (1830), and De I 'extroversion de la ressie 
(1832), and, while assistant professor of chem- 
istry in the medical faculty at Strasburg, wrote 
extensively for scientific periodicals. In 1838 
he was appointed professor of zoology at Tou- 
louse, in 1850 professor of natural history 
in the lycee Napoleon, in 1852 member of the 
academy of sciences, and in 1855 professor of 
anatomy and ethnology in the museum of 
natural history. Among his publications are : 
Considerations sur les caracteres zoologiques 
des rongeurs (4to, 1840) ; De V organisation des 
animaux sans vertebres des cotes de la Manche 
(1844); Recherches sur le systeme nerveux, 
Vembryogenie, les organes des sens et la circu- 
lation des annelides (1844-'50); Sur Vhistoire 
naturelle des tarets (1848-'9); Sur les affinites 
et Ifs analogies des lombric* et des sangsues 
(1852) ; Souvenirs d'un naturalisle (2 vols. 
12mo, 1854; English translation, 2 vols., Lon- 
don, 1857) ; Unite de Vespece humaine (1861) ; 
Metamorphoses de Vhomme et des animaux 
(1862; English translation by II. Lawson, 
1864) ; Hisioire naturelle des anneles marins 
et d'eau douce (1865 et seq.) ; Les Polynesiens et 
leurs migrations (1866); Rapport sur les pro- 
gres de V anthropologie (1867); Le vers d soie 
(1869) ; Histoire de Vhomme (1869 ; English 
translation by Miss Eliza Youmans, New York, 
1875) ; Charles Darwin et ses procureurs fran- 
cais: etude sur le transformisme (1870); La 
race prussienne (1871); and, in conjunction 
with E. T. Haury, Crania Ethnica : Lescrdnes 
des races humaines decrits et figures (1875 
et seq.). 



QUATEEMEEE 

Q1ATKF.MKUE, Etienne Mare, a French orien- 
talist, born in Paris, July 12, 1782, died Sept. 
18, 1857. He was a pupil of Sylvestre de Sacy 
and Ch6zy. In 1809 he became professor of 
Greek literature at Eouen, in 1819 was called 
to the college de France to teach Hebrew, Chal- 
daic, and Syriac, and in 1827 became professor 
of Persian at the school of the living eastern 
languages. To him is mainly owing the identi- 
fication of the modern Coptic as a derivative 
of the language of the ancient Egyptians, which 
gave an important clue to the interpretation 
of the latter. He wrote Recherches historiques 
et critiques sur la langue et la litterature de 
Vffigypte (1808) ; Memoires geographiques et 
Mstoriques sur VEgypte (1810) ; and Observa- 
tions sur quelques points de la geographic de 
VEgypte (1812). His editions and translations 
of Eashid ed-Din's Histoire des Mongols en 
France (1836) and Makrizi's Histoire des soul- 
tans mamlouks en Egypte (1837-'40) are of 
special value. His library was bought by the 
king of Bavaria and removed to Munich. 

QIATKEHEKE DE QII.NCY, intoine Chrysostome, 
a French archaeologist, born in Paris, Oct. 28, 
1755, died Dec. 28, 1849. In 1785 a paper 
Sur V architecture egyptienne secured for him 
a prize from the academy of inscriptions ; he 
was then engaged as a contributor to the En- 
cyclopedie methodique, for which he wrote a 
Dictionnaire de T architecture (3 vols. 4to, 1786- 
1825). He took an active part in the events 
of the French revolution, and held several 
political offices under the republic, consulate, 
and empire, and after the restoration. In 1815 
he was appointed superintendent of public 
monuments, and in 1818 professor of archaeol- 
ogy in the royal library ; and he was secretary 
general of the academy of fine arts from 1816 
to 1839. Among his voluminous works are : 
Le Jupiter olympien (fol., 1814), a restoration 
of the great work of Phidias ; De limitation 
dans les beaux arts (1823 ; English translation 
by J. C. Kent, 8vo, 1837) ; Histoire de la vie et 
des outrages de Raphael (1824) ; Canova et ses 
outrages (1834) ; and Histoire de la me de Mi- 
chel-Ange (1835). 

QUEBEC (formerly LOWER CANADA, or CANA- 
DA EAST), a province of the Dominion of Can- 
ada, situated between lat. 45 and 53 30' N., 
and Ion. 57 8' and 79 30' "W. ; area, accord- 
ing to the latest estimates, 193,355 sq. m. It 
is bounded N. by the Northwest territories and 
the portion of Labrador belonging to New- 
foundland ; E. by Labrador and the gulf of St. 
Lawrence; S. and S. E. by the gulf of St. 
Lawrence, New Brunswick, Maine, and New 
Hampshire, then S. by Vermont and New York ; 
and S. "W. and W. by the province of Ontario, 
from which it is mostly separated by the Otta- 
wa river. The N. boundary line, formed by the 
height of land which separates the waters that 
flow into the river and gulf of St. Lawrence 
on the one hand from those that flow into 
Hudson bay and those that reach the Atlantic 
through the Labrador coast on the other, is 



QUEBEC (PROVINCE) 



133 



irregular, and has not been surveyed. The E. 
limit is a line drawn due N. and S. from Blanc 
Sablon bay (at the W. entrance of the strait of 
Belle Isle) to the 52d parallel. From Lake 
Temiscamingue, on the Ontario border, N. E. 
to Blanc Sablon bay, is about 1,050 m. ; E. to 
the extremity of the Gasp6 peninsula, 700 m. ; 
S. E. to the angle formed by the boundary 
with Vermont and New Hampshire, 400 m. 
The general breadth N. and S. is about 125 m. 
E. of the mouth of the St. Lawrence river and 
about 250 m. W. of that. Exclusive of the 
cities of Montreal and Quebec, each contain- 
ing three electoral districts, the province is 
divided into 59 electoral districts or counties, 
viz. : Argenteuil, Bagot, Beauce, Beauharnois, 
Bellechasse, Berthier, Bonaventure, Brome, 
Chambly, Champlain, Charlevoix, Chateau- 
guay, Chicoutimi and Saguenay, Compton, 
Dorchester, Drummond-Arthabaska, Gaspe\ 
Hochelaga, Huntingdon, Iberville, Jacques Car- 
tier, Joliette, Kamouraska, Laprairie, L'As- 
somption, Laval, L6vis, L'Islet, Lotbinire, 
Maskinonge', M6gantic, Missisquoi, Montcalm, 
Montmagny, Montmorency, Napierville, Nico- 
let, Ottawa, Pontiac, Portneuf, Quebec, Eiche- 
lieu, Eichmond- Wolfe, Eimouski, Eouville, 
Shefford, Sherbrooke, Soulanges, St. Hyacinthe, 
St. Johns (St. Jean), St. Maurice, Stanstead, 
T6miscouata, Terrebonne, Three Eivers (Trois 
EiviSres), Two Mountains (Deux Montagnes), 
Vaudreuil, Vercheres, and Yamaska. Quebec 
(pop. in 1871, 59,699) is the capital and Mon- 
treal (pop. 107,225) the commercial metropolis 
of the province. There are two other cities, 
Three Eivers (pop. 7,570) and St. Hyacinthe 
(pop. 3,746). Levis (pop. 6,691), Sorel (5,636), 
Sherbrooke (4,432), Joliette (3,047), and St. 
Johns (3,022) are incorporated towns. Other 
towns and villages, having each more than 
1,000 inhabitants, are Aylmer, Berthier, Beau- 
harnois, Buckingham, Chicoutimi, Couticook, 
Farnham, Fraserville, Hull, Lachine, Laprai- 
rie, L'Assomption, Longueuil, Montmagny, Ei- 
mouski, St. Jerome, and Terrebonne. The pop- 
ulation of the province in 1676 was 8,415 ; 
in 1734, 37,252; in 1770, 91,078; in 1780, 
127,845; in 1827, 423,378; in 1831, 511,920; 
in 1844, 690,782; in 1851, 890,261; in 1861, 
1,111,566; in 1871, 1,191,516. Of the last 
number, 596,041 were males and 595,475 fe- 
males; 1,104,401 were born in the province, 
7,018 in Ontario, 2,746 in other parts of Brit- 
ish America, 12,371 in England, 35,828 in Ire- 
land, 11,260 in Scotland, and 14,714 in the 
United States; 929,817 were of French, 123,- 
478 of Irish, 69,822 of English, 49,458 of Scotch, 
7,963 of German, and 148 of African origin; 
and 6,988 were Indians, chiefly Algonquins, 
Iroquois, Abenakis, Hurons, Micmacs, Mali- 
cetes, Montagnais, and Nasqnapees. There 
were 191,862 persons 20 years old and over 
(107,782 males and 84,080 females) unable to 
read, and 244,731 (123,926 males and 120,805 
females) unable to write; 180,615 occupied 
dwellings, 213,303 families, 1,630 deaf and 



134: 



QUEBEC (PEOTIXCE) 



dumb persons, 1,023 blind, and 8,300 of un- 
sound mind. Of the 341,291 persons returned 
as engaged in occupations, 160,641 belonged 
to the agricultural, 26,507 to the commercial, 
21,186 to the domestic, 65,707 to the indus- 
trial, and 15,376 to the professional class, and 
52,874 were unclassified. A large portion of 
the inhabitants live in the region S. of the St. 
Lawrence and W. of the meridian of Quebec. 
This region is known as the "eastern town- 
ships," though the term in strictness is confined 
to the district between the Chaudiere and 
Richelieu rivers in the rear of the settlements 
immediately along the St. Lawrence. E. of 
Quebec the settlements S. of the St. Lawrence 
extend to and around the extremity of the 
Gaspe peninsula, but for the most part they are 
closely confined to the shore. N. of the St. 
Lawrence and below the mouth of the Sague- 
nay there are only a few scattered fishing settle- 
ments, and above that the settlements for the 
most part extend only a few miles from the 
river. In the valley of the Ottawa, however, 
and on the upper Sagiienay and around Lake 
St. John, there is a considerable population. 
A great majority of the inhabitants speak the 
French language, but English may also bo used 
in legislative and judicial proceedings, and the 
laws must be printed in both languages. Tho 
greater part of the English-speaking popula- 
tion is in the cities of Montreal and Quebec, in 
the S. part of the eastern townships, and in tho 
valley of the Ottawa. Recently efforts have 
been made to colonize the unsettled portions of 
the province ; colonization societies have been 
formed to aid settlers, and roads have been built 
by the government ; but the access of popula- 
tion from abroad has not been equal to the 
emigration from the province to the United 
States. The region S. of the St. Lawrence is 
generally hilly; N. of that river tho country 
is for the most part rocky and mountainous. 
The Notre Dame mountains, a continuation of 
the Green mountains of Vermont, stretch E. 
from the meridian of Quebec, passing through 
the interior of the Gaspe peninsula to near its 
extremity, and attaining in places a height of 
8,000 or 4,000 ft. This elevation is reached 
near the Cape Ohatte river, in a portion of the 
range called the Shickshock mountains. The 
Laurentian mountains, on the north of the 
river St. Lawrence, extend from the Labrador 
coast to the Ottawa river above the city of 
that name. They lie near the margin of the St. 
Lawrence as far up as Cape Tourmente near 
the city of Quebec, above which they recede 
N., passing 60 m. behind Quebec and 30 m. 
behind Montreal. This range, between Quebec 
and Lake St. John, where the rivers are 8,000 
ft. above the level of the St. Lawrence, attains 
an elevation of from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. above 
the sea, but in general its height is much less. 
The province has a coast line on the gulf of St. 
Lawrence, not including indentations of the 
land, of 1,164 m. There are many small bays 
on the coast N. of the river St. Lawrence ; the 



principal ones S. of it are Gasp6 bay and the 
bay of Chaleurs. The latter, lying between 
the province and New Brunswick, includes 
with the mouth of the St. Lawrence the penin- 
sula of Gaspe. Except those in the St. Law- 
rence, the principal islands belonging to the 
province are Anticosti (2,500 sq. m.), at the 
mouth of that river, and the Magdalen islands 
in the gulf. The St. Lawrence, flowing in a 
N. E. direction for more than 500 m. through 
the province, and rendered navigable the en- 
tire distance by canals around the rapids, is 
the great avenue of commerce. Vessels may 
ascend from the gulf of St. Lawrence to the 
head of Lake Superior. It contains numerous 
islands, the largest of which are Orleans (69 
sq. in.) just below Quebec, Montreal (169 sq. 
m.) at the mouth of the Ottawa, and Isle Jesus 
(85 sq. m.) N. of Montreal and separated from 
it by a narrow channel. The largest tributaries 
of the St. Lawrence are from the north ; the 
principal ones from the south, proceeding down 
the stream, are the Chateauguay, which rises 
in New York and is navigable for a consider- 
able distance by bateaux ; the Richelieu, also 
called the Chambly, Sorel, or St. Johns, 80 m. 
long, the outlet of Lake Champlain; the Vu- 
maska, 90 m. long; the St. Francis, more than 
100 m. long, which receives the Magog, the 
outlet of Lake Memphremagog, and empties 
into the St. Lawrence at Lake St. Peter; the 
Nicolet, 60 m. long ; the Becancour, 70 m. long ; 
the Chaudiere, 120 m., emptying into the St. 
Lawrence a few miles above Quebec ; the Et- 
chomin, 50 m. long ; the Rimouski ; the M i-t is ; 
the Matane, 60 m. long ; and the Cape Chatte 
river, entering the St. Lawrence at Cape Chatte. 
By means of the Richelieu river, Chambly 
canal, Lake Champlain, the Champlain canal, 
and the Hudson river, there is continuous 
water communication between the St. Law- 
rence and New York. The largest tributa- 
ries from the north, lying wholly within the 
province, are the Saguenay and the St. Mau- 
rice. The former flows out of Lake St. John, 
and after a course of upward of 100 m. joins 
the St. Lawrence 120 m. below Quebec. It has 
an average width of about three fourths of a 
mile, with high precipitous banks. It is navi- 
gable by tho largest vessels to Chicoutimi, 75 
m. above its mouth. During the summer the 
Saguenay is much visited by tourists, and the 
ancient port of Tadousac at its mouth is a 
favorite watering place. The St. Maurice rises 
in the height of land, and after a course of 
more than 400 m. discharges into the St. Law- 
rence at Three Rivers. Its banks are generally 
high, and it contains numerous falls, and has 
many important tributaries. It is navigable 
for a few miles at its mouth ; the navigation 
is then interrupted for about 40 m., above 
which there is a navigable stretch of 75 m. 
Other important tributaries of the St. Law- 
rence from the north are the Portneuf, the 
Betsiamites or Bersimis (navigable for a con- 
siderable distance), the riviere aux Outardes, 



QUEBEC (PEOVINOE) 



135 



and the Manicouagan, below the Saguenay ; the 
Jacques Cartier (60 m. long), the St. Anne 
(70 m.) and the Batiscan (50 m.), between 
Quebec and the St. Maurice ; and the Du Loup, 
the Maskinonge, and L'Assomption (100 in. 
long), above the St. Maurice. The Ottawa 
river rises in the W. part of the province, and 
has a tortuous course, first in a N. W., then 
in a W. direction, of 300 m. to Lake Temisca- 
mingue on the Ontario border, below which, 
flowing S. E., it forms the boundary between 
the two provinces for 400 m., emptying into 
the St. Lawrence just above the island of 
Montreal. It is navigable along the border for 
more than 250 m., the rapids and falls being 
avoided by means of canals. The only portion 
of the province of Quebec W. of the Ottawa is 
the angle made by that river with the St. Law- 
rence, comprising the counties of Soulanges 
and Vaudreuil. The chief tributaries of the 
Ottawa from this province are the Keepawa, 
120 m. long, which enters Lake Temisca- 
mingue ; the Du Moine, having about the same 
length ; the Gatineau, 400 m. long, which joins 
the main stream nearly opposite the city of 
Ottawa, and is navigable by canoes for more 
than 300 m. ; the Du Lievre, 260 m. long ; the 
North Petite Nation, 95 m. ; the Rouge, 90 m. ; 
and North river or riviere du Nord, 160 m. 
The E. part of the province is drained by 
numerous streams that flow into the gulf of St. 
Lawrence from the north. Among these, pro- 
ceeding toward the east, are the Moisie, Mani- 
tou, Magpie, St. John, Mingan, Natashquan, 
St. Augustine, and Esquimaux or St. Paul. 
In the south, portions are drained by tribu- 
taries of the St. John and the Restigouche, the 
latter flowing into the bay of Chaleurs and 
forming a part of the boundary with New 
Brunswick. Its chief tributary from Quebec 
is the Matapediac. The chief tributaries of 
the St. John are the St. Francis, which forms 
a part of the boundary with Maine, and the 
Madawaska, which flows into New Brunswick. 
The principal rivers of the peninsula of Gasp6 
are the Grand and Little Cascapediac and the 
Bonaventure, which empty into the bay of 
Chaleurs; the Mai Baie, St. Johns, York, and 
Dartmouth, flowing into the gulf of St. Law- 
rence from the west ; and the Madeleine and 
St. Anne, emptying into the gulf from the 
south. There are numerous lakes, particularly 
in the northwest, where the country is covered 
by a network of them, the rivers here being 
little else than chains of lakes. The most im- 
portant ones S. of the St. Lawrence are Mem- 
phremagog, partly in Vermont ; M6gantic, 
which discharges through the Chaudiere river ; 
Temiscouata, discharging through the Mad- 
awaska river ; and Matapediac, discharging 
through the river of the same name. The 
largest in the province is Lake St. John, 30 by 
25 m. in extent, about 120 m. N. of Quebec, 
in which the Saguenay river takes its rise. 
This lake lies in an extensive valley, and re- 
ceives numerous large streams, some of which 



rise in the height of land. The largest of its 
tributaries are the Peribonka, from the north- 
east ; the Mistassini and Ashuapmouchouan or 
Chamouchouan, from the northwest ; and the 
Ouiatchouanish, Ouiatchouan, Metabetchouan, 
Kushpahiganish, and Belle Riviere or Kush- 
pahigan, from the southwest and south. Lake 
St. Peter is an expansion of the St. Lawrence 
between Montreal and Quebec. The geolo- 
gical formations that occur in the province 
are the Laurentian, Silurian, Devonian, and 
carboniferous. The region N. of the St. Law- 
rence is occupied by the lower Laurentian, 
with small areas of upper Laurentian around 
Lake St. John and N. of Montreal, and a nar- 
row belt of lower Silurian along the river 
bank above Quebec. S. of the St. Lawrence 
the country consists of different groups of the 
lower Silurian, followed S. E., along the bor- 
ders of New Hampshire, Maine, and New 
Brunswick, by smaller tracts of middle and 
upper Silurian, with areas of the Devonian in 
the Gaspe peninsula. Anticosti is occupied 
by the lower and middle Silurian. The Mag- 
dalen islands are of carboniferous formation 
below the coal measures. Gold is found on 
the Chaudiere river, and mining has been car- 
ried on in Beauce co., but with little success. 
Copper is found in large quantities in the 
eastern townships, where mines are in opera- 
tion. Iron ore is widely diffused, and is mined 
to some extent. An ore of excellent quality 
is obtained near the St. Maurice river. Lead, 
silver, platinum, zinc, &c., have also been 
found. Quebec abounds in magnificent sce- 
nery, especially on the lower St. Lawrence 
and Saguenay. Among objects of interest 
may be mentioned the Chaudiere falls in the 
Ottawa, the falls of the Chaudiere river, the 
falls of Montmorency near the city of Quebec, 
and the falls of the St. Anne 20 m. below it. 
The climate is healthy, but subject to extremes 
of temperature. The winters are cold, with a 
clear and bracing air ; the summers are warm. 
Winter commences about the end of November 
and lasts till the middle of April. The plateau 
of Lake St. John is sheltered on the north and 
east by mountains, and has a climate like that 
of Montreal. The shores of the Gasp6 penin- 
sula are exposed to the cold winds and fogs of 
the gulf. In the N. E. part of the province, 
comprising a portion of the peninsula of Lab- 
rador, the climate is much colder than else- 
where. The following table gives the results 
of observations for a series of years at Mont- 
real (lat. 45 31') and Quebec (lat, 46 49') : 



SEASON. 


MONTREAL. 


QUEBEC. 


Mean 

temperature. 


Rainfall, 
inches. 


Mean 
temperature. 


Rainfall, 
inchei. 


Autumn 


47-8' 
18-1 
42-5 
69-5 


10-88 
1-91 
5 72 
9-80 


44-6' 
18-8 
87-6 
66-0 


6-66 
0-25 
2-70 
9-66 


Winter 






Tear 


44-8' 


27-26 


40-5' 


19-26 





136 



QUEBEC (PBOVIXCE) 



The highest temperature observed at Montreal 
during the period was 96 '1 ; lowest, 28. 
The highest observed at Quebec was 94'4 ; 
lowest, 30 - 5. The annual precipitation of 
rain and melted snow at Montreal is 37'54 
inches; at Quebec, 31-84 inches. The soil of 
the valley of the St. Lawrence and of the " east- 
ern townships " is generally fertile. The town- 
ships are a fine grazing country, and much 
attention is paid to the raising of cattle and 
wool. On either side of the Notre Dame moun- 
tains, W. of the Gasp6 peninsula, there is much 
good soil. The peninsula is generally rocky, 
but contains considerable arable land, particu- 
larly along the bay of Chaleurs. On the upper 
Saguenay and around Lake St. John there is 
an extensive region suited to agriculture, and 
the basin of the St. Maurice contains many 
fertile valleys. In the basin of the Ottawa also 
there are extensive tracts of good land. The 
Labrador portion of the province is rocky and 
sterile, and its climate too severe for agricul- 
ture. The greater portion of the province is 
covered with forests, the most common and 
important trees being the red and white pine. 
Other species are the ash, birch, beech, elm, 
hickory, black walnut, maple, cherry, butter- 
nut, basswood, spruce, fir, and tamarack. Hard 
wood is most common S. of the St. Lawrence. 
Lumbering is very extensively carried on, par- 
ticularly on the tributaries of the Ottawa, St. 
Maurice, and Saguenay. The timber lands are 
leased by the government for a term of years 
for a certain bonus and annual rents. Oats, 
potatoes, and hay are the largest crops. Wheat, 
barley, rye, peas, beans, buckwheat, Indian 
corn, turnips, tlax, apples, tobacco, hops, &c., 
are also grown. Except in the S. W. portions, 
the climate is too cool for Indian corn. The 
island of Montreal is noted for the excellence 
of its apples, and the island of Orleans for its 
plums. The wild animals are similar to those 
of other parts of British America. Fur-bear- 
ing animals are still trapped in the N. and N. 
E. portions of the province, where the Hudson 
Bay company has several posts. The manu- 
factures are of considerable value, though they 
have not yet been extensively developed. Among 
the principal articles produced are flour, lum- 
ber, furniture, leather, hardware, paper, chemi- 
cals, soap, boots and shoes, cotton and woollen 
goods, steam engines, and agricultural imple- 
ments. Ship building is carried on chiefly at 
Quebec. Home-made woollen and linen cloths 
are extensively worn by the rural population. 
(For statistics of agriculture, manufactures, 
&c., see APPENDIX to vol. xii.) The gulf of 
St. Lawrence abounds in fish, and the fisheries 
are extensively pursued on the Labrador coast, 
around the shores of the Gaspe peninsula, and 
at the Magdalen islands. The value of the 
fisheries for the year ending June 30, 1874, 
was $1,008,660 20. The chief items of catch 
were cod, herring, salmon, seals, mackerel, and 
lobsters. The value of fish oil preserved, in- 
cluded in the above figures, was $89,211 60, 



viz.: cod oil, $48,854 50; seal oil, $27,047 60; 
whale oil, $13,296 ; porpoise oil, $13 60. In 
respect to foreign commerce Quebec is the first 
province in the Dominion. The value of goods 
entered for consumption from foreign coun- 
tries during the year 1873-'4 was $51,980,870, 
including $32, 749,883 from Great Britain, $12,- 
703,967 from the United States, $1,530,152 from 
France, $939,451 from the West Indies, $737,- 
866 from Germany, $677,017 from China, $528,- 
232 from Newfoundland, $452,486 from South 
America, $352,934 from Spain, $295,958 from 
Japan, $283,956 from Belgium, $243,782 from 
the East Indies, $204,581 from Holland, and 
$138,712 from Switzerland. The principal ar- 
ticles of import were manufactures, including 
cottony woollens, fancy goods, silks, iron and 
hardware, and machinery, besides sugar and 
molasses, tea, tobacco and cigars, wine, brandy 
and other spirits, coal, wheat, &c. The value 
of exports to foreign countries was $46,393,845, 
of which $36,099,441 were to Great Britain, 
$5,812,596 to the United States, $967,615 to 
South America, $813,888 to Newfoundland, 
$255,267 to the British West Indies, $237,259 
to France, $229,480 to Belgium, $169,528 to 
Italy, and $169,150 to Portugal. Of the whole 
amount $9,405,600 represented goods not the 
produce of Canada, $901,703 coin and bullion, 
$053,869 the estimated amount not returned 
at inland ports, and $35,432,673 Canadian pro- 
duce, viz. : of the mine, $210,414; of the fish- 
eries, $778,672; of the forest, $13,115,106; 
animals and their produce, $8,18i,013; agri- 
cultural products, $11,256,057; manufactures, 
$917,404; miscellaneous articles, $102,732; 
new ships, $796,075. The number of entrances 
from sea was 1,501, tonnage 1,135,500; clear- 
ances for sea, 1,493, tonnage 1,087,151 ; en- 
trances in inland navigation from the United 
States, 2,793, tonnage 288,862 ; clearances in 
inland navigation for the United States, 1,487, 
tonnage 216,990 ; total entrances in the foreign 
trade, 4,294, tonnage 1,424,422; total clear- 
ances, 2,980, tonnage 1,304,141. The number 
of vessels built during the year was 63, with 
an aggregate tonnage of 22,189 ; belonging in 
the province at the close of 1874, 1,837 vessels, 
with an aggregate tonnage of 218,946. The 
following is a comparative statement of the 
foreign commerce for the six years ending 
June 30, 1874: 



YEARS. 


Import*. 


EnUrcd for 
conumptlon. 


Export!. 


1869.... 


$90,940 341 


$29 546 177 


$28.228 268 


1870 


828S8 ( (16 


8'2 1 66 2^8 


"T ^>~ 46s 


1871 


48 094 412 


40 108,120 


3' 09 1 706 


1872 


49376 175 


47 788 687 


41 VS470 


1878 


53715459 


M '! 1T>8 


41 4H-- o:<3 


1874. 


51 557 072 


51 9SO 870 


46 398 845 











The province is connected with Ontario and 
the United States by several lines of railway, 
the statistics of which for 1875 are contained 
in the following table : 



QUEBEC (PEOVINOE) 



137 



Miles la 
operation In 
the province. 



Grand Trunk, W. division 

" " E. division 

" " Portland division 

" Three Kivers branch 

" Cham plain division 

" " Lachine and Province Line division 

Massawippi Valley 

Montreal and Vermont Junction 

Montreal, Chambly, and Sorel 

Quebec and Gosford 

St. Lawrence and Industry 

Southeastern 

Stanstead, Shefford, and Chambly 



Montreal to Detroit, Mich. (564 in.) 

Montreal to Trois Pistoles 

Richmond to Portland, Me. (221 m.) 

Arthabaska to Doucet's Landing (opposite Three Elvers). 

St. Lambert to Rouse's Point, N. Y 

Montreal to Province Line 

Sherbrooke to Newport, Vt. (40 m.) 

St. Johns to Burlington, Vt. (78 m.) 

St. Lambert to West Farnhain 

Quebec to Gosford 

Lanoraie to Joliette 

West Farnham to Newport, Vt. (65 m.) 

St. Johns to Waterloo 



45 
810 
54 
85 
42 
40 
84 
26 
28 
26 
12 
82 
43 



Total. 



733 



The Intercolonial railway is intended to be 
extended from Moncton, New Brunswick, N. 
and then W. to Kiviere du Loup on the St. 
Lawrence. There are other lines projected 
or in progress. There were 19 banks on Sept. 
30, 1874, with an aggregate paid-up capital of 
$42,351,464. The executive power is vested in 
a lieutenant governor, appointed by the gov- 
ernor general of the Dominion in council, as- 
sisted by an executive council of seven mem- 
bers (secretary and registrar and minister of 
public instruction, treasurer, attorney general, 
commissioner of crown lands, commissioner 
of agriculture and public works, president of 
legislative council, and solicitor general) ap- 
pointed by himself and responsible to the as- 
sembly. The legislative authority is exercised 
by a legislative council of 24 members, ap- 
pointed by the lieutenant governor in council 
for life, and a legislative assembly of 65 mem- 
bers (one from each electoral district), elected 
by the qualified voters for four years. The 
right of suffrage is conferred on all male Brit- 
ish subjects 21 years old and upward who 
possess a small property qualification. Voting 
is by ballot. For judicial purposes the prov- 
ince is divided into 20 districts. The princi- 
pal courts are the queen's bench, consisting 
of a chief justice and four puisn6 judges, and 
the superior court, with a chief justice and 25 
puisne judges. These judges are appointed by 
the governor general of the Dominion in coun- 
cil during good behavior. The queen's bench 
sits four times a year at Montreal and as fre- 
quently at Quebec for the purpose of hearing 
appeals. Trial terms are held twice a year 
in different parts of the province by a single 
judge, in criminal cases with a jury. Three 
judges of the superior court sit in review of 
judgments of a single judge at the superior and 
circuit courts. Superior courts, with jurisdic- 
tion of sums exceeding $200, are held three 
times a year in each judicial district by a 
single judge. Circuit courts, with jurisdiction 
of sums not exceeding $200, are held in each 
county by a judge of the superior court. A 
vice-admiralty court is held at Quebec by a 
judge of vice-admiralty. Justice is adminis- 
tered according to the Code civil de Quebec, 
which is based mainly upon the coutume de 



Paris and the edicts and ordinances of the 
French kings in force at the time of the ces- 
sion to Great Britain. The province is rep- 
resented in the Dominion parliament by 24 
senators and 65 members of the house of com- 
mon* (one from each electoral district). The 
balance in the provincial treasury on June 30, 
1873, was $948,001 43 ; receipts during the fol- 
lowing year, $2,041,174 71, including $1,014,- 
712 12 subsidy from the Dominion government, 
$542,140 72 from the crown lands department, 
$121,540 98 from law stamps, and $141,597 72 
from licenses, &c. The expenditures amount- 
ed to $1,992,594 88, including $54,822 84 out- 
standing warrants ; balance in treasury on June 
30, 1874, $1,051,404 10. The chief items of 
expenditure were as follows : legislation, $173,- 
292 98; civil government, $146,766 41; ad- 
ministration of justice, $364,555 29 ; police, 
$63,292 20; reformatories, $38,000; educa- 
tion, $320,166 07; agriculture, $61,352 15; 
immigration, $48,978 79 ; colonization roads, 
$114,525 76; public works and buildings, 
$161,147 42; charities, $218,224 85; crown 
lands department, $128,574 82 ; subsidy to 
Southeastern railway, $38,700. The provin- 
cial lunatic asylum is at Beaufort, near Que- 
bec. There are also lunatic asylums at Mon- 
treal, at St. Ferdinand d'Halifax, and at St. 
Johns, which receive aid from the province, 
the first two being under the control of the 
Catholics and the last of the Protestants. Aid 
is also granted to the Belmont Eetreat ine- 
briate asylum in Quebec, to the Catholic and 
Protestant deaf and dumb institutions in Mon- 
treal, to the Nazareth asylum for the blind 
and for destitute children in Montreal (under 
the control of the sisters of charity), to the 
reformatories at Montreal and Sherbrooke (the 
former Catholic and the latter Protestant), and 
to various hospitals and asylums conducted by 
religious bodies. There is a penitentiary at 
St. Vincent de Paul on Isle Jesus, under the 
control of the Dominion. The number of con- 
victs at the close of 1873 was 122. The pub- 
lic schools of the province are under the direc- 
tion of the minister of public instruction, as- 
sisted by a council of 24 members (16 Catho- 
lics and 8 Protestants) appointed by the lieu- 
tenant governor. For each municipality there 



138 



QUEBEC (PROVINCE) 



are five commissioners, elected by the rate 
payers, having the immediate management of 
primary schools. In municipalities where dif- 
ferent religious denominations exist, the mi- 
nority may select syndics or trustees to direct 
their own schools ; these are called dissentient 
schools. Inspectors, 32 in number, acting un- 
der the immediate direction of the minister 
of public instruction, are required to visit the 
schools of their respective districts at least 
twice a year and report upon their condition. 
The provincial grant is apportioned among 
the municipalities, and in each a special tax 
is levied. Each head of a family is also re- 
quired to pay a monthly fee, varying from 5 
to 40 cents, for every child between 7 and 14 
years of age, whether attending school or not. 
Dissentient schools receive a share of these 
moneys. The following statistics are for 1873 : 

Municipalities, number 852 

School districts 8.870 

School houses 8.331 

Elementary schools 8.254 

Pupils 141,990 

Primary superior schools for boys 269 

Pupils 21,653 

Primary superior schools for girls 74 

Pupils 6,980 

Protestant dissentient schools 186 

Pupils 6,156 

Catholic dissentient schools 84 

Pupils. 1,509 

Academies , 88 

Pupils 8,252 

Colleges 87 

Pupils 7,118 

Normal schools 4 

Pupils 246 

Educational convents , 129 

Pupils 24,236 

Independent schools 156 

Pupils 6,261 

Total educational institutions 4,226 

" pupils 924,851 

Male teachers 999 

Female teacher* 4,017 

Provincial grant, amount $155,000 00 

Local assessments, regular and special $456,194 40 

Monthly fees $715.661 76 

Total amount available . $1,826,856 16 

Public libraries, number 206 

Volumes 108,812 

Only the municipal or parochial libraries are 
given in the table. The schools for the train- 
ing of teachers are the Laval normal school 
at Quebec, and the Jacques Cartier and McGill 
normal schools at Montreal. There are three 
universities : Laval university at Quebec (Ro- 
man Catholic), McGill university at Montreal 
(Protestant, but not denominational), and the 
university of Bishop's college at Lennoxville 
(Episcopal). The first, with its affiliated in- 
stitutions in various parts of the province, 
is treated in the article on the city of Que- 
bec. McGill university was founded by a be- 
quest of the Hon. James McGill in 1811, was 
incorporated by royal charter in 1821, and re- 
organized by an amended charter in 1852. In 
immediate connection with it are the McGill 
normal and model schools and McGill college. 
The college has a faculty of arts, with a de- 
partment of applied science, and faculties of 
medicine and law. The department of arts 
has a museum and a library of 16,330 volumes, 



and the medical department a museum and a 
library of 4,000 volumes. St. Francis college, 
at Richmond, and Morrin college, at Quebec, 
are affiliated with the university, the former 
in respect of degrees in arts and the latter 
in arts and law. There are two affiliated 
theological colleges, the Congregational col- 
lege of British North America, at Montreal, 
and the Presbyterian college of Montreal, th 
students in which have the privilege of pur- 
suing the course of study in arts. The uni- 
versity receives a small annual grant from the 
province. Morrin college was founded in 1860 
and incorporated in 1861. It has a faculty 
of divinity in connection with the church of 
Scotland. The university of Bishop's college 
was incorporated by royal charter in 1852. 
It comprises faculties of divinity, arts, and 
medicine, the last being at Montreal. Bishop's 
college, founded in 1843, and Bishop's college 
school, in 1857, are in immediate connection 
with it. The college has a museum and a 
library of 5,000 volumes. There is a medical 
school (ecolt de medeeine et de chirurgie) at 
Montreal affiliated with Victoria university, 
Cobourg, Ontario. There are 12 or 15 clas- 
sical colleges besides those already named, and 
about the same number of industrial colleges. 
The number of newspapers and periodicals 
published in the province in 1875 was 72 (43 
English and 29 French), issuing 90 editions, 
viz.: 14 daily, 10 tri-weekly, 3 semi-weekly, 
40 weekly, 1 semi-monthly, 19 monthly, and 3 
quarterly. The following table contains the 
statistics of the principal religious denomina- 
tions, according to the census of 1871 : 



DENOMINATIONS. 


Churcbrt. 


Bulldlnp 
attached. 


Adherata. 


Baptist 


82 


44 


- r>-fi 


KpWopal 


176 


809 


62.449 


Methodist 


181 


l-> 


84100 


Presbvterian 


94 


154 


Kl <.> 


Roman Catholic 


610 


2097 


1019850 


Other 


23 


40 


20266 










Total.... 


1.071 


-'.<! 1 


1.191.516 



Of the Baptists 3,878 were Freewill Baptists, 
and of the Methodists 26,737 were Wesleyans. 
Among denominations not named in the table 
were 5,240 Congregationalists, 8,150 Advent- 
ists, 1,937 Universalists, and 1,093 Unitarians. 
Jacques Cartier took possession of this region 
in the name of the French king in 1534. The 
first permanent settlement was effected at the 
city of Quebec in 1608. Montreal was settled 
in 1642. The French ceded the territory, to- 
gether with what is now Ontario, to Great 
Britain in 1763, and in 1774 the whole was 
organized as the province of Quebec. In 
1791 it was divided into two provinces, Low- 
er Canada and Upper Canada, and in 1841 
these were reunited as the province of Can- 
ada. Upon the organization of the Dominion 
of Canada in 1867, they were again separa- 
ted, and Lower Canada became the province of 



QUEBEC 



139 



Quebec. An elective assembly was granted to 
the provinces in 1791, and in 1841 responsible 
government was introduced. For further his- 
torical details, see CANADA, DOMINION OF. 

QUEBEC, a county of the province of Quebec, 
Canada, on the N. bank of the St. Lawrence, 
including territorially, though not politically, 
the city of Quebec ; area, 2,598 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1871, 19,607, of whom 14,681 were of 
French, 3,321 of Irish, 772 of English, and 547 
of Scotch origin or descent. It is watered by 
the Batiscan, St. Anne, and St. Charles rivers, 
and other streams. Capital, Charlesbourg. 

QIJEBKC, a fortified city and port of entry of 
the Dominion of Canada, capital of the prov- 
ince of Quebec, situated on the N". W. bank of 
the river St. Lawrence, at its confluence with 
the St. Charles, nearly 400 m. from the gulf 
of St. Lawrence, and 140 m. (in a direct line) 
N. E. of Montreal, in Lit. 46 49' 6" N., Ion. 
71 13' 45" W.; pop. in 1861, 59,990; in 1871, 



69,699 (the decrease being attributed to the 
withdrawal of the British regiments forming 
the garrison). Of the latter number, 40,890 
were of French, 12,345 of Irish, 3,974 of Eng- 
lish, and 1,861 of Scotch origin, and 52,357 
were Roman Catholics. Quebec is built on 
the northern extremity of an elevated tongue 
of land which forms the left bank of the St. 
Lawrence for several miles. Cape Diamond, 
so called from the numerous quartz crystals 
formerly found there, is the loftiest part of 
the headland, 333 ft. above the stream, and 
crowned with the vast fortifications of the 
citadel. These occupy about 40 acres, and 
with their outlying works obtained for Que- 
bec the appellation of the " Gibraltar of 
America." From the citadel a line of wall 
runs westward toward the cliffs overhanging 
the valley of the St. Charles, and is thence 
continued around the brow of the promon- 
tory till it connects once more with Cape Dia- 




Quebee, from Point Levi. 



mond near the governor's garden. This circuit 
is about 2f m. in extent, and is pierced by 
five gates, now dismantled. The walls and 
ramparts outside of the citadel proper, though 
still mounted with cannon, are no longer kept 
in repair. The modern changes in artillery 
have necessitated the construction at enormous 
cost of a vast system of defensive works on 
the heights beyond Point Levi, and others are 
contemplated. Cape Diamond, Durham ter- 
race, the grand battery, and the vast balcony 
on the university building, on the east and 
north, and the ramparts between St. Louis and 
St. John gates, on the south and west, afford 
prospects rivalled by few in America. The 
city is divided into the upper and the lower 
town. The former comprises the walled city 
with the two suburbs of St. Louis and St. John, 
between the walls and the plains of Abraham. 
The lower town is the portion which encircles 



the base of the promontory from beneath Cape 
Diamond to the mouth of the St. Charles, to- 
gether with the suburbs of St. Roch, St. Sau- 
veur, and Boisseauville. A very large part of 
the city within the walls, or the upper town 
proper, is taken up with the buildings and 
grounds of great religious corporations, the 
seminary and Laval university, the Ursulines 
and the H6tel-Dieu, and the ancient Jesuit col- 
lege, founded in 1633, and occupied as a bar- 
rack after 1812. It is now proposed (1875) 
to erect a building for the provincial legisla- 
ture on its site. Over the remaining irregu- 
lar surface, not covered by military works, 
are crowded the quaint mediaeval streets and 
dwellings, built generally of stone, two or 
three stories high, and roofed, like the public 
buildings, with shining tin. Here are situated 
the parliament house, post office, court house, 
city hall, the residences of the officers of the 



140 



QUEBEC (CITY) 



provincial government and of the wealthy cap- 
italists, the principal hotels, finest stores, and 
chief places of amusement. The suburbs of 
St. Louis and St. John extend southward and 
westward along the plateau ; the former along 
the foot of the citadel to that part of the 




Wolfe's Monument. 

plains of Abraham where Wolfe conquered, 
and where a modest column stands with the 
inscription : " Here Wolfe died victorious, Sept. 
13, 1759;" the latter lower down on the slope, 
skirting the verge of the acclivity. A hand- 
some iron column, surmounted by a bronze 
statue of Bellona, in memory of the victory 
of the chevalier de Levis over Gen. Murray in 
1760, was erected here in 1854, the statue be- 
ing presented by Prince Napoleon Bonaparte. 
These suburbs, which are constantly encroach- 
ing on the historic plains, contain many beauti- 
ful private residences, and several large conven- 
tual establishments and churches. The lower 
town proper was the most ancient part of 
Quebec, surrounding the old church of Notre 
Dame des Victoires on the east, built on the site 
of Champlain's residence, and comprising chief- 
ly what is now the Champlain ward. It com- 
municates with the upper town by the Cham- 
plain steps and the steep and winding C6te de 
la Montagne or Mountain street. Here, around 
Notre Dame des Victoires and the Champlain 
market, are the principal wharves and steam- 
boat and ferry landings. It is the busiest and 
most crowded mart of the city, and a conglom- 
eration of irregular streets. St. Peter street 
leads northward from this quarter to the custom 
house, on the very apex of the beach formed 
by the confluent waters. Here, beneath the 
guna of the grand battery 200 ft. above, are 
the great commercial establishments, the mer- 
chants' exchange, the banking houses, whole- 



sale stores, and bonded warehouses. St. Paul's 
street connects with St. Peter's before the cus- 
tom house, and stretches westward on the nar- 
row strand between the cliff and the bay, amid 
breweries, distilleries, manufactories, and gas 
works, till it meets, near the mouth of the St. 
Charles, St. Joseph street, the main artery of 
the large suburb St. Roch. On the banks of 
the St. Charles are the principal ship yards. 
St. Roch and Boisseauville are the home of 
the laboring classes. The chief institutions 
here are the large convent and schools of the 
sisters of Notre Dame near the church of St. 
Roch, and the general hospital on the banks 
of the St. Charles. From Pres-de-ville, at the 
foot of Cape Diamond, proceeding S. W. as 
far as Sillery, the shore of the St. Lawrence 
is indented with 17 coves, all filled with lum- 
ber rafts. The opposite shore of the St. Law- 
rence, from New Liverpool to and beyond Point 
Lcvi, presents a scene of activity scarcely sur- 
passed by the city itself. New Liverpool is 
connected with Quebec by a steam ferry, has 
several factories and mills, a large trade in 
lumber, and the church of St. Romuald, the 
finest on the lower St. Lawrence. Adjoining 
New Liverpool is South Quebec, with a popu- 
lation of 8,000 (increasing rapidly), and im- 
mense lumber yards from which large yearly 
shipments are made. It is the stopping place 
of the transatlantic steamers from Liverpool. 
St. Joseph, between South Quebec and Levis, 
has as large a business as the former. The 
town of Levis or Point Levi, situated on the 
right bank opposite the island of Orleans, just 
where the main branch of the St. Lawrence 
turns eastward, is the terminus of the Grand 
Trunk railway and of the Levis and Kenne- 
bec railway. It has several churches, a thri- 
ving college, a succnrsal of the seminary of 
Quebec, a convent with a large female acad- 
emy, several other flourishing schools, hotels, 
telegraph offices, extensive lumber and ship 
yards, and a considerable trade. Quebec has 
many fine buildings. The custom house, on 
the bank of the river, is an imposing Doric 
edifice with a dome and a facade of noble 
columns, approached by a long flight of steps. 
Of the church edifices, the cathedral of Notre 
Dame is the most remarkable. It was elevated 
in October, 1874, to the rank of a basilica, on 
the occasion of the second centenary of the 
erection of the see of Quebec. It is a plain 
edifice externally, with a cut stone front added 
to it in 1844, and unpleasantly contrasting with 
the remainder of the structure. It is 216 ft. 
long, 180 wide, and about 80 in interior ele- 
vation, capable of seating 4,000 persons, with 
a spacious sanctuary, a richly decorated high 
altar, and several original paintings of great 
value. The Protestant cathedral, a plain gray 
edifice surmounted by a tall spire, stands in 
the centre of a large square, enclosed with an 
iron fence. S. E. of it is the parade ground, 
a central point, adorned with a fine fountain. 
The garden of the fortress, another fine pro- 



QUEBEC (CiTT) 



141 



menade, has an obelisk erected in 1828 to the 
memory of Wolfe and Montcalm. The Chal- 
mers church, the Wesleyan church (in the 
flamboyant style), and the chapel of the gray 
sisters are good specimens of Gothic church 
architecture. The marine hospital, built after 
the model of the temple of the Muses on the 
banks of the Ilissus, the archbishop's palace, 
the parliament buildings, the theatre, the city 
hall, and the university buildings are worthy 
of notice. The St. Lawrence is about three 
quarters of a mile (1,314 yards) wide oppo- 
site Cape Diamond, but the mouth of the St. 
Charles forms with it a magnificent basin near- 
ly 4 m. long and 3 m. wide. The beautiful 
island of Orleans and the shores of Point Levi 
shut in this basin on the northeast and east. 
The depth of the water is about 28 fathoms. 
The ordinary tide is 17 or 18 ft. at new and 
full moon ; but the spring tides attain a height 
of 23 or 24 ft. The harbor is safe and com- 
modious, and the largest vessels can lie at the 
wharves. In the latter part of December the 
river is closed by ice, and navigation ceases 
till the latter part of April, when the ice usu- 
ally disappears very suddenly. There are two 
regular lines of transatlantic steamers, running 
weekly between Quebec, Liverpool, and Glas- 
gow, and one fortnightly line between Quebec 
and London. There are also weekly steamers 
for the gulf ports, steamers for the Saguenay 
almost daily in the summer months, and semi- 
weekly for the stations intermediate between 
Quebec and Three Rivers, besides several fer- 
ries. Quebec, next to Montreal, is the most 
important centre of maritime commerce in 
British North America. It is one of the largest 
lumber and timber markets on the American 
continent. The principal imports are woollen, 
cotton, and silk goods, iron, hardware, coal, 
and salt. The exports consist chiefly of ships, 
lumber, and grain. The ships built at Que- 
bec are renowned for their beauty, solidity, 
and sailing qualities. Much the larger portion 
of the commerce is with Great Britain. The 
value of imports in 1860 was $3,358,676; of 
exports, $7,271,959. The value of imports 
and exports for the four years ending June 30, 
1874, was as follows : 



YEARS. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1871... 


$0.277.370 


$12.683,904 


1872 


7,532.221 


11.931,077 


1873 


6 846 976 


12 587 276 


1874 


7 422 063 


12,746,305 









The number of entrances during the last named 
year was 983, tonnage 790,361, of which 533, 
tonnage 381,032, were in ballast ; of clearances, 
846, tonnage 671,386 ; number of vessels built, 
52, tonnage 21,065. The number of vessels 
belonging to the port on June 1, 1874, was 801, 
with an aggregate tonnage of 100,564. Ac- 
cording to the census of 1871, the amount of 
capital invested in manufactures was $2,870,- 
638; number of hands employed, 7,250; amount 



of yearly wages, $1,459,279 ; value of raw ma- 
terials, $4,771,459; total value of products, 
$8,449,752. The principal articles of manufac- 
ture are boots and shoes, saw-mill products, 
ships, bakery products, furniture, foundery 
products and machinery, refined sugar, India- 
rubber goods, rope and twine, clothing, cooper- 
age, carriages, ale and beer, furs and hats, sash, 
doors, and blinds, soap and candles, and tobac- 
co. There are three banks with an aggregate 
paid-up capital on Sept. 30, 1874, of $6,307,- 
205; circulation, $3,044,719; deposits, $8,614,- 
438; specie and Dominion notes, $1,623,750; 
discount, $14,603,747. Quebec returns three 
members to the Dominion house of commons, 
and three to the provincial legislature. It is 
divided into eight wards, and is governed by a 
mayor, eight aldermen, and 18 councillors. It 
is the seat of a Protestant bishop and a Roman 
Catholic archbishop, and has 19 churches and 
a synagogue. The chief benevolent institu- 
tions are : the H6tel-Dieu, with its convent 
and hospital, founded in 1639 by the duchess 
d'Aiguillon, and in 1875 comprising 45 sisters 
of the Sacred Blood of Dieppe, 80 beds for pa- 
tients of every creed and nationality, and min- 
istering gratuitously to 10,000 patients yearly; 
the general hospital, with convent and halls 
for incurable patients, founded at a personal 
expense of 100,000 crowns by Bishop de Saint- 
Valier in 1693 ; the hospital of the Sacred Heart 
of Jesus, a branch of the general hospital, 
opened Sept. 8, 1873 ; the convent of the sisters 
of charity, or gray sisters, founded in 1848 by 
Archbishop Turgeon, combining an asylum for 
the aged and infirm poor, an orphanage, and a 
free industrial school for 1,000 pupils, the whole 
supported by private industry and charity ; the 
house of the Good Shepherd, a reformatory 
for the fallen, a conservatory for exposed girls, 
and a school for 500 pupils, established in 1850, 
supported during the first year by the guild 
of St. Vincent de Paul, and at present almost 
entirely self-supporting with the aid of pri- 
vate charity. Connected with the medical 
school of the Laval university are* the mater- 
nity hospital and the dispensary, the former 
founded in 1852 by the Rev. Joseph Auclair, 
aided by Mile. M6thivier, a poor seamstress 
(who has also opened a private lying-in asyr 
lum, now governed by herself) ; the latter es- 
tablished in February, 1866, also by .Father 
Auclair and the seminary of Quebec, and ex- 
clusively supported by them with the aid of 
private charity, and a grant of $500 from the 
legislature toward the hospital. Both afford 
assistance to all applicants without exception. 
The maternity hospital is under the charge of 
the sisters of the Good Shepherd, and the dis- 
pensary under that of the sisters of charity. 
There are also the St. Bridget's asylum, con- 
nected with St. Patrick's Roman Catholic 
church, and the ladies' Protestant home, the 
latter providing for old men and young unpro- 
tected girls. The marine hospital, on the bank 
of the St. Charles, near the general hospital, 



142 



QUEBEC (Cmr) 



and the Canada military asylum for the widows 
and orphans of British soldiers, are maintained 
at the public expense. The most important 
educational institution is the "Seminary of 
Quebec," with its offshoot and dependent the 
Laval university. The seminary was founded 
in 1663 by Francois de Montmorency-Laval, 
first bishop of Quebec, who bestowed upon it 
at his death in 1708 all the personal prop- 
erty in Canada which he had purchased by 
the sale of his patrimonial estates in France. 
The grand seminaire or theological school was 
opened in 1666, and ihe petit seminaire or col- 
legiate school in 1668. The first building for 
the special use of these schools, of stone, on 
the site of the present middle seminary build- 
ing, was erected in 1678 ; it was burned in 
1701, rebuilt, and again burned in 1705, when 
it was built larger. It was originally designed 
only for clerical students ; but when the Jesuit 
college, founded in 1637, was closed after the 
conquest, the seminary courses were thrown 
open to all classes. The whole community of 
professors and pupils numbered 54 persons in 
1704, and 110 in 1800. Within the present cen- 
tury two new wings have been added to the 
original building, each far exceeding it in size 
and costliness. The institution was raised to 
the rank of a university by a charter signed by 
Queen Victoria Dec. 8, 1852, the power of con- 
ferring the canonical degrees in theology being 
granted by Pius IX., March 6, 1853. The cor- 
ner stone of the principal university building 
was laid Sept. 20, 1854. The three buildings 
erected are 576 ft. long (the main building being 
286 ft.), five stories high, and of cut stone ; the 
whole lias been completed at a cost of $238,- 
787, without counting the sums expended for 
museums, library, apparatus, and picture gal- 
lery, amounting to about $500,000. In 1865 
the whole of the new wing of the theological 
seminary and a portion of the old were burned 
down; but the directors rebuilt and enlarged 
these portions, giving a total length of 684 ft. 
for the seminary buildings alone. The build- 
ings connected with the main university edifice 
are a separate school of medicine and a board- 
ers' hall for students in law and medicine. 
In thus founding the university and provi- 
ding it with all that was needful, the directors 
declined all aid from the government or the 
city. The large hall of convocation has seats 
for 1,200 persons, besides galleries for ladies ; 
the chemical laboratory is spacious, fire-proof, 
and provided .with complete apparatus. The 
mineralogical and geological collections were 
first prepared under the direction of the Rev. 
John Holmes, and afterward, with several 
large subsequent additions, arranged systemat- 
ically by Prof. T. Sterry Hunt. The museum 
of botany is equally complete. That of zoology 
contains upward of 1,300 different birds and 
over 7,000 insects. The ethnological collection 
is chiefly made up of the remains of Canadian 
Indians, and is mainly due to the labors of Dr. 
J. C. Tache. The museum of the medical de- 



partment is especially complete. The gallery 
of paintings, lately thrown open to the public, 
contains 150 originals, duplicates, and copies, 
sent from France after the revolution of 1791, 
and repurchased from various owners in Can- 
ada, by the Hon. Joseph Legare. The univer- 
sity library contains upward of 55,000 volumes, 
independently of the libraries belonging to 
the theological and preparatory departments, 
amounting to about 20,000 volumes more. 
The nine directors of the seminary are by 
right members of the university council, the 
superior of the seminary being ex ofticio rector 
of the university. The other members of the 
council are the three senior professors in each 
of the faculties of divinity, law, medicine, and 
arts. The Roman Catholic archbishop of Que- 
bec is ex officio visitor of the university ; to him 
belongs the appointment of the professors of 
divinity and canon law, and the conferring of 
all degrees in the same. In 1875 there were five 
titular professors in divinity and its kindred 
sciences, six in law, nine in medicine, and five 
titular and six associate professors in arts, 
and one honorary professor and three tutors 
or professors charge* de court. The divinity 
course embraces four years, the law course 
three years, and the medical course four years. 
There are six affiliated colleges: the college 
or preparatory seminary of Quebec, the col- 
lege of Nicolet, the college of Ste. Anne de 
la Pocatiere, the college of Ste. Therese de 
Blainville, the college of St. Joseph, Three 
Rivers, and that of St. Germain, Rimouski. 
The affiliated theological seminaries are those 
of Quebec, Ste. Anne de la Pocatiere, and 
St. Germain de Rimouski. About 40 priests 
and theological students are employed in va- 
rious capacities: of these the board of direc- 
tors, or the corporation of the seminary, re- 
ceive no salary, being provided with all ne- 
cessaries at an annual expense of about $250 
for each. The auxiliary priests receive, be- 
sides their board, a salary of $100 ; the tutors 
or disciplinarians who are theological students 
have each a yearly salary of $55 ; and the 
whole amount of salaries is considerably less 
than $2,000. In 1874 there were in all 290 
university students, of whom 55 were in the 
divinity school, 36 in the law school, 93 in the 
medical school, and 106 in the junior and se- 
nior classes of philosophy. Besides the uni- 
versity, Quebec has the Laval normal and 
model school, founded in January, 1857, under 
the superintendence of the Hon. Pierre J. O. 
Chauveau ; the Morrin college, the only non- 
episcopal Protestant one in the province ; and 
the Quebec high school. Morrin college oc- 
cupies the old prison in the centre of the up- 
per town; it has 10 professors, but is inade- 
quately patronized. The high school has been 
always very successful, and has 200 students, 
with a large staff of professors and a handsome 
library. The other principal schools are : the 
Ursuline convent, founded in 1639, having in 
1875 89 nuns, and educating 260 boarders, 140 



QUEBEC (CITY) 



QUEDLINBURG 



143 



half boarders, and 400 day scholars, together 
with 55 pupil teachers and 200 pupils belong- 
ing to the female department of the Laval nor- 
mal school ; the congregation of Notre Dame, 
with their chief convent and school near St. 
Koch's church, established in 1843 by the Rev. 
Z. Charest, and having two schools in the city 
with 2,100 pupils in 1875, most of whom are 
educated without cost to the parents; and the 
"Brothers of the Christian Schools," founded 
in 1842 by the late Archbishop Baillargeon, 
-with three residences and six schools and a com- 
mercial academy founded by the Eev. Joseph 
Auclair, educating gratuitously 2,500 pupils, 
and receiving in return the bare necessaries of 
life from the free bounty of the citizens. There 
are several flourishing literary societies, fore- 
most among which is the Quebec literary and 
historical society, the oldest chartered institu- 
tion of the kind in Canada, founded in 1824. 
It still has a valuable library, though a great 
portion of its most precious books and man- 
uscripts were destroyed with the parliament 
buildings in 1854. The Canadian institute, the 
entomological society, and the St. Patrick's 
literary institute possess valuable libraries, as 
well as the society of advocates, the board of 
trade, and the merchants' exchange. There 
are five daily newspapers (three of which are 
in the French language), one tri-weekly, four 
weekly, and three monthly periodicals. The 
site of Quebec was visited by Cartier in 1534- 
'5, and the city was founded by Champlain in 
1608. It was taken by the English in 1629, 
and restored to France by the treaty of 1632. 
In 1636 it had 100 inhabitants. It was the 
colony of a concessionary company, who did 
not fulfil their promises to the settlers, and 
hence its growth was slow. The magistrate, 
named by the company, was called a syndic, 
and had powers similar to those of a mayor. 
The king, dissatisfied with the management of 
the company, took the colony into his own 
hands, and in 1663 appointed a governor and 
created the sovereign council of Quebec, who 
were charged with its government. In 1690 
the neighboring English colonies made an un- 
successful maritime expedition against it. In 
1711 the attempt was renewed, with no better 
success. The first attempt at erecting stone 
fortifications was made after the first of these 
attacks, the place having been previously pro- 
tected only by palisades. In 1734 it had, in- 
cluding its suburbs, only 4,603 inhabitants. 
In 1759, during the seven years' war, the 
English Gen. James "Wolfe attacked the city 
and bombarded it. On Sept. 13 took place 
the first battle of the plains of Abraham, in 
which both the contending generals fell, and 
England gained at one blow an American em- 
pire. On Sept. 18 Quebec capitulated after a 
siege of 69 days. The French attempted its 
recapture, and in the following spring the 
second battle of the plains of Abraham was 
fought, and victory sided with the French 
colonists; but at the treaty of peace in 1763 
694 TOL. xiv. 10 



Louis XV. ceded the whole of New France to 
the English. Quebec, ruined by Wolfe's bom- 
bardment, rose slowly from its ashes, though 
its commerce increased. In 1764 the first 
newspaper, the "Quebec Gazette," published 
in two languages, made its appearance. In 
1775 the city had only 5,000 inhabitants. In 
December, 1775, a small American force under 
Gen. Montgomery attempted its capture, but 
failed, with the loss of about 700 men and 
their commander (Dec. 31). In 1792, the year 
after the inauguration of the representative 
system in Canada, the first Lower Canadian 
parliament was convoked at Quebec, and the 
city remained the seat of government for the 
lower province till the union of the Canadas 
in 1841. During this period its growth was 
steady and moderately rapid; in 1844 its pop- 
ulation was 32,876, besides 2,797 in the sub- 
urbs. Two terrible fires occurred in 1845, at 
a month's interval, in the faubourgs of St. 
Roch and St. John ; nearly 3,000 houses were 
burned, and property to the amount of more 
than $8,000,000 was destroyed. Large confla- 
grations also occurred in 1862 and 1866; and 
great improvements have since been made in 
the fire department and a more secure style of 
building adopted. In 1851 Quebec again be- 
came the capital for four years tinder the ar- 
rangement for alternating capitals adopted in 
1849, and kept up till 1858, when Ottawa be- 
came the seat of government. After the erec- 
tion of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, Quebec 
became the capital of the province of Quebec. 
QUEDLDTBIIRG, a town of Prussia, in the prov- 
ince of Saxony, beautifully situated near the 
lower Hartz mountains, on the Bode, a tribu- 
tary of the Saale, 31 m. S. "W. of Magdeburg; 
pop. in 1871, 16,402. Two arms of the Bode 
divide the old from the new town, and there 
are four suburbs, one laid out in 1862. The 
castle, on a rocky eminence, once the residence 
of the local abbesses, is in decay, and is partly 
used as a school. The Schlosskirche, with re- 
markable art treasures, was made in 1838 the 
theme of a special work by Ranke and Kugler. 
There are seven Protestant churches, and one 
Catholic. A gymnasium was established here 
by Luther and Melanchthon. The ruined con- 
vent of St. Wipertus is now a barn. In the 
Bruhl garden are monuments of Klopstock 
and Carl Ritter, who were born here. Qued- 
linburg is a market for seeds, agricultural and 
garden products, cattle, books, and woollen 
goods. The see of Quedlinburg was celebra- 
ted from the 10th to the 18th century for its 
abbesses, who had a seat in the diet as prin- 
cesses of the German empire. The first ab- 
bess was Matilda, daughter of Otho I. (963- 
999). In 1539 the abbesses joined the refor- 
mation. Conspicuous among those of the 18th 
century were Anne Amalia, a sister of Fred- 
erick the Great, and Sophia Albertina, a daugh- 
ter of King Adolphus Frederick of Sweden, 
who was the last, retiring in 1802, but retain- 
ing the title till her death. 



QUEEN 



QUEEN'S 



QUEEN (Goth, queins, quena, a woman, a 
wife ; Icelandic, knan ; A. S. cwen, wife, queen ; 
Gr. -ywfa a woman), the wife of a king, or a 
woman who is the sovereign of a kingdom. 
In the former capacity she is regarded in most 
countries as a person of dignity only inferior 
to that of her husband, and possesses all the 
privileges enjoyed by a feme sole. Thus in 
England she can receive grants from or make 
them to her husband, can purchase or convey 
land without his concurrence, can sue and be 
sued alone, and dispose of her property by 
will. She has a separate household and sepa- 
rate courts and officers, is exempted from pay- 
ing tolls and amercements, and has other extra- 
ordinary privileges ; and to compass or imagine 
her death, or to violate or defile her person, 
even with her consent, is treason. If accused 
of treason herself, she is tried by the peers 
of parliament. She is also entitled to be 
crowned with full regal solemnities. In other 
respects she is on a footing of equality with 
the subjects of her husband, in accordance 
with the maxim of the Roman law: Augusta 
legibus soluta non est. As a sovereign princess, 
a signification not originally comprehended in 
the term queen, she possesses all the attri- 
butes of a king; and her husband, if she is 
married, is her subject. In France, where by 
the Salic law a female could not succeed to 
the throne, the mother of a sovereign some- 
times exercised royal authority during the 
minority of her son, in which case she was 
called the queen regent. The queen dowager 
is the widow of a king, and as such enjoys 
most of the privileges accorded to her during 
the lifetime of her husband. In England she 
does not lose her rank, although she marry 
with a commoner ; but no one can contract a 
marriage with her without a special license 
from the sovereign. When the queen dowager 
is mother of the sovereign, she is commonly 
called the queen mother. 

Ql'KK\ ANNE, an E. county of Maryland, bor- 
dered E. by Delaware, W. by Chesapeake bay, 
and N. W. by Chester river, and drained by 
several creeks; area, 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
16,171, of whom 6,592 were colored. It has a 
rolling surface and fertile soil. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 326,828 bushels of wheat, 
605,975 of Indian corn, 59,167 of oats, 26,845 
of Irish and 9,467 of sweet potatoes, 22,581 Ibs. 
of wool, and 107,422 of butter. There were 
3,703 horses, 586 mules and asses, 8,121 milch 
cows, 1,201 working oxen, 3,050 other cattle, 
5,373 sheep, and 9,942 swine; 1 fruit-canning 
establishment, 1 woollen mill, and 3 saw mills. 
Capital, Centreville. 

QUEEX CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, a group in the 
N. Pacific ocean, about 130 m. N. W. of Van- 
couver island, and about 80 m. from the coast 
of British Columbia, to which they belong. 
They consist of four principal islands, with 
numerous adjacent islets, extending N. N. W. 
and S. S. E. about 180 m., and separated by 
narrow channels; aggregate area about 5,000 



sq. m. The largest islands are Prevost at the 
southern extremity of the group, Moresby, 
Graham, and North at the northern. Mores- 
by island is about 80 m. long and from 10 to 
30 m. wide, with an area of 1,500 sq. m. 
Graham island is about 80 m. long and from 
20 to 60 ui. wide, with an area of 3,000 sq. m. 
Prevost and North islands are much small- 
er. The surface is hilly, but not mountainous. 
The interior is clothed with magnificent for- 
ests of pine, cedar, and similar trees. Copper 
and iron ores and anthracite coal have been 
found. Various kinds of berries are abun- 
dant, and potatoes are cultivated by the natives. 
There is thought to be much arable land. The 
climate is equable, the winters being mild and 
the summers cool. The harbors are numer- 
ous. The surrounding waters swarm with fish. 
The natives, divided into several tribes, num- 
ber 4,000 or 5,000. 

QUEEN CHARLOTTE SOUND. See VANCOUVER 
ISLAND. 

QUEENS, a S. E. county of New York, in the 
W. part of Long Island, bordered N. by Long 
Island sound and S. by the Atlantic ocean; 
area, 410 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 73,803. Its 
surface is somewhat hilly ; much of the soil 
is fertile, and nearly all is highly cultivated. 
The shores are much indented by bays and in- 
lets, and on the S. beach are many small islands. 
It is intersected by the Long Island and sev- 
eral other railroads. The chief productions in 
1870 were 83,258 bushels of wheat, 58,576 of 
rye, 535,796 of Indian corn, 164,599 of oats, 
7,063 of barley, 24,685 of buckwheat, 49,145 
of peas and beans, 734,549 of potatoes, 48,325 
tons of hay, 11,254 Ibs. of wool, and 362,250 of 
butter. There were 7,733 horses, 8,627 milch 
cows, 569 working oxen, 2,294 other cattle, 
3,838 sheep, and 8,229 swine ; 4 manufactories 
of brick, 28 of carriages and wagons, 7 of cor- 
dage and twine, two of explosives and fire- 
works, 1 of fertilizers, 1 of India-rubber and 
elastic goods, 3 of liquors, 4 of machinery, 8 
of brick and atone, 4 of oil, 6 of paper, 1 1 of 
saddlery and harness, 4 of sash, doors, and 
blinds, 2 of starch, 3 of stone and earthen 
ware, 14 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron, 4 flour 
mills, 5 lumber mills, and 4 ship yards. The 
court house is in the town of North Hempstead, 
about a mile from Mineola station on the Long 
Island railroad. The county clerk's office is in 
the village of Jamaica. A new court house is 
in course of erection in Long Island City. 

QUEEN'S. I. A S. central county of New 
Brunswick, Canada, intersected by the St. 
John river; area, 1,480 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
13,847, of whom 5,469 were of Irish, 4,842 of 
English, 2,142 of Scotch, and 918 of Dutch 
origin or descent. Around Grand lake consid- 
erable quantities of bituminous coal are mined. 
The county is traversed by the European and 
North American railway. Capital, Gagetown. 
II. A S. W. county of Nova Scotia, Canada, 
bordering on the Atlantic ocean; area, 1,065 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 10,554, of whom 5,270 



QUEEN'S 



QUEENSLAND 



145 



were of English, 2,245 of German, 1,150 of 
Scotch, and 1,110 of Irish origin or descent. 
The coast is deeply indented, and bordered by 
a rugged ridge extending many miles inland. 
The interior is beautifully diversified with val- 
leys, rivers, and lakes. The soil along the 
streams is fertile. Capital, Liverpool. III. The 
central county of Prince Edward Island, Can- 
ada; area, 771 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 42,651. 
It is traversed by the Prince Edward Island 
railway. The surface is diversified and the 
soil fertile. Capital, Charlottetown, which is 
also the capital of the province. 

QUEEN'S, a S. E. county of Ireland, in the 
province of Leinster ; area, 664 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1871, 77,071. The Slieve-Bloom mountains 
divide it from King's county. The principal 
rivers are the Barrow and its tributary the 
Nore. Lough Annagh, on the N. boundary, 
the only lake of any importance, is not more 
than a mile long. Iron and copper ore and 
potter's clay are found; and anthracite coal 
mines are worked. Excepting in the centre of 
the county, where there are extensive bogs, 
the soil is generally fertile. The principal 
towns are Mountmellick, Mountrath, and Mary- 
borough. 

QUEENSLAND, a British colony in Australia, 
comprising the N. E. part of the island, lying 
between lat. 10 43' and 29 S., and Ion. 138 
and 153 E., bounded N. by Torres strait, N. E. 
by the Coral sea, E. by the South Pacific, S. 
by New South Wales and South Australia, W. 
by South Australia and the Northern Terri- 
tory, and N. W. by the gulf of Carpentaria; 
area, including the coast islands, 678,000 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1871 (revised), 120,104 ; in 1873, 
estimated at 146,690. Of the population in 
1871, 71,767 were males and 48,337 females ; 
47,343 were born in Australia and New Zea- 
land, 26,296 in England and Wales, 8,564 in 
Scotland, 20,972 in Ireland, 8,317 in Germa- 
ny, 3,305 in China, 215 in the United States, 
and 188 in France. The religious division of 
the inhabitants in 1871 was as follows : Angli- 
cans, 43,764 ; Roman Catholics, 81,822 ; Pres- 
byterians, 15,373 ; Wesleyans, 7,206 ; Congre- 
gationalists, 2,647; other Protestant denomi- 
nations, 11,485 ; Jews, 291. No trustworthy 
information can be obtained concerning the 
number of aborigines. The coast line, from 
Point Danger, the S. E. extremity, to Cape 
York, the most northerly point, has a general 
N. W. direction ; it runs thence nearly due S. 
to the southernmost part of the gulf of Car- 
pentaria, forming the York peninsula, when it 
turns W. and then nearly N. W. to the boun- 
dary line of the Northern Territory. Its entire 
length is about 2,500 m. Off the E. coast, at an 
average distance of 20 to 30 m. from the shore, 
though in some places 60 m., lies the coral reef 
called the Great Barrier, which extends from 
Cape York to lat. 24, about 1,250 m. Within 
this reef, through which there are frequent 
though dangerous passages, is a navigable sea, 
with an ordinary depth of 10 to 25 fathoms ; 



but at the S. end, where the channel is widest, 
the depth exceeds 60 fathoms. The coast, both 
within this sea and S. of it, is indented by nu- 
merous fine bays, with capacious natural har- 
bors, many of which form the outlets of navi- 
gable rivers. The principal of these are More- 
ton bay, at the head of which stands Brisbane, 
the capital of the colony, Hervey bay, Port 
Curtis, Keppel bay, Port Bowen, Port Denison, 
and Halifax, Eockingham, Trinity, Princess 
Charlotte, Weymouth, and Shelburne bays. 
The whole E. coast is strewn with islands, 
chiefly small. The largest, Frazer or Great 
Sandy island, in lat. 25, is about 80 m. long 
by 20 m. wide. In Torres strait are Mulgrave's, 
Banks, and Prince of Wales islands, and in 
Carpentaria bay is a group called the Wellesley 
islands, the largest of which is Mornington. 
Along the gulf of Carpentaria the coast is low 
and sandy, with the exception of the S. part, 
where mountain ranges approach the sea. The 
E. coast is generally mountainous. From 50 
to 100 m. from the shore, and parallel to it, 
is a mountain chain forming several distinct 
ranges, from which numerous spurs run to the 
sea. The principal of these are the Gilbert 
range in the north, the Expedition range in 
the middle, and the Denham range in the south. 
The general height of the mountains is not 
more than 2,000 ft., but some of the peaks are 
much higher. Mt. Mitchell, S. of Brisbane, 
is 4,120 ft. high ; Mt. Eliot, near Halifax bay, 
4,122 ft. ; and two of the peaks of the Bellen- 
den Kerr range, on the coast S. of Trinity bay, 
are respectively 5,158 ft. and 5,438 ft. high. 
Beyond the mountains, table lands covered 
with herbage and well supplied with water, 
but without trees, stretch across the country 
to the gulf of Carpentaria, broken occasionally 
by mountain ranges. Within certain distances 
of the principal mountains the rains fall regu- 
larly, and the plains are covered with light 
timber. The mountains themselves are heavily 
wooded. Queensland is drained by many riv- 
ers, several of which are navigable. In the S. 
part most of the streams flow into New South 
Wales. The chief rivers that find an outlet on 
the E. coast are the Brisbane, which, together 
with the Arrowsmith, Logan, Pine, and Ca- 
boolture, empties into Moreton bay, and it is 
navigable for 75 m. by steamers ; the Mary and 
the Burnett, which flow into Hervey bay ; the 
Fitzroy, which, with its affluents, the Dawson, 
Mackenzie, and Isaacs, drains several hundred 
miles of country, and is navigable for 60 m. 
above its mouth in Keppel bay ; and the Bur- 
dekin, which is fed by the Bowen, Belyando, 
and others, and empties into Wickham bay. 
The Mitchell, Van Diemen, Flinders, and Al- 
bert flow into Carpentaria bay. The banks of 
the rivers are usually high and well wooded, 
being mostly covered with thick hedges of 
mangroves and forests of fig trees and euca- 
lypti, festooned with flowering vines. On the 
mountains the pine and cedar, and many varie- 
ties of trees unknown elsewhere, grow luxu- 



146 



QUEENSLAND 



riantly. The climate of Queensland is prefer- 
able to that of other parts of Australia, it being 
said to resemble closely that of Madeira, and 
the colony has been for many years the resort 
of invalids from the other settlements. The 
summer is hot, the thermometer sometimes 
indicating 100 in the shade ; but the atmos- 
phere is dry, and the heat is so tempered by 
the sea breezes that the nights are always cool. 
It is generally exempt from the hot winds 
which prevail in other parts of Australia. Kain 
falls regularly in the hot season, but a dry sea- 
son is experienced every six or seven years. 
Most of the productions of both temperate and 
tropical countries can be cultivated with suc- 
cess. There are few indigenous fruits or vege- 
tables, but those of almost all other countries 
have been naturalized. The soil is well adapted 
for the cultivation of cotton, sugar cane, and 
tobacco, as well as of maize, wheat, and other 
cereals, and all the vegetables and flowers of 
northern Europe. At the end of 1872 there 
were 62,491 acres under cultivation, of which 
12,002 were devoted to cotton and 11,757 to 
sugar cane. The orange, lemon, citron, pine- 
apple, fig, banana, peach, nectarine, grape, 
guava, mulberry, apple, pear, granadilla, and 
many other fruits, grow to perfection. In 
consequence of the high price of labor and the 
difficulty of finding a market for agricultural 
products, the greater part of the industry is 
devoted to stock raising. The downs furnish 
rich pasturage, and sheep and cattle increase 
rapidly. Horses are so numerous that only 
the best bred animals are selected for breaking. 
Cattle and sheep are frequently boiled down 
for their tallow and hides, but attempts have 
been made of late years to preserve the meat 
for exportation to Europe. The staple product 
is wool, the quality of which increases in fine- 
ness as the flocks are driven northward. About 
195,000 sq. m. are occupied for sheep raising. 
At the close of 1872 the live stock in the 
colony numbered 6,687,907 sheep, 1,200,992 
horned cattle, 92,798 horses, and 35,732 swine. 
Queensland is rich in minerals, principally 
gold, copper, and coal. Gold was first discov- 
ered at Canoona, about 35 m. from Rockhamp- 
ton. In 1867 several other fields were opened, 
the richest of which was at Gympic creek, 
130 m. from Brisbane, which proved to be very 
rich in gold-bearing quartz. There are now 
more than a dozen gold fields in the colony, 
mostly in the N. and N. W. districts. The total 
gold product for 1872 was 178,308 oz., valued 
at 592,993. The richest copper mines are at 
Clermont, and the chief coal mines are on the 
Brisbane and Bremer rivers. The product of 
the coal mines for 1872 was 27,727 tons, valued 
at 16,120. Queensland is divided into 12 dis- 
tricts : Moreton, Darling Downs, Burnett, Port 
Curtis, Maranoa, Leichhardt, Kennedy, Mitch- 
ell, Warrego, Gregory, Burke, end Cook. The 
principal towns, besides Brisbane, are Ipswich, 
Rockhampton, Gympic, Maryborough, and To- 
(Rroomba. The government is vested in a gov- 



ernor appointed by the crown, an executive 
council, and a parliament of two houses, the 
legislative council and the legislative assembly. 
The governor is commander-in-chief of the 
troops, and has also the title of vice admiral. 
The executive council consists of a colonial 
secretary, treasurer, postmaster general, attor- 
ney general, minister for lands, and minister 
for mines and public works. The legislative 
council consists of 21 members, nominated by 
the crown for life. The house of assembly 
comprises 32 deputies, elected by ballot for 
five years. Electors must be natural born or 
naturalized citizens, 21 years of age, who pos- 
sess certain small property qualifications, and 
have suffered no condemnation for criminal 
acts. Justice is administered through a chief 
justice, a puisn6 judge, each of whom has asso- 
ciates, and several district judges. There ia 
no state church, an act having been passed in 
1860 abolishing state aid to religion. Nearly 
all the leading denominations are represented 
in the colony, and all have numerous places 
of worship. Education is under the control 
of a board of education, consisting of six mem- 
bers appointed by the government, with one 
of the ministry for chairman. It is similar to 
the national system in vogue in Ireland, and 
is entirely free. Aid is granted to schools not 
established by the board, which are called non- 
vested schools, on their complying with certain 
regulations. The state also assists schools more 
advanced than primary schools. In 1870 there 
were 111 public schools, 226 teachers, and an 
aggregate attendance of 16,227. Of these, 89 
were primary schools, with 170 teachers and 
11,087 scholars. Brisbane, Ipswich, and Mary- 
borough have grammar schools. There were 
also 101 .private schools in the colony in 1870. 
The gross revenue in 1873 was 1,120,034, and 
the expenditure 948,750. The public debt 
on Dec. 31, 1872, was 4,547,850. The total 
value of the imports in 1873 was 2,881,726; 
exports, 3,542,518. Commercial intercourse 
is chiefly with the other Australian colonies 
and with Great Britain. In 1873 the imports 
from Great Britain amounted to 815,638, and 
the exports to it to 871,235, of which 534,935 
was for wool. The principal articles exported 
were wool, tallow, gold, copper, tin ore, cot- 
ton, live stock, hides, timber, and provisions. 
The total export of wool in 1872 was 17,798,- 
000 Ibs. The entrances at the various ports in 
1870 were 476 vessels of the aggregate capacity 
of 139,292 tons. In the same year 2,825 immi- 
grants were landed. At the close of 1873 there 
were 218 m. of railway in operation. The 
chief lines are the Southern and Western, from 
Ipswich to Warwick, 176 m. ; and the North- 
ern, from Rockhampton in the direction of the 
Dawson river, which in 1873 was completed to 
Westwood, 30 m. The railways have a gauge 
of 3 ft. 6 in. At the close of 1872 there were 
3,368 m. of telegraph wire in operation, with 
53 stations. (For information relating to the 
geology, zoology, botany, and aborigines, see 



QUEENSTOWN 



QUERETARO 



147 



AUSTRALIA.) The E. coast of Queensland was 
discovered by Capt. James Cook, who anchored 
in Moreton bay in 1770. The country was at 
first attached to New South Wales, under the 
name of the Moreton Bay district. In 1823 
the Brisbane river was explored by Oxley, the 
surveyor general of New South Wales, and the 
site of the city of Brisbane selected for a penal 
station. In 1825 the first convicts were landed 
there, and employed in making roads and oth- 
er public improvements. Convict immigration 
ceased in 1839, and in 1842 the country was 
thrown open to free settlers. In 1859, in def- 
erence to repeated petitions from the settlers, 
it was erected into an independent colony. 

QUEENSTOWN, a town of county Cork, Ire- 
land, on the S. side of Great island, in the 
harbor and 7 m. E. S. E. of the city of Cork ; 
pop. in 1871, 10,039. It is built on a steep 
acclivity, the streets rising one above another 
parallel to the beach, and the piers forming 
a fine promenade. A splendid Catholic cathe- 
dral is in course of erection (1875). The har- 
bor is 3 m. long by 2 m. broad, with an en- 
trance 2 m. long and 1 m. wide. It contains 
Spike island with Fort Westmoreland, artil- 
lery barracks, and a prison for 800 convicts, 
who are employed in the fortifications and 
in constructing a dockyard and basin on the 
adjoining island of Haulbowline. This island 
contains a depot for ordnance and victualling 
stores, and near it is Rocky island, with bar- 
racks and powder magazines cut out of the 
rock. Queenstown is the station of the com- 
manding admiral, of the royal yacht club, and 
of transatlantic steamers. A vast number of 
Irish emigrants embark here for the United 
States, and many passengers land here in pref- 
erence to Liverpool. Previous to the wars 
with Napoleon I. it was a small village of fish- 
ermen; it then became important as a naval 
station. It was known as the Cove of Cork 
until 1849, when the name was changed on 
occasion of Queen Victoria's visit. 

QUEKETT, John Thomas, an English micrp- 
scopist, born at Langport, Somersetshire, in 
1815, died at Pangbourne, Berkshire, Aug. 20, 
1861. He entered London hospital as a stu- 
dent in 1831, and became a licentiate of the 
apothecaries' company and member of the roy- 
al college of surgeons. The latter body having 
established a studentship of human and com- 
parative anatomy, he was unanimously elected 
to it, and in 1843 was appointed assistant con- 
servator of the Hunterian museum, and on Pro- 
fessor Owen's retirement in 1856 conservator 
of the museum and professor of histology. He 
was chosen a fellow of the royal society in 
1860. He published "Practical Treatise on 
the Use of the Microscope" (8vo, 1848; new 
ed., 1865) ; " Lectures on Histology " (2 vols. 
8vo, 1852-'4); and an "Illustrated Catalogue 
of Specimens in the College Museum in Lin- 
coln's Inn Fields." 

QCELPAERT ISLAND (called by the Japanese 
Kandozan), an island in the Eastern sea, about 



55 m. S. of Corea, and 110 m. W. N. W. of the 
Goto islands. It is about 45 m. long and 20 
m. broad. The soil is volcanic and fertile, 
good timber abounds, and grazing pastures are 
extensive. The highest peak reaches an alti- 
tude of 6,500 ft. The population is consid- 
erable; villages, each under the control of a 
chief, being numerous. There are no harbors. 
Corea claims this island, and uses it as a place 
for exiles and criminals. 

QIERARD, Joseph Marie, a French bibliogra- 
pher, born in Rennes, Dec. 25, 1797, died in 
Paris, Dec. 3, 1865. He was early connected 
with the publishing business, and from 1819 
to 1824 with an establishment in Vienna. He 
afterward published in Paris La France lit- 
teraire (10 vols., 1827-'42), followed by La 
litterature francaise contemporaine (6 vols., 
1842-'57), which was prepared by others from 
the middle of the second volume, owing to 
his difficulties with the publisher and to his 
forfeiture of the copyright. Among his other 
compilations are Les auteurs deguises de la 
litterature franfaise au 19* siecle (1845), and 
Les supercheries litteraires dewilees (5 vols., 
1845-'56). 

QIEKCITRON, a dyestuff, the bark of the 
black oak, quercus coccinea, var. tinctoria (Q. 
tinctoria of authors), in some localities called 
the yellow-barked oak. (See OAK.) The black 
outer portion of the bark being removed, the 
inner portion is found to contain a coloring 
principle which stains the saliva yellow when 
the bark is chewed ; this is extracted by boil- 
ing water, giving to it a brownish yellow color, 
which is deepened by alkalies and brightened 
by acids. The bark is largely employed in 
the United States as a dye, and it is also re- 
duced to a coarse powder and shipped to Eu- 
rope in great quantities for the same use, par- 
ticularly in calico printing. When this decoc- 
tion has been deprived of tannin by means of 
glue, a fine yellow color is obtained upon fab- 
rics mordanted with alum, and various shades 
of olive with iron mordants. The coloring 
principle is called quercitrine, or from its acid 
reaction quercitric acid. Black-oak bark is 
used for tanning also, but its yellow color 
makes it objectionable. Its astringent and 
tonic properties have led to its use in medi- 
cine, but white-oak bark, having similar medi- 
cal properties without the color, is preferred. 

QCEBETARO. I. A central state of Mexico, 
bounded N. by San Luis Potosi, E. by Hidalgo, 
S. by Mexico, S. W. by Michoacan, and W. by 
Guanajuato ; area, 3,429 sq. m. ; pop. in 1869, 
153,286. It occupies a part of the plateau of 
the Cordillera, and is traversed by numerous 
mountain spurs, but contains much fertile land. 
The rivers are all small, and the Rio de Mon- 
tezuma and Lerma, on the frontiers, are the 
only streams that deserve notice. Gold, sil- 
ver, copper, quicksilver, tin, lead, and antimony 
are found. Grain, tobacco, and the sugar cane 
are extensively cultivated ; cotton is grown 
in some districts; and considerable numbers 



QUERINI 



QUETELET 



of cattle are reared. The forests abound in 
fine timber and precious woods. Woollen and 
cotton goods, earthenware, and saddlery are 
manufactured, from materials produced main- 
ly within its limits. The state is divided into 
the districts of Quer6taro, San Juan del Rio, 
Amealco, Jalpan, Toliman, and Cadereyta ; the 
chief towns besides the capital are San Juan 
del Rio and Toliman. II. A city, capital of 
the state, on a plateau upward of 6,000 ft. 
above the sea, 110 m. N. W. of Mexico; pop. 
in 1869, 48,237. It occupies the sides and 
summits of several hills, and is separated from 
its suburbs by a small stream. The streets are 
well laid out, the houses regular, and the city 
is one of the finest in the republic. The two 
parish churches are magnificently decorated, 
and there are 13 other churches. There are 
a college, a school of art, and an academy of 
design. The city is supplied with water by an 
aqueduct 2 m. long, which crosses a plain upon 
arches, some of which are 90 ft. high, and in 
connection with a tunnel brings the water a 
distance of 6 m. The manufactures consist 
chiefly of woollen and cotton goods, leather, 
soap, cigars, and pulque. Two miles from the 
city is the largest cotton mill in the country, 
employing 2,500 hands. In 1848 the Mexican 
congress ratified the peace between Mexico and 
the United States at Queretaro. In February, 
1867, the emperor Maximilian having taken 
refuge in Queretaro, the town was besieged 
by Gen. Escobedo; on May 15 the emperor 
was captured, and on June 19 he and his two 
generals, Miramon and Mejia, were shot, on 
the Oerro de las Campanas, or hill of the Bells, 
which overlooks the town. 

QUERINI, Girolamo, an Italian scholar, born in 
Venice, March 80, 1680, died in Brescia, Jan. 
6, 1759. He became a Benedictine monk in 
Florence in 1698, assuming the name of An- 
gelo Maria. In 1700 he came under the influ- 
ence of Montfaucon; and after lecturing for 
some time in his convent on Hebrew and Bib- 
lical literature, he spent several years visiting 
the principal libraries of Europe, and returned 
to Florence in 1714. He was enjoined by the 
general chapter of his order to write a history 
of the Italian Benedictines, but was prevent- 
ed after years of laborious research by Pope 
Clement XL, and published only a plan of his 
work with the title De Monastiea Italia Hi- 
toria Conscribenda (4to, Rome, 1717). The 
pope appointed him abbot of the Benedictine 
monastery in Florence. He was consecrated 
bishop of Corfu in 1723, and in 1727 bishop 
of Brescia and cardinal. He left Latin works 
on history, biography, and mathematics. 

Ql'ESADA. See XIMEXES DK QUESADA. 

QIESNAY, Francois, a French economist, born 
at Merey, near Versailles, June 4, 1694, died in 
Versailles, Dec. 16, 1774. He began life as a 
surgeon, and in 1737 became perpetual secretary 
of the surgical academy ; but in 1 744 he obtained 
a diploma as a physician. He was a favorite 
medical attendant of the royal family and of 



Mme. de Pompadour, and occupied rooms next 
to hers in the palace at Versailles. He pub- 
lished many works on medicine and surgery, 
which are now obsolete ; and he is chiefly re- 
membered as the father of the agricultural sys- 
tem of economy, called by him physiocracy. 
(See POLITICAL ECONOMY.) His Tableau eco- 
nomique (1758) was called by Laharpe "the 
Koran of economists." His economical works 
were edited by Dupont de Nemours, under the 
title Physiocratie, ou Constitution naturelle 
du gouvemement le plus avantageux au genre 
humain (Paris and Leyden, 1768 ; reprinted 
in the Collection des principaux economistes, 
Paris, 1846). 

QIESNEL, Pasqnlor, a French theologian, born 
in Paris, July 14, 1634, died in Amsterdam, 
Dec. 2, 1719. He studied in the Sorbonne, be- 
eame a member of the French congregation of 
the Oratory in 1657, and was appointed supe- 
rior of the house of his order in Paris. Having 
imbibed the doctrines of the Port Royal the- 
ologians, he began to publish them in a series 
of moral commentaries on the gospel for the 
use of young Oratorians. The first volume ap- 
peared in 1671, entitled Reflexions morales tur 
le Nouveau Testament. He next published an 
edition of St. Leo the Great (4 vols. 4to, 1672), 
containing notes and commentaries favorable 
to Jansenism, followed by a commentary on 
the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistles, 
which was the continuation of the Reflexions 
morales. In 1681 he was banished to Orleans. 
Refusing to sign a theological formulary im- 
posed on the Oratorians, he left the order in 
1684, joined Arnauld in Brussels, and there 
published in 1694 a complete edition of his 
Reflexions morales. The angry controversies 
to which this book gave rise in France and the, 
Low Countries caused Quesnel to be imprison* 
ed by the Spanish authorities, but he escaped 
and found refuge in Amsterdam. The work 
was condemned by Clement XL, July 18, 1708, 
and still more solemnly in the famous bull 
Unigcnitus, Sept. 8, 1718. Among Quesnel's 
other important works are: Abrege de la mo- 
rale de ttangile (8 vols., 1687) ; Tradition 
de Vfiglise romaine sur la predestination des 
saints et sur la grace efficace, under the pseu- 
donyme of Sieur Germain (4 vols., Cologne, 
1687); Discipline de Vfiglise tiree du Nou- 
veau Testament et de quelques anciens con- 
ciles (2 vols., Lyons, 1689); Histoire abregec 
de la vie d'Antoine Arnauld (2 vols., Liege, 
1699); Justification de M. Arnauld (3 vols., 
1702) ; La souterainete des rots dtfendue con- 
tre Leydeker (Paris, 1704) ; Reeueil de lettres 
spirituelles (8 vols., 1721). There are several 
English translations of the Reflexions morales. 

QUETELET, Lambert AdoJphf Jacques, a Belgian 
statistician, born in Ghent, Feb. 22, 1796, died 
in Brussels, Feb. 17, 1874. When scarcely 18 
years old he was appointed professor of math- 
ematics in his native town, and five years later 
at the Athenroum in Brussels. In 1824 the 
king of the Netherlands sent him to Paris to 



QUETZALCOATL 



QUICHES 



149 



complete his astronomical studies ; and on his 
return in 1826, he was charged with super- 
intending the building of an observatory, of 
which he was director until his death. Be- 
tween 1827 and 1829 he visited England, Scot- 
land, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy. He 
was perpetual secretary of the academy of 
sciences of Belgium, president of the central 
statistical committee, and corresponding mem- 
ber of the French institute. His most impor- 
tant publications are : Recherches sur la repro- 
duction et la mortality et sur la population de 
la Belgique (1832) ; De V influence des saisons 
sur la mortalite aux different^ ages (1838); 
Sur la theorie des probability appliquees aux 
sciences morales et politiques (1846); Du sys- 
teme social et des lois que le regissent (1848) ; 
Sur la statistique morale et les principes qui 
doivent en former la base (1848); and Anthro- 
pometrie (1873). From 1833 he published an 
Annuaire de Vobservatoire de Bruxelles. 

QIETZALCOATL (i. e., the serpent or the twin 
with peacock or trogon feathers), the name 
of a mythical personage introduced into Mex- 
ican mythology by the Huastecas, a branch 
of the Mayas, who came, according to tradi- 
tion, in boats along the coast and settled at 
Panuco, without opposition from the former 
possessors, though in course of time they held 
their own against the Otomies, Nahoas, and 
Chichimecas, till they were finally conquered 
by the great monarch Nezahualcoyotl. The 
Natchez are supposed to have been also a part 
of this body of emigrants. This mythical per- 
sonage appeared in a long white robe, hold- 
ing a statf, and introduced the honors paid to 
the cross. He taught the people many arts, 
introduced a system of worship, and finally 
returned to Yucatan according to Mexican 
tradition, though in Yucatan, where he is 
known as Cuculcan, they make him return to 
Mexico. The accounts given of him are not 
always consistent, and may apply to a series 
who bore the name. He was ultimately hon- 
ored as a god, and especially as the god of 
rain. The religious ideas introduced by him 
were not confined to the Huastecas, but ex- 
tended to the whole Mexican empire. 

QCEVEDO T YILLEGiS, Francisco Gomez de, a 
Spanish author, born in Madrid, Sept. 26, 
1580, died at Villanueva de los Infantes, Sept. 
8, 1645. He was educated at the university of 
Alcala, and took a degree in theology at the 
age of 15. Having killed a nobleman in a duel, 
he fled to Sicily, where the viceroy, the duke of 
Osuna, gave him honorable employment, and 
on his removal to Naples made him minister 
of finance. Cfo. visiting Madrid on diplomatic 
business, he was pardoned and received a pen- 
sion. He was concerned in the conspiracy of 
the marquis of Bedmar against Venice (16*18), 
and narrowly escaped from that city with his 
life. After the disgrace of his patron (1620) 
he was kept a prisoner at his country seat, 
La Torre de Juan Abad, for three years and a 
half, but was released without trial. He pub- 



lished in 1631 a collection of the poetry of 
Luis de Leon, and Poesias del bacMller de la 
Torre, being probably the work of Quevedo 
himself. Being falsely accused in 1639 of wri- 
ting some satirical verses which had been laid 
under the king's napkin at dinner, he was kept 
for nearly four years in rigorous confinement, 
where he contracted diseases from which he 
never recovered. His papers having been 
twice seized by the government, the greater 
part of his works have never been printed. 
Among his published writings are treatises 
" On the Providence of God ;" " God's Politics 
and Christ's Government," in which he en- 
deavors to collect a complete body of political 
philosophy from the example of the Saviour ; 
"On a Holy Life;" "The Militant Life of a 
Christian," &c. His most celebrated works 
are his prose satires, more witty than delicate. 
Among these are his "History and Life of 
the great Sharper, Paul of Segovia" (1627); 
his treatise " On all Things, and many more;" 
"The Tale of Tales;" and "Letters of the 
Knight of the Forceps" (Cartas del cavallero 
de la Tenaza, 1635). His Suenos, or " Visions," 
perhaps the most popular and effective of his 
satires, were published collectively in 1635, and 
translated into English by Sir Eoger L'Estrange 
in 1708. A collection of Quevedo's poetry was 
made by Salas in 1648, another by Alderete in 
1670, under the title of "The Spanish Parnas- 
sus, divided into two Summits, with the Nine 
Castilian Muses." There is a complete edition 
of his works by Sancho (11 vols. 8vo, Madrid, 
1790-'94), and a later collection by Guerra y 
Orbe (Madrid, 1852). A translation of the 
satirical works appeared at Edinburgh in 1798. 
QtlCHES, Kiehes, or Vtlatecas, a semi-civilized 
nation of Guatemala, occupying at the time of 
the conquest the greater part of what is now 
called Los Altos, or the highlands of Guate- 
mala, including the districts of Quiche, Totoni- 
capam, and Quesaltenango. Their traditions 
indicate that they sprung from the Toltec 
stock. Their records, as written out by mem- 
bers of the royal house immediately after the 
conquest, give a long array of kings, and imply 
a high antiquity. It seems that the Kachi- 
quels and Zutugils were once embraced in the 
Quich6 kingdom, and that their separation 
was the act of the king Acxopil, who divided 
his power with his two sons, retaining to him- 
self the capital and surrounding regions, which 
preserved the name of Quiche\ These three 
divisions, subsequently becoming hostile, were 
easily conquered by the Spaniards. Alvarado 
encountered his most vigorous resistance in 
Quiche^, where the king, Tecum-Umam, went 
out to meet him, according to the chroniclers, 
with 232,000 men. They fought with great 
bravery, but musketry and cannon, and above 
all the terror inspired by the Spanish horse, 
proved too powerful for the rude means of re- 
sistance at their command. The battle lasted 
six days, the Indians fighting desperately as 
they fell back. The king at last was slain by 



150 



QUICHUAS 



QUTLLWORT 



Alvarado, and the subjugation of the Quiches 
was completed. The ruins of the city of 
Quiche, described by Mr. Stephens, attest the 
grandeur and power of this people, and give a 
fair support to the early accounts of their num- 
bers. The district which they occupied is the 
best populated portion of Guatemala, and is al- 
most purely Indian, the ancient language being 
still in general use. The people are described 
by Arthur Morelet as "an active, courageous 
race, whose heads never grow gray, perseve- 
ring in their industry, skilful in almost every 
department of art, good workers in iron and 
the precious metals, generally well dressed, 
neat in person, with a firm step and indepen- 
dent bearing, and altogether constituting a class 
of citizens who only require to be better edu- 
cated to rise equal to the best." Their language 
is regarded as a purer dialect than either the 
Kachiquel or Zutugil, with which it is com- 
pared by Fray Ildefonso Flores, in his Arte de 
la lengua Kachiquel (Guatemala, 1753). Much 
has been done recently for a better knowledge 
of this people by Brasseur de Bourbourg, es- 
pecially in his Grammaire de la langue Quichee 
mise en parallele atec tea deux dialectes Cakchi- 
quel et Tzutuhil, avec un vocdbulaire, servant 
d 'introduction au Rdbinal Achi, drame in- 
digene (Paris, 1862), and Popul Voh, le litre 
tacre et les mythes de Vantiquite americaine, 
avec lea litres heroiquea et historiques de Qui- 
che (1861). 

Ql'ICIH'AS, the dominant people in the em- 
pire of Peru under the incas, who made their 
language the general one of their territory. 
The Quichuas extended from Lake Titicaca to 
Quito, and toward the coast to the territory of 
the Ohinchas and Yuncas. The Aymaras, ex- 
tending from Lake Titicaca to what is now the 
southern limit of Bolivia, were first reduced 
by the Quichuas under the incas. The Qui- 
chuas are gay, cheerful, energetic, and under the 
wise sway of the incas seem to have risen rap- 
idly in many arts. They were assiduous culti- 
vators of the soil; maize and other grains 
raised in Titicaca were sent to all parts of the 
empire as sacred presents, and the inca himself 
gave an example of the honor of agriculture. 
They wove and spun the wool of the llama, 
vicufla, and alpaca ; they worked mines of gold, 
silver, and copper; built suspension bridges; 
erected adobe houses with gables, niches, and 
arches, and temples of the same material or 
stone, cutting and fitting the blocks with an 
accuracy and finish that cannot be excelled; 
made sterile tracts productive by a wise and ex- 
tended system of otequ'ias and aqueducts, and 
also by excavating till moisture was reached. 
In astronomy they had not reached as high 
a degree as the Mexicans; and in literature, 
though preserving records mainly by quipus or 
knotted cords, they cultivated poetry, and had 
dramas as well as touching songs that won the 
admiration of the Spaniards. The incas claimed 
to descend from the sun, and introduced the 
worship of that luminary. They reduced the 



Chancas and Huancas, apparently intrusive 
eastern tribes, and then attacked the Yuncas, 
the people of the coast, whose capital was at 
Chimu near Trujillo, and who worshipped Pa- 
chacamac, creator of the world, of whom there 
was a famous idol and temple at the place that 
still bears the name, the god Rimac, who had 
a famous oracle near Lima, and other deities. 
After a long and bloody war the inca Capao 
Yupanqui overthrew Chuqui Manca, king of 
Chimu, and reduced the Yuncas. They were 
compelled to accept the sun worship, but the 
inca allowed the temple of Pachacamac to stand, 
as its fame was spread through most of South 
America. There are remnants of the Yuncas 
still retaining their language at Moche, Eten, 
&c. ; it is entirely different from the Quichua. 
The priests of the sun dressed in white, and 
practised celibacy and fasts ; near each temple 
was also a convent of virgins of the sun. The 
men wore woollen tunics and leggings, the 
women long skirts and short cloaks, joined by 
gold, silver, or copper clasps. The incas were 
distinguished by the llautu, a fillet with a ball 
descending between the eyes. After the Span- 
ish conquest the Indians lost much of the arts 
they had gained, and retrograded generally. 
A desperate effort was made by the Quichuas in 
the last century to recover their freedom, but 
their leader, Tupac Amaru, a descendant of the 
incas, was taken and torn in pieces by horses in 
the plaza of Cuzco in 1780. There is a series 
of grammars of the Quichua, beginning with 
that of Fray Domingo de San Tomas (Valla- 
dolid, 1560), and coming down to Markham, 
"Contributions toward a Grammar and Dic- 
tionary of Quichua" (London, 1864). Ollan- 
tay, a Quichua drama, and several songs of 
the hararecs or bards, have been published. 

QUICKSILVER. See MEROCRY. 

QUIETISM. See MOLINOS. 

<jl II.PI I Ml, or kilimanr, a town and military 
station in the Portuguese territory of Mozam- 
bique, on the E. coast of Africa, situated on 
the left bank of the river Quilimane, the N. 
arm of the Zambesi, 12 m. from the sea, in lat. 
17 45' S., Ion. 36 44' E.; pop. about 12,000. 
It is irregularly built, some of the dwellings 
being of brick, some of mud, and many of 
reeds and grass; but there are gardens, with 
orange and cocoanut trees, about many of the 
houses. Its principal trade is the export of 
slaves. The Portuguese garrison consists of a 
commandant, a few Europeans, and about 50 
native troops. Quilimane is one of the very 
few places on the Mozambique coast actually 
occupied by the Portuguese, but it is very un- 
healthy and fast decaying. 

QUILLWORT, a genus of cryptogamic plants 
so called from having some resemblance to a 
bunch of quills ; they are mostly aquatics, and 
being evergreens, Linnanis called the genus 
isoetes (Gr. ICTOJ, equal, and frof, year); this 
is placed by some botanists in the family of 
club mosses (lycopodiacece), while others give 
it the rank of an order. The external appear- 



QUILOA 



QUINCE" 



151 



ance of the plants is that of a tuft of linear 
leaves, attached by their enlarged bases to a 
very short rootstock, from the lower part of 




Quillwort (Isogtes lacustrls). A small plant of natural size ; 
magnified bases of two leaves, showing macrospores and 
microspores ; and macrospores greatly magnified. 

which roots are produced. The organs of re- 
production are curiously concealed; the spo- 
rangia or spore cases are orbicular or ovoid, 
plano-convex, and sessile in the axils of the 
leaves, the bases of which are hollowed out to 
receive and partly cover the sporangia, which 
are united to them by the back. The spores are 
of two kinds, those in the cases of the outer 
leaves being very much larger than those near 
the centre of the cluster. The large spores 
(macrospores) are from 20 to 200 in a spore 
case, and are divided into two hemispheres 
by a line, one of the halves being marked by 
three radiating lines ; the minute spores of the 
inner leaves (microspores) are so small that 
it is estimated that each case contains over a 
million ; they are obliquely oblong and trian- 
gular. Ten or a dozen species are found in 
the whole country, one of which, /. lacmtris, 
occurs also in northern Europe and Asia, and 
is found along our northern border from New 
England to Lake Superior; it has 10 to 25 
leaves, 2 to 6 in. long ; the largest species, /. 
Engelmannii, has from 50 to 200 leaves, often 
25 in. long. These singular plants are not 
rare, but they escape general notice from their 
resemblance to submerged grasses. 

QUILOA. See KILWA. 

QUDIPER, a town of France, capital of the 
department of Finistere, on the Odet, 32 m. 
S. E. of Brest and 13 m. from the Atlantic ; 
pop. in 1872, 13,159. It is partly surrounded 
by ancient walls and watch towers. The ca- 
thedral of St. Brentin, begun in 1239 and fin- 
ished in 1493, was rebuilt in 1858 from the de- 
signs of Viollet-le-Duc. There are ship yards, 
manufactories of pottery, fisheries, and trade 
in grain, horses, honey, and cattle. Formerly 
it was the capital of Cornouailles. 



QH\, James, an English actor, born in Lon- 
don, Feb. 24, 1693, died in Bath, Jan. 21, 1766. 
He was educated at the university of Dublin, 
and when 20 years old went to London, and 
began to study law in the Temple. Having 
obtained an engagement at Drury Lane, he 
at first acted subordinate parts, but gained 
some reputation in the character of Bajazet. 
In 1720 he secured his fame by acting Falstaff 
in the " Merry Wives of Windsor," and greatly 
increased it in 1731 by excelling Barton Booth 
in the part of Cato ; and on the appearance 
of Garrick in 1741, he stood at the head of 
his profession. In 1748 he retired from the 
stage, thereafter residing at Bath, but per- 
formed Falstaff every year till 1753, refusing 
to play afterward because he had lost his voice. 
He received a pension from George III., whom 
in his youth he had instructed in elocution. 

QUINARY SYSTEM. See ENTOMOLOGY, and 
ORNITHOLOGY. 

QUINAULT, Philippe, a French dramatist, born 
in Paris, June 3, 1635, died there, Nov. 26, 
1688. When about 18 years old he produced 
on the stage a five-act comedy, Les rivales, 
which was received with applause. He studied 
law, married a rich widow, assumed the title 
of councillor before the parliament, and bought 
an office as auditor in the court of exchequer. 
In 1664 he produced La mere coquette, ou 
Les amants corriges. Astarte (1663), his only 
tragedy which is now remembered, was ridi- 
culed by Boileau. He wrote lyrical tragedies 
to which Lully furnished the music. He was 
elected a member of the French academy in 
1670. His complete works were published in 
1739 and 1778 (5 vols. 12mo). 

QUINCE (the plural of old Eng. coine, from 
Fr. coing, which is derived from the Lat. cy- 
donia, from the Cretan town of Cydonia), a 




Apple-shaped Quince (Pyrus Cydonia). 

tree long cultivated in temperate climates for 
its fruit, and which is found wild in southern 
Europe, northern Africa, and in various parts 



152 



QUINCE 



of Asia. Arguments have been presented to 
show that the golden apples of the Hesperides 
were quinces instead of oranges ; at all events 
the fruit was held in high esteem by the an- 
cients, who had several distinct varieties. The 
quince has usually been placed in a separate 
genus, Cydonia, but modern botanists class it 
with the apple and pear in pyrus, and accord- 
ing to this view its botanical name (in most 
works given as Cydonia vulgaris) is pyrus 
Cydonia. The chief botanical difference be- 
tween the quince and the apple and pear is, 
that it has numerous ovules in each cell and 
the seeds are surrounded by mucilage, while 
the others have only two ovules in the cell 
and are without mucilage. The quince seldom 
grows over 15 ft. high, and when left to itself 
is disposed to form a bush with numerous 
crooked branches rather than a tree ; its oval 
or ovate deciduous leaves are entire, and cov- 
ered with a cottony down on the under side. 
The flowers are produced singly at the ends 
of short branches of the current season, which 
bear five or six leaves, and appear late in 
spring ; they have leafy calyx lobes, and large 
white or rose-colored petals. The large fruit 
is pear- or apple-shaped, very downy when 
young, but smooth when mature, of a fine 
golden yellow color, and very fragrant; the 
flesh hard, and in most varieties very austere 
and unfit for eating raw. The fruit is much 
used for preserves, and for making marma- 
lade and jellies, and is sometimes added to 
apples which of themselves lack character in 
making pies and sauce. The seeds have long 
been used medicinally ; their epidermis is so 
abundantly supplied with mucilage that one 
part of dry seed will coagulate 40 parts of 
water ; it has but little adhesive power, and 
is regarded as a modification of cellulose. A 
decoction is used as a demulcent application, 
and is sometimes added to eye washes ; the 
perfumed mucilage, called bandoline, was once 
a popular dressing for the hair. The quince 
is a profitable fruit, though very much neglect- 
ed ; because it will give some returns when 
set in an out-of-the-way place and allowed to 
run wild, it is a popular impression that this 
is the proper treatment for it; the tree will 
abundantly repay good culture, and when prop- 
erly trained to a tree form it is very ornamen- 
tal both in flower and in fruit. The leading 
varieties are the apple- or orange-shaped and 
the pear-shaped. The first named under good 
cultivation sometimes reaches a pound in 
weight, and is often depressed-spherical in 
shape. The other has not only the more elon- 
gated form indicated by its name, but ripens 
two weeks later ; its flesh is less tender than 
that of the apple-shaped variety. The Portu- 
gal is such a poor bearer that it is but little 
cultivated, though its fruit is of superior qual- 
ity and turns crimson when cooked. Rea's 
seedling, which originated in Greene co., N. 
Y., and is but little known as yet, produces a 
fruit of excellent quality and from a third to 



a half larger than any other. An important 
use of the quince is for stocks upon which to 
graft or bud the pear (see PEAR), which upon 
a quince root becomes much dwarfed and fruits 
very early. The ordinary varieties of quince 
do not answer for this purpose, as they are 
of too slow growth ; two kinds are used, both 
of which originated in France, the Angers and 
the Fontenay or Paris quince, both of which 
bear fruit inferior in quality to those already 
named. The quince is easily propagated ; cut- 
tings taken off in the fall and set out at once, 
or kept buried till spring, root readily ; it is 
also propagated by layering in the ordinary 
manner, and for the production of stocks for 
the pear by what is known as mound or stool 
layers. (See LAYERING.) To train the quince 
in the tree form, a shoot should be selected as 
a leader and kept tied to a stake until of the 
proper height, cutting off all the shoots which 
start below ; when a strong stem is thus pro- 
duced, it is to be cut back to a desirable height, 
and four or more branches allowed to grow 
to form the head. The Chinese quince, pyrut 
(or Cydonia) Sinentis, is occasionally seen in 
cultivation ; it is said to reach 20 ft. in China, 
but is here not more than half that height ; its 
ovate leaves are acuminated at both ends, and 
smooth ; its small flowers appear in May, are 
rosy red with a violet tinge, and quite orna- 
mental ; the fruit is very large, egg-shaped, and 
green, but useless, being hard and dry. The 
Japan quince, P. (Cydonia) Japonica, was in- 
troduced into English gardens in 1815, and 




Japan Quince (Pyrug Japonica). 

has become one of the most popular ornamen- 
tal shrubs. When trained to a wall it has 
reached 15 ft. high, but it is usually only 5 or 



QUINCY 



153 



{ 



6 ft. and much branched, its spray heing ter- 
minated by thorns. The oval leaves, some- 
what wedge-shaped at the base, are serrate, 
smooth, and, with the conspicuous kidney- 
Bhaped stipules, very dark green. The flowers 
appear just before the leaves and in great 
abundance ; in the ordinary form they are 
bright scarlet inclining to crimson, but there 
are garden varieties with white and blush 
flowers, and of several shades of red to dark 
crimson ; also varieties in which the flowers 
are semi-double. The fruit somewhat re- 
sembles a small apple, is yellowish green, and 
has a very strong and rather agreeable odor ; 
it is uneatable raw or cooked, but is some- 
times put into drawers to perfume their con- 
tents. This is well suited for an ornamental 
hedge, as it bears clipping well and has re- 
markably clean and bright foliage ; when in 
bloom nothing can be more brilliant. It is 
readily propagated by cuttings of the roots. 

QUINCY, a town of Norfolk co., Massachu- 
setts, on Quincy bay, and on the Old Colony 
railroad, 7 m. S. S. E. of Boston; pop. in 1830, 
2,201 ; in 1840, 3,486 ; in 1850, 5,017 ; in 1860, 
6,778; in 1870, 7,442. It is celebrated for its 
quarries of granite, large quantities of which 
are shipped to all parts of the country. It 
contains two national banks, with a joint capi- 
tal of $300,000; a savings bank, with more 
than $1,000,000 deposits; eight schools, inclu- 
ding a high school ; a weekly newspaper ; and 
nine churches. It is noted as the birthplace 
of Gov. John Hancock, and Presidents John 
Adams and John Quincy Adams. The principal 
village is beautifully situated on an elevated 
plain near the centre of the town. The most 
noteworthy buildings are the town house, of 
granite ; the Adams temple, a granite church 
containing monuments in memory of John 
Adams and John Quincy Adams and their 
wives ; and the Adams and Quincy mansions. 
Quincy was formed from Braintree in 1792. 

QCINCY, the capital of Adams co., Illinois, 
and the second city in the state in popula- 
tion, situated on the Mississippi river, 160 m. 
above St. Louis and 95 m. W. of Springfield ; 
pop. in 1837, 1,653; in 1850, 6,9.02; in 1860, 
13,718 ; in 1870, 24,052, of whom 7,733 were 
foreigners and 1,073 colored ; in 1875, estima- 
ted by local authorities at 35,000. It is hand- 
somely situated on a limestone bluff 125 ft. 
above the river, of which and of the surround- 
ing country it commands an extensive view. 
It is regularly laid out and well built, chiefly of 
brick, and has fine water works. The streets 
are lighted with gas, and the principal ones 
are traversed by horse cars. There are many 
substantial business blocks and handsome resi- 
dences, the latter being surrounded by well 
kept grounds. It contains four small parks 
and several cemeteries. About 2 m. from 
the centre of the city are well appointed fair 
grounds comprising about 80 acres. The trade 
of Quincy is extensive, the river affording 
ample water communication, and eight lines of 



railroad rendering tributary a wide and fertile 
region. The railroads centring here are : the 
Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy; Toledo, Wa- 
bash, and Western; Hannibal and St. Joseph, 
crossing the Mississippi on a magnificent rail- 
road bridge recently completed ; Quincy, Car- 
thage, and Burlington; Quincy, Missouri, and 
Pacific; St. Louis, Keokuk, and Northwest- 
ern ; Quincy, Alton, and St. Louis ; and Mis- 
souri, Kansas, and Texas. The facilities for 
manufacturing are good. The various estab- 
lishments employ an aggregate of about 3,500 
hands, and produce annually goods to the 
value of about $10,000,000. Among the more 
important are 10 manufactories of wagons 
and ploughs, 4 of furniture, 3 of carriages, 4 
of plug tobacco, 1 of corn planters, 11 of brick, 
2 of organs, 2 of canned fruit and pickles, 8 
iron founderies (producing stoves and general 
castings), 11 flouring mills, 1 paper mill, 1 
woollen mill, 4 planing mills, 2 grain and 2 
fruit distilleries, 5 rectifying establishments, 6 
breweries, and a grain elevator with a capaci- 
ty of 150,000 bushels, besides manufactories of 
cigars, cooperage, soap and candles, files, hoes, 
sewing machines, matches, &c. Pork packing 
employs 7 firms, and 15 establishments are 
engaged in the gathering and shipment of ice. 
There are 7 banks, with an aggregate capital 
of $1,000,000. Quincy is divided into 6 wards, 
and is governed by a mayor and a board of 12 
aldermen. It has an efficient police force and 
a well organized fire department. The prin- 
cipal charitable institutions are two hospitals 
and three asylums. There are nine public 
schools, embracing a high school and gram- 
mar, intermediate, and primary departments, 
attended by about 3,000 pupils; also several 
academies. A medical college was incorpora- 
ted in 1873. The Quincy library has 4,000 
volumes. Three daily (one German), one tri- 
weekly, and four weekly (one German) news- 
papers, and two monthly (one German) peri- 
odicals are published. There are 30 church- 
es, viz. : 4 Baptist (1 colored), 1 Christian, 1 
Congregational, 2 Episcopal, 4 Evangelical, 2 
Evangelical Lutheran, 1 Jewish, 6 Methodist 
(1 colored), 2 Presbyterian, 6 Roman Catholic, 
and 1 Unitarian. The first white settler estab- 
lished himself on the site of Quincy in 1822. 
It was laid out in 1825 and incorporated as a 
town in 1834. It received a city charter in 1839. 
QUINCY. I. Josiali, jr. (so called to distinguish 
him from his father, who survived him), an 
American lawyer, born in Boston, Feb. 23, 
1744, died at sea off Gloucester, Mass., April 
26, 1775. He graduated at Harvard college in 
1763, and studied law. After the passage of 
the stamp act he denounced the oppressions of 
the parliament and its violations of the rights 
of the colonists, in public meetings and through 
the press. Though of a slender frame and im- 
perfect health, he had a voice of great compass 
and beauty, and a graceful and passionate de- 
livery. His name is associated with those of 
James Otis and Joseph "Warren, as men who 



154 



QUINCY 



were most powerfully influential in causing the 
revolution. On the arrest of Capt. Preston 
and the soldiers who fired upon the people in 
the " Boston massacre " of March 5, 1770, ap- 
plication was made on their hehalf to Mr. 
Quincy and to John Adams to act as their 
counsel. This duty they accepted in the face 
of the strongest popular opprobrium, and on 
the trials the next autumn the acquittal of the 
prisoners justified their course. In 1 773 Quincy 
on account of ill health sailed to Charleston, 
8. 0., returning on horseback in the spring. 
During this tour he put himself in communica- 
tion with the principal whigs of the southern 
and middle states, and established a plan of 
correspondence between them and the Massa- 
chusetts patriots. Besides his speeches in 
town meetings and other public assemblies, he 
made bold and animated appeals through the 
newspapers, under various signatures. In May, 
1774, he published under his own name his 
principal political work, " Observations on the 
Boston Port Bill, with Thoughts on Civil Gov- 
ernment and Standing Armies." In it he dis- 
tinctly declares the inevitable necessity of the 
appeal to arms which soon followed, and plainly 
shadows forth independence as the necessary 
result. This work was republished in London, 
and excited much attention on the part both 
of ministerialists and the opposition. An at- 
tempt was made to deter him from publishing 
it by an elaborate letter sent to him anony- 
mously, but believed to have proceeded from a 
high functionary of the government. To this 
letter he made a brief but spirited reply through 
the " Massachusetts Gazette," and forthwith 
proceeded with the publication. He was pre- 
vailed upon in September, 1774, to go to Eng- 
land on a private mission for the popular cause, 
as well as for the good of his health. This 
visit excited considerable notice in London. 
He had interviews, at their own request, with 
Lord North and Lord Dartmouth, and was in 
constant intercourse with Dr. Franklin, Col. 
Hartley, Gov. Pownall, the earl of Shelburne, 
Col. Barr6, Dr. Priestley, Dr. Price, and other 
prominent friends of America. Lord Hills- 
borough denounced him in his place in the 
house of lords, as a man who, if the govern- 
ment did its duty, " would be in Newgate or 
at Tyburn." He prepared to return early in 
the spring of 1775, against the advice of his 
physician, but died just before arriving. Al- 
most his last words were that he should die 
content could he have but an hour's interview 
with Samuel Adams or Joseph Warren. His 
" Reports of the Supreme Court of Massachu- 
setts Bay, 1761-'72," was edited by S.M. Quincy 
(8vo, 1865). See also his life by his son Josiah 
Quincy (8vo, 1825 ; new ed., 1875). II. Josiah, 
an American statesman, son of the preceding, 
born in Boston, Feb. 4, 1772, died in Quincy, 
July 1, 1864. He received his early education 
at Phillips academy, Andover, and graduated 
at Harvard college in 1790. He studied law in 
Boston, and began practice in 1793. In 1804 he 



was elected state senator, and in 1805 became a 
member of congress, where he served till 1813. 
During the whole of this period the federal 
party was in a hopeless minority ; its only 
service was one of protest, and Mr. Quincy was 
its most prominent and efficient member in the 
discharge of this duty. The embargo, the war 
of 1812, the erection of the Orleans territory 
into a state, which were the chief public mea- 
sures of that period, he encountered with the 
most untiring hostility. He was one of the 
first, if not the first, among northern men to 
denounce the slaveholding interest as a rising 
and dangerous tyranny. In 1813, having de- 
clined a reelection, he returned to private life, 
dividing his year between Boston and his coun- 
try seat at Quincy. He was immediately elect- 
ed a member of the state senate, and joined in 
the protest of the legislature against the war 
and the admission of Louisiana, and reported 
the famous resolution, occasioned by a pro- 
posed vote of thanks to Capt. Lawrence for the 
capture of the Peacock, to the effect that in a 
war waged without justifiable cause and for 
conquest and ambition, it was not becoming a 
moral and religious people to express appro- 
bation of exploits not immediately connected 
with the defence of the seacoast and harbor. 
He remained in the state senate till the close 
of 1820, when he was dropped by the federal 
managers under an impression that his uncom- 
promising course had weakened his popularity, 
but was immediately elected to the house of 
representatives at the head of the ticket, and 
chosen speaker, which office he held while in 
the house. In 1822 he resigned to take the 
office of judge of the municipal court of Bos- 
ton, lie first laid down the law in the case 
of Joseph T. Buckingham, indicted for a libel 
on John N. Maffit, that the publication of the 
truth, with a good intention, and for a justi- 
fiable end, is not libellous. This ruling ex- 
cited much censure at the time, but is now 
the acknowledged rule of law in this country 
and in England. In 1823 he left the bench 
to become mayor of Boston, being the sec- 
ond incumbent of that office, which he held 
till 1828, when he was chosen president of 
Harvard university. He was inaugurated in 
June, 1829, and held the post till August, 
1845, when he resigned. In 1856 he took a 
prominent part in the effort to elect Fremont 
to the presidency. Besides many speeches 
in congress and orations on particular occa- 
sions (the chief of which are those on July 
4, 1826, the jubilee of independence, on the 
second centennial celebration of the settle- 
ment of Boston, September, 1830, and the sec- 
ond centennial of Harvard university, Septem- 
ber, 1836), Mr. Quincy published "Memoir of 
Josiah Quincy, jr., of Massachusetts" (Bos- 
ton, 1825; new ed., 1875); "History of Har- 
vard University" (2 vols., Cambridge, 1840); 
"The Journals of Major Samuel Shaw, the 
first American Consul at Canton, with a Life of 
the Author" (Boston, 1847); "The History 



QUINCY 



QUINTANA 



155 



of the Boston Athenroum " (Cambridge, 1851) ; 
" The Municipal History of the Town and City 
of Boston during two Centuries " (Boston, 
1852); "The Life of John Quincy Adams" 
(1858); and "Essays on the Soiling of Cattle" 
(1859). See his life by his son Edmund Quincy 
(1867), who has also edited his " Speeches de- 
livered in the Congress of the United States " 
(8vo, 1875). III. Edmund, an American author, 
son of the preceding, born in Boston, Feb. 1, 
1808. He graduated at Harvard college in 
1827. He has published "Wensley, a Story 
without a Moral" (Boston, 1854), and a "Me- 
moir of Josiah Quincy" (8vo, 1867), and has 
been a frequent contributor to literary period- 
icals and political newspapers. He was long 
prominent among the Garrisonian abolitionists. 

QUINCY, Qnatremere de. See QUATBEMERE DE 
QUINOT. 

QUINET, Edgar, a French author, born in 
Bourg, department of Ain, Feb. 17, 1803, died 
in Paris, March 27, 1875. He studied Ger- 
man literature in Germany, and spent some 
time in Greece. He was professor at Lyons 
from 1839 to 1842, when he became the first 
incumbent of the new chair of the languages 
and literature of southern Europe at the col- 
lege de France. In 1846 he was suspended 
on account of his inflammatory lectures, but 
he was triumphantly reinstated after the rev- 
olution of Feb. 24, 1848, in which he took 
a part, and was returned to the constituent 
and legislative assemblies. In January, 1852, 
he was banished, and lived abroad till 1870, 
when he resumed his professorship. In 1871 
he took his seat in the national assembly, and 
opposed peace with Germany and all cession 
of territory. He wrote much on the literature 
of Germany, France, and southern Europe, 
several books of travel, and many remarkable 
political pamphlets. His principal works are : 
Ahasverus (1833) ; Des Jesuites (in conjunction 
with Michelet, 1843) ; Les esclaves, a dramatic 
poem (1853) ; La revolution religieuse au XVII' 
siecle (1857) ; Merlin V enchanteur (2 vols., 
1860); La revolution (2 vols., 1865; 5th ed., 
1868) ; La, creation (2 vols., 1870) ; and V Es- 
prit nouveau (3d ed., 1875). His wife, a Mol- 
davian lady, in 1868 published Memoires d'exil. 

QUIN1C ACID. See KINIC ACID. 

QUININE, or Quinla. See CINCHONA. 

QUINSY (tonsillitis, amygdalitis, or cynanche 
tonsillaris ; Fr. esquinancie), common inflam- 
matory sore throat. Though called tonsillitis, 
the inflammation is rarely coniined to the ton- 
sils, but involves the pharynx, the soft palate, 
and the uvula, and sometimes extends to the 
root of the tongue. It commences with a feel- 
ing of dryness and discomfort about the throat, 
and with pain in swallowing. The mucous 
membrane lining the throat is reddened, and 
the tonsils are more or less swollen. As the 
disease advances, the inflamed parts, at first 
preternaturally dry, become covered with vis- 
cid mucus, and the distress of the patient is 
greatly enhanced by the efforts which he is 



tempted to make to remove this secretion. In 
many cases suppuration occurs in one or both 
tonsils ; when this takes place those organs are 
often enormously swollen, and together with 
the obstruction of the inflamed palate may ren- 
der breathing difficult and painful. In such 
cases the febrile reaction is strongly marked, 
the skin being hot, and the pulse full and fre- 
quent; the patient is unable to take nourish- 
ment, and the voice becomes thick and char- 
acteristic of the disease. The pain, exceed- 
ingly acute when the patient attempts to swal- 
low, or to clear his throat of the viscid mat- 
ter which adheres to it, often extends to the 
ear, and is sometimes .attended with partial 
deafness. The bursting of the abscess in the 
tonsil is at once followed by relief ; the mat- 
ter has a nauseous taste and often an exceed- 
ingly offensive smell. The disease, though 
very painful, is attended with little danger ; 
but the inflammation may by extension in- 
volve the larynx and thus prove fatal, and 
cases are on record in which death has oc- 
curred from the ulceration having involved a 
branch of the carotid artery. The disease re- 
quires but little treatment. "Where the mu- 
cous membrane alone is involved, astringent 
gargles, repeated five or six times a day, usual- 
ly give relief and tend to shorten the course of 
the inflammation. The food should be liquid 
(soups, beef tea, milk, &c.), and should be swal- 
lowed in large mouthfuls, which give less pain 
in deglutition than smaller ones. If an a-b- 
scess forms in either or both of the tonsils, 
the greatest relief is obtained from frequent 
inhalations of warm steam, which acts as a 
poultice to the inflamed parts. As soon as the 
location of the abscess can be determined, it 
should be opened and the pus evacuated, after 
which there is usually no further trouble. 

QUINTANA, Manuel Jose, a Spanish poet, born 
in Madrid, April 11, 1772, died there, March 
11, 1857. He was educated at Salamanca and 
practised law for a time at Madrid; but he 
soon turned his attention to letters. His tra- 
gedy of Elduque de Viseo (1801), imitated from 
"The Castle Spectre" of M. G. Lewis, was 
not successful. In 1802 he produced a small 
volume of lyric poems, the patriotic spirit of 
which immediately brought them into favor; 
and in 1805 he placed upon the stage his Pelayo, 
intended to rouse his countrymen to resist for- 
eign oppression, which was equally well re- 
ceived. His Vidas de los Espanoles celebres (3 
vols. 8vo, 1807-'34), and Poes'tas selectan casti- 
llanas (3 vols. 8vo, 1808), with critical notes, 
were prepared with the same patriotic motive. 
At the outbreak of the rising against the French 
in 1808 he published his Odas a Expana libre, 
and, both through the press and as secretary to 
the cortes and the regency, exerted himself to 
the utmost in behalf of his country ; but aftef 
the return of Ferdinand VII. from France in 
1814, Quintana was confined for more than six 
years in the fortress of Pamplona. He was 
delivered by the revolution of 1820, and after 



156 



QUINTILIAN 



its overthrow in 1823 he remained in Estrema- 
dura until the accession of Isabella II., whose 
education he superintended. In 1835 he was 
created a senator, and in 1855 crowned by the 
queen with laurel. His complete works have 
been published in Rivadeneyra's Biblioteca de 
autores espanoles (1852). 

(Jl I\TILIL\ (QuiNTiuANUs), Marcos Fftbins, a 
Roman rhetorician, born probably at Calagur- 
ris in Spain about A. D. 40, died about 118. 
He was educated at Rome, and waa an advo- 
cate and teacher of eloquence. Among his 
pupils were the younger Pliny and the two 
grand-nephews of Domitian, by which mon- 
arch he was invested with the consular honors 
and title. He was the first public teacher of 
oratory who received from the imperial trea- 
sury a regular salary (100,000 sesterces a year), 
the endowment having been made by Vespa- 
sian. He continued his teaching for about 20 
years, with the greatest success. His great 
work was De Institutions Oratorio, Libri JT//., 
called also Institutionet Oratorios, which is 
both a complete system and a model of elo- 
quence. There are 164 declamations falsely 
ascribed to him. The first complete manu- 
script of the " Institutes " was discovered by 
Poggio Bracciolini in the 1 monastery of St. 
Gall. The editio princepa was printed at Rome 
by Lignamine (fol., 1470) ; the best edition is 
that by Spalding and Zumpt (6 vols. 8vo, Leip- 
sic, 1798-1829). The " Institutes " have been 
translated into English by Guthrie (2 vols. 8vo, 
London, 1756), by Patsall (2 vols., 1774), and 
by Watson (2 vols., 1856). 

QUINTUS (TUTU'S BUFIS. See CURTIUS. 

QITYTES ICILIUS. See GUISCHABD. 

QUITCLAIM, a word often used in deeds, and 
usually in connection with words of grant and 
conveyance, when the grantor or seller intends 
to convey to the grantee or buyer all the right, 
title, interest, and estate of the grantor, but 
without any warranty whatever, whether of 
title, quantity, or anything else. Sometimes a 
deed purports to be a deed of "grant and quit- 
claim," when the grantor adds to the words of 
grant and conveyance words of limited war- 
ranty : as, for instance, warranty against him- 
self and all persons claiming by, from, through, 
or under him. Even this limited warranty, 
and still more a general warranty, would estop 
the grantor from ousting the grantee by any 
better title, not coming through the grantee, 
which was outstanding at the time, and which 
the grantor might acquire subsequently. But 
if the deed were one of grant and quitclaim 
only, without any warranty, the grantor might 
then assert such a title. For example, A sells 
and conveys to B, by grant and quitclaim only, 
for a full price, an estate to which it turns out 
A has no title. But A subsequently acquires 
title to it by inheritance from the true owner. 
A may now recover the estate from B; but 
not if he granted with warranty, because if 
he then took the estate by his better title, B 
would turn round upon him on the warranty 



QUITMAN 

and get the estate back again. Quitclaim is 
also used in receipts, usually with such words 
as release and discharge, when it is intended 
to signify that the party giving the receipt or 
release agrees never to make any claim against 
the other party for any existing demand. 

QUTMABf, a S. W. county of Georgia, sepa- 
rated from Alabama by the Chattahooch.ee and 
drained by Pataula creek and other streams ; 
area, 190 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 4,150, of whom 
2,377 were colored. The surface is undulating 
and the soil productive. It is traversed by a 
branch of the Southwestern railroad. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 79,610 bushels 
of Indian corn, 4,151 of oats, 15,615 of sweet 
potatoes, and 3,880 bales of cotton. There 
were 287 horses, 473 mules and asses, 1,734 
cattle, and 2,828 swine. Capital, Georgetown. 

(jl inn V John Anthony, an American politi- 
cian, born in Rhinebeck, Dutchess co., N. Y., 
Sept. 1, 1799, died in Natchez, Miss., July 17, 
1858. He studied law in Ohio, and in 1821 
settled in Natchez, Miss. In 1827 he was 
elected to the legislature, from 1828 to 1834 
was chancellor of the state, and afterward 
president of the state senate. In 1836 he 
raised a small body of men to aid the Texans. 
and after the capture of Santa Anna returned 
to Natchez, where he became major general 
of militia and filled several local offices. In 
July, 1846, he was appointed brigadier general 
in the United States army, and ordered to re- 
port to Gen. Taylor at Camargo. At the bat- 
tle of Monterey he distinguished himself by 
his successful assault on Fort Tenerice, and 
his daring advance into the heart of the city. 
At the siege of Vera Cruz he commanded in 
the first sharp engagement, and subsequently 
led an expedition against Alvarado, in con- 
junction with the naval forces under Com. 
Perry. He was with the advance under Gen. 
Worth that took possession of the city of 
Puebla, where he was bre vetted major general 
and received a sword voted to him by congress. 
At Chapultepec he stormed the formidable 
works at the base of the hill, pushed forward 
to the Belen gate, which he carried by assault, 
and took possession of the city of Mexico, of 
which the general-in-chief on his arrival ap- 
pointed him governor. After establishing or- 
der and discipline he returned to the United 
States, and was soon after, almost by acclama- 
tion, elected governor of Mississippi. Being 
threatened with arrest for alleged complicity 
with Gen. Lopez in organizing an expedition 
to Cuba, he resigned his office and went to 
New Orleans in the custody of the United 
States marshal; but after an abortive effort 
to obtain evidence, the prosecution was aban- 
doned. The democratic party in Mississippi 
immediately renominated him for governor, 
but he withdrew from the contest when the 
people, at an election for delegates to a state 
convention, condemned his opposition to the 
compromise measures. In 1855 he was elected 
to congress, and in 1857 reflected without 



QUITO 



R 



157 



opposition. During his whole term he was at 
the head of the military committee. His par- 
liamentary fame rests chiefly on his celebrated 
speech for the repeal of the neutrality laws, 
and his argument on the powers of the federal 
government, which made him the recognized 
head of the state rights party. His life has 
been written by J. F. H. Claiborne (2 vols. 
12mo, New York, 1860). 

QIIITO, a city of Ecuador, capital of the re- 
public, and of the province of Pichincha, in a 
district of its own name formed by a valley 
in the Andes; lat. 13' S., Ion. 78 43' W. ; 
pop. about 70,000. Built upon the slopes of 
several hills on the E. flank of the volcano Pi- 
chincha, at an elevation of nearly 10,000 ft. 
above the sea, it has but two approaches from 
the south and one from the north, the eastern 
and western portions being hemmed in by pre- 
cipitous mountains. The streets are narrow 
and mostly unpaved, and the houses, owing to 
the frequency of earthquakes, are generally of 
one story. Many houses are built on arches 
over two deep ravines which traverse the town 
from E. to W., through which rush down tor- 
rents of melted snow from the neighboring 
volcanoes, and which here and there present 
dangerous precipices. Water is distributed by 
pipes in the houses of the rich, and by hand- 
some stone fountains embellishing the public 
squares. The principal public edifices are the 
cathedral, archiepiscopal palace, city hall, and 
government house, all in the Plaza Mayor, one 
of the finest public squares in South America. 
Most of the churches are attached to large 
convents. There are three hospitals, one being 
for elephantiasis, asylums for the blind and 
the insane, a university once famous for the 
number of its students, a seminary, a college, 
and a number of public and private schools. 
An academy of arts and sciences, and schools 
of agriculture, obstetrics, and sculpture, were 
to be organized in 1873. Quito has several 
libraries, chief of which is that of the old 
Jesuit college, with about 20,000 volumes. 
The mint occupies part of the same structure 
as the university. The climate is salubrious; 
the mean annual temperature is about 60 F., 
and the extremes 45 and 75. Elephantiasis 
is very common. The foreign commerce is 
mostly in produce sent to Central America, 
and some precious metals to Peru, all by the 



port of Guayaquil. The manufactures include 
coarse cottons and woollens; there are a few 
silk-weaving establishments, the raw material 
for which is mainly imported from France, but 
recent attempts to acclimatize the silkworm 
bid fair to prove successful. The women make 
very fine gold lace, and excellent embroidery, 
needlework, and lace. Quito communicates 
with Bogota by a good road, the only one 
worthy the name in the republic before the 
commencement of a carriage road to lead from 
Guayaquil to Quito, save in the space between 
Sibamba and Pueblo Nuevo, over which a rail- 
way is to extend. There is a telegraph from 
Quito to Guayaquil. The history of Quito goes 
back to a remote antiquity. Of its primitive 
rulers, tradition preserves the names of a num- 
ber who were called Quita. About A. D. 280 
the city is said to have been captured by cer- 
tain foreign invaders, who, under the name of 
Siris, maintained their dominion until the in- 
vasion of the inca Huayna Capac, who sub- 
dued the entire kingdom. At his death he 
divided his kingdom between his two sons, 
Atahuallpa and Huascar, leaving to the first 
the sceptre of Quito, and to the second that of 
Cuzco. War ensued between the brothers, in 
which Atahuallpa obtained control of all the 
provinces. But his triumph was of short dura- 
tion, and he lived to find himself the pris- 
oner of the Spanish adventurer Pizarro. Ta- 
king advantage of the capture of his king, Ru- 
minagui, one of the inca generals, usurped regal 
authority in Quito, but fled to the mountains 
on the approach of Sebastian Benalcazar. Un- 
der the Spanish dominion Quito, erected into 
a presidency, first formed part of the vice- 
royalty of Peru ; afterward it was attached to 
that of Santa Fe, and subsequently restored to 
that of Peru, to which it remained attached 
until the independence of the country, when it 
was aggregated with Venezuela and New Gra- 
nada in the republic of Colombia. On the dis- 
solution of that republic in 1831, it was or- 
ganized, with the districts of Asuay and Guay- 
aquil, into a new republic under the name of 
Ecuador. The modern city was founded in 
1534 by Benalcazar ; it was incorporated as a 
city in 1541, and erected into a bishopric four 
years later. Several disastrous earthquakes 
have occurred here, especially those of Feb. 4, 
1797, and March 22, 1859. 



R 



RTHE 18th letter and 14th consonant of 
. the English alphabet. It is a lingual 
and a liquid or semi-vowel, being pronounced 
both before and after most other consonants. 
It is found in all languages except the Chinese 
and the tongues of some of the North Ameri- 
can Indians. The Romans borrowed it from 
the Greek rJio (P, p), which is derived from 



the Hebrew and Phcenician resh. It is one of 
the last which children learn to pronounce, 
and those who have been engaged in teaching 
persons deaf from birth to articulate find the 
greatest difficulty in conveying any idea of its 
sound to their pupils. The most common mode 
of pronouncing it is by an expiration while the 
tongue touches the roof of the mouth with a 



158 



EAAB 



tremulous motion, as in the word rhetoric. 
The tremulous sound is more distinct in the 
Spanish rr, which indeed is not readily learned 
by Englishmen or Americans. It is frequent- 
ly exaggerated by the Irish and softened down 
by the English, who are more easily distin- 
guished by their peculiar pronunciation of this 
letter than by that of any other. The Ro- 
mans often added an r to words which they 
borrowed from the Greek, as w6q, nurus ; 
yudaf , murex ; and on the other hand they often 
dropped it from the nominative case of nouns 
and retained it in the oblique cases, as ces, aria ; 
os, oris. It was interchanged sometimes with 
*, the words arena, laribus, pignora, Furii, 
Valerii, and Papirii having been anciently 
written asena, lasibus, pignosa, Fusii, Valesii, 
and Papisii. The same change is observed in 
some modern languages, as Eng. hare, Ger. 
haase ; Eng. was, Ger. war. It is most fre- 
quently interchanged however with I. The 
Chinese, who cannot pronounce r, always use 
I in its place ; the Japanese do exactly the 
reverse. (See L.) As a Roman numeral R 
denotes 80, or with a dash over it (it) 80,000. 
The Greek P with a dash over it stands for 
100, and with a dash under it for 100,000. As 
an abbreviation, R signifies Roma, Romanus ; 
R. P., res publica ; R. C., Roma condita. 

RAAB (Hung. Oyor). I. A W. county of 
Hungary, in the Trans-Danubian circle, bor- 
dering on Presburg, Coinorn, Veszprem, Oeden- 
burg, and Wieselburg; area, 1,590 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 103,637, chiefly Magyars. The surface 
is level, except in the south. The extensive 
marsh of Hansag is in the western portion. 
The chief rivers are the Danube and the Raab. 
The principal products are corn, wine, fruits, 
cattle, and sheep. II. A city (anc. Arrabona 
or Rabona), capital of the county, in an exten- 
sive plain at the junction of the Rabnitz and 
Raab, near the entrance of the latter (which 
rises in Styria) into an arm of the Danube, 
known as the Little Danube, 67 m. W. N. W. 
of Buda; pop. in 1870, 20,035, including about 
5,000 Germans. The old cathedral has been 
restored and embellished, and the episcopal 
palace is a striking building. The academy 
of law was reopened in 1867, and the city 
has a theological faculty and a Catholic and a 
Protestant gymnasium. In the vicinity is the 
Benedictine abbey of Szent-Marton (Martins- 
berg), one of the oldest in Hungary. In the 
10th century the town regained the importance 
which it once possessed as a Roman colony 
in Pannonia, and it was generally kept in a 
state of defence by the Hungarian kings, but 
suffered during their warfare with the em- 
perors of Germany. The Turks took it in 
1595, and were expelled in 1598 with great 
loss, by Schwarzenberg and PiiLffy. The for- 
tress was finally razed in 1820. *The Hunga- 
rian army of " insurrection " (defensive rising 
en masse of the nobility) was defeated in the 
plain of Raab by Eugene Beauharnais, June 
14, 1809. In 1848-'9 it was strongly fortified 



RABBIT 

by the Hungarians, who were here defeated 
by the Austrians under Haynan, June 28, 1849. 

RABANUS (or Hrabanns) MAURIS, a German 
theologian, born in Mentz about 776, died at 
Winkel in 856. He was educated in the Bene- 
dictine convent of Fulda, and continued his stu- 
dies in Tours under Alcuin, who gave him the 
surname of Maurus in honor of St. Maurus. 
He returned to Fulda in 804, founded there 
the first public convent school in Germany, 
and labored especially for the spread and im- 
provement of the German language. He 
wished to free the German church from the 
influence of Rome, and succeeded in intro- 
ducing the rule that the clergy should only 
preach in the native tongue. He has also the 
merit of having given a new impetus to Bibli- 
cal research by requiring the study of the ori- 
ginal tongue of the New Testament. These 
innovations drew upon him the displeasure 
and suspicion of the clerical party, and though 
finally elevated to the rank of an abbot, he 
laid down his office in 842 to live in the priory 
of St. Peter; but in 847 he resumed teach- 
ing, and was consecrated archbishop of Mentz. 
Among his works is Glossaria Latino-theo- 
dtica, which is now an important monument 
of the earliest phase of the German language. 
He wrote also De Universe, De Arte Gram- 
matica Prisciani, and several other theological 
treatises. His works (exclusive of the Glot- 
taria) were published by Calvonerius (6 vols. 
fol., Cologne, 1627). 

EABAT, a town of Morocco, in Fez, on a bay 
of the W. coast, at the mouth of the Bure- 
krag or Bu-Regreb, opposite the town of Sal6 ; 
pop. about 20,000, including many Jews. The 
custom house and the minaret of the principal 
mosque are remarkable specimens of Moorish 
architecture ; most of the other Moorish build- 
ings are in decay, and there are many houses 
built in European style. Rabat was founded in 
the 13th century, and together with Sale was 
long notorious as a haunt of pirates. The im- 
ports in 1874, chiefly cotton goods, amounted 
to $58,000, and the exports, chiefly of wool 
(exclusive of specie), to $27,000. 

RABBATH-AMMON. See PHILADELPHIA (Pal- 
estine). 

RABBI (Heb., my master, lord, or teacher), a 
title of honor bestowed on the doctors of the 
Jewish law since the 1st century B. 0. The 
Hebrew or Aramaic words rdb, rabba, rnbban 
(master), rabboni (my master), and rabbenu 
(our master), have also been employed in the 
same sense. The title rabbi or rabbin is fre- 
quently applied to the Talmudic writers, the 
Jewish theological writers of post-Talmudio 
times (see HEBREWS), whose dialect is there- 
fore called rabbinical, and the religious heads 
of Jewish congregations. The Jews of eastern 
Europe and others attach Rdl>, both in conver- 
sation and writing, to the name of every mar- 
ried Jew of good reputation. 

RABBIT, the common name of several species 
of the hare family, especially the lepus cuni- 



RABBIT 



159 



culus of Europe and the L. sylvaticua of North 
America; the family and generic characters 
have been given under HARE. The European 
rabbit or cony (L. cuniculus, Linn.), the lapin 
of the French, is about 16 in. long, with the 
tail 3 in. additional, and the ears also 3 in. ; 




European Babbit or Cony (Lepus cuniculus). 

the tarsus shorter than in the hare ; the gen- 
eral color gray brown, white below, the back 
of the neck rufous ; tail white below, blackish 
above, but pencilled with dirty white ; ears 
not tipped with black ; compared with that 
of the hare, the skull has the muzzle, inter- 
orbital space, and incisive openings narrower ; 
the mammse are five pairs, two pectoral and 
three ventral. In the wild state the rabbit in- 
habits Europe, except the more northern por- 
tions, and N. Africa ; it is thought to be origi- 
nally from Spain, but, being hardy, has been 
carried to most parts of the world ; it is easily 
distinguished from the hare by its smaller size, 
grayish color, and short feet and ears ; it also 
differs from the hares in its burrowing habits. 
Unable to escape from its enemies by speed, it 
seeks safety in deep holes dug in dry sandy 
places, living in society in what are called war- 
rens, with an ample supply of food, in places 
suitable for burrows, such as sandy heaths 
covered by a prickly furze. Remaining con- 
cealed by day, they come out at twilight in 
search of food, and often do considerable mis- 
chief by digging up the newly sprouted corn 
and gnawing the bark from young trees ; these 
warrens are often of large extent, and a source 
of great profit from the flesh and skins of the 
animals, which are caught in snares and traps, 
dug or drowned out, and hunted by dogs and 
ferrets. They begin to breed at the age of 
six months, have several litters in a year and 
five to eight at a time ; the period of gesta- 
tion is about three weeks, but, as the uterus 
is double, there may be two distinct litters 
at an interval of a few days ; the young are 
born blind and naked, in a nest lined with the 
mother's soft fur ; they are said to live eight 
or nine years. They seem to have social laws, 
the same burrow being transmitted from pa- 
rent to children, and enlarged as the family 
increases. Rabbits and hares appear to be 
695 VOL. xiv. 11 



natural enemies ; they are not found in the 
same localities, and when they meet they gen- 
erally engage in combat ; when brought up to- 
gether they do not produce a fertile offspring 
inter se, and hybrids probably never occur 
between them in the natural state. It has 
been estimated that in four years a single pair 
of rabbits would, if unmolested, become the 
progenitors of more than 1,250,000 ; but this 
increase is checked by the persecution of man 
and of carnivorous beasts and birds. Their 
ravages are more than counterbalanced by 
their flesh, which forms a nutritious and easily 
digested food, and by their skins, which are 
used in making hats and are dyed to imitate 
more expensive furs. The name rabbit or 
cony is erroneously applied in the translation 
of the Hebrew Scriptures to the shaphan. (See 
HYKAX.) Rabbits are easily domesticated, and 
in this state vary greatly in colors, size, and 
character of fur ; black, white, and gray are the 
prevailing colors ; in the silver-gray variety 
the hairs are white and black ; the Angora 
rabbit is noted for the length and softness of 
its white fur ; in the lop-eared varieties the 
size is three or four times that of the wild 
animal, and the ears are more or less bent 
downward from the base. When tame they 
do not pair like those in a wild state, and lose 
more or less the instinct of burrowing ; their 
flesh is also inferior in flavor, though more 
delicate and digestible ; the tame males not 
unfrequently kill the young. The American 
gray r-abbit (L. sylvaticus. Bach.) is about 16 
in. to the root of the tail, and 26^ in. to the 
end of the outstretched legs, the tail to the 
end of the hairs 2 in. ; fur and pads of the 
feet full and soft ; on the back light yellowish 
brown, lined with black, grayer on the sides ; 
on the rump mixed ash, gray, and black, pure 




American Gray Babbit (Lepus sylvaticus). 

white below ; upper surface of tail like the 
back, below pure cottony white; posterior 
edge of ears whitish, edges of the dorsal surface 
toward the tip black, the rest ashy brown ; fur 
lead-colored at the base. This is among the 
largest of the short-eared leporidce of America, 



160 



RABELAIS 



being largest in the west and smallest and 
coarsest-haired in the south ; it is found almost 
throughout the United States, from the south- 
ern parts of New Hampshire to Florida, and 
west to the upper Missouri, being most abun- 
dant in sandy regions covered with pines. It 
also frequents woods and thickets, concealing 
itself in its form, in thick bushes, or in holes 
in trees or under stones by day, coming out at 
night to feed ; in clover and corn fields, vege- 
table gardens, and nurseries of young trees, it 
does much mischief. It does not dig burrows 
like the European rabbit, and comes rather in 
the class of hares ; when pursued it runs with 
great swiftness and with few doublings to its 
hole in a tree or rock ; though it will breed in 
enclosed warrens, it does not become tame, 
and has not been domesticated. It is very 
prolific, or else it would be exterminated by 
its numerous enemies ; it often runs into the 
hole of the woodchuck, skunk, fox, or weasel, 
in the last three cases often falling a victim to 
the inhabitant of the burrow ; it is hunted by 
dogs, shot from its form, and caught in snares 
and traps ; its flesh is much esteemed. It 
somewhat resembles the European rabbit in 
its gray color, but it does not change its colors 
like the latter, and is smaller and more slender. 
Hybrids are sometimes produced between this 
species and the domesticated European rabbit 
which has escaped from confinement into the 
woods. The sage rabbit (L. artemisia, Bach.), 
from the west and the plains of Mexico and 
Texas, cannot be satisfactorily distinguished 
from the last species. The jackass rabbit or 
Texan hare (L. callotis, Wagl.) is so named 
from its very long ears, measuring about 5 in., 
though the animal is rather smaller than the 
European hare ; it is yellowish gray above, 
waved irregularly with black, upper part of 
tail black, sides gray, and dull whitish below ; 
nape sooty black ; it is found in Mexico, Texas, 
and Oregon, and on the plains. The long and 
slender legs indicate rapid locomotion and ti 
capacity for making long leaps ; it is a soli- 
tary and not very common species, and has not 
been found in California. 

RABELAIS, Francois a French author, born 
in Chinon, Touraine, about 1490, died about 
1553. He was educated at the convent of 
Seuille and the monastery of La Baumette, and 
was ordained as a priest in 1511. He then 
made up for former idleness by devoting him- 
self to the study of ancient and modern lan- 
guages, mastering the Latin, Greek, Italian, 
Spanish, German, English, Hebrew, and Ara- 
bic. Greek had especial attraction for him ; 
and this involved him in serious quarrels with 
his fellow monks, who were fiercely hostile 
to the study. The ill feeling grew so strong 
that in 1524 he obtained permission from Pope 
Clement VII. to enter the order of Benedic- 
tines. He spent several years in their house 
at Maillezais, but in 1530 abandoned monas- 
tic life and repaired to Montpellier to study 
medicine. In 1532 he was a physician at Ly- 



ons, and published annotated 'and corrected 
editions of Hippocrates, Galen, and others. 
From 1583 to 1550 he published several edi- 
tions of a facetious production, in which he 
endeavored to destroy faith in astrology. At 
Lyons also he published the first rough sketch 
of the strange work upon which his fame 
rests : Lea faits et diets du geant Qargantua 
et de son fils Pantagruel (1533). Jean du 
Bellay, his old schoolmate, bishop of Paris 
and afterward cardinal, having been appointed 
French ambassador to Rome, engaged Rabelais 
as his physician, and obtained for him from 
Pope Paul III. a bull, dated Jan. 17, 1536, re- 
mitting the penalties which he had incurred by 
the abandonment of his order. He then be- 
came a member of the abbey of St. Maur des 
Fosses at Paris, where he remained till 1542, 
when he was presented with the comfortable 
living of Meudon. Here he applied himself 
faithfully to the duties of his ministry, and 
devoted his leisure hours to the completion 
of his great work, three books of which had 
already appeared. This being done in 1551, 
he went again to Paris, published the fourth 
book, and spent his later years at Meudon. 
Such are the ascertained facts of a life which 
has been egregiously misrepresented. No per- 
formance in French literature had greater suc- 
cess in its time, or has since attracted so much 
attention, as his " Gargantua and Pantagruel."' 
It is a ruthless attack upon monks, princes, 
kings, and all ecclesiastical and civil authori- 
ties. Amid its chaos of eccentricities and al- 
lusions to persons and events, of good sense 
and folly, of delicate thoughts and gross ob- 
scenities, commentators have tried in vain to 
unravel the work. According to the best au- 
thorities, Gargantua stands for King Francis 
I. ; Grandgousier for Louis XII. ; Pantagruel 
for Henry II. ; Pichrocole for Maximilian 
Sforza, duke of Milan ; Gargamelle for Anne 
of Brittany, the queen of Louis XII. ; Bade- 
bec for Claude of France, queen of Francis I. ; 
Grandejument de Gargantua for Diana of Poi- 
tiers ; Panurge for the cardinal de Lorraine ; 
and Frere Jean des Entomeurs for Cardinal du 
Bellay. Be this as it may, "the work was 
entirely in accordance with the taste of his 
age," as Vinet remarks ; " and excellent mind* 
which could appreciate its fine parts were also 
delighted with those that are repulsive to our 
taste." Lord Bacon called Rabelais " the great 
jester of France;" others have called him a 
"comic Homer." More than 60 editions of 
the work have been published; that of Bur- 
gaud des Marets and Rathery (2 vols. 12mo, 
Paris, 1857-'8) is the most convenient and 
acceptable, with a good biographical and criti- 
cal notice, explanations, notes, <fec. There are 
several English translations. That of Sir T. 
Urquhart (1653 ; reprinted by the Maitland 
club, 4to, 1838) was adopted by both Ozell and 
Motteux as a basis. Their united translation 
is often reprinted ; the last edition is by Bohn 
(2 vols., London, 1850). Sixteen private let- 



RABIES 



RACHEL 



161 



ters of Rabelais were published in 1651. See 
Ginguene, De Vautorite de Rabelais dans la 
revolution presente et dans la constitution ci- 
vile du clerge, ou Institutions royales, politiques 
et ecclesiastic ues tirees de Gargantua et de 
Pantagruel (Paris, 1791). 

BABIES. See HYDROPHOBIA. 

RABI.V, the N. E. county of Georgia, bor- 
dering N. on North Carolina and E. on South 
Carolina, from which it is separated by the 
Chattooga river ; area, about 320 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 3,256, of whom 119 were colored. 
The surface is mountainous ; the Blue Ridge 
forms the W. boundary and then curves through 
the N. portion of the county. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 4,080 bushels of rye, 
71,376 of Indian corn, 2,704 of Irish potatoes, 
'3,915 of sweet potatoes, 4,208 Ibs. of tobacco, 
5,541 of wool, and 19,868 of butter. There 
were 481 horses, 470 mules and asses, 1,170 
milch cows, 453 working oxen, 1,855 other 
cattle, 4,086 sheep, and 6,672 swine. Capital, 
Clayton. 

RACCOON (procyon, Storr), a genus of Amer- 
ican plantigrade mammals of the bear family, 
of the section subursince. In this genus the 
size is comparatively small, the body stout, 
and the tail moderately long, bushy, and not 
prehensile ; the muzzle is pointed, and the 
end very movable and slightly projecting ; the 
teeth are : incisors |_f, canines \~\, premo- 
lars c|-, and molars fzf, in all 40, there being 
one upper true molar on each side less than 
in the bears. The shape is not unlike that 
of the badger, though the legs are longer ; ears 
moderate, erect, and covered with hair; head 
broad behind and flat, with naked and large 
muffle ; whiskers in four principal horizontal 
series, five or six bristles in each ; feet five toed, 
with naked soles and no indication of webs ; 
claws curved, not retractile, and sharp; though 




Raccoon (Procyon lotor). 
I 

plantigrade when standing, the gait is rather 
digitigrade. The common raccoon (P. lotor, 
Storr) is 22 or 23 in. long, with the tail about 
a foot additional ; the general color is grayish 
white, the tips of the long hairs black and giv- 
ing this tint to the back; under surface dark 



brown ; an oblique black patch on the cheeks, 
continuous with a paler one beneath the jaw, 
and another behind the ears ; the end of muz- 
zle, ears, and posterior part of cheek patch 
whitish; tail bushy, with the tips and five 
rings black, and the nearly equal interspaces 
rusty white ; hind feet 4 in. long, dirty white 
above, the fore feet 2f in. ; mamma3 six, ven- 
tral ; there are anal glands which secrete a 
somewhat offensive fluid. Some varieties oc- 
cur nearly black, others are nearly white. 
The raccoon is found generally over the United 
States, as far north as lat. 60 in the interior, 
as high as Newfoundland on the Atlantic, and 
further north on the Pacific; it is most abun- 
dant in the southern states, frequenting re- 
tired swamps covered with high trees a"nd well 
watered. It is an excellent climber, in this 
way obtaining eggs and young birds ; watching 
the soft-shelled turtle lay her eggs in the sand, 
it uncovers and devours them ; it seizes ducks 
as they come to the water, and is extremely 
fond of ripe and juicy corn, as well as of frogs 
and shell fish. It is not entirely nocturnal, 
and sometimes visits the corn fields and the 
poultry yard at midday ; it feeds much on an 
inferior oyster in the southern states, hence 
called the raccoon oyster ; it also eats rabbits, 
squirrels, and other rodents, fish, nuts, and 
honey. It has been generally supposed to dip 
its food in water before eating it, hence its spe- 
cific name of lotor or washer ; but this, which 
it does not generally do in captivity, according 
to Bachman, is probably only an occasional 
habit. It hibernates during the coldest weather 
in the northern states. It is shy, and has an 
acute sense of smell ; it brings forth about the 
month of May, in a nest in a hollow tree, four 
to six at a time, about the size of half-grown 
rats, which utter a plaintive infant-like cry. 
It is a favorite sport of the southern negroes 
in winter to hunt " coons," driving them to a 
tree, and then climbing up and shaking them 
off, or felling the tree to bring them within 
reach of the dogs ; they sell the skin to the 
hatters, and eat the flesh, which is generally 
very fat and tender, with a flavor of pig. 
Many are caught also in traps, and are hunted 
by torchlight. In captivity it makes a very 
cunning and interesting pet, being easily tamed 
so as to follow its master even into the crowd- 
ed street, ambling along in the manner of a 
bear, and adroitly picking his pockets of dain- 
ties. The crab-eating raccoon (P. cancrivo- 
rus, Illig.), from Brazil and the northern parts 
of South America, is longer and more slender 
than the common species, grayish above shaded 
with brown and black, and yellowish below ; 
the face is whitish, with a black band sur- 
rounding each eye ; tail less distinctly annu- 
lated. Its habits are nearly the same as in 
the other species, but it is more arboreal ; it 
is equally omnivorous ; its flesh is also used as 
food. It is found on the seacoast and in the 
interior, and as far south as Paraguay. 
RACHEL, in Biblical history. See JACOB. 



162 



RACHEL 



RACINE 



RACHEL (Elisabeth Baehel Felix), a French ac- 
tress, born at Mumpf, Switzerland, Feb. 28, 
1820, died at Cannet (near Toulon), France, 
Jan. 3, 1858. She was the daughter of a Jew- 
ish peddler, whom she accompanied as a stroll- 
ing singer and guitar player. While singing 
in a cafe in Paris she attracted the attention 
of Achille Ricourt, a theatrical manager and 
writer on art, and of Choron, who in 1831 be- 
gan to give her instruction in music. As she 
showed a great talent for the stage, he trans- 
ferred her to the care of Saint- Aulaire, under 
whom she made rapid progress in elocution. 
Her personation of Hermione at a private per- 
formance procured her admission in 1836 as 
a pupil of the conservatory ; and on April 24, 
1837, she appeared at the Gymnase theatre in 
La Vendeenne, a vaudeville written for her by 
Paul Dufourt. She attracted little attention, 
and for more than a year did not again appear 
prominently. In the mean time she studied as- 
siduously under Samson, and on Sept. 7, 1838, 
produced a great sensation as Camille in Cor- 
neille's Lea Horaces at the Theatre Francais. 
The long neglected plays of Corneille, Racine, 
and Voltaire were speedily revived for her, 
and she became best known as Eriphile in 
Iphigenie, Arnenaide in Tancredc, Roxane in 
Bajaiet, Pauline in Polyeucte, as Athalie, and 
especially as Phedre and Camille. She was 
also much admired in other parts, such as 
Joan of Arc, Mary Stuart, and Adrienne Le- 
couvreur; and during the excitement of 1848 
she produced a great effect by her peculiar 
rendition of the Maneillaise. She excelled 
most in the impersonation of lofty classical 
heroines and in the delineation of the fiercer 
emotions, and was celebrated for the magnet- 
ism of her gestures and voice, her singular air 
of distinction, dignity, grace, and repose, and 
her wonderful identification with the charac- 
ters she represented. Her income, originally 
4,000 francs, soon rose to 80,000; and in 1849 
she effected an arrangement at the Theatre 
Francais, by which six months of absence in 
each year were allowed her. The receipts 
from her performances in the French prov- 
inces and in England reached enormous sums, 
and in Russia in 1853 she received 400,000 
francs. In 1855, in company with her brother 
Raphael Felix, her sisters Sarah, Lia, and Di- 
nah, and a complete troupe, she gave perform- 
ances in New York, Boston, and other cities 
of the United States, and then went to Havana 
to regain her strength ; subsequently she spent 
some time in Egypt, and finally sought relief 
in southern France; but all attempts to ar- 
rest the progress of her disease (consumption) 
proved unavailing. Rachel was slender, rather 
tall, with a finely modelled head, clear, pale 
complexion, and features capable of the great- 
est variety of expression. She died unmarried 
and a Jewess, but left two sons, who were 
educated as Catholics. 

RACINE, a S. E. county of Wisconsin, bor- 
dering on Lake Michigan ; area, about 850 sq. 



m. ; pop. in 1870, 26,740. It is watered by 
several streams, and is traversed by the Chi- 
cago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul, the Chicago 
and Northwestern, and the Western Union 
railroads. The surface is nearly level, and the 
soil productive. Limestone is found. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 339,739 bush- 
els of wheat, 376,398 of Indian corn, 393,127 
of oats, 25,983 of barley, 164,219 of potatoes, 
164,321 Ibs. of wool, 610,228 of butter, and 
43,070 tons of hay. There were 5,395 horses, 
7,257 milch cows, 6,747 other cattle, 37,620 
sheep, and 7,423 swine; 12 manufactories of 
agricultural implements, 6 of boots and shoes, 

5 of brick, 13 of carriages and wagons, 22 of 
clothing, 2 of iron castings, 3 of lime, 8 of 
saddlery and harness, 3 of sash, doors, and 
blinds, 2 of woollens, 7 flour mills, 8 tanneries, 

6 currying establishments, 6 breweries, and 8 
planing mills. Capital, Racine. 

RACINE, a city and the county seat of Racine 
co., Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan, at the mouth 
of Root river, and on the Chicago and North- 
western railroad, 23 m. S. of Milwaukee and 
62 m. N. of Chicago; pop. in 1860, 7,822; in 
1870, 9,880; in 1875, 18,282. It is built on a 
plateau projecting about 5 m. into the lake 
and elevatea about 40 ft. above its level. The 
climate is cold in winter and cool and bracing 
in summer; the mean annual temperature is 
about 44. The streets are wide and cross 
each other at right angles, the principal ones 
being bordered by shade trees. Main street is 
the business thoroughfare, and its upper por- 
tion is lined with elegant residences. The 
city is connected with Rock Island, 111., by the 
Western Union railroad. The harbor is one of 
the best on the lake, and is accessible by ves- 
sels drawing 14 ft. A considerable tonnage is 
owned here, and the lake commerce is impor- 
tant. The lumber trade is large and increas- 
ing. Manufacturing is the chief interest, and 
to this Racine owes most of its wealth and 
prosperity. The value of products in 1874 
was $4,179,265. The principal establishments 
are 8 wagon factories, 8 carriage factories, 5 
fanning-mill works, 10 tanneries, 2 trunk fac- 
tories, 5 harness and saddle factories, 3 sash 
and blind manufactories, 3 founderies and 
machine shops, 6 saw mills, a paper machine 
factory, a woollen mill, a wire manufactory, 
a wagon lock manufactory, a manufactory of 
threshers, a linseed oil mill, a basket factory, 
and a silver-plating factory, besides many oth- 
er establishments. There are two national 
banks, with a joint capital of $400,000, two 
elevators, a dredge company, and seven hotels. 
The assessed value of property in 1875 was 
$4,200,000. The public schools are excellent, 
and the Roman Catholics have a flourishing 
academy. Racine college, under the control of 
the Episcopalians, was founded in 1852. The 
buildings are situated in handsome grounds, 10 
acres in extent, at the upper end of Main street. 
The institution comprises a collegiate depart- 
ment, with classical and scientific courses, and 






RACINE 



RADETZKY 



163 



a grammar school, with classical and math- 
ematical courses. In 1874-''5 it had 18 in- 
structors, 180 students, of whom 135 were in 
the grammar school, and a library of 3,000 
volumes. Four weekly newspapers are pub- 
lished, of which one is in the Bohemian lan- 
guage. There are 24 churches. Racine was 
first settled in 1834. The first post office was 
established in 1836; the first steamer entered 
the harbor in 1844. It was incorporated as a 
city in 1848. Its growth has been rapid. 

RACINE, Jean, a French dramatist, born at 
La Ferte-Milon, lle-de-France, Dec. 21, 1639, 
died in Paris, April 22, 1699. He studied at 
the college of Beauvais, at Port Royal, and at 
the college of Harcourt. He won the friend- 
ship of Boileau and Moliere and the good will 
of Louis XIV., who gave him a pension in 
1660 for his ode on occasion of his marriage. 
His reputation as a dramatic poet of remark- 
able genius was firmly established in 1667 by 
his Andromaque, and in rapid succession ap- 
peared Les plaideurs, a comedy (1668), Britan- 
nicus (1669), Berenice (1670), Bajazet (1672), 
Mithridate (1673), Iphigenie en Aulide (1674), 
and Phedre (1677). The last, one of his master- 
pieces, was so coldly received, owing to the in- 
trigues of his enemies, that he ceased to write 
for the stage, and devoted himself exclusively 
to his duties as official historiographer of the 
reign of Louis XIV. At the suggestion of Mme. 
de Maintenon he wrote in 1689 Esther, a Bibli- 
cal drama, for the young ladies at the seminary 
of St. Cyr, where it was performed, and in 1691 
Athalie, which was only recited, and not per- 
formed at the Theatre Francais until a much 
later period. Boileau regarded this as one of 
his finest productions, and it is still used in 
schools as a model of dramatic eloquence. In 
1697 appeared his memoir on the unhappy con- 
dition of France, which he had written at the 
request of Mme. de Maintenon. Louis XIV. 
was displeased with it, and Racine's death is 
said to have been hastened by his grief on this 
account. He left some prose writings, which 
are marked by terseness, perspicuity, and elo- 
quence. The last quality is peculiarly striking 
in his speech before the academy on the recep- 
tion of Thomas Corneille (Jan. 2, 1685), when 
he paid a warm tribute to the genius of Cor- 
neille's illustrious brother. His miscellaneous 
poems also possess high merit. The most val- 
uable complete editions of his works are by 
Pierre Didot the elder (3 vols. fol., Paris, 1801- 
'5), richly illustrated and forming part of the 
magnificent Louvre editions ; by La Harpe 
(7 vols. 8vo, 1807) ; Geoffroy (7 vols., 1808) ; 
Aim6 Martin, with notes from the principal 
commentators (7 vols., 1820) ; and Mesnard (5 
vols., 1865-'9), to be completed in 7 vols., and 
to form part of the new editions of Les grands 
ecrivains de la, France, under the direction of 
Adolphe Regnier. Racine's second son, Louis 
(1692-1763), wrote two didactic poems, La 
grace and La religion, remarkable, especially 
the latter, for elegance, but deficient in most 



other respects ; they are chiefly intended to 
vindicate the principles of Jansenism. His 
Memoires sur la me et les outrages de Jean 
Racine (2 vols., 1747) is a more valuable per- 
formance. Among his other works is a prose 
translation of Milton's " Paradise Lost." 

RADCLIFFE, Ann, an English novelist, born in 
London, July 9, 1764, died there, Feb. 7, 1823. 
Her maiden name was Ward. At the age of 
22 she married Mr. William Radcliffe, a student 
of law, who afterward became editor and pro- 
prietor of " The English Chronicle," a weekly 
newspaper. Her first novel, " The Castles of 
Athlin and Dunbayne" (1789), gave little indi- 
cation of her powers, though it had the wild 
and improbable plot and the unnatural char- 
acters which distinguish her later writings. 
"The Sicilian Romance" (1790) is much bet- 
ter, and the " Romance of the Forest" (1791) 
is sufficient to place her at the head of all wri- 
ters of melodramatic romance. " The Myste- 
ries of Udolpho" (1794) is generally regarded 
as her masterpiece. About the time this work 
was produced she made a tour through Germa- 
ny, and in 1795 published "Journey through 
Holland," &c., with some observations on the 
lake district of England. Her last novel, " The 
Italian," which deals with racks, tortures, 
dungeons, confessionals, monks, and inquisi- 
tors, appeared in 1797. After her death there 
were published " Gaston de Blondeville, a Ro- 
mance," " St. Alban's Abbey, a Metrical Tale," 
and some poems, together with a memoir by 
T. N. Talfourd (4 vols., 1826) ; and a collection 
of her poems appeared in 1834. 

RADCLIFFE, John, an English physician, born 
in Wakefield, Yorkshire, in 1650, died at Car- 
shalton, near London, Nov. 1, 1714. He grad- 
uated at University college, Oxford, in 1669, 
studied medicine, and in 1675 began to practise 
in Oxford. In 1682 he received the degree of 
M. D., and in 1684 removed to London, where 
he soon acquired an extensive practice. He was 
appointed principal physician to the princess 
Anne in 1686, and in 1713 was elected to par- 
liament by the town of Buckingham. Many 
anecdotes are recorded of his wit and rudeness 
of speech, which sometimes verged upon bru- 
tality. He bequeathed nearly his whole for- 
tune to public uses, dividing it mostly between 
University college, Oxford, and the foundation 
at Oxford of a library with especial reference 
to medical science. This is known as the Rad- 
cliffe library. See " Life and Letters of Dr. 
Radcliffe," by W. Pittis (8vo, London, 1736). 

RADETZKY, Joseph Wenzel, count, an Austrian 
general, born at Trzebnitz, Bohemia, Nov. 2, 
1766, died in Milan, Jan. 5, 1858. He was in 
active service from 1784, and in 1805 was made 
a major general. He contributed much to the 
victory at Aspern and Essling, May 21 and 22, 
1809, and commanded the Austrian cavalry at 
the battle of Wagram, having been raised to the 
rank of lieutenant field marshal. After the 
peace he was made chief of the quartermaster 
general's staff, and councillor of the minister of 



164 



RADIATA 



war, in which capacity he had a large share in 
the reorganization of the army. In the cam- 
paigns of 1813-'14 and 1815 he was chief of the 
staff of Field Marshal Schwarzenberg, had an 
important share in the victory at Kulm, and 
was severely wounded at the battle of Leipsic. 
In 1831 he took command of the Austrian 
troops in Italy, and in 1836 was made field mar- 
shal. During the revolution of 1848, though 
an octogenarian, he evinced remarkable vigor 
and equal ability as a commander. From March 
18 to March 23 combats between the Austrian 
troops and the insurgents constantly took place 
in the streets of Milan. On the latter day Ra- 
detzky evacuated the city and retreated behind 
the Mincio, with his headquarters at Verona ; 
but the advance of Charles Albert at the head 
of a large army compelled him to retire behind 
the Adige. After the reduction of Peschiera 
by the Sardinian army, May 30, he feigned a 
general retreat, reduced Vicenza, Treviso, and 
Padua, thus securing his rear, and rapidly re- 
turned to Verona. His victory at Custozza 
(July 25) forced the Piedmontese to retreat, 
and from this time the success of the Austrians 
was assured. Milan capitulated on Aug. 6, and 
an armistice of six weeks was agreed upon be- 
tween Sardinia and Austria. Charles Albert 
having resumed hostilities in March, 1849, Ra- 
detzky invaded Piedmont, and on March 23 
gained the decisive victory of Novara. He 
now marched against Venice, which after a 
protracted siege finally surrendered, Aug. 23. 
Radetzky was made governor general and mili- 
tary commander of the whole country, the du- 
ties of which situation he performed with un- 
mitigated rigor. On Feb. 28, 1857, at the age 
of 90, he retired from command. 

RADIATA, or Radiates, next to the protozoa 
the lowest of the great branches of the in- 
vertebrates, whose characteristic feature is that 
of radiation from the mouth as a centre. 
All live in the water, and most are marine. 
They were divided by Agassiz into polyps, 
acalephs or jelly fishes, and echinoderms, the 
last class the highest, which have been de- 
scribed under these titles respectively. As 
they are among the lowest in rank in the ani- 
mal kingdom, they are among the earliest in 
time. Huxley divides the old branch of ra- 
diates into the subkingdom coelenterata, inclu- 
ding the hydroids, sea anemones, corals, and 
acalephs ; and (in part) the subkingdom an- 
nuloida, including the echinoderms. In the 
latter subkingdom he places also the intesti- 
nal and some minute aquatic worms, an. asso- 
ciation not generally accepted by naturalists. 
His classification, in detail, is as follows : Sub- 
kingdom ccelenterata, having the alimentary 
canal communicating freely with the body 
cavity; with no heart or circulating system, 
and in most with no nervous system. Class 
A, hydrozoa, with walls of the digestive sac 
not separated from those of the body cavity, 
with the reproductive organs external; con- 
taining subclasses I., hydroida (hydroid zo- 



RADISH 

ophytes), with orders: 1, hydrida (hydra); 
2, corynida (tubularia) ; 3, sertularida (sea 
firs); II., siphonophora (oceanic), with orders: 
4, calycophoridce (diphyes)- 5, physophorida 
(Portuguese man-of-war) ; III., discojihora 
(jelly fish), with order 6, medusidce ; IV., lu- 
cernarida (sea blubbers), with orders : 7, lu- 
cemariadce ; 8, pelagida ; 9, rhigostomidce ; 
V., graptolitidce (extinct). Class B, acMnozoa, 
with stomach opening into body cavity, which 
is divided into compartments by vertical parti- 
tions, and with reproductive organs internal ; 
with orders: 1, zoantharia, with rounded ten- 
tacles in multiples of five or six, as the sea 
anemones, star and brain corals, and madre- 
pores ; 2, alcyonaria, with fringed tentacles 
in multiples of 4, as alcyonium, tubipores, sea 
pens, and red coral ; 3, rugosa (extinct) ; 4, 
ctenophora, oceanic jelly fishes like Venus's 
girdle and plcurobrachia. In the subkingdom 
annuloida, the alimentary canal is shut off 
from the body cavity, and there is a distinct 
nervous system, generally a blood-circulating 
system, and a water-vascular system. The 
only class which concerns the radiates is the 
echinodermata, with the five living orders of 
crinoids, ophiurans, star fishes, sea urchins, 
and holothurians, and the two extinct low 
orders of blastoids and cystoids, allied to cri- 
noids. See a series of papers on. " The Mode 
of Growth of the Radiates," by Prof. Packard, 
in the "American Naturalist," March, 1875, 
et teg. 

RADISH (Lat. radix, root), a cruciferous plant, 
raphanus sativus (Gr. 04, quickly, and <f>alvetv, 
to appear, in allusion to its rapid germination), 
long cultivated for its edible root. The plant 
has rough and lyrately lobed leaves, the flow- 
ers purple or whitish and with the structure 
common to the family ; but the pods differ 
from those of the other common crucifera in 
being divided into cells by fleshy false parti- 
tions. The radish is a hardy annual of which 
the nativity is uncertain, but it was in cultiva- 
tion in Egypt in very early times ; being val- 
ued for its root only, all improvement has been 
directed toward that part, and it presents a 
great number of varieties, from the size of a 
small olive up to those weighing several pounds, 
and in shape from long and tapering to those 
much broader than long; some varieties are 
of very rapid growth, and must be eaten when 
very young, while others require as long to 
mature as turnips, and are kept all winter. 
The radish is to be regarded as a condiment 
rather than a nutritious food ; in common with 
cresses, horseradish, and others of the family, 
it possesses a highly pungent principle which 
contains nitrogen and often sulphur ; and with 
the others it is regarded as possessing anti- 
scorbutic properties. The summer varieties in 
ordinary culture are sown as early in spring 
as the soil can be prepared, but they may be 
had much earlier by sowing in a frame, or at 
any time during winter if a hot-bed is used. 
In market gardens, where the greatest econo- 



RADISH 



RADOWITZ 



165 



my in land is practised, it is customary to sow 
a bed with beets in regular drills, and then 
scatter radish seed over the bed broadcast and 
rake it in ; the radishes are gathered before 
the slowly germinating beets need attention ; 
they do best upon a light warm soil that has 




Tarieties of Radish. 1. Chinese Winter. 2. Olive-shaped. 
8. Long. 4. Turnip-shaped. 

been heavily manured for some crop the pre- 
vious year. In some localities a fly (antho- 
myia rapJianum) makes their culture impos- 
sible ; its larva, a small white maggot, is very 
destructive. The turnip-shaped and olive- 
shaped, the French breakfast, and long scarlet 
are the leading early sorts, and the catalogues 
give many others, including white and other 
colors. The winter varieties are sown late in 
July or early in August in the latitude of New 
York, and harvested before freezing weather ; 
to keep them fresh, they should be packed in 
earth or sand. The black and white Spanish 
are most common, but the rose-colored Chi- 
nese is by far the best. The rat-tailed radish 
is probably a distinct species (R. caudatus) 
its root is not edible, but the pods, which are 
2 ft. or more long, are used for pickles, and 
by some liked when dressed in the manner 
of asparagus. The wild radish (R. raphanis- 
trum), also called jointed charlock, has yellow 
flowers and necklace-formed pods with a long 
beak ; this is a common weed in European 
agriculture, and has firmly established itself 
in some of our older states ; it has much the 
same general appearance as the true charlock 
(brassica sinapistrum, or sinapis arvensis of 
most authors), from which it is readily dis- 
tinguished by its jointed pods, which when 
quite ripe often break up between the seeds. 
In 1860 M. Carriere, a French horticulturist, 
published an account of his experiments in 
improving the wild radish, and found that a 
careful selection gave him in four generations 
edible roots of as varied forms as are present- 
ed by the garden radish. 



RADNORSHIRE, a county of S. Wales, bor- 
dering on Montgomery, Shropshire, Hereford, 
Brecknock, and Cardigan ; area, 432 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 25,430. The chief towns are 
Presteign, Knighton, Radnor, and Rhayader. 
The Wye is the principal river. The surface 
is mountainous, the highest point being 2,163 
ft. above the sea ; but the S. E. part is in gen- 
eral level. A great portion of the county con- 
sists of common bog and moor land. Num- 
bers of small ponies are reared. The county 
was anciently inhabited by the Silures. 

RADOM, a government of Russian Poland, 
I bordering on the governments'of Kielce, Piotr- 
k6w, Warsaw, Siedlce, and Lublin, and bound- 
ed S. E. by Austrian Galicia; area, 4,768 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 532,466. It is drained by 
the Pilica and Vistula, which bound it on the 
north and west, and east and southeast respec- 
tively, and their affluents. The soil is diversi- 
fied, and the surface the most elevated in the 
kingdom of Poland, being mountainous in the 
S. E. part. The government of Kielce on the 
southwest was separated from it in 1866. The 
capital, Radom, is in the N. part on a small 
tributary of the Vistula, 6/) m. S. of Warsaw ; 
pop. in 1867, 10,944. 

RADOWITZ, Joseph Maria von, a Prussian 
statesman, born at Blankenburg, Brunswick, 
Feb. 6, 1797, died in Berlin, Dec. 25, 1853. 
His ancestors had emigrated from Hungary. 
He was instructed by his mother as a Protes- 
tant, and subsequently by his father as a Cath- 
olic. He entered the army in 1813, and was 
wounded and captured at the battle of Leipsic. 
In 1815, after the restoration of peace, he set- 
tled in Cassel as a teacher of mathematics and 
military science at the school of cadets, "and 
was attached in the same capacity to the house- 
hold of Prince Frederick William, the future 
elector. In 1823 he returned to the Prussian 
army with the rank of colonel, and in 1845 he 
became general. His great influence over the 
crown prince, the future king Frederick Wil- 
liam IV., gave him a prominent position, and 
after holding various diplomatic offices and 
prompting the king in 1847 to make impor- 
tant organic changes in the government, he 
retired from the army in 1848, and went to 
Frankfort as leader of the ultra conservatives 
in the German parliament. His views, how- 
ever, underwent a gradual change, and he be- 
came an advocate of a constitutional monar- 
chy and of the union of North Germany under 
the king of Prussia. In 1849-'50 he was fore- 
most in Berlin and Erfurt in the general di- 
rection of affairs, and from Sept. 27 to Nov. 
29, 1850, he was minister of foreign relations. 
He retired from this office in consequence of 
the opposition to his plan of a rupture with 
Austria. His principal works are : Gesprache 
aus der Oegenwart uber Staat und KircJie 
(1846) ; Deutschland und Friedrich Wilhelm 
IV. (1848) ; and Neue Gesprdc7ie aits der 
Gegenwart (2 vols., 1851). His Oesammelte 
Schriften comprise 5 vols. (1852-'3). 



166 



RADZIWILL 



RAFFLESIA 



RADZIWILL, the name of a family long dis- 
tinguished in Lithuania and Poland. Nicholas 
IV., surnamed the Black, prince of Olyka and 
Nieswiez, the founder in the 16th century of 
the modern branch of the family, promoted 
the reformation, and published in 1563 the 
Radziwill Bible ; but his sons returned to the 
Catholic church. One of them, Prince Chris- 
topher, made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, of 
which an account has been published (Polish, 
Breslau, 1847; Latin, Braunsberg, 1861). He 
appropriated 5,000 ducata for the purchase of 
copies of his father's Protestant Bible, intend- 
ing to destroy them. Among the other mem- 
bers of this family was Michael Jerome (Ge- 
ron) (1778-1850), an associate of Kosciuszko 
in the war of independence of 1794, and of 
Dombrowski in 1807. During the Russian 
campaign of 1812, Napoleon nominated him 
general on the battle field. In 1831 he was 
for a short time commander-in-chief of the 
patriot army, and after its defeat by the Rus- 
sians he was detained by them till 1836. Sub- 
sequently he resided in Dresden. 

RVKBl R\, Sir Henry, a Scottish painter, born 
in that part of Edinburgh formerly called 
Stockbridge, March 4, 1756, died July 8, 1823. 
He was apprenticed to a goldsmith, but ob- 
tained his release, and began portrait painting 
in Edinburgh, where ho soon became a rival 
of David Martin, who then stood at the head 
of this branch of the art. After visiting Rome 
he returned to Edinburgh in 1787, and at once 
became the leading portrait painter there, a su- 
premacy which he maintained until his death. 
Among his sitters were Sir Walter Scott, Hen- 
ry Mackenzie, Dugald Stewart, Lord Eldon, 
George IV., Prof. Playfair, Dr. Hugh Blair, 
Jeffrey, and Alison. In 1814 he was elected 
an associate and in 1815 a member of the royal 
academy; and in 1822 he was knighted. 

RAFF, Joachim, a German composer, born at 
Lachen, Switzerland, June 27, 1822. He de- 
voted his early years to science and literature 
quite as much as to music. In 1843 he pub- 
lished a number of light pieces for the piano- 
forte, which met with such success that he 
renounced his career as a school teacher and 
gave himself up to the art of music. Remov- 
ing to Weimar, he wrote under the auspices 
of Liszt, for the theatre of that city, an opera 
entitled Konig Alfred, which possessed no de- 
cided merit. He has since resided in Cologne, 
Stuttgart, and Wiesbaden, devoting himself to 
musical composition and to writing upon musi- 
cal topics. He is one of the most prolific com- 
posers of the present day, having published 
about 200 pieces, mostly for the pianoforte. 
The works upon which his reputation chiefly 
rests are his six symphonies, among which the 
Leonore and Im Walde are most noted. 

RAFFAELLE. See RAPHAEL. 

RAFFLES, Sir Thomas Stamford, an English 
official, born at sea, off Jamaica, July 5, 1781, 
died July 4, 1826. He was an assistant clerk 
in the India house at the age of 15, and in 1805 



was appointed under secretary to the new gov- 
ernment formed by the East India company 
at Penang. In 1807 he became chief secretary ; 
but intense application to business affected his 
health, and in 1808 he was compelled to go 
to Malacca. By his advice an expedition was 
fitted out against Batavia in 1811, and when 
that place was captured he was appointed lieu- 
tenant governor of Java and its dependencies. 
He held this office for five years, during which 
slavery was abolished. He was knighted in 
1817. In 1818 he was made lieutenant gover- 
nor of Fort Marlborough at Bencoolen, Su- 
matra, and remained there six years, emanci- 
pating the slaves. He established the British 
settlement at Singapore, and founded a college 
there for the encouragement of Anglo-Chinese 
and Malay literature. The state of his health 
compelled him in 1824 to resign and return to 
England. On his homeward voyage his ship 
was burned, and his natural history collections, 
were lost. He founded the zoological society, 
and was its first president. He published a 
" History of Java" (2 vols. 4to, London, 1817), 
and "Malayan Miscellanies" (2 vols. 8vo, Ben- 
coolen, 1820-'22). His "Life and Remains" 
was edited by his widow (4to, 1830). 

RAFFLESIA, a remarkable genus of apeta- 
lous, exogenous plants, named in honor of Sir 
Stamford Raffles. While making a tour in the 
interior of Sumatra, Dr. Joseph Arnold, one 
of the suite of Raffles, was called aside by a 
native to see a fine flower, and was the first 
European to examine the largest flower known. 
A drawing was made, and, with portions of 
the reproductive organs preserved in spirits, 
sent to England, where Robert Brown de- 
scribed it as a new genus and called it in hon- 
or of those engaged in the discovery RqfflesiOr 
Arnoldi ; since then three or four other spe- 
cies have been found, all smaller than the first, 
and this genus and a few others form the order 
Raffltoiacem, all of them parasites. The spe- 
cies of rafflesia are all natives of Sumatra and 




Rafflesia Arnold!. 

the neighboring islands, and parasitic upon the 
roots and branches of species of vitis related 
to the grape. The plant consists solely of a 
flower, subtended by a few bracts, and directly 
sessile upon the stem of its host. The flower 
first appears as a small knob upon the vine, 



RAFINESQUE 



RAGUET 



167 



which gradually enlarges, and at the end of 
several months the fully developed bud looks 
like a monstrous cabbage. The perianth is 
tubular below, with five entire thick lobes ; 
the throat of the flower is surrounded by a 
thick and fleshy ring; within the cup or tu- 
bular portion are the stamens or pistils. In 
S. Arnoldi the flower is flesh-colored, marked 
with yellowish white protuberances, and the 
interior of the cup is of an intense purple color. 
The flower measures fully 3 ft. across and 
weighs 15 Ibs. ; its cup is estimated to hold 
12 pints. In this as in other species the flower 
gives off a most repulsive odor of tainted meat, 
which is however attractive to insects, large 
numbers of which hover about it, and as the 
plant is dioecious they no doubt aid in its fer- 
tilization. There are several plants of the order 
Rafflesiacem in South America and a solitary 
species in the United States, described by Gray 
as pilostyles Thurberi, found upon the Gila 
river in Arizona ; this is parasitic upon a legu- 
minous shrub (Dalea), and though of the same 
family and having the same habit of growth 
with the rafBesia just described, it is as re- 
markable for its minuteness as that is for its 
Titanic proportions, the whole plant being 
barely a quarter of an inch across. 

RAFINESQUE, Constantine Smaltz, an American 
botanist, born of French parents in Galata, 
a suburb of Constantinople, in 1784, died in 
Philadelphia, Sept. 18, 1842. He came to 
America in 1802, collected a large number of 
botanical specimens, and in 1805 went to Leg- 
horn, and thence to Sicily, where he remained 
ten years. While there he published three 
scientific works in French. Sailing for New 
York in 1815, he was wrecked on the coast of 
Long Island, and lost his collections and labors 
for 20 years. He became a teacher, made a 
tour to the west in 1818, and was for a time 
professor of botany in Transylvania univer- 
sity, Lexington, Ky. Finally he settled in 
Philadelphia, and established in 1832 "The 
Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge," 
of which only eight numbers appeared. He 
published " Annals of Kentucky" (8vo, Frank- 
fort, 1824); "Medical Flora of the United 
States" (2 vols. 12mo, Philadelphia, 1828-'30); 
" The American Nations, or Outlines of a Na- 
tional History " (2 vols. 12mo, 1836) ; and "A 
Life of Travel and Researches" (1836). He 
also wrote many smaller botanical and zoologi- 
cal works, several of which were left unfin- 
ished ; and he needlessly introduced so many 
new genera and species as to produce great con- 
fusion. " The Writings of 0. S. Rafinesque on 
Recent and Fossil Conchology " has been edited 
by W. G. Binney and G. W. Tryon, jr. (8vo, 
Philadelphia, 1864). 

RAF\, Carl Christian, a Danish archaeologist, 
born in Brahesborg, island of Funen, Jan. 16, 
1795, died in Copenhagen, Oct. 20, 1864. He 
was educated at the university of Copenhagen, 
of which in 1821 he was made an assistant 
Jibrarian. He undertook a general revision of 



all the Icelandic and Norwegian manuscripts 
yet unpublished, belonging to the collection. 
Through his exertions in 1825 the " Society 
for Northern Antiquities" was founded, the 
principal object of which was to publish those 
manuscripts which could throw light on the 
obscure passages of Scandinavian history. It 
has published many volumes on the history 
and antiquity of the North. The work which 
excited the most attention was the Antiquita- 
tes Americana, seu Scriptores Septentrionalet 
Rerum Ante-Columbianarum in America (Co- 
penhagen, 1837), prefaced by a summary in 
English, in which he attempted to prove that 
the Scandinavians discovered America in the 
10th century, and that from the llth to the 
14th they made frequent voyages thither, and 
effected settlements in what is now Massa- 
chusetts and Rhode Island. An important se- 
quel to this work is Denkmaler Gronlands (3 
vols., 1838-'45). He also published Antiqui- 
tes russes (3 vols., 1850-'54). 

RAGATZ, a watering place of Switzerland, in 
the canton of St. Gall, adjoining Pfafers, and 
situated at the junction of several railways 
and at the mouth of the gorge through which 
the Tamina flows into the Rhine. It is one 
of the so-called indifferent thermal springs 
used for rheumatism and nervous diseases, and 
the place is generally overcrowded in summer. 
It has a fine bathing establishment, with ter- 
race gardens to which water is conveyed from 
Pfafers in wooden pipes. It contains an Eng- 
lish chapel and a monument of Schelling, who 
is buried in the Catholic cemetery. 

RAGLAN, Fitzroy James Henry Somerset, baron, 
an English general, born Sept. 30, 1788, died in 
camp before Sebastopol, June 28, 1855. He 
was the eighth and youngest son of the fifth 
duke of Beaufort. He was educated at West- 
minster school, and at the age of 16, being 
then known as Lord Fitzroy Somerset, entered 
the 4th regiment of dragoons as ensign. In 
1805 he became lieutenant, and in 1809 was 
attached to the staff of the duke of Welling- 
ton as aide-de-camp and military secretary. 
At Busaco he was wounded, and at the storm- 
ing of Badajoz he was one of the first to enter 
the town. At Waterloo he lost his right arm. 
For these services he was made colonel and 
knighted. In 1818 and 1826 he was elected to 
parliament, where he acted with the moderate 
tories. In 1852 he was made master general 
of the ordnance, and created Baron Raglan. 
In the Crimean war he was commander-in- 
chief with the rank of field marshal, and on 
Sept. 20, 1854, fought the battle of the Alma. 
The sufferings of the troops during the follow- 
ing winter and the disastrous repulse of June 
18, 1855, weighed upon his mind, and aggra- 
vated an attack of cholera, of which he died. 

RAGOTZKY. See RiK6czY. 

RAGUET, Condy, an American political econo- 
mist, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 28, 1784, died 
there, March 22, 1842. He was of French de- 
scent, was educated at the university of Penn- 



KiS 



RAGUSA 



sylvania, and for 18 months studied law. Af- 
terward entering the counting house of a mer- 
chant, at the age of 20 he was sent to Santo 
Domingo as supercargo of a vessel. There he 
spent four months, and on his return published 
" A Short Account of the Present State of 
Affairs in St. Domingo." After a second voy- 
age to the same island in 1805, when he re- 
mained eight months, he published "A Cir- 
cumstantial Account of the Massacre in St. 
Domingo." In 1806 he went into business in 
Philadelphia, and was highly successful. Du- 
ring the war of 1812 he took an active part in 
providing for the defence of the city. From 
1822 to 1827 he resided in Rio de Janeiro, at 
first as United States consul, and from 1825 as 
charg6 d'affairs to Brazil. After his return to 
the United States he edited several journals 
devoted to free-trade doctrines. He published 
" An Inquiry into the Causes of the Present 
State of the Circulating Medium of the United 
States " (8vo, Philadelphia, 1815) ; " Principles 
of Free Trade " (1835) ; and a treatise " On Cur- 
rency and Banking" (1839), which was repub- 
lished in England, and translated into French. 

RAGISA (Slav. Dubrovnik), a town of Dal- | 
matia, on a small peninsula of the Adriatic, 
at the foot of Mt. Sergius, 40 m. N. W. of 
Cattaro; pop. in 1870, 8,678. It has several 
towers and old walls, and the streets are con- 
nected by steps, the principal being the Corso. 
It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop, 
and has several Catholic and Greek churches. 
The cathedral, built by Richard Coeur de Lion, 
contains Titian's " Assumption of the Virgin." 
The town is strongly fortified and of strate- 
gical importance. The number of vessels en- 
tering in 1872 was 519, tonnage 12,208. The 
harbor is small and exposed to the sirocco. 
The port for larger vessels is at Gravosa, or 
Santa Croce, 2 m. from Ragusa, where are 
many fine villas and a new and large ship yard. 
Ragusa was founded in the 7th century, 
after the destruction of Ragusa Vecchia (the 
ancient Greek colony Epidaurus, now a small 
village 7 in. S. E. of the present town). In 
the middle ages it was a republic, and was suc- 
cessively under Greek, Venetian, Hungarian, 
and Turkish protection. In the 15th century 
it had a population of 40,000, which declined 
in consequence of the plague, earthquakes, and 
the diversion of trade to other places. In 1807 
it was occupied by the French under Gen. 
Lauriston, who soon after stood here a famous 
siege by the Russians and Montenegrins. Na- 
poleon made Marraont duke of Ragusa, and in- 
corporated it with the new kingdom of Illyria, 
with which in 1814 it passed to Austria. 

RAGUSA, a town of Sicily, in the province of 
Noto, 30 m. S. W. of Syracuse ; pop. in 1872, 
21,546. It is built on a steep ridge, and con- 
sists of Ragusa Superiore and Ragusa Inferi- 
ore, with separate municipalities. In the Ca- 
puchin convent are pictures by Novelli. The 
town has large cotton factories. There are an- 
cient remains, probably of Hybla Minor. 



RAIL 

Kill WAY, a city of Union co., New Jersey, 
on Rah way river, here navigable by small 
craft, at the head of tide, 5 m. above its mouth 
in Staten Island sound, 16 m. in a direct line 
S. W. of New York ; pop. in 1870, 6,258. It 
is a station on the Pennsylvania railroad, and 
another railroad is in course of construction 
by the Rahway railroad company to connect 
with New York and Long Branch. The streets 
are well laid out, and are lighted with gas. 
There are numerous tine residences, surround- 
ed by handsome gardens. Water works sup- 
ply the city on the direct pressure plan, ob- 
viating the necessity of fire engines. It is 
chiefly noted for its extensive carriage facto- 
ries, of which there are 15 or 20. There are 
also a printing-press manufactory, two wool- 
scouring establishments, a manufactory of pa- 
per hangings, and some minor establishments. 
The city contains two national banks, several 
hotels, five public schools, a male and female 
institute, numerous private schools, a public 
library of about 5,000 volumes, two weekly 
newspapers, and 16 churches. Rahway was 
first settled about 1720, and was incorporated 
as a city in 1858. 

RA1K.ES, Robert, an English philanthropist, 
born in Gloucester in 1735, died April 5, 1811. 
He was publisher and editor of the "Glouces- 
ter Journal^" and in 1781 hired rooms for 
Sunday schools, employed poor women at a 
shilling a day to teach, and induced large num- 
bers of the poor children whom he found in 
the streets of the town to attend. In a short 
time Sunday schools were established in all 
the larger towns of England. 

RAIL, the proper name of the rallina, a sub- 
family of wading birds of the family rallidas. 
The genus rallw (Linn.) is characterized by a 
bill longer than the head, nearly straight and 
slender, with the culmen a little curved, and 
tip obtuse and slightly notched ; nostrils in a 
membranous groove which extends for two 
thirds of the bill ; wings short, with the sec- 
ond and third quills equal and longest ; tail 
short and rounded ; tarsi shorter than the 
middle toe, covered with transverse scales ; 
toes long and slender, free at the base, the 
hind one short ; claws short and sharp ; fore- 
head, as in all the subfamily, feathered to base 
of bill, the culraen parting the frontal feathers 
for a short distance and in an angle. There 
are about 20 species, found in all the temper- 
ate parts of the globe, resembling each other 
in habits and much alike in plumage; they in- 
habit marshes and borders of rivers, among 
reeds and aquatic plants, which their long 
toes, sharp claws, and compressed bodies en- 
able them to climb and run over or between 
with great facility ; the flight is awkward and 
slow, with the legs hanging down, and for 
short distances only except during migration ; 
they are good swimmers and divers, and very 
rapid runners. Their food consists of worms, 
slugs, crustaceans, tadpoles, insects, and leaves 
and seeds of water plants ; the nest is made of 



RAIL 



169 



coarse grasses, and placed in retired marshes, 
and the eggs are 10 to 12. They are very gen- 
erally called marsh hens, as they resemble do- 
mestic fowls in their manner of carrying the 
head, in some of their habits, and in their cack- 
ling notes. The largest of the North Ameri- 




Fresh-water Marsh Hen (Eallus elegans). 

<san rails, and one of the handsomest of the ge- 
nus, is the red-breasted rail or the fresh-water 
marsh hen (H. elegans, Aud.); it is about 18 
in. long, the bill 3, and 24 in alar extent, 
with a weight of about 1^ Ib. ; the color above 
is olive brown, with longitudinal stripes of 
brownish black, especially on the back ; throat 
and lower lid white ; neck before and breast 
rufous chestnut ; sides, lower parts, and under 
tail coverts with transverse bands of brownish 
black and white ; upper wing coverts reddish 
chestnut, the under black with white lines. It 
is found in the middle and southern states on 
the Atlantic coast, probably extending across 
to the Pacific, and chiefly on the margin of 
fresh waters ; it begins to breed in the south- 
ern states about the middle of April in its fa- 
vorite marshes; the young leave the nest as 
soon as born. The females are like the males, 
but smaller; they do not take to the water 
willingly, and are rather poor divers; the flesh 
is good, especially in autumn, and their eggs 
are said to be delicious. The clapper rail or 
salt-water marsh hen (It. crepitans, Gmel.) is 
about 14 in. long, with an alar extent of 20 ; 
the adult plumage is considerably like that of 
the last species, but the upper parts have a 
light ashy olive tint, and the neck and breast 
are more yellowish. It is abundant from New 
Jersey to Florida, extending also to South 
America, and is rarely found far from the sea ; 
the nest is deep and funnel-shaped, made of 
marsh plants and fastened to reeds above the 
ordinary high tide level; incubation lasts 14 
days ; the eggs are collected by hundreds in 
New Jersey toward the end of spring. It is 



not a rapid swimmer, but is a good diver, and 
a very swift runner either on the ground or on 
floating weeds ; its flight is slow and generally 
straight ; though esteemed as food, other spe- 
cies are more sought after, especially the sora, 
in the middle states. The Virginia rail (R. 
Virginianus, Linn.) is about 10 in. long, with 
an alar extent of 14; it is like the others in 
form, and resembles R. elegans in color, hard- 
ly differing from it except in size. It is found 
throughout the temperate regions of North 
America from the Atlantic to the Pacific, most 
abundantly along the margins of rivers and 
bays on the Atlantic, migrating south in au- 
tumn ; it is a very rapid runner and good 
swimmer, feeding both on salt marshes and 
fresh meadows by day and night. It breeds 
from the beginning of March to the middle of 
June, according to latitude ; like the other spe- 
cies it is a good ventriloquist, and seems often 
to be far off when close at hand ; the flesh is 
good eating in autumn and winter. The Euro- 
pean water rail (R. aquaticus, Linn.) is fulvous 
brown spotted with black above, bluish ash be- 
low, and barred black and white on the sides. 
The habits are the same as in other species ; 
the flesh is esteemed, though having rather a 
marshy flavor. The genus ortygometra (Linn.) 
has been subdivided into porzana (Vieill.) and 
crex (Bechst.). In porzana the bill is shorter 
than the head, the primaries longer than the 
tertiaries, the tail short, and the legs robust ; 
there are about 20 species in the temperate re- 
gions of the globe, with habits similar to those 
of rallus. Among the North American spe- 
cies is the Carolina or sora rail (P. Carolina, 
Cab.), so well known and so abundant as to 




Carolina Kail (Porzana CarolinenEis). 

be called "the rail" in the middle states; the 
length is about 9 in. and the alar extent 14 ; 
the color is greenish brown above, with longi- 
tudinal lines of black ; behind the eyes, sides 
of neck, and breast bluish ashy, with round 
white spots on the latter; middle of abdomen 



170 



RAILROAD 



white. It occurs throughout temperate North 
America on both shores, migrating southward 
in winter ; it is rarely seen east of New York ; 
in autumn it is abundant in the rice fields and 
fresh-water marshes of South Carolina. It is 
semi-nocturnal; when migrating the flight is 
low and in compact flocks ; instinct teaches 
them the last moment at which they can remain 
in autumn, all migrating in a single day or night, 
whence the once prevalent idea that they dived 
under the mud to pass the winter. The little 
black rail (P. Jamaicensis, Cab.) is about 6 in. 
long, the smallest of the North American spe- 
cies of the family ; the head and lower parts 
are slate-colored, nearly black on the top of 
the head ; abdomen banded with white ; upper 
parts brownish black with white stripes, and 
reddish chestnut on the upper back ; the young 
are wholly bluish black. It is rare on the con- 
tinent, but more abundant in the West Indies ; 
it is highly prized by collectors. The yellow- 
breasted rail (P. Noveboracensis, Cab.) is about 
Tin. long and 13 in alar extent; the color is 
ochre-yellow above, with brownish black and 
white stripes ; neck and breast tinged with 
reddish, middle of abdomen white, sides band- 
ed with reddish brown and white ; under tail 
coverts rufous, white-spotted, and under wing 
coverts white. It is found, though not abun- 
dantly, in damp meadows in the eastern and 
southern states ; it approaches in habit the 
corn crake and in some respects the European 
quail, and was regarded by Audubon as one of 
the connecting links between land and water 
birds ; the flesh is delicate. In the genus crex 
(Bechst.) the bill is conical, shorter than the 
head, and the appearance and habits are like 
those of gallinaceous birds. (See CRAKE.) 

RAILROAD, or Railway, a road with wooden, 
stone, or iron sleepers supporting timber or 
iron ways upon which the wheels of carriages 
may run. The graduated earthen or stone em- 
bankment or cut which supports the road is 
called the road bed, while the sleepers, rails, &c., 
constitute the superstructure. Various devices 
have been employed since wheeled carriages 
were first used for facilitating their movements, 
but until modern times these have mostly con- 
sisted of levelling and hardening common roads. 
(See ROAD.) Wooden rails were first used as 
early as 1672 in a short road constructed by 
Mr. Beaumont at the collieries near Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. They were laid exactly straight 
and parallel, and four-wheeled carts were drawn 
by horses upon them. Iron rails were first 
used at Whitehaven, England, in 1788 ; another 
iron railway was laid down by John Curr near 
Sheffield in 1776, but this was torn up by the 
colliers. In 1786 the first considerable iron 
railway was built at the iron works of Cole- 
brookdale, and had its origin partly in the low 
price of pig iron. The upper rails were made 
of cast iron, 5 ft. long, 4 in. wide, and If in. 
thick, with holes through which they were 
spiked to the lower wooden rails or ground- 
sills ; they were cast with a raised lip on the 



outer edge to keep the carriage wheels upon 
the track. The success of this improvement 
led to its general use in and about mines and 
collieries, and for many years rails were made 
altogether of cast iron. These roads were 
called tramways, and were commonly built as 
follows : The road bed was brought to as uni- 
form an inclination and level a surface as prac- 
ticable ; squared logs called sleepers or ties about 
6 ft. long, 6 or 8 in. wide, and 4 or 5 in. thick, 
were laid crosswise, 2 or 3 ft. apart ; upon these 
long wooden rails 6 or 7 in. wide and 5 in. 
thick were notched and pinned, 4 ft. apart and 
parallel with each other. The iron plates or 
rails were then spiked to the wooden rails, and 
the road bed was filled in with gravel, ashes, 
or coal waste, to form a smooth surface for the 
horses to walk upon. This is substantially the 
plan upon which railroads for collieries, quar- 
ries, mines, and streets are constructed at the 
present time. The first iron railway sanctioned 
by parliament, except a few built by canal 
companies to bring in the products of adjacent 
mines, was the Surrey railway, running from 
the banks of the Thames at Wandsworth to 
Croydon, which was authorized in 1801. From 
this time forward the principal improvements 
in railway construction related to the perfec- 
tion of the form and materials of the rails and 
the method of fastening them, and later to the 
introduction and improvement of steam loco- 
motives and machinery. Cast-iron rails had 
been laid by Jessop at Loughborough in 1789, 
without lip or raised edge, but having a smooth 
upper surface, upon which the carriages were 
kept by means of flanges on the wheels ; these 
were called " edge rails," and were set in cast- 
iron chairs, which rested upon the wooden 
sleepers. Edge rails of oval section, with the 
longer axes vertical, were again used in 1801 
at the slate quarries of Lord Penrhyn ; they 
were 4 ft. long, and each end terminated 
by a pyramidal or wedge-shaped block, which 
rested upon and fitted into an iron sill. The 
carriage wheels were hollowed out to fit upon 
the convex surface of the rails, but as this de- 
vice increased the friction by increasing the 
bearing surfaces, the surfaces of both rails and 
wheels were afterward made flat, and the 
wheels were made with flanges to keep them 
on the rails. By the use of these improve- 
ments it was found that one horse could do 
the work of 40 on a common road ; they were 
rapidly adopted by the colliers, and in the 
north of England still further improvements 
were made in the form of the rails, with 
the view of increasing their strength without 
decreasing their weight. They were made 
still thinner, the oval cross section verging 
toward the pear shape, with the thicker part 
at the top, while the longitudinal section was 
straight on the top and curved downward 
on the bottom, the greatest depth of the rails 
being midway between the ends ; those of this 
form were known as "fish-bellied" rails, and 
were used for some years after the introduction 



RAILROAD 



171 



of wrought-iron rails. This took place in 1808, 
though it was not till 1820 that suitable ma- 
chinery was devised for rolling rails into other 
than flat shapes. This was a most important 
step, as cast-iron rails could not be made 
straight in greater lengths than 4 or 5 ft., and 
consequently required many cross ties and 
joints; whereas the introduction of wrought 
iron permitted the increase of the length of 
the rails by successive steps, till with the per- 
fected processes of the present day they are 
. made of iron and steel 30 ft. and even longer 
if required. With the improvements in the 
machinery for rolling rails, it became possi- 
ble to make the new and improved forms of 
rails rendered necessary by the substitution of 
steam carriages for horses, which had hitherto 
been almost exclusively used. The force of 
gravity was utilized in exceptional instances 
where the roads sloped gradually from the col- 
lieries, and by the adaptation of ropes and 
wheels or windlasses the descending loaded 
cars were made to draw up the empty ones. 
Watt suggested the possibility of constructing 
steam carriages in 1759, and patented one in 
1784. Oliver Evans of Philadelphia patented a 
steam wagon in 1782, the drawings and speci- 
fications of which were sent to England in 
1787, and again in l794-'5. In 1784 Murdoch, 
Watt's assistant, constructed a working model 
of Watt's carriage. In 1802 Trevithick and 
Vivian patented a high-pressure locomotive 
engine, and in 1804 built one for the Merthyr- 
Tydfil railway in S. Wales, which was found 
to work well with light loads upon a level sur- 
face or moderate grades, but if more severely 
tasked the wheels would slip without advan- 
cing. A check was thus put upon their use 
until some method could be devised by which 
they might obtain a hold upon the track or 
otherwise push themselves forward. A rack 
laid along the side of the rail, into which 
worked a toothed wheel fitted to the loco- 
motive, was tried in 1811 on a colliery line near 
Leeds, but the friction was too great, and it 
was abandoned. The next year engines were 
tried with eight driving wheels for securing 
the required adhesion; and about the same 
time other engines were constructed with le- 
vers projecting behind and working alternately 
like the hind legs of a horse. In 1814 and 1815 
engines with plain wheels were found to work 
successfully on some of the northern roads; 
but no other application was made of them 
than for transporting the coal and ore wagons 
of the mines. In 1814 George Stephenson con- 
structed his first locomotive, which travelled 
at the rate of 6 m. an hour; in 1826 Seguin, a 
French engineer, built locomotives in which 
he increased the evaporative power of the 
engine by small tubes passing from the fire 
box to the chimney ; in 1829 Stephenson and 
Booth built the engine Rocket, weighing 4 tons 
5 cwt., which travelled at a rate of 35 m. an 
hour; in 1834 the Firefly drew a loaded train 
at the rate of 20 m. an hour ; in 1839 the North 



Star moved with a velocity of 37 m. an hour; 
and at the present time locomotives have at- 
tained a speed of 75 m., and for short distances 
even greater velocities have been reached. 
(See STEAM CARRIAGE.) The first railroad for 
carrying passengers was the Stockton and Dar- 




Flrst Railroad Passenger Car. 

lington road, built by Edward Pease and George 
Stephenson, and opened Sept. 27, 1825. The 
Liverpool and Manchester road, commenced 
in 1826, and opened Sept. 15, 1830, was in- 
tended by its proprietors to carry passengers 
at a high speed. As it would be expensive to 
do this with horses, it was thought that sta- 
tionary steam engines placed at short inter- 
vals along the road might be used for the pur- 
pose of drawing the trains ; but the success of 
the locomotives built by Stephenson, Ericsson, 
and others, under the stimulus of a premium of 
500 offered by the railway company, caused 
this plan to be abandoned, and gave rise to the 
establishment of a new system of locomotion of 
almost limitless speed and capacity. The small 
engines at first used were soon found inade- 
quate to the service demanded of them, and were 
replaced by others of larger size and greater 
weight ; some now employed have 10 or 12 
wheels and weigh in some cases as much as 75 
tons, and there are many in all parts of the 
world weighing 30, 40, and 50 tons, according 
to their pattern and uses. Finally, owing to 
the great weight and high speed of these loco- 
motives, and the consequent wear and tear 
upon themselves and the rails, joints, and 
bridges, it has come to be a grave question as 
to whether they have not grown beyond the 
limit of economy, and should not therefore be 
reduced in size and weight. The gauge of the 
Liverpool and Manchester railway was fixed by 
Stephenson at 4 ft. 8^ in., that being about the 
common gauge of the ordinary road wagons of 
the day. It was afterward generally adopted 
throughout the world, partly for the same 
reason that influenced Stephenson, but mostly 
because the English were the first locomotive 
builders for foreign countries, and stoutly ad- 
hered to the precedent set them by their most 
distinguished engineer. Later the merit of this 
precedent was disputed by Brunei and other 
able engineers, who claimed that a broader 



172 



RAILROAD 



gauge would give greater speed, safety, and 
economy ; and roads of 5 ft., 5 ft. 5 in., 6 ft., 
and even of 7 ft. gauge were built. But the 
wider gauges are gradually losing favor, and have 
generally been abandoned for the 4 ft. 8 in. 
(or the 4 ft. 9 in.), now commonly called the 
standard gauge. It has come to be contended 
by many engineers, and notably by Mr. Fairlie 
of England, that even the standard gauge is 
too wide, and that gauges of 3 ft. and less are 
still more economical. The success of the Liver- 
pool and Manchester railway led to the pro- 
jection of new roads in England, chiefly in the 
northern part, connecting together its princi- 
pal cities ; but the capacity of the locomotive 
was not yet fully developed or appreciated, 
and upon most of the roads it was considered 
necessary to overcome the heavier grades by 
the use of stationary engines. These and also 
inclined planes were gradually dispensed with, 
and tunnels were substituted for the purpose 
of reducing the grades and curvature, both of 
which were brought to a minimum by the ex- 
penditure of large sums of money. As a mea- 
sure of safety, the most important roads in 
England were from the first built with double 
tracks ; but this practice was not followed in 
America till the traffic on the various lines 
had become so great as to render it absolutely 
necessary. The first railroad constructed in 
America was projected by Gridley Bryant, a 
civil engineer, in 1825, and carried through by 
himself and Col. T. H. Perkins in 1826. It was 
designed to carry granite from the quarries 
of Quincy, Mass., to the nearest tide water, 
and is known as the Quincy railroad. It is 
4 m. long including branches, and its first 
cost was $50,000. It was laid to a 5 ft. 
gauge, and was constructed as follows : Stone 
sleepers were laid across the track 8 ft. apart ; 
upon these wooden rails 6 in. thick and 12 in. 
high were placed ; upon the top of these rails 
wrought-iron plates 3 in. wide and J in. thick 
were spiked, but at all the crossings of the public 
road and driftways stone rails were used, and 
as the wooden rails decayed they were replaced 
by others of stone. This road was supplied 
with the first turn-table ever used, which was 
designed by Bryant and is said to be still in 
good order. Bryant also invented the port- 
able derrick and the switch or turnout, and 
constructed the first eight-wheeled car ever 
used, by combining two four-wheeled trucks 
for hauling long pieces of granite intended for 
columns ; and although a more complete ap- 
plication of the principle was afterward made 
by Ross Winans of Baltimore in the construc- 
tion of eight-wheeled cars used on the Balti- 
more and Ohio railroad, the latter was unable to 
sustain his patent by law against the claims of 
others in Bryant's behalf. Winans began his 
experiments in 1830, with the view of design- 
ing a carriage which would easily traverse the 
short curves of the railroads then under con- 
struction, and ultimately produced the eight- 
wheeled or double bogie carriage, which is now 



in use throughout the United States and Can- 
ada, and is being introduced upon the Pullman 
carriages into Europe. The second American 
railroad was laid out in January, 1827, and 
opened in May of the same year from the coal 
mines of Mauch Chunk, Pa., to the Lehigh 
river, and with turnouts and branches was IS 
m. long. This was also of 6 ft. gauge, with 
timber sleepers and rails, strapped with flat 
iron. It was operated by gravity, though the 
length of the road was so great that mules had 
to be used for returning the empty cars to the 
mines. The Delaware and Hudson canal com- 
pany sent Horatio Allen to Europe in 1827 to 
buy three locomotives and the iron for a rail- 
road, which they built the next year from the 
coal mines at Honesdale to the terminus of their 
canal. One of the locomotives, built by George 
Stephenson at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, arrived at 
New York in the spring of 1829. Another, built 
by Foster, Rastrick and co. of Stourbridge, 
arrived shortly afterward, and went upon the 
railroad in the latter part of the summer. 
This was the first locomotive actually put into 
use in America. It had four wheels, a multi- 
tubular boiler, and the exhaust steam blast. 
In March, 1827, the legislature of Maryland 
granted a charter, modelled upon the old turn- 
pike charters, to the first railroad company in 
America authorized to carry on the general 
business of transportation; its capital stock 
was $500,000, with permission for its increase, 
and both the state of Maryland and the city of 
Baltimore were authorized to subscribe to its' 
shares. In the beginning no one dreamed of 
using steam upon the road ; horses were to do 
the work, and even after the road was com- 
pleted to Frederick relays of horses moved the 
cars from place to place. From this circum- 
stance the Relay House, at the junction of the 
main line and the Washington branch, took its 
name. This great highway, now known as the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad, was begun July 4, 
1828, and was gradually extended along the 
valley of the Patapsco 13 m. to Ellicott's Mills, 
thence to the Potomac at the Point of Rocks, 
thence along the valley of the Potomac to the 
Cumberland coal region, and finally across the 
Blue Ridge and Alleghany mountains to the 
Ohio river at Wheeling, with a branch toward 
Parkersburg in the direction of Cincinnati. At 
Wheeling and Parkersburg it now connects 
with other railroads owned or controlled by 
the same company, leading to Cincinnati and 
St. Louis, and also to Pittsburgh, Cleveland, 
and Chicago. In 1830 a small locomotive was 
built in Baltimore by Peter Cooper (now of 
New York), who was satisfied that steam en- 
gines might be adapted to the curved roads 
which would have to be built in America. He 
also believed that the crank could be dispensed 
with in the change from a reciprocating to a 
rotary motion, and designed his engine to dem- 
onstrate both conclusions. The boiler, which 
stood upright, was not so large as the ordinary 
boiler attached to the range of a modern man- 



RAILROAD 



173 



sion ; the cylinder was 3 in. in diameter, and 
connected with the wheels by a system of gear- 
ing. The whole engine could not have weighed 
over a ton, but with it he drew an open car 
filled with the directors of the road and some 
friends, at a speed which reached 18 m. an 
hour, from Baltimore to Ellicott's Mills. This 
was the first locomotive for railroad purposes 
ever built in America, and the first one nsed 
in the transportation of passengers on this side 
of the Atlantic. This railroad was originally 
built with stone and wooden cross ties, and 
wooden rails strapped with flat bars of iron ^ 
and in. thick, and from 2 to 4J in. wide. 
The bars were fastened down by spikes, the 
heads of which were countersunk into the iron. 
This method was generally adopted upon the 
early American railroads, but was soon found 
to be defective and dangerous. The oscillation 
and balloting of the engines and cars caused 
the ends of the rails to work loose, thus making 
what came to be known as " snake heads," and 
these were caught up by the wheels and thrust 
upward through the bottom of the cars. The 
successful use of locomotives in Europe and 
America gave an extraordinary impulse to the 
construction of new lines of railroad upon the 
principal routes of intercommunication. Char- 
ters for railroads were obtained in Massachu- 
setts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and other states. Operations were 
begun in South Carolina in 1829 upon a rail- 
road designed to connect Charleston with the 
Savannah river, six miles of which were com- 
pleted and opened in the same year. The com- 
pany having this work in charge, under the 
advice of their engineer, Horatio Allen, who 
had gone to England to examine the railways 
of that country, determined to operate their 
road by the exclusive use of locomotives, and 
offered a premium of $500 for the best plan of 
horse locomotive. This was awarded to C. E. 
Detmold, civil engineer (now of New York), 
who designed and constructed an engine run 
by a horse walking on an endless platform, 
which carried passengers at the rate of 12 m. 
an hour. The same gentleman in the winter of 
1829-'30 made the drawings of the steam loco- 
motive Best Friend, designed by E. L. Miller 
of Charleston, which was built by the Kembles 
of New York and placed on the Charleston 
railroad late in the summer of 1835. This 
railroad was the first to use the important ar- 
rangement of two four-wheeled trucks or bo- 
gies for engines and passenger cars. As be- 
fore stated, this arrangement was practically 
wrought out by Bryant on the Quincy railroad 
in hauling large masses of granite, and was 
experimented upon and finally in 1834 patented 
by Ross Winans, but seems to have been first 
put into efficient use in accordance with de- 
signs made by Horatio Allen in 1830. The 
eight-wheeled double bogie carriage was first 
used upon the Baltimore and Ohio road in 
1834, and was built from the designs of Wi- 
nans. In August, 1830, the Mohawk and Hud- 



son railroad, from Albany to Schenectady, was 
begun; in October, 1831, it was carrying 387 
passengers a day; and in 1832 a locomotive 
with a load of eight tons travelled on it at the 
rate of 30 m. an hour. Various railroads in 
the Pennsylvania coal region and the Balti- 
more and Susquehanna railroad were begun in 
1830. The railroad from Richmond to the 
coal mines, 13 m. distant, was finished in 
1831 ; and on April 16 of the same year the 
New Orleans and Pontchartrain railroad, 44- 
m. long, was opened. From this time forth 
railroads were multiplied with great rapidity. 
In 1832 it is stated that 67 were in opera- 
tion in Pennsylvania alone ; and in that year 
several of the most important railroads in 
Massachusetts and New Jersey were begun. 
Indeed, so great was the enterprise through- 
out the United States from 1832 to 1837 in 
the projection and construction of railroads, 
that at the end of that period the completed 
lines exceeded in number and aggregate length 
those of any other country. Since then, with 
occasional interruptions arising from financial 
crises and the civil war, the multiplication of 
railroads has kept pace with the extraordinary 
increase of population and wealth; and now 
the mileage of railroads in this country is more 
than four times as great as in Great Britain, 
and far in excess of that of all the rest of the 
world. The American railroads have how- 
ever grown up under the requirements of the 
various regions, and have been planned, con- 
structed, and fostered in a great measure inde- 
pendently of each other and without regard to 
any great or national system. The charters in 
nearly every instance were granted by the re- 
spective states for the roads in their own terri- 
tory, so that most of the through lines con- 
necting the great cities and widely separated 
regions of the country grew up by the con- 
solidation of various short sections of road into 
continuous lines under one management, or by 
the longer and more prosperous roads leasing 
the shorter and poorer ones, and only occa- 
sionally by agreement of connecting roads to 
cooperate with each other in the arrangement 
of their trains. To the absence of national 
control over the construction of railroads is 
due the fact that no uniform gauge for the 
American system was adopted. Every state, 
and in fact nearly every company, was left 
free to fix its own gauge and decide upon the 
character of its own roads. The gauge of 4 
ft. 8^ in. first used in English locomotives was 
generally continued for the sake of conveni- 
ence even after the locomotives came to be 
exclusively built in this country, but indepen- 
dent gauges were also introduced. The Ohio 
and New Jersey railroads generally adopted 4 
ft. 10 in., which in connecting with the roads 
of the standard gauge necessitated the use of 
cars with the trucks adjusted to the narrower 
gauge, but having wheels sufficiently wide to 
run upon the wider gauge. These were called 
"broad tread" wheels, and the cars "compro- 



174 



RAILROAD 



mise cars." The railroads of the southern 
states, with only a few exceptions, were laid to 
a 5 ft. gauge ; two in Ohio to 5 ft. 4 in. ; several 
in Maine, Missouri, and Canada to 5 ft. 6 in. ; 
while the Erie, the Atlantic and Great West- 
ern, and the Ohio and Mississippi were laid 
to the 6 ft. or "broad gauge." The last named 
road changed to the gauge of 4 ft. 9 in. in 
1870, the work of moving in both rails hav- 
ing been completed in a single Sunday with- 
out the stoppage of trains or the slightest de- 
rangement of business. Notwithstanding the 
original absence of system and national con- 
trol, many important continuous lines have 
been developed by the consolidation of inde- 
pendent ones, and the construction of others 
necessary to connect or extend the various 
parts of the trunk lines. The first great lines 
of this character originated in the desire of the 
great seaboard cities to secure a larger share 
of the business from the interior and western 
states. The railroad from Boston to Albany, 
the New York Central, the Erie, the Penn- 
sylvania Central with its eastern and western 
connections, and the Baltimore and Ohio, are 
the most notable instances illustrating the pe- 
culiar method by which the great trunk rail- 
roads have been created. The Atlantic and 
Great Western, the Toledo, Wabash, and West- 
ern, the Chicago and Northwestern, the Cleve- 
land, Columbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, 
the Michigan Central, and many others of 
equal or less extent, grew up in a similar man- 
ner. The money for carrying out these vast 
improvements was in general raised by pri- 
vate subscriptions to the share capital, supple- 
mented by loans secured by mortgages upon 
the property created ; in many instances, how- 
ever, towns, cities, and even states subscribed 
to the capital stock, or lent their credit to the 
various companies. In 1848 the Mobile and 
Ohio railroad, designed to connect Mobile 
with the mouth of the Ohio river, was pro- 
jected, and in the winter of 1849-'50 congress 
passed an act giving to that undertaking about 
1,000,000 acres of the public lands lying con- 
tiguous to the route. This was the first act of 
the kind, and was soon followed by a grant of 
2,595,000 acres to the state of Illinois, which 
conveyed it to the Illinois Central railroad 
company, for the purpose of aiding it to con- 
struct its road from Dunleith on the Missis- 
sippi river, in the N. W. corner of the state, 
to Cairo, 455 m., with a branch from Oentra- 
lia to Chicago, 249 m. By the hypothecation 
and sale of these lands and the mortgage of its 
railroad, the company secured the means of 
completing its lines, and, with the exception of 
embarrassments during its earlier days and 
before the country along the road had become 
sufficiently developed to yield an adequate traf- 
fic for its support, this has been one of the 
most successful railroads of the country. The 
policy of granting public lands to railroad com- 
panies gave an extraordinary development to 
railroad enterprise in the northwestern, west- 



ern, and southern states, which, aided by their 
great fertility and other natural resources, soon 
surpassed the older states in the length and 
number of their lines. Pacific Railroads. The 
discovery of gold in California and the rapid 
increase of wealth and population in the ter- 
ritory west of the Rocky mountains, together 
with the desire of the older states to establish 
closer connections during the civil war with 
those outlying communities, caused congress 
in 1862 to authorize the construction of a rail- 
road to the Pacific ocean, with various branches 
to connect it with rival towns on the Missouri 
river. This project was first brought into pub- 
lic notice by Mr. Asa Whitney, who from 1846 
to 1850 advocated it in addresses to state legis- 
latures and before public meetings, and memo- 
rialized congress on the subject. The idea was 
strongly advocated by Senator Breese of Illi- 
nois and by many other men of distinction both 
in and out of congress ; but the plan first took 
tangible shape in the bill introduced by Senator 
Benton of Missouri, Feb. 7, 1849. In March, 
1853, an act was passed providing for surveys 
by the corps of topographical engineers of the 
various routes, and particularly of a northern, 
southern, and middle one, with the view of de- 
termining which offered the greatest advan- 
tages for the construction of the railroad. These 
surveys resulted in the decision that the en- 
terprise could be carried through upon either 
route which might be adopted ; but owing to 
dissensions and rivalry between the northern, 
and southern states, nothing further was done 
by congress till the war had removed this ob- 
stacle. Acts of congress were passed in July, 
1862, and in July, 1864, providing for a sub- 
sidy in United States 6 per cent, gold bonds at 
the rate of $16,000 per mile of railroad from 
the Missouri river to the base of the Rocky 
mountains, $48,000 per mile for a distance of 
300 m. through the mountains, $32,000 per 
mile for that portion between the Rocky and 
Sierra Nevada mountains, and $16,000 per 
mile for that west of the latter mountains. In 
addition to this subsidy, the same acts of con- 
gress gave to the railroad companies under- 
taking this great work 20 sections (12,800 acres) 
of land for each mile of railroad built, or about 
25,000,000 acres in all. The first act of con- 
gress provided that the government subsidy of 
bonds should constitute a first lien upon the 
road and its appurtenances, but it was found 
that the money arising from the subsidy would 
not secure the completion of the work. Con- 
gress therefore released the first lien of the 
government, and empowered the railroad com- 
panies to issue their own bonds or debentures 
at the same rate per mile, and to secure their 
payment by a first mortgage upon their prop- 
erty. The railroad was built from the Cali- 
fornia end eastward by the Central Pacific 
railroad company, and from the Missouri river 
westward to the common meeting point at 
Ogden by the Union Pacific company. Work 
waa commenced in 1863, but it was not till 




ioo eo 200 so 300 so 400 BO aoo ao eoo fto TOO j 1000 

" 
ttr: Scale: 360 Wet to 1 /<;. 

Tr: 5feofe: 2000 Fettrto \Inch. 



CENTRAL PACIFIC R. R. 



PROFILE OF THE 



UNION PACIFIC R. R 



iCIFIC RAILROAD 




RAILROAD 



175 



1865 that the first 40 m. from Omaha to Fre- 
mont were completed. From that time for- 
ward, however, the road was constructed and 
opened for traffic much more rapidly than had 
ever been done upon any route or in any coun- 
try. In 1866, 265 m. of the Union Pacific 
were completed ; in 1867, 245 m. ; in 1868, 350 
m. ; and on May 12, 1869, the railroad com- 
munication from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
ocean was opened. The rails were laid at the 
rate of two and three miles a day, and in one 
instance the trackmen under the orders of Gen. 
G. M. Dodge, chief engineer of the Union Pa- 
cific, laid eight miles of track in one day. The 
preliminary surveys for the Pacific railroad, 
covering a vast extent of country, required the 
greater portion of four working seasons for 
their completion, and cost upward of $1,000,- 
000. The route adopted follows valleys favor- 
ably located, but crosses nine separate mountain 
ranges: 1, the Black Hills, at an elevation 
of 8,242 ft. above the sea level ; 2, the Rattle- 
snake pass, in the range west of the Laramie 
plains, 7,123 ft. ; 3, a range called by some 
" the continental divide," 7,100 ft. ; 4, the sum- 
mit at the head of Bitter creek (the waters 
of which flow into the Pacific), 6,990 ft. ; 5, 
the eastern rim of the Great Salt lake basin, 
7,458 ft. ; 6, theWasatch mountains, 6,804ft.; 
7, Promontory mountain, west of Great Salt 
lake, 4,889 ft.; 8, Cedar pass of the Towano 
mountains, 6,193 ft. ; and 9, the summit of the 
Sierra Nevada mountains, 7,044 ft. The points 
of the lowest level crossed by the railroad in the 
mountainous regions are : 1, the second crossing 
of the North Platte river, at an elevation of 
6,475 ft. above the sea; 2, the Red Desert 
basin on " the continental divide," 6,659 ft. ; 
3, the Green river crossing, 6,061 ft. ; 4, the 
Great Salt lake basin, 4,239 ft.; and 5, the 
Humboldt river, near the eastern base of the 
Sierra Nevada mountains, 3,969 feet. The 
aggregate length of the tunnels, of which 
there are 15, all occurring in the Sierra Nevada 
or its spurs, is 6,600 ft. The gradients do not 
generally exceed 80 ft. to the mile, though in 
one instance they reach 90 ft. and in another 
116 ft. to the mile. The length of the Union 
Pacific railroad is 1,029 m., and of the Cen- 
tral Pacific, exclusive of branches, 881 m. ; 
the entire distance from New York to San 
Francisco, via Chicago and Omaha, is trav- 
ersed in six or seven days, according to the 
route. The cost of the Union Pacific road, in 
capital stock, mortgage bonds, and land grant, 
income, and government bonds, was reported 
to the secretary of the interior at $112,259,360, 
or an average of $108,778 a mile; but the lia- 
bilities of the company at the date of the com- 
pletion of the road were $116,730,052, or an 
average of $113,110 a mile. Jesse L. Williams, 
one of the government directors of the com- 
pany and a civil engineer of great experience, 
in a report to the secretary of the interior, 
dated Nov. 14, 1868, gave the approximate cost 
of the Union Pacific railroad in cash at $38,- 
696 VOL. xiv. 12 



824,821, or an average of about $35,000 a 
mile, and this cannot have been far from cor- 
rect. The cost of the Central Pacific railroad 
and branches, 1,222 m., in stock, bonds, and 
liabilities of every sort, was reported in 1874 
at $139,746,311, or an average of $114,358 a 
mile. The Northern Pacific railroad company 
was chartered by congress in 1864, and subsi- 
dized, to construct a railroad from Lake Supe- 
rior to Puget sound, 1,800 m., with a branch 
of 200 m. via the valley of the Columbia river 
to Portland, Oregon. The construction of the 
road was begun in 1870, but was arrested in 
1873 by financial difficulties. In 1875 there 
were in operation 450 m. from Duluth, Minn., 
to Bismarck, Dakota, and 105 m. between 
Kalama and Tacoma in Washington territory. 
The Texas and Pacific railroad is to extend 
from Shreveport, La., and Texarkana, Ark., 
via El Paso, to San Diego, CaL, a distance from 
Shreveport of 1,514 m. In 1875 the main line 
was in operation from Shreveport to Dallas, 
Texas, 189 m. ; also the division between Tex- 
arkana and Marshall on the main line, 75 m. 
Railway Statistics. Details in regard to rail- 
roads are given in the articles on the various 
states and countries. The following tabulated 
statement from Poor's "Manual" shows the 
number of miles of road constructed in the 
United States each year since 1830 : 



YEAR. 


Mil.s 
in opera- 
tion. 


Annual 
increase, 
miles. 


TEAR. 


Miles 
in opera- 
tion. 


Annual 
increase f 
miles. 


1S80. 


28 




1853. 


15,360 


2,452 


1881. 


95 


72 


1854. 


16,720" 


1.860 


1882. 


229 


184 


1855. 


18.374 


1,654 


1883. 


880 


151 


1856. 


22,016 


3,647 


1884. 


633 


253 


1857. 


24,503 


2,647 


1835. 


1,098 


465 


1858. 


26,968 


2,465 


1836. 


1,278 


175 


1859. 


28,789 


1,821 


1887. 


1,497 


224 


1860. 


80,685 


1,846 


1838. 


1,913 


416 


1861. 


81,286 


651 


1889. 


2,802 


889 


1862. 


32,120 


884 


1840. 


2,818 


616 


1863. 


83,170 


1,050 


1841. 


8,535 


717 


1864. 


83,908 


788 


1842. 


4,026 


491 


1865. 


85.085 


1,177 


1843. 


4,185 


159 


1866. 


86,827 


1,742 


1844. 


4,377 


192 


1867. 


89,276 


2,449 


1845. 


4,638 


256 


1868. 


42,256 


2,979 


1846. 


4,980 


297 


1869. 


47,208 


4,953 


1847. 


5,598 


668 


1870. 


62.898 


6,690 


1848. 


5,996 


898 


1871. 


60,566 


7,670 


1849. 


7,865 


1,369 


1872. 


66,735 


6,167 


1850. 


9,021 


1,656 


1878. 


70,683 


3,948 


1851. 


10,982 


1,961 


1874. 


72,628 


1,940 


1852. 


12,908 


1,926 









The most important facts for 1874 were as 
follows : 

Population (estimated) 42,219,000 

Area in square miles, exclusive of those terri- 
tories which have no railroads 2,492,316 

Miles of railroad 72,623 

Number of inhabitants to a mile of railroad ... 681 

" of square miles to a mile of railroad. . . 84 '4 

Capital stock $1,990,997,466 

Funded and other debt $2,230,766,108 

Total capital account $4,221,763,594 

Cost of railroad per mile $60,425 

Receipts, total $520.466,016 

" from passengers $140,999,081 

" " " percent, to total... 27'1 

from freight $347,016,874 

" " " per cent, to total 64.- 8 



1T6 



RAILEOAD 



Percentage of total receipts to total capital and 

debt 18-8 

Receipts to each mile of railroad 17,844 

" to each Inhabitant $1282 

Operating expenses $380,896,058 

Percentage to receipts 68' 6 

Net earnings. $189,570,958 

Percentage to receipts 86'4 

" to total capital and debt 4-5 

Dividends paid $67,042.942 

Percentage of dividends to capital stock 

The total mileage of railways in the United 
Kingdom has increased from 8,835 m. in 1855 
to 13,289 in 1865, 15,376 in 1871, and 16,082 in 
1873. Of the mileage in 1873, 11,369 m. were 
in England and Wales, 2,612 in Scotland, and 
2,101 in Ireland. The authorized capital for 
the United Kingdom in 1873 was 676,686,- 
586, of which 588,320,308 was paid in. The 
total receipts amounted to 57,742,000, inclu- 
ding 31,821,529 from freight, 28,858,892 
from passengers, and 2,066,579 from rents, 
tolls, &c. The working expenditures were 
30,752,848, and the net receipts 26,989,152. 
In 1874 the Dominion of Canada had 4,099 m. 
of railway. The length of railways in opera- 
tion in the chief countries of the European 
continent in or about 1872 was as follows: 

MllM. 

Austria, Cicleithan (1870) 8,724 

Baden (1870), constructed by the state 580 

Bavaria, constructed by companies 609 

" " by the state 1,221 

Belgium, constructed by companies 1,042 

44 by the stite 962 

Denmark, constructed by companies 166 

" " by the state 874 

France (1870) 10,847 

Hesse 246 

Holland, constructed by companies 429 

by the state 014 

Hungary (1S70) 2,151 

Italy 4,087 

Norway, constructed by companies 42 

by the state 265 

Portugal (1870) 489 

Prussia, constructed by companies 4.788 

by the state 8.918 

Russia (1S74) 10,725 

Saxony (1870), constructed by companies. 140 

" by the state 687 

Spain (1870) 8,880 

Sweden, constructed by companies 461 

" bythestate 787 



Total. 



52,424 

Railroad Management. The policy of gov- 
ernments and countries in respect to the con- 
struction of railroads at first differed as wide- 
ly as the countries themselves, but now there 
may be said to be only two systems, the Eng- 
lish and the French. In England and the 
United States the initiative is given by pri- 
vate enterprise, and the entire control of op- 
erations is exercised by joint-stock compa- 
nies, through their officers or agents, subject 
only to the laws regulating and defining their 
powers. In France, Germany, Russia, and 
most countries of continental Europe, every- 
thing connected with railroads and other pub- 
lic works is organized on a systematic plan 
and conducted with complete uniformity. In 
England and America everything is left to ex- 
perience, and no fixed practice or general prin- 
ciple exists. Government plays an insignifi- 



cant part; when it has authorized the con- 
struction of a railroad and defined the powers 
of the company having it in hand, it goes no 
further. In France and most other countries 
the executive government determines the local- 
ities for which railway communication is to be 
provided, lays out the line, chooses the com- 
pany which is to make the road, or if no com- 
pany offers makes it itself, regulates the num- 
ber of trains, fixes the tariffs, controls the 
administration, and in short attends to the 
minutest details of construction, maintenance, 
and operation. The point of principal impor- 
tance in the comparison of the English and 
French railway systems is that, setting out with 
different policies private enterprise and free 
competition on one side, state control and 
monopoly on the other side both have ended 
in the division of the two countries among a 
few great companies, and the consequent tri- 
umph of monopolies. Starting from diametri- 
cally opposite principles, the two contrary sys- 
tems have reached nearly similar results. The 
construction of railways as a whole has been 
as rapid in France as in England ; their mileage 
is nearly equal, with not very different fares 
and nearly the same number of passengers and 
tons of freight per mile; while- in the United 
States the mileage is nearly five times as great 
as in either France or England, though the 
aggregate cost of the railroads in each of the 
three countries is nearly equal. In America 
the tendency is toward amalgamation and mo- 
nopoly. The richer companies are gradually 
absorbing the weaker ones, and yet so far the 
general result has been to cheapen transporta- 
tion and give the public greater and better 
facilities. In some instances consolidations 
have taken place to such an extent that the 
public has become alarmed, and efforts have 
been made, especially in Massachusetts, Wiscon- 
sin, and Illinois, through the agency of boards 
of railroad commissioners, to exercise such con- 
trol over the railroad system of the respective 
states as to properly harmonize the interests 
of the public and the companies. Many of 
the state legislatures have undertaken to equal- 
ize and control the fares and rates of freight 
by arbitrary enactments, while others have en- 
deavored to do so through their boards of com- 
missioners. As yet no practical settlement of 
the various questions has been reached. The 
railroad companies make the general claim that 
their charters are contracts with the state, 
which authorize them to regulate their own 
charges and control their own business, and 
which cannot be altered or amended directly 
or indirectly without their consent ; and final- 
ly that all efforts to do so are in contravention 
of the constitution of the United States, which 
prohibits the states from making laws impair- 
ing the obligation of contracts. The theory 
of those who assert that the states have the 
right to regulate the rates at which passengers 
and freights shall be carried by railroads, is 
that they are public highways, controlled by 



RAILROAD 



177 



corporations created by law, and therefore sub- 
ject to the law-making power whenever it may 
choose to intervene. Still another theory has 
been set up and received public attention, 
namely, that the authority to regulate com- 
merce between the states, given to congress 
by the constitution of the 'United States, is 
broad enough to cover and does cover the right 
to regulate and control the railroads in all 
matters pertaining to their operation, and par- 
ticularly in fixing the rates at which freights 
and passengers shall be carried, notwithstand- 
ing the fact that railroads for commercial pur- 
poses were at the time of the formation of the 
constitution entirely unknown and unthought 
of. What will be the future solution of this 
question, now receiving the attention of many 
writers and thinkers in all parts of the world, 
cannot be predicted. In France and other 
countries, where a system of monopolies was 
deliberately established by the government, a 
system of checks has been or can be established 
in the interest of the public. In England the 
purchase of the railways by the state has been 
urged by an influential party, on the ground 
that the state is the only power which can 
properly control an interest so great and which 
so vitally affects the welfare of the entire na- 
tion ; and in Belgium such purchase is gradu- 
ally being made by the government. From 
the peculiar nature of our institutions, as well 
as from the complexity and extent of our rail- 
road system, the regulation, of railroads by 
government is much more difficult, and there- 
fore probably much more remote, than it is 
in Europe. On the other hand, the difficulty 
of consolidation and combination, owing to 
the extent of the country and the diversity 
of interests, is also greater, while the danger 
of monopolies is less ; and hence the ques- 
tion will probably receive a solution in Amer- 
ica founded upon competition. Construction 
and Rolling Stock. Before deciding upon 
the construction of a railroad along a given 
route, a careful calculation of the amount of 
transporting business already done on the 
route should be made, with the view of ascer- 
taining whether it is sufficient to justify the 
proposed railroad ; though estimates of this 
kind have in general been found to afford a 
very uncertain indication of the amount of 
business which the railroad itself when con- 
structed would obtain. A more enlarged esti- 
mate should be made of She extent of country 
tributary to the proposed railroad, together 
with its mineral and agricultural resources, 
developed and undeveloped, its wealth and 
population, and also the influence of the new 
route of transportation upon those already 
established, as well as upon the habits and pro- 
ductions of the people who are expected to use 
it. The first question to be considered is. Will 
any kind of railroad pay when built ? the sec- 
ond is, What kind of a railroad, all things con- 
sidered, should be built? and the third is, 
Where and how can the money be got to pay 



for it? In one region a double track steel 
railway, with low grades, slight curvature, iron 
bridges, brick or stone station houses, and the 
largest and best rolling stock, all costing $100,- 
000 more or less per mile, may be necessary 
to accommodate the business ; in another case, 
a single track, with heavier grades and sharper 
curvature, wooden bridges, and cheaper appur- 
tenances of every kind, may be sufficient ; and 
in still another case lighter rails, narrower 
gauge, and still lighter rolling stock and ma- 
chinery, may prove to be more than is required. 
No rule can be given for telling beforehand 
just what kind of a railroad should be built, 
or, when built, will prove to be the one best 
suited to the situation. Such questions are 
necessarily indeterminate. It is however a 
safe principle, economically considered, that 
no more expensive railroad should be built 
over any route than can be paid for out of the 
money which the people to be benefited by it 
will subscribe to the company's stock or lend 
upon the pledge of its mortgage bonds. This 
rule has not generally been kept in view in the 
United States and other new countries, and 
the consequence is that there has been a great 
over production of railroads at various periods, 
and particularly between 1863 and 18V3. To 
such an extent has this over production gone 
that the financial panic of October, 1873, has 
been attributed by some writers exclusively to 
this cause. Preparatory to the construction 
of a railroad, surveys are made along the sev- 
eral routes the road may follow, and plans 
are constructed representing the exact dis- 
tances and grades or the amount of deviation 
from a level at all the points. From these 
plans the amount of excavation and embank- 
ment, of tunnelling, bridging, &c., necessary 
to bring the road within the required de- 
gree of straightness and level, are calculated. 
Thus the estimates are obtained, by compari- 
son of which, including also the ascertained 
amount to be paid for right of way, the con- 
struction of the road is determined. The im- 
portance of the road and the special purpose 
for which it is designed are to be duly con- 
sidered in deciding upon saving of distance and 
reduction of grades by heavier expenditures. 
Roads upon which numerous trains are to pass 
daily, each one of which will incur a certain 
additional expense for every additional mile, 
and each mile will involve a certain annual ex- 
pense for keeping in repair, may economically 
be shortened by increased outlays that would 
be entirely inadmissible in securing a similar 
reduction of distance for less travelled routes. 
So upon roads that are to be run at high rates 
of speed short curves must be avoided at any 
expense. It has happened, from the experience 
gained in the working of railroads; that some 
of the earlier lines have been economically re- 
constructed by a partial abandonment of the 
old routes under more judicious surveys, or 
from the increase in the business justifying the 
adoption of a more perfect line. As already 



178 



RAILROAD 



remarked, the old system of occasional inclined 
planes is almost wholly abandoned for roads 
of general travel, and the construction and 
capacity of locomotives and carriages are so 
much better understood, that a much greater 
range in curvatures and grades is now found 
practicable than was formerly ever thought of. 
As regards curves, it was at first recommend- 
ed in England to fix the minimum radius that 
should be allowed at one mile, and in 1846 it 
was one of the "standing orders" of parlia- 
ment that no curve should be made with a ra- 
dius of less than half a mile (2,640 ft.) without 
special permission of parliament. In France a 
minimum was established by " the administra- 
tion of roads and bridges" of 2,700 ft., or 
about 2. On the Hudson River railroad the 
minimum curve has a radius of 2,062 ft. =2'75. 
But the Baltimore and Ohio road was built 
with several curves of 400 ft. radius (14-25), 
and with one of 318 ft. (18), and no difficulty 
was experienced in running over them at 15 
m. an hour. The narrow-gauge railroads now 
coming into favor for light traffic, in thinly 
settled or mountainous districts, are built with 
curves of very much shorter radius, in some 
instances not exceeding 50 ft. in length. The 
objectionable features of the curves are avoided 
by making the wheels conical, of greater diam- 
eter within than at their outer edge ; the effect 
of this in running on a curve, when the wheels 
on the outer side are pushed by the centrifugal 
force outwardly, is to make them roll on their 
larger diameter, and at the same time the wheels 
on the other side, drawn in toward the centre 
of the track, roll on their smaller diameter. 
On each side they are thus accommodated to 
the different lengths they have to traverse, 
without straining the axles and without great- 
ly increased friction or slipping of the inner 
wheel upon the rail. The friction against the 
outer rail due to the centrifugal force is par- 
tially prevented by elevating the outer rail. 
The object of attaching the wheels to their 
axles, instead of letting them turn upon these, 
is to secure greater steadiness at high speed. 
The requiring of minimum degrees of curva- 
ture has been abandoned upon the English and 
French roads. In France, upon the Paris and 
Orsay and Paris and Sceaux railroads, there are 
curves of 82 ft. radius, and trains, the engines 
and carriages of which are provided with loose 
wheels and guide rollers, run through complete 
semicircles at 20 m. an hour. Upon the earlier 
roads in Great Britain and in the United States 
grades of 30 or 40 ft. to the mile were con- 
sidered heavy, at the last figure nearly tripling 
the power that was required to draw the load 
upon a level. Grades of 70 to 80 ft. were re- 
garded as almost impracticable, as they would 
compel the carrying of light loads over the 
whole line, and therefore, when such grades 
could not be otherwise avoided, inclined planes 
worked by stationary engines were adopted. 
The Hudson and Mohawk railroad, in a length 
of 16 m., was built with one such plane at 



Albany, and another at Schenectady. The 
Philadelphia and Columbia railroad was also 
built with two planes, one at Columbia and 
the other near P.'.Jadelphia, and there were 
ten on the Allegheny Portage road over the 
Allegheny mountains, all of which have been 
displaced by the substitution of heavier grades 
on more extended lines. But as experience 
was acquired in the working of railroads, it 
was found that locomotives rarely carried max- 
imum loads for the moderate grades, and that 
a temporary slackening of the speed upon the 
steep grades rendered a further portion of the 
power of the locomotive available for over- 
coming the increased resistance. Thus, when 
the doubtful point as to the adhesion of the 
driving wheels to the rails was satisfactorily 
determined, and the common law of mechanics, 
that power can be gained at the expense of mo- 
tion, was found to be applicable to ascending 
grades of a railroad, these were increased much 
beyond thejr former limits. High grades were 
sooner introduced in this country than in Eu- 
rope, but they have since been adopted there 
also. On the Mount Savage and George's Creek 
railroads in Maryland grades of 140 ft. to the 
mile have long been used ; and on the Balti- 
more and Ohio road, through the Allegheny 
mountains, of 114 ft. In England those of 100 
ft. to the mile are not uncommon, and there 
are several from 180 to 150 ft. At Sheffield is 
a grade of 196 ft. to the mile, and the same is 
seen at Oldham on the Lancashire and York- 
shire road, extending for 1$ m. In France on 
the St. Germain railroad is a grade of 123 ft. to 
the mile for about 1 J in. ; and it is now assert- 
ed by engineers that grades of 870 ft. to the 
mile can bo worked by locomotives, but that 
on heavy grades the locomotive should take 
no more cars in descending than in ascend- 
ing. The proper preparation of the road bed 
should be an object of the most particular 
care. Being the foundation and support of 
the whole superstructure, it should as a mat- 
ter of economy be made as firm and dura- 
ble as possible. But it is in this that the 
American roads are most defective. The least 
width of embankments for double tracks ought 
not to be less than the width of the two 
tracks, with 6 ft. between them, and 6 ft. 
outside of each. In excavations the width 
of ditches on each side should be added. A 
common width of embankments in England 
is 83 ft., while on the principal American roads 
it varies with the height of the embankment. 
The transverse slopes of the English roads are 
much flatter than ours, and are commonly well 
protected with a good grass sod. But the most 
essential difference is in the drainage, upon 
which more than anything else depends the 
durability of the earthwork and of the sleep- 
ers and rails. Upon some American roads the 
sleepers are laid directly upon the natural soil, 
or upon this thrown up in a bank. Where the 
ground freezes, any superstructure on such a 
basis is certain to be more or less displaced in 



KAILKOAD 



179 



the spring thaws ; in wet weather it must prove 
very insecure, and in dry weather very dusty. 
The sleepers soon settle irregularly, placing the 
rails out of line, and thus are involved rapid 
wear, deterioration, accidents, and loss to the 
rolling stock and to the road. The dust rises 
in clouds, to the great injury of the machinery 
and of the passenger cars, and seriously incom- 
moding the passengers themselves. The effects 
of water about the earthwork of railroads are 
regarded as so injurious that an eminent Eng- 
lish authority says : " Wherever it is known 
or suspected to exist, its immediate source 
should be traced, and every possible means 
adopted for diverting it from the slopes and 
adjacent surfaces." Not only are capacious 
and permanent culverts, ditches, and drains 
abundantly provided, but subdrainage by tile 
drains is also employed to great advantage ; 
and as a final precaution the road bed is bal- 
lasted, usually a foot deep beneath the sleepers 
and another foot around and over them, and 
for a width on double tracks of 26 ft., the 
quantity per mile amounting to 10,000 or 12,000 
cub. ft. The material preferred for ballast is 
gravel containing a natural mixture of clean 
sand, and next to this broken stone in pieces 
not exceeding 2 in. in diameter. Limestone 
is not so good as gneiss, as it packs too densely, 
and trap rock also is likely to become too solid 
and rigid. A certain elasticity in the bed is 
essential for the durability of the rails ; and 
where no other suitable material is at hand, 
common clay burned in lumps in great heaps 
intermixed with bituminous coal has been 
found to answer very well, especially if hard- 
burned. Cinders and small coal are excellent 
materials, and in Holland shells and broken 
bricks are extensively used. The road bed 
through the long English tunnels, and also 
upon the viaducts, is well ballasted, and the 
wear of the rails is thereby materially de- 
creased. The wooden sleepers on many Euro- 
pean and some American roads are also pro- 
tected by some chemical application. (See 
PRESERVATION OF WOOD.) The ordinary dura- 
tion of sleepers upon American roads is hard- 
ly 7 years, but upon English roads it is. 15 
years and upward. By the scrupulous atten- 
tion directed to these details in building the 
European roads a great saving is effected in 
the cost of "maintenance of way," engines, 
and working. Only one half as much fuel 
is consumed to the mile run on the English 
and French roads as on those of the north- 
ern United States ; and the consumption of 
fuel may be taken as a measure of the resis- 
tances overcome. If the English trains are 
from 20 to 30 per cent, lighter than those 
of American lines, they are run 25 per cent, 
faster, thus requiring about the same power. 
The superstructure of railroads is almost 
universally laid upon transverse wooden sleep- 
ers, the primary object of which is to give a 
steady bearing upon the road bed. Seasoned 
white oak is preferable to any other wood 



for strength and for holding the spikes. Hem- 
lock is better than chestnut, and both these 
are extensively used in the United States. 
Their dimensions are commonly 8 ft. long with 
V, 8, or 9 in. width of bearing surface, and 
their distance apart from centre to centre is 
from 2 ft. 1 in., as on the Erie road, to 2 ft. 
6 in. On the English roads they are com- 
monly 9 ft. long, 10 in. wide, often squared, 
and 5 in. thick. They are usually laid 3 ft. 
apart from centre to centre ; and that a uni- 
form bearing may be secured, particular care 
is taken that the sleepers are alike in size and 
regularly spaced in their beds. In France 
the experiment has been tried of cutting the 
sleepers in two in the middle, leaving one in 
every 10 or 12 ft. to bind the two rails to- 
gether. The result was very satisfactory, the 
object being to prevent the spring of the full- 
length sleepers or the movement they some- 
times acquire on their centre. But for these 
and detached rectangular blocks of any mate- 
rial, either transverse or longitudinal, it is es- 
sential that the supports should be well packed 
upon a thoroughly ballasted road bed. In Eng- 
land and India, where wood is expensive and 
iron comparatively cheap, rectangular blocks 
and also inverted pots of cast iron have been 
tried upon some of the roads, and with good 
results ; but the conditions of cost are alto- 
gether unfavorable to the adoption of such 
devices in the United States. Granite sleep- 
ers have been tried and have continued in use 
upon one of the tracks of the Boston and 
Lowell road. They make a very hard and 
rigid support, and cannot be used in connection 
with wooden sleepers interspersed or alterna- 
ting with them, unevenness in the track soon 
resulting. The smooth face of a rock ledge 
has been tried upon the Manchester and Leeds 
road, the rails being spiked directly down 
upon it. It was soon found necessary to take 
them up on account of the excessive wear upon 
the rails thus placed. The Great Western road 
in England is constructed with longitudinal 
bearings or sills measuring 10 in. square, 
and framed together by cross ties of 6 by 4 in. 
every 6 ft. The arrangement is said to be easy 
on the rolling stock, but as regards cost of main- 
tenance of way this is one of the most expen- 
sive roads in England. The iron rails, which 
are generally straight bars of wrought iron, dif- 
fer greatly in the shape of their cross section, 
their weight, quality, and the manner in which 
they are secured to the road bed. Almost the 
first form was the fish-bellied rail, made about 
the year 1820. This soon gave place to others 
of more economical shape, as the T and the i 
rails, and to these was added the bridge or 
hollow rail, the form of which is nearly that 
of the letter U inverted. These have been 
variously modified in their figures and pro- 
portions, and a great number of other forms 
that may not be referred to either of these 
have been introduced upon different roads. 
In the United States an inverted T rail has 



180 



RAILROAD 



been in very general use, so as to be known 
as the American rail. It has a broad bearing 
base, and is easily secured to the sleepers by 
hook-headed spikes driven into elongated slots 
in the edge of the flange, or merely over the 
edge, thus allowing expansion and contraction 
of the rail with changing temperatures with- 
out disturbing the fastenings. With this rail 
the cast-iron chairs employed for seating and 
holding almost all other rails were at first 
used to strengthen the joints. Up to about 
the year 1854 the weight of rails had been 
steadily increasing from about 35 Ibs. per 
lineal yard till it had reached 85 and in some 
cases even 100 Ibs. No advantage was found 
in the very heavy rails, however, but on the 
contrary the iron in such large piles was 
necessarily less worked in the manufacture and 
was in a poor condition for wear. The ten- 
dency has since been to return to lighter rails, 
of 55 to 65 Ibs. to the yard, and to require 
these to be made of iron originally good, the 
piles to be first rolled into blooms, and these 
to be again brought to a welding heat, and 
then rolled into rails. The miserable qual- 
ity of much of the iron on American roads 
is due to the deficient working, the fibres of 
the iron as it wears showing that they had 
never been thoroughly incorporated togeth- 
er. In bargaining for it no test and no par- 
ticular conditions of manufacture were re- 
quired, as is customary in other countries. 
Rails of 45 Ibs. have worn under the heaviest 
traffic for 20 years, us those laid in 1837 on 
the Reading railroad, while others of nearly 
double the weight have given out on other 
roads in one, two, or three years. The first 
rails employed on the Stonington railroad, of 
54 Ibs. to the yard, also lasted 20 years. Rails 
have gradually increased in length to 15, 16, 
18, and 20 ft., and even 30 ft., which latter 
is now the common length made by American 
rolling mills and used upon American railroads. 
An important feature in the rail is its height 
or depth. Its stiffness, if the rail could be re- 
garded as a rectangular beam, increases as the 
square of the depth ; thus doubling the height 
and retaining the same weight of material quad- 
ruples the stiffness, but doubling the height 
and weight also increases its stiffness eight 
times. The effect of a want of stiffness in the 
rail is deflection between the supports under 
the weight and a mashing of the iron into the 
wood of the sleepers, which continually in- 
creases the mischief. Even between rigid sup- 
ports the temporary depression of the rail is 
such as to present a continual ascending plane 
in front of the wheels, which the descent of 
the slope from behind does not in any measure 
compensate, the advantage of this being wholly 
balanced by other considerations. In 1857 
steel rails were first rolled in England, and so 
greatly were they found to surpass iron rails in 
endurance, that, notwithstanding their greater 
cost, the demand for them kept ahead of the 
capacity of the mills to make them, till Besse- 



mer's process of producing them from the 
puddling furnace reduced their cost and greatly 
increased the demand for them. At first steel 
rails were used only at such points as were sub- 
jected to extraordinary usage, as at terminal 
stations and for switches, frogs, and crossings. 
They were gradually introduced by the roads 
having the heaviest traffic, and finally they 
have come to be used in the first construction 
of many of the more important new roads, and 
by nearly all the old ones instead of the iron 
rails as they wear out. The following figures 
show the sections of rails now commonly in 
use in America and England. Various devices 




Sections of Rails. 

have been invented and used from time to time 
in securing rails to the sleepers, and for keep- 
ing their ends together. All of them recognize 
the effects of expansion and contraction of the 
rails under the action of the weather, and in 
laying rails a proper allowance, varying with 
the length of the rail and the variations of 
temperature, is always made for this. By 
neglect of this precaution the rails heated by 
the sun have sometimes expanded so as to bo 
thrust upward, lifting the sleepers one or two 
feet out of the ground. From this cause, a 
train running in June, 1856, on the North- 
eastern railway in England, at 40 m. an hour, 
was thrown off the inside of a curve, though 
the 82 Ib. rail was fastened every three feet 
in heavy chairs and " fiahed " at the joints. 
Almost the universal fastenings in England 
used to be cast-iron chairs, made to hold the 
rail in an opening in the top, into which it 
was seated and keyed by a wooden Wedge. 
The chairs were themselves strongly bolted 
down upon the sleepers. Those for receiv- 
ing the two ends of adjoining rails were 
much heavier and stronger than the others, 
weighing from 26 to 89 Ibs., and others 18 to 
26 Ibs. It is of great consequence to keep the 
ends of the rails securely upon the same hori- 
zontal line. If one end is depressed by the 
weight coming upon it, the wheel strikes the 
end of the next rail with a concussion that 
soon shatters the rail, and being repeated at 
other joints seriously injures the rolling stock. 
Various methods of keying and fastening the 
ends of the rails have been used, but they have 
generally been discarded in favor of what is 
known as the fish joint, first tried in 1843 at 
New Castle, Del., but not finally adopted to 
any extent till 1847. This method was not 
favorably received on American roads at first, 
owing to the difficulty of applying it to the 
low rails generally in use, but in some form 
or other it has finally superseded all others 
everywhere. As first proposed, two sleepers 
were to be placed 6 in. apart at the joints, and 






EAILEOAD 



181 



two plates of iron slightly wedging were to be 
driven one on each side between the jaws of 
the chairs flat against the sides of the two 
rails. Instead of this, however, a pair of iron 
or steel plates 18 in. long, in. thick, and about 
3 in. wide, are bolted together through the rails 
with f or in. bolts, the holes in the rail being 
elongated to allow for contraction and expan- 
sion. Another form of fish joint is construct- 
ed by applying the bars to the flange of the 
rails and bolting them firmly to a suspension 
plate extending under the joint from one rail 
to the other. Nearly all the forms of the fish 
joint will give a smooth track when first laid, 
but the natural tendency of the nuts holding 
the fish plates to the rails is to work loose and 
thus to weaken the joint. Various devices 
more or less efficient have been invented for 
locking the nut and thus insuring the stiffness 
of the joint. In order that trains of cars may 
pass from one track to another an extra pair 
of rails are laid down, which can be moved so 
as to complete the connection with either one 
of the lines as desired and break it with the 
other. These movable rails are called switch- 
es, and are commonly controlled by a long bar 
under the surface connecting with an upright 
lever at the side of the road. This is in the care 
of the men known as switch tenders, whose 
duty it is to see before the approach of every 
train that the rails are so placed as to carry it 
upon the right track. Turn-tables are plat- 
forms constructed of wood or iron which can 
be pushed round upon a circular track sunk be- 
low the level of the ground. A locomotive or 
car being run on to the platform, it is thus 
easily turned about or directed upon any other 
diverging track, numbers of which usually con- 
centrate around the turn-tables. The passen- 
ger cars or carriages used upon railroads are 
generally constructed after either the English 
or American plan. The for- ^ 
mer had its origin in the old- 
fashioned stage coach, and in 
many instances preserves the 
outlines of the stage coach 
body on its sides. It is gen- 
erally about 24 ft. long and di- 
vided into four compartments, 
each carrying six passengers. 
Each compartment is uphol-