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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

. 




THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA 



VOL. XV. 
SHOMER-TROLLOPE, 



741 



THE 



V 



AMERICAN CYCLOREDIA: 



A 



OF 



GENERAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED, 



VOLUME XV. 
SHOMER-TROLLOPE. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BEOADWAY. 
LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIN. 

1879. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk : s Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 







Among the Contributors to the Fifteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are 

the following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, Washington, D. C. 

SNOW. 
STOKMS. 
TRADE WINDS. 

Bvt. Brig. Gen. HENRY L. ABBOT, U. S. A., 
Willet's Point, K Y. 

TOEPEDO. 

Hon. GEORGE BANCROFT, Washington, D. 0. 
SOUTHAMPTON, HENRY WRIOTUESLEY, EARL OF. 

WILLARD BARTLETT. 

SlNDE. 

TANGANYIKA. 
THIBET. 

Prof. 0. "W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Univer- 
sity. 

SOULE, JOSHUA. 
STEONG, JAMES. 
SYRACUSE (University). 

JULIUS BING. 
SICILIES, 

STAEL-HOLSTEIN, Baroness de, 
TASSO, TOEQUATO, 
THIERS, Louis ADOLPIIE, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

Hon. JAMES BLACK, Lancaster, Pa. 

TOTAL ABSTINENCE. 

FRANCIS C. BOWMAN. 

SIVORI, ERNESTO CAMILLO. 
STEAIHVARI, ANTONIO. 

TlTJENS, TlIERESE. 

EDWARD L. BURLINGAME, Ph. D. 
STUAET, ARABELLA. 

Rev. CHARLES P. BUSH, D. D. 

SMITH, ELI. 
SYRIA (in part). 

C. H. CARTER, Waterbury, Conn. 

TOWN (in part). 

ROBERT CARTER. 

STEVENS, THADDEUS. 
STOEY, JOSEPH. 
SUMNEE, CHARLES. 
TAYLOE, ZACHAEY. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

SHOMEE, JEBEL, 

SIBERIA, 

SLANG, 

SPAIN, 

SWEDEN, 

and other articles in biography and geography. 

Prof. E. H. CLARKE, M. D., Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

SQUILL, 
STRYCHNIA, 

and other articles in materia medica, 

Hon. T. M. COOLEY, LL. D., University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor. 
SLAVERY (in part), 
TANEY, ROGER BROOKE, 
TAXES, 

and other legal articles. 

Prof. E. CURTIS, M. D., College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York. 
SPECTACLES. 

Rev. S. S. CUTTING, D. D. 

SLATER, SAMUEL. 



Prof. J. C. D ALTON, M. D., College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, New York. 

SMELL, 
STOMACH, 
TASTE, 
THORAX, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 

Rev. B. B. DRAKE. 

THEOPHYLACT, SIMOCATTA. 
THEOPHYLACT, AECHBISUOP. 

Prof. M. J. DRENNAN. 

SIEMENS, ERNST WERNER. 
SIEMENS, KARL WILUELM. 
SOUTH SEA SCHEME. 

EATON S. DRONE. 

SOUTH CAROLINA, 
STEAUSS, FAMILY OF, 
TENNESSEE, 
TRADE MASK, 

and other articles in American geography. 

Prof. THOMAS M. DROWN, M. D., Lafayette 
College, Easton, Pa. 

STEEL. 

ROBERT T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

W. M. FERRISS. 

TARGUMS, 
TRIGONOMETRY, 

and articles in biography and history. 

Prof. WILLARD FISKE, Cornell University, Itha- 
ca, N. Y. 

SWEDEN, LANGUAGE AND LITEEATUEE OF (in part). 
JOSEPH FITZGERALD. 

SILK. 

STOCKING. 

STEAW. 

Lieut. Com. HENRY H. GORRINGE, U. S. K, 
Washington, D. C. 

TARRAGONA. 
TENERIFFE. 
TRISTAN DA CUNHA. 

Prof. W. E. GRIFFIS, late of the Imperial Col- 
lege, Tokio, Japan. 
TOKIO. 
TOMOMI IWAKURA. 

Prof. JAMES MORGAN HART. 
TELL, WILLIAM. 

J. W. HA WES. 

SPRINGFIELD, Mass., Ohio, 111., and Mo., 

TEXAS, 

TRENTON, N. J., 

and other articles in American geography. 

Louis HEILPRIN. 

STATES GENERAL. 
THIRTY TEARS' WAE. 

M. HEILPRIN. 
SLAVONIA. 
TAUEUS. 
THEACE. 

Prof. JOSEPH HENRY, LL. D. 

SMITHSON, JAMES. 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. 

G. A. HEWLETT, Shreveport, La. 

SHEEVEPORT. 

Prof. J. E. HILGARD, U. S. Coast Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 
TIDES. 



vi 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE FIFTEENTH VOLUME 



THOMAS Ilrrcm 

BWKDBRRO, JESPEE. 
BWZDBNBORG, EMA5UEL. 

CHARLES L. HOOEBOOM, M. D. 

Sonir*. 

,n ca. 
BCLTHURIC ACID. 

THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY, LL. D., Royal 
School of Mines, London. 

SPECIES. 

Lieut. HEXRY JACKSON, U. 8. A., Office of Chief 
,.il oilicor, Washington, D. C. 
SIGNAL SKBVICB. 

ROSSITER JOHNSON. 

TEXNTSON, ALFRED, 
THACKERAY, WILLIAM MAKEPEACE, 
and other articles in literary biography. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

SILICON, 

and other chemical articles. 

JOSEPH C. G. KENNEDY, LL. D., Washington, 
D. C. 

SUCBBICK, WILLIAM CBAWFOKD. 
Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

SILKWORM, 
.-; \... 
SWALLOW, 
TORTOISB, 

and other articles In zoology. 

Prof. S. P. LANGLEY, Allegheny Observatory, 
Allegheny, Pa. 
Srx i In part). 

CHARLES LINDSEY, Toronto, Canada. 

TORONTO. 

Prof. JOSEPH LOVERINO, Harvard University. 

TELEGRAPH (in part). 

C.ipt. S. B. LT-CE, U. S. N., U. S. Navy Yard, 
Boston. 

SIGNALS, NAVAL. 

Prof. ALFRED M. MAYER, Stevens Inst. of Tech- 
nology, Hoboken, N. J. 



Bon - DTK 

Rev. ANDREW B. MORSE, Danbury, Conn. 
SIAM (in part). 

: \NKIIN N'OBLE. 

i-.'Jtox, CHARLES HADDON, 
PFNDAY SCHOOLS, 
THANKSGIVING DAT, 
TRACT AND PUBLICATION SOCIETIES, 

and articles in biography and geography. 

\RD O'REILLY, D. D. 
f RHOODS, Roman Catholic, 

8YLLABC8, 
TRAPrtSTB, 

and other articles In ecclesiastical history. 

Prof. S. F. PECKHAM, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
TALLOW. 
TAR (la part). 

EDWARD T. PETERS, Bureau of Statistics, 
Washington, D. C. 
TRADES UNION. 

I'K'TTOR, A. M., London. 

BPRTTRCM ANALYSIS, 

-: M. 

partX 

TELMT,P ,| n part), 
JAJIT (In part). 
TBAKHIT CIRCLK (in part). 

and other astronomical articles. 



Prof. ROSSITER W. RAYMOND, Ph. D., Editor 
of the "Engineering and Mining Journal." 

SILVER. 
TIN. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

STOCK EXCHANGE. 
SWIMMING. 
TICHBORNE TRIAL. 

RICHARD E. ROBERTS, " Y Drych" Office, Uti- 
ca, N. Y. ' 

STANLEY, HENRY M. 

THOMAS T. SABINE, M. D. 

STONE. 

SURGERY (in part). 

EPES SARGENT, Boston, Mass. 
SPIRITUALISM. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

SISTERHOODS, Protestant, 
SWITZERLAND (in part), 
THEOLOGY (in part), 

and various articles in geography and history. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

SHOSHONES, 

Sioux, 

TECUMSEH, 

and other articles on American Indians. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCER, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 
TEMPLE, FREDERICK. 
THOMSON, WILLIAM. 
TREGELLES, SAMUEL PRIDEAUX. 
TRENCH, RICHARD CHENEVIX. 

E. C. STEDMAN. 

STODDARD, RICHARD HEXBY. 
TAYLOR, BAYARD. 

Prof. FRANK H. STOKER, College of Agricul- 
tural Chemistry, Harvard University. 
SYMBOLS, CHEMICAL (in part). 

HOMER D. L. SWEET, Syracuse, N. Y. 

SYRACUSE, N. Y. 
BAYARD TAYLOR. 

STEDMAN, EDMUND CLARENCE. 

Prof. GEORGE THURBER. 
SORGHUM, 
STRAWBEKRY. 
SUNDEW. 
TEA, 
TOBACCO, 
TORREY, JOHN, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. ROBERT II. THURSTON, Stevens Inst. of 
Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 

STEAM. 

STEAM BOILER. 
STEAM CARRIAGE. 
STEAM ENGINE. 
- STEAM NAVIGATION. 
STRENGTH OF MATERIALS. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

SIAM, LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE OF, 
THEBES, 

TlSCHENDORF. LOBEGOTT, 

and other archaeological, oriental, and philological 
articles. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

SIDNEY, ALGERNON. 
SIDNEY, Sir Pmur. 
SPAIN, WINES OF. 

Prof. JUNIUS B. WHEELER, U. S. M. A., West 
Point. 

SlKCK. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College, 
New Haven, Conn. 

SYRIAC LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

Prof. E. L. YOTTMANS. 

SPENCER, HERBERT. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



SHOMER 



J HOMER, Jebel, an inland division of Ara- 
bia, between lat. 25 40' and 32 K, and 
Ion. 37 20' and 47 20' E., bounded K by the 
Syrian desert, N. E. by Irak Arabi, S. E. and 
8. by the Wahabee sultanate, and W. by Turk- 
ish Arabia. It is divided into the provinces 
of Jebel Shomer, Jowf, Kheybar, Upper Ka- 
sim, and Teyma, with a total population esti- 
mated by Palgrave in 1862 at 440,000, inclu- 
ding 166,000 nomadic Bedouins. Jebel Sho- 
mer in its general aspect is a flat table land, 
a large part of which is desert, with occa- 
sional oases. These are merely depressions 
in the desert surface, and take sometimes the 
form of a long valley covered with a thin soil, 
under which water may generally be found at 
the depth of a few feet. Fruits, bushes, herbs, 
and coarse grass grow in sufficient quantities 
to supply food for the Bedouins and their 
camels and flocks. The entire N. portion is 
covered by a rocky desert. On the E. border, 
about lat. 31, is a long valley, called "Wady 
Sirhan or Serhan (valley of the wolf), which 
extends from near Bozrah in Syria in a S. E. 
direction to about lat. 29 20' in Arabia, where 
its base rests on Wady Jowf, a deep valley 
lying E. and W., and which may be consid- 
ered the porch or vestibule of central Arabia. 
(See JOWF.) The "Wady Sirhan is the com- 
mon route for caravans to and from Syria. S. 
and E. of Jowf lies a wide expanse of sandy 
desert. The caravan route to the province of 
Jebel Shomer lies across this waste in a S. E. 
direction through what is called the Nefud or 
Sand pass, consisting of parallel ridges of loose 
reddish sand 200 to 300 ft. high, where no 
water can be obtained for nearly 100 m. The 
route runs beside a small range of hills called 
Jebel Jobbah, a cluster of black granite rocks 
streaked with red, about 700 ft. high. Be- 
yond them, on the south, is a barren plain, 
partly white and incrusted with salt, partly 
green and studded with palm groves, among 



which is the small village of Jobbah. From 
the heights overlooking Jobbah are visible in 
the southeast the main range of Jebel Shomer, 
and in the southwest the palm groves of Tey- 
ma, famed in Arab history, and supposed by 
some to be identical with the Teman of Scrip- 
ture. Beyond Jobbah the undulations are not 
so deep, and the sand has occasional shrubs 
and tufts of grass. The plain gradually rises 
as it approaches the mountain ranges, which, 
stretching N". E. and S. "W., cross two thirds 
of upper Arabia. These ranges, Jebel Adja on 
the north, the mountains of Upper Kasim on 
the south, and Jebel Solma between, lie near- 
ly parallel, and are separated by broad plains 
covered with grass and shrubbery. Within 
their limits is the chief centre of population 
of Shomer. Hayel, the capital, lies in an ex- 
tensive plain between Adja and Solma, girt on 
every side by a high mountain rampart. The 
only approach from the north is by a narrow 
winding defile through Jebel Adja, which 50 
men could defend against thousands. The 
range of Jebel Adja, or Jebel Shomer as it is 
now more generally called, is a ragged granit- 
ic mass, piled up in fantastic disorder, attain- 
ing at times an elevation of 1,400 ft. above 
the plain, but Solma does not rise more than 
TOO or 800 ft. Good crops of grain, fruits, 
and vegetables are raised by a laborious sys- 
tem of artificial irrigation. The date is the 
principal fruit. There is a considerable trade 
by caravans between Hayel and Medina on 
the southwest, and Eiyad, the capital of Ned- 
jed, on the southeast. Many horses and asses 
are exported. Upper Kasim, the southern- 
most province of Shomer, is an elevated pla- 
teau, forming part of a long upland belt that 
crosses diagonally the northern half of the 
peninsula, one extremity reaching nearly to 
Zobeyr, near the head of the Persian gulf, 
and the other to the neighborhood of Medina. 
Its surface is covered with shrubs and brush- 



8 



SHOOTING STARS 



wood, and in spring and summer with grass. 
ThUi great plateau is intersected at intervals 
by Ion* broad valleys, which contain villages 
built around wells, surrounded by palm groves, 
wrdciH and lioKK and varying in population 
from 500 to 3,000. Dates are exported in 
large quantities to Yemen and Hedjaz, and 
cotton is raised to a small extent-lhe sul- 
tanate of Jebel Shomer originated in the pres- 
ent century. In 1818 Abdallah, an ambitious 
chief of the family Kiuhid, was driven out of 
Hayel by his rival Beyt AH, who assumed the 
sovereignty. Abdallah took refuge at the 
court of the Wuhabee monarch, who was then 
reconstructing his father's dominions, and for 
bis services to him was made absolute gover- 
nor of Shoraer, with right of succession, and 
supplied with the means to establish his rule. 
Beyt Ali and his family were cut off, and 
Abdallah made himself master of the whole 
mountain district. He died about 1845, and 
was succeeded by his son Telal, who extended 
his dominions, subdued the Bedouins, invited 
trade from abroad, and established law and 
order. Under his rule the country has made 
rapid advances in civilization and prosperity, 
and has become virtually independent. 

SHOOTING STABS. See METEOR. 

SHORE, Jane, an English woman, the wife 
of Matthew or William Shore, a goldsmith in 
London, and mistress of King Edward IV. 
She was beautiful and amiable, and Sir Thomas 
More says that the king's favor " she never 
abused to any man's hurt, but to many a man's 
comfort and relief." After the death of the 
king sho became attached to Lord Hastings; 
and when Richard III. had resolved on the 
destruction of that nobleman, he accused Jane 
Shore of witchcraft and of having withered 
his arm by sorcery. The king, though he sent 
her to prison and confiscated her goods, did 
not attempt to maintain his charge of witch- 
craft ; but the bishop of London caused her to 
do public penance for impiety and adultery. 
After the death of Hastings, Thomas Lynom, 
the king's solicitor, desired to marry her, but 
was prevented by the king. She lived till the 
time of Henry VIII., and tradition represents 
her as dying of hunger in a ditch. A celebra- 
ted tragedy by Rowe is founded on her story. 

MiiMitm:, the \. oonmty ,,f id:,i,,,, bound- 
ed 8. by the Clearwater river, and intersected 
in the north by Clarke's fork of the Columbia 
and the Kootenay river; area, about 12,000 
a. m.; pop. in 1870, 722, of whom 468 were 
Chinese. It is watered by tributaries of the 
Olearwater river and by the Spokane river, 
and contains Coeur d'Alftne and Pend d'Oreille 
lakes. The surface is mountainous. There is 
fertile land around the lakes and along the 
streams. Timber is abundant, and there are ex- 
tensive placer gold mines. Capital, Pierce City. 

8B08BOXE8, or Stakes, a family of North 
American Indians, embracing the Shoshones 
proper, the Utea, Comanches, Moquis, Cheme- 
huevea, Cahuillo, and the Kechi, Kizh, and Ne- 



SHOSHONES 

tela of California. The Shoshones proper are 
a large and widespread people. According to 
their tradition, they came from the south, and 
when met by Lewis and Clarke in 1805 they 
had been driven beyond the Rocky mountains. 
The various Shoshone bands have gone by 
numerous names. The most important were 
the Koolsatikara or Buffalo Eaters, who have 
long defended their homes on Wind river, and 
the Tookarika or Mountain Sheep Eaters, a 
fierce tribe in the Salmon river country and 
upper Snake river valley. The western Snakes 
near Fort Boise were separated from the oth- 
ers by the kindred Bannacks. The Shoshocos 
(footmen), called also White Knives, from the 
tine white flint knives they formerly used, 
were digger tribes on Humboldt river and 
Goose creek, and included apparently most of 
those in the basin of Great Salt lake. These 
bands were generally mild and inoffensive, 
lurking in the mountains and barren parts, 
and having little intercourse with the whites. 
About 1849 they were in open war, and the 
peace made with some of the bands at Salt 
Lake, in September 1855, did not end it. In 
1862 California volunteers, under Col. Connor, 
nearly exterminated the Hokandikah or Salt 
Lake Diggers in a battle on Bear river. Wau- 
shakee's and other bands of the Koolsatikara 
Shoshones made peace at Fort Bridger, July 
2, 1863; Pokatello's and other bands of the 
Tookarika at Box Elder, July 30; the Sho- 
shoco or Tosowitch at Ruby valley, Oct. 1 ; 
and the Shoshones and Bannacks at Soda 
Springs, Oct. 14. In 1864 the Yahooskin 
Snakes made peace, and with the Klamaths 
and Modocs ceded their lands; and on Aug. 
12, 1865, the Wohlpapes also submitted. The 
government did not promptly carry out these 
treaties, and many of the bands renewed hos- 
tilities. In 1867, in the campaign of Gen. 
Steele, a number of Indians were killed, and 
immense stores of provisions laid up by the 
Shoshones were destroyed. Gen. Augur at 
last allowed them to come in and make 
peace at Fort Bridger. The government then 
attempted to collect the whole nation and re- 
strict the Shoshone bands to certain reserva- 
tions. The Yahooskin and Wohlpape Snakes 
had prospered on the Klamath reservation, al- 
though their crops frequently failed. The Fort 
Hall reservation in Idaho was begun in 1867 
for the Bannacks, and several bands of Sho- 
shones, about 1,200 in all. The Shoshone res- 
ervation in Wyoming, set apart under treaty of 
July 8, 1868, for Waushakee's and other bands 
of eastern Shoshones and Bannacks, is exposed 
to attacks from the Sioux, and only about 800 
have united there. There are also the north- 
western Shoshones in Nevada and Utah, esti- 
mated at from 2,000 to 3,000, and a band of 
400 in the N. W. part of Idaho. Vocabularies 
have been obtained from various bands of the 
Shoshones, but no critical study of their lan- 
guage has appeared. The Episcopalians have 
i a mission on the reservation in Wyoming. 






SHOT 



SHOT. See LEAD, vol. x., p. 262. 

SHOVELLER. See DUCK, vol. vi., p. 289. 

SHREVEPORT, a city and the capital of Cad- 
do parish, Louisiana, in the N. W. corner of 
the state, on the W. bank of Bed river, at the 
head of low-water navigation, 330 m. above its 
mouth according to Humphreys and Abbot, 
or 500 m. by local authorities ; pop. in 1870, 
4,607, of whom 2,168 were colored. It has 
since been enlarged, and the population in 
1875 was locally estimated at 12,000. It con- 
tains many handsome residences and substan- 
tial business structures, is lighted with gas, and 
has a good fire department and several miles 
of street railroad. The principal public build- 
ings are the new market, costing $50,000; 
the Presbyterian church, costing $35,000 ; and 
the synagogue, a fine specimen of architecture. 
The surrounding country is very productive, 
and the climate is mild and generally healthful. 
Shreveport is the E. terminus of the Texas and 
Pacific railroad, which affords an all-rail route 
to St. Louis ma Marshall, Tex. Steamers run 
regularly to New Orleans and intermediate 
points on the Red and Mississippi rivers. The 
trade is extensive and increasing, the value of 
shipments amounting to about $7,500,000 a 
year, and the sales of merchandise to about 
$7,000,000. The shipments of cotton average 
100,000 bales annually, including about 20,000 
bales from the upper Eed river reshipped at 
this point. The transactions in hides, wool, 
and tallow are also considerable. The prin- 
cipal manufactories are two of carriages, one 
each of cotton gins, cotton-seed oil, sash and 
blinds, and spokes and hubs, three founderies 
and machine shops, a planing mill, two saw 
mills, and three breweries. There are three 
private banks, two public schools (one for 
white and one for colored children), nine pri- 
vate and denominational schools and acade- 
mies, two daily and weekly newspapers, and 
eleven churches (Baptist, Episcopal, Jewish, 
Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman Catholic), 
of which five are for colored people. Shreve- 
port was incorporated in 1839. 

SHREW, or Shrew Mouse, the common name of 
the insectivorous mammals of the family so- 
ricidce, characterized by a general rat-like or 
mouse-like appearance, elongated and pointed 
muzzle, and soft fur. The distinct auricle of 
the ears, and the normal size of the anterior 
feet, not usually employed in digging, dis- 
tinguish them from the moles. The skull is 
long and narrow, compressed at the orbits, 
malar bone and zygomatic arch wanting ; the 
ribs are 12 to 14 pairs, 6 to 8 vertebrae without 
ribs, 3 to 5 sacral, 14 to 28 caudal; tibia and 
fibula united, clavicles thin, and pubic arch 
closed; stomach simple; caecum in some ab- 
sent, in others very large ; on the sides of the 
body, nearest the anterior limbs, and in some 
at the base of the tail, is a series of glands 
which secrete a strong musky fluid. The teeth 
vary from 28 to 32 ; there are two very large 
incisors in each jaw, nearly horizontal in the 



SHREW 7 

lower and much curved in the upper ; canines 
absent ; premolars f if to f if- , molars fcf ; the 
posterior molars are many-pointed, and the 
anterior ones conical ; the precise homologies 
of the cheek teeth have been the subject of 
much controversy. The snout ends in a naked 
muffle with the nostrils pierced on the sides ; 
eyes very small, ears distinct, and feet nearly 
plantigrade and usually naked beneath ; mam- 
mae six to ten ; feet five-toed, each with a claw. 
Their food consists of insects, worms, and mol- 
lusks, though they sometimes destroy small 
vertebrates and devour each other; they are 
nocturnal, more or less aquatic, do not hiber- 
nate, and the young are born blind and naked ; 
most of the species live on the surface of the 
ground, and a few in burrows. They are 
spread over the northern hemisphere, some- 
times going very far north, and the smaller 
species enduring severe cold. The subfamily 
soricinm is the only one represented in North 
America ; other subfamilies are found in south 
and central Africa, Asia, the East Indies, and 
Europe; none as yet have been detected in 
South America. Of the American genera, 
neosorex (Baird) has rather short ears, partly 
furred on both surfaces ; teeth 32 ; tail longer 
than body and head, and hairs of equal length 
except a tuft at the tip ; feet very large, with 
a fringe of ciliated hairs ; muzzle very slender. 
In the genus sorex (Linn.), which contains a 
great part of the species of the new and old 
worlds, the ears are large and valvular, the 
tail about as long as the body, and the feet 
moderate and not fringed; it is divided into 
two sections, one with 32 and the other with 30 
teeth, most of the American species belonging 
in the former. Prof. Baird describes 1 2 species 
in vol. viii. of the Pacific railroad reports, va- 
rying in length from 3 to 4-J in., of which the 
tail is about one half, ranging from blackish 
and brownish to grayish above and lighter to 
whitish below. The S. personatus (Geoffr.) is 
the least of the American shrews, and among 




Mole Shrew (Bkrina talpoides). 

the smallest of the quadrupeds of this country, 
being not quite 3 in. long; it belongs in the 
S. Atlantic states. Most of the species belong 
on the Pacific coast or in the N. W. territories. 



- 



SIIUKW MOLE 



In the genus Marina (Gray) the body is stout, 
the tail shorter than the head, with short bristly 
iair and small brush at tip; the hands large 
in proportion to the feet, and the soles usually 
hairy it the heels; skull short and broad ; ears 
very short, with the c-xu-nml surface densely 
:,ia genus, peculiar to America, is 
also divi.i.,1 into sections, one with 82, the 
;h. The mole shrew (A to*- 
pouU. (Jniy), the largest of the American 
shrews, 4} in. long, is found from Nova Scotia 
to Lake Superior, and south to Georgia; it is 




Common EUTOIHWI shivw (Soro.x araneus). 

dark ashy gray above and paler below, with 
whitish feet Several other species are de- 
scribed by Baird, of which two are in Mexico 
and Texas. In the old world, among the spe- 
cies of torex, subdivided into several by Wag- 
ler, and called mumraigne* by the French, 
is the common European shrew (S. araneus, 
Linn.), 4| to 6 in. long, of which the tail is 
1$ in.; the color is reddish mouse above and 
h In-low; it is found in dry places very 
generally over Europe. The shrews appear 
during the miocene age in small numbers, and 
continue through the diluvial epoch to the 
present time, without material change. 
SHREW MOLE. See MOTE. 
SHREWSBURY, the shire town of Shropshire, 
England, on the river Severn, 140 m. N. W. 
pop. in 1871, 23,406. The remains 
nt castle are still standing, and 
also a portion of the ancient walls of the city. 
>*sed by two bridges; there 
is a canal, and railways connect it with all 
parts of the kingdom. Shrewsbury is the seat 
of a Roman Catholic bishop, and in 1872 had 
12 places of worship. The principal manu- 
* consist of thread, linen yarn, and can- 
vas; and there are extensive iron works at 
Joleham, a suburb. The salmon fishery of the 
Severn is valuable. There is a considerable 
trade in Welsh flannels. Shrewsbury was im- 
portant in the 5th century, and is prominent 
history as a royal residence for 
rt periods. Its original name of Pengwern 



SHRIMP 

was changed by the Saxons to Scrobbesbyrig 
(Scrubsborough), of which Shrewsbury is a 
corruption. Parliaments were held here in 
1283 and 1398; and a battle was fought here 
in 1403 between the royalist troops and the 
insurgents under Douglas and Hotspur, in 
which the latter was killed. (See PERCY.) 

SHRIKE. See BUTCHER BIRD. 

SHRIMP, a common decapod or ten-footed 
and long-tailed crustacean, of the genus cran- 
gon (Fabr.) ; with the prawn (palcemoii) it is 
called crevette by the French. The integu- 
ment is corneous, the carapace considerably 
flattened, the abdomen very large, and the tail 
powerful ; the rostrum very short ; eyes large 
and free ; antennae inserted about on the same 
transverse line, the internal pair the shortest 
and ending in two many-jointed filaments, the 
outer larger and longer ; mandibles slender and 
without palpi ; jaw feet moderate, with a ter- 
minal flattened joint and a short palpus on the 
inside ; sternum very wide behind ; first pair 
of feet strong, ending in a flattened hand hav- 
ing a movable hook opposed to an immovable 
tooth ; second and third pairs of legs very slen- 
der, and the fourth and fifth much stronger ; 
branchiae seven on each side, consisting of hor- 
izontal lamellae ; false swimming feet on under 
side of abdomen large, and caudal plates wide. 
The common shrimp (C. vulgaris, Fabr.) is 
1J to 2 in. long, greenish gray spotted with 
brown ; the carapace is smooth, except a spine 
behind the rostrum, one on the sternum, and 
seven on each side of the thorax; abdomen 
without ridges or spines, and middle caudal 
plate pointed and not grooved below. It is 
common on the coasts of Europe, and in Eng- 
land and France it is much used as food. The 
shrimpers catch these animals in large nets 
with a semicircular mouth, which they push 
before them along the bottom during ebb tide ; 
this fishery gives employment to many hundred 
people in Great Britain. Shrimps are used in 
the United States chiefly as bait. They spawn 
throughout most of the year, carrying the eggs 




Common Shrimp (Crangon vulgaris). 



attached to the swimming appendages, and 
cast their skins from March to June. They 
feed on such animals as they can seize with 
their claws, and on what may be killed by the 



SHROPSHIRE 



SHUMLA 



waves or other causes, and are themselves de- 
voured by fishes, aquatic birds, echini, and star 
fishes. Other species are found in the Medi- 
terranean. Though the American shrimp re- 
ceived from Say a different name from that 
of Europe, there seem to be no well marked 
specific differences. The long-beaked, almost 
transparent crustacean, commonly called shrimp 
in New England, and used sometimes for bait, 
has been described by Mr. Stimpson as palce- 
monopsis vulgaris. 

SHROPSHIRE, or Salop, a W. county of Eng- 
land, bordering on the counties of Chester, 
Stafford, Worcester, Hereford, Radnor, Mont- 
gomery, and Denbigh; area, 1,291 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 248,064. The surface is greatly 
diversified. Toward the frontiers of Wales 
it becomes wild and mountainous, while the 
other parts are comparatively level. The Sev- 
ern flows S. E. between the elevated and the 
level portions, and has a course within the 
county of nearly 70 m., all navigable. Its 
chief tributaries are the Tern and the Teme. 
There are several small lakes, of which Elles- 
mere, covering 116 acres, is the largest. There 
is communication by canals with all the im- 
portant rivers of England. The soil varies 
much, and there are considerable tracts of 
moorland, but much of it is easily worked and 
yields good crops. Large numbers of cattle 
are reared. Lead mines are worked to a con- 
siderable extent. Iron, coal, and limestone are 
found, and the manufacture of iron is exten- 
sively carried tm. There are manufactures of 
machinery, glass, stone-china ware, earthen- 
ware, and coarse linen and woollen goods. 
The principal towns are Shrewsbury, the cap- 
ital, Bridgenorth, Wenlock, and Ludlow. 

SHROVE TIDE (A. S. scrifan, to absolve in 
confession), the days immediately preceding 
Ash Wednesday. These days were so desig- 
nated because on them, and especially on the 
last of them, people were wont to confess 
their sins as a preparation for Lent. Shrove 
tide or confession tide comprised a whole 
week in some countries. In most Roman 
Catholic countries it began on the Sunday be- 
fore Lent. While the ancient penitential can- 
ons were in vigor, all adults were enjoined to 
present themselves to the bishops and priests, 
in order that private penitents might be shriv- 
en in private and assigned a day for receiving 
communion, and that public penitents might 
be instructed as to what they should do to be 
reconciled at Easter. This practice continued 
substantially long after public penance had 
fallen into disuse. It is mentioned in the 
homilies of ^Elfric (died about 1005) as being 
in force in England in his time. Shrove tide 
soon became a season of feasting and merri- 
ment, especially Shrove Tuesday, the eve of 
the long Lenten fast. This day is still called 
mardi gras (fat Tuesday) by the French, and 
Shrove tide is known to them as les jours 
gras. Shrove Tuesday is also popularly called 
Pancake Tuesday in English-speaking coun- 



tries, from the common practice of eating pan- 
cakes on that day, the use of eggs having been 
formerly forbidden during Lent. 

SI 1 1 BRICK, I. John Templar, an American 
naval officer, born in South Carolina, Sept. 12, 
1778, lost at sea in 1815. He entered the 
service as a midshipman in 1806, and was at- 
tached to the Chesapeake in her affair with the 
Leopard in 1807. In May, 1812, he was made 
a lieutenant, and served in the Constitution 
in her action with the Guerriere in August, 
1812, and in the Hornet's with the Peacock 
in February, 1813. For his services in these 
engagements he received medals from con- 
gress. He was second'lieutenant of the Presi- 
dent when she was captured by a British squad- 
ron in January, 1815. In that year he was 
first lieutenant of the Guerriere, and was pres- 
ent in all the operations against Algiers. On 
the conclusion of peace, he was despatched 
with the treaty to the United States in the 
Epervier sloop of war, which was never heard 
from after she left the Mediterranean. II. 
William Branford, an American naval officer, 
brother of the preceding, born in South Caro- 
lina, Oct. 31, 1790, died in Washington, D. C., 
May 27, 1874. He was appointed midshipman 
in June, 1806, and in May, 1807, joined the 
sloop of war Wasp. At the beginning of the 
war of 1812 he was an acting lieutenant on 
board the Hornet, and was soon transferred to 
the frigate Constellation, which rendered im- 
portant services in defence of Norfolk and the 
navy yard at Gosport. In 1813 he was trans- 
ferred to the Constitution, in which he made 
two cruises, and aided in the capture of three 
ships of war, including the Cyane and Levant 
(1815). When the Levant surrendered he was 
ordered to her command. He returned to the 
United States in May, 1815, second in com- 
mand of the Constitution, and was awarded a 
sword by his native state and a medal by con- 
gress. In December, 1815, he was made se- 
nior lieutenant of the Washington, 74 guns, un- 
der Creighton, the first ship of the line which 
made a full cruise under the United States 
flag, returning in 1818. He became command- 
er in 1820 and captain in 1831, and on Feb. 
3, 1844, was appointed chief of the naval bu- 
reau of provisions and clothing. On July 9, 
1846, he was appointed to command the Pa- 
cific squadron; on July 8, 1853, the eastern 
coast squadron ; and on Sept. 8, 1858, the Bra- 
zil squadron and Paraguay expedition, from 
which he returned May 11, 1859. On July 
16, 1862, he was commissioned rear admiral. 

SIIOILA, a walled and strongly fortified city 
of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, 48 m. W. of 
Varna and 185 m. N. W. of Constantinople ; 
pop. about 20,000, exclusive of the garrison. 
It lies on the N. slope of the Balkan, about 
midway between its crest and the lower Dan- 
ube, in a gorge, enclosed on three sides by 
mountains. The inhabitants of the higher por- 
tion of the town are principally Turks ; of the 
lower, Jews, Armenians, and Greeks. There 



10 SHURTLEFF COLLEGE 

b trade in jrrain, wine, silk goods, copper ware, 
mo^o?wa P ,andcandle 8 b -Thi8 town, on- 
SnaSy cklled Sharaen or Shumna, was burned 
to 811 by the emperor Nicephorus, and in 

it was besieged by Alexis Comnenus. 
It was taken by the Turks in 1387, and embel- 
lished and fortified in 1689 and the 90 years 
that followed, mainly by the grand vizier Has- 
san, whose tomb is the most remarkable mon- 
ument of the city. In all the wars between 
Turkev and Russia, it has formed the point of 
concentration of the Turkish army. The Rus- 
flians attempted unsuccessfully to take it m 
1774, in 1810, and in 1828. 

SHrETLEFF COLLEGE, an institution of learn- 
ing under the control of the Baptists, at Up- 
per Alton, Madison co., Illinois, H m. E. of 
the city of Alton. It was established in 1832 
under the title of Alton seminary, and char- 
tered in 1835 as Alton college. In 1836 its 
name was changed in honor of Benjamin 
Shurtleff, M. D., of Boston, who had given it 
$10,000. It was designed especially for the 
education of young men for the ministry, but 
a distinct theological department was not or- 
ganized till 1863. The institution now consists 
of an academic and preparatory department, 
Kendall institute for young ladies, the college, 
and the theological department. Both sexes 
are admitted to the academic and preparatory 
department and to the college. The latter has 
a classical and a scientific course, on the com- 
pletion of which the degrees of bachelor of 
arts and bachelor of philosophy respectively 
are conferred. Kendall institute, established 
in 1873, has a fine building and grounds, and 
is chiefly used as a home for young ladies at- 
tending the other departments. Tuition is 
free in the theological department, and several 
scholarships have been founded to provide for 
the tuition of needy students in the other 
departments. Additional aid is afforded to 
needy candidates for the ministry by the "Illi- 
nois Baptist Education Society." The libraries 
of the institution contain 7,300 volumes. The 
number of instructors in 1874-'5 was 14; of 
students, 204 (154 males and 50 females), viz. : 
theological department, 5; college, 53; aca- 
demic and preparatory department, 146. The 
number of graduates is 159 ; of all those who 
have received instruction in the institution, 
3,825. The property of the institution amounts 
to about $180,000, the debt to $30,000. 

HAM, the chief kingdom of the peninsula 
styled Indo-China, or Further India. Siyam, 
from the dark color of the inhabitants or of 
the soil, is the ancient, and Muang T'hai, the 

m of the free, the modern native ap- 
pellation for the country ; T'hai, the free, for 
the people. With its Laos, Cambodian, and 
Malay peninsular dependencies, it lies between 
lat 4 and 22 N., and between Ion. 97 and 

E. ; greatest length 1,350 m., breadth 450 

r,a estimated at about 300,000 sq. m 
pop. about 6,750,000. The capital is Bang- 
kok. Siam proper lies mainly between lat. 



SIAM 

13 and 18 and Ion. 98 and 102, being bound- 
ed by its dependencies, the gulf of Siam, and 
the British territory of Tenasserim. Two 
mountain ranges, extending mamly b. E. from 
the Himalaya, form general natural divisions 
from China on the north, and partly from 
Anam on the east and Burmah and the Brit- 
ish possessions on the west. A third range, 
less continuous and direct, passes through the 
central regions ; in this is situated the P'hra 
Bat, or mountain of "the sacred foot" (foot- 
print) of Buddha, a Mecca for Buddhists. The 
gulf of Siam, between Siain proper and the 
Malay peninsula, forms a long coast line, and 
has numerous islands, much precipitous shore, 
and several ports, of which Bangkok is the 
chief. It is never visited by typhoons or 
heavy gales. The country is watered by sev- 
eral rivers, bearing the generic name Menam, 
"mother of waters," and taking the specific 
name or names from cities or provinces. The 
Menam Kong, Mekong, or river of Cambodia, 
1,800 m. long, traverses in its middle course 
the N. E. or Laos dependencies of Siam. 
(See MEKONG.) The Menam Chow P'ya, Me- 
nam Bangkok, or simply the Menam, rises in 
the north and flows S. through the centre of 
Siam proper into the gulf of Siam. Its length 
is about 600 m. ; its principal tributary is the 
Meping from the west. Bangkok, Ayuthia, 
Angtong, and other towns are situated on the 
Menam. The Salwen flows on the border of 
British Burmah. These rivers, with the very 
numerous intersecting canals, for rowing, not 
tracking, are the great highways of traffic. 
The plains, irrigated and enriched by their 
annual overflow, are extensive and fertile ; the 
valley of the Menam equals in richness that 
of the Nile, and in extent half of the state of 
New York. The seasons are two, the wet or 
hot and the dry or cool. The former, opening 
near the middle of March, is not a succession 
of wholly rainy days, but resembles a New 
York April and August combined. The an- 
nual rainfall is about 60 inches. April, the 
hottest month, has at Bangkok a maximum 
of 97 F. and a mean of 84. In October the 
S. W. monsoon gives place to the N. E., which 
ushers in the dry and cool season ; this is very 
tine, with only a few light showers throughout. 
January is the coolest month; but the mer- 
cury rarely falls below 65. The mean annual 
temperature is 82, and the mean range 13. 
Vegetation is luxurious, fruitful, and beautiful 
beyond description, and the soil yields a rich 
return to rude and careless cultivation. Rice, 
sugar, pepper, cotton, and hemp are the staple 
products. In the abundance, variety, and ex- 
cellence of fruits, vegetables, and spices, Siam 
is unsurpassed. Many fruits, as the durian, 
mangosteen, and custard apple, are cultivated 
in large gardens or orchards, trenched, and 
watered by the daily tide. In the forests t are 
found gutta percha, lac, dammar, gamboge, 
catechu, gum benjamin, and the odoriferous 
agila or eagle wood; innumerable medicinal 



SIAM 



11 



plants, herbs, and roots ; sapan, fustic, indi- 
go, and other dyes ; the lofty silk-cotton tree, 
with its soft silky floss for mattresses, but too 
brittle for the loom ; the bamboo, the rattan, 
and the atap, together forming the material of 
three fourths of the houses ; the teak, with 
other ship and house timbers ; iron, red, and 
white woods, rose woods, and ebony; the 
banian, and the sacred fig tree. The animal 
kingdom is no less varied and interesting. Most 
celebrated is the white elephant, a dark-cream 
albino, prized and honored as very rare, and 
when captured belonging to the king. The 
national standard is a white elephant on a crim- 
son ground, and the royal seal, medals, and 
money bear the same device. Albino deer, 
monkeys, and even tortoises are sometimes 
found, and the natives believe white animals 
to be the abode of transmigrating souls. The 
elephants of Siam attain a size and strength 
unsurpassed in other countries, and are much 
prized throughout India. Among other ani- 
mals are the rhinoceros, tiger, leopard, bear, 
pangolin, otter, musk civet, wild hogs, ourang 
outangs and other apes, monkeys, and deer ; 
dogs and cats, wild and domestic, are innu- 
merable. The forests abound in peacocks, 
pheasants, pigeons, and other birds; aquatic 
birds of all kinds are numerous ; the sea swal- 
low which produces the edible nest is common. 
Among the reptiles are the crocodile, turtle, 
python, cobra de capello, numerous other 
snakes, and several varieties of lizards. Fish 
are plentiful, but of poor quality. The most 
noteworthy insect is the coccus ficus, which 
produces the lac of commerce by punctures in 
resinous trees. Gold, copper, iron, tin, and 
lead all abound, in great purity ; but by rea- 
son of the rudeness of working, the jealousy 
toward foreigners, and the fevers and hard- 
ships of the jungle, their vast wealth is com- 
paratively undeveloped. Antimony, zinc, sul- 
phur, and arsenic also exist, and silver in com- 
bination. Salt is largely manufactured by so- 
lar evaporation, and saltpetre less so. Mining, 
previously under the strict surveillance of gov- 
ernment, and carried on chiefly by Chinese, 
has recently excited some interest among Eu- 
ropeans. Kubies, spinel, corundum, sapphire, 
amethyst, garnet, topaz, and other precious 
stones are found. According to the French 
consul Gamier at Bangkok (1874), the popula- 
tion of Siam proper and its Laos dependencies 
is composed of 1,800,000 Siamese, 1,500,000 
Chinese, 1,000,000 Laos, 200,000 Malays, 50,000 
Cambodians, 50,000 Peguans, and 50,000 Ka- 
rens and others. The Siamese are of Mongo- 
lian origin and Laos or Shyan descent. They 
are olive-colored and of medium height. The 
head is large, face broad, forehead low, cheek 
bones prominent, jaw bones in retreat very 
divergent ; mouth capacious, lips thick, nose 
heavy, and eyes black and without the Chinese 
turn of the lid. The teeth are stained black, and 
sometimes serrated. The hair is all plucked 
from the face in youth, and the most of the 



head is shaved bi-monthly. A black bristling 
tuft 4 or 5 in. broad and 2 in. high is left on 
the top ; that of the women, whose hair is only 
closely cut, is often encircled by a thread of 
bare skin whence two or three hairs' breadths 
have been uprooted. The dress consists of a 
cotton waist cloth (to which women add a silk 
shoulder scarf), a jacket for the cold, and a 
straw hat for the sun. Children under seven 
or eight years old are clad only in jewels, fig 
leaves, flowers, and turmeric. Priests, with 
head entirely shaven and uncovered, wear sev- 
eral yellow robes of cotton and silk. Kings 
and nobles on state occasions wear silk and 
gold brocades and high conical hats. The Si- 
amese are indolent, greedy, and untruthful, 
intemperate, servile, and superstitious. At 
the same time they are peaceable and polite, 
decorous in public, and affectionate to kin- 
dred and kind to the poor and imbecile. The 
dwellings are of one story, partly to prevent 
the indignity of another's walking over the 
head. They consist of huts, built on piles, 
of bamboo, roofed and sided with atap leaf ; 
boats, serving also as peddling stalls or vehi- 
cles; floating houses, of panelled teak, rising 
and falling with the tide on bamboo rafts ; 
and palaces, of white stuccoed brick, adorned 
with gilding, carving, painting, foreign furni- 
ture, pictures, gold, silver, china, and glass. 
These palaces are not of Chinese, but rather 
of Indian architecture, and they often occupy 
several acres, with the dwellings of the wives, 
the quarters of the servants, and the grounds, 
which are paved, shaded, adorned with flow- 
ers, and enclosed by high walls. Marriage 
takes place as early as 18 for males and 14 for 
females, without the aid of magistrates or 
priests, though the latter may be present to 
make prayers, and especially to feast and to 
receive presents. The number of wives, ordi- 
narily one, in the palaces reaches scores and 
hundreds ; but the first is the wife proper, to 
whom the rest are subject. Social distinctions 
are very numerous, and in the law are repre- 
sented numerically, from 100,000 for the sec- 
ond king down to 5 for the lowest slave. Be- 
fore " the lord of life " on the throne, far above 
numerical representation, all crawl and crouch, 
or, with head bowed to the ground, lie " dust 
at the sacred feet." Prince is approached by 
noble, noble by lord, lord by master, &c., each 
with body bent, eyes prone, and hands folded 
and raised to the forehead or above the head, 
giving and receiving homage. An annual ser- 
vice of three months is paid to the king by 
all, save the Chinese triennially taxed. One 
third of the common people, it is largely es- 
timated, are slaves by birth, by gambling or 
other debts, by redemption from the penalty 
of crime, by capture, &c. Men sell their chil- 
dren, their wives, or themselves ; convicts in 
scores clank their chains about the streets; 
villages of thousands are made up of foreign 
captives. Yet Siamese life is in the main com- 
fortable, and is moreover gladdened by many 



12 

poru, amusement*, and ""H' 1 ' 1 * 8 ^ 

ore opened widely for merry muk ing t<>r 
m ,. n t making for them.M.Ues 



SI AM 



I llO 



ing 'I white roboa 

ami mi ,.nlir,. shaving of th." lu-ad. A lii.nt- 

,.,, nll ., .! education is afforded gra- 

x at ihttimplittottomtlM, HOorO 
percent, of irhomwtd. Tin drwii w much 
,ud dramatic, oompcniei are iit- 

* art pining hOllMt TIM 

, unwritten, simple, plaintive, and pleas- 
ing Bands of 1< r 12 instruments ino>t re- 
sembling Javanese, uiv a purl of 8Vn wcalt h y 
Oitablinhment. Uuudy and InOOngTtlOUl p;imt- 
ings, of rude pcrspect i vc, chiefly adorn 1 1" 1 tl "' 



plot. Tho medical art is in a tMtrUrOQI 
Nowhere else does Ituddhism hold so pmv ilM 
absolute a iwar as in Shun. It is of the Coy- 
loneao rather than Chiii.-o type. Tho wats or 
temples, resembling not tin- Chinese, but dis- 
tuntU tin- IL'\piiau architecture, an- union},' 
-t bttttttfol and splendid in the East. 
..... in va*t, choicely situated, |iavoil parks, 
with \\hite \\allsgloaming through t ho loaves, 
I and spurious domes and lofty j>ra- 
piTM, all painted and gilded and BMed, 
vocal with air-rung I'i'lN, mid n-spK'iid.'iit in 
the sunlik'ht. Ono i i-Mimaii-d to haw cost, 
.1 its paraphernalia, over $800,000. (Sen 
Mi-ions liavc IK-CII carried on hy 
.I.MI Catholics, under thn greatest vicis- 
..ilinli-4, -'ine.- the iniddlo of the I C>\ h cc-ntnry. 
Tho ini-.ionaric.-4 are I-'rcnch, and their con- 
r.-ckoncd in 1^72 at 10,000 in Hi 
,'itii'HH. At the head of the mission 
,ir apostolic. Protestant missions date 
from tlio \isits of (Jilt/.lalT, Toinlin, and Ahocl 
, and properly from the settlement 
of .Jones in 1833. Kepre>eiitati\es of the 
American Baptist, missionary union, of the 
Presbyterian hoard of foreign missions, and 
of the American mis-i,.iuiry association have 
-hed several Protestant congregations, 
<. and religious papers. The numher of 
:vL r atii>iis in ls7i was l.'.l, 
and of rri 1 - \ - In commerce Hang- 

n.l only to Calcutta and 
Canton in the far Mast ; hut monopolies, exor- 
bitant luti-H, and numlterless restrictions had 
well ii'u'hstitl.-d (iroiluction and l.ani-hed trade- 
till in . A ere negotiated for 

Great Hritain, tho 1'iiiti-d Stale*, and France, 
John Hovvring, Townseiid Harris, :m ,| 
M-intigny. The purchase of land 
'.allowed; the monopolies ami tonna-e 
duties are abolished; imports pay :; per cent 
in m Miey or kind, and export* one duty only, 
coord ,:T. In IKTll the numl.er i.t 

Siamese veweU entering tlu> port was 167, ton- 
nige55,04u ; |{.-it,*h M^tonnagt N,40( 
man Ifi, tonnage 4,731 ; French 1 |. 

. 1. tonnairc :;ss. '\ , 
arrivals in 1H73 were 886, tom 
clearance. 205, tonnage 97,21-J. The principal 



exports are rice, sugar, pepper, sosamum, sapan 
vood, hides, and cardamoms. Their total value 
n 1873 was about $4,000,000; that of tho 
imports. $4,000,000. The most important trade 
is that with China, carried on in junks built, and 
navigated by < IbineM. The junks leave the Mc- 
n am generally in Juno, returning in December. 
Hie tieal, a silver coin bearing the device of 
an elephant and weighing 230 grains troy, 
with bars of silver cut into pieces, stamped, 
and bent into an irregular oval, in value 7i, 
16, and 00 cents, with cowries, form the cur- 
rency. Dollars are also current, though usually 
exchanged for silver ticals at the rate of three 
dollars for five ticals. The rate of interest is 
about 80 per cent. Tho inland trade is con- 
ducted chiefly by boats. Foreign steamers ply- 
between Bangkok and Singapore. The Uni- 
ted States and European treaty powers are 
represented by resident consuls at Bangkok. 
The government of Siara is theoretically a 
duarchy, practically a monarchy. While there 
is a second or vice king, tho first or senior 
king is actual sovereign. The crown is hered- 
itary, '"it without primogeniture, being be- 
lucathod, with tho sanction of princes and 
nobles, to any son of tho queen ; but intrigue 
and violence have often diverted tho succes- 
sion from the high royal line. A royal de- 
cree of May 8, 1874, announced that in future 
tho king would give important laws only after 
consulting the council of state and tho minis- 
try. Tho council of state comprises the first 
king as president, tho ministers, who have no 
vote, from 10 to 20 councillors, who have to 
draft now laws and from their own number 
elect a vice president, and six princes of the 
royal house. Any two members of tho council 
may submit a now law to the king. The min- 
istry (senabodi) consists of an honorary presi- 
dent, three ministers of the interior (of tho 
west, the north, and tho oast), and tho ministers 
of agriculture, justice, the royal house, and 
finance. The minister of finance may bo dis- 
missed at any time ; tho dismissal of any other 
minister rei|uires a sentence of the court. Tho 
country is divided into 41 provinces, each of 
which is governed by a phraya or council of 
tho first class. There are also several territo- 
ries which have their own princes, tributary to 
the king. The king is by title "sacred lord of 
heads," " possessor of all," and property and 
life are at his will, to bo taken at government 
al necessity or caprice ; but many considera- 
tions conspire to render a violent and arbi- 
trary exercise of this absolute power compar- 
atively unfrcquent. The queen consort, tho 
wife supremo among hundreds, must bo of 
native and royal blood, and she is rigidly kept 
from all possible intercourse, with an inferior 
of the other sex. She never becomes regent, 
or takes any part in political alVairs, but is 
treated with tho highest deference. She has 
a separate court, in which appear the prin- 
cesses, who, not allo\\e.l to marry beneath 

them, rarely marry at all. She has her fo- 



SIAM 



SIAM (LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE) 13 



innlo guards in uniform ;m<l arms. Tim nnm 
!cr of females within the palace is, on royal 
authority, 5,000, and of males about tho samel 
Tlio second king has ulso a separate palace, 
seraglio, olliccrs, retainers, and soldiers, only 
second to those, of the first. Though never 
appearing at the. audiences of tho nobles with 
tho senior kin;;-, his opinion and sanction are 
sought on important state policy, and his 
namo is associated in treaties. Mis position 
HOOIIIS to ho tlmt of counsellor, not of co-ruler 
or successor. The larger portion of thw public, 
revenue is ornbo/zlod by the numerous officers, 
who reeoivo oidy a nominal salary. Tho rev- 
enue of tho king is estimated at about $4,000- 
000. There is a very ancient written code of 
laws, the acts and decisions of the kings, and 
an unwritten code, scarcely less authoritative, 
of traditional usages; both are often absurd, 
unjust, and cruel, and both liablo to be disre- 
garded at tho royal will. More than 25 classes 
uro excluded from testifying, many for the 
most trivial reasons. The penalties are vari- 
ous, from bambooing to beheading. Capital 
crimes arc now very few. Treason, very com- 
prehensive, is punished by beating tho con- 
vict, enclosed in a largo sack, nearly to death, 
and then casting him loaded into tho river. 
The military force is small, and is disciplined 
by Kuropean officers. In time of war all male 
inhabitants are liablo to service. The, llent 
consists of seven men-of-war carrying 40 guns. 
The history of Slant dates back some cen- 
turies before Christ, but only tho annals sub- 
sequent to tho founding of Ayuthia, tho for- 
mer capital, A. D. 1850, can bo doomed au- 
thentic. In the 16th century tho dominion 
extended to Singapore, and tho first western 
connection was mado with the Portuguese and 
Spanish. In KiOtthe I Mitch established rela- 
tions; in If'tU'j an Knglish ship arrived; and 
the latter part of tho century is remarkable 
for tho grand embassies from and to Louis 
XIV. of Franco, and tho later bloody and al- 
most utter overthrow of French influence. In 
1782 tho present dynasty ascended tho throne, 
and transferred tho seat of government from 
Ayuthia, (sacked by flic Burmese) to Bang- 
kok. In 1822 and 1K25 treaties worn mado 
with (ireat Britain, or rather with the. K:r4 
India company, through Mr. Crawfurd and 
Ca.pl. Miinmy. In 1833 a treaty was made with 
the, Tinted States through Kdiniind Roberts. 
Tho first embassy from the country for nearly 
two centuries was sent to England in 1857; 
and another was sent to I'Yanoo in 1 s<> I . In 
1KOH, on tho. death of his father, the reigning 
king ascended the, throne, with the title Phra- 
bat Somdetya. Chnla. L-inkarana, and during his 
minority a recent carried on the government; 

be, became ->r age Nov. in, INT-".. The name 

of tho present second king (1875) is Kroma 
Phrarateha. The recent kings of Siam have, 
been among (bo most, remarkable characters 
of the Last by their attainments in languages 
and general information, adoption of foreign 



ideas and improvement!, wise, and humane 

government, and liberal and enlightened inter- 
course with foreigners and foreign powers. In 
January, 1875, aconfiict arose between the first, 
and second kings, tho, latter for a time taking 
refuge with tho British consul; but a reconcil- 
iation was soon effected. Tho best books on 
Siam are Crawfurd's " Embassy to Siam and 
Cochin-China" (London, I8i>8); Pallegoix's 
Dticription cUt Toydume Thai on Xiniii (Paris, 
1854); Bow-ring's "Kingdom and People of 
Siam" (London, 185T); Bastian's Reisen in 
Siam (Berlin, 1H67); Mrs. Le.onnwms's " Kng- 
lish (I over ness at the Siamese Court" (Boston, 
1870); McDonald's "Siam, its (iovernment, 
Manners, Customs," &o. (Philadelphia, 1*71); 
" Sia.ni, or the Land of tho White Elephant," 
compiled by the Rev. (Jeorgo P.. Bacon ("New 
York, 1878); and "The Land of the While. 
Llephant," by Frank Vincent, jr. (New York, 
1874). 

SUM, Langnage and Literature of. Siamese is 
spoken from Bunnah and British Burmali on 
the west to Anam and Cambodia on the east, 
and from the Malay state of Keddah on the 
south to tho confines of China on tho north. 
Tho dialectical variations are numerous, and 
tho language is spoken well only in Bangkok 
and by persons educated there. (See INDO- 
CHINESE RACES AND LANGUAGES.) The Siam- 
ese alphabet, supposed to be derived from tho 
ancient Cambodian letters still used in Siamese 
sacred books, and ultimately from tho original 
Pali alphabet, consists of 44 consonants and 20 
vowels, including diphthongs and semi-vowels. 
Tho gradation of tho vowel sounds is very 
delicate, and some of tho consonants are but 
slightly changed forms of the same letter, indi- 
cating the tone in which they are to be uttered 
in certain syllables. The English g, j, v, <r, 
and z are wanting. Tho ill sound, though fro- 
quent in Burmese, is entirely unknown in Si- 
amese, tho th used in transcriptions of the lat- 
ter representing an aspirated , or a combined 
utterance of the two sounds t and h. Accord- 
ing to tho tone in which it is uttered, a word 
has several distinct meanings, by means of 
which tho otherwise very meagre vocabulary 
is considerably increased. Thus hfcai, hlcai, 
hlcai, pronounced in tho same tone, would 
moan who? who? who?; but enunciating each 
with a different tone, it may be mado to mean 
"Who sells oggs ? " This same word likai may 
further bo made to signify a fever, to open, 
rough, fortress, or camp, by other intonations. 
Mi-sides the parts of speech distinguished in 
English grammar, there, is in Siamese a peculiar 
class of numeral or classifying nouns. Such a 
word is lam, which is used in conjunction with 
objects having the quality of length, as ships 
and palm trees; others of this class are an, ton, 
Ink, ton, and met, all of which must be used 
when speaking of one or another class of ob- 
jects. Three genders, masculine, feminine, and 
common, are distinguished by the grammarians, 
but in common speech and in poetry gender is 



of 



SIAMF.SK 



commonly disregarded, except in 
... which is indicated by the 
special words. Tlu- phral is expressed by add- 
ing some word like Mai, many, or *^ uch ; 
There are no inflections, and case is indicated 
by the use of a preposition, or by the position 
*,,nl in the Sentence. There is a great 
, ,f pronouns, or pronominal expressions, 
and the proper use of one or another depends 
on th, "k of those writing or speak- 

ing. Moods and tenses are indicated by pre- 
fixes and suffixes, or by auxiliary verbs ; thus 
Kka bok I say ; hka dai bob, I have said ; hka 
cha bok, 1 shall say, &c. The Siamese are very 
fond of using words in pairs, for euphony, 
. or figurativeness. Siamese liter- 
ature is not of a very high order. The works 
on history and medicine contain little else but 
fables and quackery. The law books are very 
elaborate, but wanting in legal acumen and pre- 
The religious and philosophical pro- 
ductions are based upon the Pali scriptures and 
Chinese learning, and exhibit nothing of an 
original growth. The books of Siamese prov- 
erbs, however, have been praised as contain- 
ing much social wisdom sharply put. The best 
productions of Siamese literature are works 
of fiction, poems, and dramas, though a large 
portion of them are borrowed from or imita- 
i!id adaptations of Hindoo works. See 
Pallegoix, Grrammatica Lingua Thai (Bang- 
kok, 1850), and Dietionarium Lingua Thai 
. 1854); Bastian, Reuen in Siam (Ber- 
. liicli contains learned disquisitions 
on the language and literature of the coun- 
Mabaster, "Wheel of the Law" (London, 
: and the " Siam Repository," a journal 
published at Bangkok in English. 
SIAMESE TWI\S. See MONSTER. 
SIBERIA, a part of the Russian dominions 
occupying the whole of northern Asia, bound- 
by the Arctic ocean, E. and S. E. by 
ItfliriiiK strait, Behring sea or the sea of Kam- 
t hatka, and the seas of Okhotsk and Japan 
(inlets of the North Pacific), S. by China and 
the Russian provinces of central Asia, and 
\V. liv European Russia, from which it is sep- 
arated by the Ural mountains. As officially 
bounded, it extends from lat. 41 30' to 77 50' 
N.. and from Ion. 59 30' to 190 E.; length 
3,600 m., breadth 2,000 m. ; area, 4,826,- 
329 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 3,428,867. It is di- 
vided for administrative purposes into the four 
Mu-nts of Tobolsk, Tomsk, Yeniseisk, 
kutsk, and the foiir provinces of Trans- 
baikal, Yakutsk, Amoor, and the Littoral or 
I'rimorsk. In a geojrraphical sense, however, 
the four northern provinces of Russian Cen- 
Wia, Semipoiatinsk, Akmolinsk, Turgai, 
:al-k, and portions of the governments 
"in and Orenburg, also belong to Siberia, 
ill be included in parts of this descrip- 
'if western end ol 

Siberia, as onVi.-illy constituted, and extends 

\rctic ,.r,. : m to the Central Asian 

province of Akraolinsk. Tomsk lies E. of it 



SIBERIA 

on the borders of the Central Asian province 
of Semirietchensk. Yeniseisk includes the 
Arctic coast from the gulf of Obi to the river 
Anabara, and extends S. to the borders of 
Mongolia. Irkutsk lies between Yeniseisk and 
Lake Baikal, and the Transbaikal province east 
of Lake Baikal. Yakutsk comprises the Arctic 
coast from the Anabara river to Cape Shelag- 
ski, extending S. to the Amoor province, which 
ncludes the country on the left bank of the 
Amoor from the Stanovoi mountains to the 
N". E. extremity of Mantchooria. The Littoral 
province covers the entire E. coast from Cape 
Shelagski in the Arctic ocean to the sea of Ja- 
pan including the Tchuktchi peninsula, Kam- 
chatka, the district of Okhotsk, the lower 
course of the Amoor, and the island of Sagha- 

!} en> The coasts of Siberia, both along the 

Arctic ocean and the seas on the east and 
south, are indented by many bays and inlets. 
On the N. coast the first large inlet, beginning 
at the W. extremity, is Kara bay, an offshoot 
of the Kara sea lying between Siberia and 
Nova Zembla. Next is the gulf of Obi, an 
inlet of the same sea, which forms between it 
and Kara bay the Yelmert or Samoyed pen- 
insula. It receives the Obi or Ob at its S. W. 
extremity. A branch on its E. side is called 
the Taz gulf. The gulf of Yenisei, the outlet 
of the river of the same name, forms with 
Khatanga gulf, the outlet of the Khatanga riv- 
er, the Taimyr peninsula. On the W. side of 
Taimyr bay is Cape Taimyr or Northwest cape, 
and on its E. side, at the extremity of a long 
peninsula, is Tcheliuskin or Northeast cape, 
the northernmost point of Asia, in lat. 77 50' 
N. Between Khatanga gulf and Behring strait 
are many smaller bays, most of which are the 
outlets of some of the numerous rivers which 
empty into the Arctic ocean. The principal 
islands off the N. coast are the Liakhoff or 
New Siberia group, extending 205 m. opposite 
the shore between the mouths of the Yana 
and the Indigirka; the largest, Kotelnoi, is 
100 m. long by 60 m. broad ; the next in size 
is called Fadeyeff, and the next New Siberia. 
Between the main group and the coast are 
smaller islands called Liakhoff and Maloi. The 
surface of the islands is covered with alter- 
nate layers of sand and ice, and in their hills 
are immense alluvial deposits filled with wood 
and the fossil bones of animals. Great quan- 
tities of fossil ivory have been obtained from 
them and the neighboring coasts of the main- 
land. N. of the coast, about the 180th meri- 
dian, and separated from it by Long strait, 
is Wrangel's, Plover, or Kellett land, of un- 
known extent. Along the whole Arctic coast 
of Siberia the sea is frozen for more than half 
the year ; and in the warmer seasons the ice 
floats in such masses as to render navigation 
always dangerous and often impossible. A 
large part of the coast is unexplored, and 
all efforts to double Cape Tcheliuskin have 
been unsuccessful ; but Lieut. Tcbeliuskin, 
from whom it is named, reached its north- 






SIBERIA 



15 



ernmost point in 1742 in a sledge. The east- 
ernmost point of Siberia is Cape East at the 
end of the Tchuktchi peninsula, which juts 
into Behring strait, opposite Cape Prince of 
Wales in Alaska, the westernmost point of the 
American continent. On the S. side of this 
peninsula is the bay of Anadyr, an inlet of 
Behring sea. The coast follows thence a gen- 
eral southwesterly direction to the end of the 
peninsula of Kamtchatka, W. of which lies 
the Okhotsk sea, separated from the Pacific 
by the chain of the Kurile islands stretching 
from Kamtchatka to Yezo. Of the islands 
of Behring sea, only Behring and Copper isl- 
ands and those lying dose to the coast belong 
to Kussia. The surface of Siberia is in its 
general form a vast diluvial plain, slightly 
undulating, and sloping gradually from the 
Altai mountains on the south to the Arctic 
ocean. In the W. part are the steppes of 
Ishim and Baraba, broad tracts of lowland 
in which grassy prairies alternate with reed 
marshes, fresh lakes with salt, and tracts of 
rich arable land with extensive forests. Parts 
of this region present in summer fine park 
scenery, in which beautiful wooded hills rise 
from grassy plains covered with flowers. Here 
the birches often attain a diameter of 4 ft. and 
a height of 150 ft., and the pines much great- 
er dimensions. S. and E. of the steppes the 
spurs of the Altai mountains jut into the plain 
like the headlands of a seacoast. Many of the 
great rivers rise here, the upper part of their 
courses being through dense forests. In east- 
ern Siberia the plain is more broken by hills, 
and has but little land fit for agriculture. In 
the S. part of Irkutsk and in Yakutsk the hills 
and mountains are covered for most of the 
year with good pasture, and in favorable places 
all the grains of temperate climates are grown. 
The greater part of the country is covered with 
open forests, in which there is tolerable pastur- 
age at certain seasons. Between the Kolyma 
river and Behring sea the country is traversed 
by several mountain ranges having a general 
elevation of 2,000 to 3,000 ft. above the sea. 
The entire N. coast of Siberia is a dreary region 
of salt steppes and frozen swamps, called the 
tundra, where the soil is perpetually frozen to 
the depth of hundreds of feet. The surface is 
never thawed before the end of June, and is 
again ice-bound by the middle of September, 
and deep snow covers the ground nine or ten 
months in the year. The banks of the rivers 
are lined with vast numbers of uprooted trees 
brought down by floods, which eventually find 
their way into the Arctic ocean, to be drifted 
away by the current flowing from E. to W. 
along the Siberian coast. The principal moun- 
tain range of Siberia is that which forms in the 
west its S. boundary with China, and which is 
called by various names in different parts. Its 
E. extremity is at East cape in Behring strait, 
whence it extends in a general S. W. direction, 
forming the boundary between the Littoral, the 
Amoor, and Yakutsk provinces, until it reaches 
742 VOL. xv. 2 



the Chinese frontier, when its course is first S., 
then W., and then N. "W. to the boundary be- 
tween Irkutsk and Yeniseisk, from which it 
again runs S. W. to the borders of Turkistan. 
In the east and along the shores of the sea 
of Okhotsk this range is called the Stanovoi 
mountains, W. of the Amoor province the Ya- 
blonnoi, further W. the Daurian and Sayanian 
mountains, and finally the Altai mountains in 
the narrower sense. The general height of 
the chain (the Altai in its widest sense) is 
about 3,000 ft., but the highest summits of the 
Altai proper reach an elevation of upward of 
10,000 ft., and the Yablonnoi mountains are 
little more than an undulating plateau. There 
are many spurs from the main range, as well 
as several smaller ranges in the interior. (See 
ALTAI, AMOOR COUNTRY, and KAMTCHATKA.) 
With the exception of the Amoor and a few 
streams of less importance, the rivers of Sibe- 
ria all flow into the Arctic ocean. The Obi 
ranks among the largest rivers in the world, 
and many of its tributaries are of great size ; 
the most important of these are the Irtish, 
Ishim, Tobol, and Tom. The Yenisei is by 
some authorities said to drain a greater ex- 
tent of surface and to have a longer course 
than the Obi ; its chief affluents are the Lower 
Tunguska, Stony Tunguska, and Upper Tun- 
guska or Angara. The Lena is nearly as large, 
and the principal streams which join it are 
the Yiliui, Vitim, Olekma, and Aldan. The 
other rivers of most importance which flow 
into the Arctic ocean are the Nadym, Pur, 
Taz, Piasina, Khatanga, Anabara, Olem, Ole- 
nek, Yana, Indigirka, Alazeya, Kolyma, and 
Tchaun. The chief rivers flowing into the 
seas which bound Siberia S. E. are the Amoor 
or Saghalien, which forms part of the south- 
ern boundary and receives several considerable 
tributaries from the north ; the Anadyr, flow- 
ing into the gulf of the same name ; and the 
Okhota, which has its mouth on the W. shore 
of the sea of Okhotsk. Few of these rivers 
present any obstacles to navigation except ice. 
Frozen inundations are frequent. As the 
rivers flow from warm to cold latitudes, their 
lower and middle courses freeze while their 
head waters are still open. Near their mouths 
they freeze to the bottom, while above for 
hundreds of miles only the surface is frozen. 
The waters accumulating under the ice finally 
burst from confinement and flood the valleys 
with many thicknesses of ice. At the close of 
winter these accumulations are sometimes 20 
ft. in depth. There are many lakes, but they 
are all small, with the exception of Baikal, 
between the Transbaikal province and the 
government of Irkutsk. (See BAIKAL.) The 
geology of Siberia is but little known, except- 
ing in a few parts. Granite and crystalline 
schists are found in the Ural mountains, and 
also in the Altai and its E. continuations, be- 
tween Ion. 85 and 120 and as far N. as lat. 57, 
and again in the E. extremity of the country 
between Ion. 1 65 and Behring strait. Volcanic 



I 



SIBERIA 



asfisrttSSsS i - HSS to 5? 

&SKtsrttftBfeM5 1 !fe*ii*ttii!E :5 



ocs, e 

carboniferous systems, are found in the an ^ the remdeer to mlgrate 

oun gmrts 



J55BSSrt?F 



of the sea. 



th 
In August frosts begin at 



try. me i : , " j throughout shores of the sea. .in A^UWMV^. 

of elephants and other animals, ft P/J P 6QO the silver fir ceases at 

large quantities of ivory are procured. . (bee lar^ noroi ^ ^ ^^ ^ birch . g t 
MAMMOTH.) Mining operatic The although dwarf specimens are sometimes 

confined to three parts of the country. * > , h th tlie p i ne \ s found on arid 

westernmost district is on the E. f ace , o ^ the g^S^igJ^ lat P 6 4, and the red fir 
Ural mountains and occupies a tract about 40 lope an g ^ ^ g paral _ 

m. broad, extending between lat. 56 oy^ 
gold, silver, plat : 
precious stones, 
Thisr 



found i 



1th twisted trunks and many 

toancheiTare found in the southern part of the 



rrhoVe^not officiaUy included | Z^^S^ffSStZZ 



r^tiln" ironed arsenic are al! found ^^^^^Be^SSb.bK 

n/1 thArfl am pmerftld and tooaz mines of great it .N. &. bioena wouia oe neariy umuu 

I on With the opening of summer the melting snows 

For- are rapidly followed by foliage and fir- 



slope, of the Ural mountains. 



Phyry; R --3-^=^5^-* ^e whole region is converted for a short time 

uses, and mici used as a substitute for window into a blooming garden The flora of Irkutsk 

ZL^e common. Salt is found in great is richer than that of Berlin, exhibiting the 

Sundance on the steppes, and on the surface plants of warmer countries beside those of t 

. ^ *K O lotoa hrA t.h snminP.r heat arctic reeions. Turtchanmoff discovered 1,000 



ItllCK lintl SO SO1H1 IIIJII UUZISIS UI UU1UC11 piiao U"0 ucuia-o \J vi , t ^ 14. 

over in safety. The climate of Siberia is much Siberia, is much land well suited for agncultu- 

colder than in corresponding latitudes in Eu- ral purposes. Wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat, 

rope. At Ustyansk, at the mouth of the river oats, and hemp are grown, and some interior 

Yana, in lat 70 55', the mean annual tern- tobacco. Grain is cultivated as far north as 

perature is 4-39 F., while at North cape in lat. 61, and turnips and other vegetables of 

Europe, a few minutes further north, it is temperate climates thrive in favorable places. 

32. At Irkutsk, in lat. 52 17', 1,240 ft. Reindeer and wild sheep are found on the 

above the sea, the mean temperature is 31; mountains which separate Siberia from Mon- 

in winter quicksilver freezes, and remains so golia, and the former roam in vast herds 

for about two months. In 1864 Pumpelly throughout the N. part of the country. Ihe 

saw the thermometer indicate 70 below zero Bengal tiger and a species of panther (felis irbis) 

at a station near Irkutsk. The severity of the also inhabit these mountains, and are sometimes 

climate increases toward the east. At Nizhni seen much further north. The Caspian ante- 

Kolymsk, at the mouth of the Kolyma, in lat. lope is found in the southwest, and the black 



68 31', Ion. 160 56', and nearly on a level 
with the sea, the river freezes over in the be- 
ng of September, and is not again free 
. from ice till the beginning of June. The sea 
begins to freeze in October, but the cold at 
is somewhat diminished by vapors 
which rise from it before the ice forms. In 
January the thermometer falls to 60 below 






becomes difficult. The 



cold is almost as great in February, but in 



and arctic or stone fox in the north. Sables, er- 
mines, marmots, martens, and squirrels abound 
in the south. The white bear, the lynx, the 
wolf, the wild hog, and the glutton are com- 
mon everywhere. The dog of the country, 
which bears a strong resemblance to the wolf, 
is used to drag sledges. The animals belong- 
ing to central Asia are nearly all found in the 
S. part of Siberia. Camels are kept by the 
Calmucks and some other tribes, but do not 



SIBERIA 



17 



live K of lat. 55. The domestic sheep are of 
two species, the Russian and the broad-tailed 
Kirghiz; the latter are chiefly kept by the no- 
madic tribes, single herdsmen of whom some- 
times possess flocks of 1 0,000 head. The horned 
cattle of Russia degenerate in size in Siberia. 
The horses are good, and generally white, but 
sometimes they are singularly marked. Fish 
are very numerous. Ducks, geese, swans, wood- 
cocks, partridges, and other fowl abound in 
the S. part of the country. The population 
of Siberia is composed of various tribes and 
races. More than half are Russians or their 
descendants, some of whom came to the coun- 
try as volunteer immigrants, but the greater 
part were sent as exiles. These exiles consist 
of three classes, criminals and political and re- 
ligious offenders. The worst class are con- 
demned to the mines, and those whose offences 
have not been so great are employed at less 
laborious work, while the rest are formed into 
settlements under the supervision of the police, 
and receive grants of land for cultivation. 
None except the worst criminals are sent to 
Siberia without their families. In 1874, from 
May to October, 16,889 persons were banished 
to Siberia. Of these 1,700 were sentenced to 
hard labor, and 1,624 were drunkards and va- 
grants. They were accompanied voluntarily 
by 1,080 women and children over 15 years of 
age, and 1,269 younger children. Among the 
native tribes are the Samoyeds in the N. W., 
and the Ostiaks, who occupy the country S. of 
them as far E. as the river Yenisei ; these peo- 
ple live by fishing and hunting, and but few of 
them have been converted to Christianity. In 
the S. "W., besides some hordes of Bashkirs, 
are the Kirghiz, occupying the steppes of the 
Ishim and Irtish, commonly called from them 
the Kirghiz steppes ; they are still in a barba- 
rous state. Among the inhabitants of the W. 
parts of the Altai mountains the most numer- 
ous are the Calmucks, who have become par- 
tially civilized and have laid aside many of 
their national peculiarities ; they manufacture 
iron and gunpowder, and cultivate some grain 
and tobacco, but their chief subsistence is 
drawn from their flocks and herds. Their re- 
ligion is made up of various superstitions. On 
the slopes of the E. part of the Altai chain are 
several tribes known as Beruisses, Beltirs, 
Sagai, and Katchins. The Buriats are of Mon- 
gol origin, bear a strong resemblance to the 
people of N. China, and are the most numer- 
ous native tribe in Siberia; they are found 
chiefly about Lake Baikal and E. to the river 
Onon, a tributary of the Amoor. Most of the 
nations of N. E. Siberia may be referred to 
one or the other of three classes, the Yakuts, 
the Tunguses, and the Tchuktchis and Koriaks. 
The Yakuts, settled chiefly along the Lena, 
from its source to its mouth, are of Tartar 
origin, speaking a language said to resemble 
closely the Turkish. They are all more or 
less civilized by Russian contact, many having 
adopted the Greek faith, and are the most 



thrifty and industrious of the nations of N. 
Asia. The Tunguses, and the allied tribes, the 
Lamuts, the Monzhurs, and the Gilyaks of the 
Amoor river, all of Mongol origin, are found 
as far W. as the Yenisei and as far E. as Ana- 
dyrsk in Ion. 169. They are amiable, and easi- 
ly governed and influenced. Their original re- 
ligion was Shamanism, but they now profess 
almost universally the Greek faith. They train 
reindeer for riding and pack-carrying (the oth- 
er nations using them only in sledges), and pay 
a regular tribute in furs to the government. 
The Tchuktchis and Koriaks, inhabiting the 
extreme E. part of Siberia, between the 160th 
meridian and Behring strait, strongly resemble 
the North American Indians in general appear- 
ance, and are tall, vigorous, and athletic. A 
part of them are settled along the seashore, but 
most are nomadic. The latter own large herds 
of reindeer, numbering frequently several 
thousand, and their wandering life is a neces- 
sity to provide food for them. The Tchuktchis 
and Koriaks are independent of civilization, 
impatient of restraint, and bold and self-reliant. 
They are the only Siberian tribes that ever 
made a successful stand against Russian inva- 
sion. Nearly all the Siberian nations eat a 
species of toadstool, called by them mulc-a- 
mur, which in small doses produces all the 
effects of alcoholic liquor, but when eaten in 
large quantities is a violent narcotic* poison. 
Its habitual use shatters the nervous system, 
and its sale to the natives by traders is made a 
penal offence by Russian law. In respect to 
religious belief the inhabitants are divided as 
follows : Orthodox Greeks, 2,875,533 ; Ras- 
kolniks, 65,505 ; Armenian Greeks, 9 ; Ro- 
man Catholics, 24,754; Protestants, 5,722; 
Jews, 11,400; Mohammedans, 61,083; pagans, 
283,621. The population in towns numbers 
113,236. Although the manufactures of Si- 
beria are not extensive, a remarkable spirit of 
enterprise among the people is rapidly devel- 
oping the industrial resources of the coun- 
try. In most of the chief towns there are 
manufactories of cotton and woollen cloths, 
linen, glass, iron, earthenware, and leather; 
and others are springing up all over the coun- 
try. The internal commerce is of great im- 
portance, consisting principally of skins, furs, 
cattle, fish, both dry and salted, caviare, soap, 
and tallow. The transit trade between Chi- 
na and European Russia is also largely carried 
on across Siberia. The sole entrepot of this 
commerce was formerly at Kiakhta, S. E. of 
Lake Baikal, but trade is not now restricted 
to it. The principal exports to China are cot- 
ton and woollen cloths, linen, furs, gold and 
silver articles, and leather; the imports, tea, 
both leaf and compressed in cakes, sugar, 
silks, cottons, wool, cattle, leather, furs, grain, 
dried fruit, and colors. This trade has been 
chiefly carried on by means of the rivers 
which flow into Lake Baikal, thence through 
the Upper Tunguska to Yeniseisk, thence after 
a land carriage of about 40 m. passing through 



18 

the 

A ;.. m I 

about 50 

IVrm. I 



SIBERIA 
the Obi, and the Irtish to Tobolsk 

i i ...-.niTuvam'M nf 



SIBYL 

entire country was effected in about 80 years. 
The Amoor region was soon after visited by a 
Pole and some other exiles escaped from Ye- 
niseisk, who built a small fort on the river; 
but having quarrelled with the Tunguses, they 
offered the conquest to the emperor of Russia, 

trade has appeared to oe w ; "^ '~{ ^nd begged forgiveness for their former ot- 
by the coast of China to^Aday evsk and an S^ ti^Tunguses about the same , time 
thence up the Amoor b. * ", jjj ! app iied to the emperor of China for assistance. 



winter it is iuiuwn>~ ~j --r 
But recently the tendency of the 



at stated penous. AO uivou ""fr* TV, , 
are at Obdorsk near the mouth of the Obi, Tu- 
rokhansk on the Yenisei, Ustyansk on the Ya- 
na, Ostrovnoye on a tributary of the Kolyma, 
Tiumen on a W. tributary of the Irtish, and Ir- 
bit in the E. part of the government of Perm. 
During the summer steamers ply on all the 
large streams of central and southern Siberia 
and on Lake Baikal, so that there is less than 
1 000 ra. of wagon transit between St. Peters- 
burg and the mouth of the Amoor. A great 
railway across the continent is projected, to 
connect European Russia with Peking. The 
proposed western terminus is Yekaterinburg 
on the E. slope of the Ural mountains, whence 
the line will pass through Shadrinsk, Omsk, 
Tomsk, and Krasnoyarsk to Irkutsk. Siberia 
is divided into two military circumscriptions, 
East and West Siberia : the former comprises 
the governments of Irkutsk and Yeniseisk, 
and the provinces of Transbaikal, Yakutsk, 
Araoor, and the Littoral; the latter the gov- 
ernments of Tobolsk and Tomsk, together with 
.irghiz territories of central Asia. The 
respective capitals are Irkutsk and Omsk. 



Each of these two great divisions, which were I tonka, 30 m. long, is in this county. 

_ A i -ir*/Cf 1 - II .. . 1 , , .+ t . , . . - iT. 1 Q'TA vrrr\*rk OQ'T *7(\(\ 



by a treaty concluded at Peking in 1689. A 
second treaty was made in 1727, confirming the 
former and confining commercial intercourse to 
Kiakhta and Maimatchm. The Amoor coun- 
try was finally ceded to Russia in 1858, and 
in 1860 a treaty was concluded by which the 
whole line of the frontier was thrown open 
for traffic. The transportation of criminals to. 
Siberia was begun by Peter the Great in 1710. 
A well organized insurrection of Polish exiles 
was promptly suppressed in 1866. In 1871 the 
Russians took possession of the whole of the 
island of Saghalien, which by a treaty conclu- 
ded in 1867 had been divided between Russia 
and Japan, and in 1875 the Japanese govern- 
ment resigned all claims to it. See Atkin- 
son, "Oriental and Western Siberia" (Lon- 
don, 1858); Pumpelly, "Across America and 
Asia" (New York, 1870); and Kennan, "Tent 
Life in Siberia" (New York, 1870). 

SIBLEY, a S. county of Minnesota, bounded 
S. E. by the Minnesota river ; area, about 500 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,725. The surface is 
undulating and the soil fertile. Lake Minne- 

The chief 



formed on the present basis in 1865, has a mil- 
itary governor general, who is also command- 
er-in-chief of the troops, and has control of 
all affairs, civil and military. Each of the 
governments and provinces has also a civil 
governor, subordinate to the governor general, 
who is assisted by a council of regency. A 
vice governor fills his place in case of his ab- 
sence or sickness. Genghis Khan conquered 
a part of Siberia, and his successors reduced 
untry lying on both sides of the Irtish. 
About 1580 the Russian family of Stroganoff, 
to whom the czar had granted lands on both 
aides of the Ural mountains, applied to a Cos- 
sack chief, Yi-rmak Timofeyeff, for assistance 



productions in 1870 were 237,706 bushels of 
wheat, 142,060 of Indian corn, 221,416 of oats, 
34,545 of barley, 32,659 tons of hay, 19,600 
Ibs. of wool, and 310,217 of butter. There 
were 1,726 horses, 3,531 milch cows, 5,952 
other cattle, 3,666 sheep, and 3,990 swine. 
Capital, Henderson. 

SIBOIR, Marie Dominique Angnste, a French pre- 
late, born at St. Paul-Trois-Chateaux, Drome, 
April 4, 1792, assassinated in Paris, Jan. 3, 
1857. He was educated at Avignon and at 
Paris, was for a time professor in the semi- 
nary of St. Nicholas du Chardonnet in Paris, 
was next vicar to the parish of St. Sulpice and 
to the chapel of the missions etrangeres, in 1822 



against the khan Kutchum, who ruled the | became canon of the church of Nimes, in 1838 



y on the Tobol and Irtish rivers. Yer- 
mak invaded the country and made extensive 
conquests. Other adventurers followed up his 
successes, which resulted in 1587 in the sub- 
jection to Russia of the khanate of Sibir (called 
after a town of that name, whence the name 

0. Tobolsk, Tiumen, Pelymsk, and Be- 
reiov were soon after founded and settled by 

< ans. In 1604 Tomsk was founded, and 

>*sacks, pushing eastward, founded suc- 
cessively Kuznetek, Yeniseisk, Irkutsk, Selen- 
ginsk, and Nertchinsk, and at last readied the 
shores of Behring strait. The conquest of the 



vicar general of that diocese, in 1840 bishop 
of Digne, in 1848 archbishop of Paris, as suc- 
cessor to Affre, and in 1852 a senator. In 
1857, while opening the yearly nine days 1 de- 
votion in honor of St. Genevieve in the church 
of St. Etienne du Mont, he was stabbed to the 
heart by a priest named Verger, whom he had 
recently suspended. He was distinguished for 
religious and charitable activity, and published 
Institutions diocesain* (2 vols., 1845). 

SIBYL (Gr. cr</3vAAa), a name applied to sev- 
eral women reputed prophetic in the ancient 
mythical period. Some authors say there 



SICAED 



SICILIES (THE Two) 



19 



were four, others ten, viz. : the Babylonian, 
the Libyan, the Delphian, the Cimmerian, the 
Erythrsean, the Saiman, the Cumasan (some- 
times identified with the Erythraaan), the Hel- 
lespontian or Trojan, the Phrygian, and the 
Tiburtine. Counsel and help were sought 
from them under the belief that they were 
able to predict, to avert calamities, and to ap- 
pease the gods. The most famous of all was 
the Cumsean sibyl, so called from Cumse, her 
residence in Campania. According to an an- 
cient Eoman legend, she offered to sell Tar- 
quinius Priscus nine books, which the king 
refused. Burning three, she offered the re- 
maining six for the same price that she had 
asked for the nine ; refused again, she burned 
three more, and still demanded the same price 
for the remaining three. The king purchased 
these, and the sibyl vanished. They were the 
famous sibylline books, and were preserved 
in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, in care 
of two officers (duumviri), afterward 10 (de- 
cemviri), and finally 15 (quindecemviri), who 
alone, directed by the senate, might inspect 
their contents. Of these nothing definite is 
known. The sibylline books having perished 
when the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus was 
burned in 83 B. C., a new collection was com- 
piled by ambassadors sent to the various sibyl- 
line oracles in Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor, 
and was deposited in the new temple of Jupi- 
ter. In the reign of Augustus spurious pro- 
phetic books multiplied in private hands, and 
the emperor ordered 2,000 of them to be 
burned. Those volumes in custody of the 
state, revised by Tiberius, were preserved in 
two gilt chests in the temple of Apollo. Eight 
books of apocryphal Christian literature, col- 
lected after the 2d century, entitled u Sibyl- 
line Oracles," and still extant, consist of a he- 
terogeneous mixture of heathen, Jewish, and 
Christian poems. An edition of these books 
was published by Gallseus in 1689 (4to, Am- 
sterdam), and fragments have been edited by 
Angelo Mai (Milan, 1817) and Struve (Konigs- 
berg, 1818). 

SICARD, Roch Ambroise Cucnrron, abbe, a French 
philanthropist, born at Fousseret, near Tou- 
louse, Sept. 20, 1742, died in Paris, May 10, 
1822. He was educated at the university of 
Toulouse, entered' holy orders, received instruc- 
tion from the abbe" de TEpee, opened the school 
for deaf mutes at Bordeaux in 1786, and became 
vicar general of Condom and canon of Bor- 
deaux. In 1789, on the death of De 1'Epee, 
he "was appointed his successor in the in- 
stitution at Paris. His former church pre- 
ferments caused him to be suspected, and on 
Aug. 26, 1792, he was imprisoned, and barely 
escaped death at the September massacre. His 
lectures attracted many of the more eminent 
literary men of Paris ; but he incurred the 
wrath of the directory, and was banished for 
his strictures upon the government. He im- 
proved De TEp6e's method by the addition 
of signs for metaphysical ideas. In 1815 he 



visited England, taking with him his pupils 
Massieu and Clerc. He published several 
works on deaf-mute instruction. (See DEAF 
AND DUMB, vol. v., p. 733.) 

SICILIES, The Two (It., Segno delle Due Si- 
cilie), formerly a kingdom of southern Italy, 
including the island of Sicily, with various 
smaller islands, and the kingdom of Naples. 
At the time of its incorporation with the do- 
minions of Victor Emanuel in 1860, the area 
was 43,225 sq. m., and the population 8,703,130. 
It now forms six main divisions of the king- 
dom of Italy, viz. : the island of Sicily, with 
seven provinces (see SICILY), and the conti- 
nental divisions of Abruzzo and Molise, Cam- 
pania (with Naples), Apulia, Basilicata, and 
Calabria, with an aggregate of 16 provinces 
(including Benevento, which formerly belonged 
to the papal dominions) and somewhat over 
one third of the population of all Italy. (See 
ITALY.) The early history of the peninsular 
part of the country, which in ancient times 
comprised the divisions of Bruttium, Lucania, 
Calabria, Apulia, Samnium, Campania, and a 
part of Latium, is closely connected with the 
history of Borne, and, through the Magna 
Grsecian cities of Tarentum, Croton, Sybaris, 
Thurii, Ehegium, Neapolis, and others, partly 
also with that of Greece. After the fall of the 
western empire the country was successively 
under the power of the Goths, the Byzantine 
exarchate of Eavenna, and the Saracens; but 
several small republics or duchies, as Naples, 
Salerno, Amalfi, Gaeta, and Benevento, ulti- 
mately rose to independence. During the first 
half of the llth century great numbers of 
Norman adventurers served these small states 
as mercenaries, but soon began to wage war on 
their own account; and under the leadership 
of William Bras de Fer, Drogo, and Eobert 
Guiscard, they conquered the greater part of 
Apulia, which they divided into 12 counties, 
forming together a feudal confederation. In 
1053 Pope Leo IX., at the head of German 
and Italian troops, tried to expel the new con- 
querors ; but he was defeated at Civitella and 
taken prisoner, and his captors obliged him to 
recognize their conquests by formally holding 
them as vassals of the holy see. Robert Guis- 
card established his power paramount over his 
companions in arms, assumed the title of duke 
of Apulia, and subdued Calabria, while his 
youngest brother Eoger made himself master 
of the island of Sicily, previously occupied by 
the Saracens. In 1127 the whole of the Nor- 
man acquisitions were united under Epger II., 
son of Eoger I., the conqueror of Sicily, who 
received in 1130, from the antipope Anacle- 
tus II., the title of king of Sicily and Apulia. 
The bull which conferred that dignity clear- 
ly established the paramount lordship of the 
pope, and stipulated the annual tribute to be 
paid by the new kingdom. Eoger conquered 
Capua and Naples. He was succeeded in 1154 
by his son William I. the Bad, who left his 
crown to William II. the Good (1166-'89) ; 



10 



SICILIES (TiiK Two) 



the latter promoted public prosperity, and was 
stanch supporter of Pope Alexander III. and 
the cities o7 Lombardy against the emperor 
Frederick Barbarossa. William II. died with- 
out issue, and his kingdom was claimed by 
his aunt Con.tantia, win, had married the son 
*roMa, Her husband, Hen- 

, uphold her rights against the usurper 
Tancred and finally in 1194 united the king- 
dom of Naples and Sicily to the empire. On 
his premature death in 1197, his Italian crown 
passed to his son, afterward the emperor Fred- 
erick II. The exertions of this prince to an- 
nihilate the Lombard league and to strengthen 

uinion over Italy drew upon himself and 
his descendants the persecution of the papal 
court; and during the minority of Conradin, 
his grandson, the Roman see took the king- 
dom. Manfred, a natural son of Frederick 
II., the first regent for his nephew Conra- 
din, then king on the pretended death of 
this young prince (1258), was finally defeated 
and slain at the battle of Benevento (Feb. 26, 
1266), by Charles of Anjou, who had been 
crowned as his successor by Pope Clement IV., 
and who now usurped the power in the two 
kingdoms. Conradin, the last of the Hohen- 
staufen, was utterly defeated at Tagliacozzo, 
Aug. 28, 1268, and beheaded at Naples, Oct. 
29. The exasperation produced by Charles's 
despotism finally culminated (March 30, 1282, 
at the hour of vespers) in the revolt and- mas- 
sacre at Palermo provoked by the licentious 
brut.ility of a Frenchman, and the expulsion 
of the French from Sicily, an event known 
as "the Sicilian vespers," and Pedro III. of 
Aragon, the husband of Constantia, Manfred's 
daughter, became king. Charles strove in vain 
to regain possession of Sicily. For more than 
a century and a half the island (mainly ruled 
by a younger branch of the house of Aragon) 
:ml tho continental kingdom were separated 
from each other, and the sovereigns of both 

-tyled themselves kings of Sicily. The 
destinies of the house of Anjou at Naples, ob- 
scured during the later years of Charles I. and 
the reign of his son Charles II. the Lame, 
brightened again under Robert the Wise (1309- 
-on of Petrarch ; but the reign of 
his granddaughter, Joanna I., was marked by 
all sorts of domestic crimes and disorders. 
Aft-r h.-r execution by order of the king of 
Hungary (see JOANNA) in 1382, a bloody con- 
tort raged between Louis I., the head of the 
second house of Anion, her adopted son, and 
of Durazzo, her lawful heir. The lat- 
illy triumphed, but was called to Hun- 
gary by discontented nobles in 1385, crowned 
i.l murdered soon after. His son Ladis- 
las, scarcely 10 years old, was overthrown by 

'Irvine party, who called in Louis II. of 
AHJ..U in 1:1 si); but in 131)9 he reascended his 
1 the adherents of his rival 
He was succeeded in UH by his sister Joanna 
II.. whose reign of 21 years was as shameful 
and disastrous as that of Joanna I. After 



adopting in succession Alfonso V. of Aragon 
and Louis III. of Anjou, she finally, on the 
latter's death, bequeathed the crown to his 
brother Rene. After a few years' war Rene 
was expelled by Alfonso V., who received the 
investiture of his new kingdom from Pope 
Eugenius IV., and thus reunited the two parts 
of the old monarchy. On his death in 1458 
he left the kingdom of Naples to his natural 
son Ferdinand I., who finally maintained his 
rights against John of Calabria, son of King 
Ren6, while Sicily as well as Aragon fell to his 
brother John II. In 1494 the kingdom of 
Naples was suddenly conquered by Charles 
VIII. of France, and its possession was dis- 
puted by the French and Spaniards until Fer- 
dinand the Catholic became master of it in 
1503, and was successively known as Ferdi- 
nand III. of Naples and Ferdinand II. of Sicily. 
The oppressive rule of the Spanish viceroys 
resulted in 1647 in the rising under Masaniello 
at Naples, and in other commotions; the distur- 
bances created by the former lasted for years, 
though Masaniello was speedily assassinated 
(July 16, 1647). During the war for the Span- 
ish succession the people sided with Philip V., 
the Bourbon king; but in 1707 they accepted 
his competitor Charles of Austria, afterward 
emperor of Germany as Charles VI., whose 
title to Naples was confirmed by the treaty of 
Utrecht in 1713, while Sicily was given to Vic- 
tor Amadeus of Savoy. The latter exchanged 
Sicily in 1720 for Sardinia, and the two king- 
doms remained under the rule of Charles VI. 
till 1734, when they were conquered by Don 
Carlos, son of Philip V. of Spain, who was 
crowned at Palermo in 1735 as Charles III., 
and acknowledged as king of the Two Sicilies. 
In 1759, on his succession to the throne of 
Spain, his son Ferdinand IV. became king of 
Naples and Sicily. Under the influence of his 
wife Queen Caroline and her favorite the prime 
minister Acton, he joined the first coalition 
against France, and in 1799 the French estab- 
lished the Parthenopean republic in the Nea- 
politan territory. This was overthrown after 
a few months, and Ferdinand restored. He 
retained the island of Sicily with the assistance 
of England, but after his violation of the treaty 
of Paris which in 1801 he had concluded with 
France, Napoleon deposed the Bourbons, and 
in 1806 gave the throne of Naples to his brother 
Joseph, and in 1808 to Murat. In 1815, after 
the overthrow of Murat, Ferdinand was re- 
stored; and on Dec. 12, 1816, he assumed 
power over the two countries as Ferdinand I. 
of the (united) kingdom of the Two Sicilies. 
He abrogated the constitution which he had 
granted while in Sicily. The rising under Pepe 
in 1820 obliged him to adopt the Spanish lib- 
eral constitution of 1812, but with the aid of 
Austria he soon suppressed it. On his death, 
Jan. 4, 1825, he was succeeded by his son 
Francis I., who had become popular by his 
liberalism, but whose reign was notorious for 
his subserviency to Austria. He died in 1830. 




SICILY 



21 



His son and successor, Ferdinand II. (1830-'59), 
was the most odious of all the Bourbon rulers 
from his sanguinary repression of insurrections 
in Sicily and Naples. His excesses aroused the 
national spirit and paved the way for liberty. 
His son Francis II. adhered to his despotic 
system. In 1860 Garibaldi invaded Sicily, con- 
quered it, and crossed the strait of Messina. 
On his approach in September toward Naples 
Francis fled to Capua. There he rallied an 
army, which was however compelled to sur- 
render with the fortress, Nov. 2, the court 
retiring to Gaiita. The two kingdoms were 
merged with Victor Emanuel's possessions, and 
the flight of Francis from Gaeta and the sur- 
render of that stronghold to Gen. Cialdini, 
Feb. 13, 1861, removed the last obstacles to 
national unity, and Victor Emanuel received 
on Feb. 26 the title of king of Italy. See 
Giannone, Storia civile del regno di Napoli (4 
vols., Naples, 1723 ; new ed., 13 vols., Milan, 
1823 et seq.} ; Colletta, Storia del reame di 
Napoli dal 1734 sino al 1825 (2 vols., Capo- 
lago, 1834; English translation, 1858); and 
Reuchlin, Geschichte Neapeh wahrend der lets- 
ten siebzig Jahre (Nordlingen, 1862). 

SICILY (anc. Trinacria, from its triangular 
shape, Sicania, and Sicilia), the largest island 
of the Mediterranean, forming part of the 
kingdom of Italy, separated from Calabria by 
the strait of Messina, between lat. 36 38' and 
38 18' N., and Ion. 12 25' and 15 40' E. The 
northern side is 180, the southwestern 171, and 
the eastern 113 m. long; area, 11,291 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1872, 2,584,099. The extreme points 
of the island are Capo di Faro or Cape Peloro 
(anc. Pelorus) at the northeast, Cape Passaro 
(Pachynus) at the southeast, and Cape Boeo 
(Lilybceum) at the northwest. It is divided 
into the provinces of Caltanisetta, Catania, 
Girgenti, Messina, Palermo, Syracuse, and Tra- 
pani. Capital, Palermo. The coast has nu- 
merous indentations, the largest of which are 
the gulf of Castellamare on the northwest, the 
gulf of Patti on the northeast, and the bay of 
Catania on the east ; the best harbors are those 
of Palermo, Messina, Agosta, and Syracuse. The 
tides on the coast are slight and irregular. Of 
the two principal currents of the Mediterra- 
nean, that from the Atlantic and that from the 
Black sea, only the first is felt upon the shores 
of Sicily, and in its set through the strait of 
Messina it causes the whirlpool at the N. end 
called by the ancients Charybdis. Most of the 
mountains of Sicily are regarded as part of the 
system of the Apennines. The northern part 
of the island is generally high, the mountains 
in several places coming close to the sea ; but 
in the opposite direction they recede to a con- 
siderable distance, and the coasts are of mod- 
erate elevation. The celebrated volcano Mt. 
Etna rises in solitary grandeur (upward of 
10,800 ft.) from the E. coast, midway between 
the N. and S. extremities of the island. (See 
ETNA.) A range of mountains runs from Cape 
Peloro, on the strait of Messina, to the S. "W., 



following the E. coast to near Taormina, 30 m. 
from Messina, where it is joined by a chain 
from the west which keeps much nearer the 
N. than the S. W. shore, and sends off spurs 
to the coast in the former direction. The 
first chain, now called Pelorian, was anciently 
known as Neptunius Mons ; the second is now 
called Madonian, and was anciently known as 
the Nebrodian. No part of this chain rises 
above 6,300 ft., and in the west it becomes 
much broken. About half way across the isl- 
and a chain of great hills breaks off from the 
Madonian mountains, runs "W. of the high pla- 
teau of Etna to the southeast, and is cut up by 
numerous and precipitous ravines, but sinks 
into a flat country as it approaches the S. E. 
point of Sicily. The island is watered by nu- 
merous streams, the most important of which 
are the Alcantara (anc. Taurominius) and Gia- 
retta or Simeto (Symcethus) on the E. coast, 
the Salso (S. Himera), Platani (Halycus), and 
Belici (ffypsas) on the S. W., and the Termini 
(N. Himera) on the N. They are nearly all 
mere torrents, dry or nearly so in summer, 
but swelling into floods during the seasons of 
heavy rains; and few of them are navigable 
even at their mouths. The largest lake is that 
of Lentini, near the E. coast, between Catania 
and Syracuse; it is about 12 m. in circumfer- 
ence, but shallow and stagnant. Sicily contains 
no strata corresponding to those of the Silu- 
rian, the old red sandstone, the carboniferous, 
or the new red sandstone formation; granite 
and limestone are found in some places, and 
near Etna a large tract is covered with volca- 
nic products. Different kinds of fine stone 
abound, and amber is procured near Catania. 
Small quantities of argentiferous lead, quick- 
silver, iron, copper, and antimony are found, 
but they are seldom worked. The other min- 
erals include marble, petroleum, emery, alum, 
rock salt, agates, and sulphur, the most impor- 
tant of all. The climate is temperate and agree- 
able. The thermometer rarely rises higher than 
92 F. and seldom sinks below 36, and the 
mean annual temperature at Palermo is about 
64. The annual fall of rain is about 26 inch- 
es, nearly all during the winter months. In 
summer the weather is settled, but after the 
autumnal equinox it becomes for a time hazy 
and boisterous. Thunder storms are violent 
and frequent ; and the sirocco, or S. E. wind, 
blowing for three or four days at a time, is very 
distressing in some parts of the island. There 
are two kinds of level ground in Sicily. Of the 
first an example is found in the dreary wastes 
along the S. shore, where the limestone rock 
coming near the surface supports a scanty vege- 
tation ; and of the second in the fertile plains 
of Palermo, Catania, and Castellamare, filling 
up the curves of the mountains which recede 
from the sea. The hilly regions are varied 
with undulating slopes and bold crags, the 
former of which are clothed with forests of 
fine timber, or covered with excellent pastures. 
In the fertile plains cultivation is general, and 



SICILY 

although the mode is rode and careless, the 
cropalre often remarkable for their luxuri- 
ance- the most important are wheat, maize, 
barley, and pulse. Artificial grasses are grown 
to a small extent, and hemp is raised m the 
deeper and lower grounds. The vine and olive 
are extensively cultivated, and often inter- 
mixed. The other productions include sugar, 
cotton, sumach, saffron, manna ob- 
tained from a species of ash (fraxinus ornus), 
an.l the mulberry, which is extensively applied 
to roaring silkworms. Various kinds of fruit 
abound. The most valuable kinds of timber 
are ash, oak, pine, elm, and chestnut. Cattle 
are not numerous, and are generally neglected. 
Sheep are extensively reared, but the breed is 
inferior, and in many places goats are preferred 
to them. Snakes are common in the plains, 
and wolves in the mountains. The population 
is a mixture of many races, but the Sicanians 
or Siculians seem to have been the aborigi- 
nes. Greeks, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals, 
Goths, Herulians, Arabs, and Normans after- 
ward settled among them. The Sicilians are 
of light olive complexion, middle stature, and 
\\c\\ made. The dialect differs considerably 
from the Italian, being much mixed with Ara- 
bic and other languages. They are all Roman 
Catholics, excepting a number of descendants 
of modern Greek settlers, who adhere to the 
Greek church. The unequal distribution of 
landed property, the fatal rule of the Bour- 
bons, the total neglect of education, and other 
untoward circumstances have produced great 
misery in Sicily; but the island is gradual- 
ly improving under Victor Emanuel, although 
brigandage still prevails, especially under a 
wide-spread organization known as the Mafia. 
There are now elementary schools in the vil- 
lages and higher schools in the towns, and 
Palermo has a celebrated university. Industry 
is not much developed, and the manufactures 
arc limited chiefly to the larger towns. The 
\vin> -. of the country are largely exported, along 
with fruit, grain, oil, sulphur, silk, wool, su- 
mach, &c. The fisheries are among the most 

ive in the Mediterranean. The first in- 
habitants of Sicily are supposed to have come 
from the continent of Italy. The Phoenicians 
early founded colonies there, including Panor- 

:mw Palermo) and Eryx. In the 8th 
< '. the Greeks drove them into the 

, and in that and the following two cen- 
turies established several colonies on the coasts, 
such as Zancle or Messana (Messina), Syracuse, 
Leontini (Lentini), Catana (Catania), several 
towns called Hybla, Gela, Selinus, and Agri- 

(Girgenti), of which Syracuse and Mes- 
sana became the most celebrated. The Cartha- 
fled the island early in the 5th cen- 

nd also established colonies, which, after 
long contests with the Greeks, finally fell under 

ver of Syracuse. (See SYRACUSE.) Du- 

nic w.-ir Agrigentum was the 

prin. ipal stronghold of the Carthaginians, but 

* ': the Romans, who subse- 



SICKLES 

quently obtained possession of the whole isl- 
and, afterward their principal granary. On 
the decline of the Roman empire Sicily was 
overrun by barbarians. The Ostrogoths, who 
conquered it at the close of the 5th century, 
were expelled in 535 by the Byzantine general 
Belisarius. The Saracens occupied it about 
830, and made Palermo their capital. In the 
llth century they were driven out by the Nor- 
mans, who established the feudal system, and 
united Sicily to Naples, with which its subse- 
quent history is identified. (See SICILIES, THE 
Two.) Among recent works on Sicily are: 
UHistoire de la Sidle sous la domination des 
Normandy by Bazancourt (2 vols., Paris, 1846) ; 
Storia del Musulmani di Sicilia, by Amaii 
(Florence, 1853); Compendia della storia di 
Sicilia, by San Filippo (7th ed., Palermo, 
1859) ; Neapel und Sicilien, by Loher (2 vols., 
Munich, 1864); Siciliana, by Gregorovius, in- 
cluded in his Wanderjahre in Italien (4 vols., 
Leipsic, 1874) ; " History of Sicily to the Athe- 
nian War," by W. Watkiss Lloyd (London, 
1874) ; and GescJiichte Siciliens im Alterthum, 
by Ad. Holms (3 vols., Leipsic, 1874 et seq.}. 

SICKINGEN, Franz von, a German soldier, born 
in the castle of Sickingen, Baden, March 1, 
1481, died May 7, 1523. lie was rich and dis- 
tinguished for valor and generosity. He en- 
couraged the reformation, protected Reuchlm 
and Ulrich von Hutten, and offered an asylum 
to Luther. In 1513 he declared war against 
the city of "Worms, and subsequently fought 
against the duke of Lorraine, levied large 
amounts of money upon Metz and other cities, 
and laid siege to Mentz, when the quarrel was 
adjusted by the emperor. In 1521 he invaded 
Picardy with the count of Nassau, but was 
forced by a stratagem of the chevalier Bayard, 
and by sickness in his army, to abandon the 
expedition. In 1522 a private dispute brought 
him into war with the archbishop of Treves, 
and he raised an army of 12,000 men and des- 
olated his territories. In 1523 he was besieged 
in his castle Landstuhl near Eaiserslautern, and 
surrendered after receiving a mortal wound. 
He was one of the last nobles who maintained 
in Germany the right of private warfare. His 
descendants became counts of the empire; 
only one branch of them now survives. See 
Ritter Franz von Sickingen und seine NacTi- 
Tcommen, by Schneegans (Creuznach, 1867). 

SICKLE. See SCYTHE. 

SICKLE-BILL. See CURLEW. 

SICKLES, Daniel Ephraim, an American general, 
born in New York, Oct. 20, 1822. He studied 
at the university of New York, but did not 
graduate, and was admitted to the bar in 1844. 
In 1847 he was elected to the state legislature, 
and in 1853 was appointed corporation attor- 
ney in New York city. In the latter year he 
accompanied Mr. Buchanan to England as sec- 
retary of legation. He was elected to the state 
senate in 1855 and to congress in 1856, and re- 
elected to the latter in 1858 and 1860. In 1859 
he shot Philip Barton Key in Washington for 



SICYON 



SIDNEY 



an intrigue with his wife, and was tried for 
murder, but acquitted. On the outbreak of 
the civil war in 1861 he raised the Excelsior 
brigade in New York, and was commissioned 
colonel. In September his nomination as a 
brigadier general of volunteers was rejected by 
the senate, but on its renewal was confirmed ; 
and in the battles of the Chickahominy cam- 
paign he commanded a brigade of Hooker's di- 
vision of the 3d corps. He succeeded Hooker 
in the command of his division, which he led 
in the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg. 
He was commissioned a major general of vol- 
unteers Nov. 29, 1862, and commanded the 
3d corps at Chancellorsville, May 2-4, 1863, 
and at Gettysburg, July 2, where he lost a leg. 
He was appointed colonel of the 42d infantry 
regiment of the regular army, July 28, 1866, 
and was commander of the second military 
district (North and South Carolina) till Aug. 
26, 1867. In 1869 he was appointed minister 
to Spain, which office he resigned in 1874. 
He married a Spanish lady as his second wife. 

SICYOff (now Vasilika), one of the most 
ancient cities of Greece, in the Peloponnesus, 
originally on a plain near the Corinthian gulf. 
Having been destroyed, it was rebuilt by De- 
metrius Poliorcetes on a hill between the Aso- 
pus and Helisson, about 10 m. N. W. of Cor- 
inth. The streets, laid out at right angles, are 
still traceable. Its territory was called Sicyo- 
nia. It was one of the Dorian states, and was 
ruled by tyrants for about a century after 676 
B. C. It joined the Persians in their wars, 
was repeatedly assailed by the Athenians, and 
favored the Spartans in the Peloponnesian 
conflict. Aratus, its general, united it to the 
"Achasan league in 251. It was long a chief seat 
of Grecian art, and had an eminent school, 
founded by Eupompus and including Apelles 
and Pamphilus, and was the model of taste 
and fashion in dress for all Greece. 

SIDDONS, Sarah, an English actress, born in 
Brecknock, South Wales, July 5, 1755, died in 
London, June 8, 1831. The eldest of the chil- 
dren of Roger Kemble (see KEMBLE), at 13 
years of age she took principal parts in Eng- 
lish operas. At 18 she married Mr. Siddons, 
a young actor in the Kemble company. She 
first appeared at Drury Lane theatre Dec. 29, 
1775, as Portia in the "Merchant of Venice," 
but failed to produce a decided impression, 
apparently in great part from timidity, and at 
the close of the season was dismissed. She 
devoted herself anew to study, and, after great 
successes at various provincial theatres, was 
solicited to reappear at Drury Lane. On Oct. 
10, 1782, she began this second engagement as 
Isabella in " The Fatal Marriage," producing a 
profound sensation. At once she stood at the 
head of the British stage, and so continued till 
her retirement from professional life, June 29, 
1812. On this occasion she played Lady Mac- 
beth, and the moment the night scene was over 
the audience rose and demanded that the play 
should close. Mrs. Siddons was of medium 



height, symmetrical and majestic, with corre- 
sponding voice and expression. Her counte- 
nance was of extraordinary flexibility. Her 
genius at first inclined to pathetic characters, 
as Isabella, Ophelia, Jane Shore, Belvidera, or 
Euphrasia, but later to those of power and 
majesty. In some other r61es she was but 
moderately successful. Her private character 
was highly esteemed. 

SIDEREAL TIME. See DAY. 

S1DI MOHAMMED, emperor of Morocco, born 
in 1803, died Sept. 20, 1873. He succeeded to 
the throne in 1859, as the elder son of Abder- 
rahman, and soon afterward was engaged in 
difficulties with France and in a serious war 
with Spain, on account of the depredations 
of the Rif pirates. The Spanish forces under 
Prim and O'Donnell achieved signal victories, 
and the final treaty of April 27, 1860, bound 
the emperor to pay an indemnity to Spain of 
20,000,000 piasters, and to cede her some ter- 
ritory, besides granting her other concessions. 
He afterward strove to secure the good will of 
Christian powers by introducing reforms and 
making concessions to foreigners, which pro- 
duced such discontent among his subjects that 
they nearly drove him from the throne in 1862. 
Yet in 1864 he granted liberty of commerce 
to all European traders in his dominions, and 
the result was repeated insurrections. That 
of 1867, the most formidable, he quelled by 
attacking the insurgents in person at the head 
of a powerful army. He was succeeded by 
his son Muley Hassan. 

SIDMOUTH, Lord. See ADDINGTON. 

SIDNEY, Algernon, an English statesman, born 
about 1622, executed on Tower hill, London, 
Dec. 7, 1683. He was the second surviving 
son of the second earl of Leicester of that 
creation, by the eldest daughter of the earl 
of Northumberland, and grandnephew of Sir 
Philip Sidney. In 1632 he accompanied his 
father to Denmark, where the latter was ac- 
credited as ambassador, and four years later 
to France. In 1641 he served in Ireland as 
captain of a troop of horse in a regiment com- 
manded by his father ; and at the outbreak of 
the civil war, while on his way with his broth- 
er to join the king's forces, he was detained at 
Liverpool by order of parliament. The king 
believed this had been done through the con- 
nivance of the young men, who, resenting his 
distrust, at once declared for the parliament. 
Algernon Sidney was commissioned a captain 
in May, 1644, and fought with gallantry at 
Marston Moor, where he was severely wounded. 
In 1646 he was appointed lieutenant general of 
horse in Ireland, and governor of Dublin. In 
the same year he entered parliament for Car- 
diff, and in May, 1647, received the thanks of 
parliament for his services in Ireland, and was 
made governor -of Dover castle. He acted as 
one of the judges of the king, but refrained 
from signing the warrant for his execution, 
although he subsequently characterized it as 
"the justest and bravest action that ever was 






SIDNEY 



done in England or anywhere else." His op- 
position to the protectorship of Cromwell coin- 
Jelled him to relinquish his legislative duties ; 
d in April, 105S; he retired to his father's 
residence at IVnslmrst. lie resumed his seat 
ii>t meeting of the restored parliament 
in 1659, and on May 13 was nominated one of 
the council of state. On June 5 he was sent as 
one of the commissioners to negotiate a peace 
between Sweden and Denmark, and was ab- 
sent from England at the time of the restora- 
tion. Unwilling to return to his native coun- 
try while it remained under " the government 
of a single person, kingship, or house of lords, 
he remained a voluntary exile for nearly II 
years. Intent upon establishing an English 
republic, in 1665 he sought the assistance of 
the Dutch government and the influence of 
the French ministers toward that end. Fail- 
ing in both instances, he retired to the south 
of France, where he lived till 1677, when, at 
the solicitation of his father (a centenarian), a 
permission for him to return home was ob- 
tained from the king. He soon became an ac- 
tive opponent of the court, but was defeated 
in two attempts to obtain a seat in parliament. 
lie is charged with accepting 500 guineas for 
favoring the intrigues of Barillon, the French 
ambassador, who about this time was in clan- 
destine correspondence with prominent mem- 
bers of the popular party seeking to crush the 
duke of York and the Roman Catholics, the 
parliament, and the ministry. But it has been 
alleged that, if true, the act was not criminal, 
as it required no betrayal of his principles, and 
as he needed the money and its acceptance was 
not repugnant to the practice of the age. The 
discovery of the Rye House plot, in June, 
1683, gave the king an opportunity to exact 
vengeance for years of restraint and humilia- 
tion; and Sidney, with his illustrious compan- 
ion in misfortune, William Lord Russell, was 
arrested on a charge of complicity with the 
conspirators, and imprisoned in the tower. At 
his trial, over which Jeffreys presided, but a 
single living lopil witness to the conspiracy 
for an insurrection, the infamous Lord How- 
ard, could be produced ; but garbled extracts 
from a theoretical work on government in 
manuscript, which had been found among Sid- 
ney's papers, were read in evidence against 
him. These, though containing assertions of 
the right of a people to depose an unworthy 
moonneotea by other evidence 
with the conspiracy itself ; under the ruling of 
.rt, they were nevertheless deemed suffi- 
ieiit to convict. Sidney met his death " with 
the fortitude of a stoic." His attainder was 
reversed b 
Mary. 



by the first parliament of William and 
His "DtooonM concernin Govern- 



concerning Govern- 
ment" were published in 1698, and a fourth 

:. with additions by Thomas Hollis in- 
cluding his "Apology," dated on the day of 

ith, and a number of letters and miscel- 
laneous pieces, in 1772. His "Essay on Vir- 
Uous Love" was published in vol. viii. of the 



Somers collection of tracts (1742). The frag- 
mentary distich, 

. manus hsec inimica tyrannis 
Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietem, 

which he wrote in the university album at 
Copenhagen, is perhaps the best remembered 
extract from his writings. The report of his 
trial, after Jeffreys had struck out whatever 
he pleased, was published in 1684; it is also 
given in "Howell's State Trials." His life 
has been written by George Wilson Meadley 
(8vo, London, 1813), and by G. Van Sant- 
voord (12mo, New York, 1851). See also Ar- 
thur Collins, " Memoirs of the Lives and Ac- 
tions of the Sidneys," prefixed to his " Letters 
and Memorials of State," &c. (2 vols. fol., 
London, 1746), and Blencowe, "Sydney Pa- 
pers" (8vo, 1825). 

SIDNEY, or Sydney, Sir Philip, an English au- 
thor, born at Penshurst, Kent, Nov. 29, 1554, 
died in Arnhem, Holland, Oct. 7, 1586. His 
father, a descendant of Sir William Sidney, 
chamberlain to Henry II., was in his youth 
the bosom friend of Edward VI., and during 
the reign of Elizabeth held for many years the 
office of lord deputy of Ireland. His mother 
was the eldest daughter of the ambitious and 
unfortunate John Dudley, duke of Northum- 
berland, and sister of Robert Dudley, earl of 
Leicester. At the age of 12 Sidney was sent 
to the grammar school of Shrewsbury, and in 
1569 entered Christ Church college, Oxford. 
He subsequently studied at Cambridge, and at 
both universities was distinguished not less 
for preeminence in manly exercises than in 
mental accomplishments. In May, 1572, he 
obtained a license from the queen " to go out 
of England into parts beyond the seas," in or- 
der to perfect his knowledge of the continen- 
tal tongues. At the court of Charles IX. of 
France he attracted the attention of the king, 
who appointed him gentleman in ordinary of 
his chamber ; but the spectacle of the St. 
Bartholomew massacre induced him to depart 
abruptly from Paris, and he travelled through 
Germany, Italy, Hungary, Poland (where he 
took some part in the skirmishes with the 
Russians), and the Low Countries. Returning 
to England at the expiration of three years, 
he at once took his place among the foremost 
of the accomplished Englishmen of the time. 
The queen showed him special favor, and 
called him "her Philip," in opposition, it is 
supposed, to Philip of Spain, her sister Mary's 
husband. In 1576 he was nominated ambas- 
sador to Vienna, ostensibly to condole with 
the emperor Rudolph on the demise of his fa- 
ther, Maximilian II., but with the secret in- 
struction to cement an alliance of the Protes- 
tant states against Spain ; a mission which he 
discharged successfully, gaining the esteem and 
high praise of the prince of Orange. He re- 
turned in 1577, and for the next few years was 
employed in no important public capacity, part- 
ly from his reluctance to give up his literary 



SIDNEY 



SIDOIST 



25 



occupations, and partly, it has been suggested, 
through the machinations of Lord Burleigh. 
But he defended successfully the character of 
his father, whose administration in Ireland 
had been misrepresented by enemies at court. 
When admonished by the queen, in conse- 
quence of a dispute between himself and the 
earl of Oxford, of the difference in degree 
between earls and gentlemen, he replied that, 
"although Oxford was a great lord by birth, 
alliance, and grace, yet he was no lord over 
him; and therefore the difference of degrees 
between freemen could not challenge any oth- 
er homage than precedency." Although the 
answer was taken in good part by the queen, 
Sidney deemed it prudent to retire for a while 
from court ; and while residing at the seat of 
his sister, the countess of Pembroke, he wrote 
his pastoral romance of "Arcadia," which is 
in prose, interspersed with short poems. It 
never received the finishing touches and cor- 
rections of the author, and was moreover left 
incomplete. After circulating in manuscript 
for several years, it was published by the coun- 
tess of Pembroke in 1590; and such was its 
popularity, that previous to the middle of the 
17th century upward of ten editions had ap- 
peared, and a French translation was pub- 
lished in 1624. To this period also probably 
belong the "Defence of Poesie," published in 
1595, and originally designed as an answer to 
the attacks of the Puritans, and the series of 
amatory poems entitled " Astrophel and Stella " 
(1591), which recount the author's passion for 
Lady Bich, sister of Lord Essex, to whom he 
was at one time betrothed. In the intervals 
of his literary occupations he participated in 
courtly pageants and jousts, the most conspic- 
uous of all the brilliant circle who surround- 
ed the throne; and in 1583 he married the 
daughter of Sir Francis Walsingham, and was 
knighted. In 1585 he was nominated governor 
of Flushing, and in the latter part of the year 
appointed general of horse under his uncle the 
earl of Leicester, who was sent with a body 
of English troops to aid the Dutch in their 
war of independence. Sidney was fast build- 
ing up a reputation as a skilful general when 
his career was brought to an untimely close. 
On Sept. 22, 1586, a small detachment of Eng- 
lish troops under his command unexpectedly 
encountered 3,000 Spaniards who were march- 
ing to the relief of Zutphen, and a desperate 
engagement was fought under the walls of the 
fortress, in which the enemy were signally 
defeated. Sidney, seeing the Spanish leader 
going into battle lightly armed, was induced 
by a chivalric spirit of emulation to imitate 
his example ; and after a series of gallant 
charges, in which he had a horse killed under 
him, he received a musket ball in his left thigh. 
While leaving the field, "being thirsty with 
excess of bleeding," says Lord Brooke, "he 
called for drink, which was presently brought 
him ; but as he was putting the bottle to his 
mouth, he saw a poor soldier carried along, 



who had eaten his last at the same feast, ghast- 
ly casting up his eyes at the bottle. Which 
Sir Philip perceiving, took it from his head 
before he drank, and delivered it to the poor 
man, with these words : ' Thy necessity is 
yet greater than mine.' " He lingered several 
weeks in great agony, and met his death with 
Christian serenity, solacing even his last hours 
with literary composition. His body was 
taken to London, and after lying in state was 
interred in St. Paul's cathedral, Feb. 16, 1587 ; 
and a general mourning, the first on record in 
England, was observed. Spenser has embalmed 
their mutual friendship in a pastoral ode en- 
titled " Astrophel." Sidney left an only daugh- 
ter, who became fifth countess of Butland, but 
died without issue ; and his name is now rep- 
resented in the English peerage by Lord De 
1'Isle, a descendant of his brother Kobert. 
His "Complete Works" were published in 3 
vols. 8vo (London, 1725), and .his "Miscella- 
neous Works " were edited with a memoir by 
W. Gray (Oxford, 1829; reprinted, Boston, 
1860). The latest edition of his works is " The 
Complete Poems of Sir Philip Sidney," edited 
by the Kev. A. Grosart, in the " Fuller Wor- 
thies' Library," printed for private circulation 
(2 vols., 1873). His sister MARY, countess of 
Pembroke (died Sept. 25, 1621), is intimately 
connected with his private history. He joined 
with her in a translation of the Psalter " into 
sundry kinds of verse," first printed in London 
in 1823. She wrote an elegy on her brother, 
a pastoral poem in praise of Astrsea (Eliza- 
beth), and a poem " On our Saviour's Passion," 
preserved in manuscript in the British muse- 
um, and published in 1862, besides translating 
from the French the " Tragedy of Antonie." 

SIDON, or Zidcn (Heb. Tzidon, fishery ; now 
Saida), an ancient city of Phoenicia, on the 
coast, 23 m. N. of Tyre. According to Jose- 
phus, it was called Sidon after the first born of 
Canaan, but the name probably has reference 
to the first occupation of its inhabitants. From 
its antiquity it was termed the metropolis of 
Phoenicia. It seems to have been divided into 
Great Sidon, on the sea, and Little Sidon, some 
distance inland. The Phoenicians as a nation 
often designated themselves as Sidonians, and 
were generally called so by neighboring peo- 
ples. The period of the greatest prosperity of 
Sidon, according to the classical historians, 
was from about 1600 to 1200 B. C., during 
which time, as appears from the Egyptian in- 
scriptions, it was more or less under the su- 
premacy of Egypt. At the time of the He- 
brew conquest of Palestine, the rule of Sidon 
extended over the N. W. part of that country. 
The ancient history of the town is in a mea- 
sure that of the whole of Phoenicia, at least 
until the commencement of the supremacy of 
Tyre. (See PHOENICIA, and TYEE.) It flour- 
ished under the Persians, but was destroyed 
in 351 B. C., as a punishment for rebelling 
against Artaxerxes III. Ochus. It was thence- 
forth a provincial capital, but retained its own 



26 S1DONIUS APOLLINARIS 

local government until the time of Roman su- 
pYemacy. Christianity early found an asylum 
We (Ac* xxvii. 8), and a Sidonian bishop is 
mentioned as present at the Nic*an council of 
305 On the rise of Moslem power it read- 
mitted to it. In 1108 it was invested 
J the crullers, ,u..l in 1110 it was taken 
by Baldwin I. The Saracens captured it in 
1187, but the Christians recovered it in 1197. 
They abandoned it in 1291, and Sultan Malek 
\shraf ordered it to be razed. (See SAIDA.) 

xii.oMls IPOLLIMRIS, Cains Sollins Modestos, 
a Latin author and saint, born probably m 
Lyons about A. D. 431, died at Clermont in 
Auvergne, in 482 or 484. He was a diligent 
student, and early acquired a high reputation. 
He married a daughter of Flavius Avitus, after- 
ward emperor, accompanied him to Rome in 
456, and pronounced his panegyric in verse be- 
fore the senate, for which that body erected a 
bronze statue in his honor. He was prefect of 
Rome when Avitus was dethroned by Majorian. 
Si.lonius pronounced at Lyons a public pane- 
.11 the latter, by whom he was created a 
count and sent to govern the Gallic province 
of Aries. In 467 he went to Rome as ambas- 
sador of the Arverni, delivered a panegyric on 
the reigning emperor Anthemius, was made a 
patrician, and governor of the city a second 
time, and was honored with a second statue. 
In 472 he was elected bishop of Clermont 
(Arvernum), though only a layman, accepted 
the office reluctantly, fulfilled its duties faith- 
fully, and strenuously opposed the spread of 
Ariunism. He left nine books of epistles of 
r.)ii-;ilerable historical interest, which, with his 
l and panegyrics, were published in Milan 
in 1498 by Sirmond (Paris, 1614; republished 
by Labbe in 1652, the best edition), and by 
Migno in vol. Iviii. of his Patrologie latine. 
See Saint Sidoine Appollinaire et son siecle, 
by Chaix (2 vols., Clermont-Ferrand, 1867-'8). 
"SIIIRA, Golf of. SeeSYRTis. 
8IEBOLD. I. Pbllipp Franz von, a German trav- 
eller, born inWurzburg, Feb. 17, 1796, died in 
Munich, Oct. 18, 1866. He studied medicine, 
natural sciences, and geography, and in 1822 
went to Batavia as a physician and naturalist 
in th- vice, and in 1823 to Japan as 

a member of the Dutch embassy. In 1826 he 
aid was involved in difficul- 
ties with the Japanese for procuring an official 
map of their country. Finally acquitted, lie 
returned to Europe in 1830, but from 1859 to 
1862 resided again in Japan. He published 
Nippon, Architt zur BttcJireibung ton Japan 
Is., Leyden, 1832-'57); Fauna Japonica 
> with Temminck and others, 1833 et 
.); Flora Japonica (1835 et seq.}; Bibli- 
ttMf" i jointly with J. Hoffmann, 6 

vols., 18;i:t-'41); and several other works on 
; II. Karl Thfodor Krn*t von, :i (u-nnan 

f. brother of the preceding, born in 
'urg, Feb. 16, 1804. After teaching in 
is places, he became in 1853 professor of 
physiology, comparative anatomy, and after 



SIEGE 

ard also of zoology, at Munich. His principal 
works are Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Anato- 
mic der wirlellosen Thiere (Berlin, 1848 ; Eng- 
ish translation, London, 1854), and Beitragc 
eur Parthenogenesis der ArtJiropoden (1871). 

SIEDLCE. I. A W. government of Russia, in 
the kingdom of Poland, bordering on the gov- 
ernments of Lomza, Warsaw, Radom, Lublin, 
Volhynia, and Grodno; area, 5,534 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1872, 543,392. It is level and fertile. 
The chief river is the Bug, which forms the 
E. and N. E. frontier. The principal towns 
are Siedlce, Miendzyrzecz, and Wlodawa. The 
Tovernment embraces the principal portions 
of the former palatinate of Podlachia. The 
more ancient Polish territory of the same 
name, however, lay mainly between the mid- 
dle Bug and the Niemen. II. A town, capital 
of the government, 51 m. E. S. E. of Warsaw, 
with which it is connected by rail; pop. in 
1867, 10,013. It has a fine palace and town 
hall, distilleries, sugar refineries, and manu- 
factories of agricultural implements. During 
the wars between the Russians and Poles it 
was repeatedly taken and retaken. 

SIEGE (Fr. siege, seat), a protracted military 
attack upon a fortified place. Such a place 
may sometimes be taken by throwing in heavy 
projectiles, explosive shells, incendiary balls, 
&c. ; or by completely surrounding it, prevent- 
ing reception of supplies, the defenders may be 
compelled to surrender ; or, advancing by reg- 
ular approaches, the besiegers may breach the 
walls, and carry the place by assault. The 
first is called a bombardment, the second a 
blockade, and the third a siege, which term is 
often also applied to the other two. In a strict 
sense, the term siege signifies the process of 
advancing toward a fortified place under coyer 
of earth thrown up from trenches, silencing 
the fire from the work by a superior one, and 
breaching the ramparts, compelling a surren- 
der or carrying the place by assault. Sieges 
are divided into ancient and modern, or those 
carried on before and after the application 
of gunpowder to military purposes. Ancient 
Sieges. The ancients fortified a place by sur- 
rounding it with a wall of brick or stone, form- 
ing a continuous line around the city or town, 
high enough to render escalade difficult, and 
thick enough to offer considerable resistance 
to the battering ram. Sometimes there were 
two and even three of these walls, often con- 
nected by others to give them greater solidity. 
Outside of the wall was a ditch, always filled 
with water if circumstances permitted. The 
inhabitants were the defenders ; and as their 
lives, liberty, and property were involved, the 
resistance in ancient sieges was more obsti- 
nate and persevering than that usually made 
in modern times. The modes of attack were 
by surprise, aided by treason or particular 
knowledge of unguarded points ; by escalade, 
having surprised the place ; by escalade in an 
assault, having outnumbered and overpowered 
the defenders; by blockade, having deprived 



SIEGE 



27 



them of supplies ; and by regular siege opera- 
tions. When the siege seemed likely to last 
some time, the ancients were in the habit, if 
they expected sorties from the place or an at- 
tempt to relieve it from without, of securing 
their position by a double line of works, of 
circumvallation and countervallation. These 
were generally continuous lines constructed 
of earth, wood, and sometimes of masonry, 
flanked by towers. Annoying the besieged 



with missiles thrown from all the artillery 



known in that day, they pushed forward cov- 
ered approaches on the points of attack. These 
were wooden frames, 7 ft. high, 8 ft. wide, 
and 16 ft. long, mounted on wheels, with a 
roof strong enough to resist the projectiles 
thrown by the besieged. They were covered 
with raw hides or turf, or protected by other 
expedients from being set on fire. The ditch 
when reached was filled with earth, logs, and 
stones, upon which the battering ram could 
be placed in position to breach the wall; or 
a descent was made into it for the purpose 
of undermining the wall. The battering ram 
was ordinarily placed in the lower story of a 
tower and suspended by chains or other mech- 
anism. The tower was high enough to com- 
mand those of the place, and was filled with 
armed men, who drove the defenders away 
from that part of the wall in its front. They 
were frequently aided by other towers pushed 
along on the ground or on inclined planes. 
The besieged, besides shooting lighted arrows 
and throwing incendiary compositions against 
the approaches, made sorties, which were usu- 
ally bloody in their results, for want of cov- 
ered ways or other exterior works beyond the 
ditch. The battering ram being in position, 
the besieged suspended beams of wood, stuffed 
contrivances like huge mattresses, and other 
devices, between the head 01 the ram and the 
all, to deaden its blows. They sometimes 
ed machines on the principle of the crane, 
y means of which they caught the head of 
' .e ram, or even the whole engine, and lifted 
from the ground or overturned it. Archi- 
edes devised such machines for the defence 
f Syracuse when it was besieged by the 
omans, in 214-212 B. 0. The wall being 
reached by the ram, or thrown down by un- 
Brmining, preparations were made to assault 
' e place through the opening. Often, while 
e besiegers were engaged in removing the 
ins from the breaches, so that an assault 
uld be made, the besieged were building a 
ew wall in rear of the breach enclosing the 
attacked, and the whole operation of 
oving forward the battering rams and breach- 
.g the wall had to be renewed. The surren- 
der or capture was generally due to the ex- 
1 austed condition of the besieged, rather than 
to the assaults. It was the custom for the 
besieging army to demand a surrender before 
they began the siege ; and usually the besieged 
offered to capitulate before the final assault 
as made, as a hopeless resistance entailed 



death or slavery on all the defenders. Even 
in modern times the lives of the garrison are 
jeoparded if the besieged delay making terms 
until the final assault is successful. Transi- 
tion Period. The introduction of gunpowder 
in military operations led to the substitution 
of earthen trenches for the wooden covers and 
other ancient expedients, and also replaced the 
battering ram by heavy cannon. In this pe- 
riod, owing to the imperfection of the artil- 
lery, the want of connection between the ap- 
proaches, and other deficiencies in the mea- 
sures of attack, the besieged were often able 
to make a vigorous and prolonged defence, 
and sieges became the most important military 
operations of the time. Before 1741 there 
were more sieges than battles; from 1741 to 
1783 the proportion was 67 sieges to 100 bat- 
tles ; during the French revolution the propor- 
tion was about 25 to 100 ; and during the first 
empire there were only 16 sieges to 100 bat- 
tles. In recent wars these proportions have 
still further diminished. But the necessity for 
sieges still exists, and the rules and practice 
of taking a fortified place still hold a promi- 
nent position in the military art. The present 
method of attacking a fortified place by regu- 
lar approaches is practically that organized by 
Vauban. Previous to his time, the middle of 
the 17th century, although many sieges had 
terminated successfully, there was no uniform 
system in the modes of attack. Vauban is 
especially credited with the invention of rico- 
chet firing, the concentration of enfilading 
batteries, and the systematic arrangement of 
the parallels. Modern Sieges. Let it be sup- 
posed that siege operations are to be conducted 
against a fortified place immediately upon the 
theatre of war. As the operations against a 
place fortified by any of the modern systems 
are governed by the same general conditions, 
and are practically the same until the besieg- 
ers reach the counterscarp of the ditch, the 
methods used will be fully explained by con- 
sidering the mode of conducting an attack on 
a place fortified by the bastioned system. (See 
FORTIFICATION.) To simplify the explanation, 
it is supposed that the front to be attacked 
has the usual outworks and occupies a hori- 
zontal site, and that the cannon used by both 
the besiegers and besieged are the ordinary 
smooth-bore siege artillery. Irregularity of 
site and the use of heavier calibre or rifled 
cannon will only have the effect of increasing 
certain distances and adding to the difficulties 
of the siege, without affecting the principles 
common to them all. As the scarp walls are 
hidden from the besiegers' view by masks of 
earth, the object of the ciege works is to reach, 
under cover, positions where openings in the 
walls can be made either by breaching bat- 
teries or mines ; and under the shelter of these 
approaches troops can be brought up to make 
assaults through the openings. In this front, 
in order to make a breach in the scarp by 
artillery fire that will be practicable for the 



to make 



part of the covered way where the breaching 
,s are to be placed, they mu8 firs be 

taken. The accompanying plan will aid in 
explaining practical siege operations, ihe at- 
SSrS made on bastion A, and as the adm- 
r'cnt demilunes D, D, those on the right and 
left of A, place the covered way of this point 



SIEGE 

vent ingress and egress, the other those re- 
quired to gain possession of the place; but for 
convenience they are ordinarily classed into 
three parts, called the first, second, and third 
periods. The first period comprises the in- 
vestment and the encampment of the besieging 
army around the place; the second all the 
works from the opening of the trenches until 
the completion of the third parallel ; and the 
third all subsequent measures until the place 
is taken. The investment is performed by de- 
taching a strong corps, who, moving quickly 
and secretly, suddenly surround the place, 
seize all avenues of approach, cut off all com- 
munications, and secure everything that may 
be of service to the 
defence. The main 
army follows and in- 
trenches in positions 
around the place out- 
side of cannon range. 
The intrenchments 
ordinarily form two 
lines, between which 
the besieging army 
places its camps, 
and are called lines 
of circumvallation 
and countervalla- 
tion. They may be 
continuous or with 
intervals, the out- 
er line being used 
to prevent succors, 
and the inner to re- 
sist the attacks of 
the garrison. This 
method of construct- 
ing lines and enclo- 
sing the army be- 
tween them was 
used by the an- 
cients, and fell into 
disuse during the 
middle ages. It 
was revived in the 
16th century by the 
princes of Nassau, 
and has been prac- 
tised more or less 
in a reentrant angle, these demilunes must be I ever since. These lines not only enable the 




of attack. B. Adjacent bastion. D. Demilune of front of attack. C. Col 

in'-. K. F. Troncn connecting first and second parallels. K, K. Demi-pa 

M, M, M. Enfilading, counter, and mortar batteries. T. T. Troops, called guards 



1. Half of Plan of regular Approaches against a Front of Attack. 

Demilune of front of attack. C. Collateral 
larnllels. 
of the 
trenches, protecting the workmen on opening the first parallel. 

9. Section showing Slopes and Dimensions of Profile of Approach by simple Trench. 

A bastion corresponding to B, demilunes to C and D, and approaches on the left of A, 

are supposed to be indicated and to form the whole front of attack. 



taken before the bastion can be breached. 
This bast i( Hi and the adjacent demilunes with 
their outworks must be taken by breach or 
anl tin* fire from the collateral de- 
<' and bastion B shown in the plan, 
and the corresponding ones on the left not 
shown, must be kept under by opposing bat- 
teries during those operations, to enable the 
besiegers to carry on their work successfully. 
iches are made on the three salients, 



A. h. !>, m<l thete 



by parallels 



:o bodies of troops to protect the 
workni-n an<l r.-p.-l sorties. The siege opera- 
tions may be divided into two general parts, 
one including all the measures taken to pre- 



besieging army to repulse detachments that 
try to reenforce the place, but are also useful 
where the besieging army is forced to take up 
weak positions to complete the investment. 
The strength of the besieged work, the nature 
of the ground, and the facilities for transport- 
ing troops and supplies from the depots are 
governing considerations in selecting the front 
of attack. Salients are usually the weakest- 
points of a fortification ; low, marshy soil and 
rocky ground present the greatest difficulties 
in constructing siege works. The second pe- 
riod begins with the opening of the trenches, 
which is done by digging a ditch or trench, 
between 600 and 700 yards from the most 




SIEGE 



29 



advanced point of the fortification, from 3 to 
4 ft. deep and 10 to 12 yards wide, and throw- 
ing up the earth in the form of a parapet 
on the side toward the work. This trench 
and all similar ones are constructed according 
to the general rules for throwing up field 
works ; that is, they must afford a shelter from 
the enemy's fire, and permit thosl occupying 
them to use their arms with effect. The trench 
is extended far enough on each side of the 
point of attack to embrace all the positions 
required for batteries to keep down the fire of 
the collateral works. From its being parallel 
to or concentric with a line connecting the 
most salient points of the work, it is called the 
first parallel. At this distance, the fire of the 
besieged upon the workmen in the obscurity 
of twilight and darkness will not be trouble- 
some ; but the distance will be materially af- 
fected by irregularity of site and the size 
and kind of cannon used. At Sebastopol in 
1854 the French established their first paral- 
lels, one at nearly 1,000 and the other at 1,800 
yards, and the English at 1,800 yards, from 
the defences in their front. At Fort Wag- 
ner, Charleston harbor, in 1863, Gen. Gill- 
more opened his first parallel at 1,360 yards 
from the works. Accidents of the ground may 
enable the besieger to place it much closer. 
Communications are opened from the parallel 
to the depots in the rear, by trenches of the 
same general form, so arranged as to avoid an 
enfilading fire from the fortifications. As the 
siegers desire to get as near as they can to 
the point of attack with as little sacrifice of 
life as possible, they make their advances by 
means of trenches similar in form to the par- 
allel. These are pushed forward toward the 
point of attack, running in zigzag directions, 
crossing and recrossing the lines of the capitals 
of the salients, and avoiding enfilading fires 
from any point of the defences within cannon 
range. The approaches, called by many wri- 
ters boyaux or branches, are as a general rule 
not longer than 100 yards, and, starting at the 
first parallel with a front of 60 yards, are nar- 
rowed to 30 yards at the third parallel. In 
this position along the capitals of the salients, 
they are less in the way and less exposed. 
These are shown in the plan, one to each 
salient, or three in this particular case, but 
there should be more if the circumstances re- 
quire them. When advanced not quite half 
way between the first parallel and the fortifi- 
cation, they are connected by a second parallel, 
which in all essential particulars except in ex- 
tent is like the first. Being constructed within 
destructive range of case shot, the flying sap 
is used instead of the simple trench, as more 
speedy cover for the workmen is obtained 
by it, and differs from it only in having the 
interior slope revetted with gabions. Being 
nearer to the first parallel than to the forti- 
fication,^ it is protected from sorties made 
against it in its unfinished condition, and its 
object is to protect the approaches as they are 



pushed forward from it. Vauban prescribes 
that there shall be at least three of these par- 
allels. They serve as places of arms in which 
troops are stationed to protect the workmen 
and to resist sorties, as communications be- 
tween the approaches, and to keep these free 
for the workmen and clear of troops. Only 
th'ree, and the demi-parallels K, K, are shown 
in the plan, but there are often many more. 
At Sebastopol the French constructed sev- 
en, and at Fort Wagner Gen. Gillmore used 
five. Whatever the number, they should be 
placed in good tactical relations with each 
other, not so far in advance that the troops 
occupying the one in the rear cannot come to 
their support before they are reached by a 
sortie from the fortification. The besiegers 
place in front of the second parallel mortar, 
ricochet, and counter batteries, which, firing 
upon the work, break down the palisades, dis- 
mount the guns, and drive away the defenders. 
The use of rifled guns will cause these batteries 
to be placed further away from the work than 
is here represented, probably from 2,000 to 
3,000 yards, in which case they should be en- 
closed in small works with a sufficient ^number 
of men in each to defend them. From the 
nearness to the work, the advance from the 
second parallel can only be made by means of 
saps. These are the flying, single or full, the 
double and half double saps, according to the 
direction and amount of fire to which the ap- 
proach is exposed, and are constructed by en- 
gineer soldiers called sappers. When the foot 
of the glacis is reached, from 60 to 30 yards 
from the salient, the third parallel is con- 
structed, demi-parallels which are long enough 
to contain troops to protect the workmen, and 
short enough not to hinder the fire from the 
batteries, having been made between it and 
the second parallel. The second period ends 
with the construction of th'e third parallel. 
Thus far the advance and progress of the siege 
have been made without any great degree of 
difficulty or danger. This is now changed, and 
if the defence is vigorous future progress must 
be made under a murderous fire from the be- 
sieged, accompanied by many difficulties in the 
construction of the necessary works for pro- 
tection. The advance on the nearest point of 
the covered way from the third parallel is by 
assault or by regular approach. The former 
is more rapid and more brilliant, but is seldom 
successful, and ought never to succeed if the 
besieged are not entirely exhausted and make 
even an ordinary resistance. It has been shown 
in recent wars that a single trench, defended 
by two ranks of infantry armed with the im- 
proved weapons of the present day, is almost 
unassailable by main force. In an attack by 
two divisions of infantry on a continuous 
trench before Petersburg, Va., defended by a 
single line of infantry, the number of the at- 
tacking force killed exceeded the total effective 
strength of the defenders. If it be decided to 
make the assault, the third parallel is arranged 



30 



SIEGE 



with steps on the inner side to allow a detach- 
ment of picked men to sally out at a given sig- 
nal with a front equal to that of the assaulting 
column. They are preceded by engineer offi- 
cers, who mark out the lines for a trench four 
or five yards from the crest of the glacis, and 
extending around the salient place of arms, 
and are followed by a detachment of engineer 
troops to construct it. When everything is 
in readiness, all the batteries open fire on the 
place. At a given signal they cease, and the 
column of assault rushes forward and takes 
poiiession of the covered way. The engineers 
immediately make the sap, into which the 
troops retire if successful, and afterward con- 
nect it by suitable communications with the 
third parallel. The execution of this trench 
around the salient place of arms is called crown- 
ing the covered way. In 1708, at the siege of 
Lille, the covered ways of two of the salients 
of the front of attack were crowned by assault. 
The attack was made at nightfall by 10,450 
men, not counting the troops in the trench- 

y lost 2,000 killed and 4,000 wounded. 
The best engineering authorities are opposed 
to an assault except in case of urgent necessity, 
when a day gained may decide the fate of the 
besiegers themselves, or the time saved by it 
compensates for the immense loss of life that 
must accompany it. If the advance is to be 
made by regular approaches, they are started 
he third parallel by saps, which when 
within 30 yards of the salient are spread out 
in a circular form to enclose it, and high 
mounds of earth, called trench cavaliers, are 
thrown up, by which a command over the 
covered way is obtained. Protected by them, 
the engineers advance their saps to the salients 
and extend them to the right and left along 
the faces, at least as far as the traverses, as in 
the case when the assault was made. As soon 
as this is done, they proceed to establish coun- 
ter and broaching batteries to fire against the 
demilune and bastion. The former are placed 
around the salients so as to fire in the direction 
of the ditches against the portion of the work 
by which they are swept, while the latter are 
placed near the counter batteries and nearly 
opposite to the points where the breaches are 
to be made. Underground galleries are also 

acted, by means of which a descent into 
the ditch can be effected. A breach is con- 
sidered practicable for assault when the in- 
terior of the work is exposed for a width equal 

front of the column of attack and the 

forms a slope of easy ascent. If breaches 
ore to be made at several points, the operations 
should be carried on and the assaults made 
simultaneously. The breach in the demilune 
will l.o rurriM by assault or by regular ap- 
proach, and in all essential things there will be 
' rvrxv in the mode of taking it from that 
describe.! f -r the covered way. As soon as the 
breach is gained, it is crowned, or a lodgment 
made by encircling it with a trench in which 
troops are placed to prevent the besieged from 



SIEGEN 

regaining possession of the work. The demi- 
lune being taken, advances are made against 
the reentrant places of arms and salient of the 
covered way of the bastion, if they have not 
already been crowned. Other batteries are 
established against the faces and flanks of the 
bastion, and operations similar to those already 
described affe carried on against the main work. 
A capitulation will ordinarily follow the crown- 
ing of the breach in the bastion, unless there 
are interior retrenchments, in which case the 
same method of attack will be followed until 
there is no longer any defence between the 
besieger and besieged. The breaches are sup- 
posed to have been made by battering the ram- 
parts with artillery fire. The other method is 
by means of mines, which are rarely used be- 
cause of the slowness of the operation and the 
uncertainty of the result. The explosion of 
the mine gives no practicable slope for the use 
of the assaulting column, and this must be 
made by workmen before it can be used, which 
is very difficult and dangerous. To resist the 
approach of the besiegers, the defence make 
use of mines ; to destroy these, and to advance 
their works, the besiegers also employ them. 
They will be most largely used between the 
third parallel and the main work. The passage 
of the ditch is a difficult and dangerous opera- 
tion, rendered doubly so when the besieged 
have a wet ditch, or can make use of water in 
their defence. In an actual siege, a daily rec- 
ord is made by the engineers of the amount 
of work done and the time required, which 
is transmitted to headquarters and preserved. 
By comparisons of these records and the re- 
sults obtained in engineering schools, the time 
necessary to complete all these works has 
been calculated. This time has been used in 
comparing the relative value of different sys- 
tems or methods of fortification, by submitting 
them to a fictitious siege. It is of no value in 
practice, for the duration of sieges depends on 
laws which no method of calculation can de- 
termine. In order that the besiegers should 
be successful, their numbers and their arma- 
ment should be in excess of those brought to 
resist them, and no fixed rules can be stated 
for this excess. As a general rule, supposing 
the investment to be complete, the besiegers 
should be about six times as numerous as the 
besieged, and should be kept so by sending 
the wounded and sick to the rear and replacing 
them by fresh troops. As the defence have 
not this resource, their numbers constantly 
dwindle until they are exhausted or overpow- 
ered. Among the most celebrated sieges in 
history are those of Babylon, Tyre, Syracuse, 
Carthage, Numantia, and Jerusalem in ancient 
times, and of Constantinople, Antwerp, Ber- 
gen-op-Zoom, Stralsund, Candia, Lille, Buda, 
Schweidnitz, Saragossa, Sebastopol, Vicksburg, 
Strasburg, Metz, and Paris since the introduc- 
tion of gunpowder. 

SIEOE.V, a town of Prussia, in the province 
of Westphalia, on the Sieg, 37 m. S. of Arns- 





SIEGERT 

berg; pop. in 1871, 11,070. It is the chief 
seat of the tanning and leather industry of 
Westphalia, and has large manufactories of 
iron and steel ware, and of linen, cotton, and 
woollen goods. It is rapidly increasing in 
population. Rubens was born here. 

SIEGERT, Karl August, a German painter, born 
in Neuwied in 1820. He studied at Diissel- 
orf under Hildebrandt from 1837 to 1841, 
d subsequently at the academy till 1846, 
avelled in various countries, and in 1851 be- 
e a professor of painting at Diisseldorf. 
e excels in genre pictures. His recent works 
elude "Dinner Hour," "A Welcome Pause," 
Sunday Morning," and " A Lay Brother dis- 
tributing Alms." 

SIEMENS. I. Ernst Werner, a German inven- 
r, born at Lenthe, near Hanover, Dec. 13, 
816. He entered the Prussian army in 1834, 
came an artillery officer in 1838, busied him- 
If with researches in electro-metallurgy, and 
k out in 1841 a patent for electro-plating 
d gilding. From 1844 he had charge of the 
vernment artillery works at Berlin, and also 
evoted himself to perfecting the electric tele- 
In 1848 he laid at Kiel the first sub- 
arine mines exploded by electricity. In 1849 
left the army and founded in Berlin the 
legraph-building establishment of Siemens 
Halske. Among the more important of 
iemens's inventions are: the method of de- 
rmining the position of injuries in subter- 
.ean and submarine lines ; of examining in- 
ated wires ; of charging subterraneous and 
bmarine conductors, in order to lessen the 
urbing influences of induced currents in 
e cables. II. Karl Wilhelm, brother of the 
receding, born at Lenthe, April 4, 1823. He 
.udied at Gottingen, entered the Stolberg ma- 
ine works, and in 1843 settled in London 
a civil engineer. In 1858 he undertook 
management of a London branch of the 
rm of Siemens and Halske of which he had 
'me a partner. With his brother Werner 
e carried on investigations in electro-magnet- 
and several important improvements in 
e manufacture of submarine cables and the 
ode of insulating with caoutchouc were made 
y them jointly. Assisted by his younger 
ther Friedrich (born Dec. 8, 1826), he insti- 
ted in 1846 experiments looking to the dis- 
very of a more perfect combustion of fuel, 
e result was the regenerating gas furnace. 
FURNACE, vol. vii., p. 543.) In perfecting 
is invention all the brothers took part, al- 
ough the chief merit belongs to Wilhelm. 
n 1869 the Siemens steel works were erected 
Landore in Wales, in which nearly 1,000 
-ns of cast steel are produced weekly, partly 
y the Siemens method directly from the ore, 
d partly from cast and wrought iron. Oth- 
inventions of Wilhelm Siemens are : the 
ihometer, a hydrostatic instrument for mea- 
suring depths at sea; the hydraulic brake to 
prevent the recoil of artillery on ships of war; 
a pyrometer (see PYROMETER), &c. Pie has 
743 VOL. xv. 3 



SIERRA 



31 



published dissertations " On a Regenerative 
Condenser" (1850); "On the Conversion of 
Heat into Mechanical Effects" (1853); U 0n 
a Regenerative Steam Engine" (1856); and 
" On the Increase of Electrical Resistance in 
Conductors with Rise of Temperature, and its 
Application to the Measure of ordinary and 
Furnace Temperatures" (1871). 

SIENA, or Sienna. I. A central province of 
Italy, in Tuscany, bordering on Florence, Arez- 
zo, Perugia, Rome, Grosseto, and Pisa; area, 
1,465 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 206,446. It is 
watered by the Ombrone, Orcia, and other 
rivers. The N. E. portion is very mountain- 
ous. There are several lakes. A portion of 
the soil is fertile, producing wheat, olive oil, 
and wine ; a larger portion comprises forests, 
prairies, and pasture grounds; much of it is 
uncultivated. Cattle raising is a chief occu- 
pation. It comprises the districts of Siena 
and Montepulciano. II. A city, capital of the 
province, on two hills in a dreary plain, 31 
m. S. by E. of Florence; pop. in 1872, 22,- 
965. The streets are narrow, and many of 
them too steep for vehicles. The cathedral, 
built in the 13th century, is a fine specimen 
of Italian Gothic, and there are several other 
churches which are rich in works of art. The 
university, which was flourishing in the mid- 
dle ages, has a library of 50,000 volumes and 
5,000 manuscripts. Siena is an archbishop's 
see, and has numerous academies of litera- 
ture, science, and the fine arts. The hos- 
pital of Santa Maria della Scala is one of 
the oldest in Europe. The piazza, del Campo, 
celebrated in Dante's Purgatorio, contains the 
loggia di San Paolo, the seat of a commercial 
tribunal in the middle ages. Siena is a very 
ancient place, as the remains of Etruscan walls 
still visible testify. It was a bishop's see in 
the 6th century. In the middle ages it was a 
powerful republic, and rivalled Florence, with 
which it was often at war. In the struggle 
between the popes and emperors it sided with 
the Ghibelline party, and its soldiers defeated 
the Guelphs at Monte Ap.erto or Montaperti 
in 1260. The council of Pavia, transferred to 
Siena, lasted from June 22, 1423, to Feb. 26, 
1424. A long period of civil war ended in its 
capture by the troops of Charles V. in 1555, 
and it was united with Tuscany in 1557. 

SIERRA, a N. E. county of California, bound- 
ed E. by Nevada, and drained by the North 
and Middle forks of the Yuba river ; area, 830 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 5,619, of whom 810 were 
Chinese. It is situated among the Sierra 
Nevada mountains, and but little of it is less 
than 3,000 ft. above the sea. There are several 
isolated peaks, the most conspicuous of which 
are Table mountain, more than 6,500 ft. high ; 
Saddle mountain, a little lower ; and the Sierra 
buttes, 8,300 ft. high. Nearly the whole county 
is underlaid by auriferous slates, generally cov- 
ered by volcanic accumulations. It is one of 
the chief gold-producing counties in the state. 
The surface is covered with a heavy growth 



32 SIERRA LEONE 

of coniferous trees_. The land suited to -agri- 



culture or grazing is to 

SM, ill valleys and mountain flats.. The climate 
, ntor 1 rigorous. The chief Protons 
I 1870 were 7,794 bushels of wheat 8 250 

3 oato, 10,415 of barley, 8,461 of potatoes, 
89,200 Ibs. of butter, and 7,466 tons of hay 
There were 464 horses, 887 milch cows 2,257 
other cattle, 402 sheep, and 437 swine; 13 saw 

1 machine shop, and 6 quartz mills. 
Capital, Downievffle. 

SIMIRi l.KOW; a British colony on the \V . 
coast of Africa, forming one of the West Af- 
rican settlements. It occupies a small penin- 
sula terminating in Cape Sierra Leone, lat. 8 
l,,n. 18M8' E., and extending JN. to 
the estuary of the same name. Along the 
N bank of this estuary is a narrow strip of 
:-y belonging to the colony, which also 
includes the district around the mouth of the 
Sherbro river, about 70 m. down the coast ; 
area, 468 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 38,936, of whom 
ln7 were Europeans and 1,741 were native 
Christians. The peninsula is mountainous, 
some of the peaks rising to the height of 3,000 
ft. above the sea ; but there are tracts of level 
ground, and several small valleys, the whole 
being well watered and for the most part 
densely wooded. The lower districts are 
purely alluvial, but in the more elevated parts 
the geological formation is volcanic, and iron 
ore occurs. Free Town is the capital, in addi- 
tion to which the colony contains several con- 
si. U-rable villages. The climate is deadly to 
Europeans. The wet season extends from May 
to November inclusive; the average annual 
rainfall is 160 inches, and the mean temper- 
ature not far from 82 F. From February to 
December, 1871, of the 98 Europeans resident 
at Free Town, 24 died, a death rate far ex- 

dim; any other in the British dominions. 

This excessive mortality, however, is confined 
to the coast ; the mountain villages, only 3 or 

4 m. inland from Free Town, are described as 
quite saluhrious. The land breeze, which be- 



ground laden with malaria, and the unwhole- 
Mime mists cling to the lower terraces. The 
not naturally very productive, but cassa- 
da, cacao, maize, ginger, ground nuts, Guinea 
corn, yam-, plantains sugar cane, and fruits are 
.My grown. The principal exports 
are palm oil, nuts, hides and timber; the total 
value of the exports in 1871 was 467,755, 
against imports to the amount of 305,849. 
same year 411 vessels of 110,646 tons 
were entered in the colony, and 409 of 110, 
919 tons were cleared. The established edu- 
'.1 system is inefficient. The colony has 
two bishops of tin- church of England, and 
re 100 Christian ministers of all denom- 
l, many of the most intelligent In-int; 
;t the Mohammedan priests from 
have achi.-v.-d tenfold the success 
Christian iiiU-i.mariei in making con- 
verts. The colonial governor, who is appoint- 



SIEYfcS 

ed by the crown and is officially known as the 
chief administrator, is the executive of all the 
West African settlements. He is assisted by 
a legislative council, of which some of the 
members are pure negroes. The revenue m 
1871 was 80,486, collected partly by import 
duties on spirits, tobacco, and gunpowder, 
while the expenditure amounted to 76,130. 
The settlement was originally formed in 1787 
by Granville Sharp and other British philan- 
thropists, with the view of providing a suit- 
able home for destitute negroes from different 
parts of the world, as well as promoting Afri- 
can civilization. The first foreign inhabitants 
were destitute negroes from London, nearly 
500 in number. These were followed in 1790 
by more than 1,000 freed slaves who had been 
collected in Nova Scotia, in 1800 by about 500 
maroons from Jamaica, and in 1819 by a dis- 
banded West India negro regiment. In 1807 
the Sierra Leone company, which was organ- 
ized by Sharp, Wilberforce, and others, and 
had previously controlled the colony, trans- 
ferred all its rights to the British government. 
From that time until recent years the popu- 
lation was largely augmented by the introduc- 
tion of the negroes taken from slave ships by 
vessels of the British navy. 
SIERRA BIADRE. See MEXICO, vol. xi., p. 465. 
SIERRA MORENA. See SPAIN. 
SIERRA NEVADA. See CALIFOENIA, ROCKY 
MOUNTAINS, and SPAIN. 

si E VKS, Emmanuel Joseph, count, better known 
as abb6, a French statesman, born in Fr6jus, 
May 3, 1748, died in Paris, June 20, 1836. 
After completing his studies in the university 
of Paris, he took orders, received in 1775 a can- 
onship in Brittany, and became in 1784 vicar 
general and chancellor of the bishop of Char- 
tres. The ministry having invited French wri- 
ters to present their views upon the summon- 
ing of the states general, he almost simultane- 
ously published three pamphlets : Vues sur les 
moyena d> execution dont les representants de la 
France pourront disposer en 1789 ; Essai sur 
les privileges, a vindication of the rights of the 
people; and Qu'est ce que le tiers etatf The 
answer to this question, which he summed up 
in "the nation," made him famous as the 
oracle of the revolution. He was elected dep- 
uty to the states general, where he moved that 
the three orders should immediately meet in 
general assembly to verify their powers in 
common; and the privileged orders refusing 
to comply with this motion, he insisted that 
the third should declare itself the "national 
assembly." He drew up the oath taken by 
the deputies, June 20, 1789, and originated the 
organization of the national guards and the 
division of France into departments. In his 
Apercu d'une nouvelle organisation de la jus- 
tice et de la police en France, he proposed jury 
trial in civil as well as criminal cases. He 
was elected president of the assembly in 1790. 
After the flight of the king to Varennes, he 
vigorously opposed the establishment of a re- 



SIGISMUND 



SIGNAL SERVICE 



33 






Ko 
! 



blic. In September, 1792, he took his seat 
n the convention, being elected by three de- 
partments at once. On the trial of the king, 
he at first protested against the unlawful as- 
ption of powers by the convention; but 
Iding to the majority, he sat as one of the 
Budges, and silently voted for death without 
appeal to the people. During the reign of 
terror he gave up his priesthood and pension, 
and skilfully avoided attention, but after the 
'all of Robespierre regained influence among 
e moderate party. He moved the restora- 
n of the surviving Girondists to their seats 
the assembly, and had a large share in the 
ition of foreign policy. On the establish- 
ment of the directorial government he was 
elected one of the five directors, but declined, 
ntenting himself with being a member of 
council of 500. An unsuccessful attempt 
as made to assassinate him in 1797. In 1798 
went as minister to Berlin, and secured the 
trality of Prussia. In May, 1799, he suc- 
ceeded Rewbell as a member of the directory, 
of which he soon became president. After the 
\p d'etat of the 18th Brumaire, of which he 
as one of the originators, the liberal consti- 
.tion prepared by him was altered so as to 
it the aspirations of the first consul; and 
hile Bonaparte seized upon absolute power, 
Sieyes, after having been one of the provision- 
al consuls, had to content himself with a seat 
in the senate, the presidency of which he held 
for a while. He also received as a compensa- 
tion the princely estate of Crosne, with a large 
come. Although he figured among those op- 
nents whom Bonaparte styled ideologists, he 
was afterward made a count. In 1814, while 
absent from the senate, he, through Talley- 
rand's advice, adhered by letter to su<;h mea- 
sures as were taken by that body against the 
emperor, but was nevertheless made a peer 
during the hundred days. He however stood 
aloof, censured the "Additional Act to the 
Constitution of the Empire," and appeared 
neither at the meeting in the Champ de Mai 
nor at the opening of the chambers. On the 
second return of the Bourbons, he sought a 
refuge at Brussels. After the revolution of 
July, 1830, he returned to Paris. One volume 
of his collected works, ^edited by Cramer, ap- 
peared in 1796. See Etude sur Sieyes, by E. 
de Beauverger (Paris, 1851). 

SIGISMUBTD, emperor of Germany, the last of 
the Luxemburg line, born in 1368, died Dec. 9, 
437. He was the second son of the emperor 
arles IV., and became elector of Branden- 
urg, while his elder brother Wenceslas suc- 
ded to the empire in 1378. He was af- 
anced to Mary, daughter of Louis the Great 
>f Hungary and Poland, and was designated 
successor in both kingdoms. But on the 
eath of Louis, in 1382, the Poles rejected 
im, while an adverse party in Hungary raised 
'harles the Little of Naples to the throne, 
harles was assassinated, and Sigismund, hav- 
g espoused Mary, was crowned" king of Hun- 



gary (1387). He fought the Turks, was rout- 
ed by Bajazet at Nicopolis in 1396, and fled 
to Greece ; and when after several years he re- 
turned to Hungary, he had to contend against 
a new rival, Ladislas of Naples, who finally 
withdrew in 1403. In 1400 the incapable em- 
peror Wenceslas had been deposed and suc- 
ceeded by Rupert of the Palatinate, and on 
the death of the latter in 1410 Sigismund and 
his cousin Jodocus of Moravia contested the 
imperial crown. The electors were at first 
divided, but on the death of Jodocus in 1411 
Sigismund was elected. He called a general 
council at Constance, violated the safe-con- 
duct accorded to Huss, and provoked the great 
Hussite war. He succeeded Wenceslas in Bo- 
hemia, received the Lombard crown in 1431, 
and was crowned at Rome in 1433. He was 
succeeded by his son-in-law, Albert II. of 
Hapsburg. 

SIGISMMD L, II., and III., kings of Poland. 
See POLAND, vol. xiii., pp. 645-'6. 

SIGMARINGEN. See HOHENZOLLEEN. 

SIGNAL SERVICE. Organized signal services 
existed in armies from very early periods. 
Polybius (about 200 B. C.) mentions the won- 
derful skill acquired by the signal oorps of his 
day. In later years semaphores were used 
with armies, and codes of flag signals became 
common for fleets. The invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph greatly developed organizations 
of this description. Telegraphic corps are 
now attached to many armies, and field signals 
are widely used. Messages of any description, 
and in words or characters of any language, 
can be sent by signals, by day or night, as far 
as one man can by telescopes or other means 
be made visible to another. The apparatus 
can easily be carried in the hand on horseback 
or on foot. To transmit any message by the 
use of portable signal apparatus, a distance 
of 10 m. would be now considered easy. 
Ranges of from 16 to 20 m. are often reached 
in ordinarily clear weather ; and on the west- 
ern prairies messages have been transmitted 30 
m. by flags. In time of war systems of reports 
are sometimes organized to cover extensive 
sections of territory. In some instances com- 
munication can be had from stations on ele- 
vated points over the heads of an enemy. 
The signal service of the United States army 
'is equipped to maintain communication by 
signals, by telegraph, or by semaphores, be- 
tween officers or the different portions of an 
army or armies, or between armies and fleets. 
In time of peace it transmits intelligence in 
reference to storms or approaching weather 
changes by the display of signals of warning, 
and by reports at the different cities and ports 
of the United States. Maps showing the 
weather conditions are exhibited at board of 
trade rooms, chambers of commerce, and oth- 
er places of resort. Bulletins of data are also 
prominently displayed, and are furnished with- 
out expense to leading newspapers. ^ Signal 
stations are established also in connection with 



SIGNAL SERVICE 



life-saving stations, which are connected by 
telegraph, ami. in addition to displaying storm 
signals and making the regular meteorological 
reports, are required to mako special reports 
upon tempests ut sea, the sea swell, currents, 
. They also summon assis- 
tance to di "tress, either from neigh- 
boring -tat ions or from the nearest 
port. Stations for river reports, to give notice 
of danger-.M" floods r conditions of the rivers 
affecting navigation, are established upon the 
courses of the great interior rivers. The offi- 
cers and men of the signal service are instructed 
for the different branches of the service at the 
.1 of instruction at Fort Whipple, 
i ;it the central office in Washington. 

:v tauu'ht the use of meteorological in- 
struments, the modes of observing, and the 
f.>rms and duties required at stations of obser- 
vation, and for the display of storm signals. 
The fon-e is also drilled with arms and in the 

duties 'of soldiers. The field telegraph 
trains of the signal service are organized for 
use with armies, and are managed by soldiers 
who are drilled to march with, manoeuvre, 
work, and protect them. The trains carry 

: field telegraph lines, which can be very 
qiiii-kh run out at the rate of two 

or three miles an hour. They can be put in 
use for any distance, and as rapidly taken down, 
repacked, and marched off with the detach- 
ment to be used elsewhere. For the duties 
of the observation of storms, and for the dis- 
play of storm signals, all stations communicate 
directly with the signal office in Washington 
over telegraphic circuits arranged with the 
different telegraph companies, or connecting 
with the office at fixed hours each day and 
night. Each station is supplied with the fol- 
instruments: barometer, thermometer, 
maximum thermometer, minimum thermome- 
ter. Robinson's anemometer with electrical at- 
tachment and self-registering apparatus, hy- 
grometer, wind vane, rain gauge, and, on 
stations located on rivers, lakes, or soacoast, 
thermometers designed for taking the temper- 

>f water at different depths. The read- 
ings of these instruments, made three times 
a day at fixed hours, are reported to the cen- 

Tu-o in cipher. The stations at which 
cautionary signals are displayed are equipped 
with Hags and apparatus for exhibiting the 

nary day or night signal. These stations 
are established (with the exception of those 
in the principal cities) solely with reference to 
LMCC of their position for meteoric 
i. Three graphic charts are pre- 
pared at the central office on the receipt of 
each report, as follows: 1. A chart of baro- 
metric pressure-, temperatures, and winds, to- 
gether with t'..- wind velocities at the differ- 
ent stations and tin- precipitation occurring; 
it exhibits the barometric pressures and the 
temperature* in their relation to districts and 
: by a system of isobaric and iso- 
thermal lines, and the wind directions by ar- 



rows at the different stations. 2. A chart of 
the cloud conditions prevailing over the Uni- 
ted States, on which the different varieties and 
amount of clouds visible at the different sta- 
tions appear by symbols; on this chart is also 
indicated the weather as reported at each sta- 
tion, the direction and movement of upper and 
lower clouds, and each morning the minimum 
temperature of the preceding night, in relation 
to districts of territory. 3. A chart showing 
the relative humidities over territorial districts, 
with the temperature at the several stations ; 
this enables studies to be made for territorial 
sections, the difficulties attending the study of 
observations of this character being obviated 
to a very considerable degree by the intercor- 
rections of the stations among themselves, and 
by the great extent of the regions over which 
the readings are simultaneously made. In the 
study of the charts for the reports, the well 
known rules and generalizations established by 
the experience of meteorologists are used. The 
published office report, based upon each gen- 
eral report of observations, consists of a synop- 
sis of the meteoric conditions existing over 
the territory of the United States at the time 
of the report, and a statement of the changes 
likely to occur within the next 24 hours. For 
the purposes of convenient study and of con- 
densed description, the territory of the Uni- 
ted States is arbitrarily divided into districts. 
The reports from the stations, extending over 
territory reaching from the Atlantic to the 
Pacific, and from the capes of Florida into 
British America, are not unfrequently concen- 
trated at the central office in the space of 45 
minutes. In military lines connecting frontier 
posts and lines connecting life-saving stations 
upon the seacoast, the telegraphic duties are 
performed by the men of the signal service. 
The reports are those of readings of the dif- 
ferent meteorological instruments made as 
nearly simultaneously as possible. The re- 
ports, made simultaneously from all the sta- 
tions and received at the central office thrice 
daily, at intervals of about eight hours, are at 
once entered graphically upon synoptic charts 
(the weather maps), and from the study of 
these charts a deduction is had as to probable 
weather changes within the ensuing 24 hours. 
This deduction is furnished to the press and 
is telegraphed to 21 centres of distribution, to 
be there published and distributed in bulletin 
form for the use of farmers. The bulletins 
are displayed at post offices in numerous vil- 
lages in the agricultural districts. In the case 
of serious storms noticed as approaching the 
lakes, or threatening any part of the seacoast, 
cautionary signals are ordered from the cen- 
tral office to be displayed at the different lake 
and sea ports and upon the coasts, as a warn- 
ing to mariners. The fortunate position of 
the territory of the United States and its great 
extent enable a service of this kind to be con- 
ducted with especial advantage. The move- 
ments of the storms over the continent can be 




SIGNALS 



35 



traced upon the charts from report to report, 
and the direction and rate of their progress 
together with their intensity be noted in time 
to give warning of their approach. Floods 
occurring upon the western rivers can be 
traced sometimes from the fall of rain with- 
in the respective watersheds, and along the 
courses of the different confluent streams, un- 
til culminating in the dangerous flood of the 
)rincipal river. In nearly the same manner 
;hat storms can be traced upon the charts, 
ipproaching changes of temperature and rain- 
" 11 are foreseen, and notice is frequently given 
time to prevent injury to agricultural and 
ler interests. In the analyses of the official 
luctions of the office, or the "probabili- 
ies," the percentage of verifications is found 
o have been as follows: 1872, 76'8 per cent. ; 
L873, 77-6 per cent. ; 1874, 84'4 per cent. The 
itionary signal is a red flag with a black 
itre by day, and a red light by night. This 
signal indicates a probability of stormy or dan- 
gerous weather for the port or place at which 
it is displayed, or in that vicinity. "While 
storms of limited extent, such as squalls, ter- 
loes, &c., may spring up suddenly or pass 
stween stations in such a way that their 
>ming or courses cannot be foreseen, exten- 
sive and well defined disturbances can as a 
lie be readily traced in time to forewarn the 
>asts or districts threatened. Arrangements 
ive been made with the chiefs of meteoro- 
^ical services in Europe, in accordance with 
le recommendation of the Vienna conference 
)f meteorologists (1873), providing for the ex- 
mge daily of one report taken at the same 
istant over all the territories of the United 
ites, nearly all Europe, extending through 
iussian Asia to the Pacific coast, and in the 
ior.th.ern portion of Africa. These exchanges 
e made every 15 days by mail. Besides the 
lily bulletins and weather maps, the signal 
See publishes a weekly review of the weather 
rhich is furnished to the press, and a monthly 
3view, accompanied with charts showing the 
)baric and isothermal lines, the prevailing 
(vinds, the tracks of low barometer, and a pre- 
ipitation chart for the month. 
SIGNALS, Fog. See LIGHTHOUSE, vol. x., p. 

SIGNALS, Naval. Naval signals are frequently 
lentioned by the classical writers, and recent 
ivestigation has discovered the fact that the 
Astern which prevailed during the naval su- 
premacy of Greece and Carthage bore a stri- 
king resemblance to our present army code, 
invented by Gen. A. J. Myer, U. S. A. Sig- 
nal flags began to be used in the English navy 
in the time of Elizabeth, or perhaps a little 
earlier. In the reign of James II. their use 
was somewhat systematized, and in 1790 or 
thereabouts, under Earl Howe and Kempen- 
felt, a regular code of day and night signals 
was perfected. Besides flags during the last 
century, arbitrary signs were used as signals, 
which were well known to all seafaring peo- 



ple. The signal to unmoor ship, for example, 
was the loosing of the maintopsail ; that to 
prepare for sailing was loosing the foretopsail 
and firing one gun. In general there are three 
classes of signals : those for the day, made by 
square flags and triangular pennants variously 
colored of red, blue, white, and yellow ; night 
signals, made with colored lights, rockets, &c. ; 
and fog signals made by steam whistles, fog 
horDs, bells, or guns. By means of the "In- 
ternational Code of Signals for the use of all 
Nations," all maritime countries use the same 
kind of signal flags, and having the signal 
book of each country printed in its own lan- 
guage, ships of different nationalities commu- 
nicate as readily with each other as ships sail- 
ing under the same flag. In most systems the 
signal flags represent the numerals from 1 to 
10, and in the signal book, corresponding to 
the numbers from 1 up to several thousand, 
are words and phrases most likely to be used 
by ships. But in the code just referred to the 
consonants of the alphabet were used in pref- 
erence to numerals, by which means it was 
found that with 18 flags more than 78,000 dis- 
tinct signals could be made without displaying 
more than four flags at a time. The number 
of flags and their position are also significant. 
Thus, when but two flags are shown, " danger " 
or " urgency " is implied. If in a signal con- 
sisting of two flags a burgee (a swallow-tail 
flag) is uppermost, it is known at once to be 
an " attention " signal. If a pennant is upper- 
most, it is a compass signal. A square flag 
above indicates an "urgent" signal. JChree 
flags in one hoist express "latitude, longitude, 
time," and all ordinary signals required for 
communications. Four flags indicate geograph- 
ical signals. The flags representing the alpha- 
bet are for spelling out words not found in the 
vocabulary. With a pennant above, the name 
of a ship of war is indicated ; with a square 
flag uppermost, that of a merchant vessel. 
Observing, then, the colors of each flag, we 
seek in the signal book the same combination 
of letters and the corresponding message. Let 
us suppose, for example, that on the meeting 
of two ships at sea one is observed to hoist 
two flags. We know at once, it is an urgent 
signal, and on closer examination find the up- 
per one divided vertically, in white and red, 
the lower one a red burgee. The upper flag 
represents the letter H, the lower one the let- 
ter B. The combination H B in the signal 
book stands opposite the sentence, " Want im- 
mediate assistance." Thereupon the second 
ship hoists a white and red vertical flag (H), 
and beneath a red pennant with white ball in 
centre (F). H F in the signal book corresponds 
to the sentence, " We are coming to your as- 
sistance." As each ship has a signal book 
printed in the language of its country, this 
code furnishes a kind of universal language. 
If the ship first mentioned had found herself 
on a strange coast, she might have made the 
same signal to a shore station, and received 



36 



SIGOURXEY 



the friendly aid of a life boat. Should the 

baU, a long pennant, and a square flag are 
used, know* as "distance signals." In addi- 
m to the above, each national manne has a 
system of signals adapted to its own particular 
3.- not only for holding free communica- 
S?w t ships of a fleet, the transmit- 
ting of orders, conveying of intelligence, Ac., 
hot to enable the corarnander-m-chief of a 
aaval force to signal orders to his ships for the 
various evolutions of naval tactics. A com- 
plete naval signal book comprehends therefore 
a svstem of evolutionary tactics. For night 
signals, red, green, and white lights are used 
to represent those colors in the flags of the 
day signals, the green light taking the place of 
the blue bunting. The night signals known as 
the "Coston lights" are the best in use. The 
greatest improvement of recent times in sig- 
nalling is that made by Gen. A. J. Myer, al- 
ready referred to. For its perfect simplicity 
and comprehensiveness it is now considered 
indispensable to both branches of the public 
service. The letters of the alphabet are repre- 
sented by combinations of the numerals 1 and 
2 for spelling the words of a message. Each 
word is punctuated by a comma represented 
by the numeral 3 ; 1, 2, and 3 being repre- 
sented by arbitrary signs. A, for instance, is 
represented by 2-2, B by 2-1-1-2, by 1-2-1 
&c. ; 8 indicates the end of a word, 3-3 the 
end of a sentence, and 3-3-3 the end of the 
message. There are also abbreviations. The 
signals commonly used to represent these num 
bers are as follows : The signalman, facing his 
correspondent, waves a flag (at night a light 
ed torch) to his right to indicate 1, bringing 
his flag to a rest in a vertical position ; to the 
left to denote 2 ; and to his front for 3. By 
waving his flag or torch to his right and lef 
he spells out the words of his message, using 
frequent abbreviations, so that two exper 
signalmen may transmit long communication 
with great rapidity and exactness. 

SIGW R\EY, Lydla Hnntfcy, an American au 
thoress, born in Norwich, Conn., Sept. 1, 1791 
died in Hartford, June 10, 1865. In 1814 sh 
opened a private school in Hartford, and i 
1815 published "Moral Pieces in Prose an 
Verse." In 1819 she married Charles Sigqur- 
ney, a merchant of Hartford. In 1840 she 
visited Europe, and recorded her reminiscences 
in " Pleasant Memories of Pleasant Lands" 
(1842). She published nearly 60 volumes of 
poems, prose, and selections. Among her 
works are : " Letters to Young Ladies " (1833) ; 
* Pocahontas, and other Poems" (1841) ; " Past 
I); "The Man of Uz, and oth- 
ems" (1862); and her autobiography, 
posthuTr. iii-ly |.uMi-!u-(l mi-lor the title "Let- 
ters of Life" (New York, 1866). 

SIUKN/1 1 l.OX,OR\, Urht. <le, :i M-xi,-:.n 
scholar, born in Mexico in 1645, died there, 



SIKHS 

uff 22 1700. He was chaplain to the arch- 
ishop of Mexico, and taught astronomy and 
mathematics in the university of that city for 
years. King Charles II of Spam created 
him royal cosmographer and mathematician 
Ie had several discussions on the nature of 
comets with Father Kuhn, the colonizer of 
California, and wrote histories of Texas and 
he Chichimecas, an account of the recovery of 
New Mexico after the revolt of 1680, and a 
history of the university of Mexico With 
Juan de Alva Ixtlixochitl he prepared several 
treatises on Mexican antiquities and early 
American history, which perished with his 
ibrary in the great fire of June, 1692. He 
was director of the military school of Mexico 
for several years, and in 1693 was appointed 
to accompany the expedition of Andres de Pes 
against the French settlements in the gulf of 
Mexico. He planned the fortifications of Pen- 
sacola, and soon afterward published maps of 
the bays of Pensacola (Santa Maria de Galve) 
and Mobile, and of the Rio de la Palizada or 
Mississippi. His name was subsequently given 
to one extremity of Santa Rosa island and to 
the fort erected there. He entered the society 
of Jesus in 1693. His principal works are: 
Ver Indicum, Poema sacro-epicum (8vo, Mexi- 
co 1668; 4to, 1680); Expositio Philosophic^ 
adversus Cometas (1681); TriumpTim Parthe- 
nicus (4to, 1684); Libra Astronomica et Philo- 
sophica (1690); Infortunia Alfonsi Ramirez 
circum per Orbem euntis (1693); Mercurius 
wlans et Novum Mexicum restauratum prm se 
ferem (1693); Descriptio Sinus Sanctai Maria 
de Galve (1693); and a topography of Mexico 
and its neighborhood, enlarged and republished 
by Alzate in 1786. 

SIHON, a name applied by some geographers 
to the Sir Darya or Jaxartes. (See JAXAKTES.) 
SIKHS (Hind, sikh, a disciple), a people of 
India, chiefly inhabiting the Punjaub. They 
were originally a religious sect, the founder 
of which was Nanak, a Hindoo of the warrior 
caste, born in 1469 near Lahore, who was a 
deist, advocating the worship of God without 
regard to form as an essential, universal tol- 
eration, and a fusion of Brahmanism and Mo- 
hammedanism, on the basis of a pure mono- 
theism and of human brotherhood. He died 
in 1539, and was succeeded by his son Angad, 
who wrote commentaries upon his father's sys- 
tem, which underwent considerable change at 
the hands of his successors Amardas and Ram- 
das. Arjoon, the son of Ramdas, compiled the 
Sikh doctrines in a volume called Adi-Granth, 
established himself at Amritsir in 1581, and 
organized his followers, who had hitherto been 
only a religious community, into a confedera- 
tion possessing also a political character, of 
which he became the sole chief. As the Sikhs 
rejected alike the Koran and the Yedas, they 
drew down upon themselves the hatred both 
of Moslems and Brahmans ; and notwithstand- 
ing the peaceable increase of the sect up to 
that period, Arjoon was imprisoned by the 



SIKHS 



SILENUS 



37 



Mussulman government, tortured, and put to 
death in 1606. His son, Har Govind, to avenge 
his death, led the Sikhs against their Moham- 
medan foes; but they were driven from the 
region which they occupied about Lahore, and 
forced to find refuge in the mountains in the 
north. In 1675 Guru Govind, a grandson of 
Har Govind, became their tenth theocratic 
chief, gave them a code of laws, and organized 
them as a state. He added to their sacred 
books by writing the biographies of his nine 
)redecessors. He abolished caste, established 
ibsolute equality, and introduced a peculiar 
dress, such as the wearing of blue, peculiar 
customs, such as allowing the hair and beard 
to grow long and uncut, and peculiar require- 
ments, such as that every man should be a 
soldier and always carry steel. He recom- 
menced the struggle against the Mogul em- 
perors, but without avail, 'and was defeated 
and finally murdered by a private enemy. His 
successor, a chief named Banda, renewed the 
contest early in the 18th century, devastating 
"le eastern Punjaub and Sirhind with such suc- 

38 that Bahadoor Shah himself took the field 
gainst the Sikhs, and partially repressed their 
ising power. In 1716 they were overwhelm- 
ingly defeated and almost annihilated. Their 
religious fervor decreased, and for many years 
they did not recover from this blow ; but they 
finally united their roving bands and drove 
the Afghans from the Punjaub in 1764. For 
the following 30 years they were divided into 
L2 small confederations, called misals, which 
rere governed by sirdars or petty chiefs, of 
rhom Maha Singh was the most powerful, 
ifter his death in 1794, his son Eunjeet Singh 
>rought the other sirdars into subjection, and 

meed the Punjaub to his sway. (See RUN- 
SINGH.) When this distinguished Sikh 
;hieftan died, in 1839, his dominions, known 

the kingdom of Lahore, included all the 
>rincipal Sikh states except those E. of the 
Sutlej. They soon fell into anarchy, the pow- 

of the army became supreme, and war with 

e English broke out in 1845. Battles were 
fought and victories won by the British, un- 
~ Sir Hugh Gough, at Moodkee, Dec. 18; 

Ferozeshah, Dec. 21 and 22 ; at Aliwal, 
Ian. 28, 1846; and finally at Sobraon, Feb. 
10, where the Sikhs lost 10,000 men. The 
contest then terminated in a treaty by which 
the greater part of their territory and almost 
their entire government was ceded to the East 
India company. This treaty soon led to new 
complications, and to a second war between 
the British and the Sikhs, beginning in 1848. 
Mooltan was invested in the autumn of that 
year, and taken in January, 1849 ; but the 
British, under Gough, were repulsed and nar- 
rowly escaped disastrous defeat at the battle 
of Chillianwallah, Jan. 13, when they lost 
2,446 killed and wounded. A subsequent vic- 
tory at Guzerat, in February, concluded the 
war ; the Sikh army surrendered, and the Pun- 
jaub was incorporated into the British domin- 



ions. The only portion of the Sikh territories 
remaining independent is comprised in the nine 
small states of Sirhind. The Sikhs were faith- 
ful troops during the sepoy mutiny of 1857, 
and aided materially in its suppression. In 
1868 the number of Sikhs in British India was 
officially stated at 1,129,319. Their ethnologi- 
cal affinities are with the Jats. In spite of the 
destruction of their commonwealth, they main- 
tain their national characteristics, being tall, 
thin, dark, and active, excellent soldiers and 
horsemen, frank, sociable, and pleasure-loving. 
Amritsir is their spiritual capital. 

SIKKIM, a native state of British India, on 
the S. slope of the Himalaya range, bounded 
N. by Thibet, E. by Bhotan, S. by Bengal, and 
W. by Nepaul, between lat. 27 and 28 10' 
N., and Ion. 88 and 89 E. ; area, 2,544 sq. m. ; 
pop. about 7,000, principally mountaineers. 
The surface consists of a series of ranges of 
the Himalaya mountains, which on the south 
rise abruptly from the plains to the height of 
from 6,000 to 10,000 ft., and increase toward 
the north and northwest, where Kintchinjun- 
ga, long believed to be the loftiest point on 
the. surf ace of the globe, attains a height of 
more than 28,000 ft. above the sea. The 
mountains are separated by precipitous ra- 
vines, nowhere wide enough to form plains. 
The drainage belongs to the basin of the Gan- 
ges, toward which it flows by the Teesta, which 
rises in Thibet, and pursues a winding course 
through Sikkim. The mountains are covered 
with vegetation to the height of 12,000 ft., 
and at the lower levels it is often very luxuri- 
ant. Sikkim abounds in fine timber, produ- 
cing oak, walnut, chestnut, and cherry at ele- 
vations of from 6,000 to 8,000 ft., and saul and 
sissoo further down. Copper is the chief min- 
eral product. The soil consists mostly of a 
rich black mould ; and the principal crops are 
millet, maize, and rice, the last of which has 
been cultivated to the height of 8,000 ft. above 
the sea. The aboriginal inhabitants have 
Mongolian features, and speak a Thibetan dia- 
lect. The Gorkhas conquered Sikkim in 1789, 
and it became tributary to them ; but during 
the Nepaul war of 1814 the rajah cooperated 
with the British, and in 1817, after peace was 
concluded, his independence was guaranteed, 
and his dominions were increased by the grant 
of certain tracts of Nepaulese territory. In 
1836 the rajah ceded Darjeeling to the Brit- 
ish, for an annual grant of 300, subsequently 
increased to 600. In 1849 he countenanced 
some outrages on British subjects, which led 
to a temporary forfeiture of this allowance, 
and a further loss of territory. In 1861 he 
opened his dominions to British trade without 
restriction, and in 1872 his allowance was in- 
creased to 1,200. His capital is Tumloong. 

SILEMS, in Greek and Roman mythology, a 
satyr prominent in the retinue of Bacchus. 
He is differently called the son of Mercury 
and of Pan, and is represented as a jovial old 
man with a bald head, a pair of goat's ears, 



38 SILESIA 

and a fat, sensual face, always intoxicated, and 
either mounted upon an ass or carried by sa- 
tyrs In the contest with the giants Bacchus 
2 assisted by Silenus, who slew Enceladus 
Silenus is also represented as an inspired 
prophet, and a sage who despised the gifts of 
fortune. Wln-n he was drunk and asleep, any 
one could compel him to prophesy by sur- 
rounding him with a garland or chain of flow- 
ers. There was a temple sacred to him at 
Elis. Several poems and works of plastic art 
introduced more than one Silenus at a time, 
representing the older satyrs. 

Ml FMA (Ger. Schletien), Austrian, a duchy 
comprising that part of Silesia which remained 
to the house of Austria after the peace of 1763, 
bounded by Prussian Silesia, Galicia, Hungary, 
and Moravia; area, 1,988 sq. m. ; pop. in 1874, 
, of whom about 14 per cent, were Prot- 
. 1 per cent. Jews, and the remainder 
Roman Catholics. Fully one half of the pop- 
ulation are Germans, 29 per cent. Poles, and 
over 19 per cent. Czechs. The Carpathian 
mountains pass through it in the. southeast, 
and the Moravian in the northwest, and it is 
watered by the upper Oder, the Vistula, which 
rises in the province, and other rivers. About 
one third of the territory is cohered with for- 
ests. It is one of the most important grazing 
provinces of Austria. The mining and weav- 
ing industries are important. Before 1849 it 
formed with Moravia a single administrative 
province, and then became a separate crown 
land under the name of the duchy of Upper 
and Lower Silesia. Until 1866 it was one of 
the 11 Austrian states belonging to the Ger- 
man confederation, and since 1867 it has been 
one of the 14 Cisleithan provinces represent- 
ed in the Reichsrath. The principal towns 
are Troppau, the capital, Teschen, Bielitz, and 
Jagerndorf. 

SILESIA, PnwUn. the S. E. province of Prus- 
sia, bounded N. by Brandenburg and Posen, E. 
-sian Poland and Austrian Galicia, S. by 
Austrian Silesia and Moravia, and S. W. and W. 
by Bohemia, the kingdom of Saxony, and the 
Prussian province of Saxony ; area, 15,556 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1871, 3,707,167, of whom 1,760,- 
longed to the Evangelical church, 1,896,- 
186 were Uoinan Catholics, and 46,629 Jews. 
It is divided into the districts of Breslau, Lieg- 
id oppeln. It is separated from the 
Austrian dominions by the Sudetic chain of 
mountain-*. which consist of long well wooded 
ridges with isolated peaks. There are two 
principal groups, the Riesengebirge in the N. 
W. part of the range and the Glatz mountains 
in the opposite direction; the most eU-vated 
peak of the former, the Schneekoppe, is up- 
ward of 5,000 ft. high, and of the latter, the 
iberg, n.-arly 5,000 ft. There are 
valleys of considerable extent. The 
Oder flows through the province in a general 
N. W. .lir.-.-ti.m. and divides it into two nearly 
1 : it on tin- left of the river 
being mountainous, and that on the right flat. 



SILICON 

This level portion is sandy, with extensive 
tracts of heath and stagnant pools. A small 
portion of the S. E. corner is drained by the 
upper course of the Vistula. The mineral 
wealth of Silesia is confined principally to the 
upper or S. E. part of the province. .Gold 
and silver are procured in small quantities; 
copper, lead, and zinc are found; and coal and 
iron are abundant. Quarries of limestone, mar- 
ble and sandstone are worked. Large num- 
bers of cattle and sheep are raised, the wool 
of Silesia being of superior quality, and form- 
ing next to linen the chief export. The prin- 
cipal manufactures are of linen, cotton, and 
woollens, iron, paper, leather, glass, porcelain, 
castings, and sheet iron. Among the principal 
towns, besides Breslau, the capital, are Glogau, 
Liegnitz, Oppeln, and the fortresses Schweid- 
nitz, Neisse, Glatz, and Kosel. Silesia became 
subject to Poland in the 10th century, and in 
1163 it was ruled by three independent Polish 
princes. It was afterward subdivided into 
numerous petty states, which in detail became 
tributary to the king of Bohemia, and fell to 
Austria in 1526. The claims of Frederick the 
Great upon the former duchies of Liegnitz, 
Brieg, Wohlau, and Jagerndorf, founded on 
an old treaty of inheritance, gave rise to three 
wars for the possession of Silesia, the first in 
the years 1740-'42, the second in l744-'5, and 
the last in !756-'63 (the seven years* war). 
By the treaty of Hubertsburg in 1763 the 
province was finally secured to Prussia, except 
the part now known as Austrian Silesia. A 
part of Lusatia was added to it by the treaties 
of 1815. 

SILICA. See SILICON. 
SILICATES, Soluble. See GLASS, SOLUBLE. 
SILICON, or SUieium, the essential constituent 
of silex or flint. It is obtained in a dull brown 
amorphous powder by passing the vapor of 
chloride of silicon over heated potassium or 
sodium contained in a glass tube. It may also 
be obtained from the aqueous solution of the 
gaseous fluoride of silicon. Neutralized with 
solution of potash, this affords a silico-fluoride 
of potassium, which when well dried is mixed 
in a glass or iron tube with T % or T 9 7 of its 
weight of potassium or sodium and heated. 
The silicon set free partially combines with 
the excess of the alkali, from which it is finally 
removed by washing in water. When heated 
in air or oxygen, it burns vividly, and with 
such intense heat as to fuse the external crust 
of silica. In its chemical properties silicon 
exhibits striking analogies with carbon and 
boron. When strongly heated in a close plati- 
num crucible, it becomes darker and of great- 
er specific gravity ; it loses its affinity for oxy- 
gen, so that it will not ignite even if heat- 
ed by the blowpipe and immersed in oxygen, 
and is not attacked by pure hydrofluoric acid. 
If aluminum be substituted for the sodium 
of the above experiment, silicon is obtained 
in a crystalline condition. Two methods are 
employed to prepare crystalline silicon : 1, 



SILICON 



SILISTEIA 



39 



a mixture of 5 parts pulverized glass, 10 
cryolite, 1 part aluminum, and wash the 
roduct with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric 
ids; 2, fuse 15 parts silico-fluoride of sodi- 
a, 20 parts granulated zinc, 4 parts sodium, 
d wash with hydrochloric and nitric acids, 
morphous silicon was discovered by Berze- 
us in 1824, crystalline by Deville in 1855. 
rystalline silicon forms brilliant black scales 
,ving a lustre like that of specular iron -ore, 
metimes prismatic, at others octahedral, foli- 
, graphitic, with a specific gravity of 2-49. 
e symbol of silicon is Si ; atomic weight, 28. 
1 is a poor conductor of electricity, fuses at 
temperature between that of cast iron and 
, is harder than glass, and is insoluble in 
1 acids excepting hydrofluoric and nitric, 
ere were at one time supposed to be three 
odifications of silicon, the amorphous, gra- 
hitoid, and crystalline, but the graphitoid is 
ow regarded as somewhat problematical, 
ilicon belongs to the class of tetrads, being 
uivalent in its most usual combinations to 
r atoms of hydrogen. There is but one 
hydrous oxide of silicon, commonly known 
silicic acid or silica; its formula is Si0 2 . 
Silica, or silicic anhydride, occurs in nature 
dimorphous : 1, in hexagonal prisms with ter- 
minated pyramids, as quartz, rock crystal, smo- 
ky quartz, amethyst, &c. ; 2, in wedge-shaped 
crystals, with sharp angles, or hexagonal tables, 
or in twins (called tridymite), colorless and 
clear as water. The former has the specific 
gravity of 2-6, the latter of 2*3. Its only sol- 
vent among the acids is the hydrofluoric, by 
means of which it is decomposed, and a gaseous 
compound is obtained of its base with the acid. 
When passed into water this combination is 
broken up, and silica is reproduced in the 
form of little bubbles and white flocculi, which 
by washing and igniting become perfectly pure 
and snow-white silica. Pulverized silica, when 
mixed with an alkaline carbonate and fused, 
dispels the weaker carbonic acid, and itself 
combines with the alkali, thus exhibiting its 
properties as an acid. But these are too feeble 
to act upon test paper. An excess of silica in 
the alkaline mixture determines the produc- 
tion of glass, which is insoluble in water or 
common acids ; but if no more silica be added 
to the melted mass after this ceases to effer- 
vesce on its introduction, the product after be- 
ing cooled may be dissolved in water. When 
silica is separated from its alkaline combina- 
tion by hydrochloric acid, it appears before 
evaporation as a jelly, which is a hydrate of 
silica, soluble in a large excess of water ; but 
once deprived of water by heat, it can no more 
be dissolved. Silica of this character is met 
with in several mineral compounds. It con- 
stitutes the opal, in which the proportion of 
water varies from 3 to 10 per cent., and also 
great deposits of a white silicious earth made 
up of infusorial remains. The zeolites are hy- 
drated silicions compounds, which when finely 
Iverized and treated with hydrochloric acid 




swell up into the transparent jelly. Silica is 
an important element in the composition of 
the grasses, and forms in chief part the hard 
external coat of the reeds. It combines with 
bases and forms silicates, among which are 
found a large proportion of the minerals. 
Their variety is multiplied by the number of 
bases, as lime, alumina, magnesia, protoxide of 
iron, and several of the other metals, and by 
the diversity in the relative proportions of the 
different silicates, the substitution of one base 
for another. They comprise the hydrous and 
anhydrous silicates, the former including, be- 
sides those already named, the talcs, serpen- 
tines, and chlorites, and the latter the augites, 
garnets, micas, and feldspars. They are for 
the most part fusible, and those melt easily 
which consist largely of fusible oxides. They 
are decomposed by vegetable acids, and grad- 
ually even by the carbonic acid gas of the 
atmosphere; but at high temperatures in a 
furnace the silica, not being volatile, takes the 
place of most other acids, expelling even sul- 
phuric acid from its combinations. Diatoma- 
ceous or infusorial silica, of which large de- 
posits have been found in Nevada, New Jersey, 
and Virginia, is now employed in the arts for 
a great variety of purposes, among which are : 
as a polish for metals under the name of tri- 
poli or electric silicon ; as a non-conductor in 
refrigerators and fire-proof safes; as an ab- 
sorbent of nitro-glycerine in the manufacture 
of dynamite ; in the manufacture of glass, en- 
amel, pottery, and soluble glass. Chloride of 
silicon, SiCl 4 , is a transparent, colorless liquid, 
with a pungent, acid, irritating odor. It is 
very volatile and fumes strongly in the air, 
and is prepared by the action of chlorine on a 
heated mixture of silica and charcoal. Fluo- 
ride of silicon, SiF 4 , is a colorless gas of a 
peculiar, pungent acid odor, which is evolved 
when equal parts of finely powdered fluor spar 
and silicious sand or powdered glass are mixed, 
in a capacious flask or retort, with 12 times 
their weight of oil of vitriol. The gas was 
converted into a liquid by Faraday. When a 
stream of gaseous fluoride of silicon is trans- 
mitted through water, it is partially decom- 
posed and partially dissolved. Two atoms of 
water react on three of fluoride, and produce 
silico-fluoric or hydrofluosilicic acid, which is 
dissolved, while one third of its silicon is de- 
posited as silica. Efforts have been made in 
metallurgical operations to economize the flu- 
oride of silicon and hydrofluosilicic acid hith- 
erto wasted, and to employ the latter in the 
beet-sugar refinery and for chemical uses. 

SILISTRIA (Turk. Dristra), a fortified town 
of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, on the right 
bank of the Danube, 57 m. N. N. E. of Shumla 
and 230 m. N. N. W. of Constantinople ; pop. 
with the garrison about 20,000. The river is 
here more than 1,200 ft. wide, and studded with 
numerous islands between the town and the 
Wallachian shore. There are several mosques, 
a large Greek church and convent, capacious 



SILK 



40 

barracks, public baths, and a custom house 
with magarines for storing gram and flour It 
as no important manufactures, and the chief 
Sadeis in wood and cattle. It is a very an- 
cient ilace and near the city are remains of 
: r t riJatTol^rectcd during the Byzantine em- 
pi In 971 the emperor John Zimisces here 
routed the Russians under Sviatoslav. It was 
bested by the Russians in 1773, and again 

1779, when they suffered a severe loss It 
c pitulated to them in 1810. In 1828 they 
Send it for several months, and were ob- 
Hgedto retire; but in 1829 it was reduced by 
them, and held for some years as a pledge for 
the payment of an indemnity by the Porte, 
but was eventually returned. In 1849-'53 the 
fortifications were greatly strengthened by the 
addition of 12 detached forts, of which that 
on the hill commanding the town is one ot 
the best military works of the time. In May, 
1854 it was invested by Gortchakoff, and af- 
terward by Paskevitch; but after bombarding 
it for 89 days the Russians retreated with a 
loss of about 12,000 men and most of their 
armament. During the siege the town was 
laid in ruins by the Russian batteries and mines. 

SILK, a fibre obtained chiefly from the co- 
coons of the caterpillar of the mulberry tree 
moth (bombyx mori). The fibre produced by 
other species of the genus bombyx and by other 

rera of the same family is inferior to that of 
mori. For an account of these silk-produ- 
cing insects, see SILKWORM. The spider's thread 
resembles silk in character, but the rearing of 
spiders is so difficult, and the produce of each 
individual so small, that all attempts to convert 
the fibre into textile fabrics have been aban- 
doned. The byssus of the pinna nobilis, a 
shell fish inhabiting the Mediterranean, consists 
of long, silken filaments, which have sometimes 
been woven into fabrics, but rather for curi- 
osity than for use. The manufacture of silk 
doubtless originated in China. It is asserted 
by Chinese historians that the wife of the em- 
peror Hwang-ti (about 2600 B. C.) was the 
first who unwound the silkworm's cocoon. 
As early as the time of Aristotle silken fab- 
rics were woven in the island of Cos, but the 
fibre there' employed appears to have been im 
ported from the country of the Seres (Chinese) 
Later the product of the Coan looms was fa 
mous throughout the Roman empire as Coa 
tetti*, a transparent gauze. The silkworm wa 
unknown to Europe prior to the reign of Jus 
tirii:in (A. D. 627-665), when some "grains' 
or eggs of the insect were brought to Con 
stantinoplo by two Persian monks, the intro 
dm -i ion of the white mulberry following soon 
after. The silk manufacture made rapid prog 
res*, its chief centre-* V-ing Thebes, Corintl 
and Argos. In 1147 many inhabitants o 
m cities who were skilled in this art wer 
taken prisoners by Roger, king of Sicily, au( 
carried to Palermo. The silk industry soo 
spread into Italy, and Venice, Milan, Florence 
and Lucca were distinguished for the exce 



lence of their fabrics. The Moors at an early 
neriod introduced the manufacture into Spam, 
and a flourishing silk trade was already es- 
tablished at Granada when that city was cap- 
tured by Ferdinand the Catholic Louis XI. 
of France in 1480, and Francis I. while the 
French occupied Milan in 1521, introduced 
workmen from, there for the purpose of es- 
tablishing the production of silk m France; 
but the attempts were not successful till Io64, 
hen a gardener at Klines had cultivated the 
vhite mulberry trees and prepared suitable 
ood for the worms. The silk manufacture 
ad a rapid development in the south of 
France and England began to import thence 
ostly fabrics, such as she had previously im- 
orted from Italy and China. The manufac- 
,ure of silk goods made great progress in Eng- 
and during the reign of James I., and it is 
aid that in 1666 the trade had become so im- 
portant as to give employment to 40,000 per- 
ons In 1685 a large body of silk weavers, 
driven from France by the revocation of the 
diet of Nantes, took refuge in England and 
ettled in Spitalfields, London, where they 
established several new branches of the art. 
n 1783 the value of the silk products was rated 
at 3,350,000. James I. early sought to estab- 
ish silkworm culture in the American colonies. 
He himself forwarded eggs to Virginia, and 
high rewards were offered with the hope of 
placing the culture upon a permanent footing. 
But it was all in vain ; tobacco superseded silk, 
n Louisiana the cultivation of silk was intro- 
duced in 1718 by the " Company of the West. 
Government grants were made to the settlers 
in Georgia, to encourage the cultivation of the 
mulberry tree. Artisans were sent to that 
colony in 1732 from different parts of Europe 
to direct the management of the worms and 
winding of the silk, and trees, seed, and silk- 
worm eggs were abundantly furnished. In 
1734 the first export of raw silk, amounting 
to 8 Ibs., was made to England. More was 
sent the next year, and being manufactured 
into organzine by Sir Thomas Lombe, it was 
much admired. At the German settlement of 
Ebenezer, on the Savannah river, the produc- 
tion in 1749 had amounted to over 1,000 Ibs. 
of cocoons, and the silk was so well reeled that 
it commanded in London the highest prices. 
In 1751 the trustees of the Ebenezer settle- 
ment erected in Savannah a public filature or 
silk house, to instruct in the management of 
private filatures. At the end of 1754 the ex- 
ports of raw silk for the four preceding years 
amounted in value to $8,880, and for the next 
18 years the annual exports averaged 546 Ibs. 
The cocoons delivered at the filature in 1757 
were 1,050 Ibs. ; in 1760, 15,000 Ibs. ; and in 
the next eight years they amounted altogether 
to nearly 100,000 Ibs. But when parliament 
in 1766 reduced the price of cocoons from 3. 
(one half of which had been in the way of 
bounty) to Is. Qd., the production rapidly de- 
clined" from 20,000 Ibs. of cocoons in 1766 to 



SILK 



> 



290 Ibs. in 1770. The business was entirely 
broken up by the revolutionary war. In South 
Carolina silk growing was practised before the 
revolution by the Swiss settlers at Perrysburg, 
and also by the French, who wrought it up 
with wool into fabrics. In 1765, 630 Ibs. of 
cocoons were raised upon a plantation in St. 
Thomas parish ; but though some progress con- 
tinued to be made in the business, it was at 
ast brought to an end by the same causes that 
roke it up in Georgia. In Connecticut the 
culture of silk was also undertaken at an early 
period, and was encouraged by the home gov- 
ernment as in the other colonies. Dr. Aspin- 
wall succeeded in establishing the business in 
Mansfield, Conn., where it is still carried on, 
id before the revolutionary war it was already 
a very promising condition. In 1789 about 
iOO Ibs. of raw silk, worth $5 a pound, were 
ade at Mansfield ; it was mostly manufactured 
into stockings, handkerchiefs, ribbons, buttons, 
id sewing silk worth $1 an ounce. In 1790 
about 50 families in New Haven were engaged 
the business, and in Norfolk about 30 fam- 
ilies raised and spun 1,200 " run of silk." In 
1839 the product of Mansfield and its vicin- 
ity is reported to have been about five tons of 
raw silk. In Massachusetts attention was also 
directed to the silk culture in the latter part of 
the last century. The town of Ipswich was 
loted in the manufacture of silk and thread 
lace. A filature was opened in 1770 at Phila- 
lelphia, and 1771 from June to the middle of 
August it received 2,300 Ibs. of cocoons. In 
)me of the interior towns of Pennsylvania, 
Washington in the S. W. part, silk is still 
)roduced to a moderate extent, and not only 
mverted into sewing silk, but also woven. In 
)hio, the E. parts of Kentucky and Tennessee, 
~~.d N. Georgia, the production has proved well 
ted to the soil and climate, and many have 
iticipated for it a great success in this portion 
>f the country. There seem in fact to be no 
tural obstacles to the prosecution of the busi- 
less over all the middle and southern portion 
" the United States. Several species of mul- 
3rry, quite as well adapted for feeding the 
rorms in the early stages of their growth as 
'ie white mulberry, grow wild from Pennsyl- 
vania southward, and are* easily cultivated in 
)ther districts. The foreign species of the tree 
lave also been introduced, and are now almost 
well known as the native sorts. The total 
>roduct of silk raised in the United States in 
[840 was reported at 61,552 Ibs., worth about 
50,000. In 1844, according to the report of 
the commissioners of the census, it was 396,790 
Ibs., worth $1,400,000 ; but in 1850 it was only 
14,763 Ibs. The United States census of 1870 
gives no statistics of native silk culture ; neither 
is there any mention of American silk in the 
"Report of the Silk Association of America" 
for 1875. The growth and manufacture of 
silk have been successfully attempted in Cali- 
fornia. Just before the breaking out of the 
Franco-German war, French cooperation had 



been secured for the establishment of a silk 
colony in San Bernardino co. ; but the project 
failed, owing to the disastrous termination of 
that conflict. There was in San Jose in 1875 
one cocoonery with about 1,000,000 silkworms, 
and a silk manufacturing company has been 
organized in San Francisco. In the same year 
Sonoma co. had an . association for the pro- 
motion of silkworm culture. SILK MANTJFAC- 
TUEE. The cocoons consist of the sheath of 
loose filaments attached to the twigs that sup- 
port the whole, and beneath this the external 
coat of soft flossy silk, within which is the 
compact oval ball, or cocoon proper. The 
thread, as laid by the worm in successive 
coats in his constantly diminishing tenement, 
is not wound regularly around the inside of 
the hollow ball, but is passed back and forth 
in one place after another in such manner 
that many yards may *be wound off without 
turning over the ball. It is produced through 
two orifices in the nose of the worm, and 
the two fibres on issuing forth are secured 
together by the glutinous matter which accom- 
panies them and forms nearly one quarter of 
their weight. The average size of each one of 
the primary fibres is about ^Vs of an inch. 
Raw silk consists of any number of the double 
filaments slightly twisted and agglutinated to- 
gether to form one thread, called single. This 
is commonly of a golden yellow color, of spe- 
cific gravity 1*3, and is the strongest of all 
fibres used for weaving, threads made of it 
being three times stronger than those of the 
same size made of flax, and twice as strong 
as those of hemp. Some of the best cocoons 
are kept for breeding ; the remainder are clas- 
sified, each sort being worked by itself. Be- 
fore the chrysalis matures and the moth can 
begin to eat his way out, the cocoons are ex- 
posed to a moderate degree of heat, either in 
an oven, or in a steam bath, or in water heated 
to about 200 F. The floss covering being 
opened at one end, the cocoon is slipped out, 
and is then ready to be unwound. The co- 
coons are placed about five together in each one 
of four compartments in a sort of trough or 
basin holding hot water, which is kept at the 
necessary temperature by a steam pipe. The 
gummy matters are softened by the water, and 
the fibre is thus released. The ends are caught 
up by a little sort of broom with which the 
cocoons are stirred, and those from each com- 
partment being brought together are passed 
through an eyelet, which strips off a portion 
of the gum, and still more is rubbed off by 
causing the threads formed by each bundle of 
fibres to cross and rub against each other, as 
they are conducted diagonally through a suc- 
cession of eyelets toward the reel, just pre- 
vious to reaching which all are united in one 
thread. The reel is set at some distance from 
the trough, to allow the gum to harden, and 
prevent the threads from sticking together; 
and it has a slight Literal motion, so that the 
threads are laid in spirals, and do not come in 



2 SILK 

contact while fresh from the bath. When a 
a cocoon gives put, afresh 
cocoon is su!.>titMt,-d; and as the inner hbres 
are always much finer than the outer, new co- 
ooons are added before the first lot have been 
unwound. These finer filaments, as also the 
immediate envelope of the chrysalis, constitute 
with the floss silk what is known as waste. 
The raw silk taken off from the reels is in China 
made up into bundles, called books, for expor- 
tation and elsewhere the hanks are simply 
twi<U'd so as to hold snugly together. They 
are then ready for the factory of the silk throw- 
sters, where are conducted the operations con- 
nected with the throwing, a term variously 
used to express the putting a twist into fibres. 
For bandanna handkerchiefs the only prepara 
tion of the silk is winding the hanks and clean- 
ing; bleaching is added for silk intended for 
gauze and similar fabrics. Winding, cleaning, 
and throwing prepare it, under the name of 
thrown singles, for ribbons and common silks. 
If simply doubled before throwing, it is known 
as tram, and is used for the woof or shoot of 
gros de Naples, velvets, and flowered silks. 
The twisting of each strand before doubling, 
as well as afterward, converts it into organzine, 
a strong thread suitable for warp. The wind- 
ing is done from light six-sided reels called 
swifts, upon which the hanks, first washed in 
soap and water, are extended, and rows of 
which are set upon long shafts in an iron frame 
and connected each with its own bobbin, upon 
the top of the frame. The revolution of the 
latter carries around the reel beneath, and the 
movement is properly checked and regulated 
by appliances to the reel. The next process is 
that of cleaning the threads, which is effected 
upon the cleaning, drawing, or picking ma- 
chine. The full bobbins are set horizontally 
upon plain spindles, from which each thread 
is conducted over an iron or glass guide rod, 
thence through an adjustable opening between 
two upright iron blades of an instrument called 
the cleaner, and then to the empty bobbins, 
which by their revolution wind it off from the 
full ones. Knots and other irregularities are 
stopped by the cleaner, and if not brushed off 
they stop the movement of the bobbin until 
they are removed by hand. The spinning or 
rather twisting process is conducted by means 
of machines similar to those used for the same 
purpose in cotton spinning. Doubling is the 
process of bringing two or more of the twisted 
threads into one and winding this. The bob- 
bins of doubled thread are next twisted at the 
spinning frames, which completes the prep- 
aration of silk thread whether for sewing or 
weaving purposes. The American machines 
for doubling and twisting are much superior 
to those used in England, but for winding the 
same are employed in both countries. The 
:<.r.-l l,y dyeing after the gum has 
been removed from it by boiling for three or 
four hours in soap and water. It loses abou 
one quarter its weight by this operation, bu 



SILK SPIDER 

recovers nearly half the loss in the dye stuff it 
absorbs. Waste silk is prepared for spinning 
>y first hackling in the same manner as flax is 
lackled and with the same sort of hand instru- 
ment This is followed by machine hackling 
upon'the filling engine, which more effectually 
combs out the filaments and removes the im- 
purities. The sliver of parallel fibres is then 
chopped into lengths of about 1J in., which after 
scutching, as in the treatment of cotton, are 
converted into a sort of fine down. This is put 
nto bags and boiled, first with soap and water 
for an hour and a half, and afterward with 
jure water. It is then powerfully squeezed 
inder a Bramah press, dried by artificial heat, 
and again scutched. The succeeding opera- 
tions of carding, drawing, and roving by the 
3y frames, and spinning by the spinning mill 
and throstle frames, are similar to those prac- 
:ised in the manufacture of cotton yarns. The 
product is adapted for the manufacture of 
shawls, bandanna handkerchiefs, and similar 
fabrics. In the year ending Dec. 31, 1874, 
there were in the United States 180 silk man- 
ufactories, employing 14,479 operatives of both 
sexes, distributed as follows : Few Jersey 42, 
with 6,414 operatives; New York 70, with 
3,378; Connecticut 21, with 2,651; Pennsyl- 
vania 23, with 1,541 ; Massachusetts 11, with 
1,249; California 3, with 100; Ohio 3, with 
40 ; Illinois 2, with 35 ; New Hampshire, Ma- 
ryland, Vermont, Missouri, and Kansas, each 
1. The total capital invested was $14,708,184 ; 
total value of production, $20,082,482. Of 
this sum, thrown and spun silks amounted_ to 
$3,863,325; sewing silks and machine twist, 
$5,766,684; broad goods and ribbons, $6,154,- 
313; laces, braids, and trimmings, $4,298,196. 
The importations of silk into the United States 
for the year ending June 30, 1875, were as fol- 
lows: raw silk, 1,101,681 Ibs., costing at the 
foreign port of shipment, $4,504,306; sewing 
silk, $30,389; silk, satins, crapes, pongees, 
plushes, ribbons, &c., $19,226,672; gloves and 
hosiery, $71,053; mixed goods, $3,482,369; 
total, $27,314,787. There were imported be- 
sides 398,012 Ibs. of cocoons. The silk crop 
of Europe in the year 1874-'5 was 9,000,000 
Ibs., of which Italy supplied 6,300,000, France 
1,600,000, and Spain about 310,000. The im- 
port from Asia amounted to 11,500,000 Ibs. 

SILK SPIDER (nephila plumipes, Koch), a 
geometric spider of the family epeirida, first 
brought to notice by Dr. B. G. Wilder in 1865 ; 
he discovered it on the sea islands off the coast 
of South Carolina. The female is I'l in. long, 
with a longitudinal spread of legs 2f in., and 
a lateral extent of 3f in. ; the cephalo-thorax 
is black above, mostly covered with silvery 
hairs ; abdomen olive brown, with yellow and 
white spots and stripes ; eye spots black and 
eight in number ; it received its specific name 
from the closely set stiff brushes of hairs on 
the legs. They are found in forests, building 
strong viscid webs, 3 to 4 ft. in diameter, and 
usually over 10 ft. from the ground. The web 



SILKWORM 




s made of a dry, inelastic, silvery gray silk, 
d of a very elastic, viscid yellow silk ; the 
rmer is the supporting radiating framework, 
and the latter forms the concentric entangling 
circles. It sucks out the gum of its old web 
for making a new one ; this is a circle minus 
its upper sextant, 
consisting of a 
continuous spiral 
viscid line laid 
upon the numer- 
ous radii. The 
spider remains 
quiet in its web, 
head downward, 
and is very active 
upon it when a 
fly is entangled ; 
it is slow on the 
ground, and likes 
the full glare of 
the sun. The 
web is never 
vertical, but in- 

Spider, Male and Female, one $$& ^ T" 
half the natural size. gle of 70 ; when 

it is touched, it 

:es its web violently. Like most if not all 
metric spiders, though well provided with 
es, it can distinguish only light ; if the in- 
;t caught happens to be on a radius beyond 
r reach, she cannot see it, and returns to the 
>ntre to shake the web and ascertain what 
dius holds the weight ; two spiders will often 
'proach each other till their legs interlock 
fore they are aware of their proximity, 
earing and touch are acute. The males are 
ly a quarter of an inch long, with the legs 
reading laterally and longitudinally about 
ree fourths of an inch ; the body and legs 
dark brown ; they make no webs, unless 
hen very young, and seem to hang on to that 
some female, or to some part of her body, 
f. "Wilder had an idea that the silk of this 
ider might be useful in the arts, and devised 
veral ingenious ways to procure it. He found 
at from one pair of spinners came white and 
m another yellow silk, which he was enabled 
wind separately by a simple machine to the 
teat of nearly two miles, at 170 revolutions 
minute, in less than five hours of winding 
he could not reel more than 300 yards 
one time ; the diameter varied from -p^Vo" 
ToVo" of an inch, and its strength was very 
eat. For details see the " Popular Science 
:onthly " for April, 1875. 
SILKWORM, the larva of a lepidopterous in- 
sect of the moth division, family ~bom~bycidce, 
and genus lombyx (Schrank). Of all the silk- 
producing larvae, that of the common silkworm 
(B. mori, Schr.) is the most important, as 
from it is obtained all the European and most 
of the Chinese silk. The moth is about an 
inch long and 2 in. in alar extent, of a whitish 
or pale yellowish color, with two or three ob- 

t streaks and a lunate spot on the upper 




wings ; the trunk is very short ; the superior 
wings decumbent, and the inferior extending 
almost horizontally beyond them; the anten- 




Larva, Pupa, Cocoon, and Moth of Eombyx mori. 

na3 of the males are pectinated ; the males fly 
swiftly in the evening and sometimes by day, 
but the females are inactive ; the latter live but 
a few hours after the eggs are deposited on 
the mulberry trees. The eggs are about the 
size of mustard seeds, and the young emerge 
in a few days if the weather or air of the 
breeding room is warm and dry ; when first 
hatched they are one or two lines long, of a 
dark color, and very soon begin to eat vora- 
ciously, with short intervals of abstinence du- 
ring the moultings, until full grown, when they 
are about 3 in. long, light green with darker 
marks, with blackish head, and fleshy protuber- 
ance on the last joint but one ; there are 12 
segments to the body, 9 stigmata or breathing 




Silkworm Moth, Male. 

holes on each side, and 16 legs, of which the 
anterior 6 are hooked, and the others, inclu- 
ding the 2 on the last segment, end in disks ; 



SILKWORM 



the month has a vertical opening, with strong 
d serrated jaws: the stomach is very large, 
SwS?be expected in such a voracious lar- 
vl It lives exposed in the wild state, but 
none of the Chinese or European worms are 
owed to incur the risks of life m the open 
air According to the experiment of Count 
Dandolo, 100 newly hatched silkworms weigh 
1 iin, after the first moult 15, after the sec- 
ond 94 after the third 400, after the fourth 
4 628 and at full size 9,500 grains; each con- 
sumes an ounce of mulberry leaves during 
se stages, about 60,000 times its primitive 
weight, and its length increases from 1 to 40 
lines during the same period; by calculation 
the product of an ounce of eggs eats upward 
of 1,200 Ibs. of leaves, and should furnish 
120 Ibs. of cocoons. Like most other cater- 
pillars, it changes its skin four time-', at in- 
tervals depending on the temperature and on 
the quantity and quality of the food; if kept 
at 80 to 100 F. it moults in half the time re- 
quired at ordinary temperatures. As usually 
treated, the first moult takes place on the 4th 




Silkworm Moth, Female. 

or 5th day after hatching, the second begins on 
the 8th, the third takes up the 13th and 14th, 
and the last happens on the 22d or 23d day ; 
after this the fifth age lasts 10 days, making 
about 32 days for the whole process to matu 
rity. The appetite increases with the size til 
nft-r the fourth moult; during the test 10 
days the silk gum is elaborated, the appetite 
diminishes, and the larva begins to spin its 
cocoon. The spinning apparatus is near the 
mouth and connected with the silk bags, which 
are long, slender, and convoluted, contain 
ing a liquid gum ; they are closed below, anc 
end above in slender tubes, one on each side 
which unite to form the single spinning tube 
the gum from which the silk is produced 01 
contact with th air is elaborated by the Ion; 
glandular organs; every thread of silk i 
made np of two strands. It is customar; 
to supply to the worms a piece of rolle' 
hollow substance into whic 
they . or a convenient twig, for th 

formation of the cocoons. They first mak 
an outer covering of floss silk to keep off th 



ain within this they spin fine silk, bending 
10 head and body up and down and cross- 
ne to every side, entirely surrounding the body 
9 a protection against wind and cold ; and 
within this is a more delicate silk, glued firmly 
ogether for the inner chamber, resisting both 
old air and water. After building the cocoon 
he larva is transformed into a chrysalis, and 
omes forth a moth, easily bursting through 
he case, the silk, and the floss. The cocoon 
esernbles a pigeon's egg, and is from 1 to H 
long, and bright yellow ; the moth emerges 
rom it in from 15 to 56 days, according to 
emperature, the former being the time m the 
outhern United States ; 18 to 20 days is the 
ime in Connecticut, three weeks in France, 
ind five to six weeks in England ; the cocoon 
s made in from a few hours to three days, 
ind is more pointed at one end than the other ; 
he silk is not interwoven nor the glue applied 
at the pointed end, toward which the head is 
always placed. The chrysalis has no spines 
nor serrations on the edge of the abdominal 
rings, has a leathery skin, and the stomach 
illed with a yellowish nutritive fluid ; the or- 
gans of the moth are gradually developed, and 
n two or three weeks the skin of the chrysalis 
jives way, the moth escapes into the cocoon 
chamber, and readily sets itself free, leaving 
within the remains of its former covering. 
[n the wild state the cocoon is made about the 
middle of June. The silk from the cocoons 
containing males is finer and more tenacious 
than that from the female cocoons. It is for- 
tunate that the threads do not adhere as they 
do in the cocoons of many other larvjs, else the 
operation of unwinding would be very difficult 
if not impracticable ; even in the B. mori the 
silk is sometimes coarse and adherent, when 
the quality of the food has not been good. 
Like other caterpillars, the silkworm some- 
times makes mistakes, and two or three are 
occasionally shut up in a single cocoon, in which 
they undergo metamorphosis perfectly well. 
The usual way of throwing the cocoons into 
boiling water kills the chrysalis; but merely 
steaming them over boiling water softens the 
glue sufficiently to allow the unwinding of the 
silk, and permits the moth to come forth alive 
from the interior layer and deposit the eggs or 
prepare for a new brood. The whole secret 
in raising the silkworm consists in securing for 
it warmth, dryness, plenty of proper food, and 
pure air. The mulberry tree, the leaves of 
which constitute the food of the silkworm, 
requires for its perfect growth long continued 
dry and warm weather, and suffers in the rainy 
seasons of England and France ; it is said to 
have no insect feeding upon it but the lomlyx; 
it exhausts the earth where it is planted, as far 
as any other vegetation is concerned ; one tree 
of the M. multicaulis, it is computed, will feed 
as many silkworms as would produce annually 
7 Ibs. of silk. Silkworms are very tender and 
liable to perish from slight changes of temper- 
ature and dampness, from foul air, and im- 



proper or insufficient food ; the periods of the 
moultings are times of sickness and danger ; 
great destruction is caused by a disease called 
muscadine, which is a minute fungus (botrytis 
Bassiana) occupying the interior of the body 
and bursting through the skin. The disease 
called the " reds," manifested by red stains 
and blotches on the skin, is ascertained to be 
due to some acid, resulting from disordered 
digestion ; the larvae seem cramped and stupe- 
fied, the rings dry up, and they look like mum- 
mies. The larvae of several large moths of 
the genus saturnia (Schr.) form cocoons from 
which silk is obtained ; among these are the 
arrindi silkworm, S. [Samia~\ Cynthia (Schr.), 
of India, and the 8. mylitta (Schr.), whose 
moths have an alar expanse of about 8 in., and 
appear to be the wild silkworms of the East. 
The 8. mylitta abounds in Bengal, and yields 
much coarse and dark-colored silk, highly prized 
by the Hindoos ; it cannot be domesticated ; 
the natives catch the caterpillars, put them on 
the asseem trees, and guard them from birds 
by day and bats by night ; the natural food is 
the rhamnus jujuba. The S. Cynthia is do- 
mesticated in the interior of Bengal, on leaves 
of the castor oil plant (ricinus communis or 
palma Christi) and of the ailantus glandulosa ; 
the cocoons are generally about 2 in. long and 
3 in. in circumference, whitish or yellowish, of 
soft and delicate texture. There are eight or 
ten species of. American silkworms ; the cal- 
losamia Promethea and 0. angulifera feed on 
the lilac and wild cherry; others are platysa- 
inia Euryale, P. Columbia, P. Cecropia, and 
tropcea luna ; but practically the larva of telea 
Polyphemus is the only important one. This 
feeds on the leaves of the oak, maple, elm, 
willow, and several other trees. For descrip- 
tions and figures of this species, in all its stages, 
and the method of rearing the larvaa, see 
"American Naturalist," vol. i., 1867. . 

SILLDIAN. I. Benjamin, an American physi- 
cist, born in North Stratford (now Trumbull), 
Conn., Aug. 8, 1779, died in New Haven, Nov. 
24, 1864. He graduated at Yale college in 1796, 
was appointed tutor in 1799, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1802. He accepted the new chair 
of chemistry at Yale college in 1802, and passed 
a part of the next two years in Philadelphia, 
as a student with Dr. Woodhouse. In the win- 
ter of 1805 he gave his first full course of lec- 
tures, and shortly after sailed for Europe. He 
visited the mining districts of England, attended 
lectures in London and Edinburgh, and resumed 
the duties of his professorship after an absence 
of 14 months. He published in 1810 " Journal 
of Travels in England, Holland, and Scotland 
in 1805-'6 " (2 vols. 8vo ; enlarged ed., 3 vols. 
12mo, 1820). Not long after his return he 
made a geological survey of a part of Connec- 
ticut. In December, 1807, a meteorite of great 
size and splendor passed over New England, 
and threw off large fragments with loud ex- 
plosions in the town of Western, Conn. Profs. 
Silliman and Kingsley visited the town and 



SILLIMAN 



procured some fragments ; and Silliman made 
a chemical analysis and published the earliest 
and best authenticated account of the fall of a 
meteorite in America. He afterward assisted 
Dr. Robert Hare in his experiments with the 
oxyhydrogen blowpipe, to which he gave the 
name now commonly used of "compound blow- 
pipe." In 1813 he published in the "Me- 
moirs of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences" an account of his experiments with 
this instrument, by which he had greatly ex- 
tended the list of bodies known to be fusible. 
In 1812 he secured to Yale college the then 
unrivalled mineralogical and geological collec- 
tion made by Col. George Gibbs in Europe. 
In 1822, while engaged in a series of observa- 
tions on the action of a powerful voltaic de- 
flagrator on the model of Dr. Hare, he first 
established the fact of the transfer of particles 
of carbon from the positive to the negative 
electrode of the voltaic apparatus, with the 
corresponding growth of the negative electrode, 
and the retransfer when the charcoal points 
are shifted. In 1818 he founded the "Ameri- 
can Journal of Science and Arts," better known 
both in Europe and America as "Silliman's 
Journal," of which for 20 years he was sole, 
and for eight years more senior editor. He 
was one of the earliest American lecturers on 
scientific subjects to miscellaneous audiences, 
and delivered courses in the principal cities. 
He published an account of a journey between 
Hartford and Quebec (1820), an edition of 
BakewelTs " Geology" (1829), and a text book 
on "Chemistry" (2 vols., 1830). In 1851 he 
again visited Europe, and published " A Visit 
to Europe in 1851 " (2 vols. 12mo, New York, 
1853). In 1853 he resigned his professorship, 
and was made professor emeritus ; but at the 
request of his colleagues he continued to lec- 
ture on geology till June, 1855. His life has 
been written by Prof. George P. Fisher (2 vols., 
New York, 1866). II. Benjamin, jr., an Amer- 
ican physicist, son of the preceding, born in 
New Haven, Conn., Dec. 4, 1816. He gradu- 
ated at Yale college in 1837, became an instruc- 
tor there in chemistry, mineralogy, and geolo- 
gy, and in 1846 was appointed professor of 
chemistry applied to the arts in the scientific 
school of the college, now the Sheffield scien- 
tific school. He became associate editor of the 
"American Journal of Science" in 1838, and 
since 1854 has been associated with Prof. J. D. 
Dana as editor and proprietor. From 1849 to 
1854 he was professor of medical chemistry 
and toxicology in the university of Louisville, 
Ky. ; and in 1854 he succeeded his father as 
professor of general and applied chemistry in 
Yale college, which post he still holds (1876). 
In connection with C. R. Goodrich he prepared 
the "Illustrated Record" and the "Progress 
of Science and Art" published in connection 
with the international exhibition of 1853 in 
New York. He was for several years secre- 
tary of the American association for the ad- 
vancement of science, and had charge of the 



46 SILLOWAY 

publication of its " Proceedings." He is also 
,!ar lecturer. Besides numerous papers 
in the M Aiiu-ri.-uii Journal of Science," ho has 
published " First Principles of Chemistry,' a 
popular text l.u-k (Philadelphia, 1846; revised 
ed., 1856), and "Principles of Physics" (Phila- 
delphia, 1858 ; revised ed., 1868). 

MI.I.OMU, Thonia* Nilliam, an American ar- 
chitect, born in Newburyport, Mass., Aug. 7, 
1828. He lieirari to practise his profession in 
Boston in 1851, and in the 20 years following 
more than 200 church edifices were built or 
reinodelK'l un.ler his superintendence. He de- 
signed the new capitol, Montpelier, Vt. (1859), 
Buchtel colle-c, Akron, O. (1872), &c. While 
pursuing his profession as an architect, he act- 
ed as a Universalist preacher from 1852, and 
was ordained a clergyman in 1862. He has 
published "Theognis, a Lamp in the Cavern of 
Evil " (Boston, 1856) ; . " Text Book of Modern 
Carpentry" (1858); "Warming and Ventila- 
tion" (1860); "Atkinson Memorial," a series 
of 18 discourses (1861) ; " The Conference Mel- 
odist" (1863); "The Cantica Sacra," a book 
of church service (1865) ; and " Service of the 
Church of the Redeemer" at Brighton (1867). 
With George M. Harding he edited an improved 
edition of Shaw's " Civil Architecture " (1852). 
SILPIIHM (Gr. oityiov, the ancient name of 
some resin-bearing plant), a genus of coarse, 
robust, perennial plants of the composite fami- 
ly, which have a copious resinous juice and 
large heads of flowers, resembling those of the 
sunflower, but quite different in structure. In 
sUl>hium the numerous ray flowers are pistil- 
late and fertile; those of the disk, though 
they are apparently perfect, are sterile; the 
broad flat akenes are 
winged and without 
pappus. The genus 
comprises about 20 
species, all North 
American; some are 
very abundant on 
the western prairies, 
while others are 
peculiarly southern. 
The best known 
species is S. lacini- 
atum, called rosin 
weed ; it has a large 
thick root, from 
which arise numer- 
ous radical, long-pe- 
tioled leaves, from 
12 to 80 in. long; 
they are very thick, 
and rough with 
bristly hairs ; their 
general outline is 
rate, but they are deeply pinnatcly cut and 
parted, and the divisions themselves often 
'10 stem, usually 3 to 6 ft. high 
ometimes reaches 11 ft., and bears near its 
>aae numerous leaves similar to those from 
the root, and fewer leaves above. The flower 




Botia Weed (Sllphlum laclnU- 
turn). 



SILURIAN 

heads, borne in a kind of raceme at the upper 
part of the stem, are 3 to 5 in. across, and, as 
in all the other species, yellow. The resiuous 
juice of this and others exudes either sponta- 
neously or from the puncturing of insects, ap- 
pearing in small translucent tears upon the 
stem and foliage. This resin and the plant it- 
self have been regarded as useful remedies in 
asthma and similar diseases of horses. A tinc- 
ture of the root and leaves is sometimes used 
as a domestic tonic and diaphoretic. The erect 
leaves of this plant, Avhen growing in the open 
prairie, commonly stand with their edges point- 
ing north and south ; hence it has been called 
compass plant, pilot weed, and polar plant. 
This species occurs from the prairies of Mich- 
igan southward and westward. A closely re- 
lated species, found from Ohio west and south, 
called prairie burdock or prairie dock, is S. 
terebinthinaceum, having also large and coarse 
leaves, which are not cut, but only serrate on 
the margins, and rough and scurfy especially 
on the under surface ; the tall stems are smooth, 
and the heads of flowers are smaller than in 
the preceding. This species produces resin 
abundantly, the leaves being often sprinkled 
with it. One of the most striking species is 
S. perfoliatum, calle'd the cup plant ; its square 
stem bears opposite leaves, a foot or more 
long ; these are united by their bases around 
the stem, and form a concave disk, which after 
a rain contains a considerable quantity of wa- 
ter. This has a similar geographical range to 
the preceding, but having long been cultivated 
in gardens on account of its curious leaves, it 
has been introduced much further east. 

SILURIAN, the name of one of the geologic 
ages, the age of mollusks and other inverte- 
brates. The name is derived from that of the 
ancient Silures, who inhabited that portion of 
England and Wales where these rocks abound. 
The formation lies upon the Cambrian of Sedg- 
wick, according to some classifications, and im- 
mediately below the Devonian. Murchison in- 
cludes in it the upper Cambrian of Sedgwick. 
The subdivisions of the Silurian age differ in 
Europe and America, and also in different parts 
of the same continent. In North America the 
transition of the rocks and life from the lower 
to the upper Silurian is abrupt. In Great Brit- 
ain the transition in life is gradual, although 
the rocks are unconformable in stratification. 
In Bohemia there is no break in the rocks, but 
there is marked change in the life. Dana has 
adopted the subdivision into periods and epochs 
derived from the succession of rocks in the 
state of New York, where the strata are well 
displayed, and have been carefully studied. 
In this arrangement the lower Silurian, begin- 
ning from below, includes the primordial or 
Cambrian, the Canadian, and the Trenton peri- 
ods ; the upper Silurian embraces, in the same 
ascending order, the Niagara, Salina, lower 
Helderberg, and Oriskany periods. The Oris- 
kany formation was until recently placed as the 
lowest period of the Devonian age ; but from 



SILVER 



the relations of its fossils it has been trans- 
ferred to the Silurian. The Cambrian period 
has two epochs, the Acadian and the Potsdam. 
The Canadian period has the calciferous, the 
Quebec, and the Chazy epochs. The Trenton 
period embraces the Trenton, Utica, and Cin- 
cinnati epochs; the Niagara period, the Me- 
dina, Clinton, and Niagara epochs; while the 
Salina, lower Helderberg, and Oriskany periods 
have each one epoch, correspondingly named. 
The lower Silurian animal fossils are sponges, 
radiates, mollusks, and articulates ; among the 
last are numerous trilobites, a species of which 
found near Braintree, Mass., in the Acadian 
formation, was 20 in. long. The caleiferous 
and Quebec epochs of the Canadian period are 
remarkably rich in fossils and economic pro- 
ducts, the latter including copper and silver 
ores. In Newfoundland the Quebec forma- 
tion reaches a thickness of 6,600 ft., the upper 
half being sandstone and shales and the lower 
half mostly limestones. The Trenton period, 
abounding in fossils and economic products, 
among which is petroleum, has its formation 
along the Appalachians and over a large part 
of the Mississippi basin, including the galena 
limestone of Wisconsin and other states. Tren- 
ton limestone has been found in the arctic re- 
gions, upon King William's island, North Som- 
erset, and Boothia. The Niagara formation in 
North America covers a large part of the inte- 
rior of the continent, and the arctic and other 
parts of British America, and also contains pe- 
roleum. At Niagara falls 85 ft. of limestone 
rest on 80 ft. of shale, and near the falls the 
shale is covered with 165 ft. of limestone. The 
Salina period includes the rocks which yield 
the salt brines of central New York. Through 
the Mississippi basin the Salina formation is 
for the most part absent. This formation con- 
tains numerous beds of gypsum, which are not 
stratified like the other rocks, and have been 
formed by the action of sulphuric acid upon 
limestone, the sulphuric acid being derived fnom 
sulphur springs. The Oriskany period contains 
no land plants in New York, but at Gaspe, prov- 
ince of Quebec, a small species of lycopodium 
or ground pine has been found. The most com- 
mon animal fossils are bivalve mollusks. In 
Maryland there are five species of crinoids, but 
in New York they are rare. The rocks of both 
the lower and upper Silurian are widely dis- 
.tributed over the globe, although the lower are 
the most extensive. The upper Silurian in Eu- 
rope, besides invertebrate fossils, contains the 
vestiges of the earliest fishes, some of which 
are of the shark tribe; so that although the 
Devonian is the age of fishes, they really origi- 
nated in the Silurian. It was formerly thought 
that the Silurian formation contained the ear- 
liest vestiges of organic life, but organic re- 
mains have recently been found in older for- 
mations. (See GEOLOGY, vol. vii., p. 694, and 
PALEONTOLOGY, vol. xii., pp. 811, 813, 816.) 

SILVER, one of the precious metals, distin- 
guished by its whiteness, its brilliant lustre 

74:4 VOL. XV. 4 



when polished, its malleability, and its indif- 
ference to atmospheric oxygen. It is one of 
the most widely distributed of metals. Since 
it occurs frequently in a native state (though 
never chemically pure, being invariably alloyed 
with gold or copper, and sometimes antimony, 
arsenic, bismuth, quicksilver, or iron), and is 
easily fusible, it naturally became known to 
mankind in the earliest ages. The alchemists 
called it Luna or Diana. The Greek name 
apyvpos is from apy<5f, white, and is the source 
of the Latin argentum. Silver is one of the 
first metals named in the Old Testament, being 
included among the enumerated riches of Abra- 
ham. At that period, as in later times, it was 
used as a medium of exchange and as a mate- 
rial in the arts. In Solomon's reign it is said 
to have been so abundant as to be nothing 
accounted of, and the king had made it to be 
as stones in Jerusalem. Among other ancient 
nations it was also abundant. Polybius says 
the tiles upon the roof of the temple at Ecba- 
tana were of solid silver, and the beams and 
pillars of the temple were covered with plates 
of silver and gold. These metals were obtained 
from Nubia, Ethiopia, Attica, Epirus, and the 
distant countries of eastern Asia. The rich 
Spanish silver mines were developed at an ear- 
ly day, and furnished the main supply of the 
metal for Phoenicia, Carthage, and Eome. 
Pliny speaks of a mine opened by Hannibal, 
which supplied him with 300 Ibs. of silver daily, 
and was worked by adits reaching a mile and 
a half into the mountain. This was at Guadal- 
canal, at the foot of the Sierra Morena, in the 
modern province of Seville. Pure silver, in its 
massive state, is the whitest of metals. It takes 
by burnishing a brilliant lustre, though inferior 
to that of its white alloys with copper. W T hen 
granulated by falling molten into water, it ac- 
quires a rough but exceedingly beautiful sur- 
face. Reduced from the chloride in the hu- 
mid way, it appears as a gray, spongy powder. 
It crystallizes in cubes and octahedrons when 
allowed to cool from the molten condition or 
precipitated from solution for instance, by 
copper or zinc. Sometimes it is precipitated 
black by the galvanic current or by zinc. In 
hardness and strength it is superior to gold 
and inferior to copper ; a slight alloy of cop- 
per hardens and strengthens it. In malleability 
and ductility it is inferior to gold only. (See 
METAL.) Leaves less than yrfrWo ^ an i nc ^ 
thick can be obtained by beating, and wires may 
be drawn out of extreme tenuity. Its chemical 
symbol is Ag, its equivalent 108. According 
to G. Rose, the specific gravity of cast silver is 
10-505, of pressed or hammered silver 10-566. 
Other authorities give for the former 10'474, 
and for the latter 10-510. Lengsdorf found 
the specific gravity of silver wire which had 
been repeatedly drawn to be 10*47 before heat- 
ing and 10-43 afterward. The specific heat of 
silver is given by Regnault as 0-057. Its heat- 
conducting power is greater than that of any 
other metal, as is also its power of reflecting 



SILVER 



light and heat when highly polished; but its 
radiating capacity in the same condition is very 
small By virtue of these properties vessels 
of silv, ' adapted to retain the heat 

of liqu -Its at a full red heat, about 

1000* C. (1832 F.). It shrinks in cooling, 
and hence fills but imperfectly the moulds in 
which it is cast. At a very high temperature 
1 itile. Melting silver mechanically ab- 
sorbs 20 volumes of oxygen, which in solidify- 
ing it expels, sometimes with sufficient force 
to throw off particles of metal. Alloyed with 
1 or 2 per cent, of copper or with gold, it ap- 
parently loses this property. Silver is oxidized 
neither by exposure at ordinary temperature 
to dry or moist air, nor by heating in air ; but 
it burns to an oxide when melted upon char- 
coal in the oxyhydrogen flame, or when ex- 
posed to a galvanic current of great intensity, 
or to ozone. Chlorine, bromine, and iodine 
act upon it at ordinary temperatures. It has 
strong affinity for sulphur (with which it can 
be easily fused to a sulphide), and is hence 
readily tarnished by sulphuretted hydrogen, 
which is present in small quantities in the or- 
dinary air of cities. To protect silver vessels 
not in use, they may be wrapped in paper satu- 
rated with wax, which keeps out the impure 
air, or in paper painted with white lead, which 
decomposes sulphuretted hydrogen. Articles 
of food, with the exception of eggs and salt, 
scarcely affect silver, and it is therefore a fa- 
vorite material for table ware. The discolora- 
tion from eggs is due to sulphur ; that from 
salt, to chlorine, which forms argentic chloride. 
This may be removed by rubbing with a linen 
rag moistened with aqua ammonia?. The caus- 
tic alkalies in solution or fusion do not attack 
silver as they do platinum, and it is conse- 
quently employed for the evaporation of such 
solutions, and for crucibles in which minerals 
are fused with potassium or sodium hydrate. 
Silver foil is sometimes used in blowpipe anal- 
yses, for detecting sulphur and the sulphides of 
the metals. Melted with carbonaceous matter, 
silver forms a carburet, white like the metal. 
TliH is also formed when compounds of silver 
oxide are decomposed by organic acids. Silver 
may be easily alloyed by melting with most 
metals. The alloys with base metals are in 
general not useful enough to counterbalance 
the cost of the silver. The alloy with copper, 
which in subordinate quantity enhances the 
valuable qualities of the silver, is an exception. 
The alloys with lead and zinc, serving an im- 
t purpose in metallurgy, will be men- 
tioned further on. An alloy of 100 parts of 
aluminum with 5 of silver gives a handsome 
white malleable compound, susceptible of high 
A small quantity of iron, chromium, 
. <>r nick.-l imparts great hardni-s to 
Steel may be made to retain about 
rij of .,f -ilver, which is sai<l to im- 

prove its quality; the alloy is called silver- 
Combined with m-Tcury, silver forms 
a most brilliant amalgam for mirrors. An 



alloy of 20 to 30 parts of silver with 30 of 
nickel and 50 of copper is said to be equal in 
all respects to the ordinary standard silver, 
which is 9 parts of silver with 1 of copper. 
Small coins have been made in Switzerland of 
an alloy of silver and copper with 10 per cent, 
nickel. Two parts zinc and one part silver 
give a ductile, white, fine-grained alloy. Three 
parts of silver to one of tin give a hard, and 
one part of silver to two of tin a soft alloy. 
Bismuth, antimony, and arsenic yield brittle 
alloys. The alloys of silver and copper are 
the most important of all, being used both in 
coinage and in the arts. The copper alloy is 
harder than pure silver, takes a finer polish, 
and wears better ; and the white color of sil- 
ver may be retained if the contents of copper 
do not exceed a certain proportion, while even 
those alloys containing a larger proportion of 
copper may be so treated by "pickling" in 
acid as to deprive them of copper on the sur- 
face, and thus restore their silver-white color. 
The standard silver for coinage, on the conti- 
nent of Europe and in the United States, is a 
compound of 9 parts of silver to 1 of copper ; 
in England, of 37 silver to 3 copper. For 
plate the legal fineness varies in 'different 
countries, or is, as in the United States, left to 
the choice of the manufacturer. In North 
Germany the usual fineness is inferior to that 
of coin. Silver does not dissolve in any hy- 
drated acids by taking the place of the hydro- 
gen ; on the contrary, hydrogen displaces it 
from the solutions of its salts and precipitates 
it in metallic form. Concentrated sulphuric 
acid oxidizes silver at boiling heat, forming 
argentic sulphate and sulphurous acid. Nitric 
acid, even when diluted with an equal bulk of 
water, acts rapidly upon silver, and at high 
temperature with great violence, argentic ni- 
trate and nitric oxide being formed. A solu- 
tion of chromic acid changes silver to a red 
argentic chrornate. Muriatic acid, even at a 
high temperature, has little effect upon silver. 
Argentic oxide combines at high temperatures 
with silicic acid ; hence, silver heated or melt- 
ed with glass or other silicious compounds be- 
comes oxidized and colors the mass yellow. 
All of the more easily oxidizable metals and 
many compounds susceptible of higher oxida- 
tion (so-called deoxidizing substances), as well 
as many organic substances, precipitate silver 
from solution. Silver forms three oxides: a 
suboxide, Ag 4 O; argentic oxide, AgaO; and 
a peroxide (probably Ag 3 O 3 ), which does not 
combine with acids. The second of these is of 
special interest as the basis of the salts of the 
metal. It is separated from the nitrate, or 
any soluble silver salt, by adding an alkaline 
solution, as a brown hydrated oxide, which 
parts with its water at 60 C. (140 F.), and 
with its oxygen at a red heat. Its solution 
in ammonia deposits on exposure to the air 
a black micaceous powder supposed to be 
a compound of silver oxide and ammonia 
(AguO, H 3 N), or amidide of silver (AgH a N), 



SILVER 



or nitride of silver (Ag 3 N). It is terribly ex- 
plosive, and is hence called fulminating silver 
(Berthollet's). This most dangerous compound 
may also be unintentionally produced by pre- 
cipitating an ammoniacal solution of argentic 
nitrate by the addition of caustic potash. The 
chlorate of this oxide is likewise very explo- 
sive, as is also the fulminate proper (Brugna- 
telii's). (See EXPLOSIVES.) The sulphate is 
formed by treatment of the metal at a high 
temperature with concentrated sulphuric acid. 
Upon this reaction is based one method of 
separating silver and gold. (See GOLD.) The 
nitrate (AgNO s ) is the most important salt 
of silver. (See NITRATES, vol. xii., p. 463.) 
It is employed in the preparation of other 
compounds of silver, the most important of 
which is the chloride, produced by adding to 
the nitrate solution chlorine or a soluble chlo- 
ride, such as common salt. It is a dense white 
flocculent precipitate, which under exposure 
to light turns first violet, then black, proba- 
bly by partial reduction to subchloride. Chlo- 
rine restores the white color. The chloride 
is slightly soluble in boiling concentrated mu- 
riatic acid, more readily in strong solutions 
of chlorides, ammonia, alkaline cyanides, and 
hyposulphites; insoluble in water and dilute 
acids; scarcely affected by any oxygen acid, 
even concentrated sulphuric ; reduced to metal 
by zinc, iron, copper, or any metal more oxi- 
dizable than silver, heated hydrogen, organic 
compounds containing hydrogen, alkalies and 
alkaline earths, and by heating upon charcoal 
before the blowpipe. The insolubility of the 
chloride in oxygen acids permits the precipita- 
tion of silver from solutions of almost all its 
salts by the addition of hydrochloric acid or 
of other chlorides, thus giving a convenient 
means of determining its presence or separa- 
ting it from other metals. On the other hand, 
the solubility of the chloride in brine or so- 
dium hyposulphite constitutes an important 
means of silver extraction by the humid meth- 
od of metallurgy described below. This salt 
occurs in nature as an ore. It is used in pho- 
tography, and its ammoniacal solution is em- 
ployed to color mother-of-pearl. The bromide 
(AgBr) and the iodide (Agl) also occur in na- 
ture, the latter rarely. Their chemical rela- 
tions are similar to those of the chloride, but 
the bromide is but slightly dissolved in dilute 
aqua ammonise, and the iodide scarcely at all. 
They likewise have the property of darken- 
ing by exposure to light. (See PHOTOGRAPHY.) 
The Metallurgy of Silver. Silver is obtained 
partly from true silver ores, partly from other 
ores containing silver as an accidental or varia- 
ble constituent. To the former class belongs 
the native metal, which is usually more or less 
alloyed with gold, and sometimes with other 
metals, as above remarked. The occurrence 
of gold and silver in variable natural alloy is 
so general that they may almost be said to con- 
stitute but one mineral species, ranging from 
silver with a slight trace of gold to gold with 



a slight trace of silver. Native silver is found 
in masses and in arborescent and filiform 
shapes in veins of quartz, calcite, &c., or as 
segregations accompanying other silver ores. 
The masses are sometimes crystalline, show- 
ing cubical and octahedral forms. Very pure 
silver occurs with the native copper at Lake 
Superior. The most famous masses of native 
silver, several of which exceeded 500 Ibs., have 
been found at the mines of Kongsberg in Nor- 
way, of Freiberg, Schneeberg, and Johann- 
Georgenstadt in Saxony, and in the Bohemian, 
Hungarian, Peruvian, and Mexican mines. In 
the silver mines of Nevada, Idaho, and Utah it 
is not uncommon, though it has not been found 
in large masses. Silver amalgam occurs in 
small quantities in some European mines, and 
contains 26 to 35 per cent. of silver, the re- 
mainder being mercury. The variety known 
as arguerite, from Coquimbo in Chili, is an 
important ore in that region, and contains 43 
to 63 per cent, of silver. The antimoniuret 
and the telluret of silver are comparatively 
rare. The most important silver ores are the 
chloride, the sulphide, and the combinations of 
sulphide of silver with other sulphides. The 
chloride of silver, or horn silver (AgCl), is a 
common ore in Chili, Peru, Mexico, and the 
western regions of the United States, particu- 
larly in certain districts of Nevada, and in the 
Owyhee district of Idaho. It has been met 
with in small quantities in many of the Euro- 
pean mines. When pure, its composition is 
silver 75 - 2, chlorine 24*8. It has a waxy ap- 
pearance, resinous lustre, and pearl-gray, green- 
ish, whitish, or bluish color, turning brown in 
the air; hardness 1" to 1*5; sp. gr. 5*3 to 5'5. 
It occurs chiefly near the outcrops of argen- 
tiferous deposits as a product of the decom- 
position of other ores. In Chili and Peru, for 
instance, it is found in cubical crystals in the 
ferruginous gossan known as pecos and colo- 
rados. The bromide and iodide, which also 
occur in nature, closely resemble it, but are far 
more rare. The sulphide of silver (Ag a S, sil- 
ver glance, vitreous silver, or argentite), con- 
taining 87'1 silver and 12'9 sulphur, is, next 
to the native metal, the richest ore. It has a 
blackish lead-gray color, metallic lustre, and 
shining streak; H. 2 to 2'5 ; sp. gr. 7*196^0 
7'365 ; is easily cut with a knife, and readily 
melts on charcoal before the blowpipe. It 
forms a considerable portion of the ores of the 
silver mines of Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, 
Mexico, Peru, and the United States. It is 
commonly associated with other argentiferous 
minerals, and sometimes is finely disseminated 
through the gangue or the accompanying ores. 
The double sulphides of silver and antimony 
constitute a very valuable class of ores, of 
which the chief are: stephanite (Ag 6 SbS 4 ), 
with 68*5 per cent, of silver and sometimes 
small quantities of iron, copper, and arsenic, 
having metallic lustre, iron-gray color, black 
powder, H. 2 to 2'5, sp. gr. 6 to 6'27, occurring 
in Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, Mexico, and 



50 



SILVER 



N- v.l.i. 



in the Comstock 

SS^Krfi^S: 

EfewasSSSS 

8,i dark ruby silver or antimonial silver blende, 
with 59 silver sometimes a little arsenic, D 
or by transmitted light deep red. II. 2 to 
p. gr. 5-759, occurring m > 

.all, Norway, Mexico, 
and Nevada; and polybasite 
from 64 to more than 72 silver the 

imr partly and sometimes wholly replaced 
by arsenic, and the silver partly by copper or 
?oleW extent iron and zinc, color iron-black, 
rtreak black, H. 2'5, sp. gr .6-2, occurring in the 
Hartz, Saxony, Hungary, Mexico, and Ne 1 
Proustite, or light ruby ^X^ff 8 ^^ 
lar to pyrargyrite, except that the color n 
liirhter and the antimony is replaced with ar- 
senic occurs in the same localities, but more 
rarely; it contains 65'4 silver. Copper silver 
glance or stromeyerite (CuAgS), with 53 sil- 
ver and 31 copper, iron-black, black shining 
powder, H. 2'75, sp. gr. 6-2, occurs in Silesia, 
Chili, and elsewhere. The foregoing are the 
principal true silver ores. The chief argentif- 
erous ores of other metals are those of lead, 

r, and zinc. Iron pyrites and arsenical 



an 



u! uuo., which are usually carried 
current. The yield of silver ores 
* generally rated in this country in ounces 
trov to the ton of 2,000 Ibs. avoirdupois or 
oz troy. About 1 per cent, of silver 
be equivalent to 292 oz. to a ton. A 
y'iekfof a little less than 3 oz. is represented 
by the decimal '0001 or "01 per cent. This 
small proportion will not pay for the mining 
and reduction of the ores; but where lead is 
containing '01 per cent, of silver, 
the latter can still be extracted and saved by 
refining processes. (See LEAD.) The pig lead 
(-variously called work lead, crude bullion, and 
base bullion) mainly produced from argen- 
tiferous galena, carries from 20 to 200 oz. of 
- 1 ton. The methods of producing 
res and furnace products may be 
uivmeu ^ three classes: smelting, amalga- 
mation and humid extraction. Ihe smelting 
processes are mostly based upon the capacity 
of metallic lead, as well as its oxide and sul- 
phate, to separate silver under fusion from 
its combinations, the liberated silver alloying 
itself with an excess of lead and accumulating 
in the metallic bath in the hearth of the fur- 
nace. The following chemical equations indi- 



, may be argentiferous, but it is usually 

by reason of finely disseminated silver ores 
throughout their mass. Galena is always more 
or less argentiferous. In the United States, 
the galena of the Appalachian range and of 
the Mississippi valley is usually poor in silver, 
while that of the Rocky mountains and the 
interior basin to the Sierra Nevada is highly 
argentiferous. Oxidized ores are usually poor 
in silver, but the carbonate, &c., occurring in 
the limestone of New Mexico, Utah, and the 
Eureka district, Nevada, are exceptions, being 
smelted in large quantities for lead and silver. 
The peculiar ore known as stetefeldtite, which 
occurs abundantly in Nevada, is an oxidized 
but massive mineral containing antimony and 
other base metals, and often very rich in silver. 
The variable mineral or class of minerals 
known as tetrahedrite (Fahlerz, argentiferous 
gray copper, freibergite, tennantite, hermesite) 
seems to be a combination of metallic sul 
j)liid.- with sulphides of antimony and arsenic 
or a sulphide of antimony and copper, in which 
the antimony may be partly replaced by ar- 
senic, and the copper by iron, zinc, silver, and 
even, as in freibergite, lead, or, as in hermesite, 
quicksilver. The percentage of silver varies 
i mere trace to 32 per cent. Pure zinc 
i.-illy poor in silver, hut is frequent- 
ly found in intimate association with true sil- 
"9 or native silver, and particularly with 
argentiferous galena ; and in some notable in- 
stances the blende is richer than the galena. 
The mechanical concentration of silver ores 
by water is attended with heavy loss, by reason 
of their usual association with base ores of 



processes : A{ 
PbO= 



Ag 8 Pb+2SO 2 . (See METALLURGY.) From the 
argentiferous lead thus produced the silver is 
obtained directly by an oxidizing fusion (cupel- 
lation), transforming the lead into litharge and 
leaving metallic silver upon the cupel ; or the 
argentiferous lead is first submitted to treat- 
ment in a battery of melting kettles, in which 
at a low temperature a portion of the liquid 
mass crystallizes, while another portion, rich 
in silver, remains liquid ; and the crystals being 
ladled from each kettle to the next, and there 
submitted to remelting and recrystallization, 
while the liquid is passed down the series in an 
opposite direction, the contents of silver are at 
last chiefly concentrated into a small quantity 
of so-called rich lead, which is then cupelled 
(the Pattinson process); or the silver is ex- 
tracted from the molten lead by means of the 
superior affinity between silver and zinc, me- 
tallic zinc being added to the bath and the 
zinc-silver alloy rising to the surface and being 
skimmed off and submitted to further treat- 
ment by means of smelting, liquation, or dis- 
tillation (the Parkes process, with the modifi- 
cations of Cordurie, Flach, and others). In 
smelting argentiferous copper ores, the silver 
is often concentrated in a copper matte or black 
copper, which may then be smelted with lead, 
or treated in the humid way. The liquation of 
argentiferous copper consists in alloying it with 
a certain quantity of lead, and afterward heat- 
ing the alloy above the melting point of lead, 
but below that of copper. The lead " sweats " 
out, carrying the silver with it, and leaving 




SILVER 



51 









behind the spongy copper. This process has 
almost everywhere given way to humid meth- 
ods. (See COPPER, LEAD, and METALLURGY.) 
The method of amalgamation, invented in 
Mexico in 1557 by Bartolome de Medina, led to 
the enormous production of silver there and 
in South America during the next 200 years, 
and has remained substantially in extensive use 
ever since. The Mexican, known as the patio 
process, is suited to ores which contain native 
silver or silver chloride (bromide, iodide) and 
sulphide, and are measurably free from other 
sulphides and from arsenides and antimoniu- 
rets. The ore is first crushed and then ground 
fine in arrastras. If gold is present, 50 or 60 
per cent, of it may be saved by introducing 
silver or copper amalgam into the arrastra. 
Ores containing pyrites, antimony, or arsenic 
are incompletely roasted, to break up the com- 
bination of silver with these elements. The 
presence of silver sulphide does hot necessitate 
roasting as a preliminary for patio amalgama- 
tion. The fine paste from the arrastra is spread 
on the patio floor (of stone, calked boards, $>r 
asphaltum) in round heaps (tortas) about 0*3 
metre high and 10 to 16 metres in diameter, 
containing each from 5,000 to 100,000 kilos ; 
average, about 60 tons. The paste having stiff- 
ened by the evaporation of its water, from 2 
to 10 per cent, of impure salt is added, accord- 
ing to the contents of silver in the ore. This 
is intermixed with shovels and subsequently by 
the treading of mules or men, and occasionally 
by means of kneading machines, with travel- 
ling wheels, set up in the torta. After one or 
two days the magistral is added ; this is copper 
vitriol and salt, or rich oxidized copper ores 
mixed with pyrites which has been roasted with 
salt, or simply copper pyrites which has been 
so roasted. The quantity of magistral required 
varies according to the season, the tempera- 
ture, and the quantity of the ore ; it usually 
ranges from to 1 per cent. Its function is 
to cause certain reactions with the salt and the 
sulphide of silver and promote the formation 
of amalgam. Too much of it causes too high 
a temperature in the mass, particularly in win- 
ter ; hence cold weather and poor ores require 
the smallest amount. After another tread- 
ing, quicksilver is sprmkled over the torta by 
squeezing through a leather or canvas bag. 
The quantity used is six to seven times the 
weight of silver in the ore, sometimes much 
more. It is rarely added all at once ; the usual 
practice is to give fresh quicksilver every alter- 
nate day, treading the mass for six to eight 
hours on each intervening day. The termina- 
tion of amalgamation is observed by panning 
samples (see GOLD) from the torta, and exam- 
ining the amount and condition of the quick- 
silver and amalgam. The period required for 
the whole operation down to this point varies 
from 5 to 30 days; average, about 19 days. 
Various theories have been proposed concern- 
ing the chemical reactions of the patio. Too 
low a temperature stops the reactions, and may 



be remedied by more frequent treading or by 
additional magistral. The amalgam is collected 
in settlers, which are circular vats of wood or 
masonry, about 9 ft. in diameter and 8 ft. in 
depth, in which the mass, thinned with water, 
is stirred and allowed to deposit its heavy amal- 
gam, while the lighter portion is drawn off. 
The amalgam, being concentrated still further, 
is at last collected in a leather or canvas bag, 
where it is freed by squeezing from free mer- 
cury, which passes through, carrying a little 
silver with it, while the mass remains in a co- 
herent, plastic condition. The former is used 
again on the patio ; the latter is moulded into 
30 Ib. blocks, piled on an iron plate, covered 
with a large iron bell, and heated by means 
of a charcoal fire around the bell. The mer- 
cury is vaporized, and (the joint at the edge 
of the bell being carefully luted) passes down 
through a pipe in the iron plate into a cistern 
of water. The bell furnace is less economical 
of fuel and mercury than muffle or retort fur- 
naces ; it loses 0*8 per cent, of mercury. The 
silver, found in solid masses when the bell is 
raised, is cast into ingots of 80 or 90 Ibs. By 
the patio process the usual product of silver is 
50 to 66 per cent, of that contained in the ore ; 
the most docile ores, under favorable circum- 
stances, have yielded 90 per cent. The loss of 
quicksilver is given by Kerl as 3 to 5 per cent, 
of the quantity used ; earlier accounts make it 
considerably greater. This loss is due to the 
formation in the torta of soluble mercury di- 
chloride (calomel), which is afterward washed 
away. The cazo process, used in Mexico and 
Chili, is a hot amalgamation in kettles. The 
ore (in Mexico chloride, in Chili sulphide) is 
placed, in the form of a watery pulp, in a 
vat with copper bottom and wooden or stone 
sides. Here it is heated and stirred with salt 
and quicksilver, copper vitriol being added in 
the treatment of sulphides. The process is 
rapid and effects a tolerably complete extrac- 
tion of silver, but involves great loss of quick- 
silver (2 to 2*5 times the weight of silver) 
when applied to sulphide ore. Silver ores free 
from sulphides of other metals are amalgama- 
ted at Guanajuato, Mexico, in arrastras, by sim- 
ple grinding and mixing with quicksilver and 
water. Pan amalgamation, called the Washoe 
process, consists in rubbing together in pans 
(usually of cast iron) the watery mixture of 
crushed ore (pulp) with quicksilver, with or 
without the addition of other chemicals. The 
simplest form of it may be thus described: 
The ore suitable for this process (usually con- 
taining silver sulphide or chloride and native 
silver, with little antimony, arsenic, base sul- 
phides, in a gangue of quartz) is first crushed 
in a stamp mill, similar in most respects to 
that employed for gold-bearing quartz. (See 
GOLD.) The screens which regulate the size 
of the crushed particles are of wire cloth with 
40 to 60 meshes to flae inch, or of Eussia 
sheet iron, perforated with holes $ to -^ in. 
in diameter. The pulp reduced to this fineness 



SILVER 



is ffronnd and amalgamated in pans, of i 
here aro numerous forms. The charge 
pan is 800 to 1,500 Ibs.; the very large pans 
treating tailiu^w hid. have beenalready ground 
fiWcan take 8,000 to 4,500 Ibs. To maintain 
,r temperature, steam is introduced into 
ill pulp or into a steam chamber under the 
bottom and a wooden cover is usually kept on 
the pan. The pulp is generally ground for 
one or two hours; then the quicksilver is 
sprinkled in (usually 60 to 70 Ibs. to a charge 
of 1 200 or 1,500 Ibs.), and, the mullers being 
raised to avoid too much grinding, which would 
u flour " the mercury, stirring is continued tor 
two or three hours longer, after which the 
pulp is diluted and drawn off into a settler. 
The modification of the Washoe process in- 
vented by Mr. Henry Janin, consisting in the 
use of large quantities of copper vitriol (blue 
stone) and salt, has proved very successful in 
the reduction of refractory ores not otherwise 
amalgamate. The quicksilver, charged with 
amalgam, is washed, skimmed, and strained 
through a canvas bag, which retains the amal- 
gam. This is then distilled in cast-iron retorts, 
the mercury being collected under water, while 
the "retort bullion" remains behind. About 
one sixth of the charge retorted, or 200 Ibs. of 
bullion from 1,200 Ibs. of amalgam, is usually 
obtained from the retort, to be broken up, 
melted, and cast into ingots ; it loses 2 to 3 per 
cent, in melting. The ingots are assayed, and 
their fineness in thousandths of gold and sil- 

< tamped upon them. The coin value of 
the Comstock bullion is $1 75 to $2, one third 
of which is due to the gold it contains. The 
pulp escaping from the apparatus in which the 
amalgam is collected is called " tailings." The 
tailings are often concentrated upon blankets 
>r otherwise, or are simply allowed to settle 
in reservoirs, for reworking. The "slimes" 
or " slums " comprise that part of the ore 
which is crushed under the stamps to an im- 
palpably fine condition, and escapes in the bat- 
tery water without ever getting into the pans 

many silver ores yield much fine powder 
in crashing, the slimes are often far richer 
than the tailings, the value of the latter being 
largely in the particles of quicksilver and amal 
gam which they contain. The chemistry ol 
tli. Washoe process is summed up by Mr. Ar 
nold Hague as follows: that the ore submit 
ted to it consists chiefly of native gold, native 
silver, and argentiferous sulphurets, associated 




ilphate 

while the presence of" metallic iron causes the 

formation of copper dichloride; that both the 

chlorides of copper assist in the reduction of 

by i-hloridizing the sulphurets of sil- 

>\ decomposing the sulphurets of lead 

ami zinc; that sulphate of copper enhances 

the amalgamating energy of mercury, by caus- 

fonmitinn of a Mimll quantity of copper 

amalgam, and also tends to expel the lead ; but 



>e effective, and that the principal agents m 
he reduction aro in general mercury and the 
ron of the pan, aided by heat and friction. 
The essential condition in the amalgamation is 
the keeping of the mercury bright and pure, 
that it may come into direct contact with the 
ron and sulphide of silver.- The consump- 
tion of mercury in the Washoe process may be 
considered chiefly a mechanical loss, and only 
to a limited extent a chemical one. The pan 
amalgamation of slimes and refractory ores, 
with the addition of large proportions of cop- 
per sulphate and salt, involves a greater loss 
of mercury. Refractory ores, not suitable for 
"raw" amalgamation by the Washoe or the 
patio process, are treated in many localities by 
the Freiberg process, consisting in the chlori- 
nation of the ore by roasting with salt, and its 
subsequent amalgamation. At Freiberg in 
Saxony, where this method originated, it has 
been abandoned, the ores formerly amalga- 
rifated being now treated by smelting. But 
in districts where fuel is scarce and labor dear, 
and lead ores for smelting are not at hand 
(which is the case in many parts of Nevada, 
for instance), the Freiberg system is still suc- 
cessfully employed, though greatly modified as 
to apparatus. The ore is crushed in stamp 
mills, without water, and the fine powder is 
further dried, usually by spreading on the top 
of the arch or the dust chambers of the roast- 
ing furnace. Either in the battery, during 
crushing, or on the drying or the charging 
floor, 6 to 7 per cent, (for rich ores, up to 20 
per cent.) of salt is mixed with the ore. The 
mixture is then roasted, to chloridize the silver; 
this was done abroad in reverberatory furnaces, 
which have been used in Colorado and Nevada 
also, but are now generally replaced in the west 
by Stetefeldt's showering furnace or Bruck- 
ner's cylinder. From the roasting furnace the 
ore is conveyed to the pans, where it under- 
goes an amalgamation similar to that of the 
simple Washoe process, except that less grind- 
ing is necessary. The Freiberg amalgamation 
was performed in revolving wooden barrels, 
which are still employed at some places in 
the United States. Each apparatus has its par- 
tisans. A peculiar me*fchod of amalgamation 
pursued in Chili avoids the chloridizing roast- 
ing, substituting a humid chlorination by means 
of copper dichloride (Kroncke's process). It 
is highly praised, but not yet widely employed. 
The use for this purpose of copper chloride, 
which is of earlier origin, involves a loss of 
quicksilver as calomel. The processes of hu- 
mid extraction of silver are of two classes. 
Either the silver is converted into a soluble 
compound and separated by leaching and pre- 
cipitation, or the baser metallic constituents of 
the ore are rendered soluble and removed by 
leaching, leaving an auriferous and argentif- 
erous residuum for further treatment. The 
methods of the first class convert the silver 






SILVER 



53 




into chloride or sulphate, the former by a 
chloridizing, the latter by an oxidizing roast- 
ing. The chloridizing roasting is essentially 
that of the Freiberg amalgamation process, 
and is effected by mixing salt with the charge. 
The silver chloride is extracted from the mass 
by lixiviation with hot brine (old Augustin 
process), cold brine (Hungarian improvement), 
sodium hyposulphite (Patera process), or cal- 
cium hyposulphite (Kiss process in Hungary 
and Russia, Hofmann in Mexico). The latter 
extracts also gold chloride if it is present, 
which brine will not do, unless it has been, as 
Patera recommends, impregnated with free 
chlorine gas. Experiments conducted at Wy- 
dotte, Mich., by Messrs. Courtis and Hahn, 
dicate the availability of other chlorides than 
>mmon salt (particularly calcium chloride, or 
solution obtained by treating common lime- 
>ne with muriatic acid) as a solvent for the 
silver chloride. The novel and important re- 
sults of these investigations are given in the 
"Transactions of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers." From its hyposulphite 
or chloride solution the silver is precipitated 
with metallic copper, as cement silver, which 
is washed, pressed, melted, and cast into bars. 
Ziervogel's method of extracting silver by 
roasting the sulphuretted ore to produce sil- 
ver sulphate, leaching this with hot acidula- 
ted water, and precipitating with copper, is 
the simplest and cheapest of all; but it re- 
quires very skilful and delicate roasting, and 
ores comparatively free from lead, antimony, 
arsenic, and zinc. The three latter tend to 
cause volatilization of silver ; the sulphide of 
antimony and lead cause a sintering of the 
roasting charge ; copper dioxide, or too high a 
temperature in the furnace, leads to the for- 



mation of metallic silver, instead of the desired 
sulphate. Hence the application of this pro- 
cess is limited. Its best field is the treatment 
of the copper mattes of Mansfeld, containing 
70 to 72 per cent, of copper, and 0-33 per cent, 
of silver. The so-called acid extraction is prin- 
cipally used upon cupriferous furnace pro- 
ducts, which contain too much lead, antimony, 
arsenic, &c., to permit treatment by the Au- 
gustin or the Ziervogel method. In this pro- 
cess, the base metals are dissolved out by 
treatment with sulphuric or muriatic acid, and 
the residuum, containing gold and silver, is 
further reduced by smelting, or in rare in- 
stances by humid methods. For full discus- 
sions of all the foregoing processes, see Percy's 
" Metallurgy," and Bruno Kerl's MetallMtten- 
Tcunde. The details of American practice, and 
critical comparisons of different American and 
foreign methods, are given in the reports of R. 
W. Raymond, United States commissioner of 
mining statistics, and in the " Transactions of 
the American Institute of Mining Engineers." 
The principal uses of silver have been men- 
tioned already in this article ; see also COINS, 
GALVANISM (section on electrotyping), MINT, 
and PLATED WARE. The real value of silver 
as compared to gold has varied in different 
ages from one eighth to less than one six- 
teenth ; but the mint rates have often been 
arbitrarily established by government for the 
profit of the treasury, in spite of the market 
price of the metals. At present it is lower 
than at any previous period. The average 
ratio of value of silver to gold in the London 
market for the year ending Dec. 31, 1874, was 
1 to 16*27. The following table shows the es- 
timated product of silver at various periods 
in the present century : 



COUNTRIES. 


VI, 

s*Sl 


fit 
S5* 


5H 
jlJL 

s*is 


III 

c -w 

s 


|i 


Hi 

i, 

n J3 < 
W^2 


l 
3BV 

e^I 
* 




Weight, 
Ibs. troy. 


Value, 
sterling. 


Weight, 
Ibs. troy. 


Value, 
sterling. 


Value, 
U. S. coin. 


Weight, 
Ibs. troy. 


Value, 
U. S. coin. 


Russian empire 


58150 


167 831 


60000 


171 817 


$928 000 


58000 


$700 000 


Scandinavia 




r 30 046 


20400 


35 607 


328 000 


15 000 




Great Britain 




109 989 


48 500 


160 000 


1 120 000 


60 500 




Hartz | 

Prussia j 




138,022 


j 31,500 
} 21 200 


j- 188,022 


j 480,000 

1 480 000 


28,000 
68 000 




Saxonv 




198 200 


63 600 


198 200 


960 000 


80 000 




Other "German states 
Austria 
France . 


141,000 


282,654 


2,500 
87,000 
5 000 


286,971 


' 48,000 
1,440,000 
80 000 


2,500 
92,000 
18000 


8,600,OCO 


Italy . . . 




7444 




7444 




25000 




Spain 
Australia . | 




L 227,499 


125,000 


440,210 


2,000,000 


110,000 




British America f 
Chili. 


1 S 300 


297 9 9 


10,000 
238 500 


297 09 


128,000 
4 000 000 


9,500 
299 000 


20,000 


Bolivia . . 


211,800 


460 191 


1 30 000 


46o'l91 


2 080 000 


136 000 




Peru 


401 850 


1 000 583 


808,'lBO 


1 00o'583 


4 800 000 


299000 


i- 10 000 000 


New Granada. . . 
Brazil.... 


5,000 
1 200 


42,929 
2003 


13,000 
675 


' 42'929 
2 9 27 


208,000 
11 200 


15,000 
1 500 




Mexico 


1 440 500 


3 457*020 


1 650 000 


5 383'333 


28000000 


1 700 000 


19 000 000 


United States 




1 864 


17 400 


73 532 


852 000 


1 000 000 


15 500 000 


East Indies . 




56 265 




56 265 








Africa 




l'o56 




1 056 








Various other countries 




33,000 




33,000 








Total 


2 337 300 


6 515 9 5 


o 007 495 


8 788 416 


$47 443 200 


4 017 000 


$53 820 000 


Approximate value in U. 8. 
coin 


$36,250,000 


$31,537,000 


$43,853,000 


$42,536,000 


$47,443,800 


$62,303.000 


$158,820,000 






SILVER 



The following estimate of the world s product 

of silver in . ! upon returns for Ger- 

; nmce, Great Britain, Spam, 

9 , and for other coun- 

,,t available accounts : 

".riMin and colonies, $1,000,000; Swe- 

! N-.r^ay, $250,000; 

Hungarian monarchy , 

man empire, $3,000,000; France, $2,000,000; 

Spain, $2,0<0,000; Italy (Sardinia), $500,000; 

. $20,000,000; Central and South Amer- 
ica, $8,000,000; Canada, $900,000; United 
States, $36,500,000 ; total, $76,250,000. Ac- 
Humboldt and Danson, the value 
r produced in Mexico and Peru from 

to 1803 was $4,152,650,000. The pro- 

in Kurope during the same period was 

about $200,000,000. For the period from 

1804 to 1848 Danson gives $1,244,380,794 as 

the production of Mexico and South Ameri- 

it of Europe and Asiatic Russia for 
:-io.l having been about $325,000,- 
000. For the period from 1848 to 1868, Prof. 
W. P. Blake, in his " Report on the Produc- 
tion of the Precious. Metals," gives the fol- 
lowing estimate of the silver product : United 
$73,000,000 ; Mexico, $380,000,000 ; 

\ mcrica, $200,000,000 ; Australia, $20,- 
000; Europe and Asiatic Russia, $160,380,- 
000 ; total, $813,400,000. From 1868 to 1875 
the product of silver may be approximately es- 
timated at $163,000,000 for the United States, 
$140,000,000 fur Mexico, $56,000,000 for South 
Am.Tica, and $63,000,000 for the rest of the 
world. (None of these estimates include the 
produce of Japan, China, and central Asia, of 
which nothing is known.) We have then, as 
the grand total of the silver product from the 
discovery of America to the present time, 
$7,150,000,000. Mines. The silver produced 
in Great Britain is extracted from an argen- 
tiferous lead, to the amount of 550,000 to 700,- 
000 oz. annually (in 1872, 628,000 oz.). The 
celebrated Komrsberg mines in Norway, dis- 
covered in 1 '_':'., have been worked almost 
continually since. The ore occurs in parallel 
belU of rock, intercalated in gneiss and crys- 
talline schUN, and impregnated with sulphides 
if iron, copper, zinc, and sometimes lead, co- 
balt, and si 1 ^ ire veins traverse these 
belts occasionally, and are argentiferous at 
the intersection only. Beautiful specimens 
of native silver occur. Tho total product of 
the Kongsberg mines from 1624 to 1864 was 
1,817,510 Ibs. troy of silver, of which 1,332,- 
485 Ibs. was produced before 1805 and 463,- 
498 Ibs. after 1815, the intervening period 
being one of discouragement The yield for 
the 80 years preceding 1865 averaged $350,- 
000 annually. The silver mines of Sweden 
are at pn-M-nt insignificant, mid the total pro- 
1^71 was officially reported tit but '.7r> 
r mine* of the Aufltro-IIun- 
garian mon-m hv ., r .. principally comprised in 
Ivania, and Bohemia. Tho 
Schemnitz district in Hungary (the seat of a 



celebrated school of mines, founded in 1760 
by Maria Theresa) is traversed by a group of 
veins in porphyry, associated with syenite, 
A:.-. The ores comprise numerous argentifer- 
ous minerals, of which silver glance and galena 
are the chief. The Schemnitz mines were first 
opened more than 800 years ago, and have 
been worked to a depth of more than 1,200 
ft. Near Schemnitz are the mining districts 
of Kremnitz and Neusohl. The Joachimsthal 
mines in Bohemia are very ancient, very deep 
(nearly or quite 2,000 ft.), and have been 
very productive, but now yield an insignifi- 
cant amount of silver. This district belongs 
to the Erzgebirge, a chain of mountains com- 
posed of crystalline rocks, on the border of 
Saxony, in which kingdom it includes the 
four mining districts of Altenberg (tin), Frei- 
berg, Marienberg, and Schwarzenberg. The 
official statistics of Saxony show that the to- 
tal product of silver in these districts in 1872 
was 48,753 Ibs., and in 1873 43,354 Ibs. The 
Freiberg district is by far the most impor- 
tant, containing nearly 100 mines, many of 
which are more than 1,400 ft. deep, producing 
almost the whole of the above amounts. Pre- 
vious to the 10th century it was a wilderness. 
The lead ores were discovered in the tracks 
made by wagon wheels, and in 1169 the veins 
were opened. They are very numerous, but 
comparatively small. In 1873 only 24 mines 
were producing silver ore, and of these only 
6 paid dividends. The Himmelfahrt, which is 
now the leading mine, in 1873 yielded 11,912 
metric tons of silver, copper, and lead ores, 
valued at about $430,000. In 1874 it pro- 
duced about 7,100 tons of dressed ores, sold 
to the furnaces for about $328,000. The total 
yield of this mine to the end of 1874 had been 
627,103 kilos of silver (worth about $23,000,- 
000), besides lead, copper, zinc, sulphur, ar- 
senic, and nickel. The chief other productive 
mines near Freiberg, with the value of their 
total product (including lead, &c.), as paid by 
the smelting works, for 1873, are as follows: 
Himmelsfurst, $202,500 ; VereinigtFeld, $114,- 
750 ; Churprinz, $74,000 ; Alte Hoffnung, 
$61,000; Gesegnete Bergmannshoffnung, $60,- 
750; Alte Hoffnung Gottes, $52,750; Junge 
hohe Birke, $45,450; and Beschert Gliick, 
$34,600. The principal silver mines of Prus- 
sia are in the Hartz, formerly belonging to 
Hanover. The product of Prussian smelting 
.works in 1872 was 162,553 Ibs. of silver, 
worth about $3,600,000 ; in 1873, 231,920 Ibs., 
worth about $5,000,000. The total product of 
silver from the smelting works of all Germany 
was as follows in the years named : 



YEARS. 


Centor. 


Value In round numben. 


18BO... 


101,448 
124,103 

185,841 


$2,284,000 
2,764,000 
4,162,000 


isrti... 


1870 


A considerable portion of this increase is due 
to the importation of rich silver ores from 



SILVER 



55 



North and South America for metallurgical 
treatment, and another portion to the im- 
proved processes of extraction. The product 
from German ores is probably not more than 
$3,000,000. France is not a silver-ore pro- 
ducing country; but the separation of silver 
from argentiferous lead ores is carried on to 
a considerable extent. In 1865 it produced 
31,997 kilos of silver, worth $1,414,000; in 
1869 (the year before the war), 46,299 kilos, 
worth $2,020,000. No Spanish silver mines 
were specially important after the middle ages 
down to 1825, except those of Guadalcanal and 
Cazalla, N. E. of Seville, which were profit- 
ably worked by the government in the 16th 
century, producing altogether 400,223 marks 
)f silver ; afterward they passed into private 
lands, and in the beginning of the 17th centu- 
are said to have produced 170 marks daily, 
ley were finally abandoned, and allowed to 
11 with water. In 1825 mining was revived 
Spain ; in 1839 the famous silver mines of 
e Sierra Almagrera (N. and S. veins in slate, 
rying argentiferous galena, with some sil- 
ver chloride), in the province of Almeria, 
?ere discovered, and in 1843 those of Hien- 
lelaencina (narrow E. and W. veins* of silver 
ilphide and chloride, without lead), in the 
rovince of Guadalajara. The Herminia mine, 
L the Sierra Almagrera, in 1874 produced 
18,940 quintals of ore, containing 342,325 
~ 3. of lead and 41,670 Spanish oz. (3,205 Ibs. 
roy) of silver. The product of the mine in 
le early part of 1875 was at the rate of about 
10,000 Ibs. troy per annum. The average 
lue of the work lead is about 20 oz. troy per 
avoirdupois. The product of the mines 
Hiendelaencina from January, 1847, to July, 
66, was 7,578,536 oz. troy. They have de- 
led in yield since 1858. By the application 
the Pattinson process to the argentiferous 
lenas of the numerous lead mines of Spain, 
production of silver has been increased, 
le export of lead in 1874 was 86,802,271 
3, valued at 47,034,022 pesetas. This in- 
tes a value of about $1,700,000 for the 
in the lead. The product of Russia in 
$71, from 21 mines of argentiferous galena, 
ras 1,740 tons of lead and 29,000 Ibs. of silver. 
-The conquest of Mexico by Cortes in 1519-'21 
soon followed by the development of the 
ronderfully rich silver mines of that country, 
le metal was known to the ancient Aztecs, 
id was worked by them into numerous orna- 
intal and useful articles; but among the 
mres of Montezuma the quantity of silver 
small compared with that of gold, and 
ive little promise of the unbounded resources 
of the argentiferous mines of his territories, 
uring the 16th century these were opened 
extensively worked by the Spaniards in 
najuato, Zacatecas, and other neighboring 
riots; and in the 17th and 18th centuries 
leir production was greatly increased by rea- 
son of the greater abundance of quicksilver and 
its more general employment in separating the 




metal from its ores. At the time of the visit 
of Humboldt operations were carried on in 
from 4,000 to 5,000 localities, which might all 
be included in about 3,000 distinct mines. 
These were scattered along the range of the 
Cordilleras in eight groups, the principal of 
which, known as the central group, contained 
the famous mining districts of Guanajuato, 
Catorce, Zacatecas, and Sombrerete, and fur- 
nished more than half of all the silver pro- 
duced in Mexico. The mines of Guanajuato, 
opened in 1558, are all upon the great vein, 
known as the veta madre, in the range of por- 
phyritic hills the summits of which are from 
9,000 to 9,500 ft. above the sea, but only about 
3,000 ft. above the high plateau of central 
Mexico upon which they stand. The great 
vein is contained chiefly in clay slate, and 
crosses the southern slope of the hills in a 
K W. and S. E. direction, dipping with the 
slates (the range of which it follows) from 45 
to 48 toward the S. W. It is of extraordinary 
thickness, often more than 150 ft. across, and 
is said to have been traced for about 12 m. ; 
but the productive portions are chiefly upon a 
length of about 1 m. The vein is made up of 
quartz, carbonate of lime, fragments of clay 
slate, together with large quantities of iron 
pyrites, and sulphurets of lead and zinc with 
some native silver, sulphuret of silver, and red 
silver. Near the surface they are partially de- 
composed and colored red, whence they are 
termed colorados. In their unchanged condi- 
tion below they are designated negros or black 
ores. These are the main dependence of the 
mines. The vein has been penetrated to the 
depth of about 2,000 ft., but not much below 
the level of the plateau. For the two years 
ending in July, 1873, 115 mines in this district 
produced 202,125 kilos of silver ($8,045,425), 
36 haciendas and zangerros being employed 
in reduction. In 1873 the number of miners 
and laborers was 8,979, and the amount of ore 
raised was 1,815 tons weekly ; average con- 
tents of silver, about 34 oz. troy to the ton 
avoirdupois. The mine of Valenciana, opened 
in 1760, upon a rich portion of the vein, aver- 
aged for many years a product of $1,600,000, 
or about T V of the total product of the 3,000 
mines of Mexico, and a quarter of that of the 
whole of the veta madre. It declined in pro- 
ductiveness at the beginning of this century, 
was suspended in 1810 on account of the war 
of independence, reopened in 1822 by the An- 
glo-Mexican company, and abandoned after 
much expenditure to the Mexican owners. It 
is the deepest mine in the country, and the 
lower workings are now flooded. In 1873 it 
employed 1,950 laborers, and yielded about 
195 tons of ore weekly. The mines of Zaca- 
tecas, opened in 1548, are also upon a single 
vein called the xeta grande, averaging in thick- 
ness about 30 ft. The formation is of green- 
stone and clay slate, the former the most pro- 
ductive. The veins of Catorce are in limestone 
supposed to be of carboniferous age. The 



56 



SILVER 



greatest proportion of silver in every mining 
district of Mexico is obtained from the sul- 
pliuret of silver, an ore of gray color dissem- 
inated through the quartz matrix in minute 
particles and more or less combined with oth- 
er metals. The other varieties of argentiferous 
ores are numerous, but comparatively small m 
quantity ; they are the chloride of silver, ruby 
silver, native silver, argentiferous pyrites, and 
argentiferous galena. The comparative quan- 
tities of these at the different mines are very 
variable. Until the present century the ores 
were extracted altogether by the rude meth- 
ods of the native Indians. They brought them 
upon their backs up the long flights of thou- 
sands of roughly formed steps, in loads of 
240 to 880 Ibs. each, while exposed all the 
time to the great heat of the mine. In 1821 
the Mexican government offered facilities for 
foreigners to become interested with the na- 
tives in the mines. English mining compa- 
nies were formed, and operations were un- 
dertaken with powerful machinery; but the 
adventures were almost universally unsuccess- 
ful, the nature of the country being extreme- 
ly unfavorable for the introduction of heavy 
machines, as well as for keeping them in op- 
eration and repair. From the opening of the 
Mexican mines in the 16th century their pro- 
duction of silver has exceeded that of all other 
countries. A great stimulus was given to it by 
the amalgamating process devised by Medina 
at that early period in Mexico, and it soon at- 
tained an annual rate of from $2,000,000 to 
$3,000,000. This continued to increase till in 
the 18th century it rose to $23,000,000, which 
was about the production for the first ten 
years of the present century. After 1850 it 
increased, till for some years it exceeded the 
yield of all past periods. The total product, 
from the first working of the mines by the 
Spaniards to their expulsion by the Mexicans 
in 1821, was $2,368,952,000. A very prom- 
ising field for silver mining is found in the 
state of Sinaloa and along the western slope 
of the Sierra Madre of Durango and Chihua- 
hua. The port of Mazatlan is the base of sup- 
plies. Sinaloa is well wooded and watered; 
the ores are largely true silver ores, which can 
be treated by the Freiberg or the modified 
Washoe process. Some of the mines in the 
interior are exporting rich silver ores to Eu- 
rope ; others are reported to be earning good 
profits with stamp mills. Central America has 
no silver mines that are worked to much ex- 
tent; but rich ores are known to exist in Hon- 
duras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The famous 
mines of Potosi in Peru (now in Bolivia) were 
discovered in 1546 by an Indian hunter, Diego 
Hualca, who, according to Acosta, accidentally 
exposed native lumps of the precious metal in 
<>ta of a bush which he pulled from the 
1. For 20 years succeeding 1557 the 
annual production of the mines of this region 
was about $2,200,000, and the total product 
up to the present time is rated at over $1,300,- 



000,000. The mines, like so many others in 
Mexico and South America, are now reported 
to be flooded in their depths. In the Cerro 
de Fernando at Hualgayoc, near Micuipamba, 
rich ores were discovered in 1771, and now, 
it is said, about 1,400 pits are opened in the 
hill. Other mining districts in Peru are Gua- 
lanca in the province of Huamalies, Pasco, 
Lucanas, and Huantajaya. Cerro de Pasco 
has been especially famous for its large pro- 
duction. A town is built upon the site of 
the mines, and the openings to many of them 
are through the houses of the miners. The 
production of Peru until within a few years 
was very small, prohably not more than $2,- 
500,000 annually, and it is a very difficult 
field for mining. 1 Roads, mules, labor, and 
fuel are all wanting. The ores (except the 
pacos or ferruginous earths of Cerro de Pas- 
co), being complex sulphurets, are exceeding- 
ly refractory. In the absence of better fuel, 
llama dung is employed for roasting at sev- 
eral establishments. But the country is full 
of undeveloped veins, and coal has been dis- 
covered in abundance, while railroads are rap- 
idly extending into the interior. In Bolivia, 
besides tke mines of Potosi, are those of Por- 
tugalete in the province of Chichas, celebrated 
for the richness of their ores, which produce 
six to eight times as much silver to the ton 
as those of Potosi. Other mines are worked 
in the same district. The mines of Lipes have 
been very productive, and those also of La 
Plata, Porco, Carangas, and Oruro. The earlier 
silver mines worked in Chili were in the prov- 
ince of Santiago and in the mineral district of 
Arqueros, about 17 leagues from Coquimbo. 
The production was not large, and almost 
ceased upon the opening of the rich mines near 
Copiap6 in the province of Atacama. Within 
a circuit of 25 leagues from this city there are 
19 silver-mining districts, of which those of 
Chaflarcillo and Tres Puntas are the most im- 
portant. The metal is found in a variety of 
combinations, as a sulphuret, chloride, chloro- 
bromide, and iodide ; it is also associated with 
arsenic, antimony, and mercury, and is some- 
times abundant in a native state. The mines 
are in a country difficult of "access, quite un- 
productive even in the timber and fuel re- 
quired for mining, almost entirely destitute 
of water, and cold and dreary. A new and 
rich district has been developed at Caracoles, 
where the ores, like most of those of Co- 
piap6, are chlorides, and easy to reduce. 
Silver mining in the western United States, 
apart from the early operations of the Span- 
iards in New Mexico and perhaps Arizona, 
dates from the discovery in 1859, on the E. 
flank of the Sierra Nevada, in the present 
state of Nevada, of the now famous Comstock 
lode. (See NEVADA.) No equally important 
argentiferous deposit has since been discov- 
ered ; and, in view of the most recent expo- 
sures of vast bodies of ore at great depth on 
the Comstock, it may be doubted whether its 



SILVER 



SIMBIRSK 



equal was ever known before. There is no 
other authentic record of the extraction in a 
single year of more than $23,000,000 in gold 
and silver from one vein, which was the pro- 
duct of the Comstock in 1874. And the total 
estimated product of this lode from 1861 to 
1874 inclusive was more than $169,000,000, 
or about the same as the yield of the score of 
veins at Potosi for the first 15 years after their 
discovery in 1545. The bullion from the Com- 
stock lode has averaged about one third gold 
in value, or say 0'02 in weight. As a conse- 
quence of the excitement (almost equal to that 
attending the discovery of gold in California) 
which followed the success of the Comstock 
mines, the districts of Nevada, Idaho, Mon- 
tana^, Arizona, and finally Utah and Colorado, 
were overrun with prospectors. The mining 
districts of Owyhee in Idaho, and Unionville, 
Reese River, Belmont, Pioche, "White Pine, 
and Eureka in Nevada, have been the scenes 
of successive excitements, and are still produc- 
tive. In Eureka district, as in the principal 
districts of Utah, and some of those in Mon- 
tana, Colorado, New Mexico, and California, 
argentiferous cerussite and galena are smelted, 
to produce work lead containing silver. This 
industry has suddenly grown to large dimen- 
sions in the west, as may be seen from the fol- 
lowing table of the product of work lead : 



WHERE 
PRODUCED. 

Nevada 
Utah 


1873. 
Tons. 


Gold, silver, 
and lead, 
value. 


1874. 
Tons. 


Gold, silver, 
and lead, 
value. 


12,812 
9,566 
4,000 

800 


$5,048,235 
2,901,191 
920,000 

144,000 


11,516 
15,474 
5,095 

875 


$3,865,419 
4,832,720 
1,680,000 

180,000 


California 
Montana, Colorado, 
&c. (estimated). . 

Total 


26,678 


$9,008,426 


82,460 


$10,058,139 





The "Washoe (Comstock) ores and those of 
Pioche and Chvyhee, as well as of many minor 
districts, are treated by the Washoe process ; 
those of Reese river, Belmont, and Union- 
ville, in Nevada, and of Georgetown, Colo- 
rado, receive a preliminary chlorinating roast- 
ing. From Colorado and Utah considerable 
quantities of rich ore are shipped to American 
and foreign smelting works. Silver mining 
in Arizona, near the Gila vein, has been ren- 
dered unprofitable hitherto by Indian warfare, 
now apparently ended. The total product of 
the United States since 1848 is estimated by 
R. W. Raymond, commissioner of mining sta- 
tistics, as, follows : 



1848-1 858, inclusive, 

$50,000 per ann.., $550,000 

1859 100,000 

1860 150,000 

1861 2,000,000 

1862 4.500,000 



1867 $13,500,000 

18li8 12,000,000 

1869 13,000,000 

1870 16,000,000 

1871 22,000,000 

1872 25,750,000 

1873 86,500,000 

1874 88,200,000 



8,500,000 

1364 11,000,000 

1865 11,250,000 

1866 10,000,000 ! Total. 

The Atlantic and Mississippi states produce 
little silver. The amount found with the 



.$225,000,000 



native copper of Lake Superior is not con- 
siderable ; but over $2,000,000 has been ob- 
tained at the smelting works in "Wyandotte, 
Mich., from the ores of the Silver Islet mine, 
on the island of that name, on the N. side of 
Lake Superior. The galena of the Mississippi 
valley is usually poor in silver, and that of the 
Atlantic slope is but moderately argentiferous, 
with an occasional exception, as in the recently 
discovered deposits near Newburyport, Mass. 

SILVERSIDE, or Silver Fish, the common name 
of the small marine spiny-rayed fishes of the 
family atherinida, characterized by a protrac- 
tile mouth, without notch in upper jaw or 
tubercle in lower, small crowded teeth on the 
pharyngeals, the first branchial arch with long 
pectinations, two dorsals most commonly dis- 
tant, and ventrals behind pectorals ; the eyes 
are very large. In the genus atherina (Linn.) 
the body is elongated, and a broad silvery 
band runs along each side. The dotted silver- 
side (A. notata, Mitch.) is from 3 to 5 in. long, 
greenish brown with black points on the edges 
of the scales, and the fins translucent ; the 
dorsals are contiguous, the second reaching as 
far back as the anal; it is found from New 
England to South Carolina. It accompanies 
the smelt in spring and autumn into our riv- 




Dotted Silverside (Athcrina notata). 

ers, and is popularly called capelin. Several 
other species, about 4 in. long, are found in 
the waters of the southern states and West 
Indies. More than 20 other species are de- 
scribed by Cuvier and Valenciennes in vol. x. 
of the Histoire naturelle des poissons (1835); 
they are much valued as articles of food ; they 
swim in shoals, and are easily taken in nets ; 
the flesh resembles that of the smelt, whence 
the A. presbyter (Cuv.) is often called sand 
smelt ; many species, salted, are sold as sar- 
dines, and some are called anchovy. 

SIMBIRSK. I. An E. government of Euro- 
pean Russia, bordering on Kazan, Samara, 
Saratov, Penza, and Nizhegorod; area, 19,108 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,205,881. The surface 
consists generally of a plain, with hills toward 
the east. The government is drained in the 
east by the Volga, and in the west by its tribu- 
tary the Sura. Gypsum, alabaster, limestone, 
sulphur, and naphtha are found. The soil is 
fertile, producing grain, hemp, flax, hay, and 
tobacco. Leather, woollen and linen cloth, 
tallow, potash, and glass are manufactured. 
The inhabitants belong chiefly to the Greek 
church, but there are a few other Christians, 
and a large number of Mohammedans. II. A 
city, the capital of the government, on the 



58 



MMCOK 



rijrht bank of the Volga, 105 ra. 8. 8. W. of 
Kazan ad i > E. of Moscow ; pop. 

in 1867, 24,607. It stands in the midst of a 
wide and tVrtik- plain, and contains 16 church- 
es, two ooUTento, and a monument to the 
historian Karamsin. It has manufactories of 
soap and candles, and an important trade in 
grain and fish. 
SIXCOE, Lake. See ONTARIO, vol. xn., p. 

SIMCOE, a W. county of Ontario, Canada, 
bounded N. E. by the Severn river, N. W. by 
Georgian bay, and S. E. by Lake Simcoe; 
area, 1,846 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 64,247, of 
whom 31,642 were of Irish, 15,020 of English, 
11,585 of Scotch, 3,031 of French, and 1,754 
man origin or descent. It is traversed 
bv the Northern railway. Capital, Barrie. 

SIMEON, the second son of Jacob and Leah. 
He and his brother Levi were guilty of gross 
deception and ferocity in their murder of the 
Shechemites, for which they received their fa- 
ther's curse. Simeon's inheritance as a tribe 
was not a compact territory, but a small dis- 
trict within the limits of that of Judah, and 
some tracts in Mount Seir and the district of 
Gedor. The descendants of Simeon amount- 
ed at the exodus to 59,800 ; but only 22,200 
entered the promised land. 

SI)IK4\, Charles, an English clergyman, born 
in Reading, Sept. 24, 1759, died Nov. 13, 1836. 
He was educated at King's college, Cambridge, 
nnd was presented in 1783 to the living of 
Trinity church, Cambridge, which he held till 
Ms death, and was eminently distinguished 
for devotion to pastoral duty. He published 
several series of skeleton sermons, forming 
a commentary upon the whole Bible. They 
were edited, with his other works, by the 
Rev. T. H. Home (21 vols., 1832-'3, and many 
later editions), and his life has been written 
by the Rev. William Carus (1847). 

SIMEON 8TYUTES. See STTLITES. 

SIMFKROPOL, or SIMPHEROPOL (Turk. ATc- 
metchet\ a town of European Russia, capital 
of the government of Taurida, in the Crimea, 
on the Salghir, 192 m. S. E. of Odessa, and 37 
m. N. E. of Sebastopol ; pop. in 1867, 17,797. 
It stands on a plateau at the foot of lofty hills. 
'1 part of the town, built by the Tartars, 
is very irregularly laid out, and has a miserable 
appearance; the new, built by the Russians, 
has wide straight streets and a spacious square. 

SIMLA, a town and the summer capital of 
i India, in a Himalayan district of the 
same name belonging to the Ambala division 
of the Punjaub, 170 m. N. of Delhi; lat. 31 
ion. 77 8' E.; pop. in the height of the 
season, about 15,000 natives and 1,500 Euro- 
peans. It stands on a long and lofty ridge 
7,000 ft. above the sea, amid grand forest and 
mountain scenery, a few miles S. of the Sutlej. 
The British government purchased the station 
from tin- initiv,- st.-ite of Keonthal about 1822, 
and foopded Simla MM u sanitarium. The cli- 
mate is for the most part cool, exhilarating, 



SIMMS 

and healthful, though there is a heavy rain- 
fall at the time of the S. W. monsoon, and the 
difficulties of drainage are considerable. Since 
1866 the supreme government of India has 
been administered during the summer months 
from Simla, whither the viceroy and all the 
chief officials retire from Calcutta early in the 
hot season. It is about 60 m. N. E. of the 
Punjaub and Delhi railway. The town is an 
organized municipality, governed by a com- 
mittee of native and foreign residents. 

SULHS, William Gilmore, an American author, 
born in Charleston, S. 0., April 17, 1806, died 
there, June 11, 1870. For some years he was 
a clerk in a drug store, but at 18 he began the 
study of law, and in 1827 was admitted to the 
bar. From 1828 to 1832 he was edito$ and 
part proprietor of the " Charleston City Ga- 
zette," in which he opposed nullification, there- 
by reducing himself to poverty. He then de- 
voted himself entirely to literature, living for 
a time at Hingham, Mass., and afterward prin- 
cipally on a plantation at Midway, S. C., and 
occasionally holding public offices. His po- 
etical works are : a " Monody on the Death of 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney " (1825) ; " Lyri- 
cal and other Poems " and " Early Lays " (1 827) ; 
"The Vision of Cortes, Cain, and other Po- 
ems" (1829) ; " The Tricolor, or Three Days 
of Blood in Paris " (1830) ; " Atalantis, a Story 
of the Sea" (1833); "Southern Passages and 
Pictures" (1839); "Donna Anna" (1843); 
"Grouped Thoughts and Scattered Fancies" 
(1845); "Lays of the Palmetto "(1848); "Po- 
ems, Descriptive, Dramatic, Legendary, and 
Contemplative" (2 vols., 1854); and "Arey- 
tos, or Songs and Ballads of the South " (1860). 
A collective edition appeared in 1864. He 
also edited a volume of "War Poetry of the 
South" (1867). He produced two dramas, 
"Norman Maurice, or the Man of the People," 
and " Michael Bonham, or the Fall of Alamo," 
and adapted Shakespeare's " Timon of Athens " 
for the stage, with numerous additions of his 
own. His works of imaginative fiction com- 
prise "The Book of my Lady " (1833) ; " Carl 
Werner " (1838) ; " Confession, or the Blind 
Heart " (1842) ; " Castle Dismal " (1845) ; " The 
Wigwam and the Cabin" (1845-'6); "Marie 
de Bernier " (1853) ; and " Ghost of my Hus- 
band" (18mo, 1867). His historical romances 
are : " The Yemassee " (1835) ; " Pelayo" 
(1838); "Count Julian" (1845); "The Dam- 
sel of Darien" (1845); "The Lily and the 
Totem, or the Huguenots in Florida;" "The 
Maroon and other Tales" (1855); '-'Vascon- 
celos" (1857); "The Cazique of Kiawah" 
(1860); and "Swamp Robbers" (1870). The 
following are founded on revolutionary events : 
" The Partisan " (1835) ; "Mellichampe " (1836); 
"The Scout," originally published as "The 
Kinsmen, or the Black Riders of the Congaree " 
(1841); "Katharine Walton" (1851); "Wood- 
craft," originally entitled "The Sword and the 
Distaff;" "The Forayers, a Raid of the Dog 
Days" (1855), and its sequel "Eutaw" (1856). 



SIMON 



SIMONIN 



59 



Romances of backwoods life: "Guy Eiveps" 
(1834); "Richard Hurdis" (1838); "Border 
Beagles " (1840) ; " Beauchampe, or the Ken- 
tucky Tragedy" (1842); "Helen Halsey " 
(1845); "The Golden Christmas, a Chronicle 
of St. John's, Berkeley" (1852) ; and " Charle- 
mont, or the Pride of the Village " (1856). A 
selected edition of his novels appeared in 1865 
(17 vols., New York). To history and biog- 
raphy he contributed a " History of South 
Carolina," " South Carolina in the Revolu- 
tion" (1854), and lives of Gen. Marion, Capt. 
John Smith, the chevalier Bayard, and Gen. 
Greene. Under this head may also be inclu- 
ded a " Geography of South Carolina." His 
remaining works include " Views and Reviews 
in American Literature;" "Egeria, or Voices 
of Thought and Counsel for the Woods and 
Wayside," a collection of aphorisms in prose 
and verse ; " Father Abbot, or the Home Tour- 
ist, a Medley;" "Southward Ho!" (1854); 
"The Morals of Slavery," &c. He also edited 
with notes the seven dramas ascribed to Shake- 
speare, but not published among his works, 
under the title of "A Supplement to Shake- 
speare's Plays." 

SIMON, Jnles (JULES FRANQOIS SUISSE-SIMON), 
a French statesman, born in Lorient, Dec. 31, 
1814. After teaching in various places, he 
lectured in 1838 at the normal school in Paris. 
In 1839 he succeeded Victor Cousin as profes- 
sor of philosophy at the Sorbonne, from which 
post he was removed in 1851 on account of his 
>pposition to the coup d'etat. In 1848 he en- 
tered the constituent assembly, which early in 
1849 elected him to the council of state; but 
not being confirmed by the legislative assem- 
bly, he retired in 1850. In 1855 and subse- 
quently he lectured in Belgium on philosophy. 
He was elected to the legislative body in 1863, 
and reflected in 1869 in two departments. He 
advocated popular education, free trade, the 
abolition of capital punishment, and the in- 
terests of the working classes; and in 1870 
he opposed the plebiscitum in favor of Louis 
Napoleon and the declaration of war against 
Prussia. After the establishment of the re- 
public (Sept. 4), he became a member of the 
government for the national defence, as min- 
ister of education, religion, and fine arts, and 
instituted many reforms, the most prominent 
of which was the obligatory school law. Af- 
ter the capitulation of Paris he went to Bor- 
deaux to put an end to Gambetta's arbitrary 
proceedings. On Feb. 19, 1871, he became 
minister of education and religion under Thiers, 
with whom he retired, May 24, 1873. He re- 
tained his seat in the national assembly, and 
in 1875 received from the government a pen- 
sion of 6,000 francs. His works include His- 
toire de Tecole d> Alexandrie (2 vols., 1844-'5) ; 
Le devoir (1854; 6th ed., 1859); La religion 
naturelle (1856 ; 5th ed., 1859 ; English transla- 
tion by I. W. Cole, London, 1857) ; La liberte 
de conscience (3d ed., 1859) ; La liberte (2 vols., 
1859) ; L'ficole (1864) ; Le travail (1866) ; La 



politique radicals (1868); Le libre-ecJiange 
(1870); and Souvenirs du 4 Septemlre (1874- 
new ed., 1875). 

SIMON, Richard, a French Biblical critic, born 
in Dieppe, May 13, 1638, died there, April 11, 
1712. He entered the congregation of the Ora- 
tory in 1662, was professor of philosophy suc- 
cessively in the college of Juilly and in that of 
the Oratory in Paris, and in 1671 became in- 
volved in a controversy with the Port Royal- 
ists by a publication entitled Fides Ecclesia 
Orientalis. In 1678 appeared his Histoire 
critique du Vieux Testament, in which he at- 
tributes the authorship of the Pentateuch to 
scribes of the time of Ezra. It was violently* 
assailed by Bossuet and suppressed, and the 
author excluded from the Oratory. The opin- 
ions of Simon have since been adopted by 
many rationalistic theologians. Among his 
other works are : Histoire critique de la cre- 
ance et des coutumes des nations du Levant 
(Amsterdam, 1684); Histoire critique du texte 
du Nouveau Testament (Rotterdam, 1689) ; 
Histoires critiques des principaux commenta- 
teurs du Nouveau Testament (Rotterdam, 1692) ; 
and Nouvelles observations sur le texte et les 
versions du Nouveau Testament (Paris, 1695). 

SIMONE DI MARTI NO. See MEMMI. 

SIMONIDES, a Greek lyric poet, born at lulis, 
in the island of Ceos, about 556 B. C., died in 
Syracuse about 467. His family is said to 
have held some hereditary office in connection 
with the worship of Bacchus. After reaching 
manhood he was invited by Hipparchus to 
Athens, where, with an interval of a few years, 
he lived until his 80th year, when he was 
crowned for his victory in the dithyrambic 
chorus. His elegies on those who fell at Mara- 
thon and PlatsBa, his epigram on the tombs of 
the Spartans slain at Thermopylse, and his odes 
on the sea fights at Artemisium and Salamis, 
were celebrated. His latter years were passed 
in Sicily, at the court of Hiero of Syracuse. 
He is reproached by Pindar with avarice, hav- 
ing been the first poet on record who wrote 
for money. He was the most prolific and prob- 
ably the most popular lyric poet that Greece 
ever produced. A few fragments are all that 
remain of his writings, the " Lament of Danae " 
being the most celebrated. The best edition 
is that of Schneidewin, Simonidis Cei Car- 
minum Reliquia (8vo, Brunswick, 1835). A 
writer considered by some his grandson, and 
known as SIMONIDES THE YOUNGER, was the 
author of a genealogical work in three books, 
and of a treatise " On Inventions." A few 
fragments remain, including a satire on wo- 
men, of SIMONIDES THE ELDER, of Amorgos, 
who flourished about 650 B. C. 

SIMONIN, Lonis Laurent, a French author, born 
in Marseilles in 1830. He completed his studies 
at the mining school of St. Etienne, and was 
employed by the government in mineralogical 
explorations in the island of Reunion and in 
Madagascar. He has several times visited the 
United States, sketches of which he has writ- 



CO 



SIMON MAGUS 



ten for the Ktrue d* Deux Monde*, and has 
been since 1865 professor of geology at the 
central school of architecture. Among his 
works are: La richer mineraU.de la France 
(1865) : L'ttrurie et lei titrusque* (1866) ; La 
tit tonterraine (1867); and VHistoire de la 

SIMON MAGIB, a magician of the time of the 
apostles, who by his skill had attained such 
influence as to be called "the great power of 
God." While Philip the Evangelist preached 
in Samaria, in A. I>. 36, Simon's followers 
were converted, and he himself believed and 
was baptized. Soon after, when Peter and 
^ohn came to Samaria, to impart to the new 
converts by means of prayer and the imposi- 
tion of hands the gifts of the Spirit, Simon, 
seeing that through the laying on of hands 
the Holy Ghost was given, offered money to 
the apostles to impart to him this power. He 
was sternly rebuked by Peter, and appears no 
longer in connection with the rising Christian 
church. The statements of the ecclesiastical 
writers respecting his further life are pontra- 
dictory ; but it seems certain that he travelled 
through many countries to give exhibitions of 
his magic power, and that finally he settled at 
Rome, where, according to the testimony of 
Euscbius (with which a statement of Suetonius 
agrees), he met his death in an aeronautic at- 
tempt. About the middle of the 2d century 
his followers were still very numerous, and 
Eusebius in the 4th century represents the Si- 
monians as a powerful sect. They early split 
into several parties, of which the Menandrians 
and the Dositheans were the most important. 
(See DOSITHEANS.) Simon wrote several works, 
the remaining fragments of which are con- 
'1 in Grabe's Spicilegium, vol. i. 

>IMO>OSEKI. See SHIMONOSKKI. 

SIMOOM (Arabic, from samma, to poison),. or 
Sslri (Turkish, tarn, poison, and yel, wind), a 
hut, dry wind common in Syria, Arabia, and 
India. It comes from the deserts, and is char- 
;u torized by its excessive heat and suffocating 
effects, which are sometimes fatal to animal 
life. It never lasts over an hour, though it 
sometimes returns for several successive days. 
I Miring its prevalence the inhabitants of towns 
and villages shut themselves up in their houses, 
and those in the deserts in their tents or in 
pits. The parching heat is derived from the 
sands, which are whirled up from the earth 
by the advancing wind, and the whole air is 
filled with an extremely subtle and penetra- 
lust. When the wind blows in squalls, 
is often very suddenly produced by ac- 
tnal suffocation, and is followed by hmor- 
rhage at the nose and mouth. Persons ex- 
posed to it [>n>u-ct themselves by stopping the 
mouth and nose with handkerchiefs, and the 
camels in-tinutively bury their noses in the 
sand. The thanuin of Egypt and the har- 
"f (Juima and Senegambia are winds 
n'.Min in their effects, but are 
of longer duration and more regular in the 



SIMPSON 

periods of their prevalence. In India the si- 
moom of the deserts of Cutchee and Upper 
Sinde is sudden and mysterious in its appear- 
ance, invisible and singularly fatal. It usually 
occurs in June and July, by night as well as 
by day, sometimes preceded by a cold current 
of air. Its course is straight and well defined 
on a narrow path. It is not accompanied by 
dust, thunder, or lightning, but has a decided 
sulphurous odor. 

snil'LOV. See ALPS, vol. i., p. 354. 

SIMPSON. I. A S. county of Mississippi, 
bounded W. by Pearl river, and intersected by 
Strong river ; area, about 625 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 5,718, of whom 1,711 were colored. The 
soil is sandy, and there are extensive pine 
woods. The chief productions in 1870 were 
72,832 bushels of Indian corn, 15,420 of oats, 
29,520 of sweet potatoes, 2,134 bales of cotton, 
8,240 Ibs. of rice, 5,797 of wool, and 28,860 of 
butter. There were 871 horses, 1, 631 milch 
cows, 1,237 working oxen, 2,713 other cattle, 
4,211 sheep, and 7,793 swine. Capital, Westville. 
II. A S. county of Kentucky, bordering on 
Tennessee and drained by tributaries of Big 
Barren river and by Red river ; area, 375 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 9,573, of whom 2,167 were 
colored. The surface is level and the soil very 
fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 
107,242 bushels of wheat, 402,379 of Indian 
corn, 73,682 of oats, 1,072,401 Ibs. of tobacco, 
14,572 of wool, 72,004 of butter, and 8,806 gal- 
lons of sorghum molasses. There were 2,091 
horses, 1,311 milch cows, 1,928 other cattle, 
7,410 sheep, and 13,951 swine. The Louis- 
ville, Nashville, and Great Southern railroad 
passes through the capital, Franklin. 

SIMPSON, Sir James lonng, a Scottish physi- 
cian, born at Bathgate, Linlithgowshire, June 
7, 1811, died in Edinburgh, May 6, 1870. He 
was educated at the university of Edinburgh, 
where in 1832 he received his degree of M. D. 
In 1836, as assistant to Prof. Thomson, he de- 
livered a course of pathological lectures ; and 
in 1840 he was elected professor of midwife- 
ry in the university of Edinburgh. He was 
the first to apply the new discovery of an- 
aesthesia to midwifery practice, which he did 
Jan. 19, 1847. He subsequently discovered the 
ancesthetical properties of chloroform, which 
in midwifery practice he regarded as more 
manageable and powerful, more agreeable to 
inhale, and less exciting than ether, and as 
giving greater control over the superinduc- 
tion of the anesthetic state. (See ANAESTHET- 
ICS, and CHLOROFORM.) In 1849 he was elected 
president of the Edinburgh royal college of 
physicians, in 1852 president of the inedico- 
chirurgical society, and in 1853 foreign associ- 
ate of the French academy of medicine ; and 
in 1856 he received from the French academy 
of sciences the Monty on prize of 2,000 francs 
" in consideration of his services to humanity 
by the introduction of anaesthesia into the 
practice of midwifery, and the discovery of 
the amesthetic properties of chloroform." He 



SIMPSON 



SINAI 



61 




as very celebrated as a practitioner. Among 
works are : " Homoeopathy " (3d ed., Ed- 
burgh, 1853 ; Philadelphia, 1854) ; " Obstet- 
c Memoirs and Contributions," including his 
ritings on anaesthesia (2 vols., Edinburgh 
d Philadelphia, 1855-'6) ; "Acupressure" 
(1864); and essays on ancient rock sculptur- 
;s in Great Britain and other archaeological 
g'ects. In 1871 appeared new editions and 
'.ections of his writings under the titles 
Selected Obstetrical Works," " Anaesthesia 
Hospitalism," and " Clinical Lectures on 
e Diseases of Women;" and in 1872, "Ar- 
eeological Essays." He was created a Imro- 
t in 1866. See " Memoir," by J. Duns, D. D. 
inburgh, 1873). 

SIMPSON, Mathew, an American clergyman, 
born in Ohio, June 10, 1810. He graduated 
at Alleghany college, Meadville, Pa., in 1832, 
and received the degree of M. D. in 1833, but 
in the same year entered the ministry of the 
Methodist Episcopal church. In 1837 he was 
elected professor of natural sciences in Alle- 
hany college, and two years later president 
Indiana Asbury university, at Greencastle, 
d. In 1848 he was appointed editor of the 
Western Christian Advocate," Cincinnati, 
" in 1852 was elected bishop. He has been 
dally active in the promotion of educa- 
>nal and missionary enterprises. During the 
vil war he was employed on important com- 
issions, and delivered many addresses in sup- 
rt of the Union. In 1863-'4 he made an 
tended tour, studying the missionary status 
wants of his church in Syria, European 
.rkey, Switzerland, Germany, and Scandina- 
a. He has been three times a member of 
neral conference, and a fraternal delegate to 
the British Wesleyan conference and to vari- 
ous ecclesiastical bodies. In 1875 he was ap- 
pointed to visit again the mission conferences 
in Europe. His present residence (1876) is 
Philadelphia. 

SIMPSON, Thomas, an English mathematician, 
rn in Market-Bosworth, Leicestershire, Aug. 
1710, died there, May 14, 1761. He was a 
eaver, and while young married a widow 50 
ars of age, having two children, both older 
himself ; but the family lived in harmony, 
d Simpson employed his evenings in study, 
ecially of mathematics, and in keeping a 
1. In 1733 he went to Derby, and in 
35 or 1736 to London, where he soon estab- 
ed himself as a teacher of mathematics, 
while employing his leisure hours-in researches 
into the higher branches of science. In 1743 
he was appointed professor of mathematics in 
the royal military academy at Woolwich, a post 
which he filled until the beginning of 1761, 
when with impaired mental faculties and dis- 
ordered health he retired to his native town. 
In 1746 he was elected a fellow of the royal 
society. He published works on fluxions, the 
laws of chance, annuities and reversions, alge- 
bra, geometry, trigonometry, logarithms, &c. ; 
but his most valuable publication was a volume 




of "Miscellaneous Tracts" (1754), consisting 
of four papers on pure mathematics and four 
on physical astronomy. 

SDIROCK, Karl, a German author, born in 
Bonn, Aug. 28, 1802. He qualified himself at 
Bonn and Berlin for the judicial service, in 
which he was employed from 1823 to 1830, 
when he was removed on account of his poem 
on the July revolution in France. In 1850 he 
was appointed professor of ancient German 
literature at Bonn. He became famous by his 
translations of the Nibelungen (1827; latest 
ed., 1874) and many other early German and 
Scandinavian poems, including the Edda (1851 ; 
4th ed., 1871), and a modernized German ver- 
sion of Hartmann von der Aue's Der arme 
Heinrich (2d enlarged ed., 1875). One of his 
most celebrated original poems is Wieland der 
Schmied (1835; 3d ed., 1851). In 1867 ap- 
peared his translation of Shakespeare's poems, 
and among his other works are : Die Quellen 
des Shakespeare in Novellen, Mdrchen und 
Sage (1831 ; new ed., 1872)'; Das malerische 
und romantische Rheinland (4th ed., 1865); 
Handbuch der deutschen MytJiologie (new ed., 
1869); and Faust (new ed., 1873). 

SIMS, James Marion, an American surgeon, 
born in Lancaster district, S. 0., Jan. 25, 1813. 
He graduated at the South Carolina college in 
1832, and studied medicine in Charleston and 
at the Jefferson medical college, Philadelphia. 
In 1836 he settled at Montgomery, Ala., and 
soon became widely known as a skilful opera- 
tor in general surgery. About 1845 his at- 
tention was directed to the treatment of vesi- 
co-vaginal fistula, hitherto deemed incurable, 
and he established for the diseases peculiar to 
women a private hospital, which he supported 
for four years at his own expense. A pro- 
tracted series of experiments were crowned 
with success by the substitution of sutures 
of silver wire for silken and other sutures, 
and he afterward extended the use of metal- 
lic sutures into every department of general 
surgery. In 1853 he removed to New York, 
where through his efforts a temporary and 
afterward a permanent woman's hospital was 
established under his charge. In 1861 and 
1864 Dr. Sims visited Europe, and in 1870 he 
organized in Paris the Anglo-American ambu- 
lance corps. He has published "Silver Su- 
tures in Surgery" (8vo, New York, 1858) and 
" Clinical Notes on Uterine Surgery" (London 
and New York, 1866 ; translated into French 
and German). 

SINAI, a group of mountains in Arabia Pe- 
trsea, in the southern portion of the peninsula 
of the same name, which projects between the 
two forks of the Ked sea, the gulf of Suez sep- 
arating it from Egypt on the west, and the gulf 
of Akabah from Arabia on the east. The pen- 
insula of Sinai is triangular, about 140 m. in 
length from N. to S., and nearly the same in 
breadth at its widest portion. The northern 
portion is an arid and desert plain, with sand 
hills and mountains of small elevation; S. of 






SINAI 



lat 29" 20' N. it rises into several ranges of 
mountains. There are nnraerous peaks, vary- 

I from 1,000 to over 9,000 ft. above the 
sea, divided by deep wadys or narrow sand 
valleys, except in the case of the Wady er- 
Rahah and the Wady esh-Sheikh, two wide val- 
leys, the former separating the Jebel Ghub- 
eheh from the Jebel el-Fareiah, the latter the 
Jebel ed-Deir from the same mountain sum- 
mit, and the two uniting in a wide plain m 
front of the Ras Sufsafeh, the abrupt northern 
termination of the Jebel Musa or Mount of 
Moses, the traditional Sinai. The summits of 
most historic and Biblical interest, beginning 
at the S. point of the peninsula, are the Jebel 
et-Turfa, a long low mountain sloping on either 
side to the sea and terminating in the low pro- 
montory of Ras Mohammed ; the Jebel et-Tur, 
a series of summits of somewhat greater height 
surrounding the Jebel Musa, and separated from 
it by narrow steep wadys ; the Jebel Katherin 
or Catarina, S. S. W. of the Jebel Musa, and 
forming the termination of the range known 
as the Jebel Humr ; and the Jebel Musa, an 
isolated summit, with a plateau about 3 m. 
long and nearly 1 m. in width, gradually de- 
scending toward the north. The S. point, 
from which until recently it was supposed that 
Israel received the law, is 9,274 ft. high, but is 
still overlooked by the higher peaks of Jebel 
Katherin and the Tinieh ridges, and the wadys 
in front of it are so narrow that the immense 
congregation could not have seen the summit 
of the mountain. To avoid this difficulty, 
Burckhardt, and after him Lepsius and some 
others, have attempted to demonstrate that 
the Jebel Serbal, which was sometimes called 
" the mount of God," lying some distance W. 
of the Jebel Musa, and having a valley of con- 
siderable extent, the Wady Feiran, at its N. 
face, is the true Sinai, with which Horeb, the 
Scriptural "mount of God," is sc> closely con- 
nected as to appear identical. But ib seems 
that tradition rather points to that mountain 
:n t!u- site of Rephidirn. The N. extremity 
of the Jebel Musa, called by the monks Ho- 
reb, and at its highest point Ras Sufsafeh, or 
"the mountain of the Willow," is supposed 
} >y Kobinson and others to be the Sinai from 
which the law was dispensed. It is divided 
from the Jebel ed-Deir on the east by a nar- 
row valley, on one of the slopes of which the 
convent of St. Catharine is situated ; but from 
the termination of the Ras Sufsafeh there open 
out the two wide valleys already mentioned, 
the Wady er-Rahah and the Wady esh-Sheikh, 
the only ones in the Sinaitic peninsula capable 

"f containing the vast host of Israel. Oppo- 
site, in a succession of terraces, rises the Je- 
bel Sona, the termination of the Fureiah ridge 
The Ras Sufsafeh is 6,541 ft. high, and about 

800 ft. lower than Jebel Musa, but it is the 

oommandfaig point of the amphitheatre upon 



There are three churches 



which it 

:md thr.-. r\m^ on thU mountain, all smal 

:m<l in ii rninou* condition; and on the W 



side 2 000 ft below the summit, is the mon- 
astery ' celebrated alike for its antiquity, its 
manuscript treasures, and the hospitality of 
ts monks. The Arabs point out in the Wady 
er-Rahah the "hill of Aaron," the "pit of 
Korah " and the place where the molten calf 
was made. Carl Ritter suggested that Ser- 
bal was known before the giving of the law 
as "the mount of God," and that Pharaoh 
probably understood it as the mount to which 
they were going to sacrifice. Its distance and 
location well agree with this theory, for which 
early traditions give much ground. Dr. Beke 
supposed the ancient Mt. Sinai to be a moun- 
tain E. of the meridian of the gulf of Akabah 
and valley of the Jordan. He was sent in 
1874 on an expedition to establish his hypothe- 
sis. Advancing N. from the town of Akabah, 
by the route E. of the Jebel esh-Sherah, through 
the Wady el-Ithm, he found what answered his 
expectations in Mt. Baghir, also called Jebel 
en-Nur, or "mountain of Light." He bases 
his identification on an argument that, accord- 
ing to Scripture, the land of Midian, to which 
Moses fled, formed part of the east country, 
i. e., E. of the Jordan, and that he conduct- 
ed the children of Israel there; and hence 
it follows that he crossed with them the gulf 
of Akabah, and not the present gulf of Suez. 
Dr. Brugsch also has recently advanced a the- 
ory which takes the Scriptural Mt. Sinai out 
of the so-called Sinaitic peninsula. He is of 
opinion that the Israelites marched along the 
Mediterranean coast, and that the disaster of 
the Egyptians occurred on the narrow strip of 
land which separates the sea from the Serbo- 
nian lake. There are many difficulties in the 
way of harmonizing these views with the de- 
tails of the Biblical narrative. As to Horeb 
in Scriptures, it seems probable that the whole 
desert of Sinai was so called (Heb. 'hareb, 
parched), and that the name was also special- 
ly applied to Sinai itself. From a period cer- 
tainly not later than the first half of the 3d cen- 
tury, the caves of Jebel Musa, the traditional 
Mt. Sinai, were a refuge of persecuted Chris- 
tians ; in the 4th century they were the resort 
of anchorites and ascetics, and these were re- 
peatedly attacked and murdered by the Arabs. 
In the 5th and 6th centuries the monks of 
Mt. Sinai were represented in the great coun- 
cils of the eastern church. During the period 
in which the Mohammedan power was at its 
height, the monks lived in fear and disquiet, 
often threatened and occasionally attacked. 
From the crusades onward they have held 
more peaceful possession, but with greatly 
diminished numbers and influence. See Rob- 
inson, " Biblical Researches " (3 vols., Boston, 
1856); Stanley, "Sinai and Palestine" (Lon- 
don, 1858); Wilson and Palmer, "Ordnance 
Survey of the Peninsula of Sinai" (London, 
1872); Palmer, "The Desert of the Exodus" 
(London and New York, 1872); Ebers, Durch 
G ' oaen zum Sinai (Leipsic, 1872) ; and Maughan, 
"The Alps of Arabia" (London, 1874). 






SINALOA 



SINDE 



SINALOA. L A N". W. state of Mexico, bound- 
ed N. by Sonora, E. by Chihuahua and Duran- 
go, S. by Jalisco, and W. by the Pacific and the 
gulf of California; area, 25,927 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1869, 163,095. The entire eastern portion 
is mountainous, being traversed by a branch 
of the Sierra Madre ; while the western com- 
)rises extensive plains gradually declining to- 
ward the coast, which is generally low. The 
is indented by bays, the largest of which 
that of Navachiste, and presents several har- 
[>rs, such as Mazatlan, Angeles, Altata, Tarna- 
illa, Popolobampo, and Navachiste, none of 
rhich are very commodious. The chief riv- 
TS are the Fuerte and Canas, forming respec- 
ively the northern and southern boundaries, 
inaloa, and Culiacan; some of these, with 
leir affluents, periodically overflow their 
rs, fertilizing the surrounding country, 
mineral productions include gold, silver, 
platinum, copper, iron, lead, and sulphur ; but 
ines of the first two only are worked, the 
srage annual yield being $500,000, of which 
eighths is silver. The climate is exces- 
ively hot, and in many parts unhealthful, par- 
ilarly in the south and in the coast region, 
le soil is for the most part fertile ; the prin- 
" agricultural products are coffee, rice, and 
ir cane. Many of the tropical fruits, par- 
ilarly guavas and bananas, are very abun- 
it, though the last are so extensively con- 
led as to be imported in immense quanti- 
38. The chief occupations are agriculture 
mining, the manufacture of castor oil and 
liquor called mezcal, and pearl and tor- 
)ise fisheries along the coasts. Brazil wood, 
arls, gold, and silver are exported in large 
juantities. Sinaloa is divided into the dis- 
tricts of Rosario, Concordia, Mazatlan, San 
Ignacio, Cosala, Culiacan, Mocorito, Sinaloa 
Fuerte. The capital is Culiacan, and the 
lief port Mazatlan. II. An inland town of 
preceding state, on the right bank of a 
per of the same name, in the midst of a 
)ld-mining district, 220 m. N. N. W. of Ma- 
itlan ; pop. about 9,000. It has good houses, 
chulch, and a school ; and the inhabitants 
chiefly engaged in mining. It was the 
)ital of the old province of Sinaloa. 
SINCLAIR. I. Sir John, a Scottish agricul- 
rist, born at Thurso castle, Caithness, May 
10, 1754, died Dec. 21, 1835. From 1780 to 
1810 he was a member of parliament. He had 
an estate of 100,000 acres in Caithness, and 
devoted himself to the development of agri- 
culture, the improvement of wool, and the re- 
vival of coast fisheries ; and he built up the 
village of Thurso into a flourishing port. In 
1786 he was created a baronet. The board of 
agriculture was established by act of parlia- 
ment in 1793 mainly through his efforts, and 
he was its first president. He was the author of 
numerous volumes and pamphlets on agricul- 
ture, finances, and other subjects, and also pub- 
lished " Observations on the Scottish Dialect " 
(1782); "History of the Public Revenue of 
V45 VOL. xv. 5 



63 



the British Empire " (3 vols., 1785-'9) ; Sta- 
tistical Account of Scotland " (21 vols., 1791- 
'9); and "Code of Health and Longevity" 
(4 vols., 1807). II. Sir George, a Scottish au- 
thor, son of the preceding, born in Edinburgh, 
Oct. 23, 1790, died Oct. 9, 1868. For several 
years he represented Caithness in parliament. 
He published "Selections from the Corre- 
spondence on the Scottish Church Question " 
(1842) ; " Letters to the Protestants of Scot- 
land " (1852); "Miscellaneous Thoughts on 
Popery, Prelacy, and Presbyterianism " (1853) ; 
" Two Hundred Years of Popery in France, 
1515-1715 " (1853) ; and "Popery in the First 
Century " (1855). His life has been written 
by James Grant (London, 1869). III. John, 
a Scottish clergyman, brother of the preceding, 
born Aug. 20, 1797, died in London, May 22, 
1875. After graduating at Pembroke college, 
Oxford, he took orders, and in 1843 was made 
archdeacon of Middlesex. In 1853 he visited 
the United States in behalf of the society for 
the propagation of the gospel. He published 
a life of his father (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1837), 
and "Sketches of Old Times and Distant 
Places" (London, 1875). IV. Catharine, a Scot- 
tish authoress, sister of the preceding, born 
in Edinburgh, April 17, 1800, died in Lon- 
don, Aug. 6, 1864. She was her father's sec- 
retary in the latter part of his life. Besides 
numerous books for children and miscellaneous 
works, she published several novels, including 
"Modern Accomplishments" (1835); "Holi- 
day House" (1839); "Modern Flirtations" 
(1841); "Jane Bouverie" (1845); "Lord and 
Lady Harcourt" (1850); "Beatrice" (1852); 
and "Torchester Abbey, or Cross Purposes" 
(1855). 

SINDE, Scinde, or Sindh, an administrative di- 
vision or commissionership of the province of 
Bombay in British India, bounded N. by Be- 
loochistan and the Punjaub, E. by Rajpoota- 
na, S. by the great western Runn of -Cutch and 
the Indian ocean, and W. by the Indian ocean 
and Beloochistan ; area, 54,403 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1872, 1,730,323. The sea coast, 150 m. in 
length, is low and swampy, except at its N. ex- 
tremity, and at high water the shore is over- 
flowed for a considerable distance inland. The 
interior is a vast and arid plain of sand and 
shingle, traversed throughout its entire length 
by the river Indus, with a belt of fertility on 
each side. Sinde and the Indus bear a striking 
resemblance to Egypt and the Nile. (See IN- 
DUS.) The Hala hills extend along the W. fron- 
tier, but the most elevated points do not exceed 
1,500 ft. above the sea. The E. part of Sinde 
is to a great extent desert, and covered with 
shifting sand hills, but affords some pasturage, 
more particularly for camels. In the north 
there are extensive tracts of jungle, now util- 
ized as government fuel reserves. Upper Sinde 
and Lower Sinde are the respective designa- 
tions of the northern and southern portions of 
the division, which comprises politically the 
collectorates of Kurrachee and Shikarpoor on 



SINDE 



the W side of the Indus, the collectorate of 

8HaS&.j 

^-Sfflstfs^* 5 

Fn the S. E. corner. The chief towns are Kur- 
rachee, the seaport of the Indus, Hydrabad, 
the capital, Sukkur, Shikarpoor, and Larkha- 
na. all organized municipalities except the first. 
The climate is hot, subject to sudden and great 
changes of temperature, and remarkably dry. 
Its aridity is due to the fact that the S. W. 
monsoon does not blow over Sinde, where the 
normal yearly rainfall is less than 15 inches 
although the dews are exceedingly heavy. At 
Hydrabad the mean temperature of the six 
hottest months is 98, but in winter frost 
is not unknown. In December, January, and 
February, a temperature of 32 F. at dawn is 
not unfrequently followed by a midday tem- 
perature of from 75 to 88 in the shade, at 
Kurrachee. Upper Sinde is tolerably health- 
ful, and many of the natives attain a great age ; 
but in the lower country, particularly toward 
the mouth of the Indus, there is much malaria 
and fever. Salt is the chief mineral product 
of the country, and alum, which is used to 
clarify the water of the Indus for drinking, 
occurs in considerable quantities. The soil of 
the delta of the Indus is a light clay mixed with 
sand, and the whole valley is fertilized by the 
annual inundation of the river; but away from 
the streams the surface is for the most part a 
sandy de-ert, or consists of vast tracts over- 
spread with acacia-like trees, salvadora, and 
a leafless caper shrub. The forests of Sinde 
comprise the babul (acacia Arabica), the tama- 
risk, and the Euphrates poplar, and border the 
IndiH at various points, having formerly been 
the favorite hunting grounds of the ameers ; 
they cover an area of 350,000 acres. Irriga- 
tion is essential to cultivation, and the canals 
for that purpose are kept up at great expense, 
owing to the accumulation of silt. The only 
perennial canal in the division is above Suk- 
kur, and is 24 in. long ; all the others are in- 
undation canals. Cotton is now grown exper- 
imentally, and sugar cane and tobacco succeed 
well, besides rice, wheat, barley, mustard, and 
the other common crops of such a climate; 
but the methods of agriculture are inferior 
and carelessly applied. The zemindari land 
revenue system prevails, under which the land 
is cultivated on shares. The fauna of Sinde 
is remarkable for number and variety. Tigers 
and leopu'-oX hyronaa and jackals, buffaloes 
hog-deer, antelopes, and wild boars are prom- 
inent among the mammals. Among the verj 
numerous species of birds are two eagles 
bastards, falrmis, partridges, quails, snipe, cor 
morants h.-ron-. flamingoes, pelicans, and wilt 
ducks of many sorts. The fresh waters yield 
i vial, a so-called river porpoise whicl 
vurd of 200 Ibs., and many varietie 
of ti-.ii ; whili- pearl oysters are abundant along 
;ust. The common insects are locusts 



nts, mosquitoes, and black flies. The Sindi- 
ns are tall, well made, and handsome, and the 
vomen are remarkably good-looking They 
ire made up of mixed races, principally Jats 
and Beloochees, the proportion of Moliamme- 
ians to other sects in the population being as 
our to one. The people are described as idle, 
ixceedingly immoral, ignorant, and bigoted. 
Wool raising is an important industry. Some 
manufactures are carried on in the principal 
owns, and the people are very ingenious work- 
men. Coarse silk goods are made from ma- 
,erials imported from Persia and China, and 
i peculiarly soft and durable leather, several 
different kinds of cloth, earthenware, and cut- 
ery are manufactured. The foreign trade in 
1872-'3 was worth nearly 1,000,000, com- 
prising exports valued at 657,994, and im- 
>orts worth 324,250; and the coast trade 
was valued at 2,640,561. Some traffic is 
carried on with Cabool through the Bolan 
pass, but in Lower Sinde there are no regular 
lighways, as the constantly shifting sand ren- 
ders it difficult to maintain them. A railroad 
connects Kurrachee and Hydrabad, and the 
[nclus valley line, which is to unite it with the 
railway system of India, is in process of con- 
struction. The government of Sinde is ad- 
ministered by a special commissioner. Khyer- 
?oor, the only native state in the division, 
extends 120 m. in length and 70 m. in width, 
jetween the Indus on the west and the Raj- 
poot state of Jessulmeer on the east, and is 
i great alluvial plain watered by six canals 
and having an area of 6,109 sq. m. When 
Alexander the Great invaded India, Sinde was 
ruled by Hindoo princes, who had extended 
their conquests over all the countries lying 
between the Indus and the Ganges. Little is 
known of Sinde from that time till about A. 
D. 715, when it was conquered by a Moham- 
medan army sent from Bassorah; but these 
invaders did not long hold it. It was subse- 
quently governed by a Rajpoot tribe for near- 
ly three centuries, and was then conquered by 
Mahmoud of Ghuzni, whose successors held it 
until they were overthrown by the hose of 
Ghore. About 1225 it fell under the domin- 
ion of the rulers of Delhi, who held it for up- 
ward of a century. They were succeeded by 
native princes, and about 1520 the country 
became subject to Shah Beg Argoon of Can- 
dahar. In 1592 it was incorporated with the 
Mogul empire under Akbar, in 1739 with the 
Persian under Nadir Shah, after whose death 
it reverted to the former, and in 1756 passed 
by dowry to the ruler of Cabool, remaining 
a nominal dependency of Afghanistan, though 
governed by native princes, till 1780, when a 
Belooche chief named Meer Futteh AH ob- 
tained supremacy and divided the country into 
three independent states, each under several 
rulers known as ameers. Under these chiefs 
the government was a military despotism, and 
the relations between them and the English 
East India company were never very friendly. 



SINDIA 



SINGAPORE 



65 



About the beginning of the present century 
the company's agent was violently expelled, 
and a large amount of property in his custo- 
dy confiscated. Subsequently several treaties 
were made ; and in 1838, to facilitate the op- 
erations of its army in the contemplated Af- 
ghan war, the company extorted concessions 
from the ameers by which Sinde was made 
virtually one of its dependencies. The disas- 
ters of the British in Afghanistan having en- 
couraged the ameers to commit hostile acts, 
a military force was sent thither under Sir 
Charles Napier, who, after concluding a treaty 
with the ameers of Lower Sinde, found himself 
compelled to take the field ; the result was the 
brilliant victory of Meeanee (Feb. 17, 1843), 
the rapid conquest of the country, and the 
establishment of British authority. (See NA- 
?IEB, Sir CHAELES JAMES.) The rajah of 
[hyerpoor was allowed to retain his posses- 
sions, on account of his fidelity to the English. 
Sinde was constituted 
commissionership in 
L843. 
SINDIA, Family of. 

36 GWALIOR. 

SINGAPORE. I. A 

province of the British 
colony of the Straits 
sttlements, consisting 
)f the island of Sin- 
ipore, and about 50 
lets S. and E. of it 
the strait of Singa- 
>re, lying between 
1 8' and 1 32' K, 
Ion. 103 30' and 
104 10' E. ; pop. in 
1871, 97,111. The isl- 
id of Singapore lies 
the S. extremity of 
Malay peninsula, 
>m which it is sepa- 
ited by a strait about 
m. long and ^ to 2 
i. wide ; it is about 25 m. long from E. to 
T ., and 12 m. wide; area, 224 sq. m. On the 
3t are swampy tracts covered with man- 
rove trees, but inland are many small hills, 
rom 100 to 500 ft. high. Iron ore abounds. 
^ Cuch of the soil is sterile, but in the lowlands 
it is richer. There are a few rivulets. Nutmegs, 
cloves, ginger, pepper, garnbir, tapioca, and 
sugar cane are raised. The thermometer ranges 
from 71 to 89, and the climate is healthful. 
Showers are frequent, and in 1871 the total 
rainfall was 120*4 inches. Tigers cross the 
strait to the island, and are said to carry off, on 
the average, a Chinaman every day. Of the 
inhabitants of Singapore in 1871, 74,351 were 
males and 22,763 females; 54,098 Chinese, 
19,250 Malays, 9,297 Klings, 1,329 Europeans, 
2,164 Eurasians, and the remainder natives 
of other parts of the East Indies. Malay is 
the prevailing language. II. A city, capital 
of the Straits Settlements, on the S. side of 



the island of Singapore, in lat. 1 16' 13" N., 
Ion. 103 53' 15" E.; pop. about 90,000. It 
is on a low plain fronting the harbor, with 
hills in the rear, and is intersected by a salt- 
water creek called the Singapore river. On 
the W. side is the Chinese quarter, which 
contains also the great mercantile warehouses 
and counting houses. On the E. side are the 
official buildings, churches, hotels, and many 
of the European residences ; and still further 
E. is the Malay quarter. Behind the Chinese 
quarter^ on Pearl hill, is a fortress which com- 
mands it, and on another elevation, back of 
the European quarter, is the government house, 
a fine building of cut stone. Many neigh- 
boring hills are occupied by country houses. 
Near the shore are ample parade grounds and 
drives. The botanical garden has a splendid 
collection of tropical plants. Among the pub- 
lic buildings are the Singapore institution for 
the study of the languages of the East, which 




Singapore. 

contains a museum, library, and reading room ; 
a prison, in which are generally confined about 
2,000 criminals, mostly Hindoos, who are em- 
ployed en government works ; Protestant and 
Roman Catholic churches, a splendid Chinese 
temple, and a Mohammedan mosque. There 
are two mission schools, attended chiefly by 
Chinese, Malays, and Eurasians. The Chinese 
have also private schools. The port of Singa- 
pore, which is divided into two by a tongue of 
land, is capacious, and the water is deep enough 
for the largest vessels. The harbors are pro- 
vided with every facility for an extensive com- 
merce, and for fitting out and repairing ships. 
Singapore is a free port. Vessels pay three 
cents a ton light dues on entering and leaving. 
In consequence of its geographical position, it 
is the entrepot of the commerce of S. Asia 
and the Indian archipelago, and is resorted to 
by vessls of all nations. The entrances in 
1872 were 1,665, tonnage 918,652; 729 were 



66 



SING SING 



steamers, tonnage 612,929. The total value of 
imports was $48,415,383 ; exports $39 02 .0 - 
121. During the year ending' Sept. 30, 1874, 
20 United States vessels entered ; the total 
value of the exports to the United States for 
the same period was $3,750,831. The exports 
are tin, gambir, pepper, rattans and Malacca 
coffee, nutmegs, tapioca, sago, caou- 
t,.hou,.,guttapercha,sapan wood, buffalo hides, 
and gums. The city of Smgapura (" lions 
town*), capital of a Malayan kingdom, occu- 
pied the site of Singapore in the 12th century. 
In the 13th century it was captured by a king 
of Java, when the royal residence was removed 
to Malacca, and it gradually fell into decay ; 
and in 1819, when the British built a factory 
on the site, the whole island had only 150 
inhabitants. In 1824 the sultan of Johore, m 
consideration of $60,000 and a life annuity of 
$24,000, transferred the sovereignty and fee 
simple of the island, and all the seas and 
islands within 10 geographical miles, to the 
British. (See STRAITS SETTLEMENTS.) 

M><; SING, a village in the township of Os- 
sining, Westchester co., New York, beautifully 
situated on high ground on the E. bank of the 
Hudson river, at its widest part, called Tappan 
bay, 30 m. above New York; pop. in 1875, 
6,500. There are several manufactories, the 
principal being two of files, one of lawn mow- 
ers, two of carriages, one of Brandreth pills, 
and one of porous plasters. The village con- 
tains a national bank, a savings bank, a pub- 
lic school, a Roman Catholic school, a female 
seminary, a school for preparing boys for West 
Point, three military schools, 12 private schools, 
two weekly newspapers, and six churches. It 
is the seat of one of the state prisons. The 
male division was erected by convicts, the first 
draft of whom, from Auburn state prison, 
began work in May, 1825. It contains 1,200 
cells, is 484 ft. long by 44 ft. wide, and six 
stories high, with ranges of workshops run- 
ning at right angles, 40 ft. wide and two and 
three stories high. The female division, with 
120 cells, is on the E. side of the male divi- 
sion, and under separate management; it was 
begun in 1835. Both buildings are of white 
marble. (See NEW YORK, vol. xii., p. 367.) 

8I.MGAGLIA (anc. Sena Gallica), a town of 
central Italy, in the province and 18 m. N. W. 
<f the city of Ancona, at the mouth of the 
Mki in the Adriatic; pop. in 1872, 22,197 
It i- the seat of a bishop, and has a beautifu 
Iral. The ramparts are protected by a 
citadel. The port admits only small craft 
The annual fair, July 20 to Aug. 8, at wliicl 
large transactions are made in silk, is of great 
antiquity. The town was plundered by the 
troops of Pompey in 82 B. 0. Under the ex 
archs of Ravenna it was for some time one o 
the cities of the Pentapolis, but afterward fel 

i.-cny. It is the birthplace of Pius IX. 
sINol'i Turk. Sinub\ a fortified seapor 
town of Asia Minor, in the Turkish vilayet o 
Kastamuni, on the S. shore of the Black sea 



SIOUX 

<>5 m E. N. E. of Constantinople ; pop. about 
000 It stands on an isthmus which con- 
.e'cts the mainland with a high rocky penin- 
ula called Cape Sinope, forming on its S. E. 
ide a roadstead, which is the best anchorage 
m that shore. The town has an arsenal and 
he- only ship yard in Turkey except that at 
Constantinople, and many Turkish war ves- 
sels are built tkere. There is a massive castle 
rected in the time of the Greek emperors, and 
new fortifications are nearly completed (1876). 
[t is a coal depot for steamers between Con- 
stantinople and Trebizond. Oak timber is 
argely exported. Sinope became important 
after its second colonization from Miletus, 
about 630 B. C., and continued independent 
till 183, when it was captured by Pharnaces, 
iing of Pontus, of which country it became 
;he capital. It was much ornamented and 
improved by Mithridates the Great. Having 
)een conquered by the Romans, it was made 
a colony by Ceesar. It was taken by tho Turks 
m 1461. In the Crimean war the Turkish 
leet with the exception of one steamer which 
escaped, was destroyed here by the Russian 
fleet under Nakhimoff, with a loss of about 
4,000 men, Nov. 30, 1853. The town was 
bombarded and suffered very severely. 

SINTO, or Shinto. See JAPAN, vol. ix., pp. 
537 and 562. 

MOOT, or Osloot (anc. Lycopolis), a city of 
Egypt, capital of a province of the same name, 
and residence of the governor of Upper Egypt, 
near the left bank of the Nile, about 250 
m. above Cairo, under a hilly ridge of sand 
cliffs, which have been extensively excavated ; 
pop. about 25,000. A magnificent embank- 
ment studded with trees leads to the town, 
which has several beautiful mosques and good 
bazaars; but the streets are narrow and un- 
paved, and most of the houses are mere hov- 
els. There are successful schools under the 
care of American missionaries, and British 
and American consular agents. Sioot was 
formerly much frequented by caravans from 
the interior. The most important manufac- 
ture is that of pipe bowls. There are ruins 
here of a Roman amphitheatre, vast rock 
tombs of the 12th dynasty, and ancient ala- 
baster quarries in the opposite range of bills. 
The city was once devoted to the worship of 
the wolf, or of the deity to which that ani- 
mal was sacred, from which its ancient Greek 
name is derived. 

SIOUX, or Dakotas, a tribe of American In- 
dians, dwelling near the bead waters of the 
Mississippi when first known by the whites. 
In 1640 the Algonquins informed the French 
of them as the Nadovressioux, whence they 
came to be called Sioux. In 1660, or soon 
after, the Chippewas and Hurons began a war 
with them, which continued into this century. 
In 1680 Duluth set up the French standard in 
their country at Izatys near the St. Peters. 
In the next year he rescued Hennepin from 
them. Nicolas Perrot, having entered their 



SIOUX 



67 



domain in 1685, took formal possession for 
France in 1689, erecting a breastwork near 
Lake Pepin. In 1689-'99 Le Sueur visited the 
Dakotas, and describes them as divided into 
seven eastern and nine western tribes. They 
joined the Foxes against the French, and in 
war with the Chippewas many were forced 
down the Mississippi, and, driving other Indi- 
ans from the buffalo plains, took possession of 
them. Several bands wandered into the plains 
of the Missouri. Some Remained at or near 
the St. Peter's. The English agents secured 
the services of the Sioux in the war of 1812 ; 
but most of the bands soon made peace. The 
treaties then made were renewed in 1825 by 
the Tetons, Yanktons, and Yanktonais, Si- 
oune, Ogallalas, and Oncpapas. The nation, 
estimated in 1822 at 5,000 on the St. Peter's 
and 7,750 on the Missouri, comprised the Alde- 
wakantonwans, or Spirit Lake village ; the 
Wahpetonwans, or village in the Leaves ; the 
Sisitowans, or village of the Marsh, called also 
Isantis; the Yanktonwans, or End villages; 
and the Tetonwans, or Prairie village, which in- 
cludes the Ogallala and Oncpapa bands. Their 
arritory extended from the Mississippi to the 
Black hills, and from Devil's lake to the mouth 
of the Big Sioux. On Sept. 29, 1837, the Da- 
kotas ceded to the United States, for $300,000 
and some minor payments, all their lands east 
of the Mississippi. The American board be- 
gan missions among the Wahpetonwans near 
Fort Snelling in 1835, and the Methodists in 
1836. Schools were introduced, and elemen- 
tary books printed in the language. In 1851 
nation ceded to the United States all their 
id east of a line from Otter Tail lake through 
" e Traverse to the junction of the Big Sioux 
the Missouri, retaining a reservation 20 by 
140 m. ; 35,000,000 acres were thus acquired 
>r $3,000,000. The government's neglect to 
try out the provisions of these treaties caused 
jitter feelings, and in 1854 Lieut. Grattan, in 
attempt to arrest a Dakota, attacked a vil- 
and was cut off with his whole party, 
series of hostilities by some of the Sioux 
isued ; but Gen. Harney defeated them on 
ittle Blue Water, Sept. 3, 1855, and a general 
incil at Fort Pierce consented to a treaty of 
But in July, 1857, the band of Inkpa- 
massacred 47 whites near Spirit lake, 
fowa, and murders were committed elsewhere, 
whites were killed at Acton, Minnesota, 
Lug. 17, 1862. Enraged by the failure of an- 
mities and the frauds practised on them, the 
"ioux then made a general uprising and killed 
learly 1,000 settlers. New Ulm, a town of 
1,500 people, was abandoned and almost de- 
stroyed. Fort Ridgely was besieged, and was 
saved' with difficulty. The Sioux of the Mis- 
souri and the plains also became hostile, and 
were reduced by Gen. Sibley of Minnesota and 
Gen. Sully of the United States army. After 
a severe struggle a number of captive white 
women and children w r ere rescued, and many 
Indians captured and sent to Davenport. Of 



more than 1,000 Indians held captive, many 
w r ere tried and condemned, but only 39, con- 
victed of specific acts, were executed ; the 
others were finally released. Many bands fled 
into Dakota territory, and the war, disease, 
and want largely reduced the nation. In 1863 
the Minnesota Sioux were removed to Crow 
creek. About 1866 treaties were made with 
nine bands, promising them certain annuities, 
to be enlarged as they should give increased 
attention to agriculture. An act of Feb. 11, 
1863, annulled all previous treaties with the 
Sioux ; but to the innocent bands a part of the 
amount pledged was restored, the government 
reserving compensation for damages. The 
most guilty bands fled north, and are still in 
the British territory. A few bands continued 
longer in hostility, cutting off Lieut. Fetter- 
man and his party in December, 1866, and 
besieging for a time Fort Phil Kearny. In 
1874 the Dakotas comprised the Santee Sioux 
in the reservation at the mouth of the Niobra- 
ra, Nebraska, numbering 791, with five schools 
under the care of the Episcopalians and the 
American board ; the Yankton Sioux on the 
Missouri, with the same missionaries; the Sis- 
setons and the Wahpetons at Lake Traverse 
and Devil's lake ; the Oncpapas, Blackfeet 
Sioux, Lower and Upper Yanktonais, Sans 
Arcs, Upper and Lower Brutes, Two-Kettle, 
Minneconjous, and Ogallalas in the Crow creek, 
Grand river, Whetstone, Cheyenne river, and 
Red Cloud agencies, 46,342 in all, in Dakota ; 
Santee, Yanktonais, Oncpapa, and Cuthead 
Sioux at Milk river agency, Montana, 5,309. 
In 1873 the government liabilities to the Da- 
kota tribes, including payments not yet due, 
were estimated at $10,387,800, with annual 
payments for their benefit of $27,400. A 
treaty hastily made by Gen. Sherman, April 
29, 1868, was unsatisfactory on both sides; 
and as gold had been discovered in the Black 
hills, the United States wished to purchase 
the tract, and induce the . Sioux to abandon 
their hunting grounds south of the Niobrara, 
or even to emigrate to the Indian territory. 
The Sioux showed great reluctance to treat. 
Sitting Bull, Red Cloud, and Spotted Tail, with 
other chiefs, visited Washington in May, 1875, 
but President Grant could not induce them to 
sign a treaty. Commissioners deputed by him 
met an immense gathering of the Sioux at the 
Red Cloud agency in September; but as the 
Sioux set an exorbitant price on their lands, 
the negotiation failed. Hostile feelings have 
been excited by alleged frauds at the Sioux 
agencies, which have been investigated, but 
as yet (1876) without result. Much attention 
has been given te the Dakota language. A 
very good grammar and dictionary by Riggs 
have been issued by the Smithsonian insti- 
tution. The missionaries have also supplied 
portions of Scripture, hymns, catechisms, and 
educational works in it, and newspapers issue 
lighter reading. It lacks the sounds /, r, 0, 
but has peculiar sounds of its own. 



68 SIOUX 

sioix, .1 X. W. county of Iowa, bounded 

tlie Big Sioux river and intersected by 

ver and affluents of Floyd's river ; are* 

nUut 750 sq. m.: pop. in 1870, 576 Ihe 

surface is nearly level and the soil productive. 

The Sioux City and St. Paul railroad passes 

through it. Capital, Calliope. 

MOI\ UT1, a city and the county seat of 
Woodbury co., Iowa, on the Missouri river be- 
tween Perry and Floyd's creeks at the inter- 
s,,tiou of the Sioux City and Pacific Sioux 
Citv and St. Paul, Illinois Central, and Dako- 
ta Southern railroads, 156 m. N. W. of Des 
Moines; pop. in 1870, 3,401; in 1875, about 
6500 The business portion of the city is 
built upon a dry, well drained bench, which 
almost imperceptibly slopes N. from the river. 
N. and W. of the thickly settled part of the city 
rise low ranges of bluffs, upon whose sides are 
built some of the finest residences. The streets 
cross each other at right angles, and the prin- 
cipal ones are graded and furnished with side- 
walks. Tho city is lighted with gas and has a 
fire department. It has an extensive trade 
with N. W. Iowa, N. E. Nebraska, and S. Da- 
k-.ta. There are four grain elevators, a pork- 
packing establishment, a national bank, a pri- 
vate bank, a savings institution, three saw 
mills, two flouring mills, a foundery and ma- 
chine shop, three breweries, a gun factory, mar- 
ble works, &c. The workshops of the Sioux 
City and St. Paul railroad employ about 75 
men. The city has two fine graded school 
buildings and three or four ward school houses, 
attended by about 1,000 pupils; one daily and 
three weekly (one German) newspapers; a pub- 
li- ball, seating 1,000 persons; a library asso- 
ciation; and six churches. Sioux City was 
laid out in 1854 and incorporated in 1857. 
SIR DARYA. See JAXARTES. 
SIREDON. See AXOLOTL. 
SIKKV a Xorth American long-tailed batra- 
cliian, with stout eel-like body, naked skin, 
persistent branchia, and only the two anterior 
legs. The best known species, the S. lacertina 
( I /mu.), or mud eel, has a small and short head, 
u itli elevated forehead and depressed and trun- 
snout, three branchial tufts, and three 
spiracles on each side ; the mouth is small, with 
distinct lips, and arrow-shaped tongue free at 
tlie tip and sides; no teeth in the upper law, 
but a broad band of very minute ones along 
the outer border of the palate bones ; nostrils 
and eyes small, the latter black ; the tail late- 
rally compressed, with a rayless fin above and 
In-low ; limbs with four short and small fingers 
with horny tips. It attains a length of from 
2 to 3 ft., and is dusky above with numerous 
whitish spots, and purplish below; it lives 
chiefly in the mud and muddy water of the 
1 n rice fields, and occasionally comes 
on land. Its food consists of worms, insects 
and the eggs ef fish and frogs; it is founc 
from lat. 86* N. to E. Florida. In this group 
there are about 90 vertebra?, connected by coni- 
cal cavities filled with a gelatinous substance 



lo in fishes ; eight pairs of short ribs, of which 
he first pair is attached to the second verte- 
>ra; no trace of pelvis; three cartilaginous 
>raiichial arches attached to an osseous tongue 
one; the lungs two long sacs, accessory to the 

lls, but, as in the menobranchus, insufficient 
or respiration. 

SIREN, in acoustics. See LIGHTHOUSE, vol. 
x., p. 458, and SOUND. 

SIRENIA, an order of placenta! mammals 
ontaining the dug<jng and manatee, formerly 
called herbivorous cetaceans. They are whale- 
ike in the swimming paddles of the anterior 
imbs, the absence of the posterior, and In the 
;ransverse tail fin ; they differ from cetaceans 
.n having the nostrils at the anterior part of 
the muzzle, molar teeth with flat crowns adapt- 
ed for a vegetable diet, a head not dispropor- 
tionately large, a tolerably distinct neck, more 
fleshy and bristly lips, and more hairy body. 

SIRENS (Gr. ceipTjves, from ceipaeiv, to draw, 
to entice), mythical female beings who en- 
chanted the listeners to their so-ng, and after 
getting them into their power destroyed them. 
En the legends of the Argonauts they are said 
;o have endeavored to entice those wanderers, 
Dut Orpheus surpassed them in singing ; there- 
upon they threw themselves into the sea, and 
were changed into rocks, as it had been fated 
that they were not to live after any one passed 
by them unaffected. In Homer the sirens are 
connected with the voyage of Ulysses, who, 
preparatory to sailing by the islands on which 
bhey were sitting, by the advice of Circe plug- 
ged the ears of his companions with wax and 
fastened himself to the mast of the vessel, 
until he was out of the sound of their voices. 
The island in Homer's account was between 
sea and the rock of Scylla, in the strait of 
Messina ; but the Roman poets place them near 
the shore of Campania, in the island of Caprero 
(Capri) or in the Sirenusian islands near Pses- 
tum. They were called daughters of Phorcus, 
of Achelous and Sterope, of Terpsichore, of 
Melpomene, of Calliope, or of Gsea. While 
Homer mentions only two sirens, the later 
traditions assume that there were three, and 
sometimes four. In later times they were re- 
presented as birds with the face of a woman. 
See Schrader, Die Sirenen im Alterthum 
(Berlin, 1868). 

SIKHIND. I. A geographical designation ap- 
plied to that part of India lying between the 
upper courses of the Sutlej and the Jumna, 
but not now coterminous with any political 
division, being for the most part a plain sloping 
from N. E. to S. W., and having an area of 
about i 7,000 sq. m. In the extreme north- 
east a spur of the Himalaya, which divides the 
head waters of the Sutlej from those' of the 
Jumna, projects into the territory, which is 
bounded N. and S. by certain outlying dis- 
tricts of the Punjaub, E. by the Northwest 
Provinces, and W. by Bhawalpoor. It com- 
prises the Punjaub districts of Ambaln, Loo- 
diana, Ferozepoor, Sirsa, Hissar, and Kurnal, 



SIKIUS 



SISMONDI 



69 



as well as nine independent native Cis-Sutlej 
states in subsidiary alliance with the British 
government, as follows: Patiala, area 5,412 
iq. m., pop. 1,650,000 ; Jhind, 863 sq. m., 
)op. 189,475; Nabha, 863 sq. rn., pop. 227,- 
155 ; Kalsia, 155 sq. m., pop. 62,000 ; Maler- 
)tla, 165 sq. ra., pop. 46,200 ; Furidkot, 643 
[. m., pop. 68,000 ; Dyalgurh, Mumdot, and 
likot. Separate from the group, on -the 
iks of the Beas, but usually classed with the 
>ikh states of Sirhind, is the state of Kapur- 
lala, with an area of 598 sq. m. ; pop. 253,- 
The Sikhs predominate, except in Maler- 
[otla, which is Mohammedan, and Furidkot, 
rhere the ruler is a Jat. Sirhind is traversed 
the Saraswati, Ghaggar, and other affluents 
)f the Sutlej, but, although fertile, requires 
Iditional irrigation, which will be supplied by 
canal system now in process of construc- 
m by the government, to have a total length 
554 m. The Feroze canal, in the S. part of 
irhind, was originally constructed from the 
Fumna to Hissar by Feroze Shah (1351-'87), in 
ler to water his hunting grounds, and has 
restored by the British. The railway 
>m Delhi to Lahore crosses Sirhind. Those 
>rtions of the Punjaub directly subject to the 
>vernment of India were mainly acquired du- 
the Sikh wars. The sovereign states were 
ranteed their independence, under British 
protection, by treaty with Runjeet Singh in 
1809. II. A town in the Sirhind state of Pa- 
tiala, lat. 30 36' N., Ion. 76 25' E., founded 
Feroze Shah in 1357, and once an impor- 
it city, but subjected to repeated captures 
luring the Sikh wars, and now largely in ruins, 
tt is on the line of the Delhi railway. 
SIRIUS. See DOG STAE. 
SIRBKKYD, Jacques, a French scholar, born in 
iom in October, 1559, died in Paris, Oct. 7, 
L651. He was a Jesuit, and in 1590 became 
atary to the general of the order, Claudio 
L.cquaviva. In 1608 he went to Paris to edit 
collection of the histories of the French 
mrch councils. In 1637, to prevent his re- 
irning to Rome, he was chosen by Louis XIII. 
his confessor. He was involved in contro- 
ies with Salmasius, Saint-Cyran, and oth- 
His principal original works are: Notes 
oB (4to, Frankfort, 1612), directed 
dnst Richer's work on the temporal and 
spiritual pOAvers; Concilia antiqua Gallics (3 
vols. fol., Paris, 1629); and Historia Paniten- 
tics PubliccB (1651). A collected edition of 
his works appeared in 1696 (5 vols. fol.), with 
a life of the author by Labaune. He published 
many editions of ancient authors. 

SIROCCO, or Scirocco, a S. E. wind of a suffo- 
cating and parching heat, which at certain in- 
tervals, especially in spring and autumn, blows 
with great violence in the islands of the Medi- 
terranean and on the S. coasts of Italy, for 36 
or 48 hours together, and sometimes even for 
a week or more, and which exerts a most per- 
nicious influence on animal and vegetable life. 
It is regarded as similar in character to the 



simoom, though of longer duration, and tem- 
pered while passing over the Mediterranean. 
It is hottest in Malta and Sicily, but of short 
continuance. In the Ionian isles it blows for 
a longer period, but usually not so fiercely. 
The inhabitants of these isles speak of the 
black and the ordinary sirocco. It produces 
very little change either in the thermometer 
or the barometer, but causes a sensation of 
terrible heat and suffocation, great prostration, 
and copious perspiration. 

SISKIN. See ABEEDEVINE. 

SISKIWIT. See TEOUT. 

S1SKHOF, a N. county of California, bor- 
dering on Oregon; pop. in 1870, 6,848, of 
whom 1,440 were Chinese. It formerly had 
an area of 8,740 sq. m., extending from Ne- 
vada to "W. of the Coast mountains; but in 
1874 the E. portion was set off to form Modoc 
co. It is intersected by the Klamath river, 
and watered by several of its tributaries. The 
surface is elevated. Mt. Shasta in the S. part, 
in the transverse range joining the Sierra 
Nevada and Coast mountains, is an extinct 
volcano, 14,442 ft. high, and covered with per- 
petual snow. The principal agricultural dis- 
trict is Scott's valley, 40 m. long by 7 m. wide. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 116,107 
bushels of wheat, 131,383 of oats, 55,138 of 
barley, 17,066 of potatoes, 43,858 Ibs. of wool, 
95,800 of butter, and 12,392 tons of hay. 
There were 4,654 horses, 24,254 cattle, 12,844 
sheep, and 7,499 swine; 8 flour mills, and 8 
saw mills. Capital, Yreka. 

SISMOMH, Jean Charles Leonard Simonde de, a 
French historian, born in Geneva, May 9, 1773, 
died there, June 25, 1842. He was the son of 
a Protestant clergyman, and of remote Italian 
descent. After completing his classical studies, 
he was placed in a commercial house at Lyons. 
He subsequently resided with his family in 
England for some time, and having returned to 
Geneva about 1794, he and his father were 
driven into exile for assisting a political refu- 
gee. He returned to Geneva in 1800, became 
a secretary of the chamber of commerce, and 
published in 1803 Traite de la rickesse commer- 
cial, ou principes d 'economic politique (2 vols. 
8vo). In this work he supported the principles 
of Adam Smith, but his views afterward un- 
derwent a radical change. The influence of 
Mme. de Stael, whom he accompanied to Ger- 
many and Italy, and of her friends, turned his 
attention to historical labors, in which he re- 
vealed his ardent love of humanity. In 1819 
he married Miss Allen, a sister of Sir James 
Mackintosh's second wife, and declined chairs 
at the Sorbonne and the college de France, to 
spend the rest of his life at Geneva. His prin- 
cipal works are : Histoire des republiques ita- 
liennes du moyen age (16 vols., Zurich, 1807- 
'18 ; new ed., 10 vols., Paris, 1840) ; La littera- 
ture du midi de V Europe (4 vols., 1818 ; 4th 
ed., 1840 ; English translation by Thomas Ros- 
coe, with notes, 4 vols., 1823) ; Nouveaux prin- 
cipes d 1 economic politique (2 vols., 1819) ; His- 



70 



SISTERHOODS 



toirv des Frnncais (31 vols., 1821-'44; vols 
xxx. and xxxi. by Amed6e Renee, the last 
forming a general index) ; Julia Severa, ou Van 

picture of Gaul during the 6th century 
(3 vols. 12mo, 1822); " History of the Italian 
Republics," an eloquent summary of his great 
work on the same subject, and " The Fall of 
the Roman Empire," both originally written 
in Kii-ltsii for Lardner's "Cabinet Cyclopae- 
di.i" (1832 and 1834), and translated by him- 
self into French; Etudes sur la constitution 

l^les Hires (1836 ; enlarged ed., entitled 
j'jt't'lf* des sciences sociales, 3 vols., 1836-'8); 
and Precis de fhistoire des Francais (2 vols., 
1839), a summary of his larger work, bring- 
ing it down to the death of Henry IV. See 
" Political Economy and the Philosophy of 
Government," selected from his works, with a 
notice of his life and writings by Mignet (Lon- 
don, 1847) ; Sismondi, fragments de son journal 
et de sa correspondance avec Mile, de Sainte- 
Aulaire (Paris, 1863) ; and his Lettres inedites 

ime d 1 Albany (1864). 

SISTERHOODS. I. Human Catholic, associations 
of women bound together by religious vows, 
and devoted to works of charity. In this arti- 
cle only those sisterhoods are mentioned which 
profess to embrace exclusively or in a very 
special manner hospital work, and the care of 
the aged or infirm poor, orphans, and penitent 
women. The history of religious orders of 
women whose principal object is the pursuit 
of ascetic perfection, forms a part of the his- 
tory of the great contemplative orders on which 
they depend for their origin, name, and spirit- 
ual guidance. (See MONACHISM, RELIGIOUS OR- 
DERS, and special articles on the several orders.) 
Female congregations whose sole purpose is the 
instruction of youth, or who embrace at the 
same time works of public charity, are treated 
under SCHOOL BROTHERS AND SCHOOL SISTERS. 
In the 5th century mention is made by ec- 
clesiastical writers of associations of women 
at Rome, Milan, and other chief cities of the 
Roman empire, who gave up their wealth and 
time to the relief of the suffering poor. Congre- 
gations of female hospitallers existed through- 
out western Europe, dependent on the com- 
munities of canons regular, professing like these 
the rule of St. Augustine, and subject to the 
same change* and reforms. The earliest known 
si>t. rlioods of extensive influence, devoted sole- 
ly to hospitality or hospital work, are the sis- 
ters of St. John of Jerusalem and the sisters of 

/ inn. The former had a utility coex- 
with that of the knightly brotherhood 
of t!i- same name; the latter especially pro- 
fessed to care for lopors, incurables, the plague- 
strirk.-n, and persons afflicted with every form 
of loathsome disease. The order of St. Laza- 
rin is contemporaneous with the hospitallers 
of Jerusalem. A guild of men 
ftnd w <>f sou-nil kprosy 

hospitals in that city when it was conquered 
by the crusaders; they were organized soon 
afterward into a religious order under the rule 



of St. Augustine, and their establishments mul- 
tiplied rapidly both in the East and the West. 
The first female leprosy hospital in France was 
founded at St. Denis, near Paris, in 1109, by 
Louis VI., who also opened several others in 
various parts of the kingdom, among them one 
at La Saussaie, near Villejuif, and another at 
Etampes, besides founding many in the East. 
The sisterhood was recruited from among the 
nobility ; and Henry II. of England, in found- 
ing a hospital for female lepers at Rouvray, 
near Rouen, stipulated that none but noble 
ladies of the sisterhood of St. Lazarus should 
belong to the community in charge of the 
lepers. The sisterhood also found protectors 
in Richard I. of England, St. Elizabeth of Hun- 
gary, Louis VII., Louis VIII., and Louis IX. of 
France, all of whom encouraged the daughters 
of the nobility to enter it. The popes bestowed 
many privileges on the sisters, and they soon 
spread throughout England, Germany, Poland, 
Italy, and Spain. Among the most noted Au- 
gustiuian sisterhoods in France is that of the 
hospitallers of the Hotel-Dieu in Paris, which 
existed at least as a guild before Charlemagne, 
and was formally organized as a religious com- 
munity under Louis le Debonnaire in 814. 
Their numbers had to be repeatedly recruit- 
ed during the " black plague " in 1348. Simi- 
lar sisterhoods, all governed by the rule of 
St. Augustine, had charge from the beginning 
of the other Parisian hospitals, and of those 
founded since that period in French cities and 
in all the French colonies. Other nurseries 
of hospitallers in the 13th century were the ab- 
bey of Longchamp near Paris, the community 
of "Quinze Vingts" founded by St. Louis, as 
well as the Maison Dieu, and the hostelleries des 
postes for strangers and travellers, all in Paris, 
besides similar foundations by the same king 
in other parts of France. From these Augus- 
tinian communities came the hospitallers of the 
Hotel-Dieu (1639) and general hospital (1693) 
in Quebec, as well as those of the Hotel-Dieu 
of Montreal, founded in 1659 by a colony of 
nuns from La Fleche. Four sisterhoods devo- 
ted to hospital work and the care of the poor 
under the title of the " Presentation " have ex- 
isted: one founded in 1627 by Nicolas San- 
guins, bishop of Senlis, approved by Urban 
VIII., but which only possessed a few establish- 
ments ; a second in Paris, with the mitigated 
rule of St. Benedict; a third and more im- 
portant order, founded by Cardinal Federigo 
Borromeo (died 1631) at Morbegno in the Val- 
tellina, living under the Augustinian rule, and 
very popular in the north of Italy ; and a fourth 
founded in Ireland and described in the article 
SCHOOL BROTHERS AND SCHOOL SISTERS. In 
England, the Gilbertine nuns, founded about 
1170 by St. Gilbert of Sempringham, embraced 
hospital work with every other form of pub- 
lic charity. They numbered 1,200 in 1189. 
In the year 1100 arose in France the order 
of Fontevrault, which united the care of lep- 
rosy hospitals with that of asylums for fallen 







SISTERHOODS 



women. These were all placed under the pro- 
tection of St. Mary Magdalen, and, spreading 
rapidly with the order itself, effected a great 
moral reform in France and elsewhere. The 
" Sisters of Penitence " originated at Marseilles 
in 1278, and were specially devoted to the same 
purpose. A host of similar sisterhoods arose 
afterward, among which were the " Sisters of 
Charity " established at Marseilles in 1290, who 
soon opened houses in the chief cities of south- 
ern France ; the Jesuates of St. Jerome, founded 
in 1358 at Siena, approved by Pope Martin V., 
and suppressed by Clement IX.; the "Con- 
gregation of Our Lady of Charity " in Paris ; 
and the numerous communities of noble ladies 
popularly known as Magdelonettes, but united 
under the patronage of St. Mary Magdalen, es- 
iblished at Metz in 1452, at Paris in 1492, at 
Naples in 1524, and at Rouen and Bordeaux in 
1618. In the Magdelonette establishments, the 
women under care of the nuns were classed in 
three categories : the congregation of St. Mar- 
tha, formed of persons supposed to be thor- 
oughly reformed, and permitted to bind them- 
selves by religious vows; the daughters of St. 
Martha, who, though penitent, are not per- 
mitted to make vows; and the daughters of 
St. Lazarus, who are either unwilling to re- 
form or are placed in the establishment by the 
public magistrates. Similar sisterhoods were 
organized at Rome by Leo X., and confirmed 
and endowed by Clement VIII. The congre- 
ition of the u Sisters of Our Lady of Provi- 
lence," founded in 1830 for the same purpose 
in the south of France by Mile. Lamouroux, 
has several large establishments, one of which 
is at Laval. Of the communities whose sole 
re is that of the aged and homeless poor, 
two deserve special mention. The " Little 
sisters of the Poor" were founded in 1840 at 
>t. Servan in Brittany, by Abb6 Le Pailleur, 
rith the aid of two poor girls. They give a 
)me to the aged of both sexes, depending 
)lely on the alms collected from door to door 
" on the labor of the sisterhood. They were 
mch opposed at first, but were soon called to 
>pen houses in all the cities of France. They 
were approved by Pius IX., July 9, 1854, and 
30gnized by the French government in 1856. 
house was given to them in London in 1860, 
md their labors were warmly recommended by 
s Dickens and other public men, and 
from London they spread all over Great Britain 
id Ireland. In 1868 they came to Brooklyn, 
Y., Cincinnati, and New Orleans, in 1869 
Baltimore and St. Louis, and afterward to 
Tew York, Philadelphia, Louisville, and Bos- 
)n. They also have establishments in Alge- 
ia, Asia Minor, and Constantinople. The oth- 
commnnity is that of the " Sisters of the 
or of St. Francis," a congregation which 
originated at Aix-la-Chapelle in the pres- 
snt century, and came to the United States 
in 1857. Besides the care of the aged poor, 
;hey take charge of hospitals, into which they 
bind themselves to receive at all times and 



without distinction the sick and wounded of 
every creed and nationality. They have many 
establishments in most of the large cities of 
the United States. Among the communities 
devoted to the care of the insane are the " Sis- 
ters of the Good Saviour " at Caen in Nor- 
mandy. The community was founded in 1720 
by two poor girls, who- taught little outcast 
children, visited the poor, nursed the sick, and 
in 1730 opened asylums for homeless children, 
female penitents, and insane persons. They 
were suppressed in 1 789, but continued to labor 
among the needy till May 22, 1805, when 15 
sisters once more met in community under 
Abbe Jamet, their former chaplain. In 1817 
and 1818 they were first charged by govern- 
ment with the care of insane women, and soon 
afterward with that of insane men. Besides, 
Abbe" Jamet having invented a new method of 
instruction for deaf and dumb orphans, his 
school gradually became a normal school to 
which pupil teachers of the deaf and dumb 
resort from France, Belgium, and the British 
isles. In 1874 the mother house at Caen num- 
bered 300 sisters and upward of B l,000 insane 
patients. There are three associated estab- 
lishments of equal importance at Albi, Pont- 
1'Abbe, and Brucourt. In Canada, the care of 
the insane at Quebec devolved on the sisters of 
the general hospital till 1844 ; and the sisters of 
Providence founded at Montreal in 1828, and 
canonically approved in 1844, have charge of 
the insane asylum near that city. II. Protes- 
tant. In the church of England several com- 
munities of charitable women have been organ- 
ized in the present century. A community of 
" Sisters of Mercy " was founded at Devonport 
about 1845 by Miss Lydia Sellon, who began 
with the establishment of industrial, infant, 
and ragged schools. Several ladies joined her 
in her work, and they took a house and formed 
a community under Miss Sellon, at first subject 
to the visitorial control of the bishop of Ex- 
eter. The society was composed of three or- 
ders, viz. : those living in community, working 
among the poor, and leading an active labori- 
ous life ; those who were unable to undertake 
this work, but who wished to live a calm life, 
engaged in prayer, reading, and quiet occu- 
pations ; and married and single women who 
lived in the world, but maintained a certain 
connection with the community, and assisted 
its work in various ways. The sisters were 
bound by no vows except a promise of obe- 
dience to their superior. They were free to 
abandon their vocation at will, but while con- 
nected with it adopted a peculiar garb, and 
shared their property in common. The sisters 
also undertook the entire charge and support 
of a large number of orphan children. At East 
Grinstead a sisterhood was founded in 1855 by 
the Rev. Dr. John Mason Neale, with the ob- 
ject of nursing the sick, poor and rich, in their 
own homes, and in hospitals or infirmaries, 
in town or country. In 1874 the society had 
branch houses ia London, Aberdeen, Wigan, 



72 



SISTOVA 



and Frorae-Selwood.-Tho parent house of 
the "Sisterhood of St. John the Baptist "was 
founded at Clewer in 1849. The sisters have 
there a house of mercy, St. John's orphanage, 

idrew's convalescent hospital, St. An- 
drew's college for accommodating women re- 
covering from illness or requiring change of air 
and nourishing food, and St. Stephen's mission, 
embracing an upper class boarding school, a 
mil Idle class school for girls and boys, and an 
infant school. The sisterhood has established 
brunches at London, Oxford, Torquay, Glou- 

nnd other places. This organization 
embraces: 1, choir and lay sisters living in 
community ; 2, a second order formed in 1860 
of ladies who enter on the sisters' life for pe- 
riods of three years at a time, to be renewed 
continuously at their own desire and with the 
consent of the sisters ; 8, associates, who live in 
their own houses and give such assistance to 
the work as their circumstances may permit. 
The " Sisterhood of St. Mary," Wangate, was 
established in 1850, and has branches at Bed- 
minster, Plymouth, and other places. The 
" Sisterhood of St. Mary the Virgin " estab- 
lished its parent house at Wymering in 1859. 
The society consists of sisters of charity, who, 
being resident and under a religious rule, con- 
stitute the sisterhood, and ladies of charity or 
associates, who undertake to promote the in- 
terests of the society in their several spheres of 
private life. The sisterhood has established 
branches at Manchester and Aldershott. The 

rhood of St. Thomas the Martyr," which 
has its parent house at Oxford, has branches at 
Liverpool and Plymouth. The society of the 

s of the Poor," founded in 1851, has its 
parent house in London and branches at Edin- 
burgh, Clifton, Eastbourne, and West Chester. 
In the Protestant Episcopal church of the 
United States, an organization of women for 
voluntary service as nurses in hospitals, infir- 
maries, &c., called " Sisters of the Holy Com- 
munion." was founded in 1845 by the exertions 
of the Rev. W. A. Muhlenberg, D. D., in con- 
nection with the Protestant Episcopal church 
of the Holy Communion in Now York. They 
are humid by no vows, and though it is desira- 
ble that they should remain in their work for 
life, they are free to leave whenever they are 
so minded. They are usually received between 
.res of 25 and 40 years; if under 25, the 
written consent of parents or guardians must 
be obtained. Candidates for the sisterhood 
are required to spend one year of probation be- 
fore entering upon their vocation. They have 
no marked uniform, though the dress is gen- 
erally black, with a white muslin collar and 
head dress. The sisters managed for several 
years the infirmary of the Holy Communion, 
and since 1*58 have had charge of St. Luke's 
hospital, New York, under Dr. Muhlenberg's 
superintendence. (See DEACONESS.) 

SIMOU. or shMov. i fortified town ..f r. 
garia, on a height overlooking the right bank 
of the Danube, which is hero navigable for 



SIVOKI 

vessels of 500 tons, 35 m. W. S. W. of Rustchuk 
and 23 m. E. by S. of Nicopoli ; pop. about 
15 000. It is defended by a citadel or cas- 
tle, now much dilapidated. The houses are 
ill 'built, but the mosques are of considerable 
beauty.' A treaty of peace between Turkey 
and Austria was concluded here Aug. 4, 1791. 

SISYPHUS, in Greek mythology, son of ^Eolus 
and Enarete, and married to Merope, by whom 
he became the father of Glaucus and others. 
Some later accounts make him the son of Au- 
tolycus and the father of Ulysses. To him are 
attributed the foundation of Corinth (Ephyra) 
and the establishment of the Isthmian games, 
lie and his family were considered the most 
deceitful of men, and he was punished in the 
lower world by being set to the task of rolling 
a huge marble block up hill, which as soon as 
it reached the top always rolled back again. 
The crimes which induced this penalty are, ac- 
cording to different legends, that he betrayed 
the plans of the gods, killed travellers, and re- 
vealed the abduction of ^Egina by Jupiter. 

SITKA. See ALASKA, vol. i., p. 239. 

SIVA. See INDIA, RELIGIONS OF. 

SIVAS. I. A vilayet of Turkey, in Asia Minor, 
bounded N. by Trebizond, E. by Trebizond, 
Erzerum, and Diarbekir, S. by Marash, Adana, 
and Konieh, and "W. by Angora and Kasta- 
muni; area, about 25,000 sq. m. ; pop. esti- 
mated at about 600,000. The most important 
town, besides the capital, is Tokat, and its prin- 
cipal seaport is Samsun. It is traversed by 
several branches of the Anti-Taurus mountains. 
It is drained by the Kizil Irmak (anc. Halys), 
the Yeshil Irmak (//*), and their affluents, and 
several smaller streams which flow into the 
Euphrates. Among the minerals are iron, cop- 
per, lead, alabaster, marble, slate, and especial- 
ly salt. Most of the soil is exceedingly fertile, 
but not thoroughly cultivated. The pastures 
are extensive. In ancient times the province 
formed parts of Pontus and Cappadocia. II. 
A city (anc. Sebastia), capital of the prov- 
ince, in an extensive plain on the Kizil Irraak, 
440 m. E. S. E. of Constantinople ; pop. about 
25,000. The town is defended by two old 
castles, and contains fine mosques and many 
ruins. Access from the Black sea is easy, and 
the trade is active in the large bazaars. 

SIVOKI. Ernesto Camillo, an Italian violinist, 
born in Genoa, June 6, 1817. At the age of 
four years he was able to perform whatever he 
heard his sisters play or sing. He received 
lessons successively from Restano, Dellepiane, 
Costa, and Paganini, but modelled his playing 
chiefly upon that of the last named. His first 
concerts were given at Paris and in England 
when he was but ten years old. He then stu- 
died counterpoint for eight years under Ser- 
ra, and afterward gave concerts throughout 
Europe. In 1846 he visited the United States 
in company with the pianist Herz, and went 
also to Mexico and South America. Next en- 
gaging in a mercantile enterprise in Italy, he 
lost all his earnings and was obliged to resume 






SIWAH 



his artistic career. He has composed a num- 
ber of concertos, fantasias, and other pieces. 

SIWAH (anc. Ammon or Ammonium), an 
oasis in N. W. Egypt, near the boundary of 
the disputed territory between Egypt and Tri- 
poli, about 330 m. W. S. W. of Cairo, and 
about 160 m. from the coast of the Mediter- 
ranean sea; pop. about 8,000. It consists of 
several detached tracts, the principal of which 
is about 8 in. long and 3 m. broad. Its surface 
is undulating, rising on the north into high 
limestone hills. There are numerous ponds 
and springs, salt and fresh. The soil of the E. 
part is exceedingly fertile, its chief product 
being dates. The climate is delightful. The 
inhabitants are Berbers and negroes, all Mo- 
hammedans, governed by sheikhs or elders, 
some of. whom hold office for life, others for 
ten years. The people understand Arabic, 
but have a mixed idiom of their own. Their 
principal town, Siwah (according to Eohlfs, 
who last visited it in February, 1874, in lat. 
29 12' N., km. 25 30' E.), is defended by a 
citadel on a rock, and by strong walls. The 
streets are irregular, narrow, and dark. It is 
divided into an upper and a lower town. No 
stranger is admitted to the former, nor are na- 
tive bachelors permitted to live there. About 
3 m. S. E. of the town are the ruins of the 
ancient temple of Jupiter Ammon, now called 
Om Baydah, sculptures of Ammon, with the 
attributes of the ram-headed goat, being among 
the remains. Near the temple is what is sup- 
posed to be the fountain of the sun, a pool 80 
ft. long and 55 ft. wide, formed by springs, 
whose water appears to be warmer by night 
than by day, and is heavier than that of the 
Nile. In the vicinity are other ruins and in- 
scriptions of Greek; Roman, and Roman-Egyp- 
tian character. In the W. part of the oasis 
is a lake, called Birket Arashiah, containing 
an island from which strangers were till late- 
ly excluded. In ancient times this oasis was 
celebrated as the seat of the oracle of Am- 
mon. Besides the temple, with its images of 
Jupiter Ammon set in precious stones, it con- 
tained a royal castle surrounded by three walls, 
and a remarkable spring called the " fountain 
of the sun," the water of which was quite 
cold at noon and boiling hot at midnight. 
Cambyses made an unsuccessful attempt to 
take the temple. In 331 B. C. Alexander the 
Great marched through the desert to visit it, 
and the priest addressed him as the son of 
the god. The emperor Justinian built here a 
Christian church. See Reise zu dem Tempel 
des Jupiter Ammon und nach Ofteragypten, by 
Minutoli (Berlin, 1824) ; " Adventures in the 
Libyan Desert," by Bayle Saint John (Lon- 
don, 1849) ; and Das Orakel und die Oase des 
Ammon, by Parthey (Berlin, 1862). 

SIX NATIONS. See IROQUOIS. 

SIX PRINCIPLE BAPTISTS, a small religious 
sect which first appeared in this country as a 
separate organization in Rhode Island in 1639. 
Their church polity and views on baptism are 



SIXTUS 73 

the same as those of the Baptists. In doctrine 
they are Arminian. They oppose the pay- 
ment of any regular salary to their preachers, 
and have never connected themselves with 
any missionary efforts, or benevolent or re- 
formatory societies. They hold as their dis- 
tinguishing doctrines the six principles laid 
down in Heb. vi. 1, 2, viz. : repentance from 
dead works ; faith toward God ; the doctrine 
of baptisms, of which they distinguish four 
kinds, viz. : John's baptism, the baptism of 
the Holy Ghost on the day of Pentecost, the 
baptism of Christ's sufferings, and apostolic or 
Christian baptism, which alone remains since 
the resurrection of Christ; laying on of hands, 
which they regard as equally necessary with 
baptism ; the resurrection of the dead ; and 
eternal judgment. In 1874 they had 20 church- 
es, 12 ordained ministers, and 2,000 members, 
mainly in Rhode Island. 

SIXTHS, the name of five popes, of whom 
the following are the most important. I. Six- 
tns IV. (FEANOESCO D'ALBESCOLA DELLA Ro- 
VEEE), born at Celle, near Savona, July 21, 
1414, died in Rome, Aug. 13, 1484. He was 
a Franciscan monk and a protege of Cardinal 
Bessarion, taught philosophy and theology in 
the principal schools of Italy, and was chosen 
general of his order in 1464. He was created 
cardinal Sept. 18, 1467, and was elected pope 
Aug. 9, 1471. The efforts which he immedi- 
ately made to reform the religious orders and 
general church discipline were thwarted by 
his endeavor to unite all Christian princes in 
a crusade against the Turks, for which pur- 
pose he vainly tried to reconcile Louis XI. of 
France and Duke Charles the Bold of Burgun- 
dy. He levied tithes on all church property in 
Christendom to equip a fleet, which, with con- 
tingents from Venice and Naples, only succeed- 
ed in capturing Smyrna. Louis XL promised 
assistance in return for an extension of the 
royal power over benefices and all church rev- 
enues, and the abolition of ecclesiastical courts 
and immunities ; but on these points Sixtus re- 
fused to yield. He has been justly reproached, 
however, with a too great facility in granting 
favors, and an excessive nepotism. To secure 
the cooperation of the Spanish and Austrian 
princes against the Turks, he sanctioned the 
nomination to the see of Saragossa of a child 
six years old, an illegitimate son of the house 
of Aragon ; and he raised successively to the 
cardinalate five of his own nephews. Two of 
these cardinals, Riario and San Giorgio, were 
implicated in the conspiracy of the Pazzi in 
1478, which caused the pope to be solemnly 
arraigned by the Florentine clergy as privy to 
the intended murder of Lorenzo de' Medici and 
the death of his brother Giuliano. The Flor- 
entine magistrates having hanged Archbishop 
Salviati of Pisa, one of the conspirators, they 
were excommunicated, and the city was laid 
under interdict. The republic was sustained 
by France, Venice, and the duke of Milan ; the 
other Italian sovereigns sided with the pope, 



7 l MXTUS 

and the quarrel ended in 1480. About the 
same time Sixtus became involved in a war 
with Krrole d'lMe, duke of Ferrara, whom he 
t,> dispossess in favor of one of his own 
m .,,hcu I, lie ua> hacked by the Venetian, ; 
hut the duke of Ferrara being supported by the 
king of Naples and the emperor, Sixtus was 

to yield in 1484. Duringthese troubles 

.rks besieged Rhodes and ravaged the 
southern coast of Italy, capturing the city of 
Otranto and massacring 12,000 of the inhabi- 
tant-. The pope once more attempted in vain 
to organize a crusade, but succeeded in driving 
off the invaders. Among the other acts of his 
pontificate were the confirmation of the reli- 
gious order of Minims, May 23, 1474 ; the bull 
sanctioning the Spanish inquisition, 1478 ; the 
canonization of St. Bonaventura, April 14, 1482 ; 
the construction, among many other splendid 
public works, of the Sistine chapel in the Vati- 
can ; large additions to the Vatican library ; and 
the sending of the first missionaries to the Cana- 
ry islands. The Reguln Cancellaria Romance 
are attributed to this pope. He also left several 
Latin treatises, among which are De Sanguine 
Chritti (fol., Rome, 1473), De Potentia Dei 
(fol.), and several letters. II. Status V. (FELICE 
PKRKETTI), born at Grotte-a-Mare, near Montal- 
to, Dec. 15, 1521, died in Rome, Aug. 27, 1590. 
He was a Franciscan, and distinguished him- 
self as a lecturer on ecclesiastical law at Ri- 
mini in 1544 and Siena in 1546, as a popular 
preacher, and as an author by works on mysti- 
cal theology and on the philosophy of Aristotle. 
In l.">7 he became inquisitor general at Venice, 
and in 1570 he was created cardinal, when he 
assumed the name Moatalto. He was elected 
popd by an almost unanimous vote, April 24, 
Both as pope and as secular prince he 
was distinguished for prudence, severity, and 
energy. He destroyed the power of the ban- 
ditti and restored order and safety through- 
out his territory, administered law with the ut- 
most impartiality and with an appalling rigor, 
built a great aqueduct, enlarged the library of 
the Vatican, and in many other ways encour- 
aged industry. He fixed the number of cardi- 
nals at 70, required the Catholic bishops of all 
countries to visit Rome at certain intervals, 
and reorganized the entire administration of 
ecclesiastical affairs by the appointment of 15 
congregations of cardinals and other officers. 
He founded a new university at Fermo, and 
new colleges at Rome and Bologna. From the 
printing press of the Vatican he published the 

! edition of the Vulgate, which had been 

ordered t,y the council of Trent. He avoided 

war with tlu- Christian princes as much as 

j.o-Mhle. though he encouraged and supported 

III. a-uin-t the Huguenots, Philip II. 

' Unhand, and Archduke Maximilian 
when h- was a candidate for the crown of 
Poland. Ik- liurk-d his anathemas against the 
Viiiuiii kiriL' <>f Navarre, and against Elizabeth 
of England f,.r potting to death Mary Stuart; 
summoned Henry III. to Rome for or- 



SKATE 

dering the assassination of the duke of Guise. 
He left a vast treasure in the castle of Bant' 
Angelo, to be used by his successors only in 
circumstances strictly defined. His biography 
by Leti (Vita di Sisto V., Lausanne, 1669) is 
considered untrustworthy, and that by Tempesti 
(Storia della vita e geste di Sisto V., Rome, 
1754) too partisan. See J. A. von Hubner, 
Sixte Quint, sa vie et son siecle (2 vols., Paris, 
1871 ; English translation by Jerningham, Lon- 
don, 1872 ; German, 2 vols., Leipsic, 1874). 

SKAGER RACK ("the crooked strait of Ska- 
gen"), an arm of the North sea or German 
ocean, lying between the Danish peninsula of 
Jutland and the coast of Norway, and connect- 
ing the Cattegat with the North sea. It ex- 
tends from N. E. to S. W.; length about 160 
m., breadth nearly 80 m. It is much deeper 
on the Norwegian than on the Danish coast, 
ranging on the former from 150 to 200 fath- 
oms, and on the latter from 30 to 40. It is 
subject to severe storms. The harbors are all 
on the Norwegian coast. 

SKAMAMA, a S. county of Washington terri- 
tory, bordering on Oregon, bounded S. by Co- 
lumbia river and drained by several streams ; 
area, 1,800 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 133. The 
surface is generally mountainous, with fertile 
valleys. The Cascade mountains traverse it 
from N. to S. Mt. St. Helens, in the N. W. 
part, is 9,750 ft. high. Capital, Cascades. 

SKATE (Dutch, schaats), a shoo or sandal 
with a steel runner for travelling over ice. It 
probably originated in Scandinavia. The ear- 
liest skates were made of bone, fastened to 
the foot with cords. Such skates have been 
discovered in England, Holland, Sweden, and 
Iceland, and there are accounts of their use in 
London in the time of Henry II. The intro- 
duction of iron skates was doubtless due to 
the Dutch, who for an unknown period have 
used them for travel on their canals and rivers. 
The best facilities for skating are afforded by 
the countries of N. W. Europe, where the ice 
is little covered with snow ; but as a pastime 
it has become widely popular, and is practised 
with great skill by both men and women. The 
form of the skate has been much improved. 
Until witkin a few years it was a block of 
wood with a runner or keel of iron or steel 
about an eighth of an inch thick, channelled 
at the bottom so that two sharp edges cut into 
the ice, ending in a sharp angle at the heel, 
and turning up at the toe. It was secured to 
the foot by a peg or screw entering the heel 
of the boot, and by straps passing through the 
block, crossing the front part of the foot, and 
connecting with a broad strap around the heel. 
In improved skates the runner is of steel, 
thicker, and flat instead of channelled at the 
bottom, the cutting edge forming a little less 
than a right angle. It is generally curved 
^lightly from front to back, and rounded up 
at both heel and toe. There have been many 
ha Hires in the form of the body of the skate 
and the fastenings, the straps sometimes giv- 




SKATE 

ing place to what is almost a complete shoe, 
while one of the favorite skates is made wholly 
of iron or steel, without straps, and fastened 
to the boot by metal clamps. Motion on skates 
is very rapid. It is said that the Frieslanders 
will go for a long time at the rate of 15 m. 
an hour, and for short distances this rate has 
been greatly exceeded. "Parlor" skates, hav- 
ing in place of runners rollers of wood, metal, 
papier mach6, or India rubber, arranged in a 
line, or like the wheels of a carriage, are used 
on floors and pavements. With these skates 
experts can execute the ordinary curves, and 
even many intricate figures. 

SKATE, a fish. See KAY. 

SKEAT, Walter William, an English philologist, 
born in London, Nov. 21, 1835. He gradu- 
ated at Christ's college, Cambridge, in 1858, 
became a fellow there in 1860, mathematical 
lecturer in 1864, and afterward English lec- 
turer. In 1873 he helped to found the English 
dialect society, and he has edited most of its 
publications. Besides continuing for the Cam- 
bridge press the Anglo-Saxon Gospels begun 
by J. M. Kemble, and editing several publica- 
tions for the Oxford press, the philological 
society, and the early English text society, 
he has published " The Songs and Ballads of 
Uhland," translated from the German (1864) ; 
"A Tale of Ludlow Castle" (1866) ; "A Mceso- 
Gothic Glossary " (1868) ; " Hand List of some 
Cognate Words in English, Latin, and Greek " 
(1871) ; " Questions for Examination in English 
Literature" (1873) ; " The Gospels of St. Mark 
and St. Luke, in Anglo-Saxon and Northum- 
berland Versions synoptically arranged, with 
Collations exhibiting all the Readings of all the 
Manuscripts" (2 vols., 1875); and "Plutarch- 
Shakespeare," biographies (vol. i., 1875). 

SKELETON (Gr., a dried body, from GK&- 
Av, to desiccate), the bony and cartilaginous 
framework of animals, and the ligneous struc- 
ture of the leaves of plants. In the higher 
animals the skeleton is internal (endo-skele- 
ton) ; in many of the lower it is external (exo- 
skeleton). When the bones are joined by nat- 
ural ligaments, they form a natural skeleton; 
when they are joined by wires and straps, the 
skeleton is said to be artificial. The study of 
the skeletons of different animals belongs to the 
subject of comparative anatomy; the human 
skeleton only will be described here. Bones 
may be classified as long, round, flat, and short. 
(See BONE.) The human skeleton consists of 
208 bones, exclusive of the teeth, which are in 
reality parts of the digestive apparatus, and 
are developed from the mucous membrane. 
For convenience the skeleton may be divided 
into four regions : 1, the skull ; 2, the trunk ; 
8, the upper extremities; 4, the lower extrem- 
ities. The skull contains 30 bones, in three 
divisions, cranium, ears, and face. There are 
8 cranial bones, viz. : 1 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 
temporal, 1 occipital, 1 sphenoid, and 1 eth- 
moid. The frontal bone forms the forehead, 
upper part of the eye sockets, and front part 



SKELETON 



75 



of the floor of the cranial cavity. Just above 
the inner angles of. the eyebrows are two 
marked prominences called the superciliary 
ridges, at which points the two tables *of the 
bone separate considerably, enclosing cavities 
called the frontal sinuses which communicate 
with the nasal passages. The parietal bones, 
occupying the upper part and sides of the skull, 
are separated from each other by the sagittal 
suture, and from the frontal bone by the coro- 
nal suture. A curved ridge traverses both 
frontal and parietal bones at each side, which 
marks the origin of the fibres of the temporal 
muscle, lying in a depression behind and below 
the ridge, called the temporal fossae. The 
temporal bones, situated at the sides and base 
of the skull, consist each of three portions : an 
upright or squamous portion, a posterior or 
mastoid portion, and an internal or petrous 
portion. The upright portion articulates with 
the parietal bone by the squamous suture. The 
mastoid portion has a projection, felt behind 
the ear, called the mastoid process, which has 
a cellular structure, communicating with the 
middle ear or tympanum; the cells are not 
developed till after puberty. The petrous 
(hard, stony) portion is in the form of a trian- 
gular pyramid, and lies upon one of its sides 
in the base of the skull, its apex pointing for- 
ward and inward. One of the openings into it, 
the internal auditory canal, transmits the audi- 
tory and facial nerves, and it also contains the 
tympanum. The temporal bones are pierced ex- 
ternally by the external auditory canal, which 
transmits the sonorous pulsations to the mem- 
brane of the tympanum. The under surface 
of the bone articulates with the lower jaw 
bone to form the joint. Just in front of this, 
and a little above, a process called the zygo- 
matic springs forward to meet another of the 
same name from the cheek bone, forming a 
horizontal arch, the zygomatic, under which 
the tendon of the temporal muscle passes. 
The occipital bone consists of an upright and 
a basilar portion ; the latter contains a large 
orifice, the foramen magnum, through which 
the brain connects with the spinal cord. On 
each side of the foramen magnum there is a 
condyle having an articular surface which rests 
upon a corresponding condyle of the atlas, the 
upper bone of the vertebral column. The ba- 
silar portion articulates in front with the body 
of the sphenoid bone, fig. 4, which in turn 
articulates with the ethmoid, fig. 5, the latter 
being situated at the root of the nose and held 
in position by the frontal and several bones of 
the face. There are 8 ear bones, 4 in each ear, 
situated in the tympanum ; they are described 
in the article EAR. The 14 bones of the face 
are 2 nasal, 2 upper jaw or superior maxillary, 
2 lachrymal, 2 cheek or malar bones, 2 palate 
bones, 2 inferior turbinated (in the nose), 1 
vomer (septum of the nose), and 1 lower jaw, 
or inferior maxillary bone. (See illustrations.) 
Each upper jaw bone contains a large cavity 
called the maxillary antrum, which communi- 




Flo. 1. Front View of Skeleton. 1. Frontal bone. 2. Parietal. 8. Temporal ; 4, its mastoid process. 5. Malar or cheek 
bone. 6. Upper maxillary. 7. Orbit of the eye. 8. Lower maxillary; 9. its ramus. 12. The cervical vertebra. 13. 
ila. 15. Sternum. 16. First rib. 17. Seventh rib. 18. Twelfth rib. 19. First lumbar vertebra. 
20. Last lumbar vertebra. 21. Sacrum. 22. Ilium. (See PKLVIS.) 24. Humerus; 25, its head; 26, its outer condyle; 
27, its Inni-r condyle. -JH. Radius ; 2l, its head : 30, its lower extremity. 81. Ulna ; 32. its head ; 83, its lower extremity. 
84. Carpu or wrist 86. Metacarpus. 86. Phalanges. 87. Femur or thigh bone; 38, its head; 89, its neck; 40, its 
greater trochanter; 41. Its lesser trochanter: 4-2. its outer condvlc ; 43, its inner condyle. 44. Patella or knee pan. 40. 
Tibia; 4. Its head; 47, ita lower extn-mitv: 4-, inner malleolus. 49. Fibula; 50. its head; 51, its lower extremity, 
forming outer malleolus. 62. Tarsal bones (7). W>. Metatarsal bones (5). 56. Phalantrcs. 

l'..i.-k Vi.-w ..f skull. Trunk, and Lett Arm. 1. Frontal bone. 2. Parietal. 3. Occipital. 4. Temporal. 5. Lower 
maxillary. 1 *. Head of scapula at junction of clavicle. 19. Supra-spinous fossa. 20. Infra-spinous fossa. 21. Anterior 
border. 22. Posterior border. '&. Inferior angle. 'J4. Olecranon process of ulna. 

Fie. 8. Floor of Skull. 1, 1. Orbital plate of frontal bone, forming most of anterior fossse. 2. Cribriform plate of ethmoid 

bone. 8. Crista galll process. 4, 4. Lesser wings of sphenoid bone. 5, 5. Middle fossa? of base of cranium. 6, 6. Greater 

wings of sphenoid. 7. Olivary process. Immediately In front of this process there is a transverse furrow called the 

/move, in whii-h lies the commissure or crossing of the optic nerves. This groove terminates in the optic 

:.:i. 4. 4, flir. 4. (See BRAIN, vol. ill., pp. T.i3, 194.) 8. Selfa turcica, upon which rests the pituitary gland. 

<8e B*Ai!. p. 11U.) 9. 9. Petrous portion of temporal bone. 10. 10. Round foramina for superior maxillary nerve. 

II. 11. Oval foramina for inf.-ri>r maxillary nerve. Interior to these two holes is a large slit-like opening on each 

ld, giving passage to the internal carotid artery and some important nerves. 18. 13. Posterior fossa' of the floor of 

rmnliim. 14. Foramen magnum, for the spinal c.ird. 15. Basilar process of occipital bone. 16. 16. Grooved channel for 

tiM lateral tlnua. (See BKAIH, p. 188.) 17, 17. Internal auditory meatus, transmitting the auditory and facial nerv, s. 

sphenoid Bone, seen froni above. 1. 1. Its irreat.-r winirs. 2, 2. Its lesser wings. 3. Bella turcica. 4, 4. Foramina 

nerves. 6. 5. Sr.henoMal fissures, inr third, fourth, sixth, and part of fifth pairs of cranial nerves. 6. 6. 

Round foramina. 7, 7. Oval foramina. \ Part of basilar process of occipital bone. 9, 9. Internal pterygoid plates, ter- 

ir in miiviilar or hook-like, processes, over which pass the tendons of the tensor muscles of the palate. 10,10. 

plate*. 



SKELETON 77 

FIG. 5. Ethmoid Bone, seen from behind. 1. Central lamella. 2. Cribriform plate. 8. Crista galli. 5, 6, 7. Lateral mass 
of left side. 

FIG. 6. Hyoid or Tongue Bone, seen in front. 1. Body. 2, 2. Greater cornua. 8, 8. Lesser cornua. 

FIG. 7. Palmar Surface of Eight Carpus and Metacarpus. 1. Scaphoid bone. 2. Lunar. 8. Cuneiform. 4. Pisiform. 5 
Trapezium. 0. Trapezoid. 7. Magnum. 8. Unciform. a, &, c, d, e. The five metacarpal bones. 

FIG. 8. Tarsus and Metatarsus, forming Instep. 1. Astragalus. 2. Os calcis. 3. Boat-shaped or scaphoid bone. 4. Cu- 
boid. 5. Internal cuneiform. 6. Middle cuneiform. 7. External cuneiform, a, &, c, rf, e. The five metatarsal bones. 



cates with the nasal passage. The lachrymal 
bones are small oval plates situated at the in- 
ner angles of the orbits of the eyes. The palate 
bones are situated at the posterior part of the 
nasal passages, and enter into the formation 
of the roof of the mouth or palate and the 
back part of the floor of the orbits of the eyes. 
The lower jaw bone consists of a horizontal 
semicircular portion, having an alveolar process 
into which the lower teeth are set, and of a 
perpendicular portion, the ramus, divided into 
two branches, one of which terminates in the 
condyle to form the joint, and the other is the 
coronoid process, into which are inserted the 
fibres of the temporal muscle and a portion of 
those of the masseter, the two principal mus- 
cles of the jaw. The floor of the skull is di- 
vided into anterior, middle, and posterior f OSSGB, 
the two fiqst lodging the anterior and middle 
lobes of the cerebrum, and the posterior fossse 
lodging the cerebellum. (See BEAIX.) The 
bones of the trunk are 54 in number, viz. : 
the 24 bones called vertebrae, constituting, with 
the sacrum upon which they rest, the spinal 
column, 24 ribs, 4 pelvic bones, 1 sternum or 
breast bone, and 1 tongue bone. The two hip 
bones are naturally classified with the lower 
extremities, but as they are joined to the sa- 
crum by immovable sutures, and form with it 
an important piece of animal mechanism, the 
pelvis, they are here included in the bones of 
the trunk. (See PELVIS.) The spinal or ver- 
tebral column, or backbone, forms the axis of 
the trunk, supporting it and the skull. All 
of the vertebra? but one have their principal 
features in common; i. e., they have a body, 
a spinous process, a spinal foramen for trans- 
mitting the spinal cord, and four articular 
processes, two superior and two inferior for 
articulating with each other. The spinous pro- 
cesses which project posteriorly together form 
the " spine," which marks the course of the 
spinal column. The uppermost vertebra, called 
the atlas, has no body, but its place is occupied 
by a tooth-like process of the bone next below, 
called the axis, around which the atlas turns. 
There are 7 cervical, 12 dorsal, and 5 lumbar 
vertebrae. The seventh cervical is peculiar 
from having a longer and more prominent 
apinous process than the others, which may 
be felt at the base of the neck. Between the 
bodies of the vertebraa are placed the elastic 
intervertebral cartilages, which permit flexion 
of the spinal column and prevent concussion 
of the spinal cord in walking and leaping. The 
ribs, 24 in number, are long flat bones of a 
semicircular form, and have an oblique posi- 
tion, their posterior extremities being higher 
than their anterior. The middle part of the 



curve is also depressed, so that the contrac- 
tion of the respiratory muscles expands the 
cavity of the chest. There are 7 true and 5 
false ribs on each side, the true ribs articula- 
ting with the sternum, while the false ribs lap 
on to each other, except the last two, which 
are free, and are called floating ribs. The 
sternum is a kind of breastplate, composed of 
three pieces, to which the collar bones and the 
ribs are attached. The tongue bone supports 
the root of the tongue and gives attachment to 
muscles for moving it. The upper extremities 
contain 64 bones, 32 on each side, in six divi- 
sions : 1, the shoulder ; 2, the arm ; 3, the 
forearm ; 4, the wrist or carpus ; 5, the palm 
or metacarpus; 6, the fingers or phalanges. 
The shoulder contains two bones, the scapula 
and clavicle. The scapula is a flat triangular 
bone situated at the upper and back part of 
the chest on each side. It is traversed on its 
posterior surface by a spine which terminates 
in the acromion process, the prominent point 
of the shoulder. Below the acromion process 
is the head of the scapula, containing a shallow 
cup called the glenoid cavity, which receives 
the head of the arm bone or humerus. The 
outer extremity of the collar bone or clavicle 
(Lat. clavis, a key) articulates with the acro- 
mion process, forming a kind of brace. The 
scapula is held to the trunk by powerful mus- 
cles, which allow of sufficient motion to give a 
variety of positions to the shoulder joint. The 
arm contains one bone, the humerus, the lower 
end of which by its expanded articular surface 
forms with the two bones of the forearm, the 
radius and ulna, the elbow joint. The wrist 
or carpus contains 8 bones (see fig. 6), the 
palm or metacarpus 5, and the fingers or pha- 
langes 14, the first and second phalanx con- 
taining 5 each and the third 4. The apparatus 
of the forearm is a marvel of animal mecha- 
nism. The upper extremity of the ulna forms 
with the articular surface of the humerus a 
firm hinge joint, but the head of the radius 
forms with it a rotatory joint by which prona- 
tion and supination of the forearm and hand 
are effected with grace and facility. The lower 
extremities contain 60 bones, 30 in each limb, 
in six divisions : 1, the thigh bone or femur ; 
2, the knee pan or patella; 3, the two bones 
of the leg, the tibia and fibula ; 4, the V bones 
of the ankle or tarsus ; 5, the 5 bones of the 
metatarsus ; and 6, the 14 bones of the toes or 
phalanges. The femur is the longest, largest, 
and strongest bone in the skeleton. Its upper 
extremity contains the head, which fits into 
the socket of the hip bone, and the neck, which 
joins the shaft of the bone at an angle of near- 
ly 45, the union being marked by two strong 



78 



SKELTON 



processes called the greater and lesser troohan- 
whi.-h art- attached strong muscles, the 
..f which is to rotate the thigh, and 
also to move it outward and inward. Its low- 
, mity is expanded like that of the hu- 
aiuf articulate* with the head of the 
tibia, the principal hone of the leg. The tibia 
nrticulate.s at its lower extremity with the as- 
tragalus, the bone occupying the summit of the 
arch of the fool, and the latter rests upon the 
calcis or heel bone, into which the tendo Achil- 
lis, the tendon of the strong extensor muscles 
of the calf, is inserted. 

SKELTO.\, John, an English poet, born prob- 
ably in Norfolk about 1460, died in Westmin- 
ster, June 21, 1529. He graduated at Cam- 
bridge, entered holy orders, was tutor to the 
duke of York, afterward Henry VIII., became 
n-i-t.-r of Diss and curate of Trompington in 
1504, and was appointed orator regius to Henry 
VIII. Anthony d Wood deemed him "fitter 
for the stage than for the pew or pulpit." He 
concealed the fact of his marriage, and was ac- 
cused of keeping a concubine, and suspended 
by the bishop of Norwich. Among his writings 
are the drama " Magnyfycence," " The Bowge 
of Cotirte," " Collyn Clout," and a dirge on 
44 Phyllyp Sparowe." The best edition of his 
works is by the Rev. Alexander Dyce, with an 
account of his life (2 vols., London, 1843). 

SKERRYYORE. See LIGHTHOUSE, vol. x., p. 
460. 

SKIDD AW, a mountain near the centre of 
Cumberland, England, 3,022 ft. in height. It 
lias the lake of Bassenthwaite Water on its 
west. Though there are some mountains in the 
same county of greater elevation, Skiddaw is 
the mosMmposing, as it stands so as to be 
seen at one view from the base to the summit. 

SMMMKK (rhynchops, Linn.), a genus of web- 
footed birds of the gull family, and subfamily 
rhynchojmncf. The bill is of singular shape, 
broad at the base, from which it is suddenly 




>ps nigra). 



compressed laterally to the end; the upper 
mandible is considerably the shorter, curving 
gradually to tho tip, which is pointed and 
groored underneath ; tho lower mandible is 



SKIN 

straight and truncated, more compressed, with 
a sharp cutting edge received into the groove 
of the upper ; nostrils basal ; wings very long 
and narrow, with the first quill the longest ; 
tail moderate and forked; tarsi longer than 
middle toe; feet very small, toes short with 
indented web, hind toe elevated, and claws 
curved and sharp. Three or four species are 
described ; they are most abundant in the trop- 
ics, where they frequent quiet bays and inlets; 
they feed chiefly at night on fish and crusta- 
ceans, which they catch as they skim along 
close to the water, dipping the under mandible 
beneath the surface and closing the upper sud- 
denly upon it when prey is encountered ; the 
flight is swift, graceful, and undulating, and 
the gait awkward ; they rarely if ever swim or 
rest upon the water. The best known species 
is the black skimmer (R. nigra, Linn.), found 
on the Atlantic and gulf coasts of North Amer- 
ica from New Jersey to Texas, on the E. coast 
of South America as far as the tropic of Capri- 
corn, and, according to Lesson, on the W. coast. 
The length is about 19 in. and the alar extent 48 
in. ; the general color above is deep brownish 
black ; the front to the eyes, throat,and under 
parts white ; inner tips of four inner primaries 
white, and secondaries broadly tipped with the 
same ; the central tail feathers dark brown, the 
others mostly white ; the bill carmine for the 
basal half, thence black to the end, the upper 
mandible about 3^ in. and the lower 4 ; tarsi and 
feet red, and iris hazel ; the female is smaller. 
They are nocturnal, resting by day on the sand 
bars, in large flocks. The nest is a slight hol- 
low in the sand, and the eggs are usually three, 
If by If in., white with large black or dark 
patches ; the female sits only at night or in wet 
and cold weather ; the young closely resemble 
in color the sand upon which the nest is made ; 
they migrate to the south when the young are 
able to fly ; their eggs are as good as those of 
the gulls. This species is sometimes called ra- 
zor-billed shearwater, and scissors-bill. Other 
species are found on the W. coast of Africa. 

SKIN, the external covering of the animal 
body, protecting the internal parts from exter- 
nal violence, and adapting itself by its elasticity 
to the various movements and changes of po- 
sition ; it also acts as the organ of touch, and 
as an excretory and absorbing surface. In the 
human skin, which may be taken as the type 
of that of the higher animals, the deepest por- 
tion is the corium, dermis, or cutis vera, as dis- 
tinguished from the deciduous cuticle which 
overlies it, described under EPIDERMIS. This 
true skin is dense and tough, somewhat elastic, 
composed of fibres interlaced in all directions, 
in whose interstices are masses of fat; the 
whole rests upon a layer of subcutaneous area- 
lar tissue ; within and below it are the sudorip- 
arous or sweat glands (see PERSPIRATION), the 
hair follicles (see HAIR), and the sebaceous 
glands. From its upper surface rise the sensi- 
tive papilla, which are minute conical eleva- 
tions, most numerous on the palmar surface of 




SKIN 



79 



ie hands and fingers, feet and toes, where 
they are arranged in double rows in parallel 
curved lines ; the average length of the papillae, 
including the height of the ridge upon which 




md Papillae of the Skin from the surface of the Hand, 
showing 1 double, triple, and quadruple divisions. 
Base of a compound papilla. 6, b, b. Its upper extremi- 
ties, c, c, c. Points of other papillae, the base of which is 
not visible. 



they are placed, is about T ^y of an inch, and 
the diameter at the base -^^ ; they are abun- 
dantly supplied with blood, which explains 
their erectile turgescence under stimuli ; they 
adhere more or less firmly to the cuticle. The 

f^aceous or oil glands of the skin are formed 
the same plan as the sudoriparous, and can 





Vertical Section of the Skin, magnified. 
a. Epidermis, b. Inferior layer of epidermis, or rete Malpi- 
ghianum. c. Papilla? of the skin. d. Corium, or dermis. 
,/. Lobules of adipose tissue, g. Perspiratory glands. 
h. Ducts of the perspiratory glands. *. Their external 
orifices. Jc. Hair follicle. I. Hairs projecting from the 
skin. m. 1 1 air papilla, n. Hair bulb. o. Shaft of hair in 
the hair follicle, p. Openings of the sebaceous glands. 

often be distinguished from them only by the 
nature of their oily secreted product ; "they 
are distributed over the whole surface of the 
body, being least abundant where the perspi- 
ratory glanduhio are most numerous, and vic'e 
74G VOL. xv. 6 



versa; they are absent on the palms and soles, 
but abundant on the face and scalp ; they vary 
considerably in size, but the tubes are general- 
ly wider and straighter than those of the sweat 
glands ; the structure is sometimes complicated. 
In the parts of the skin covered with hair, there 
is usually a pair of sebaceous ducts opening into 
the follicle of each hair. The object of their 
secretion is doubtless to prevent drying and 
cracking of the hair by the sun and air ; this 
secretion is most abundant in tropical nations, 
and in some dark races has a characteristic 
odor, as in the case of the negro ; its protective 
action in the tropics is often assisted by vege- 
table oils applied externally. The Meibomian 
glands on the edges of the eyelids are a double 
row of sebaceous follicles set along a straight 
duct ; they secrete an oily matter for the lu- 
brication of these parts, which in diseased con- 
ditions frequently sticks them together. An- 
other modification of sebaceous glands is to 
be found in the external ear passage, where is 
secreted the cerumen or waxy matter ; they 
consist here of long, highly contorted tubes, 
well supplied with blood vessels. The color 
of the skin depends on pigment cells mixed 
with the inferior epidermic ones, in what is 
called the rete mucosum, or mucous layer, and 
considered by Flourens and other authors as a 
distinct membrane ; all the hues of the races 
of man depend on the relative abundance of 
these cells and the tint of the contained pig- 
ment. The folds of the skin are for the most 
part produced by the contractions of the su- 
perficial muscles. The skin is pierced at the 
eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth, rectum, and genito- 
urinary opening ; it is continuous internally 
with the mucous membrane, consisting of the 
same elements modified according to the va- 
riety of functions to be performed ; it is very 
vascular, and freely supplied with nerves and 
lymphatics. The skin is the seat of the sense 
of touch in man, though in most animals hairs, 
scales, bony or horny plates and envelopes, and 
shells, render it nearly insensible to external 
influences, this sense in them being confined 
to particular portions or projecting organs ; 
even in man the sensibility varies much in 
different parts, being most acute at the ends 
of the fingers and on the lips, and dullest on 
the back and limbs. Aeration of the blood 
takes place to a certain extent through the 
skin, and in some naked-skinned fishes and 
batrachians this is a very important part of 
the respiratory process. It has been shown by 
experiment that in a frog, after the removal of 
the lungs, one fourth of a cubic inch of car- 
bonic acid is exhaled from the skin in eight 
hours ; in the human subject the amount of 
this gas given off by the skin varies from -fa to 
fa of that exhaled from the lungs during the 
same time ; where the lungs perform their of- 
fice imperfectly, the temperature of the skin is 
often elevated ; in all febrile diseases the skin 
should be kept moist. The absorbent powers 
of the skin are noticed under ABSORPTION. 



SKINK 



SKIPJACK 



SUNK, the common name of the tcincida, 
:i fjunilv of l.-]>i.lo>uurian, slender-tongued liz- 
. itli i-l malted cylindrical body, covered 
above and below by imbricated fish-like scales, 
arranged in quincunx and held in membranous 
sacs; they have no lateral folds. The family, 
by such forms as the seps and orvet, consti- 
tutes a connecting link between the saurians 
and ophidians. The head is covered with 
large angular plates, joined by their borders ; 
the neck is of the same size as the chest ; the 
tongue free, without sheath, slightly notched 
in front, with the surface mostly covered with 
papilla?; the scales are smooth. They creep 
with a lateral sinuous motion like serpents ; 
they have no crests nor fringes on the neck, 
back, sides, or tail, the last being conical, and 
generally long and without spines; the feet 
(absent in some) are short and clumsy, with 
well developed digits and claws. The jaws 
are short and united at the symphysis, so that 
the opening of the mouth is always the same ; 
the teeth are sharp and slender, suited for 
seizing insects and worms ; in the snake-like 
forms only one lung is largely developed ; the 
ears are exposed. They are generally small, 
and live in holes and under stones in dry sandy 
places; they are usually of an earthy gray 
color. They inhabit the torrid zone and the 
driest portions of temperate regions. Dum6- 
ril makes three great divisions according to 
the differences in the covering of the eyes : 
1, taurophthalmet, with lizard-like eyes, pro- 
tected by two lids moving vertically ; 2, ophi- 
ophthalmes, with a rudimentary lid, as in ser- 
pents; and 3, typhlophthalmes, in which the 
eyes are concealed under the skin. Most of 
the more than 30 genera, comprising more 
than 100 species, belong to the first division, 
the only one that need be treated here ; some 
of them have four limbs, others two; others 
none. Dr. Gray divides them into scincina, 
with smooth scales, and tropidophorince, with 




Common Skink (Sdncus offlclnalis). 

keeled scales. In the genus teincm (Fitz.) the 

snout is wedge-shape.!, the upper jaw the 

the teeth simple, conical, and obtuse 

itn a row on the palate ; the limbs are four 



with five nearly equal digits, flattened, and 
with serrated borders ; the tail is conical and 
pointed. The common skink (#. officinalis, 
Laur.) is 8 or 9 in. long, with stout body, short 
thick limbs, and a proportionally short tail, 
very thick at the base; the eyes are small, 
high up and far back. The colors vary consid- 
erably, from silvery yellow to brownish, with 
seven or eight black transverse bands. It is 
a native of Egypt, Nubia, Arabia, and N. and 
W. Africa. There are several American spe- 
cies of this family, most of which are popular- 
ly called u galliwasps," one of the best known 
of which belongs to the genus diploglossm 
(Wieg.), characterized by a tongue with scaly 
papilla in front and filiform behind, toothless 
palate, flat head, obtuse muzzle, and flattened 
body; the feet have five unequal toes, com- 
pressed, without lateral edgings, and with tuber- 
culose palms and soles ; the scales are striated, 
and ridged in the middle ; the tail is round- 
ed, long and pointed, with a very large anal 
operculum. The great galliwasp (D. occidu- 
U8, Wieg.) is about 21 in. long, of which the 
tail is one half ; it is one of the largest of the 
skinks. The color above is generally light 
brown, with a dozen or more transverse bands, 
sometimes darker and sometimes lighter, and 
yellowish white below with brownish tints. 
It is found in Jamaica, where it is very much 
dreaded, though it is perfectly harmless ; it 
forms the type of Gray's genus celestus. The 
five-lined skink (euprepes quinquelineatus, 
Wagl.) is 10 to 11 in. long, the head pale red 
with six obscure white lines, the two internal 
confluent at the back part ; the body above is 
olive brown, with five pale white longitudinal 
lines and a black lateral band ; the tail brown, 
tinged with blue, and the lower surface white. 
There are no teeth on the palate, otherwise 
the characters are as in the last genus. It 
lives in the stumps of old trees in thick woods, 
not far from the ground, and is found from 
lat. 35 N. to the gulf of Mexico and west to 
the Mississippi river. 

SMNM:K. Thomas Harvey, an American cler- 
gyman, born at Harvey's Neck, N. C., March 
7, 1791, died in New York, Feb. 1, 1871. He 
graduated at Princeton college in 1809, was 
licensed to preach in December, 1812, and was 
a pastor in Philadelphia from 1813 to 1832, 
when he became professor of sacred rhetoric 
in Andover theological seminary. In 1835 he 
became pastor of the Mercer street Presby- 
terian church, New York, and in 1848 profes- 
sor of sacred rhetoric and pastoral theology in 
the Union theological seminary there. He 
published "Religion of the Bible" (1839); 
"Aids in Preaching and Hearing" (1839); 
"Hints to Christians" (1841); "Thoughts on 
Evangelizing the World;" "Religious Life of 
Francis Markoe;" "Vinet's Pastoral Theolo- 
gy," and " Vinet's Homiletics," translated from 
the French (1854) ; and " Discussions in 
ology" (1868). 

SKIPJACK. See BLUEFISII, and BONITO. 



SKRZYNECKI 



SKULLCAP 



81 



SKRZYNECKI, Jan Boncza, a Polish soldier, 
born in Galicia in February, 1786, died in Cra- 
cow, Jan. 12, 1860. His military career began 
in 1806, and he distinguished himself in the 
Napoleonic wars, and after the Polish revolu- 
tion of 1830 as brigadier general, especially 
at Dobre, "Wawer, and Grochow (February 
and March, 1831). He then succeeded Kad- 
ziwill as commander-in- chief; but waiting in 
vain for assistance from foreign powers, he 
failed to follow up his great advantages, and 
lost the battle of Ostrolenka, May 26. On 
Lug. 10 he was deposed, and after the fall of 
Warsaw (Sept. 8) he fled to Austria and next 
Belgium. In the latter country he was 
>pointed to a high command in the army, 
which however, owing to the protests of the 
jrn powers and the peace of 1839 with 
[olland, was of short duration. He remained 
Brussels until shortly before his death, 
rhen he was permitted to return to Poland. 
SKUA, the common name of the web-footed 
irds of the gull family, subfamily lestridina, 
id genus stercorarius (Briss.). The bill is 
rong, the basal half with a membranous or 
}rneous cere distinct from the tip, the nostrils 
>pening under it in advance of the middle of 
bill; the tip is abruptly and strongly 
irved; the wings very long, the first quill 
> longest ; the tail wedge-shaped, the two 
itral featbers projecting; tarsi strong, with 
rominent scales ; claws sharp and curved, and 
feet fully webbed, with the hind toe short and 
>ut little elevated ; body full and stout. They 
ihabit the high latitudes of both the north- 
rn and southern hemispheres; they chase 
alls and other marine birds, even the alba- 
tross, forcing them to disgorge a part of their 
food, and are hence called jagers or yagers; 
they feed also on the carcasses of cetaceans, 
eggs and young of sea birds, and the 
ler petrels. Their flight is elevated, rapid, 
sustained, and generally in circles, as in 
Is of prey, which they represent among the 
ttatores ; the nests are made in company, of 
irse grass, and are placed on rocks or sand, 
in desolate heaths ; the eggs are one or two. 
The common skua (S. catarractes, Temrn.), 
largest species, is about 2 ft. long, with an 
extent of about 4| ft. ; the bill is 2| in. ; 
color above is dark brown, the feathers 
ipped with gray ; wings chocolate brown with 
shafts and basal parts white ; tail dark 
rown, white at the base ; lower parts dark 
lyish brown ; legs, feet, and bill black, the 
ter with a tinge of bluish ; the central tail 
feathers project only an inch beyond the 
)thers. The favorite haunts of this species 
the seas of northern Europe, especially 
rat the Orkney and Shetland islands, where 
great numbers are killed for their feathers ; 
it has been obtained on the California coast, 
and either this or a nearly allied species occurs 
about Cape Horn, the cape of Good Hope, 
and in the antarctic seas. The arctic skua 
(<S1 [lestris] parasiticus, Temm.) is 21 in. long 



and 44 in. in extent of wings; the central 
tail feathers extend about 3 in. beyond the 
others, and are pointed at the end. This spe- 
cies breeds in arctic America, coming down as 




Common Skua (Stercorarius catarractes). 

far as New York in summer and to the gulf of 
Mexico in winter ; it breeds also in the Ork- 
ney and Shetland islands. 

SKULL. See COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, and 
SKELETON. 

SKULLCAP, the common name for plants of 
the labiate family of the genus scutellaria, the 
botanical name being derived from Lat. scu- 
tella, a dish, as the fruiting calyx has an ap- 
pendage which closes it ; this appendage has 
also suggested the popular name skullcap. The 
skullcaps are perennial^ herbs, destitute of 
the aromatic qualities usually found in the 
order ; they are widely distributed over the 
temperate and subtropical countries, and some 
of the Mexi- 
can and South 
American spe- 
cies are some- 
times met with 
as greenhouse 
plants. Eight 
or ten species 
are found in our 
northern states. 
The common 
skullcap (S. gale- 
riculata), com- 
mon also in 
Europe, is very 
frequent in wet 
and shady pla- 
ces, and is quite 
showy; it has 
had a medicinal 
reputation, as 
has a Still more Common Skullcap (Scutellaria 
common species, gaiericuiata). 

S. laterifiora, 

which under the name of mad-dog skullcap 
was some years ago used as a pretended reme- 
dy for hydrophobia. The plants are of inter- 
est to the botanist, but of no medicinal value. 




82 SKUNK 

SlinaL, an American carnivorous mammal 
of the weasel family, badger subfamily, and 
, n i m^SSii (Ouv.). It may be distmguisbed 
?r,,m it/congeners by a more slender and 

rated body, pointed nose, feet adapted for 
dSg wi y 'the anterior claws the longest 
Jnd the soles usually naked, and a long bushy 
S3 T1.0 Hu ok teeth are *=*, the upper pos- 
terior being very large and nearly square; the 
he^U small, with a Projecting naked nose, 
small and piercing eyes and short and round 
i; the feet are short, with five closely 
united toes; the palms naked and the soles 
mo.tlv BO: thc-y are essentially plantig ade, 
-uul walk with the back much arched and the 
tail erect; they are nocturnal, and feed on ani- 
mal substances. Though weak, timid, and slow 
in their motions, they are effectually armed 
acainst the most ferocious enemies in an acrid 
and exceedingly offensive fluid secreted by 
elands whose ducts open near the anus; these 
glands are surrounded by a thick muscular 
covering, the contractions of which are suth- 
cient Reject the fluid to a distance of 14 ft. 
The common skunk (M. mepUtica, Shaw ; 
M. chinqn, Tiedm.) is from 16* to 20 in. long, 
the tail being 13 or 14 in. additional; the pre- 
vailing color is black, with a narrow line on 
the forehead, broad triangular patch on nape 
continuous with a narrow line on each side 
of the back, and tail tuft, white; the varia- 
tion is considerable, the white markings being 
widr in some specimens, and in others want- 
.,- pn-trrior third of the soles is hairy. 

When about to use ;ts natural means of de- 
fence, it raises its tail over the back, and ejects 
the secretion in two thread-like streams with 
great force and accuracy; it can also diffuse 
it in a fine spray on near objects ; it is almost 
impossible to remove the odor from clothes 
impregnated with it, and a dog which has 
been touched by it is a nuisance for months; it 

is said to be phosphorescent at night. It is a 

very cleanly animal, and never allows its own 




Common Skunk (Mephitis mephitlca). 

be soiled with its secretion. It some 
times commits havoc among hens, chicken 

.:ir*. but is far less injurious than th 
mink and weasels, and from its clumsiness 



SKUNK CABBAGE 

more easily detected; it feeds on small quad- 
upeds and birds, reptiles, insects, nuts, and 
ruits It has from six to nine young at a 
me, and would prove exceedingly annoying 
vere not great numbers killed by dogs and 
arnivorous mammals and birds, and caught 
n traps at the mouths of their burrows, which 
re generally near the surface, in level ground, 
nd 6 to 8 ft. in extent. They remain in their 
urrows in the northern states from December 
o the middle of February, laying up no win- 
er stores, but retiring in a very fat condition, 
nd remaining dull and inactive, though not 
properly hibernating. This species is abun- 
] ant in the northern and middle states, and 
ound from lat. 57 N. to Florida and Louisi- 
ana and west to the Mississippi river. Its 
flesh is white and fat, and if properly skinned 
n no way tainted by its secretion ; it is highly 
esteemed* by the Indians, and is eaten by the 
whites in various parts of the country; the 
til, nearly pure oleine, is excellent for leather, 
jut is of no special use in medicine ; the fur is 
rather coarse, but is sometimes used for com- 
mon purposes, and of late years thousands of 
skins have been annually carried to Europe, 
where they make their appearance in various 
disguises. The secretion has been successful- 
y employed in some forms of asthma, in the 
dose of a drop three times a day, though it so 
taints the patient's excretions that the remedy 
is generally considered worse than the disease ; 
it has also been used as a powerful antispas- 
modic in asthma, hysteria, and other nervous 
disorders, applied to the nostrils. There are 
several other species in the United States, espe- 
cially in Texas and California. In an article in 
the " American Journal of Science " for May, 
1874, Mr. Hovey says that this animal is very 
dangerous in the western states. It is often 
affected by a disease which renders its saliva 
so poisonous that its bite is more to be feared 
than that of the rattlesnake. He gives many 
instances in which persons sleeping on the 
ground have been bitten, generally with fatal, 
and always with dangerous consequences. 

SKUNK CABBAGE, a plant the peculiar odor 
and the large clusters of luxuriant leaves of 
which readily suggested the common name. 
Botanically it has received the names pathos, 
ictodes, dracontium, and others, but botanists 
have finally settled upon symplocarpus (Gr. 
ffvfnrhoKJj, connection, and apirdf, fruit, in ref- 
erence to the manner in which the ovaries form 
a connected or compound fruit). In all the 
different genera in which it has been placed, it 
retained the descriptive specific name fcetidus. 
It belongs to the arum family, which is well 
known through its handsome exotic represen- 
tative Richardia, the calla lily, or lily of the 
Nile. The skunk cabbage is one of our very 
earliest spring flowers, and appears in wet 
places from New England to North Carolina ; 
the flowers come long before the leaves in the 
latitude of New York, often as early as Febru- 
ary, and they are very abundant in March and 






SKYE 



April. The plant is an endogen, and its perfect 
flowers have font petals each, with as many 
opposite stamens, and a simple pistil with a 
one-ovuled ovary, which has a four-angled style. 




Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus fcetidus). 

?hese flowers are crowded in a dense globular 
cluster upon a short stem or spadix, and the 
cluster is surrounded by a peculiar, shell-formed 
hood or spathe, with an incurved point and of 
the shape shown in the engraving ; this hood 
is sometimes of a dark lurid purple color, but 
is more frequently striped and spotted with 
yellow and purple, and sometimes varied with 
blotches of green and red. The hoods may be 
found long before the leaves appear, as these 
seem to require warm weather for their lux- 
uriant growth ; but they grow very rapidly 
when they start, and are heart-shaped, on short 
petioles and 1 to 2 ft. long ; they form large 
clusters, which disappear very suddenly after 
midsummer, the spathe around the flowers hav- 
ing decayed much earlier. The fruit is a large 
oval fleshy mass, consisting of the purplish and 
green, berry-like seeds immersed in the en- 
larged spadix. All parts of the plant have a 
strong and strikingly skunk-like odor, which 
has been likened to a combination of garlic 
and asafoetida; the seeds are odorless when 
whole, but very strong when bruised. The 
root has been used as a stimulant and expec- 
torant, but it rapidly deteriorates when dried. 
The leaves are sometimes used to dress blisters 
to keep up the discharge. 

SKIE, the largest island of the inner Heb- 
rides, off the W. coast of Scotland, forming 
part of Inverness-shire, from the mainland of 
which it is separated by the narrow strait of 
Loch Alsh ; area, 535 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
17,330. The surface is mountainous. In the 
centre of the island the Cuchullin or Coolin 
hills and other summits rise to the height of 
2,000 and 3,000 ft. above the sea. The shores, 
especially in the north, are very bold and pic- 



SLAKDER 



83 



turesque, and are indented by many inlets or 
lochs. In the northeast are basaltic columns 
equal to those at Staffa, and caves, some of 
which abound with stalactites of great beauty. 
Soapstone, manganese, jet, and some coal are 
found, but none of them are productively 
worked. White and variegated marble is quar- 
ried. The climate is variable ; on the higher 
portions the snow lies long, and when it melts 
there are heavy rains. The soil is poor and 
the productions scanty. The greater part of 
it is in pasture, and devoted to the rearing of 
cattle and sheep. Large plantations of trees 
have lately been made. Red deer and game 
are abundant. The well known Skye terrier 
is raised here. The fisheries, especially in the 
sounds between the island and the mainland, 
furnish employment and subsistence to a large 
proportion of the inhabitants. The manufac- 
ture of kelp, once extensive, is now nearly ex- 
tinct; there are no other manufactures, and 
very little trade. The people are of Gaelic 
origin ; they are peaceable and moral, but in- 
dolent and generally poor. The island con- 
tains many Danish antiquities. The greater 
part of the land belongs to Lord Macdonald 
and the Macleod family. Skye was the home 
of Flora Macjdonald, who died here in 1790. 
The principal port is Portree, which has an 
excellent harbor. 

SKYLARK. See LAEK. 

SLAJVDEK, in law, defamatory words falsely 
and maliciously spoken, and injurious either 
in fact or in legal presumption. It is action- 
able slander: 1, to speak of one thus falsely 
and maliciously words importing his guiltiness 
of an offence involving moral turpitude or pun- 
ishable by law; 2, to charge him with having 
such an infectious, or perhaps disgusting dis- 
ease as, if known, would probably cause his ex- 
clusion from society ; 3, to use in regard to one 
in office, OP of a person in reference to his pro- 
fession, trade, or business, such language as has 
a natural tendency to cause him damage or loss, 
either because the language implies the lack of 
some requisite qualification for the occupation 
or profession, or because it implies insolven- 
cy or some positive misconduct or dishonest 
practice in the business or calling ; 4, to speak 
words which, though not naturally or presump- 
tively productive of loss, have nevertheless 
caused actual damage to the person slandered. 
Of these four classes of slanderous words, the 
first, second, and third include those that are 
actionable per se, or of themselves ; that is to 
say, if the plaintiff proves that the words were 
spoken, he recovers damages without proving 
any particular loss. An action lies for words 
of the fourth class only when the plaintiff can 
prove express and special damage. Of the form 
of slander which imputes guiltiness of crime, 
it is to be observed that the immediate ground 
on which the law founds the action is that 
injury to the party's reputation and his conse- 
quent degradation in society which is the natu- 
ral and immediate incident of criminal guilt. 



SLANDER 



The words must therefore suggest an offence 
which siil.jt-.-ts the party to a criminal prose- 
rutiun ami to infamous punishment, 
penalty for an offence is merely pecuniary, 
It does not appear that an action will he for 
charging it, even though in default of payment 
imprisonment should be prescribed by the stat- 
ute the imprisonment not being the prima- 
ry and immediate punishment of the offence. 
But the words will be actionable in themselves 
in case the charge, if true, will make the party 
charged liable to an indictment for a crime in- 
volving moral turpitude or subjecting him to 
an infamous punishment. Thus, to charge for- 
gery or counterfeiting, keeping a bawdy house, 
bribery at an election, and the soliciting one 
to commit murder, are all actionable slanders 
per M, for they suggest both moral turpitude 
and an indictable offence. For the same rea- 
son it is actionable per se not only to say that 
one has done enough to send him to the peni- 
tentiary, but to say that he has already been 
there. But to allege that one lives by impos- 
ture imputes indeed moral turpitude, but not 
an indictable offence, and is consequently not 
slanderous per se, or without proof of actual 
damage. Words alleging perjury are action- 
able of themselves. The language must of 
course either express or imply all that is essen- 
tial to constitute the crime, to wit, a judicial 
proceeding, material testimony, and the other 
essential elements of perjury. A charge of 
false swearing which does not expressly or im- 
pliedly comprehend all these points is not slan- 
derous. Theft is an indictable and infamous 
offence, and the false and malicious imputation 
of it is actionable without proof of damage. 
One may sometimes call another a thief, just 
as he calls him scoundrel, liar, or cheat, by way 
of general abuse, and without any intention of 
charging the crime of larceny to him. If the 
defendant can show this clearly, he may de- 
feat the presumption which the law always 
makes of a slanderous quality and intent in 
the word. Where fornication is made punish- 
able by statute, as in most of the states, it is 
slanderous per e to charge unchastity. It was 
not so at the common law, but the hardship, 
and indeed the absurdity of this rule, when 
the consequences to a woman are considered, 
are so inanifVst that it has quite generally 
been changed by statutes in the several states. 
\Vords charging disease are actionable only 
when they imply that the disease now exists. 
The third class of slanderous words includes 
those imputations which affect one's official, 
professional, or business character. To be 
actionable of themselves, the words must im- 
mediately contemplate and touch these rela- 

for it is invariably held that where the 
words com plained of, though calculated in 
every respect to cause the forfeiture of an 
"tli. ,. or the loss of the income of a profession 
or business, are nevertheless not in fact applied 

conduct of the plaintiff in his office or 
business, the action for slander fails. Bu1 



words which necessarily, even if not in terms, 
refer to and affect one's business relations, may 
JQ held slanderous ; as to say, for example, in 
reply to an inquiry about failures, " I under- 
stand there is trouble with the Smiths," or " 
owes more money than he is worth, and is 
broken." So it is slanderous per e to say 
that a trader is insolvent, that X keeps none 
but rotten goods, that Y uses filthy water in 
making his beer, or that Z keeps false books, 
where keeping books is a necessary incident to 
the business. It is slander to charge an attor- 
ney or physician with general ignorance or un- 
skilf ulness in his profession ; and words which 
of themselves allege ignorance or unskilf ulness 
in a particular case may be actionable if they 
fairly imply general disqualification in these re- 
spects. The fourth class includes those words 
for which an action lies if special damage be 
proved. Thus, to say of another that he is a 
knave, a blackleg, a liar, a cheat, or a scoun- 
drel, is generally not actionable. If, however, 
the speaking of these or the like defamatory 
words has wrought the plaintiff particular pe- 
cuniary loss, he can recover damages. In all 
cases in which an action for slander lies, an 
essential principle on which the action rests is 
that the speaking of words false in fact and in- 
jurious to the reputation of another is malicious. 
By malice in this place is to be understood, 
not that disposition of ill will, spite, or revenge 
which in common parlance the word implies, 
but that legal malice which is the presumption 
and conclusion of the law from the fact of the 
deliberate and unqualified statement of false 
and defamatory matter, without cause or justi- 
fication. Where these elements coincide, the 
law implies the malice, and the slander is com- 
plete. It is the corollary of this conception 
of slander that a defendant cannot justify the 
speaking of the slanderous words by the plea 
that he merely repeated the language of another. 
Formerly, indeed, it was held, on the authority 
of an old case in Coke, that if the defendant, 
at the time of uttering the words complained 
of, named his informant and gave his precise 
language, so as to furnish the plaintiff with a 
good cause of action against him, these facts 
might be pleaded as presumptive proof that the 
defendant did not utter the slanderous words 
maliciously. But the latest English cases hold 
that the defendant's plea must go further, and 
must show in addition to the facts just men- 
tioned that he believed the charge to be true, 
and repeated it with a justifiable intent and 
on a justifiable occasion. The American rule 
is at least equally strict, and until the legal 
presumption of malice is rebutted by showing 
a justifiable intent and justifiable occasion, 
the uttering or repeating of slanderous words 
is actionable. To refrain altogether from the 
repetition of such words is the only way to be 
entirely safe. The presumption of legal malice 
is defeated when the otherwise slanderous lan- 
guage is employed upon a just occasion, in the 
discharge of a duty or in the protection of an 




SLANG 



85 



interest. Such communications as these are 
said to be privileged, and the burden of show- 
ing express malice is thrown upon the plain- 
tiff. In a leading case upon this subject in the 
supreme court of the United States, privileged 
communications were divided into four classes, 
viz. : 1, publications duly made in the ordinary 
mode of parliamentary proceedings ; 2, words 
used in the course of legal or judicial proceed- 
ings ; 3, anything said or written by a master 
in giving the character of a servant who has 
been in his employment ; 4, words used by any 
one in good faith in the discharge of any pub- 
lic or private duty, legal or moral, or in the 
prosecution of his own rights or interests. 
With reference to the first of these classes, the 
exemption from liability for any words spoken 
in debate is expressly provided by the consti- 
tution of the United States, and is probably 
repeated in the declaration of rights in the 
constitution of every state in the Union. The 
exemption extends to everything said or done 
by a representative in the discharge of his 
office, whether in debate in open session of 
the house, or more privately out of the house 
in committee, or even during the ordinary ad- 
journment of the sessions. On the same prin- 
ciple, namely, the public interest in the prompt, 
unembarrassed, and efficient administration of 
the laws, all language spoken in good faith in 
the course of legal proceedings before a compe- 
tent jurisdiction, pertinent in any wise to the 
matter in question, enjoys perfect immunity. 
The benefit of the privilege is secured alike 
to the parties, the counsel, the witnesses, the 
judges, and the jury. As to statements made 
by masters in reference to the character of 
their servants, good faith will be presumed, 
and it is for the servant to negative the pre- 
sumption. Malice will be implied if he shows 
the falsehood of the charge ; and there may be 
a prima facie presumption of malice if a mas- 
ter volunteered the unfavorable statement re- 
specting his discarded servant. In a civil ac- 
tion for slander, the truth of the facts imputed 
may be pleaded by the defendant in justifica- 
tion. If the plea is maintained by proof, the 
action is defeated; for the principle is, that 
if the plaintiff is guilty of the whole matter 
charged to him, he has sustained no injury 
and has therefore no valid claim for damages. 
The amount of the damages lies almost entire- 
ly within the discretion of the jury. They 
may give punitory or vindictive damages in 
cases of wanton and unqualified malice; and 
even though the amount may seem excessive, 
yet the court will not generally set the verdict 
aside, unless it shall be plain that the jury was 
influenced by improper motives or was misled 
by some gross error. 

SLANG, a burlesque or colloquial form of ex- 
pression, the language of low humor, or the 
jargon of thieves and vagrants. Slang is prob- 
ably as old as human speech. We find traces 
of it in many of the early writers, particularly 
the Greek and Roman dramatists; and the 



works of Aristophanes, Plautus, Terence, and 
Martial abound with words which the pu- 
rists of their day would not have recognized. 
All modern European languages have their 
vulgar or slang dialects, and some of them 
more than one ; and in several countries the 
thieves' jargon has been reduced to grammati- 
cal rules and has a literature of its own. The 
language used by the English criminal classes 
is called more properly cant, but slang and 
cant have borrowed so many terms from each 
other that it is almost impossible to distin- 
guish them. It is equally difficult to draw 
the line between slang and pure language, 
for very many words, illegitimate in origin, 
have become classical by prescription. The 
word slang is supposed to be of gypsy origin, 
and to have been used as a synonyme of Ro- 
many or Bohemian, the Zingari or gypsy 
tongue. Gibberish was used in nearly the 
same sense. The gypsies probably entered 
England in the beginning of the 16th century. 
They came as conjurers and jugglers, profess- 
ing the gifts of palmistry and second sight, and 
speaking a secret language. They met with 
favor among the lower classes, and speedily 
found many imitators, who adopted their habits 
and many words of their language, while the 
gypsies added to their own vocabulary numer- 
ous terms and phrases of English vagabondage. 
Thus between them was formed a kind of slang 
compromise, out of which eventually grew the 
conglomerate jargon called variously the cant- 
ing language, peddlers' French, thieves' Latin, 
and St. Giles's Greek. The earliest collection 
of English cant words is contained in "A 
Caueat for commen Cvrsetors vulgarely called 
Vagabones," by Thomas Barman (4to, London, 
1567). Harman fell into such disrepute with 
thieves and vagrants for his exposure of their 
secret tricks, words, and signs, that his name 
became the cant synonyme for a constable and 
the stocks. "The Belman of London, bring- 
ing to Light the most notorious Villanies now 
practised in the Kingdome," by Thomas Deck- 
er (4to, London, 1608), professes to give an 
account of the cant of thieves and vagabonds, 
and contains much curious information. The 
civil wars brought into common use many 
slang and cant terms, but it was reserved for 
the court of Charles II., in which coarse wit 
was the fashion, to bring slang to a perfection 
before unknown. Lords and ladies talked 
slang, and much of the literature of the time is 
filled with it. Butler's " Hudibras," according 
to a contemporary writer, was the chief enter- 
tainment of Charles II., who often quoted it. 
In the time of George III. and the regency, 
the current slang was known as "flash," and 
sometimes as the language of "gig." The 
most important -of the early collections of slang 
and cant words, and that on which almost all 
later works have been founded, is Francis 
Grose's "Classical Dictionary of the Vulgar 
Tongue" (8vo, London, 1785), containing all 
the cant and slang of the earlier glossaries, and 



SLANG 



all the vulgar, flash, and indecent terms of the 
author's time. It has been several times re- 
printed ; the best edition is by Pierce Lgan, 
with additions (8vo, 1823). A "Slang Dic- 
Uonan " was puMMu-d in London in isf.n, and 
a revised edition of it in 1875. The earliest 
work on American vulgarisms is the Rev. Dr. 
John WitluTspoon's "Essays on Americanisms, 
Perversions of Language in the United States, 
Cant Phrases," &c. (Philadelphia, 1801), ori- 
ginally published in a periodical called "The 
Druid" in 1761. Slang, considered as the 
generic term for all illegitimate words and 
phrases, consists partly of words derived di- 
rectly from thieves' cant and foreign languages, 
partly of old words with new adaptations, and 
partly of new words and expressions coined to 
meet new conditions. Many of the most com- 
mon slang words were originally thieves' cant, 
and have been in use for centuries. Among 
these are " cove " or " covey," a boy or man ; 
"darbies," handcuffs; "doxy," a strumpet, a 
tramp's female companion ; " duds," clothes ; 
"fence," a receiver of stolen goods; "glim," 
a light ; " mug," the mouth or face ; " nob," 
the head; " swag," booty or property ; "tog," 
a coat ; and " wipe," a pocket handkerchief. 
Of words derived from the gypsies are " bosh," 
nonsense ; " cheese," anything good or genu- 
ine; "pal," a friend or accomplice; "rum," 
good (man or thing) ; and " snack," a share 
of plunder. Besides what English slang has 
drawn from the Celtic, Gaelic, Saxon, and 
Norman French, it derives many words from 
other European tongues, including the ancient 
Greek and Latin, and from several of the east- 
ern languages, notably the various East Indian 
di iK-cts, the Persian, and the Chinese. Among 
the words borrowed from the French are: 
" cahoot " (cohorte), to keep company ; " spree " 
(esprit), a carousal ; and " feele " (fille), a girl ; 
from the Spanish : "savvey" (sale), to know; 
"vamose" and "mosey" (camos), to go; and 
"cavort" (cavar), to caper; from the Ger- 
man: "loafer" (Laufer), an idle fellow; 
"frow " (Frau), a wife; and "bower" (Bauer), 
n-rd in riuht and left bower in cards; and 
from the Dutch: "boosey" (buizen), drunk- 
"logy" (log), dull, heavy; "boss" (boat), a 
master or head; and "landlubber" (landloo- 
per), a vagabond. The East Indian tongues 
contribute " tiffin," breakfast or lunch ; " dun- 
garee," poor, motley; and "chit," a letter; 
and the Chinese, "chop," used in such expres- 
sions as "first chop," "second chop"; "koo- 
too" or "kotow," to cringe to, to flatter ; and 
"pigeon," the Chinese pronunciation of busi- 
ness, used in the expression " pigeon English." 
Tin- lingua Franca, or bastard Italian, spoken 
in the Mediterranean seaports, which is a bar- 
barous compound of most of the languages used 
along the shores of that sea, has also contrib- 
uted largely to English slang. Of old words 
invested with new meanings, some of the most 



iiMion are: "bleed," to pay or lose money; 
blow," to vaunt or boast ; " bolt," to leave, 



to run away; "do," to cheat, as "to do one 
out of his money," &c. The verb "to go" 
furnishes numerous slang phrases, as "go it 
strong," "go back on," "go ahead," "go for 
one," "go through," "go by," "go the whole 
hog," "great go," "little go," "rum go," 
" pretty go," a " go " of liquor, &c. ; and " let " 
almost as many, as "let slide," "let rip," "let 
up," "let on," "let out," "let in," "lit drive," 
"let alone," "let the cat out," &c. Many of 
these, although properly slang, have acquired 
through constant use a right to a place in the 
language, and may be regarded as good " dia- 
lect " English. To this class also belong many 
of the words usually called Americanisms, 
which had their origin in this country and 
have a flavor of our institutions, such as "log- 
rolling," " wire - pulling," " axe - grinding," 
" pipe - laying," " filibustering," " mudsill," 
"mean white," "doughface," "jayhawker," 
" bushwhacker," " copperhead," " carpet-bag- 
ger," "shinplaster," "stamp," "greenback," 
" copper," " nickel," &c. The fashionable af- 
fectation too of using French words, with 
meanings which would not be recognized in 
Paris, as " on the tapis" " to chaperon" " beau 
monde," " the damant," may be relegated to 
this department of slang. America is respon- 
sible also for very many of the new words 
coined to meet new conditions, such as " ca- 
boodle," " calithumps," "contraptions," "high- 
falutin," "hunkydory," "shenanigan," "spon- 
dulicks," "skedaddle," "scalawag," and such 
corruptions as "slantindicular," "rambump- 
tious," and "splendiferous." (See AMERICAN- 
ISMS.) Every business, vocation, and profes- 
sion has its slang, and every notable civil 
event and political convulsion furnishes new 
phrases and words, most of which are ephem- 
eral. The press and the theatre are prolific 
comers, and the university, the army, the ex- 
change (see STOCK EXCHANGE), politics, fash- 
ion, the prize ring (see PUGILISM), and the 
turf are all responsible for a large share of 
the current slang of the day. The sea too is 
no less profuse in illegitimate expressions than 
the land, and sailors' slang is proverbial. In 
France the jargon of the thieves and vagrants, 
which is called argot, is a comprehensive lan- 
guage, with a grammar and literature of its 
own. Argot has been traced as far back as 
the 14th century according to some authors, 
but others believe that it originated with the 
gypsies, who appeared in Paris in the first half 
of the 15th century. One of the earliest works 
on it is Le jargon, ou langage de Vargot re- 
forme, &c. (f royes, 1660). In 1827 a diction- 
ary of argot was published in Paris ; but the 
prosperity of argot literature date's rather from 
the publication in 1837 of Vidocq's work on 
thieves, containing the argot dictionary, which 
he began in 1819. Since then many other 
works have appeared, of which one of the 
most valuable is Michel's fitudes de pliilologie 
comparee sur Vargot, &c. (Paris, 1856). Argot 
has found a conspicuous place in modern 



SLANG 

"rench novels, especially in Sue's Mysteres de 
Paris; indeed, the language of some of the 
characters in that work was so difficult to un- 
derstand that it was found necessary to pub- 
lish a Dictionnaire complet de Vargot employe 
dans les Mysteres de Paris. Some of the argot 
words are very expressive: thus, God is Mec 
des mecs (Matire des maUres, Master of mas- 
ters) ; the devil, boulanger (baker) ; prison, 
college or abbayede sots (college, fools' abbey) ; 
the gibbet, veuve (widow) ; to suffer capital 
punishment, epouser la veuve (to marry the 
widow); a cafe", locard (stamping mill); to 
eat, jouer des dominos (to play dominoes) ; an 
omnibus, four banal or face d face (parish 
oven, face to face); the sea, la grande tasse 
(the big cup) ; rain, bouillon de chien (dog 
soup) ; the moon, moucharde or cafarde (fe- 
male spy, hypocrite) ; an Englishman, goddem, 
rosbif, &c. In Spain the slang language is 
called germania (Lat. germanus, a full brother, 
hence faithful, true), from the brotherhoods 
or associations of thieves who make use of it. 
Some, with less probability, refer the name to 
the German origin of the earliest associations 
in Spain. Cervantes used some of its terms in 
"Don Quixote" and others of his works, and 
some are also to be found in the writings of 
Quevedo. In 1609 Juan Hidalgo compiled a 
book on the subject entitled Romances de ger- 
mania de varios autores, con su vocabulario, 
&c. In germania a highway robber is called 
picturesquely ermitano de camino (hermit of 
the road) ; death, cierta (the certain) ; suspi- 
cion, espino (a thorn); a person hanged, ra- 
cimo (bunch of grapes). In Portugal thieves' 
slang is called calao, perhaps from calar, to 
conceal. The slang of the Italian vagrants 
and thieves is called furlesco (from furbo, a 
quack, knave, rogue), and sometimes gergo, 
jargon. Some of its expressions are very sug- 
gestive: thus, hell is calda casa (hot house); 
a stone, artone di calcosa (earth bread); the 
mouth, caverna (cavern) ; the nose, flauto 
(flute) ; the tongue, ingegnosa (cunning) ; the 
stomach, fagiana (bean box) ; the beard, losco 
di lerlo (face forest). The thieves' slang of 
Germany is called Rothwalsch, from roth, a 
cant term for vagrant, and wdlsch, foreign. It 
is called also KoTcamloschen, from the Hebrew 
'hakham, adroit, ingenious, and lashon, lan- 
guage. It is composed of LOAV, High, Jew, 
and gypsy German, has a grammar and almost 
a literature of its own, and two dialects, one 
in North and one in South Germany. Among 
its words are: custom house officer, AusMt- 
scher (one who rummages everything) ; law- 
yer, Diftler (one who finesses) ; night, schwarz 
(black); priest, Schwarzfarler (black dyer); 
gold, Fuchs (fox) ; sword, Kehrum (face about). 
One of the earliest and most curious books on 
Rothwalsch, entitled Von denfalschen Bettlern 
und Hirer B'iiberey (Wittenberg, 1528), has a 
preface by Martin Luther. A vocabulary of 
it was published in 1661, and since that time 
many other works have appeared. In Jutland 



SLATE 



87 



a slang allied to German cant is much spoken. 
The Czech thieves' cant is called hantyrka. 
The slang language of Holland is the bargoens 
or dieventael. In Norway, Sweden, and Den- 
mark, besides the fantasprog, spoken of in 
Sund's work, Om Fante eller Landstrygerfollcet 
y Norge (Christiania, 1850), are used the tater-. 
sproget, or gypsy gibberish, and the sleoier- 
sproget, the jargon of thieves and vagabonds. 
Russian thieves make use of different slang 
dialects, and several of the dissenting religious 
sects have languages peculiar to themselves. 
In Albania a slang language made up of a mix- 
ture of modern Greek, Wallachian, Italian, and 
Latin, with a few words of oriental invention, 
is spoken chiefly by quack doctors. In it the 
verbs signifying to practise medicine and' to 
cheat are synonymous. Asiatic criminals speak 
the lalaibalan, an artificial language made 
from the Arab, Persian, and Turkish vocabu- 
laries. The Indian Thugs speak the rama- 
seena language, a vocabulary and history of 
which appeared in Calcutta in 1836. 

SLATE, a rock of no definite composition, 
distinguished by its structure, which is of par- 
allel sheets or lamina?, easily separated. The 
term is in common use also applied to various 
rocks which do not possess the fissile charac- 
ter in so eminent a degree, and which are 
sometimes distinguished from the true slates 
by the name of schists; such are the mica, tal- 
cose, hornblende, and chlorite schists or slates. 
Shale differs from slate in its more earthy tex- 
ture and less tenacity, as well as want of the 
perfect slaty structure. But its composition is 
like that of the argillaceous or clay slate, which 
is the well known roofing and writing slate. 
This variety, which is the only slate of eco- 
nomical importance, is found among the met- 
amorphic rocks passing into mica slate, and 
with the strata of the Silurian period, and 
sometimes with those of still later origin. It 
is eminently characterized by splitting with 
ease into large smooth plates, which have a 
uniform degree of hardness, possess a dull or 
feeble lustre, and are blackish gray, bluish 
black, bluish or reddish brown, purplish, or 
greenish. The rock is often traversed by thin 
seams of quartz, but the prepared slates should 
be entirely free from foreign minerals, and es- 
pecially from iron pyrites, which are too often 
seen in yellow cubical crystals scattered over 
the surface of what would otherwise be excel- 
lent roofing slates. Such are unfit for writing 
or school slates; and for roofing slates they 
are objectionable on account of the pyrites 
weakening the slates, and also being liable to 
decompose after exposure for some time, and 
cause unsightly stains of oxide of iron. Car- 
bonate of lime is also sometimes present, and 
is likewise injurious. The best slates are dis- 
tinguished by an appearance of compactness 
and solidity in the blocks, with nothing to sug- 
gest their fissile character ; and yet this should 
be so perfect, that when fresh from the quarry 
these blocks may be split with greater ease than 



gfl 



SLATE 



pine timber, and into sheets of any desired thin- 
ness The faces should be perfectly smooth and 
parallel, without any curvatures or irregulari- 
ties There should be no lines of cross fracture 
that should prevent their breaking in any one 
direction more than another. When one is bal- 
anced on the finger and struck with a hammer, 
it should give a clear ringing sound ; and after 
being dried in an oven and immersed in water, 
it should absorb but little, as may be ascer- 
t .-lined by weighing it before and after immer- 
sion. This is an excellent test of the compar- 
ative values of different slates. The powder 
of slates is light gray, and when a pointed 
piece is rubbed upon a smooth slate surface 
a portion of the powder remains behind, leav- 
ing a plain mark that is easily wiped or washed 
off. It is this property which renders the slates 
serviceable for drawing and writing upon. Ar- 
gillaceous slates, like the clays which they ori- 
ginally were, are essentially composed of silex 
and alumina, and the following is the result of 
the analysis of a common Scotch variety : silex, 
50 parts in 100 ; alumina, 27 ; oxide and sul- 
phate of iron, 11; potash, 4; magnesia, 1; 
water, 7; carbon, a trace. The slates are 
found often in beds of great extent, associated 
with other beds of similar character ; and this 
singular feature is observed in the structure 
of the rocks, that the cleavage, or lines along 
which the slates naturally separate, has no 
relation to the lines of stratification. However 
nru-h the beds themselves may be contorted 
and follow irregular waving planes, each sys- 
tem of cleavage lines, in case there are more 
than one, as sometimes occurs, maintains its 
own direction and rarely coincides with the 
plane of dip. It is evident that the cleavage 
seams must have been produced subsequently 
to the time when the beds acquired their final 
position. This structure is what is known as 
slaty cleavage ; and sometimes when the strata 
are themselves thinly bedded and the stratifi- 
cation is regular over extended areas, it is not 
easy to distinguish immediately the two sets 
<>f planes one from the other. Slates are quar- 
ried either by blasting out large slabs, or, when 
practicable, splitting them off with gads and 
large wedges. The slabs from a foot to a foot 
and a half thick, and it may be 8 or 10 ft. long 
and 1 or 2 ft. wide, are set on edge, and grooves 
are cut across the top and down the sides to 
determine the lines of fracture for separating 
thorn into rectangular blocks, which is done 
l.y blows from u wooden beetle directed upon 
the top near the furrow. The splitting is 
effected by driving wide, thin chisels between 
the lamina), and the sizes of the slates are 
reduced whenever desirable by cutting cross 
grooves and then breaking the pieces with the 
dii-n-l. When n-diu-fd to the required thinness, 
the slates are roughly dressed over the edge of 
a him -k i if wood by the blows of a sort of chop- 
I>in_' knife called a sack, sax, or zax. On the 
back of this tool is a sharp tapering steel point, 
with which the workman when preparing roof- 



SLATER 

ing slates pecks two holes through the slates 
near what is to be the head or upper edge, for 
the nails which are to hold it down to the roof. 
In Vermont machines have been applied to 
cutting grooves in the slate in the ledge to fa- 
cilitate the quarrying, and the cutting and trim- 
ming are also done by machinery. It is impor- 
tant that all this work should be done while 
the blocks are fresh from the quarry, as in dry- 
ing they are apt to lose their property of split- 
ting freely, though freezing may restore this ; 
but a succession of frosts and thaws has the 
effect of thorough seasoning. Slabs for inter- 
nal decoration, as mantelpieces, and for articles 
of furniture, as table tops, billiard tables, sinks, 
&c., are cut by circular saws which are made 
to revolve slowly. The sheets when thus 
squared to suitable sizes are planed in machines 
similar to those used for planing metals ; and 
pieces for mouldings are shaped by tools of 
the desired figure. Various ornamental arti- 
cles are prepared of slate in imitation of mar- 
bles, granites, and other stones, by the appli- 
cation of colors, which are baked in, varnished, 
and polished, the applications being several 
times repeated. (See ENAMELLING, vol. vi., p. 
591.) SLATE PENCILS are made from argilla- 
ceous slate rock, sometimes from talcose slate, 
and sometimes from various materials ground 
together and compressed. Near the town of 
Castleton, and near one extremity of the west- 
ern Vermont slate belt, is found an argillaceous 
slate from which the finest pencils are made. 
The stone is sawed into blocks 7 in. long by 
6 in. wide, and split into slabs a little more 
than a quarter of an inch thick. These are 
then planed and placed in a machine, in which 
a series of grooved knives cut through one half 
the thickness of the slab, when it is placed in 
a second machine having a bed with grooves 
corresponding to the sides of the pencils cut, 
and a cutter like the one in the first machine 
completes the operation. The pencils are then 
counted and put up in boxes of 100 each, and 
packed in cases of 10,000. There are three 
sizes, 6, 5, and 4 in. in length. The waste of 
this slate has been utilized by grinding it into 
flour and making it into artificial pencils. 

SLATER, Samuel, an American manufacturer, 
born at Helper, Derbyshire, England, June 9, 
1768, died at Webster, Mass., April 21, 1885. 
He was apprenticed to cotton spinning under 
Jedidiah Strutt, partner of Arkvvright, and was 
a favorite with his master. He aided Mr. Strntt 
in making improvements in his mills, and gain- 
ed a thorough mastery of the theory and prac- 
tice of the new manufacture. In 1789 con- 
gress passed its first act for the encouragement 
of manufactures, and the Pennsylvania legis- 
lature offered a bounty for the introduction 
of the Arkwright patents. These laws met 
the eye of young Slater in an English journal, 
and he believed himself able to carry the Ark- 
wright cotton manufacture across the Atlantic 
without drawings or models, the export being 
forbidden under severe penalties. He arrived 



SLAVE COAST 



SLAVERY 



89 



n New York in November, 1789, and learned 
accidentally that Moses Brown had made some 
attempts at cotton spinning by machinery in 
Rhode Island. He wrote to Mr. Brown inform- 
ing him of what he could do, and received a 
reply stating that these attempts had not been 
successful, and adding : " If thou canst do 
this thing, I invite thee to come to Rhode Isl- 
and and have the credit and the profit of in- 
troducing cotton manufacture into America." 
Slater proceeded thither, and immediately en- 
tered into articles of agreement with William 
Almy and Smith Brown to construct and oper- 
ate the new cotton-spinning machinery. On 
Dec. 21, 1790, he started at Pawtucket three 
18-inch carding machines, the necessary draw- 
ing heads with two rolls and four processes, 
the roving cases and winders for the same, and 
throstle spinning frames of 72 spindles. Reels 
were soon after made for putting the yarn into 
skeins, in which form it was then exclusively 
marketed. The first yarns made on this ma- 
chinery were equal in quality to the best made 
at that time in England. The growth of cot- 
ton manufacture was for some time necessarily 
slow, as the cotton was picked by hand in fam- 
ilies. Further progress was made some years 
later when yarn was dyed and distributed in 
families for weaving. In 1812 Slater began 
the erection of mills in Oxford (now Webster), 
Mass., adding in ISIS-'IG the manufacture of 
woollen cloths ; and here has grown up the 
large establishment which still bears his name. 
He established in 1796, for the improvement 
of his workpeople, a Sunday school, which was 
the first or among the first in the United States! 

SLAVE COAST, a part of the coast of Upper 
Guinea, W. Africa, between the rivers Volta 
and Cameroons, comprising a small part of the 
British Gold Coast protectorate, the coast of 
Dahomey, the British colony of Lagos, and 
the coast of Benin and Calabar. It derived its 
name from the trade in slaves, formerly the 
chief traffic of the coast. (See GUINEA.) 

SLAVERY, the condition of absolute bondage, 
in which one person is the unconditional prop- 
erty or chattel of another, and obliged to labor 
for his master's benefit, without his own con- 
sent. It has existed in some form in all na- 
tions, and still exists in many countries, though 
modern slavery differs in several respects from 
ancient slavery. It was in perfect existence 
at the dawn of history, and allusions to it 
are found in some of the earliest extant wri- 
tings. ^ Kidnapping was a common mode of 
obtaining slaves for commerce, and it was ex- 
tensively followed by the Phoenicians as much 
as 3,000 years ago, and the slave trade was 
then in full vigor. Slavery first appears in 
Chinese records about 13 centuries B. C. In 
India the number of slaves was small, and it 
has even been asserted that slavery was there 
prohibited by positive law; but the lower 
castes could be enslaved for debt. Slavery 
existed among the Assyrians, the Babylonians, 
and the Persians after they had become con- 



querors. The conquering races who estab- 
lished their rule, in succession, in that quar- 
ter of the globe, found slavery there existing, 
and in some instances they increased its ex- 
tent; but the general tendency of extensive 
conquests was to lessen the number of slaves, 
for when different races became subject to the 
same royal line, and peace prevailed, as in the 
Persian empire, which extended from the bor- 
ders of Ethiopia to India, the supplies of slaves 
were largely cut off, as those supplies were 
principally obtained through war. The He- 
brews had some form of slavery from the time 
of Abraham. The Mosaic legislation concern- 
ing servitude was very mild, and contained nu- 
merous important limitations of the rights of 
masters. In Phoenicia slaves were very numer- 
ous, and were extensively employed in all the 
branches of industry that were pursued by 
that enterprising people. They formed much 
the larger part of the populations of such cities 
as Tyre and Sidon. Slavery was a firmly es- 
tablished institution of the Hellenic heroic age. 
It was the consequence of invasion and con- 
quest, and it led to further wars that were 
waged in order to procure more slaves. Piracy 
and kidnapping were resorted to for the same 
object, and no degree of life was exempt from 
the effects of this state of things. Yet in the 
heroic age Grecian slavery was mild. " In 
Homer," it has been truly said, "the condition 
of the slave seems everywhere tempered by 
the kindness and indulgence of the master." 
The condition of women, however, was worse 
than that of men. The female slaves per- 
formed the principal work in the interior of 
the house. Not only do they seem to have 
been more harshly treated than the males, but 
they were charged with the hardest and most 
exhausting labor which the establishment of a 
Greek chief required. The treatment of slaves 
was very different by the different Greek 
communities. The Athenians were very kind 
toward them, and throughout Attica prevailed 
the mildest form of servitude known to the 
world of antiquity. Athenian legislation pro- 
tected the personal' rights of the slave, and 
promoted his efforts to obtain freedom. There 
were both public and private slaves at Athens, 
the former being the property of the state, 
some of whom were educated and filled impor- 
tant offices, such as those of secretaries of the 
commanders and treasurers of the armies. 
Sparta was regarded by Greece as furnishing 
the practical antithesis to Athens in the treat- 
ment of slaves. The helots of Sparta furnish 
the type of all that is calamitous among the 
oppressed, and there is much in Spartan his- 
tory that justifies this view of their condition. 
They were slaves of the state, and those by 
whom they were held could neither liberate 
them nor sell them out of Laconia. They ap- 
pear to have occupied some such position as 
the serfs of the middle ages, but the central 
authority had more power over them. (See 
HELOTS.) The supplies of slaves were obtained 



00 



SLAVERY 



in most parts of Greece through war, com- 
merce, piru.-y, and kidnapping. There were 
iv Milur markets for their sale, the principal of 
which wo iv IK-M ut Athens, Samoa, and Chios. 
Negroes were among the slaves imported, 
Egypt furnishing the larger number of them ; 
!inl they wore valued for their complexion, 
and considered as luxuries. Most of the do- 
mestic and personal slaves were barbarians, 
that is, IKT-MMS who were not of Greek blood, 
for it was the Grecian custom to allow prison- 
ers of their own race to be ransomed. The 
number of slaves in Greece was very large, 
and it is even estimated to have been three 
or four times as great as that of the free pop- 
ulation. Unlike the Komans, the Greeks did 
not seek to possess many slaves from mo- 
tives of luxury and ostentation, but of profit. 
Fifty slaves were a large number for a wealthy 
Athenian to own, while some Romans owned 
20,000 each. There were many slaves em- 
ployed in the mines, but they were of the 
least valuable kind, and their labor was de- 
structive of life. Most of the slave insurrec- 
ti'Mis in Attica were brought about by the 
mining slaves, and on one occasion they took 
possession of Sunium, and held it for some 
ti:ne. The Athenian slaves were not, save 
on extraordinary occasions, employed as sol- 
diers, like those of the Dorian Greeks. They 
fought at Marathon and at the Arginusse, but 
these were remarkable exceptions. Manumit- 
ted slaves in Greece could not become citi- 
zens, but became metics, and were still under 
c.-rtain obligations to their former masters, 
neglect of which made them liable to be sold 
into slavery again. In Italy slavery prevailed 
even more extensively than in Greece, though 
in the early times, it has been contended, and 
before the foundation of the Roman dominion, 
the number of slaves was so small, and they 
were so well treated, as hardly to deserve the 
name ; but as there is evidence that the Etrus- 
rans had negro slaves, the slave trade must 
have been extensively carried on between Italy 
and Africa at a remote period. The Romans 
had slaves at the earliest dates of their annals, 
and far earlier than that time which is recog- 
nized as the beginning of their authentic his- 
tory ; but there was a great difference between 
the institution as it existed in the opening 
years of the republic and as it became several 
generations before the establishment of the 
imperial rule. As the kingdom of Rome is 
It. have been far more powerful than 
was the Roman republic during the first two 
centuries of its existence, and had commercial 
relations with the Carthaginians, the principal 
slave traders of the time, the just conclusion 
is that slavery was more extensive under the 

ings than it was under the praetors and 
: >. In the early times nearly all the 
;' the Romans were slaves, and so 

:ie majority of the operatives in town; 
but that excess of agricultural slaves which in 
later times became a marked feature of Ro- 



man industrial life was then unknown. Agri- 
culture was considered an honorable pursuit, 
and the haughtiest of the patricians often cul- 
tivated their fields with their own hands ; for 
they were not all rich, as the story of Cincin- 
natus shows. The first slaves of the Romans 
were exclusively prisoners of war made from 
the peoples in their immediate vicinity, and 
sold at auction by the state as booty; they 
strongly resembled their masters, so that their 
condition was probably not hard; but there 
was a constant change for the worse as the 
circle of Roman conquest extended. So long 
as the wars of the Romans were confined to 
their own immediate part of the world, the 
numbers obtained by war could not have been 
very large ; but when their armies began to 
contend with distant peoples, and to conquer 
them, they were counted by myriads. They 
acted on the principle of sparing the humble 
and subduing the proud, granting both life and 
liberty to those who surrendered, but taking 
captive all those who resisted their arms, and 
consigning such of them to slavery as were 
not reserved for a fate more immediately se- 
vere. The Romans were not sparing in the 
infliction of this rule of war, and the conse- 
quence was, not only that the slave popula- 
tion was rapidly increased, but that it was 
made to include the most cultivated classes of 
the most cultivated period of antiquity, as the 
Roman conquests did not begin until after the 
highest of ancient races had completed their 
development. Roman slavery began to assume 
its great proportions in the same age that saw 
the beginning of its long quarrel with Car- 
thage, which opened in 264 B. C. When the 
Romans made their first invasion of Africa, 
256 B. C., under Regulus, they landed in a 
portion of the Carthaginian territory lying 
between the Hermsean headland and the Less- 
er Syrtis. This fine country was given up 
to all the horrors of ancient warfare, "and 
20,000 persons, many of them doubtless of 
the highest condition, and bred up in all the 
enjoyments of domestic peace and affluence, 
were carried away as slaves." Most of the 
captives taken at the conquest of Carthage, 
who had surrendered, were sold into slavery. 
This treatment of the Carthaginians, a high- 
bred and refined people, shows the character 
of Roman slavery, which was not confined to 
the barbarous races, or to any peculiar people, 
but swept all within its nets who could be 
conquered or purchased. Corinth, one of the 
richest and most luxurious cities of Greece, 
A as destroyed at the same time with Carthage, 
and the Corinthians were all sold into slavery ; 
and nothing but the influence of Polybius with 
the younger Scipio Africanus prevented the 
entire population of the Peloponnesus from 
sharing their fate. Two generations earlier, 
Capua, a city not inferior to Carthage or Cor- 
inth in culture, the wealth and magnificence 
of which were proverbial, had many of its 
best citizens sold into slavery, their wives and 






SLAVERY 



91 



children being also thus sold; "and it was 
especially ordered that they should be sold 
at Rome, lest some of their countrymen or 
neighbors should purchase them for the pur- 
pose of restoring their liberty." After the 
close of the second Punic war, the conquests 
of Rome went on with great rapidity, and the 
numbers of the slave population increased at 
the same rate, so that in 70 years even the 
free agricultural population of Italy had most- 
ly disappeared. The absorption of small free- 
holds in large estates, along with war, led to 
the decrease of that population, and the places 
thus made vacant were filled by the purchase 
of slaves, the latter being taken in war to a 
considerable extent, though the slave traders 
were by no means idle. One of the conse- 
quences of the successes of ^Emilius Paulus 
in Macedonia was the sale of 150,000 Epirotes, 
who had been seized because their country 
was friendly to Perseus. The demand for 
slaves becanie very great full two centuries B. 
C. in Sicily, which had then fallen complete- 
ly under the Roman dominion, and because 
corn was much wanted in Italy, then beginning 
to recover from the effect of the Carthaginian 
invasion and occupation; and. the state of 
things in Sicily was so favorable to the aggre- 
gation of wealth, that it soon extended to Italy, 
where the land passed into the hands of the 
few. Great estates succeeding to the many 
small farms that had been known in the pre- 
ceding generations, the soil was now culti- 
vated or attended to by great masses of slaves, 
the property chiefly of the leading members of 
the optimates, or the high aristocratical party. 
The wars in Spain, Illyria, Greece, Syria, and 
Macedonia furnished large numbers of slaves, 
the common sorts of whom were sold at low 
rates, and were employed in the country. The 
invasion of the Roman territories by the Teu- 
tones and Cimbri, which ended in the total 
defeat of those barbarians by Marius, added 
considerably to the number of slaves, 60,000 
of the Cimbri alone being taken captive in the 
last great battle of the war. The conquest of 
Sulla, Lucullus, and Pompey in Greece and 
the East, actually flooded the slave markets, so 
that in the camp of Lucullus, in Pontus, men 
were sold for four drachmae each, or about 62 
cents of our money. Cicero sold about 10,000 
of the inhabitants of the Cilician town of 
Pindenissus. The Gallic wars of Julius Csesar 
furnished almost half a million slaves; and 
Augustus sold 36,000 of the Salassi, nearly a 
fourth of whom were men of military age. 
In the Jewish war which ended in the de- 
struction of Jerusalem, 90,000 persons were 
made captives. But Roman slavery would 
not have been so comprehensive if the Ro- 
mans had been compelled to rely solely upon 
war for slaves. Commerce has been a chief 
means of feeding slavery from the beginning 
of the world. Before the Romans had ob- 
tained dominion over Italy, they were slave 
purchasers from the Carthaginians, who drew 



their principal supplies of men from the inte- 
rior of Africa, the slave trade of that region, 
like that of Asia and Greece, being much older 
than history. Many slaves were obtained by 
commerce from the East, and the cities on the 
shores of the Euxine were among the chief 
slave marts of antiquity far down into the 
days of the empire. Barbarians of whom the 
Romans otherwise knew nothing found their 
way to the imperial city as slaves. At the 
height of her power Rome had slaves from 
Britain, Gaul, Scandinavia, Germany, Sarma- 
tia, Dacia, Spain, the different countries of Af- 
rica, from Egypt to the Troglodytes of Ethio- 
pia, the western Mediterranean islands, Sicily, 
Greece, Illyria, Thrace, Macedonia, Bithynia, 
Phrygia, Cappadocia, Syria, Media, and almost 
every other country to which ambition or ava- 
rice could lead the soldier or the trader to 
penetrate. All races furnished their contribu- 
tions to the greatest population of slaves that 
ever existed under one dominion. Unlike the 
Greeks, the Romans " acknowledged the gen- 
eral equality of the human species, and con- 
fessed the dominion of masters to flow entire- 
ly from the will of society; 1 ' but this did not 
prevent them from enslaving all men upon 
whom they could lay their hands, while they 
were much harsher toward their slaves than 
the Greeks were. Not a few slaves were pro- 
cured by kidnapping persons, and it was no- 
torious that even Roman freemen were seized 
and shut up in the ergastula of the great pro- 
prietors, which invasion of personal rights the 
whole power of the government was unable to 
prevent. Children were sometimes sold into 
slavery by their parents, either from love of 
gain or to save them from starvation ; and the 
number of these sales was large in times of 
general distress. Men were also sold for debts 
due to the imperial treasury. Under a variety 
of circumstances poor people could sell them- 
selves into slavery, but such sales were not ir- 
revocable until the second century of the em- 
pire, and then the law was somewhat limited, 
the object being to punish those who had sold 
themselves with the intention of reclaiming 
their freedom, the purchaser in such cases hav- 
ing no redress. Romans who had committed 
crimes that were ignominiously punished be- 
came slaves through that fact, and were known 
as servi pana, or slaves of punishment, and 
were public property. They remained slaves 
even if pardoned, unless specially restored to 
citizenship ; and it was not until the reign of 
Justinian that this form of slavery was abol- 
ished. In early times, persons who did not 
give in their names for enrolment in the pub- 
lic force were sold into slavery, after being 
beaten ; and incorrect returns to the censors 
led to the same punishment. Poor thieves, 
who could not make a fourfold return of the 
amount of their booty, became slaves to the 
party stolen from ; and a father could give 
up a child who had stolen to the prosecutor. 
Poor debtors were sold as slaves. The em- 



02 



SLAVERY 



ployments of Roman slaves, both public and 
-.-, were very various, and were minutely 
subdivided. Besides filling all the more menial 
, many of them occupied the positions of 
librarians, readers, reciters, story tellers, jour- 
nal keepers, amanuenses, physicians and sur- 
geons, architects, diviners, grammarians, pen- 
men, musicians and singers, players, builders, 
engravers, antiquaries, illuminators, painters, 
silversmiths, gladiators, charioteers of the cir- 
. Before a slave could become a sol- 
ilicr ho was emancipated, and into the Ro- 
man armies of the early republic not even 
fivedmi'M \\ere allowed to enter; but the de- 
inand for soldiers did away with this delicacy, 
ami slaves were regularly enlisted in the sec- 
ond Punic war, and did good service to the 
state. Many of the Roman slaves were on the 
most intimate terms with their masters, and 
must have been well treated, or the state of 
society would have been intolerable ; and we 
read of not a few instances in which the lives 
of masters were saved by their slaves, in the 
times of the proscriptions and massacres of 
Marius and Sulla, and of the triumvirs, and on 
other occasions. But the masses of the slaves 
were treated harshly, and the laws and regula- 
tions affecting them were mostly severe. The 
Romans were generally hard masters ; and 
44 the original condition of slaves, in relation 
to freemen, was as low as can be conceived. 
They were not considered members of the 
community, in which they had no station nor 
place. They possessed no rights, and were 
not deemed persons in law; so that they could 
neither sue nor be sued in any court of civil 
judicature, and they could not invoke the pro- 
tection of the tribunes. So far were these 
notions carried, that when an alleged slave 
claimed his freedom on the ground of unjust 
detention in servitude, he was under the ne- 
cessity of having a free protector to sue for 
him, till Justinian dispensed with that formal- 
ity. 1 ' Slaves were allowed only a special kind 
of marriage (contubernium), and they had no 
power over their children. Few of the ties of 
blood were recognized among them ; and they 
could hold property only by the sanction or 
tolerance of their masters. "The criminal law 
was equally harsh, slaves being treated under 
it as things, but it was gradually meliorated. 
The severest and most ignominious punish- 
ments were shared by slaves with the vilest 
malefactors, as crucifixion and hanging, and 
later they were burned alive. Under the em- 
pire the condition of the slaves was better than 
it had been under the republic. The emperors 
were, however, far from pursuing a uniform 
policy toward the servile class, and some of 
them even restored cruel laws that had been 
abolished. In theory Roman slavery was per- 
petual, and to this theory the practice con- 
formed, inasmuch as by no act of his own 
could the slave become free. Freedom could 
proceed only from the action of the master. 
Manumission was not uncommon, and there 



were numerous freedmen who exercised much 
influence, as well in public life as in families. 
Freedom was the reward of good conduct, 
and the ease with which the places of freed 
slaves could be filled up by new purchases 
made manumission much more frequent than 
it would have been under other circumstances. 
Dying masters freed slaves by the hundred, in 
order that they might swell their funeral pro- 
cessions. On joyful occasions a wealthy mas- 
ter would manumit many of his slaves. Some- 
times slaves were liberated in- the article of 
death, in order that they might die in free- 
dom. Manumission was often the result of 
agreement between masters and slaves, the lat- 
ter either purchasing freedom with money, or 
binding themselves to pursue certain courses 
that should be for their former owner's inter- 
est. The republican period was favorable to 
emancipation, and freedmen were so numer- 
ous at the formation of the empire that some 
of the early emperors sought to restrict manu- 
mission, less however to promote the interest 
of slaveholders, or to increase the number 
of slaves, than for the purpose of increasing 
the numbers of the ingenuous class, an ob- 
ject much thought of and aimed at by several 
generations of Roman statesmen, but always 
without success. The later emperors favored 
emancipation, particularly after they had be- 
come Christian ; and Justinian removed nearly 
every obstacle to it. Augustus labored strenu- 
ously to limit emancipation, but even he had 
recourse to the society of freedmen, in accord- 
ance with a custom of the great men of his 
country ; and in 30 years after his death the 
Roman world was governed by members of 
that class of persons. Julius Caesar employed 
no freedmen, and Tiberius employed but few, 
and gave them none of his confidence, thus 
imitating Casar rather than Augustus; and 
even Caligula used them but little. Claudius 
they ruled, and through him the empire. It 
is impossible to estimate with an approach to 
accuracy the number of Roman slaves. Gib- 
bon thought it was equal to that of the free 
population, which Zumpt pronounces a "gross 
error;" and Blair estimates that during the 
14 generations that followed the conquest of 
Greece, there were three slaves to one free- 
man. Gibbon's estimate, which applies to the 
reign of Claudius, would give 60,000,000, and 
probably it is not far from the truth, though 
we may agree with Blair that it seems much 
too low for those places which were inhabit- 
ed by Romans properly so called. Many indi- 
viduals owned immense numbers, though the 
figures in some of these cases are perhaps 
exaggerated, or the results of the mistakes of 
copyists. The prices of slaves were not fixed. 
Good doctors, actors, cooks, beautiful women, 
and skilled artists brought heavy sums, and 
"ruled high;" and so did handsome boys, 
eunuchs, and fools. Learned men, gramma- 
rians, and rhetoricians also sold at high rates. 
Some descriptions of artisans and laborers 






SLAVEEY 



93 



would sell at good prices, upward of $300 of 
our money each; but $100 was a fair average 
price for a common slave, and when a slave 
could be bought for about half that sum the 
price was held to be low. Insurrections and 
servile wars were not uncommon. Two such 
wars broke out in Sicily after the conquest of 
that island by the Komans, and were extin- 
guished only in the blood of myriads of men, 
and through the exertions of consular armies. 
Toward the close of the 7th century of Kome 
the war of the gladiators, waged on the one 
side by slaves alone, from general to camp 
servants, brought the republic to the verge of 
ruin. The war was commenced by a few 
gladiators from the schools of Capua, under 
the lead of Spartacus, a Thracian, 73 B. C., 
and lasted for more than two years. Several 
Koman armies, commanded by praetors and 
consuls, were defeated, and for a time the re- 
volted slaves had the peninsula more at their 
command than it was at the command of the 
Komans. The country was horribly ravaged, 
and it was not until Crassus took the field, and 
200,000 men were employed, that the insur- 
rection was subdued ; and the final battle was 
won by the Romans more as the consequence 
of the death of Spartacus before it was half 
fought than from their superior generalship. 
Six thousand of the slaves were hanged or cru- 
cified after their defeat. The punishment of 
rebellious slaves was always very severe. Many 
slaves had enlisted under Sextus Pompey, and 
thousands of them who fell into the hands of 
Octavius were sent to the horrible death of 
the cross, with the general approbation of the 
citizens. They were crucified solely as fugi- 
tives, as all whose masters could be found were 
restored to them ; and the cruel act was per- 
petrated in violation of plighted faith. It more 
than once happened that Roman leaders in the 
civil wars either called upon slaves to rebel, or 
availed themselves of the services of slaves. 
Marius, on his return from Africa to Italy, and 
just before his death, proclaimed liberty to all 
slaves who would join him, and at least 4,000 
enlisted under his banner. Before his exile he 
had tried the same plan, but without success. 
The Cornelians of Sulla were 10,000 freed 
slaves, who had belonged to members of the 
Marian party that had been proscribed by the 
conqueror, and who took their appellation 
from the gentile name of their patron. The 
slave trade of antiquity comprehended the 
whole hemisphere in its circle. Its origin is 
unknown, for it was practised in all its parts 
at the earliest period of which any knowledge 
is to be obtained. The Phoenician slave trade 
was very extensive, and supplied in part by 
piracy. They stole Greeks and sold them 12 
centuries before Christ, and they also sold 
stolen people to the Greeks. They had a land 
traffic in slaves, obtaining them in the coun- 
tries between the Black and Caspian seas ; and 
they exchanged Hebrew slaves for the produc- 
tions of Arabia with the Sabseans and Edom- 



ites. The Greeks were also great slave tra- 
ders, and were as skilful in kidnapping persons 
as were the Phoenicians. Their slave traffic 
extended to Egypt, Thrace, Phrygia, Lydia, 
Syria, and other countries. From Egypt they 
obtained blacks, then regarded as slaves of 
luxury. Their slaves came mostly from the 
north and the east. The chief Grecian slave 
marts were Athens, Samos, Chios, Ephesus, 
Cyprus, and Corinth. The Carthaginians, 
who were the Phoenicians of the west, rival- 
led their progenitors in the extent and com- 
prehensiveness of their slave traffic. They had 
an immense traffic with the interior of Africa, 
a caravan trade, like that of the Egyptians and 
of the Cyrenasans. Women were preferred 
to men in the trade with the African slave 
dealers, as they sold for much higher prices in 
some northern countries. There was a large 
demand for negroes in the Balearic islands, and 
especially for women. Corsica also furnished 
many valuable slaves to the Carthaginians. 
The Roman slave trade as much exceeded that 
of any other country of antiquity as the institu- 
tion of Roman slavery exceeded slavery in other 
countries. In remoter times the Romans were 
no better than robbers in their treatment of 
foreigners, imitating the Etruscans in this re- 
spect, who were the worst pirates of antiquity. 
Corinth had been the chief slave mart of Greece 
toward the close of its independence, before 
it fell into the hands of the Romans, and at 
the time when slavery was beginning to in- 
crease rapidly in Italy ; and it is supposed, its 
situation being favorable to trade of the kind, 
that many slaves were sent thence from the 
East to the cities on the eastern Italian coast. 
But the destruction of Corinth by the Romans, 
146 B. C., transferred the slave trade to Delos, 
which became the most noted slave market of 
that age, though the trade in slaves was but 
one branch of the immense commerce that 
centred there. The importance of the slave 
trade in that island was owing to the Roman 
demand, as it was most favorably situated to 
minister to the desire for slaves from eastern 
countries Greeks, Syrians, Phrygians, Bithyn- 
ians, and others. According to Strabo, it was 
possible, so complete were the arrangements, to 
import 10,000 slaves in one day, and to export 
them on the same day. But all this prosperity 
came to an end when the forces of Mithridates 
entered Greece. They landed on Delos, and 
devastated the island, so that it never recov- 
ered from their ravages. The Mediterranean 
pirates had supplied Delos with many slaves; 
and at Side, in Pamphylia, they had a great 
market of their own, at which they disposed 
of their captives, many of whom were cap- 
tured far inland, even Italy itself not being 
safe from their ravages, and its villas and high- 
roads furnishing victims to the marauders, who 
became very powerful during that disturbed 
period of Roman history in which occurred the 
social war and the contest between Marius and 
Sulla. From Alexandria the Romans obtained 



SLAVERY 



slaves, Egyptians and Ethiopians, that city hav- 
ing a great trade in men. Others were drawn 
i hraee, which continued to be a slave- 
breeding country long after the fall of Greece. 
;ho devastation of Delos, the slave trade 
fell back nearer to its sources, and the Ro- 
mans obtained slaves direct from the marts on 
the Euxine, where the trade had existed from 
time immemorial, being fed by the constant 
warfare that was waged by the neighboring 
tribes. Many came from Scythia, and Scyth- 
ian and slave were all but convertible terms. 
The Galatians carried on an extensive slave 
trade ; and between Italy and Illyria this com- 
merce was considerable in the first days of the 
empire. The Roman wars fed the slave trade, 
and enabled those who carried it on to accu- 
mulate immense fortunes. So long as those 
wars were fought near home, the victors could 
sell their captives easily, without' much aid 
from traders ; but as soon as they extended to 
any distance from* Italy, the trader's aid became 
necessary. The trader followed the camp, and 
in the camp the human booty was sold, and 
often at prices so low as to appear incredible. 
The Romans neither encouraged nor discour- 
aged the slave trade. They held the slave tra- 
il, -r in contempt, and deemed his business ut- 
terly unworthy of merchants. Special names 
were given to such traders, implying that they 
were necessarily cheats; but their enormous 
wealth made them powerful. Slavery is re- 
garded as one of the chief causes of the decline 
of Rome. The institution existed in all parts 
of the Roman empire, and prevailed in the 
countries which were formed from its frag- 
ments, though essentially modified by a variety 
of circumstances. The influence of Christian- 
ity upon it was very great. It had indeed ex- 
isted before the extension of the Roman do- 
minion, and was known to most of the peoples 
who invaded and overthrew the empire, and 
on it-* ruins established the feudal system and 
serfdom. (See SERF.) The rise of the Saracens 
tended to increase the number of slaves, and 
to feed the trade in them, as Christians felt no 
smiples about enslaving Mussulmans, and the 
Mn^ulinans were quite as unscrupulous toward 
Christians. The wars between the Germans 
:ml Slavs furnished so many of the latter race 
for the market, that the word slave is derived 
from them. The great commercial republics of 
Italy were much engaged in slave trading. The 
Venetians had many slaves, and the history of 
their commerce shows that they pursued the 
slave trade with vigor and profit. In spite of 
the efforts of the popes, they sold Christians 
to Moslems. Slavery also existed in Florence, 
though the slaves were almost exclusively Mos- 
lems and other unransomed prisoners of war. 
..-land, under the Saxons, the slave trade 
bed, Bristol being the chief mart, whence 
-laves were exported to Ireland. But in 
and -lav, -holding was never very popu- 
l.-ir. and the Irish early emancipated their bond- 
men. At the close of the middle ages two 



peculiar forms of slavery and the slave trade 
began to be known, one of which has but re- 
cently ceased to exist, while the other is not 
yet entirely extinguished. The new phase of 
Mohammedanism that came up with the rapid 
development of the power of the Turks, in the 
14th and 15th centuries, nearly synchronizes 
with the origin and progress of what is known 
specifically as negro slavery. The Turks com- 
pleted the establishment of their power in 
Europe by the conquest of Constantinople in 
1463 ; and not quite 40 years later the last 
Mussulman state in Spain, Granada, was con- 
quered by the Christians. These two events 
had a remarkable effect on slavery. The fears 
of Christendom were excited by the rapid 
and sweeping successes of the Turks, and the 
anger of the Mussulmans was roused by the 
overthrow and enslavement of their brethren 
in Spain ; and from these feelings the system 
of slavery received an impetus and acquired 
forms that under other conditions it never 
could have known. We have seen that the 
church, at a much earlier period, did not ob- 
ject so much to the traffic in men as to the 
traffic in Christians, and that lay legislators 
took the same view of human duties ; and it 
was also the case that the selling of Chris- 
tians to Moslems was more strictly forbidden 
than was the selling of Christians to other 
Christians. The sentiment that prevailed 
while the Saracens were so strong as to ex- 
cite fears throughout all Christendom for its 
safety, was revived in the 15th century, and 
did not become altogether extinct until after 
the middle of the 17th. In the East, and for 
the greater part of the time in most of N. 
Africa, the Mohammedans were in the ascen- 
dant, they having become masters of Barbary 
and lords of the Levant. Between the Turks 
on the one side and the Italians and Spaniards 
on the other the long struggle was principally 
carried on in the south, the English being too 
remote from the scene to take much part in it, 
while the French, though occasionally furnish- 
ing some gallant volunteers, were as a nation 
the friends and sometimes the allies of the in- 
fidels. The knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 
first in Palestine, then at Rhodes, and after- 
ward at Malta, carried on perpetual warfare 
with -the Mussulmans. The contending parties 
divided between them the whole of the sea 
dominion of the Romans, and the compound 
rivalry of religion and race doomed multitudes 
of civilized people to slavery. Men who were 
taken in war did not alone compose these slaves, 
but among them were many women and chil- 
dren, the victims of razzias that were undertaken 
by the parties to the bitter and prolonged con- 
test. The light, low vessels of the Mussulmans 
often ran into the ports of the Spaniards and 
Italians by night, and plundered and burned 
them, while the inhabitants were either mur 
dered or carried into captivity. "Watch towers 
were built along the coasts, that the approach 
of the corsairs might be detected. So marl 



SLAVERY 



95 



" 



a feature of the war then waged was this 
form of slavery, that it furnished much mat- 
ter for the romantic literature of southern Eu- 
rope, in which nothing is more common than 
incidents connected with bondage in Barbary. 
Cervantes himself was for five years an Alge- 
rine captive, and he formed a project for a 
slave insurrection, there being 25,000 enslaved 
Christians at that time in Algiers alone. Enor- 
mous numbers of captives were employed as 
rowers of galleys, Christians on board those of 
the Mussulmans and Mussulmans on board 
Christian vessels. When the Turks lost the 
battle of Lepanto, in 1571, 12,000 Christian 
captives, galley slaves, were released from the 
prizes made by the allied fleet. When Charles 
V. took Tunis, in 1535, 20,000 Christians were 
released from slavery. Great numbers of wo- 
men were taken as slaves, and sold in the mar- 
kets of Turkey and Barbary. The corsairs 
passed out of the Mediterranean, sailed far to 
the north, and seized people on the coast of 
Ireland. This brought upon them punishment 
from the English, but that did not put an end 
to their Atlantic cruising. There were some 
places in Barbary on the Atlantic from which 
corsairs sailed, and those of Sal6 were among 
the most famous of the brotherhood. The Eu- 
ropean powers made frequent war on the Bar- 
bary states ; and of the early contests in which 
the American Union was engaged none were 
more brilliant than those which it carried on 
with some of those states, in defence of the 
berty and commerce of its citizens. But the 
ousies of the European powers prevented 
them from putting an end to the piracy and 
slavery of Barbary long after the Turks had 
ceased to be able to protect the corsairs, and 
tribute was paid to the petty powers down to 
the beginning of the 19th century. The suc- 
cessful bombardment of Algiers in 1816, by an 
English fleet commanded by Lord Exmouth, 
put an end to white slavery in Barbary, it 
having previously ceased to exist in the other 
countries of N. Africa, to which the exploits 
of the American navy had. much contributed, 
though at first the government of the United 
States had paid tribute to the pirate chiefs. 
At the same time that slavery was acquiring 
its peculiar form in the countries on the Med- 
iterranean, negro or African slavery came into 
existence. This form of slavery belongs en- 
tirely to modern times. As we know, the slave 
trade in negroes existed 3,000 years ago at 
least, and the Carthaginians brought numbers 
of black slaves from central and southern Af- 
rica, by means of their caravan commerce, a 
mode of traffic that was common long before 
the Carthaginians had a political existence; 
but in trading in negroes, the slave traders of 
antiquity only did that which they did with 
all other descriptions of men, and as the slave 
traders of the East have always done until 
now. The fact that the ancients regarded 
black slaves as luxuries, proves that their num- 
ber could not have been large in the European 
747 VOL. xv. 7 



countries to which they were taken, either by 
the way of Egypt or that of Carthage. Such 
details as we have concerning the black slaves 
of antiquity all serve to show that they were 
not numerous, far less so indeed than were 
slaves belonging to some of the highest of the 
white races. They were probably more numer- 
ous in the East than in Greece and Italy, and 
most numerous of all in Egypt and other parts 
of N. Africa, because of the comparative ease 
of acquiring them in those countries. The 
Venetians, who carried on a large trade with 
Africa, no doubt distributed some negro slaves 
over the various European nations which they 
visited. In the Mohammedan countries there 
have been black slaves from the time of the 
prophet, and they have often risen very high, 
as well in the state as in the household. But 
in all these cases the negro has but shared the 
common lot, and might have been sold on the 
same day with the Greek or the Arab, and by 
the same trader. The negro was then sold, 
not because he was a negro, but because he 
was a man whose services could be turned to 
profitable account. Negro slavery, in its spe- 
cial form, is one of the consequences of that 
grand movement in behalf of maritime dis- 
covery and commerce which began in the 15th 
century. Portugal took the lead in this move- 
ment, which was already prominent more than 
four centuries ago ; and it was headed in that 
country by Prince Henry, son of John I. In 
1441 two of Prince Henry's captains seized 
some Moors, who were taken to Portugal. The 
next year these Moors were allowed to ran- 
som themselves, and among the goods given 
in exchange for them were ten black slaves, 
whose appearance in Portugal excited general 
astonishment, and who led the van of the 
African slave trade. This was openly com- 
menced in 1444, by a company formed at La- 
gos ; and though it is doubtful whether that 
company was formed expressly to trade in men, 
and it is by no means certain that the 200 
persons whom its agents seized and brought 
to Europe were negroes, it is from that time 
that the negro trade is generally dated. The 
first negroes taken by the Portuguese in the 
negro country were but four in number, in 
1445, and they were rather taken accidentally 
than of set purpose to make them slaves ; but 
the trade in negroes as slaves was quickly 
regulated, and a Portuguese factory was estab- 
lished in one of the Arguin islands, where 
the slave trade had been commenced. Every 
year 700 or 800 black slaves were sent from 
this factory to Portugal, while other slaves of 
the same description from the countries that 
furnished those sent to Portugal were sold to 
other traders, who took them to Tunis and to 
Sicily. But Prince Henry and those who fol- 
lowed in his path did not regard the trade in 
slaves as a thing to be encouraged. They 
thought rather of the conversion of the Afri- 
cans to Christianity, both the Portuguese and 
Spanish discoverers being enthusiastic propa- 



06 



SLAVERY 



gandiste. Had it not been for the discovery 
of America in 1492, it is altogether probable 
that the African slave trade would never have 
exceeded the dimensions it had known in an- 
tiquity ; and it is believed that between 1455 
and 1492 that trade had fallen off considerably, 
and that the number of negroes taken by the 
Portuguese for exportation did not exceed 300 
or 400 a year. In fact, Europe presented no 
field for the labor of black slaves, the employ- 
ment of which must have been confined to the 
houses of the great, as in the classic times, with 
rare exceptions. The negro trade was verging 
to extinction, when the success of the great 
enterprise of Columbus imparted to it new 
life, and made it one of the most lucrative 
branches of commerce. Soon after the dis- 
covery of America the Spaniards began to en- 
slave the natives, large numbers of whom were 
sent to Spain as slaves in 1495. The system 
of repartimientos (slave distributions) was be- 
gun in 1496. Columbus appears to have had 
no scruples on the subject, and had indeed 
been engaged in the Portuguese slave trade. 
He strongly recommended the trade in the 
cannibal Indians ; and the Spanish sovereigns, 
though in general their legislation was kindly 
toward the natives, did not discourage his 
proposition. At a later period Isabella sought 
to make a distinction between Indians who had 
been sold into slavery after being taken in war, 
and others who had been seized in consequence 
of failure to pay tribute ; and she was very 
angry with u the admiral" for making the 
- i/uro, and ordered the sufferers to be released 
an'l returned to America. Under the Spanish 
rule the Indians perished in immense numbers, 
until they became extinct in the islands, or 
were absorbed by the other races. Slavery 
itself was not unknown in America, and had a 
well defined system in Mexico. The desire of 
the Spaniards to have laborers, and the inabil- 
ity of the natives to perform the labors re- 
quired of them, soon led to the sending of ne- 
groes to the new world. Interest and human- 
ity promoted their rapid increase in the Spanish 
colonies. They could perform the work to 
which the Indians were unequal, and throve 
under it. The government of Ferdinand feared 
that the sending of many negroes to America 
would prove injurious, but Charles V. granted 
a license to a Homing to import negroes into 
the West Indies. Thenceforth the trade went 
on vigorously. The demand of the colonists 
for negroes was supported by the benevolent 
Las Casas, and by other leaders in the Roman 
Catholic church, who were desirous of pre- 
venting the extinction of the Indians. One 
negro was counted as worth four natives. 
There was a negro insurrection in Hispaniola 
as early as 1522. The African slave trade, 
under such stimulus as was afforded by the 
American demand, rapidly increased, and Eng- 
l.iii-l took part in the work of supplying the 
Spaniards in 1562, previously to which ne- 
groes had been landed in England, and there 



sold, in 1553. Queen Elizabeth is charged with 
sharing the profits made by Sir John Hawkins, 
the first Englishman who commanded a regu- 
lar slave trader. The English were far more 
cruel traders than the Portuguese. In the 
times of the Stuarts four English companies 
were chartered for carrying on the African 
slave trade, and Charles II. and James II. were 
members of the fourth company. While duke 
of York, James II. was at the head of the last 
company. After the revolution the trade was 
thrown open to all ; and at later periods the 
royal African company received aid from par- 
liament. These companies furnished negroes 
to America; and in 1713 the privilege of sup- 
plying them to the Spanish colonies was se- 
cured to Englishmen for 30 years, during which 
144,000 were to be landed. The French, the 
Dutch, and other European nations engaged 
in the traffic ; and the first slaves brought to 
the old territory of the United States were 
sold from a Dutch vessel, which landed 20 at 
Jamestown, Virginia, in 1619. The culture of 
cotton began the next year. Slavery soon 
came into existence in nearly every part of 
North America, and Indians were enslaved as 
well as negroes. The son of King Philip was 
sold as a slave. The trade between North 
America and Africa was carried on with con- 
siderable vigor. Some of the colonies remon- 
strated against the trade, but without success, 
as the mother country encouraged it. In 1776 
it was resolved by the continental congress 
that no more slaves should be imported ; but 
when the American constitution was formed, 
in 1788, congress was prohibited from inter- 
dicting the traffic before 1808, at which time it 
was abolished. The state of Georgia prohibit- 
ed the slave trade in 1798. America was thus 
in advance of other countries in fixing a time 
for the cessation of a traffic which has been as 
generally condemned as it has been persistently 
pursued for four centuries. In England the 
slave trade was early denounced by individuals, 
but it was regarded by most men as a perfectly 
legitimate branch of commerce. The last act 
of the British legislature regulating the slave 
trade was passed in 1788, the same year that 
the first parliamentary movement for the 
abolition of the trade was made. The Quakers 
were opposed to slavery and the slave trade 
from the beginning of their existence as a body, 
but neither their influence nor their numbers 
were large. English lawyers were nearly 
unanimous in their support of the legality of 
slavery, and the trade in negroes was in va- 
rious ways encouraged by law. In the It 
century a sentiment of hostility to the syst 
of slavery, never altogether unknown since the 
Christian era, became very common, and was 
shared by many literary men, philosophers, 
and statesmen, who labored with zeal for the 
suppression of the system. Of these, the most 
noted was Granville Sharp, who exerted him- 
self for half a century in the emancipation 
cause ; and it was chiefly through his labors 



SLAVERY 



97 



that the decision of Lord Mansfield, in the 
case of Somerset, was given in 1772, that de- 
cision being that the master of a slave could 
not by force compel him to go out of the king- 
dom. " The power of a master over his slave," 
the English chief justice of the court of king's 
bench observed, " has been extremely different 
in different countries. The state of slavery is 
of such a nature that it is incapable of being 
introduced on any reasons, moral or political, 
but only positive law, which preserves its force 
long after the reasons, occasions, and time it- 
self from whence it was created are erased from 
memory. It is so odious that nothing can be 
suffered to support it but positive law. What- 
ever inconveniences, therefore, may follow 
from a decision, I cannot say this case is al- 
lowed or approved by the law of England, and 
therefore the black must be discharged." Lord 
Mansfield's decision has been greatly overrated 
as to the importance of its terms, and it is in- 
correct to say that it was the first in the order 
of time. More than ten years earlier, the ad- 
miralty court of Glasgow liberated a negro slave 
who had been imported into Scotland ; and 70 
years before, Chief Justice Holt ruled that " as 
soon as a negro comes into England he is free ; 
one may be a villein in England, but not a 
slave;" and later: "In England there is no 
such thing as a slave, and a human being never 
was considered a chattel to be sold for a price." 
The decision of Lord Mansfield was made al- 
most under compulsion, so strong was the feel- 
ing in England against slavery at that time ; 
and immediately the enemies of both the trade 
and the institution went to work, and began 
those exertions which were not to cease until 
their country had abolished, first the commerce 
in negroes, and then the practice of enslaving 
them. The Quakers presented to parliament 
the first petition for the abolition of the slave 
trade. Mr. Clarkson began his anti-slavery 
labors in 1786, and Mr. Wilberforce joined 
him soon after. In June, 1787, a committee, 
composed of 12 members, all Quakers save 
Clarkson, Sharp, and another, was instituted 
for u effecting the abolition of the slave trade." 
In spite of the care they took to define their 
object and to conciliate popular prejudice, they 
encountered the violent opposition of the most 
eminent men of the country. The duke of 
Clarence denounced them in the house of lords 
as fanatics and hypocrites, including Wilber- 
force by name. The subject was brought be- 
fore parliament, May 9, 1788, but the aboli- 
tionists were beaten, as they also were in 
1789. Mr. Pitt, chief of the ministry, and Mr. 
Fox, chief of the opposition, joined them in 
1790; and soon nearly all the leading mem- 
bers of the house of commons, of both par- 
ties, became abolitionists ; but still defeat met 
every proposition for abolition till 1793, when 
the commons passed an act for the gradual 
abolition of the trade, which failed in the 
house of peers. The commons changed their 
mind in 1794, but passed another bill the next 



year, which the peers threw out. The agita- 
tion was continued, but the abolitionists failed 
in parliament till 1804, when another act passed 
by the commons was lost in the upper house. 
Another failure in the commons was expe- 
rienced in 1805. In 1806, when the Fox and 
Grenville ministry ruled England, abolition 
was brought forward as a government mea- 
sure, and was carried in 1807, after the death 
of Mr. Fox. The abolitionists then began to 
labor for the removal of slavery itself, but 
not with much effect till 1823, when a society 
was formed " for the mitigation and gradual 
abolition of slavery throughout the British 
dominions." The principal leaders in this new 
movement were Clarkson, Wilberforce, and 
Buxton. About this time appeared a pam- 
phlet, written by Elizabeth Heyrick, a Qua- 
ker, and entitled "Immediate, not Gradual, 
Abolition." Her views did not at first com- 
mand the assent of those who controlled the 
operations of the society, but subsequent re- 
flection and discussion, and the resistance of 
the colonial authorities to every scheme of 
amelioration proposed by parliament, finally 
led them almost unanimously to the conclusion 
that she was right, and they abandoned the 
doctrines and measures of gradualism for those 
of immediate and unqualified emancipation on 
the soil. The cause from this time advanced 
with great rapidity. The question exerted a 
controlling influence in the election of the re- 
formed parliament in 1832, and when, near 
the close of the year, that body assembled, the 
government avowed its purpose to bring in a 
bill for the abolition of slavery. The anxiety 
of the abolitionists as to the character of the 
proposed measure led to a conference, com- 
posed of 369 delegates from every part of the 
kingdom. A deputation of more than 300 
members of this conference had an audience 
with leading members of the cabinet, to urge 
the necessity of total and immediate emancipa- 
tion. The government measure was brought 
forward April 23, 1833. It proposed an ap- 
prenticeship of 12 years for the slaves, and to 
pay out of their earnings to the masters the 
sum of 15,000,000. The friends of emanci- 
pation remonstrated against these features of 
the plan, and it was finally modified by a re- 
duction of the term of apprenticeship to six 
years, and a provision to pay the masters 
20,000,000 out of the national treasury. The 
bill passed the house of commons Aug. 7, the 
house of lords Aug. 20, and received the royal 
assent Aug. 28, 1833. The day fixed for eman- 
cipation was Aug. 1, 1834, and it was left op- 
tional with the local legislatures respectively 
to adopt or reject the system of apprentice- 
ship. Antigua and Bermuda rejected, while 
the other islands adopted the system. The 
apprenticeship system did not work well. In 
some instances the local legislatures volunta- 
rily abolished it, and in 1838, two years before 
the time of its appointed expiration, it was 
brought to an end by act of parliament. In 



SLAVERY 



1843 Great Britain emancipated more than 
12,000,000 slaves in her East Indian posses- 
sions. France had been as much committed to 
negro slavery as England, but moved sooner 
for its abolition. The national assembly, May 
15, 1791, virtually granted equal political priv- 
ileges to all free men without regard to color, 
and this led to those struggles in Santo Do- 
mingo which put an end to slavery there. 
Napoleon*f. succeeded in restoring slavery in 
most of the French colonies, but failed in 
Hayti. In 1815, during the hundred days, he 
issued an order for the immediate abolition 
of the slave trade, which the government of 
Louis XVIII. reenacted, and the French slave 
trade ceased in 1819. The congress of Vienna 
denounced the slave trade. After much dis- 
cussion in the reign of Louis Philippe, slavery 
in the French colonies was abolished by the 
provisional government in 1848, without in- 
demnity to the masters. Sweden abolished 
slavery in 1846-'7, Denmark in 1848, and the 
Netherlands in 1862. Spain agreed in 1814 to 
abolish the slave trade in 1820. The Nether- 
lands abolished it in 1818, and Brazil in 1826, 
but the Brazilians continued to prosecute it 
notwithstanding. In the United States it was 
prohibited by law from 1808. In 1820 a law 
was enacted declaring it piracy, but no con- 
viction was obtained under this statute till 
November, 1861, when Nathaniel Gordon, 
master of a vessel called the Erie, was convict- 
ed at New York and executed. A similar 
statute was passed by the British parliament 
in 1825. But the trade by no means ceased 
because of these vigorous efforts for its abo- 
lition, which Great Britain and the United 
States supported by the presence of powerful 
fleets on the coast of Africa. The demand for 
slaves continued to be great, and the profits 
on the cargoes of slaves that were landed in 
various parts of America were so heavy that 
the traders could afford to lose many of their 
vessels. Not until the breaking out of the 
American civil war did the trade cease to be 
profitable, but that and the agitation for eman- 
cipation in Brazil nearly put an end to the 
slave trade across the Atlantic. In the inte- 
rior of Africa it still has considerable vigor 
and constant activity, although it is much 
shorn of its profits by the loss of foreign 
markets. Except in Cuba, slavery in Span- 
ish America has disappeared. In Brazil it 
continued to flourish with considerable vigor 
till 1871. For several years preceding that 
date a strong agitation for its gradual aboli- 
tion had existed, in which the emperor was 
understood to sympathize. The speech from 
the throne at the opening of the chamber on 
May 8, 1871, announced the belief of the gov- 
i-rruih-nt th.-it the time had arrived for the final 
solution of the slavery controversy, and that 
a Mil would be introduced for that purpose. 
The bill was finally acted upon Sept. 27, when 
t was dopted by n considerable majority. 
The children born of slaves from that date 



were to be considered free-born, but were to 
remain with the masters of the mothers until 
reaching the age of eight, when the master 
had the option to retain their services .until 
they should be 21 years of age, or to receive 
from the government a compensation of 600 
milreis. If he should accept the compensation, 
the government was to take charge of the mi- 
nor and of his education. Every minor was 
to be at liberty to free himself from service 
by making compensation to the master pro- 
portioned to the period for which the service 
was to continue. Ill treatment or neglect of 
support or education was to entitle a child to 
his discharge from service. Children ceded or 
given to the government or taken from their 
masters by it might be delivered to privileged 
societies to be kept until they were 21, under 
an obligation securing them support and edu- 
cation. An emancipation fund, to be made 
up of certain taxes, the proceeds of certain 
lotteries, and other specified resources, togeth- 
er with donations, was to be employed annu- 
ally in manumitting slaves, and they were to 
be entitled to purchase their freedom. The 
following classes were to be free : slaves of 
the nation ; slaves given to the crown in usu- 
fruct; slaves of the religious orders (within 
seven years); slaves belonging to vacant in- 
heritances ; slaves who saved the lives of their 
masters, or the parents or children of their 
masters, and slaves given up by their masters. 
The law was received with general satisfaction. 
The whole number of Africans taken for 
slaves is estimated at 40,000,000, or nearly 
100,000 per annum since the beginning of the 
traffic ; but for 80 years after the trade began 
their exportation was very limited, and prob- 
ably not 30,000 were taken by the Portuguese 
between 1444 and 1493. The greatest part of 
the exportation was during the years that 
elapsed after movements for the abolition of 
the trade were commenced, the demand for 
tropical produce having immensely increased 
in the present century. Some of the slaves 
were sold in European countries, and it was 
supposed that there were 15,000 in the British 
islands at the time of the decision of the Som- 
erset case. African slaves were said to be 
" dispersed all over Europe." Spain and France 
took some of them, as well as England. The 
number of slaves imported into those Brit- 
ish colonies which became the United States 
in 1776 is computed at 300,000 down to that 
year. At the first census, in 1790, the slaves 
in the United States numbered 697,897, all the 
states but Massachusetts (which then included 
Maine) having some servile inhabitants, though 
Vermont had but 17, and New Hampshire 
only 158. In 1800 their number was 893,041, 
slavery having ceased in Vermont, and but 8 
slaves being left in New Hampshire. The 
census of 1810 showed 1,191,364 slaves, there 
being none in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, and Ohio, the last a new state, created 
out of territory that was a wilderness in 1776. 






SLAVERY 



99 



In 1820 the slaves numbered 1,538,022; in 
1830, 2,009,043; in 1840, 2,487,455; in 1850, 
3,204,313 ; and in 1860, 3,953,760. The feel- 
ing in the United States was generally averse 
to slavery at the time their national existence 
began, and in some of the southern states that 
feeling was stronger than it was in most of 
the northern ones. The ordinance of 1787, 
Deluding it from the N. W. territory, was sup- 
)rted by southern men, and some southern 
bes abolished the slave trade with Africa 
rhile northern states continued to carry it on. 
r ermont abolished slavery in 1777, before she 
lad joined the Union. Pennsylvania in 1780 
>rovided for the gradual emancipation of her 
'aves, of whom 64 were still living as such 
in 1840, the relics of her 3,737 in 1790. In 
issachusetts the supreme court declared that 
avery was abolished by the act of adopting 
e state constitution of 1780, which had been 
framed in one part as to provide for such a 
lecision. Rhode Island gradually emancipated 
ler slaves, and had but 5 left in 1840 ; and 
"jnnecticut did the same, having 17 in that 
rear, and having had 2,759 in 1790. New 
r ork adopted a gradual emancipation act in 
L799, at which date she had upward of 20,- 
slaves; and in 1817 she passed another 
3t declaring all slaves free on the 4th of July, 
1827. New Jersey pursued the same course 
1804, her slaves in 1790 numbering 11,423, 
whom 236 were living in 1850. That the 
wthern states did not imitate the emancipation 
olicy of those of the northern part of the 
American Union, is to be attributed to a va- 
Jty of circumstances, the principal of which 
rere the difference of climate and the difference 
social life, which made slavery far more 
)rofitable in the south than it could ever be 
ade in the north, where it never flourished, 
id where in some instances the young of 
ives were given away. The invention of the 
)tton gin made slavery very profitable, and 
> helped to cbange that opinion which had 
listed in the south, both in the colonial and 
the revolutionary times, and which, as ex- 
3ressed by such men as Washington, Jefferson, 
id Patrick Henry, looked to the extinction 
slavery. That opinion passed away, and 
lavery was upheld in the southern states as 
institution excellent in itself, and to be in 
Tj way promoted and extended, some of 
more ardent friends advocating the resump- 
tion of the slave trade with Africa. The sys- 
tem of American slavery, unlike that of Greece 
or of Rome, was based on the alleged infe- 
riority of the African race. The Greeks and 
the Romans enslaved white men of all races 
with whom they came in contact. So did 
the Barbary states, in which, notwithstanding 
their proximity to the country of the blacks, 
there were probably as many white as col- 
ored slaves. In America the idea of hold- 
ing white men in slavery was always abhor- 
rent to the most devoted supporters of sla- 
very. But owing to the illicit amalgamation 



of the white and black races which is a con- 
comitant of slavery, there was no inconsid- 
erable number of American slaves in whom 
the proportion of African blood was so slight 
as to be almost or quite imperceptible. The 
aversion to color was so far shared in the 
non-slaveholding states, that before the late 
civil war in only one of their number (Ver- 
mont) were negroes entirely the equals of 
the whites before the law ; and socially they 
were everywhere treated as an inferior caste. 
Slavery was opposed by eminent men in the 
United States from the beginning. Washing- 
ton, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Jay, Hamil- 
ton, and many more of those who took a con- 
spicuous part in laying the foundations of the 
government, regarded slavery as a great evil, in- 
consistent with the principles of the declaration 
of independence and the spirit of Christian- 
ity. They confidently expected that it would 
gradually pass away before the advancing pow- 
er of civilization and freedom ; and, shrinking 
from what they regarded as insurmountable 
obstacles to emancipation in their own time, 
they consented, in forming the constitution, 
to give the system certain advantages which 
they hoped would be temporary, and therefore 
not dangerous to the stability of the govern- 
ment. Societies to promote the gradual abo- 
lition of slavery were formed in many of the 
states. The "Pennsylvania Abolition Socie- 
ty," founded in 1775, continued in existence 
until slavery was destroyed. Its first president 
was Benjamin Franklin, its first secretary Ben- 
jamin Rush. In 1790 it sent a memorial to con- 
gress, bearing the official signature of "Benja- 
min Franklin, president," asking that body to 
"devise means for removing the inconsistency 
of slavery from the American people," and to 
" step to the very verge of its power for dis- 
couraging every species of traffic in the persons 
of our fellow men." The " New York Manu- 
mission Society " was formed in 1785, John Jay 
being the first president, and Alexander Ham- 
ilton his successor. Similar associations were 
formed in Connecticut, Rhode Island, Dela- 
ware, Maryland, and Virginia. These socie- 
ties exerted a strong influence in favor of the 
abolition of slavery in several northern states. 
In 1819-'20 the opponents of slavery made 
a stern resistance to the admission of Missouri 
to the Union as a slave state, and were de- 
feated. (For particulars on the compromises 
which ended this and a similar struggle in 
1850, and the whole of the political conflicts 
in regard to slaveholding in the territories of 
the United States, and the laws regulating the 
rendition of fugitive slaves, see UNITED STATES 
and the notices of the presidents and the prin- 
cipal party leaders, such as Calhoun, Henry 
Clay, and Stephen A. Douglas.) The Missouri 
conflict was followed by a period of profound 
repose in regard to the whole subject. The 
publication, by Benjamin Lundy, a Quaker, of 
a small journal at Baltimore entitled " Genius 
of Universal Emancipation," was almost the 



100 



SLAVERY 



only visible sign of opposition to slavery until 
William Lloyd Garrison estabbshed "The Lib- 
erator" in Boston, Jan. 1, 1831. Accepting 
the definition of American slavery furnished 
by the statutes of the slave states, which de- 
clare the slaves to be " chattels personal, in 
the hands of their owners and possessors to 
all intent*, constructions, and purposes what- 
soever," he asserted that slaveholding was a sin 
against God and a crime against humanity ; that 
immediate emancipation was the right of every 
slave and the duty of every master. On Jan. 
1 1832, the first society on this basis was or- 
ganized in Boston by 12 men, Arnold Buff urn, a 
Quaker, being president. The " American Anti- 
Slavery Society" was formed in Philadelphia 
in December, 1833, Arthur Tappan being its 
first president. This society and its auxiliaries 
expressly affirmed that congress had no right 
to abolish slavery in the slave states, and they 
asked for no action on the part of the national 
government that had not, up to that time, 
been held to be constitutional by leading men 
of all parties in every portion of the country. 
They pronounced all laws admitting the right 
of slavery to be " before God utterly null and 
void." They declared that their principles led 
them " to reject, and to entreat the oppressed 
to reject, the use of all carnal weapons for 
deliverance from bondage;" their measures, 
they said, would be " such only as the opposi- 
tion of moral purity to moral corruption, the 
destruction of error by the potency of truth, 
and the abolition of slavery by the spirit of 
repentance!" By means of lectures, newspa- 
pers, tracts, public meetings, and petitions to 
congress, they produced an intense excitement 
throughout the country, the effects of which 
were soon manifest in the religious sects and 
political parties. The American anti-slavery 
society and those affiliated with it were op- 
posed to the formation of a distinct anti-slavery 
political party, deeming it wiser to attempt to 
diffuse their principles among the members of 
all parties. In 1840, on account of differences 
upon this and other matters affecting the pol- 
icy of the movement, a portion of the mem- 
bers seceded and formed the " American and 
Foreign Anti-Slavery Society." The "liberty 
party " was organized in the same year, main- 
ly by the seceders and those in sympathy with 
them. This party was mostly absorbed by the 
" free-soil party " in the presidential election 
of 1848, though a small number of persons, 
holding the opinion that the national govern- 
ment had constitutional power to abolish slave- 
ry in every part of the country, continued un- 
der the name of liberty party for several years. 
Thu frvi'-.soil party was in its turn absorbed 
by the republican party, which in the presi- 
dential election of 1856 first exhibited great 
strength and commanded a popular vote of 
upward of 1,800,000, though it failed to elect 
its candidates. In 1860 it elected Abraham 
Lincoln president and Hannibal Hamlin vice 
'nt by the vote of all the free states ex- 



cept New Jersey. In 1844 the American anti- 
slavery society openly avowed its conviction 
that the so-called " compromises of the consti- 
tution " were immoral ; that, consequently, it 
was wrong to swear to support that instrument, 
or to hold office or vote under it. From that 
time until the secession of the slave states, the 
abolitionists of this school avowed it to be 
their object to effect a dissolution of the Amer- 
ican Union and the organization of a northern 
republic where no slavery should exist. The 
" American Abolition Society " was formed in 
Boston in 1855, to promote the views of those 
who held that the national government had 
constitutional power to abolish slavery in every 
part of the Union. The " Church Anti-Slavery 
Society" was organized in 1859, for the pur- 
pose of convincing the American churches and 
ministers that slavery was a sin, and inducing 
them to take the lead in the work of abolition. 
There have been few slave conspiracies or in- 
surrections in the United States, and the ser- 
vile population never produced any band of 
men to be compared with the Maroons of the 
West Indies, who so long baffled the exertions 
of the whites to subdue them. It is estimated 
that more than 30,000 American slaves, after 
escaping from bondage, found an asylum in 
Canada. They were aided in their flight by 
opponents of slavery in the free states. An 
attempt, in 1859, at subverting the slave in- 
stitutions of the United States by an insurrec- 
tion ended in speedy defeat, and was followed 
by the execution of the leader, John Brown, 
and some of his associates. The secession of 
the states which formed the government of 
the Confederate States in 1861 wholly changed 
the relations of the government of the Uni- 
ted States to the institution of slavery. Al- 
though President Lincoln hastened to make 
strong assurances of the purpose of the gov- 
ernment to abide faithfully by all the compro- 
mises of the constitution relating to slavery, 
and in all the military orders endeavored to 
provide for so conducting the war as to avoid 
disturbing the relation of master and slave as it 
then existed under state laws, it soon became 
evident that a vigorous prosecution of the war 
must of necessity make serious inroads upon the 
institution, if not wholly destroy it in those dis- 
tricts which the federal army should occupy. 
In May, 1861, Maj. Gen. Butler, commanding 
the department of Eastern Virginia, declared 
slaves who had been employed for military pur- 
poses of the confederacy to be contraband of 
war, and appropriated them to the purposes 
of his own army. In August following Gen. 
Fremont, commanding in Missouri, issued a 
general order wherein, among other things, he 
proclaimed free all the slaves of those who 
should take up arms against the United States, 
or take active part with their enemies in the 
field. In the particular specified this order 
was modified by direction of the president, 
but slaves who had performed any service 
for the confederate army, whether as servants 






SLAVERY 



101 



or as day laborers, were in general treat- 
ed as u contrabands " by all the military lead- 
ers. In the annual report of the secretary 
of war, Dec. 1, 1861, the following passage 
occurs : " It is already a grave question what 
shall be done with those slaves who were aban- 
doned by their owners on the advance of our 
troops into southern territory, as at Beaufort 
district in South Carolina. The number left 
.within our control at that point is very con- 
siderable ; and similar cases will probably re- 
cur. What shall be done with them ? Can we 
afford to send them forward to their masters, 
to be by them armed against us, or used in pro- 
ducing supplies to sustain the rebellion ? Their 
labor may be useful to us ; withheld from the 
enemy, it lessens his military resources; and 
withholding them has no tendency to induce 
the horrors of insurrection, even in the rebel 
communities. They constitute a military re- 
source ; and being such, that they should not 
be turned over to the enemy is too plain to 
discuss. Why deprive him of supplies by a 
blockade, and voluntarily give him men to 
produce them ? " Nevertheless several of the 
commanders of Union armies allowed masters 
to appear within their lines and carry off into 
slavery fugitives found therein. An order of 
Gen. David Hunter, commanding the depart- 
ment of the South, dated May 9, 1862, declar- 
ing the states of Georgia, Florida, and South 
Carolina under martial law and the slaves there- 
in free, was annulled by proclamation of the 
president ten days later. On Aug. 22, 1862, 
the president in a public telegraphic despatch 
addressed to Horace Greeley, in response to a 
letter from that gentleman, gave utterance to 
his views as follows : " If there be those who 
would not save the Union unless they could at 
the same time save slavery, I do not agree with 
them. If there be those who would not save 
the Union unless they could at the same time 
destroy slavery, I do not agree with them. 
My paramount object is to save the Union, and 
not either to save or destroy slavery. If I 
could save the Union without freeing any slave, 
I would do it ; if I could save it by freeing all 
the slaves, I would do it ; and if I could save 
it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I 
would also do that. What I do about slavery 
and the colored race, I do because I believe it 
helps to save this Union ; and what I forbear, 
I forbear because I do not believe it would help 
to save the Union. I shall do less whenever I 
shall believe what I am doing hurts the cause, 
and I shall do more whenever I believe doing 
more will help the cause." Meantime, on March 
2, 1862, the president had recommended to con- 
gress that a resolution be adopted "that the 
United States, in order to cooperate with any 
state which may adopt gradual abolition of 
slavery, give to such state pecuniary aid, to be 
used by such state in its discretion, to compen- 
sate it for the inconvenience, public and private, 
produced by such change of system." The res- 
olution was adopted, but produced no effect. 



Immediately after the battle of Antietam the 
president issued a proclamation (Sept. 22, 1862), 
in which, after declaring his determination to 
prosecute the war for the object of practically 
restoring the constitutional relation between 
the Union and the several states, and that it 
was his purpose at the next meeting of con- 
gress to recommend some practical measure of 
assistance in emancipation to those states which 
would voluntarily accept it, he proceeded to 
announce that on the first day of January, 
1863, all persons held as slaves within any state 
or designated part of a state, the people where- 
of should then be in rebellion, should be then, 
thenceforward, and for ever free, and the exec- 
utive government, including the military and 
naval authority thereof, would maintain such 
freedom. He further proclaimed that on the 
said first day of January he would by procla- 
mation designate the states and parts of states 
then in rebellion, but that any state which 
should then be represented in congress by mem- 
bers chosen thereto at elections wherein a ma- 
jority of the qualified voters participated, should 
in the absence of strong countervailing testi- 
mony be conclusively deemed not in rebellion. 
After then calling attention to legislation of 
congress bearing date March 13, 1862, forbid- 
ding the employment of military force to re- 
turn fugitives to slavery, and that of July 16, 
1862, for the confiscation of property of rebels, 
including slaves, and enjoining the observance 
thereof, he closed with the assurance that in 
due time, on the restoration of constitutional 
relations between the Union and the respective 
states, he should recommend compensation to 
loyal persons for all losses, including that of 
slaves. The final proclamation of freedom was 
issued on Jan. 1, 1863. It designated the fol- 
lowing states and parts of states as then in 
rebellion : Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except 
the parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemine, Jeffer- 
son, St. John, St. Charles, St. James, Ascen- 
sion, Assumption, Terre Bonne, Lafourche, St. 
Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the 
city of New Orleans), Mississippi, Alabama, 
Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Caro- 
lina, and Virginia (except the 48 counties des- 
ignated as West Virginia, and the counties of 
Berkeley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth 
City, York, Princess Anne, and Norfolk, inclu- 
ding the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth). 
The president enjoined upon the freedmen to 
abstain from all violence unless in necessary 
self-defence, and recommended to them in all 
cases, when allowed to do so, to labor faith- 
fully for reasonable wages ; but gave notice also 
that suitable persons would be received into 
the armed service of the United States. This 
proclamation had no very marked effect upon 
the relation of slavery beyond the lines of the 
federal army, but it gave consistency and unity 
to the action of the federal commanders, and it 
facilitated and hastened the incorporation of 
freedmen and other colored persons into the 
federal armies. On June 9, 1862, a law had 



102 



SLAVERY 



been enacted which terminated for ever the long 
and bitter agitation beginning with the contest 
about the admission of Missouri to the Union. 
This declared that "from and after the passage 
of this act there shall be neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude in any of the territories 
of the United States now existing, or which 
may at any time hereafter be formed or acquired 
by the United States, otherwise than in the 
punishment of crime whereof the party shall 
have been duly convicted." On June 23, 1864, 
all laws for the rendition of fugitive slaves 
to their masters were repealed. On Jan. 31, 
1865, the final vote was taken in congress sub- 
mitting to the states for their approval and 
ratification the following amendment to the 
constitution: "Article XIII. Neither slavery 
nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish- 
ment for crime, whereof the party shall have 
been duly convicted, shall exist within the 
United States or any place subject to their 
jurisdiction." On Dec. 18, 1865, the secretary 
of state issued his proclamation declaring that 
this amendment had been approved by the 
legislatures of Illinois, Rhode Island, Michigan, 
Maryland, New York, West Virginia, Maine, 
Kansas, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, Missouri, Nevada, Indiana, Loui- 
siana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Vermont, Tennes- 
see, Arkansas, Connecticut, New Hampshire, 
South Carolina, Alabama, North Carolina, and 
Georgia in all, 27 of the 36 states and was 
consequently adopted. The assassination of 
President Lincoln put an end to any very se- 
rious thoughts of making provision for com- 
pensation for losses of slaves; and the four- 
teenth amendment to the constitution, ratified 
by a majority of the states in 1867-'8, absolute- 
ly forbade compensation being made either by 
the United States or by any state. Thus ter- 
minated for ever in the United States the sys- 
tem of bondage which had been its chief re- 
proach in the eyes of the world and of its own 
people ; which from the outset had been the 
principal source of solicitude to its statesmen ; 
and the southern defenders of which finally 
assailed the life of the nation with a power and 
persistency from which it barely escaped, after 
losses and sacrifices such as few peoples in mod- 
ern times have been called upon to suffer. 
The abolition of slavery has rendered the laws 
of the several states concerning it of little prac- 
ti--;il interest, but a few points may be men- 
tioned. The slave was a chattel, for an injury 
to whom the master might recover damages as 
for an injury to a beast. Nevertheless he was 
recognized as a person, so far as to be made 
amenable to the criminal code, and was pun- 
ishable as such. The master had a power of 
ilHi-iplirii.' <>\vr him which did not extend to 
liml), and for any excess in punishment 
he might be criminally responsible, as he might 
for excessive violence to a child or appren- 
tice. The police laws of the state were at the 
master's service for disciplinary purpose!, and 
-triiiLvnt iv.rulati'.i:- uviv made in his interest. 



The slave had no legal family relations, and 
any that should be voluntarily formed might 
be changed at the will of the master, by sale 
or otherwise. Slaves might be emancipated by 
the master, by deed or will, under state regula- 
tions ; but in some of the states the laws were 
adverse to emancipation, and interposed various 
obstacles. Whatever was acquired by the slave 
belonged to his master, and it was therefore 
legally impossible for the slave to purchase his 
freedom; nevertheless masters frequently re- 
ceived from their slaves sums which they had 
accumulated by extra services, and gave them 
freedom in return. The general doctrine of 
the courts was that the master by voluntarily 
taking his slave into a free state gave him 
his freedom, and this rule was supposed to be 
applicable to the free territories of the United 
States until the decision of the supreme court 
in the case of Dred Scott in 1857, which de- 
nied the constitutional power of congress to 
prohibit the holding of persons in slavery in 
the territories. Near the same time the doc- 
trine that a master might lawfully hold his 
slaves in passing through the free states found 
able advocates among lawyers. Slaves were 
not allowed legal rights in courts, though per- 
sons held as slaves but claiming to be free 
might bring actions to recover their free- 
dom. Slaves might be witnesses for or against 
each other where crimes were charged, but 
were not allowed to be witnesses against white 
persons. In general the teaching of slaves to 
read and write was prohibited, as tending to 
render them discontented with their condition. 
Prima facie in slave states all colored persons 
were slaves. Since the abolition of slavery 
persons living together as husband and wife, 
and continuing to do so, have been recognized 
in law as being legally married ; but until they 
had voluntarily assumed that relation after be- 
coming free, they were at liberty to marry oth- 
ers without incurring legal penalty. The col- 
onization of emancipated American slaves in 
Africa was undertaken in 1820, when the colony 
of Liberia was founded. (See COLONIZATION 
SOCIETY.) The colony of Sierra Leone was 
founded by England in 1787, being composed 
of American slaves who had joined her flag un- 
der promises of freedom. (See SIERRA LEONE.) 
The following are some of the most impor- 
tant modern works on the subject of slavery : 
Thomas Clarkson, "History of the Abolition 
of the Slave Trade " (London, 1808) ; George 
Stroud, "Laws relative to Slavery" (Philadel- 
phia, 1827); William Blair, "An Inquiry into 
the State of Slavery among the Romans " (Ed- 
inburgh, 1832) ; L. M. Child, " Appeal in behalf 
of that Class of Americans called Africans" 
(Boston, 1833); Theodore Weld, "American 
Slavery as It Is" (New York, 1835); William 
Jay, "A View of the Action of the Federal 
Government on Slavery" (New York, 1838); 
David Trumbull, " Cuba, with Notices of Por- 
to Rico and the Slave Trade " (London, 1840) ; 
Richard Hildreth, "Despotism in America" 



SLAVIC RACE AND LANGUAGES 



103 



(Boston, 1840); W. Adam, "The Law and 
Custom of Slavery in British India " (Boston, 
1840); William Goodell, "Slavery and Anti- 
Slavery" (New York, 1843); Wallon, Histoire 
de Vesclavage dans V antiquite (Paris, 1847) ; 
Fuller and Wayland, "Domestic Slavery" 
(New York, 1847); Copley, "A History of 
Slavery " (London, 1852) ; Horace Mann, " Sla- 
very, Letters and Speeches " (Boston, 1851) ; 
John Fletcher, " Studies on Slavery " (Natchez, 
1852) ; "The Pro-Slavery Argument " (Charles- 
ton, 1853) ; F. L. Olmsted, " A Journey in the 
Seaboard Slave States," "A Journey through 
Texas," "A Journey in the Back Country," 
and " The Cotton Kingdom " (New York, 1856- 
'61); the Rev. Albert Barnes, "An Inquiry 
into the Scriptural Views of Slavery " (Phila- 
delphia, 1855); Theodore Parker, "Trial for 
the Misdemeanor of a Speech against Kid- 
napping" (Boston, 1855); the Rev. Nehemiah 
Adams, " A South Side View of Slavery" (Bos- 
ton, 1855) ; George Fitzhugh, " Sociology for 
the South" (Richmond, 1855); Arthur Helps, 
" The Spanish Conquest in America, and its Re- 
lation to the History of Slavery," &c. (London 
and New York, 185 6-' 60); Weston, "Progress 
of Slavery in the United States " (Washington, 
1857); T. R. R. Cobb, "An Inquiry into the 
Law of Negro Slavery " (Philadelphia and Sa- 
vannah, 1858); John 0. Hurd, "Law of Free- 
dom and Bondage in the United States " (Bos- 
ton, 1858) ; J. R. Giddings, "Exiles of Florida" 
(Columbus, 0., 1858) ; H. R. Helper, " The Im- 
pending "Crisis of American Slavery" (New 
York, 1859); A. Gurowski, "Slavery in His- 
tory" (New York, 1860); Horace Greeley, 
"The American Conflict" (2 vols., Hartford, 
1864-'6); E. M'Pherson, "History of the Re- 
bellion" (Washington, 1865), and "History of 
Reconstruction" (Washington, 1868); A. H. 
Stephens, " The War between the States " (2 
vols., Philadelphia, 1868-'70) ; S. J. May, "Rec- 
ollections of the Anti-Slavery Conflict " (Bos- 
ton, 1868) ; and Henry Wilson, " Rise and Fall 
of the Slave Power in America" (3 vols., Bos- 
ton, 187l-'6). 

SLAVIC RACE AND LANGUAGES. The Slavs or 
Slavi (in the Slavic languages, Slovene, Sto- 
wianie, &c., names now commonly derived 
from slovo or stowo, word ; hence, " peoples of 
one tongue") are one of the most numerous 
and powerful groups of nations of the Indo- 
European or Aryan race, occupying at present 
nearly the whole of eastern Europe and parts 
of northern Asia. They seem to have ancient- 
ly been included in the names of the Scythians 
and Sarmatians. Roman writers refer to the 
Slavs under the name of the Venedi (Winds, 
Wends), and later writers under that of Serbs, 
both of which still designate branches of the 
race. In the most ancient times to which the 
history of the Slavs as such can be traced, 
their seats were around and near the Car- 
pathian mountains, whence they spread N. 
toward the Baltic, W. toward the Elbe and 
Saale, and finally, after tbe destruction of the 



empire of the Huns, S. across the Danube over 
the territories of modern Turkey and Greece. 
With this extension the unity of the race 
ceased, and they split into a number of tribes, 
separated from each other by political organ- 
ization and different dialects. The eminent 
Slavic scholars Dobrovsky, Kopitar, and Scha- 
farik divide the Slavs into the eastern and 
western or southeastern and northwestern 
stems. The former of these contains three 
branches: 1, the Russians, who are subdivi- 
ded into Russians and Rusniaks or Ruthenians 
(in W. Russia, E. Galicia, and N". E. Hungary) ; 
2, the Illyrico-Servian branch, comprising the 
Serbs proper, the Rascians or Hungarian Serbs, 
the Bosnians, Herzegovinians, Montenegrins, 
Slavonians, Dalmatians, Croats, and Slovens or 
Winds; 3, the Bulgarian branch. The west- 
ern or northwestern stem comprises : 1, the 
Lechian or Polish branch, to which belong the 
Poles, the Slavic Silesians, and an isolated tribe 
in the Prussian province of Pomerania called 
Kassubs ; 2, the Czecho-Slovak branch, which 
embraces the Bohemians, Moravians, and Slo- 
vaks in N. W. Hungary ; and 3, the Sorabo- 
Wendic or Lusatian branch, containing the 
remnants of the Slavs of N". Germany. A 
number of Slavic realms have perished in suc- 
cession, as those of Bohemia, Moravia, and Po- 
land ; and at the beginning of the present cen- 
tury only one, Russia, was left, besides which 
Servia and Montenegro maintain a semi-inde- 
pendent position. In modern times a Pansla- 
vic movement, aiming at a closer union of all 
Slavic tribes, has arisen and gained consider- 
able political importance. One of the first 
publicly to advocate it was the Czecho-Slovak 
poet Kollar, who published an address to all 
the Slavs, urging them to drop their numerous 
family feuds, to consider themselves as one 
great nation, and their related languages essen- 
tially as one. The idea was seized upon with 
eagerness by the Bohemians and other Slavs of 
Austria, who by a Slavic union hoped to pre- 
vent their being absorbed by the German and 
Hungarian races. It has since gained great 
strength in Austria by the endeavors of Scha- 
f arik, Palacky, Gaj, and other eminent Slavists, 
and has also found many distinguished advo- 
cates in Poland and Russia, in literary as well 
as in political circles. From a federative union 
of all Slavs under a democratic form of govern- 
ment to a union under the sceptre of the czar, 
every possible form of future organization has 
found advocates, the movement being princi- 
pally fostered by Russian, and according to cir- 
cumstances also by Austrian, influence. In the 
Slavic congress of Prague, assembled in the 
spring of 1848, the revolutionary element pre- 
vailed, leading to a bloody conflict with the 
Austrian troops under Windischgratz, and the 
severe persecution of various members of the 
congress. The opening of the Austrian pro- 
vincial diets and central Reichsrath in 1861 
was productive of new Panslavic manifesta- 
tions. An important Panslavic gathering took 



104 SLAVIC RACE AND LANGUAGES 

place in Moscow on occasion of the ethno- 
graphic exhibition opened in May, 1867. The 
aggregate number of the Slavs was estimated 
by Schafarik about 35 years ago at about 80,- 
000,000, of whom about 39,000,000 were Rus- 
sians, 13,000,000 Rusniaks or Ruthenians (in 
a wider sense, including the Little Russians), 
10,000,000 Poles (including Silesians and Kas- 
subs), 4,500,000 Bohemians and Moravians, 
3,500,000 Bulgarians, 2,800,000 Slovaks, &c. 
More recent estimates place the aggregate num- 
ber of the Slavs nearer to 90,000,000. (See 
EUROPE, vol. vL, p. 787.) The Old or Church 
Slavic (so called because it is still used in 
divine service) is the oldest branch of the Sla- 
vic languages. The Bible or parts of it were 
translated into it by Cyril and Methodius in 
the 9th century, the former of whom also in- 
vented an alphabet for it, which was called 
after him the Cyrillic, and is still used by the 
Serbs belonging to the Greek church, and in 
a modified form by the Russians, while the 
Poles, Bohemians, and others use the Roman 
alphabet. (See GLAGOLITIC.) The church books 
written in Old Slavic are still used by the Serbs 
and Russians. Among the most important 
documents of this language are old gospels. 
The oldest works of the Servian and Russian 
literature, as the works of Nestor, were also 
written in this language. There is a grammar 
of it by Miklosich (Vienna, 2d ed., 1854). 
Formerly this was regarded as the common 
language of the ancient Slavs and as the 
mother of all the present Slavic idioms, but 
modern investigations have clearly shown that 
it was only their elder sister. Where this 
idiom was spoken is a controversy not yet 
settled ; but the best authorities favor the 
claims of Bulgaria, regarding the present Bul- 
jMriun as its direct descendant. It is no longer 
a living tongue, but its treasures are still an 
inexhaustible mine for its younger sisters. Of 
the living Slavic languages, the Russian, Po- 
lish, Bohemian, and Servian have considerable 
literature. These languages, as well as their 
literatures, are treated separately under their 
respective heads. Among the peculiarities of 
the Slavic languages are the following. They 
have three genders. Like the Latin, they have 
no articles, with the exception of the Bulga- 
rian, which suffixes one to the noun. The 
nouns, pronouns, and adjectives have seven 
cases. Some dialects have a dual. The verbs 
are divided into perfect and imperfect, whose 
relation to each other is about the same as that 
of the perfect and imperfect tenses in the con- 
jugation of the Latin verb. All the dialects 
are comparatively poor in vowels and defi- 
cient in diphthongs. There is a great variety 
of consonants, and especially of sibilants, but 
no / proper is to be found in any genuine 
Slavic word. Slavic words very seldom begin 
with n. and hardly ever with e. The letters Z 
and r have in some Slavic languages the value 
of vowel*, and words like ttrdy, vjtr, are in 
metro used as words of two syllables. The 



SLAVONIA 

primitive religion of the ancient Slavs seems 
to have been a kind of monotheism, which 
gradually passed into polytheism, and lastly 
into pantheism. Yet the idea of one divine 
essence was never completely lost, at least 
among the priests. All Slavs worshipped as 
their highest god Sviatovist, beside whom the 
other divinities were accounted as mere demi- 
gods. Among these Perun and Radegast re- 
ceived the highest honors. In addition to 
their gods, they believed in good and evil spir- 
its and demons of different kinds, in the im- 
mortality of the soul, and in a retribution after 
death. Worship was held by their priests in 
forests and temples, and sacrifices of cattle and 
fruit were offered. The dead were burned, 
and their ashes preserved in urns. See Scha- 
farik, Slawi&che Alterthumer (2 vols., Leipsic, 
1843); Talvi, "Historical View of the Lan- 
guages and Literature of the Slavic Nations" 
(New York, 1850); Miklosich, Vergleichende 
Grammatik der slawischen Sprachen (Vienna, 
1852-'7l), and Beitrdge zur Kenntniss der sla- 
wischen Volkspoesie (1870); and Naake, "Sla- 
vonic Fairy Tales" (London, 1874). 

SLAVONIC or Sclavonla (Hun. Totorszdg), a 
province of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, 
forming with Croatia a kingdom united with 
that of Hungary, bounded N. and E. by Hun- 
gary proper, W. by Croatia, and S. by Turkey ; 
area, inclusive of the recently annexed por- 
tions of the former Military Frontier, about 
6,600 sq. m.; pop. about 600,000, chiefly be- 
longing to the Greek church. It is divided 
into the counties of Pozsega, Verocze, and Sze- 
rem (Sirmia). Capital, Esze"k. The Danube 
and the Drave separate Slavonia from Hun- 
gary, and the Save from Turkey. A branch 
of the Carnic Alps traverses its whole length. 
The mountains abound in coal and marble 
and in mineral springs, and the forests yield 
valuable timber. There are many extensive 
plains covered with vineyards, which produce 
largo quantities of excellent red and white 
wines. Cattle are largely exported to Cis- 
leithan Austria and Turkey, along with many 
other products, among which are grain, hemp, 
flax, tobacco, and silk. The chief manufac- 
ture is glass. Among the principal towns are 
Peterwardein, Carlovitz, and Semlin on the 
Danube, and Mitrovitz (anc. Sirmium), Brod, 
and Old Gradiska on the Save, all formerly in- 
cluded in the Military Frontier. The inhab- 
itants belong to the Illyrico-Servian branch 
of the Slavs. (See SERVIAN LANGUAGE AND 
LITERATURE.) Tinder the Romans Slavonia 
formed part of the province of Pannonia, and 
was called Pannonia Savia. Later it belonged 
to the Byzantine empire, until it was occupied 
by the Avars and Slavs. In the time of Louis 
lo D6bonnaire it had its own prince, who sub- 
mitted to the sovereignty of the Franks. In 
the llth century it was incorporated with 
Hungary. It was conquered by the Turks in 
1524, and was formally ceded to them in 1562; 
but in 1699, by the peace of Carlovitz, it was 



SLAVS 



SLIDELL 



105 



retroceded to Austria, resuming also its, rela- 
tion to Hungary. Separated from Hungary 
in 1849, it was reunited with it in 1867-'8 as 
a part of the kingdom of Croatia and Slavo- 
nia. (See CEOATIA, and HUNGARY.) 

SLAVS, or Sdavcsi See SLAVIC KACE AND 
LANGUAGES. 

SLEEP, a period of repose in the animal sys- 
tem, in which there is a partial suspension of 
nervous and muscular activity, necessary for 
the reparation of the vital powers. In sleep 
there is more or less complete unconscious- 
ness of external impressions, which may be 
dissipated by any extraordinary excitement, 
in this respect differing from the torpor of 
coma produced by abnormal conditions with- 
in the cranium or the action of narcotic poi- 
sons. In the deep sleep after extreme fatigue 
there may possibly be a complete suspension 
of the activity of the cerebrum and the sen- 
sory ganglia; some consider dreams a proof 
of imperfect sleep, while others maintain that 
there are always dreams during sleep, though 
they may not be remembered. The refresh- 
ing power of sleep depends on the nutritive 
renovation effected during its continuance ; it 
is a necessity of the system, and must be pe- 
riodically indulged in. After 12 to 16 hours 
of waking a sense of fatigue is experienced 
under ordinary circumstances, showing that 
the brain needs rest, and this cannot be shaken 
off unless by some strong physical or moral 
stimulus ; more sleep is required by the young, 
and less by the aged, in proportion to the 
rapidity of waste of the tissues. When the 
sense of fatigue has reached its maximum, 
sleep will supervene, even under the most un- 
favorable circumstances. It may be retarded 
by uncommon mental concentration, excite- 
ment, suspense, or the exercise of a strong 
will, but always with an exhaustion of nervous 
power which requires a proportionally long 
period of repose. Stillness, the absence of light, 
and monotonous low noises, like the buzzing of 
insects, the murmur of the wind in the trees, 
the purling sound of running water, the rip- 
pling on a beach, the suppressed hum of a dis- 
tant town, the droning voice of a dull reader, 
or the mother's lullaby, promote sleep ; gentle 
movements, like the swinging of a hammock 
or the rocking of a cradle or boat, are also 
conducive to sleep ; in reading a dull book the 
eyes wander fatigued from page to page, and 
the excitement of the mind is not enough to 
overcome the tendency to sleep. Persons 
may become so accustomed to continuous loud 
noises, as in the vicinity of mills, forges, and 
factories, that they cannot readily fall asleep 
in their absence. The transition from sleep to 
the waking state, and vice versa, is generally 
gradual, but sometimes sudden. The foetus 
may be said to be in a continued sleep, and 
the excess of the sleeping over the waking 
hours prevails during infancy and childhood, 
or while growth is greater than the decay of 
the tissues, and this sleep is more profound as 



well as longer. Persons of plethoric habit, 
with good appetite and powers of digestion, 
are usually sound sleepers ; the nervous sleep 
comparatively little , lymphatic, passionless 
individuals, who vegetate rather than live, are 
generally long sleepers. The amount of sleep 
required depends much on constitution, and 
habit, and the smallest sleepers have sometimes 
been men of the greatest mental activity. Most 
men require from six to eight hours of sleep 
daily, and this amount cannot be materially 
diminished without injury to the health. As 
a general rule, the amount necessary to refresh 
the system is in proportion to the amount of 
bodily and mental exertion of the individual. 
In natural sleep, during the repose of the 
voluntary muscles, the senses, and the per- 
ceptive and intellectual faculties, the functions 
of respiration, circulation, nutrition, secretion, 
and absorption continue. The respiration and 
the pulse, however, are both diminished in 
frequency; and the temperature of the body 
is somewhat reduced from its usual standard. 
Hence the chilliness generally felt during a nap 
in the daytime, and the propriety of throwing 
some covering over the body during sleep, even 
in summer, to avoid taking cold ; in this state 
there is also less power of resisting diseases, 
especially malarious ones. Nothing is so re- 
freshing during sickness, or so conducive to 
rapid convalescence, as quiet sleep; and few 
symptoms are more unfavorable than contin- 
ued sleeplessness. A habitual deficiency of 
sleep, from excitement or excessive study, pro- 
duces sooner or later headache, cerebral dis- 
turbance, restlessness and feverishness, and, 
if the warning be not seasonably heeded, a 
serious impairment of the vital powers. (See 
COMA, DEEAM, and SOMNAMBULISM.) 

SLEIDAN, or Sleidanus, Johann, a German au- 
thor, whose real name was Philipson, born at 
Schleiden, near Cologne, in 1506, died in Stras- 
burg, Oct. 31, 1556. After studying in many 
universities, he was employed in diplomacy by 
King Francis I. of France. Having secretly 
adopted Lutheranism, he went to Strasburg, 
where in 1542 he was appointed by the Protes- 
tant princes historian of the Smalcald league, 
and by the town council professor of law. 
Subsequently he conducted negotiations with 
France and England, and attended the council 
of Trent as deputy from Strasburg, His repu- 
tation rests on his great work entitled De Statu 
Eeligionis et Reipublicm, Carolo Quinto Ccesare, 
Commentarii (1555 ; best ed., 3 vols., Frank- 
fort, 1785-' 6), in 25 books, to which a 26th 
was added from a manuscript found among his 
papers. It embraces a history of the reforma- 
tion from 1517 to 1556, and is remarkable for 
impartiality and for its simple and elegant 
Latin. The best English version is that of E. 
Bohun, with a continuation to 1562, entitled 
" General History of the Reformation begun in 
Germany by M. Luther" (fol., London, 1689). 

SLIDELL, Jolm, an American politician, born 
in the city of New York in 1793, died in Lon- 



106 



SLIGO 



don, July 29, 1871. He graduated at Colum- 
bia college in 1810 and entered commercial 
life, but was not successful, and removed to 
New Orleans, where he became a prominent 
member of the Louisiana bar, and was Uni- 
ted States district attorney from 1829 to 1833. 
He was frequently elected to the state legis- 
lature, and was a representative in congress 
from 1843 to 1845. In the latter year he was 
sent as envoy extraordinary and minister pleni- 
potentiary to Mexico. In 1853 he was chosen 
United States senator for the unexpired term 
of Senator Soule, and was afterward reelect- 
ed for six years. lie was a supporter of the 
southern rights party, and when Louisiana 
had passed the ordinance of secession, in Jan- 
uary, 1861, he withdrew on Feb. 4 from the 
senate, after delivering a menacing and defiant 
speech. In the autumn he was sent as com- 
missioner to France, together with Mr. Mason 
of Virginia, who was appointed in the same 
capacity to England. Sailing from Charleston, 
they ran the blockade, and embarked at Ha- 
vana on board the English mail steamer Trent. 
On Nov. 8 Capt. Wilkes, of the United States 
sk-am frigate San Jacinto, boarded this ves- 
sel, and arrested the commissioners, who were 
confined in Fort Warren, Boston harbor. But 
as their capture was informal, they were re- 
leased on the reclamation of the British gov- 
ernment, and on Jan. 2, 1862, sailed for Eng- 
land. Mr. Slidell proceeded to Paris, where 
through the banker Erlanger (who became his 
son-in-law) he secured some aid in money and 
ships for the confederates, and after the close 
of the war settled in London. 

SLIGO. I. A county of Ireland, in the prov- 
ince of Connaught, on the N. W. coast, border- 
ing on Leitrim, Roscommon, Mayo, and the 
Atlantic ocean; area, 721 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 
115,311. The chief towns are Sligo, Dromore, 
and Tobercurry. The coast line is generally 
ragged, and is deeply indented by the bays 
of Sligo and Killala. Sligo bay is about 6 m. 
wide at the mouth, and extends inland 10 m. 
to the town of Sligo. The principal rivers are 
the Sligo, Moy, Arrow, Awimnore, and Easky. 
Lough Gill, the chief lake, is about 5 m. long 
and 1J broad, and is remarkable for the beau- 
ty of its scenery. A great deal of the surface 
is mountainous or boggy. Iron ore is found, 
and copper and lead mines were formerly 
worked. Coarse woollens are manufactured. 
There are many remains of antiquity. II. A 
town, capital of the county, at the head of an 
arm of the bay of the same name, 107 m. N. 
W. of Dublin; pop. in 1871, 9,340. It has 
considerable commerce, but vessels drawing 
more than 13 ft. are obliged to anchor a mile 
below the town. In 1870 Sligo was disfran- 
chised as a parliamentary borough. 

M.OINK, Sir Hang, a British naturalist, born 

Ht Killyleagh, county Down, Ireland, April 10, 

1 in Chelsea, near London, Jan. 11, 

1753. lie studied medicine, natural history' 

and chemistry in London, where ho became 



SLOE 

acquainted with Ray and Boyle. After a tour 
on the continent, he settled in 1684 in London, 
and was soon after elected a fellow of the 
royal society. In 1687 he accompanied the 
duke of Albemarle to Jamaica in the capacity 
of physician, and during a residence of 15 
months made large collections of natural cu- 
riosities, particularly of plants. Returning to 
London, he was chosen physician of Christ's 
hospital in 1694, a post which he filled for 86 
years. Being shortly before this time elected 
secretary of the royal society, he revived the 
"Philosophical Transactions," and until 1712 
was editor of the work. Meanwhile he had 
formed the nucleus of a comprehensive cabinet 
of curiosities, which it became one of the chief 
objects of his life to enrich and enlarge, and 
which in 1702 received a very considerable 
augmentation by the bequest of the collection 
of William Courten. In 1716 he was created 
a baronet, and was appointed physician general 
to the army, which office he held till 1727, 
when he became physician in ordinary to the 
king. In 1719 he was elected president of the 
college of physicians, and in 1727 president 
of the royal society. In 1741 he removed his 
library and collections to an estate in Chel- 
sea, purchased in 1720, where he spent the 
rest of his life in retirement. His collections, 
amounting to 200 volumes of dried plants and 
over 30,000 other specimens of natural history, 
besides a library of 50,000 volumes and 3,566 
manuscripts, were by the direction of his will 
offered to the nation for 20,000, less than a 
quarter of their real value. The legacy was 
accepted by parliament, and in its purchase 
originated the British museum. Among many 
important benevolent schemes he was en- 
gaged in the establishment of a dispensary 
for providing the poor with medical services 
and medicines, and of the foundling hospital. 
He also presented the apothecaries' company 
with the freehold of their botanic garden, 
which formed part of his estate at Chelsea. 
His writings comprise " The Natural History 
of Jamaica " (2 vols. fol., 1707-'25), a Latin 
catalogue of the plants of Jamaica, a treatise 
on sore eyes (once highly esteemed), and 
contributions to the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions." He aided in the introduction of the 
use of Peruvian bark and other new remedies, 
and gave a considerable impulse to the prac- 
tice of inoculation by performing that opera- 
tion on several of the royal family. 

SLOE (A. S. Z#), a wild plum, prunus spino- 
sa, native in Europe and Russian and centra 1 
Asia, and sparingly naturalized in the 
England and some others of the older states. 
It is a shrub or low tree, with its smaller 
branches ending in sharp thorns, which, with 
the blackish color of the bark, give it the name 
of blackthorn by which it is frequently called 
in England; the leaves are ovate or oblong; 
the small, white flowers are succeeded by a 
small, globular, black fruit, with a fine bloom; 
stone turgid; pulp greenish and astringent. 






SLOTH 



107 



As stated Under PLUM, this is thought to be 
the original of all the cultivated European va- 
rieties of that fruit. The sloe is sometimes 
used as a hedge plant in Europe, and is planted 




Sloe or Blackthorn (Prunus communis). 

around trees in parks to protect them while 
young from injury by animals ; it is sometimes 
seen in this country in collections of shrubs, 
its chief merit as an ornament being its early 
lowering. The wood is hard, heavy, and dark- 
colored, takes a fine polish, and is used for 
mdles to tools, flails, teeth to rakes, and the 
! ; upright shoots make favorite walking 

ticks. The leaves when dried are regarded 
as more like tea than any other substitute; 
they were at one time largely collected for the 
adulteration of tea in England, but this is now 
forbidden under a heavy penalty. The fruit 
when mellowed by frost is eaten in some parts 
of Europe, and is made into a conserve; it's 
expressed juice is used in Germany to mark 

lothing, it being nearly indelible, and in Eng- 
id it forms the basis of " British port." 
SLOTH, the name of the edentate mammals 

)f the family tardigrada (111.) and genus Irady- 
s (Linn.) ; both the family and generic names 

re derived from the extreme slowness of the 

lit; it is le paresseux of the French. The 
is small, rounded, flat, and truncated in 

ront ; the jaws very short and the face very 

ittle projecting beyond the line of the crani- 
um ; the malar bone gives off a zygomatic pro- 
cess which runs backward and passes above 
the corresponding one of the temporal bone 
without touching it, a second process descend- 
ing outside the lower jaw, which is very strong. 
The fore legs are much longer than the hind, 
and all the toes end in long curved claws, chan- 

lelled underneath, the bones firmly united 
together and the claws naturally turned in 
against the soles; the fore feet have either 
three or two toes, and the hind feet three 
toes; the latter are articulated obliquely on 
the leg, so that only the exterior edge touches 
the ground, of course making progression on 
a level surface very awkward ; the pelvis is so 



[ wide and the thighs so laterally directed that 
the knees cannot be brought together. The 
ears are very short, and concealed under the 
hair, which is dry, harsh, and coarse. The 
axillary and iliac arteries, instead of pursuing 
their usual course down the limbs as single 
vessels, suddenly subdivide into from 40 to 60 
small trunks of equal size, freely anastomosing 
with each other, looking somewhat like a mass 
of varicose veins, and distributed chiefly to the 
muscles ; the arrest of the circulation by pres- 
sure on a single trunk is thus prevented, and 
its retardation permits slow and long continued 
contraction of the muscles of the arms and 
legs. The stomach is divided into four cavi- 
ties without folds, the intestine is shorthand 
the caecum absent; the mammas are two, and 
pectoral ; there is a common cloaca, as in 
birds, for the expulsion of the urine and fasces. 
The dental formula is fif, the teeth being 
simple, separated, nearly cylindrical, without 
roots, with an undivided hollow base contin- 
ually growing as they are worn by use, and 
composed of dentine and cement without en- 
amel ; there are no incisors ; the anterior mo- 
lars are very small in the three-toed sloth, but 
in the two-toed are long, pointed, resembling 
canines, and the lower placed behind the up- 
per. The tail is very short, or absent. The 
sloths were considered by the early naturalists 
as imperfect and deformed creatures ; but in 
the trees, their natural home, their peculiari- 
ties of structure are as admirably adapted for 
their convenience and enjoyment as in any 
other animal ; the fore limbs have great free- 
dom of motion, and all are so constructed that 
by means of the claws they suspend them- 
selves to the branches and hang for a long time, 
and even sleep, back downward. They are 
rarely seen on the ground, for the reason that 
they can pass from one tree to another by the 
interlocking branches for miles in the thick 
forests of South America, which they inhabit 
from Guiana to Paraguay, some species extend- 
ing to Peru, and according to some authors 
into Central America. They are rarely more 
than 2 ft. long, and their hair resembles in 
color the bark of the trees -upon which they 
live ; the food is entirely vegetable, the leaves 
and twigs of trees. They have one young one 
at a time, which clings to the mother's back, 
hiding among the hair ; the native name is a*', 
from their feeble plaintive cry; they are re- 
markably tenacious of life, and apparently un- 
conscious of pain. Linnaeus gave the name of 
B. tridactyhis to a three-toed sloth, under the 
impression that there was only one species 
thus characterized, whereas Wagner describes 
several in the Archiv fur NaturgescliicJite for 
1850. The animal referred to by Linnaeus is 
grayish, with the body 14 in. long, the head 
about 3, the tail 1, the fore limb 11, the hind 
G, and the claws 2 to 2-J ; it has 9 cervical ver- 
tebrae, and 14 ribs on each side, of which 9 are 
true ; the thumb and little finger are rudimen- 
tary and hidden under the skin ; there is a ru- 



108 



SLOTH 



dimentary clavicle attached to the acromion; 
the hair is reversed on the forearm. It has 
been calculated that it can take only 50 steps a 
day, consuming a month in traversing a mile; 




Three-toed Sloth (Bradypus triductylus). 

if by chance it ascends a tree too remote from 
another to admit of a passage across, the na- 
tives say that it rolls itself in a ball and drops 
to the ground, and the thick wiry hair would 
render such a fall comparatively harmless ; from 
its habits it can rarely if ever drink ; its flesh 
and skin are useless ; in captivity it is exceed- 
ingly stupid and uninteresting. The unau or 
two-toed sloth (B. didactylus, Linn. ; genus 




Unau or Two-toed Sloth (Bradypus didactylus). 

cholapu*, Illig.) is mixed brown and white, 
paler below ; it is about 2 ft. long, with, ac- 
cording to Daubenton, 23 ribs on each side, of 
which 12 are true; the clavicles are complete, 
and the tail is wanting ; it has a longer muzzle 
and shorter fore legs than the three-toed spe- 
cies, and is more active, especially at night; 
it inhabits the same region, and is sometimes 
eaten by Indians and negroes. For the fossil 
edentates, see MEGALONYX, MEGATHERIUM, and 
MYLODON; for anatomical details, see COM- 
PARATIVE ANATOMY, and EDENTATA. 



SLUG 

SLOVAKS, a Slavic people, belonging to the 
western stem of the race, and inhabiting chiefly 
the mountainous regions of N. W. Hungary 
and the adjoining portions of Moravia. Their 
number is estimated at nearly 3,000,000, more 
than two thirds of whom are Catholics, and 
the remainder Lutherans. They are of medium 
stature, have blue eyes, straight and long hair, 
a yellowish skin, and generally coarse features. 
They are chiefly engaged in agriculture and 
mining. Numbers of them spend their lives 
wanderiog through various countries of Eu- 
rope, selling linen, mouse traps, and other 
articles of wire work. The language of the 
Slovaks is a sub-dialect of the Bohemian or 
Czech, which latter is generally used by them 
as a literary medium, as by Kollar, Schafarik, 
Holly, and other writers, and is also the lan- 
guage of their church services. The Slovaks 
occupied their present abodes early in the mid- 
dle ages, and in the 9th century they formed 
the nucleus of the Moravian empire until its 
destruction by the Magyars. 

SLOVENS, or Sloventzi. See WINDS. 

SLUG (Umax, Lam.), a genus of mollusk, be- 
longing to the air-breathing gasteropods. The 
form is elongated, tapering, snail-like, the head 
having two long and two short tentacles which 
can be extended and drawn in like the finger 
of a glove by being turned inside and out ; the 
naked body is covered anteriorly by a cori- 
aceous mantle, under which is the branchial 
cavity, the respiratory orifice and vent open- 
ing on the right side of it, and the generative 
orifice beneath the right tentacles; the man- 
tle in some contains a calcareous grit, and in 
others a small, thin, nail-like shell; the head 
can be partly drawn under the mantle ; at the 
posterior end of the body is a small aperture 
whence proceed the adhesive threads by which 
they let themselves down from plants which 
they ascend in search of food. Their motion 
is proverbially slow, and effected by the con- 
tractions of the flat disk or foot on the ventral 
surface. The upper jaw is in the form of a 
toothed crescent, by which they gnaw plants 
with great voracity ; the stomach is elongated ; 
the skin secretes a great quantity of mucosity, 
which serves to attach them to the surfaces on 
which they creep; the eyes are small black 
disks at the end of the posterior tentacles ; the 
sense of touch is delicate. The reproductive 
season is in spring and summer; they are 
hermaphrodite, and mutually impregnate each 
other ; the eggs, to the number of 700 or 800, 
are laid in moist and shady places ; at the ap- 
proach of winter they burrow into the ground, 
where they hibernate; they hide under decay- 
ing logs and stones in damp places, and arc 
seen in gardens and orchards in evening and 
early morning, especially after gentle and warm 
showers. They are found in the northern 
temperate zones of both hemispheres. The 
common slug of New England, L. tunicata 
(Gould), is nearly an inch long, varying in 
color from dark drab to blackish brown ; the 






SLUG WORM 



SMALLPOX 



109 



back is wrinkled, and the upper tentacles gran- 
ulated and black at the tips ; the foot is very 
narrow; it is found almost always with the 
isopod crustaceans commonly called sow bugs. 
Other species are described ; they are compara- 
tively rare in the United States, and by no 
means so troublesome as in Europe. The com- 
mon European slug, L. agrestis (Linn.), is small 
and unspotted, and very abundant and destruc- 




Slug (Limax agrestis). 

tive ; they are killed by solutions of tobacco, 
salt, or other irritants, or by covering a spot 
infested by them with ashes, lime, fine sand, 
or any powder which attaches itself to the 
body and prevents their walking, or they may 
be arrested by some sticky substance; many 
are devoured by mammals, birds, and reptiles. 
SLUG WORM, the common name of the Iarva3 
the sawflies, or the hymenopterous insects 
of the family tenthredinidce. The slug worm 
described by Prof. Peck in his prize essay 
(Boston, 1799), and called by him tenthredo 
cerasi (Linn.), has been placed by Harris in 
the genus selandria (blennocampa). The fly 
is black, with the first pair of legs yellowish 
clay-colored ; the body of the female is about 
a fifth of an inch long, that of the male a little 
smaller. They usually appear in Massachusetts 
on the cherry and plum trees toward the end 
of May, disappearing in three weeks after lay- 

ig their eggs singly in incisions on the lower 

irface of the leaves; the young are hatched 
two weeks, coming out from June 5 to July 
according to season; they have 20 short 

ags, a pair under every segment except the 
fourth and the last, and are half an inch long 

r hen fully grown ; in form they resemble small 
Ipoles, and are covered with a thick slimy 
matter which has given them the name of slugs ; 
they also emit a disagreeable odor. They come 
their full size in 26 days, casting their skin 
five times, after which they enter the ground, 
change to chrysalids, and come out flies in 16 
' ays ; they then lay eggs for a second brood, 

rhich enter the ground in autumn, and appear 
as flies in the ensuing spring, some remaining 
unchanged for a year longer. They feed on 
leaves, and in some seasons have been so nu- 
merous as to strip trees entirely of their foliage 
and even cause their destruction; they are 
eaten by small mammals and birds, and the 



eggs are destroyed by the larvaa of a tiny ich- 
neumon fly (encyrtus). The trees may be best 
preserved against their attacks by showering 
them with a mixture of whale-oil soap and 
water, or powdering with ashes or quicklime. 

SMALCALD (Ger. SchmalMlden), a town of 
Prussia, in the province of Hesse-Nassau 
(before 1866 of Hesse-Cassel), 34 m. E. N. E. 
of Fulda; pop. in 1871, 5,792. It manufac- 
tures iron, steel, and salt. The Smalcald 
league was concluded here in 1531, by various 
Protestant princes and free cities, for mutual 
defence of their religious and political inde- 
pendence against Charles V. and the Catholic 
states of the empire. It was limited at first to 
six years, but in 1535 new members were ad- 
mitted at a second convention in Smalcald, and 
the term was extended ten years, with a reso- 
lution to maintain an army of 12,000 men. 
The elector John Frederick of Saxony and the 
landgrave Philip of Hesse became the leaders 
of the league, whose war against the emperor 
(1646-'7) was terminated by the victory of the 
latter at Muhlberg, April 24, 1547. In 1537 a 
confession of faith was drawn up in several 
articles by Luther, known subsequently as the 
"Articles of Smalcald," which became one of 
the symbolical books of the Lutheran church. 

SMALLPOX (variola), a contagious fever, char- 
acterized by a pustular eruption having a de- 
pressed centre. The terms variola and pacce 
first occur in the Bertinian chronicle of the 
date 961. Variola is derived from the Latin 
varus, a blotch or pimple, while pox is of Sax- 
on origin and signifies a bag or pouch ; the 
prefix small was added in the 15th century. 
The era commonly assigned for the first ap- 
pearance of smallpox is A. D. 569 ; it seems 
then to have begun in Arabia, and the raising 
of the siege of Mecca by an Abyssinian army 
is attributed to the ravages made by smallpox 
among the troops. The new part which Ara- 
bia under Mohammed and his followers was 
made to play in history contributed to the 
rapid propagation of the disease throughout 
the world. Ehazes, an Arabian physician who 
practised at Bagdad about the beginning of the 
10th century, is the first medical author whose 
writings have come down to us who treats ex- 
pressly of the disease ; he however quotes sev- 
eral of his predecessors, one of whom is be- 
lieved to have flourished about the year of the 
Hegira, A. D. 622. Measles and scarlet fever 
were at first confounded with smallpox, or 
considered as varieties of it ; and this error 
seems to have prevailed more or less until 
Sydenham finally showed the essential differ- 
ences between them. Boerhaave was the first 
to insist that contagion is essential to the prop- 
agation of the disease. The period of incuba- 
tion, that is, the time that elapses from the 
moment the patient receives the contagion 
until it begins to manifest its effect in the 
initiatory fever, is usually 14 days, though it 
sometimes varies. During this time there is 
usually no disturbance of the ordinary health. 



110 



SMALLPOX 



The invasion of the disease is announced by 
chills followed by fever ; this is apt to be at- 
tended with pain in the back, particularly in 
the loins, and with nausea and vomiting. If 
the fever runs high, with violent pain in the 
back and much delirium, the disease commonly 
assumes a severe form. In children the inva- 
sion is often announced by an attack of con- 
vulsions. The eruption begins to show itself 
on the third day of the fever. As a rule, it 
appears first on the face, then on the neck and 
wrists, then on the trunk, and finally on the 
extremities. On the fifth day the eruption is 
complete, and after this few or no new spots 
appear. It at first consists of minute rounded 
papules or pimples of a characteristic solid 
consistency, feeling like small shot beneath the 
skin. It is by this peculiar solidity of the spots 
that smallpox at this period is distinguished 
from other papular eruptions. By the fourth 
day from their first appearance the papules are 
converted into vesicles filled with a thin lymph 
and having a depressed centre, whence they are 
termed umbilicated. The vesicles begin now to 
be surrounded by an areola, or circular flush 
upon the skin, which soon becomes dark crim- 
son ; the lymph, at first colorless and transpa- 
rent, is gradually converted into pus, which 
increases in quantity and distends the vesicles 
until they become hemispherical. About the 
eighth day of the eruption a dark spot makes 
its appearance at the centre of the pustule, 
and gradually dries up and is converted into 
a scab. When this scab falls it leaves either an 
indelible cicatrix or a purplish red mark which 
fades very slowly, and which long exposure to 
a cool atmosphere renders very distinct. In 
passing away, the eruption follows the course 
which it took on its first appearance, the scabs 
first falling from the face, then from the trunk, 
and last from the extremities. When the pus- 
tules are comparatively few, they ar6 separated, 
sometimes widely, from each other, and the 
disease is termed discrete (variola discreta); 
when they are very numerous, they touch each 
other and run together, and then it is termed 
confluent (variola confluens) ; and between the 
two a third variety, the semi-confluent or co- 
herent, is often spoken of. In the discrete 
form the fever commonly subsides on the ap- 
pearance of the eruption, and when the pus- 
tules are few it may not return; but where 
they are at all numerous, their maturation is 
commonly attended with more or less fever. 
With the appearance of the eruption on the 
surface, more or less sore throat is complained 
of ; the fauces and tonsils are red and swollen, 
and pustules make their appearance upon them, 
upon the roof of the mouth, and the inside of 
the cheeks; the patient at the same time is 
commonly troubled with salivation. When 
smallpox is confluent, the subcutaneous cellular 
tissue seems involved in the disease, the swell- 
Mjtli Tery great, and by the fifth day the 
patient is commonly unable to open his eyes. 
The eruption on the face sometimes coalesces 



into one huge sore ; it is attended with a tor- 
menting itching, and the fever is of the ty- 
phoid kind, the debility being extreme, and the 
patient restless, sleepless, and often delirious, 
while the pulse is small, frequent, and feeble. 
In such cases the accompanying inflammation 
of the mouth, nasal passages, pharynx, and 
larynx adds greatly to the distress of the pa- 
tient and the danger of the disease, sometimes 
even producing suffocation. The disease is 
always attended by a peculiar odor, but in 
confluent cases this is nauseous and offensive 
to an excessive degree. In this form the fever, 
which commonly abates on the coming out of 
the eruption, is aggravated as the eruption ap- 
proaches maturation. The eighth day of the 
eruption or the eleventh of the disease is com- 
monly the most fatal day, while more patients 
die during the second week of the disease than 
either earlier or later. A second attack, even 
after free exposure to the contagion, is very 
rare. Only widely separated instances have 
been known. When patients recover from 
severe attacks of smallpox, blindness from an 
intercurrent inflammation of the conjunctiva 
is an occasional result, and before the general 
introduction of vaccination blindness from 
smallpox was common. Besides inflammation 
of the eyes, glandular swellings and abscess- 
es, bed sores, and phlebitis are occasional com- 
plications. It is also sometimes complicated 
with a diseased condition of the blood, produ- 
cing hemorrhage from various organs, togeth- 
er with petechise. These cases are always at- 
tended with great debility ; the accompanying 
fever is typhoid, and the eruption itself does 
not come out freely. They are almost invari- 
ably fatal. Pregnancy is a serious complica- 
tion. Abortion or premature delivery with 
the death of the child is commonly produced, 
but the mother frequently recovers. Some- 
times the child presents the characteristic 
eruption of the disease, but this is rare. Still 
more rarely a mother whose system has been 
protected by vaccination or a previous attack 
of the disease, communicates it, after exposure, 
to ihe foetus in utero, while she herself escapes. 
Confluent smallpox is always dangerous, and 
the danger is aggravated if the patient be still 
in infancy or over 45 years of age, or of a 
feeble or strumpus constitution. The mortality 
from smallpox is estimated at one fourth or one 
fifth of all who are attacked ; that of the Lon- 
don smallpox hospifoal has long averaged 30 per 
cent. Like many other contagious diseases, it 
is subject to epidemic influence, and when it 
prevails epidemically it seems to be severer 
and more fatal. It is remarkable that when it 
is communicated by a minute portion of the 
virus being inserted under the cuticle by inocu- 
lation, as it is termed, the disease is far less 
violent than if communicated through the at- 
mosphere ; and yet a second attack in such a 
case is as improbable as in any other. When 
patients are inoculated the mortality is rarely 
greater than 1 in 600 or 700. Inoculation was 





SMAET 

introduced into civilized Europe from Constan- 
tinople through the sense and courage of Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu, but since the discov- 
ery of vaccination by Dr. Jenner has been dis- 
continued. (See VACCINATION.) For a lorfg 
time the dangers of smallpox were aggravated 
by the means used for its cure ; in accordance 
with the theories of the time, which still have 
their influence among the vulgar, the eruption 
was looked upon as an effort made by nature 

free the system of morbid matter ; the more 

'undant it was, the better for the patient, 
e eruption was accordingly encouraged by 

arm drinks and a heated atmosphere. Syden- 
was the first to inculcate the necessity of 

p ee ventilation and a cooling regimen. Mild 
require little except attention to hygienic 
ures ; the disease is attended with little 
r, and should run its course uninfluenced 
by art. When it is severe, attention should be 
early directed to supporting the strength of 
the patient. The diet should be as nutritious 
as he can bear, and, when indicated by the 
pul^e, wine and stimulants should be freely 
administered. The troublesome itching, which 
causes great suffering, may be alleviated by 

e application of sweet oil, cold cream, or 
" ; opiates may be useful to procure sleep, 

d the bowels should be occasionally moved 
>y mild laxatives or enemata. 

SMART, Christopher, an English author, born 
Shipborne, Kent, April 11, 1722, died in 
king's bench prison, London, May 18, 1770. 

e was educated at Cambridge, and elected a 
'ellow of Pembroke hall in 1745, and gained 
the Seatonian prize for poems on the Supreme 
Being for five years consecutively. In 1753 
he married, removed to London, and support- 
ed himself by writing. Through intemperance 
and extreme poverty he lost his reason, and 
was confined in a lunatic asylum for two 
years. He made a prose translation of Hor- 
ace, and metrical versions of Horace and Phse- 
drus, and of the Psalms. Among his other 
works is " The Hilliad, an Epic Poem," a satire 
on Sir John Hill, who had criticised him. In 
1752 he published a collection of his poems. 
A posthumous edition appeared in 1791 with 
a memoir (2 vols. 12mo). His Horace has had 
several editions in the present century. 

SMARTWEED. See POLYGONUM. 

SMEATON, John, an English civil engineer, 
born at Austhorpe, near Leeds, May 28, 1724, 
died there, Oct. 28, 1792. Before he reached 
his 15th year he had made mechanical inven- 
tions and discoveries. He began to study law, 
but in 1750 took up the business of a mathe- 
matical instrument maker, and in 1751 invented 
a machine for measuring a ship's way at sea. 
He made valuable improvements in hydraulic 
machinery, and in 1759 read a paper on this 
subject before the royal society, for which he 
received the Copley gold medal. The Eddy- 
stone lighthouse being destroyed by fire in 
1755, Smeaton rebuilt it. (See LIGHTHOUSE.) 
He afterward built canals and locks on the 
748 ' TOL. xv. 8 



SMELL 



111 




Derwentwater estate, constructed the great 
canal from the Forth to the Clyde, improved 
the Calder navigation, supplied Greenwich and 
Deptford with water, erected the Spurn light- 
house, preserved the old London bridge, and 
erected several bridges in Scotland. About 
1783 he withdrew from business. He pub- 
lished a volume on the Eddystone lighthouse 
(1791), and his professional reports were pub- 
lished by the institution of civil engineers (3 
vols. 4to, 1812-'14). See Smiles's "Lives of 
the Engineers." 

SMELL, the special sense by which we take 
cognizance of the odoriferous qualities of for- 
eign bodies. The main peculiarity of this sense 
is that it gives us intelligence of the physical 
properties of substances in a gaseous or vapor- 
ous condition. An odoriferous body gives off 
emanations which diffuse themselves through 
the atmosphere, and we thus perceive its ex- 
istence at a distance and when it may be con- 
cealed from sight. The actual quantity of 
vaporous material necessary for making an 
impression upon the olfactory organ is very 
small ; and a substance like musk or attar of 
roses may fill an entire apartment or even a 
house for days or weeks with its peculiar 
odor, readily perceptible by all the occu- 
pants, without suffering any appreciable loss 
of weight. The organ of smell is the mucous 
membrane of the upper part of the nasal pas- 
sages, supplied by the filaments of the olfac- 
tory or first pair of cranial nerves. These 
nerves are endowed with the special sense of 
smell, but are destitute of ordinary or general 
sensibility. Thus they can perceive the odors 
of foreign substances, but not the physical 
contact of a solid body. On the other hand, 
the lower portion of the nasal passages -is sup- 
plied by filaments from the fifth pair of cranial 
nerves, which are nerves of general sensibility, 
but not susceptible to the impression of odors. 
Not all vapors are odoriferous ; some are 
simply irritating or stimulating to the mucous 
membrane. The odors proper are generally 
of an organic origin, such as those of musk, 
asafcetida, the leaves and blossoms of plants, 
and the exhalations of living or decomposing 
animal bodies. Other gaseous emanations are 
simply irritating, like those of ammonia, chlo- 
rine, and acetic acid. Sometimes the two kinds 
of exhalations are mingled ; thus pure alcohol 
is nearly or quite destitute of odor, but in 
cologne water we have the stimulating prop- 
erties of the alcohol, mingled with odoriferous 
ingredients of a vegetable origin. Ammonia 
is irritating to the mucous membrane of the 
nose for the same reason that it is irritating 
to the skin when brought in contact with it ; 
but the skin is incapable of perceiving a true 
odor. The dissemination of odors is favored 
by the movement of the atmosphere ; and 
when a disagreeable or noxious odor is con- 
tained in the air of an apartment, a free ven- 
tilation is the readiest method of expelling it. 
When we wish to perceive more distinctly a 



112 



SMELT 



faint or a delicate odor, we direct the air forci- 
bly upward, by a peculiar inspiratory effort of 
the nostrils, through the superior part of the 
nasal passages. This movement is especially 
observable in many of the inferior animals, in 
whom the sense of smell is remarkably acute, 
and the olfactory mucous membrane unusually 
extensive and sensible. The dog, for instance, 
will not only distinguish different kinds of ani- 
ni;ils by their odor, but will recognize different 
individuals of the human species, or particular 
articles of dress belonging to them. He will 
even follow the track of wild game by the 
minute quantity of animal odor left by their 
footsteps upon the grass or dried leaves. The 
sense of* smell, like the other senses, becomes 
habituated to particular impressions when long 
continued; even disagreeable odors gradually 
lose in this way their oflfensiveness, and we 
become after a time more or less insensible to 
their presence. A disagreeable odor is not 
invariably injurious in itself ; but it is almost 
always the indication or accompaniment of a 
gaseous emanation which is in reality noxious, 
or will become so if allowed to accumulate. 
The offensive odor is a warning to the senses 
that the atmosphere is no longer pure and 
should be renovated ; and if this warning be 
neglected, it at last ceases to make itself felt, 
and the exhalations may then imperceptibly 
increase until they produce serious injury. 

SMELT, a soft-rayed fish of the salmon fam- 
ily, and genus osmerus (Artedi). The body is 
elongated and covered with small scales ; there 
are two dorsals, the first with rays and the 
second adipose and rayless ; ventrals under 
the anterior rays of dorsal ; teeth on the jaws 
and tongue very long, and on the premaxilla- 
ries small and hooked; gill openings wide; air 
bladder silvery within. The common Amer- 
ican smelt (0. viridesceria, Les.) is about 10 
in. long ; the upper parts with the dorsal and 
caudal fins are yellowish green with coppery 
reflections, with very minute black dots ; sides 
silvery white ; abdomen and lower fins milky 
white; gill covers golden. It is found from 




American Smelt (Osmenw viridescons). 

New York to Labrador, going up rivers in 
early spring and returning to the sea late in 
autumn, at which times immense quantities 
are taken by hook and nets ; the flavor is very 
delicate. They bear transfer from salt into 
fresh water, and have become permanent resi- 
dents in Champlain, Squam, and Winnipiseogee 
id in .1 unaica pond near Boston; these 
dl.-r and more slender than the marine 
smelt. The European smelt (0. eperlanw 



SMEW 

Art.) is from 7 to 9 in. long, lighter colored 
above, with thicker body and narrower head. 
They are found in all the rivers opening into 
northern seas; they are the eperlans of the 
French and the spirling or sparling of the 
English ; when recently taken from the water, 
they have a sweetish, not disagreeable, and 
cucumber-like odor, from which the generic 
and the common names are derived. Smelts 
eat small fish, crustaceans, and mollusks. 

SMELTING. See COPPER SMELTING, IRON 
MANUFACTURE, LEAD, and SILVER. 

SMET, Peter John de, an American mission- 
ary, born in Dendermonde, Belgium, Dec. 31, 
1801, died in St. Louis, May 23, 1873. He 
arrived in Philadelphia in August, 1821, en- 
tered the Jesuit novitiate at Whitemarsh, Md., 
went to Missouri in 1823, and aided in found- 
ing the university of St. Louis, in which he 
labored till 1838, when he was sent to found a 
mission among the Pottawattamies. His suc- 
cess caused him to be sent to the Flatheads 
in 1840, and to the Blackfeet soon afterward. 
He then planned a regular system of miss;on- 
ary establishments, which were taken charge 
of by his brother Jesuits, reserving to himself 
a general superintendence over them and the 
duty of providing funds for their support. He 
published several papers in the United States 
and in Europe for the purpose of creating 
public interest in favor of these missions, re- 
peatedly visited Belgium and other Catholic 
countries to collect alms and obtain mission- 
aries, and established several new missionary 
centres on both sides of the Rocky mountains. 
During a last voyage undertaken for the mis- 
sions he sustained injuries which resulted in 
his death. His principal works are : " Letters 
and Sketches, and Residence in the Rocky 
Mountains" (Philadelphia, 1843); "Oregon 
Missions, and Travels over the Rocky Moun- 
tains" (New York, 1847); "Western Missions 
and Missionaries " and " New Indian Sketch- 
es" (New York, 1863); and Reisen zu den 
Fehengebirgen und ein Jahr unter den wit- 
den Indianerstammen des Oregon- Gelietes (St. 
Louis, 1865). 

SMEW (mergellus albellus, Selby), a web- 
footed bird differing from the typical mer- 
gansers, to which subfamily it belongs, in hav- 
ing the bill much shorter than the head and 
elevated at the base, and the mandibles with 
short and closely set lamella). It is about 17| 
in. long and 27 in. in alar extent ; the general 
color is white, whence its common name of 
white nun ; around the eyes, a patch on each 
side of the nape, semi-collar on each side of 
lower neck, middle of back, tail, and wings 
black ; scapulars, middle wing coverts, tertials, 
and secondary tips white ; in the female the 
head is reddish brown. It is found in t" 
northern parts of the old world, in wint 
coming down to central Europe, frequentii w 
the sea coast, lakes, and rivers ; it is an expert 
swimmer and diver, and feeds on fish and 
crustaceans ; the nest is made near the water, 




SMIBERT 

and the eggs are 8 to 12 ; like other mergansers 
it hybridizes with the ducks, especially with 
the genus clangula (Flem.). It is generally 



SMILAX 



113 




Smew (Mergellus albellus). 

slieved to be accidental in America, only a 
single female specimen having been obtained 
Audubon, near New Orleans. 
SMIBERT, or Smybert, John, a Scottish painter, 
)rn in Edinburgh about 1684, died in Bos- 
>n, Mass., in 1751. He studied in Italy for 
three years, and attained a respectable stand- 
ing as a portrait painter in London. In 1728 
he accompanied Dean Berkeley to America, 
after whose return he settled in Boston. He 
painted most of the contemporary worthies of 
New England and New York. His most cele- 
brated picture is a large portrait piece repre- 
senting Berkeley and several members of his 
family, together with the artist himself, on 
their first landing in America. It is now in 
the possession of Yale college. 

SMILAX, a genus of endogenous, mostly 
shrubby, often prickly plants, which climb by 
tendrils. They are abundant in warm cli- 
mates, and are represented in the Atlantic 
states by several species, some of which are 
popularly known as greenbrier, catbrier, or 
brier. The genus is the only one in the flora 
of the northernmost states which affords an 
example of a woody endogenous stem; the 
general aspect of the plants is that of the exo- 
gens, as their leaves are netted-veined, while 
in the great majority of endogens they are 
parallel- veined ; the petioles are furnished with 
a tendril upon each side. The flowers, in ax- 
illary umbels, are small, dioacious, with the 
greenish or yellowish regular perianth in six 
parts ; the sterile flower has six stamens ; the 
fertile has a free ovary of three or more cells 
and as many thick and spreading stigmas; 
fruit a small berry with one to three seeds. 
The best known species is the common green- 
brier (smilax rotundifolia}^ which extends from 
Canada through the southern states; it often 
forms, by spreading over the shrubs and trees, 
impenetrable thickets, its stems extending from 
one tree to another for 30 or 40 ft., and very 
slender and strong; the smooth leaves are 
nearly orbicular, often broader than long, and 



somewhat heart-shaped at base, of a pleasing 
soft green color, which turns to deep yellow 
in autumn, and later to a rusty brown, though 
in the southern states they are nearly ever- 
green ; the small clusters of berries are black, 
with a bloom, and have a tempting appear- 
ance, but are very nauseous to the taste. The 
plant is variable, and forms of it have been 
described as distinct species. It is a handsome 
ornamental climber, which has received no 
attention because it is common. There are 
about a dozen other species, from New Jer- 
sey southward, with variously shaped leaves, 
some of them evergreen, and differing in their 
fruit clusters. The most important of these 
is popularly known in the southern states as 
China brier (S. pseudo- China), which extends 
northward to New Jersey ; its stems, especially 
near the base, have weak blackish prickles; 
the leaves are ovate heart-shaped, often with 
a fringe of rough hairs on the margins and a 




Greenbrier (Smilax rotundifolia). 

slender point. The young and tender shoots 
of this are eaten as asparagus; the mature 
stems have a reputation as an alterative ; the 
rootstocks, which are tuberous, brownish red, 
and sometimes as large as the two fists, con- 
tain considerable starch, which the Seminoles 
formerly used in times of scarcity, both by 
separating the starch and by cooking the whole 
root ; a kind of beer has been made from them, 
with molasses, parched corn, and sassafras ; 
the root is light, porous, easily worked, and 
is largely used for tobacco pipes. A few spe- 
cies are herbaceous, the most common being 
the variable 8. herlacea, 1 to 6 ft. high, with 
mostly heart-shaped leaves ; the flowers are in 
large umbels, upon stalks 3 to 8 in. long, the 
fertile ones succeeded by a showy, nearly glob- 
ular cluster of berries. This is sometimes a 
troublesome weed in pastures ; when in bloom 
its presence is readily detected from the odor 
of its flowers, which has given the plant the 
well merited name of carrion flower. Two 



HI SMILES 

other species belong to this section, which Tor- 
rey at one time regarded as a distinct genus, 
to which ho gave the appropriate name of 
coprosmanthu*. Nearly 200 species of smilax 
are enumerated as growing in various parts of 
the world, but, judging from the confusion of 
names existing among our own, the number 
of real species is much less. The most impor- 
tant exotic species are those which furnish the 
drug sarsaparilla. (See SARSAPABILLA.) An- 
other medicinal product is the China root, the 
rhizome of S. China and several other east- 
ern species, which, under the name of radix 
China, came into use about A. D. 1535 as a 
remedy for syphilis, gout, and rheumatism ; it 
is now little used except in the East. The 
fresh rootstocks of this and other species 
are cooked and eaten by the Chinese. Under 
the name of smilax florists cultivate in green- 
houses large quantities of myrsipJiyllum anpa- 
ragoides, a liliaceous plant from the Cape of 
Good Hope, closely 
allied to asparagus ; 
it has small tuberous 
roots, and very slen- 
der, strong, branching 
stems, which climb by 
twining to the height 
of 20 ft. or more ; 
its proper leaves are 
minute scales, from 
the axils of which, as 
in asparagus, appear 
small branches, so 
modified that they 
look like true leaves, 
the functions of which 
they perform ; the 
flowers are small, 
whitish, and incon- 
spicuous, and are fol- 
lowed by green ber- 
ries about the size of 
those of asparagus. It 
is raised from seeds, 
the roots being kept from year to year. This 
plant is one of the most valuable and popular 
of all greens used for decorations, as it does 
not readily fade, and its thread-like stems al- 
low it to be used in the most delicate work. 
It is a very useful window plant if the atmos- 
phere of the room is not excessively dry. 

SMILES, Samuel, a British author, born at 
Haddington, Scotland, in 1816. After practis- 
ing as a surgeon for some time at Leeds, he 
became editor of the Leeds " Times " in 1845, 
secretary of the Leeds and Thirsk railway, and 
in 1852 secretary of the Southeastern railway, 
from which post he retired in 1866. He has 
published " Physical Education, or Nature of 
Children" (Edinburgh, 1837); "History of 
Ireland and the Irish People under the Gov- 
ernment of England" (London, 1844); "Life 
of George Stephenson" (1857); "Self-Help, 
with Illustrations of Character and Conduct" 
(1859) ; " Brief Biographies " (Boston, 1860) ; 




Smilax Vine (M 



Vine (Myrsiphy 
asparagoides). 



Hum 



SMITH 

" Workmen's Earnings, Strikes, and Savings " 
(London, 1861) ; " Lives of the Engineers, with 
an Account of their Principal Works " (4 vols. 
8vo, 1861-'5; new ed., 5 vols., 1875), inclu- 
ding that of Stephenson; "Industrial Biogra- 
phy" (1863); "The Huguenots, their Settle- 
ments, Churches, and Industries in England 
and Ireland" (1867); "Character," a com- 
panion volume to "Self-Help" (1871); "The 
Huguenots in France, after the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes" (1874); and "Thrift" 
(1875). Most of his works have passed through 
several editions in England and America. 

S3IIRKK. I. Sir Robert, an English architect, 
born in London in 1780, died at Cheltenham, 
April 18, 1867. He was the oldest son of 
Robert Smirke, a popular genre painter. After 
a tour through Germany and southern Europe, 
he settled in London in 1805 as an architect. 
He brought himself early into notice by his 
design for Co vent Garden theatre (1808-'9), 
which was destroyed by fire in March, 1856. 
Subsequently he was employed in designing 
many public buildings in the metropolis, the 
most considerable being the mint, a Grecian 
Doric edifice erected in 1811 ; the post office 
(1823-'9); the college of physicians; King's 
college, as the eastern wing of Somerset 
house (1831); -and the British museum (1823- 
'47). These were all in the classical style. 
His chief Gothic works are the restorations of 
York minster and the improvements and ex- 
tensions of the Inner Temple. He also erected 
buildings for the United Service, Carlton, and 
Oxford and Cambridge clubs, the last in con- 
junction with his brother Sydney. He was 
elected a royal academician in 1812, and in 
1831 was knighted. He published " Specimens 
of Continental Architecture" (fol., London, 
1806). II. Sydney, younger brother of the pre- 
ceding, also an architect. His style is more 
ornate and florid than that of his brother, and 
has been employed with effect upon several of 
the London club houses, especially the Carlton 
in Pall Mall. He also directed the restorations 
of the Temple church and Lichfield cathedral, 
and in 1847 succeeded his brother as architect 
of the British museum. He was elected a 
member of the royal academy in 1860, pro- 
fessor of architecture in 1861, and treasurer 
in 1862. He has published "Suggestions on 
the Architectural Improvements of the West 
of London" (1834), and "Architecture of the 
Temple Church " (4to, 1842). 

SMITH, the name of four counties in the 
United States. I. A central county of Missis- 
sippi, intersected by Strong river and drained 
by the head streams of Leaf river ; area, 620 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,126, of whom 1,711 
were colored. The surface is generally level 
and the soil poor. The chief productions in 
1870 were 144,688 bushels of Indian corn, 
28,286 of sweet potatoes, 45,040 Ibs. of rice, 
5,666 of wool, and 2,411 bales of cotton. 
There were 1,065 horses, 2,027 milch cows, 
4,308 other cattle, 3,694 sheep, and 11,254 







SMITH 



115 



swine. Capital, Raleigh. II. A N. E. county 
of Texas, bounded N. by the Sabine river and 
W. by the Neches, and drained by the sources 
of the Angelina ; area, 900 sq. ni. ; pop. in 
1870, 16,532, of whom 7,131 were colored. 
The greater portion of the surface is prairie 
land, and the soil is fertile. It is traversed by 
the International and Great Northern railroad. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 420,646 
bushels of Indian corn, 22,017 of barley, 54,987 
of sweet potatoes, 100,856 Ibs. of butter, 1,878 
gallons of molasses, and 9,322 bales of cotton. 
There were 1,988 horses, 1,189 mules and asses, 
4,975 milch cows, 9,954 other cattle, 2,726 
sheep, and 22,658 swine. Capital, Tyler. III. 
A N. county of Tennessee, intersected by the 
Cumberland river and drained by Caney fork ; 
area, about 300 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 15,994, 
of whom 3,536 were colored. The surface is 
rough, but the soil is generally fertile. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 126,837 bushels 
of wheat, 888,078 of Indian corn, 72,528 of 
oats, 17,996 of Irish and 15,163 of sweet pota- 
toes, 2,250,202 Ibs. of tobacco, 32,674 of wool, 
255,723 of butter, 39,061 of honey, and 40,344 
gallons of sorghum molasses. There were 4,857 
horses, 3,715 milch cows, 6,117 other cattle, 
17,591 sheep, and 33,687 swine. Capital, Car- 
thage. IV. A N. county of Kansas, bordering 
on Nebraska, and intersected by the N. fork 
of Solomon river ; area, 900 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 66 ; in 1875, 3,876. The surface is un- 
dulating and fertile. Capital, Smith Centre. 

SMITH, Adam, a Scottish philosopher, born 
at Kirkcaldy, Fifeshire, June 5, 1723, died in 
Edinburgh, July 8, 1790. He studied at the 
university of Glasgow for three years, and for 
seven years at Oxford. In 1748 he fixed his 
residence in Edinburgh, where under the pat- 
ronage of Lord Kames he delivered lectures 
on rhetoric and belles-lettres. He was elected 
in 1751 professor of logic in the university of 
Glasgow, and was transferred in 1752 to the 
chair of moral philosophy in the same univer- 
sity, which he filled nearly 12 years. His 
course was divided into four parts. The first 
treated natural theology; in the second, de- 
voted to ethics, he developed the doctrines 
contained in his "Theory of Moral Senti- 
ments ;" in the third, the subject of which was 
justice, he traced the gradual progress of juris- 
prudence and government ; and in the fourth, 
the subject of which was expediency, he ex- 
amined those political regulations which relate 
to commerce, finances, and ecclesiastical and 
military establishments, and which are calcu- 
lated to increase the power and prosperity of 
a state. The last division included the sub- 
stance of his work on the "Wealth of Na- 
tions." He published in 1759 his "Theory of 
Moral Sentiments," in which he maintains the 
doctrine that all moral emotions and distinc- 
tions spring from sympathy. (See MOEAL PHI- 
LOSOPHY.) From this time he devoted a larger 
portion of his lectures to jurisprudence and 
political economy. Near the close of 1763 he 



resigned his professorship to accompany the 
young duke of Buccleugh on his travels. They 
visited Paris, resided 18 months at Toulouse, 
passed two months at Geneva, and returning 
to Paris at the end of 1765, remained there 
nearly a year. He returned with his pupil to 
London in October, 1766, and soon after fixed 
his residence for ten years with his mother at 
Kirkcaldy, engaged in severe study, and occa- 
sionally visiting Edinburgh and London. For 
many years he enjoyed an intimate friendship 
with Hume. In 1776 appeared his "Inquiry 
into the Nature and Causes of the "Wealth of 
Nations," which was the first complete and 
systematic statement of the principles of po- 
litical economy. It received several additions 
in the third edition (1784), and was translated 
into the principal European languages. A new 
edition by J. E. T. Rogers was published in 
London and New York in 1870 (2 vols. 8vo). 
(See POLITICAL ECONOMY, vol. xiii., p. 668.) 
Smith resided for two years after its publica- 
tion chiefly in London, and in 1778 was ap- 
pointed one of the commissioners of customs 
for Scotland, removing to Edinburgh. In 1787 
he was elected lord rector of the university of 
Glasgow. A large proportion of his savings 
was allotted to secret charity. 

SMITH, Albert, an English author, born at 
Chertsey, May 24, 1816, died at Fulham, near 
London, May 23, 1860. He was educated for 
the surgical profession in London and Paris, 
and joined his father in practice at Chertsey, 
but soon became a writer for the periodical 
press. Settling in London in 1841, he became 
a contributor to "Bentley's Miscellany," and 
within a few years produced " The Wassail 
Bowl," "The Adventures of Mr. Ledbury," 
"The Scattergood Family," "The Marchio- 
ness of Brinvilliers," "Christopher Tadpole," 
and "The Pottleton Legacy." He was also 
engaged for some time upon "Punch," his 
contributions to which included " The Physi- 
ology of Evening Parties," "The Medical Stu- 
dent," and other light varieties ; and in 1847 
-'9 he produced a number of amusing trifles 
entitled " The Natural History of the Gent," 
" The Natural History of the Ballet Girl," 
"Stuck-up People," and "The Flirt" He 
also wrote Christmas adaptations from the 
tales of Dickens, burlesques, and other stage 
pieces, and was the dramatic critic of the " Il- 
lustrated London News." A journey to Con- 
stantinople in 1849 furnished him with mate- 
rials for his " Month at Constantinople " (1850), 
and also for the public entertainment called the 
"Overland Mail," first brought out in May, 
1850. In August, 1851, he made the ascent of 
Mont Blanc, and his " entertainment " found- 
ed thereon proved his most successful venture, 
being constantly repeated till 1858. He then 
visited China, and after his return gave a Chi- 
nese entertainment, which in the spring of 
1860 was replaced by the more popular story 
of Mont Blanc. This he repeated until within 
two days of his death. His entertainments 



116 



SMITH 



were published under the titles " Story of Mont 
ii /mKQ<k m1 "To China and Back" 



Ulano" (1853), and "To China 

: and since his death his brother, Ar- 
-uith, has. published from his 'sketches 
" Wild Oats and Dead Leaves" (1860), and 
Par is and London "(1867)". 

xMMlI Alexander, a Scottish poet, born m 
Hlmarnook, Dec. 31, 1830, died at Wardie, 
near Edinburgh, Jan. 5, 1867. He was the 
son of a pattern designer, and himself became 
a pattern designer for a lace factory m Glas- 
gow In 1852 he published serially in the 
-Critic" his poem "A Life Drama,"_ issued 
with other poems in book form in 1853. In 
1854 he was appointed secretary of the uni- 
versity of Edinburgh (a post which he re- 
tained till his death), and about the same time 
delivered a series of lectures. His later poeti- 
cal works are: "Sonnets of the War," in con- 
junction with Sydney Dobell (1855) ; " City 
Poems" (1857); and "Edwin of Deira" (1861). 
He also wrote in prose " Dreamthorp " (1863) ; 
"A Summer in Skye" (2 vols., 1865); "Al- 
fred Hagart's Household" (2 vols., 1866) ; and 
"Miss Oona McQuarrie" (1866). A posthu- 
mous volume, "Last Leaves," was edited by 
P. P. Alexander, with a memoir (1868). 

SMI III, HI, an American missionary, born at 
Northford, Conn., Sept. 15, 1801, died in Bey- 
rout, Syria, Jan. 11, 1857. He graduated at 
Yale college in 1821, and at Andover theologi- 
cal seminary in 1826, and on May 23 of the 
latter year sailed as a missionary of the Ameri- 
can board for Malta, where he took charge 
of the missionary printing establishment. In 
1827 he went to Beyrout to study Arabic, and 
in 1828 returned to his work at Malta. In 1829 
ho made a tour with Dr. Anderson through 
Greece, and in 1830-'31 with Dr. Dwight of 
Constantinople through Armenia and Georgia 
to Persia, opening the way for the Nestorian 
mission at Urumiah. In 1832 he visited the 
United States, and published a work by him- 
self and Dr. Dwight entitled " Missionary Re- 
searches in Armenia." He returned to Bey- 
rout in 1833. In 1838 and again in 1852 he 
was the travelling companion and coadjutor 
of Dr. Edward Robinson in his explorations 
in Palestine. After the journey of 1838 he 
went to Leipsic to superintend the casting of 
a new font of Arabic type, in which he im- 
proved the form of the letters, making them 
more distinct and nearer the style of the writ- 
ten letters. He revisited the United States in 
1839, and again, on account of severe illness 
in 1845. From 1847 he was engaged upon a 
translation of the Bible into modern Arabic 
which has been completed since his death b 
Dr. C. C. Van Dyke. He published a volum 
of sermons and addresses (1834). 

SMITH, George, an English oriental scholar 
born about 1825. In 1866, while examinini 
r;*e store of Assyrian paper casts in th 
British museum, he discovered an inscription 
of Shalmaneser II., which gave an account o 
the war against Hazael. In 1867 he assistec 



preparing a new volume of " Cuneiform In- 
criptions of Western Asia" for the British 
museum. Thereafter the study of the cunei- 
orm texts became his sole occupation. His 
>rincipal earlier discoveries, published in the 
' Transactions of the Society of Biblical Ar- 
haBology " are : a tablet noticing the eclipse 
if June 15, 763 B. C. ; notices of the Israeli- 
ish kings Azariah, Pekah, and Hoshea; ac- 
jounts of the conquest of Babylonia by the 
Elamites in 2280 B. C. ; a curious religious 
calendar of the Assyrians; and a tablet con- 
.aining the Chaldean account of the deluge, 
which he afterward discovered to be the elev- 
nth in a series of twelve giving the history 
jf an unknown hero, whom he believes to 
>e the same as the Nimrod of the Bible. In 
1871 he published, at the cost of Mr. Fox 
Dalbot and Mr. J. W. Bosanquet, his great 
work on the history of Asshur-bani-pal, giv- 
ing the cuneiform texts, transcriptions, and 
;ranslations of the historical documents per- 
;aining to this reign. In 1873 the proprietors 
of the " Daily Telegraph " sent him on an ex- 
ploring expedition to Nineveh, and in 1874 
tie went there again. He obtained over 3,000 
entire or fragmentary inscriptions, and many 
other objects of great importance. He pub- 
lished in 1875 an account of these explora- 
tions, and contributed a volume on the history 
of Assyria to the series of "Ancient History 
from the Monuments;" also "The Chaldean 
Account of Genesis" (German translation by 
H. Delitzsch, with notes by F. Delitzsch, 1876), 
a series of legends from the cuneiform inscrip- 
tions resembling the Biblical accounts. He is 
now (1876) exploring the Euphrates valley. ^ 

SMITH, Gerrit, an American philanthropist, 
born in Utica, N. Y., March 6, 1797, died in 
New York, Dec. 28, 1874. He inherited from 
his father Peter Smith, a partner of John Ja- 
cob Astor in the fur trade, one of the largest 
estates in the country, consisting chiefly of 
land in almost every county of New York 
and in nearly all the states of the Union. He 
graduated at Hamilton college, Clinton, N. Y., 
in 1818, and for many years his chief occu- 
pation was the management of his property, 
his residence being at Peterboro, Madison co. 
He studied law, and was admitted to the bar 
when 56 years old (1853). In 1825 he joined 
the colonization society, and contributed large- 
ly for the removal of colored people to Africa. 
Ten years later he withdrew from it and joined 
the American anti-slavery society. He gave 
away large quantities of land in public and pri- 
vate charity, and in 1848 distributed 200,000 
acres, in parcels averaging 50 acres. In 1852 
Mr. Smith was elected a representative in con- 
gress ; but he did not like public life, and re- 
signed at the close of the first session. While 
in congress he voted with the party opposed 
to slavery, and made several speeches on that 
side. A few years later he contributed large- 
ly to the struggle for free institutions in Kan- 
sas, in which his friend John Brown became 




SMITH 



117 



r>ast 

re S 



prominent; and in 1859 he gave pecuniary aid 
to Brown in preparing for the attack on Har- 
per's Ferry, though he probably had no pre- 
cise knowledge of his plans. The failure of 
that attempt, and grief and anxiety for the 
loss of life which it occasioned, temporarily 
overthrew his reason, and for some months 
he was an inmate of the insane asylum at 
Utica. During the civil war he strongly ad- 
vocated the cause of the Union and contrib- 
uted largely for the raising of troops. After 
its close, he joined with Horace Greeley in 
1867 in signing the bail bond by which Jef- 
ferson Davis was liberated. Mr. Smith was 
of a strongly religious nature, and he was in 
the habit of preaching in a church built by 
himself. His originally orthodox views un- 
derwent great changes, but he is said to have 
finally returned to them. He printed and dis- 
tributed gratuitously many pamphlets, speech- 
es, and addresses, and published in book form 
" Speeches in Congress " (1855) ; " Sermons 
and Speeches" (1861); "The Religion of Rea- 
son" (1864) ; " Speeches and Letters " (1865) ; 
" The Theologies " (2d ed., 1866) ; " Nature the 
Base of a Free Theology " (1867) ; and " Cor- 

ondence with Albert Barnes " (1868). 
SMITH, Goldwin, an English author, born in 
Reading, Aug. 18, 1823. He was educated at 
Eton and Oxford, and was called to the bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, but never practised. In 1858 
he became regius professor of modern history 
at Oxford. During the American civil war he 
was a warm friend of the federal government, 
and published " Does the Bible sanction Slave- 
ry?" (1863), "On the Morality of the Eman- 
cipation Proclamation" (1863), " Letter to a 
Whig Member of the Southern Independence 
Association" (1864), "England and America" 
(1865), and "The Civil War in America " (1866). 
In September, 1864, he visited the United States. 
In 1866 he resigned his chair at Oxford, with 
a view of taking up his residence in America. 
Coming to this country in 1868, he became 
professor of English history in Cornell univer- 
sity, and resided at Ithaca till 1871, when he 
exchanged his chair for that of a non-resident 
professor, and removed to Toronto. He has 
since been appointed a member of the senate 
of the university of Toronto, and from 1872 to 
1874 was the editor of the " Canadian Month- 
ly." In 1874 he revisited England. He con- 
tributed to the "Anthologia Oxoniana," the 
"Oxford Essays," and the " Encyclopedia 
Britannica." His other publications are : "In- 
augural Lecture before the University of Ox- 
ford " (1859) ; "Lectures on Modern History," 
"Lectures on the Study of History," "Foun- 
dation of the American Colonies," " On some 
supposed Consequences of Historical Progress," 
and "Rational Religion" (1861); "Irish His- 
tory and Irish Character," and "On Church 
Endowments" (1862); "Empire, a Series of 
Letters" (1863); "Plea for Abolition of Tests 
in Oxford" (1864); "Three English States- 
men," sketches of Pym, Cromwell, and Pitt 



(1867) ; " Reorganization of the University of 
Oxford " (1868) ; and " Relations between 
America and England " (1869). 

SMITH, Henry Boynton, an American clergy- 
man, born in Portland, Me., Nov. 21, 1815. 
He graduated at Bowdoin college in 1834, was 
a tutor there in 1836-'7 and in 1840-'41, and 
studied theology at Andover and Bangor, and 
subsequently at Halle and Berlin. He was 
pastor of the Congregational church in West 
Amesbury, Mass., from 1842 to 1847, when he 
became professor of mental and moral philos- 
ophy in Amherst college. In 1850 he became 
professor of church history in the Union theo- 
logical seminary, New York, and in 1855 of 
systematic theology, which chair he resigned 
in 1873. He was elected in 1863 moderator of 
the New School general assembly of the Pres- 
byterian church, and at the opening of the 
next general assembly in Dayton, Ohio, in 
1864, delivered a discourse which was pub- 
lished under the title " Christian Union and 
Ecclesiastical Reunion." He was subsequently 
a member of the general assembly's committee 
on reunion with the Old School general as- 
sembly, and presented a report on a doctrinal 
basis of union (" The Reunion of the Presby- 
terian Churches," 8vo, 1867). In 1867 he was 
a delegate to the evangelical alliance in Am- 
sterdam, where he read a "Report on the 
State of Religion in the United States." He 
was a founder of the "American Theological 
Review," and its editor from 1859 to 1862, 
when it was consolidated with the " Presbyte- 
rian Review," which he edited till 1871. His 
principal works are: "The Relations of Faith 
and Philosophy" (8vo, 1849); "The Nature 
and Worth of the Science of Church History " 
(1851); "The Problem of the Philosophy of 
History" (1853); "The Idea of Christian 
Theology as a System" (1857); "An Argu- 
ment for Christian Colleges " (1857) ; " His- 
tory of the Church of Christ, in Chronological 
Tables" (fol., 1859); a new edition of the 
Edinburgh translation of Gieseler's " Church 
History " (5 vols. 8vo, 1859-'63), of which vols. 
iv. and v. were chiefly translated by Prof. 
Smith ; a revised edition of the Edinburgh 
translation of Hagenbach's " History of Chris- 
tian Doctrine" (2 vols. 8vo, 1861-'2); with 
James Strong, a new edition of the Edinburgh 
translation of Stier's "Words of the Lord 
Jesus" (in parts, 1864 et seq.} ; and with R. 
D. Hitchcock, " The Life, Character, and Wri- 
tings of Edward Robinson " (1864). 

SMITH, James, a signer of the Declaration 
of Independence, born in Ireland about 1719, 
died in York, Pa., July 11, 1806. He came 
to America with his father's family in 1729, 
studied law in Lancaster, Pa., and after his 
admission to practice removed to the neigh- 
borhood of Shippensburg, and engaged in sur- 
veying. After a few years he removed to 
York, which became his permanent home, and 
entered upon the legal profession. In 1774 he 
was chosen a deputy to attend the provincial 



118 



SMITH 



meeting, or rather " Committee for the Prov- 
ct of Pennsylvania," which convened at 
Phihulolphia July 15. At this meeting ho was 
one of those who were appointed to " prepare 
and bring in a draught of instructions to the 
representatives in assembly met." In 17,6 he 
was chosen a member of the continental con- 
gress, in which he continued till 1778; and 
when congress held its sessions m York, the 
board of war occupied his law office. 

SMITH, James and Horace, English authors, 
associated together in literary history. Ihe 
former was born in London, Feb. 10, 1775, and 
died there, Dec. 24, 1839; and the latter was 
born in London, Dec. 31, 1779, and died at 
Tnnbridge Wells, July 12, 1849. They were 
the sons of Robert Smith, a legal practitioner 
of London, and were early trained to an active 
business life, James in the professional busi- 
ness of his father, and Horace as a member of 
the stock exchange, in which business he ac- 
quired a fortune. The poetical imitations en- 
titled " Horace in London," originally contrib- 
uted to the "Monthly Mirror," and afterward 
republished in England and America, were 
written principally by James. In 1812 the 
rebuilding of Drury Lane theatre led to the 
offer of a prize for an opening address ; the 
brothers, in six weeks, completed a series of 
parodies on the popular authors of the day, in 
the form of addresses for the prize, and thus 
arose the well known volume of "Rejected 
Addresses." The publisher Murray originally 
declined giving 20 for the copyright, but 
after it had run through 16 editions (1819) he 
purchased it for 131. James Smith during 
the 'remainder of his life wrote anonymously 
for amusement or relief from physical suffer- 
ing, contributing tern de societe and epigrams to 
the magazines or annuals, or assisting Charles 
Mathews the actor in the preparation of his 
" Country Cousins," his " Trip to France," and 
other "entertainments." A collection of his 
miscellaneous pieces in prose and verse was 
published after his death by his brother (2 
vols., 1840). Horace, subsequent to 1820, when 
ired from business, was for 25 years one 
of the most industrious authors of England 
In 1826 appeared "Brambletye House," one 
of his earliest novels, and his most successful 
one. It was succeeded by "Tor Hill," "Reu- 
ben Apsley," "Jane Lomax," "The New For- 
est," and other novels, few of which are now 
known outside of the circulating libraries. In 
1845 the author took a formal leave of the 
public in the preface to "Love and Mesmer 
ism." A selection from the poetical works of 
Horace and James Smith, including the " Re 
iected Addresses," with a memoir by Epes 
Jit, was published in New York in 1857 
Hi.- Tin Trumpet" (2 vols. 8vo), published 
anonymously in 1836, was republished in 1869 
as the work of Horace Smith. 
SMITH, Sir James Edward, an English botan 
rn in Norwich, Dec. 2, 1759, died there 
March 17, 1828. He studied medicine at Ed 



nburgh, purchased the books, manuscripts, and 
lerbarium of Linna3us, commenced the prac- 
,ice of his profession in London, received the 
degree of M.D. at Leyden, and in 1788 founded 
,he Linnsean society of London, of which he 
was the first president. In 1796 he returned 
o Norwich, though he lectured on botany for 
wo months each year at the royal institution. 
He wrote "English Botany" (36 vols., with 
2,592 colored figures by Sowerby, London, 
L792-1807); Flora Britannica (3 vols., 1800- 
4) ; " Exotic Botany " (2 vols., 1804-'5) ; "In- 
troduction to Systematical Botany" (1807); 
and "The English Flora" (3 vols., 1828-'6); 
and he edited Sibthorp's Flora Graca (1808). 

SMITH, John, the founder of Virginia, born 
at Willoughby, Lincolnshire, England, in Jan- 
uary, 1579, died in London, June 21, 1631. 
"When young he took part in the wars in the 
Netherlands, and after four years' service re- 
iurned home, but went abroad again to fight 
against the Turks. He distinguished himself 
by daring exploits in Hungary and Transylva- 
nia, and received from Sigismund Bathori a 
patent of nobility and a pension, but finally 
was taken prisoner, and sent as a slave to Con- 
stantinople. Here he gained the affection of 
his young mistress, who to secure his safety 
sent him to her brother, a pasha on the sea of 
Azov, with a letter in which she confessed 
her feelings. The proud prince, indignant at 
the attachment of his sister to a Christian, mal- 
treated Smith, who at length, maddened by an 
insult, beat out his master's brains with a flail, 
put on the dead man's clothes, mounted his 
horse, and finally reached a Russian garrison 
on the Don. He was here kindly treated and 
helped on his journey to Transylvania, where 
he was furnished with money to repair his 
losses. Smith now returned to England, reach- 
ing it after a long journey and an attempt to 
take part in a war in Barbary, and was per- 
suaded by Capt. Gosnold, who had already vis- 
ited the coasts of America, to engage in the 
founding of a colony. The expedition, con- 
sisting of three vessels and 105 men, under the 
command of Newport, set sail Dec. 19, 1606. 
By the charter, the government of the colony 
was placed in the hands of a council appointed 
and removable by the crown ; their names were 
in a sealed box, not to be opened until their 
arrival at Virginia. On the voyage dissensions 
sprang up among the leaders, and much enmity 
was shown to Smith. At the Canaries he was 
charged with a conspiracy to make himself 
king of Virginia, and was kept prisoner for the 
rest of the voyage. After landing the box was 
opened, and although Smith was named one of 
the council, he was excluded. "With Newport 
he headed a party of 20 men to discover the 
source of the James. About six weeks after, 
when Newport was returning to England, 
Smith's enemies urged him to return and be 
reprimanded by the council in England rather 
than suffer the disgrace of a public conviction 
in the colony ; but he demanded a trial, which 



SMITH 



119 



resulted in his acquittal, and he was made a 
member of the council. Bad and scanty food 
brought on disease among the colonists and re- 
duced their number. The president, Wingfield, 
embezzled the stores and was deposed. Rat- 
clift'e was made his successor, but the real head 
was Smith, and to his efforts the salvation of 
the infant colony was owing. He set about 
the building of Jamestown, and after providing 
the settlers with lodgings made excursions into 
the neighboring country to obtain corn. On 
one of these expeditions he was taken prison- 
er by the Indians, and his life was saved, it is 
said, by the interference of Pocahontas. (See 
POCAIIONTAS.) Sent back to Jamestown by 
Powhatan after an absence of seven weeks, he 
found the colony reduced to 40 men, and the 
most of these had determined to return to Eng- 
land. This, however, Smith prevented, and 
the arrival of Newport with 120 men raised 
the spirits of the colonists. In June and July, 
1608, Smith explored the coasts of Chesapeake 
bay as far as the mouth of the Patapsco. On 
July 24 he started on another expedition, and 
explored the head of the Chesapeake, returning 
to Jamestown on Sept. 7. In these two voy- 
ages Capt. Smith sailed, by his own computa- 
tion, about 3,000 m., and from his surveys con- 
structed a map of the bay and the country bor- 
dering upon it. Being now president of the 
colony, he administered its affairs with ener- 
gy ; and his influence restored quiet to the col- 
ony, which had been filled with dissensions and 
disturbed by fears of the Indians. Smith's 
administration, however, had not been satis- 
factory to the company in England, whose too 
brilliant hopes had been disappointed, and 
whose irritation Smith's soldierly bluntness did 
not conciliate. A new charter was granted, 
and the powers previously reserved to the king 
were transferred to the company. Lord Del- 
aware was made governor, and three com- 
missioners, Newport, Sir Thomas Gates, and 
Sir George Somers, were empowered to man- 
age the affairs of the colony till his arrival. 
They set sail with more than 500 emigrants, 
and a part of the fleet, in a shattered condi- 
tion, and without the commissioners, reached 
Virginia in August, 1609. The new emigrants 
were mostly " dissolute gallants, packed off to 
escape worse destinies at home, broken trades- 
men, gentlemen impoverished in spirit and in 
fortune, rakes and libertines, men more fitted 
to corrupt than found a commonwealth." Dis- 
orders quickly ensued, and Smith, at the re- 
quest of the better part of the colony, resumed 
the government. The refractory were put in 
prison, and new settlements established. Re- 
turning from one of them, he was severely in- 
jured by the explosion of a bag of gunpowder, 
and in September, 1609, returned to England. 
In 1614 he explored with two ships the New 
England coast, and on his return presented to 
Prince Charles a map of the country between 
the Penobscot and Cape Cod. In 1615 he 
sailed again to New England, to found a col- 



ony. His vessel was captured by a French 
man-of-war, and he was carried to La Ro- 
chelle. He escaped, and on his return home 
wrote an account of his voyages to New Eng- 
land, which was published in 1616. The re- 
mainder of his life was passed in retirement. 
He published several works, the most impor- 
tant of which are "The Generall Historie of 
Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles" 
(1626), and "The True Travels, Adventures, 
and Observations of Captain John Smith, in 
Europe, Asia, Affrica, and America, from 1593 
to 1629" (1630). These two works were re- 
printed at Richmond in 1819. In 1631 he 
published also " Advertisements for the Unex- 
perienced Planters of New England, or any- 
where, or the Pathway to Experience to Erect 
a Plantation." This has been reprinted with 
a facsimile of Smith's map of New England 
(4to, Boston, 1865); also the "Description 
of New England" (4to, 1865), and "A True 
Relation of Virginia," reprinted from the 
London edition of 1608, with an introduction 
and notes by Charles Deane (4to, 1866).^-See 
" Life of Capt. John Smith," by G. S. Hillard, 
in Sparks's "American Biography," vol. ii. 

SMITH, John Augustine, an American physi- 
cian, born in "Westmoreland co., Va., Aug. 29, 
1782, died in New York, Feb. 9, 1865. He 
went in 1809 to New York, where he edited 
the "Medical and Physiological Journal,", and 
was a lecturer on anatomy in the college of 
physicians and surgeons. In 1814 he removed 
to Virginia, and was president of William and 
Mary college till 1826, when he resigned and 
returned to New York. He was president of 
the college of physicians and surgeons from 
1831 to 1843, and editor of the "Medical and 
Physiological Journal." He published "Intro- 
ductory Discourse at the New Medical Col- 
lege in Crosby Street" (1827); "Select Dis- 
course on the Functions of the Nervous Sys- 
tem" (1840); "The Mutations of the Earth" 
(1846) ; " Monograph upon the Moral Sense, 
two Discourses " (1847) ; " Prelections on Mor- 
al and Physical Science" (1853); and numer- 
ous essays and lectures on moral philosophy, 
physical science, &c. 

SMITH, John Lawrence, an American chemist 
and mineralogist, born near Charleston, S. C., 
Dec. 16, 1818. He graduated at the universi- 
ty of Virginia and at the medical college of 
South Carolina, and for three years studied 
chemistry, physiology, physics, mineralogy, and 
geology in Europe. In 1844 he commenced 
the practice of medicine in Charleston, deliv- 
ered lectures on toxicology, paid attention to 
agricultural chemistry, and ascertained the 
character and value of the marl beds extend- 
ing 100 m. back of Charleston. In 1846 he 
was employed by the Turkish government to 
suggest improvements in the cotton culture in 
Asia Minor, and accepted the appointment of 
mining engineer. He remained four years, 
and in 1849 made a report on the "Thermal 
Waters of Asia Minor." His mining researches 



120 



SMITH 



in Asia Minor led to the subsequent discov- 
ery of emery and corundum in localities in the 
United States. After his return in 1851 he in- 
vented the inverted microscope, and was pro- 
fessor of chemistry in the university of Vir- 
ginia, and subsequently in the medical depart- 
ment of the university of Louisville, Ky., and 
is now (1876) scientific superintendent of the 
Louisville gas works. In 1867 he was a com- 
missioner to the Paris exposition, making a re- 
port on " The Progress and Condition of Sev- 
eral Departments of Industrial Chemistry," 
and in 1873 to the Vienna exhibition. In 
1872 he was elected president of the American 
association for the advancement of science. 
His scientific reports are numerous, and his 
original researches, about 50 in number, have 
been collected in a volume, " Mineralogy and 
Chemistry : Original Researches " (8vo, Louis- 
ville, 1873). (See EMERALD, and EMERY.) 

SMITH, John Pye, an English clergyman, born 
in Sheffield, May 25, 1774, died in Guildford, 
Surrey, Feb. 5, 1851. In his22d year he en- 
tered the Independent academy at Rotherham, 
and in 1800 was chosen classical tutor in the 
Homerton theological academy. He subse- 
quently became pastor of a church at Homer- 
ton, and in 1813 he was appointed divinity 
tutor. From 1843 to 1850 he was again classi- 
cal tutor ; but on the consolidation of Homer- 
ton, Highbury, and Coward academies into 
New college, he resigned. He was a fellow 
of the royal and of the geological society. His 
principal works are : " The Scripture Testimo- 
ny to the Messiah" (3 vols., 1818-'21 ; 5th ed., 
2 vols., 1868); "Four Discourses on the Sac- 
rifice and Priesthood of Jesus Christ" (3d ed., 
1827); "On the Personality and Divinity of 
the Holy Spirit" (1831); "The Mosaic Ac- 
count of the Creation and the Deluge illus- 
trated by the Discoveries of Modern Science " 
(1837); and "Scripture and Geology" (1839; 
4th ed., greatly enlarged, 1848; 5th ed., 1854). 
See "Memoirs of the Life and Writings of 
John Pye Smith," by J. Medway (1853). 

SMITH, Joseph, founder of the Mormon church, 
or church of Latter Day Saints, born at Sharon 
Vt., Dec. 23, 1805, killed at Carthage, 111., 
June 27, 1844. His parents, of Scotch descent, 
early removed to Palmyra, N. Y. The family 
was disreputable, and Joseph's education was 
very defective. With the aid of Sidney Rigdon 
he brought forth the "Book of Mormon," 
which he pretended to have discovered under 
angelic guidance, written on plates and hidden 
in the earth ; and on this he founded and or- 
ganized his church in Manchester, N. Y., April 
6, 1830. In 1831 he went with his disciples to 
Kirtland, O., and erected a costly but very 
singular temple. Here Smith and Rigdon en- 
gaged in fraudulent banking, were tarred and 
feathered for this and other offences in 1832, 
and after the failure of their bank in January^ 
1838, fled to Missouri. There, in a town 
n:im-.l Far \\Y~t, Smith's disciples gathered; 
but tlit-ir irregularities occasioned an outbreak 



against them, and their speedy removal to 
Hancock county, 111., where they built a city 
called Nauvoo, and constructed another costly 
temple. Here Smith, who combined in his 
own person the chief military, municipal, and 
ecclesiastical offices, introduced polygamy un- 
der a pretended revelation; but several out- 
raged husbands revolted and established an op- 
position press, which Smith with a mob de- 
molished. For this warrants were issued 
against Smith, his brother Hyrum, and others. 
The Smiths refused obedience to the authori- 
ties, the state militia were summoned, and war 
was threatened ; but they were finally induced 
to surrender, and were imprisoned. Fearing 
their release, a mob gathered, overcame the 
prison guard, and shot the prisoners dead, 
Joseph defending himself with a revolver till 
his ammunition failed. (See MORMONS.) 

SMITH, Joseph Mather, an American physi- 
cian, born at New Rochelle, N. Y., March 14, 
1789, died in New York, April 22, 1866. He 
graduated in medicine in 1815 at the college of 
physicians and surgeons, New York. In 1826 
he was appointed professor of the theory and 
practice of medicine in the college of physi- 
cians and surgeons, and in 1829 attending phy- 
sician to the New York hospital. In 1855 his 
chair was exchanged for that of materia med- 
ica and clinical medicine. His most important 
publications are: "Elements of the Etiology 
and Philosophy of Epidemics" (New York, 
1824) ; " Report on Practical Medicine" 
(" Transactions of the American Medical As- 
sociation," 1848, vol. i.); "Report on Public 
Hygiene" (ibid., 1850. vol. iii.) ; "Medical To- 

?)graphy and Epidemics of the State of New 
ork " (ibid., 1860, vol. xiii.) ; and " Therapeu- 
tics of Albuminuria " (" Bulletin of the New 
York Academy of Medicine," 1863, vol. ii.). 

SMITH, Robert Payne, an English orientalist, 
born in Gloucestershire in November, 1818. 
He graduated at Pembroke college, Oxford, in 
1841, took orders, was curate of Trinity church 
and master of the academy in Edinburgh, and 
subsequently was head master of the proprie- 
tary school in Kensington. In 1857 he was 
appointed sub-librarian of the Bodleian library, 
with special charge of the oriental manuscripts. 
In 1865 he was made canon of Christ church, 
Oxford, and regius professor of divinity in the 
university. Since 1871 he has been dean of 
Canterbury. He has published annotated cop- 
ies and English versions of Syriac manuscripts, 
including " Cyril of Alexandria's Commentary 
on St. Luke's Gospel" (4to, Oxford, 1858; 
English version, 2 vols. 8vo, 1859) and " Ec- 
clesiastical History of John of Ephesus" (8vo, 
1860). He has also published a Latin " Cata- 
logue of the Syriac MSS. in the Bodleian Li- 
brary" (4to, 1864), "Authenticity and Mes- 
sianic Interpretation of the Prophecies of 
Isaiah" (8vo, 1862), and "Prophecy a Prep- 
aration for Christ" (Bampton lectures for 
1869). In 1873 he prepared a paragraphic 
Bible for the society for promoting Christian 



SMITH 



121 



knowledge. In 1874 he was understood to be 
preparing a commentary on Jeremiah, for the 
" Speaker's Commentary," and was engaged 
upon the Thesaurus Syriacus, of which up to 
1872 two parts had been published. 

SMITH, Samuel Stanhope, an American clergy- 
man, born at Pequea, Pa., March 16, 1750, 
died in -Princeton, N. J., Aug. 21, 1819. He 
graduated at Princeton college in 1767, and 
from 1770 to 1773 was tutor there. He was 
then for some time a missionary in western 
Virginia, and was principal of the seminary 
which became the Hampden Sidney college. 
In 1779 he was appointed professor of moral 
philosophy in the college of New Jersey, of 
which he was president from 1794 to 1812. 
In 1786 he was associated with several other 
clergymen of the Presbyterian church in pre- 
paring the form of presbyterial government 
which continues to the present time. He pub- 
lished "Causes of the Variety in the Figure 
and Complexion of the Human Species " (8vo, 
1787) ; " Sermons " (1799) ; " Lectures on the 
Evidences of the Christian Religion " (12mo, 
1809) ; and " A Comprehensive View of the 
leading and most important Principles of Nat- 
ural and Revealed Religion " (8vo, 1816). His 
Sermons," with a memoir of his life and 

ritings, were published in 1821 (2 vols. 8vo). 

SMITH. I. Seba, an American author, born in 
Buckfield, Me., Sept. 14, 1792, died in Patch- 
ogue, L. I., July 29, 1868. He graduated at 
Bowdoin college in 1818, and settled in Port- 
land, where he edited the "Eastern Argus" 
(1820-'24) and the " Courier " (1830-'37). In 

1842 he removed to New York. He published 
" Life and Letters of Major Jack Downing " 
(Boston, 1833), a celebrated series of humorous 
political letters ; " Powhatan," a metrical ro- 
mance (1841); "Dewdrops of the Nineteenth 
Century," miscellanies (1846); "New Ele- 
ments of Geometry" (1850); "Way Down 
East, or Portraitures of Yankee Life " (1854) ; 
and "My Thirty Years out of the Senate, by 
Major Jack Downing " (1859-'60). II. Elizabeth 
Oakes (PKIXCE), an American authoress, wife of 
the preceding, born in North Yarmouth (now 
Cumberland), Me. She married Mr. Smith at 
the age of 16, and about the same time became 
an anonymous contributor of poems to the pe- 
riodical press. After her removal with her 
husband to New York in 1842 she frequently 
appeared before the public as a lecturer. In 

1843 appeared the first considerable collection 
of her poetical pieces under the title of " The 
Sinless Child and other Poems," and her metri- 
cal contributions to the magazines have since 
been numerous. She is the author of " The 
Roman Tribute" and "Jacob Leisler," trage- 
dies; "The Western Captive" and "Bertha and 
Lily," novels; "The Salamander, a Legend 
for Christmas;" and children's books and mis- 
cellaneous publications. In 1851 she published 
"Woman and her Needs," a work devoted to 
the rights of woman, which Mrs. Smitfa has 
at various times advocated by her pen and 



as a lecturer. Among her .later publications 
are : " Hints on Dress and Beauty " (1852) ; 
"Shadow Land" (1852); "The Newsboy" 
(1855) ; " Bald Eagle, or the last of the Rarna- 
paughs" (1867); "Two Wives" (1871); and 
"Kitty Howard's Journal" (1871). She now 
(1876) resides at Hollywood, Carteret co., N. C. 
SMITH, Sydney, an English author, born at 
Woodford, Essex, June 3, 1771, died in Lon- 
don, Feb. 22, 1845. He was educated at New 
college, Oxford, where in 1790 he obtained a 
fellowship of 100 a year. He took orders, 
and in 1794 became curate in the parish of 
Netheravon, in Salisbury plain ; but three 
years later he went to Edinburgh as a private 
tutor. In 1802 he was associated with Mur- 
ray, Jeffrey, Brougham, Horner, and others in 
establishing the "Edinburgh Review," to the 
first number of which, as editor, he contributed 
seven articles. Soon afterward he went to 
London, where his sermons attracted large and 
fashionable congregations, and in 1804-'6 he 
delivered courses of lectures on moral phi- 
losophy before the royal institution. A post- 
humous volume, entitled " Elementary Sketch- 
es of Moral Philosophy" (1850), contains the 
substance of these. Upon the return of the 
whigs to power in 1806, he was presented to 
the living of Foston-le-Clay in Yorkshire, 
worth about 500 a year. In 1807-'8 ap- 
peared anonymously his "Letters on the Sub- 
ject of the Catholics, by Peter Plymley," which, 
owing to an admirable mixture of sound sense, 
irony, and pleasantry, had an immense circu- 
lation; and his efforts in the cause of Cath- 
olic emancipation were never relaxed until 
that measure was accomplished. In 1809 he 
published two volumes of sermons, and in 
the summer of that year removed with his 
family to Heslington, near York, where he re- 
sided for a few years, in the hope of being 
able to exchange Foston-le-Clay for some more 
desirable parish. Failing in this, he turned 
his thoughts toward Foston, the forlorn con- 
dition of which he characteristically described 
by saying it was " actually twelve miles from 
a lemon," constructed a parsonage, and in the 
spring of 1814 moved with his family into his 
new quarters. In 1828 Lord Lyndhurst ap- 
pointed him canon of Bristol and rector of 
Combe-Florey, near Taunton, and three years 
later he received a prebendal stall in St. Paul's. 
The remainder of his life was devoted to the 
discharge of his official duties, and to literary 
labors ; but he wrote nothing for the " Edin- 
burgh Review" subsequent to 1827. Having 
come into the possession of a considerable es- 
tate by the death of his brother Courtenay in 
1843, he invested largely in the public stock of 
Pennsylvania ; and the neglect of that state to 
pay the interest on her bonds called out his 
" Petition to Congress" and "Letters on Amer- 
ican Debts," writings overflowing with hu- 
morous invective. His humor never left him, 
and under the last regimen of his physician 
he expressed his longing for " even the wing 



122 



SMITH 



of a roasted butterfly." A collection of his 
writings, comprising his review articles, "Pe- 
: nicy's Letters," and various pamphlets 
and miscellanies, was published in 1839-'40 (4 
vols. 8vo; afterward in several other forms). 
He left also in manuscript an account of Eng- 
lish misrule in Ireland, which his widow was 
advised by Macaulay not to publish. In 1855 
appeared a memoir of him by his daughter 
Saba, the wife of Sir Henry Holland; and a 
volume of his writings and sayings, entitled 
" The Wit and Wisdom of Sydney Smith," was 
collected with a memoir by E. A. Duyckinck 
(New York, 1856). 

SMITH, Thomas Sonthwood, an English physi- 
cian, born at Martock, Somersetshire, Dec. 21, 
1788, died in Florence, Italy, Dec. 10, 1861. 
He studied medicine at the university of Ed- 
inburgh, and settled in the country, but in 
1820 removed to London, and was one of the 
founders of the " Westminster Keview." His 
work on "The Use of the Dead to the Liv- 
ing," reprinted from the earlier numbers of 
the "Review," was instrumental in the pas- 
sage by parliament of the anatomy act, which 
put an end to the business of "resurrection." 
In 1824 he was appointed physician to the 
London fever hospital, and somewhat earlier 
to the eastern dispensary. In 1832 he was 
one of the commissioners to inquire into the 
condition of factory children, and his report 
led to the passage of the factory act. In 1838 
he presented to the poor-law commission- 
ers the first of a series of reports on the 
"Physical Causes of Sickness and Mortality 
which are capable of Removal by Sanitary 
Regulations." This led to the appointment 
of a sanitary committee by the house of com- 
mons in 1840, and of the health of towns 
commission in 1842. Dr. Smith was appointed 
in 1840 a commissioner to inquire into the 
condition of children and young persons in the 
mines and factories not reached by the factory 
act, and his reports induced the exclusion of 
young children and women from mining la- 
bor. In 1847, as one of the metropolitan san- 
itary commissioners, he made a report on the 
means requisite for the improvement of the 
health of the metropolis, of which the result 
was the public health act of 1848 and the es- 
tablishment of a general board of health. On 
its abolition he received a pension of 300. 
His principal works are: "Illustrations of the 
Divine Government" (Glasgow, 1814; 5th ed., 
London, 1866); "Treatise on Fever" (1830), 
long a standard with the profession ; and " The 
Philosophy of Health" (2 vols. 12mo, 1835-'7- 
12th ed., 1868). 

SMITH, WlffltB, called the father of English 
geology, born at Churchill, Oxfordshire, March 
23, 1769, died in Northampton, Aug. 28, 1839. 
In his youth he was a land surveyor and civil 
engineer, and was led to geological studies by 
his professional observations. He began in 
>f;ip of the Strata of England and 
Wales," and in 1799 published in tabular form 



"The Order of the Strata and their Organic 
Remains in the vicinity of Bath, examined 
and proved prior to 1799." In 1801 a small 
geological map of England was produced, and 
in 1815 the "Geological Map of England and 
Wales, with Part of Scotland," with a trea- 
tise. Between 1819 and 1824 he published 
21 geological maps of English counties, col- 
ored to represent the strata, and some works 
on organic remains. In 1824-'8 he lectured 
on geology. In 1831 he received from the 
geological society the Wollaston medal for his 
discoveries in geology. 

SMITH, William, an English scholar, born in 
London in 1814. He was educated at Univer- 
sity college, London, and studied law, but be- 
came professor of the Greek, Latin, and Ger- 
man languages at the Independent collegiate 
schools of Highbury and Homerton. In 1850 
he was appointed professor of Greek and Latin 
in New college, London, and in 1853 classi- 
cal examiner in the university of London. 
In 1867 he became editor of the "Quarterly 
Review." He has edited a " Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities " (8vo, 1842) ; 
" Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography 
and Mythology " (3 vols. 8vo, 1843-'9) ; " Dic- 
tionary of Greek and Roman Geography" (2 
vols., 1854-7) ; and "Dictionary of the Bible " 
(3 vols., 1860-'63). All these dictionaries have 
been abridged by him for the use of schools. 
The first and the abridged edition of the sec- 
ond and third combined have been edited by 
Charles Anthon (New York, 1843 and 1850). 
The " Dictionary of the Bible " has been 
abridged by the Rev. S. W. Barnum (New 
York, 1868), and edited and enlarged by Prof. 
H. B. Hackett (4 vols., New York, 1868-'70). 
He has also published a " History of Greece," 
and an abridgment of the same, an edition of 
Gibbon's " Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire," and a "Student's Gibbon," a "Stu- 
dent's Hume," and "Student's Hallam's Mid- 
dle Ages," each in one volume; a Latin-Eng- 
lish dictionary (1855), based on Forcellini 
and Freund; with J. D. Hall, "A copious 
and critical English-Latin Dictionary " (1870) ; 
with George Grove, a "Historical Atlas of 
Ancient Geography, Biblical and Classical " 
(1873) ; and " Modern Geography for Schools " 
(1873). In 1874 he was preparing "A Dic- 
tionary of Christian Antiquities" and "A Dic- 
tionary of Christian Biography and Doctrines." 
He has also published Latin and Greek courses 
for schools, and other educational works, of 
which numerous editions have been issued. 

SMITH, William Andrew, an American clergy- 
man, born in Fredericksburg, Va., Nov. 29, 
1802, died in Richmond, March 1, 1870. In 
1825 he was admitted to the Virginia confer- 
ence of the Methodist Episcopal church. In 
1833 ho became agent of Randolph Macon col- 
lege, after which he served as pastor of 
principal Methodist churches of Richmonc 
Petersburg, Norfolk, and Lynchburg. He was 
a member of every general conference from 



SMITH 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 123 



UUJ 

2 



re 

: 



1832 to 1844, and also of the Louisville con- 
vention at which was organized the Methodist 
Episcopal church, South, and of every general 
conference of this body until his death. From 
1846 to 1866 he was president of Randolph 
Macon college, and during this period not only 
filled the chair of moral science and presided 
over the college, hut lectured extensively in 
Virginia and North Carolina. In the autumn 
of 1866 he was transferred to the St. Louis 
conference, and in 1869 was chosen president 
of Central university, Missouri. He was for 
a time editor of the Richmond " Christian 
Advocate," and published "Lectures on the 
Philosophy of Slavery " (Richmond, 1860), a 
defence of the institution as it existed in the 

uthern states. 

SMITH, Sir William Sidney, an English admi- 
born at Midgham, Sussex, in 1764, died in 

aris, May 26, 1840. He entered the navy at 
the age of 12, and before he was 20 was post 
captain, serving to the close of the American 
war. He subsequently participated in the war 
between Sweden and Russia as a captain in the 
Swedish service. Afterward, in command of 
a small English flotilla, he harassed French 
commerce in the channel, but in April, 1796, 
was captured by a superior force and confined 
in the prison of the Temple in Paris. The 
French government refused to exchange him, 
but he escaped by French aid after an impris- 
onment of two years. In 1798 he was put in 
command of a squadron to operate against the 
French on the coast of Egypt, and conducted 
the memorable defence of St. Jean d'Acre 
against Gen. Bonaparte. He signed a treaty 
with Gen. Kleber for the evacuation of Egypt 
by the French, which was disavowed by the 
British government ; and he continued to par- 
ticipate in the war until compelled by wounds 
to return to England in 1801. He afterward 
returned to service, and at the close of the 

ar received a pension of 1,000. In 1821 he 

as made an admiral. He was an early advo- 
cate of the abolition of the slave trade. Me- 
moirs of his " Life and Times " were written 
by Sir John Barrow (2 vols., London, 1847). 

SMITHSON, James, an English physicist, foun- 
der of the Smithsonian institution, born about 
1765, died in Genoa, June 27, 1829. He was 
a natural son of Hugh, third duke of North- 
umberland, and Mrs. Elizabeth Macie, heiress 
of the Hungerfords of Audley, and niece of 
Charles, duke of Somerset. In 1786 he took 
the honorary degree of A. M. at Oxford, under 
the name of James Lewis Macie, but between 
1791 and 1803 adopted the name of Smithson, 
the family name of his father. At the univer- 
sity he distinguished himself as a chemist, and 
was one of the first to adopt the method of 
minute analysis. He became the friend and 
associate of Wollaston, Banks, and Davy, and 
in 1787 was elected a fellow of the royal soci- 
ety and contributed eight papers to its " Trans- 
actions." His papers subsequent to 1818 were 
published in the " Annals of Philosophy " and 



other scientific periodicals. At his death he 
left about 200 manuscripts, probably intended 
to form portions of a philosophical dictionary. 
He bequeathed to his nephew 120,000, the 
whole of his property, which fn case of the 
death of the latter without heirs was to go to 
the government of the United States to found 
at Washington, under the name of the Smith- 
sonian institution, an establishment for the 
increase and diffusion of knowledge. (See 
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.) 

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, a scientific estab- 
lishment in Washington, D. C., organized by 
act of congress in August, 1846, to carry into 
effect the provisions of the will of James Smith- 
son. The condition on which the bequest was 
to take effect in favor of the United States 
having occurred in 1835, by the death of a 
nephew of the testator without issue, the Hon. 
Richard Rush was sent to London to prose- 
cute the claim. On Sept. 1, 1838, he deposit- 
ed in the United States mint the proceeds in 
English sovereigns, which amounted to $515,- 
169. Suggestions were invited by the presi- 
dent as to the mode of disposing of the fund, 
which was in the mean time lent to Arkansas 
and other states to aid in internal improve- 
ments. The first section of the act of 1846, 
passed after several years' discussion of con- 
flicting plans, creates an ''establishment" for 
the increase and diffusion of knowledge among 
men, to consist of the president and vice pres- 
ident of the United States, the several mem- 
bers of the cabinet, the chief justice of the 
supreme court, the commissioner of the pat- 
ent office, and the mayor of Washington, du- 
ring their respective terms of office, with such 
other persons as these may elect honorary 
members of the institution. The second de- 
clares the original fund to be lent in perpetu- 
ity to the treasury of the United States at 6 
per cent., payable semi-annually ; appropriates 
the interest from Sept. 1, 1838, when the 
money was received, to July 1, 1846, amount- 
ing to $242,129, or so much thereof as might 
be necessary, for the erection of buildings, 
and other current incidental expenses ; and 
provides that all expenditures and appropria- 
tions shall in future be made exclusively from 
the accruing interest and not from the princi- 
pal of the fund. By the third section a board 
of managers is constituted, under the name of 
" Regents of the Smithsonian Institution," to 
be composed of the vice president of the United 
States, the chief justice, the mayor of Wash- 
ington, three members of the senate and three 
of the house of representatives, to be select- 
ed by the president and speaker thereof, with 
six other persons not members of congress, 
of whom two shall be resident in the city of 
Washington and the other four inhabitants of 
the United States, but no two of the same state. 
This board is required to elect one of its 
members as presiding officer, to be styled the 
chancellor of the institution, and also a suitable 
person to act as secretary both of the institu- 



124 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



tion and the board. To this body is assigned 
the duty of a general superintendence, and of 
making an annual report to congress on the 
operations, expenditures, and condition of the 
institution. Sections 4, 5, and 6 assign a lo- 
cation and give power for " the erection of a 
suitable building of sufficient size, with apart- 
ments for the reception and arrangement upon 
a liberal scale of objects of natural history, 
including a geological and mineralogical cab- 
inet; also a chemical laboratory, a library, 
a gallery of art, and the necessary lecture 
rooms;" and provision is made that all objects 
of art, natural history, &c., belonging to the 
United States, with such as may be collected 
from whatever source by the institution itself, 
shall be deposited in the building. Section 
7 devolves on the secretary the charge of the 
building and property, and the duties of li- 
brarian and keeper of the museum, with the 
power of employing assistants, subject to the 
approval and removable at the discretion of 




Smithsonian Institution. 

the regents. Section 8 defines the visitorial 
relations of the members of the establishment 
toward the board of regents, and also limits 
the expenditure for the library. Section 9 
authorizes the managers to dispose of such 
portion of the interest of the fund as the act 
has not otherwise appropriated, in such man- 
ner as they shall deem best suited for the 
promotion of the purpose of the testator. On 
this clause the present organization of the in- 
stitution principally depends. In accordance 
with the requirements of this act of congress, 
a spacious building was erected, making pro- 
\ i-i'-n for a library, museum, gallery of art, and 
lectures. The entire cost of the building, im- 
provement of the grounds, &c., has been up- 
ward of $500,000. A library was begun, con- 
sisting chiefly of transactions and proceedings 
of learn. 1 sn-h-ties obtained by exchange, and 
of other works by purchase necessary for gen- 
t-nil m,., \\liicli has become unequalled in this 
country as a resource for scientific reference. 



The museum, enriched by the fruits of govern- 
mental expeditions and the contributions of 
individual explorers under the direction of the 
institution, has attained a magnitude and com- 
pleteness seldom Surpassed in collections for 
the illustration of natural science. A gallery 
of art was commenced, consisting principally 
of Indian portraits, engravings, and such ar- 
ticles as were presented to the institution by 
foreign governments ; and lectures, chiefly on 
scientific subjects, were delivered up to 1865, 
when they were abandoned in consequence of 
a fire which destroyed the lecture room and 
afforded an opportunity of making important 
changes in the operations of the institution. 
The library was incorporated with that of 
congress, making the latter at once the largest 
in the United States, to which the institution 
annually contributes a copy of the transac- 
tions and proceedings of each of the principal 
societies of the world, and in return receives 
the use of all the books in the collection. Mr. 
W. W. Corcoran of Washington 
having founded a free public gal- 
lery of art, the institution has de- 
posited in it its art collection. 
This is in accordance with the 
general plan of cooperating with 
the different establishments in 
the city of Washington, the in- 
stitution having transferred to 
the department of agriculture its 
botanical collections, and to the 
army medical museum all speci- 
mens relating to medicine and 
anatomy, while it receives in re- 
turn from these departments 
everything which relates to nat- 
ural history and ethnology. The 
expense of the care of the grounds 
around the building, which at 
first devolved upon the institu- 
tion, has been subsequently de- 
frayed by government, and con- 
gress has been induced to make an annual ap- 
propriation for the support of the museum of 
$20,000. By these changes the burdens which 
congress placed upon the institution have been 
removed, and an opportunity is afforded for 
the expenditure of the income of the Smith- 
son legacy, in strict conformity with the terms 
of the will, for the "increase and diffusion 
of knowledge among men." In December, 
1840, the board of regents selected Prof. Jo- 
seph Henry, then of the college of New Jer- 
sey at Princeton, as their secretary, which 
office he still holds (1876). His assistants are 
Prof. Spencer F. Baird, formerly of Dickinson 
college, Carlisle, Pa., in the natural history de- 
partment (appointed in 1850), and William J. 
Rhees as chief clerk (appointed in 1853). The 
board of regents from its composition has ne- 
cessarily changed to some extent almost every 
year, and of its original members none now 
remain. Soon after his appointment Prof. 
Henry submitted to the board a "programme 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 



SMOLENSK 



125 



organization" of the proposed operations 
under the 9th section, which was adopted, and 
still constitutes the basis of management. He 
suggested that men of talent and erudition 
should be afforded the means of conducting 
researches, and stimulated to exertion through 
facilities of publication and occasional com- 
pensation; and for its diffusion, the publica- 
tion of such works as, while adding materially 
to the sum of human knowledge, would not 
find a remunerative sale in the ordinary chan- 
nels of trade. He insisted that it ought to be 
a rule of the institution to do nothing which 
can be equally well done by any organization 
or instrumentality already in action. The re- 
sults are as follows : 1. Researches. The claims 
of different classes of scientific research to the 
countenance and aid of the institution have 
always been pressing and difficult of adjudica- 
tion ; yet a preference has been given to those 
oi widest influence and benefit to the race. 
Ethnology was believed to be one of these, 
and a valuable and expensive memoir on the 
archeology of the Indian tribes was the first 
to receive assistance. In connection with this, 
aid was extended to the compilation of a Da- 
kota grammar and dictionary, and a grammar 
of the Yoruba language. The circulation of 
these has led to other researches in ethnol- 
ogy and kindred branches of science, some 
of which are receiving or will receive assis- 
tance. Astronomy has also engaged the ear- 
nest and continued efforts of the institution 
for its promotion theoretically and practically, 
and pecuniary assistance has been furnished 
to expeditions undertaken with a view to as- 
tronomical and other observations. It has not 
only furnished instruments for physical obser- 
vation to expeditions, but in most cases has 
defrayed the expense of the reduction and 
publication of the results. In meteorology it 
had for many years 500 regular observers scat- 
tered over every part of the continent, and 
accumulated data through this and other mea- 
sures steadily and systematically pursued for 
developing the laws which govern the phe- 
nomena of the weather. In accordance with 
the plan of cooperation adopted, this sys- 
tem has been transferred to the United States 
signal service. The natural history, geogra- 
phy, climatology, geology, mineralogy, bot- 
any, and archeology of this continent have 
through its aid received a greater impulse, and 
more material has been collected for increas- 
ing and diffusing the knowledge of them^than 
through all other instrumentalities during the 
national existence. 2. Publications. These 
are of three classes. 1st. " The Smithsoni- 
an Contributions to Knowledge," comprised 
up to 1875 in 20 large quarto volumes, and in 
many cases expensively illustrated. No me- 
moir is admitted into this series which rests 
on unverified hypothesis, or which does not 
offer some positive addition to the sum of ex- 
isting knowledge ; and the pretensions of each 
in this respect are decided by submission to 



the judgment of two or more arbiters of un- 
questionable competence and impartiality. The 
volumes thus far issued form a series for the 
publication of which no learned society in this 
country possessed the means, and which have 
only been equalled by foreign societies when 
aided by their governments. They have been 
distributed gratuitously among all the impor- 
tant libraries and learned associations of the 
world, and have afforded the means of obtain- 
ing by exchange those invaluable sets of the 
"Transactions" of foreign learned societies, 
not otherwise to be found in this country. 2d. 
The " Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections," 
an occasional series comprising meteorological 
and physical tables, treatises on subjects of 
practical or scientific interest, and manuals for 
the collection and preservation of objects of 
natural history, as well as methods for various 
physical observations. This series includes 12 
octavo volumes. 3d. The "Annual Reports" 
to congress, which, besides a popular analysis 
of the memoirs to be contained in the sev- 
eral forthcoming volumes of the " Contribu- 
tions," are accompanied by a synopsis of lec- 
tures and original or translated articles, which 
introduce the student to information and topics 
of discussion much above the range of those 
usually presented even to the educated public. 
These are printed at the expense of congress, 
and are circulated through the members of 
both houses, as well as by the institution it- 
self. 3. Exchanges. The institution now acts 
as the principal, and is gradually becoming the 
exclusive means of communication between 
the literary and scientific associations of the 
old and the new world. 4. Scientific Corre- 
spondence. The correspondence of the Smith- 
sonian institution with all quarters of the 
globe is vast and constantly increasing. Al- 
most every day brings narratives of real or 
supposed discoveries which are referred to the 
institution, inquiries on scientific topics of all 
kinds, or unusual phenomena, &c. These let- 
ters are all answered. In 1865 a residuary 
legacy of Smithson was received, amounting 
to $26,210 63; and in 1874 a bequest of $1,000 
from James Hamilton of Carlisle, Pa. With 
these, and savings of income and increased 
value of investments, the total permanent 
Smithson fund in the United States treasury, 
drawing interest at 6 per cent, in gold, now 
amounts to $651,000. There are besides de- 
preciated investments valued in January, 1875, 
at $35,000, which with a cash balance on hand 
of $15,909 99 made the total resources at that 
time $701,909 99. 

SMOKE TREE. See SUMACH. 

SMOLENSK. I. A W. government of Russia, 
bordering on Tver, Moscow, Kaluga, Orel, 
Tchernigov, Mohilev, Vitebsk, and Pskov ; area, 
21,637 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,140,015. The 
surface is an elevated undulating plain, broken 
occasionally by low hills. The chief rivers are 
the Dnieper and Desna. It is interspersed with 
numerous small lakes and morasses ; and there 



126 



SMOLLETT 



are immense forests of excellent timber, which 
abound with game. The soil is generally pro- 
ductive. Great numbers of cattle and of the 
celebrated Lithuanian horses are raised. Much 
attention is given to raising bees, and honey 
and wax form important articles of export. 
Iron, copper, and salt are found. Linen and 
woollen goods are manufactured, and tine car- 
pets are exported. II. A city, capital of the 
government, on both sides of the Dnieper, 230 
m. W. S. W. of Moscow ; pop. in 1867, 22,977. 
It is considered the key to Moscow, and is 
strongly walled and fortified. It is the seat of 
a bishop, and has a remarkable cathedral and 
more than 20 other Greek churches. Its manu- 
factures consist chiefly of linen and woollen 
cloths, leather, hats, and soap. It was impor- 
tant in the 9th century, and was long inde- 
pendent under its own princes. The Tartars, 
Lithuanians, and Russians afterward held it 
successively; and in the 16th and 17th centu- 
ries it was the scene of conflicts between the 
Poles and Russians, often changing masters, 
but finally taken by the latter in 1654. On 
Aug. 17, 1812, was fought the battle of Smo- 
lensk, between the French and the Russians. 
In the night the Russians abandoned the town, 
and on the morning of Aug. 18 it was occu- 
pied by the French, who next marched upon 
Moscow, leaving most of Smolensk in ashes. 
The town was subsequently rebuilt and great- 
ly embellished. 

SMOLLETT, Tobias George, a British author, 
born in Dalquhurn house, parish of Cardross, 
Dumbartonshire, in 1721, died at Monte Nero, 
near Leghorn, Oct. 21, 1771. He was educated 
at the grammar school of Dumbarton and at 
the university of Glasgow, and was apprenticed 
to a medical practitioner. When his appren- 
ticeship expired, in his 19th year, he set out 
for London, carrying with him a tragedy en- 
titled "The Regicide," which he vainly at- 
tempted to produce on the stage. Thwarted 
in his purpose, he accepted in 1741 the post of 
surgeon's mate on an 80-gun ship, and sailed 
on the disastrous expedition against Cartagena, 
which he has described in " Roderick Random," 
and with more detail in the " Compendium of 
Voyages." lie left the navy at Jamaica, and 
while there became acquainted with Anne 
Lascelles, whom he married in 1747. Return- 
ing to England in 1746, after the battle of Cul- 
loden, he produced anonymously " The Tears 
of Scotland," an ode lamenting the atrocities 
of the royal army. He also published " Ad- 
vice, a Satire " (1746), and " Reproof, a Satire " 
(1747), and wrote "Alceste, an Opera," for 
the Covent Garden theatre, which was with- 
drawn in consequence of a quarrel with the 
manager. In 1748 appeared the first of his 
novels, "The Adventures of Roderick Ran- 
dom." Ho made a short visit to Paris in 1750, 
and in 1751 published "The Adventures of 
ine Pickk-," which is disfigured by an 
epbode detailing tlu> intrigues of Lady Vane, 
for i&Nrting which he is said to have received 



a liberal reward from her. He now resumed 
the medical profession, settled at Bath, and 
published in 1752 "An Essay on the External 
Use of Water." Obtaining no practice, he re- 
moved to Chelsea, and devoted himself again 
to literary pursuits. In 1753 appeared his 
"Adventures of Ferdinand Count Fathom." 
In 1755 he published by subscription his trans- 
lation of " Don Quixote," more animated and 
elegant but less accurate than that of Jarvis, 
on which it was founded. Afterward he un- 
dertook the management of the " Critical Re- 
view." His irritable temper and capricious 
tastes involved him in numerous vexations 
and quarrels ; a contemptuous critique on the 
"Rosciad" provoked against him the spleen 
of Churchill ; and in 1759 an attack on Ad- 
miral Knowles, one of the commanders at 
Cartagena, caused him to be arraigned for 
libel and sentenced to a fine of 100 and three 
months' imprisonment. He had meantime 
produced a " Compendium of Authentic and 
Entertaining Voyages " (7 vols., 1757), a come- 
dy entitled "The Reprisals," which Garrick 
brought out on the stage, and a " Complete 
History of England" (4 vols., 1757-8), written 
in 14 months, which became very popular. 
While in prison he wrote " The Adventures of 
Sir Launcelot Greaves," a sort of travesty of 
"Don Quixote," which appeared in the "Brit- 
ish Magazine " in 1760-"61. He afterward con- 
tributed the accounts of France, Italy, and 
Germany to the " Modern Universal History," 
and continued his " Complete History of Eng- 
land," bringing the narrative down from 1748 
to 1764. The whole work was in 16 vols. 
8vo, of which only the last 5 vols., forming 
a continuation to Hume, are now read. On 
the accession of George III. he undertook to 
defend the administration of Lord Bute in a 
weekly paper entitled " The Briton." He was 
effectively and abusively answered by Wilkes 
in his "North Briton," and his services being 
unpaid, and his side most unpopular, he with- 
drew from the contest. His health was shat- 
tered by this discomfiture, by his labors on 
a translation of the works of Voltaire and 
on a compilation entitled " The Present State 
of All Nations," and by the death of his 
only child; and in 1763 he went abroad for 
two years. In 1766 he published "Travels 
through France and Italy," which was ridi- 
culed by Sterne in his "Sentimental Jour- 
ney." On returning from Italy he visited 
Scotland, resided at Bath during the following 
year, and there wrote " The Adventures of an 
Atom," a political satire, in which he assailed 
Lord Bute and the earl of Chatham. His 
broken health obliged him again to seek a 
milder climate, and he went to Italy in 1770, 
beginning on his way to write " The Expedi- 
tion of Humphrey Clinker," which appeared 
in 1771, just before his death. His life has 
been written by Thomas Roscoe, Dr. Moore, 
and others. One of the best editions of his 
works appeared in 1873 (8 vols. 8vo, London). 






SMYRNA 



127 






SMYRNA (Turk. Ismir), a town of Asiatic 
Turkey, capital of the vilayet of Aidin, near 
the head of the gulf of Smyrna, on the W. 
coast of Asia Minor, 210 m. S. W. of Constan- 
tinople ; pop. (according to the Austrian con- 
sul general Scherzer's estimate in 1873) about 
155,000, including 75,000 Greeks, 45,000 Turks, 
15,000 Jews, 10,000 Roman Catholics, 6,000 
Armenians, and 4,000 Europeans and Ameri- 
cans. Another estimate places the population 
at 180,000. Owing to the large preponderance 
of the Christians, it is called by the Turks the 
Giaour city. It stands upon a plain between 
the ancient Mt. Pagus and the sea, part of it 
on the slope of the hill. The streets are gen- 
erally narrow and dirty. An interesting local- 
ity is the so-called caravan bridge, with adjoin- 
ing grounds for the accommodation of camels 
during the night. Along the shore and in its 
vicinity reside the Christians, excepting the 



Armenians, whose quarter is partly on the 
lower slopes of the hill, the upper slopes being 
occupied by the Turks ; and in the region be- 
tween the Armenians and Turks live the Jews, 
who are chiefly of Spanish descent and mostly 
poor. On the summit of the hill is a castle. 
A quay is in course of construction. Smyrna 
contains a governor's palace, churches for va- 
rious denominations, a convent, and several 
schools, that of the Prussian deaconesses being 
the best. A large Roman Catholic cathedral is 
in course of construction. An archaeological 
school was projected in 1874 for promoting 
excavations at the site of ancient Ephesus, ad- 
joining a station on the Smyrna and Aidin 
railway. Another line to Ala-Shehr (the an- 
cient Philadelphia) was extended from Kas- 
saba in 1875. A Turkish governor general, 
and Greek, Armenian, and Roman Catholic 
archbishops reside in the city ; and there are 




Smyrna. 



American and other missionaries. In the ad- 
joining villages of Burnabad and Budja are 
fine villas. Smyrna is an important station 
for steamers and a great commercial empo- 
rium ; the harbor is magnificent, and at all 
times crowded with shipping. The entrances 
in 1873 were 630 steamers and 785 sailing 
vessels, tonnage 659,247; clearances, 627 and 
693, tonnage 648,579. The imports, chiefly 
cotton and other manufactured goods, amount- 
ed to $23,332,780, and the exports, including 
cotton, figs, raisins, opium, sponges, and valo- 
nia, to $20,794,332. The shipments of cotton, 
now so important, were insignificant previous 
te the American civil war. In 1873-'4 the im- 
ports from the United States, chiefly petroleum, 
were valued at $300,000, and the exports to the 
United States, including opium, figs, liquorice 
root, wool, and rags, at $2,234,344. Smyrna 
was probably colonized by JEolians from Cyme, 
749 VOL. xv. 9 



but early fell into the hands of the Colopho- 
nians, and in the 7th century B. C. formed the 
13th city of "the Ionian league. According to 
Strabo, it was destroyed by Sadyattes of Lydia 
about 627, and remained in ruins for several 
centuries. It was rebuilt and enlarged by An- 
tigonus and Lysimachus, successors of Alex- 
ander the Great, and became one of the first 
cities of that era. One of the seven churches 
mentioned in the book of Revelation was at 
Smyrna, and Polycarp was its first bishop. 
The town was destroyed by an earthquake in 
A. D. 178, and rebuilt by Marcus Aurelius. It 
afterward had many changes of fortune ; and 
being occupied by a Seljuk chieftain about the 
end of the llth century, 'it was nearly destroyed 
by the Byzantine fleet. It was again rebuilt, 
and subsequently the Genoese held it for a 
long period. In the latter part of the 14th 
century it was taken by the Turks, in whose 



128 



SMYTH 



possession it ultimately remained, after being 
captured in 14'i2 by Tamerlane. Among its 
many calamities in modern times were tbe 
conflagration of 1841 and the earthquake of 
1846. In July, 1853, Martin Koszta was de- 
livered here from the hands of the Austrians 
by Oapt. Ingraham. See Scherzer's La pro- 
vince de Smyrne (1875). 

SMITH, a S. W. county of Virginia, bounded 
8. E. by the Iron mountain range and drained 
by the head streams of Holston river; area, 
about 500 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 8,898, of whom 
1,244 were colored. The surface is an ele- 
vated valley between the Iron mountain range 
and Walker's mountain; the soil is very fer- 
tile. Limestone, gypsum, and salt are found. 
It is traversed by the Atlantic, Mississippi, and 
Ohio railroad. The chief productions in 1870 
were 44,681 bushels of wheat, 96,829 of Indian 
corn, 66,323 of oats, 3,327 tons of hay, 1,575 
Ibs. of tobacco, 10,514 of wool, 64,910 of but- 
ter, 26,820 of cheese, 3,113 of flax, and 9,897 
of honey. There were 1,595 horses, 1,846 
milch cows, 3,193 other cattle, 4,553 sheep, 
and 4,059 swine. Capital, Marion. 

SMYTH, Thomas, an American clergyman, 
born in Belfast, Ireland, June 14, 1808, died 
in Charleston, S. C., Aug. 20, 1873. He was 
educated in Belfast and London, and in 1830 
entered the theological seminary at Princeton, 
N. J. From 1832 till his death he was pastor 
of the second Presbyterian church in Charles- 
ton, 8. 0. Among the numerous works of Dr. 
Smyth are: "Lectures on the Prelatical Doc- 
trine of Apostolic Succession " (Boston, 1841) ; 
" The Ecclesiastical Catechism " (1841) ; " Ec- 
clesiastical Republicanism" (1843); "Presby- 
tery and not Prelacy the Scriptural and Primi- 
tive Polity " (1843) ; " Calvin Defended " (Phil- 
adelphia, 1844) ; " The Rite of Confirmation" 
(1845); "The Name, Nature, and Functions 
of Ruling Elders" (1845); "The History, 
Character, and Results of the Westminster 
Assembly of Divines" (New York, 1847); 
" The Unity of the Human Races proved to be 
the Doctrine of Scripture, Reason, and Sci- 
ence" (1850); "Nature and Claims of Young 
Men's Christian Associations" (Philadelphia, 
1857); "Faith the Principle of Missions" 
(1857); "The Well in the Valley" (1857); and 
" Obedience the Life of Missions" (1860). 

SMYTH. I. William Henry, a British naval 
officer, born in Westminster, Jan. 21, 1788, 
died near Aylesbury, Sept. 9, 1865. He en- 
tered the navy in 1805, and rendered impor- 
tant aid in the defence of Cadiz in 1810. He 
became lieutenant in 1813, and soon afterward 
was appointed to a command in the flotilla 
under Sir Robert Hall detailed for the defence 
of Sicily. By order of the lords of the ad- 
miralty he made an elaborate survey of Sicily 
and the adjacent islands, which occupied him 
for several years, and resulted in the publica- 
tion by the admiralty of an atlas of Sicily. As 
an uccoinp.-inimentto this, he published a "Me- 
moir descriptive of the Resources, Inhabitants 



SNAIL 

and Hydrography of Sicily and its Islands, 
interspersed with Antiquarian and other No- 
tices" (4to, 1824). He afterward completed 
the survey of the shores of the Adriatic, and 
was employed in 1823 and 1824 in a survey of 
the coasts of Sardinia, and published a " Sketch 
of the present State of the Island of Sardinia " 
(8vo, 1828). He attained the rank of post 
captain in February, 1824, and settled soon 
after at Bedford, where he built a small ob- 
servatory, and in 1844 published a " Cycle of 
Celestial Objects, for the use of Naval, Mili- 
tary, and Private Astronomers " (2 vols. 8vo). 
In 1853 he attained the rank of rear admiral, 
and in 1857 he was appointed hydrographer 
to the admiralty. His most valuable work is 
entitled " The Mediterranean, a Memoir, Physi- 
cal, Historical, and Nautical" (8vo, 1854), in 
which he gives in systematic and condensed 
form the results of his numerous surveys and 
observations on the physical geography of that 
sea. He also wrote "Sidereal Chromatics" 
(1864), and "The Sailor's Word Book " (1867). 
II. Charles Piazzl, son of the preceding, has held 
the post of astronomer royal for Scotland. 
In 1856 he transported a large collection of 
meteorological, magnetical, and astronomical 
instruments to the peak of Teneriffe, where he 
selected two stations, one 8,840, and the other 
10,700 ft. above the sea, and obtained impor- 
tant results detailed in his " Teneriffe, an As- 
tronomer's Experiment " (London, 1858). He 
has since written "Three Cities in Russia" 
(1862) ; " Our Inheritance in the Great Pyra- 
mid " (1864; new ed., 1874) ; "Life and Work 
at the Great Pyramid" (1867) ; "On the An- 
tiquity of Intellectual Man, from a Practical 
and Astronomical Point of View" (1868) ; and 
"Equal Surface Projection for Maps of the 
World" (1871). He maintains that the pyra- 
mids are memorials of a system of weights 
and measures intended to be perpetual. 

SNAIL, the common name of the Tielicidce, a 
large family of gasteropod mollusks, terrestrial 
and air-breathing. The number known is now 
so large that the treatment of the subfamilies 
and genera would require a volume. Restrict- 
ing the name helicida to such as have a well 
developed external spiral shell, the snails may 
be characterized as animals breathing air by 
means of branchial vessels spread like a net- 
work over the internal walls of a cavity in the 
anterior part of the body, covered by the shell, 
and communicating with the atmosphere by a 
small valvular opening on the right side ; they 
have four retractile tentacles, the upper two 
the largest and having eyes at the apex ; there 
is a dentated horny jaw on the upper lip, 
which is opposed by the tongue; the gullet 
is wide, with large white salivary glands on 
its sides, and the liver is well developed ; the 
whole body is very glutinous ; the locomotion 
is slow, by means of the ventral foot; they 
are hermaphrodite, with reciprocal impregna- 
tion. The shells are always external, vary 
much in form, and contain the entire animal ; 



SNAIL 



SNAKE RIVER 



129 



they have no operculurn, the opening during 
hibernation being closed by a secretion from 
the mantle, which hardens into what is called 
the epiphragm ; the shell is generally turned 
from left to right, the free edge to the right, 
but they are often reversed ; the newly hatched 
young resemble their parents, and have a shell 
of one whorl and a half. They are sensitive 
to cold, and like moist places; the sense of 
touch is acute, especially in the tentacles, and 
they appear to have a sense of smell ; they are 
nocturnal, and feed principally on plants, though 
sometimes devouring each other. The repro- 
ductive season is toward the end of spring; 
the eggs, to the number of 30 to 100, are de- 

Sosited in moist places, in natural or artificial 
oles ; the young come out in 20 to 30 days. 
Snails are distributed very widely, from the 
northern limit of trees to Tierra del Fuego, 
from the hot and moist plains to a height of 
11,000 ft. on mountains; some are cosmopo- 
lite, ranging wherever their food is found, and 
others are restricted within narrow limits. 
About 1,500 species have been described, some 
of which from their voracity are very injurious 
to vegetation, and some useful to man as food ; 
they are very tenacious of life, and able to re- 
sist long droughts. A specimen of the desert 
snail of Egypt (helix desertorum), which re- 
mained dormant in the British museum four 
years, afterward lived in the possession of one 
of the curators more than two years. The 
genus helix (Lam.) is the type of the family. 
The Eoman or vineyard snail (H. pomatia, 
Linn.) is a large species, reddish brown with 
paler bands ; these snails were used as food by 
the ancient Romans, who reared them in parks, 
and fattened them on cooked meat and flour, 
obtaining them from the islands of the Medi- 
terranean ; they are still eaten in many coun- 
tries of Europe, especially by Roman Catholics 
during Lent, being considered as fish; great 
numbers are eaten in France; they are also 
recommended as an ingredient in soups for con- 
sumptive persons. The reproductive internal 
organs, in the apex of the shell, consist of many 
parallel cooca, each of which has an external 
layer producing eggs, and an internal sac pro- 
ducing semen ; the apparatus is very complex. 
The H. aspersa (Linn.), or common garden 
snail, originally from Europe, but now natu- 
ralized in most parts of the globe, is also used 
as food, when boiled in milk, for consumptives. 
These species when abundant are very destruc- 
tive, laying waste whole gardens in a single 
night, always attacking the tenderest and most 
succulent plants ; besides their natural ene- 
mies, mammals and birds, great numbers are 
killed by fires, inundations, sudden changes of 
temperature, felling of forests, cultivation of 
the land, and by hogs and poultry following 
the plough ; the remedies for their depreda- 
tions are the same as for the slugs. The largest 
of the American snails is the H. albolabris 
(Say), of a yellowish horn color, with white, 
broadly reflected lip ; the shell has five or six 



whorls, with minute revolving lines and the 
umbilicus closed ; in October they cease feed- 
ing, and select a place under some log or stone, 
where they fix themselves for the winter, 




American Snail (Helix albolabris). 

mouth upward. For details on the American 
species, see Dr. A. Binney's "Terrestrial Air- 
breathing Mollusks of the United States" (3 
vols., Boston, 1851, and vol. iv., a continuation 
by G. W. Binney, Boston, 1859). 

SNAKE. See SERPENT. 

SNARE BIRD. See DARTER. 

SNAKE RIVER (also called Lewis fork or 
river, Saptin river, and Shoshone river), a 
tributary of the Columbia, rising in the Rocky 
mountains in N. W. Wyoming, near the sources 
of the Yellowstone and Madison rivers, at an 
elevation of about 8,000 ft. above the sea, 
about lat. 44 K, Ion. 110 80' W. It flows 
N. W. to the junction of Lewis fork, the out- 
let of Shoshone and Lewis lakes ; then S., ex- 
panding in its course into Jackson lake, and 
again N. W. to the junction of Henry's fork (a 
total course of nearly 200 m.) in Idaho, about 
lat. 43 15', Ion. 112. Henry's fork rises in 
Henry lake (6,443 ft. above the sea, about lat. 
44 30', Ion. 111 30') in E. Idaho, on the border 
of Montana, near the head waters of Jefferson 
river, and has a S. course. From the junction 
the Snake describes a curve of more than 350 
m. through S. Idaho, flowing S. W. and then 
N". W., and strikes the Oregon border in about 
lat. 44 40'; it then flows K about 200 m., 
separating Idaho from Oregon and Washington 
territory, when in about lat. 46 30' it turns 
W. into Washington, and after a further course 
of about 150 m. falls into the Columbia about 
20 m. above the Oregon boundary, about lat. 
46 15', Ion. 119. Its total length is upward 
of 900 m. Steamers ascend to Lewiston on 
the Idaho border ; navigation is then impeded 
for more than 100 m. by shallows and rapids, 
above which the river is again navigable for 
150 or 200 m. In its course through S. Idaho, 
the Snake flows through a vast cafion, vary- 
ing in depth from 100 to 1,000 ft. ; many of 
its tributaries sink, and, passing under the 
strata of lava, fall from the sides of the cafion 
into the main stream; and here occur the 
American, Shoshone, and Salmon falls, for an 
account of which see IDAHO, vol. ix., p. 167. 
Its chief tributaries on the right bank are the 
Malade from the north; the Boise", Payette, 
Weiser, Salmon, and Clearwater (which enters 
at the point where the Snake leaves the Idaho 
boundary) from the east ; and the Palouse (in 



130 



SNAKEROOT 



Or i the left 



Washington) from the north. 
bank it receives among others the Blackfoot 
Port Neuf, Hannack, Raft, Goose Salmon and 
Bruneau, in I.luho; the Owyhee Malheur, 
Burnt, and Powder, in Oregon ; and the Grande 
Ronde, just within Washington territory. 

SNAKEEOOT, a common name, usually witn a 
prefix, for several plants which are botanical- 
[y very distinct, applied to them because they 
were supposed, especially by the Indians, to be 
efficacious against the poisonous bites of ser- 
pents 1. Seneca snakeroot (officinal as sene- 
ga) is polygala senega. The genus polygala 



(Greek ffoAk, much, and ydAa, milk, as some 



, 

species were formerly supposed to increase the 
secretion of milk) has about 200 species, widely 
distributed, about 25 of which belong to this 
country, and a few showy exotics are grown 
as greenhouse plants. The flowers have the 
general appearance of those of the leguminosa, 
but their structure is quite different and is dif- 




f 






Seneca Snakeroot (Polygala Senega). Part of Boot of 
natural size. 

ficult to describe; two of the five sepals are 
colored and petal-like, while the three proper 
petals are united, the middle one keeled- shaped 
and often bearing a crest ; the six or eight sta- 
mens are united by their filaments in two sets, 
the anthers one-celled and opening by a hole 
at the top ; pod small and two-seeded. Poly- 
gala polygama and P. pauciftora, both pretty 
native species, produce, besides ordinary flow- 
ers, numerous fertile flowers on short under- 
ground runners. P. senega, the thick, hard, 
and knotted rootstocks of which are the seneca 
snakeroot of the shops, is found from New 
England southward and westward ; the stems 
are about a foot high ; leaves lanceolate, and 
the white flowers in close terminal spikes. The 
dried root has a peculiar odor and an acrid 
taste when chewed; it contains a principle 
called senegine, probably the same that has 
been called polygalic acid, and closely allied to 
aponine. The drug was first introduced into 




Virginia Snakeroot (Aristolochia 
serpentaria). 



Europe as the Seneca rattlesnake root about 
1734 and in 1749 Linnseus wrote a dissertation 
upon the drug. It is a stimulant expectorant, 
and in large doses emetic and diaphoretic; 
it is chiefly nsed 
in the compound 
sirup of squills, 
or hive syrup. 2. 
Virginia snake- 
root, as found in 
the shops, is the 
root of ariatolo- 
chia serpentaria 
and its varieties. 
The genus aris- 
tolochia is apet- 
alous, and com- 
prises low herbs 
and climbing 
vines; the tubu- 
lar calyx is often 
curiously bent 
and inflated, and 
in some of the hot- 
house exotic spe- 
cies presents some 
of the strangest 
forms to be found 
among flowers. 

The best known species is A. sipho, which, 
under the name of Dutchman's pipe (from the 
shape of the flowers), is often cultivated as a 
vine for verandas. The medicinal species has 
a weak stem about a foot high, usually heart- 
shaped leaves, and a few inconspicuous flowers 
close to the root, the calyx tube being curved 
like the letter S. It is most abundant in the 
middle states and southward, but like most 
medicinal plants has become rare in the older 
states. The dried root, when bruised, has a 
marked odor and taste, which have been com- 
pared to camphor, valerian, and turpentine 
combined; it contains an essential oil and a 
resin. Virginia snakeroot had a high reputa- 
tion with the Indians as a cure for snake bites, 
and was early introduced into England as a 
remedy for the bite of reptiles and rabid dogs, 
and was officinal in the London Pharmacopoeia 
of 1650. It is now used only as a stimulant 
tonic and diaphoretic, and has been employed 
in the treatment of intermittent fevers. 3. 
Canada snakeroot, also called wild and Indian 
ginger, is asarum Canadense. The genus asa- 
rum, with the preceding one, belongs tc the 
family of aristolochiacea, and consists of low 
stemless herbs, from the creeping rootstocks 
of which rise usually one or two heart-shaped 
leaves on long petioles, and a short-peduncled 
flower, which appears in early spring; the 
regular calyx has three equal lobes, brownish 
purple, enclosing 12 stamens and the large pis- 
tils. A. Canadense has broadly heart-kidney- 
shaped deciduous leaves, in pairs, with the 
flower between them. The dried rootstock is 
in contorted pieces about the size of a quill, 
with an odor and a taste somewhat between 



SNAKES 



SNEEZING 



131 



those of ginger and cardamoms ; it contains an 
essential oil ; it is an aromatic stimulant, and 
is sometimes used to modify the action of other 
medicines ; in domestic practice a tincture is 
used in colic, and in some parts of the country 
it is made to serve the purpose of ginger in 
cookery; it is one of the things chewed to 
conceal a bad breath. Two evergreen species 
are found from Virginia southward : A. Vir- 
ginicum, with small round-heart-shaped, and 
A. arifolium, with large halberd-shaped leaves; 
both possess similar aromatic rootstocks, and 
the leaves of all three, when dried, powdered, 
and used as snuff, are said to have similar 
properties with the foreign A. J&uropceum, or 
asurabacca, in producing sneezing and a copious 
flow of mucus from the nose. Black snake- 
root is sanicula Canadensis and S. Marilan- 
dica. Button snakeroot is eryngium yucccefo- 
lium ; the same name is also givem to some 







Canada Snakeroot (Asarum Canadense). 

species of liatris. "White snakeroot is eupato- 
rium ageratoides. Snakehead is chelone gldbra. 

SNARES, a family of American Indians. See 
SHOSHONKS. 

SNAPPING TURTLE (chelydra serpentina, 
Schweig. ; genus chelonura, Fleming), an 
American species of fresh-water chelonians, 
characterized by a large head, with both jaws 
strongly hooked and two barbels under the 
chin, short and pointed snout, the nostrils 
near together, and the eyes large, prominent, 
and far forward; the sternum is small, cru- 
ciform, immovable, and covered with twelve 
plates and three supplemental ones ; the cara- 
pace oblong, depressed, more or less tricari- 
nated, deeply notched behind with three points 
on each side of the central notch; the neck 
long and thick, with a warty skin; tail very 
long, surmounted by a scaly or tuberculated 
crest; the anterior limbs with five nails, the 
posterior with four; the skin of the limbs 
above and below scaly. The head may be in 



great part retracted within the shell, whence 
it can be very suddenly extended by the long 
and extensile neck, but the limbs and feet are 
mostly exposed. The shell is dusky above, 




Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina). 

and the lower parts yellowish ; it attains a 
length of more than 4 ft. and a weight of 50 
Ibs. ; it prefers sluggish and deep water in 
ponds or rivers, keeping principally at the bot- 
tom; it is very voracious, and feeds on fish, 
reptiles, and such aquatic birds as come within 
its reach, especially young ducks and goslings 
and wounded birds ; it has been known to at- 
tack man, and is not unfrequently caught with 
hooks; its flesh is much esteemed for soups, 
though in the old animals it has a musky odor. 
It goes far from water to deposit its eggs; 
though an excellent swimmer, it is awkward 
on land, walking slowly, with the head, neck, 
and tail extended, raised on the legs like an 
alligator, whence it is called by the negroes 
alligator cooter ; it is very savage if attacked, 
raising itself with such quickness on its legs as 
to elevate the whole body from the ground and 
enable it to make considerable hops, snapping 
with great ferocity and quickness at any object 
coming within reach of its long neck ; its bite 
is severe and tenacious. It is distributed from 
Maine to Georgia, and westward to the Missis- 
sippi, being replaced further west by the C. 
Temminckii (Troost; genus gypochetys, Ag.), 
characterized by a larger triangular head, 
rougher shell, and neck and limbs covered 
with spiny warts. In the northern states it 
lays its eggs, 20 to 40, between June 10 and 
25, generally in the forenoon, and in captiv- 
ity a month later ; it excavates a hole at first 
directly down and then laterally, so that the 
widest part, where the nest is, is on one side ; 
sometimes several holes are dug, before one is 
found to suit ; the females lose their shyness 
at this time, and smooth the earth over with 
care after the eggs are deposited. In some 
parts of the country, the soft-shelled turtles 
(trionycidcB) are called snapping turtles. The 
eggs in these species are nearly globular, about 
an inch in diameter, white, and with hard shells. 
SNEEZING, a modification of the ordinary 
respiratory movements, accompanied by a vio- 
lent expiratory effort, sending forth a blast of 
air from the lungs intended to expel some irri- 
tating substance from the nasal air passages. 
It differs from coughing in the communication 
between the larynx and mouth being partly or 
wholly cut off by the drawing together of the 






132 



SNELL 



sides of the soft palate over the hack of the 
tongue, so that the blast of air, by a convul- 
sive movement, passes through the nose with 
more or less noise instead of through the 
in.. nth. It may be excited by acrid vapors, 
irritating liquids or solids, diseased secretions, 
or the simple entrance of air when the bchnei- 
derian membrane is peculiarly irritable. 

NULL, Wilkbrord, a Dutch mathematician, 
born in Leyden in 1591, died there, Oct. 81, 
1626. He studied law, but devoted himself 
principally to mathematics. When 17 years 
old he published an essay in which he endeav- 
ored to restore a lost treatise of Apollonius. 
He travelled in Germany, and won the friend- 
ship and esteem of Kepler. In 1613 he suc- 
ceeded his father as professor in the univer- 
sity of Leyden. He was the first to make a 
trigonometrical measurement of an arc of a 
meridian, and thence to calculate the size of 
the earth. His result was erroneous, on ac- 
count of the imperfection of the instruments 
then in use; but he himself discovered the 
errors. He also discovered the law of the re- 
fraction of light (see LIGHT, vol. x., p. 438), 
and improved the methods of approximating 
to the ratio of the radius to the circumfer- 
ence of the circle. His most important work 
is Eratotthene* Bataviu, sive de Terra Am- 
bitus vera Quantitate (Leyden, 1617). 

SPELLING, JosUb, an American soldier, born 
in Boston in 1782, died in Washington, D. C., 
Aug. 20, 1828. He was appointed a lieutenant 
in the 4th infantry in 1808, became captain in 
1809, distinguished himself in the battle of 
Tippecanoe in 1811, and was made brevet ma- 
jor for services at the battle of Brownstown, 
Aug. 9, 1812. In 1814 he was made inspector 
general with the rank of colonel, and was 
prominent in the affair of Lyon's creek. In 
1819 he was made colonel of the 5th infantry. 
He was a witness against Hull at his trial, and 
wrote "Remarks on General William Hull's 
Memoirs of the Campaign of the Northwest- 
ern Army, 1812" (8vo, Detroit, 1825). 

sNKIHKN, Nicholas, an American clergyman, 
born at Fresh Pond (now Glen Cove), Long 
Island, N. Y., Nov. 16, 1769, died in Princeton, 
Ind., May 30, 1845. In 1794 he entered the 
Itinerant ministry of the Methodist Episcopal 
church, travelled and preached for four years 
in Connecticut, Vermont, and Maine, labored 
at Charleston, 8. 0., for a year or more, and 
thence was ordered to Baltimore, where he 
attended the general conference in May, 1800, 
find took a prominent part in favor of limiting 
the episcopal prerogative, a delegated general 
conference (his plan for which was finally 
adopted in 1808), and a preachers' anti-slavery 
tract society, and against the future admission 
of any slaveholder into the church. He after- 
ward travelled with Bishop Asbury as his pri- 
vate wcretary. In 1804-'6 he was stationed in 
New York, whence he removed to his farm on 
Longanore, Frederick co., Md. By his mar- 
riage he became the holder of slaves, whom 



SNIPE 

he emancipated as soon as the law would per- 
mit (1820). From 1809 to 1814 he was again 
an itinerant, and was stationed successively in 
Baltimore, Georgetown, Alexandria, and on 
the circuit of his farm residence. While in 
Georgetown he was elected chaplain to con- 
gress. In 1829 he removed to Indiana. He 
was the first to introduce camp meetings into 
Maryland and New York. In 1821 he began 
to write in favor of lay representation. The 
refusal of this right by the general conference 
in 1828, and the expulsion from the church of 
many of its advocates, led to the formation 
of the Methodist Protestant church, in which 
Mr. Snethen bore a prominent part, and in 
connection with which he continued to travel 
and preach after his removal to the west till 
a short time before his death. He published 
"Lectures on Preaching the Gospel" (1822), 
"Essays on Lay Eepresentation " (1835), and 
"Lectures on Biblical Subjects" (1836). A 
volume of his sermons, edited by Worthing- 
ton G. Snethen, was published in 1846. 

SNEYDERS. See SNYDERS. 

SNIPE, a group of wading birds, of the sub- 
family scolopacincB. It is characterized by a 
long, straight, slender bill, obtuse and flexible, 
covered with a soft, sensitive skin, abundantly 
supplied with nerves toward the end; the 
upper mandible the longest, somewhat bent 
down at the end, and grooved on the sides, in 
which the nostrils are placed ; the tongue long, 
slender, and pointed at the end, the oesophagus 
narrow, and the stomach very muscular ; eyes 
far back in the head; wings moderate and 
pointed ; tail short and rounded ; legs short, 
feathered lower down than in most waders ; 
hind toe small, elevated, but reaching the 
ground, the anterior long and slender, and free 
except in the genus macroramphus. Snipes 
are migratory and small, going north to breed ; 
they frequent marshy places and the margins 
of rivers and ponds, where they probe the soft 
mud perpendicularly with the bill in search of 
worms, insects, and larvse ; the nest is a slight 
hollow on the ground, lined with grass and 
sedge, and the eggs, usually four, are placed 
with the pointed end inward ; the young are 
able to leave the nest as soon as hatched ; the 
flesh is considered a great delicacy. The 
subfamily includes the genera macroramplms 
(Leach), gallinago (Leach), rhynchcea (Cuv.), 
scolppax (Linn.), and philoJiela (Gray), of 
which the last two will be noticed under WOOD- 
COCK. In macroramphus the wings are long 
and pointed, with the first and second quills 
equal ; _the tarsi are longer than the middle toe, 
which is united to the base of the outer by a 
short web. The species are found in Europe 
and North America, occurring in large flocks 
near the sea, feeding on small mollusks, worms, 
and insects; they fly rapidly and irregularly 
with a quivering whistle. The gray or red- 
breasted snipe (M. grisem, Leach) is about 10 
in. long and 18 in. in alar extent, the bill 21 in., 
and weighs 3 oz. ; the prevailing colors above 



SNIPE 



SNORRI STURLASON 



133 



are dark ashy, pale reddish, and black, with 
rump and upper tail coverts white; under 
parts pale ferruginous, with spots and bands 
of brownish black ; the quills brownish black, 




Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago Wilsonii). 

the shaft of the first primary white; the 
young are dull white below, marked with ashy ; 
the plumage is more gray in winter, and more 
red in summer. It occurs over temperate 
North America, in large flocks, occasionally 
going inland in autumn on the return from 
the north, where it goes to breed; the flight 
is rapid and strong, accompanied- by a single 
mellow " weet;" the call note is a whistle; the 
flesh is not so good as that of the common 
American snipe. In gallinago the tarsus is 
shorter than the middle toe, and there is no web. 
The American or "Wilson's snipe (G. Wilsonii, 
Bonap.) is about 10^ in. long, with an alar ex- 
tent of 17 in., the bill 2-J- in., and weighs 3 oz. ; 
above the feathers are brownish black, spotted 
and edged with yellowish brown or ashy white ; 
a black line from base of bill over top of head; 




Common European Snipe (Gallinago media). 

throat and neck before reddish ashy, under 
parts white, quills and tail like back, the latter 
widely tipped with bright rufous, with a nar- 
row subterminal black band. It occurs over 



temperate North America, going in summer as 
far as Nova Scotia, where it breeds in June in 
the elevated moss-covered marshes ; the eggs 
are yellowish olive, spotted with brown ; they 
return to the south in October, and are very 
fond of the rice fields ; they rarely visit the sea- 
shore, and never the interior of woods; the 
cry resembles the syllables u wau-aik." They 
are fond of leeches and other food not gen- 
erally coveted by man, though most epicures, 
ignorant of this, are in the habit of cooking and 
eating them, contents of intestines included. 
The great or double snipe of Europe (6*. major, 
Steph.) is 11 or 12 in. long, varied with black 
and bright reddish above, the red arranged 
longitudinally, and whitish red below; the 
shaft of the first quill is whitish ; it inhabits 
N. Europe. The common snipe of Europe (G. 
media, Steph.) is 10 or 11 in. long, with two 
blackish longitudinal bands on the head, the 
neck spotted with brown and fawn color, the 
mantle blackish with two longitudinal fawn- 
colored bands, the wings brown waved with 
gray, quill shafts brown, and lower parts white 
waved with blackish on the flanks ; it flies very 
high, with a shrill cry ; from its wavering 
flight it is generally difficult to shoot; its flesh 
is delicious. In rhynchcea the bill is shorter 
and more curved, the first three quills equal 
and longest, the tertials as long as the quills, 
and the tail very short; the species are adorned 
with bright yellow ocellated spots on the quills 
and tail ; they occur at the Cape of Good Hope, 
in the East Indies, and Australia. The Cape 
snipe (R. Capensis, Cuv.) is 10 in. long, varie- 
gated with black and cinereous; around the 
eye, a little way down the neck, pectoral band, 
and abdomen, white. 

SNOHOMISH, a N. W. county of Washington 
territory, bordering W. on Puget sound and 
E. on the Cascade mountains, and drained by 
several streams; area, 1,500 sq. m.; pop. in 
1870, 599. Extensive forests skirt the streams, 
and lumber is the chief source of wealth. Coal 
is found in various places. Along the sound 
are extensive cranberry marshes, and in the 
interior large tracts adapted to agriculture. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 1,290 bush- 
els of oats, 1,415 of barley, 11,680 of potatoes, 
and 857 tons of hay. The value of live stock 
was $25,305. Capital, Snohomish City. 

SNORRI STURLASON, or Snorrc Stnrlnson, an 
Icelandic historian, born on the shores of 
Hvammsfiord, a bay on the W. coast of Ice- 
land, in 1178, murdered at Reykholt, Sept. 22, 
1241. He was of distinguished family, was 
carefully educated, and became proficient in 
Greek and Latin. Though originally poor, he 
became by marriage the wealthiest man in 
Iceland; and his legal attainments, bravery, 
and eloquence obtained for him the highest po- 
sitions in the field and in the althing or legis- 
lature. His residence was a fortified strong- 
hold, and he appeared in the national assembly 
with a retinue of hundreds of armed follow- 
ers. Traces of his sumptuous abode at Reyk- 



134 



SNOW 



FIG. 1. 



holt still exhibit stone structures of finished 
elegance for hot baths, supplied from boiling 
springs through an aqueduct of hewn stone 
500 ft. in length. On being elected to the 
chief magistracy, he gave proof of great judi- 
cial learning. In 1213 he produced an ode to 
a Norwegian warrior, which 
was requited by liberal pres- 
ents. This poem was fol- 
lowed by others, one of them 
composed in honor of the 
king of Norway, Haco V. 
On a visit to Norway he was 
made an honorary marshal 
of the court, and upon re- 
embarking for Iceland was 
loaded with rich presents. Faction and disor- 
der prevailed throughout Iceland, and the king 
of Norway seized the moment to advance 
his designs for the subjugation of the island. 
Snorri became involved in domestic feuds, and 
in 1237 appeared in Norway as a fugitive. The 
king created him a jarl, but soon became hos- 
tile to him, and Snorri returned to Iceland. 
Emissaries were employed 
to seize him and send him 
in irons to Norway, but he 
was murdered at Reykholt by 
his son-in-law, Gissur. His 
most important work is the 
Heimtkringla, or " Chroni- 
cle of the Norwegian Kings." 
It is probable that in this 
work he made large use of 
the writings of Ari Frode, 
fragments of whose Scandi- 
navian histories, composed a 
century earlier, still remain. 
The Younger Edda also bears 
the name of Snorri Sturla- 
son alone, but it was gradu- 
ally formed by the successive 
additions of several writers. The first copy 
of it was found by Arngrim Jonsson in 1628. 
The original Icelandic text of the Heimslcring- 
la was first printed by Peringskiold in 1697, 
though a Danish translation was current 100 
years before. The last edition is by Schoning 
and others, in Icelandic, Danish, and Latin (6 
vols., Copenhagen, 1777-1826). There is an 
English translation, "The Heimskringla, or 
Chronicle of the Kings of 
Norway," by Samuel Laing 
(8 vols., London, 1844). 

SNOW, the flocculent white 
masses of crystals in which 
the aqueous vapor of the at- 
mosphere at low tempera- 
tares is precipitated from the FIO. 8 
clouds. The other forms in 
which atmospheric vapor appears are treated 
.f under DEW, FROST, HAIL, and RAIS. The 
primary condition necessary to the formation 
rf snow is the saturation of the air at a freez- 
ing temperature with vapor ; the exact limits 
t temperature are not known, but probably 



vary with the density of the air and the va- 
por; the surplus vapor is precipitated from 
its invisible state in minute crystals, the pri- 
mary form of which is that of a rhomboid 
having angles of 60 and 120. (See CRYS- 
TALLOGRAPHY.) By far the larger part of 




FIG. 2. 



FIG. 8. 



FIG. 4 



FIG. 5. 



snow falls during the night, and in many lo- 
calities the maximum fall is between 1 and 7 
A. M., which suggests that the cooling neces- 
sary to the production of snow is mainly due 
to radiation ; a secondary maximum between 
8 and 10 A. M. is explicable as due to the 
influence of the dynamic cooling of rising cur- 
rents. The complexity of the forms of snow 




FIG. 6. 



FIG. 7. 



flakes increases with the quantity of moisture 
in the air, and probably with the variety of 
alternations of temperature to which they are 
exposed. Their size increases with the tem- 
perature and humidity ; thus they are much 
larger from 9 to 11 A. M. than before sun- 
rise. Little however is satisfactorily known 
on these points. More than 1,000 forms of 
snow crystals have been observed and figured 




FIG. 



FIG. 10. 



FIG. 11. 



by Scoresby, Glaisher, Green, Stephen Lowe, 
and others. A very beautiful contribution 
to this subject was published anonymously 
in New York in 1863, under the title of 
Cloud Crystals," in which over 150 new 
forms are added to those described by previ- 



SNOW 



135 



ous authors, and several interesting observa- 
tions are given upon the conditions of their 
formation. The accompanying figures, repre- 
senting specimens of the simple and the more 
complicated forms of crystals, are from Bu- 
chan's "Meteorology." Scoresby, who first 
studied these forms, classified them into : 1, 
thin plates (figs. 1 to 7) ; 2, spherical nuclei 
studded with needles (fig. 8) ; 3, three- or six- 
sided prisms or needles (fig. 9) ; 4, six-sided 
pyramids (fig. 10); 5, prisms terminated by 
planes (fig. 11). The conditions regulating 
the occurrence of each figure are probably 
quite definite, inasmuch as it is rare that more 
than three or four kinds of flakes occur at the 
same time. The high cirrus clouds are prob- 
ably generally formed of spiculse, or possibly 
small flakes of snow, which when the clouds 
are not too thick give rise to the phenomena 
of halos (see HALO), and the geometrical ex- 
planation of these latter seems generally to 
require that the snow flakes present in these 
clouds should be principally of the simplest 
forms. The amount of snowfall in different 
parts of the earth is known with less accuracy 
than is that of rainfall, owing partly to the 
drifting of the snow, but especially to the fact 
that a too great diversity has existed in the 
methods adopted by the observers to ascertain 
either the quantity or the depth of the snow. 
It is generally assumed that -fa or -^ of the 
depth of snow measured immediately after 
falling will give the corresponding depth of 
lelted snow. Quetelet, as the mean of many 
observations, says |, but for very dry or very 
wet snow these fractions are very uncertain. 
The total depth of snowfall is greatest, other 
conditions being the same, where the strong 
winds of winter are laden with moisture ; thus 
it averages annually 4 to 7 ft. in the interior of 
Maine, Vermont, New York, and Upper Can- 
ada, but only 2 ft. for the states in the same 
latitude further west. One of the heaviest 
snowfalls recorded in America was that which 
continued from Feb. 19 to 24, 1717, when the 
snow remained 5 or 6 ft. deep over all the set- 
tled parts of New England. The geographical 
distribution of snow at sea level is such that in 
general in the eastern parts of North America 
and Asia it is rarely seen S. of lat. 30, and in 
western Asia S. of lat. 36. On the W. side 
of North America it is rarely seen at the sea 
level on the immediate coast, but is quite com- 
mon in the interior. Falls of snow may occur 
in any month in extreme polar latitudes ; in 
New England and Canada snow falls mostly 
from November to March inclusive, but in the 
latitude of Washington, D. C., it falls mostly 
during January and February. The average 
number of days on which snow falls is, for St. 
Petersburg, 170; Paris, 12; Washington, D. C., 
20 ; Gibraltar, ; San Francisco, ; Charleston, 
S. C., 1. But on ascending above the sea level 
we soon come to altitudes such that snow may 
fall and remain on the ground at any season ; 
the altitude at which accumulations remain 



throughout the year is called the limit of per- 
petual snow. The conditions governing this 
lower limit were first studied carefully by Hum- 
boldt in his climatology of Asia, and more re- 
cently has been investigated by Grad (1873) ; 
according to these, the limit in question has 
a general apparent connection with the iso- 
therms of 32 F., but departs therefrom to an 
important degree when the prevailing winds 
are dry or moist. Thus the limit is lower in 
the southern than in the northern hemisphere ; 
lower on the S. than on the N. side of the 
Himalaya mountains ; lower within the tropics 
than under the latitudes 20 to 35. From 
these latitudes it diminishes, according to 
Grad, to about 3,000 ft. in lat. 60 S. and 
65 N. ; but only in the high polar regions is 
the limit below 1,000 ft., it being higher in 
Greenland or Spitsbergen, where it is only 
the glaciers that descend to sea level. (See 
GLACIER.) Owing to the innumerable reflect- 
ing facets of the minute crystals and the quan- 
tity of air caught between the crystals, a layer 
of snow is a remarkably perfect non-conductor 
of heat ; for this reason the covering of snow 
on the ground forms an almost perfect protec- 
tion to the plants beneath against the freezing 
that would otherwise follow the radiation of 
their heat into the atmosphere. In Ebermayer's 
"Influence of Forests" (1873) a case is quoted 
(by no means an extreme one) in which the 
temperature of the air was 6-8 F., and that 
of the surface of the earth beneath the snow 
+ 33-8 F., while below the surface the earth 
was still warmer. On the other hand, the in- 
dividual crystals of snow have probably the 
same large radiating power as ice in larger 
solid blocks, which according to Leslie is 85, 
that of lampblack being 100. The consequence 
of this is, that during the night very hard 
frozen crusts are formed on the surface of the 
snow which has been somewhat thawed during 
the day; the same property, together with 
that of regelation, explains the peculiar struc- 
ture of the surface snows of glaciers, and 
assists in the formation of areas of colder air 
over snow fields than over bare land. Equally 
important is the great absorptive power of 
snow for solar heat, since by reason of it the 
surface of a layer of snow is melted rapidly, 
and a large amount of moisture is thrown 
into the air, giving rise to extensive fog and 
haze, and having a decided influence on the 
development of storms. Snow flakes in falling 
bring with them nearly all the fine dust float- 
ing in the air, leaving the atmosphere extreme- 
ly pure; thus in northern Europe Nordens- 
kiold has found freshly fallen snow impreg- 
nated with a black dust of carbon and iron 
such as could only have come from meteors ; 
at other times the dust is such as could only 
have come from eruptions of volcanoes, espe- 
cially those in Iceland. Snow is occasionally 
tinged black, yellow, red, or green, as was 
known to Pliny. These colors are due to 
the presence of microscopic organisms, as was 



136 



SNOWBALL 



suspected by De Saussure (1760), which were 
described by Dr. Wollaston as minute spher- 
ical globules having a transparent covering 
and divided into seven or eight cells tilled 
with a red oily-like liquid insoluble in water. 
Girod-Ohantraus (1797 and 1802) described 
these as plants under the name vohox focus- 
trii. Bauer (1820) demonstrated that they 
are a fungous growth, which he named uredo 
nivalis. Robert Brown concluded them to be 
algffl allied to the tremella cruenta. Agardh 
confirmed the views as to their vegetable na- 
ture, and gave them the title protococcus per- 
metina. Bravais and Martins, as members of 
the northern commission, verified the identity 
of red (hcematococcus nivalis) and green (proto- 
cocctu viridis) globules as being one and the 
same plants in different stages of growth, the 
green being probably the riper. The most re- 
cent authority on this difficult subject is Ros- 
tafinski (1875), who retains the generic name 
hcematococcus, and has further confirmed the 
identity of these microscopic alg. Ehrenberg 
(1847) found, besides vegetable spores, animal- 
cules properly so called, among which the most 
abundant in red snow is that to which he gave 
the name philodina roseola. The glare of the 
sunlight reflected from snow-covered ground 
gives rise, unless the eyes are protected by 
glasses or goggles, to a very severe inflamma- 
tion of the optic nerve. (See AMAUROSIS, and 
BLIND.) 

SNOWBALL. See GUELDER ROSE. 

SXOWBERRY, the common name for a native 
shrub, given on account of its large, very pure 
white berries, which ripen in autumn and re- 
main after the leaves have fallen. The genus 
symphoricarpus (Gr. ovfujwphv, to bear together, 
and /eapTnjf, fruit, from the clustered berries), 
to which it belongs, is exclusively North Amer- 




Snowberry (Syraphoricarpus racemosus). 



ican, extending from British America to Mexi- 
co, and contains about six species ; it belongs 
) the honeysuckle family, and differs from the 
loneysuckle (Lonicerd) itself in having a regu- 



SNOW BIRD 

lar corolla and a fewer-seeded berry. All are 
small branching shrubs, with ovate entire (or 
sometimes wavy-toothed), opposite leaves, and 
small, bell-shaped, four- to five-lobed, white 
or rose-tinted flowers in short spikes or clus- 
ters. The snowberry (S. racemosus) is found 
from Vermont westward to Oregon, and as far 
south as Pennsylvania; it is one of the most 
common garden shrubs, and is cultivated for 
its white berries. The wolfberry (S. occiden- 
talis), growing from Michigan westward, has 
also white berries. The Indian currant or 
coralberry (S. milgaris), found from western 
New York to Texas, and sometimes cultivated, 
has small dark red berries in dense clusters. 

SNOW BIRD, a well known member of the 
finch family, and genus junco (Wagler). With 
the general characters of the finch family, the 
middle toe is shorter than the short tarsus, the 
outer the longest ; the wings are rather short, 
and the tail slightly notched ; the second quill 
is the longest. The common snow bird (J. hye- 
malis, Sclater) is about 6J in. long, and 9 in. 




Snow Bird (Junco hyemalis). 

in alar extent ; the upper parts are nearly uni- 
form dark plumbeous, darkest anteriorly, with- 
out any red in the interscapular region ; lower 
parts white; the external two tail feathers 
white, the third white margined with black. 
It is found from the eastern United States to 
the Missouri and the Black hills of the west, 
and from Louisiana to the fur countries. It 
appears in New England from the south early 
in April, while the ground is covered with 
snow, going north to breed, and returning south 
late in autumn. They are found in small fami- 
lies, which usually keep by themselves, often 
visiting farm yards and hopping after domestic 
poultry, and in cold weather retiring into holes 
in hay stacks. They are fond of grass seed 
and berries ; the flesh is delicate and juicy, and 
is often sold in the New Orleans market ; tbt 
spring notes are agreeable. The nest is on the 
ground, the entrance generally concealed ; the 
eggs are four, three fourths by five eighths of 
an inch, yellowish white with numerous small 
reddish brown dots. A nearly allied species 
in the Rocky mountains is the J. caniceps 
(Baird), having a reddish spot in the inter- 
scapular region but not on the wings. On the 



SNOW BUNTING 



SNOWFLAKE 



137 



'acific coast is the J. Oregonus (Sclat.), head 
ind neck sooty black, a chestnut patch on the 

jk and wings, and the belly pure white. 

SNOW BUNTING. See BUNTING. 

SNOWDROP, an early spring flower, the name 

ing derived, according to Prior, from the 







Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis). 

tan Schneetropfen, which does not refer 
a drop of snow, but, so far as the drop is 
mcerned, to the pendents or ear drops worn 
ladies in the 16th and 17th centuries. The 
ius, galanthus (Gr. yd/la, milk, and avOoc, 
wer), belongs to the amaryllis family, and 
insists of three or four European species, 
small bulbs throw up two or three nar- 
>w leaves and a flattened scape which bears 
[usually) a single fragrant flower on a slender 
lodding pedicel ; the perianth has six separate 
visions, the three inner tipped with green 
id shorter than the three pure-white outer 
. The common snowdrop is G. nivalis, 
hich, though very common in England, is 
posed to be naturalized there; its leaves 
very narrow, and its flower stalk 3 to 6 
high ; there is a double variety ; the plant 
looms early, often appearing in February. 
'ie Crimean snowdrop (G. plicatus) has the 
ne general appearance as the common, but 
larger in all its parts. The bulbs, which are 
lall, should be planted in clumps, and bloom 
more satisfactorily if left undisturbed for sev- 
eral years. (For cultivation, see HYACINTH.) 

SNOWDROP TREE, a name given to shrubs or 
small trees of the genus Halesia, on account of 
the pure white pendulous flowers, which have 
also suggested the equally common name of 
silver-bell tree. Halesia belongs to the storax 
family, and is a genus of two or at most three 
species, which have large, veiny, pointed, de- 
ciduous, alternate leaves without stipules ; the 
flowers, in clusters or short racemes, open 
just as the leaves appear, from axillary buds 
of the previous year ; the small calyx is four- 
toothed, its tube cohering with the ovary; 



petals four, united at the base or to the mid- 
dle, forming a bell-shaped corolla; stamens 8 
to 16, more or less united at the base; ovary 
two- to four-celled, becoming a large, dry, 
bony, two- to four-winged fruit with one to 
four cells, each of which contains a cylindrical 
seed. The best known species is the four- 
winged snowdrop tree (H. tetraptera), so called 
from the four wings to the fruit ; it is found 
from Virginia southward ; it sometimes reach- 
es the height of 60 ft., but is more general- 
ly much smaller; the bark is dark-colored, 
marked by light fissures, which give it a char- 
acteristic netted appearance ; the ovate-oblong 
leaves have glandular petioles, are 2 to 4 in. 
long, and finely serrate ; the flowers have f our- 
lobed corollas, nearly an inch long, with 12 to 
16 stamens distinctly united below the middle. 
This tree is quite hardy in the northern states. 
The two- winged species (H. diptera) is more 
southern, and is found from the Carolinas 
southward; the 
larger leaves are 
coarsely serrate ; 
the flowers are 
larger than in 
the preceding, 
and consist of 
four nearly dis- 
tinct petals, and 
the 8 to 12 sta- 
mens are near- 
ly distinct; the 
fruit, which is 
about an inch 
long, has only 
two wings ; the 
tree does not 
grow so large as 
the other. This 
species is quite 
rare and difficult 
to find in the 
nurseries, forms 
of the preceding being confounded with it. 
Michaux described a third species, H. parm- 
flora, which seems to be nearly unknown, if 
indeed it be not a form of one of the others. 
The trees are raised from seeds, which, unless 
sown as soon as ripe, lie in the ground a year 
before they germinate. 

SNOWFLAKE, a name said to have been in- 
vented by Curtis for leuco'ium vernum, to 
distinguish it from snowdrop, to which it is 
nearly related and which it closely resembles. 
Leuco'ium (the ancient Greek name) is a small 
genus of the amaryllis family, of three species, 
all of which are European ; it differs from ga- 
lanthus (see SNOWDROP) in having one to seven 
flowers upon the scape, and the divisions of the 
flower are of equal length. In our catalogues 
L. vernum is the plant offered as snowflake, 
but the English designate this as spring snow- 
flake, as summer and autumnal species are also 
sold more commonly than with us. The spring 
snowflake comes very early, and is much like 




Snowdrop Tree (Halesia tetraptera). 



138 



SNUFF 



a large snowdrop, its scape, about 12 in. high, 
bearing a single, large, very fragrant, pure 
white flower, each division of which is tipped 




Spring Snowflake (Leucoium vernum), Flower and Bulb. 

with green. The summer snowflake (L. cesti- 
vum) has a scape about 2 ft. high, with three 
to seven flowers about an inch long, blooming 
in late spring or early summer. The autumnal 
snowflake (L. autumnak, also called Acis) has 
narrow leaves and a scape 6 in. high, bearing 
two to three small flowers, which are pure 
white or suffused with rose, and appearing 
before the leaves in September. This is only 
a greenhouse plant here ; the others are treated 
like other spring bulbs. (See HYACINTH.) 

SNUFF. See TOBACCO. 

SNYDER, a central county of Pennsylvania, 
bounded E. by the Susquehanna river; area, 
about 260 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 15,606. The 
surface is hilly and the soil fertile. Iron ore 
and coal are found in great abundance. It is 
traversed by the Pennsylvania railroad, and 
the Pennsylvania canal passes along the E. 
border. The chief productions in 1870 were 
247,381 bushels of wheat, 12,752 of rye, 255,- 
831 of Indian corn, 283,841 of oats, 73,889 of 
potatoes, 4,762 of clover seed, 18,939 tons of 
hay, 9,366 Ibs. of wool, and 241,246 of butter. 
There were 8,964 horses, 3,900 milch cows, 
4,489 other cattle, 3,367 sheep, and 9,050 swine ; 
8 manufactories of carriages and wagons, 11 
of tanned and 10 of curried leather, 21 flour 
mills, and 8 saw mills. Capital, Middleburg 

8XYDERS, Sneyders, or Snyere, Frands, a Flem- 
ish painter, born in Antwerp in 1579, died 
there in 1657. He is celebrated for his pic- 
tures of animals and hunting scenes, excelling 
in those which represent violent action. He 
produced many pictures jointly with Rubens, 
Jordaens, and others, they executing the hu- 
man figures and Snyders the animals. 

801P (Gr. OOTTUV, Lat. sapo), a compound 
formed by the union of alkalies with oils and 



SOAP 

fats. The invention of soap is ascribed by 
Pliny to the Gauls, and he gives the Germans 
credit for manufacturing both hard and soft 
soaps. From them the Romans learned the 
art, but soap was for a long time principally 
used by them as a wash for the hair. A com- 
plete soap-boiling establishment, and soap in 
a good state of preservation, have been dis- 
covered at Pompeii. Some natural produc- 
tions possess the qualities of soap, as the ber- 
ries of the soap tree (sapindus saponaria) of 
South America and the West Indies, and the 
bark of the quillaja saponaria, which has been 
carried from Peru to Liverpool for washing 
woollens. The juice of soapwort or bouncing 
Bet (saponaria officinalis) forms a lather with 
water, and is used in England for scouring 
dresses. In California the roots of the pha- 
langium pomaridianum, which grows there 
abundantly, and has the odor of brown soap, 
is much used for washing clothes. Alkaline 
waters, when used upon greasy fabrics, form 
soaps similar to those produced in the regular 
manufacture. Different kinds of oils may be 
used in soap making, having different pro- 
portions of the proximate principles of fatty 
bodies, stearine, palmitine, and oleine (see 
OILS AND FATS), and also upon the kind of 
alkali, soda making a harder soap than pot- 
ash. The hardest soaps are made with stea- 
rine and soda, the softest with oleine and pot- 
ash. The natural combination of glycerine 
with the fatty acids is broken up by the action 
of the alkali, and the glycerine exists in a free 
state in the soap, or it may be extracted as a 
separate product. The principal fats and oils 
used for making soap are tallow, and palm, 
cocoanut, rape, poppy, linseed, hempseed, and 
olive oils ; the last is used in the manufacture 
of the celebrated Castile, Marseilles, and other 
marbled and plain soaps of southern Europe. 
The best oils for marbled soaps come from 
Naples, and the Spanish oils are also highly 
esteemed. The oils from the East are not so 
rich in stearine, and are more or less colored 
green, which is objectionable. The mottling 
or marbling of soaps is produced by sprinkling 
the surface of the newly made body succes- 
sively with lyes of less and less concentration, 
by which the soap is again rendered sufficient- 
ly pasty or semi-fluid to allow of the aggre- 
gation in different masses of the particles of 
coloring matter. The ordinary method of sa- 
ponification, as the conversion of fats into 
soaps is called, is by boiling them with solu- 
tions of caustic potash or soda. Most fats 
quire Ipng continued boiling with excess 
alkali, but others, as lard, beef marrow, and 
oil of sweet almonds, may be saponified by agi- 
tation with caustic alkali at ordinary tempera- 
tures ; and under increased pressure the alka- 
line carbonates will readily produce saponifica- 
tion of fats. Rosin, which is capable of form- 
ing a soap with either potash or soda, is fre- 
quently added to soaps. Every kind of soap 
contains a variable quantity of water, partly 



SOAPSTONE 



SOCIALISM 



139 



in chemical combination. Soap is perfectly 
)luble in alcohol and hot water, but both so- 
lutions solidify to a jelly at a certain stage of 
mcentration. Opodeldoc is soap mixed with 
Icohol in this state, to which camphor is add- 
Cold water does not dissolve the alka- 
ine oleates, palmitates, and stearates which 
stitute ordinary soap, without decomposi- 
tion, the alkali being dissolved and the oily 
id precipitated ; and when hot solutions are 
)olecl the same action takes place. Soap is 
lite insoluble in a solution of common salt 
mtaining more than one part in 400 of water, 
that on the addition of salt to the contents 
a soap pan, a curd consisting of a solid 
>ap will rise to the surface, while the alka- 
le salts and glycerine remain dissolved in the 
rater. Some soaps, as those made from co- 
mut oil, are not so easily separated from 
leir solutions by common salt. Other chlo- 
ides, as those of potassium and ammonium 
(sal ammoniac), have a similar action to that 
common salt. Soaps are scented and col- 
3d by mixing coloring matter and volatile 
)ils or odorous matters with them. They are 
letimes medicated with antiseptic and oth- 
substances, such as creosote, carbolic acid, 
ilorate of potash, and sulphur, and are used 
detergents and in skin diseases. Arsenic 
sometimes added to soap and used by tax- 
lermists in preserving their preparations, 
lose medicinal preparations called liniments 
soaps whenever they are made by the mix- 
ire of an alkali or an alkaline earth with an 
il. Silicate of sodium (soluble glass) may be 
lixed with soap and used with advantage as a 
nnestic cleansing agent. Soaps mixed with 
le sand or pumice stone do not possess the 
le detergent properties, but are useful for 
>uring. The manufacture of soap is more 
)ly carried on in Great Britain than in any 
ler country, although great quantities of 
)ilet soaps are made in France, especially for 
le American market. The annual product 
Great Britain is often considerably over 
),000,000 Ibs. The manufacture is also ear- 
on to a considerable extent in the United 
ites, and some fine toilet and other soaps 
made. The history of soap may be found 
Beckmann's "History of Inventions;" its 
inology in Parnell's " Chemistry applied to 
the Arts," Knapp's "Chemical Technology," 
Wagner's " Chemical Technology," Muspratt's 
" Chemistry," Morfit's " Applied Chemistry in 
the Manufacture of Soaps and Candles," and 
in "A General Treatise on the Manufacture 
of Soap," by H. Dussauce (8vo, Philadelphia, 
1869). The French manufacture is described 
in one of the Manuels Eoret entitled Nouveuu 
mamiel theorique et pratique du savonier, on 
VArt de faire toutes sortes de savons (Paris, 
1852). 

SOAPSTONE. See TALC. 
SOBIESKI. See JOHN III. SOBIESKI. 
SOCIALISM, the doctrine that society ought 
to be reorganized on more harmonious and 



equitable principles. Communism and coop- 
eration are its principal divisions or varieties. 
Communism and socialism are sometimes used 
as synonymous ; but generally the former term 
specially refers to the plans of social reform 
based on or embracing the doctrine of a com- 
plete community of goods. Cooperation is 
understood to be that branch of socialism 
which is engaged exclusively with theories 
of labor and methods of distributing profits, 
and which advocates a combination of many 
to gain advantages not to be reached by indi- 
viduals. Viewed as a whole, socialistic doc- 
trines have dealt with everything that enters 
into the life of the individual, the family, the 
church, or the state, whether industrially, mor- 
ally, or spiritually. The origin of all is to be 
sought in the desire to ameliorate the con- 
dition of the less favored classes, and in the 
attempt to overcome by association the dep- 
rivations to which individuals, especially those 
without rank, culture, and capital, are ex- 
posed. After many experimental attempts in 
recent times to effect a radical modification of 
society in all its parts, the simplified socialism 
of the present day mostly aims only to pro- 
tect the laborer in his rights, or to shield him 
against the oppression of capitalists. The his- 
tory of socialism runs parallel with that of 
property. Wherever the power of individual 
proprietors became oppressive, communistic 
doctrines usually arose. Such was the origin 
of the schemes of the ancient Greeks. Pha- 
leas of Chalcedon expected gradually to re- 
move the disparities of property by making 
a law that the rich should give but not re- 
ceive dower in marriage ; and in order that 
none should be intellectually superior to oth- 
ers, he desired that all should receive the same 
education. Plato's ideal republic was to con- 
sist of three classes : the educated, who are 
the law makers and rulers ; the common peo- 
ple, including agriculturists and other labor- 
ers ; and the soldiers. The state was to assign 
to every one his rank and sphere of activity; 
the soil was to be the property of all, and its 
fruits were to be equally shared by all. The 
women also were to be common property, as 
well as the slaves. Communistic doctrines 
more or less evolved from peculiar religious 
views, and advocating the founding of isolated 
communes, existed among the ancient Hindoos 
and Egyptians. Among the earliest attempts 
at socialistic life was that of the Jewish sect 
known as the Essenes, who had established 
themselves on the western shores of the Dead 
sea about the 2d century B. C. Though there 
are few trustworthy accounts of their teach- 
ings and practices, it may be accepted as cer- 
tain that they held their property in common, 
and discountenanced marriage, without really 
prohibiting it. (See ESSENES.) The Carpo- 
cratians, an early Christian sect, which con- 
tinued to exist until the middle of the 6th 
century, also practised community of goods 
and of women. Many features of the monas- 



uo 



SOCIALISM 



ticism of the middle ages are more or less com- 
munistic. Societies of women were formed 
for the relief of the sick and poor in the llth 
century, possessing at first nothing of the later 
conventual type. They had clusters of houses 
and gardens, whose inmates supported them- 
selves by their own labor, grouped round a 
hospital and similar institutions. In time the 
dormitories, refectories, and work rooms were 
also occupied in common. Such was the ori- 
gin of the beguinages of -the Netherlands. 
Later, various ascetic communistic societies 
arose, as the "Brethren and Clerks of the 
Common Life," founded by Gerard Groot 
about 1378 in the Netherlands, whose mem- 
bers, chiefly priests, supported themselves by 
manual labor and by teaching and preaching. 
Along with these existed communities whose 
members indulged in the wildest license, and 
were finally extirpated by the authorities; 
such were the Adamites, who walked about 
naked and had a community of wives. At 
the reformation a communistic tendency was 
wide-spread in Germany, and it led to a re- 
volt of the serfs against their lords, a move- 
ment of social reform avowedly based upon 
the doctrines of the New Testament. (See 
PEASANTS' WAR.) Some of the Anabaptists, 
the movements begun by Storch and Miinzer 
(see MUNZER), the familists, the levellers, and 
numerous other fanatical sects of this period, 
all show more or less of the same spirit of hos- 
tility to the rich, of a desire for a better distri- 
bution of property, and a struggle to realize an 
ideal social state. In the same period appeared 
the first works which, depicting a more or less 
fanciful or ideal community, may be consid- 
ered the precursors of the more recent scien- 
tific socialistic schemes. The first edition 'of 
Sir Thomas Mo re's " Utopia," an account of 
an imaginary commonwealth, where there are 
only good and happy citizens and the govern- 
ment is perfectly paternal, was printed in Lat- 
in at Louvain in 1516, and it was soon trans- 
lated into English, French, Dutch, and Italian. 
Another Utopia was depicted by Campanella 
in his Civitas Soli* (1623). A vast hierarchy 
of officials assign and direct the duties of the 
people ; four hours a day are devoted to labor, 
the women performing the lighter tasks ; the 
rest of the day the people are trained in phi- 
losophy and the sciences. Similar schemes 
were sketched by Hall in his Mundus Alter 
Fenelon, Morelly, Defoe in his "Essay on 
Projects," and Bacon in the " New Atlantis." 
In 1656 Harrington published his "Oceana," 
of which Hume said that it was the most val- 
uable model of a commonwealth hitherto of- 
fered. The first complete plan of an industrial 
community intended for immediate adoption 
was John Beller's scheme of a " College of 
Industry" (1696). The shareholders were to 
divide among themselves the profits of the 
college, but the laborers were to be guaran- 
teed nil things necessary in case of sickness 
for the education of their children, for the 



maintenance of their widows, and the like. 
In France there have been at various times 
small communities in which work was divided 
according to the capacity of the members, who 
received equal shares of the profits, and elect- 
ed a master of the community, vested with 
full power of command, and constituting their 
legal representative. In the United States 
there are about 70 communistic societies, all 
based on a religious belief of some form. The 
Shakers were established in the northern states 
about 1780, and in the west about 30 years 
later ; the Rappists were established in 1805, 
the Zoarites in 1817, the Eben-Ezer or Amana 
communists in 1844, the Bethel community in 
1844, the Oneida Perfectionists in 1848, the 
Icarians in 1849, and the Aurora commune in 
1852. Though the Icarians reject Christian- 
ity, yet they raise to the position of a creed 
their doctrine of brotherly love, or their com- 
munistic idea. In the Bethel and Aurora com- 
munes unselfishness takes the place of a reli- 
gious system. Community of women is prac- 
tised only by the Perfectionists (see NOTES, 
JOHN HUMPHREY) ; the Shakers and Rappists 
are celibates ; and at Icaria, Amana, Aurora, 
Bethel, and Zoar the family relation is held in 
honor. Only the Perfectionists are of strict- 
ly American origin ; the principles of the 
Shakers, though first established here, origina- 
ted in England ; the Icarians are French, and 
the others are German. The Shakers are the 
most numerous. After the reign of terror in 
France, Babeuf and his friends formed a con- 
spiracy to overthrow the state. They taught 
that all men had equal rights in all property 
and in the enjoyment of it ; every exclusive 
appropriation of the soil or of a branch of in- 
dustry was a crime ; all persons should receive 
the same kind and degree of education ; the 
functions of the government should be to su- 
perintend the division of labor, the collecting 
of the produce in public stores, and the dis- 
tribution of it to communities and individuals. 
The marriage relations and religious subjects 
were not specially discussed by them. Ba- 
beuf perished on the scaffold, and his doctrine 
seemed to have perished with him ; but in 
1834 Buonarotti revived it, and by means of 
pamphlets and the Moniteur Republicain, the 
Homme Libre, and other journals, it was again 
propagated. After some vain attempts at in- 
stituting social equality by insurrectionary 
means, the Babeuvists were content to con- 
tinue as secret organizations, many of them 
developing the original doctrine, and the tra- 
vailleurs egalitaires going to the extent of ab- 
rogating marriage as being a species of per- 
sonal property, of wishing all towns destroyed 
as the natural hotbeds of tyranny, &c. In op- 
position to the travailleurs egalitaires Cabet 
(1788-1856) wrote his Voyage en Icarie, advo- 
cating a comparatively innocent communism, 
a small model of which he established in this 
country. Saint- Simon (1760-1825) gathered 
about him men of science, and travelled in or. 



SOCIALISM 



141 



der to enlarge his views ; gave balls, dinners, 
and festivals, to extend his knowledge of man- 
kind ; and finally, when his wealth had been 
scattered, found himself abandoned to the most 
painful privations. He was thus fitted, as he 
thought, by a trial of all the conditions of hu- 
manity, to become their exponent and their 
reformer. He contrived what he denominated 
a new Christianity, or a scheme for the recon- 
struction of the religion, politics, industry, and 
relations of mankind. To each man 
according to his capacity, to each capacity ac- 
>rding to its works ; such was the grand f or- 
lula of the St. Simonian gospel. But the au- 
lor did not live to witness its propagation. 
It was reserved for Rodrigues, Enfantin, Ba- 
zard, Buchez, and others to disseminate it over 
France. By their lectures and a journal estab- 
lished by them called Le Producteur, it soon 
lined many disciples, and at one time seemed 
>n the. point of absorbing the best youthful 
lind of the nation. Many men,' who have 
attained distinction as statesmen and 
len of letters, took part in the famous expo- 
sitions of the rue Taranne, Paris, where the 
sw school had its academy. But Saint-Simon 
md left his doctrine in the vague state of an 
ispiration or a sentiment rather than a system. 
His followers began to differ when they be- 
to define. Sects arose in the bosom of 
le new faith. A common family was estab- 
led in the rue Monsigny, but the order of 
motions had not been arranged in a satisfac- 
>ry way. An open quarrel between two of 
le chiefs, Enfantin and Bazard, led to other 
lissensions. The finances of the general asso- 
tion failed, and the police interfered with its 
jetings, which had become, in consequence 
the vivacity of the discussions and the ap- 
irance of women on the tribune, more at- 
stive than the theatre. Enfantin collected 
lis friends again at a patrimonial estate which 
le held at M6nilmontant, where a multitude 
)f laborers were organized into groups of in- 
lustrials, artists, priests, &c. ; but the exped- 
ient could not be made to pay, Enfantin was 
sized and imprisoned, and the new family 
radually dispersed. In spite of its want of 
3ractical success, the school of Saint-Simon ex- 
ercised and continues to exercise a powerful in- 
fluence over the French mind. Charles Fourier 
(1772-1837) saw very clearly what his prede- 
sssors had not seen, that society was a growth, 
id not a construction ; he saw that as it had 
followed fundamental laws of development in 
"le past, so it must follow the same laws in the 
future ; these laws, he also discerned, must be 
in analogy with the other laws of the living 
universe ; and he concluded that the science of 
society must be the flower and consummation 
of all other sciences. But not satisfied with 
these grand generalizations, and the practical 
applications to which they inevitably lead, he 
assumed the character of a universal social 
philosopher and legislator, and lost himself in 
magnificent a priori speculations as to the for- 



mation and propagation of worlds, and the 
future destinies of all humanity. His vigorous 
thought procured him many disciples in France, 
England, and the United States ; many efforts 
have been made to reduce his more practical 
maxims to practice, but no signal or decisive 
result has anywhere been achieved. (See 
FOURIER.) While Fourier and his disciples 
intended to carry out their socialistic reforms 
by their own exertions and without receiving 
any material aid from the government, Louis 
Blanc wanted the government to undertake 
the regeneration of society by the "organ- 
ization of labor," holding that the evils of 
large capital and destructive competition could 
and ought to be cured by means of the state, 
the largest capitalist of all, from which every 
laborer that needs it has a right to demand 
employment (droit au travail). The govern- 
ment should purchase or gradually absorb the 
large industrial institutions of the country, and 
eventually render it more profitable to every 
laborer to join the large governmental work- 
shops than to follow his calling on his own 
account. The wages of all laborers should be 
equal. As soon as the state had succeeded 
in becoming the only and general controller 
of production in the country, and the work- 
men had had sufficient opportunity to appre- 
ciate the abilities of individuals among them, 
the governmental administration should be 
superseded by the self-government of the la- 
borers, on democratic principles. Louis Blanc 
opposed to the maxim of Saint-Simon, " To 
each according to his ability," his own, "From 
each according to his ability, to each according 
to his need." The revolution of 1848 put him 
in a position to experiment with his scheme. 
The provisional government erected public 
workshops, and paid wages to hundreds of 
thousands of laborers ; but these were produc- 
tive only of confusion, and contributed toward 
the socialistic insurrection of June, which end- 
ed in a crushing defeat. Proudhon (1809-'65) 
desired to carry out his reforms without the 
aid of the state, and argued in opposition to 
Louis Blanc that the state not only should not, 
but could not inaugurate new social systems. 
In fact, Proudhon was opposed to systematic 
socialism of any sort. Though himself a Uto- 
pian, he combated the Utopias of everybody 
else. The infallibility which he claimed for his 
own doctrines he rendered still more odious 
in the eyes of his opponents by his peculiar 
manner of expressing his ideas. In one of his 
earlier principal publications, Qu'est ce que la 
proprietef (1841), he seemed to attack all 
property as being a kind of theft, while his in- 
tention was only to demonstrate the illegality 
of incomes received without labor. Similar- 
ly, his expression that he wanted to reduce the 
state to- " anarchy " utterly obscured his real 
meaning, which was that the artificial central- 
ization of the French government should give 
way to a government controlled by the masses. 
Like most socialists, Proudhon considered the 



142 



SOCIALISM 



application of justice in the distribution of 
the wages of the labor and the profits of the 
capital employed in production to be the most 
important problem of political economy. The 
means proposed by him for making wages and 
profits proportional to each other were, that 
each citizen should unite in his own person the 
four necessary factors of production : laborer, 
capitalist, merchant, and employer. To bring 
this about, he held that employment should be 
guaranteed to the laborer, and that there should 
be a reorganization of the credit system, which 
he himself attempted by establishing the banque 
du peuple in 1849. This bank was an associa- 
tion of 20,000 laborers, who pledged themselves 
to take the paper issued by it in lieu of cash. 
Proudhon believed that a conventional sign of 
this sort, costing but little labor to produce, 
could take the place of gold and silver coins, 
the production of which requires a large amount 
of labor. The bank advanced to any member, 
on articles produced by him, four fifths of their 
value in its own notes, and demanded no in- 
terest for the loan. On security being given, 
it would advance upon work not yet done. 
Proudhon expected that this gratuitous credit, 
enabling men to consume at any time the 
wages of their labor, would be the means of 
inciting the members of the association to as 
great industry as the hope of accumulating 
interest-bearing capital, since their means of 
present enjoyment would depend upon their 
energy. The government soon closed the bank 
for violation of the laws of trade, and Proud- 
hon's followers maintain that his scheme has 
never had a fair trial. Robert Owen (1771- 
1858), in England, was arousing the public 
mind to the necessity of a new order of socie- 
ty at the same time that Saint-Simon and his 
disciples were preaching in France. They pro- 
ceeded, however, on wholly different grounds. 
Owen's fundamental axiom was that man was 
made entirely by his external circumstances, so 
that, to form his character, and to produce his 
entire happiness, nothing was requisite but a 
change in his external relations. Possessed of 
great wealth, he established a manufacturing 
colony at New Lanark, in which his principles 
were applied to the laboring classes. Justice in 
the payment of labor, vast domestic economies, 
and a thorough system of infant and adult edu- 
cation gave it for a time great and increasing 
prosperity. Statesmen and churchmen alike 
admitted the success of the attempt, and the 
system, or parts of the system, were in a fair 
way of being introduced into other manufac- 
turing districts. But Owen was encouraged by 
the promise of his plans to step forth as a phi- 
losopher. He taught in pamphlets, speeches, 
letters, and books, his doctrine of the omnipo- 
tence of circumstances and of human irrespon- 
sibility, attacking at the same time all religions 
and all governments, and thus provoking the 
earnest hostility of the clergy as well as of 
politicians. Other establishments were sub- 
sequently erected at New Harmony, Indiana 



and Orbiston, Scotland, but they failed. His 
popularity declined rapidly, except among a 
portion of the laboring classes, and he ac- 
complished nothing beypnd his earlier suc- 
cess. He had travelled over the world to in- 
doctrinate it with his principles, but the world 
remained to the end of his life stubbornly in- 
credulous. Nevertheless he has a just claim 
to be considered the originator of modern co- 
operation. In 1869 England alone numbered 
1,308 cooperative societies, under general reg- 
ulations prescribed by act of parliament ; 749 
of these sent in their returns to government at 
the end of 1870, from which their condition 
appears to have been as follows: number of 
members, 249,113; share capital, 2,034,261 ; 
loan capital, 197,128; average stock in trade 
during the year, 912,127; value of build- 
ings, fixtures, and land, 962,276; dividend 
to members, 467,164; to non-members, 16,- 
523 ; allowed for educational purposes, 3,775. 
The most successful experiment of the English 
cooperators is that of the Rochdale " Equita- 
ble Pioneers' Society," established mainly on 
the principles of Owen. Its primary object 
was the founding of a store for the sale of the 
necessaries of life, which was opened in De- 
cember, 1844. In 1847 the pioneers opened a 
drapery department, in 1850 a slaughter house, 
in 1852 shoemaking and tailoring establish- 
ments ; and after a history of continuous suc- 
cess, in the last quarter of the year 1870 they 
numbered 5,560 members, and had a share 
capital of 81,232. Similar stores and asso- 
ciations now exist in various parts of Europe, 
America, and Australia. The varieties of co- 
operation so far developed are numerous, but 
they are all founded upon the original idea of 
associated as opposed to isolated efforts. The 
power which the joint-stock principle places 
in the hands of small capitalists, the coopera- 
tive system places in the hands of the smallest 
capitalists; it even enables the man without 
capital to accumulate it. Morier describes co- 
operation as "the child of socialism, rescued 
by the economists from the dangerous custody 
of its parents." In Germany this movement 
on the part of the laborers was urged forward 
by Schulze-Delitzsch in opposition to the so- 
cialism of Lassale and Marx, which led to the 
formation of the " International Association." 
(See INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION.) Schulze- 
Delitzsch originated a new form of coopera- 
tion, which has been successful in Germany to 
an extraordinary degree. He devised a peo- 
ple's bank, or cooperative credit bank, from 
which the members can borrow small sums up 
to 1,000 .thalers. The capital is derived from 
the entrance fees and subscriptions of the 
members. The shares are fixed at 40 thalers, 
and may be paid by instalments. A 40-thaler 
shareholder may borrow 60 thalers without 
security ; money is borrowed by the society at 
a low rate of interest ; members on leaving re- 
ceive the amount paid up on their shares, and 
are relieved from all liabilities after two years. 



SOCIETIES 



143 



In 1870 the number of loan or credit banks in 
Germany was estimated at 2,000, and numer- 
ous associations of a similar nature are now 
established in Russia, Denmark, Italy, France, 
and England. Therfe is in Germany a politi- 
caV party of socialists called Socialdemolcraten, 
another development of the same movement 
which produced the international association, 
mainly composed of workingmen and their 
friends. This party aims to establish complete 
liberty, equality, and fraternity, by uniting all 
the working classes in associations, and secu- 
ring to all the same rights and opportunities 
to work; there are to be no favored classes 
or individuals, and the whole world is to form 
one great solidarity. The so-called Katheder- 
socialisten are not socialists in the ordinary 
sense of the word, but a school of political 
economy opposing the free traders. See, be- 
sides the works named in the biographies of 
the principal socialists, Stein, Der Socialismus 
und Communismus des Tieutigen Frankreich 
(Leipsic, 1844), and GescJiichte der socialen 
Bewegung in Frankreich (3 vols., Leipsic, 
1849-'51); Bluntschli, Die Communisten in 
der Schweiz (Zurich, 1843); Schiiffle, Kapita- 
lismus und Socialismus (Tubingen, 1870 ; Eng- 
lish translation by Kaufmann, London, 1875) ; 
Noyes, " History of American Socialisms " 
(Philadelphia, 1870); Duhring, Kritische Ge- 
schichte der National- Oekonomie und des So- 
cialismiLs (Berlin, 1871); Le Play, Z' Organisa- 
tion du travail (Paris, 1871), and La reforme 
sociale . en France (Paris, 1872) ; Nordhoff, 
" The Communistic Societies of the United 
States" (New York, 1875); and Holyoake, 
" History of Cooperation" (London, 1875). 

SOCIETIES, Literary and Scientific. The origin 
of this distinctive title for private intellectual 
associations is as ancient as that of academies. 
(See ACADEMY.) Societies existed in antiqui- 
ty and in the middle ages, and in Germany and 
the Netherlands they acquired importance in 
the 15th century by promoting classical cul- 
ture. The associations or corporations of the 
Meistersingers flourished till the 16th century. 
The 17th century witnessed the formation of 
.bodies in Germany for the improvement of 
the language, after the model of the Florentine 
La Crusca and the French academy, and the 
rise and progress of scientific societies, espe- 
cially of the "Royal Society of London," incor- 
porated in 1663 for the investigation and ad- 
vancement of physical science. Many impor- 
tant societies were formed in Great Britain 
in the 18th century, including the " Society 
of Antiquaries" (London, 1717), the "Royal 
Society of Dublin" (1731), "Royal Society 
of Edinburgh" (1783), "Medical" (London, 
1773), and "Linnsean" (1788); and in 1800 
sprang up in London the. " Royal Institu- 
tion of Great Britain," celebrated for chemical 
and other lectures. (See LONDON, vol. x., pp. 
604-'5.) The subsequent increase of learned 
bodies was still more rapid. The United King- 
dom now has societies for almost all branches 
750 VOL. xv. 10 



of science, letters, learning, and art ; and with 
a view of establishing greater unity, the royal 
society of London, and the astronomical, geo- 
logical, Linntean, and chemical societies, are 
to meet, after the completion of the palace of 
learning in the new Burlington house, in the 
same building, which is also to contain their 
extensive libraries, collections, and reading 
rooms. Most remarkable for stimulating many 
of the important discoveries of the century are 
the " Geological Society " (1807) and the " Roy- 
al Geographical Society" (1830). Those en- 
gaged in antiquarian and archaological re- 
searches also display great vigor ; and special 
bodies, as for instance those relating to explora- 
tions in Palestine, have achieved signal results. 
Among other peculiarly valuable institutions 
are the "Royal Astronomical Society " (1820), 
which is one of the most important of the kind ; 
the " Statistical Society " (1834), which throws 
much light upon the national resources; and 
the " Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain 
and Ireland " (1823), with branches in Bom- 
bay, Madras, Hong Kong, and elsewhere. The 
" Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal," at Calcutta, 
dates from 1784. There are learned societies 
in other parts of the East, in Canada, Austra- 
lia, and in almost every important part of the 
British empire; and all the leading societies 
publish the results of their labors. The most 
important English perambulatory body is the 
" British Association for the Advancement of 
Science," founded in 1831. (See ADVANCEMENT 
OF SCIENCE.) The " National Association for 
the Promotion of Social Science " held its first 
public meeting at Birmingham, Oct. 12, 1857, 
under the presidency of Lord Brougham. It 
embraced originally the five departments of ju- 
risprudence, education, punishment and refor- 
mation, public health, and social economy ; and 
a sixth department relating to trade and inter- 
national law was added in 1860. The annual 
meetings are held at a different place each 
year, and are chiefly occupied in reading dis- 
quisitions and in discussions. The continent 
of Europe emulates England in encouraging 
explorations, and this is especially the case 
with the geographical societies of Berlin, St. 
Petersburg, and Vienna, and the " Institute " 
at Gotha. In France and Italy the number of 
societies is diminished by the omnipotence of 
the academies. The former country, however, 
has several of importance, especially the so- 
ciete geograpMque of Paris, which publishes a 
celebrated monthly Bulletin, and the societe 
asiatique, which has called into existence ori- 
ental societies in Germany and England. In 
the latter part of last century Germany had a 
poets' union (Gdttinger Dichterbund or Hain- 
~bund) among its societies, with Klopstock at 
its head. In the pre'sent century it has initia- 
ted scientific congresses and other associations 
in the interest of political and social science, 
and the country abounds with societies de- 
voted to every branch of knowledge, art, and 
industry. Among the oldest is the Wissen- 



SOCIETY ISLANDS 



gfliar'tlichcr Vercin at Gottingen (1750), and 
>t known are devoted to natural history 
and geology, especially in Berlin. Switzerland, 
Austria, Hungary, Russia, Holland, Belgium, 
and the Scandinavian countries have various 
learned bodies apart from the academies. They 
abound also in the United States, especially in 
regard to investigations of local and national 
history, nearly every state having a historical 
society with a library. The " New York His- 
torical Society" (founded in 1804) and the 
"New York Geographical Society" (1852) are 
described under NEW YORK, vol. xii., p. 404. 
The most important society in the United 
States is the " American Association for the 
Advancement of Science," founded in 1847. 
(See ADVANCEMENT of SCIENCE.) A u Socjal 
Science Association," organized in Boston in 
1865, had in 1874 about 300 members. 

SOCIETY ISLANDS, a group in the S. Pacific 
ocean, extending between lat. 16 and 18 S., 
and Ion. 148 and 155 W. ; area, 666 sq. m. ; 
pop. about 18,000. The group is formed of 
two clusters of islands, one of which lies about 
70 m. N. W. of the other. They were formerly, 
and by some geographers still are, distinguished 
by the separate designations of the Society 
islands (proper) and the Tahiti or Georgian 
islands. The latter are under the French pro- 
tectorate; area, 453 sq. m. ; pop. 13,800, of 
whom about 970 are emigrants, 400 soldiers, 
and 600 foreign residents. The former are in- 
dependent ; area, 213 sq. m. ; pop. about 4,000. 
Mariners usually speak of one cluster as the 
windward and the other as the leeward, ap- 
plying the term Society islands to both com- 
bined. The Society islands, thus defined, ex- 
clusive of several islets, are Tahiti or Otaheite, 
Eimeo, Maiaoiti, Maitia, Tetuaroa, Huahine, 
Raiatea, Otaha or Tahaa, Borabora, Marua or 
Maupiti, and Tubai, the first five belonging to 
the Tahiti group, and the remainder to the So- 
ciety islands proper. The islands are moun- 
tainous in the interior, the highest peak, on 
the island of Tahiti, reaching an elevation of 
7,339 ft., and have a border from 1 to 5 m. 
wide of rich level ground extending from the 
base of the high lands to the sea. In general 
appearance they are alike, and lava, basalts, and 
pumice stone, which are found in several places, 
indicate that their origin was volcanic. They 
are surrounded by belts of coral rock, of va- 
rious width, situated from a few yards to 5 m. 
from the shore, with openings which permit 
the passage of canoes, while some of them ad- 
mit ships to smooth water and good anchorage. 
There are small lakes and lagoons in some of 
the islands, and all are watered by numerous 
streams, upon the banks of which, or along the 
shores, the inhabitants reside. There is con- 
siderable variety of soil, the sides of the moun- 
tains being frequently covered with a thin lay- 
er of light earth ; the summits of many of the 
hills have a thick stratum of red ochre or yel- 
low marl, while the soil of the level tracts 
along the shores is a rich alluvial deposit, mixed 



with vegetable mould, and is exceedingly fer- 
tile. The climate is healthful and very mild, 
the range of the thermometer throughout the 
year being inconsiderable. Besides the bread- 
fruit, these islands produce almost every tropi- 
cal vegtable and fruit, including some peculiar 
to the group. A few fruits and vegetables 
have been introduced from the temperate re- 
gions. The guava shrub, brought from Nor- 
folk island, is now common, and bears a pro- 
fusion of fruit, upon which pigs and cattle 
feed with avidity. Garden produce is little 
cultivated, and agriculture is very backward. 
A botanic garden, established by the French, 
offers seeds to colonists and natives ; but there 
is little demand for them, and prizes offered 
to stimulate production were withdrawn in 
1865 as useless. The spontaneous production 
of fruits seems sufficient for the natives. An 
Anglo-Portuguese agricultural company, estab- 
lished in 1861 for the cultivation of cotton and 
coffee by Chinese coolies, has effected but little. 
The introduction of limes and oranges has been 
very successful. Pigs, dogs, and rats were the 
only quadrupeds found upon the islands at the 
time of their discovery ; but all our domestic 
animals have been introduced, and with the 
exception of the sheep and rabbit have thriven 
remarkably well. Horned cattle are abundant. 
There are numbers of aquatic fowl ; the alba- 
tross, tropic birds, and petrel are found on all 
the islands; herons and wild ducks frequent 
the lakes and lagoons ; aAd there are several 
kinds of birds of prey, woodpeckers, and small 
paroquets. Domestic fowl are abundant, and 
were upon the group at the time it was dis- 
covered. The natives belong evidently to the 
Malay race, and are generally above the middle 
stature. Their countenances are open and pre- 
possessing, though their features are bold and 
sometimes prominent. Their complexion is 
olive or reddish brown, but there are great va- 
rieties of shades. The appearance of the men 
is vigorous and graceful, and their behavior 
affable and courteous. Tattooing is not now 
practised. The native costume has been alto- 
gether abandoned for dresses resembling those 
worn by civilized nations. The native manu- 
factures have been entirely superseded by im- 
ported goods. The chief intercourse is carried 
on with Valparaiso, Sydney, and San Fran- 
cisco, and the domestic exports of the group 
consist principally of cocoanut oil, arrowroot, 
sugar, and pearl shells. The annual exports 
amount to about $1,000,000, and the imports to 
about $050,000. The principal port, Papiete 
in Tahiti (pop. about 800), is the residence of 
several foreign merchants. It is a free port 
except for arms and spirits, has a dock for 
repairing vessels, government buildings, and a 
hospital ; and two newspapers, one in the na- 
tive language and one in French, are published. 
The Spaniards lay claim to the discovery of 
Tahiti in 1606, by Quiros, who called the isl- 
and Sagittaria. Capt. Wallis, in a British ship 
sent to make discoveries in the South sea, 



SOCIETY ISLANDS 



SOCINUS 



145 



reached Tahiti in 1767, and named it King 
George's island. Bougainville touched at it in 
1768, naming it Nouvelle Cythere, Capt. Cook 
reached it in 1769, discovered most of the 
islands in the N. W. cluster, gave to the whole 
group the name of Society islands, in honor 
of the royal society of London, and restored 
the native name to Tahiti, The Spaniards 
attempted to colonize Tahiti in 1772-'4 ; and 
about that date Cooke visited the group a 
second time, and again on his last voyage in 
1777, when he found a house and cross which 
the Spaniards had erected carefully preserved 
by the natives. After this 11 years passed 
without any communication between the So- 
ciety islands and the rest of the world, when 
the Bounty arrived to transport plants of the 
breadfruit tree to the British West India isl- 
ands. The interest excited by these voyages 
resulted in the formation of the London mis- 
sionary society, which fitted out a ship to car- 
ry missionaries into the islands of the Pacific. 
This vessel arrived at Tahiti early in 1797. 
For a long time the labors of the missionaries 
were fruitless, till Pomare II. embraced Chris- 
tianity about 1815. Pomare died in 1821, and 
during the minority of his son the missionaries 
acquired great influence ; but the son having 
died before he attained manhood, he was suc- 
ceeded by Queen Aimata or Pomare, the lat- 
ter being the surname of the reigning family. 
From the conversion of Pomare II. the power 
of the missionaries continued increasing, till it 
became paramount in Tahiti. The success of 
the French Catholic missions on the islands to 
the east induced two priests to go to Tahiti. 
The English missionaries opposed this, and the 
priests were forcibly deported. The French 
government then sent a frigate to demand 
liberty for all French subjects, and $2,000 as 
the expenses of the voyage to France of the 
expelled missionaries. In 1843 a strong force 
landed on Tahiti and hoisted the French flag, 
taking possession in the name of Louis Phi- 
lippe. (See Du PKTIT-THOUARS.) The queen 
made her escape to a neighboring island, and 
several skirmishes took place between the na- 
tives and the invaders. There was also a 
protracted diplomatic dispute with England, 
which ended in the payment of an indem- 
nity by the French government for the ex- 
pulsion of the British consul Pritchard and 
the seizure of some of his property. In 1846 
the French power was completely established 
in Tahiti. Pomare was recalled, and a treaty 
was entered into, by which she was restored 
to authority, and the whole of her domin- 
ions placed under the protection of France. 
Capt. Cook, from the crowds which collected 
on the coast, supposed the population of Tahiti 
to be 80,000; but the first missionaries esti- 
mated it, along with that of the neighboring 
island of Eimeo, at 10,000. A census by the 
French in 1864 made the population of Tahiti, 
Mania, Tetuaroa, and Maiaoiti, 13,847. The 
reduction from former years is due to infanti- 



cide, venereal disease, smallpox, and rum. At- 
tempts have been made to increase the popula- 
tion by immigration. A few hundred Chinese 
coolies have been introduced, and the French 
deported convicts from New Caledonia, but 
were obliged to withdraw them in 1864, on 
account of their demoralizing influence upon 
the natives. By the labors of the missionaries 
the moral and social condition of the latter has 
been much improved, and education is extend- 
ing. In 1865 school districts were established, 
with two schools, one Protestant and one 
Roman Catholic, in each district. 

SOILMS (Ital. Sozzixi). L Lselius, an Ital- 
ian theologian, born in Siena in 1525, died in 
Zurich, March 16, 1562. His studies led him 
to doubt some of the fundamental doctrines 
of the church, including that of the Trinity, 
After various travels he resided in Switzer- 
land, Germany, and Poland, finally settling in 
Zurich. In Wittenberg he gained the friend- 
ship of Melanchthon, and in Geneva of Cal- 
vin ; but the favor of the reformers was with- 
drawn when his peculiar doctrines were dis- 
covered. His life was written in Latin by Ill- 
gen (8vo, Leipsic, 1814), who also published 
in 1826 two parts of another work in quar- 
to, entitled Symbolce ad Vitam et Doctrinam 
Lcdii Socini illustrandam. II. Faustus, nephew 
of the preceding, born in Siena in December, 
1539, died near Cracow, March 3, 1604. By 
his skeptical spirit he had early made himself 
obnoxious to the authorities of the church, and 
at the age of 20 was compelled to seek safety 
abroad. After the death of his uncle, whose 
property and manuscripts he inherited, he re- 
turned to Italy, After spending 12 years as 
an attendant upon the luxurious court of Flor- 
ence, he resolved to be a religious reformer, 
and in 1574 took up his residence at Basel, 
where he busied himself in elaborating into a 
system the scattered hints and views in the 
writings of Lselius. In 1577 he appeared in 
open debate, maintaining that the Trinity was 
a pagan doctrine, and that Christ was a cre- 
ated and inferior being. This made him un- 
popular with the Swiss church, but gave him 
fame abroad. He was called to Transylvania 
to oppose Davidis, who had taken the extreme 
ground that all adoration of Christ was idola- 
trous. His efforts being unsuccessful, he passed 
into Poland, where the Anti-Trinitarian party 
had gained a strong foothold. But his moder- 
ate opinions made him unpopular here, and he 
was coldly received. After four years of resi- 
dence in Cracow, his marriage with the daugh- 
ter of a nobleman in the neighborhood gave 
him new influence. He found a comfortable 
home, and made proselytes from the noble and 
wealthy classes. But his wife and her father 
died, illness prostrated him, his lands in Italy 
were confiscated, and a few years bef ore^ his 
death he was assailed by a mob, dragged into 
the street, and exposed in the market place ; 
his furniture was broken and his manuscripts 
were destroyed. His works, contained in the 



SOCIOLOGY 



first two volumes of the Billiotheca Fratrum 
mm, consist of theological tracts, ex- 
positions of Scripture, and polemical treatises, 
with ;i great number of letters. Many of his 
unpublished letters are in the library of Siena. 

Thouirh Socinus was the founder of a schoo 

in theology, his influence was rather negative 
than positive. He denied the Trinity, the deity 
of Christ, the personality of the devil, the na- 
tive and total depravity of man, the vicarious 
atonement, and the eternity of punishment. 
His theory was that Christ was a man divinely 
commissioned, who had no existence before he 
was conceived by the Virgin Mary ; that hu- 
man sin was the imitation of Adam's sin, and 
that human salvation was the imitation and 
adoption of Christ's virtue ; that the Bible was 
to be interpreted by human reason, and that its 
metaphors were not to be taken literally. The 
name Socinian, which is often given to those 
who hold Unitarian opinions as a term of re- 
proach, was for a century the honorable de- 
signation of a powerful and numerous religious 
body in Poland, Hungary, and Transylvania. 
It was only the union of the secular and eccle- 
siastical force during the reigns of Sigismund 
III. and his successor that succeeded in break- 
ing up and dispersing the Socinian party in 
Poland ; and the Racovian catechism (so called 
from its place of publication, Rak6w in Po- 
land), compiled mainly from the writings of 
Socinus, is still the text book of faith and 
worship in many Hungarian and Transylva- 
nian churches. The opinions of Socinus are 
professed still by many churches in Holland, 
Switzerland, Great Britain, and the United 
States. His life was written by the Pole 
Przypcovitis, and by the Rev. Joshua Toul- 
min (8vo, London, 1777). 

SOCIOLOGY, the science which treats of the 
actions of men living together in society, and 
of the institutions thus created. Its scope em- 
braces the whole history of man from the ori- 
gin of language to the latest development of 
modern civilization. As a constructive sci- 
ence it is of very recent birth. In a looser 
sense, as consisting of general speculations 
upon social affairs, it is almost as old as so- 
r'u-ty itself. Plato, doubtless founding on le- 
gendary ideas about the relation between the 
microcosm and the macrocosm, discovered the 
parallelism between the parts of a society and 
the faculties of the human mind ; he also phil- 
osophically explained the rise of division of 
labor m a society. Aristotle classified politics 
constructed a framework for speculations on 
government, and stated two of the three sources 
the origin of society: instinctive gregari- 
lusness and experience of utility. The later 
k historians of Rome indulged in some ar- 
itrary theories about the influence of climate 
*\ following the lead of Plato, tried to 
'Ii-h an erroneous parallelism between a 
ociety and the human body; but his concep- 
the state, the Leviathan, as an organ- 
ism, a living whole made up of related parts 



was a real sociological advance. Pascal devel- 
oped this idea ; he regarded the whole succes- 
sion of human beings as a single individual 
man, whose youth is the world's antiquity, 
whose years are the world's generations, whose 
maturity is the world's prime; he thus for- 
mally enunciated the idea of progress, so vital 
to sociology. Vico held that it might be 
shown that peoples the most widely separated 
in place and time had followed nearly the 
same course in the development of their lan- 
guages and political condition. About the 
middle of the 18th century, the French eco- 
nomic sect of the physiocrats maintained that 
there are natural laws of society which give 
it a direction of its own, irrespective of legis- 
lative interference. Turgot even earlier had 
discovered that all epochs of history are fast- 
ened together by a sequence of causes and 
effects, and had concluded that there is an 
ordered movement of advance in societies. 
Herder, in his Ideen zur Philosophic der Ge- 
schichte der Menschheit (1784), considers hu- 
manity as an individual tending through many 
vicissitudes to perfection, which it reaches in 
another world. Of the many socialist schemes 
which sprang up after the French revolution, 
that of Saint-Simon alone has any scientific 
value ; and all that was true in his somewhat 
unscientific speculations has been incorpora- 
ted by Saint-Simon's secretary and disciple 
Auguste Comte in his positive philosophy. 
Comte first subjected the whole course of his- 
tory to a careful analysis, so as to throw new 
light on the development of society. He first 
fully apprehended the relations of biology or 
the science of man to sociology; first clearly 
stated the diminishing influence of physical 
surroundings on societies; first gave its entire 
weight to the increasing influence of social 
circumstances, both on the society in which 
we live and on that which has gone before us. 
Oomte was consequently the first to lay down 
he lines, although they are rude and imperfect, 
:>n which a scheme of society as it will be may 
be constructed. His sociology, however, bears 
the marks of the incomplete erudition and 
backward science of the time. When, in the 
hands of the Thierrys, Guizot, Villemain, and 
many others, history had taken a new depar- 
ture, Comte profited by the movement. But 
ihe studies of these distinguished writers were 
;oo closely confined to the political and intel- 
.ectual aspects of society, and Comte followed 
them in their exclusiveness. Coming in the 
wake of the great modern scientific move- 
nent, Herbert Spencer has attempted to change 
;he face of sociology. Taking up the analogy 
Between society and man, erroneously treated 
)y Plato and Hobbes, Pascal and Turgot, 
Spencer has converted it into a series of gen- 
eralizations exhibiting a correspondence be- 
ween individual organisms and societies, and 
of these he has made the basis of his new sci- 
ence. He describes each community as a so- 
cial organism, which has structures and func- 



SOCORRO 



SOCRATES 



14T 



tions. The structures are forms of govern- 
ment, civil, ecclesiastical, military, industrial, 
and ceremonial ; the functions are sentiments, 
ideas, industrial processes, the fine arts; and 
both closely resemble the structures and func- 
tions of an individual organism. In his " First 
Principles " he goes further, and seeks to de- 
rive social and organic together with inorganic 
laws from certain ultimate principles. Thus 
the origin of division of labor in a commu- 
nity, and differences in industrial occupations, 
are clearly due to diversities of external cir- 
cumstances. This is an induction ; as a mat- 
ter of fact all simple societies, various groups 
of which are exposed to unlike outward condi- 
tions, tend to become complex societies. Spen- 
cer's a priori explanation is that, all influence 
being force, river banks, sea shores, all cli- 
matic and local conditions, are forces. If they 
do not influence the feelings and thus modify 
the habits of organic beings near them, they 
are wasted ; but this is inconceivable, for force 
>ersists. The instability of homogeneous or 
>w forms of social life is therefore deducible 
rom the persistence of force. Passing from 
leral to special aspects of sociology, his plan 
ibraces next the history of the domestic re- 
itions. Political organizations as historically 
ised on the family will then be elucidated, 
ind the functions of government discrimina- 
3d. The necessary development of industry 
rom slavery through serfdom to cooperation 
all be shown. Intellectual, aesthetic, and 
loral progress will be regarded as psycho- 
ical processes determined by social condi- 
ns. And finally all phases of society will 
shown to be connected with and reacting 
m one another. But one division of this im- 
lense work has been executed (1876). 
SOCORRO, a S. W. county of New Mexico, 
ordering on Arizona, intersected in the east 
>y the Rio Grande, and containing the sources 
the Gila river; area, about 11,500 sq. m. ; 
>p. in 1870, 6,603. There are fertile val- 
ays along the streams, but the greater part of 
le county is mountainous and unproductive, 
rold, iron, and other minerals are found. The 
lief productions in 1870 were 26,889 bushels 
)f wheat, 26,860 of Indian corn, 24,006 Ibs. of 
rool, and 2,150 gallons of wine. There were 
571 horses, 1,313 milch cows, 1,628 working 
>xen, 1,514 other cattle, 23,500 sheep, 547 
swine, and 4 flour mills. Capital, Socorro. 

SOCOTRA, an island in the Indian ocean, be- 
longing to the sultan of Oman, about 130 m. 
!. N". E. of Cape Guardafui, the eastern ex- 
imity of Africa ; length about 75 m., breadth 
)out 25 m. ; area, 1,309 sq. m. ; pop. about 
,000. Tamarida, the capital, is in lat. 12 39' 
T., Ion. 54 V E. The surface is generally about 
800 ft. above the sea, and the shores are bold. 
Toward the north there is a ridge of moun- 
tains with several peaks rising to the height of 
5,000 ft. There are some small streams, and 
where there is sufficient moisture vegetation 
remarkably luxuriant. Date trees and cot- 



ton are cultivated ; but Socotra is particularly 
famous for aloes and the gum of the dragon's 
blood tree, both of which are said to be the 
finest in the world. Camels, horned cattle, 
sheep, asses, and goats are reared. There is 
some trade with Muscat. Christianity appears 
to have been planted on this island during the 
apostolic age, and it remained Christian until 
the end of the 15th century, sharing the fate 
of the Nestorian church, which the Socotrans 
had joined. The Portuguese several times at- 
tempted to occupy the island and to revive 
Christianity. In 1834 the English explored 
Socotra and appeared disposed to occupy it ; 
but they abandoned the design when they oc- 
cupied Aden. There are two peculiar tribes 
on the island, one said to be descendants of 
Jews, and the other of the Portuguese. 

SOCRATES, a Greek philosopher, born in the 
immediate neighborhood of Athens between 
471 and 469 B. 0., died in that city in 899. 
He was the son of Sophroniscus, a sculptor, 
and of Pha3narete, a midwife, and was trained 
in his father's art. Tradition ascribed to his 
chisel three draped figures of the Graces which 
in the time of Pausanias were shown at the 
entrance to the acropolis. As a philosopher 
he called himself self-taught, and referred his 
knowledge sometimes to books, but more fre- 
quently to intercourse with distinguished men. 
Though traditionally represented as an old, 
bald-headed man, it is probable that his ex- 
traordinary peculiarities were early manifest- 
ed, and it is certain that he was famous both 
among wits and the populace in 423, when 
the "Clouds" of Aristophanes was first exhib- 
ited. Plato, Xenophon, and Aristophanes offer 
different phases and estimates of his philoso- 
phy, but agree in the outline of his personal 
qualities and habits. With remarkable physi- 
cal strength and endurance, he trained himself 
to coarse fare, scanty clothing, bare feet, and 
indifference to heat or cold, aiming thus to re- 
duce the number of his wants, as a distant ap- 
proach to the perfection of the gods. He had a 
flat nose, thick lips, prominent eyes, bald pate, 
squat figure, and ungainly gait, and wandered 
about the streets of Athens, standing motion- 
less for hours in meditation, and charming all 
classes and ages by his conversation ; so that 
Alcibiades (in Plato's Symposium) likened him 
to an uncouthly sculptured Silenus containing 
within the images of the gods, and declared 
that " as he talks, the hearts of all who hear leap 
up and their tears are poured out." Though 
a sage and a martyr, he was wholly removed 
from asceticism, exemplified the finest Athe- 
nian social culture, was a witty as well as seri- 
ous disputant, and on festive occasions would 
drink more wine than any other guest without 
being overcome. Few events of his life are 
recorded. Of his wife Xanthippe, .all that has 
passed into history is that she bore him three 
sons, that she had a violent temper, and that 
he said he married and endured her for self- 
discipline. He was an enthusiastic lover of 



148 



SOCRATES 



the city, within which alone he found instruc- 
tion, and beyond the walls of which he never 
went, except once to a public festival, and 
again to serve as hoplite at Potideea (about 
431), on the outbreak of the Peloponnesian 
struggle, at Deliura (424), and at Amphipolis 
(422). At Potideea he went barefoot over 
ice and snow, surpassed all other soldiers first 
in the cheerful endurance of hunger and then 
in the apparent enjoyment of plenty, and 
saved the life of Alcibiades, to whom, instead 
of himself, his own request caused the prize 
of valor to be awarded. His composure and 
bravery were alike distinguished at Delium 
and Amphipolis. He sought influence neither 
as a soldier nor statesman, and once only dis- 
charged a political office. In 406 he was one 
of the five prytanes of the senate, when the 
illegal sentence of death was proposed against 
the victors at the Arginusse ; and he, being 
epistates for that day, refused to put the ques- 
tion to vote, despite the menaces of the peo- 
ple and the assembly. With four other citi- 
zens he was summoned by the thirty tyrants 
to go to Salamis and bring back Leon to pun- 
ishment ; and he alone refused. Engaged as a 
missionary in the service of truth and virtue, 
he was warned from participating in public 
affairs by what he called a 6aifj6vtov, i. e., an 
internal voice, which he professed to hear from 
childhood in the way of restraint, but never in 
the way of instigation, and which he was ac- 
customed to speak of familiarly and to obey 
implicitly. This demon or genius of Socrates, 
which was not personified by himself, was re- 
garded by Plutarch as an intermediate being 
between gods and men, by the fathers of the 
church as an evil spirit, by Le Clerc as one of 
the fallen angels, by Ficino and Dacier as a 
good angel, and by later writers as a personi- 
fication of conscience, or practical instinct, 
or individual tact. Nor was this the only 
way in which he thought he received the spe- 
cial mandates of the gods. By divinations, 
dreams, and oracular intimations, he believed 
his peculiar mission to be imposed upon him ; 
and when the Pythian priestess pronounced 
him to be the wisest of men, he was perplexed 
between the decision of an authority which 
he deemed worthy of all respect and his own 
estimate that he had no wisdom whatsoever 
on any subject. With this sanction, he struck 
out the original path of an indiscriminate pub- 
lic talker for the sake of instruction. His 
disinterestedness, poverty, temperance, easy 
affability, and unrivalled sagacity, as well as 
his plausible and captivating voice and man- 
ner, commended his conversation. He spent 
the whole day in public, in the walks, the gym- 
nasia, the schools, the porticoes, the work- 
shops, and the market place at the hour when 
t was most crowded, talking with every one 
without distinction of age, sex, rank, or con- 
dition, discussing with politicians, sophists, 
military mon, artists, and ambitious youths, 
eager to get self-knowledge and to awaken the 



moral consciousness, striving to win now Alci- 
biades and now Theodota to virtue, never ac- 
cepting money in return for wisdom, attract- 
ing listeners during his later years even from 
the remoter cities of Greece, but founding no 
school, teaching in no fixed place, and writing 
no books. His custom was by systematic cross 
examination to convict every distinguished 
man whom he met of ignorance. Thus, after 
hearing the oracular eulogy from Delphi, as 
reported by Plato in his "Apology," he set 
out to examine the men whom he deemed 
wiser than himself. The politicians, the poets, 
and the artificers were in turn affronted as 
he attempted to demonstrate their conceit of 
knowledge without its reality, their skill with- 
out wisdom. His irony, or assumption of the 
character of an ignorant learner, till he in- 
volved his opponent in contradictory answers, 
added zest to his discussions. But he differed 
from the sophists, though he was ridiculed as 
the chief of them, in that, whether serious or 
humorous, he was ever seeking a positive basis 
for truth, while they for the most part denied 
the possibility of truth, and could ply the so- 
phistical art with entire indifference to it. In 
his conception, virtue was as intellectual as 
vice, and he let slip no opportunity to engage 
with the masters of sophistry, to follow them 
through their subtleties, to unravel their cap- 
tious inquiries, and to wield the weapons of 
rhetorical adroitness in the interest of truth. 
He exhibited undisguised contempt for the ru- 
lers, proclaiming that government was a most 
difficult science, and that men, who would not 
trust themselves in a ship without an experi- 
enced pilot, not only trusted themselves in a 
state with untried rulers, but even sought to 
become rulers themselves. He thus naturally 
and necessarily made for himself enemies in 
every direction and among all classes. At- 
tached to none of the political parties, ridi- 
culed in turn as a buffoon and as a moral cor- 
rupter, at once satirized by Aristophanes and 
hated by the thirty, especially odious from his 
intimate connection with Critias and Alcibi- 
ades, only a decent pretext was wanted to bring 
upon him the vengeance of power, and this was 
found in a charge of impiety. An orator named 
Lycon and a poet named Meletus united with 
the demagogue Anytus in impeaching him for 
despising the tutelary national gods, for intro- 
ducing other and new deities, and also for cor- 
rupting the youth. The details of the accusers 
were, that he worshipped a demon unknown 
to the mythology, that he contemned the 
existing political constitution by ridiculing the 
practice of choosing archons by lot, that he 
taught young men the habit of depreciating the 
entire mode of life of their fathers, and that he 
quoted and perverted passages from the poems 
of Homer and Hesiod to favor aristocratic doc- 
trines. He approached his trial with no ex- 
pectation of acquittal, though he had always 
obeyed the laws, and even in religious opinions 
was identified with the public mind of Athens. 



SOCRATES 



SODA 



149 



He commented upon all the imputations, and 
denied some. He mentioned his blameless 
life, his divine commission, and the consequent 
antipathies which he aroused, refuted the 
charge of irreligion, maintained a calm, brave, 
and almost haughty bearing, and declared his 
solicitude rather for the good repute of the 
Athenians than for himself. He heard with- 
out surprise the sentence of condemnation, 
which was passed by a majority of only five or 
six in the Athenian dicastery of 567 members. 
It is probable that the prosecution was de- 
signed rather to humble than to destroy him. 
Xenophon affirms that the defiant and fearless 
tone of his defence was the direct cause of his 
condemnation ; and it is certain that the capi- 
tal sentence which followed it was the conse- 
quence of his libera contumacia, as Cicero ex- 
presses it. The penalty of death having been 
pronounced, he declared himself satisfied both 
with his own conduct and with the result, cal- 
culated that his bearing on the trial would be 
the most emphatic lesson which he could read 
to the youth of Athens, and predicted that his 
removal would be the signal for numerous suc- 
cessors in so worthy a work. An interval of 
30 days was allowed for the annual Theoric 
mission of the sacred ship to Delos, which he 
passed in prison, with chains on his legs, in 
conversation with his friends. The Platonic 
dialogues of "Crito" and "Phsedo," in addi- 
tion to their historic value, may be regarded 
as imitations or developments of his last argu- 
ments on the duty of obedience to the laws 
and on the evidences of immortality. There 
is no authority but that of late and untrust- 
worthy writers for the statement that the 
Athenians lamented his fate and punished his 
accusers. The Memorabilia of Xenophon and 
the dialogues of Plato have been supposed to 
represent an exoteric and an esoteric Socra- 
tes, and there has been a long controversy as 
to which contains the most complete and true 
history. The former professes to record ac- 
tual conversations held by him, and was de- 
signed as an apology ; while the Socrates of 
the latter is the spokesman of theories which 
may or may not have been the opinions of the 
master as well as the disciple. But the two 
pictures thus presented are in the main accor- 
dant. Socrates marks the epoch in Greek phi- 
losophy when speculation turned from physics 
to ethics. He directed his attention to hu- 
man relations and duties. Astronomy he pro- 
nounced a divine mystery ; geometry he val- 
ued only for land-measuring ; general physics 
he discarded altogether as having furnished 
and promising nothing but hypothetical, con- 
trary, and useless results ; human practice alone, 
with the knowledge pertaining to it, was es- 
teemed the proper subject of human investiga- 
tion. According to Cicero, "Socrates called 
philosophy down from the heavens to earth, 
and introduced it into the cities and houses of 
men, compelling men to inquire concerning life 
and morals and things good and evil." The 



most complete discussions concerning Socrates 
are in general histories of Greece and of phi- 
losophy. See also Moses Mendelssohn's life of 
Socrates, prefixed to his own Phcedon ; Nares, 
" An Essay on the Demon or Divination of So- 
crates" (1782) ; Wiggers, Sokrates als Hensch, 
Burger und Philosoph (1811); Schleiermacher, 
Ueber den Werth des Sokrates als PhilosopJien 
(1815-'18) ; Lelut, Du demon de Socrate (1 836) ; 
K. F. Hermann, De Socratis Accusatoribus 
(1854); and Zeller, "Socrates and Socratic 
Schools " (1868). Ueberweg's " History of Phi- 
losophy" (1872), vol. i., pp. 80-88, contains a 
full list of works. 

SODA, a name given to sodic monoxide, or 
common oxide of sodium, NasO, the base of 
the important series of sodium salts ; also to 
the hydrated oxide, or caustic soda, NaHO, 
and in commerce to the normal carbonate, Na 2 
C0 3 + 10H 2 0. Anhydrous sodic monoxide, or 
the soda of the chemist, KaaO, is formed when 
the metal is burned in dry air or oxygen gas, 
by exposing the dioxide to a high heat, or by 
heating sodic hydrate with an equivalent quan- 
tity of metallic sodium, whereby NaHO-fNa 
is converted into ]STa 2 O + H. When sodium is 
burned in oxygen gas till its weight is constant 
a dioxide, Ka 2 3 , is formed. When exposed 
to the air it deliquesces, and, uniting with car- 
bon dioxide, resolidifies as carbonate. When a 
heap of it is moistened it becomes heated and 
evolves oxygen gas. The monoxide attracts 
moisture as powerfully as the corresponding 
potassic oxide, forming sodic hydrate or caustic 
soda, from which the water cannot be expelled 
by heat alone. The properties of caustic soda 
resemble those of caustic potash, and it may 
be prepared from the carbonate by a similar 
method (see POTASH, vol. xiii., p. 756) ; but its 
action upon acids is rather less energetic. Its 
specific gravity is 2'13. It is manufactured 
on a large scale in the alkali works accord- 
ing to a process proposed by Mr. Gossage, by 
which advantage is taken of the presence of 
caustic soda in the black ash solution. The 
crude solution of black ash vats is evapora- 
ted to a specific gravity of 1'5 or 1'6, during 
whieh operation most of the carbonate, sul- 
phate, and chloride crystallize out. The " red 
liquor," as it is technically called, which owes 
its color to a compound of sulphide of sodium 
and sulphide of iron, and which is also con- 
taminated with ferrocyanide and sometimes 
with sulphocyanide of potassium, has air forced 
through it while hot, which causes the precipi- 
tation of the iron as sesquioxide and the con- 
version of the sulphur compounds into sul- 
phates. The addition of sodic nitrate com- 
pletes the oxidation, and this salt may be used 
for the whole process. After its addition the 
evaporation is carried further until the whole 
mass is heated nearly to redness. When the 
temperature rises to 311 large quantities of 
ammonia are evolved, and as it increases ni- 
trogen escapes abundantly. The fused soda is 
poured into sheet-iron vessels, in which it so- 



150 



SODA 



lidifies. The normal carbonate, existing in cer- 
tain lakes in Egypt and Hungary, and in the 
volcanic springs of Iceland and North Amer- 
ica, often containing sesquicarbonate, was long 
known in commerce as natron. Large quan- 
tities of it and of other soda salts occur in the 
form of an efflorescence on the " alkali plains " 
of the western territories. It was formerly pre- 
ji.-in-il artiticiiilly from kelp, or the ashes of sea- 
and fuci, and also from barilla, the semi- 
fused ash of the saltola goda, a plant which has 
been cultivated with great care by the Span- 
iards, especially in the vicinity of Alicante, the 
seed being sown in light low soils which are 
irrigated by sea water. Barilla yields much 
more soda than kelp, the latter being now prin- 
cipally used for obtaining iodine. But the 
quantity of soda obtained from barilla is small 
in comparison with that manufactured by the 
process of Leblanc, which consists in first con- 
verting chloride of sodium or common salt into 
sulphate of sodium or Glauber's salt, and then 
converting the sulphate into carbonate by heat- 
ing it with carbonate of lime and coal. The 
conversion of common salt into sulphate or 
"salt cake" is called the "salt-cake process," 
and is effected in a salt-cake furnace. One of 
the best forms of furnace contains two irdn 
vessels or retorts placed in separate heating 
apartments or furnaces, but connected with 
each other by a neck. Into the first vessel, 
called the decomposer, which is oval, are in- 
troduced 5 or 6 cwt. of common salt and a rath- 
er less weight of sulphuric acid of sp. gr. 1*78, 
and a gentle heat is applied. Hydrochloric 
acid is evolved and passes off by a flue to con- 
densing towers containing fragments of coke 
or stone, through which water is allowed to 
trickle. There are two towers, the first one 
receiving the vapors at the bottom, passing 
what are not absorbed to the top of the other, 
from the bottom of which the residue, mostly 
air and some impurities, issues and passes into 
a large chimney. In the first vessel about 
half the salt is decomposed, when the pasty 
mass, consisting of acid sulphate of sodium and 
undecomposed salt, is thrust into the second 
vessel or roaster, which is heated to a high- 
er degree, and the decomposition completed. 
The reaction in the first vessel is as follows 
2NaCl + H,S0 4 = NaCl + NalI,S0 4 + HC1. In 
the second vessel the acid sodic sulphate re- 
:K-N upon the unchanged salt, the hydrogen 
taking the chlorine to form hydrochloric acid, 
K-avinp two molecules of sodium to unite with 
tli- snlphion, SO 4 ; thus, NaCl+NaIIS0 4 = 
I Ifl + Na,SO 4 . The hydrochloric acid gas 
from both vessels passes through the same flue 
and condensing towers. The neutral sulphate 
or " salt cake " is then removed from the sec- 
ond chamber, reduced to powder, and mixed 
with powdered chalk and coal, in the propor- 
tion of two parts each of sulphate and chalk 
and one part of coal. This mixture is then 
thrown in quantities of from 2 to 3 cwt. into 
a reverberatory furnace, and melted while be- 



ing stirred. The mass is then raked out into 
a mould from which it is turned when cold, 
forming ball soda, or black ash, which contains 
from 20 to 27 per cent, of pure soda or neu- 
tral carbonate, minus its water of crystalliza- 
tion, and mixed with calcium sulphate, quick- 
lime, and unburned coal. The reaction is 
represented as follows: Na a SO 4 -hCaCO s +40 
=Na3C0 8 + CaS-|-4CO, the chemical changes 
consisting firstly in the deoxidation of the salt 
cake, and its conversion into disodic sul- 
phide with evolution of carbonic oxide,. and 
secondly in the formation of sodic carbonate 
and calcic sulphide by interchange of the con- 
stituents of the disodic sulphide and calcic car- 
bonate. The sodium salts are extracted in a 
series of vats, by warm water which passes 
from one to the other. Calcium sulphide, 
which is formed in large quantities, was for- 
merly a waste product, but is now partly util- 
ized in the preparation of hyposulphite of soda, 
which has been employed to a considerable 
extent as an "antichlor" for removing the 
last traces of chlorine from bleached paper 
pulp. The black solution obtained by the lix- 
iviation of the black ash is allowed to settle, 
when it is pumped into iron pans and evapo- 
rated by the waste heat from ' the furnaces. 
Much of the salt crystallizes during ebullition 
and is removed by perforated ladles. The 
mother liquor retains a portion of caustic soda, 
which may be converted into carbonate by 
mixing it with sawdust and roasting in a rever- 
beratory furnace. At present, however, this 
conversion into carbonate is not much prac- 
tised, but the caustic soda is extracted accord- 
ing to the plan of Mr. Gossage, already de- 
scribed. The crude carbonate is crystallized 
by redissolving it in hot Avater, allowing this 
to become clear by standing, and then running 
it into deep pans, having a capacity to yield 
about one ton of crystallized carbonate. The 
solution cools in five or six days, and large 
crystals are formed. The mother liquor yields 
an inferior ash. Sodic carbonate, or commer- 
cial neutral carbonate of soda, has a nauseous 
alkaline taste, and crystallizes in large trans- 
parent rhomboidal prisms, containing 10 mole- 
cules of water, which melt in their water of 
crystallization, are soluble in any proportion 
of hot water, and are also very soluble in cold 
water. The salt easily parts with its water, 
and melts at a red heat. If it is crystallized 
at a temperature of 4 F., 15 molecules of 
water of crystallization are taken up. Mit- 
scherlich obtained sodic carbonate with six 
molecules of water of crystallization. Above 
93*2 the salt crystallizes in forms derived from 
the square-based octahedron, containing five 
molecules of water; but between 158 and 
176 it crystallizes in four-sided prisms con- 
taining only one molecule of water. The max- 
imum solubility of soda in water is at 100*4 . 
The principal uses of commercial carbonate of 
soda are in the preparation of the bicarbonate 
and of caustic soda ; in the manufacture of hard 



SODA POWDERS 



SODIUM 



151 



soap, for which purpose it is better adapted 
than potash on account of not being deliques- 
cent like the latter alkali (see SOAP) ; and also 
very largely in the preparation of paper pulp 
from various materials. The paper maker uses 
it in connection with quicklime, which reduces 
it to caustic soda. (See PAPER.) It is also 
used in the laundry, and for domestic and 
cleansing purposes generally. 

SODA POWDERS. See EFFERVESCENCE. 

SODA WATER. See MINERAL WATERS. 

SODERM LVLAM), a S. E. Igen or province of 
Sweden, bounded N. by Lake Maslar, E. by the 
lasn of Stockholm, which embraces a portion 
of the old province of Sodermanland, and 8. 
E. by the Baltic; area, 2,603 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1874, 138,696. It is generally level and fer- 
tile, and abounds in inland lakes, including 
part of Lake Hjelmar. Agriculture is the 
principal occupation, and the fisheries and 
lumber trade are of some importance. Capi- 
tal, ISTykoping. 

SODIUM, the most abundant of the alkali met- 
als, its chloride composing the principal part 
of the saline matter of the ocean, and also ex- 
isting in extensive beds in geological strata. 
Large quantities of nitrate and carbonate of 
sodium are found in beds, and in some rocks 
it is combined with silica. The metal was ob- 
tained by Sir Humphry Davy soon after his 
discovery of potassium, and by a similar meth- 
od. Gay-Lussac and Thenard afterward pre- 
pared it by decomposing sodic hydrate with 
metallic iron at a white heat. It may be pre- 
pared readily by the process of Brunner, which 
consists in distilling a mixture of the carbonate 
with powdered charcoal. The process has 
been improved by Deville and others, and em- 
ployed on a large scale in manufacturing. The 
carbonate of soda used in the process is pre- 
pared by calcining the crystallized neutral car- 
bonate. It is thoroughly dried, pounded, and 
mixed with a slight excess of charcoal. Ground 
chalk is also added, to preserve a. pasty condi- 
tion and prevent the carbonate of soda from 
separating from the charcoal. The following 
proportions are recommended by Deville for 
manufacturing operations: dry carbonate of 
soda, 30 kilogrammes; charcoal, 13; chalk, 3. 
The materials should be thoroughly mixed, and 
it is well to calcine the mixture before patting 
it into the distilling apparatus, by which it is 
made more compact, so that a greater quan- 
tity can be introduced. It is put into cylindri- 
cal iron retorts covered with clay, which are 
heated in a reverberatory furnace. The re- 
torts have movable ends, so that at the close 
of the operation the charge may be withdrawn 
and a fresh one introduced without removing 
the cylinders or putting out the fire. The re- 
ceivers are of the form used in the preparation 
of potassium. (See POTASSIUM, vol. xiii., p. 
758.) The same precautions are necessary as 
in the preparation of that metal. The chalk 
is employed to prevent the charcoal from sep- 
arating the carbonate of soda when it fuses. 



The charcoal combines with oxygen when the 
heat is sufficient to weaken the affinities be- 
tween the constituents of the salt, and the 
metallic sodium is left free, when it distils 
over and is condensed in the receiver, nearly 
pure if the operation is well conducted. It is 
perfectly purified by melting it under naphtha, 
when it may be run into moulds like those used 
for lead. Sodium is a brilliant silver-white 
metal, resembling potassium in its physical and 
in most of its chemical properties. It is a good 
conductor of heat and electricity. Its specific 
gravity is 0'972, its atomic weight 23, and its 
symbol Na (natrium). It is soft at common 
temperatures, fuses at 207'7 F., and oxidizes 
rapidly in the air. At the freezing point of 
water it is very ductile, and at the zero of 
Fahrenheit it is quite hard. If a small quan- 
tity of the metal is melted in a sealed tube 
filled with coal gas, and cooled till crystalliza- 
tion begins, when the liquid portion is turned 
off shining octahedral crystals will remain. 
When dropped into cold water it decomposes 
it with violence, evolving hydrogen gas, but 
does not produce enough heat to inflame it 
unless the metal is held in one spot so that the 
heat shall not be dissipated. If the water is 
previously warmed, the gas will take fire, burn- 
ing with a bright characteristic yellow flame. 
Sodium is widely diffused in the mineral, ani- 
mal, and vegetable kingdoms, united with silicic 
and carbonic acid in many minerals, forms a 
large share of the saline portions of animal flu- 
ids, and enters largely into the composition of 
marine plants. It unites with oxygen to form 
two well known oxides : the monoxide, Na 2 O, 
the soda of the chemists, and the dioxide, NaaOa. 
These two oxides are formed when sodium is 
burned in common air. When burned in oxy- 
gen gas till it no longer increases in weight, it 
is wholly converted into the dioxide. With 
water it forms a hydrate, NaHO, which corre- 
sponds in composition to the monoxide, a mole- 
cule of hydrogen replacing one of sodium. This 
hydrate is the caustic soda of commerce. (See 
SODA.) Salts. The salts of sodium are among 
the most important of all compounds, not ex- 
cepting those of potassium. The principal one is 
the chloride, or common salt. (See SALT.) The 
iodide, Nal, and the bromide, NaBr, are anal- 
ogous to the corresponding potassium com- 
pounds. At temperatures above 86 the bro- 
mide crystallizes in anhydrous cubes, but at 
lower temperatures it unites with two mole- 
cules of water and forms hexagonal tables. The 
iodide, at temperatures above 104, crystallizes 
in anhydrous cubes ; but at ordinary tempera- 
tures large, transparent, striated, oblique rhom- 
bic prisms are formed, containing two molecules 
of water. The small proportion of sodic iodide 
which is contained in sea water furnishes the 
commercial supply of iodine, the kelp from 
which iodine is obtained being the ashes of 
marine plants which assimilate the iodide from 
the sea water. (See IODINE.) The sulphides of 
sodium correspond to those of potassium, and 



152 



SODIUM 



may be prepared by similar processes. The 
fluoride, NaF, exists in combination with alu- 
minic fluoride in the mineral cryolite 6(NaF), 
AUF., found in Greenland and the Ural, which 
is the chief source of metallic aluminum. (See 
An MIMM, and CRYOLITE.) Sodic sulphate, 
the well known Glauber's salt, is described un- 
der that title. Sodium unites with sulphurous 
acid to form a neutral and an acid sulphite. 
The neutral salt, Na 9 SO, + 10H a O, is procured 
by passing sulphurous anhydride (see SUL- 
PHUR), the product of sulphur burned in air, 
over moistened crystals of sodic carbonate as 
long as the gas is absorbed, dissolving the mass 
in water and crystallizing. It is extensively 
employed for the preparation of the hyposul- 
phite of soda, which is largely used under the 
name of "antichlor" to remove the last traces 
of chlorine from bleached paper pulp. (See 
P.vi'Kii, vol. xiii., p. 46.) The acid sulphite, 
NaHSOs, is of little importance. The hypo- 
sulphite, NaaSaOs + oHaO, was formerly made 
to some extent from impure sodic sulphide, 
or sulphuret of sodium, by passing sulphurous 
anhydride through it until it ceased to be ab- 
sorbed ; but it is now largely prepared from 
neutral sulphite of soda by digesting this salt 
with sulphuric acid for several days, at a mod- 
erate heat. It may also be prepared by digest- 
ing a solution of the sulphite with flowers of 
sulphur. The sulphur is gradually dissolved, 
forming a clear solution which yields crystals 
on evaporation; these are oblique prisms be- 
longing to the right prismatic system, free- 
ly soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. 
Hyposulphite of soda possesses the property 
of forming double salts with silver compounds, 
and in photography it is employed in dissolv- 
ing away ordinary insoluble compounds of sil- 
ver, such as chloride and iodide. A mixed 
solution of sulphite and hyposulphite of soda 
dissolves malachite and blue copper ore, and 
Stromeyer has employed it in the hydro-metal- 
lurgical extraction of copper. It is also used 
for preparing antimonial cinnebar and aniline 
green. Hyposulphite of soda fuses at compar- 
atively low temperatures in its water of crys- 
tallization, and advantage is taken of this prop- 
erty in the sealing of glass tubes containing 
explosive compounds to be used under water 
in torpedoes. Mr. M. Carey Lea employs it 
as a new test for ruthenium. If a salt of this 
metal is made alkaline with ammonia and 
boiled with the hyposulphite, it first acquires 
a rose color, and then a magnificent carmine. 
Employed in medicine, it appears to have de- 
oxidizing powers, in consequence, it has been 
suggested, of conversion of hyposulphurous 
into sulphurir acid. It diminishes urea and 
increases uric acid in the urine, and also in- 
creases the sulphates and causes the appear- 
ance of sugar and oxalic acid. It has been 
usi-d. in accordance with the suggestions of 
Dr. Polli, in zymotic diseases, or those which 
are supposed to be caused by ferments in the 
blood, the development of which it has the 



power of arresting. It has also been used in 
cases of yeasty vomiting, on account of its 
destructive effect on the sarcenia ventricttli 
which infests the stomach in that disease, and 
as a local application in parasitic affections 
of the skin and mucous membranes. It may 
be given in doses of from 10 to 20 grains 
three times a day, dissolved in -water. For 
external use a dram may be dissolved in an 
ounce of water. The nitrate, called also cubic 
nitre, is described in the article NITRATES. 
The neutral carbonate, commonly called soda 
in commerce, is treated under SODA. Bicar- 
bonate of soda, acid sodic carbonate, or mono- 
sodic carbonate, may be formed by saturating 
a strong solution of the neutral carbonate or 
sal soda with carbonic acid. It is also manu- 
factured on a large scale by passing a current 
of carbonic acid gas over crushed and moist- 
ened crystals of commercial carbonate, exposed 
two or three inches in depth in a chamber 
upon cloths stretched horizontally above one 
another. The carbonate passes into the ses- 
quicarbonate, and then into the bicarbonate, 
which may be redissolved and crystallized on 
evaporation in rectangular four-sided prisms, 
soluble in 10 parts of water at 50. If the so- 
lution is heated, four molecules of bicarbonate 
lose one of carbonic acid and are converted 
into the sesquicarbonate (4NaHC0 3 =2NaaCOs, 
HaCOs + HaCOs), which by heating to redness, 
or by continued boiling, is converted into nor- 
mal carbonate. Bicarbonate of soda is much 
used in medicine as an antacid and promoter 
of mucous secretions and perspiration, and as 
an ingredient in effervescing powders. (See 
EFFERVESCENCE.) It is also used in bread 
making, as was formerly the sesquicarbonate. 
There are several compounds of sodium with 
boracic acid, but only one is of any practical 
importance, the acid borate (biborate of soda, 
or common borax), which is described in the 
article BORAX. Sodium forms with the three 
varieties of phosphoric acid orthophosphates, 
metaphosphates, and pyrophosphates. Among 
the orthophosphates are trisodic phosphate, 
or subphosphate of sodium, NasPC^ + lSHaO, 
prepared from rhombic phosphate by adding 
caustic soda to its solution ; and the hydric 
disodic phosphate, or rhombic phosphate of 
sodium, NaaIIP04-f 12H 2 O, commonly called 
phosphate of soda, and the salt from which 
most of the phosphates are obtained. The 
latter is prepared by adding sodic carbonate to 
acid calcic phosphate, one of the salts formed 
in obtaining phosphorus. (See PHOSPHORUS, 
vol. xiii., pp. 464 and 465.) Tricalcic phos- 
phate is precipitated while the disodic phos- 
phate is held in solution. When decanted and 
evaporated it forms large, transparent, efflo- 
rescent, rhombic prisms, soluble in four parts 
of cold water, but fusing at 90 F. in their 
water of crystallization. It has an alkaline re- 
action, and corrodes flint glass, causing white 
silicious scales to separate from the surface. 
When evaporated at temperatures above 90 



SODOM 



SOUL 



it combines with seven molecules of water 
of crystallization, and does not effloresce. 
On adding free phosphoric acid to a solution 
of rhombic phosphate, biphosphate of soda, 
NaH a + PO 4 + H 2 0, is formed, which crystal- 
lizes in right rhombic prisms having a strong- 
ly acid reaction. There are several metaphos- 
phates of sodium, and also double salts of the 
same constitution in which another metal is 
one of the basyles. There are several pyro- 
phosphates, embracing also both single and 
double salts, for a description of which the 
reader is referred to the larger works on chem- 
istry. The silicates of sodium are glasses of 
various degrees of fusibility, and also of solu- 
bility in water. (See CONCRETE, GLASS, and 
GLASS, SOLUBLE.) There are several organic 
salts of sodium, the principal of which are 
acetates, citrates, oxalates, tartrates, and vale- 
rianates ; but they do not possess sufficient gen- 
eral interest to require notice here. General 
Characteristics of Sodium Salts. There v are 
no good direct tests of sodium salts, because 
they are nearly ail soluble, so that the presence 
of sodium is often inferred when the absence 
of every other metal is proved, and yet a saline 
substance remains which yields yellow, striated, 
prismatic crystals on addition of chloride of 
platinum and evaporating the solution, a double 
salt of sodium and platinum being formed. 
The detection of this double salt is more cer- 
tain by microscopic examination with polar- 
ized light, which tinges the crystals with va- 
rious characteristic colors. Before the blow- 
pipe the salts of sodium impart an intense 
yellow to the outer flame. Spectroscopic ex- 
amination reveals pure yellow light having the 
same position in the solar spectrum as the 
double line D. The chief distinguishing char- 
acteristics between sodium and potassium salts 
are, that the latter impart a violet color to 
flames, and are generally more insoluble, as 
shown in the slight solubility of sulphate of 
potassium and the great solubility of Glauber's 
salt. Many sodium salts moreover effloresce 
on exposure to the air, while potassium salts 
generally deliquesce, a fact markedly shown in 
the carbonates. 

SODOM, in Biblical history, one of the five 
cities of the plain or valley of Siddim, de- 
stroyed on account of the wickedness of the 
inhabitants. (See DEAD SEA.) 

SOEST, a town of Prussia, in the province of 
Westphalia, 13 m. . by E. of Arnsberg; pop. 
in 1871, 12,404. It has a Catholic cathedral, 
and among the Protestant churches the re- 
stored Weisenkirche is remarkable for its pure 
Gothic architecture. There are many brew- 
eries and several manufactories. The princi- 
pal trade is in grain. The plain surrounding 
the town contains 10 villages, and is very fer- 
tile. Soest was once a Hanseatic town of great 
importance, but has never recovered from the 
effects of the thirty years' war. 

SOFALA. I. A country on the E. coast of 
Africa, within the territory of Mozambique, 



of which it forms the southern half. It ex- 
tends from about lat. 18 to 24 S., and from 
the seaboard to the Motapa mountains, hav- 
ing an extreme length of about 400 m. and a 
breadth of nearly 200 m. Along the coast the 
land is low and swampy, but it rises toward 
the interior till it terminates in the Motapa 
range. The country is watered by several 
considerable rivers, of which the most impor- 
tant are the Sofala, the Sabia, and the Inham- 
ban or Inhambane. The Portuguese establish- 
ed colonial settlements in Sofala early in the 
16th century, and the country is still nominal- 
ly a dependency of Portugal, although Euro- 
pean rule is really limited to the few garri- 
soned stations near the coast. The chief towns 
are Sofala and Inhamban ; the latter port is 8 
m. from the mouth of the river of the same 
name, in lat. 23 57' S., Ion. 36 6' E., and has 
a good harbor. The exports are mainly am- 
ber, beeswax, and ivory. The natives are ne- 
groes, and the slave trade is carried on, but to 
no considerable extent. Sofala was formerly 
celebrated for its export of gold dust, and some 
geographers have supposed it to be the Ophir 
of the ancients. The coast region is very un- 
healthful. II. A town in the above country, 
formerly the capital of a native kingdom, at 
the mouth of the river Sofala, in lat. 20 3' S., 
Ion. 84 39' E. It has a fort and a church, 
and consists of a feAV mud and straw huts, 
though once a place of considerable trade. A 
bar at the mouth of the river interferes with 
the approach of large vessels. 

SOGDIANA, an ancient country of Asia, S. E. 
of the sea of Aral (Oxianus Lacus). It was 
separated from Bactria on the southwest by 
the Oxus, and from Scythia on the north by 
the Jaxartes, thus embracing a part of modern 
Bokhara. The Persians conquered it in the 
time of Cyrus. Alexander invaded it in 329 
B. 0., and established some colonies. After 
his death it belonged to Syria, and subsequently 
fell to the Turkomans. 

SOHAR, a seaport town of Oman, Arabia, 
capital of the province of Batina, on the sea 
of Oman, 125 m. N. W. of Muscat ; pop. about 
20,000. It is surrounded by a wall, defended 
by a few guns. The castle, a handsome build- 
ing with three walls around it, occupies a low 
hill, from which an open space planted with 
trees extends to the sea. The market place is 
large and regular, and contains good shops. 
Many of the houses are of tAvo and three sto- 
ries and well built. The roadstead is well pro- 
tected, and offers good anchorage, but large 
vessels have to lie some distance off shore. 
Outside the walls is an open sandy space, but 
beyond it are gardens with shade trees and 
| running waters. The chief manufactures of 
the town are arms, stuffs of wool, cotton, and 
silk, carpets, and coverlets. Sohar once had a 
large trade, but it has been injured by the 
prosperity of Muscat, and many of its build- 
ings are now in a semi-ruinous condition. 

SOUL. See Z6LTOM. 



154 



SOUN 



SOHN, Karl Ferdinand, a German painter, born 
;! , Deo, 1", 1805, died in Cologne, Nov. 
25, 1867. He studied at the academy of Ber- 
lin and under Schadow, whom ho accompanied 
to Dusseldorf and to Italy. He was professor 
at the academy of Dusseldorf from 1838 to 
1855, and became one of the leaders of the 
Dusseldorf school. He especially excelled in 
the rich coloring of female figures, and in 
idealized portraits of ladies. His works in- 
clude " Rinaldo and Armida " (1827) ; " Hylas 
captured by Nymphs " (1829); "Diana in her 
Bath" (1833);* "The Two Leonoras," after 
Goethe's Tasso (1834); "Romeo and Juliet" 
(1836); "The Sisters" (1843); " Vanitas " 
(1844) ; " The Lute Player " (1848) ; " The Four 
Seasons" (I 851 ); **& "Loreley" (1853). 
His son PAUL EDUAED RICHARD (born in 1834) 
excels in genre and portrait painting. His 
nephew and son-in law WILHELM (born in 
1880) has executed good genre pictures, inclu- 
ding "A Delicate Question" (1864), and "The 
Consultation with a Lawyer" (1866). 

SOIL. See AGRICULTURE. 

SOISSONS (anc. Noviodunum, and afterward 
Augusta Suessionum), a fortified town of 
France, in the department of Aisne, on the 
left bank of the river Aisne, 56 m. N. E. of 
Paris; pop. in 1872, 10,404. It has a cathe- 
dral built in the 12th and 13th centuries, the 
ruined abbey of St. Jean des Vignes, a castle, 
and a college. In the environs is the abbey 
of St. Medard, founded by Clotaire I. in 557, 
now occupied as an institute for deaf mutes. 
There are manufactures of fine tapestry, linen, 
hosiery, cordage, earthenware, and leather. 
Soissons was the chief place of the Suessiones 
in the time of Casar, and at the beginning of 
the 6th century the capital of Clovis, who had 
there defeated the Roman general Syagrius 
(486), and it gave name to the kingdom of his 
fourth son. It has sustained many sieges. On 
Oct. 16, 1870, it surrendered to the Germans, 
after three weeks' investment and four days' 
bombardment. The council which condemned 
Abelard's doctrines met here in 1122. 

SOK.OTO. See SACKATOO. 

SOUNDER, Daniel Charles, a Swedish natural- 
ist, born in Norrland, Feb. 28, 1736, died in 
London, May 16, 1782. He was educated at 
Upsal under Linnaeus, studied medicine, made 
a tour in Russia, and went to England in 1760, 
" after spending some time in the Canaries. He 
was employed in preparing a catalogue of the 
collections in the British museum, and in 1766 
published a catalogue of the Brander collec- 
tion of fossils. In 1768-'71 he accompanied 
Sir Joseph Banks on Capt. Cook's first voyage 
round the world. In 1771 he received the de- 
gree of D. 0. L. from Oxford university. In 
1773 he was appointed under librarian to the 
British museum. He greatly promoted the 
study of botany in England. 

SOLAN GOOSE. SeeGANNET. 

SOLANO, a N. W. county of California, bound- 
ed S. E. by the Sacramento river and S. by 



SOLANUM 

Suisun bay: area, 800 sq. m.; pop. in 1670, 
16,871, of whom 920 were Chinese. The sur- 
face consists mostly of valleys, marsh lands, 
undulating prairies, and high rounded hills. 
It is one of the best agricultural counties in 
the state. There is very little timber. Marble 
is found, and limestone from which a superior 
hydraulic cement is obtained. It is traversed 
by the California Pacific railroad. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 1,949,418 bushels of 
wheat, 443,400 of barley, 54,780 gallons of 
wine, 306,817 Ibs. of wool, 119,969 of butter, 
and 37,469 tons of hay. There were 6,852 
horses, 1,046 mules and asses, 4,123 milch 
cows, 8,815 other cattle, 41,890 sheep, and 17,- 
133 swine; 1 manufactory of cars, 1 of cement, 
1 of machinery, 7 of saddlery and harness, 8 
of wine, 1 flour mill, 3 tanneries, and 3 brewr 
eries. Capital, Fairfield. 

SOLANUM, the name (of unknown deriva- 
tion) of a genus of plants which is the type 
of a large and important order, the solanacece. 
Some of the conspicuous species of solanum 
being popularly known as nightshade, the 
order or family is often called the nightshade 
family. The solanums are annual or perennial 
herbs, and in warm climates they include 
shrubs, and even trees, with alternate leaves ; 
the flowers, sometimes terminal or axillary, 
are often extra-axillary, appearing upon the 
stem at some point between the leaves, an un- 
usual position due to a more or less complete 
union between the flower stalk and the main 
stem. The calyx and wheel-shaped corolla are 
mostly five-parted or five-lobed, the five sta- 
mens with very short filaments, the large an- 
thers crowded around the style, and opening 
by a pore at the apex of each cell ; the (mostly) 
two-celled ovary is surmounted by a simple 
style with an obtuse stigma, and in fruit be- 
comes a two-celled berry containing numerous 
flattened, somewhat kidney-shaped seeds with 
a fleshy albumen. The genus solanum is exten- 
sive; in its latest revision (Dunal, 1852) some 
850 well defined species are admitted, and 
about 100 not sufficiently known are enumer- 
ated; they are found in all temperate coun- 
tries, but in tropical regions, especially those 
of South America, they are very abundant. 
The most important species is solanum tubero- 
tum (see POTATO), the tubers of which are so 
generally used as food. The tomato (described 
under its proper title) was placed here by 
Linnseus, and though later botanists have given 
it a separate genus, lycopersicum, it can hardly 
be kept distinct from solanum. Under EGG 
PLANT is described another cultivated species, 
and under NIGHTSHADE is given a common 
weed, S. nigriim. Several species are cultiva- 
ted for ornament in gardens and greenhouses, 
and a few wild species, not elsewhere men- 
tioned, are of importance as weeds. The 
beaked solanum (S. rostratum), very abundant 
on the plains west of the Mississippi, is a 
much-branched annual, 2 to 3 ft. high and 
abundantly armed with strong yellow spines; 



SOLANUM 



SOLAR TIME 



155 



it hag yellow flowers, one of the anthers of 
which is much larger than the others, and, 
being prolonged into a long curved beak, has 
given the species its name ; the small berry is 
included in the very spiny calyx. This has 
been introduced into gardens, and in some 
places has become a weed ; the plant is inter- 
esting from the fact that it afforded the Colo- 
rado potato beetle its chief food before the in- 
troduction of the potato in the far west. (See 
POTATO BUG.) One of the worst weeds of 
cultivation is S. Carolinense, known in some 
localities as horse nettle, and in others as ap- 
ple of Sodom ; it has a perennial root, with 
prickly stems a foot or more high ; the oblong, 
sinuate leaves prickly on both sides ; the blu- 
ish white flowers, in small lateral racemes, are 
succeeded by orange-yellow berries about a 
third of an inch in diameter. This is especial- 
ly abundant and troublesome in the southern 
states, and is sparingly found as far north as 
Connecticut. It is very hard to extirpate, and 
in some parts of Delaware it has gained such 
complete possession of the soil as to lessen ma- 
terially the value of farms, and in some cases 
to cause fields to be abandoned. A climbing 
species, S. dulcamara, is popularly known as 
bitter-sweet ; the rind of the stalks is said to 
taste at first bitter and afterward sweet, a pe- 
culiarity recognized in the Latin name, dulcis- 
amara, given to the plant in the 16th century. 
It is a native of Europe, is thoroughly natu- 
ralized in all the older states, and is not rare 
in cultivation. The stem is somewhat climb- 
ing, and grows to the height of 6 to 10 ft. ; 
it is woody at the base, but the upper part is 
killed back every winter ; the leaves are usual- 
ly ovate-heart-shaped, but frequently the up- 
per ones have a lobe on each side at the base 




Bitter-sweet (Solanum dulcamara). 



and become halberd-shaped; the flowers are 
in small cymes; the corolla is pale blue or 
purple, against which the large yellow anthers 
appear in strong contrast, and make them 



rather showy ; they are succeeded by an oval 
berry about half an inch long, and bright red ; 
the plant begins to bloom in June and con- 
tinues till autumn, and flowers and fruit in 
every intermediate stage up to full ripeness 
may usually be found upon it. Though bitter- 
sweet has been in use as a medicine for some 
centuries, there is very little positive knowl- 
edge concerning it; it appears to contain a 
very small amount of solanine in a moditied 
form ; it has been used in gout and rheuma- 
tism, in various affections of the chest, and in 
skin diseases. The berries are very showy, 
and, being not unpleasant to the taste, are lia- 
ble to be eaten by children ; in regard to their 
effects there is the most opposite testimony; 
some authors assert that they are highly poi- 
sonous, while Garrod says that he has admin- 
istered to a patient half a pound of the fresh 
berries daily with no ill effect. Several spe- 




Ornamental-leaved Solanum (S. TVarscewiczii). 

cies of solanum are ornamental plants in the 
greenhouse and garden ; some of these, valued 
for their ornamental fruit, are described under 
JEEUSALEM CHEERY. The jasmine-like sola- 
num (8. jasminoides) is a tall, climbing house 
plant from Brazil, with dark green, smooth, 
ovate or heart-shaped leaves, and large clus- 
ters of white or slightly bluish and pleasantly 
fragrant flowers, produced in profusion ; it is 
an admirable greenhouse climber, and is often 
planted out in summer ; in the southern states' 
the root remains alive through the winter. 
Some of the erect tropical species have a very 
robust habit of growth and ample foliage ; in 
some the large leaves are handsomely cut ; in 
others they are marked by pleasing contrasts 
of color, and the flowers are often showy. 
Among the best are S. crinitum, S. macran- 
thum, 8. marginatum, and S. Warscewiczii, 
which grow from 3 to 8 ft. high and are highly 
ornamental. 

SOLAR SYSTEM, See PLANET, and Sux. 

SOLAR TIME. See DAY. 



156 



SOLDER 



SOLDER (Lat. tolidui, solid), a metal or alloy 
used for joining together different pieces of 
metal, \\lu-tlier of the same or of different 
kinds. Soldi-rs are divided into hard and soft. 
The soft solders may be used for joining all 
kinds of metals, but usually those having low 
mcltinir points. The hard solders are better 
adapted for the less fusible metals, especially 
where strength is required. Practically the 
solder must be more fusible than either of the 
metals to be united, but the more nearly these 
points coincide the stronger will be the union. 
Gold in the form of leaf or fine shreds is 
used for soldering platinum vessels ; it may 
be slightly alloyed with copper. Silver is con- 
sidered the best solder for German silver. 
Copper in shreds is often used for iron when 
welding is not permissible, sometimes slightly 
alloyed with zinc. Soft solders have tin for a 
basis, generally alloyed with lead. Those con- 
taining much lead are sometimes ranked with 
hard solders. Pewter may bo used for a sol- 
der, and by the addition of bismuth, antimony, 
or cadmium its fusing point may be lowered so 
that it can be used as a solder for pewter. The 
following are some of the more important sol- 
ders. For gold: gold (18 carats) 66-6, silver 
16-7, copper 16'7. A good gold solder for gen- 
eral purposes is 100 parts of gold, 40 of silver, 
and 30 of copper (Makins). For silver : silver 
<)G-6, copper 30, brass 3'4; or silver 65, copper 
24, zinc 11. It is better to add the metals 
separately than to use brass, which may have 
an uncertain composition. Pewterer's solder: 
coarse tin 3, lead 4, bismuth 2 ; fine tin 2, 
lead 1, bismuth 1. Plumber's solder : tin 1, 
lead 3; a finer kind has the same composition 
as fine pewterer's solder. Hard spelter solder, 
used for soldering copper, is made of copper 
I' 1 ., /me 12. Soft spelter solder, for brass, is 
made of equal parts of copper and zinc. Fluxes 
are used to preserve the cleanness of the sur- 
faces of the metals and free them from oxide 
while the operation of soldering is going on. 
The solder is applied in various ways. The 
surfaces, sometimes previously cleaned with a 
file or with muriatic acid or an acid solution 
of chloride of zinc, are brought together, and 
the solder in strips or grains laid on. Then a 
flux composed of borax or sal ammoniac, some- 
times mixed with a little common rosin, is ap- 
plied, and the parts are heated with a blowpipe 
or a stream of intensely heated air. But it is 
more common to use a soldering iron, an in- 
strument consisting of a heavy square, pyra- 
midal, or conical piece of copper, riveted in 
a fork of wrought iron, to which a wooden 
handle is attached. This " iron," being heated 
above the fusing point of the solder, is applied 
to it, and a few adhering drops of the melted 
Hoy are carried to the parts to be joined, 
which are then held in position until the sol- 
der hardens. Aluminum cannot be soldered 
m the ordinary way, but must first be tinned. 
A good general solder for aluminum is com- 
posed of zinc 90, aluminum 6, copper 4. 



SOLE 

SOLE (solea, Cuv.), a genus of soft-rayed 
flat fishes of the family pleuronectidce. (See 
FLOUNDER.) The genus has the jaws concealed 
under the scaly skin, the upper rounded and 
longest; the eyes are both on the right side, 
small, the lower behind the upper and almost 
at the angle'of the mouth; the mouth is 
curved, and turned almost wholly to the left 
side, and the fine and villif orm teeth are nearly 
all on this side ; the snout is in advance of the 
mouth; the lateral line straight; branchial 
openings below the small pectorals; dorsal and 
anal very long, often confluent with the caudal ; 
no air bladder, and no pancreatic cseca, and the 
intestine long and often doubled ; the blind side 
is sometimes furnished with shred-like villi. 
The common sole (S. vulgaris, Cuv.) has the 
body more elongated than in most flat fishes, 
with a blunt and rounded muzzle ; the length 
is from 10 to 20 in., and the color uniform dark 
brown above and white below, the pectorals 
tipped with black. It inhabits the sandy 
shores of Great Britain, keeping near the bot- 
tom, feeding on the spawn and fry of other 
fishes and on shell fish ; it is found from the 
seas of Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. It 
is one of the best and most delicate fishes for 
the table, and is caught in immense numbers 
by trawl nets ; the flesh is white and firm, and 
is in good condition all the year 'except in 
February and March, when they are spawning. 
*Some are found reversed, or with the eyes and 
colored surface on the left side, and a few are 
dark and rough on both sides. In the genus 
achirus (Lac.) there are no pectorals ; species 




Common Sole (Solea vulgaris). 

are found in the Indian seas, with the upper 
parts marbled with brown and lighter. The 
New York sole (A. mollis, Mitch.) is 6 to 8 in. 
long, dark brown, marked transversely with 



SOLEURE 



SOLOMON BEN ISAAC 



157 



irregular black bands, and has small scales ; it 
is found from Nantucket to North Carolina. 
SOLEURE. See SOLOTHURN. 
SOLFERINO, a village of Lombardy, in the 
province and 20 m. S. E. of Brescia. It has a 
ruined castle, formerly the residence of a prince 
of Solferiuo ; but it is chiefly remarkable for 
the great victory won here by the allied French 
and Sardinian forces over the Austrians on 
June 24, 1859. The battle lasted 16 hours, 
and four French corps under Marshals Bara- 
guay d'Hilliers, MacMahon, Canrobert, and 
Niel, and led by the emperor Napoleon III., 
and four divisions of the Sardinian army, 
commanded by Victor Emanuel in person, 
rere opposed to an immense Austrian force, 
under the command of the emperor Francis 
Joseph. The allies lost about 18,000 killed 
and wounded ; the Austrians, 20,000, besides 
6,000 prisoners and 30 cannon. The battle 
losed the war, and the peace of Villafranca 
followed. On June 24, 1870, the bones of the 
slain on this field were collected in three ossu- 
aries, which were consecrated in the presence 
of representatives of France, Italy, and Austria. 
SOLGER, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, a German 
ithor, born in Schwedt, Prussia, Nov. 28, 
1780, died in Berlin, Oct. 20, 1819. After 
[tensive studies and a varied career, he final- 
became in 1811 professor of philosophy at 
Jerlin. His works include a translation of 
Sophocles (1808 ; 2d ed., 1824); Erwin: mer 
Gesprache uber das Schone und die ICunst (2 
1815); Philosophiache Gesprdche (1817) ; 
3thumous writings and letters, edited by 
"ieck and Raumer (2 vols.,.1826) ; and lectures 
m aesthetics, edited by Heyse (1829). 
SOLIMAN. See SOLYMAN. 
SOLINGEN, a town of Rhenish Prussia, near 
the Wupper, 12 m. S. E. of Dusseldorf ; pop. 
in 1871, 14,040. It contains a Catholic and 
two Protestant churches, a synagogue, a supe- 
ior school, and a chamber of commerce. It 
has for centuries been celebrated for its man- 
ufacture of sword blades and other cutlery, 
and iron and steel ware. There are in and 
round Solingen more than 2,700 establish- 
lents, employing about 10,000 persons. 
SOLIS, Antonio de, a Spanish historian, born 
Alcala de Henares, July 18, 1610, died in 
adrid, April 19, 1686. After becoming cele- 
jrated as a dramatist and poet, he was ap- 
)ointed official historiographer,- and entered 
loly orders in 1667. His principal historical 
rork is Historia de la conquista de Mexico 
Madrid, 1684; new ed., Paris, 1858; 
nglish translation by Townsend, 2 vols, Lon- 
lon, 1724, reprinted in 1738 and 1753). His 
lost celebrated play, La Gitanilla, or " The 
'retty Gypsy Girl," is founded on Montal- 
van's piece borrowed from the story of 
Cervantes. A collection of his plays ap- 
peared at Madrid in 1732. 

SOLIS, Juan Diaz de, a Spanish navigator, born 
in the latter half of the 15th century, killed in 
South America in 1516. In conjunction with 



Yafiez Pinzon, he discovered Yucatan in 1506. 
In 1508 they unitedly explored the coast of 
South America from Cape St. Augustine to lat. 
40 S., and took possession of the continent 
for Spain. Having quarrelled, they returned 
to Spain in 1509 ; a lawsuit followed, and So- 
lis was beaten and imprisoned, and Pinzon re- 
ceived important grants in the island of San 
Juan. Afterward Solis was released, was paid 
34,000 maravedis indemnity, and on the death 
of Amerigo Vespucci became pilot major. In 
1515, with three ships, he explored the coast 
from Cape San Roque to Rio de Janeiro, en- 
tered the estuary of La Plata, which he called 
the Mar Dulce, and ascended the river. He 
was kindly received by the Indians, but after- 
ward ambuscaded, killed, and eaten. Accord- 
ing to some authorities, he discovered the Pla- 
ta in 1512, and made a second voyage to it. 

SOLLY, Samnel, an English surgeon, born in 
1805, died in London, Sept. 24, 1871. He be- 
came a member of the London college of sur- 
geons in 1828, lecturer on practical anatomy 
and assistant surgeon to St. Thomas's hospital 
in 1833, and subsequently attending surgeon. 
He was also for many years lecturer on sur- 
gery. His principal work is "Anatomy and 
Pathology of the Brain " (2d ed., 1847), which 
was for a long time a valuable and standard 
book. He also published " Surgical Experi- 
ences" (1865). He was fellow, member of 
the council, and for two years vice president 
of the college of surgeons. 

SOLMIZATION, in singing, the application to 
the seven notes of the musical scale of the syl- 
lables ut (or do), re, mi, fa, sol, la, si, to en- 
able the singer to acquire full command of the 
vowel sounds. (See Music, vol. xii., p. 76.) 

SOLOMON. See HEBREWS, vol. viii., p. 586. 

SOLOMON, Song of. See CANTICLES. 

SOLOMON, Wisdom of. See WISDOM, BOOK OF. 

SOLOMON BEN GABIROL (properly perhaps 
Solomon ben Judah ben Gabirol, and popular- 
ly Gabirol), a Jewish philosopher and poet, 
born in Malaga, Spain, about 1020, died in 
Valencia or Ocafia about 1075. Almost all 
that is known of his life is that he lived for a 
time in Saragossa, and was intimate with 
Samuel Hallevi. As a Hebrew poet he im- 
mortalized himself by his Kether malkJiuth 
(" Crown of Royalty "), a didactic hymn on 
the cosmos, which has been incorporated in 
the Jewish liturgy. His philosophical works 
he wrote in Arabic, and only incomplete He- 
brew translations of them are extant. His 
" Source of Life," in which he appears as a 
bold Aristotelian, is cited by Albertus Magnus 
and other mediasval Christian philosophers, 
the name of the author appearing in the cor- 
rupt forms of Avicebron, Avencebrol, &c., de- 
rived from the Arabic Aben Gebrol. The 
identity of the names has but recently been 
established. See Munk, Melanges de philoso- 
pliiejuwe (Paris, 1857). 

SOLOMON BEN ISAAC, rabbi, erroneously sur- 
named YARHT or JARCHI, and generally known 



158 



SOLOMON ISLANDS 



under the abbreviation Rxsm (the initials of 
the Hebrew H.Mi shtlomoh Yitz'haki), a Jew- 
ish commentator of the Bible and Talmud, 
born in Troves, France, about 1040, died there, 
July 13, 1105. His comments on the Talmud 
have never been excelled, and they accompany 
all i'diti'iis of the text. Those on the Bible 
have been translated into Latin by Breithaupt 
(8 vols., Gotha, 1710-'14). A German transla- 
tion of the commentary on Genesis was made 
t>\ 1 lay man (Bonn, 1833), and one of the whole 
Pentateuch by Lucas (Prague, 1833-'8). 

SOLOMON ISLANDS, a group of the S. Pacific 
lying S. E. of New Britain and E. of New 
Guinea, extending in a S. E. direction from 
lat. 4 50' to 11 50' S., and from Ion. 154 30' 
to 162 30' E. The group is composed of the 
islands Bougainville, Choiseul, Malayta, Santa 
Isabella, New Georgia, Guadalcanar, San Cris- 
toval, and several smaller ones, the area of the 
whole being estimated at 10,000 sq. in. Moun- 
tains, often of considerable height, traverse 
them. The shores are generally low, and in 
some places bordered with mangrove swamps. 
They are watered by numerous streams, and 
the temperature is cooled by copious rains. 
They are very fertile; bananas, yams, sugar 
cane, and ginger are cultivated ; and the bread- 
fruit, cacao, and clove trees abound. They 
are inhabited by negrillos and Malays. The 
population is very irregularly distributed, the 
northern islands being more populous than the 
others. The islands were discovered and ex- 
plored in 1568 by the Spanish navigator Men- 
dafla, sent out by his uncle Lope do Castro, 
viceroy of Peru. He named them Solomon 
islands on the pretence that the riches of Sol- 
omon's temple were brought from them. He 
died in Santa Cruz group in 1595, while on 
his way to colonize them, and they were not 
again visited till rediscovered by Carteret in 
1767. Some partially successful missionary 
efforts have recently been made there. 

SOLOMON'S SEAL, the common name for spe- 
cies of polygonatum (Gr. n-oMf, many, and 
y6w, knee, the stems having numerous joints), 
a genus of the lily family, closely related to 
asparagus, and having thick, knotted, horizon- 
tal rootstocks, which show upon their upper 




Solomon'* Seal. Rhizome. showing stem, bud, and scars of 
former stems. 

snrface deep scars left by the falling away of 
the stems of previous years, a character which 
gave rise to the popular name. Each root- 
stock bears a single leafy stem ; in front of it 



SOLON 

| is a bud to continue the growth another year, 
and behind it are the scars of former stems ; 
the stems, 1 to 4 ft. high, are gracefully curved, 
and clothed with nearly sessile or half clasping, 
strongly nerved leaves, from the axils of which 
appear the drooping greenish flowers ; the pe- 
rianth is cylindrical, six-lobed at the summit, 
with six stamens inserted near the middle of 
the tube; the three-celled ovary ripens to a 
globular black or blue berry with two to six 
seeds. The great Solomon's seal (P. gigan- 
teum) and the smaller (P. "biflorum) are com- 
mon species, while the remaining one, the 
broad-leaved (P. lat\folium\ is very local. 
Several species are found in Europe, which 
were formerly used medicinally, and ours have 
a reputed value as diuretics. The young shoots 
are cooked and eaten in Turkey like asparagus, 
and the roots, which contain a considerable 
quantity of starch, have been used in Europe 
as food in times of scarcity. They are inter- 
esting but not showy garden plants. Species 
of the related genus smilacina are called false 
Solomon's seal ; they have their flowers in ter- 
minal racemes, and mostly red berries. 

SOLON, the Athenian lawgiver, born about 
638 B. C., died in Athens about 559. He was 
a lineal descendant of Codrus. In his youth 
he visited many parts of Greece and Asia as a 
merchant, gained distinction by his poems, and 
from his reputation for political wisdom was 
reckoned one of the seven sages. Returning 
to Athens, he began his political career by 
recovering Salamis from the Megarians. The 
Athenians had repeatedly failed in their at- 
tempts upon this island, and had prohibited 
any citizen on pain of death from proposing a 
renewal of the enterprise. Solon counterfeited 
madness, and in apparent frenzy read in the 
agora a short poem, the effect of which was 
that the law was rescinded, war was declared, 
and he himself was appointed to the command 
of it. In a single campaign (about 600) the 
Megarians were expelled from the island, but 
a tedious conflict ensued, which was finally 
settled in favor of Athens by the arbitration 
of Sparta. Soon after, in the Amphictyonic 
council, he moved the decree by which the 
Athenians espoused the cause of the Del- 
phian oracle against Cirrha. In 594 he was 
called by all parties to the archonship, with 
powers substantially dictatorial, and chiefly 
with authority to confirm, repeal, or modify 
the Draconian laws. The constitution of Solon 
(see ATHENS, vol. ii., p. 55), which made prop- 
erty instead of birth the title of citizenship, 
and which was the prelude to the subsequent 
democracy, was by a solemn oath of the gov- 
ernment and people declared valid without 
alteration for ten years. He obtained leave 
of absence for that period, visited Egypt, and 
went thence to Cyprus, where he persuaded 
the prince of yEpea to change the site of the 
town, and himself made the regulations for the 
prosperity of the new establishment, which in 
his honor was called Soli. He returned to 



SOLOTHURN 



SOLYMAN II. 



159 



Athens prior to the first usurpation of Pisis- 
tratus (560), and amid violent dissensions was 
respected by all parties, but was unable to 
overrule the popular favor of his kinsman. 
The chief sources for the biography of Solon 
are the compilations of Plutarch and Diogenes 
Laertius. The extant fragments of his verses 
are usually contained in the collections of the 
Greek gnomic poets, and there is a separate 
edition of them by Bach (Leyden, 1825). 

SOLOTHURN (Fr. Soleure), a N. W. canton of 
Switzerland, bordering on Basel Country, Aar- 
gau, and Bern ; area, 303 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
74,713, of whom 62,078 were Roman Catho- 
lics. The Jura mountains occupy a part of 
the canton, and the remainder of the surface 
is level and fertile. It is traversed by the 
river Aar, a tributary of the Rhine. Gold, 
silver, iron, and lignite are found. The soil is 
remarkably fertile. A great deal of the sur- 
face is occupied by meadows and pastures, 
upon which large numbers of cattle are kept. 
The forests are extensive, and afford valuable 
timber. German is the language of the canton. 
The government was formerly aristocratic, but 
democratic principles have been largely intro- 
duced into it, especially by the revision of the 
constitution in 1841. SOLOTHURN, the capital, 
is at the foot of the Weissenstein, on the Aar, 
17 m. N. by E. of Bern; pop. in 1870, 7,054. 
It has one of the finest cathedrals of Switz- 
erland, an arsenal with a large collection of 
ancient armor, and a museum containing a 
rich collection of Jura fossils. Till 1874 it 
was the seat of the bishop of Basel. 

SOLSTICE (Lat. sol, the sun, and stare, to 
stand), the period in the annual revolution of 
the earth round the sun when he is at that 
point in the ecliptic furthest north or south 
from the equator, or in other words reaches 
his greatest northern 'or southern declination. 
There are two solstices in the year : the sum- 
mer solstice, June 22, when the sun seems to 
traverse the tropic of Cancer ; and the winter 
solstice, Dec. 22, when he reaches his greatest 
southern declination, and appears to traverse 
the tropic of Capricorn. For several days be- 
fore and after the solstice there is but a slight 
variation in the sun's apparent declination, and 
so far as his motion from and toward the eclip- 
tic is concerned he may be said to stand still. 
The solstitial points are the two points of the 
sun's greatest elevation above or depression 
below the equator; and a circle .through these 
points and the poles of the earth is called the 
solstitial colure. 

SOLUBLE GLASS. See GLASS, SOLUBLE. 

SOLWAY FRITH, an arm of the Irish sea, 
which extends 40 m. K E. between England 
and Scotland, with a breadth varying from 
24 m., between St. Bees Head in Cumberland 
and Rayberry Head in Kirkcudbrightshire, to 
2 m. It receives on the English side the rivers 
Derwent, Ellen, Waver, Wampool, and Eden ; 
and on the Scottish side, the Urr, Kith, and 
Annan. Whitehaven, Maryport, and Allonby 
751 VOL. xv. 11 



are on the English side, and Annan and Kirk- 
cudbright on the Scottish. At ebb tide the 
broad sands which occupy a considerable por- 
tion of the frith are left dry. 

SOLYMM II., or Snleiman, called the MAGNIFI- 
CENT, an Ottoman sultan, born about 1495, 
died before Sziget in Hungary, Sept. 5, 1566. 
He was the son of Selim I., whom he succeed- 
ed in 1520. In 1521 he subdued the rebellion 
of Ghazali Bey in Syria, and in Hungary took 
Belgrade and other fortified towns. After an ' 
arduous siege he took Rhodes from the knights 
of St. John in 1522. 'He invaded Hungary a 
second time in 1526, won the decisive battle of 
Mohacs (Aug. 29), in which Louis II. of Hun- 
gary lost his life, overran a part of the king- 
dom, and recognized as king John Zapolya, 
who put himself under Solyman's protection. 
This embroiled the sultan with Ferdinand I. of 
Hapsburg, who was elected king by the major- 
ity of the Hungarians, and began the first of 
the Turkish wars against Germany. In 1529 
Solyman took Buda, and appeared before 
Vienna with a vast army ; but after a number 
of assaults he retired with a loss of 80,000 
men. A second attempt in 1532 was baffled 
by the resistance of Guns under Jurisics. In 
1534 he invaded Persia, and subdued Armenia 
and Irak, with the cities of Tabriz and Bag- 
dad; in 1536 formed an alliance with Francis 
I. of France against Charles V., the brother of 
Ferdinand ; in the same year created the Bar- 
bary corsair Khair ed-Din or Barbarossa a 
Turkish admiral, and thus swept the Mediter- 
ranean and Italian coasts; conquered Croatia 
in 1537 by a great victory over the imperial- 
ists at Eszek ; and in 1538 made the conquest 
of Yemen. An attempt in 1537 on Corfu 
failed. Upon the death of John Zapolya in 
1540, he supported his son John Sigismund, 
and continued the war with Ferdinand till 
1547, when a truce humiliating to that prince 
was agreed upon. He now again invaded 
Persia, in 1548 gained a victory at Van in Ar- 
menia, and in 1549-'50 conquered the prov- 
inces of Shirvan and Georgia. Hostilities in 
Hungary were renewed in 1552. John Sigis- 
mund was established in Transylvania under 
Turkish protection, and Solyman's fleets under 
Piali, the successor of Khair ed-Din, gained a 
victory over the combined fleets of the empe- 
ror at Jerba on the African coast. A truce 
made in 1562 left the Turks in possession of 
their Hungarian conquests. In an attempt 
upon Malta in 1565, the whole naval force of 
Solyman was repulsed. In 1566 he again led 
a vast army to the invasion of Hungary, crossed 
the Drave, and laid siege to the fortress of 
Sziget, which was defended by a small garri- 
son under Zrinyi ; but a paroxysm of anger at 
the terrible repulses he encountered induced 
an attack of apoplexy, in which he died a 
few days before the last and fatal assault was 
made. Under this sultan the Ottoman empire 
attained its greatest military power, and it be- 
gan immediately to decline under his succes- 



160 



SOMAULI 



sor Selim II. By the Turks he was surnamed 
the Legislator (Kanuni), and the Kanun Na- 
meh, or code of laws and regulations, drawn 
up under his direction, formed the basis for a 
long period of the Turkish administration of 
government and justice. He was also a patron 
of literature and art; in his reign the use of 
the Turkish language in literature superseded 
that of the Persian. 

SOM U I.I, or Soinal. the general name of the 
tribes inhabiting that portion of Africa S. of 
the gulf of Aden, and extending from Cape 
Guardafui and the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb 
to the Doho river. The eastern tribes are 
called Burri, the western Gulbedh. The prin- 
eastern tribes are the Midjertheyn, the 



..ursumgalli, and Dulbhanta; the principal 
western, the Habr Awal, the Habr Tul Jaala, 
and the Habr Gerhajis. The eastern tribes 
are generally peaceable and orderly, the west- 
ern savage and warlike. They are all Moham- 
medans, and are very superstitious, believing 
in charms and witchcraft. They live gener- 
ally in houses made of mats. Slavery exists 
among them. In war they use shields, spears, 
bows, and poisoned arrows. Their principal 
articles of trade are various kinds of gums, 
tragacanth, myrrh, and especially frankincense. 
They are generally governed by chiefs, who 
however have little power. The characters 
and modes of life of the various tribes differ 
greatly. Their language is a mixture of Arabic 
and Galla words, and the race is supposed to 
be of the same mixed origin. 

SOMERS, John, lord, an English statesman, 
born in Worcester, March 4, 1651, died April 
26, 1716. He was educated at Trinity college, 
Oxford, and in 1676 was called to the bar at 
the Middle Temple, but remained some years 
longer at the university, publishing several po- 
litical pamphlets, and a variety of metrical and 
prose versions from classical authors. He be- 
gan to practise law in London in 1682, acquired 
great professional eminence, and became a 
leader of the whig party. He represented 
Worcester in the convention which met in 
January, 1689, and was a member of the two 
committees (acting as chairman of the second) 
which prepared the "Declaration of Eight." 
In 1689 he was appointed solicitor general and 
knighted, in 1692 attorney general, in 1693 lord 
keeper of the great seal, and in 1697 lord chan- 
cellor, when he was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Somers of Evesham. After ineffectual 
atu-uipts to fasten upon him a charge of mal- 
administration, and also of complicity in the 
piracies of Capt. Kidd, whom he had helped 
fit out a ship to capture pirates, an unsuccess- 
ful motion was made in the house of commons 
April 10, 1700, that the king should be re- 
quested to dismiss him. But his absence by 
illness from the debates upon a measure dis- 
tasteful to William, assumed to be by design 
induced the king on the 17th of the same month 
to remove him. In the next year an attempt 
was made lo impeach Somers on 14 distinct 



SOMERSET 

charges, the most important of which referred 
to an illegal issue at the king's request of blank 
commissions under the great seal for the pur- 
pose of negotiating certain treaties, to his al- 
leged complicity with Kidd, and to his acqui- 
sition of various unreasonable grants from the 
crown in addition to the salary and fees of his 
office ; but the commons declined to prosecute 
the impeachment, and he recovered the favor 
of the king, whose last speech to parliament 
was written by him. On the accession of the 
whigs to power in 1708, Somers was appointed 
president of the council, and held the office 
until the return of Harley and the tories in 
1710. Subsequently he participated in legis- 
lative duties until his death, which happened 
from apoplexy. A number of original letters 
and papers, illustrating his life and character, 
perished by fire in 1752. The so-called " Som- 
ers Tracts" (16 vols. 4to, l748-'52; new ed. 
by Sir Walter Scott, 13 vols. 4to, 1809-'15) 
consist of pamphlets selected chiefly from his 
library. R. Cooksey wrote " Life and Charac- 
ter of Lord Somers" (4to, 1791). 

SOMERS ISLANDS. See BERMUDAS. 

SOMERSET, the name of four counties in the 
United States. I. A W. county of Maine, 
bordering on Canada, intersected by the Ken- 
nebec river, and drained by the head streams 
of the Penobscot and Walloostook rivers; 
area, 3,800 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 34,611. The 
surface is diversified, and the soil generally 
good. There are several small lakes, and the 
N. part is covered with forests, affording vast 
quantities of timber for export. The Maine 
Central and the Somerset railroads enter it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 31,202 
bushels of wheat, 106,657 of Indian corn, 296,- 
185 of oats, 92,767 of barley, 20,536 of buck- 
wheat, 31,408 of peas and beans, 988,179 of 
potatoes, 113,481 tons of hay, 366,442 Ibs. of 
wool, 796,238 of butter, and 169,349 of cheese. 
There were 7,222 horses, 11,132 milch cows, 
5,886 working oxen, 14,954 other cattle, 78,- 
400 sheep, and 3,590 swine ; 23 manufactories 
of carriages and wagons, 2 of edge tools and 
axes, 5 of furniture, 8 of tanned and 5 of 
curried leather, 1 of paints, 1 of paper, 6 of 
sash, doors, and blinds, 6 of turned and carved 
wood, 3 of woollen goods, 9 wool-carding and 
cloth-dressing establishments, 5 flour mills, and 
39 saw mills. Capital, Skowhegan. II. A N. 
central county of New Jersey, bounded N. E. 
by the Passaic and W. by the Lamington riv- 
er, intersected by the Raritan, and traversed 
by the Delaware and Raritan canal and sev- 
eral railroads ; area, 275 sq. ra. ; pop. in 1870, 
25,510. The surface in some parts is very 
hilly, and the soil generally fertile, especially 
along the streams. The chief productions in 
1870 were 218,766 bushels of wheat, 561,136 
of Indian corn, 700,515 of oats, 86,684 of pota- 
toes, 42,034 tons of hay, 22,457 Ibs. of wool, 
3,800 of flax, and 587,093 of butter. There 
were 6,263 horses, 9,992 milch cows, 4,922 
other cattle, 7,302 sheep, and 7,883 swine; 



SOMERSET 



SOMERVILLE 



161 



2 manufactories of agricultural implements, 
8 of cheese, 1 of pig iron, 3 of castings, 10 
tanneries, 6 distilleries, 18 flour mills, and 7 
saw mills. Capital, Somerville. III. A S. W. 
county of Pennsylvania, bordering on Mary- 
land, bounded W. by the Youghiogheny river 
and Laurel ridge, and intersected in the south 
by Oastleman's river; area, 1,000 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 28,226. The surface is generally 
mountainous, and the soil fertile. The glades 
are admirably adapted to grazing. The coun- 
ty abounds in bituminous coal, and iron ore, 
fire clay, and cannel coal of excellent quality 
are found. It is traversed by the Pittsburgh, 
Washington, and Baltimore railroad. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 134,641 bushels 
of wheat, 142,515 of rye, 92,277 of Indian 
corn, 559,616 of oats, 49,779 of buckwheat, 
84,476 of potatoes, 51,327 tons of hay, 80,177 
Ibs. of wool, 1,344,522 of butter, 11,005 of 
flax, and 674,326 of maple sugar. There were 
8,273 horses, 13,811 milch cows, 15,157 other 
cattle, 32,343 sheep, and 10,748 swine; 43 tan- 
neries, 16 saw mills, and 14 woollen mills. 
Capital, Somerset. IV. A S. E. county of 
Maryland, on the E. shore of Chesapeake bay, 
and bounded S. E. by the Pocomoke river 
and sound ; area, about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 18,190, of whom 7,274 were colored. 
The surface is level and the soil generally fer- 
tile. It is intersected by the Eastern Shore 
railroad. The chief productions in 1870 were 
40,719 bushels of wheat, 251,883 of Indian 

>rn, 100,110 of oats, 105,009 of Irish and 
t2,026 of sweet potatoes, and 9,090 Ibs. of 
wool. There were 1,235 horses, 1,693 milch 
jows, 4,427 other cattle, 3,199 sheep, and 
T,628 swine. Capital, Princess Anne. 

SOMERSET, Edward Seymour, duke of. See 
SEYMOUR. 

SOMERSET, Robert Carr, earl of. See OVER- 
BURY, Sir THOMAS. 

SOMERSETSHIRE, a S. W. county of England, 
bordering on the counties of Gloucester, Wilts, 

)rset, and Devon, and the Bristol channel; 
rea, 1,636 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 463,412. The 

>ast is indented by several bays, the chief of 
which is Bridgewater bay. The principal riv- 
ers are the Avon, Frome, Yeo, Axe, Brue, and 
Parret. The Avon, Bridgewater, and other 
canals, and the Great Western railway inter- 
sect the county. The surface is hilly, but 
there is also a great extent of marshy land, 
and much of the soil is very fertile. Wheat 
and potatoes are the principal crops, and large 
numbers of cattle and sheep are reared. Coal, 
iron, and lead are largely produced. Woollen 
cloth, canvas, gloves, silk, lace, paper, glass, 
and various kinds of iron ware are manufac- 
tured. Somersetshire contains many remains 
of antiquity. Bristol is partly in this coun- 
ty, and the other principal towns are Bath, 
the capital, Wells, Taunton, Bridgewater, and 
Frome. 

SOMERSWORTH, a town of Straff ord co., New 
Hampshire, on the Salmon Falls river, which 



separates it from Maine, and on the Eastern 
and Boston and Maine railroads, 33 m. E. of 
Concord and 65 m. N. of Boston ; pop. in 1870, 
4,504. It is the fifth town in the state in point 
of manufactures, the principal village being 
Great Falls, near the falls of that name in Sal- 
mon Falls river. The Great Falls manufac- 
turing company, with a capital of $1,500,000, 
controls the water power (reckoned at 3,200 
horse power), and employs about 1,800 hands, 
manufacturing about 20,000,000 yards of cot- 
ton goods annually. The Great Falls wool- 
len company manufactures cassimeres, and the 
Somersworth machine company stoves and 
castings of all kinds; these have a capital of 
$100,000 each. There are several smaller man- 
ufactories, including a flour mill with a capital 
of $30,000. The village contains three banks, 
two hotels, about 60 stores, 15 schools, a pub- 
lic library of 6,000 volumes, a weekly news- 
paper, and six churches. 

SOMERVILLE, a N. E. central co. of Texas, 
intersected by the Brazos river; area, about 
300 sq. m. It was formed in 1875 from Hood 
co. The surface is rolling and the soil fertile. 
Wheat, Indian corn, and cotton grow well. 
Capital, Glen Rose. 

SOMERVILLE, a city of Middlesex co., Massa- 
chusetts, on the Mystic river, 2 m. N. W. of the 
state house, Boston; pop. in 1850, 3,540; in 
1860, 8,025; in 1870, 14,685; in 1875, 21,868. 
It borders S. W. on Cambridge. The surface 
is uneven; the principal elevations are Pros- 
pect, Spring, Central, and Winter hills. A 
public park of about 16 acres has been laid out 
in the . E. part of the city. It is lighted with 
gas and supplied with water from Mystic pond. 
It is connected with Boston by three lines of 
horse cars and four steam railroads. A large 
portion of the inhabitants do business in Bos- 
ton. The principal manufacturing establish- 
ments are five brick yards, a bleachery and 
dye works, a leather-currying establishment, 
an iron foundery, an art foundery, several 
carriage factories, two manufactories of glass- 
ware, and one each of earthenware, grate bars, 
ice tools, ladders, mats, spikes, brass and cop- 
per tubes, steam boilers, &c. The city is di- 
vided into four wards, and is governed by a 
mayor, 8 aldermen, and 16 councilmen. The 
valuation of property in 1874 was $30,837,- 
700, and the funded debt at the close of the 
year was $1,419,854. There are 18 public 
school houses, including a high school, under 
the control of a committee of three members 
from each ward; average attendance in 1874, 
3,022 ; expenditures, $86,705 13, of which 
$55,990 62 were for teachers' wages. The 
free public library contains about 5,000 vol- 
umes. There are two weekly newspapers and 
15 churches, viz. : 3 Baptist, 3 Congregational, 
2 Episcopal, 4 Methodist, 1 Roman Catholic, 
1 Unitarian, and 1 Universalist. The McLean 
asylum for the insane is in the E. part of the 
city. Somerville was set off from Charlestown 
in 1842, and incorporated as a city in 1872. 



1C2 



SOMERVILLE 



SOffERVlLLE, Mary, a British physicist, born 
in Jedburgh, Roxburghshire, Scotland, Dec. 
26, 1780, died in Naples, Italy, Nov. 29, 1872. 
She was the daughter of Vice Admiral Sir 
William Fairfax, and chiefly through her own 
efforts acquired a thorough education, partic- 
ularly in mathematics and landscape paint- 
ing. In 1804 she married Samuel Greig, then 
Ku^iuii consular agent in London, where she 
went to reside. Left a widow in 1807, she 
returned to Edinburgh, and in 1812 married 
her cousin William Somerville, M. D., who in 
1816 was appointed a member of the army 
medical board, and removed to London. Here 
she attracted attention by some experiments 
on the magnetic influence of the violet rays 
in the solar spectrum, the results of which 
were published in the "Philosophical Transac- 
tions" of 1826; and Lord Brougham suggested 
that she should prepare for the "Library of 
Useful Knowledge " a summary of the Meca- 
nique celeste of Laplace, which proved too vo- 
luminous for its original destination, and was 
published under the title " Mechanism of the 
Heavens" (8vo, Cambridge, 1831). This work 
led to her election as an honorary member of 
the royal astronomical society, and her bust by 
Chantrey was placed in their hall. In 1834 
she published " The Connection of the Physi- 
cal Sciences" (9th ed., 1858). In 1835 she 
received a pension of 200, subsequently in- 
creased to 300. Soon afterward she went 
to Italy on account of the health of her hus- 
band, and there resided during the rest of her 
life, principally in Florence, Rome, and Na- 
ples. Her next work was " Physical Geogra- 
phy" (2 vols., 1848; 6th ed., 1870), a history 
of the earth in its whole" material organization, 
and of animal and vegetable life; and her last, 
" Molecular and Microscopic Science " (2 vols., 
1869). She was a member of many foreign 
societies, and in 1869 received the Victoria 
medal of the royal geographical society, and in 
the same year the first gold medal ever award- 
ed by the Italian geographical society. She 
warmly favored what are popularly known as 
" women's rights," and was a member of the 
general committee for woman suffrage in Lon- 
don. In her 92d year she read books in the 
hiirh.T mathematics four or five hours daily, 
s<>l\vil the problems, and to the day of her 
(K-atli was occupied in the revision and com- 
pletion of a treatise on the " Theory of Differ- 
ences." During her last few years she noted 
down some recollections of her life, which 
have been published under the title "Personal 
Beoollections, from Early Life to Old Age, of 
Mary Somerville," by her daughter, Martha 
Somervillo (8vo, London, 1873). 

SOMIimu.K, William, :m Enirlisli poet, born 

at Edstone, Warwickshire, in 1692, died July 

19, 1742. He was educated at Winchester 

school and New college, Oxford, and settled 

t n a ! -tate in Warwickshire. He 

Beyond his means, and finally became 

His "Chase," in blank verse, 



SOMNAMBULISM 
t 

has often been reprinted. He wrote "Field 
Sports," describing hawking, and " Hobbinol, 
or Rural Games," a mock heroic poem. 

SOMMK, a N. department of France, in Pi- 
cardy, bordering on the departments of Pas- 
de-Calais, Le Nord, Aisne, Oise, and Seine-In- 
fe"rieure, and the English channel; area, 2,379 
sq. m.; pop. in 1872, 557,015. The surface 
is generally level, but occasionally diversified. 
It is divided into two nearly equal portions 
by the river Somme, which flows through it 
in a W. N. W. direction. The soil is careful- 
ly cultivated, but not naturally fertile. Cider 
is an important product. Cotton, linen, and 
woollen goods, iron ware, and beet sugar are 
manufactured. It is divided into the arron- 
dissements of Amiens, Abbeville, Doullens, 
Montdidier, and Peronne. Capital, Amiens. 

SOMMERING, Samnel Thomas yon, a German 

Shysiologist, born in Thorn, Jan. 18, 1755, 
ied in Frankfort, March 2, 1830. He studied 
medicine at Gottingen, and became professor 
of anatomy at Cassel in 1778, and at Mentz jn 
1784. In 1790 he began to practise medicine 
at Frankfort, and returned to that city in 1820 
after spending 15 years in Munich as physician 
to the king of Bavaria, who ennobled him. 
His works include Vom Baue des menschlichen 
Korpers (5 vols., l791-'6; new ed., 9 vols., 
1839-'44); De Corporis Humani Fabrica (6 
vols., 1794-1801) ; and Ueber das Organ der 
Seele (1796), teaching that the soul has its seat 
in a vapor-like fluid in the cavities of the brain. 
SOMNAMBULISM (Lat. somnus, sleep, and am- 
"bulare, to walk), literally, the act of walking in 
sleep, but usually applied to all the movements 
of a person who while in a condition of sleep 
acts his dreams. There are three kinds of 
somnambulism, viz. : 1, simple, where the som- 
nambulist is apparently in ordinary health, but 
rises from his bed, walks, runs, or climbs, or 
sometimes talks or writes, while asleep ; 2, 
'morbid, where there is a diseased condition, 
which admits the manifestation of the duality 
of the human system, the somnambulist some- 
times being alternately in the natural and the 
morbid condition, and frequently while in the 
latter performing acts of which while awake he 
is incapable ; and 3, artificial, which is treated 
under ANIMAL MAGNETISM. The first class of 
somnambulists are usually persons of nervous 
temperament, and the phenomena are generally 
induced in them either by some violent excite- 
ment, or oftener by a morbid condition of the 
stomach, late suppers, indigestible food, or the 
like. Some writers advise the placing a wet 
cloth before their beds, on which they may 
step, or waking them suddenly in some other 
way ; but such a course is fraught with great 
danger, as the shock may prove fatal, or at 
least permanently injurious. Morbid somnam- 
bulism is a condition concerning which we 
have little positive knowledge, but the phe- 
nomena of which are often very striking. A 
shy, diffident girl of 14, for instance, of a ner- 
vous temperament, but who has exhibited no 



SOMXAUTH 



SOKE 



163 



extraordinary intellectual powers, and has had 
but very ordinary education, becomes languid, 
listless, and pale; complains of pain in the 
side, and perhaps of an unpleasant feeling in 
the frontal region ; after a while, falling asleep 
in the daytime, she will rise from her chair, 
and, imagining herself a preacher to a large 
audience, go through the preliminary exercises 
of a religious service, and deliver an extempore 
sermon, the arrangement and language of 
which far transcend her waking capacity; and 
this performance may be repeated daily or 
every other day. In the case we are descri- 
bing, which in its general features is similar to 
a considerable number which have occurred in 
recent times, the subject recovered her health, 
and the phenomena ceased after two or three 
years. In some instances they have been fol- 
lowed by the death of the somnambulist. The 
development of the double existence is another 
of the phenomena of morbid somnambulism, 
not less remarkable than the preceding, and 
equally well authenticated. The history of the 
celebrated seeress of Prevorst, by Dr. Kerner, 
rill be readily recalled ; and in many cases the 
two states are strongly marked, and the sub- 
remains in each for some weeks, being ut- 
rly unconscious while in the one of any event 
rhich has occurred while in the other. Though 
^sembling it in some particulars, these cases 
not to be confounded with those in a state 
)f ecstasy (see CATALEPS%), there being none 
)f the physical insensibility or muscular rigid- 
ity. The causes and cure of this form of som- 
ibulism are alike obscure. See Dr. A. J. 
Kerner, Oeschichte zweier Somnainbulen (Carls- 
ihe, 1824), and " The Seeress of Prevorst," 
ranslated into English by Mrs. Catharine 
>owe (New York, 1845) ; Macnish's " Philos- 
ophy of Sleep " (1830) ; Abercrombie " On the 
Intellectual Powers " (1830) ; Deleuze's " Crit- 
al History of Animal Magnetism " (revised 
L, New York, 1846) ; Oolquhoun's " Animal 
tagnetism" (1851); Reichenbach's " Ani- 
Magnetism;" Dr. Sonderis's "Narrative 
)f the Religious Excitement in Sweden ;" and 
r. Gibson's " Year of Grace, an Account of 
le great Irish Revival in 1859 " (1860). 
SOMXAUTH, or Somnath Pattan, a walled town 
British India, in the peninsula of Catty- 
r, in the political agency of the same name 
mder the Bombay government, on the N. E. 
shore of the Arabian sea, 28 m. W. 1ST. W. of 
Jape Diu, and about 200 m. KW. of Bombay ; 
>p. about 5,000. Somnauth is celebrated "in 
mythological legends of ancient Hindos- 
m, and is now chiefly remarkable as the site 
)f a magnificent temple dedicated to Siva, 
rhich formerly attracted many pilgrims, and 
ras supported, by the revenues of 10,000 vil- 
It was stormed and robbed of immense 
treasure by Mahmoud of Ghuzni in 1024, and 
its gates were carried away as a trophy. They 
were brought back to India in 1842 by the 
iglish, on the evacuation of Afghanistan, and 
leposited in the magazine at Agra. 



SOMOGY (Ger. ScMmegli), a county of S. W. 
Hungary, bordering on the counties of Zala, 
Veszpr6m, Tolna, and Baranya, and on Croatia 
and Slavonia; area, 2,538 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
289,555. It is mountainous, and is drained in 
the south by the Drave. Lake Balaton on the 
northwest is partly within its limits. The pro- 
ducts include grain, wine, tobacco, and timber. 
Capital, Kaposvar. 

SONATA, a form of musical composition con- 
sisting of several independent movements, 
each of which is developed in accordance with 
certain accepted rules. The great body of in- 
strumental music is based upon the sonata 
form. When first used, in the latter part of 
the 16th century, the word simply signified 
a composition for instruments, and conveyed 
no idea of any determined form. Gradually 
composers applied it to a composition for one 
or two instruments, consisting of three move- 
ments of contrasted character and time. Philipp 
Emmanuel Bach contributed greatly to the de- 
velopment of the sonata. His works of this 
class consisted of a first movement, allegro, 
a second, adagio, and a third, rondo, which 
was more vivacious than the others. Haydn 
adopted Bach's general plan, though in his 
44 sonatas he developed the movements in a 
broader manner. Mozart and Beethoven com- 
posed some of their best works in this form ; 
in their day it was the favorite kind of piano- 
forte composition. It has also been used by 
Von AVeber, Schubert, Schumann, and other 
later composers. Haydn added a fourth move- 
ment, the minuetto, and this, or its equivalent 
the scherzo, with the three previously existing 
movements, constitutes the form upon which 
all the quartet and quintet music for stringed 
instruments and the symphony are based. 

SOXDERSHAUSEN. See SCHWARZBURG - Sox- 

DERSHATJSEN. 

SONDRIO, a K province of Italy, in Lombar- 
dy, bounded N. W. and N. by Switzerland, N. 
E. by Tyrol, and S. by Brescia, Bergamo, and 
Como; area, 1,262 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 111,- 
241. It includes the valleys of the Yaltellina 
(Val Tellina), 45 m. long, and its continua- 
tion the former county of Bormio, and the 
valley of Chiavenna, and forms only one dis- 
trict. It is surrounded by branches of the 
Rhsetian Alps, including some of their high- 
est summits, and the carriage roads over the 
Spliigen, Bernina, and Stelvio passes, the last 
the highest of the Alpine roads, run through 
the province. The province abounds in pic- 
turesque localities. The principal river is the 
Adda. Excepting along the marshes near the 
lake of Como, the country is exceedingly fer- 
tile in grain and fruit, and especially in wine. 
The cheese is among the best in Lombardy. 
Iron and marble abound. The principal towns 
are Chiavenna, Bormio, and Sondrio, the cap- 
ital, which has a population of about 5,000, 
and a fine cathedral. (See VALTELLIXA.) 

SONE, a river of British India, a southern 
tributary of the Ganges, rises in the high- 



1,'4 SOXNEBERG 

lands of the Central Provinces, in lat. 22 41' 
N., Ion. 82 7' E., near the source of the Ner- 
budda, and falls into the Ganges 28 m. above 
Patna, after a course of upward of 450 m. 
The general direction of its flow is northeast- 
erly, through Jubbulpore, Rewah, and Behar. 
All its important tributaries come from the 
south. In the highlands it flows through nar- 
row valleys, but lower down they widen into 
alluvial plains, which are well cultivated, and 
yield cotton, indigo, and sugar cane. It is 
about 3 m. wide at its junction with the Ganges, 
but the navigation is of little importance above 
Daudnugur, about 60 m. from that point, where 
the river is 10 or 12 ft. deep in the rainy sea- 
son, but at other times nearly dry. Coal is 
found upon the banks of its upper course, and 
agates and carnelians occur. Work is now 
(1876) in progress on the Sone irrigation pro- 
ject for supplying water to about 2,000,000 
acres in the Patna division of Bengal, by a 
darn across the river, and other works. 

SONNEBERG, a town of Germany, in Sax- 
Meiningen, 35 m. S. E. of Meiningen ; pop. in 
1871, 6,764. It is the centre of an important 
manufacturing district, and has a fine church, 
a new town hall, and a new government build- 
ing. Dolls and toys of wood and papier mache\ 
china goods, cotton hose, and kid gloves are 
made here in great perfection. The shipments 
to the United States amounted in 1873-'4 to 
$938,332 in gold. In the vicinity are marble 
and other quarries, and there are many brew- 
eries. An American consul is stationed here. 

SONNET (It. sonetto), a poem consisting of 
14 iambic decasyllabic or endecasyllabic lines, 
rhyming in a peculiar manner. The first 8 
lines make two quatrains, and the remaining 
6 two tercets. There are two rhymes in the 
quatrains, the 1st, 4th, 5th, and 8th lines rhy- 
ming together, and also the 2d, 3d, 6th, and 7th. 
This is the best arrangement, as the Italians 
hold, but others occur, and sometimes, even in 
Petrarch, the rhymes are alternate. In the 
tercets great liberty is allowed ; the rhymes 
may be either two or three, and they may be 
arranged at the will of the poet, but never in 
couplets. There are but few Italian prece- 
dlnts for the form which the English poets 
prior to Milton gave to the sonnet. From the 
difficulty of continuing the same rhyme, they 
made it consist of three quatrains and a final 
couplet, each quatrain usually having its own 
two alternate and independent rhymes. The 
Anacreontic sonnet is composed of octo-sylla- 
bio lines. It is doubtful whether the sonnet 
was the invention of the Italians, or was de- 
rived by them from earlier Provencal poets. 
The oldest extant specimens are in Italian, by 
Lodortao Vernaccia (about A. D. 1200), and 
ro delle Vigne, chancellor of the em- 
peror Frederick II., who flourished early in 
the 18th century; the first who gave to it the 
arrangement which was subsequently adopted 
as its legitimate form was Guittone d'Arezzo 
(died in 1294); and it was carried to its high- 



SONOMA 

est excellence by Petrarch. The Italian son- 
net was introduced into Spain by the marquis 
of Santillana in the 15th century, and during 
the two following centuries it was regarded 
there with extravagant favor. It never found 
much favor in France, and fell into ridicule in 
the 17th century through the louts rimes, or 
blank sonnets, in which the rhyming words 
were first chosen and arranged, while the sub- 
ject was to be selected and the body of the 
sonnet to be written afterward. In Germany 
the sonnet has been chiefly cultivated by the 
poets of the romantic school. The earlier 
English form of the sonnet was introduced by 
Surrey and Wyatt in the reign of Henry VIII. ; 
and there are numerous sonnets by Sidney, 
Spenser, Shakespeare, Daniel, Drayton, Drum- 
mond, and others. Milton returned to the 
genuine Italian form, but did not always ad- 
here to it. From the time of Milton for near- 
ly a century few sonnets were written in Eng- 
land. It was revived in the Italian form by 
Edwards, Gray, and T. Wharton, while Bowles, 
Charlotte Smith, and Helen Maria Williams 
reverted to the easier form of the old English 
sonnets. See "The Sonnet: its Origin, Struc^ 
ture, and Place in Poetry, with original Trans- 
lations from the Sonnets of Dante and Pe- 
trarch," by Charles Tomlinson (London, 1874). 

SOXXm DE MANONCOURT, Charles Nicolas Si- 
gisbert, a French naturalist, born in Luneville, 
Feb. 1, 1751, died In Paris, May 29, 1812. 
Being commissioned as a marine engineer, he 
spent several years in Cayenne and on the W. 
coast of Africa, afterward passed some time 
with Buffon, and in 1777 joined the African 
expedition under Baron de Tott. After visit- 
ing Egypt, Greece, and Asia Minor, he returned 
to France in 1780. He contributed to Buf- 
fon's Histoire naturelle 13 volumes of fishes, 1 
of cetacea, and with Latreille 4 of reptiles. 
He lost his fortune by the revolution, and 
afterward edited a Bibliotheque pfiysico-eco- 
nomique (1801-'12), and Nouveau dictionnaire 
d'histoire naturelle (24 vols. 8vo, 1803 et seq.\ 
and published accounts of his travels. 

SONOMA, a N. W. county of California, bound- 
ed S. E. by San Pablo bay and W. by the Pa- 
cific ocean, and watered by Russian, Santa Rosa, 
Petaluma, and Sonoma rivers; area, 1,400 sq. 
m.; pop. in 1870, 19,819, of whom 473 were 
Chinese. The N. part is mountainous, being 
traversed by spurs of the Coast range, which 
are generally well timbered. The valleys are 
very fertile, and Sonoma valley is celebrated 
for its vineyards. In the N. E. part of the 
county are the geysers, a collection of hot 
springs. Gold, silver, copper, quicksilver, and 
coal occur, but not generally in paying quan- 
tities. The county is traversed by the San 
Francisco and North Pacific railroad. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 618,425 bush- 
els of wheat, 145,792 of Indian corn, 323,961 
of oats, 195,456 of barley, 369,154 of potatoes, 
808,496 gallons of wine, 230,394 Ibs. of wool, 
1,060,266 of butter, 246,900 of cheese, and 



SONORA 



SOODAN 



165 



35,571 tons of hay. There were 10,616 horses, 
1,110 mules and asses, 14,960 milch cows, 
16,592 other cattle, 58,387 sheep, and 28,588 
swine ; 4 manufactories of carriages and wag- 
ons, 5 of cooperage, 5 of cabinet furniture, 1 
of iron castings, 5 of wine, 13 of saddlery and 
harness, 2 of sash, doors, and blinds, 8 of tin, 
copper, and sheet-iron ware, 5 flour mills, 4 
tanneries, 3 currying establishments, 3 brew- 
eries, and 18 saw mills. Capital, Santa Rosa. 
SOXORA, a N. "W. state of Mexico, bounded 
N. by the United States, E. by Chihuahua, S. 
by Sinaloa, and W. by the gulf of California 
and Lower California; area, 81,022 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1869, 109,388. The eastern portion 
of the state is extremely mountainous, being 
traversed by a branch of the Sierra Madre; 
the western is composed mainly of extensive 
plains. The principal rivers are the Mayo, 
Yaqui, and San Jos6, the second having a 
course of 450 m., and all three emptying into 

" gulf of California. The most important 
mineral productions are gold and silver, of 
which there were 144 mines in 1870 ; the coin- 
age of the mints of Hermosillo and Alamos in 
1869 amounted to $1,116,397. Copperas oc- 
curs in some places, as do also amianthus, ala- 
baster, and jasper ; and carbonate of soda and 
nitrate of potash are found. The climate is 
hot on the coast, mild in the central portions, 
and cool in the elevated region of the east. 

[uch of the soil is fertile, but agriculture is 
shiefly confined to the southern districts wa- 
red by the Mayo and Yaqui rivers. The 

fcaple productions are wheat, maize, barley, 
oats, beans, sugar, cotton, and tobacco; coffee 
is raised, and fruits are very abundant. There 
are extensive forests, but little of the timber 
is suitable for building; copal, gum arabic, 
archil moss, cochineal, and many other dyes 
and drugs are produced. Seals, turtles, oys- 
ters (including pearl oysters), and fish of good 
quality are found in inexhaustible quantities. 
There are seven steam and a large number of 
other flour mills; coarse cotton fabrics are 
manufactured in a mill of 60 looms at San 
Miguel, the only factory of any kind in the 

bate ; and large quantities of cigars are made. 

Battle rearing is extensively carried on, despite 
depredations of the Apache and other In- 

iians. The exports include hides, gold and 

ilver coin and bullion, ores, hog skins, pep- 
per and gum, flour, and cigars. In 1870 there 
were 105 schools, with an attendance of 3,871. 

he state is divided into eight districts : Tires, 
Hermosillo, Guaymas, Alamos, Montezuma, Za- 
-juarita, Arispe, Altar, and Magdalena. The 

sapital is Ures ; the chief seaport, Guaymas. 

SONTAG, Hcnriette, Countess Rossi, a German 
singer, born in. Coblentz, Jan. 3, 1806, died in 
Vera Cruz, Mexico, June 18, 1854. She ap- 
peared upon the stage in children's parts as 
early as her sixth year, at 15 made her debut 
at Prague in Boieldieu's "John of Paris," and 
soon rose to a foremost place among Euro- 
pean vocalists. In 1828 she privately married 



Count Rossi, an Italian nobleman, and in 1830 
retired from the stage. She was induced by 
her husband's pecuniary misfortunes to resume 
her profession in 1849, sang for several sea- 
sons in Europe, then made a successful tour 
in the United States, and died while returning 
from a professional visit to Mexico. 

SOOCHOW, or Snehan, a city of China, in the 
province of Kiangsu, on a lake through which 
the imperial canal passes, 112 m. E. S. E. of 
Nanking, and 53 m. W. by N. of Shanghai; 
pop. variously estimated from 500,000 to 
2,000,000. It consists of the town proper, 
surrounded by a wall 10 m. in extent, and four 
extensive suburbs. Silk, linen, cotton hard- 
ware, and glass are manufactured. There are 
many beautiful gardens in the neighborhood. 
It suffered severely during the Taeping rebel- 
lion, the insurgents occupying it and driving 
out the merchants and wealthy inhabitants. 
It succumbed with other cities of the delta to 
the imperialists in 1864, and since then has 
recovered much of its prosperity. 

SOODAN, or Soudan (Arab. Biled es-Sudan, 
the country of the blacks). I. A vast conti- 
nental belt of territory (also called Nigritia), 
stretching nearly across Africa, mainly between 
the 6th and 15th parallels of N. latitude, from 
the Nile provinces of Egypt on the east to 
the Mandingo country and Senegambia on the 
west. In Waday and near Timbuctoo its north- 
erly boundary is not far from lat. 17 N. This 
region is occupied by a large number of na- 
tive states, of which the most important are 
Adamawa, Baghirmi, Bambarra, Bornoo, Dar- 
foor, Gando, Houssa, Sackatoo, and Waday, 
each described under its own title. The alti- 
tude of Soodan and the aspect of the surface 
vary greatly in the different districts. The 
portion W. of the Niger is bounded S. by the 
Kong mountains, which curve northward into 
the highlands of Senegambia, forming the W. 
boundary. The region enclosed within the 
great bend of the Niger is of moderate eleva- 
tion, and consists of a series of well watered 
and fertile plains, in some places densely pop- 
ulated. The central portion of the country ex- 
tends E. from the river as far as Lake Tchad, 
in which centres the hydrographic system of 
this part of Soodan. The surface is hilly ex- 
cept in the vicinity of the lake, but the alti- 
tude is believed not to exceed 2,000 ft., and 
probably does not average more than half as 
much. Among the hills are numerous torrent 
beds filled only in the rainy season. There are 
swamps in the lower districts, and an abun- 
dant forest growth, but the cleared area is suffi- 
cient to render central Soodan both populous 
and productive. Lake Tchad, which is inter- 
sected by the 14th parallel of N. latitude and 
the 15th meridian of E. longitude, is bordered 
N. E. by the native state of Kanem, beyond 
which lies the Sahara, S. E. by Baghirmi, and 
on all other sides by Bornoo. It is about 840 
ft. above the sea level, and its numerous af- 
fluents drain the vast alluvial plain surrounding 



166 



SOODAN 



it, which slopes gently toward its shores. (See 
TCHAD, LAKE.) The principal tributary is the 
Sliary, flowing into the lake from the south. 
The plain is subject to frequent inundation in 
the vicinity of the streams, but is fertile and 
thickly inhabited. In Waday, which borders it 
on the east, the country becomes hilly again, 
and so continues some distance beyond the con- 
fines of Darfoor. The Nyam-Nyam country, 
lying principally S. of lat. 5 30' N. and E. of 
the 25th meridian, is drained by the westward- 
moving river Welle, discovered by Schwein- 
furth, and belongs geographically to Soodan, 
if that stream is connected with the system of 
Lake Tchad. The geology of Soodan is but 
little understood, and the mineral wealth seems 
limited to iron, which appears to be widely 
diffused, and gold, which is found in the 
rivers. The climate is everywhere charac- 
terized by extreme heat and moisture. The 
maximum temperature is attained in the level 
region of central Soodan, where the annual 
mean is over 83 F., while the more western 
hilly country is remarkable for its excessive 
moisture and a greater range of the thermom- 
eter. The rainy season, which abounds in 
thunder storms and tornadoes, lasts from the 
middle of May or June, varying with the re- 
gion, to November, when the northerly winds 
set in, and the weather becomes fair and dry. 
The natural products comprise palm oil, cocoa- 
nuts, dates, figs, and many other tropical fruits. 
The chief cultivated crops are maize, millet, 
yams, rice, wheat, beans, tobacco, cotton, in- 
digo, and various vegetables. The fauna of 
Soodan embraces the larger mammalia, such 
as the elephant, hippopotamus, and rhinoceros ; 
the lion, leopard, and spotted hyaena, among 
the carnivorous animals ; numerous species of 
antelopes ; and the ostrich, on the borders of 
the desert. Domestic animals are extensively 
raised, including several breeds of horses and 
innumerable cattle, as well as goats, sheep, 
asses, and poultry. The honey made by wild 
bees is gathered in large quantities, and forms 
an important article of native traffic. The 
external trade of Soodan is carried on princi- 
pally by means of caravans, which journey to 
and from Algeria and Morocco. The exports 
comprise attar of roses, gold dust, gum arabic, 
indigo, ivory, and ostrich feathers and skins, 
of which about 1,500,000 worth annually 
reaches Algeria ; the imports from that coun- 
try average about the same amount, mainly in 
cotton goods, cutlery, and weapons. Inferior 
iron utensils and coarse cotton cloth are the 
only noteworthy articles of native manufac- 
ture. The population consists chiefly of ne-' 
proes, but in the west the Mandingoes predomi- 
nate, and the Foolahs are the ruling people in 
Gando, Sackatoo, and Adamawa. In many 
parts of the country the Arabs are extremely 
influential. Soodan has yet to be thoroughly 
and exhaustively explored throughout. Among 
the more prominent European travellers who 
have visited or traversed some portion of the 



SOOLOO 

country are Mungo Park, Denham and Clap- 
perton, Caillie, Lander, Earth, Vogel, Rohlfs, 
and Nachtigal (1869-74). The last named 
entered Bornoo from the Sahara N. of Lake 
Tchad, and made his way thence eastward 
through Waday and Darfoor to the Nile, an 
undertaking never before accomplished. The 
explorations of Petherick and Schweinfurth 
relate to regions S. of the limits usually as- 
signed to Soodan. II. A province of Egypt, 
distinguished from the preceding, of which it 
is but a continuation eastward, by prefixing 
the definite article (the Soodan). It comprises 
Kordofan, Nubia proper, Sennaar, Taka on the 
east, and some Nile districts further south ; pop. 
estimated by Sir Samuel Baker at over 1,000,000. 
The soil is fertile, and would be productive 
under just rule, but the exactions of the gov- 
ernment have been so excessive as greatly to 
retard the development of the province. The 
khedive has undertaken the construction of a 
railway from Shendy, N. of Khartoom, the 
capital, down the Nile a distance of about 220 
m., to a point below the second cataract. The 
products of the Soodan have hitherto found 
their way to Cairo mainly by means of cara- 
vans occupying four months on the journey. 
According to an official statement of such pro- 
ducts sold in that city in 1873-'4, they were 
valued at 1,550,600, and comprised ostrich 
feathers (worth 824,013), gums, ivory, calf 
skins, coffee, senna, wax, tamarinds, and many 
other articles. This statement did not include 
exports from the Soodan through the Eed sea 
ports. The province has been gradually an- 
nexed by Egypt since 1821. 

SOOFEES. See SUFIS. 

SOOLOO, or Sole, the general name of a pic- 
turesque chain of islands in the Indian archi- 
pelago, known also as the Sooloo archipel- 
ago, extending about 250 m. from S. W. to N. 
E., between Borneo and Mindanao, from lat. 
4 40' to 6 45' N., and from Ion. 119 to 122 20' 
E., separating the Celebes sea on the south from 
the Sooloo or Mindoro sea on the north ; esti- 
mated area, 1,300 sq. m. ; pop. about 200,000. 
They lie outside the volcanic belt of the Indian 
archipelago. The entire number of islands is 
about 150, most of which are small and unin- 
habited. There are three large islands : Tawi, 
near the coast of Borneo ; Basilan, close to the 
S. "W. extremity of Mindanao; and Sooloo, 
about midway between them. Each is about 
40 m. long and from 6 to 20 m. wide, richly 
clothed with tropical vegetation, and rising 
into peaks of considerable height, those in 
Sooloo being 2,000 ft. above the sea. The 
island of Cagayan Sooloo, 140 m. N. W. of the 
main chain, is sometimes included within the 
Sooloo archipelago, although it does not prop- 
erly belong to it. Balambangan island, further 
west, near Maludu bay in Borneo, is noted for 
the two unsuccessful attempts of the British 
to establish themselves there. It Avas ceded 
to England in 1763, but the fortifications were 
destroyed by the Spaniards in 1775 ; it was re- 



SOONGARIA 



SOPHOCLES 



167 



settled in 1803, but abandoned in 1804. The 
Sooloo archipelago lies within the influence 
of the monsoons. The thermometer ranges 
between 75 and 87. The chief productions 
consist of teak and sandal wood, rice, tortoise 
shell, pearls, mother of -pearl, fish, tripang, 
and edible birds' nests. According to Mr. St. 
John, this archipelago furnishes probably a 
greater number of valuable oyster beds than 
any other part of the world. The islands are 
subject to the sultan of Sooloo, and are gov- 
erned by numerous petty chiefs. The forti- 
fied town of Sugh or Sooloo, on the island 
of the same name, is the capital and chief 
port of the group, and carries on considerable 
trade with the other islands and Manila. Its 
population is about 6,000, and that of the 
whole island is estimated at 100,000. The in- 
habitants are Mohammedan Malays, and were 
renowned for their piratical habits prior to 
the repression of piracy in these waters by the 
Spanish in 1851. They write their language, 
which appears to resemble the Philippine 
tongue, in the Arabic character. 

SOONGARIA, or Dznngaria. See TURKISTAN. 

SOOMA. See SUNNA. 

SOOSOO, or Season, the native name of the 
dolphin of the Ganges, a fresh-water cetacean 
of the genus platanista (F. Cuv.). In this, the 
only described species (P. Gangetica, F. Cuv.), 



Soosoo, or Dolphin of the Ganges (Platanista Gangetica). 

ie body is from 20 to 24 ft. long, thickest in 
ront and gradually tapering to the tail ; the 
sad obtuse ; the jaws nearly equal, almost 
raight, slender, compressed at the sides, ex- 
ided at the end, and from 3 to 4 ft. long ; 
i teeth are f$lf, conical, projecting from 
ie gums, largest, nearest together, and most 
jurved in front, interlocking in the two jaws, 
id laterally near together in the lower jaw ; 
;he symphysis very long ; the blow-hole a lon- 
itudinal fissure, an unusual form; eyes very 
lall, shining black, deeply sunk, and 4 in. 
ibove the angle of the mouth ; auditory fora- 
lina open but small ; the pectorals fan-shaped, 
li ft. long and 1 ft. broad posteriorly ; dorsal 
mch depressed and nearest the tail; caudal 
ft. wide and festooned. The color is shi- 
ing pearly gray, with a few lighter colored 
spots ; the fat under the skin is highly prized 
Jf the Hindoos as an external application in 
painful diseases. It is carnivorous, feeding 
principally on fish, in the pursuit of which it 
'" very active, but at other times is rather slow. 



It inhabits the Ganges as far as the head of 
navigation, but is most abundant where its 
numerous mouths open into the sea. 

SOOTHSAYER. See MANTIS. 

SOPHIA (Bulg. Triaditea), a town of Euro- 
pean Turkey, in Bulgaria, on a small affluent 
of the Isker, 310 m. W. K W. of Constanti- 
nople ; pop. estimated from 18,000 to 30,000, 
including Bulgarians, Turks, Greeks, and Ar- 
menians. It is beautifully situated on the road 
to Belgrade and surrounded by mountains. 
The old castle was fortified in 1854. The prin- 
cipal mosque was formerly the magnificent 
church of St. Sophia. A Greek archbishop 
and a Catholic bishop reside here. S. of the 
city are extensive ruins of the ancient Sardica 
or Ulpia Sardica, an important town of Moasia, 
in which a council was held in 347. Sophia 
was founded by Justinian, and conquered by 
the Bulgarians in 809 and by the Turks in 1382. 
For a long time it was the capital of Bulgaria. 

SOPHIA ALEXEIEVNA. See PETEB I. 

SOPHIA DOROTHEA, crown princess of Han- 
over, born Sept. 15, 1666, died Nov. 13, 1726. 
She was a daughter of Duke George William 
of Brunswick, of the Ltineburg-Celle line ; her 
mother was a French lady. In 1676 she was 
affianced to a prince of the house of Brunswick, 
who died in the same year. She was married 
in 1682 to her cousin, the future George I. of 
England, and became the mother of George II. 
and of the queen of Frederick William I. of 
Prussia. She lived unhappily with her hus- 
band, from whom she was divorced in Decem- 
ber, 1694, after being suspected of an intrigue 
with Count Konigsmark. The latter had dis- 
appeared in the night of July 1-2 of that year 
on leaving Sophia's apartment, and it was gen- 
erally believed that he had been assassinated at 
her father-in-law's instigation. She was ban- 
ished for the rest of her life to the castle of 
Ahlden, near Celle, whence her popular desig- 
nation as princess of Ahlden. 

SOPHISTS. See PHILOSOPHY, vol. xiii., p. 
437. 

SOPHOCLES, a Greek tragic poet, born in the 
Attic village of Colonus in 496 or 495 B. 0., 
died probably in 406. He was about 30 years 
younger than JSschylus, and 15 years older 
than Euripides. Having gained the prize of a 
garland both in music and gymnastics, he was 
selected for his beauty and musical skill in his 
16th year to lead, naked, anointed, and with 
lyre in hand, the chorus which danced and 
sang around the trophy in the celebration of 
the victory of Salamis. In 468 he first came 
forward as a competitor in a dramatic contest, 
having ^Eschylus for his rival. The represen- 
tation was at the great Dionysia, presided over 
by the first archon; the judges were Cimon 
and his colleagues who had just returned from 
the conquest of Scyros, bringing with them 
the bones of Theseus ; the play presented by 
Sophocles was probably the " Triptolemus," 
celebrating the Eleusinian hero as a patriot 
and civilizer ; the public interest and expecta- 



168 



SOPHOCLES 



tion were strongly excited; and the first prize, 
which for a whole generation had belonged 
to ^Eschylus, was now awarded to his youth- 
ful rival " From this time to 441 lie is said to 
have written 31 plays. In 440 "Antigone," 
his earliest extant drama, gained the prize, and 
si > deliirliU-d the Athenians that they elected 
him one of the ten stfategi for the ensuing 
year. He engaged as the colleague of Peri- 
cles in the Sainian expedition, but neither 
achieved nor sought military reputation. He 
was familiar with Herodotus, and wrote a 
poem in his honor. Ruhnken supposes that 
it was not the poet, but an orator of the same 
name, who after the destruction of the Sicil- 
ian army in 413 favored the oligarchical move- 
ment and was appointed one of the ten irp6- 
povlot. Sophocles refused repeated invitations 
to leave Athens and reside at foreign courts. 
During the 34 years following the success of 
"Antigone" he produced 81 dramas. Con- 
tending, besides ^Eschylus, with Euripides, 
Choerilus, Aristias, Agathon, and his own son 
lophon, he gained the first prize 20 or 24 times, 
and the second in all other cases. At an ad- 
vanced age he filled the office of priest to the 
native hero Halon. There is no certain au- 
thority for any of the accounts of his death, 
that he was choked by a grape, that he sus- 
tained his voice so long in publicly reading 
the " Antigone" as to lose his breath and life 
tether, or that he died of joy on obtaining 
a dramatic victory. It has been said that he 
combined all the qualities which, in the judg- 
ment of a Greek, would make up a perfect 
character : beauty and symmetry of person, 
mastery alike in music and gymnastics, spon- 
taneity of genius and faultlessness of taste, con- 
stitutional repose, a habit of tranquil medita- 
tion, a ready wit, and an amiable demeanor. 
Sophocles is placed by the universal consent 
of ancient and modern critics at the head of 
the Greek drama. His tragedies hold the just 
mean between the vague and solemn sublimity 
of ./Eschylus and the familiar scenes and rhe- 
torical pathos of Euripides, presenting the char- 
acters of men worthy of sympathy and admi- 
ration, while the former delighted in religious 
tlienus fit to inspire awe, and the latter 
abounds in unpoetical disquisition and immoral 
vehemence of passion. He illustrates the age 
of Pericles, intervening between that of the 
heroes of Marathon and Salamis and that of 
the sophists. Of all his dramas only seven have 
been preserved, to which Mailer assigns the 
following chronological order: "Antigone," 
" Electra," " Trachinian Women," " King <Edi- 
pus," " Ajax," " Philoctetes," and " (Edipus at 
Colonus." They all belong to the latter period 
of his life and reveal his art in its full maturity, 
and several of them were esteemed by the an- 
cient* among his greatest works. The " (Edi- 
pus at Colonus " was first brought out by his 
grandson after his death. There are also frag- 
ments and titles of his lost plays. The editio 
ft of Sophocles is that of Aldus (1502). 



SORBONNE 

The text of Turnebus's edition (1533) served as 
a basis for the subsequent editions of Henry 
Stephens (1568), Canterus (1579), and others, 
until the edition of Brunck (2 vols., Strasbourg, 
1786), which is the basis of all later editions. 
Among the best are those of Hermann (4th 
ed., Leipsic, 1851), Dindorf (new ed., Leipsic, 
1867), Tourneur (Paris, 1873), Schneidewin 
(4th ed. by Nauck, Berlin, 1873), Campbell 
(Oxford, 1873-'4), Blaydes (London, 1873-'4), 
and White (Boston, 1874). The best transla- 
tions are : in German, by Jordan (Berlin, 1862), 
Scholl (new ed., Leipsic, 1871), and Donner 
(7th ed., Leipsic, 1873); in French, by Fayart 
(Paris, 1849), Artaud (6th ed., 1862), and Per- 
sonneaux (2d ed., 1874); and in English, by 
Adams (London, 1729), Franklin (l758-'9), 
Potter (1788), Dale (1824), Buckley (Bohn's 
"Classical Library," 1849), Plumptre (1866- 
'71), Collins ("Ancient Classics for English 
Readers," London and Philadelphia, 1873), 
and Campbell (1874). 

SOPHOCLES, Evangelinus Ipostolides, an Ameri- 
can scholar, born near Mt. Pelion, in Thessaly, 
March 8, 1807. He studied in the convent on Mt 
Sinai, emigrated to the United States, entered 
Amherst college in 1829, taught school, and was 
tutor in Greek in Harvard college in 1842-'5 
and 1847-'59. He was then appointed assistant 
professor of Greek there, and in 1860 professor 
of ancient, Byzantine, and modern Greek. He 
received the degree of A. M. from Yale college 
in 1837 and from Harvard college in 1847, and 
that of LL. D. from the Western Reserve col- 
lege in 1862 and from Harvard college in 1868. 
He has published " A Greek Grammar " (Hart- 
ford, 1838; 3d ed., 1847); "First Lessons in 
Greek " (1839) ; " Greek Exercises" (1841 ; 3d 
ed., 1848); "A Romaic Grammar" (1842; 2d 
ed., Boston, 1857, and London, 1866) ; " Greek 
Lessons for Beginners" (Hartford, 1843); 
"Catalogue of Greek Verbs" (1844); "His- 
tory of the Greek Alphabet, with Remarks on 
Greek Orthography and Pronunciation " (Cam- 
bridge, 1848; 2d ed., 1854); "A Glossary of 
Later and Byzantine Greek" (4to, Boston, 
1860, forming vol. vii., new series, of the 
"Memoirs of the American Academy "); and 
" Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine 
Periods" (8vo, Boston, 1870), his chief work. 

SOPHONISBA. See MASINISSA. 

SORACTE (now Monte di SanC Oreste, and 
sometimes Monte di San Silvestro), a moun- 
tain of ancient Etruria, in the territory of the 
Falisci, visible from and about 25 m. N. of 
Rome. It rises in an abrupt mass to a height 
of about 2,250 ft. It was consecrated to 
Apollo, who had a temple on its summit, 
where the present monastery of San Silvestro 
stands. 

SORBOME, the principal school of theology 
in the ancient university of Paris. It was 
founded in 1253 by Robert de Sorbonne or 
Sorbon, so called from his birthplace in Cham- 
pagne. He had been a poor student, but be- 
came chaplain to Louis IX. in 1252, and found- 



SORBONNE 



SORGHUM 



169 



cd with the king's aid a collegiate school 
for the gratuitous education of poor students 
in theology. He secured the services of three 
secular professors, Guillaume de Saint-Amour, 
Eudes de Douai, and Laurent Langlois, and 
formed with them, and 16 poor students under 
his own direction, a community which served 
as a model for similar collegiate schools in 
the universities of France and England. The 
charter granted in 1253 by Louis IX. was con- 
firmed and enlarged by Pope Clement IV. in 
1268. Before 1253 theological instruction was 
given in the bishop's school near the cathedral 
of Notre Dame; thenceforward it was given 
exclusively at the Sorbonne. Robert also 
founded near the college a preparatory semi- 
nary called "the little Sorbonne," which was 
destroyed in 1635, when the present church of 
the Sorbonne was erected on its site. He pro- 
vided a library of 1,000 volumes, which was in- 
creased by subsequent benefactors, especially 
by Cardinal Richelieu. The members of the 
college (maison de Sorbonne) were divided into 
fellows (socii) and commoners (hospites). The 
fellows, composing the faculty, were all secu- 
lar priests, doctors or bachelors in divinity, 
selected for their eminent learning, after un- 
dergoing the test of a severe public examina- 
tion, a triple ballot, and teaching a course of 
mental philosophy. Besides the strict neces- 
saries of life provided in the college, the poor- 
est among them received a trifling stipend. 
The commoners were required to be bachelors 
in divinity, were chosen from among the most 
talented of their class after the most rigorous 
ordeal, and were maintained by the college, 
but had no voice in its government. The fel- 
lows were nominated for life, and were offi- 
cially designated " fellows or bachelors of the 
house and society of the Sorbonne ;" the com- 
moners were styled " bachelors of the house 
of the Sorbonne," and their membership ceased 
on their graduating as doctors. The college 
property was vested in the fellows, and all 
business was managed in their name. A per- 
fect equality reigned among them ; the holding 
of office implied no superiority or power of 
one over another. No member of a religious 
order was admitted into their body, and a fel- 
lowship was forfeited by entering such an or- 
der. The exceeding rigor exercised in the se- 
lection both of fellows and of commoners was 
for the purpose of maintaining a high standard 
of intellectual culture among the secular priest- 
hood. But the vast lecture halls attached to 
the college were open to all poor scholars in- 
discriminately, and the professors were pledged 
never to refuse to teach any such, while stu- 
dents who had means were required to pay the 
usual university fees. From 1253 to 1789 at 
least six doctors of the Sorbonne were con- 
stantly employed in giving gratuitous instruc- 
tion. The high standard of excellence thus 
maintained by the faculty, and the large num- 
ber of distinguished scholars who went out 
from the Sorbonne to fill the highest ecclesias- 



tical and civil offices in every European coun- 
try, raised this celebrated school to an unri- 
valled pitch of fameand influence all through the 
middle ages and down almost to its suppression. 
Its controlling power was felt in the contests 
between the university of Paris and the mendi- 
cant orders, Guillaume de Saint- Amour being 
the chosen advocate of the former and the un- 
compromising foe of the friars ; the Sorbonne 
was appealed to in the disputes between the 
civil powers and the papacy, and in the great 
theological controversies and long schisms that 
divided the church. It opposed the claims of 
ultramontanism, decided against the divorce 
of Henry VIII. from Catharine of Aragon, con- 
demned the docrines of Luther, Calvin, Baius, 
Jansenius, and Quesnel, sustained the Catholic 
league against Henry of Navarre, and declared 
in 1588 that Henry III. had forfeited the 
crown. The Sorbonne was specially favored 
by Cardinal Richelieu, who rebuilt on a mag- 
nificent scale the college, lecture halls, and 
church, besides enlarging the library. The 
first works printed in France were from the 
presses of the Sorbonne. These were estab- 
lished in 1469 by Jean de la Pierre, prior of 
the Sorbonne, and Guillaume Fichet, rector of 
the university. In 1470 they published Gas- 
parini Pergamensis Epistolaritm Liber, fol- 
lowed by other publications in Latin, French, 
Greek, and Hebrew. The Sorbonne was sup- 
pressed in 1789, and at the organization of the 
modern university of France by Napoleon I. 
its buildings became the seat of the faculties 
of science, letters, and theology of the acade- 
mie universitaire ; but the faculty of theolo- 
gy is scarcely a shadow of its predecessor. 

SOREL, a town and the capital of Richelieu 
co., Quebec, Canada, on the E. bank of the 
Richelieu river, at its mouth in the St. Law- 
rence, 45 m. below Montreal; pop. in 1861, 
4,778; in 1871, 5,636. It occupies the site of 
a fort built by the French in 1665, and was 
for many years the summer residence of the 
governors of Canada. Nearly all the shipping 
plying between Quebec and Montreal winters 
here. Ship building is largely carried on. The 
town contains manufactories of engines, mill 
machinery, stoves, ploughs, leather, bricks, &c., 
several saw and grist mills, two branch banks, 
a tri-weekly (French) and two weekly (one 
French) newspapers, a monthly periodical 
(French), and three or four churches . 

SOREL, Agnes. See AGNES SOREL. 

SORGHUM, a genus of grasses, of the tribe 
andropogonece, and by some authors included 
in andropogon. In grasses of this genus the 
flowers are in open panicles, the spikelets two 
or three together, the lateral ones sterile, or 
reduced to mere pedicels, the central or ter- 
minal one fertile ; the otems not hollow, as 
in most grasses. A single species, S. nutans, 
known as Indian grass and wood grass, having 
a stalk 3 to 5 ft. high, and a panicle of shining 
russet-brown flowers, is common throughout 
most of the states. The name sorghum is in 



170 



SORGIU'M 



common use for a sugar-producing grass which 
is a variety of S. vulgare. Sugar cane, sac- 
charum ojicinarum, is a grass closely related 
to sorghum, and neither plant is known in the 
wild state. The common sorghum, 8. vulgare, 
is a poorly defined species, and presents varie- 
ties BO marked that, did not intermediate forms 
connect them, it would be difficult to regard 
them as belonging to the same species. One 
form, known as Indian millet, and in the East 
as durra, is cultivated in southern Europe, and 
in Asia Minor, India, and other parts of the 
East, where it takes the place of the cereals of 
northern climates ; the abundant round, hard 
seeds afford a very white flour, which makes 
good bread ; the seeds are also used for feeding 
domestic animals. In the West Indies it is 
cultivated as food for laborers under the name 
of Guinea corn, but the grass called by that 
name in our southern states belongs to a differ- 
ent species. The Indian millet is sometimes 
cultivated in this country as food for poultry ; 
half a century ago it was introduced as chocolate 
corn, its seeds being roasted and used as a sub- 
stitute for coffee ; and the seeds are sometimes 
offered by speculators as Egyptian wheat, or 
with some other attractive name, at high prices. 
Another variety, with long straight branches 
to the panicle and small seeds, is the broom 
corn. The variety generally known as sor- 
ghum (also called sorgho and Chinese sugar 
cane) is S. vulgare, var. saccharatum, and is 
remarkable for its very sweet juice ; this has 
been in cultivation in China, and especially in 
Africa, from very early times ; in Africa, where 
it is called imphee, there are numerous sub- 
varieties known to the natives by such names 
as vim-bis-chu-a-pa, nee-a-za-na, oom-see-a-na, 
&c., differing in size, productiveness, and shape 
of seed cluster, much as do our varieties of 
maize. An attempt was made to introduce 
sorghum into Europe as early as 1V86, by Prof. 
Arduino of Florence, but it did not receive 
much attention until 1851, when Count de 
Montigny, French consul at Shanghai, sent 
seeds to Paris ; it is said that only one seed 
out of this lot germinated, and the product of 
this supplied all the seed sown at first in Eu- 
rope and America. In 1856 some of this seed 
was obtained from France by the United States 
patent office, and distributed ; but a much 
greater dissemination was made by Mr. Orange 
Judd of Xew York, who imported a large quan- 
tity and distributed 25,000 packets to the sub- 
scribers to his paper, the "American Agricul- 
, turist," in all parts of the country. In 1857 
Mr. Leonard Wray, an Englishman, arrived in 
New York with the seeds of several varieties 
of imphee from the south of Africa, some of 
which are named above ; they were tested by 
several persons, especially in the southern 
states, and were found to be a promiscuous and 
carelessly collected lot, which at once brought 
all kinds of implice into disrepute ; and though 
one or two selections from these varieties 
have been cultivated, the main crop is of the 



Chinese variety. The plant grows from 8 to 
18 ft. high, and before the seed cluster shows 
jas much the appearance of maize. In some 
varieties the branches of the panicle are long, 
slender, and spreading, in others short and 
erect, and in some long and drooping to one 
side; the color of the seed varies from white, 
through shades of brown, to nearly black ; in 
bhe true Chinese the panicle is pyramidal, with 
long, not crowded branches, and the clear 
brown seeds enclosed in a shining black hull. 
It will grow wherever Indian corn can be cul- 
tivated, but it does not usually ripen its seeds 




Chinese Sugar Cane (Sorghum vulgare, var. saccharatum). 



north of lat. 41 ; it does best on a light warm 
soil, which should be well fertilized, but not 
with coarse manures : it is sown in drills or in 
hills the same as corn, and the crop should be 
kept clean in the same manner; the plants 
when they first come up are small, and may 
be mistaken for some worthless grass. The 
stalks are cut up at the ground before hard 
frosts, stripped of their leaves by the use of a 
fork or machine made for the purpose, and 
taken to the mill, or stored until they can be 
pressed. Its sugar, at least soon after pressing, 
is almost wholly a form of glucose, and the 
yield of cane sugar, at least in the plant as 



SOEIA 



SOEREL 



171 



grown in this country, is much too small to 
make its extraction profitable; and the plant 
is now cultivated for the sirup or molasses. 
"Well ripened canes yield about one half their 
weight in juice, of which from 5 to 10 gallons, 
according to the soil and climate, will make 
one gallon of sirup ; the yield of sirup aver- 
ages from 150 to 175 gallons to the acre, though 
in exceptional cases the returns are much 
larger. The sirup varies, according to the 
care and skill given to its manufacture, from 
a dark greenish brown color with a repulsive 
grassy flavor, to a fine amber-colored, honey- 
like fluid, which, having no characteristic fla- 
vor, is preferred by many to any other sirup. 
The evaporators now in use allow the juice 
to be concentrated without undue exposure 
to heat, while the scum is readily removed; 
lime is used in correcting the acidity of the 
juice, which for the finest product is filtered 
through animal charcoal. The total produc- 
tion of sorghum molasses in the United States 
was 6,749,123 gallons in 1860, and 16,050,- 
089 in 1870. Of the latter amount Indiana 
produced 2,026,212 gallons, Ohio 2,023,427, 
Illinois 1,960,473, Kentucky 1,740,453, Mis- 
souri 1,730,171, Tennessee 1,254,701, and Iowa 
1,218,635. As fodder it is not always relished 
by cattle, and it is now regarded as less valu- 
able than maize. The seeds are fed to poul- 
try, cattle, and hogs, and bread- has been made 
from the flour. The begasse, or refuse from 
the press, has been used to make the coarser 
kinds of wrapping paper ; the scum and wash- 
ings of the evaporators are converted into 
vinegar. In France sorghum has been culti- 
vated as a source of alcohol. 

SORIA. I. A K province of Spain, in Old 
Castile, bordering on Burgos, Logrofio, Sara- 
gossa, Guadalajara, and Segovia; area, 3,836 
sq. m.; pop. in 1870 (estimated), 158,699. 
Mountains border three sides, and the surface 
is broken. The Douro rises near the N". boun- 
dary, and flows first mainly S. and then W. 
into the province of Burgos. There are large 
forests of pine, oak, and beech. The roads are 
mere tracks, only practicable for mules. II. 
A city, capital of the province, on an irregular 
eminence on the right bank of the Douro, 113 
m. N. E. of Madrid ; pop. about 5,500. It is 
surrounded by old walls. The site of ancient 
Numantia is supposed to have been a few 
miles N. of Soria, but no positive traces of it 
remain. 

SORREL, the plant rumex acetosa, a native 
of Europe, Asia, and arctic America, which 
has long been in cultivation. The genus ru- 
mex (the ancient Latin name) belongs to the 
polygonacece or buckwheat family, and consists 
of more than 100 species, several of which, 
either indigenous or introduced, are found all 
over this country and are popularly known 
as docks. Sorrel is a perennial, with a tuft 
of radical leaves which are 4 in. or more 
long, and arrow-shaped at the base ; its flower 
stalks are 2 ft. or more high, bearing leafless 



panicles of unisexual, dioecious, or sometimes 
monoecious flowers, which are apetalous, small, 
and greenish, often turning red; the calyx 
deeply six-cleft, the three inner segments en- 




Sorrel (Rumex acetosa) the variety called "Belleville." 

larging in fruit, orbicular, and somewhat petal- 
like, enclosing the triangular nut. The leaves 
are pleasantly sour, owing to the presence of 
the acid oxalate of potash. In France half a 
dozen varieties of this are cultivated, of which 
the Belleville is the most popular. Though 
sorrel is rarely eaten by the English, the 
French regard it as one of the necessaries of 
life. It is used in salads and in soups, but 
more commonly it is dressed in the same man- 
ner as spinach ; if too strongly acid when 
pure to suit the taste, it is mixed with spin- 
ach or patience dock. While it is compara- 
tively little known in this country, its use is 
increasing, and it is now quite regularly found 
in the markets. Sheep sorrel belongs to the 




Sheep Sorrel (Rumex acetosella). 

same genus, and is E. acetosella, introduced 
from Europe, and one of the well known weeds 
of agriculture; it grows from a few inches 
to a foot or more high ; the lower leaves are 



L73 



SORRENTO 



halberd-shaped; its dioecious flowers in slen- 
der panicles, the fertile ones turning reddish. 
The herbage of this is also sour, and where it 
is abundant and luxuriant is sometimes used 
by Europeans as a substitute for the garden 
.sorri-1 ; children often eat the pleasantly sour 
leaves. In some countries the juice of this, as 
well as of the preceding, is used to curdle 
milk. As a weed the plant is most abundant 
upon worn-out soils. Wood sorrel is described 
under OXALIS. (See also TREE SORREL.) 

SOKKKMO (anc. Surrentum), a city of S. It- 
aly, in the province, on the S. side of the gulf, 
and 16 m. S. E. of the city of Naples ; pop. 
about 4,300, besides many strangers attracted 
by the climate and the picturesque situation. 
Deep ravines around the city are excavated in 
the volcanic tufa. In the vicinity are sea baths, 
curious grottoes, and relics of antiquity, the 
principal of which is a reservoir still used. 
Sorrento is the seat of an archbishop, and has 
a fine cathedral. The house in which Tasso 
was born, on the cliff overhanging the sea, is 
now a favorite hotel. Celebrated inlaid wood- 
work and silk and other goods are made here. 
Under the Romans Surrentum was chiefly 
known as a fashionable resort, and for its pot- 
tery and medicinal wines. In A. D. 79 the erup- 
tion of Vesuvius caused great damage to it. In 
the middle ages it had considerable commerce. 
The geology of Sorrento has been described 
by Puggaard (Copenhagen and Leipsic, 1858). 

SOTllERN, Edward Askew, an American actor, 
born in Liverpool, Eng., April 1, 1830. He 
first appeared on the stage in the United States 
as Dr. Pangloss at the Boston National theatre, 
in September, 1852. He was a stock actor in 
Barnum's museum, New York, till 1854, when 
he joined Wallack's company. For years he 
was known as Douglas Stewart, and it was not 
till 1858 that he used his own name. On Oct. 
18, 1858, in Tom Taylor's comedy " Our Amer- 
ican Cousin," the character of Lord Dundreary 
was assigned to Sothern. The part as origi- 
nally written consisted of a few lines, and was 
assumed by Sothern under protest; but his 
lisp, drawl, peculiar skip, and many absurdities 
wm- very successful, and the part being en- 
Urged, the play ran for 140 consecutive nights. 
On Nov. 11, 1861, he appeared as Lord Dun- 
dreary at the Haymarket theatre, London, and 
repeated the part 496 consecutive nights. He 
returned to the United States, and for many 
months performed Dundreary in the leading 
cities. On Oct. 10, 1874, he reappeared in the 
Haymarket, and during a short engagement 
presented tlu- part of " Brother Sam," written 
for him by John Oxenford. He returned to 
New York for the season of 1874-'5, playing 
Dundreary and Garrick in Wallaces theatre 

SOTO. SeeDESoxo. 

SOTWELL, Nathaniel. See SOUTHWELL. 

S<>l UISK. I. Benjamin de Rohan, seigneur de, a 
French soldier, born in La Rochelle in 1583 
li. ! in London, Oct. 9, 1642. He was a son 
of Rene II. de Rohan by Catharine Parthenay, 



SOULE 

the heiress of the house of Soubise, and the 
brother of Henri de Rohan (1579-1638), the 
celebrated Huguenot leader. After serving in 
Holland under Maurice of Nassau he was ap- 
pointed in 1621, by the Protestant assembly at 
La Rochelle, commander of Poitou, Brittany, 
and Anjou. When the other chiefs had laid 
down their arms, he boldly but unsuccessfully 
defended St. Jean d'Ange~ly ; and his attempts 
to renew thp war during the winter of 1022, 
and his mission to England to obtain help from 
James L, were equally abortive. In 1625, af- 
ter taking a royal squadron and keeping at bay 
for several weeks the united French and Dutch 
fleets, he was defeated by Duke Henry II. of 
Montmorency and driven from the islands of 
R6 and 016ron (Sept. 15), which he had occu- 
pied for some time. Having secured through 
the medium of Charles II. the hollow peace of 
April 6, 1626, he joined in 1627 the English in 
the fruitless attempt to relieve La Rochelle, and 
some time after the surrender of that strong- 
hold he went to England, although permitted 
to remain in France. He was buried in West- 
minster abbey. II. Charles de Rohan, prince de, 
a French soldier, a descendant of the prece- 
ding, born in Paris, July 16, 1715, died there, 
July 4, 1787. He was notorious for his dis- 
sipation, and was a favorite of Louis XV. and 
his adjutant in Flanders, where he was ap- 
pointed governor in 1748. In 1751 his gover- 
norship was extended over Hainaut. Through 
the influence of Mme. de Pompadour he be- 
came in 1753 allied to the royal family by the 
marriage of his daughter to the prince de Con- 
d6, who obtained for him a high command 
in the army of the Rhine (1756). He was sur- 
prised and routed at Gotha with 8,000 men by 
Seydlitz with 1,500 troops, and soon afterward 
he was ignominiously defeated by Frederick 
the Great at Rossbach (Nov. 5, 1757), where 
he commanded the united French and allied 
armies. Nevertheless he was appointed to 
other high commands and offices, and after va- 
ried successes and quarrels with fellow com- 
manders, especially with the duke de Broglie, 
over whom he triumphed through his influ- 
ence at court, his career in the army ended dis- 
astrously with his loss of Cassel, Nov. 1, 1761. 

SOULANGES, a W. county of Quebec, Canada, 
on the N. bank of the St. Lawrence, above 
Montreal ; area, 137 sq. m. ; pop. in 1871, 10,- 
808, of whom 9,724 were of French and 732 
of Scotch origin. It is traversed by the Grand 
Trunk railway. Capital, Coteau Landing. 

soil,!;. Joshua, an American clergyman, born 
in Bristol, Me., Aug, 1, 1781, died in Nash- 
ville, Tenn., March 6, 18G7. He was licensed 
to preach in 1798, joined the Methodist con- 
ference in 1799, was ordained in 1802, and 
in 1804 appointed presiding elder of the Maine 
district, which embraced 13 circuits and one 
station. In 1808, at the general conference in 
Baltimore, he drew up the plan of a delegated 
general conference which now appears in the 
"Discipline." After presiding over various 






SOULS 



SOULT 



173 



other districts in Maine and Massachusetts, he 
was elected in 1810 book agent and editor of 
the "Methodist Magazine." In 1820 he was 
stationed in the city of Few York; in 1821 
he was preacher in charge of the station in 
that city, and in 1822-'3 of the Baltimore city 
station. In 1824 he was elected bishop. He 
was delegate from the general conference to 
the British "Wesleyan Methodist conference in 
1842; and afterward he travelled extensively 
in the British islands and in France. On the 
division of the church, Bishop Soule adhered 
to the southern portion, and removed from 
Lebanon, O., to Nashville, Tenn. In 1853-'4 
he made an episcopal tour in California. 

SOULE, Pierre, an American statesman, born 
in Castillon, France, in 1801, died in New Or- 
leans, March 16, 1870. He studied in the Jesu- 
its' college at Toulouse, was implicated in a 
plot against the Bourbons, fled to a village in 
Navarre, and became a shepherd. He was 
afterward an advocate in Paris, and for an at- 
tack upon the ministry in the Nain newspaper 
he was fined 10,000 francs and sentenced to 
prison. He escaped to England, and in 1825 
emigrated to New Orleans, where he rose to 
eminence at the bar. In 1847 he was elected 
United States senator from Louisiana to fill a 
vacancy, and in 1849 was reflected for a full 
term. In 1853 he was appointed minister to 
Spain, where he fought a duel with M. Turgot, 
the French ambassador, and wounded him. 
He participated in the Ostend conference in 
1854 (see BUCHANAN, JAMES), and came home 
in 1855. In 1861 he visited Europe as diplo- 
matic agent of the confederate government, 
and in 1862 was arrested in New Orleans by 
Gen. Butler, and imprisoned, but was released 
on condition of leaving the country. He re- 
turned to New Orleans shortly before his death. 

SOI UK, Melchior Frederic, a French novelist, 
born at Foix, Dec. 23, 1800, died at Bievre, 
near Paris, Sept. 23, 1847. He was expelled 
from the law school in Paris on account of his 
radicalism, and after publishing in 1824 Amours 
francais, an unsuccessful volume of poems, he 
supported himself as the foreman of an uphol- 
sterer till 1828, when his drama Romeo et Ju- 
liette proved successful at the Odeon. Most of 
his subsequent pieces failed, excepting Glotilde 
in 1832. He achieved greater celebrity as a 
novelist, especially by Diane et Louise (1836), 
which he dramatized under several titles. He 
published more than 150 volumes of novels, in- 
cluding Le mattre d'ecole (1839), Si jeunesse 
savait, si vieillesse pouvait (1842), and his Me- 
moires du diable (1844), which had a prodi- 
gious circulation. His monument in Pere La- 
chaise was unveiled Feb. 20, 1875. 

SOULOUQUE, Fanstin, a Haytian emperor under 
le title of Faustin I., born in the district of 
'etit Goave, in the southern peninsula of Hayti, 
">out 1785, died there in July, 1867. He was 

)rn a slave, but became free by the decree 
1790, took part in the negro insurrection 
st the French in 1803, served as captain 



under President Boyer in 1820, as colonel un- 
der H6rard in 1844, as brigadier general under 
Guerrier in 1845, and was commander of a 
division at the time of the death of Riche in 
February, 1847. While the generals Souffran 
and Paul were disputing and plotting for the 
succession, the senate unexpectedly elected Sou- 
louque to the presidency, March 1, 1847. He 
belonged to the party of the mulattoes, but, 
jealous of their power, he began to attach the 
blacks to his interest, and to pursue a system 
of terror toward the citizens, whom he deci- 
mated in 1848 by confiscations, proscriptions, 
and executions. Like his predecessors he vain- 
ly sought to subjugate the republic of Do- 
minica. In 1849 he caused the restoration of 
monarchy, ostensibly by the will of the people 
and the action of the chambers, was almost 
unanimously chosen emperor (Aug. 26), as- 
sumed the title of Faustin I., surrounded him- 
self with a numerous court, founded a military 
and civil order and an order of nobility, and 
issued a constitution, reserving to himself the 
right at any juncture to rule as he pleased. He 
was crowned in 1850, and a second time, with 
greater pomp, on April 18, 1852. In 1855 he 
repeated his attempt to conquer the neighbor- 
ing republic, and took the field with a consid- 
erable army, but was so completely defeated 
by a few hundred Dominicans under Santana 
that he barely escaped capture, and his trea- 
sure and throne fell into the hands of the ene- 
my. A campaign in the following year also 
terminated in his defeat. A commercial crisis 
in 1858 increased the general discontent, and 
Gen. Geffrard led a revolt, and was recognized 
as president of the republic of Hayti. Sou- 
louque was, however, allowed to depart (Jan. 
15, 1859) with his wife and child for Jamaica. 
After the fall of Geffrard in 1867, he returned 
to Hayti. 

SOULT, Nicolas Jean de Dieu, duke of Dalmatia, 
a French soldier, born at St. Amans-la-Bastide, 
Guienne, March 29, 1769, died there, Nov. 26, 
1851. He enlisted in 1785, became a captain 
in 1793, and reached in one year the rank of 
brigadier general after the battle of Fleurus 
(June 26, 1794). In 1799 he was made general 
of division by Massena, with whom he distin- 
guished himself at the battle of Zurich, Sept. 
25, which saved France from invasion, and at 
the siege of Genoa, during which he was sur- 
rounded and captured by the Austrians, May 15, 
1800, but was speedily exchanged, after the 
battle of Marengo. In 1804 Napoleon made 
him a marshal. In 1805 he increased his repu- 
tation at the head of the fourth corps in Ger- 
many, especially at Austerlitz, Dec. 2, where 
Napoleon declared him to be the first strate- 
gist of Europe. In 1806-'7 he won additional 
fame in the. campaign against Prussia, and final- 
ly occupied Konigsberg (June 16, 1807), and 
after the treaty of Tilsit he was made governor 
of Berlin and duke of Dalmatia. Next appoint- 
ed commander of the second corps in Spain, he 
nearly annihilated the Spanish army at Burgos, 



174 



SOUND 



Nov. 10, 1808, took from the English Corunna 
(where he had heen at first defeated) and Fer- 
rol, and occupied Oporto and the northern part 
of Portugal, whence he was expelled by Wel- 
lington. After his retreat to Spain he gained 
several advantages, and on March 11, 1811, he 
obtained possession of Badajoz through the 
treachery of the Spanish commander ; but he 
was defeated by Beresford at Albuera, May 
16, and Wellington carried Badajoz by assault 
with fearful loss on the night of April 6, 1812. 
Disapproving of 'King Joseph's proceedings, 
Soult asked to be relieved; but soon after 
reaching France Napoleon ordered him to as- 
sume the chief command of the army in Spain, 
and retrieve Joseph's crushing defeat at Vito- 
ria, June 21, 1813. But despite his wonderful 
efforts, after various engagements in the moun- 
tain passes with the main body of the allies, he 
was cut off from Bayonne by Wellington, de- 
feated at Orthez, Feb. 27, 1814, and forced 
back to Toulouse, which, was taken by Wel- 
lington, April 10. Soult offered a heroic re- 
sistance, and consented only to an honorable 
capitulation after the full confirmation of Na- 
poleon's first abdication, and led his troops safe- 
ly out of the city. His conduct during this 
memorable campaign received the warm com- 
mendation of Napier, the English historian 
of the peninsular war; and when 26 years 
later Soult officially attended the coronation of 
Queen Victoria, he was most cordially received 
by Wellington and his other former adversa- 
ries. Under the first restoration he was for a 
short time minister of war ; but as he rejoined 
Napoleon on his return from Elba, and served 
as major general at Waterloo, he was banished 
from 1816 to 1819. In 1820 he was reinstated 
as a marshal and received a pension of 200,000 
francs, and in 1827 he became a peer. Under 
Louis Philippe he was minister of war in 1830- 
'31, prime minister in 1832-'4, and again (with 
the portfolio of foreign affairs in 1839-'40, and 
of war in 1840-'45) from 1839 till 1847, when 
the extraordinary title of marshal-general was 
given to him on his retirement. He left me- 
moirs, of which only the first part was pub- 
lished (3 vols., 1854) by his son Napoleon Hec- 
tor, who died in 1857. 

SOUND, the sensation peculiar to the organ 
of hearing. This sensation is the final effect 
of a closely connected series of mechanical 
actions, which have their origin in some rapid- 
ly vibrating body, whence they are propagated 
progressively through the air to the membrane 
of the drum of the ear, and thence, through a 
series of small articulated bones, into the in- 
ner cavity. This cavity, tunnelled in the hard 
petrous bone, is filled with liquid and contains 
the delicate terminal fibrils of the auditory 
nerve. Each of these fibrils appears to bo at- 
tached to the centre of a delicate rod or chord. 
These chords are stretched, and being of dif- 
ferent lengths and diameters are generally sup- 
posed to be tuned to sounds extending through 
a range of several octaves. By the sympa- 



thetic vibrations of these tuned bodies they 
shake their attached nerve fibrils and thus give 
rise to sensations peculiar to sounds of various 
pitch. From the foregoing we see that the 
subject of sound is naturally divided into three 
parts. In the first division we shall consider 
the manner of production of sound, and the 
nature of those vibrations which cause sono- 
rous sensations. In the second part we shall 
explain the manner in which these vibrations 
are propagated through the elastic medium 
existing between the vibrating body and the 
ear. In the third part we shall consider the 
manner in which the ear perceives a simple 
sound and analyzes a composite sound into its 
elementary sonorous sensations. At the place 
of origin of every sound there is always some 
solid, liquid, or gaseous body in a state of rapid 
vibration. This vibrating body imparts its 
motions to any elastic medium with which it 
may be in contact, and the vibrations thus 
given to the contiguous medium are propa- 
gated in all directions. The contiguous elastic 
medium may be a solid, a liquid, or a gas. 
Proofs of the above statements are readily 
afforded by the following simple experiments. 
A sounding tuning fork is drawn over a piece 
of smoked glass, so that the point of a piece 
of foil, attached to one of its prongs, may just 
touch the glass. After this experiment we 
observe that the point attached to the fork has 
laid bare the glass in a sinuous line, as seen in 
fig. 1, thus showing that when the fork causes 




FIG. 1. 

a sound its prongs are swinging to and fro in 
a direction perpendicular to its length. That a 
liquid may be the vibrating body at the source 
of the sound, is shown by placing a " siren " 
under water and forcing through it a current 
of water. If we take an organ pipe with glass 
sides and sprinkle in its interior a small portion 
of precipitated silica, we shall, on sounding the 
pipe, observe this very light powder rise in thin 
delicate vertical plates in certain portions of 
the pipe, while in intermediate places the silica 
remains at rest. Neither the tone of the pipe 
nor the positions of the plates of silica are 
altered in the least by pressure on the walls of 
the pipe ; thus showing that the real vibrating 
body in an organ pipe is its contained column 
of air. It now remains to show that the me- 
dium through which the sonorous vibrations 
are propagated outward from the vibrating 
body may be either solid, liquid, or gaseous. 
One of the most beautiful experiments in 
acoustics was invented by Sir Charles Wheat- 
stone, and shows that sounds, even the most 
complex, may be transmitted through solids 
as readily as through the air. In the lower 



SOUND 



175 



room of a house, or in a tightly closed box 
lined with felt, h placed a musical box. On 
the top of the musical box rests the end of a 
long light wooden rod which reaches to one of 
the rooms above. The rod is insulated from 
the floor of the rooms by India rubber. No 
sound.is perceived in the upper room until we 
place on the top of the rod a violin, a guitar, 
or any instrument with a sounding board, when 
the sounds of the musical box fill the upper 
room and appear to emanate from the musical 
instrument on the rod. That a liquid may be 
the medium for the transmission of sonorous 
vibrations is readily proved by placing on a 
resonant box a long cylindrical vessel filled 
with water, and then bringing in contact with 
the surface of the water a disk of wood at- 
tached to the foot of a vibrating tuning fork. 
The vibrations of this instrument are sent 
through the water, and reaching the top of 
the resonant box throw the latter into vibra- 
tions of the same period as those of the fork. 
That the air, a gaseous body, vibrates while it 
is transmitting sonorous pulses, can be shown 
jy placing in the path of these vibrations a 
slicate membrane strewn with a light dry 
>wder. The powder dances on the mem- 
>rane while the sound is perceived. The vi- 
>rations of the air can also be detected by 
leans of the so-called " sensitive flames," 
rhich are formed of jets of gas, issuing from 
cylindrical orifices under such great pressure 
that they are just on the point of flaring, or 
roaring. These flames are so sensitive to aerial 
vibrations that the slightest sound, if of the 
proper pitch, will cause them suddenly to con- 
tract greatly in their lengths, and at the same 
to give forth roaring sounds. These 
lames are generally most sensitive to acute 
sounds, such as a hiss or the jingling of a 
bunch of keys. (See PYROPHONE.) An anal- 
ysis of sonorous sensations reduces them to 
three kinds: pitch, intensity, and timbre. 1. 
Pitch and the Determination of the Number 
of Vibrations of a Sounding Body. Pitch is 
that quality of sound by which we distinguish 
the position of sounds in the musical scale, 
sound is thus said to be higher or lower 
than another. Pitch depends on the number 
vibrations in a second which enter the ear. 
The pitch rises with the increase of the num- 
er of vibrations. In England, Germany, and 
Lmerica a vibration is understood to be a mo- 
ion to and fro, while in France it is a motion 
or fro. The sound having the lowest pitch is 
jaused by 40 vibrations in a second ; a smaller 
lumber of vibrations than this does not cause 
continuous sonorous sensation. The highest 
audible sound is caused by about 40,000 vibra- 
ions in a second; vibrations of greater fre- 
quency than this are not generally audible, 
"lough the limit of audibility of the highest 
sounds is different for different persons. Thus 
some cannot hear the chirrup of the cricket, 
while others perceive sounds one or two oc- 
taves above it. Dr. Wollaston discovered this 
752 VOL. xv. 12 




FIG. 2. 



variation. The pitch of a sound may be deter- 
mined by several methods, some of the most 
precise of which are : 1. By means of an in- 
strument called a "siren," fig. 2, invented by 
Cagniard de Latour. It consists of a metal 
cylinder the bottom of which is perforated by 
a tube through 
which air is 
blown into the 
cylinder. The 
top of the cyl- 
inder is perfora- 
ted with a num- 
ber of holes. 
Just over this 
top and nearly 
touching it ro- 
tates a metallic 
disk on a verti- 
cal axis. This 
disk is perfora- 
ted with the 
same number 
of holes as are 
in the cylinder. 
The form of the 
holes is shown 
in the section 
in the figure. 
They do not 
pass perpendic- 
ularly through 
the plates, but 
slope contrary ways, so that the air when 
forced through the holes in the top of the 
cylinder impinges upon one side of the holes 
in the rotating plate, and thus blows it round 
in a definite direction. The disk in making 
one revolution opens and shuts the holes as 
many times as there are holes in the disk and 
cylinder, and hence the wind escapes from 
the cylinder in successive puffs, the frequen- 
cy of which depends upon the rate of rota- 
tion. A sound is thus produced having a pitch 
which rises with the increase of velocity of 
rotation. The vertical axis has a screw cut 
on it which works in a notched wheel at- 
tached to a dial, which shows the number of 
rotations of the disk. To determine the pitch 
of a sound by means of this instrument, we 
gradually increase the rotation of the disk 
until the sound emitted approaches the pitch 
of the sound the number of vibrations of 
which we would determine. When the two 
sounds are quite near in pitch, the ear will 
perceive distinct beats produced by the joint 
action of the two sounds on the air. The 
velocity is now cautiously increased until the 
beats disappear. At this moment the counter 
is put in operation, and the disk is allowed to 
run for a known number of seconds ; then the 
counter is thrown out of action and the num- 
ber of revolutions of the disk read off. On 
multiplying the number of revolutions of the 
disk by the number of its holes, and dividing 
this product by the number of seconds during 



176 



SOUND 



which the disk was connected with the counter, 
we have the number of vibrations per second 
corresponding to the given sound. 2. The 
number of vibrations per second of a tuning 
fork, or of any rod or plate, can be determined 
very precisely by the following plan. The 
tuning fork or rod has attached to it a piece 
of delicate foil, which just touches the smoked 
surface of paper covering a metallic cylinder. 
If the cylinder is turned while the fork vibrates, 
it is evident that the point attached to the fork 
will trace a sinuous line on the cylinder. Now, 
if by any means we can mark off seconds of 
time on this sinuous trace, we shall have only 
to count the number of sinuosities between 
two successive second marks to have the num- 
ber of swings ma4e by the fork in a second. 
The above conditions are attained in the follow- 
ing manner : A break-circuit clock is placed in 
the primary or battery circuit of an induction 
coil ; one of the terminal wires of the secon- 
dary circuit of this induction coil is connect- 
ed with the tuning fork, while the other ter- 
minal wire is connected with the revolving 
cylinder. At each second the break-circuit 
clock sends a spark from the point attached to 
the vibrating point, through the smoked paper, 
to the revolving metallic cylinder. It is evi- 
dent that on counting the number of flexures 
contained between two successive spark holes 
in the fork's trace we have the number of 
half vibrations made by the fork in a second. 
When we have thus determined the exact num- 
ber of vibrations, at a known temperature, 
given by a tuning fork, we may use the num- 
ber of vibrations of this fork as a point of 
departure in determining the number of vibra- 
tions of any rod, plate, chord, or membrane, 
by means of a very simple and ingenious meth- 
od recently devised by Prof. O. N. Rood, and 
described by him in the "American Jour- 
nal of Science," August, 1874. Let us sup- 
pose that it is required to ascertain whether 
two tuning forks are in unison, or to deter- 
mine the difference in the number of vibra- 
^^^^^^^^^ tions executed by 

^^^^^^^ them in a second. 
_ JMHHBHBB^^ For this purpose a 
d short piece of fine 

steel wire is at- 
tached to each of 
the forks, and they 
are supported in 
positions so that 
their vibrations 

\J shall be at right 

angles to each oth- 
er, as indicated in 
FIG. 8. % <*. The wires 

may have a diam- 
eter of one or two tenths of a millimetre, or 
even less, and are to be attached with the least 
possible amount of soft wax or varnish. They 
may be brought quite near to each other, or 
may if necessary be several inches apart. If 
the forks are now set into vibration and the 



intersection of the wires viewed against a 
bright background with a small telescope, it 
will be seen that an optical figure is developed, 
which is partly due to the same well known 
conditions that give rise to the acoustic figures 
of Lissajous, and partly to the circumstance 



FIG. 4. 



FIG. 5. 



that the wires move with less velocity when 
near their maximum deviation from the line of 
rest. Hence, if the difference in phase is zero, 
an appearance like fig. 4 is produced, which 
changes into fig. 5 when the difference in phase 
has increased to one half a complete vibration. 
Fainter indications of the same figures are 
shown in all cases, except when the difference 
in phase is one fourth, three fourths, &c., of 
a vibration, or nearly so. This figure is char- 
acteristic then of forks in unison, and the fact 
of its constancy will be the evidence of per- 
fect unison. If the forks are not exactly in 
unison, fig. 4 will after some time change into 
fig. 6, and the number of seconds necessary 
for this change will measure the interval re- 
quired by one of the forks in gaining or losing 
half of a complete vibration. The focal length 
of the object glass of the telescope used was 
120 millimetres for parallel rays, and when the 
aperture was reduced to two millimetres, suffi- 
ciently distinct vision of both wires could be 
obtained, even when their distance apart was 
several centimetres. "With this limited aper- 
ture, the light from a white cloud answered 
quite well. If the forks differ by an octave, an 
almost equally distinct and well marked figure 
will be produced, such as is seen in figs. 6 and 
7, which represent the characteristic appear- 
ances in this case. This figure is quite as 
useful for purposes of investigation as for 
that of unison. Somewhat less distinct and 
more complicated figures are given by the 
quint, the duodecime, and the double octave. 
From the foregoing it is evidently easy with 
this method to bring a vibrating string into 



fik 

w 



FIG. 6. 



FIG. 7. 



unison with a given tuning fork, or to adjust 
it so that the interval shall be a quint, octave, 
twelfth, or double octave, above or below. It 
is also easy to ascertain the number of vibra- 
tions made by a string in a given case, by the 
aid of a bridge and a properly selected fork 
making a known number of vibrations, the 
string being shortened till it furnishes one 
of the above mentioned figures, and therefore 



SOUND 



177 



executes a known number of vibrations, after 
which the number of vibrations made by its 
whole length can readily be calculated by a 
well known law. 3. The following method 
of determining the number of vibrations of a 
sounding body is applicable to all cases, whether 
the body be solid, liquid, or gaseous. After we 
have determined, by the method already de- 
scribed, the precise number of vibrations of a 
given fork, we make another fork higher in 
pitch than the former, which makes with the 
first eight beats a second ; a third fork is then 
tuned until it gives eight beats with the second 
fork, or sixteen with the first. Thus a series 
containing many forks is formed, any fork of 
which makes eight vibrations more in a second 
. than the fork next below it in pitch. On each 
fork is stamped its number of vibrations. To 
determine with these forks the pitch of a given 
sound, we find in the series of forks one which 
makes with this sound eight beats or fewer 
than eight beats in a second, and we count the 
number of these beats given during one minute 
or more. Dividing the number of beats found 
by the number of seconds during which the 
observation lasted, we have the number of 
beats made in one second by the fork and the 
given sound, and as the number of beats per 
second is always equal to the difference in the 
number of vibrations per second of the two 
sounds, it follows that we at once know how 
many vibrations per second the fork exceeds 
or falls short of those of the sound. To ascer- 
tain whether the fork makes more or less than 
le sound in a second, we place a small piece 
of wax on a prong of the fork, and observe 
whether this causes the number of beats to 
increase or to diminish. If the number of 
beats increases, then the fork was lower in 
pitch than the sound, while if the beats are 
less frequent the fork was higher in pitch than 
the given sound. The series of forks just de- 
scribed is called after its inventor a Scheibler's 
tonometer. 2. The Intensity of Sound. The 
intensity of sound depends on the energy of the 
aerial vibrations contiguous to the ear. For 
sounds of the same pitch the intensity varies as 
the square of the amplitude of the aerial oscilla- 
tions. The plans generally used are unworthy 
the designation of measures, being only rough 
comparisons. The writer first succeeded in 
measuring the relative intensities of sounds of 
the same pitch, and the reader is referred to 
the publication on the subject in the " Amer- 
ican Journal of Science " for February, 1873. 
The principle of the method depends" on the 
fact that if two sonorous impulses meet in 
traversing an elastic medium, and if at their 
place of meeting the molecules of the medium 
remain at rest, then at this place of quiescence 
the two impulses must have opposite phases 
of vibration and be of equal intensities. By 
means of an appropriate apparatus the above 
conditions are brought about in the union of 
the two sounds whose intensities we would 
compare. We then measure the distances from 



the place of meeting of the two sounds to the 
points of origin of these sounds. The relative 
intensities of the sounds will be as the inverse 
ratio of the squares of these distances. But to 
determine the relative or absolute intensities 
of sounds of different pitch is one of the most 
difficult of experimental problems. The writer 
has recently succeeded in reaching approxi- 
mate measures of the absolute intensities of 
sounds by measuring the amounts of heat pro- 
duced when the sound vibrations are absorbed 
by India rubber. By knowing the exact frac- 
tion of the whole energy of the sound absorbed 
and the specific heat of the rubber, the mechan- 
ical equivalent of the entire sonorous vibra- 
tions, in fractions of a Joule's unit, can be cal- 
culated. It was thus shown that the aerial vi- 
brations produced by a treble fork, mounted 
on its resonant box and vibrated during ten 
seconds, will, if entirely converted into heat, 
raise the temperature of one pound of water 
To-V?r?r of a degree ; or, in mechanical effect, 
will raise 54 grains one foot high. 3. Timbre 
of Sound, and Analysis of Sounds. Timbre is 
a term used to designate those special charac- 
ters by which we distinguish between two or 
more sounds having the same pitch and equal 
intensities. Thus, sounding the same note on 
a flute, a violin, a clarinet, and a piano, the 
ear at once distinguishes the instrument pro- 
ducing the note. Some preliminary knowl- 
edge as to the differences between a simple and 
a composite sound is necessary before giving 
an explanation of the cause of timbre. A sim- 
ple sound is a sound which has only one pitch. 
Such a sound is produced when a tuning fork, 
mounted on a resonant box, is gently vibrated 
by drawing a bow across one of its prongs. 
All simple sounds are alike in timbre; the 
only differences existing between them are 
differences of pitch and of intensity. Thus, 
if simple sounds alike in pitch and in intensity 
were produced by four instruments differing 
even very much in construction, the ear could 
not give us the information by which we could 
distinguish one instrument from another. On 
examining closely into the nature of the aerial 
vibrations which produce a simple sonorous 
sensation, we find that this sensation is only 
experienced when the aerial particles swing to 
and fro with the same character of reciproca- 
ting motion as pertains to a freely swinging 
pendulum. But there are other sounds which 
are not simple but composite, being formed of 
the combination of several simple sounds of 
various pitch and intensities. Thus, by atten- 
tive listening one can distinguish several sounds 
of various pitch in the sound of a piano string, 
or in that of a reed organ pipe. On analyzing 
these composite sounds, by methods presently 
to be described, we find that they can always 
be separated into two or more simple sounds, 
and that if we call the number of vibrations 
producing the lowest in pitch unity, then the 
remaining sounds will, in order of ascending 
pitch, bear to the first the vibration ratios of 



IT- 



SOUND 



1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 4, 1 : 5, &c. The lowest sound 
I** -n-i-ivi -.1 is -enerally the most intense, and is 
Sited the fundamental." This is the sound 
which i- indicated in musical notation, and 
which drsi-nates the pitch of the composite 
sound. But really when we produce one of 
;mds indicated by musical notation, we 
generally at the same time evolve a long series 
of sounds Waring to each other the vibration 
relations of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, &c. This series of 
sounds is called the harmonic series, and is 
sometimes designated as the series of overtones 
of the fundamental sound. But the members 
of this series do not always all coexist ; thus 
the sounds of the clarinet only contain the 
odd numbers of the series, viz., 1, 3, 5, 7, &c. 
It is evident from the above facts that an in- 
definite number of different composite sotfnds 
can be formed by combining simple sounds 
and giving to them various relative intensities ; 
and that each of these composite sounds will 
be characterized by its own peculiar timbre. 
This great discovery, that all simple sounds 
have one and the same timbre, and that the 
characteristic timbre of any other sound is due 
alone to the number and relative intensities of 
the harmonics or overtones forming the sound, 
was made by Ilelmholtz ; he not only succeed- 
ed first in proving this by the experimental 
analysis of various composite sounds, but also 
by reproducing these composite sounds with 
their characteristic timbres by simultaneously 
sounding their simple sonorous components 
with their proper relative intensities. This ex- 
planation of timbre, as Helmholtz has shown, 
has a dynamic basis, and is the direct conse- 
quence of the celebrated theorem of Fourier, 
which may thus be rendered in the language of 
dynamics: Every periodic vibratory motion 
can always, and always in one manner, be re- 

arded as the sum of a certain number of pen- 
ulum vibrations. There are various methods 
of analyzing a composite sound. They are 
generally founded on the fact that if we have 
two bodies which give exactly the same num- 
ber of vibrations in a second, and vibrate one 
of them, the other, although somewhat distant 
from the first, will be thrown into vibration by 
the action of the aerial pulses which have em- 
anated from the first body. This must neces- 
sarily follow, for the pulses which the second 
body receives from the air synchronize with 
the number of vibrations in a second which this 
body alone can give. This phenomenon may 
be called " co-vibration." Helmholtz in his in- 
vestigations generally used as co- vibrating bod- 
ies masses of air contained in hollow spheres 
if various sizes. These spheres are called reso- 
nators, and one of them, as made by Konig of 
Paris, is shown in fig. 8. These spherical mass- 
es of air are so graduated in volume that a 
series of resonators is formed, and each re- 
sonator will resound only to the number of 
vibrations in a second which is stamped on it. 
Tin- manner of using these resonators is as fol- 
lows: The compound sound falls upon the 



open mouth of the resonator, while the nipple- 
shaped tube opposite the mouth is placed in 
one ear, and the other ear is closely stopped 
with beeswax. If the sound, to which the 




FIG. 8. 

mass of air contained in this resonator enters 
into co- vibration, exists in the composite sound, 
then the ear will perceive this sound with 
some intensity, to the exclusion of the other 
component sounds. Thus by placing to the ear 
each resonator of the series and noting those 
which resound, we can readily ascertain the 
simple sounds, whose union forms the com- 
posite sound which we have analyzed. The 
writer has often replaced the resonators ap- 
plied to the ear by tuning forks mounted on 
resonant boxes. If the mouth of one of 
these boxes, like fig. 9, be placed near a sound- 
ing reed pipe, and if the note of the fork 
on the resonant box exists in the composite 
sound of the reed, then this fork will be set in 
vibration and will continue to vibrate after the 
reed has ceased to sound ; for the mass of air 
in the box acts like a resonator, and is set in 
vibration by the pulses of that harmonic of 
the reed which is in unison with it. But, as 
the fork is also in unison with the mass of air 
in the resonant "box, it follows that it also is 
set in motion by the latter, so that, after the 
composite sound ceases, we find that the fork 
sings out alone, and thus shows that it has 
selected from a chorns of harmonics that one 




FIG. 9. 



which is in unison with its own tone. It 
has thus been easy, by using one fork after 
another of the harmonic series of the reed, 
to show the composition of its sound to a 



SOUND 



179 



large audience. "We have also succeeded with 
the following experiment. Forcibly sound 
the reed pipe and place around its mouth eight 
or more forks of the harmonic series of the 
sound given by the reed, with the mouths of 
their resonant boxes toward the reed pipe. 
After the reed has sounded for a few seconds, 
stop it, and we shall find that all of the forks 
are in vibration; and thus singing together, 
they approximately reproduce the sound of 
the reed. This experiment requires the reso- 
nant boxes, the forks, and the harmonics of 
the reed to be in exquisite unison. The reader 
may convince himself of the composite nature 
of the sound given by a piano string, by the 
following simple experiments. If we sound 
on the piano the C below the middle or treble 
0, if we call this note C 2 , the harmonics of this 
sound will be C 3 , G 3 , C 4 , E 4 , G 4 , B[, 4 , C 5 , &c. 
But the seventh harmonic, or B^, is want- 
ing, because the hammers of the piano strike 
the strings at points about one seventh of 
their length, and hence this harmonic cannot 
appear. If it did, it would cause harshness of 
timbre, for the seventh harmonic forms dis- 
sonant combinations with the other harmon- 
ics of the series. To show that all of the re- 
maining harmonics exist in the sound of C 2 , 
depress slowly and firmly the key of C 3 ; the 
hammer will rise, press against the string, and 
fall from it, but the damper of this string will 
remain raised. Now strike strongly the key 
of Ca, and after holding it for a few seconds 
stop its sound. We shall now hear the sound 
of C 3 very distinctly, showing that it has been 
set into vibration by the vibrations of C 3 which 
exist in the compound sound designated as C 2 . 
In like manner one can show that G 3 , 4 , E 4 , 
G 4 , C 6 , <fec., exist as components of the com- 
posite sound of the string of Ca. The reader 
who desires further information on the subject 
of sonorous analysis will find descriptions of 
six experimental methods in "Researches in 
Acoustics," paper No. 5, "American Journal 
of Science " for August and September, 1874. 
Reproduction of Sonorous Vibrations from 
the Curves made ~by Vibrating Bodies. Experi- 
ment has established that the sensation of a 
simple sound is alone produced when the aerial 
molecules vibrate with the same reciprocating 
motion as pertains to a freely swinging pendu- 
lum. If we obtain the sinuous trace of a vi- 
brating tuning fork or of a long elastic rod on 
a plate of smoked glass, fig. 10, we shall find, 
on making measures on these curves, that they 
are sinusoids or curves of sines, and hence can 
alone be produced by pendulum motions. But 
the curve produced by the fork can be made to 
reproduce the motions of the fork, only much 
slower, in the following manner: Cut a fine 
slit in a piece of paper, and slide it over the 
curve from right to left, as shown in fig. 10 ; 
then we shall see the portion of the curve ex- 
posed in the slit vibrating upward and down- 
ward with the same kind of motion as rules 
the oscillations of a pendulum. The aerial 



molecules and a point on the membrane of the 
drum of the ear vibrate thus when we experience 
the sensation of a simple sound. The majority 




FIG. 10. 

of sounds, however, are composite. It is evi- 
dent that a molecule of air or a point on the 
tympanic membrane can have only one direc- 
tion of motion at one and the same instant, 
and therefore that a composite sonorous vibra- 
tion will give to the molecule of air a motion 
which must be the resultant of the combined 
motions of all the pendulum motions of its 
simple sonorous components. Hence we may 
suppose a molecule of air, animated with a re- 
sultant motion like the above, to trace a curve 
which evidently will be the resultant of all 
the simple sinusoidal curves belonging to the 
sonorous elements of the composite sonorous 
vibration. "We can obtain this resultant curve 
as follows, and then we can reproduce from it 
the motions of a molecule of air, or of a point 
on the tympanic membrane, when these points 
are acted on by a compound sonorous vibra- 
tion. Draw on the axis a 5, fig. 11, sinusoidal 
curves having lengths related to each other 
as 1:2:3:4:5:6. These curves will then 
be the separate traces of the first six harmon- 
ics contained in a composite vibration which 
causes a musical sound, such as the sound of 
a piano string. Another axis c d is now drawn 
below a Z>, and 500 equidistant lines, perpen- 
dicular to a b and c d, are drawn through the 
curves on a 5 and extended below the line 




FIG. 11. 

c d. The algebraic sums of the ordinates of 
the curves on a & are now transferred to the 
corresponding ordinates on c d, and through 



180 



SOUND 



points thus found is drawn the curve having 
the line c d for its axis. This curve may be 
regarded as the trace of the composite vibra- 
tion of a molecule of air, or of a point of the 
tympanic membrane, on a surface which moves 
near these points. Hence if we slide this curve 
along, in the direction of its axis, under a slit 
in a screen which allows only one point of the 
curve to appear at once, we shall reproduce 
in this slit the vibratory motion of the aerial 
molecule and of the point on the tympanic 
membrane. The writer has exhibited this mo- 
tion in a continuous, or rather recurring man- 
ner, as follows : On a piece of Bristol board 
he drew a circle, and in one quadrant of this 
circle he drew 500 equidistant radii. On these 
radii, as ordinates, he transferred the corre- 
sponding values of the same ordinates of the 
resultant curve of fig. 11, diminished to one 
fourth of their lengths. He thus deflected the 
axis of the curve of fig. 11 into one fourth of 
a circle curve ; and this, repeated four times on 




FIG. 12. 

the Bristol board, rendered the curve continu- 
ous and four times recurring, as shown in fig. 
12. He now cut this figure out of the board 
and used it as a template. He placed the lat- 
ter centred on a glass disk 20 in. in diameter. 
This disk was coated on one side with opaque 
black varnish, and with the template and the 
separated points of a pair of spring dividers he 
removed from the glass disk a sinuous band, as 
shown in fig. 12. The glass disk was now 
mounted on a horizontal axis and placed in 
front of a lantern, the diameter of whose con- 
densing lens was somewhat greater than the 
amplitude of the curve. The image of that 
port inn of the curve which was in front of 
the condenser was now projected on a screen, 
and then a piece of cardboard having a nar- 
row slit cut in it was placed close to the disk, 
in the direction of one of its radii. On re- 
volving the disk he reproduced on the screen 
the vibratory motion of a molecule of air, 
or of a point on the tympanic membrane, 
when these are acted on by the joint impulses 
of the first six harmonic or pendulum vibra- 
tions, forming a musical sound. On slowly 



rotating the disk one can readily follow the 
compound vibratory motion of the spot of 
light ; but on a rapid revolution of the disk, 
persistence of visual impressions causes the 
vibrating spot to appear elongated into a band. 
This band is not equally illuminated ; it has 
six distinct bright spots in it, beautifully re- 
vealing the six inflections in the curve. By 
sticking a pin in the centre of fig. 12, as an 
axis about which revolves a piece of paper 
having a fine slit, the reader can gain some idea 
of the complex motion we have described. Of 
course it is understood that in the above ex- 
periment the amplitudes of the vibrations are 
enormously magnified when compared with the 
wave lengths, and that it is really only when 
the amplitudes of the elementary pendulum 
vibrations are infinitely small that the resul- 
tant curves we have given can be rigorously 
taken as representing what they purport to ; 
for the law of " the superposition of displace- 
ments" depends on the condition that the 
force with which a molecule returns to its 
position of equilibrium is directly proportional 
to the amount of displacement, and this condi- 
tion only exists in the case of infinitely small 
displacements ; yet the law holds good for the 
majority of the phenomena of sound. It is also 
to be remarked that in order to simplify the 




FIG. 18. "Resultant Curve formed by combining the curve 
of a musical note with that of its octave. A : A' : : 1 : J. 

consideration of the curves, they are all rep- 
resented with the same phase of initial vibra- 
tion. Of course the resultants have an infinite 




FIG. 14. Resultant Curve formed by combining the curve 
of a musical note with that of its fifth. A : A' : : 1 : |. 

variety of form, depending on the differences 
in their initial phases, and on the amplitude of 
I the harmonic elements. In figs. 13, 14, and 



SOUND 



181 



15, we have drawn the resultant curves formed 
by combining the curves of musical sounds 
corresponding to the various consonant in- 
tervals indicated below the figures. As these 




FIG. 15. Resultant Curve formed by combining the curve of 
a musical note with that of its major third. A. : A : : 1 : . 

curves are the resultants formed by the com- 
bination of the curves of composite musical 
sounds, it follows that the components of these 
curves are not simple sinusoidal curves, as in 
the case of fig. 11, but are derived from the 
resultant of fig. 11 by reducing to one fourth 
the amplitude of that curve, and by taking 
wave lengths corresponding to intervals indi- 
cated below the figures. From the curves of 
figs. 13, 14, and 15 can be reproduced their 
generating motions in the same manner as we 
have done in the case of the curve of fig. 11. 
As a periodic or recurring vibration can alone 
produce in the ear the sensation of sound, and 
as the duration of the period is always equal 
to the least common multiple of the periods of 
the pendulum vibrations of the components, it 
follows that in the case of a sound formed of a 
harmonic series the period equals the time of 
one vibration of the fundamental ; but in the 
cases of other combinations the duration of the 
period increases with the complexity of the 
ratio of the times of vibration of the compo- 
nents ; thus, the durations of the periods of the 
following combinations are placed after them 
in fraction sofa second: G 3 + C*=?fa; 3 + G 3 
= T ; C 3 +E 3 =^V; Cs+Es + Ga^^; C 3 + 
E 3 + Gr 3 + C4= 1 1 7 - of a second. (0 3 stands for 
the treble ; C 4 is the of the octave above 
it.) Transmission of Sound. If air were in- 
compressible, a motion produced at any point 
of its mass would instantaneously be trans- 
mitted to every other point of the atmosphere. 
Thus, if we imagine a long tube, open at one 
end and closed at the other by a piston which 
moves in the tube without friction, it is evident 
that if this piston were pushed into the tube 
a certain distance, the air would at the same 
time move out of the tube at the open end. 
But air is compressible and elastic, and after 
the piston has been pushed into the cylinder, 
a measurable interval of time will have elapsed 
before the air moves out of the open end of 
the tube. This interval is the time taken by 
sound to traverse the length of the tube. The 
velocity of sound is 1,090 ft. in a second at 32 
F., and it increases almost exactly one foot in 
velocity for each degree of elevation of tem- 
perature above 32. Now imagine the piston 
to move forward into the tube over a minute 



fraction of an inch, and that it occupied -fa of 
a second in making this for ward motion; then 
the length of air compressed at the instant the 
piston has come to rest will be equal to J ^^ a , 
or 109 ft. If the piston makes its movement 
in y^g- and in y^ of a second, the length of 
air compressed in the tube will be respectively 
10-9 and T09 ft. But such a compressed por- 
tion of air cannot remain at rest, by reason of 
its elasticity. It immediately expands, and in 
so doing presses forward on the undisturbed 
air in front of it and on the interior wall of 
the tube. The column of compressed air in 
thus regaining its natural density has com- 
pressed an air column of equal depth in front 
of it ; this in its turn reacts on the back col- 
umn and prevents it from rarefying, while at 
the same time it has compressed another col- 
umn of equal depth in front of it, and so 
on. Thus the sonorous pulse, as it is called, is 
transmitted through the whole length of the 
tube. A beautiful illustration of the manner 
in which a sound pulse is propagated is afford- 
ed by attaching to a sounding board a long, 
elastic spiral spring of brass, while the other 
end is held in the hand. On separating two 
of the coils of the spring with a finger nail, 
and then allowing them suddenly to come to- 
gether, a pulse or compression will be thrown 
through the whole length of the spring to its 
further end, where striking on the sounding 
board it will cause a sharp rap. This action 
against the board will be reflected from the 
board to the hand, and again from the hand 
to the board, and so on several times in succes- 
sion. When the piston above spoken of makes 
a backward movement, it creates a vacant 
space in the tube, into which the air rushes 
by virtue of its elasticity, and thus a certain 
depth of air is rarefied; this first cylinder of 
rarefied air in retracting to its natural dimen- 
sions causes rarefaction in an equal depth of air 
in front of it ; this second rarefied cylinder of 
air now reacts on the first, brings it to rest, and 
causes rarefaction in a third equal column of 
air, and so on. Thus the rarefaction, like the 
compression, is transmitted through the whole 
length of the tube. When a compression trav- 
erses the tube it successively brings the mole- 
cules of air nearer together, while a rarefac- 
tion in its progress separates the aerial mole- 
cules ; hence, if we imagine the piston to move 
backward and forward with a regular vibratory 
motion we have rarefaction succeeding com- 
pression in regular order, and the effect on any 
one molecule of air is to give it a like regular 
motion backward and forward. In the above 
discussion we have, for simplicity, supposed 
the piston to have a uniform velocity during 
its motions ; but this, as we have already seen, 
is not the case with freely vibrating elastic 
bodies, for they have the same character of 
reciprocating motion as that of a freely swing- 
ing pendulum. To explain what will be the 
effect on the air of such a motion, we will 
suppose that the piston vibrates through a 



182 



SOUND 



very small distance, a a', fig. 16, making equal 
excursions on one side and the other of the 
position of equilibrium m m' ; and as the pis- 
ton vibrates like a pendulum, it will increase 




FIG. 16. 

in velocity as it goes from a or from a 1 to 
m m', and diminish in velocity as it goes from 
m m 1 to a or to a'. Let T be the time taken 
by the piston to make a semi-vibration, that 
is to say, a motion from a to a' or from a' to 
a. Divide this time T into exceedingly small 
and equal parts , during which the piston 
will also go over very small but unequal spaces, 
increasing with the velocity from a to m m', 
and diminishing with the velocity as the pis- 
ton goes from m m' to a'. The first very small 
displacement of the piston, accomplished du- 
ring the time , will produce in a very thin 
layer of air, which touches the piston, a very 
feeble degree of compression, and this com- 
pression will progress forward into the air of 
the tube. The very small succeeding motion 
of the piston during the next succeeding t 
will produce a slightly greater condensation, 
which will travel behind the former conden- 
sation with the same velocity. The third dis- 
placement of the piston will produce a still 
greater condensation, and so on, until the dis- 
placement which brings the piston to the po- 
sition m m', which, being the greatest of all, 
will produce the greatest condensation. If 
the piston continues its motion to a', with a 
velocity which is now gradually decreasing, a 
new series of condensations will take place, 
less and less in degree, .which will travel be- 
hind those of the first series. These two se- 
ries will be symmetrically placed on one side 
and the other of the maximum condensation, 
if we suppose that the two semi-oscillations 
of the piston are equal, and if we neglect the 
very small amplitude of oscillation a a'. If 
a A' is the space through which the first con- 
densation progresses in the time T, then all 
the condensations which have succeeded it 
during the movement of the piston from a to 
a will be distributed in the space a' A'. If 
we represent by ordinates these condensations 
at the moment when, the piston having ar- 
rived at a', the first condensation is at A', 
we will form a curve a f a A', whose maxi- 
mum ordinate M a will represent the conden- 
sation produced by the piston at the moment 
of its passage through m m'. Let us now sup- 
pose that the vibrating piston returns on its 
path, it will produce by this motion a series 
of increasing dilatations during the time T, 
and then decreasing dilatations until the in- 
stant when the piston reaches a. These dila- 



tations will travel behind the condensations, 
and when the piston has returned to a, in 
which case the series of condensations will 
have reached the position A' a A, these dila- 
tations will be distributed in the space a A', 
and the diminution of density of the lay- 
ers of air can be represented by the nega- 
tive ordinates of the curve a (3 A', below the 
axis of the curve a A'. The state of air in 
the tube at the instant when the vibrating 



piston, departing from a, arrives at n p, m m', 
n 1 p\ a\ is indicated by the curves n N, m M, 
n' N', a 1 A'. If the piston makes another com- 



plete vibration from a to a! and from a' to , 
a new series of condensations and of dilata- 
tions, distributed in a space equal to a A, will 
travel behind the first series already described. 
The dilatation and condensation contained in 
a 1 A, and produced by a complete vibration 
of the body at the origin of sound, i. e., by 
an oscillating motion from a to a' and back 
from a' to a, is called a sonorous wave. A 
sonorous wave is always formed of two parts, 
one half of air in a state of condensation, the 
other half of rarefied air. The sum of all the 
condensations in the condensed half of the 
wave is represented by the area of the curve 
a' a A'; and if we divide this by the interval 
T of a half vibration of the body, we have the 
mean condensation of the half wave. This 
mean condensation can be calculated, and it 
has been found that for the sound given by 
250 vibrations per second, which corresponds 
nearly with the lowest of the violin, this 
compression gives for the compressed half of 
the wave an increase of ^ to the ordinary 
density of the atmosphere. The length of a 
wave is evidently the distance through which 
the air has been affected the moment after the 
first complete vibration of the sonorous body 
has been made. If we designate this length 
by Z, we can calculate the wave length by di- 
viding the velocity v of sound in a second by 
n, the number of vibrations the sounding body 

makes in a second ; or, 1=^. By a sonorous 

wave surface is understood that surface which 
is at such a distance from the point or points 
of origin of the sound that all points in that 
surface have the same phase of vibration at 
the same instant of time. Thus, it is evident 
that if we have a small sphere of air which 
successively and rapidly increases and dimin- 
ishes its volume, we shall have alternate spher- 
ical shells of compressed and of rarefied air 
surrounding the vibrating sphere. If we view 
a surface in one of these shells, in every part 
of which surface the particles of air are mov- 
ing in the same direction with the same ve- 
locity, we shall have the sonorous wave sur- 
face. The acoustic wave lengths and wave 
surfaces are not mere creations of the imagi- 
nation, but have a real existence. The author 
of this article first devised a method by which 
one can readily detect the phases of vibration 
in the air surrounding a sounding body, and 



SOUND 



183 



thereby has succeeded in measuring directly in 
the vibrating air the length of sonorous waves, 
and has determined in the air surrounding the 
vibrating body the form of the wave surface. 
(" American Journal of Science," November, 
1872.) It is evident that the ultimate effect 
of the passage of sonorous waves through the 
atmosphere will be to cause the molecules of 
the air to swing to and fro with the motions 
of pendulums. It is also apparent that all the 
characteristics of the periodic motion at the 
source of the sound will be impressed on the 
surrounding air and transmitted through it 
to a distance. Reflection of Sound. It fol- 
lows from the very nature of sound pulses that 
if a sonorous wave meet a hard smooth. sur- 
face, or encounter the surface of separation of 
two media of unequal elasticity, reflection of 
sound will take place, and the laws of reflec- 
tion will be the same as in the case of light, 
viz. : the angle of reflection will equal the an- 
gle of incidence, and both the incident and 
reflected ray will lie in the same plane, which 
is at right angles to the reflecting surface. 
These laws admit of a ready experimental 
proof. If two concave parabolic mirrors, 
formed of metal backed with hard wood or 
plaster of Paris, be placed opposite each other 
at a distance of 10 or 15 ft. with the axis of 
the mirrors in the same line, and a watch be 
placed in the focus of one of the mirrors, it 
will be found that the sonorous pulses emana- 
ting from the watch will be reflected from the 
first mirror upon the surface of the second 
mirror, and here by a second reflection will 
be conveyed to the focus. This fact can be 
ascertained by leading to the focus a tube ter- 
minated at one end by a small funnel, while 
the ear is applied to the other end of the tube. 
In the article OPTICS it has been shown that 
the action just described is a necessary conse- 
quence of the laws of reflection given above. 
Refraction of Sound. Sound waves are also 
refracted, and their refraction is due to the 
same cause which produces refraction of the 
rays of light ; i. e., to the change in velocity 
which occurs when the sonorous beam enters 
a refracting medium. When the sonorous 
wave surface falls upon the refracting medi- 
um so that it is parallel to the refracting sur- 
face, there will be no refraction, or change in 
the direction of the sound, but only a change 
of velocity. But when the sonorous wave 
surface forms an angle with the surface of 
the refracting medium, the change in velo- 
city causes the refraction of the sonorous 
beam, so that if the velocity of the sound is 
less in the refracting medium than it was 
before it entered it, the sound will be re- 
fracted toward the perpendicular to the re- 
fracting surface. The refraction will be away 
from the perpendicular when the velocity of 
the sound is greater in the refracting medium 
than it was before it entered it. It follows 
from the above action, that for the same me- 
dia there will be a constant ratio existing be- 



tween the sines of the angles of incidence and 
refraction, and also that the incident and re- 
fracted ray will be in the same plane at .right 
angles to the refracting surface. (See LIGHT, 
vol. x., p. 439.) The experimental verification 
of these laws, however, is not so easy as in the 
similar phenomena of light. The experiment 




FIG. 17. 

best adapted for this purpose is one devised 
by Sondhaus and represented in fig. IT. He 
constructed a lens, L, of sheets of collodion, 
having the form of portions of a sphere, and 
united these sheets to the opposite sides of a 
metal ring. On inflating the envelope thus 
formed with carbonic acid gas, a lenticular 
form was given to it. A watch was placed at 
W, on the axis of the lens, and it was found 
that the sound waves were refracted to the 
'conjugate focus of the lens at F. If at F we 
place a bent pipe with a funnel-shaped mouth, 
and replace the watch at W by a small organ 
pipe, the refraction is detected by seeing grains 
of a light powder dance on the membrane clo- 
sing the upper mouth of the bent pipe at c. 
Interference of Sound. Another necessary 
consequence of the nature of sound vibrations 
and of the manner of their propagation is, 
that if the condensed half of a sonorous wave 
meet the rarefied half of another sonorous 
wave, and these waves have the same length 
and the same energy of vibration, there can be 
no vibratory motion at their place of meeting, 
for the directions of the vibrations in the two 
half waves are opposed, and the intensities of 
these opposed vibratory motions are equal. 
These conditions are fulfilled in various well 
known experiments, and it is one of the best 
established facts in acoustics that two sound 
vibrations may meet and produce silence at 
the place of their meeting ; this is known as 
the phenomenon of the interference of sound. 
Dr. Thomas Young studied this phenomenon 
attentively, and its contemplation led to his 
great discovery of the similar phenomena of 
the interference of light, which formed the 
basis of his reasoning in establishing the 
undulatory theory of light. To Dr. Young we 
owe one of the simplest known means of ex- 
hibiting and studying the phenomena of inter- 
ference of sound. If a vibrating tuning fork 
be held in a vertical position at a short dis- 
tance from the ear, and then rotated around 
its vertical axis, it may be observed, when the 



184 



SOUND 



surfaces of the prongs of the fork are oppo- 
site the ear, that sound will be perceived ; but 
when the edges of the fork formed by the 
meeting of those surfaces are opposite the 
ear, it will be found that no sound, but entire 
silence, .occurs. This phenomenon is readily 
explained. First, it is necessary to know that 
the prongs of a vibrating fork alternately ap- 
proach to and recede from each other, as is 
readily seen when we obtain on a piece of 
smoked glass the trace of two delicate wires 
attached to the ends of the prongs of the vi- 
brating fork. A trace thus made is accurate- 
ly shown in fig. 18. When the prongs recede 




from each other, condensations will be pro- 
duced in the air opposite the faces c c' (see fig. 
19, which represents a plan of the ends of the 
prongs) ; but while these condensations are thus 
formed rarefactions are produced in the air op- 
posite the opening between the prongs at r r'. 
The reverse of these actions occurs when the 
prongs approach each other. The result of 
the actions will be evident from the figure, 
where the full lines show the centres of shells 



\ 




FIG. 19. 

of condensed air, and the dotted lines the cen- 
tres of shells of rarefied air. These shells al- 
ternate, and meeting along the planes p, p, p, p, 
passing through the vertical edges of the fork, 
they neutralize each other's action. W. "Weber 
has shown that the points of quiescence in this 
case must lie in hyperbolic sheets. This must 
be so, for the difference in the distance of 
every point of quiescence from two fixed points 
must be a constant quantity, which in this ex- 
periment will be equal to the half of the wave 
1. -Mirth given by the fork. The writer has used 
this experiment of Young to show the reflec- 
tion of sound from flames and from sheets of 



cold and heated gases, such as carbonic acid 
gas and hydrogen. Two resonators were placed 
as in fig. 20 with the planes of their mouths at 




FIG. 20. 

a right angle, and in this angle was firmly fixed 
the fork to whose note the resonator resound- 
ed. The broad face of one of its prongs faced 
the mouth of one resonator, while the space 
between the prongs faced the mouth of the 
other resonator. By trial the two planes of 
the fork are placed at such distances from the 
resonators that complete interference of the vi- 
brations issuing from their mouths is obtained, 
and the only sound that reaches the ear is the 
faint one given by the action of the fork on the 
air outside the angle included by the mouths of 
the resonators. If in these circumstances we 
place before the mouth of one of the resona- 
tors a flat coal-gas flame, we shall find that this 
flame reflects part of the sound which falls 
upon it, and thus partially screens the resona- 
tor, so that sonorous vibrations of diminished 
intensity now enter this resonator, and there- 
fore the balance of interference no longer 
exists, and a sound issues from the resonator 
which has not the gas flame opposite its mouth. 
But if a piece of French tracing paper be placed 
before the mouth of the latter resonator, the 
balance of interference will be restored, thus 
showing that the reflecting power of a gas 
flame is equal to that of tracing paper. In a 
similar manner the writer has shown and ap- 
proximately measured the reflecting power of 
sheets of cold carbonic acid and hydrogen gas- 
es. Change of Pitch caused by Translation of 
the Sounding Body. One of the most remark- 
able phenomena is the change in pitch caused by 
the motion of a sounding body to or from the 
ear; or, what is the same, by the motion of the 
ear to or from the source of sound. When the 
sounding body and the ear approach, we per- 
ceive a rise in the pitch ; when they recede from 
each other, a fall in pitch occurs. This is a fact 
known to all who have listened to the rapid 
change in pitch of a locomotive whistle which 



SOUND 



185 



occurs at the instant it passes us ; the same phe- 
nomenon is yet more marked when the listener 
is on a train which passes another going in the 
opposite direction while the whistle of the latter 
is sounding. If we su