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Full text of "The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge. Edited by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana"

THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA. 



VOI, XVI. 
TROMBONE-ZYMOSIS, 



797 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPEDIA: 



OF 



G-ENEKAL KNOWLEDGE. 



EDITED BY 

GEORGE RIPLEY AND CHARLES A. DANA. 



SECOND EDITION, REVISED. 



VOLUME XVI. 
TROMBONE-ZYMOSIS. 



NEW YORK: 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 

549 AND 551 BROADWAY. 

LONDON: 16 LITTLE BKITAIN. 

18T9. 



ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1863, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1876, by D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



>5 




Among the Contributors to the Sixteenth Volume of the Revised Edition are 

the following : 



Prof. CLEVELAND ABBE, "Washington, D. C. 

WATER SPOUT. 

WHIRLWIND. 

WIND. 

S. L. M. BAELOW. 

WHIST. 

WILLAED BAETLETT. 

TURKISTAN. 
UZBECKS. 

WADAY. 

Prof. 0. W. BENNETT, D. D., Syracuse Univer- 
sity. 

WESLEY FAMILY. 
WILEY, ISAAC WILLIAM. 
WINCIIELL, ALEXANDER. 
WISE, DANIEL. 

JULIUS BING. 

TYROL, 
TURKEY, 
VENICE (city), 
VINCI, LEONARDO DA, 
WILLIAM I., EMPEROR, 
WILLIAM OF NASSAU, 

and other articles in biography, geography, and 

history. 

Commodore GEOEGE S. BLAKE, U. S. N., late 
Superintendent of the U. S. Naval Acade- 
my, Annapolis, Md. 

TRUXTUN, THOMAS. 
WARRINGTON, LEWIS. 

FBANCIS C. BOWMAN. 

VERDI, GIUSEPPE. 
WAGNER, KICHARD. 

WEBER, KARL MARIA FRIEDKICH EENST VON, Ba- 
ron. 
WIENIAWSKL, HENRI. 

ALFEED W. BUREOWS, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 
Canada. 

WINNIPEG. 

EOBEET CAETER. 
TYLER, JOHN. 

UNITED STATES, LITERATURE or THE (in part). 
VESPUCCI, AMERIGO. 
VICTORIA, QUEEN. 

WELD, THEODORE DWIGHT. , 

WILSON, HENRY. 
WINLOOK, JOSEPH. 

JOHN D. CHAMPLIN, Jr. 

UNIVERSITY, 

VESUVIUS, 

VICTORIA, 

WALES (geography), 

WRITING, 

TALE COLLEGE, 

YEMEN, 

and other articles in geography and history. 

Prof. E. H. CLABKE, M. D., Harvard Univer- 
sity. 

WOORARA, 

and other articles in materia medica. 

Hon. T. M. COOLET, LL. LX, University of 
Michigan, Ann Arbor. 

USURY (in part), 
WARRANTY (in part), 
WILL (in part), 

and other legal articles. 

Rev. S. S. CUTTING, D. D. 

WILLIAMS, ROGER. 

Prof. J. C. DALTON, M. D., College of Physi- 
cians and Surgeons, New York. 

URINE, 
VISION, 
VOICE, 

and other medical and physiological articles. 



THEODOBE L. DE VINNE. 
TYPE. 

r. F. DEWEY, Philadelphia. 

UMBRELLA. 

Prof. M. J. DEENNAN. 

WESTERWALD. 
ZAMORA. 
ZEISBERGEB, DAVID. 

ZlNZENDOBF, NlKOLAUS LuDWIG, COUBt. 

HENEY S. DEINKEE, E. M., Philadelphia. 

TUNNEL. 

EATON S. DBONE. 

UNITED STATES (statistical and political), 
VASSAR COLLEGE, 
VERMONT, 

VIRGINIA, STATE and UNIVERSITY OF, 
WEST VIRGINIA, 

WILLIAM AND MARY, COLLEGE OF, 
WISCONSIN, STATE and UNIVERSITY OF, 
and other articles. 

Capt. C. E. BUTTON, U. S. Ordnance Corps, 
Washington Arsenal, D. C. 
VELOCIMETEB. 

EOBEET T. EDES, M. D., Harvard University. 

Articles in materia medica. 

Hon. EDWABD EVEEETT, Boston. 

WASHINGTON, GEORGE. 
WEBSTER, DANIEL. 

W. M. FEBBISS. 

VENICE (history), 
VERNET, FAMILY OF, 
WALES (history), 

and other articles in biography and history. 

CHABLE8 S. FOSTER, Editor of the "New York 
Sportsman." 

TURF. 

Major Gen. Q. A. GILLMOEE, U. S. A., Army 
Building, New York. 
WEST POINT. 

PAEKE GODWIN. 

VOLTAIRE, FRANCOIS MARIE AROUET DE. 

Lieut. Com: HENEY H. GOEEINGE, U. S. N., 
Washington, D. C. 
URUGUAY, a republic. 
URUGUAY, a river. 

Prof. W. E. GEIFFIS, late of the Imperial Col- 
lege, Tokio, Japan. 
TEZO. 
YOKOHAMA. 

ALFRED H. GUEBNSEY. 

VICKSBURG (war history). 
ZAMBESI. 

Rev. HENEY HAEBAUGH, D. D., Lebanon, Pa. 
ZWINGLI, ULRIO. 

Prof. JAMES MOEGAN HART. 

WALLENSTEIN, ALBRECHT, Count of. 

J. W. HAWES. 

TROY, N. Y., 

UNITED STATES (geography and history), 

UTAH, 

WASHINGTON TERRITORY, 

WASHINGTON, D. C., 

WYOMING TERRITORY, 

and other articles in American geography. 



VI 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE SIXTEENTH VOLUME 



ANGELO HEILPKIN. 

TYNDALL, JOHN. 
WALLACE, ALFRED RUSBBL. 

Louis HEILPBIN. 

WUBMSEB, DAQOBEBT SIGMUND. 
ZUYDEB ZEE. 

Prof. J. E. HILGARD, U. S. Coast Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES (in part). 

ClIABLES L. HOGEBOOM, M. D. 
TUBPENTINE. 

WATEB WOBKS. 
WOOL (in part). 
YEAST. 

Prof. OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, M. D., Boston. 

WYMAN, JEFFRIES. 

Prof. T. STERRY HUNT, LL. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 
UNITED STATES (geology). 
VOLCANO. 
WATEB. 

ROSSITEE JOHNSON. 

UBQUHABT, DAVID, 

WABD, HENBY AUGUSTUS, 

WHITMAN, WALT, . 

WHITTIEB, JOHN GBEENLEAF, 

WlLDEBNESS, BATTLES OF THE, 

and other articles in biography and history. 

Prof. C. A. JOY, Ph. D., Columbia College, 
New York. 

WSHLEB, FBIEDRICH, 

YTTBIUM, 

ZIBCONIUM, 

and other chemical articles. 

Prof. S. KNEELAND, M. D., Mass. Inst. of 
Technology, Boston. 

UNITED STATES (zoology), 

VEBTEBBATA, 

WALBUS, 

WHALE, 

and other articles in zoology. 

Hon. JOHN J. KNOX, Comptroller of the Cur- 
rency, Washington, D. C. 

UNITED STATES (finance). 

Prof. JAMES LAW, Cornell University, Ithaca, 

N. Y. 

VBTERINABY SCIENCE. 

Rev. SAMTTEL LOOKWOOD, Freehold, N. J. 
YOUNG, CHARLES AUGUSTUS. 

Rev. FRANKLIN NOBLE. 
WILLIAMS COLLEGE, 

YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATIONS, 
and articles in biography and geography. 

Rev. BERNARD O'REILLY, D. D. 

ULTBAMONTANISTB, 

UBSULA, SAINT, 

UBBULINES. 

VATICAN, COUNCIL OF THE, 

and other articles in ecclesiastical history. 

GUSTAV POLLAK. 
VIENNA. 

RICHARD A. PROCTOR, A. M., London. 

UEANUB, 
VENUS, 

YEAE (in part), 
ZODIACAL LIGHT (in part), 

and other astronomical articles. 

PENNOCK PUSEY, St. Paul, Minn. 

WILMINGTON, Del. 



Prof. ROSSITEB W. RAYMOND, Ph. D., Editor 
of the "Engineering and Mining Journal.'' 

ZlNO. 

PHILIP RIPLEY. 

WALLACE, JAMES WILLIAM. 
WALLACK, JOHN LESTER. 
WELLS, HORACE (in part). 
WELLINGTON, DUKE OF. 

THOMAS T. SABINE, M. D., Sec. College of- 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

TUMOR. 

Prof. A. J. SCHEM. 

UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST, 
UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH, 

and various articles In geography and history. 

J. G. SHEA, LL. D. 

UTAHS. 

VERRAZZANO, GIOVANNI DA. 

WAMPUM. 

WlNNEBAGOES. 

YAO.UIS. 
YUMAB. 

Prof. J. A. SPENCEB, D. D., College of the 
City of New York. 

TYNG, STEPHEN HIGGINSON (two). 
WILLIAMS, ROWLAND. 
XENOPHON (in part). 

Rev. WILLIAM L. SYMONDS, Portland Me. 

WTCLIFFE, JOHN DE. 

Rev. T. B. THAYER, D. D., Boston, Mass. 

UNIVER8ALI8T8. 

Prof. GEORGE THURBEB. 

UNITED STATES (botany), 

VANILLA, 

VIOLET, 

WALNUT, 

WATER LILY, 

WHORTLEBERRY, 

WHEAT, 

and other botanical articles. 

Prof. ROBERT II. THURSTON, Stevens Inst. of 
Technology, Hoboken, N. J. 
TURBINE. 

Prof. G. A. F. VAN RHYN, Ph. D. 

TROY, 

TURANIAN KACB AND LANGUAGES (in part;, 

VEDA, 

VIRCHOW, RUDOLF, 

WALLACHIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 

and other archaeological, oriental, and philological 
articles. 

I. DE VEITELLE. 

VENEZUELA, UNITED STATES OF. 

YUCATAN. 

ZACATECAB. 

C. S. WEYMAN. 

UNITED STATES, LITERATURE or THE (In part). 
WALPOLB FAMILY. 
WATER-COLOR PAINTING. 

RICHARD GBANT WHITE. 

VIOLA. 
VIOLIN. 
VIOLONCELLO. 

Prof. W. D. WHITNEY, LL. D., Yale College, 
New Haven, Conn. 

TURANIAN RACE AND LANGUAGES (In part). 
TURKISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. 
ZEND-AVESTA (in part). 

Prof. E. L. YOUMANS. 

WARMING AND VENTILATION. 



THE 



AMERICAN CYCLOPAEDIA 



TROMBONE 

ITIROMBONE, a brass wind instrument, sup- 
JL posed to be identical with the ancient sack- 
but, which constitutes one form of the trum- 
pet. By means of sliding tubes great depth 
and power of tone are produced, and the in- 
strument is capable of splendid effect. Trom- 
bones are of three kinds, alto, tenor, and bass ; 
the first having a compass from 0, the second 
space in the bass, to G, an octave above the 
treble clef ; the second from B, the second line 
in the bass, to A, the second space in the 
treble ; and the third from 0, an octave below 
the second space in the bass, to G, the second 
line in the treble. 

TR05IP. I. Maarten Harpertzoon van, a Dutch 
admiral, born in Briel in 1597, killed in bat- 
tle, July 31 (N. 8., Aug. 10), 1653. In his boy- 
hood he was captured by the English in a bat- 
tle off the Guinea coast, in which his father 
was killed. Subsequently he was prominent 
on various occasions, especially under Admiral 
Heijn. In 1639, as admiral of Holland, he 
inflicted great damage upon the Spanish fleet 
near Gravelines, and in October he gained a 
most decisive victory over a powerful Span- 
ish squadron under Oquendo in the Downs, 
for which he was made a noble of France. 
Against the English fleet in 1652 he was at 
first unsuccessful in the Downs, and was su- 
perseded by De Ruyter, but was soon reinsta- 
ted as chief commander. He signally defeated 
Blake near the Goodwin Sands, Nov. 29, but 
was intercepted by him off Portland island, 
Feb. 18, 1653, suffered a heavy loss, and re- 
treated. He was killed in an encounter off 
the Dutch coast with the English fleet under 
Monk, and was buried with great splendor at 
Delft. II. Cornells van, a Dutch admiral, son 
of the preceding, born in Rotterdam, Sept. 9, 
1629, died in Amsterdam, May 29, 1691. He 
early operated against the African pirates and 
against the English in the Mediterranean, and 
when 21 years old was made vice admiral. 



TROMSO 

From 1656 to 1662 he lived in retirement. In 
1665, when the Dutch fleet under Admiral 
Opdam was beaten by the English off Solebay, 
Van Tromp conducted a masterly retreat. He 
was appointed commander-in-chief in the ab- 
sence of De Ruyter, and under him he dis- 
played great valor in the encounter with the 
English in the Downs in June, 1666; but on 
July 25 (N. S., Aug. 4) he was cut off from 
the main squadron, and was unable to come 
to the relief of De Ruyter, who accordingly 
insisted upon his removal. He was reinstated 
in 1673, during the war with the allied French 
and English, in which he gained new laurels. 
After the restoration of peace with England in 
1675 he was cordially received in that country, 
and Charles II. made him a baronet. On De 
Ruyter's death in 1676 he succeeded him in the 
highest naval rank, but afterward served for 
some time with great distinction under the 
Danish government. 

TROMSO. I. The northernmost stift or dio- 
cese of Norway, bordering on the Arctic and 
Atlantic oceans; area, 42,687 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1865, 155,335. It is divided into the baili- 
wicks of Nordland, Tromso, and Finmark, and 
includes the Loffoden islands, celebrated for 
magnificent scenery and extensive cod and her- 
ring fisheries. (See LOFFODEN.) There is lit- 
tle agriculture, the main means of subsistence 
being derived from fisheries. II. A town, cap- 
ital of the diocese, on an island in the sound 
of Tromso, between the island of Kvalo and 
the mainland ; lat. 69' 38' N., Ion. 19 E. ; pop. 
about 4,000. It is the seat of a governor, and 
has several schools, a church, a Lappish print- 
ing office, and a hospital chiefly for lepers. The 
seat of the bishop has been removed to Alsta- 
houg. The town was founded in 1794, and 
has an active shipping trade and an excellent 
harbor sheltered by mountains. Many vessels 
belonging here are engaged in the walrus fish- 
ery at Nova Zembla and Spitzbergen. 



6 



TRONDHJEM 



TRONDHJEM, or Throndlyeiii. See DRONTHEIM. 

TBOOPIAL (Fr. troupiale), a name given to 
several species of the icterince and agelaince, 
subfamilies of American conirostral birds, in 
some respects resembling the starlings of the 
old world, and in others coming near the finch- 
es ; they have the nine primaries of the finches, 
but the bill is larger, straight, the base with- 




Common Troopial (Icterus vulgaris). 

out bristles, and the tip without a notch. The 
name is derived from their habit of associating 
in large troops. In the icterinm the bill is gen- 
erally longer than the head, straight and sharp- 
pointed ; wings long and pointed, and tail usu- 
ally wedge-shaped ; toes moderate and formed 
for perching. The prevailing colors are yel- 
low or orange and black; they are generally 
called orioles in North America, and a well 
known species has been described under BAL- 
TIMORE BIRD ; hang-nest is a name derived 
from their habit of suspending the nest from 
the extremity of slender branches. The com- 
mon troopial {icterus vulgaris, Daud.) is about 
10 in. long, with a straight bill ; back and 
abdomen yellow; head, neck all round, breast, 
and tail black ; a white band on the wings ; 
feathers of throat elongated and pointed ; it is 
a native of northern South America and the 
West Indies, sometimes coming to the south- 




Cassican (Cassicus). 

ern United States. They move in flocks, some- 
times mingled with other species, and show a 
great partiality to the neighborhood of man ; 
they 'are excellent fliers, and equally at home 
on the ground or in trees ; they are loquacious 
at all seasons ; their flesh is excellent. There 
are several other species in Mexico, Texas, and 



TEOPIO BIRD 

Central America. The orchard troopial (/. 
spurius, Bonap.) very much resembles the Bal- 
timore oriole in the pattern of its colors, the 
orange red of the latter being replaced by dark 
chestnut, the tail entirely black and more grad- 
uated, and the bill slenderer and more curved. 
The only other genus of the icterince which 
can be mentioned here is cassicus (Cuv.), so 
called from casiis, a helmet, the bill rising on 
the' forehead in a crescent shape ; nostrils 
basal, naked, pierced in the substance of the 
bill; third and fourth quills longest, and tail 
long and graduated ; tarsi and toes strongly 
scaled. There are about 20 species, peculiar 
to tropical America, living in the forests and 
also near human habitations, in vast troops ; 
they eat fruits, berries, insects, and larvro. 
The nest is most ingeniously woven by both 
sexes, made of fibres and dried grasses, of a 
cylindrical or gourd-like form, and sometimes 
3 ft. long ; the lower part is hemispherical, the 
opening near the top, and the fabric suspended 
from the ends of slender twigs of high trees, 
out of the reach of monkeys and snakes ; many 
nests are made on one tree, and sometimes 
those of different species together. They are 
docile in captivity, and learn to whistle and to 
articulate words; they are generally black, 
contrasted with bright yellow, especially to- 
ward the tail. In the subfamily agelaina the 
bill is stout, short, conical, nearly straight, and 
sharp-pointed ; tarsi as long as the middle toe ; 
toes long and slender, and claws long and 
curved. Some of the birds of this subfamily 
have been described under BLACKBIRD, BOBO- 
LINK, and Cow BIRD, species respectively of the 
genera agelaius (Vieill.), dolichonyx (Swains.), 
and molothrus (Swains.). 

TROOST, Gerard, an American chemist and 
geologist, born in Bois-le-Duc, Holland, March 
15, 1776, died in Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 14, 
1850. He was educated at the university of 
Leyden, and in 1809 was sent by Louis Bona- 
parte, king of Holland, on a tour of scientific 
observation in Java. The capture of the vessel 
by a privateer interrupted this undertaking, 
and in 1810 he settled in Philadelphia. He 
was one of the founders of the academy of 
natural history, and its first president from 
1812 to 1817. In 1814 he established the first 
alum works in the United States; and in 1825, 
having held for a short time the professorship 
of chemistry in the college of pharmacy in 
Philadelphia, he joined Robert Owen's com- 
munity at New Harmony. In 1828 he was 
appointed professor of chemistry, mineralogy, 
and geology in the university of Nashville, and 
in 1831 geologist of the state of Tennessee. He 
published reports on the geology of Tennessee, 
and memoirs on geology and mineralogy. 

TROPjEOLUM. See NASTURTIUM. 

TROPIC BIRD (phaeton, Linn.), a genus of 
web-footed oceanic .birds, constituting the 
family phaetonidce. They have a long, strong, 
pointed bill, broad at the base, slightly curved, 
without nail and the edges finely serrated; 



TROPICS 



TROUP 



nostrils at base of bill, lateral, and pervious ; 
face covered with feathers; wings long and 
pointed, the first primary the longest; tarsi 
short and strong, feet small, and toes fully 
webbed ; hind toe small ; tail with two long, 
straw-like feathers, whence the French name 
paille en queue or straw-tail; sailors call them 
boatswain bird and marlinspike. In habits 
and appearance they come near the gulls and 
terns ; they are chiefly confined to the tropics. 
Their powers of flight are great, and they are 
usually seen at considerable distances from 
land; they live almost entirely on the wing, 
and, when they do not return to the distant 
shore to roost, rest upon the surface of the 
ocean ; they are excellent swimmers. The 
food consists of fish and other marine animals, 
which they dart upon from a great height; 
they are fond of following the shoals of flying 
fish, seizing them as they emerge from the sea. 
They are not larger in the body than a pigeon, 
though longer ; they congregate in considerable 
numbers at their breeding places, on rocky 
shores and desert islands, placing the nest on 




Tropic Bird (Phaeton aethereus). 

the ground or in holes in trees ; the eggs are 
two ; their flesh is fishy and tough. The com- 
mon tropic bird (P. cethereus, Linn.) is about 
30 in. long and 38 in. in alar extent ; it is of 
a satiny white, the wings banded with black, 
and the head, back, and wings tinged with 
cream color or light pink ; first five primaries 
black on the outer webs, and the shafts of the 
long tail feathers black to near the end, where 
they are white ; a black mark over eyes to oc- 
ciput ; bill orange red and iris brown ; tarsus 
and toes yellow at base, webs and claws black. 
It sometimes comes near the Florida coast, 
but is usually seen in the tropical Atlantic far 
from land. The long tail feathers of the P. 
pTicenicurus (Gmel.), inhabiting the tropical 
Pacific, are bright red, and are used as orna- 
ments by the South sea islanders. 

TROPICS (Gr. Tpoirfa a turning), in astron- 
omy, two circles parallel to the equator, at 
such distance from it as is equal to the greatest 
recession of the sun from it toward the poles, 
or to the sun's greatest declination. That in 
the northern hemisphere is called the tropic 
of Cancer, and that in the southern the tropic 



of Capricorn, from their touching the ecliptic 
in the first points of those signs. (See CANCER, 
and CAPRICORN.) It is between the tropics 
that the sun's path is circumscribed, its annual 
movement being from one to the other and 
back again in the ecliptic. In geography, the 
tropics, also known as that of Cancer and that 
of Capricorn, are the two parallels of latitude 
(about 23 28' N. and S.) over which the sun 
is vertical at the solstices. (See SOLSTICE.) 

TROPLONG, Raymond Theodore, a French ju- 
rist, born at St. Gaudens, Haute-Garonne, Oct. 
8, 1795, died in Paris, March 2, 1869. He 
early held important judicial offices. In 1846 
he was made a peer, in 1848 first president of 
the court of Paris, and in 1852 of the court 
of cassation. In 1852 he was made a senator, 
and in 1854 president of the senate. His prin- 
cipal work, Le Code civil explique (28 vols., 
1833-'58), is a collection of treatises in continu- 
ation of Toullier's Commentaire du Code civil, 
many of which have been published separately. 

TROPPAU, a city and the capital of Austrian 
Silesia, on the Oppa, 35 m. N. E. of Olmiitz ; 
pop. in 1870, 16,608. It has six Catholic 
churches, a palace, a gymnasium with a large 
library, a museum, and manufactories of beet 
sugar, flax, and cloth. A congress of sov- 
ereigns was held here from Oct. 20 to Dec. 
20, 1820, preliminary to that of Laybach. 
The former duchy of Troppau, having been di- 
vided into the principalities of Troppau and 
Jagerndorf, was partly annexed to Prussia in 
Frederick the Great's conquest of Silesia, and 
forms the S. W. part of Prussian Silesia, with 
Leobschutz, of the Jagerndorf division, as cap- 
ital. The territory which remained to Austria 
after the peace of 1763 constitutes most of the 
N. part of Austrian Silesia, comprising, besides 
the capital, Jagerndorf and other manufactur- 
ing towns. 

TROlBADOlRSt See PROVENSAL LANGUAGE 
AND LITERATURE. 

TROUP, a W. county of Georgia, bordering 
on Alabama, and intersected by the Chatta- 
hoochee river ; area, about 370 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 17,632, of whom 11,224 were colored. 
The surface is hilly and the soil generally fer- 
tile. It is intersected by the Atlanta and "West 
Point railroad. The chief productions in 1870 
were 26,645 bushels of wheat, 162,946 of In- 
dian corn, 34,514 of oats, 29,290 of sweet po- 
tatoes, and 9,963 bales of cotton. There were 
680 horses, 1,698 mules and asses, 1,519 milch 
cows, 3,027 other cattle, 1,203 sheep, and 6,516 
swine ; 1 manufactory of boots and shoes, 2 
of cotton goods, 1 of iron castings, 2 of ma- 
chinery, and 3 saw mills. Capital, La Grange. 

TROUP, George Mclntosh, an American states- 
man, born on the Tombigbee river, Sept. 8, 
1780, died in Laurens co., Ga., May 3, 1856. 
He graduated at Princeton college in 1797, was 
admitted to the bar, and at the age of 21 was 
elected to the state legislature. Between 1807 
and 1815 he was a representative in congress 
from Georgia, and in 1816 was elected a Urn- 



g TROUSDALE 

ted States senator. From 1823 to 1827 he was 
governor of the state, and in 1829 was a second 
time elected to the United States senate, from 
which he retired before the expiration of 1m 
term, on account of ill health. He was one of 
the most earnest and able of the advocates of 
state sovereignty. His life was written by E. 
J. Harden (Savannah, 1859). 

TROUSDALE, a N. county of Middle Tennes- 
see, intersected in the S. E. by the Cumber- 
land river ; area, about 110 sq. m. It has been 
formed since the census of 1870 from portions 
of Maoon, Smith, Sumner, and Wilson coun- 
ties. The greater part of the surface is made 
up of valleys separated by ridges, the soil of 
both being productive. The timber consists 
of poplar, white oak, walnut, &c., but is not 
abundant. Blue grass is abundant. The sta- 
ples are corn, wheat, tobacco, and hay. Cap- 
ital, Hartsville. 

TROUSSEAU, Armand, a French physician, born 
in Tours, Oct. 14, 1801, died June 23, 1867. 
He graduated in medicine at Paris in 1825. 
In 1828 he was sent by government to inves- 
tigate endemic and epidemic diseases prevalent 
in the central departments of France, and the 
yellow fever at Gibraltar. In 1831 he was* 
appointed hospital physician; in 1837 he re- 
ceived the grand prize of the academy of med- 
icine for a treatise on phthisis laryngea ; and 
in 1839 he was appointed professor of thera- 
peutics and materia medica in the faculty of 
medicine. He was prominent in introducing 
and establishing the practice of tracheotomy 
in croup and paracentesis thoracis in cases of 
dangerous or long continued pleuritic effusion. 
His most important works are Traite elemen- 
taire de therapeutique et de matiere medicale 
(Paris, 1836 ; 8th ed., 2 vols., 1867), which was 
translated into English, Spanish, and Italian, 
and Nouvelles recherches sur la tracheotomie 
dans laperiode extreme du croup (1851). 

TROUT, a name popularly restricted to the 
species of the salmon family inhabiting ex- 
clusively or principally fresh water, and em- 
bracing members of the three subgenera of the 
old genus salmo made by Valenciennes, viz., 
salmo, fario, and salar ; the family characters 
have been given under SALMON. The salmon 
trouts belong to the genus fario (Val.), having 
one row of teeth on the vomer, the true sal- 
mons having the palate smooth ; the species 
are so called from the redness of the flesh, but 
all the trouts have this color at some epoch of 
their lives, depending probably on their food. 
The salmon trout of Europe (F. argenteus, 
Val. ; salmo trutta, Linn.), called also white 
or sea trout, is found in the larger lakes and 
rivers of that continent; it varies considerably 
in color, like all of the family, according to 
the character of the water and the quality of 
the food ; it is greenish gray or bluish black 
above, lighter on the sides, and silvery white 
below, with a few black spots above the lat- 
eral line ; it attains a length of 2 to 2| ft., and, 
being abundant in the markets of London and 



TROUT 

Paris is next in value to the salmon, which 
it resembles in habits. The so-called sea trout 
of the gulf of St. Lawrence (salmo immacula- 
tus, H. R. Storer) has the flesh of a fine pink 
color and superior flavor; the color is sea- 
green above, lower parts and the fins white ; it 
rarely exceeds a weight of 7 Ibs. ; it probably 
belongs to the genus fario. There are several 
species called salmon trout in lakes shut off 
from the sea and near the mouths of the rivers 
of Maine. The spots of trout resist the action 
of heat and even of alcohol for a long time. 
The common brook or speckled trout of North 
America (salmo fontinalis, Mitch.) is from 8 
to 20 in. long, pale brownish above with dark- 
er reticulated markings; sides lighter, with 
numerous circular yellow spots, many with a 
bright red spot in the centre; white or yel- 
lowish white below ; the first ray of pectorals, 
ventrals, and anal edged with white and black, 
with the rest of these fins reddish. It is found 
abundantly in the streams of the British prov- 
inces, the New England, middle, and western 
states, and is everywhere highly esteemed as 
food; it is rarely taken weighing more than 
1 Ib. ; the markings vary considerably ac- 
cording to locality and season ; in New Bruns- 




Specklcd Trout (Salmo fontinalis). 

wick and Nova Scotia it descends to the sea 
when it can; it is the same species from 
Labrador to Pennsylvania and Ohio. It is a 
great favorite with anglers; it is taken by the 
hook and line baited with a minnow, shrimp, 
worm, or artificial fly ; in narrow streams, 
just before the spawning season, when it is 
little inclined to bite, it may be caught by titil- 
lation, by passing the hand carefully under the 
tail, and, as the tickling is gently performed, 
slowly moving it toward the head, until by a 
sudden grasp it is seized and landed. In tho 
genus salmo belongs also the char of the Brit- 
ish and Swiss lakes (S. umbla, Linn.), usually 
9 to 12 in. long, but sometimes 18 or 20 in. ; 
it is umber-brown above, the sides lighter with 
numerous red spots, the lower parts and fins 
reddish orange ; it varies like all other trouts, 
and occasionally attains a larger size than the 
above ; it frequents the deep part of the lakes, 
feeds chiefly at night, and affords but little 
sport to the angler. Its American representa- 
tive is the 8. oquassa (Girard) of the great 
lakes of Maine. In the genus salar (Val.) 
there are two rows of teeth on the vomer. 
The common European brook trout (salar fa- 
rio, Val.) is usually 10 to 14 in. long, though 
sometimes considerably larger, even to a weight 



TROUVILLE 



TROY 



of 15 Ibs. ; it is shorter and stouter than the 
salmon, yellowish brown above, passing to 
yellow on the sides, and silvery below, the 
back spotted with reddish brown and the sides 
with bright red ; the young are transversely 
banded ; deformed specimens are frequently 
seen. The colors are brightest in rapid streams 
with rocky or gravelly bottom ; the flavor is 
finest from the end of May to the end of Sep- 
tember, soon after which the spawning season 
begins. This species is highly prized by an- 
glers, and especially fly-fishers. As it is fond 
of swiftly running waters, and swims almost 
always against the current, the bait must be 
thrown up stream. The eggs are deposited in 
nests or holes in the sand, as with the salmon. 
The gray trout of the North American great 
lakes, from the northern United States to the 
Arctic ocean, is the S. namayvush of Valen- 
ciennes, and the salmo amethystus of Mitchill 
and De Kay; it is called togue by the Cana- 
dian lumbermen, and from its size and vora- 
city the tyrant of the lakes ; it is greenish ashy 
above with yellowish gray spots, and below 
white with bluish reflections ; the average 
weight is 12 to 20 Ibs., though it attains some- 
times more than twice this size. The siskiwit 
(8. siscowet, Ag.) belongs to the genus salar 
(Val.) ; it is of large size, stout and thick, of 
a rich flavor, but so fat as to be almost unfit 
for food ; for description and figure see Agas- 
siz's "Lake Superior," p. 333 (8vo, Boston, 
1850). The trout, both in Europe and Amer- 
ica, is a favorite subject for pisciculture, from 
the ease with which artificial fecundation of 
the eggs can be effected ; but it has as yet 
been practised here on a small scale only; the 
labor and expense attending a large vivarium 
of trout are very small, while the remuneration 
may be made very large. For an illustrated 
account of the manner of hatching trout arti- 
ficially, see "American Naturalist," vol. iii., p. 
202, and vol. iv., p. 601 (1870). 

TROCVILLE, a French watering place, in the 
department of Calvados, Normandy, prettily 
situated at the foot of a hill near a forest, at 
the mouth of the Touques in the English chan- 
nel, 107 m. W. N. W. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 
5,761 . Until recently it was a small fishing vil- 
lage. The bathing season begins in June, and 
lasts till the middle of October. Deauville, a 
rival watering place, is on the opposite bank. 

TROVER (Fr. trouver, to find), the name of 
an action at law in common use in England 
and in the United States, to determine the 
ownership of property. The plaintiff declares, 
in substance, that he was lawfully possessed of 
a certain article on a certain day, and lost the 
same ; that it came into the possession of the 
defendant by finding ; and that the defendant 
has refused to deliver it to the plaintiff, and 
has converted it to his own use. This action 
is one form of trespass on the case. (See TEES- 
PASS.) In the distant age when it was first 
used, the declaration may have narrated accu- 
rately the facts of the case ; but for a long 



time the losing and finding have been regarded 
as mere legal fictions, which the defendant is 
not at liberty to deny. The action is main- 
tainable : 1, where the property in question is 
a personal chattel ; 2, where the plaintiff had 
a general or special property in the thing with 
a right of possession ; 3, where the defendant 
has wrongfully converted the thing to his own 
use, which conversion may be proved by his 
wrongful taking of it, or his wrongful deten- 
tion of it, or his wrongful use or misuse of it. 
The action demands not the thing itself, but 
damages for the wrongful conversion ; and if 
the plaintiff recovers, the damages should be 
measured by the value of the thing at the time 
of the conversion, with interest, and the judg- 
ment is for these damages and costs. 

THOWBRIDGE, John Townsend, an American 
author, born in Ogden, Monroe co., N. Y.. 
Sept. 18, 1827. At the age of 20 he went to 
Boston, connected himself with the public 
press, and became known as a writer of popu- 
lar stories. With Lucy Larcom he edited " Our 
Young Folks" till January, 1874. He has 
published " Father Brighthopes, or an Old 
Clergyman's Vacation," "Burr Cliff, its Sun- 
shine and its Clouds," and " Hearts and Faces " 
(1853); "Martin Merrivale, his X Mark" 
(1854); "Iron Thorpe" (1855); "Neighbor 
Jackwood " (1857) ; " The Old Battle Ground " 
(1859) ; " The Drummer Boy ; " " The Vaga- 
bonds" (1863, and with other poems, 1869); 
" Cudjo's Cave " (1864) ; " The Three Scouts " 
(1865) ; " Lucy Arlyn," " Coupon Bonds," and 
" The South : a Tour of its Battle Fields and 
Ruined Cities" (1866); "Neighbors' Wives" 
(1867); "The Story of Columbus" (1869); 
" Laurence's Adventures " (1870) ; " Jack 
Hazard and his Fortunes " (1871) ; " A Chance 
for Himself" (1872); " Doing his Best " (1873); 
"Fast Friends" (1874); and "The Young 
Surveyor" (1875). 

TROY (TEOJA), the name of an ancient city 
in the N. W. part of Asia Minor, applied also 
to its territory. The latter, generally known 
as the Troad (Troas), comprised for a time 
the coast lands on the Propontis, Hellespont, 
^Egean sea, and Adramyttian gulf, as far E. as 
the river Rhodius, the Granicus, or even the 
^Esepus, but later, according to Strabo, only 
the region from the promontory of Lectum to 
the Hellespont. The city of Troy, also called 
Ilium (*I/lw), according to the Homeric poems, 
was situated at the foot of Mt. Ida, far enough 
from the sea to allow of the movements of 
two large armies, and in a position which com- 
manded a view of the plain before it and of a 
smaller one behind it. In front of it were two 
rivers, the Simoi's and Scamander, flowing par- 
allel for some distance, which united and emp- 
tied into the Hellespont, between the promon- 
tories of Sigeum and Rhceteum. This city, 
the existence of which is attested only by the 
traditions of the Trojan war, must be distin- 
guished from the Ilium of history, which, 
according to Strabo, was founded about the 



10 



TKOY 



beginning of the 7th century B. 0. The .for- 
mer was afterward designated as Old Ilium, 
and the latter as New Ilium. The name was 
shared also by a third place in the same region 
the b 'V"6> " the village of the Ihans 



te K W "> 

about 8m. from New Ilium, which claimed to 
occupy the site of the original Ilium. Accord- 
ing to the legend, Dardanus was the mythical 
ancestor of the Trojan kings, who were of the 
Teucrian race, closely connected with the My- 
sian (SeeMTSiA.) Dardanus's son was Lnch- 
thonius, who was succeeded by Tros, and 1 
by Ilus, who founded in the plain of Iroy tne 
city of Ilium. Ilus was succeeded by Laome- 
don, and to him Neptune and Apollo became 
temporarily subject by command of Jupiter. 
The former built the walls of the city, and the 
latter took care of the herds ; but when their 
time of service had expired, Laomedon treach- 
erously refused to pay what was due them. In 
revenge Neptune sent a sea monster to kill the 
Trojans and ravage their fields, and the treach- 
erous king in consequence made a public offer 
of the immortal horsea given by Jupiter to 
Tros to any one who could rid the land of the 
monster. The oracle declared that a virgin of 
noble blood must be given up, and the lot fell 
on Hesione, Laomedon's own daughter; but 
ohe was rescued by Hercules, who came at this 
time and killed the monster. Laomedon gave 
the hero mortal horses, and the latter, indig- 
nant at this perfidy, collected six ships, at- 
tacked and captured Troy, killed Laomedon, 
and placed on the throne Priam, who alone 
of Laomedon's sons had remonstrated against 
the perfidy of his father. To him were born 
by his wife Hecuba a large number of chil- 
dren, one of whom, Paris, brought on by his 
abduction of Helen, the wife of Menelaus, the 
memorable siege of Troy. To revenge this 
outrage, the Greeks spent ten years in the col- 
lection of a vast armament, and at the end of 
that time a fleet of 1,186 ships, containing 
more than 100,000 men, was assembled at Aulis 
in Boeotia, and placed under the command of 
Agamemnon. The Trojans and their allies 
were driven within the walls of their city, and 
nine years were spent by the Grecian host in 
the reduction of the neighboring towns. But 
the gods now brought on the quarrel between 
Agamemnon and Achilles, which proved so 
disastrous to the Greeks, and with which the 
narrative of the siege in the Iliad opens, 
Among the principal Greek heroes in the 
struggle, besides Agamemnon, Menelaus, and 
Achilles, were Ulysses, Ajax the son of Tela- 
mon, Diomedes, Patroclus, and Palamedes ; 
and , among the bravest defenders of Troy, 
Hector, Sarpedon, and ^Eneas. The valor of 
Achilles, who slew Hector in revenge for the 
death of Patroclus, and the cunning of Ulysses 
finally prevailed, with the aid of Juno, Mi- 
nerva, and other divinities hostile to the Tro- 
jans ; and after a siege of ten years (generally 
placed at about 1194-1184 B. C.), Troy was 
utterly destroyed, ^Eneas and Antenor alone 



escaping with their families. The opinions 
of the principal authorities on the question 
whether the destruction of Troy was a his- 
torical event have been given in the article 
[!OMEK; we shall confine ourselves here to 
reviewing the various attempts made to iden- 
ify the site of Old Ilium, on the supposition 
hat it once existed. Though it was the popu- 
ar belief of antiquity that New Ilium had been 
auilt on the ruins of the Old, yet that town 
never rose to importance, and Demetrius of 
Scepsis and Hestirea of Alexandria maintained 
that the remains of Priam's Ilium were to be 
found rather in the "village of the Ilians," 
which opinion was supported also by Strabo. 
All were agreed that the ancient city stood on 
the right bank of the Scamander, the modern 
Mendereh. New Ilium was on the Scamander 
near the junction of the Simoi's, which is sup- 
posed to be represented by the Gumbrek or 
Dumbrek, about 12 m. long, now entering the 
Hellespont by a separate channel. The ruins 
of New Ilium are near the village of Hissarlik, 
on a small hill. The ancient historians Hel- 
lanicus, Xenophon, and Arrian identified this 
hill as the citadel of Pergamus ; and Xerxes and 
Alexander, and the Roman consuls and em- 
perors, here offered hecatombs to the Minerva 
of Ilium and the Trojan heroes. But Horace 
and Lucan, as well as other Roman authors, 
were firmly convinced that the knowledge of 
the site of Homeric Troy had entirely perished. 
In 1785 Le Chevalier discovered on the left 
bank of the Menderoh, near the village of Bunar- 
bashi, about 5 m. S. of New Ilium, a hot and 
a cold spring or fountain, which he supposed 
to be those mentioned in the Iliad. Beyond 
these springs is a hill, the Balidagh, steep and 
lofty, with some ruins on its summit, which he 
identified with ancient Troy and the citadel of 
Pergamus. His view was speedily adopted by 
Heyne, and afterward by Welcker, J. G. von 
Hahn, Choiseul-Gouffier, Texier, Forchham- 
mer, Tozer, Leake, E. Curtius, and the majori- 
ty of Greek archaeologists and philologists, who 
until recently warmly defended it as the only 
possible means of harmonizing the Homeric 
text with the chorography and topography of 
the Troad. But the excavations made on the 
Balidagh brought to light only a few terra 
cotta figures, lamps, pottery, and coins of no 
ancient date, without revealing the foundations 
of a town or city. In 1871-'3 the German 
traveller Schliemann undertook to excavate at 
his own expense the hill of Hissarlik. (See 
SOHLIEMANN.) He dug to a depth of about 50 
ft., and encountered several layers of ruins, 
each of which he considered to be the remains 
of a distinct city, one built on the ruins of the 
other. He unearthed a vast number of arms, 
household utensils, and ornaments of various 
degrees of workmanship and kinds of material. 
He produced a treasure of vases and various 
ornaments of gold, amber, and silver, which 
he thinks belonged to Priam, the Trojan king. 
He maintains that he has laid bare the palace 



TKOY 



of this king, the Sczean gates before it, the 
walls of Neptune and Apollo, the streets of 
the city, houses which must have been two or 
three stories high, sacrificial altars to Miner- 
va, and 20 fountains, besides inscriptions of 
various dates and in several languages and dia- 
lects. In view of the fact that but few schol- 
ars are yet inclined to consider the existence 
and destruction of the Homeric Ilium a histori- 
cal fact, and that almost all authorities are 
agreed that only the Balidagh near Bunarbashi 
was chosen by the poet as the central scene 
of his epic, the results of Schliemann's ex- 
cavations have so far been looked upon, if 
not with suspicion, yet with little confidence 
in the identification which he claims to have 
made. At present (1876) the opinion general- 
ly entertained is that he has accidentally hit 
upon the site of some unknown Hunnic settle- 
ment, Lydian town, or Phoenician trading post. 
See Lechevalier, Voyage de la Troade (3 
vols., 3d ed., Paris, 1802) ; Forchhammer, Be- 
schreibung der E~bene von Troja (Frankfort, 
1860) ; Hahn, Die Ausgrabungen auf dem ho- 
merischen Pergamos (Leipsic, 1865) ; Tozer, 
" Lectures on the Geography of Greece " (Lon- 
don, 1873) ; and Schliemann, " Troy and its 
Kemains," edited by Dr. Philip Smith (1875). 

TROT, a city of New York, capital of Rens- 
selaer co., on the E. bank of the Hudson river, 
at the head of steamboat navigation, and also 
at the head of tide water, 151 m. by the course 
of the river N. of New York city, and 6 m. 
K of Albany ; pop. in 1840, 19,334 ; in 1850, 
28,785; in 1860, 39,235; in 1870, 46,465, of 
whom 16,219 were foreigners, including 10,- 
877 Irish, 1,699 British Americans, 1,576 Eng- 
lish, and 1,174 Germans; in 1875, 48,821. 
The surface of the city comprises the alluvial 
flats three fourths of a mile wide on the river, 
and the hills on the east known as Mt. Ida. 
Wynant's Kill on the south, and Poesten Kill 
\ m. N., break through these hills in narrow 
ravines and in a series of cascades, the former 
furnishing 12 mill sites with 2,000 horse pow- 
er, the latter 10 sites with 1,000 horse power; 
while the state dam across the Hudson, at the 
N. part of the city, furnishes 4,000 horse pow- 
er. There is also an immense amount of steam 
power in use. The pure water with which the 
city is supplied by the Troy water works is 
drawn from Piscawin creek into reservoirs 
high enough to carry the water to the top of 
most of the houses. A new city hall, costing 
$150,000, is in course of construction. The 
savings bank building is an elegant edifice, 
costing $450,000, and there are several fine 
business structures. Troy is situated at the 
principal outlet of the Erie and Ohamplain 
canals, and is connected with Lake Champlain 
and the north by the Rensselaer and Saratoga, 
and Troy and Boston railroads, the latter con- 
necting it with the east also ; with the west 
by the New York Central railroad ; with the 
south by the Hudson River railroad ; and with 
the east by the Boston and Albany railroad. 



There is a daily line of steamers to New York 
in summer. In the centre of the city is the 
union railroad depot, one of the largest struc- 
tures of the kind in the United States, 404 by 
240 ft., with walls at the sides 27 ft. high sup- 
porting the roof in a single arch. All the rail- 
road lines centre at this depot, and 60 trains 
arrive at or depart from it daily. The river 
is spanned by a bridge 1,600 ft. long, which 
is provided with two carriageways, a railway, 
and a walk for foot passengers, and also by a 
new iron bridge for pedestrians and carriages, 
costing $250,000. The iron manufactures of 
Troy are of great importance, and by means of 
them the city has become a controlling point 
in the iron interest on this side of the Alle- 
ghany mountains. One of the largest manu- 
facturing establishments of the country is the 
Albany and Rensselaer iron and steel company, 
which owns the Albany iron works, the Rens- 
selaer iron works, Bessemer steel works, the 
Fort Edward blast furnace, and the Hudson 
blast furnace. The company employs- 1,500 
hands, and produces pig iron, merchant and 
angle iron, merchant steel, nails and spikes, 
axles, bolts and nuts, boiler rivets, iron and 
steel rails, horse shoes, &c. The Burden iron 
works, established in 1813, have an annual ca- 
pacity of 40,000 tons, and employ 1,400 hands, 
producing pig iron, merchant iron, horse and 
mule shoes, and boiler rivets. The other iron 
manufactures of the city are carried on by 
more than 30 firms, and consist of stoves, hol- 
low ware, hot air furnaces, machinery, steam 
engines, scythes, shovels, malleable iron, safes, 
butts, hinges, steel springs, agricultural imple- 
ments, &c. The Troy stamping works manu- 
facture stamped and pressed wares, coal hods, 
shovels, dampers, &c. The Troy car works are 
at Green Island, a suburb on the opposite side 
of the river. The annual product of the shirt 
and collar (linen and paper) business, which is 
more extensive here than anywhere else in the 
United States, and employs more than 30 fac- 
tories, is valued at $3,000,000, requiring the 
labor of 6,000 hands, chiefly women. The lar- 
gest manufactory of mathematical instruments 
in the United States is in this city, as is also one 
of the largest of the few American globe man- 
ufactories. There are brass founderies, brew- 
eries, two distilleries, two bell founderies, a 
cotton mill, carriage factories, a manufactory 
of stoneware, and several of boots and shoes, 
fire brick, and hosiery. The total annual value 
of the manufactures of Troy is about $10,000,- 
000. The lumber trade is important. There 
are ten national banks, with an aggregate cap- 
ital of $2,800,000, of which four have savings 
departments ; a state bank, with $300,000 cap- 
ital; and a savings bank, established in 1823. 
The city is divided into 13 wards, and is 
governed by a mayor and a board of 26 alder- 
men. It has horse railroads and a good fire 
department. The assessed value of prop- 
erty in 1874 was $15,441.845. The taxation 
for city purposes was $575,801 25 ; for state 



12 



TROYES 



and county purposes, $284,125 22. The total 
funded debt was $1,226,000; net debt, less 
sinking fund, &o., $738,550. The principal 
charitable institutions are the church home, 
Presbyterian church home, home for aged 
poor, Troy Catholic male orphan asylum, 
Troy orphan asylum, Troy hospital, Marshall 
infirmary, and home of the u Little Sisters 
of the Poor." The public schools embrace a 
high school and 15 ward schools, and have an 
annual enrolment of about 8,000 pupils and 
an average attendance of 4,500. The expendi- 
ture for school purposes is from $125,000 to 
$150,000 a year. The Troy female seminary, 
removed from Middlebury, Vt., to Troy in 
1821, gained a national reputation under the 
charge of its founder, Mrs. Emma Willard ; it 
was discontinued in 1870. The Rensselaer 
polytechnic institute, endowed by Stephen 
Van Eensselaer, was organized in 1824, for 
the purpose of teaching the application of 
mathematics to civil engineering and the nat- 
ural sciences, and has in its special depart- 
ments a high reputation. In 1874-'5 it had 
13 instructors, 170 students, and a library of 
3,000 volumes. St. Joseph's theological sem-* 
inary of the province of New York, a Ro- 
man Catholic institution, was founded at Ford- 
ham in 1841, and removed to Troy in 1864. 
In 1874-'5 it had 6 professors, 126 students, 
and a library of 8,000 volumes. The Troy 
young men's association for mutual improve- 
ment has a valuable library of 19,000 vol- 
umes, and a reading room. It occupies a part 
of the beautiful freestone building known as 
the Athenaeum, in which is also the post office. 
Three daily and five weekly newspapers are 
published. There are 50 churches, viz. : 6 Bap- 
tist, 1 Church of Christ, 8 Episcopal, 3 Jewish, 
1 Lutheran, 9 Methodist, 11 Presbyterian, 9 
Roman Catholic, 1 Unitarian, and 1 Universal- 
ist. The first house of any note on the site of 
Troy was built by Matthias Vanderheyden in 
1752, and is still standing on the S. E. corner 
of River and Division streets. Between 1786 
and 1790 the tract was surveyed and laid out, 
with streets running at right angles except- 
ing where such plan was interfered with by 
the course of the river. Hitherto the place 
had been variously known as Vanderheyden's 
ferry, Ferry hook, and Ashley's ferry ; but on 
Jan. 5, 1789, the name Troy was adopted. At 
this time it contained five small stores and 
about a dozen dwellings. The first village 
charter was adopted in 1791. This was su- 
perseded by another on Feb. 16, 1798, and 
the village was formally incorporated by state 
acts passed April 2, 1801, and April 9, 1805. 
The city charter was granted April 12, 1816. 
Troy has suffered by three great fires: June 
20, 1820, 98 buildings, loss $490,000; Aug. 25, 
1854, 300 buildings, loss $1,000,000; and May 
10, 1862, 671 buildings, loss $3,000,000. 

TROYES, a city of France, capital of the de- 
partment of Aube, and formerly of Cham- 
pagne, on the left bank of the Seine, 90 m. E 



TROY WEIGHT 

S. E. of Paris; pop. in 1872, 38,118. It has a 
cathedral with a celebrated choir and stained 
glass windows, and surrounded by five chapels, 
begun about 1200 and finished in the 16th cen- 
tury, and recently restored. The unfinished 
collegiate church of St. Urban, and those of 
St. John, St. Nizier, and the Madeleine, are 
likewise remarkable. The lyceum of Troyes 
is one of the finest in France. In the former 
abbey of St. Loup is an extensive collection of 
books and manuscripts. The museum is rich 
in coins and mosaics. The manufactures of 
cotton and woollen goods and hosiery are of 
great extent. Soap, sausages, and cheese are 
also made. Troyes was originally the capital 
of the Tricasses. Under the Romans it was 
included in Gallia Lugdunensis, and became 
known as Augustobona, and in the 5th century 
as Tree. At the close of the 9th century it 
was devastated by the Normans. It was the 
seat of several councils, and under the counts 
of Champagne it rose in the 12th century to 
great importance. John the Fearless of Bur- 
gundy captured the town in 1415. The treaty 
uniting the French and English crowns, con- 
cluded here May 21, 1420, was sealed on June 2 
by the marriage of Henry V. with the princess 
Catharine. During the war between Charles 
V. and Francis I. it was almost reduced to 
ashes by the former (May, 1524). In 1814 it 
was a prominent battle ground between Na- 
poleon and the allies. In November, 1870, it 
was occupied by the Germans. 

TROYO.X, Constant, a French painter, born in 
Sevres, Aug. 25, 1810, died in Paris early in 
1865. He was early employed at Sevres in 
painting on porcelain, and began in 1833 to send 
his works to the annual exhibitions in Paris. 
He rose to the first rank of his profession, 
especially in landscapes and animals, and has 
been called the Lafontaine of his art. He 
painted many pictures illustrating Sevres, St. 
Cloud, and other places near Paris. Among 
his animal and figure pieces are " The Fair of 
Limousin," " The Cattle Market," " The Water- 
ing Place," " The Poacher," " Working Oxen," 
" Hounds at Rest and in Motion," " Going to 
Market," and " Before the Storm " (a vigorously 
painted landscape with cattle and sheep). One 
of his most celebrated works, a landscape with 
animals, left unfinished at his death, was in 
1869 presented by his mother to the museum 
of the Luxembourg, and placed in the Rubens 
gallery. Many of his pictures have been pop- 
ularized by engravings. In 1875 his "Osier 
Bed" was sold in Paris for. 24,200 francs, his 
"White Cow chased by a Dog" for 10,400 
francs, and his " Pastures near Trouville " for 
12,000 francs. 

TROY WEIGHT, a scale of weights used in 
England and the United States for weighing 
gold, silver, and jewels, and in trying the 
strength of spirituous liquors, and legally estab- 
lished in both countries for determining the 
weight of coins. The derivation of the term 
is uncertain. In 1828 a standard troy pound 



TEUCE OF GOD 



TRUFFLES 



13 



in brass brought from England was declared 
by act of congress the legal standard of the 
United States mint. It is equal in weight to 
22-815676 cubic inches of distilled water at 
62 F., the barometer being at 30 inches. It 
contains 5,760 grains, of which 24 make a 
pennyweight; 20 pennyweights an ounce, and 
12 ounces a pound. It is the standard of the 
imperial system of weights in England, and 
from it is derived the avoirdupois pound, 
which contains 7,000 troy grains; and 1 Ib. 
avd. = 1-2152777+ Ib. troy. (See AVOIRDU- 
POIS:) It is identical with the pound of apoth- 
ecary's weight, and the ounce and grain of 
these two weights are also correspondingly 
the same. The pennyweight subdivision of 
troy weight, determining the weight of the 
silver penny, was established in 1266, as equal 
to the weight of 32 grains of wheat taken 
from the middle of the ear. As the kings of 
later times found it expedient to reduce the 
value of the penny, this reduction was ac- 
companied by a proportional diminution in the 
number of grains of which it was composed. 
A troy weight was established in 1618, the 
pound of which weighed 1-321 pound troy. 
This is now abolished by law. 

TRUCE OF GOD (Lat. treuga Dei or trewa 
Dei, from Ger. Treue, faith), an institution of 
the middle ages, designed to mitigate the vio- 
lence of private war by prohibiting hostilities 
from Thursday evening to Sunday evening of 
each week, also during the entire season of 
Advent and Lent, and on certain festival days. 
The days of the week selected were supposed 
to be rendered holy by the death and resurrec- 
tion of Christ. It was introduced after the 
great famine of 1028-'30, by the bishops of 
Aquitaine, who proclaimed a universal peace ; 
as it waa found impossible to enforce this, 
they were obliged to limit it to certain days, 
and thus arose the truce of God in its peculiar 
sense. The regulation soon spread over all 
France. In 1041 the Aquitanian bishops or- 
dered that no private feuds should be prose- 
cuted from sunset on "Wednesday to sunrise 
on Monday following. This was extended by 
the council of Clermont to the time from Ad- 
vent to Epiphany, from Lent to eight days 
after Pentecost (Whitsuntide), and afterward 
to the feasts of the Virgin, of John the Bap- 
tist, of the apostles Peter and Paul, and of All 
Saints, and the eves of those days. Calixtus 
II., at the council of Kheims in 1119, renewed 
the truce of God, commanding war to cease 
on the above mentioned times throughout 
Christendom ; all violators were to be excom- 
municated, and, unless satisfaction were given 
either by themselves or by their children, were 
to be denied a Christian burial. When the 
states of Europe began to assume a more con- 
solidated form, and violations of peace and 
order came under the control of the civil 
authority, the truce of God disappeared. 

TRUFFLES, underground fungi, used as food; 
those of commerce belonging to the genus tu- 



~ber, while others which bear the name are 
of related but different genera. The early 
English writers called them "trubbes," both 
names being derived through the Italian from 
the Latin terras tuber. They are somewhat 
oblong or globose, varying from two ounces 
to several pounds in weight, according to spe- 
cies and locality ; there are white kinds, but 
generally the surface is blackish or brownish, 
and roughened with warty protuberances. 
When cut open they present a variously mar- 
bled appearance, and have no resemblance to 
the generally known forms of fungi ; the hy- 
menium, or reproductive portion, is found in 
the veins which traverse the mass in all direc- 
tions ; in these are found minute sacs, each 
containing several spores, the surface of which 
is covered with spines or is honeycombed. 
But little is known about their early develop- 
ment, and their mycelium, or vegetative por- 
tion ; when mature, they are quite free from 
attachment to any other body. Truffles are 
generally found in calcareous soils, and always 
in woods, of oak or beech ; hence it has been 
inferred that at some stage of their existence 
they are parasitic upon the roots of trees ; they 
are found in many parts of England, more 




French Truffle (Tuber melanosporum). 

abundantly on the continent, and in Africa. 
The existence of truffles in the United States 
is very doubtful ; the occasional announcement 
of their discovery is due to the finding of the 
Indian bread. (See TUCKAHOE.) In England 
truffles are hunted by a particular breed of 
dogs, which are trained by hiding a truffle and 
teaching them that their food, depends upon 
finding it by the scent; the dogs become so 
expert that they rarely make a mispoint ; when 
the truffle is dug up, the dog is rewarded 
with a bit of food. On the continent a simi- 
lar service is performed by sows. The at- 
tempts to cultivate the truffle have not been 
successful, as the mycelium or spawn, the vege- 
tative portion of the plant, which allows mush- 
rooms to be cultivated so readily, has not yet 
been obtained. They have been produced by 
sprinkling the earth with water in which the 
parings of truffles had been steeped; and in 
some parts of France a piece of calcareous soil, 
sown with acorns, has yielded truffles as soon 
as the saplings attained a few years' growth. 
The English truffles are tuber astitium ; the 
more highly prized French are T. melanospo- 
rum, and the Piedmontese, which bring the 
highest price of all, T. magnatum ; several 
others are known which are not found in com- 
merce. In Algiers a truffle of another genus 



14 TRUJILLO 

(terfezia), and of fair quality, is remarkably 
abundant, and several have been found in 
Australia. Truffles have an odor and flavor 
peculiarly their own, and though sometimes 
cooked by themselves, they are most generally 
used for communicating their flavor to meats. 
The truffles used in this country are imported 
in sealed tin cans. The production of truffles 
in France in 1874 amounted to 1,588,100 kilo- 
grammes (one fourth in the department of Vau- 
cluse), valued at 15,588,100 francs. 

TRUJILLO, or Trnxillo (anc. Turris Julia), a 
town of Spain, in the province of Oaceres, on 
the Tozo, a small tributary of the Tagus, 130 
m. S. W. of Madrid ; pop. about 6,000. It con- 
sists of three parts, the citadel, old town, and 
city, which stand respectively on the summit 
and slope and at the foot of a hill. The whole 
place has the appearance of decay, and the 
upper and more ancient part is now used as a 
burying ground, the inhabitants having aban- 
doned it. The fortress dates from Roman 
times. In the lower town there is an exten- 
sive square, on which is the mansion of the 
family of Pizarro, the front being ornamental 
with numerous bass reliefs representing the 
conquest of Peru. Roman antiquities have 
been found here. 

TRUJILLO, or Trnxillo, a town of Peru, capi- 
tal of the department of Libertad, 1 m - from 
the sea, in the valley of Chimu, 310 m. N. N. 
W. of Lima ; lat. 8 7' S., Ion. 79 9' W. ; pop. 
about 8,000. It is on the side of a mountain, 
and is surrounded by a mud wall flanked with 
bastions. It has a cathedral, several churches, 
a college, a hospital, and a theatre. Rico and 
spice are exported from Huanchaco, its port, 
about 8 m. N. W. Trujillo was founded by 
Pizarro. It has ancient Peruvian remains. 

TRUMBULL, .a N. E. county of Ohio, border- 
ing on Pennsylvania, watered by Grand and 
Mahoning rivers; area, 625 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 38,659. The surface is undulating and 
well timbered, and the soil fertile and adapted 
to dairy farming. Pymatuning swamp occupies 
part of the county. It is intersected by the 
Atlantic and Great Western railroad and 
branches, and by the Pennsylvania and Ohio 
canal. The chief productions in 1870 were 
113,476 bushels of wheat, 16,229 of rye, 383,- 
662 of Indian corn, 433,407 of oats, 156,912 of 
potatoes, 36,194 of flax seed, 213,572 Ibs of 
wool, 140,723 of maple sugar, 4,651,796 of 
flax, 1,162,581 of butter, 1,368,595 of cheese, 
and 59,481 tons of hay. There were 8 067 
horses, 19,811 milch cows, 14,297 other cattle, 
47,168 sheep, and 7,580 swine; 1 manufactory 
of bagging, 22 of carriages and wagons, 20 of 
cheese, 11 of cooperage, 5 of dressed flax, 7 of 
furniture, 16 of iron, 4 of machinery, 1 of lin- 
seed oil 13 flour mills, 6 tanneries, 4 currying 
establishments, 3 breweries, 8 planing mills, 
and 30 saw mills. Capital, Warren. 
TUUMBULL, Benjamin, an American clergyman 
" m Hebron, Conn Dec. 19, 1735, died in 
Haven, Conn., Feb. 2, 1820. He gradu- 



TRUMBULL 

ated at Yale college in 1759, and in 1760 be- 
came pastor of the Congregational church at 
North Haven. He served in the revolution 
both as a chaplain and a soldier. He published 
"A Plea in Vindication of the Connecticut 
Title to the contested [Western] Lands " (anon- 
ymous, 1776); "Twelve Discourses on the- I >i- 
vine Origin of the Scriptures" (12mo, 1790); 
a "Complete History of Connecticut, 1630- 
1764" (2 vols. 8vo, 1797 and 1818); and a 
"History of the United States" (vol. i., 1810, 
unfinished). 

TRUMBULL, James Hammond, an American 
philologist, born in Stonington, Conn., Dec. 
20, 1821. He entered Yale college in 1838. 
He was assistant secretary of the state of 
Connecticut, 1847-'52 and 1858-'61, and secre- 
tary from 1861 to 1865. Since 1863 he has 
been superintendent of the Watkinson library 
of Hartford and president of the Connecticut 
historical society. He was one of the original 
members of the American philological associa- 
tion, and was its president for the year 1874- 
'5. In 1873 he was appointed lecturer on the 
Indian languages of North America in Yale 
college. He has published " Colonial Records 
of Connecticut, 1636-'89" (3 vols. 8vo, Hart- 
ford, 1850-'59) ; " Roger Williams's Key to the 
Indian Language " (1866) ; " The Composition 
of Indian Geographical Names " (1870) ; " The 
Best Method of Studying the American Lan- 
guages," and "Some Mistaken Notions of Al- 
gonkin Grammar" (1871); "Historical Notes 
on the Constitutions of Connecticut," "Notes 
on Forty Algonkin Versions of the Lord's 
Prayer," and a reprint of Pierson's "Some 
Helps for the Indians" (1873); and several 
other historical and philological papers. 

TRUMBULL, John, an American poet, born in 
Watertown, Conn., April 24, 1750, died in 
Detroit, Mich., May 12, 1831. He graduated 
at Yale College in 1767, and became a tutor in 
1771. In 1773 ho was admitted to the bar, and 
in 1781 he removed to Hartford. He was a 
member of the state legislature, and from 1801 
to 1819 a judge of the superior court. In 
1825 he removed to Detroit. His best known 
work is "McFingal," a revolutionary satire 
(canto i., 1775; complete in 4 cantos, 1782), 
of which more than 30 unauthorized editions 
were sold before 1820 (latest ed., with notes 
by B. J. Lossing, New York, 1864). He also 
published " The Progress of Dulness," a satire 
on the prevailing modes of education (3 parts, 
1772-'3); "Elegy on the Times" (1774); and 
with Timothy Dwight 40 papers in the manner 
of the "Spectator." His "Poetical Works" 
appeared in 1820 (2 vols., Hartford). 

TRUMBULL. I. Jonathan, an American revolu- 
tionist, born in Lebanon, Conn., Oct. 12, 1710, 
died there, Aug. 17, 1785. He graduated at 
Harvard college in 1727, studied theology, and 
was licensed to preach, but in 1731 took the 
jlace of an elder brother, who was lost at 
sea, in his father's mercantile business. In 
1733 he was elected to the general assembly 



TRUMBULL 



TRUMPET FLOWER 



15 



of Connecticut, of which in 1739 he became 
speaker. He was chosen an assistant in 1740, 
and was reflected 22 times. He became af- 
terward judge of the county court, assistant 
judge of the superior court, and from 1766 to 
1769 was chief judge of the superior court. 
In 1767 and 1768 he was elected deputy gov- 
ernor, and in 1769 governor of the colony, 
which office he held till 1783, when he re- 
signed. He was one of the first to espouse 
the popular cause in the troubles preceding the 
revolution, and in 1765 refused to take the 
oath required of all officials to support the 
provisions of the stamp act ; and he cooperated 
with vigor in securing the independence of 
the colonies. "Washington relied on him, says 
Sparks, " as one of his main pillars of support," 
and was accustomed to consult him in emer- 
gencies. The personification humorously ap- 
plied to the United States is said to have had 
its origin in a phrase sometimes used by Wash- 
ington : "Let us hear what brother Jonathan 
says." See I. W. Stuart's " Life of Jonathan 
Trumbull, sen." (8vo, Boston, 1859). II. Jona- 
than, son of the preceding, born in Lebanon, 
Conn., March 26, 1740, died there, Aug. 7, 
1809. He graduated at Harvard college in 
1759, and was for several years a member of 
the legislature and speaker of the house. At 
the outbreak of the revolution he was appointed 
paymaster to the northern department of the 
army, which post he held till 1780, when he 
became secretary and first aide-de-camp of 
Washington, with whom he remained until the 
close of the war. He was a representative in 
congress from 1789 to 1795, and presided as 
speaker during the last four years. In 1795 
he was elected United States senator, and in 
1796 lieutenant governor of Connecticut. He 
became governor in 1797, and held the office 
until his death. III. John, an American paint- 
er, brother of the preceding, born in Lebanon, 
Conn., June 6, 1756, died in New York, Nov. 
10, 1843. He graduated at Harvard college in 
1773, and afterward studied painting in Boston. 
In the spring of 1775 he joined the first Con- 
necticut regiment as adjutant, and in August 
became second aide-de-camp to Washington, 
and soon after major of brigade. In 1776 he 
was appointed by Gen. Gates adjutant general 
with the rank of colonel, which office he re- 
signed in the spring of 1777. In 1780 he went 
to London and became a pupil of Benjamin 
West, but was arrested soon after, during the 
excitement occasioned by the execution of 
Major Andre", and imprisoned for eight months. 
He was finally admitted to bail on condition of 
quitting the kingdom within 30 days, and re- 
turned home in January, 1782; but on the 
conclusion of peace he again went to England 
and resumed his studies under West. In 1786 
he produced his first modern historical picture, 
the " Battle of Bunker Hill," and soon after 
his " Death of Montgomery before Quebec," 
the former of which was engraved by J. G. 
Miiller of Stuttgart, and the latter by F. Clem- 
798 VOL. xvi. 2 



ens of London. His next picture, the " Sortie 
of the Garrison from Gibraltar," one of the 
repetitions of which is in the Boston Athe- 
naeum, is widely known through Sharp's en- 
graving. In 1789 Trumbull returned to Amer- 
ica to procure likenesses of revolutionary offi- 
cers for his contemplated series of national 
pictures. He painted several portraits of Wash- 
ington, one of which belongs to the city of 
New York. In 1794 he went again to England 
as secretary to Mr. Jay, the American minister, 
and in 1796 was appointed fifth commissioner 
for the execution of the seventh article of Mr. 
Jay's treaty of 1794. The duties of this office 
occupied him till 1804, when he returned to 
the United States. From 1808 to 1815 he 
resided in England, painting with indifferent 
success ; and from 1817 to 1824 he was em- 
ployed in executing for congress four pictures 
to fill compartments in the rotunda of the capi- 
tol, each 18 by 12 ft. For these works, which 
represent respectively the "Declaration of In- 
dependence," the " Surrender of Burgoyne," 
the " Surrender of Cornwallis," and the " Res- 
ignation of Washington at Annapolis," he re- 
ceived $32,000. Subsequently for many years 
he was engaged in finishing former sketches 
and in painting copies of his national pictures 
on a uniform scale of 9 by 6 ft. Many of these, 
together with portraits and several copies of 
the old masters, 54 pictures in all, he finally 
gave to Yale college in consideration of a life 
annuity of $1,000. The collection was at first 
deposited in the " Trumbull gallery," a build- 
ing erected especially for it, but in 1867 it was 
transferred to the new art building. Col. 
Trumbull passed the latter part of his life in 
New York, and was president of the American 
academy of fine arts from its foundation in 
1816 until the formation of the national acad- 
emy of design in 1825. 

TRUMPET, a musical wind instrument of 
brass or other metal, which under one form or 
another has been known in all ages and among 
all races having any claim to civilization. The 
trumpet, so called in modern use, is generally 
understood as a tube 8 ft. in length, expanding 
at the end whence the sound issues into a bell- 
like shape, and doubled up in a parabolic form. 
It is played through a mouthpiece, and has a 
natural compass from G below the staff to E 
above. Trumpets with pistons and cylinders 
have the advantage of being able to give all 
the intervals of the chromatic scale. 

TRUMPETER, in ornithology. See AGAMI. 

TRUMPET FISH. See PIPE FISH. 

TRUMPET FLOWER, a popular name espe- 
cially for tecoma radicans, used with a prefix 
for other related plants. The genus tecoma 
(from the Mexican name), separated from Big- 
nonia on account of a structural difference in 
the pods, consists of about 50 species, mostly 
trees and natives of tropical America. The 
trumpet flower, T. radicans, is a woody vine, 
climbing to a great height by abundant rootlets 
produced along the stem ; the pinnate leaves 



16 



TRUMPET FLOWER 

5 to 11 ovate, toothed, pointed leaflets ; 
flowers in midsummer or later are in 
the corolla is tubular-funne -shaped, 
. long, with five somewhat irregular 




Trumpet Flower (Tecoma radicans). 



lobes, within which the four stamens are in- 
cluded ; the fruit is a two-celled pod, contain- 
ing numerous winged seeds. This, which is 
often called trumpet creeper, is found from 
Pennsylvania and Illinois southward, and 
very common in cultivation, it being vigorous 
and perfectly hardy, soon covering a large 
space, and reaching to the height of 60 ft. ; it 
blooms in July and August, when flowers are 
scarce, and the abundance of its orange and 
scarlet bloom makes it very showy. _ It is a 
useful vine to drape a tree that is not in itself 
pleasing, and to cover the sides of brick or 
stone buildings; its faults are a tendency to 
become naked below, which may be remedied 
by cutting back, and an abundant production 
of suckers ; it should not be planted near bor- 
ders, as its roots extend a long distance. Big- 
nonia capreolata is a closely related climber, 
with a* more southern range ; its leaves consist 
of but two leaflets and a terminal tendril ; its 
flowers, similar to those of the preceding, are 
orange ; this is known in the southern states 
as cross-vine, as the wood cut transversely 
shows a cross. The great-flowered trumpet 
flower (tecoma grandiflora), from China and 
Japan, in its garden varieties, is a very showy 
climber ; it does not reach very high, and has 
narrower leaflets than our native species and 
much larger flowers, which are bell-shaped anc 
3 in. across ; in some varieties they are very 
dark-colored ; it is scarcely hardy north of New 
York city. Some species are cultivated in 
greenhouses, the most frequent being T. Ca 
pensis, with curved orange flowers, and T. jas 
minoides, from Australia, with bright green 
leaves, and white flowers which are purplisl 



TRUSS 

on the throat. The related Bignonia, venutta, 
from Brazil, with crimson flowers, is a gorgeous 
c imber for'a warm greenhouse A very neat 
non-climbing shrub is tecoma stan* of sout 
era Florida and northern Mexico; it is about 
4 ft high, with large clusters of lemon-yellow 
flowers; it is hardy at Washington. 

TROK FISH, the name of the plectognf 
fishes of the genus ostracion (Linn.), derived 
from the bony case in which their soft par 
are enclosed ; they are also called coffer fishes 
The head is prolonged into a snout, at the end 
of which is the mouth, with fleshy lips, and 
armed with a series of distinct teeth, lu or 
in each jaw, received into sockets, somewhs 
like the human incisors ; body covered by bony 
plates, large, quadrangular or hexagonal, en- 
casing the animal in an inflexible bony armor ; 
tail enclosed in a bony tube, this and the pec- 
toral fins being the only movable parts ; oven 
the vertebra are usually immovable ; eyes large 
and prominent; dorsal single, far back, small, 
and entirely soft ; pelvic bones and ventrals 
absent; body three- or four-sided, with linear 
branchial openings, bordered by a fleshy edge 
within which are the gill covers. Ihey have 
very little flesh, and some are believed to be 
poisonous; the stomach is membranous and 
very large; the livor is also large, often yield 
ing a considerable quantity of oil ; some are 
armed with spines on the head and body ; they 
are generally small, and found in the tropics. 
There are a few species on the coast of the 
United States, arranged by Do Kay in his genus 
lactophrys, having a triangular body, with 
strong spines, directed backward, in front < 
the anal fin, and the orbits usually spmous. 
Yale's trunk fish (0. [L.] Yalei, Storer), on 




Tale's Trunk Fish (Ostracion Talel). 

the coast of Massachusetts and New York, is 
14 in. long, with two abdominal spines. There 
are also species in the East Indies. 

Till KO, the capital of Colchester co., Nova 
Scotia, at the head of Cobequid bay, and on 
the Intercolonial railway at the junction of the 
Pictou branch, 07 m. by rail N. N. E. of Hali- 
fax; pop. in 1871, 8,998. It is one of the 
handsomest places in the province, and con- 
tains, besides the county buildings, several 
churches, a branch bank, and the provincial 
normal and model schools. There are manu- 
factories of engines, iron castings, axles, ma- 
chinery, boots and shoes, lasts and pegs, hats, 
leather, wooden ware, and woollens. 

TRUSS, a contrivance for preventing the r 
appearance of a hernial tumor after its reduc- 
tion. The general form of the truss is a flat 



TRUSTEE PROCESS 



TRUSTS 



steel spring covered with soft leather or oiled 
silk, and having its ends approximating to 
within a few inches of each other; attached to 
one end is a small round or oval pad, stuffed 
with cotton or wool, and having for its basis 
a small iron plate ; the other end of the spring 
has either a larger and flat pad, or a strap con- 
nected with it. The smaller pad is placed over 
the ring or point where the hernial 'tumor has 
protruded (see HERNIA), and the spring passes 
over the hip, and either exerts its pressure by 
means of the large counter pad on the back, or 
is by means of a strap passing over the oppo- 
site hip connected with the pad by a buckle or 
eyelet and button on the back of the pad. 
Sometimes, where it is necessary to adjust it 
with great care, another strap passing over the 
inner surface of the thigh connects with the 
spring on the back. Where, as is sometimes 
the case, there is a double hernia, this spring 
is made sufficiently long to clasp over both 
hips, and has a pad at each end. In this case 
there should be a pad attached to the middle 
of the spring to exert gentle pressure on the 
spine, and thus keep the truss more perfectly 
in position. There are numerous patterns of 
trusses, varying considerably in form, but they 
may all be reduced to three classes: those with 
a flat pad, intended to press upon the whole 
surface of the ring or place through which the 
intestine protrudes; the oval or egg-shaped 
pad, which presses directly into the ring, and 
thus prevents the escape of the intestine ; and 
the semicircular pad, which acts by supporting 
the intestine from above and pressing it away 
from the point of rupture. The truss, though 
preventing the recurrence of the hernial tumor 
when properly adjusted, seldom effects a radi- 
cal cure. This has been attempted by pur- 
posely so adjusting it as to cause it to produce 
some inflammation and adhesion of the serous 
surface around the ring so as to effect com- 
plete occlusion of it; but it should never be 
done except under the direction of a skilful 
physician, as it is attended with danger. 

TRUSTEE PROCESS, a process in certain states 
for reaching the goods or credits of a debtor 
in the hands of another who holds them for 
or is indebted to him. The proceeding for the 
purpose is by suit collateral to the suit against 
the debtor, in which the person proceeded 
against will be charged as trustee of the debtor, 
and adjudged to pay or account in satisfaction 
of the principal claim. The alleged trustee is 
examined on oath, and whatever belonging to 
the debtor is found in his hands is attached 
from the time the process is served upon him. 
The proceeding is purely statutory. In some 
states the corresponding proceeding is called a 
proceeding in garnishment, and the trustee is 
designated a garnishee. In these proceedings 
the trustee cannot be compelled to do more 
than he 'was bound to do by his contract or 
arrangement with the debtor. 

TRUSTS. It is quite certain that trusts, which 
have now such immense importance in the law 



and the disposition of property in England and 
in the United States, originated in fraud. The 
feudal law of tenures embarrassed owners of 
property in their disposal of it, and the statutes 
of mortmain obstructed the appropriation at 
the pleasure of the owner still more ; and to 
evade these rules of law, trusts (or the granting 
of property in trust) were invented. As the 
common law took no cognizance entrusts, they 
came before a court of equity. And if we re- 
member that the chancellor was in early times 
usually a priest, and that the statutes of mort- 
main, which trusts were invented to evade, 
restricted or prohibited the granting of prop- 
erty to religious communities, we can under- 
stand why the court of equity took them under 
its protection. It did this by summoning the 
trustee before it, and compelling him " to do 
what justice and equity required." Hence Sir 
Robert Atkins, in the reign of Charles II., said : 
"A trust had for its parents fraud and fear, 
and for its nurse a court of conscience." The 
way in which these laws were successfully 
evaded by trusts was this. If property is given 
to A. B., with all the forms of law, and in the 
same manner as if it were to be absolutely his 
own, but in fact for the use and benefit of C. 
D., the common law knows no one but A. B. ; 
all the title is in him, and the estate in him is 
protected against all forfeitures but those which 
attach to him. But C. D. has all the benefit 
and advantage of the property. Hence if C. D. 
were a traitor, who would have forfeited the 
estate had it been his in law, or a religious 
body which could not take the estate by law, 
A. B. still might hold it for the benefit of C. D. 
In this way fraud and fear were the parents 
of trusts. But as the law knew no estate or 
title but that of A. B., if he chose t^ be dis- 
honest, and to refuse all benefit of the trust 
to C. D., there was no remedy at law, and the 
trust would have been defeated. Then the 
court of equity came in, and, by compelling 
A. B. to perform the trust he had undertaken, 
became the nurse of this child of fraud. Now, 
however, trusts are employed in a vast num- 
ber of cases, most honestly and beneficially, 
wherever it is desired to give any person the 
benefit and use of property, but to keep from 
him all power of forfeiting or alienating it. 
The greatest number of modern trusts are cre- 
ated either by will or by transfer inter mws 
to protect the estates of women from the con- 
trol or the creditors of their husbands, or to 
carry down property to a series of holders, in 
some other way than that which would be 
provided by the laws of inheritance or distri- 
bution. To all trusts there are therefore two 
parties. One of these holds the legal title to 
the estate, and he is called trustee ; the other 
has the actual benefit of the trust, and is called, 
by a Norman French phrase, the cestuy que 
trust. As the trustee has all the title which a 
court of law can recognize, he is said to have 
the legal estate ; and as the cestuy que trust 
has an interest which only a court of equity 



18 



TRUSTS 



can recognize and protect, he is said to have 
an equitable estate. At present, when the 
courts of law and the rules of law are coming 
nearer to the courts and the rules of equity, 
the antagonism between these has passed away, 
and the distinction become much less impor- 
tant. There may be any number of trustees 
and any number of cestuy que trusts in any 
trust. If the trustee holds the property for 
the benefit of the cestuy que trust without any 
particular restrictions, directions, or provisions, 
it is called a simple trust ; and then the nature 
and operation of the trust are determined by 
legal or equitable construction. But if the 
purposes of the trust, and the manner in which 
and the means by which these purposes shall 
be accomplished, are specifically pointed out 
and defined, it is then a special trust, and 
these special directions must be accurately 
complied with. Hence a trust may be merely 
ministerial; and it is so called when the trus- 
tee has no other duty than to collect and pay 
over the proceeds of property. Or it may be 
a discretionary trust, and is so when the gen- 
eral purpose only is declared, and the manner 
in which this purpose shall be accomplished 
is left to the discretion of the trustee. So a 
trust may have a power annexed ; as when a 
trustee of lands has the power of leasing, or 
even of selling and converting them into per- 
sonal property. And indeed any lawful pow- 
ers may be given to a trustee. There are also 
private trustees and public trustees. The for- 
mer hold property for one or more individuals, 
who are distinctly pointed out, personally or 
by description. Public trustees are those who 
hold property for the benefit of the whole pub- 
lic, or for a certain large part of it, as a county, 
town, of parish. They are regarded by the law 
as in many respects official persons, with offi- 
cial rights and responsibilities. The subject 
matter of a trust may be any property of a val- 
uable nature, and many things also which the 
common law does not recognize as disposable 
or assignable property ; as choses in action and 
probabilities of every description, or mere au- 
thorities which may be or become valuable. 
Even if the property be in another state or 
country, so that the process of the court could 
not reach it, yet a court of equity will inter- 
fere in any case of trust, however distant or 
inaccessible the property may be, provided the 
principal defendants are actually served with 
process, and adequate relief may be given by a 
decree in personam.As to the capacity of 
creating a trust, it may be said that any person 
who has the power of making a valid disposi- 
tion of any property, by will or grant, has also 
the power of attaching to his disposition of the 
property such limitations or directions as shall 
create a trust. As a general rule, any pereon 
may be a trustee, even if he be incapacitated 
by law- from transacting business on his own 
account. Thus infants, idiots, lunatics, married 
women, or other persons non sui juris may 
become trustees. The reason is, that the trust 



is created for the benefit of the cestuy que trust, 
and not of the trustee ; and if the trustee can- 
not take the legal estate, there will be nothing to 
support the equitable estate, and the trust will 
fail. So, too, it is established doctrine that a 
trust once created shall never fail on account of 
the death of a trustee, or his refusal to accept the 
trust. All difficulties of this kind are avoided by 
the power of the proper court (usually the court 
of equity) to remove a trustee and supply his 
place, or fill the place of a trustee when vacant 
by hia death or refusal. It is very common 
for a will or deed creating a trust to prescribe 
in what way and by what person or tribunal 
this power maybe exercised; and provisions 
to this effect would doubtless be regarded 
when they did not contravene the general prin- 
ciples of the law, or the statutory provisions 
in behalf of trusts and trustees. Any person 
in possession of property, real or personal, by 
legal title and of his own right, may, by a 
proper declaration of trust, convert himself 
into a trustee, and then his legal title will re- 
main undisturbed, but subjected to the equita- 
ble interest. Any person may become a cestuy 
que trust of property, to the extent of his legal 
capacity of holding the same. Nor is it neces- 
sary to the creation of a trust estate that the 
cestuy que trust should bo named, or even that 
he should be in being when the trust is created. 
Thus money may be bequeathed or given to a 
trustee for any children that a certain person 
may have living at his death, and to accumu- 
late until the death of that person. The assent 
of the cettuy que trust, if he is capable of giv- 
ing one, is, strictly speaking, necessary ; but it 
will be presumed where the trust is beneficial 
to him. Unincorporated societies and institu- 
tions may take the benefit of a trust, as well as 
natural persons or corporations. Trusts and 
uses (see USES) were originally created and de- 
clared principally, if not exclusively, by parol ; 
but this was because they were then intended 
to evade the law. Now, it is uncertain whether 
trusts of real estate can be created except in 
writing, and for some purposes by deed. In 
most of the United States, the provisions of 
the English statute of frauds, requiring trusts 
to be in writing, have been reenacted. But in 
England courts of equity have given a very 
liberal construction to these provisions, and a 
similar construction might be expected here. 
Where a trust is created, if at all, by a writing, 
especially if that writing be a will, any direct 
fiduciary expressions, indicative of a purpose 
that the donee of the property is to take it, in 
whole or in part, for the benefit, use, advan- 
tage, or support of another, will be held suffi- 
cient to create a trust. But such words or 
directions must be imperative on the donee ; 
if they, by fair construction, only give him a 
power or permission, or even express a desire 
which is not obligatory on him, they do not 
create a trust. If the trust is distinctly and 
positively created, although no cestuy que trust 
is designated, the courts will enforce the trust. 



TRUSTS 



TSOHIBNHAUSEN 



19 



If the donee may at his own discretion or plea- 
sure execute the alleged trust or not, it is not a 
trust ; but it is a valid trust if he must execute 
the trust, although the manner of doing it is 
entirely at his discretion. So, too, there may 
be what are called "resulting" or "presump- 
tive trusts," which are expressed nowhere, but 
are implied or presumed from the assumed in- 
tention of the parties, or arise from the nature 
of the transaction ; and the statute of frauds 
expressly excepts these trusts from the require- 
ment of writing. A trustee is always at liberty 
to decline a trust, but he cannot take the prop- 
erty withoiit the trust. The best and usually 
the only evidence of an acceptance of the trust 
is some action by the trustee under it. The 
same person may stand in different relations ; 
thus he may be appointed executor and also 
trustee ; and he may give separate bonds with 
different sureties, as executor and as trustee. 
In such cases it is sometimes difficult to say 
where the duty and responsibility of executor 
end and those of trustee begin. The general 
rule is this : If the executor has specifically set 
apart a portion of the estate to the purpose of 
the trust, he will be considered as to that por- 
tion as having discharged his duty as executor 
and entered upon his duty as trustee. An im- 
portant doctrine of the law of trusts, familiar 
to English lawyers and frequently applied in 
English courts, is known by the name of the 
cy-pres doctrine. This phrase means literally 
u near to it ; " and this doctrine is applied when 
a trust is certainly created, and it is impossible 
to execute it precisely as the donor prescribed, 
and then a court of equity, from its desire to 
sustain the trust, will direct an exercise of it 
as near as possible to the original intention of 
the donor. By far the most frequent occasion 
for its application arises from the change of 
circumstances in ancient trusts ; as, for exam- 
ple, where there is an endowment for a school 
limited to pupils of a certain description, and 
there are not now any pupils of that descrip- 
tion. But that necessity cannot exist so fre- 
quently or with so much force in the United 
States as in England. As an undefined judi- 
cial power, it is open to abuse, and can scarcely 
be said to be recognized in the United States. 
Trustees are held, both in England and in 
this country, to a somewhat strict accounta- 
bility. A trustee is bound not only to guard 
against loss or damage to the trust property, 
but to see that it is made reasonably produc- 
tive. If he suffers it to lie idle unreasonably, 
when safe investments can be made, he will 
be charged with interest, and in some cases, 
as when he is guilty of gross delinquency, or 
if he mingles the property with his own for 
his own benefit in trade or otherwise, he will 
be charged with compound interest. He may 
not himself buy property which he sells as 
trustee, nor sell his own property and buy it 
as trustee ; and this rule is applied not only to 
all trustees, but to agents generally. An im- 
portant difference between private and public 



trustees should be mentioned. Private trus- 
tees are responsible on the contracts they make 
as trustees, unless they guard against this by 
express reservation; and merely calling them- 
selves trustees, or even saying they act as 
trustees, is not, generally speaking, sufficient. 
Thus an executor, signing a common promis- 
sory note as executor, is still liable on it per- 
sonally, although the estate be insolvent. But 
public trustees, or persons acting in a known 
official capacity, are not personally liable on 
the contracts they make for the state or gov- 
ernment, unless they make themselves so ex- 
pressly or by a reasonable implication, or have 
in their hands funds for the purpose of the 
contracts. It is, of course, always in the pow- 
er of one who deals with a public trustee or 
agent to ask of him his own personal liability ; 
and it is always in the power of that trustee 
to give it or withhold it. 

f RI'XILLO. See TRUJILLO. 

TRlIXTCff, Thomas, an American naval officer, 
born on Long Island, Feb. 15, 1755, died in 
Philadelphia, May 5, 1822. During the revo- 
lution he served in privateers as lieutenant and 
captain, and made valuable captures. In 1795 
he received a commission as captain in the 
navy. On Feb. 9, 1799, in the frigate Constel- 
lation, 38 guns, off the island of Nevis, he cap- 
tured the French frigate L'Insurgente, 40 guns, 
which was much cut up, and lost 29 men killed 
and 41 wounded. The Constellation sustained 
but little injury, and had one man killed and 
three wounded. On Feb. 1, 1800, the Constel- 
lation engaged off Guadeloupe the French frig- 
ate La Vengeance of 54 guns, which escaped 
into Curacoa dismasted and sinking, with a loss 
of 50 killed and 110 wounded. The loss of 
the Constellation was 14 killed and 25 wound- 
ed. Her mainmast went by the board at the 
close of the action, which prevented her from 
pursuing. For this action congress awarded 
Truxtun a gold medal. In 1802 a squadron 
was fitted out against Tripoli, and Truxtun 
having declined the command because he was 
refused a captain for his flag ship, his declina- 
tion was construed into a resignation, and his 
name was struck from the navy list. He re- 
tired to Philadelphia, where in 1816-'19 he 
was high sheriff. He published " Remarks re- 
lating to Latitude and Longitude and Variation 
of the Compass " (1794), and a volume of ex- 
tracts on naval tactics (1806). 

TSARSKOE SELO. See TZAESKOYE SELO. 

TSCHIRNHACSM, Ehrenfried Walter von, count, 
a German mathematician, born at Kislings- 
wald, near Gorlitz, April 10, 1651, died there, 
Oct. 10, 1708. He studied at Leyden, in 1672 
volunteered against France, and afterward vis- 
ited England, France, and Italy. After his re- 
turn he constructed optical instruments, and 
established glass factories and a mill for the 
polishing of burning glasses, one of which 
weighed 160 Ibs. and was 33 in. in diameter. 
He also constructed a burning mirror of high- 
ly polished copper, producing effects similar 



20 



TSCHUDI 



to those of the burning glass. He discovered 
a method from which the manufacture of 
porcelain in Saxony took its rise, and inves- 
tigated the properties of the curves which go 
under his name. He published MedicmaCor- 
voris (Amsterdam, 1686) OD.& Medtana Mentis 
(1687) afterward combined in several editions, 
and Anleitung zu nutslichen Wissenschajten, 
absonderlich zu der Mathesw und Phpih (Leip- 
sic, 1700; 3d ed., 1712). . 

TSCHUDI. I. J&ldins (GiixEs), a Swiss histo- 
rian, born in Glarus in 1505, died there, *eb. 
28 1572. He served in the French army from 
1536 to 1544, held several important offices in 
his canton both before and afterward, and in 
1559 went as Swiss envoy to the imperial court 
of Ferdinand I. at Augsburg. He was ban- 
ished in 1562 for inducing the Catholic dele 
gates to attend the council of Trent, but was 
recalled in 1564 to settle the conflict between 
the see and the city of St. Gall. He wrote 
many works, of which the best known is his 
- Chronieon Helveticum (in German), embracing 
the history of Switzerland from 1000 to 1470 
(2 vols., Basel, l734-'6). II. Johann Jakob Ton, 
a Swiss naturalist, a descendant of the precc,- 
ding and grandson of a historian of the same 
name, born in Glarus, July 25, 1818. He com- 
pleted his studies in Paris, and explored Peru 
from 1838 to 1843, and Brazil and other South 
American states in 1857-9, and subsequent to 
his appointment as Swiss minister to Brazil in 
1860. In 1866 he became minister at Vienna. 
His works include Peru : Reiseskixzen aus den 
Jahren 1838-'42 (2 vols., St. Gall, 1846; trans- 
lated into English in 1847 by T. Ross) ; Unter- 
sucJiungen uber die Fauna Peruana (St. Gall, 
1844-7) ; Die Ketschuasprache (2 vols., Vien- 
na, 1853), with a Peruvian grammar and dic- 
tionary; Seise durch die Andes von Sadame- 
rika (Gotha, 1860); Die brasilische Provinz 
Minas-Geraes (Gotha, 1863) ; and Reisen durch 
Siidamerilca (5 vols., Leipsic, 1866-'9). He 
has also edited, in conjunction with Don Ma- 
riano Eduardo de Rivera, the Antigiiedades 
Peruanas (Vienna, 1851 ; translated by the 
Rev. F. L. Hawks, 8vo, New York, 1854). III. 
Friedrieh von, a naturalist, brother of the pre- 
ceding, born in 1820. He became president 
of the council of education of the canton and 
great councillor of the city of St. Gall, and 
wrote a popular manual of agriculture and 
other works. His Thierleben der Alpenwelt 
(Leipsic, 1852 ; 9th ed., 1872) has been trans 
lated into several languages. 

TSETSE, the native name of a proboscidian 
dipterous insect of the genus glossina (Wiede- 
mann), peculiar to Africa, and especially to 
the tropical portions. This genus comes near 
stomoxys (Fabr.), and resembles in appearance 
and habits the gadfly called in Scotland cleg 
(hcematopota pluvialis, Meig.). The best known 
species, G. morsitans (Westw.), is 5 lines long 
and 8 in expanse of wings, a little larger thai 
the house fly ; the head is dirty buff, and the 
eyes are large ; thorax chestnut red, with four 



TSETSE 

ongitudinal black bars ; abdomen dirty buff, 
with black bristles above, the first segment 
with a round black spot at each side, and tho 
! our following with a broad dark brown band 
"nterrupted in the middle; the wings are con- 
siderably longer than the body. The blood- 
sucking apparatus consists of a long horny 
proboscis, containing a compound bristU- or 
iwo needle-like piercers, communicating with 
a poison bulb at the base, and supported on 
each side by two feathery palpi. It is very 
active and difficult to catch, except in the cool 
of the morning and evening, when it is slug- 
i-ish ; it has a loud and peculiar buzz, which 
Iocs 'not terrify cattle like that of the gadflies. 
This scourge of the African wilderness has no 
sting in the tail, and deposits no eggs on or 
under the skin of aniu>als, but introduces its 
poison into the blood by the proboscis while 
sucking. The puncture of the tsetse is almost 
certain death to the ox, horse, sheep, and dog, 
but is harmless to man, the mule, ass, goat, 
pig, wild animals, and even calves while suck- 
ing ; in man it causes a slight itching, like that 




Tsetse (Glossina morsitans), enlarged. 

produced by the bite of the mosquito or flea. 
It produces no immediate effect in the ox or 
horse, but in a few days there appears an exu- 
dation for half an inch, around the punctures, 
the eyes and nose begin to run, the skin quivers 
as if from cold, and swellings occur under the 
jaw ; the animal may continue to graze, but 
by degrees grows thin and weak ; this state 
may continue for months, until purging comes 
on, and death ensues from exhaustion. The 
better the condition of the animal bitten, the 
more speedy often will the death be, accompa- 
nied by symptoms of staggering and blindness ; 
sudden changes of temperature hasten the pro- 
gress .of the disease, which goes on to certain 
death. They occasionally attack a horse like 
a swarm of bees, alighting on him by hun- 
dreds, sometimes causing death in a week. 
After death the subcutaneous areolar tissue 
is found to be injected with air, and the fat is 
oily and greenish yellow ; the heart and mus- 
cles are very soft and flabby, the gall bladder 
distended with bile, the blood much reduced 
in quantity, with signs of disease in the lungs 
and liver. No remedy is known ; the natives 



TSURUGA 



TUBEROSE 



21 



pretend to have roots which, pounded and 
sprinkled on the hair, prevent the bite, but 
their inability to keep cattle proves their in- 
efficacy ; the droppings of animals mixed with 
human milk and drugs, and smeared on the 
hide, often prove a temporary safeguard ; an 
animal slightly bitten and escaping death will 
fall a victim to the next severe bite. With the 
destruction of the game, this insect, deprived 
of its food, may become extinct ; and until it 
does, whole districts are rendered unable to 
keep cattle, horses, sheep, or dogs. It is found 
chiefly in the bush or among reeds, and rarely 
in the open country ; it is confined to limited 
regions, which it never leaves, so that cattle 
may graze in quiet on one side of a river while 
the opposite bank swarms with tsetse. When 
.obliged to pass through a country infested by 
them, the natives select a moonlight winter 
night, when they are torpid from cold. The 
flesh of animals bitten by the tsetse is not 
unwholesome, if they are killed before emacia- 
tion and weakness supervene. 0. J. Andersson 
and Dr. Livingstone give extended accounts of 
the ravages of this insect. 

TSURUGi, a city and seaport of Japan, in the 
province of Echizen, at the head of a bay of 
the same name on the W. coast of the main 
island, about 200 m. W. of Tokio ; pop. about 
20,000. It is almost the only good port on the 
W. side of the island, and attracts most of the 
junk and steamer trade. Its harbor is deep, 
spacious, and well protected. A canal con- 
necting the bay with Lake Biwa, and thence 
through the Yodo river with the Inland sea, 
has long been projected by the government, 
and a railroad to Kioto and Osaka is now in 
progress (1876). The district, around Tsuruga, 
which, contains several large towns, is noted 
for its rice, silk, tea, paper, lacquer, and cop- 
per. Granite is quarried. near the city, and 
lime is made in large quantities from marble. 

TUA5I, a town of Connaught, Ireland, in the 
county and 19 m. K K E. of the city of Gal- 
way, on both sides of the Harrow ; pop. in 
18Y1, 4,223. It contains both a Protestant and 
a Roman Catholic cathedral, the latter one of 
the finest churches in Ireland, the Roman 
Catholic college of St. Jarlath, several public 
schools, a monastery, a nunnery, and a work- 
house. The manufactures are chiefly coarse 
linens. Tuam is a place of great antiquity, 
and had a cathedral founded by St. Jarlath in 
the 6th century. It is the see of a Roman 
Catholic archbishop, and was an archiepiscopal 
see of the established church till 1839, when it 
was reduced to a bishopric, with Killala and 
Achonry, suffragan to Armagh. 

TUARIKS, or Tnaregs, a people supposed to be 
of the Berber race, occupying the desert of 
Sahara westward from Fezzan to the Atlantic. 
According to their own traditions, they came 
originally from Canaan. They are Caucasian 
in feature, and, though of dark complexion, 
have straight hair, and bear no resemblance to 
any of the negro races. They are bold, war- 



like, and predatory, and live chiefly on booty 
and tribute exacted from the caravans crossing 
their country. They are very zealous Moham- 
medans, and are governed by independent 
chiefs. They are divided into several tribes, 
the principal being the Azkar Tuariks. The 
Tibboos, who occupy the portion of the desert 
between Fezzan and Egypt, are considered a 
branch of the same family. The total number 
of the Tuariks is estimated at somewhat less 
than 200,000. 

TUBERCLE. See CONSUMPTION. 

TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS. See BRAIN, DIS- 
EASES OF THE, vol. iii., p. 201. 

TUBEROSE, a plant of the amaryllis family, 
polianthes tuberosa, cultivated for its fragrant 
flowers. The generic name, from the supposi- 
tion that it refers to 
many flowers, is fre- 
quently written poly- 
anthes, but it was giv- 
en for the reason that 
it is especially a flow- 
er of cities (Gr. mM,*?, 
a city, and avdo?, a 
flower). The common 
name is from the spe- 
cific tuberosa, it hav- 
ing been called by the 
old French gardeners 
plante tutereuse; this 
is commonly corrupt- 
ed into tube rose, and 
the plant spoken of 
as if it were a variety 
of the rose. It has a 
solid, pear-shaped tu- 
ber, from the base of 
which proceed roots, 
and from the apex 
long, linear, chan- 
nelled leaves, and late 
in summer a stem 2 
Jo 3 ft. high, the up- 
per part of which is 
crowded with short- 
pedicelled flowers, and 
the lower part bears 
a few short leaves; the flowers consist of a 
funnel-shaped, slightly curved tube, with six 
nearly equal, spreading lobes, often tinged 
with, rose without, creamy white within, with 
a powerful and, to some, oppressive fra- 
grance ; both single and double forms are cul- 
tivated. A few years ago an accidental variety 
appeared in the grounds of Mr. John Hender- 
son, Flushing, N. Y., which has been called 
"the Pearl," and is of especial value in having 
the stem only about half the usual height, 
while bearing quite as many flowers. In a 
commercial view the tuberose is one of the 
most important of florists' plants; it is but a 
few years since the bulbs were all imported, 
some from Holland, but the finest from Italy; 
after a while it was found that they would 
grow as well in New Jersey as in Holland, 




Double Tuberose (Polianthes 
tuberosa). 



22 



T0BINGEN 



while those raised in Georgia and Florida are 
much larger and finer than any that can be 
produced abroad, and their culture is rapidly 
extending. The old tubers produce around the 
base numerous offsets, which serve for propa- 
gation ; these are cultivated in rows, like onions, 
for one or two years, according to size, to 
make flowering bulbs, as they are called in the 
trade. To insure their flowering, the tubers 
should be stored where the temperature will 
not go below 50, or the undeveloped flower 
buds may be killed. If the dry tubers are 
planted in the open ground in northern locali- 
ties, the flowers are apt to be killed by frost, 
just as they are opening; to avoid this the 
bulbs should be put in boxes or pots of earth 
early in May, and placed in a greenhouse or 
warm window, where they will start, and then 
transferred to the open ground, after cold 
storms are over, in June. Botanists are not 
agreed as to the native country of the plant, 
some accrediting it to the East Indies and 
others to Mexico, but it must be treated like 
a native of the tropics. The flowers, both 
from being white and on account of their fra- 
grance, are in great demand for bouquets aijd 
floral designs, and florists resort to every means 
to secure a supply during the winter. For 
early winter flowers, the plants that have not 
yet bloomed in the open ground are taken up 
and put in the greenhouse ; and bulbs of the 
previous year's growth are carefully kept until 
August, when they are planted under glass. 
For forcing purposes the dwarf variety men- 
tioned is especially valuable; the forced plants 
are rarely potted, but set in a bed of earth 
made upon the greenhouse bench. A tuber 
or bulb after it has once flowered is valueless. 

TUBINGEN, a town of Wurtemberg, in the 
circle of the Schwarzwald, on the left bank 
of the Neckar, 18 m. S. W. of Stuttgart; pop. 
in 1872, 9,313. It has two new suburbs, an 
old StiftsUrche and several other Protestant 
churches, and a Roman Catholic church. The, 
university, founded in 1477, has been distin- 
guished since the 16th century in Protestant 
theology and in philosophy, and especially in 
the present century through the new Tubingen 
school of theology founded by F. 0. Baur. In 
1876 it had seven faculties, with more than 80 
professors and other teachers, nearly 900 stu- 
dents, and about 40 distinct institutions, inclu- 
ding the library in the Hohentubingen palace 
with 200,000 volumes and 2,000 manuscripts. ' 

TUCKAHOE, the aboriginal name of a curious 
subterraneous vegetable production, also called 
Indian bread and Indian loaf, found from New 
Jersey southward to the gulf and westward to 
Arkansas. It is in roundish masses, from the 
size of a pullet's egg to that of a cocoanut or 
much larger ; its brownish surface resembles 
that of a loaf of coarse bread, while within it 
is a homogeneous whitish mass, with an earthy 
odor, and on drying cracks and becomes hard 
t is usually found at planting time, when it is 
turned up by the plough, and presents no indi- 



TUCKER 

cations of having been attached to the roots of 
plants, or to a mycelium, as are most fungi. 
Under the supposition that it was a fungus, 
Clayton, and afterward Schweinitz, placed it 
with the puff-balls as lycoperdon aolidum, and 
Fries called it pachyma eocos ; but there is no 
reason for considering it a fungus, other than 
its underground manner of growth, and its 
somewhat distant exterior resemblance to the 
truffle (see TRUFFLE) ; on account of these it 
has been mistaken for the truffle. From the 
entire absence not only of reproductive organs, 
but of all cellular structure, and the lack of all 
knowledge of it in an early stage of its devel- 
opment, the tuckahoe has long been a puzzle 
to naturalists. About 30 years ago the lato 
Prof. John Torrey made a chemical examina- 
tion of it, and, while he was unable to detect 
by chemical tests the presence of starch, which 
the microscope had also failed to show, ascer- 
tained that the mass consisted almost entirely 
of pectin, which in some of its modifications is 
the jelly of fruits. It has been suggested by 
Berkeley and others that the tuckahoe is a 
secondary product, caused by the degeneration 
of the tissues of the root of some flowering 
plant, in which a change has occurred similar 
to that which converts animal tissues into adi- 
pocere, and that the cellulose and all other 
principles are transformed into a body of the 
pectoso group; this is a conjecture only, 
against the probable truth of which is the fact 
that no intermediate states have been found, 
while none, large or small, present any trace of 
plant structure. The name tuckahoe is said 
to have been applied by the Indians to several 
edible roots, and indicates that they used this 
as food ; it is employed in the southern states, 
boiled in milk, as a nutritious diet in diseases 
of the bowels, instead of arrowroot, and has 
been recommended in a medical work as a 
starchy food, while it contains no starch. 

TICKER, a N. E. county of West Virginia, 
touching Maryland on the northeast; area, 
about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,907, of whom 
27 were colored. It is drained by Cheat river, 
a tributary of the Monongahela. The surface 
is broken and mountainous. The valleys are 
productive. The chief productions in 1870. 
were 1,469 bushels of wheat, 1,294 of rye, 27,- 
813 of Indian corn, 14,726 of oats, 1,843 of 
buckwheat, 2,083 of potatoes, 6,093 Ibs. of 
wool, 26,769 of butter, and 1,498 tons of hay. 
There were 493 horses, 687 milch cows, 1,084 
other cattle, 2,608 sheep, and 1,045 swine. 
Capital, St. George. 

TUCKER, Abraham, an English metaphysician, 
born in London, Sept. 2, 1705, died at his seat 
in Surrey, Nov. 20, 1774. He was educated 
at Oxford. In 1727 he purchased Betchworth 
castle, with a large estate, near Dorking, and 
there devoted himself to the stndy of agricul- 
ure. In 1754 he published the letters which 
lad passed between himself and his wife, under 
the title "A Picture of Artless Love," and in 
1755 a pamphlet against strong political feeling, 



TUCKER 



TUCKERMAN 



23 



entitled " The Country Gentleman's Advice to 
his Son on the Subject of Party Clubs." About 
this time he began his great work, " The Light 
of Nature Pursued, by Edward Search," four 
volumes of which were published in 1765 ; but 
a part of it had already appeared in 1763 under 
the title of " Free Will." In reply to a criti- 
cism on the work in the " Monthly Review," 
lie wrote " Man in Quest of Himself, by Cuth- 
bert Comment." He became blind in 1771, 
but continued to work upon his " Light of 
Nature Pursued," the remaining volumes of 
which were edited by his daughter, after his 
death. The best edition is that of Sir Henry 
Mildmay (7 vols. 8vo, 1805 ; 4 vols., Cambridge, 
Mass., 1831 ; 2 vols., London, 1852). 
. TUCKER, Josian, a British clergyman, born at 
Laugharne, Carmarthenshire, in 1711, died in 
Gloucester, Nov. 4, 1799. He was educated 
at Oxford, took orders, and in 1749 became 
rector of St. Stephen's, Bristol, and in 1758 
dean of Gloucester. He published " A Brief 
Essay upon the Advantages and Disadvantages 
which respectively attend France and Great 
Britain with regard to Trade " (1748) ; " The 
Case of going to War for the sake of Trade, 
considered in a new Light " (1763), a pamphlet, 
translated into French by Turgot; "A Trea- 
tise concerning Civil Government " (1781) ; 
and " Reflections on the Present Matters in 
Dispute between Great Britain and Ireland" 
(1785). At the American revolution he re- 
sisted the claims of the colonies, but opposed 
coercion, as he believed that the possession of 
colonies was detrimental to the interests of a 
country. In theology he published an " Apolo- 
gy for the present Church of England," "Let- 
ters to Dr. Kippis," " Religious Intolerance no 
part of the General Plan either of the Mosaic 
or Christian Dispensation," and "Seventeen 
Sermons on some of the most important Points 
of Natural and Revealed Religion." 

TUCKER. I. St. George, an American jurist, 
born in the island of Bermuda, June 29, 1752, 
died in Nelson co., Va., in November, 1827. 
He was educated at the college of William and 
Mary, and studied law, but on the breaking out 
of the revolutionary war took up arms, and 
planned and aided in the capture of a large 
amount of stores in a fortification at Bermuda. 
In 1778 he married Mrs. Randolph, the mother 
of John Randolph of Roanoke. At the siege 
of Yorktown he was present as a lieutenant 
colonel. After the conclusion of the war he 
was elected a member of the general court, and 
was also law professor in William and Mary 
college. He was one of the commissioners to 
the convention of 1786 at Annapolis, Md., and 
recommended the convention of 1787 which 
framed the federal constitution. In 1803 he 
was appointed judge of the court of appeals, 
and in 1813 of the district court of the United 
States. He published " How far the Common 
Law of England is the Common Law of the 
United States;" "Dissertation on Slavery, with 
a Proposal for its Gradual Abolition in Vir- 



ginia" (1796; new ed., New York, 1861); a 
letter on the "Alien and Sedition Laws" 
(1799) ; an annotated edition of Blackstone's 
" Commentaries;" and a volume of poems, in- 
cluding the well known and popular " Days of 
my Youth." II. Henry St. George, an American 
jurist, son of the preceding, born Jan. 5, 1781, 
died in Winchester, Va., Aug. 28, 1848. He 
received a liberal education, studied law, and 
became president of the court of appeals and 
professor of law in the university of Virginia. 
From 1815 to 1819 he was a member of con- 
gress. His works include "Lectures on Con- 
stitutional Law;" "Commentaries on the Laws 
of Virginia" (2 vols. 8vo, Winchester, 1836); 
and "Lectures on Natural Law and Govern- 
ment" (Richmond, 1843). III. Nathaniel BCT- 
erley, an American lawyer, brother of the pre- 
ceding, born at Matoax, Va., Sept. 6, 1784, died 
in Winchester, Aug. 26, 1851. He was educa- 
ted at William and Mary college, studied law, 
and in 1809 settled in Charlotte co., and in 
1815 in Missouri, where he became a judge. 
From 1834 till his death he was professor of 
law in William and Mary college. He published 
a work on "Pleading," "Lectures on Consti- 
tutional Law," and novels entitled " George 
Balcombe " and " Gertrude." He left an un- 
finished novel called "The Partisan Leader," 
first published in 1837, and reprinted in New 
York in 1861, under the leading title "A Key 
to the Disunion Conspiracy." 

Tl(KKini\\, Henry Theodore, an American 
author, born in Boston, April 20, 1813, died in 
New York, Dec. 17, 1871. In 1833 and again 
in 1836 he went abroad, residing for some time 
in Italy and devoting himself to literature and 
art studies. In 1845 he removed from Boston 
to New York. He was a regular and frequent 
contributor to numerous periodicals, in which 
the bulk of his works originally appeared. He 
published "The Italian Sketch Book" (1835); 
"Sicily, a Pilgrimage" (1839); "Rambks and 
Reveries " (1841) ; " Thoughts on the Poets " 
(1846), devoted chiefly to masters of the Eng- 
lish school (translated into German by Emil 
M tiller) ; " Artist Life, or Sketches of American 
Painters" (1847); "Characteristics of Litera- 
ture" (1849; 2d series, 1851); "The Opti- 
mist " (1850), a collection of miscellaneous es- 
says; a "Life of Commodore Silas Talbot" 
(1851) ; "Poems" (1851) ; " A Month in Eng- 
land" (1853); "Memorial of Horatio Green- 
ough" (1853); "Leaves from the Diary of a 
Dreamer" (1853); "Essays, Biographical and 
Critical" (1857); "Essay on Washington, with 
a Paper on the Portraits of Washington" 
(1859); "America and her Commentators" 
(1864); "A Sheaf of Verse" (1864); "The 
Criterion, or the Test of Talk about Familiar 
Things" (1866); "Maga: Papers about Paris " 
(1867); "The Book of American Artists" 
(1867); and "Life of John Pendleton Ken- 
nedy" (1871). 

TUCKERMiN, Joseph, an American clergyman, 
born in Boston, Jan. 18, 1778, died in Havana, 



TUCSON 



TUDOR 



Cuba, April 20, 1840. He graduated at Har- 
vard college in 1798, and from 1801 to 1826 
was pastor of a Unitarian society in Chelsea. 
He then labored as a missionary among the 
poor of Boston. In 1812 he was instrumental 
in forming the first charitable society for the 
benefit of sailors in the United States, and sub- 
sequently the American seamen's friend socie- 
ty, and a "Benevolent Fraternity of Churches" 
for the support of a city mission, called the 
"Ministry at Large." He also visited Great 
Britain, and promoted similar organizations 
there. In 1830 he wrote a prize essay "On 
the Wages paid to Females." He published 
reports to the "Fraternity of Churches " (12mo, 
1831; 2d ed., 1832), and "Principles and Re- 
sults of the Ministry at Large." 

TUCSON, a city and the capital of the terri- 
tory of Arizona, county seat of Pima co., in lat. 
32 12' N., Ion. 110 52' W., 370 m. S. W. of 
Santa Fe, N. M., and the same distance E. by S. 
of San Diego, Cal., on the route between those 
places; pop. in 1870, 3,224; in 1875, about 
5,000, three fourths of whom are of Mexican 
Origin and speak Spanish. It is situated in 
the valley of the Santa Cruz river, 2,520^. 
above the level of the sea, about 55 m. S. of 
the Gila river and 60 m. N. of the Mexican 
boundary, and is the largest and most impor- 
tant place in the territory. It has the appear- 
ance of a Mexican town, with the customary 
plazas and narrow streets and houses built 
chiefly of adobe; but with the accession of 
American population an improvement is taking 
place. Camp Lowell, a United States military 
post, is 7 m. distant. There is only one church, 
Roman Catholic. Nine miles S. of the city is 
the church of San Xavier, built upward of a 
century ago by Catholic missionaries. Tucson 
has a designated United States depository and 
money-order post office, and an assay office ; a 
commodious and well furnished public school 
building, with male and female departments 
and a large and increasing attendance ; a serai- 
nary and school, under the charge of the sis- 
ters of St. Joseph; and a weekly newspaper. 
The territorial library contains 3,000 volumes. 
The climate is mild in winter and hot in sum- 
mer, the average temperature of January being 
51 and of July 89. The business in 1875 
amounted to $1,800,000, consisting chiefly is 
trade with the Mexican state of Sonora, and 
in supplying the military posts and Indian res- 
ervations of S. Arizona. Tucson is within the 

Gadsden purchase," obtained from Mexico by 
the treaty of Dec. 30, 1853. Its early history is 
unknown, but it has been a place of some im- 
portance for more than a century, and before its 
acquisition by the United States was a Mexican 
military post. It was incorporated in 1871. 

TUCCMAIY. I. A N. province of the Argen- 
tine Republic, bordering on Salta, the Gran 
Chaco, Santiago, and Catamarca; area, about 
28,000 sq. m. ; pop. in 1869, 108,602. In the 
west the surface is traversed by the Aconquiia 
mountains, but in other directions there are 



extensive plains. The mountains abound in 
copper, silver, and other ores, but the mines 
are little worked. The most important rivers 
are the Salado, Tala, and Medinas. There are 
several shallow saline lakes, and in many places 
extensive tracts covered with fossil salt. The 
water of nearly all the streams is brackish. 
The climate of the plains is hot, but dry and 
healthful. The soil affords good crops of grain, 
sugar cane, tobacco, and fruits, and excellent 
pasturage. The chief exports are cattle and 
timber. II. A city, capital of the province, on 
the river Tala, in lat. 26 51' S., Ion. 65 15' 
W., 675 m. N. W. of Buenos Ayres, on a plain 
2,490 ft. above the sea; pop. in 1869, 17,438. 
The streets are regularly laid out but narrow, 
and most of the houses are of two stories and 
open into spacious interior courts. The prin- 
cipal church, fronting on the plaza, has two 
towers and a lofty dome ; and there are several 
other churches, a Franciscan and a Dominican 
monastery, the college of San Miguel, and 
other institutions. There are tanneries, manu- 
factories of leather work, and brandy distil- 
leries. It took an important part in the war 
with Spain, and here, on July 9, 1816, a con- 
gress of the La Plata states met and issued a 
declaration of independence. 

TTDELA (anc. Tuteld), a city of Spain, in the 
province of Navarre, on the right bank of the 
Ebro at its junction with the Queiles and at 
the beginning of the Imperial canal, 156 in. N. 
E. of Madrid ; pop. about 9,000. The Ebro is 
crossed here by a stone bridge with 17 arches. 
The Queiles passes through one of the princi- 
pal squares, where bull fights take place ; an- 
other square is surrounded by arcades. It has 
a highly ornamented cathedral, a medical col- 
lege, and an orphan and foundling asylum. 
The exports include agricultural products, wool, 
oil, and wine resembling Burgundy. Few ves- 
tiges of the ancient fortifications remain. The 
Moors held the city from the 8th till early in 
the 12th century. The French under Lefebvre- 
Desnouettes were victorious here in June, 1808, 
and in November Lannes achieved a more de- 
cisive victory over Castafios in a battle fought 
chiefly on the heights above Tudela. 

TUDOR, the surname of a line of English 
sovereigns, consisting of Henry VII., I486-' 
1509; Henry VIII., 1509-M7; Edward VI., 
1547-'53; Mary I., 1553-'8; and Elizabeth, 
1558-1603. The family descended from a 
Welsh gentleman, Owen ap Tudor, who mar- 
ried Catharine of Valois, widow of Henry V. 
One of their sons, Edmund, earl of Richmond, 
married Margaret, daughter and heiress of 
John Beaufort, duke of Somerset, whose fa- 
ther was an illegitimate son of John of Gaunt 
by Catharine Swynford. The offspring of this 
connection were afterward legitimated, but ex- 
cluded from the succession. The only son of 
Richmond and the heiress of Somerset, Henry, 
duke of Richmond, on the extinction of the 
direct male line of John of Gaunt, was accepted 
by the Lancastrian party as their chief. He 



TUDOR 



TUISCO 



25 



was invited over from France to deliver the 
country from the tyranny of Richard III., 
whom he overthrew at the battle of Bosworth 
in 1485, and became king. His marriage with 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Edward IV., in 
1480, united the claims of the houses of York 
and Lancaster. The Tudors were bold, en- 
ergetic sovereigns, and often despotic ; and 
under them England was prosperous and pow- 
erful. See "A Chronicle of England during 
the Reign of the Tudors, from 1485 to 1559," 
by Charles Wriothesley (vol. i., London, 1875). 

TUDOR, William, an American author, born in 
Boston, Jan. 28, 1779, died in Rio de Janeiro, 
March 9, 1830. lie graduated at Harvard col- 
lege in 1796, visited Europe, and on his return 
founded the "Anthology Club," and contributed 
various articles to its journal, the "Monthly 
Anthology." In 1815 the first number of the 
"North American Review" appeared under 
his editorship, and three fourths of the first 
four volumes were written by him. In 1819 he 
published "Letters on the Eastern States;" in 
1821 a volume of "Miscellanies;" and in 1823 
a " Life of James Otis." In 1823 he was ap- 
pointed United States consul at Lima, and in 
1828 was made charge d'affaires at Rio de 
Janeiro, where he wrote " Gebel Teir " (Bos- 
ton, 1829). He was one of the founders of 
the Boston Athenaeum. 

TUESDAY, the third day of the week. In 
the Roman calendar it was called dies Martis, 
from Mars, and its present name is derived 
from Tiw, the Anglo-Saxon god of war. 

TUFi. See CALCAREOUS SPRINGS. 

TUFTS COLLEGE, an institution of learning in 
Medford, Mass., founded by Universalists. The 
corner stone of the original edifice was laid 
July 19, 1853, and the building finished in the 
spring of 1854. It is of brick, 100 by 60 ft., 
and three stories high. Besides this there are 
at present three large dormitories furnishing 
accommodations for 150 students. The college 
was named in honor of Charles Tufts, who 
gave it 70 acres of land for a site. Its total 
endowment now amounts to. more than $1,- 
000,000. The institution was opened in Au- 
gust, 1854. In 1867 the divinity school was 
organized. The first president was the Rev. 
Hosea Ballou, 2d, D. D., who died in 1861, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Alonzo A. Miner, 
D. D., LL. D. Dr. Miner resigned in 1876, and 
was succeeded by the Rev. Elmer Hewitt Ca- 
pen. In the college department there are two 
parallel courses of four years each. The first 
is the usual college course, for which the de- 
gree of bachelor of arts is given. The second 
resembles the first, but gives more scope to 
elective studies, and permits the substitution 
of the modern languages for Greek. For this 
course the degree of bachelor of philosophy is 
given. There is also an engineering course of 
three years. The full course in the divinity 
school is three years for bachelors of arts and 
four years for others ; but students are admit- 
ted for shorter periods. For theological stu- 



dents tuition and room rent are free. The li- 
brary of the college contains more than 16,000 
volumes and 5,000 pamphlets. The museum 
contains good collections of minerals, shells, 
birds, and botanical specimens. In 1875-'6 
the collegiate department had 10 professors, 1 
instructor, and 73 students, viz. : classical 
course, 56; engineering, 12; philosophical, 2; 
resident graduates, 3. The divinity school had 
3 professors, 1 instructor, 3 lecturers, and 23 
students. The number of graduates of the 
college was 225 ; of the divinity school, 21. 

TCI. See POE BIRD. 

TUILER1ES, a royal palace in Paris, between 
the Seine and the rue de Rivoli, and E. of the 
Place de la Concorde, so named because it 
stood on the site of a former manufactory 
of tiles (Fr. tuilerie). It was commenced in 
1564 by Catharine de' Medici, who built the 
central pavilion de Vhorloge, and the two ad- 
joining wings and their pavilions. Henry IV. 
added a range of buildings with a lofty pa- 
vilion at each end, the whole presenting a 
facade 336 yards in length by 36 in depth. 
He also commenced the gallery fronting the 
Seine connecting the S. extremity of the build- 
ing with the Louvre, continued by Louis XIII., 
and finished by Louis XIV. The latter re- 
placed the spherical dome of the pavilion de 
Vhorloge by a quadrangular one; and in 1808 
Napoleon I. began the northern gallery along 
the rue de Rivoli, which was completed by Na- 
poleon III., when the Tuileries and the Louvre 
formed a connected pile, enclosing the Place 
du Carrousel. The front of the building was 
imposing, and the interior unsurpassed in mag- 
nificence by any other royal residence. After 
the removal of the court to the palace of Ver- 
sailles in 1672 no French king lived in the 
Tuileries until 1789, when Louis XVI. was 
compelled to remove thither. On Aug. 10, 
1792, the people stormed the building and 
massacred the Swiss body guard. It was the 
residence of Napoleon during the consulate 
and empire, and of the Bourbons after the 
restoration. In July, 1830, it was again taken 
by the people ; and at the expulsion of Louis 
Philippe in February, 1848, it was for the 
third time ransacked. It was the residence 
of Napoleon III., who renovated and greatly 
improved it. The palace itself, with a small 
part of both extensions connecting with the 
Louvre, was destroyed by fire by the commu- 
nists in May, 1871. The gardens of the Tui- 
leries, extending west to the Place de la Con- 
corde, comprising 50 acres, and among the 
most attractive public resorts in Paris, suffered 
severely during the war of 1870-'71, but in 
1876 had been thoroughly restored. 

TUISCO, Thuisco, Tnisto, or Tent, the god whom, 
according to Tacitus, the ancient Germans re- 
vered as the earth-born founder of their na- 
tion, He was represented as a gray -bearded 
man, with uncovered head clad in the skin of 
an animal, holding a sceptre in his right hand, 
and stretching out the left. His son Mannus 



26 



TULA 



was the father of the progenitors of the three 
principal tribes. 

TULA. I. A central government of Kussia, 
bordering on Moscow, Riazan, Tambov, Orel, 
and Kaluga; area, 11,955 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
1 167,878. The surface is generally flat, 
most important rivers are the Oka, Upa, and 
Don, the two latter of which are connected by 
the Ivanovska canal, which forms part of the 
system that unites the Baltic, Black, and Cas- 
pian seas. The soil is fertile, and about two 
thirds of the surface is cultivated. Iron and 
woollen and linen goods are manufactured. 
II. A city, capital of the government, on the 
Upa, 107 m. S. of Moscow ; pop. in 1867, 58,- 
150. It has an extensive cannon foundery 
and manufactory of arms, established by Peter 
the Great, and upward of 800 private firearms 
and cutlery workshops. 

TULARE, a S. E. county of California, ex- 
tending from the summit of the Sierra Ne- 
vada on the northeast to the summit of the 
Monte Diablo range on the southwest, and 
drained by Kern river and several streams 
that flow into Tulare lake ; area, 5,600 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 4,533, of whom 99 were Chi- 
nese. Tulare lake, over 30 m. long and about 
20 m. wide, is in the S. W. part. Its valley 
is fertile. Some gold is found, but the mines 
are little developed. Agriculture and grazing 
are the chief pursuits. The Visalia division 
of the Central Pacific and the Tulare division 
of the Southern Pacific railroad traverse it. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 53,605 
bushels of wheat, 9,750 of Indian corn, 85,110 
of barley, 8,685 of potatoes, 660,645 Ibs. of 
wool, 37,490 of butter, and 4,419 tons of hay. 
There were 4,590 horses, 36,167 cattle, 147,- 
301 sheep, and 15,403 swine; 3 flour mills, 
and 3 saw mills. Capital, Visalia. 

TULIP (Pers. thulyban; written tulipan by 
the old authors, and Latinized as tulipa), a 
genus of plants of the lily family, of which 
numerous cultivated forms are derived from 
several distinct species, all natives of the old 
world. They have a coated bulb, from which 
appears in spring a one- to three-leaved stem, 
terminated by a single, erect, large, showy 
flower ; the six parts of the flower are sepa- 
rate, broad, and not spreading ; six stamens 
with erect anthers, and a triangular ovary, 
with sessile stigmas, which ripens into a simi- 
larly shaped, three-celled, and many-seeded 
pod. The garden, florists', show, or late tulips, 
as they are variously called, are from tulipa 
Gesneriana, the species being named in honor 
of Gesner, who described the plant in 1559 
from specimens raised from seed sent from the 
Levant ; the stems are taller than in any other 
species (about 30 in.), with the divisions of the 
flower very obtuse, and in the wild state marked 
with yellow and violet. The cultivation of 
this plant rapidly spread in the Netherlands, 
and almost innumerable varieties were obtained 
from seed ; that country is still the centre of 
the culture of this and many other bulbs, and 



TULIP 

supplies the rest of the world. About the 
middle of the 17th century the tulip became 
the object of a remarkable commercial excite- 
ment or mania, and the bulbs were bought and 
sold at such enormous prices (the equivalent of 
$6,000 was paid for a single bulb) that the 
government was forced to limit the price for 
any one bulb to 200 francs ; these extraordi- 
nary sales were not always real, with a trans- 
fer of the bulb, but they served to speculate 
upon, like stocks in the exchange. So great 
has been the change in popular taste that at 
present, in this country at least, it is very rare 
to see a bed of choice named varieties of show 
tulips. The fanciers make several classes, the 
principal of which are : bybloemens, in which 
the flowers have a white ground broken with 
various shades of purple and other colors ; 
bizarres, with a yellow ground, variegated 
with other colors ; Baguets, with the flowers 
white at base and broken with rich brown; 
incomparable Verports, with cherry or rose 
ground, white bottoms, and marked with shi- 
ning brown. Breeders are bulbs raised from 
seed which are at first selfs, or all of one color, 
without any variegation whatever ; by contin- 
uous cultivation they finally " break," or be- 
come variegated, the time varying from one to 
20 years, and even at 
the end of the longer 
period the result may 
be worthless. These 
late tulips bloom in the 
northern states about 
the last of May, but 
there is a set of varie- 
ties which bloom three 
weeks earlier. These 
are from T. suareolens 
of southern Europe, 
with stems less than a 
foot high, and acute 
petals ; one of the most 

u a i U6d ,r f tb iT " Early Tulip, Due Van ThoL 

" Due Van Thol," usu- 
ally red bordered with yellow, and presenting 
several subvarieties. There is a long list of 
named early sorts, from pure white to dark 
violet, with innumerable variegations ; there 
are also double varieties of these, which are 
not pleasing singly, but planted in clumps 
make brilliant masses of color. The parrot 
tulips are varieties or crosses of T. Turcica, 
from Turkey; they are of dwarf habit, the 
petals curved and fantastically fringed, and 
colored with yellow, red, and a large admix- 
ture of green ; the form and coloring readily 
suggest the popular name. A few species, lit- 
tle if any changed by cultivation, are some- 
times seen in gardens; among these are T. 
cornuta, with singularly attenuated petals, 71 
oculis soils, vermilion, with a deep violet (called 
black) eye, and others. The bulbs are import- 
ed each autumn in large quantities from Hol- 
land. A perfect and mature bulb contains a 
well developed bud, which the next spring will 




TULIP 



TULIP TREE 



rapidly push up and produce leaves and flow- 
er; it also contains, between the scales, an- 
other bud, which during the brief growing sea- 
son, while the first named is blooming, will in- 




Parrot Tulip. 

crease rapidly, replacing that, and be ready to 
bloom the next year; besides these, the bud 
of a third generation may be found, ready in 
time to take the place of the second bud. 
When a tulip bulb is planted, it produces its 
flower and leaves ; its foliage, after flourishing 
for a while, suddenly dies off, and a bulb may 
be dug up apparently like the one planted ; but 
that has been expended in producing the flow- 
er, and this bulb is due to the increase of the 
second or replacing bud, which will be found 
to contain the rudiments of next spring's 
bloom. At the base of the bulb appear small 
offsets or bulblets, which, if broken off and 
cultivated for several 
years, will grow to a 
flowering size, and re- 
produce the peculiar 
variety ; in Holland 
the number of these 
bulblets is increased 
by cutting off the flow- 
er buds as soon as 
they appear. In care- 
ful tulip culture, the 
bed is made very light 
and rich, and the bulbs 
are set in October, 8 
in. apart and 3J in. 
deep ; some take pains 
to envelop each bulb 
in sand ; the bed is 
covered with litter, 
and left until spring, 
when it is uncovered ; 
as the flowers are 
about to open, the bed 
is covered with an awning of cotton cloth, 
to prevent the sun from injuring the flowers, 
and thus prolong their duration ; when the 
bloom is over, the seed vessels are cut off, 




Late or Show Tulip. 



and the plants cultivated until the leaves fade, 
which they will do in a few weeks, when the 
bulbs are taken up, dried, and kept in a cool, 
dry place until time to plant again. Early 
sorts are often left in the ground year after 
year ; and though they do not give so fine a 
bloom as when the bulbs are lifted, they make 
acceptable spring flowers. Like other bulbs, 
tulips are readily forced in the greenhouse or 
in window culture (see HYACINTH) ; the early 
sorts are preferred for this, and three bulbs 
may be put into a six-inch pot. 

TULIP TREE, the popular name for lirioden- 
dron tulipifera, a large tree of the magnolia 
family; one of its distinctive characters, its 
large and showy flowers, being recognized in 
its botanical and common names. The genua 
(named from Gr. Mpiov, a lily, and 6tv6pov, a 
tree) is exclusively American, and includes 
only this species. It is found from Canada to 
Florida, and is more abundant in parts of the 
west, as Michigan and southern Illinois, than 
at the east; with the exception of the button- 
wood, it is the largest of our deciduous trees, 
reaching the height of 140 ft., with a diameter 
of 8 or 9 ft. The bark on young branches is 




Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera). 

light brown and smooth, but on old trees it 
is much broken by longitudinal fissures. In 
spring the development of no tree can be 
studied with greater interest ; as the large leaf 
buds open they are found to be covered by 
two stipules, coherent by their edges to form 
a sac, and beneath these the young leaf, to 
which they belong, will be found closely folded, 
and its petiole bent over ; beneath this is an- 
other leaf similarly covered and packed away, 
and so on; as the leaf develops, the stipules 
increase in size, and soon fall away, leaving a 
scar just above the petiole. The leaves, on long 
petioles, are 4 in. or more across, with two 
lobes near the base and two at the apex, where 
the leaf appears as if it had been abruptly cut 
off, leaving a very broad, shallow notch. The 
flowers are solitary and terminal ; the bud is 
enclosed by a sheath which is pushed off as 
the flower opens; they consist of three long 



28 



TULL 



reflexed sepals, and six petals, which are ar 
ranged in two rows, to form a bell-shapec 
corolla, 2 in. or more long, within which are 
numerous stamens, surrounding a cone-like 
mass of pistils crowded upon a long slender 
axis. In fruit the pistils ripen into woody one- 
or two-seeded keys, which fall away from the 
axis. The petals are greenish yellow, markec 
with orange, and have an orange spot at the 
base. The bark, especially that of the root, is 
bitter and aromatic, and sometimes used as a 
stimulant tonic. The wood, often called white 
wood, though it becomes yellowish upon ex- 
posure, is soft and easily worked, and is put to 
almost as many uses as that of the white pine ; 
it is easily bent to any required shape, which 
makes it useful in building circular staircases 
and other curved work ; it is much employed 
in carriage building for panels, and in cabinet 
work, especially for drawers. In localities 
where it is the most available timber, it is em- 
ployed in building. The western lumbermen 
almost invariably call the tree poplar (" pop- 
ple ") or yellow poplar ; an unfortunate mis- 
nomer, as it has no resemblance to or botani- 
cal relationship with the poplars. The tulip 
tree is pleasing when young, and when full 
grown forms a very stately object. There are 
several varieties in which the leaves deviate 
from the usual form, and one in which they 
are handsomely variegated with yellow; but 
the markings do not hold under our hot suns. 
Trees transplanted from the woods, unless 
they are very small, do not succeed, and this 
has given the impression that the tree is 
difficult to manage. It is easily raised from 
seeds, and nursery trees, produced in this way 
and transplanted a few times, may be removed 
without difficulty. 

TULL, Jethro, an English agriculturist, born 
about 1680, died in January, 1740. He owned 
an estate near Ilungerford, on the borders of 
Oxfordshire and Berkshire, and observing the 
advantage of cultivation of plants in rows, and 
of stirring and pulverizing the soil between 
them, he introduced this system of cultivating 
the soil. But he adopted the erroneous prin- 
ciple that manure was not essential, as finely 
pulverized earth and moisture were sufficient 
for the growth of plants. This ruined him, and 
brought discredit upon his system. He pub- 
lished a treatise on his new mode of cultivation 
(1731), and detached essays, which were col- 
lected in 1751, and republished by William Cob- 
bett in 1822. (See AGRICULTURE, vol. i., p. 208.) 
TULLE, a town of France, capital of the de- 
partment of Oorreze, and formerly of Lower 
Limousin, at the junction of the Solane with 
the Oorreze, 115 m. E. N. E. of Bordeaux ; pop. 
m 1872, 11,848. It has fine quays and prom- 
enades, a suburb, many bridges, a cathedral 
remarkable for Us tower, and a celebrated 
government factory of firearms. Among its 
manufactures are paper, playing cards, nails, 
eather, and coarse woollens; and it has a 
trade in horses, game, and neatsfoot oil. 



TULLY 

TfLLIUS, Serving. See SERVIUS TULLIUS. 
TCLLOCII, John, a Scottish clergyman, born at 
Tibbemuir, Perthshire, in 1822. He was edu- 
cated at the university of St. Andrews, and in 
1844 was ordained a minister of the church 
of Scotland, with a charge at Dundee. After- 
ward he visited Germany, and studied specu- 
lative theology. In 1849 he removed to the 
parish of Kettins in Forfarshire, and in 1854 
was appointed principal of St. Mary's college 
in the university of St. Andrews, which office 
he still holds (1876). In 1855 he received a 
Burnett prize of 600 on the " Being and At- 
tributes of God." He has published "Lead- 
ers of the Keformation" (1859); "English 
Puritanism and its Leaders" (1861); "Begin- 
ning Life : Chapters for Young Men " (1862) ; 
" The Christ of the Gospel and the Christ of 
Modern Criticism : Lectures on M. Kenan's 
Vie de Jesus " (1864) ; and " Rational Theology 
and Christian Philosophy in England in the 
Seventeenth Century " (2 vols., 1872). 

TULLCS IIOSTILIIS, the third king of Rome, 
said to have reigned from about 678 to about 
641 B. C. The most memorable event of his 
reign, according to the legend, is the war with 
Alba, celebrated by the combat between the 
Horatii and the Curiatii, and the consequent 
acknowledgment by the Albans of Roman su- 
premacy. In the war against Fidente, an Al- 
ban army was led to the assistance of Rome 
by Mettus Fuffetius, the Alban dictator, who 
intended to go over to the enemy at the criti- 
cal moment. Tullus discovered the treach- 
ery, had the traitor torn in pieces from chariot 
wheels, razed Alba to the ground, and trans- 
ferred the inhabitants to Rome, where the 
great mass of them became the Roman pleba, 
After these successes Rome was afflicted with 
a pestilence, and the king himself was seized 
with the disease. Having found the formula 
with which Numa had sacrificed to Jupiter 
Elicius, ho attempted to call down the god, 
but fell into an error, and the god destroyed 
the king and his household by lightning. 

TULLY, William, an American physician, born 
in Saybrook, Conn., Nov. 18, 1785, died in 
Springfield, Mass., Feb. 28, 1859. He graduated 
at Yale college in 1806, studied medicine, and 
in 1808 settled at Milford, Conn. He removed 
about 1815 to Upper Middletown, now Crom- 
well, Conn., where he became intimate with 
Dr. Thomas Miner, whose views in relation to 
the nature and treatment of spotted fever he 
adopted; and in 1823 ho published with him 
ihe essays known as "Miner and Tully on 
Fever." In 1824 he was elected president and 
srofessor of materia medica in the medical in- 
stitution at Castleton, Vt. In 1827 he removed 
irst to Albany, and afterward to Castleton. 
He was professor of materia medica in the 
medical institution of Yale college from 1830 
to 1841, when he resigned. In 1851 he re- 
moved to Springfield, Mass., where he prepared 
a work on materia medica (vol. i. in 2 parts, 
Springfield, 1857-'60). 



TULTCHA 



TUNGSTEN 



29 



TFLTCH1, or Tultsha (anc. jfigissus), a town 
of Bulgaria, on the right bank of the Danube, 
6 m. above the junction of its Sulina and St. 
George's arms, 12 m. S. S. W. of Ismail, and 
45 m. W. of Sulina ; pop. variously estimated 
between 13,000 and 20,000. It is a port of 
considerable commercial importance. The for- 
mer fortress was damaged by the Russians in 
1789 and 1791, and utterly destroyed in 1828, 
after which the present town was laid out. 
It was occupied by the Russians during the 
spring of 1854. Darius crossed the Danube in 
the vicinity of ancient JEgissus in his expedi- 
tion against the Scythians. 

TUMOR (Lat. tumere, to swell), an excessive 
growth of tissue confined to a limited region, 
not inflammatory. Tumors are described as 
"benign" or "malignant," as "homologous" 
or " heterologous." A benign tumor is one 
which does not, except by its mechanical 
action, interfere with life, and has generally 
no tendency to recur after removal. A malig- 
nant tumor is one produced by or inducing a 
constitutional taint, and usually reappearing 
after removal. A homologous tumor is one 
the structure of which is like tissues normally 
existing in the body. A heterologous tumor is 
one composed of tissues unlike to those nor- 
mally present. Though a foundation of truth 
lies in this nomenclature of sufficient strength 
to have misled most physicians, our present 
knowledge of the histology and clinical his- 
tories of these growths has clearly shown that 
these distinctions are erroneous. The extremes 
are well marked, but the boundary line is ir- 
regular or confused. To what the growth of 
tumors can be ascribed is undetermined. That 
it is due to a perverted nutrition is certain, 
but how or why cannot be explained. The ex- 
citing cause is always mechanical, either from 
without or within the body ; the predisposing 
cause, apart from heredity or mal-nutrition, 
specific or of other character, is obscure. With 
such a knowledge of tumors, an accurate clas- 
sification is impossible, but one can be made 
which will greatly assist in the diagnosis, prog- 
nosis, and treatment of these growths, and 
also in the examination of their minute struc- 
tures, viz. : 1, cystic tumors ; 2, those made up 
of simple or composite tissues, aggregated or 
arranged as usually found in the adult body; 
3, those made up of simple tissues, aggregated 
or arranged in a manner deviating widely from 
the normal, the cell element largely predomi- 
nating. A cystic tumor is one having a limit- 
ing membrane which exists normally, or is 
formed by a condensation of surrounding tis- 
sue, or is a production of new tissue. The 
contents may be fluid or solid. Housemaids' 
knee is an example of a fluid cystic tumor, the 
limiting membrane of which exists normally. 
The sebaceous tumor of the scalp is an ex- 
ample of one which is solid, produced by an 
obstruction in its duct to the secretion of a 
gland. A blow on the head may cause an ef- 
fusion of blood beneath the scalp, which, by its 



outward pressure and irritation, can produce 
and excite the formation of a cyst wall. In 
this class will be comprised most ovarian tu- 
mors, kidney cysts, congenital tumors contain- 
ing hair, &c. To the second class belong all 
tumors of a fibrous, fatty, or cartilaginous 
nature, either alone or combined, and those 
made -up of composite tissues, such as the vas- 
cular and glandular tumors. To the third class 
belong such growths as consist mainly of cells, 
or of cells mingled with other tissues in an ir- 
regular and abnormal manner: tubercle, sar- 
coma, cancer, &c. Making use of the terms 
employed in the nomenclature mentioned 
above, tumors in the first and second classes 
are homologous and generally benign; those 
in the third class are heterologous and as a 
rule malignant. The chief interest, as regards 
prognosis, centres upon tumors of the third 
class. Opinion is divided as to whether cancer, 
using this term in its common signification, 
and taking this member of the class as the 
most important surgically, is primarily a local 
disease affecting the constitution only secon- 
darily, or whether it is merely the local mani- 
festation of a preexisting constitutional taint. 

TUNBRIDGE, or Tonbridge, a market town of 
Kent, England, on the Tun, near its entrance 
into the Medway, 11 m. S. W. of Maidstone ; 
pop. in 1871, 8>209. It consists for the most 
part of one long and well built street, and 
contains six churches, an endowed grammar 
school lately rebuilt, and several literary and 
charitable institutions. There are ruins of a 
gateway flanked by round towers, once be- 
longing to the castle built by the first earl of 
Clare and Hertford in the llth century. The 
refectory of a priory founded by the same earl 
is still standing. Tunbridge has manufactures 
of gunpowder and fancy wooden wares, and a 
considerable trade in coal and lumber. 

TUNBR1DGE WELLS, a market town of Kent 
and Sussex, England, in a beautiful country, 
15 m. S. W. of Maidstone ; pop. in 1871, 19,410. 
It is a fashionable watering place, and consists 
chiefly of clusters of houses on detached emi- 
nences, and of a parade paved with pantiles in 
antique style, and lined with fine trees on one 
side, and on the other with assembly rooms, 
libraries, and shops. The surrounding country 
abounds in mineral springs. The one to which 
the place owes its origin is a light pure cha- 
lybeate, and the water is considered remark- 
ably efficacious in cases of weak digestion. 

TUNGSTEN (Swed. tung, heavy, and sten, 
stone), a metal existing in the form of an acid 
combined with lime in the mineral scheelite or 
tungstate of lime, and also combined with iron 
and manganese in the mineral wolfram. Tung- 
stic acid was discovered by Scheele in 1781, 
and metallic tungsten two years later by the 
brothers D'Elhujar. Its German name Wol- 
framium gives its symbol, W. It is obtained 
as a heavy iron-gray metal, very hard and dif- 
ficult of fusion, and of the high specific gravity 
17'6, by intensely heating tungstic acid made 



30 



TUNGUSES 



into a paste with oil, in a crucible lined with 
charcoal, for some hours. The tungstic acid 
is procured by decomposing the tungstate of 
lime with hydrochloric acid, which dissolves 
the lime and leaves the tungstic acid. The 
chemical equivalent of tungsten is 184. Tung- 
sten combines with several other metals, form- 
ing alloys of interest. Its combination with 
cast iron is remarkable for its extraordinary 
hardness; and it is said that cast steel con- 
taining 10 per cent, of tungsten is greatly 
improved in tenacity, hardness, and suscepti- 
bility of taking a fine temper. Notwithstand- 
ing its reputed qualities, tungsten steel has 
not been generally introduced, and compara- 
tively little is made. Of the two oxides of 
tungsten, W0 2 and WOs, the latter only, or 
tungstic anhydride, is of particular interest. 
This occurs native in bright yellow cubes, also 
as an earthy substance like ochre at Lane's 
mine, Monroe, Conn., Oabarrus co., N. 0., and 
a few other places. But the usual form of the 
acid is in the combinations already named, 
and of these wolfram is the most common 
ore of the metal. This is a brownish black 
mineral, of metallic lustre, of hardness 5 ft> 
5 '5, and specific gravity 7'1 to 7'55. It is 
often found associated with tin ore in Corn- 
wall, Saxony, Bohemia, and France. In the 
United States it has been found at Monroe, 
Conn., with native bismuth, galena, blende, 
&c. ; also at Trumbull in the same state, and 
near Mine La Motte, Mo., and Blue Hill bay, 
Me. Tungstic acid is also found in combina- 
tion with lead, forming the mineral scheele- 
tine, and artificial tungstate of lead is prepared 
as a pigment resembling white lead. The fol- 
lowing are some of the attempted applications 
of the compounds of tungsten to economical 
purposes: tungstic acid for coloring yellow; 
oxide of tungsten for coloring blue ; tungstate 
of soda in dyeing and calico printing, and as 
a substitute for stannate of soda. The com- 
pounds of tungsten have been thoroughly stud- 
ied by Roscoe and Zettnow, but none of them 
possess particular interest beyond those already 
described. 

TUNGUSES, a tribe of N. E. Siberia, of Mon- 
golian origin, extending as far W. as the Yenisei 
and as far E. as Anadyrsk, in Ion. 171. They 
number about 70,000. Among their allied 
tribes are the Monzhurs-and the Gilyaks and 
others of the Amoor. The Mantchoos belong 
to the Tungusic stock. The Tunguses proper 
and their congeners the Lamuts are well dis- 
posed, and mostly belong to the Greek church 
and pay tribute to the czar. They are gener- 
ally divided into reindeer, horse, and dog Tun- 
guses; but they are chiefly devoted to the rein- 
deer, which they use for riding and for carry- 
ing freight, while other tribes use them chiefly 
in sledges. The Tunguses and the Lamuts are 
very slender, and have dark olive complexions, 
no beards, straight black hair, and oblique eyes. 
Men and women wear almost the same rich 
costume of fur hoods and pantaloons, short 



TUNIS 

deer-skin boots, and highly ornamented buck- 
skin aprons. They differ greatly from the 
Tchuktchis and Koriaks, though leading the 
same nomadic life ; while among the latter there 
are men owning thousands of reindeers, one 
possessing 300 would be deemed immensely 
rich among the Tunguses. Unlike most other 
tribes, they never break up their tents without 
leaving a pole as a landmark for resuming the 
same habitation on returning from their wan- 
derings. The Russian traders of the sea of 
Okhotsk derive most of their supply of Sibe- 
rian squirrel skins for the European markets 
from the Tunguses and Lamuts in that region. 

TUNICA, a N. W. county of Mississippi, bor- 
dering on the Mississippi river, which sepa- 
rates it from Arkansas, and intersected by the 
Coldwater river and other streams ; area, 750 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 5,358, of whom 4,127 
were colored. The surface is flat, and in many 
places swampy, and the soil fertile. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 4,500 bushels of 
wheat, 2,000 of oats, 1,500 of barley, 82,155 
of Indian corn, and 6,424 bales of cotton. 
There were 240 horses, 645 mules and asses, 
413 milch cows, 1,409 other cattle, 33 sheep, 
and 1,812 swine. Capital, Austin. 

TUNICATES. See MOLLUSCOIDS. 

TUNIS. I. One of the Barbary states of N. 
Africa, bounded N. and E. by the Mediterra- 
nean, S. E. by Tripoli, 8. by the desert of Sa- 
hara, and W. by Algeria, between lat. 32 20' 
and 37 20' N., and Ion. 7 20' and 11 30' E.; 
extreme length about 350 m., general breadth 
130 m. ; area, about 45,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 
2,000,000. Besides the capital, of the 'same 
name, the chief towns are Kairwan, Susa, Ilam- 
mamet, Bizerta, Kef, and Sfax. The coast line 
is irregular, and has three extensive indenta- 
tions, forming the gulfs of Tunis, Hammamet, 
and Cabes (Syrtis Minor). The only consid- 
erable river is the Mejerda (anc. Bagradaa), 
which falls into the gulf of Tunis after a N. 
E. course of about 200 m. Near its mouth, 
and for some distance W. of it, are several 
large lagoons. The Shot Kebir (anc. Palus 
Tritoni*), over 100 m. long, and the Shot 
Gharnis, further W., over 60 m. long, in the 
southern part of the country near the Sahara, 
are marshy depressions which become nearly 
dry in summer. The interior of Tunis is but 
little known. The N. W. portion is moun- 
tainous, the summits having a height in many 
places of 4,000 or 5,000 ft. The mountains 
are well timbered, and have many tracts of 
cultivated land and olive plantations on their 
lower slopes. An extensive plain or table 
land, 100 m. long by 30 m. broad and quite 
level, extends from this region to the gulf of 
Hammamet; it is nearly destitute of trees, and 
is used by the Arabs for pasturing their horses 
and camels. S. of this plain the country is be- 
lieved to be nearly desert, though in ancient 
times it was celebrated for its fertility. Sil- 
ver, lead, and copper are found in the moun- 
tains. The climate is very healthful ; rainfalls 



TUNIS 



31 



at intervals between November and April, but 
droughts prevail during the rest of the year. 
Wheat, barley, and maize are raised, but dates 
furnish a great part of the subsistence of the 
inhabitants. Olives, tobacco, cotton, indigo, 
and various drugs and dyes are grown ; and 
the fruits of southern Europe are abundant. 
The principal domestic animals are horned 
cattle, mules, and camels ; the breed of horses, 
once famous, has been allowed to degenerate. 
The tunny and sponge fisheries on the coast 
are important. The lion, panther, lynx, ounce, 
wolf, and boar are the principal wild animals 
found in the country. The people of the in- 
terior are principally Arabs and Kabyles, while 
those of the coast comprise Turks, Moors, 
Jews, and Christians, with various degrees of 
mixture. They are generally good-looking, 
but very ignorant. The language is a dialeet 
of Arabic, but an Italian idiom ia used by the 
traders. The Arabs resemble the Bedouins of 
Arabia in their mode of life, but are inhospi- 
table to strangers. The Kabyles live on the 
mountains in villages of rudely constructed 
huts, and subsist chiefly on dates, bread, and 
milk. Arms are carried by all classes, and on 
the borders of Algeria the inhabitants do not 
acknowledge allegiance to either government. 
The religion is strict Mohammedanism. The 
principal manufactures are woollen fabrics, 
particularly the red caps so much worn along 
the shores of the Mediterranean ; considerable 
numbers of skins are tanned and dyed ; and 
trade is carried on with Europe and the inte- 
rior of Africa. The government of Tunis, 
though nominally dependent on Turkey, and 
called a regency, is in reality a perfectly inde- 
pendent and absolute despotism. The sove- 
reign is known as the bey. He pays no trib- 
ute, but is nominally restrained from making 
war or ceding territory without the consent of 
the sultan. The Turkish law of succession to 
the throne prevails. There are many ancient 
ruins in different parts 
of Tunis, more particu- 
larly in the valley of 
the Mejerda, where at 
Dukhah (anc. Thugga) 
are temples, an arch, 
cisterns, baths, bar- 
racks, gates, theatres, 
an aqueduct, and many 
inscriptions. The great 
aqueduct which con- 
veyed the water 52 m. 
from the mountain of 
Zagwam to Carthage 
can still be traced along 
the whole line, while 
some remaining por- 
tions rise to the height 
of 98 ft. Under the 
Romans this country formed the province of 
Africa, and was divided into Zeugitana in 
the north and Byzacena in the south ; and its 
most important cities were Carthage, Utica, 
799 VOL. xvi. 3 



Hippo Zarytus (Bizerta), Hadrumetum, Lep- 
tis Minor, Thapsus, and Zama. In A. D. 429 
it was taken by the Vandals, and a century 
afterward became subject to the Greek empire, 
under which it remained till N. Africa was 
overrun by the Mohammedans in the latter 
part of the 7th century. Early in the 18th 
century it became independent. Louis IX. of 
France in 1270 made an unsuccessful crusa- 
ding expedition against it, and died before the 
capital. In 1535 Charles V., after defeating 
the pirate Khair ed-Din Barbarossa and cap- 
turing Goletta and the city of Tunis, made the 
country tributary to Spain ; but in 1574 it was 
conquered by the Turks. The Moors ultimate- 
ly enforced their right of electing their own 
bey, agreeing only to pay a certain tribute to 
the sultan at Constantinople. The pirates of 
Tunis subsequently became very daring, but 
in Cromwell's time received severe chastise- 
ment from the British under Admiral Blake, 
and afterward from France and Holland. In 
1816 the Tunisians agreed to renounce piracy 
and Christian slavery. Under Ahmed Bey 
(who succeeded in 1837) and his successors, 
Mohammed Bey (1855) and Mohammed Sadyk 
Bey (1859), various reforms were effected, in- 
cluding the suppression of the slave trade and 
of many monopolies and oppressive taxes, the 
establishment of military conscription and of 
mixed tribunals, and the creation of a munici- 
pal government for the capital. French influ- 
ence has long been predominant in the coun- 
try. II. A city (anc. Tunes or Tunis), capital 
of the state, on the W. side of a lagoon near 
the mouth of the river Mejerda, connected 
with the gulf by the narrow channel of Go- 
letta, 400 m. E. of Algiers, in lat. 36 46' K, 
Ion. 10 9' E. ; pop. estimated at 120,000. It 
is surrounded by a double wall 5 m. in circuit, 
and defended by a strong castle, which com- 
mands the approach from the sea, and by sev- 
eral forts. Its appearance from a distance is 




The Bey's Palace, Tunis. 

imposing, but the streets are narrow and dirty, 
and the houses generally consist of a single 
story withoxit windows on the exterior. The 
town is well supplied with water. Among 



32 



TUNKERS 



the principal buildings are the bey's palace, 
many handsome mosques, and several large 
barracks, one of which has room for 4,000 
men. There are Moorish schools and a col- 
lege, a Roman Catholic church and convent, a 
Greek church, a theatre, and public baths and 
bazaars. The leading manufactures are wool- 
len cloths and caps, embroidery, leather, and 
essences of musk, rose, and jasmine, 
trade is extensive, comprising exports of oil, 
caps, soap, grain, wool, hides, cattle, sponges, 
wax, gold dust, and ivory, and imports of cot- 
ton, linen, and woollen goods, tin, lead, iron, 
coffee, sugar, and spices. The depth of water 
at Tunis is only 6 or 7 ft., and vessels lie in 
tke gulf and discharge by lighters. In 1873, 
1,272 vessels of 121,957 tons entered the port. 
Tunis is not far from the site of ancient Car- 
thage, and is itself a place of great antiquity. 

JUNKERS. See DUNKERS. 

TUMEL, a subterranean or subaqueous way, 
constructed for purposes of passage. In mi- 
ning, the term is often applied to horizontal ex- 
cavations, especially to such as are known by 
the designations gangway, heading, drift, and 
adit, used as underground roads or for the p\is- 
sage of water. (See ADIT.) Herodotus men- 
tions a tunnel in the island of Samos, cut 
through a mountain 150 orygia (900 ft.) high. 
Its length was seven stadia (4,247 ft.), and its 
cross section 8 ft. high by 8 ft. wide. In Bceo- 
tia a tunnel was constructed for the drainage 
of Lake Copais. When Ca3sar arrived at Alex- 
andria, he found the city almost hollow under- 
neath from the numerous aqueducts; every 
private dwelling had its reservoir, supplied by 
subterranean conduits from the Nile. The 
aqueducts of the ancient Romans, and of the 
Peruvians and Mexicans, included remarkable 
tunnels. (See AQUEDUCT.) Among the many 
Roman aqueducts on which tunnels were built 
were the Aqua Claudia, of which 36^ m. passed 
underground; the Aqua Appia, built in 312 
B. C., 11,190 Roman paces in length, 11,130 
being underground and arched ; and the Aqua 
Virgo, 14,105 paces long, 12,865 underground. 
A tunnel was begun in 398 B. 0. to tap Lake 
Albanus, at the instance, Livy tells us, of the 
oracle of Delphi. It was 6,000 ft. long, 6 ft. 
high, and 3 ft. wide. Fifty shafts were sunk 
on its line, and the work was finished within 
one year, though it was driven through the 
hardest lava. A similar work of greater mag- 
nitude was undertaken to connect Lake Fuci- 
nus (now Celano) with the river Liris (now 
Garigliano) ; 30,000 men were employed on it 
for ten years, and it was finished at a vast ex- 
pense A. D. 52. A minute account of the mod- 
ern clearing out of this work by the Neapolitan 
government may be found in " Blackwood's 
Edinburgh Magazine," vol. xxxviii., p. 657. 
The accuracy of the surveying in these works 
is astonishing when we consider the rudeness 
of the instruments. Among those used in 
levelling by the Romans were the libra aqua- 
ria and dioptra, of which we have no clear 



TUNNEL 

description. The ehorobates seems to have 
been preferred. It consisted simply of a rod 
or plank about 20 ft. long, mounted on two 
legs, at its extremities, of equal length. The 
rods or legs were secured by diagonal braces, 
on which were marked correctly vertical lines. 



Fio. 1. 

A plumb line attached at each extremity, and 
passing over these diagonal braces, indicated 
whether the instrument was level. When the 
wind prevented the plumb bobs from remain- 
ing stationary, a channel in the upper edge of 
the horizontal rod was filled with water, and 
if the water touched equally both extremities 
the level was supposed to be correct ; and then 
the observation of the descent or elevation of 
the ground was made with accuracy. Tunnel- 
ling might be classed under four general heads : 
1, ancient tunnelling, to which we have just 
referred ; 2, modern tunnelling through soft 
ground (clay deposit, &c.) and loose rock, re- 
quiring arching ; 8, modern tunnelling through 
solid rock before the introduction of machi- 
nery ; 4, modern tunnelling through solid rock 
with the aid of machinery. The art of tunnel- 
ling at the present day constitutes a profession 
in itself, now developments succeeding each 
other with great rapidity. Figs. 1 and 2 show 
cross sections that may bo adopted in tunnel- 
ling: fig. 1 through rock tenacious enough to 
require no artificial support ; fig. 2 where arch- 
ing may be found necessary. These examples 
are from plans adopted in the construction of 
the Musconetcong tunnel, New Jersey, on the 




FIG. 2. 



Lehigh Valley railroad extension, finished in 
1875. Tunnelling through Soft Ground. Un- 
der the designation " soft ground," technically 
so called, the miner includes all such material 
as clay, earth deposit, &c., which, if tunnelled 
through, requires a temporary timber arch to 



TUNNEL 



hold it in place, until the permanent brick or 
stone arching is built. Loose rock, as its name 
indicates, is rock either so seamy and broken 
by folding or compression, or so disintegrated, 
as to require an arch, generally much lighter 
than those necessary in soft ground. Accord- 
ing to the method generally adopted in driving 
a tunnel through soft ground, the first step is, 
if practicable, to open out a small bottom head- 
ing or adit, for the double purpose of drain- 
ing the ground above and making an opening 
through which to carry away the material sub- 
sequently excavated; this heading also is re- 
quired for passing hi the materials used in 
arching. Often, however, owing to long and 
heavy cuttings necessary in the outside ap- 
proaches to a tunnel, it is deemed advisable to 
begin with a top heading before the bottom 
bench of the open cut is brought up to the 
face of the proposed work. If a bottom head- 
ing has been driven (and it is generally best to 
do so when practicable in soft ground, while 
the opposite rule holds in tunnelling through 




FIG. 3. 

hard rock), one of the methods of subsequent 
enlarging that may be used is shown in figs. 3, 
4, and 5. These represent the English plan, 
so called, it being the one generally adopted 
in England. For a full description of this 
method of enlarging, see the " Engineering 
and Mining Journal," vol. xix., p. 392 ; also 
Simms's " Treatise on the Blechingly and Salt- 
wood Tunnels." Fig. 3 shows the bottom 
heading driven, with a section excavated and 
ready for arching. The enlarging and arching 
of a tunnel to its full size is generally done in 
lengths or sections. If there is no top head- 
ing previously driven, 15 or 20 ft. of an ad- 
vanced heading is excavated at the top of the 
proposed work (shown in figs. 3 and 4). Heavy 
longitudinal bars of timber are then succes- 
sively put in, beginning with those num- 
bered 3, 6, and 7. The miners gradually work 
down, putting in a temporary arch of timber. 
When this is done, and foundations have been 
dug for the succeeding masonry, the masons 
take the place of the miners, and run up an 



arch under the timber, which is then with- 
drawn during the excavation o.f the next sec- 
tion, and the spaces left are securely blocked 




FIG. 4. 

up with pieces of timber or stone. In some 
methods of tunnelling, it is deemed more secure 
to brick the timber in and leave it in place, 
though at a considerable cost, especially when 
it is necessary to bring all the heavy timber 
down a shaft or slope, and through a log dis- 
tance underground. Shafts are often sunk, 
and sometimes slopes, so that the work may 
be attacked from several points at once. Fig. 
5 shows the arch built, and is divided into two 
portions : that on the left shows the completed 
tunnel, with the ballast in place and the track 
laid ; that on the right shows the arch in place, 
and the supporting timbers struck, but still un- 
drawn. Where the ground is very treacherous, 
and much water is encountered, an inverted 
arch is often put in across the bottom of the 
tunnel, to withstand the pressure from below. 
Other methods are in vogue on the continent 
of Europe. A description of a new system of 
tunnelling by the use of iron centres, in place 




FIG. 5. 



of timber, devised by himself, may be found 
in Kziha's work, cited below. Tunnelling 
through Rock. One of the methods of tunael- 



TUNNEL 



ling through loose rock, with subsequent tim- 
bering and arching, is shown in figs. 6 and 7 ; 
it is the one most used in America, and is ex- 
peditious, though probably more expensive than 
the European systems. The timbers 1 and 2 
are put in to support the roof and sides when 
the top heading (which is generally preferred 
through rock) is driven; the "legs" (2) are 
occasionally braced by a bar (3), which is sup- 




FIG. 6. 

ported by a raker (4), while the sides are being 
dressed down when the tunnel is enlarged and 
arched. The apace between the timber and 
the rock 'above, and between the masonry and 
the timber (which latter in this work should 
be left in place), is packed tight with fragments 
of stone, to prevent a sudden fall or stress be- 
ing brought to bear on the masonry. Tunnel- 
ling through solid rock by hand labor is still, in 




Fio. 7. 

many cases, held to be more economical than 
by machinery. It is certainly so, as yet, in the 
case of small tunnels throug'h a comparatively 
soft rock, where the necessary cost of a plant 
of air drills and compressors would be in excess 
of the economy in time gained by their use. 
In driving a tunnel through rock, an advanced 
heading is first driven either at bottom or top- 
and this may either be of the full width of the 



proposed excavation, or narrower. The head- 
ing is always the most difficult and expensive 
part of the work ; for whether it be driven at 
top or bottom, the miner, in removing the re- 
maining portion of rock, of course has much 
less resistance to contend against in blasting. 
Removing the top rock or the lower " bench " 
is more like open-air quarrying. Longer holes 
can be drilled, and heavier charges of powder 
used. At the present day, however, most 
heavy tunnel work is carried on with the aid 
of machine drills, driven by compressed air, 
which, on being liberated after acting as a 
motor, serves to ventilate the work. Since 
the introduction of machinery, the rate of 
driving attained in tunnelling has been greatly 
increased. Machine drilling was born of the 
necessity for some more rapid method of ex- 
ecuting certain works, deemed almost too heavy 
to be accomplished by ordinary means. These 
were, in Europe, the Mont Cenis tunnel (see 
CENIS, MONT), and in America, the Iloosac tun- 
nel in Massachusetts. Various types of drills 
have been invented and tried abroad ; among 
them the Sommeiller, Dubois-Francois, Sachs, 
Osterkamp, Brydon Davidson and Warring- 
ton, Azolino dell' Acqua, Ferroux, McKean, 
and others. Among compressors that of M. 
Colladon of Geneva may be particularly noted. 
At Mont Cenis the air pumps were worked by 
hydraulic power. The perforators used there 
were built partly from designs already pre- 
sented, but improved with original modifica- 
tions made by the engineers in charge, Messrs. 
Sommeiller, Grandis, and Grattoni. A descrip- 
tion of the Sommeiller machines may be found 
in the Portefeuille economique des machines 
(1863). The Mont Cenis tunnel was begun by 
hand labor in 1857, and finished in 1871, at a 
total cost of about $15,000,000. The follow- 
ing table, from M. Opperman's NouteUes an- 
nales de la construction (1869), shows the rate 
of advance in that work by hand, and the 
increased rate attained immediately after the 
first introduction of machinery down to 1865, 
working throughout with two headings : 



YEARS. 


By hnd, 
mttm. 


By band and 

machinery, 
metre*. 


By machlBcry 
alone, 
metre*. 


1857... 


88 
459 
8fi9 
813 


81 

C 


58 
3 


"l 

1,8 

M 


28 


1858 


1S59 


160 


1S61 


1S62 




1868 




]64 




1865 









The St. Gothard tunnel, also through the Alps, 
is now (1876) in progress. From a late paper 
on the subject by Daniel K. Clark, M. Inst. 
C. E., London, we obtain the following general 
facts concerning it. The length of the tunnel 
is to be 16,295 yards or 9J m. The contract 
prices sum up to a total estimated cost of 
1,896,945. Construction was begun in the 



TUNNEL 



35 



autumn of 1872, and the total progress at- 
tained (two headings) up to Aug. 31, 1875, 
was as follows : 


YEARS. 


By band, 
yards. 


By machines, 
yards. 


Total, 
yardi. 


1872 


182 
205 


'972 
1,951 

1,824 


5,084 


1873 


1S74 


1S75 









The heading is driven at the top, about 8 ft. 
square, dynamite being used as an explosive. 
Dubois-Francois perforators were first used, 
making an average advance of 6'63 lineal feet 
a day. They were succeeded by Ferroux's, 
the daily advance being raised to 10-11 ft. 
Subsequently the machines of two or three 
inventors, Dubois-Francois, McKean, and Fer- 
roux, were placed and worked together on 
the same carriage ; and it is said by M. Louis 
Sautter, in an official report published in the 
Revue indmtrielle, Aug. 18, 1875, that the 
improved McKean drill has proved to be de- 
cidedly superior to any of its competitors ; its 
best work on competition, with 6| atmos- 
pheres of pressure, was a penetration of 12 
in. a minute. While actually at work, its rate 
will vary from 3 to 8 in. a minute, with about 
800 strokes. The power is derived from water 
through the agency of turbines. The cylinders 
or air pumps of the compressors are 18'1 in. 
in diameter, and the stroke is limited to 17f 
in., in order that the mean speed of piston may 
not exceed 266 ft., or 90 revolutions a minute, 
the turbine making 390 turns. The compressed 
air is cooled on Dr. Colladon's system ; every 
piece that is in contact with the air when un- 
dergoing compression being cooled by cur- 
rents of cold water, passed through air-tight 
envelopes. It is calculated that at the present 
rates of advance the St. Gothard tunnel may 
be finished during the summer of 1879, or 
within seven years from the date of M. Favre's 
contract. In America, both North and South, 
many tunnels have been built, the modern ones 
being mostly driven since the introduction of 
railroads. Until the building of the Hoosac 
tunnel in Massachusetts, all tunnelling through 
rock in the United States was done by hand 
labor, by the methods above described. The 
project of tunnelling the Hoosac mountain was 
broached as early as 1825. In that year a board 
of commissioners, with Loammi Baldwin as 
engineer, was appointed to ascertain the prac- 
ticability of making a canal from Boston to 
the Hudson, in the vicinity of the junction of 
the Erie canal with that river. Their report 
(" Massachusetts Commissioners' Report," 1826, 
p. 141) declares that " there was no hesitation 
in deciding in favor of the Deerfield and Hoo- 
sac river route," and that " there is no hesita- 
tion therefore in deciding in favor of a tunnel ; 
but even if its expense should exceed the other 
mode of passing the mountain, a tunnel is 
preferable." Railways being shortly after in- 



troduced, the canal project was dropped. In 
1828 surveys were made for three routes to 
afford Massachusetts railway connection with 
the west, viz., by Greenfield, by Northampton, 
and by Springfield. The last or southern route 
was chosen. The work was not begun imme- 
diately, but Massachusetts never lost sight of 
the advantage of a direct route to the Hudson 
river. This was finally accomplished in 1842, 
by the completion of the Western railroad to 
Albany. In 1848 application was made for a 
charter for a railroad from the terminus of 
the Vermont and Massachusetts line, at or near 
Greenfield, through the valley of the Deerfield 
and Hoosac, to the state line, there to unite 
with a railroad leading to Troy. The loca- 
tion was filed in the clerk's office of Franklin 
and Berkshire counties in November, 1850. In 
1854 an act was passed " to enable the Troy and 
Greenfield railroad company to construct the 
Hoosac tunnel," by which the state, on certain 
conditions, lent its credit to the amount of $2,- 
000,000. The estimated cost of the proposed 
double-track tunnel was $1,948,557, and of the 
road and equipment $1,401,443 ; total, $3,850,- 
000. Still the company were unable to raise the 
funds necessary, in addition to the state loan. 
In 1855 a contract was made with E. W. Serrel 
and co., under which some work was done ; 
and another was made with them in 1856 for 
the construction of the road and tunnel for 
$3,500,000, they subscribing $440,000. This 
contract also fell through, as did one made 
with H. Haupt and co. in the same year, by 
which the railroad company agreed to pay 
$3,880,000 for the completion of the road and 
tunnel. In 1858 a contract was again made 
with H. Haupt and co., by which the contract- 
ors themselves agreed "to assume the labor 
of collecting subscriptions and of carrying on 
and completing the Troy and Greenfield rail- 
road and the Hoosac tunnel." Under this 
contract H. Haupt and co. were to receive $2,- 
000,000 in bonds of the state of Massachusetts, 
to be exclusively appropriated to work done 
on the tunnel ; $900,000 in mortgage bonds of 
the company ; and $1,100,000 in cash, through 
cash subscriptions and capital stock of the 
company. Under this contract the work was 
vigorously prosecuted up to July, 1861, when, 
a difference arising between the contractors 
and the state engineer, a certificate for the 
amount claimed by the former on a payment 
was refused, and the work was thereupon 
abandoned by them. In 1862 an act passed 
the Massachusetts legislature, providing "for 
the more speedy completion of the Troy and 
Greenfield railroad and Hoosac tunnel." Un- 
der this act a board of commissioners was ap- 
pointed to examine into the matter on the 
part of the state. At the request of these 
commissioners, the Troy and Greenfield rail- 
road company, acting under the authority of 
certain provisions of the act, surrendered to 
the commonwealth of Massachusetts, under 
the several mortgages held by said common- 



36 



TUNNEL 



wealth, the road and property of the company ; 
such surrender having been authorized by the 
board of directors, by a vote passed on Aug. 
18, 1862. This action was ratified by a vote 
of the stockholders, and on Sept. 4, 1862, the 
commissioners took possession of the road and 
its property. The commission after a full ex- 
amination made a thorough report (dated Feb. 
28, 1863), embracing the three following most 
valuable sub-reports: 1, a report of Charles 
E. Storrow on European tunnels ; 2, a report 
by Benjamin H. Latrobe on the Hoosac tun- 
nel ; 3, a report by James Laurie on the Hop- 
sac tunnel and the Troy and Greenfield rail- 
road. In conclusion the commissioners re- 
commended that the work should be under- 
taken by the commonwealth. At this point 
the cost and estimates were as follows : 

Amount advanced by the state up to the date of 

the commission $1,431,447 

Estimated cost by the commission of completing 

the tunnel (double track) 8,218,823 

Estimated cost of putting the road from Greenfield 

to the mountain in running order 662,000 

Estimated cost of construction of two miles of road 

from western portal of tunnel to North Adams. . 
Estimated additional cost of depot buildings, &c . . 75.000 
Estimated cost of rolling stock 275^)00 

Total estimated final cost of road and tunnel. . $5,719,330 

At this time, according to the report of James 
Laurie above noted, the condition of the work 
proper was as follows : 

Whole length of the proposed tunnel, feet 24,416 

Deduct portion already excavated at each end. 2,400 
Deduct portion between shaft and proposed 
western portal of tunnel 1,850 4,250 



Leaving to be excavated under the mountain . . 



20,166 



The shaft here referred to was on the western 
slope of the mountain, 325 ft. in depth. Mr. 
Laurie estimated that by sinking a central 
shaft about 1,000 ft. deep and working there- 
from (which was afterward done) the tunnel, 
advancing at the rates respectively of 55 ft. a 
month from the two end portals, and 40 ft. 
each way from the shaft, would be completed 
in 11 years from date, t. e., in 1874 ; this es- 
timate being based on the supposition that the 
central shaft would reach bottom in four years 
from its commencement. Work was resumed 
on the tunnel under the auspices of the state 
in October, 1863, under the control of the 
same board of commissioners, who appointed 
Thomas Doane chief engineer in charge. The 
governor at the same time appointed Benja- 
min H. Latrobe of Baltimore state consulting 
engineer of Hoosac tunnel. Mr. Laurie in his 
report to the commissioners says that shortly 
after the Troy and Greenfield railroad was 
chartered, the attention of inventors was turned 
to the subject of tunnelling machines. One 
was constructed at South Boston in 1851, es- 
pecially for the Hoosac tunnel, which weighed 
about 70 tons, and was designed to cut out a 
groove around the circumference of the tunnel 
13 in. wide and 24 ft. in diameter, by means 
of revolving cutters ; the central core left was 



to be subsequently blasted out with gunpow- 
der. It is reported to have cut, on a trial 
made March 16, 1853, on a vertical face of 
rock near the proposed entrance of the tun- 
nel, at the rate of 16$- in. an hour, and under 
more favorable conditions at a previous trial 
20 in. an hour. Various trials were made with 
this machine, the total distance cut by it 
amounting to about 10 ft., but it did not prove 
successful. A second machine constructed at 
Hartford, and known as the " Talbot tunnel- 
ling machine," also working on the principle 
of revolving cutters, and adapted to cut out a 
core 17 ft. in diameter, was tried about this 
time near Harlem, but proved a failure. A 
third machine was constructed in New York, 
adapted to cut a core of 8 ft. ; this was adopt- 
ed by Mr. Haupt during the continuance of 
his contract, in the early days of the tunnel, 
but also proved a failure. Experiments were 
instituted by Mr. Haupt himself, while engaged 
with his contract at Hoosac, toward the elab- 
oration of a percussion drill ; but in 1861 the 
termination of his contract for a time put an 
end to them. Afterward he again took up 
the subject, and in 1867 published a descrip- 
tion of the Haupt drill. By the time this 
invention had been perfected, the Burleigh 
drills, which have since attained so great a 
reputation (see BLASTING), had been adopted 
and were in full use at Hoosac. They were 
first tried in June, 1866, under the direction of 
the commissioners, and even in their crude and 
unimproved condition were favorably noticed 
in Chief Engineer Doane's report. In January, 
1867, the office of chief engineer was abolished, 
and the engineer corps reduced to one resident 
engineer, W. P. Granger ; Mr. Latrobe still su- 
pervising as consulting engineer. In October, 

1867, owing to the accidental lighting of some 
naphtha at the central shaft, the head house, 
shaft buildings, &c., were consumed, and 13 
lives were lost. Previous to this time portions 
of the work had been let out by contract, Messrs. 
Dull, Gowan, and White having the east and 
central shaft headings, through rock, and Mr. 
B. N. Farren the west end, through soft ground, 
including the arching of the same. Owing to 
the above mentioned accident, Messrs. Dull, 
Gowan, and White voluntarily surrendered 
their contract, received their pay, and aban- 
doned the work, returning it to the hands of 
the commissioners. Benjamin D. Frost was 
appointed superintending engineer in May, 

1868, and on Dec. 24 of that year a contract 
was effected between Messrs. Shanly brothers 
of Montreal and the commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts for the final completion in full of 
Hoosac tunnel. The dimensions were to be : 
"in rock, unarched, 24 ft. wide and 20 ft. 
high, in the clear ; where arching required, 26 
ft. wide and 24J ft. high (above the rail), in 
the clear." The prices bid in the contract 
varied in the different portions of the work, 
and also according to whether the work was 
"already begun," "to be finished," or for 



TUNNEL 



37 



"extension of full-sized tunnel." The bids 
accepted for the latter item were as follows : 
east end section, per cubic yard, $11 ; central 
section from shaft, $14 ; west end section 
(part soft ground), $12 ; for arching part of 
the tunnel with brick, per thousand of bricks 
laid, $22. The total price agreed on for the 
work specified by the contract was $4,594,268, 
the whole to be done by March 1, 1874. At 
this time Mr. Latrobe resigned as consulting 
engineer; and that post, after the successive 
resignations of James Laurie and Edward S. 
Philbrick of Boston, is now (1876) held by 
Thomas Doane. The work was vigorously 
attacked by the Messrs. Shanly at all points. 
The Burleigh drills and compressors were used 
throughout their contract with excellent re- 
sults. Under their patronage, the manufacture 
of nitro-glycerine (previously used in the tun- 
nel) was carried on and improved by George M. 
Mowbray of North Adams. The east heading 
met the one driven east from the central shaft 
on Dec. 12, 1872; the west heading met the 
one driven west from the shaft on Nov. 27, 
1873 ; the errors in alignment and levels were 
astonishingly small, especially as the former 
meeting was at a distance of 1,563 ft., the lat- 
ter of 2,056 ft., from the shaft, down which the 
plumb lines had to be carried over 1,000 ft. 
The Messrs. Shanly concluded their contract and 
effected a final settlement Dec. 22, 1874. In- 
dependently of the contract taken by them, an 
agreement was entered into between the state 
and B. N. Farren, on Nov. 19, 1874, to do cer- 
tain arching and enlarging at the eastern portal 
of the tunnel. By authority of an act passed 
by the legislature in 1874, a commission of ex- 
perts, comprising Prof. T. Sterry Hunt of Boston 
and Prof. James Hall of Albany as geologists, 
and Thomas Doane, Josiah Brown, and Daniel 
L. Harris as civil engineers, was appointed to 
examine and report on the amount of arching 
that would be still necessary. Their reports 
are embodied in that of the commission of 
1875, as is also a report from Edward S. Phil- 
brick, consulting engineer, recommending an 
additional amount of 1,600 ft. of arching, be- 
sides that included in the Shanly contract. 
"Work on this arching is still (March, 1876) in 
progress. Under a law of 1874 a board of cor- 
porators of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel, and 
Western railroad was created, who reported 
that the tunnel had up to that time cost the 
state about $14,000,000. By a subsequent act 
of 1874 the corporators were superseded by 
five directors, to whom the interest of the state 
in the tunnel and railroad was transferred. 
The next tunnel in the United States in which 
machine drills were introduced with effect, 
after their practicability had been demon- 
strated at Hoosac, was the Nesquehoning tun- 
nel in Pennsylvania, constructed under the 
direction of J. Dutton Steele as chief engineer. 
(See paper by J. Dutton Steele in " Transac- 
tions of the American Society of Civil Engi- 
neers," 1871.) Here the Burleigh drill and 



ordinary black powdr were used. The Mus- 
conetcong tunnel, on the Lehigh Valley rail- 
road extension through New Jersey, was the 
next heavy piece of work in the eastern states 
on which machine drilling was adopted. This 
tunnel was begun in April, 1872, and finished 
in June, 1875, under the charge of Robert H. 
Sayre, chief engineer and general superinten- 
dent of the Lehigh Valley railroad company. 
Charles McFadden of Philadelphia took the 
contract, and completed what has been con- 
ceded to be one of the heaviest pieces of tun- 
nel work ever attempted in America, and yet 
one of the most rapidly built. Every modern 
appliance was used. The Ingersoll drill was 
adopted, about 26 being kept on hand, and from 
16 to 18 in constant use. Four Burleigh com- 
pressors supplied the air required at the west 
end, and four Eand and Waring compressors at 
the east. Dynamite was used throughout as an 
explosive, and gave entire satisfaction. Very 
heavy difficulties were encountered in the pro- 
secution of the work, owing to the large bodies 
of water met with. The total length of the 
tunnel was a little less than one mile. It was 
begun by sinking a slope to grade on the west- 
ern side of the mountain, about one third of 
the distance through, virtually dividing the 
tunnel into one third of soft ground working 
at the west, and two thirds of very hard ground 
at the east. The headings were started east 
and west from the bottom of this slope in 
November, 1872. The east heading had been 
started in July, 1872. Owing to the heavy 
cutting necessary at the west end, the head- 
ing could not be connected with those from 
the slope, and from a shaft subsequently sunk, 
until November, 1873. In May, 1873, BO 
heavy a body of water was struck in the slope 
heading going east, that it could not be con- 
trolled. The miners were driven out, and the 
slope half filled. The water undermining the 
props and backing of the timbering in the 
slope, part of the roof fell in, and the work 
at that point had to be abandoned temporarily. 
A shaft was then sunk west of the slope, and 
headings were driven east and west to tap and 
draw off this water. Here again new and 
even heavier bodies of water were encoun- 
tered, resulting in great expense and much 
loss of time. Finally the difficulties were 
overcome, the water tapped, and work re- 
sumed on the original slope heading going 
east, which met the east heading coming west 
in December, 1874, the errors in alignment 
and level being less than half an inch. (For 
further details on the construction of this tun- 
nel see a paper by Henry S. Drinker in the 
" Transactions of the American Institute of 
Mining Engineers," vol. iii.) With the admira- 
ble and delicate instruments now so readily 
obtainable, it would require a positive effort of 
carelessness on the part of the engineer to en- 
tail any serious error in tunnel surveys. Espe- 
cially noticeable among instruments are those 
recently perfected by Messrs. Heller and Bright- 



38 



TUNNEL 



ly of Philadelphia, who have made a specialty 
of tunnel transits. The above described three 
tunnels have been taken as particular ex- 
amples, because they are the latest driven at 
the present time (March, 1876), and are the 
best examples of the present stage of the art 
of tunnelling in the United States. A large 
tunnel in Nevada, known as the Sutro tunnel, 
has been in process of construction with ma- 
chinery for some years. (See NEVADA.) It 
is intended to serve as an adit to the Corn- 
stock lode. (See "Report of United States 
Sutro Tunnel Commission," Washington, Jan. 
6, 1872.) One of the first tunnels in the Uni- 
ted States was on the Alleghany Portage rail- 
road in Pennsylvania. It was built in 1831, 
double track, 900 ft. long ; contract price, $1 47 
per cubic yard ; total cost, 14,857 cubic yards, 
$21,840. Another early work was the Black 
Rock tunnel, on the Reading railroad, built in 
1836. This was 1,932 ft. long, and the exca- 
vation proper of the tunnel cost $125,935. 
According to data furnished by Mr. B. H. 
Latrobe of Baltimore, there are 44 tunnels on 
the line of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad 
and its branches, with an aggregate length of 
37,861 ft., or 7 m. 901 ft., the tunnels varying 
from 80 to 4,100 ft. in length. The Sand Patch 
tunnel, on the Pittsburgh and Connellsville 
branch, was begun in 1854 and finished in 1871. 
The work during this time was intermitted 
for a total period of nine years, owing chiefly 
to the financial embarrassments of 1858. It 
was driven through the old red sandstone, and 
cost nearly $500,000. The Kingwood tunnel, 
4,100 ft. long, was begun in September, 1849, 
and finished in May, 1852, at a total cost, in- 
cluding excavation and arching, of $724,000. 
The Broadtree tunnel, 2,350 ft. long, on the 
same road, begun in the spring of 1851, was 
completed in April, 1853, at a total cost (exca- 
vation and arching) of $503,000. The Chesa- 
peake and Ohio railroad is 423 m. long, and 
has 7 m. of tunnelling; the Big Bend tunnel, 
on the Greenbrier division, is 6,400 ft. long. 
Of the rates of progress attainable by ma- 
chine drilling, a fair average can be deduced 
from three large tunnels driven through dif- 
ferent kinds of rock. At the Hoosac tunnel, 
through mica schist and micaceous gneiss, with 
nitro-glycerine, the progress attained by Shan- 
ly brothers at the east end in 1869 averaged 
139 ft. a month, and in 1870, 126J ft. ; at the 
west end in 1870, 100J ft. In sinking the cen- 
tral shaft 1,080 ft. in depth, through rock, the 
average total progress per working month was 
21 ft.,but the 230 ft. sunk by Shanly brothers 
was driven in 7| working months, or at the rate 
of 30-7 ft. a month. At Nesquehoning, through 
conglomerate, the average attained in 12 
months' driving was 100 ft. a month ; while 
through red shale an experience of two months 
gave an average of 160 ft. a month. Common 
black powder was used, the consumption in 
the conglomerate being about 6 Ibs., and in red 
shale 3 Ibs. per cubic yard of rock broken. At 



the Musconetcong tunnel the average monthly 
advance through a very hard syenitic gneiss, 
pronounced harder by experts familiar with 
both than any body of rock met in the Hoosae 
tunnel, was in 1874: east heading, average of 
12 months, 115'8 ft. ; west heading, average 
of last 6i months, when steady work was at- 
tained, 136-8 ft. At this tunnel a shaft was 
also driven 110 ft. in depth through soft ground, 
with timbering, at an average rate of 24J ft. a 
month. The prices bid at the present day for 
tunnel excavation vary from $4 to $7 and $8 
per cubic yard. But the contract prices are not 
always a sure criterion as to the final cost ; $6 
per cubic yard is a medium bid. Very heavy 
and expensive tunnel work is often done in con- 
structing underground railways through cities. 
In these the plan generally adopted is first 
to make an open-air excavation through the 
streets, then build the arches and fill in the 
ground again. A very heavy tunnel was lately 
finished under the Lendon docks, passing also 
under some large warehouses, and needing very 
careful work. The quantity of water pumped 
was enormous. The final cost was at the 
rate of 390,000 a mile. Subaqueous Tunnels. 
Among these should be particularly noted the 
first one built under the Thames at London. 
Except however in view of its vast expense, 
and the fact that it was the forerunner of mod- 
ern subaqueous tunnelling, its record at the 
present day, since the system has been further 
developed, has no very practical interest. It 
was begun in 1807, intermitted, and resumed 
in 1825, under Sir M. I. Brunei, intermitted 
again, and at last completed and opened for 
foot passengers in 1843. Its total length is 
1,200ft.; final cost nearly 1,200 per lineal 
yard advanced. (See LONDON, vol. x., pp. 
616-617.) A tunnel that has attracted much 
attention throughout both Europe and this 
country is the one at Chicago, driven out un- 
der Lake Michigan, for the purpose of obtaining 
pure water for the city. This tunnel, begun 
in March, 1864, and aompleted in March, 1867, 
was entirely original in plan ; the engineer 
was Mr. E. S. Chesbrough. A crib was first 
sunk in Lake Michigan, about two miles from 
the shore, 58 ft. in horizontal outside measure- 
ment on each of the five sides, and 40 ft. high. 
The inner portion or well has sides parallel 
with the outer ones, 22 ft. long each, leaving 
the distance between the inner and outer faces 
of the crib, or thickness of the breakwater, 25 
ft. This breakwater was built on a flooring of 
12-inch white pine timber, laid close together. 
The outer and inner vertical faces, and the 
middle wall between them, were all of solid 
12-inch white pine timber, except the upper 
10 ft. of the outside, which was of white oak, 
to withstand better the action of the ice. The 
outer and inner walls were strengthened and 
connected with brace walls and cross ties of 
12-inch timbers, all securely bolted. The crib 
was built on land, launched, towed into place, 
filled with atone, and sunk. An iron cylinder, 









TUNNEL 

cast in 9-foot sections, of 9 ft. internal diame- 
ter and 2J in. thick, was then lowered within 
the crib to the bottom of the lake; and this 
cylinder was connected with the land two miles 
distant by a tunnel under the lake bottom. 
Gate wells were constructed in the sides of the 
crib, and after the completion of the tunnel 
the top section of the cylinder, extending above 
water level, was removed, and the water ad- 
mitted through a screen. The tunnel, of cir- 
cular cross section, was driven through a stiff 
blue clay ; diameter of excavation 5 ft., subse- 
quently lined with two rings of brick. The 
final cost in full to the city was $457,844. Ac- 
cording to the statements and books of the 
contractors, the items were: crib and outer 
shaft, $117,500; land shaft, $12,000; tunnel 
proper, $195,000; total, $324,000. The balance 
of the expenditure was used in necessary con- 
tingencies. For full details of this work see 
" Eighth Annual Eeport of the Board of Pub- 
lic Works " (Chicago, 1869) ; also a r'eport of 
Prof. W. P. Blake, commissioner of California 
to the Paris exposition (1867). A second tun- 
nel, 7 ft. in diameter, extending to the same 
crib, was completed in July, 1874, at a total cost 
of $411,510; and two tunnels for traffic have 
been constructed under Chicago river. A tun- 
nel under Lake Erie, at Cleveland, Ohio, be- 
gun in August, 1869, finished in March, 1874, 
is similar in plan, purpose, and construction 
to the one first driven under the lake at Chi- 
cago, except that much greater difficulties were 
encountered in its construction, from meeting 
several bodies of very soft ground. It is 
6,606 ft. in length, and the total cost amounted 
to $320,352. It was estimated by Capt. Tyler 
in 1873 that between 300,000 and 400,000 per- 
sons yearly crossed the English channel at Do- 
ver, that the number was constantly increas- 
ing, and that if a tunnel were built it would 
probably be doubled. The idea of a tunnel 
under the channel was first broached by M. 
Mathieu, a French engineer, who laid plans 
for one before Bonaparte in 1802. Owing to 
the subsequent disturbances the projector and 
his plans were lost sight of. Subsequently 

S'ans were proposed by M. Thome de Gamond, 
r. Payerne, Messrs. Franchot and Tessier, 
Favre, Mayer, Dunn, Austin, Sankey, Boutet, 
Hawkins Simpson, Low, Boydon, Brunlees, 
"Waenmaker, and others. To M. Thome de 
Gamond is conceded the credit of pushing the 
project to its present advancement. In 1872 
the present channel company was incorporated, 
Sir John Hawkshaw, Mr. James Brunlees, and 
M. Thome de Gamond being appointed the en- 
gineers. The route finally adopted places the 
tunnel on a line drawn from St. Margaret's bay 
near the South Foreland, on the English side, to 
a point between Sangatte and Calais in France. 
The total proposed length of the tunnel is 31 
m., of which 22 m. will be under the channel. 
Should the preliminary tests prove favorable, 
it is proposed to begin the actual construction 
by sinking shafts on either shore to the depth 



TUNNY 



39 



of 450 ft. below high-water mark. Driftways 
will be driven from the bottom of these for 
the drainage of the subsequent tunnel proper. 
The tunnel, if constructed, is to begin 200 ft. 
above the driftway, and will be driven from 
both ends. It is to be through the chalk, and 
in no part of it will there be less than 200 ft. 
of ground between the crown of the arch and 
the bed of the channel. It will be on a down 
grade of one foot in 80 to the junction of the 
drainage driftway, and then on an up grade 
of one in 2,640 to the middle of the strait. It 
is proposed to drive the driftway or heading 
with Dickinson Brunton's machine for tunnel- 
ling through chalk, which works lite an auger 
boring wood. It is believed, from actual work 
done, that this machine will advance at the 
rate of from a yard to a yard and a quarter an 
hour. At this rate it would require two years 
to construct the driftway, driving from either 
end, at an estimated cost of 800,000. After 
the heading has been driven through, it has 
been estimated that four years' time and an 
outlay of 4,000,000 will finish the work, in- 
cluding arching ; but Sir John Hawkshaw and 
his associates consider it best, before begin- 
ning the work, to double this figure as an es- 
timate. The preliminary works to be under- 
taken are the sinking of two shafts at either 
extremity of the tunnel, from which an ordi- 
nary mining driftway is to be driven about 
half a mile out under the sea, the cost of which 
is estimated at 160,000. This done, the engi- 
neers will be better able to judge of the ulti- 
mate practicability of the work. See Lehrbuch 
der gesammten Tunnelbaulcunst, by F. Eziha (6 
vols., Berlin, 1865- 1 72) ; and I)er Tunnelbau, 
by J. G. Schon (4to, Vienna, 1866). There is 
no complete work in English on modern tun- 
nelling. The facts in this article are largely 
drawn from a practical treatise on American 
and European tunnelling, now (1876) in course 
of preparation by Henry S. Drinker, E. M., of 
Philadelphia. 

TMNY, a marine fish of the mackerel family, 
and genus thynnus (Cuv.). The body is elon- 
gated and compressed, with a slender tail keeled 
in the middle, and with two oblique cutaneous 
folds at the base of the caudal fin on each side ; 
mouth large, with the teeth small, awl-shaped, 
in a single row on each jaw, and fine and 
crowded on the vomer and palate ; there are 
two dorsals, near together, the posterior fol- 
lowed by nine or ten finlets opposite those of 
the anal fin ; scales largest around the pectoral 
region, forming a kind of corslet, on the an- 
terior part of the back, and along the lateral 
line ; cerebellum remarkably large. The com- 
mon tunny of Europe ( T. milgaris, Cuv.) attains 
a length of 15 to 20 ft., and a weight of more 
than 1,000 Ibs. ; it is dark blue above, the cors- 
let lighter, sides of head white, and below 
grayish white spotted with silvery ; first dorsal, 
pectorals, and ventrals black, the other fins 
mostly flesh-colored ; the pectorals are scythe- 
shaped, and one fifth the length of the body. 



TUNSTALL 

It is very active and voracious, feeding on her- 
ring and the small migratory species. Tunnies 
are very abundant at the E. and W. ends of the 
Mediterranean, and in its narrowest portions 
generally, approaching the shores in summer 
in large shoals for the purpose of spawning ; 
at this time they are captured in large nets 
arranged in a funnel-like form. The flesh is 
highly esteemed, almost like meat, as firm as 
that of the sturgeon, but finer flavored. It is 
found also in the Atlantic and in the North 
sea. The principal fishery of the present time 
is carried on in Sicily and Sardinia. The 
American tunny (T. secundo-dorsalis, Storer), 
called also horse mackerel and albicore, attains 
a length of 9 to 12 ft. ; it is nearly black above, 
silvery on the sides, and white below; gill 
covers and pectorals silvery gray ; iris golden ; 
ventrals black above and white below ; finlets 
mostly yellow; the second dorsal is much 
higher than the first, anal further back than 
in the European tunny, and the pectorals are 
shorter. It is found from New York to Nova 
Scotia, coming into Massachusetts bay about 
the middle of June and remaining through Sep- 
tember ; it gets very fat by the end of August, 
and is then valuable for the oil, which is OD- 
tained by boiling the head and the abdomen ; 




American Tunny (Thynnus secundo-dorsalls). 



a single fish yields about 20 gallons ; it is taken 
by the harpoon, and is active, strong, and tena- 
cious of life ; it feeds on menhaden and other 
small shoal fish ; its flesh, which is rarely used 
here except for mackerel bait, resembles lean 
pork, with a fine mackerel taste. The tunny 
of the tropics (T. pelamys, Cuv.), with other 
allied genera of the family, has been described 
under BONITO. 

TONSTALL, or Tonstall, Cnthbert, an English 
prelate, born at Hatchford, Yorkshire, in 1474 
or 1475, died at Lambeth palace, Nov. 18, 1559. 
He was educated at Oxford and Cambridge, 
became a fellow of the latter university, and 
then studied at Padua. He became rector of 
Harrow-on-the-Hill in 1511, and in 1515 arch- 
deacon of Chester. In 1516 he was appointed 
master of the rolls, and sent as commissioner 
to Brussels, where he concluded two treaties 
with Charles I. of Spain (afterward Charles 
V.), and became acquainted with Erasmus. In 
1521 he was made dean of Salisbury, in 1522 
bishop of London, and in 1523 lord privy seal ; 
and he was twice ambassador to Spain and 
France. In 1530 he was translated to the bish- 
opric of Durham. He soon after resigned the 
privy seal, but he remained bishop through all 
the changes made by Henry VIII. and Edward 



TUPELO 

VI and also had a place in the councils of 
state, till October, 1552, when he was deprived 
of his bishopric and committed to the tower. 
Mary reinstated him, but declining the oath 
of supremacy on Elizabeth's accession, he was 
again deprived in July, 1559, and remained the 
guest of Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, till 
his death. His works include In Laudem Ma- 
trimonii (4to, London, 1518) ; De Arte Suppu- 
tandi Libri IV. (4to, 1522), a treatise on arith- 
metic, often reprinted ; " Compendium and Sy- 
nopsis," an abridgment of Aristotle's " Ethics" 
(8vo, Paris, 1554); "A Defence of Predesti- 
nation" (4to, Antwerp, 1555); and a volume 
of prayers (8vo, 1558). 

TUOLCMNE, an E. county of California, 
bounded N. by the Stanislaus river and E. by 
the Sierra Nevada mountains, and drained by 
the Tuolumne river; area, 1,944 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 8,150, of whom 1,524 were Chinese. 
The surface is level in the W. part, and in the 
E. mountainous and covered with excellent 
timber, which is largely exported ; the soil of 
the valleys is very fertile. It was formerly 
one of the most important mining counties of 
the state, and mining is still carried on to a 
considerable extent. The chief productions in 
1870 were 21,920 bushels of wheat, 7,995 of 
barley, 5,260 of potatoes, 48,525 Ibs. of wool, 
26,760 of butter, 51,51)0 gallons of wine, and 
5,132 tons of hay. There were 1,283 horses, 
1,681 milch cows, 2,849 other cattle, 80,117 
sheep, and 4,266 swine; 6 breweries, 5 saw 
mills, and 8 quartz mills. Capital, Sonora. 

TUOMEY, Michael, an American geologist, born 
in Cork, Ireland, Sept. 29, 1805, died in Tus- 
caloosa, Ala., March 20, 1857. He early emi- 
grated to the United States, and in 1835 gradu- 
ated at the Rensselaer polytechnic institute, 
Troy, N. Y. In 1844 he was appointed state 
geologist of South Carolina, in 1847 professor 
of geology, mineralogy, and agricultural chem- 
istry in the university of Alabama, and in 1848 
state geologist. He published a "Report on 
the Geology of South Carolina" (4to, Colum- 
bia, 1848); "First Biennial Report on the Ge- 
ology of Alabama" (8vo, Tuscaloosa, 1850); 
and, -with Prof. F. S. Holmes, "Fossils of South 
Carolina" (4to, parts i.-x., Charleston, 1855-'7). 

TUPELO, a name given by some tribes of In- 
dians to species of ni/ssa, especially N. multi- 
flora ; this is also called sour gum and black 
gum, and is described, together with the char- 
acters of the genus, under the latter title. 
There is much confusion among the species, as 
they are very variable ; there are at least four 
in the United States and one or two in the 
Himalaya mountains and other eastern locali- 
ties. The one above referred to is the most 
common. The large or one-flowered tupelo 
(N. uniftora) is found from Virginia and Ken- 
tucky southward, often growing in the water ; 
the bark is very corky, and the wood so light 
that sections of the branches and roots are 
used as floats for seines ; its large leaves, 4 to 
12 in. long, are often heart-shaped at base; 



TUPl-GUARANlS 



TUPPER 



41 



the fertile flowers are solitary ; the blue fruit 
an inch or more long. A more southern species 
is the water tupelo (N. aquaticd), which grows 
in the pine-barren swamps of North Carolina, 
and extends southward and westward ; it oc- 
curs both as a mere shrub and as a large tree, 
with smaller leaves and fruit than those of 
the common N~. multiflora, or black gum. A 
fourth species is known as the Ogeechee lime 
(jV. capitata), a small tree found near the coast 
in Georgia and Florida ; its sterile flowers are 
capitate, or in a head, and the solitary fertile 
ones are succeeded by a red fruit, an inch or 
more long, quite acid, but eatable, and in re- 
quest for making preserves. 

TUPi-GUARANIS, a widely extended family of 
Indians in South America, embracing the Gua- 
ranis proper in Paraguay, among whom the 
Jesuits established their famous missions de- 
scribed by Muratori and Charlevoix ; the east- 
ern Guaranis or Tupis in Brazil, consisting of a 
vast number of tribes chiefly on the coast ; the 
northern Guaranis, near the Orinoco ; the cen- 
tral Guaranis or Chiriguanes, in the northern 
part of the Gran Chaco; and the Omaguas 
or western Guaranis, in the district of Quito. 
These last were numerous, warlike, and pow- 
erful, and were regarded by other tribes as a 
peculiarly noble race. They refused to receive 
missionaries, and at one time carried on a 
fierce war against the viceroy of Peru. The 
Tupis and Guaranis proper were mild and un- 
warlike, falling a prey to the cannibal Aym- 
bores and to the Portuguese, who invaded 
their towns to reduce them to slavery. The 
Guaranis had not the conception of a Great 
Spirit common to the tribes in the northern part 
of the continent. They were never civilized 
except by the Jesuit system of reductions, in 
which they were kept in a kind of tutelage, or 
by their enrolment in the Brazilian army. In 
some respects they differed from other Amer- 
ican tribes and resembled natives of the Pacific 
islands. The Mandrucus, a Guarani tribe who 
fled northward from the Portuguese, build 
houses like the Dyaks, and like them dry 
and preserve the heads of their enemies ; the 
blowpipe of the Amazon and of Borneo are 
the same ; the Purupurus of the Amazon have 
the throwing stick of the Australians; while 
bamboo baskets and boxes from the Amazon 
can scarcely be distinguished from those of 
Borneo and Papua. During the flourishing 
period of the Paraguay missions in 1732, the 
Christian Guaranis numbered 144,000, but in 
1742 they had lost 50,000 by European dis- 
eases. The Portuguese in 1750 claimed and 
obtained seven missions, which were at once 
abandoned by the Indians. The suppression 
of the Jesuits was a deathblow to the mis- 
sions, and the Indians soon dwindled away. 
The Portuguese had from the first enslaved 
them, exterminating whole villages and com- 
pelling others to emigrate. The most remark- 
able exodus was that of the Tupinambas and 
Tamoyas, who under Jappy Assu emigrated 



from their southern homes and settled 3,000 
m. off on the Amazon, where they are known 
as the Mandrucus. In all Brazil there are 
only 19,000 Indians reported at the present 
time. The Chiriguanes and Omaguas hold 
their own better, but have gradually disap- 
peared from Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecua- 
dor. The original seat of the Guaranis is in 
doubt ; some think, from the higher character 
of the Omaguas and Chiriguanes, that they 
were the original stock, but their language is 
evidently but a dialect, less perfect in its struc- 
ture and vocabulary than that of the Guaranis 
on the southeast. The beauty of this language 
is extolled by many investigators of American 
linguistics. The standard grammar and vo- 
cabulary of the Guarani are the Tesoro de la 
lengua Guarani, by Padre Antonio Ruiz de 
Montoya (Madrid, 1639), and Arte y vocabu- 
lario, by the same (1640). The lingoa geral 
of Brazil is based on the Tupi, a Guarani dia- 
lect. As to it see Diccionario da lingoa Tupy, 
chamada lingoa geral, by Dias (Leipsic, 1858), 
and Chrestomathia Lingua BrazillcoB, by Dr. 
Franco (Leipsic, 1859). 

TUPPER, Martin Farqubar, an English author, 
born in London, July 17, 1810. He graduated 
at Oxford in 1832, and in 1835 was admitted 
to the bar, but has never practised. His 
" Proverbial Philosophy, a Book of Thoughts 
and Arguments originally treated" (1838; 2d 
series, 1842; 3d series, 1867), brought him 
into immediate popularity, and, in spite of 
much contemptuous criticism, has passed 
through numerous editions, and been trans- 
lated into several languages. In 1845 he was 
elected a fellow of the royal society, and he 
has received the Prussian gold medal for sci- 
ence and art. His numerous succeeding works 
include " A Modern Pyramid to commemorate 
a Septuagint of Worthies" (1839), a series of 
sonnets and essays on 70 celebrated men and 
women ; " An Author's Mind " (1841), con- 
taining plans of 30 unpublished works ; " The 
Crock of Gold," " Heart, a Social Novel," and 
" Twins, a Domestic Novel " (1844) ; " Proba- 
bilities, an Aid to Faith" (1847); " Hacte- 
nus, a Budget of Lyrics" (1848); "Surrey, a 
Rapid Review of its Principal Persons and 
Places " (1849) ; " King Alfred's Poems in 
English Metre " (1850) ; " Farley Heath " 
(1851) ; " Hymns for all Nations, in Thirty 
Languages" (1851); "Ballads for the Times" 
(1851); "Heart, a Tale" (1853); " Proba- 
bilities" (1854) ; "Lyrics" (1855); "Stephen 
Langton " (1858) ; " Three Hundred Son- 
nets " (1860) ; " Rides and Reveries of Mr. 

sop Smith" (1861); " Cithara, a Volume 
of Lyrics" (1863); "Alfred," a play (1865); 
" Raleigh," a play (1866) ; " Our Canadian 
Dominion ; Half a Dozen Ballads about a 
King for Canada," and "Twenty-one Protes- 
tant Ballads" (1868). In 1875 he wrote a 
play founded upon incidents of the American 
revolution, and introducing Washington and 
contemporary characters. In 1851 Mr. Tup- 



4:2 

per visited the United States. His life has 
been spent principally in retirement at his 
maternal estate, in the parish of Albury, near 
Guildford, Surrey. 

TURANIAN RACE AND LANGUAGES. The con- 
stituent members of this race (whose ethnolo- 
gical appellation has been chosen in reference 
to the Turan of the Persians, the land of the 
northern nomads, in contradistinction to Iran) 
are as follows : 1. The Finno-Hungarian, Uralo- 
Finnic, or Ugrian branch. Its subdivisions are : 
a, the Ugric, including the Hungarian or Ma- 
gyar as principal member, with the Vogul and 
Ugro-Ostiak in and -beyond the Ural; &, the 
Bulgaria, including the Tcheremisses and Mord- 
vins, scattered tribes along the Volga; c, the 
Permian group, of the Permian, Sirian, and 
Votiak, in eastern Russia; d, the Finnic or 
Tchudic, including the Lapp, the Finnish prop- 
,er, or Suomian, and the Esthonian. The Bash- 
kirs are also now considered as belonging to 
this branch. This is the most western branch 
of the family, lying chiefly within the limits 
of Europe; it is also the one of highest en- 
dowment, most perfect language, and most 
advanced culture. 2. The Samoyedic branch, 
comparatively insignificant in numbers, posi- 
tion, and history, and one of the lowest races 
of the Asiatic continent. The Samoyeds oc- 
cupy principally the country between the Obi 
and the Yenisei, the inhospitable shores of 
the Arctic ocean from the White sea to be- 
yond the North cape of Asia, and in small 
groups the northern mountains of central 
Asia. 3. The Turkish or Tartar (more prop- 
erly Tatar) branch, the most widely spread of 
all, reaching from Turkey in Europe to beyond 
the middle of central Asia, with important 
outliers in the yet more remote northeast, as 
the Yakuts of the Lena. Its subdivisions are 
very numerous, but are grouped in three chief 
classes : those of the southeast, in and to the 
east of Turkistan; those of the north, inclu- 
ding among others the Kirghiz and Yakuts; 
and those of the west, stretching from north- 
ern Persia through Asia Minor and the Crimea 
to Constantinople, and scattered in patches 
over the European dominions of the sultan. 
4. The Mongolian branch, composed of three 
families, East Mongols, West Mongols, and 
Buriats, inhabiting the present territory of 
Mongolia, the slopes of the Altai mountains, 
and in groups the lands bordering on Persia, 
India, and China. 5. The Tungusian branch, 
of which the principal race is the Mantchoo, 
which has held China in subjection during 
the past two centuries. There is no question 
respecting the family relationship of these 
branches. The common name Turanian is 
more frequent than any other, but various 
scholars prefer the terms Mongolian (in the 
wider sense), Uralo-Altaic, Scythian, or Tar- 
taric ; the first of these four seems to be gain- 
ing universal favor. It has been sought to 
extend still further the boundaries of this im- 
mense family, by attaching to it the Dravidian 



TURANIAN RACE AND LANGUAGES 



races of southern India and other Asiatic peo- 
ples, and even tying on the Malays and Polyne- 
sians, and the North American tribes ; but such 
sweepingly synthetic classification is, in the 
present stage of linguistic ethnology, to be re- 
garded as utterly unscientific. Even the com- 
bination of the branches above mentioned into 
one family is not beyond question ; th Mongol 
and Mantchoo branches may yet be found un- 
connected with the others. As the Aryan or 
Indo-European languages are much more va- 
ried and diverse in their development than the 
Semitic, so they are, in their turn, vastly ex- 
ceeded in this respect by the idioms now under 
consideration. The law of linguistic connec- 
tion prevailing among the latter is quite pecu- 
liar; between tribes confessedly of near kin 
exist differences of linguistic material even in 
cardinal points, such as the pronouns, numerals, 
and important affixes of derivation. A marked 
similarity of linguistic method, however, runs 
through them all, and helps to stamp them as 
kindred. They are all formed on what is 
called the agglutinative type ; that is to say, 
the root or theme everywhere maintains its 
form almost unchanged, and all formative syl- 
lables are suffixed, never prefixed, to it; and 
they enter with it into no intimate union giv- 
ing rise to forms which are accepted by the 
mind, without analysis, as signs for the complex 
idea ; they remain in the condition of loosely 
appended elements. There are no varieties and 
irregularities of nominal and verbal flexion ; 
each language has but a single declension and 
(with unimportant exceptions) a single conju- 
gation. The plural of declension is formed by 
a pluralizing particle, to which the same case 
endings are then attached as in the singular. 
Grammatical gender is unknown. The cases 
are numerous. Prepositions always follow the 
words they govern ; as, indeed, it is a general 
rule that the governed word precedes the gov- 
erning. "Words connecting sentences, relatives 
and conjunctions, are in most languages hardly 
employed at all. A marked phonetic peculiar- 
ity running through all the dialects is the law 
of harmonic sequence of vowels; the vowels 
are divided into two classes, heavy and light 
(or hard and soft), and within the same word 
only heavy or only light vowels can follow one 
another ; the vowel of a suffix, or those of a 
series of suffixes, changing to conform them- 
selves to the character of that of the root. 
The languages are rich in harmonious and well 
developed vocabularies, so far as the sound 
goes, and they abound in nice distinctions of 
certain kinds. Yet their rank in the general 
scale of language is low ; they are deficient in 
sharp distinction of the principal grammatical 
categories, and awkward, cumbrous, and in- 
complete in the expression of thought. This 
character belongs to them in varying degree ; 
the Mantchoo dialects are the poorest of all, 
and the Mongol do not much surpass them; 
the Tartaric idioms hold the middle rank ; the 
tongues of the Finnic branch, particularly 



TURBINE 



43 



the Finnish proper and the Hungarian, pOBsess 
a marked superiority to the others. Most of 
the languages of the family are known only in 
their present condition. None of the branches 
has ever had a properly national literature, if 
we except the mythic and legendary songs of 
the Finns and the mostly lyric popular songs 
of the Hungarians ; but even some of the re- 
moter tribes, under the influence and by the 
aid of foreign teachers, have acquired the art 
of writing, and have brought forth religious 
and historical works, while the Hungarian and 
Turkish have developed important literatures. 
It is also believed that on the cuneiform mon- 
uments of Mesopotamia and Persia is repre- 
sented, in the inscriptions of the third order, 
a Ugrian dialect, now frequently designated as 
Accadian, and that we have there authentic 
evidence and remains of an ancient Ugrian 
civilization, which preceded and formed the 
basis for that of the other races in the same 
regions. F. Lenormant has recently (1874) 
written a grammar of the Accadian on this 
assumption of its value. These results of a 
small number of investigators are not yet fully 
accepted by scholars in general. See Rmu- 
sat, KecJierches sur les langues tartares (Paris, 
1820) ; Rask, in several of his philological 
works; Schott, in numerous memoirs pub- 
lished by the Berlin academy, especially Ueber 
das altaische oder finnisch-tartarische Spra- 
cftengeschlecht (1849); Castren, in a series of 
grammars, essays, accounts of travel, &c. (St. 
Petersburg, 1853-'8); Max Milller, "Letter on 
the Turanian Languages," in Bunsen's "Phi- 
losophy of Universal History," vol. i., and 
"Lectures on the Science of Language" (Lon- 
don, 1861) ; and Pauly, Description ethnogra- 
phique des peuples de la Bussie (St. Peters- 
burg, 1862). 

TURBINE (Lat. turbo, a whirling, or that 
which whirls), a water wheel through which 
the water passes, guided by channels in the 
wheel itself, and usually by other passages ex- 
terior to the wheel which cause it to impinge 
on the wheel buckets at the proper angle to 
secure efficiency. The guide curves (as the 
walls of the last named channels are called) 
and the buckets of the wheels are usually both 
curved in such manner that the water shall 
enter the wheel as nearly as possible without 
shock, and shall leave it with the least possible 
velocity. Turbines are generally, but not al- 
ways, set in the horizontal plane, their axes 
being vertical ; their size diminishes as the 
height of fall increases, and for falls of ordi- 
nary height they are very much smaller than 
the ordinary forms of so-called " vertical " 
water wheels, an advantage which increases 
with the height of fall. Their smaller size 
gives necessarily a high velocity of rotation, 
which constitutes their most important advan- 
tage over the older forms of wheel ; it permits 
the adoption of less heavy and expensive ma- 
chinery for transmitting the power, dispenses 
with gearing, and gives greater regularity of 



speed and nearly equal efficiency under all 
heights of fall. The turbine was introduced 
into general use by Fourneyron in France in 
1827, and soon after by Fairbairn in England 
and by Boyden in the United States. Tur- 
bines are classed as outward-flow, inward-flow, 
and parallel-flow wheels, according to the di- 
rection taken by the water in passing through 
them ; but the principle already enunciated ap- 
plies to all. Could the water be entered upon 
the wheel absolutely without shock, and dis- 
charged absolutely without velocity, the effi- 
ciency of the wheel would be perfect, and the 
energy of the fall would be all transformed 
into work. The efficiency of good turbines, 
under favorable circumstances, approaches 80 
per cent., and has been known to exceed that 
figure; the usual value is about 75 per cent. 
The efficiency is determined as follows: The 
amount of water flowing through the wheel is 
ascertained by gauging; its weight, measured 
by the height of fall, indicates the maximum 
power of the stream, or the power available. 
The actual amount of power utilized by the 
wheel is determined by measurement with the 
dynamometer. If R = the resistance and v = 
the velocity with which the wheel overcomes 
that resistance, R x = the work done in the 
unit of time, and R = WAG, in which expres- 
sion W is the weight of water flowing per 
second, h the height of fall, and C the coeffi- 
cient of efficiency, or that fraction of the total 
available fall which is actually utilized by the 
wheel; the value of is the "modulus" of 
the wheel. This value is capable of being 
estimated with approximate accuracy by the 
designer of the wheel, and the performance 
thus predicted, by the use of formulas involv- 
ing quantities dependent in magnitude upon 
the forms of the guiding channels. Turbines 
give the highest efficiency when their speed 
is between 0-5 and 0'7 of that due to the 
height of fall. The velocity of direct flow, or 
that with which the water passes through the 
wheel, is to be preserved as nearly uniform 
as possible, and the passages are to be given 
such form and magnitude of cross section as 
will insure that uniformity. The velocity of 
whirl is made as nearly as possible equal to the 
rotary velocity of the wheel, and the water is 
thus passed upon the wheel without shock. It 
should glide over the buckets without sudden 
change of velocity, and should finally pass out 
with a speed opposite in direction and equal 
in magnitude to that of the wheel, thus drop- 
ping out of the wheel with the least possible 
velocity of flow, and with its original vis viva 
transformed into mechanical energy. Fig. 1 
is a vertical section exhibiting the construction 
of the Boyden outward-flow turbine, made by 
the Holyoke machine company. A is a quar- 
ter-turn leading the water smoothly upon the 
wheel ; B is .the lower curb ; C the disk carry- 
ing the guides; D the wheel with its guide 
channels, shown with the guide curves more 
perfectly in the plan, fig. 2 ; E is a disk con- 



TURBINE 



necting the wheel to its vertical Bhaf t ; F, G, 
G' are supporting beams ; S the shaft ; I the 
support for the bearings ; J the driving gear ; 




FIG. 1. Section of Boyden Turbine. 

and R the apparatus for moving the gate. In 
the Boyden wheel is illustrated the outward- 
flow turbine. In the inward-flow wheel, the 
water enters between guide curves, or is car- 
ried in a spiral channel, and the form of the 
buckets of the wheel is modified in accordance 
with the principles already stated, and gives 
the form seen in plan in fig. 3, in which A 
is the wheel disk and B is the shaft. In the 
parallel-flow turbine the water enters upon 





FIG. 2. Plan of Boyden 
Torbine. 



Fio. 8. Inward-flow 
Turbine, Plan. 



the wheel as in fig. 4, which represents the 
Bodine turbine. It is cased in so that it may 
be set at any point in the fall, utilizing the 
so-called suction of that part below it, as well 
as the pressure due to the column above it, 
a method of arrangement first introduced by 
Henschel and Jonval. The wheel was invent- 
ed by Fontaine. The upper set of guides are 
fixed; the lower set are the wheel buckets 
In the Burnham turbine, fig. 5, the inward 
and downward flow forms are combined to 
make a wheel of very high efficiency, while 
yet cheap in construction and durable. In the 
Leffel wheel, fig. 6, the stream is divided to 
Main the combined inward and downward 
flow and to secure greater effectiveness, and 



also to obtain more perfect regulation. This 
form has been extensively introduced in the 
United States, as has also the preceding. The 







FIG. 4. Bodine Turbine, Parallel Flow. 

same letters denote the same parts in each 
figure. The arrows indicate the direction of 
flow. In Schiele's inward-flow turbine the 




FIG. 5. Burnham Turbine. Inward and Downward Flow. 

water divides on entering the wheel, a part 
passing out above, the remainder emerging 
below, the wheel disk. The Fourneyron out- 



TURBOT 



ward-flow and the Jonval parallel-flow tur- 
bines are most used in Europe. Regulation is 
effected by a vertically sliding gate (K, fig. 
1), by a set of valves at the entrances to the 
wheel (figs. 4, 5, 6), or by varying the posi- 
tions of the guide blades themselves. The 
most perfect method would be by varying the 
velocity ratio of the wheel and the driven 
mechanism. The loss of efficiency in reducing 
the power of the wheel by regulation is often 
serious. Eankine states this loss as follows : 



Openin iT . . 


1 


| 


I 


| 












Ratio of efficiency 


1 


| 





| 













Whitelaw's turbine is a simple form of wheel 
without guide blades. Barker's mill was a very 
rude apparatus consisting of a vertical spout 
surrounding the shaft and conducting the wa- 
ter to hollow horizontal arms, from the ex- 
tremities of which it emerged tangentially to 




FIG. 6. Leffel Turbine. Divided Flow. 

the orbit of the orifices. These wheels are 
usually known as reaction wheels; their effi- 
ciency is comparatively small. See Francis, 
" Lowell Hydraulic Experiments " (Boston, 
1855) ; Eankine, " Steam Engine and Prime 
Movers " (London, 1859) ; and Mahan, " Hy- 
draulic Motors" (New York, 1873). 

TURBOT, a marine, soft-rayed fish of the flat- 
fish family, and genus rhombus (Cuv.), charac- 
terized by minute sharp teeth on the jaws and 
pharynx, the dorsal fin commencing on the 
head in front of the eyes, and like the anal ex- 
tending to the tail, and the eyes on the left 
side. The European turbot (R. maximus, Cuv.), 
the finest of the family, sometimes measures 6 
ft. in width, and weighs over 200 Ibs. ; the left 
side is brown and covered with small tubercles, 
and the right side or lower surface smooth and 
white; without the tail the body is nearly 
round ; mouth large, opening obliquely up- 
ward; eyes in a vertical line, one over the 
other; gill openings large; pectorals small. 



It keeps on sandy grounds, and is a great wan- 
derer, usually in companies, living near the 
bottom, and feeding on small fish, crustaceans, 
and mollusks ; though voracious, it is particu- 




European Turbot (Rhombus maxtmus). 

lar in its choice of food, and will bite at none 
but fresh bait ; the spawning season is about 
August, after which it soon recovers its good 
condition. Its flesh is white, fat, flaky, and 
delicate, and has been highly esteemed from 
remote antiquity ; it is disputed whether this 
or the next species was the rhombus of the 
ancient Romans ; the French call it water or 
sea pheasant on account of its fine flavor. 
Though not uncommon on the coasts of Great 
Britain, most of the turbot sold in the English 
markets are caught by Dutch fishermen on the 
long line of sandy banks between England and 
Holland. The fishery begins about the end of 
March and closes by the middle of August, and 
is prosecuted both by lines and trawl nets. 
The brill, pearl, or smooth turbot (JR. vulga- 
ris, Cuv.) is a smaller and less delicate species, 
with smooth scales, from the same localities ; 
the under jaw is the longer, and the upper eye 
a little behind the lower ; it is reddish sandy 
brown, varied with darker, and sprinkled with 
white pearl-like specks ; under surface smooth 
and white ; it is found in the Mediterranean, 
as are several other species still less esteemed. 
The American or spotted turbot (R. macu- 
latus, Girard; pleuronectes, De Kay), called 
also New York plaice and watery flounder, is 
from 12 to 18 in. long, and 6 to 8 in. wide, 
sometimes attaining a weight of 20 Ibs. ; it is 
smooth, on the left side reddish gray with 
large circular or oblong darker blotches sur- 
rounded by a lighter margin, and with nu- 
merous white spots, especially on the fins ; the 
lower surface white and spotless ; iris silvery ; 
gape wide, with a single row of separate, large, 
sharp teeth, and a protuberance on the chin ; 
ends of dorsal rays free ; body elongated ; it 
resembles the brill more than any other Euro- 



46 TURENNE 

pean species. It occurs along the coast of the 
New England and middle states, and is a deli- 
cate article of food. 

TFBEWE, Henri de La Tour d'Anvergne, vis- 
count de, a French soldier, born in Sedan, 
Sept. 11, 1611, killed near Sasbach, Germany, 
July 27, 1675. He was the second son of 
Henri de Bouillon, prince of Sedan, by Eliza- 
beth of Nassau, daughter of William I. of 
Orange, and was sent when a boy to Holland 
to learn the art of war under his uncle Mau- 
rice. In 1630 he entered the service of France, 
received the command of an infantry regi- 
ment, distinguished himself in Lorraine under 
Marshal de La Force, became mdrechal de 
camp in 1635, and served under La Valette in 
Germany, where he relieved Mentz, then be- 
sieged by the imperialists. In 1637, with an 
auxiliary corps, he joined the Swedish army 
under Duke Bernhard of Weimar, and cap- 
tured several towns. In 1639, under the count 
d'Harcourt, he defeated the united Austrians 
and Spaniards at Casale, and in 1640 forced 
Turin to surrender. In 1642 he conquered 
Roussillon from Spain. After the accession of 
Louis XIV. he was made marshal of FrancJ, 
and placed in command of the army in Ger- 
many. He crossed the Rhine, worsted the Ba- 
varians under Mercy, acted in concert with 
Conde in the three days' battle at Freiburg 
(1644), was defeated by Mercy at Mergentheim, 
May 5, 1645, but gained a victory over him in 
conjunction with Conde at Allersheim, near 
Nordlingen, three months later, and, joining 
the Swedish general Wrangel, conquered the 
Bavarians at Lauingen and Zusmarshausen, 
and foreed the elector to sign an armistice in 
March, 1647. He then went to Flanders, and 
took several places, but was stopped in his ca- 
reer by the termination of the thirty years' war 
(1648). On his return to France, his love for 
the duchess de Longueville and his brother's 
example connected him with the Fronde. At 
the head of a Spanish army which was sent to 
support that movement, he was defeated near 
Rethel by Marshal Duplessis-Praslin, and driv- 
en out of France (1650). After vain efforts 
to reconcile France and Spain, he was permit- 
ed to return home, and henceforth proved the 
most loyal supporter of the king, while Conde 
became the leader of the Fronde. He defeat- 
ed Conde's troops at Bleneau in April, 1652, 
followed him up to Paris, and inflicted upon 
him a severe loss in July in the faubourg St. 
Antoine, and thus secured the triumph of the 
royal cause. The Spaniards having invaded 
the north of France under Conde, he worsted 
them at Arras in 1654, gained the decisive 
victory of the "Dunes," June 14, 1658, and 
took Dunkirk. These successes hastened the 
peace of the Pyrenees, Nov. 7, 1659. In addi- 
tion to his previous rank as minister of state, 
he now received that of marshal general. In 
1667, war being declared against Spain, Tu- 
renne entered Flanders at the head of the army, 
accompanied by Louis XIV., and in less than 



TURF 

four months conquered that province ; and sev- 
eral of his conquests were confirmed by the 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, May 2, 1668. In 
the war against Holland (1672) he command- 
ed one of the invading armies ; and when the 
European powers came to the rescue of the 
Dutch, he entered Germany, advanced to the 
Elbe, and forced the elector of Brandenburg 
to a separate peace in 1673; then, in a cam- 
paign celebrated for his skilful strategy, he 
protected Alsace from invasion (1674), crossed 
the Rhine at Philippsburg, routed the enemy 
at Sinsheim and Ladenburg, and drove them 
back to the Main, and devastated the Palati- 
nate, burning 30 towns. In the following win- 
ter, with an army of scarcely 22,000 men, he 
nearly destroyed 60,000 Austrians and Bran- 
denburgers under Bournonville, gaining victo- 
ries at Muhlhausen (Dec. 29, 1674) and Tttrk- 
heim (Jan. 5, 1675). He now wished to re- 
tire from active service ; but he was the only 
French general capable of coping with Monte- 
cuculi. He therefore continued in command, 
and during four months the manoeuvres and 
strategic operations of the two generals were 
subjects of universal admiration. Finally Tu- 
renne forced his rival into a position near Sas- 
bach where he was constrained to fight at a 
disadvantage; the French commander conse- 
quently had a new victory in prospect, when, 
surveying the last preparations on the eve of 
the battle, ho was killed by a stray ball, and 
his death caused his army to retreat beyond 
the Rhine. Turenne was originally a Protes- 
tant, but became a Catholic about 1668 through 
the influence of Bossuet. See Ramsay's His- 
toire de M. Turenne, including his Memoires 
of the campaigns of 1643-'59 (French and 
-English, Paris and London, 2 vols., 1735 ; new 
French ed., 1838), and Neuber's Turenne al 
Kriegstheoretiker und Feldherr (Vienna, 1869). 
Tl'UF, The, a term signifying horse racing in 
all its forms, except the few trotting matches 
which are decided on turnpike roads in Eng- 
land. It was no doubt derived from the lev- 
el ground and short close greensward of the 
heaths, downs, and commons upon which races 
were first run in England. These tracts had 
never been ploughed from time immemorial. 
The moist climate and strong soil kept the grass 
thick ; and as the pasturage was free to all the 
inhabitants of the parish, it was of that close 
velvety texture upon which the horse likes to 
extend himself. Horse racing in Britain is of 
great antiquity, though racing at stated times 
and places cannot be traced beyond the reign 
of James I., who gave a Mr. Markham 500 for 
an Arab horse called the Markham Arabian, 
which being run against English race horses 
was easily defeated several times. This horse 
was believed to be the first pure Arabian im- 
ported into England. The consequence was 
that the old English race horse and the Turkish 
horses from the Levant, with barbs from Moroc- 
co and Andalusia, were preferred to the Ara- 
bians for some time. In the reign of Charles I. 



TURF 



a horseman named Place had a white horse 
which was known, and is still known in the 
stud books, as Place's White Turk. He had 
great merit as a stallion. When the Puritan 
sects prevailed, horse racing, in common with 
all other forms of popular amusement, was 
suppressed. But Cromwell took Place into hi 
service, purchased his White Turk, and did all 
in his power to improve the breed of English 
horses. After Charles II. came to the throne, 
horse racing was revived all over the country. 
He imported four (or as some accounts say, 
six) mares from Tangier, and these have ever 
since been known as the Morocco or royal mares. 
Some of them enter into nearly all the old 
pedigrees. In the reign of Charles II. racing 
was again regularly established at Newmarket, 
where it has flourished ever since. During the 
short reign of James II. there is little to be 
said of the turf. In that of William and Mary 
it flourished greatly, and the first of the three 
great patriarchal imported sires became known 
in England. This was the Byerly Turk, a horse 
ridden by Capt. Byerly as a charger in Wil- 
liam's army after James was expelled from the 
throne. This horse was first noticed in Eng- 
land in 1689. Where he came from nobody 
knows ; but some of the best race horses and 
stallions that ever lived came from him. Jig 
was his son, and Partner his grandson; and 
King Herod, a horse to which we have been 
as much indebted as to Eclipse for the speed 
and bottom of our race horses for a century, 
was his descendant at four removes. A large 
number of Barbary and Turkish horses were 
also imported, one of the best of which was 
the Lister or Stradling Turk ; and a gray 
Arabian called Bloody Buttodks, from a red 
mark on his haunch, was also of much merit. 
But the greatest of all the importations was 
in the reign of Queen Anne, when a Yorkshire- 
man named Darley received from his brother 
in Palestine a bay Arab horse obtained from 
one of the desert tribes. This horse, after- 
ward called the Darley Arabian, was the second 
and the greatest of the three sires from which 
the blood horse of modern times is mainly de- 
scended. From him starts the right male line 
of Eclipse and of Snap, and the King Herod 
line on the side of his dam. In 1715 the Darley 
Arabian got Flying Childers, the best horse by 
long odds that had ever run in England. The 
Darley Arabian also got Bartlett's Childers, 
who did not race himself, but was a famous 
stallion, great-grandsire of Eclipse on the male 
side, and sire of the Little Hartley mare, whose 
name appears in the pedigrees of many of the 
best horses of the present day. The Darley 
Arabian also got Snip, the sire of Snap, the lat- 
ter a sire of such immense merit and enduring 
influence that he is third to King Herod and 
Eclipse. The racer was at first a cross-bred 
horse, composed of the old English breed and 
Spanish, Barb, Turk, and Arab strains, but 
improved by good feed and care and develop- 
ment on the turf. The Godolphin Arabian 
800 VOL. xvi. 4 



was the third of the three great foreign sires. 
It is now generally believed that he was a 
Barb instead of an Arabian. He was foaled 
about 1704, and sent as a present to Louis 
XIV. of France by the emperor of Morocco. 
He was deemed of little value in France, and 
was purchased by a Mr. Coke, who took him 
to England and sold him to one Williams, 
the keeper of a coffee house in London. This 
man gave him to Lord Godolphin, who bred 
many famous racers from him. The blood is 
nearly as much esteemed as that of the Darley 
Arabian, and perhaps more than that of the 
Byerly Turk. It does not appear that any rec- 
ords were kept of the races even at Newmar- 
ket before the beginning of the 18th century. 
No horses ran until they were five years old, 
and the races were nearly all four miles or a 
greater distance. Basto, by the Byerly Turk, 
one of the very earliest of those whose ex- 
ploits are recorded, was foaled in 1703. Bay 
Bolton was foaled in 1705. The first time of 
his running he won Queen Anne's gold cup at 
York for six-year-olds, four-mile heats, weights 
168 Ibs. Bay Bolton beat eight six-year-olds, 
giving them a year each. He was a successful 
stallion, and his daughter Gypsy was celebrated 
as a brood mare. Brocklesby Betty, a chest- 
nut mare by the Curwen Bay Barb out of a 
little mare by the Lister Turk, was foaled in 
1711. Before she was trained she had a foal, 
but she was the best race horse that appeared 
in England before Flying Childers. The lat- 
ter, a chestnut horse with four white legs and 
a blaze in the face, was foaled in 1715, and 
was got by the Darley Arabian out of Betty 
Leedes. Flying Childers had immense speed 
and thorough bottom. He did not run much, 
for after he had shown his powers no one 
would start a horse against him. On one occa- 
sion, it is said, he ran over the Beacon course, 4 
m. 1 fur. 138 yds., in 7 min. 30 sec. His stride 
was 25 ft. With his rider in the saddle, he 
leaped 30 ft. on level ground. He was a horse 
of fair size, and so was his brother Bartlett's 
Childers. After their time the thoroughbred 
horse increased much in height and length. 
Still some of the best and most enduring of 
that age were mere ponies. Gimcrack and 
Little Driver were only about 14 hands high. 
King Herod, a horse of fine size and power, 
was bred by the duke of Cumberland in 1758, 
and sold to Sir John Moore. He came in the 
male line of the Byerly Turk through Tartar, 
Partner, and Jig, and on the side of his dam 
be had two crosses of the Darley Arabian, one 
through Flying Childers and one through a 
daughter of the Arabian. King Herod had. 
*reat speed and bottom. There have been 
better race horses, while it is agreed that there 
ias been no better stallion. Between the time 
of Flying Childers and Eclipse 50 years elapsed, 
and many famous horses were produced, in- 
luding Snap as well as King Herod. The for- 
mer was son of Snip, whose sire was Flying 
~hilders; and it is through the daughters of 



TURF 



Snap and the progeny of King Herod that we 
have so much of the invaluable blood of that 
famous horse at the present day. In 1764 
another colt was bred by the duke of Cumber- 
land, which proved a greater runner than any 
of its predecessors, and a larger horse. He 
was foaled during the great eclipse of the sun, 
and was called Eclipse. His sire, Marske, was 
a brown horse coming in the male line from 
the Darley Arabian through Bartlett's Chil- 
ders; and his dam, Spiletta, was a grand- 
daughter of the Godolphin Barb. Eclipse was 
the biggest, strongest, and greatest race horse 
that had ever run in England. He was 16 
hands 2 in. high at the withers, one inch more 
at the croup, and his length was enormous. 
No such horse had ever been seen before. His 
temper was resolute and defiant. There was 
great trouble in breaking and riding him. No 
jockey ever dared strike him with the whip 
or prick him with the spur. He won eleven 
king's plates, most of them four-mile heats, 
weights 168 Ibs. He double distanced a large 
field of good horses when his backer for a 
heavy bet undertook to place them. He was 
never defeated, and never paid a forfeit. Nfcxt 
to him the two best horses of his time were 
Goldfinder, son of Snap, and Shark, another 
son of Marske. The latter got big horses. 
Shark was himself 16 hands high, and was a 
great runner. He was afterward taken to the 
United States. In the 50 years between Fly- 
ing Ohilders and Eclipse the race horse had 
increased about a hand in height, and when 
the latter retired from the turf in 1770, the 
thoroughbred, as a permanent and the most 
valuable variety of the horse, was established. 
There were now at the stud King Herod, 
Eclipse, and Snap, and from these three our 
best modern race horses are mostly descend- 
ed. It would be difficult to find a race horse 
that has not the blood of two of them, and 
most of the best in England, America, and 
France take descent from all three. When 
Eclipse retired, a great change in the manage- 
ment of the race horse was imminent. Up 
to that time few had run before they were 
five years old. Lord Grosvenor bred Pot-8-os 
from Eclipse and Sportsmistress in 1773. He 
ran him at three years old, and the colt won. 
At four he was beaten ; but after he was five 
he never suffered defeat. He won over the 
Beacon course 20 times with high weights, 
and was the best son of Eclipse, though the 
latter had other sons of wonderful merit, such 
as King Fergus, Joe Andrews, Mercury, Dun- 
gannon, and Saltram. The whip, a challenge 
trophy still run for over the Beacon course, 
140 Ibs., and for 200 guineas, play or pay, 
whenever challenged for, had been established. 
Bay Malton had won it and held it. So had 
Mambrino, but he paid Shark 100 guineas to 
be allowed to keep it. In 1781 Lord Grosvenor 
challenged for it, and named Pot-8-os. It was 
delivered over. While Eclipse rejoiced in 
Pot-8-os, King Herod enjoyed equal glory 



through the wonderful success of his son 
Highflyer, foaled in 1784. He was bred by 
Sir Charles Bunbury, and sold to Lord Boling- 
broke, and afterward to old Tattersall, the 
founder of the fortunes of that family. To 
Highflyer it is indebted for wealth and re- 
nown. His dam was Rachel, by Blank, son 
of the Godolphin Barb and the Little Hartley 
mare; and on the female side Rachel was a 
granddaughter of Regulus, son of the Godol- 
phin Barb. Thus Rachel brought two crosses 
of the Godolphin Barb and one of the Darley 
Arabian to the cover of King Herod, who had 
himself two crosses of the Darley Arabian and 
one of the Byerly Turk. Highflyer ran at 
three years old. He won several times over 
the Beacon course, besides races at other 
places than Newmarket. He was never beat- 
en, and never paid a forfeit. A hot discussion 
soon arose as to whether the descendants of 
King Herod or those of Eclipse were the best, 
and this lasted even after Hambletonian, grand- 
son of Eclipse, beat Diamond, grandson of 
King Herod, in the great match over the Bea- 
con course, by half a neck. The Diamond 
men wanted to run it again, but Sir Harry 
Vane Tempest would not consent, and Ham- 
bletonian never ran another race. The betting 
on this race was enormous. The war between 
the partisans of Eclipse and King Herod now 
waxed furious. The wise and impartial, how- 
ever, determined to avail themselves of the 
blood of both these famous horses. Then be- 
gan that curious and intricate crossing be- 
tween the produce of King Herod and Eclipse 
and the daughters of Snap, which has ever 
since produced the horses of highest type in 
England, Ireland, America, and France. King 
Herod covered Lisette by Snap, and got Maria. 
This latter was bred to Pot-8-os, and the pro- 
duce was Sir F. Poole's Waxy, a beautiful bay 
horse with one eye, great as a racer, and upon 
the whole greater than Highflyer himself as 
a sire. His favorite mate was Penelope by 
Trumpator. She was out of Prunella by High- 
flyer, and Prunella's dam was Promise, by Snap, 
the dam of Promise being a mare by Blank, son 
of the Godolphin and the Little Hartley mare. 
Whoever would understand what the turf means 
must acquire some knowledge of the true origin 
of the best families of the blood horse. Pe- 
nelope had the Darley Arabian blood through 
Snap, grandson of Flying Childers, and through 
the Little Hartley mare, daughter of Bartlett'a 
Childers. She also had two crosses of it 
through King Herod, and one more through 
Rachel by Blank, dam of Highflyer. She had 
the blood of the Godolphin Barb twice through 
his son Blank, and once through his son Regu- 
lus; and she had the blood of both these 
horses once more through her sire Trumpator. 
She had besides the blood of the Byerly Turk 
through King Herod once and through the 
dam of Trumpator once. Now, being put to 
Waxy, son of Pot-8-os by Eclipse and Maria, 
by King Herod, out of Lisette by Snap, Penel- 



TUKF 



49 



ope produced for the duke of Grafton in six suc- 
cessive years, beginning with 1807, Whalebone, 
Web, Woful, Wilful, Wire, and Whisker. All 
these were great race horses, winners at four- 
mile heats with heavy weights. Whalebone, 
Woful, and Whisker were great stallions. Web 
and Wire were famous brood mares. The 
latter, after winning many races for the duke 
of Grafton in England, was sold by him to 
Mr. Bruen for 4,000 guineas. He took her to 
Ireland, where she won, the first season, the 
lord lieutenant's plate, four-mile heats on the 
Curragh of Kildare, 4,000 guineas in stakes, and 
20,000 guineas in bets. From that time the 
Irish turfmen got hold of all the Waxy and Pot- 
8-os blood they could secure. They bought 
Waxy Pope, who was by Pot-8-os out of 
Prunella, and being unable to purchase either 
Whalebone or Whisker, they eagerly seized 
upon their best sons, Sir Hercules and Econo- 
mist. The former got Irish Birdcatcher and 
Faugh-a-Ballagh, whose son Leamington is 
now highly prized here. Economist got Hark- 
away, and also the dam of the Baron, by Irish 
Birdcatcher. The Baron, thus in-bred to the 
brothers Whalebone and Whisker, struck the 
blood of their sister Web in Pocahontas by 
Glencoe, and from her produced Stockwell 
and Rataplan, two of the best horses that ever 
lived. This brings that line to our time, for 
Rataplan's daughter Mandragora is still produ- 
cing, and is the best brood mare in the world. 
Her dam was Manganese, daughter of Irish 
Birdcatcher, Rataplan's grandsire. Mandra- 
gora belonged at the time of his death to the 
late Rev. Mr. King, vicar of Launde, for whom 
she bred Apology, winner of the Oaks and St. 
Leger in 1874. One other great line in which 
the blood of King Herod, Eclipse, and Snap 
is mingled, should be mentioned. Highflyer's 
best son was Sir Peter Teazle, whose dam was 
Papillon by Snap. Sir Peter, a splendid race 
horse, a great four-mile-heat winner, and a 
stallion whose excellence was only surpassed by 
that of Waxy, was owned by the earl of Der- 
by. Papillon had the blood of both the Chil- 
derses, she had that of the Godolphin Barb, 
and also of the dam of the two True Blues, 
which mare was by the Byerly Turk. Out of 
Arethusa by Dungannon, son of Eclipse, Sir 
Peter Teazle got Walton in 1798, and William- 
son's Ditto in 1799. From Walton and Para- 
sol, by Pot-8-os, came Partisan, sire of Veni- 
son. The latter got Kingston, whose grand- 
sons Kingfisher and Glenelg are among our 
young stallions in the United States. Partisan 
was also sire of Gladiator. Gladiator was sire 
of Queen Mary, dam of Balrownie, Bonnie 
Scotland, Blink Bonny, Caller Ou, &c. He 
was also sire of Miss Gladiator, dam of the 
great French race horse Gladiateur. Web, by 
Waxy, was grandam of Glencoe, the best horse 
that ever came to America. Being bred to 
Tramp, a horse closely descended from Eclipse 
in the male line, and from King Herod in 
the female line, Web produced Trampoline. 



Trampoline was bred to Sultan, a horse taking 
from Eclipse, King Herod, and Snap in sev- 
eral different lines, and she produced Glencoe. 
Glencoe was third in the Derby. He won the 
Goodwood cup and other races when three 
years old. When he was four, Lord Jersey 
challenged for the Whip and named him. But 
though he was only a colt and it was even 
weights, 140 Ibs., Beacon course, nobody would 
run against him, and it was delivered over. 
Glencoe was foaled in 1831, at a time when 
the mischievous influences which have since 
affected the English turf and jeoparded the 
excellence of the blood horse had not obtained 
great sway. The running of two-year-olds, 
though common enough, was not the rule as 
it is now. The system of handicapping, by 
which in theory the worst horse in a race is 
put upon a level with the best and all the rest, 
through different weights, had then hardly 
begun. It has since attained huge dimensions, 
and there are now run in England at least ten 
times as many handicaps, generally over short 
distances, as of all other races put together. It 
is believed that this system, with its multitude 
of short dash races, has had a pernicious effect 
on the throughbred horse in respect of stamina. 
Handicapping afforded a chance for a middling 
horse to win much more money than the best 
of his time could, especially if the latter did 
not attain to his greatest excellence until he 
was four years old. It secured very large en- 
tries and big fields, and enabled professional 
betting men to extend their operations vastly. 
Up to the time when Glencoe was on the turf, 
there were a great many local country meet- 
ings in various parts of England, especially in 
the midland counties, where fox hunting was 
most delighted in. At these races there were 
no very large prizes to bring the great horses 
from Newmarket, Epsom, and Yorkshire, and 
there were no railroads to afford them ready 
conveyance. The consequence was that the 
running horses were mostly those bred and 
kept in the neighborhood, and as a rule they 
were fast, stout, and honest horses. Many of 
the races were heats. The courses were chiefly 
staked out upon heaths, which were partly 
overgrown with gorse. There were no stands. 
The ladies viewed the races from carriages 
drawn up outside the foot people, who stood 
along the cords which roped in the home 
stretch. There were always a great number 
of mounted men. So popular were these 
gatherings that all the neighboring gentry, 
yeomen, farmers, and tradespeople made it a 
point to attend with their families. The coun- 
try meetings have nearly all ceased, and few 
farmers now breed the blood horses which 
formerly ran at them. The great three-year- 
old race of England is the Derby, which was 
founded in 1780, and first won by Sir Charles 
Bunbury's Diomed, who was imported to the 
United States. He was the sire of Sir Archy 
here, first American ancestor in the male line 
of Timoleon, Boston, Lexington, and Monar- 



50 



TURF 



chist. The Derby, a mile and a half, is ran 
on Epsom downs, generally in the latter part 
of May. The Oaks, also a mile and a half, and 
run for at the same meeting, is for fillies only. 
It was founded the year before the Derby, and 
was first won by Bridget, daughter of King 
Herod. The Derby was called after the earl 
of Derby. The Oaks was named after a coun- 
try seat in the neighborhood belonging to Gen. 
Burgoyne. The third of the great three-year- 
old races is the St. Leger, a mile and three 
quarters, run for at Doncaster in autumn. It 
was founded in 1778 and named after Col. St. 
Leger. Hollandoise, a mare by Matchem out 
of Virago by Snap, was the first winner. It 
was then two miles. Prior to the Derby and 
the Oaks, the Two Thousand Guineas and the 
One Thousand Guineas are run for at New- 
market. They are each a mile. The former is 
for three-year-olds and the latter for three-year- 
old fillies. Besides these there are sweepstakes 
for three-year-olds called Derbys at other places. 
The great cup races are at Ascot, Goodwood, 
and Doncaster. These are two miles and a 
half, weight for age, but winners of the Derby 
and Oaks are penalized, and at Goodwood 
there are so many penalties for winning horses, 
and allowances for poor ones, that it is practi- 
cally a handicap. The fields are small for the 
cups, for many people do not know what to do 
with a grand classical trophy of silver, about 
three feet high, even if they could win it. The 
royal plates are still run for. They are now 
commonly from two to three miles, and very 
few enter. The other cup races are mostly 
handicaps. The handicap races, from the Great 
Metropolitan, Goodwood stakes, Oesarewitch, 
Chester cup, &c., which are all two miles or 
more, range down to half a mile, and there 
are immense numbers of them. Those which 
are only a mile or less than a mile vastly out- 
number those in excess of it. Over 2,000 race 
horses ran in England in 1875. The thorough- 
bred horse of England and America is practi- 
cally identical in breed, and in all probability 
there is no difference in quality where the 
treatment while young and the training and 
riding are the same. The noted training fami- 
lies, such as the Dawsons and Days, have been 
at it in England for about a century, and son 
succeeds father in the profession. The most 
successful breeder in America, for the number 
of mares he has kept, is John M. Clay of Ken- 
tucky, and he was always noted as the most 
generous and careful of feeders. He had much 
success with Magnolia and Topaz, daughters of 
Glencoe, and with Balloon, daughter of York- 
shire, and he preferred Lexington to all other 
stallions. His father, the great Henry Clay, 
established him as a breeder in some sort by 
making him a present of imported Yorkshire, 
a very fine race horse and excellent stallion. 
Nothing in this country ever surpassed the 
cross between Lexington and the daughters of 
Glencoe. It produced Kentucky, Norfolk, and 
Asteroid, all in one year; and more recently 



! it was represented by Monarchist, a magnifi- 
cent race horse. In the male line Glencoe is 
now represented here chiefly by Virgil, son of 
Vandal. But upon his daughters his towering 
fame chiefly rests. The progeny of his English 
daughter, Pocahontas, are numbered by hun- 
dreds, perhaps thousands, and their fame is 
world-wide. The greatest breeding establish- 
ments in this country are those of Mr. Alex- 
ander and Mr. Sanford in Kentucky. At the 
latter there are 5 stallions and 75 brood mares. 
Mr. Grinstead and Mr. McGrath are also emi- 
nent breeders in Kentucky. Capt. Cottrell of 
Mobile breeds largely. Near New York there 
are the large and well appointed breeding es- 
tablishments of Mr. Belmont, Mr. Cameron, 
Mr. Withers, Mr. Welch, Mr. P. Lorillard, Col. 
McDaniels, and Mr. Morris. At the great es- 
tablishments the produce are mostly sold when 
yearlings. Mr. Backman, Mr. Robert Bonner, 
Col. Russell of Boston, and many other gentle- 
men breed trotting horses. The race courses 
of England are all greensward, and few of 
them are quite flat. In this country they are 
of dirt and generally flat. The usual shape is 
two straight parallel stretches of a quarter of 
a mile each, with curves at the ends a quarter 
of a mile in radius. Some are faster than 
others, a condition largely depending upon the 
soil ; loam is the best. When dry and moder- 
ately hard on the surface, with a damp sub- 
soil, the track is fast. The harder the track, 
the faster it is, provided it is not hard enough 
to make the horse sore and unwilling to extend 
himself. A soft track to train on and a hard 
one to run or trot on conduces to speed. Sand 
is slow. The Saratoga course is the fastest in 
the country, and that of Jerome Park, New 
York, is one of the slowest. The best four- 
mile performances have been by Lexington, 7 
min. 19| sec., at New Orleans; Lecompte, 7 
min. 2 sec., at the same place ; Idlewild, daugh- 
ter of Lexington, 7 min. 26J sec., at Centre- 
ville course, Long Island, with 14 Ibs. more 
weight than her sire and Lecompte carried; 
Fellowcraft, son of Australian and Idlewild's 
sister, 7 min. 19^ sec., at Saratoga; and Wild- 
idle, son of Australian and Idlewild, 7 min. 
25J sec., at San Francisco. Among the best 
horses of the last 15 years have been Light- 
ning, Daniel Boone, Planet, Albino, Idlewild, 
Jerome Edgar, Blackbird, Thunder, Norfolk, 
Kentucky, Asteroid, Harry of the West, Long- 
fellow, Kingfisher, Harry Bassett, Monarchist, 
True Blue, Tom Bowling, Wanderer, Spring- 
bok, Preakness, and Foster. The last two are 
very tough veterans. They are both by Lex- 
ington, both out of daughters of Yorkshire, 
and their grandams were both imported mares. 
Out of those mentioned 15 were got by Lex- 
ington, who died in 1875. As a stallion his 
value was enormous, and he succeeded best 
with mares having much English blood, such 
as the daughters of Glencoe, Yorkshire, Albion, 
Leviathan, &c. Steeple- Chasing. About 1830 
annual steeple chases were organized in the vale 



TUEF 



51 



of Aylesbury and at St. Albans. The distance 
was commonly four miles as the crow flies. The 
men might get to the goal any way they could, 
provided their horses brought in their proper 
weight, and that they never went a hundred 
yards at one time along any road, lane, or 
highway, nor opened any gate or wicket. The 
courses were nearly straight, bat a rider might 
diverge within certain limits marked by flags. 
Few could see the steeple chase from end to 
end. At that time the vale of Aylesbury was 
chiefly rich pasture land. The sod was old, 
and very tough in winter and early spring, the 
season for the steeple chases. There were no 
stone walls, and very few post-and-rail fences. 
The fields were enclosed by ditches and double 
hedges, called bullfinches and ox fences, be- 
cause capable of confining oxen in their pasture. 
The hedges were chiefly composed of the haw- 
thorn, blackthorn, and crab apple, together 
with wild roses and a great variety of briers. 
"When in leaf such a fence could not be seen 
through, but in winter the young growth of 
the top, though wide, was neither very thick 
nor interlaced. No horse could go through 
such a fence without jumping more than breast 
high, and no horse that ever lived could clear 
the bullfinches by going clean over them. But 
good horses and resolute men could clear the 
old, stubborn part of the hedges, and go through 
the top-hamper bodily. The ditches were no 
impediment. The horse rising to the leap did 
so before he neared the ditch on the taking-off 
side, and if he got through the hedge he was 
pretty sure to clear the ditch on the far side. 
But the vale was intersected by wide and deep 
brooks. The natural brook flowing through 
a meadow and nearly full to its bare banks is 
much more formidable to the steeple chaser 
than the artificial brook with a fence on the 
taking-off side. Horses will jump a fence and 
brook readily enough, though they may know 
by experience that the water is beyond the 
fence; but many will refuse at naked water, 
especially when it glistens in the sunshine. 
The weights at Aylesbury, St. Albans, and 
other places were at first 168 Ibs. It was the 
custom to choose a stiff four miles for the 
chase, that is, a line in which the fences were 
difficult, and the brooks wide and deep. Han- 
dicapping was introduced, to stop the further 
winning of two famous horses, Lottery and 
Gaylad, who took all the best prizes for sev- 
eral years. It was begun at Newport-Pagnell, 
but Lottery won with 180 Ibs., and Gaylad 
was second. As soon as the handicap sys- 
tem was established, reports became rife about 
pullings. The steeple-chase course was most- 
ly out of sight of the stewards, and a rider 
could pull his horse without fear of being de- 
tected. This, in part, brought about the mod- 
ern system of round courses, over which the 
horses generally go twice and are in sight 
nearly all the way. So popular was steeple- 
chasing that those who could provide the land 
and construct the fences and stands were well 



repaid by fees and rentals when the spectators 
had a chance to see the chase. But the fences 
and brooks were artificial, and much less diffi- 
cult than those of the real cross-country lines. 
The consequence was that a slighter and lighter 
sort of horse was trained to the business. The 
most famous of the old steeple-chasers ranged 
from about three quarters or seven eightha 
blood to quite thoroughbred. A large number 
of steeple-chase courses now exist in England, 
but not one of the old straight lines across the 
country is used. The chief of all is the Grand 
National Liverpool steeple chase. The course 
is about four miles and a half. The fences are 
fair. Beecher's brook (so called from Capt. 
Beecher, a noted steeple-chase rider) is 18 ft. 
wide, with a fence on the taking-off side from 
3 ft. 8 in. to 4 ft. high. Most of the artificial 
water jumps in England are from 14 to 18 ft. 
wide. The weights range from about 175 Ibs. 
to 140 Ibs., and neither the high weights nor 
the low weights often win. The good steeple- 
chaser always takes his jumps in stride, and 
rushes at them rather than pauses. Chandler 
jumped 39 ft. over water, and 34 ft. has been 
cleared over hurdles. Steeple-chasing is very 
popular in Ireland, and the Irish horses have a 
cat-like aptitude for jumping. There were in 
England and Ireland, in the season commen- 
cing late in the autumn of 1874 and ending in 
the early summer of 1875, about 400 steeple 
chases, exclusive of those for only trifling 
stakes. During the same time the hurdle 
races were more numerous. In these the race 
is run over the flat course, but with hurdles 
about 4 ft. 8 in. high, placed an eighth of a 
mile apart. The thoroughbred steeple-chaser is 
entered at hurdles first, and if he turns out to 
be a good, bold jumper, is practised at hedges, 
rails, &c., and last of all at water jumps. The 
steeple chases in this country are too confined 
and twist about too much to give either horses 
or riders a good chance. The jimips, such as 
they are, come too frequently. Half the num- 
ber would be better. Trotting. This is almost 
wholly confined to the United States and Can- 
ada. It consists of races in which the horses 
are required to trot, and if they break into 
a gallop the riders or drivers are command- 
ed by the rules to pull them to a trot as 
soon as possible. Yet considerable running is 
done sometimes. Nowhere else has the trot- 
ting horse attained anything like the speed 
which has been displayed in America. No- 
thing has been systematically done for the trot- 
ter in Europe, except in Russia, where Count 
Orloff established a breed which still has fine 
action and a good deal of speed. The old road- 
ster could not go faster than a rate of about 12 
m. an hour, but he could go a long way. The 
modern, high-bred and highly educated trotter 
is capable of going a mile at the rate of 25 m. 
an hour, and better. The great factor in the 
improvement of the trotter has been the trot- 
ting turf. The trotter, like the thoroughbred 
of early times, was a cross-bred horse, and his 



52 



TURF 



development here and in Canada began very 
early in the history of the colonies. The peo- 
ple of the northern states and of Canada were 
led to prefer driving to riding. The roads in 
summer and autumn were comparatively good. 
In winter the deep snows made sleighing rapid 
and easy, and a man who would have been 
frozen on horseback could travel comfortably 
in a sleigh. In the southern states the case 
was different. Maryland, Virginia, and the 
Carolinas produced blood horses, but no trot- 
ters. The fact that the early home of the fast 
trotter was the northern states and Canada 
shows that his excellence is the result of long 
use, and the inclination for that gait is now 
become partly hereditary. When the people 
of New York, New England, and Canada were 
driving rapidly and merrily to the music of 
the sleigh bells, and their horses were com- 
pelled to bend the knee to get over the snow 
among the pines, they were creating the pos- 
sibility of future Flora Temples and Dex- 
tera. The best mares were selected to breed 
from, and the best stallion in the neighbor- 
hood was chosen for them. Races for small 
sums were made upon the road or upon Hie 
ice, and finally trotting tracks were established 
at such places as Boston, New York, and Phila- 
delphia. Some of the best trotting mares were 
bred to the sons and grandsons of imported 
Messenger, and the strains of other blood horses 
in this country and Canada were also infused. 
The Arabian horse also entered into the com- 
position of the trotter. The form best adapt- 
ed for speed in horses was thus approached, 
and the nervous organization and clear wind 
which enable the horse to stay over a long 
distance of ground were acquired. Upon the 
nervous organization depends the great differ- 
ence often found to exist between horses equal- 
ly well bred and apparently equally well shaped. 
In the early days of the trotting turf most of 
the races were under the saddle. There were 
also many of two-, three-, and four-mile heats. 
After some time races in harness became more 
frequent, and those of three- and four-mile 
heats less so. The sulkies and skeleton wagons 
employed in the races were improved in con- 
struction and made lighter and truer. The 
tracks were laid out upon proper principles, 
and better cared for. The horses, regularly 
trained, and with the improved vehicles and 
tracks, displayed more and more speed, until 
Flora Temple finally beat 2 min. 20 sec. in har- 
ness. Even after that time races of two-mile 
heats and wagon races were common ; but they 
have now almost wholly ceased. Associations 
make all the races mile heats, three in five, 
in harness. About the last of the great two- 
mile-heat races and wagon races were those in 
which Dexter defeated Lady Thorn in 1866. 
It is to be regretted that all the trotting races 
should now be of one pattern. People have 
largely lost sight of the main things involved 
in the issue of a race, and care only for time by 
the watch, which is in truth the least impor- 



TURGENEFF 

tant element in the matter. Some horses have 
beaten the best time made by other horses 
with whom they would have stood very little 
chance in a race together. The time test does 
more than justice to the horse tried by it, and 
less than justice to the horses of past years. 
All the improvements in tracks, vehicles, and 
mode of handling go to the aid of the latest 
comer. There is hardly a track in the country 
now so slow as that of Buffalo was when Dex- 
ter made his best recorded time, or so slow as 
the Fashion course was when he made his 
faster actual time. The new courses are very 
much faster, though they are of the right 
length measured three feet from the pole. 
The best recorded time for a mile in harness 
is now 2 min. 14 sec. made in a trial for time 
by Goldsmith Maid, in which she had no 
opponent. The fast trotter is not usually as 
tall as the running race horse, and many of 
the best have been rather under-sized. Flora 
Temple was not much more than 14 hands 
high ; Ethan Allen is not 15 ; Goldsmith Maid 
is 15 and half an inch ; Dexter is 15 and an 
inch. But George M. Patchen and Lady Thorn 
were 16 hands high, and Gloster, a famous fast 
horse that died in 1874 at San Francisco, was 
nearly 17 hands high. The Orloff trotter of 
Russia was a cross-bred horse when Count Or- 
loff first exhibited him. It is believed to be 
now established as a breed, measurably capa- 
ble of reproducing without reverting to the 
peculiar points of the original ancestors. The 
count at first made use of Arabian horses and 
of mares from Norway and Holland. The 
trotting habit was no doubt inherited from the 
mares, and improved by training. Afterward 
another Arab cross was employed, and one 
with the English thoroughbred horse. The 
speed of some of the Orloff trotters is good, 
and from their pictures they must possess a 
large amount of good blood. 

TURGEVEFF. I. Atexel, a Russian historian, 
born in 1785, died in Moscow in December, 
1845. He was early engaged in collecting 
materials in foreign countries relating to the 
ancient history of Russia, and his researches 
resulted in the publication of Historic Rustics 
Monumenta, under the auspices of an archaeo- 
logical government commission (2 vols., St. 
Petersburg, 1841 -'2; supplement, 1848). His 
letters to his brother were published in Leip- 
sic (1872.) II. Nikolai, a Russian author, bro- 
ther of the preceding, born in 1790, died in 
Paris in November, 1871. He studied in Got- 
tingen, and after being employed in the civil 
service at St. Petersburg he was appointed in 
1813 Russian commissary, in conjunction with 
the Prussian statesman Baron Stein, in provi- 
sional charge of the German provinces recov- 
ered from France. After returning to Russia 
he rose to be deputy secretary of the interior 
and agriculture, and became much interested 
in the emancipation of the serfs. This in- 
volved him in the revolutionary outbreak of 
1825, and he was sentenced to death, but os- 



TURGENEFF 



TURIN 



53 



caped to Paris, where he spent the rest of his 
life. He wrote La Russia et lea Rusaea (3 
vols., Paris, 1847). 

TURGENEFF, Ivan, a Russian novelist, born 
in Orel in November, 1818. He studied in 
Moscow, St. Petersburg, and Berlin, and in 
1843 received a clerkship in the ministry of 
the interior. He was subsequently banished 
to the provinces on account of his liberal sen- 
timents, and after several years was allowed 
to return to the capital ; but he has since 
chiefly resided in Paris and Baden. He first 
made himself known by several works of 
poetry (1843-'4), but achieved much greater 
success by his "Memoirs of a Sportsman," an 
exquisite humorous picture of Russian rural 
life (2 vols., 1852), and subsequently by his 
"Fathers and Sons" (1862), "Smoke" (1867), 
and other novels. Most of his works, some 
of which he wrote in French, have been trans- 
lated into English, German, and other lan- 
guages. Among them are " Liza," " On the 
Eve," "Dmitri Rudin," "Journal of a Useless 
Man," and "A Lear of the. Steppe." 

TURGOT, Anne Robert Jacques, baron de 1' Aulne, 
a French statesman, born in Paris, May 10, 
1727, died there, March 20, 1781. He was 
educated for the church, and in 1749 became 
prior of the Sorbonne ; but he abandoned the 
profession in 1752, studied law, and in 1753 
became councillor in the parliament and mas- 
ter of requests. As early as 1745 he had pub- 
lished his Lettre sur le papier-monnaie, and he 
now applied himself to the study of natural 
philosophy, agriculture, manufactures, and com- 
merce, publishing his views in papers in the 
Encyclopedic or in pamphlets. The most re- 
markable of these are his Lettrea sur la tole- 
rance (1753). In 1761 he was appointed in- 
tendant of Limousin, and introduced many 
reforms in the administration of that province ; 
free transport was allowed to corn and bread- 
stuffs, taxes were lessened, roads and highways 
improved, and workhouses and charitable in- 
stitutions established. In 1771 appeared his 
Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution 
des richesses, his chief work on political econo- 
my. He also published papers on loans and 
on mines, and Lettres sur la liberte du com- 
merce des grains. On the accession of Louis 
XVI. he was made comptroller general of 
finances, and undertook to improve the finan- 
cial condition of the kingdom by freedom of 
labor at home and of trade abroad, and by 
substituting for taxes on a multitude of ar- 
ticles a single tax on land. These reforms 
were encouraged by the king, but were obnox- 
ious to courtiers and many others. In 1775 he 
was charged with having caused scarcity by 
his regulations respecting the grain trade. In 
January, 1776, he caused an edict to be issued, 
abolishing compulsory labor for the state, in- 
ternal duties on breadstuffs, the privileges of 
trading corporations, &c. But this only in- 
creased the number of his enemies ; the privi- 
leged classes were so loud in their complaints 



that the king was afraid to support his minis- 
ter, and Turgot was dismissed in May. His 
CEuvres completes, published by Dupont de 
Nemours (9 vols. 8vo, Paris, 1808-'!!), were 
reprinted under the supervision of Eugene 
Daire and Hippolyte Dusard (2 vols., 1843-'4). 
His biography was written by Condorcet (Lon- 
don, 1786). 

TURIN (It. Torino). I. A N. W. province 
of Italy, in Piedmont, bounded W. by France ; 
area, 4,068 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 972,986. It 
is watered by the Po and its numerous afflu- 
ents. The eastern and southern portions of 
the surface are level or hilly; the northern 
and western are traversed by lofty branch- 
es of the Pennine, Graian, and Cottian Alps, 
containing many glaciers. Among the princi- 
pal products are wheat, maize, mulberries, 
melons, and hemp ; in the valleys rice and silk 
culture, and in the mountains cattle raising 
and mining, are extensive. The province is 
divided into the districts of Turin, Pinerolo, 
Susa, Aosta, and Ivrea. II. A city, capital of 
the province, in a large plain enclosed by the 
Alps excepting on the northeast, at the junc- 
tion of the Dora Riparia with the Po, 77 m. 




Porta Palatina. 

S. W. of Milan; pop. in 1872, 212,644. It is 
remarkable for its fine bridges, that on the 
Dora forming a single arch, large squares and 
broad streets, the monuments and palaces in 
the new town, and its delightful promenades 
bordered by villas. Of the ancient walls, only 
the Porta Palatina and one or two other parts 
are now standing. The piazza Castello con- 
tains many public buildings, and is surrounded 
by palaces which extend along the via del Po 
to the collina di Torino, a pretty range of ad- 
jacent hills. The royal palace, on the N. side 



TURKEY 



of this square, is remarkable chiefly for its 
size, and for its large library and interesting 
armory. In the centre of the square is the 
old palace of the early dukes of Savoy, re- 
stored in 1718 for the mother of Victor Ama- 
deus II. and since called palazzo Madama. On 
the N. W. tower of the palace is the royal ob- 
servatory. Adjoining the same square are the 
military academy and the theatre. The piazza 
di San Carlo is almost surrounded by arcades. 
The oldest church is the cathedral, the finest is 
that of San Filippo. A Protestant church was 
opened in 1853. The academy of sciences con- 
tains the pinacoteca or royal picture gallery, 
with celebrated paintings, and the museums of 
antiquity and natural history. The university, 
founded early in the 15th century and reorgan- 
ized in the 17th, has a magnificent building 
with a library of 200,000 volumes, increased in 
1875 by Oavour's library, bequeathed to it by 
the marquis Ainardo Cavour. He also left 
3,000,000 lire in real estate for the charity 
hospital, one of the largest of the numerous 
charitable institutions. A fine campo santo 
was opened in 1829. Despite the variable 
and occasionally rough climate, the mortality 
has lately averaged only 27'2 in 1,000, smaller 
than in other large towns of Italy. The chief 
export is silk. The principal manufactures 
are silk goods, jewelry, furniture, pianofortes, 
and carriages. Turin was originally settled by 
the Ligurian tribe of the Taurini, whence the 
name. It was conquered by Hannibal, and 
under Augustus became a Koman colony un- 
der the name of Augusta Taurinorum. In the 
6th century it was the capital of a Lombard 
duchy; in the 8th Charlemagne made it the 
capital of the marquisate of Susa ; and in the 
llth century it became that of the house of 
Savoy. The French held the city at various 
periods, but their army under La Feuillade and 
Marsin was signally defeated here by the im- 
perialists under Prince Eugene, Sept. 7, 1706. 
They occupied it in December, 1798, and Su- 
varoff in May, 1799 ; and the French again 
held it from 1800 to 1814, when it was re- 
stored to the Savoy dynasty. It was the cap- 
ital of the kingdom of Sardinia till 1860, and 
subsequently of Italy till May, 1865. 

TURKEY (meleagria, Linn.), a well known 
gallinaceous bird, the type of the family melea- 
gridce, of the group alecteromorphce of Huxley. 
The bill is moderate and strong, shorter than 
the head, compressed on the sides, with culmen 
arched, and upper mandible overhanging the 
lower ; the cere is elongated into a loose, pen- 
dulous, round, fleshy caruncle ; head and upper 
neck bare, with only a few scattered hairs, and 
carunculated ; base of lower mandible some- 
times wattled ; a tuft of long, black bristles 
on the breast, largest in the males ; wing short 
and rounded, the first four quills graduated, 
and the fifth and sixth the longest ; tail broad 
and rounded, pendent during repose, but capa- 
ble of being raised and extended like a fan ; 
tarsi robust, longer than middle toe, covered 



in front with broad, divided scales, and armed 
with a short obtuse spur ; anterior toes united 
at base by a membrane, the inner the shortest, 
the posterior moderate and elevated ; claws 
short and slightly curved. All the species in 
the wild state are indigenous to North Amer- 
ica. The common wild turkey (M. gallopavo, 
Linn.) is about 3$ ft. long and 5 ft. in extent 
of wings, -weighing from 15 to 20 Ibs. ; the 
naked skin of the bead and neck is livid blue, 
and the excrescences purplish red ; the general 
color is copper bronze, with green and metal- 
lic reflections, each feather with a velvet-black 
margin; quills brown, closely barred with 
white ; tail feathers chestnut, narrowjy barred 
with black, and the tip with a very wide sub- 
terminal black bar ; the female is smaller and 
less brilliant, without spurs, often without 
bristles on the breast, and with a smaller fleshy 
process above the base of the bill. It has a 
crop and gizzard, and an intestine four times 
the length of the body ; the cartilaginous tissue 
of the stomach is less hard than that of the 
common fowl. The full plumage is attained 
at the third year; the females usually weigh 




Wild Turkey (Melcagris gallopavo). 

about 9 Ibs. They fly in flocks of many hun- 
dreds, frequenting woods by day, feeding on 
acorns, all kinds of grain, buds, berries, fruits, 
nuts, grass, insects, and even young frogs ; 
they make considerable journeys in search of 
food, flying and swimming across rivers a mile 
wide; though their flight is heavy, they are 
able to reach with ease the tops of the high- 
est trees ; they are so strong as not.to be easily 
held when slightly wounded; they perch at 
night on trees. Quitting the woods in Sep- 
tember, they come into the more open and 
cultivated districts, where they are killed in 
great numbers; they were formerly abundant 
in the middle, southern, and western states, but 
are now rare except in thinly settled regions, 
and have never been found west of the Rocky 
mountains. Although the turkey was exclu- 
sively an inhabitant of North America in its 
wild state, the earlier naturalists supposed it to 
be a native of Africa and the East Indies, and 
its common name is said to have arisen from 
the belief that it originated in Turkey ; it was 
carried to England in the early part of the 16th 
century by William Strickland, lieutenant to 
Sebastian Cabot. Since that time it has been 
acclimated in most parts of the world, but the 



Note 

Modern, Divisions (Vilayets 
inserted, thus. Prisrend 




TURKEY 



55 



domestic bird, contrary to the usual rule, has 
degenerated in size, flavor, and beauty. The 
flesh of the wild turkey is more pheasant-like 
than that of the domesticated varieties. The 
old males keep by themselves, as do the females 
and young, the former being apt to destroy the 
eggs in order to prolong the honeymoon ; they 
are polygamous, the males in the breeding sea- 
son, in March, strutting before the females, 
with tail spread and elevated, wings drooping, 
feathers ruffled, head and neck drawn back, 
emitting a puffing sound ; the males also utter 
singular notes, resembling the word " gobble" 
several times repeated ; they fight desperately 
for the possession of the females. The nest is 
a slight hollow in the ground filled with with- 
ered leaves, in a dry and sheltered situation, 
and usually contains, when full, 10 to 15 eggs ; 
after this time the males conceal themselves 
while recovering their condition ; the females 
alone incubate, carefully concealing the nest, 
approaching it with great caution and always 
in a different way, covering the eggs with dry 
leaves when going in search of food, and 
bravely defending them against depredators ; 
sometimes three or four females lay in one 
nest, one remaining to guard it while the others 
seek for food. The males are attentive to the 
young, which run as soon as hatched, but are 
very tender and easily killed by cold and wet. 
Turkeys run very fast, and when pursued trust 
more to their legs than to their wings for es- 
cape ; they are generally shot from their roosts 
at night, or entrapped in a pen or enclosure 
into which they are enticed by grain ; their 
feathers are employed by the Indians in orna- 
mental work ; their greatest enemies are lynxes 
and owls, and other carnivorous mammals and 
birds. Two other species of turkey, the M. 
ocellata (Cuv.) and M. Hexicana (Gould), have 
been described as inhabiting Central America, 
Mexico, and the table lands of the Eocky moun- 
tains, both closely resembling in plumage and 
habits the common wild species. The progen- 
itor of the present race of domesticated tur- 
keys is not known with certainty ; some natu- 
ralists incline to the belief that it is the M. 
gallopavo, while others consider it to be an 
allied species, perhaps now extinct. Domesti- 
cated turkeys thrive best on high, dry, and 
sandy soil, and when grasshoppers are plenti- 
ful can pick up their own living ; in temperate 
climates they generally lay twice a year, 15 
eggs or less, white with small spots of reddish 
yellow. One male will suffice for 12 to 15 
females, the latter being prolific for about five 
years, though those of two or three years are 
the best hatchers ; incubation lasts 27 or 28 
days, and they are such close sitters that food 
must be placed within their reach ; when they 
are raised on a large scale they are made to 
hatch in darkened places, and so that the tur- 
key pouts, or young turkeys, shall all come out 
together; the young require warmth, proper 
food, and pure water, and must be protected 
against rain and the hot sun ; they are liable 



at all ages to many diseases, for the treatment 
of which special works in abundance can be 
consulted. Several fossil turkeys have been 
described by Professors Cope and Marsh in 
the post-tertiary. 

TURKEY, or The Ottoman Empire (Turk. Os- 
manli Vilayeti), a country extending over 
parts of southeastern Europe, western Asia, 
and northern Africa. It consists of the ab- 
solute possessions of the sultan (Turkey prop- 
er) and of his dependencies, the latter embra- 
cing the tributary states of Roumania, Servia, 
Samoa, and Egypt, and the nominal depen- 
dencies Tripoli, Tunis, and Montenegro. Tur- 
key proper, usually divided into Turkey in 
Europe (situated between lat. 34 45' and 45 
30' K, and Ion. 15 40' and 29 40' E.) and 
Turkey in Asia (between lat. 12 40' and 42 
5' N"., and Ion. 24 50' and 51 E.), borders on 
Austria, Servia, Roumania, European Russia, 
the Black sea, Russia in Asia, Persia, the Per- 
sian gulf, Arabia, the Red sea, Egypt, the 
Mediterranean, the Archipelago, Greece, the 
Ionian sea, the Adriatic, and Montenegro. Its 
political divisions (mostly vilayets) in Europe 
are the metropolitan district of Constanti- 
nople, Edirneh or Adrianople (Roumelia or 
Thrace), the principality of Tuna or the Dan- 
ube (Bulgaria), Salonica (Macedonia), Janina 
(Thessaly and Albania), Prisrend (Albania), 
Scutari (formerly part of Prisrend), Bosnia 
(including Turkish Croatia), Herzegovina (un- 
til lately part of Bosnia), and Candia or Crete. 
The divisions of Turkey proper in Asia are the 
Asiatic portion of the metropolitan district, 
Khodavendighiar or Brusa, Aidin, Konieh, 
Angora, Kastamuni, Trebizond, Sivas, and 
Adana, all in Asia Minor ; Erzerum (Arme- 
nia), Diarbekir (Kurdistan), Bagdad (Irak 
Arabi), Aleppo (N". Syria), Sur or Syria (cen- 
tral Syria, Phoenicia, and Palestine), Hedjaz 
and Yemen (in "W. Arabia), Hedjer (in E. Ara- 
bia), and the islands of the White sea (Archi- 
pelago). The aggregate area of Turkey prop- 
er in Europe is about 140,000 sq. m., and in 
Asia 760,000 sq. m. The population of the 
former is about 8,500,000, and of the latter 
13,200,000. The aggregate area of the depen- 
dencies is estimated at about 1,300,000 sq. m., 
and their aggregate population at about 26,000,- 
000; but all statistics relating to Turkey are 
necessarily imperfect in the absence of regu- 
lar official returns. The most important cities 
in Turkey proper, besides Constantinople, the 
capital, are Adrianople and Salonica in Eu- 
rope, and Smyrna, Damascus, Bagdad, Bey- 
rout, Aleppo, Brusa, Erzerum, and Trebizond, 
in Asia. The coasts of Turkey proper are 
washed by the Black sea, the Bosporus, the 
sea of Marmora, the Dardanelles, the Archi- 
pelago, the Mediterranean, the Ionian sea, the 
Adriatic, the Red sea, and the Persian gulf. 
This vast extent of coast embraces many excel- 
lent harbors. It is indented by numerous gulfs 
and bays, of which some of the principal are 
the gulfs of Avlona, Arta, and Salonica, in Eu- 



56 



TURKEY 



rope ; Adramyti, Smyrna, Adalia, and Iskan- 
derun, in Asia. Large salt lakes abound, chiefly 
in Asiatic Turkey, the most remarkable being 
the Dead sea in Palestine and Lake Van in Ar- 
menia. The rivers of Turkey in Europe may 
be classed under three heads : those flowing 
respectively into the Adriatic and Ionian seas, 
into the Archipelago, and into the Black sea. 
The first class are usually small, rising near 
the coast range of mountains ; the Narenta, 
Drin, and Voyutza are the principal. To the 
second class belong the Salembria, Vardar, 
Struma, Kara-su, and Maritza ; to the third, 
the Danube with its tributaries and a few 
small rivers. The rivers of Asiatic Turkey 
include those flowing into the Black sea, the 
Archipelago, the Mediterranean, the Red sea, 
and the Persian gulf, and the Jordan, which 
empties into the Dead sea. The principal riv- 
ers flowing into the Black sea are the Tchoruk, 
Yeshil Irmak, Kizil Irmak, and Sakaria. Those 
discharging into the Archipelago or the Medi- 
terranean are small, but of historical interest, 
as the Menderes (Maaander), Tersus (Oydnus), 
Aasy (Orontes), and Litany (Leontes). The 
streams falling into the Red sea are insignifi- 
cant, but among those flowing into the Persian 
gulf are the Euphrates and Tigris with their 
numerous tributaries. Turkey proper includes 
Thasos, Scio (Chios), Samos, and other islands 
of the Archipelago and sea of Marmora, as well 
as Oandia, Rhodes, and Cyprus. The two 
principal mountain ranges in European Turkey 
proper, which form the great watersheds be- 
tween the different basins of the country, are : 
1. The Illyrico-Hellenic or western range, com- 
prising the Dinaric Alps, a continuation of the 
Julian Alps, which separate the Adriatic coast 
from the basin of the Save, and the Pindic 
chain, connected on the north with the prece- 
ding, separating Albania from Macedonia and 
Thessaly, uniting with the Olympian chain on 
the south, and forming the watershed between 
the Ionian and JSgean seas ; Mt. Ida in Can- 
dia is considered an isolated branch of the 
southern continuation of this chain. 2. The 
Balkan or Htemus range, branching off from 
the preceding N. E. of Albania, dividing Ma- 
cedonia and Thrace from Bulgaria, and ter- 
minating in Cape Emineh on the Black sea. 
Its most important branch is the Despoto 
Dagh. (See BALKAN.) Others connect it with 
the S. E. Carpathians, which separate the trib- 
utary state of Roumania from the Austro-IIun- 
garian monarchy. The mountain system of 
Asiatic Turkey is composed of the Taurus and 
Anti-Taurus ranges and their Armenian con- 
tinuations, which form the connecting link be- 
tween the Balkan system and the mountain 
systems of Syria, Caucasia, and Persia; and 
the Syrian range, extending southward from 
the Taurus, culminating in the Lebanon moun- 
tains, and terminating in the Sinaitic peninsu- 
la, on the shore of the Red sea. The surface 
of European Turkey is undulating or moun- 
tainous, but with a large proportion of arable 



land of moderate elevation. Much of Asiatic 
Turkey consists of elevated plateaus, many of 
them scantily watered, while other regions 
once very fertile are now covered by the sands 
of the desert. The plains, which embrace the 
once wonderfully fertile tracts of Babylonia and 
almost all Mesopotamia, generally suffer from 
want of irrigation ; and though the slopes of the 
mountains afford good pasturage, the raids of 
Bedouins and Kurds diminish the production. 
In European Turkey about 40 per cent, of the 
area is arable and vine land, 6 per cent, mea- 
dows, 11 per cent, grass land, 14 per cent, for- 
ests, and 29 per cent, unproductive soil. Turkey 
in Europe is subject to -violent climatic changes. 
Owing to the elevation of considerable por- 
tions and to the cold N. E. winds from the 
interior of Russia, the winter is in many parts 
excessively cold. Albania, being sheltered from 
the N. E. winds by mountains, has a more uni- 
form climate, but is subject to scorching heats, 
protracted droughts, and earthquakes. In Asi- 
atic Turkey (outside the Arabian districts), the 
winter is cold and humid in the mountainous 
regions, but in the sheltered valleys and plains 
it is warm and delightful. The summer heats 
are excessive, especially in Asia Minor and Sy- 
ria. The valley of the Jordan and the regions 
of the Euphrates and Tigris are intolerably hot 
and dry in summer. Little or no rain falls 
from April to the middle of September, but the 
night dews are heavy. The peaks of Mt. Ara- 
rat and of the higher snmmits of the Lebanon 
and Taurus ranges are covered with perpetual 
snow. The principal mineral productions of 
European Turkey arc iron in great abundance, 
argentiferous galena, copper, sulphur, salt, and 
alum. In Asiatic Turkey, there are copper, 
lead, alum, silver, emery, and rock salt, in Ar- 
menia; in Asia Minor, all these and consider- 
able quantities of nitre ; in Syria, iron and coal, 
and west of the Jordan indurated chalk. Much 
emery is produced, and exported from Smyr- 
na, but the mineral resources of Asiatic Tur- 
key are in general undeveloped. The chief 
botanical characteristic of both European and 
Asiatic Turkey is the predominance of the 
labiata, caryophyllacece, and ericacece or heaths, 
of coniferous evergreens, and of the amenta- 
ceous trees common to the south of Europe. 
In the basin of the Danube the pine, beech, oak, 
lime, and ash are the principal forest trees, and 
the apple, pear, cherry, and apricot the most 
common fruit trees. In the provinces S. of the 
Balkan these trees are only found on the slopes 
of the mountains, while on the lower lands 
the palm, maple, almond, sycamore, walnut, 
chestnut, and carob trees, and the box, myrtle, 
laurel, and other evergreens, are found ; in 
Bosnia are large forests of fir and pine ; the 
maritime plains of Albania are favorable to 
the growth of the olive, orange, citron, vine, 
peach, plum, and other fruit trees; and the 
plain of Adrianople and most of the region 
S. of the Balkan abound in roses, from which 
the attar is largely distilled. Maize is cnltiva- 



TURKEY 



57 



ted in the south, rice, cotton, rye, and barley 
in the central provinces, and wheat, barley, 
and millet in the north. Though producing 
forest trees of the same families with those of 
European Turkey, the predominant trees of 
Asiatic Turkey are of different genera. The 
cedar, cypress, and evergreen oak crown the 
lower summits and thrive on the slopes of the 
Lebanon and Taurus ; the sycamore and mul- 
berry occupy the lower hills, and the olive, fig, 
citron, orange, pomegranate, and vine flour- 
ish luxuriantly in the lowlands. Mesopotamia 
abounds in dates, and in wheat, barley, rice, 
maize, tobacco, hemp, flax, and cotton. Among 
wild animals of European Turkey are the wild 
boar, bear, badger, marten, wolf, wild dog, 
fox, civet, wild cat, bat, squirrel, beaver, 
hedgehog, mole, hare, fallow deer, roe, and 
chamois. Of birds there are over 250 species, 
including about 100 songsters. Game is plenti- 
ful, especially in the mountains. Fish are nu- 
merous, embracing all the known species of the 
Mediterranean ; tunny, coral, and sponge fish- 
eries are extensive ; trout and other fish abound 
in the rivers, and leeches in the marshes. In 
Asiatic Turkey, the lion is still found E. of the 
Euphrates ; the striped hyaena, lynx, panther, 
wild boar, and wild ass occur in Mesopotamia ; 
the bear, wolf, wild hog, and jackal in Asia 
Minor; the leopard, hedgehog, jerboa, wolf, 
hare, and mole throughout Syria ; and the Sy- 
rian bear on Mt. Lebanon. The camel, horses 
of the best breeds, the ass, ox, sheep, and goats, 
including the celebrated Angora species, are 
numerous. There are few countries for which 
nature has done as much as for Turkey ; few 
in which the resources are so little developed; 
and, considering that the territories of the em- 
pire embrace those of ancient Assyria, Baby- 
lonia, Palestine, Phoenicia, Lydia, Ionia, &c., 
hardly any in which successive wars and misrule 
have destroyed so much of the results of for- 
mer activity, wealth, and magnificence. For 
fuller descriptions see the articles on the sepa- 
rate parts of the empire (Albania, Armenia, 
Asia Minor, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Candia, Cyprus, 
&c.), and on its principal mountain ranges, riv- 
ers, and cities. The races of Turkey are di- 
vided approximately as follows : 



RACES. 


In Europe. 


In Asia. 


Turks proper or Osmanlis 


2,200,000 


8,620,000 
100,000 
1,000,000 
2,000,000 


Turkomans, chiefly in N. Mesopotamia 
Greeks 


1,000,000 
60,000 
8,550,000 
200,000 
1,200,000 


Armenians 


Slavs (half Bulgarians, half Serbs) 
Roumans or Wallachs 
Albanians or Arnauts 
Arabs 


i,'ooo^666 

200,000 
80,000 
100,000 


Syrians and Chaldeans 




Druses 




Kurds 




Gypsies 


200,000 
70,000 
20,000 


Jews 


80,000 
20,000 


Tartars 


Total 


8,500,000 


18,200,000 




The state religion is Mohammedan, and the 
alleged sayings and opinions of the prophet, 



and the decisions of his immediate successors 
comprised in the code of laws (MuUeka) f are 
binding upon the sultan. The laws and regu- 
lations (Kannon Nameh) established in the 
16th century by Solyman the Magnificent con- 
stituted for a long period the basis of the ad- 
ministration of government and justice, and 
are still revered. But the Koran alone is the 
supreme authority in religion, law, and all 
spheres of government and life. It allows 
four wives, in addition to whom the sultan and 
other persons of rank and wealth may have 
unlimited numbers of concubines and female 
attendants or slaves. The masses of the poor 
can hardly support more than one wife, and 
even among the higher classes polygamy does 
not generally prevail. The rigid confinement 
of the females in the harem is in accordance 
with the Koran, which enjoins seclusion and 
modesty, and the veiling of the face. The la- 
dies of the higher classes are averse to these 
restrictions, and are lightly veiled; but the 
masses of the orthodox Turkish women, es- 
pecially in the interior, wear thick veils and 
reveal only the eyes. The Turks proper or 
Osinanlis, the Turkomans, Arabs, and Tartars 
are wholly, and the Kurds mostly Mohamme- 
dans ; and a small portion of the Slavic race are 
of the same religion. The Mohammedans con- 
stitute a vast majority in Asiatic Turkey, but 
are a minority in every European vilayet ex- 
cept Prisrend and Scutari and the metropoli- 
tan district. The sultan is regarded as the suc- 
cessor of the prophet, and on that account as 
the head of all believers. Even rulers of re- 
mote Mohammedan communities have at vari- 
ous times recognized the sultan as the chief of 
all Mussulmans and invoked his protection. As 
the Koran'constitutes both a code of law, of reli- 
gion, and of ethics, there is a close connection 
between the ministers of religion and the inter- 
preters of jurisprudence (muftis, mollahs, &c.). 
Together these form the body of the ulema 
(see UI.EMA), governed by the sheikh ul-Islam, 
the only dignitary who holds office for life. 
The Christians of Turkey belong mostly to the 
Greek church, including about 6,000,000 mem- 
bers, mostly subject to the patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. The Armenian church is confined 
to the Armenian race. The head of the Gre- 
gorian Armenians is the patriarch in the Turk- 
ish capital, who ranks below the catholicos 
in Russian Armenia, but is otherwise entire- 
ly independent of him. A portion of the 
Greeks and Armenians, Nestorians, and Jacob- 
ites have united with the Roman Catholic 
church, but keep up separate organizations as 
united Greeks, united Bulgarians, united Ar- 
menians, Chaldeans, united Syrians, and Ma- 
ronites. The number of Roman Catholics, in- 
clusive of the members of the oriental church- 
es who recognize the supremacy of the pope, 
is estimated at about 300,000 in European and 
from 300,000 to 400,000 in Asiatic Turkey. 
All these denominations, as well. as the Prot- 
estants (whose converts are chiefly won from 



58 



TURKEY 



the Armenians by American missionaries) and 
the Jews, are recognized by the sultan as inde- 
pendent religious communities, with the priv- 
ilege of maintaining their own ecclesiastical 
organizations. Among the numerous peculiar 
sects are the Druses and Ansaries in Syria. 
The antagonism between the various religious 
bodies is stronger in Turkey than anywhere 
else, and they are far from observing toward 
each other the tolerance which is granted to 
them by the government. A new educational 
law promulgated in 1869 provided for the es- 
tablishment of elementary schools for both 
sexes in every commune, of schools of a high- 
er grade and gymnasiums or colleges in larger 
towns, of industrial and normal schools, and 
of a university, after German models, which 
was opened in Constantinople in February, 
1870. There have since been established there 
a school of law, a military school, one for engi- 
neers, and one of artillery, and a naval school 
on the island of Khalki in the sea of Marmora. 
The government has declared its intention to 
make the schools more and- more national, and 
to abolish the old Arabian system of instruc- 
tion. Outside of the capital the progress of 
education is slow, chiefly owing to the innate 
aversion of the Turkish mind for mental effort. 
The government, however, seeks to promote 
national literature, and recently passed a copy- 
right law. The Christian communities strive 
to emulate European systems of education, es- 
pecially the Greeks and the Protestants, and 
there are several good Catholic schools; but 
the most efficient institutions are the Robert 
college (American) at Constantinople, the new 
Protestant college at Beyrout, and the schools 
of the Prussian deaconesses in various places. 
The empire abounds in archaeological trea- 
sures. The most important results have been 
achieved in the present century by the exca- 
vations in Assyria, Asia Minor, Palestine, and 
Cyprus. Turkey contains a number of for- 
eign (called Frank) or extra-territorial com- 
munities, placed under the protection of resi- 
dent diplomatic and consular agents. They 
originated in the Levant trading companies, 
many of the early English, French, Italian, 
German, and other settlers and adventurers 
becoming permanent residents ; and their num- 
bers have been greatly increased by the rapid 
progress of European monopolies in railways, 
finance, trade, and industry, and in all Turk- 
ish enterprises. The representation of for- 
eign powers in Turkey dates from the 16th 
century, and has been protected by the so- 
called "capitulations" and subsequent treaty 
stipulations, affording full safety to diplomatic 
and consular officers, and vesting them with 
judicial powers and every right necessary to 
the interests of their constituencies. These 
include the richest Greek and English mer- 
chants, whose influence is almost boundless 
through their ambassadors and consuls. The 
native Christian subjects are called rayahs, and, 
whether Greeks or Slavs, chiefly belong to the 



Greek church, of the principal branch of which 
the czar is the supreme head, whence results 
the great influence of Russia. The social equal- 
ity which prevails among the Mussulmans en- 
ables persons of the lowest condition to rise to 
the highest ; but the rayahs have had no such 
opportunities, and, in addition to their hard 
struggles for subsistence, they have borne the 
brunt of Moslem fanaticism since the conquest 
of Constantinople, when the most influential 
Greeks (Fanariotes) made themselves service- 
able to their conquerors, while the masses of 
the Christians were regarded as outlaws. Shut 
out from all contact with European civiliza- 
tion, they lost their mental energy and ambi- 
tion, and became infected with Asiatic vices 
without acquiring the redeeming qualities of 
independence possessed by their conquerors, 
toward whom their outward obsequiousness 
and secret hatred increased in the measure of 
their helplessness and demoralization. The 
church became, under these circumstances, not 
only the idol of their faith, but also the only 
hope of their ultimate redemption through the 
influence of Christian nations. This abnormal 
condition of the rayah populations has more 
than once called for the intervention of for- 
eign powers, while remaining a chronic source 
of disaffection and disturbance. The succes- 
sive concessions which they received during 
the present century, under the pressure of dis- 
astrous events, have not materially lessened 
their burdens, although they now apparently 
enjoy equality before the law under the juris- 
diction of mixed courts. They are also excep- 
tionally admitted to official positions, and the 
latest decrees of the sultan remove all previous 
disabilities in this regard. But the Moham- 
medans respect no laws excepting those sanc- 
tioned by the Koran, and the officers charged 
with the execution of imperial decrees are gen- 
erally opposed to the boons they are intended 
to confer on Christians. Many of the Turkish 
officeholders are also notorious for venality and 
incapacity, especially in remote provinces, be- 
yond the immediate control of the vigilant for- 
eign ambassadors at the capital. The Armenian 
rayahs have greater ethnological affinities with 
the Turks than the Greeks and Slavs. Many 
of them prosper in official positions in the cap- 
ital, and as dragomans of foreign embassies, 
for which they are specially qualified by their 
adroitness in managing the pashas and their 
linguistic attainments. They are also clever 
financiers, and in that department eclipse both 
Greeks and Jews. But in Armenia proper 
their condition is made so deplorable by the 
Turkish officials and by the fearful ravages of 
the Kurds, that hundreds of Armenians have 
lately embraced Mohammedanism as the only 
alternative against these persecutions. The 
great Greek merchants are not rayahs, but pro- 
tected foreigners. The Jews are mostly poor. 
They are descendants of refugees from Spanish 
persecution, retain a Spanish dialect, and are 
obliged to wear a distinctive costume, except- 



TURKEY 



59 



ing a few whose wealth secures them special 
privileges. They are despised by the Turks 
and periodically persecuted by the Greekjs. 
The Turks fully respect only foreigners in- 
vested with official rank or with powerful pro- 
tection. In the absence of such prestige, the 
slightest provocation is apt to reveal their in- 
nate prejudices against the giaour, though, 
when not under the influence of fanatical or 
criminal passion, they are remarkable for their 
dignity and courtesy, and for honesty in their 
private relations. The Turkish government, 
or Sublime Porte, is an absolute monarchy, the 
rule of which is vested in a sultan (officially 
called padishah, supreme ruler) of the dynasty 
of Othman. The sultan is allowed to govern 
in the most arbitrary manner, except in mat- 
ters of religion and law, which require the con- 
currence of the sheikh ul-Islam (grand mufti). 
The succession to the throne has from the first 
been vested in the oldest surviving male mem- 
ber of the ruling family. The late sultan, Ab- 
dul-Aziz, wished to secure the throne to his 
eldest son Yusuf, making the succession direct 
from father to son, a change which was estab- 
lished in Egypt in 1866; but he encountered 
an invincible opposition to any deviation from 
the ancient rule, and was succeeded by the 
heir apparent, his nephew Mehemet Murad 
(born in 1840), the eldest son of the sultan 
Abdul-Medjid. Former sultans have frequent- 
ly secured the succession to their sons by put- 
ting to death immediately on their accession 
all their other male relatives. The civil list 
of Abdul-Aziz was raised from 900,000 in 
1868 to 1,200,000 in 1873, and he annually 
received besides 500,000 for pensions and 
charities, derived an additional revenue from 
crown domains and from presents, and might 
at his pleasure raise unlimited amounts. His 
actual annual expenditure was estimated at 4,- 
500,000. This extravagance in the midst of na- 
tional insolvency and peril shook even the loy- 
alty of the orthodox Moslem, especially as the 
people were everywhere ground down by tithes 
and by the rapacity of tax-gatherers and other 
officials. The empire is divided into vilayets, 
under governors general (valis). They are sub- 
divided into sanjaks (districts) under gover- 
nors (mutessarifs), and these into cazas (cir- 
cles) under lieutenant governors (kaimakams), 
and the latter into nahiyes (communes). The 
mayors of villages are called muTchtars. The 
former eyalets or pashalics have been united 
or changed into vilayets. The provincial gov- 
ernors, who generally hold the rank of pasha, 
formerly had the right of sentencing persons 
to death; this has been withdrawn, but they 
still rule arbitrarily, particularly in remote dis- 
tricts, and are frequently in collision with the 
rayahs and the protected foreigners. Even 
after their proven dishonesty or unfitness, they 
are generally not dismissed from the service, 
but only transferred to a less important office. 
New territorial divisions are often created 
merely in order to make places for influential 



-The grand vizier presides over the 
council of ministers. This comprises the grand 
vizier's councillor, who acts as minister of the 
interior, the president of the supreme council 
of justice, who acts as minister of justice, and 
the ministers of foreign affairs, war, finance, 
navy, commerce, police, public works and quar- 
antines, education, and archives, the superin- 
tendent of mosque property, and the president 
of the council of state established in 1868. 
The department of taxes, the united postal and 
telegraph services, and the mining department 
are respectively in charge of directors general. 
The ministerial council corresponds to the Eu- 
ropean cabinets, while the new council of state 
is intended for the preliminary discussion of 
new laws and public measures. This body 
comprises an executive department, and four 
others, devoted to finance, justice, education, 
and commerce, and consists of 50 Mohamme- 
dan and Christian members chosen by the sul- 
tan. A scheme for the reorganization of the 
police and of the collectors of taxes, the latter 
to supersede the policemen (zaptiehs), was in 
1876 in process of adoption. In 1868 a su- 
preme court for civil and criminal cases was 
substituted for the former grand council of 
justice, and the office of attorney general was 
created early in 1876. There are courts of 
appeal in the capital of each vilayet, and vari- 
ous superior tribunals exist all over the coun- 
try, about 100 subordinate tribunals, and mixed 
courts for settling cases between Mohamme- 
dans and non-Mohammedans, besides the con- 
sular courts. This divided jurisdiction natu- 
rally results in complications. The ancient 
"capitulations" relating to foreign jurisdiction 
were recently abolished in Egypt as altogether 
obsolete, and they have been modified in Tur- 
key proper, but without satisfactorily settling 
the questions at issue. Among the treaties 
with foreign nations now in force are extra- 
dition and reciprocal naturalization treaties re- 
cently concluded with the United States. The 
crown lands (miri) include the larger portion 
of the soil. They are granted on lease, and for- 
feited if the cultivation is neglected for three 
years. The land appropriated to mosques and 
for other religious purposes, to schools, and 
to charitable institutions, consists of real es- 
tate originally granted by the crown (vaJcuf 
el-zarai), and of private legacies for the same 
purposes (vakuf el-Tear amain). The grants of 
land (maliTcaneJi) originally made for military 
purposes and for the pilgrimages to Mecca are 
hereditary and free from tithes. The fourth 
and least considerable form of tenure is free- 
hold property (mullcJi), chiefly consisting of city 
estates and of land adjoining villages. For- 
eigners can now hold real estate in their own 
names, on the same terms as natives. The 
great Turkish landed proprietors are far more 
independent of the government than the land- 
ed aristocracy of Great Britain and continental 
Europe ; the most ancient and powerful of them 
in Aidin, Brusa, and other parts of the empire, 



60 



TURKEY 



resemble feudal princes, but generally keep 
aloof from public affairs, and are distinguished 
for munificence and charity. Some of the Ar- 
menians also are vast landholders, and they as 
well as some of the Greek and other merchants 
have city and country palaces which vie in mag- 
nificence with those of the foreign ambassadors, 
of the great pashas, and of the imperial and 
Egyptian dynasties. The principal charter of 
civil rights, next to the hatti-therif of 1839, 
was the hatti-humayun of 1856, which, as well 
as subsequent and quite recent pledges, prom- 
ised great improvement and reforms, but have 
not produced permanent ameliorations, the or- 
thodox Moslems being opposed to increased 
privileges for the Christians, while the latter 
insist upon much greater ones than the sultan 
is willing to concede. The financial budget 
for the year 1875-'6, ending in March, esti- 
mates the revenue at $125,500,000, and the 
expenditures at $103,800,000. As usual, it is 
made to show a surplus, when in reality there 
is an immense deficit. The public debt of Tur- 
key is divided into two classes, the foreign or 
hypothecated debts, contracted abroad and se- 
cured on special sources of revenue, and the 
internal debts, known under a variety of names, 
issued at Constantinople alone, and therefore 
dependent only on a compact between the 
Porte and its subjects, and secured on the gen- 
eral credit and resources of the empire. The 
nominal amount of the foreign debts had 
reached in January, 1874, the sum of $772,- 
000,000, and the floating debt was estimated 
at $64,600,000. A new loan was issued in 
September, 1874, to consolidate the floating 
debt, which since January of that year had 
again largely increased. A financial report 
from Constantinople, dated May 10, 1875, es- 
timated the entire Turkish debt at $969,600,000. 
On Oct. 8, 1875, the government declared its 
partial insolvency, and promised to pay half 
of the interest due on the foreign debt in cash, 
and the rest in new bonds to be issued to the 
extent of about $166,000,000. A reorganiza- 
tion of the army was begun in 1871, and is to 
be completed in 1878. According to the new 
regulations, the military forces (formerly di- 
vided into nizam, or active army, idatyal, first 
reserve, redif, second reserve, and hiyade, mili- 
tia) are divided into the regular army, the re- 
serve, and the sedentary army. In time of war 
the army is to contain 700,000 men, of whom 
150,000 will belong to the regular army, 70,000 
to the first reserve, and the remainder to the 
sedentary army. The annual contingent will 
be nearly 40,000 men. The imperial guard at 
Constantinople is the only thoroughly efficient 
military body in the empire. Non-Mussulmans 
are not liable to service in the army, but have 
to pay a military exemption tax, known as the 
bedel Polish, Hungarian, French, English, 
German, and other foreigners are employed 
in the Turkish army and navy, some of them 
reaching high positions, such as the late Aus- 
trian Omer Pasha as commander in the for- 



mer, and the English Hobart Pasha as admi- 
ral in the latter service. The navy consisted 
in 1874 of 20 iron-clad vessels and 99 trans- 
ports, and was manned by 34,000 sailors and . 
marines. The crews are raised in the same 
manner as the land forces. The arrivals and 
departures in the Turkish ports in 1873 com- 
prised 43,200 foreign vessels, tonnage 12,- 
738,000, and 29,614 Ottoman vessels, tonnage 
3,518,000, besides 178,143 small craft, mainly 
Turkish, engaged in the coasting trade, ton- 
nage 1,903,000. The arrivals in 1874 at Con- 
stantinople, the chief port, comprised alto- 
gether 4,185 steamers (2,042 English) and 
16,489 sailing ships (2,500 Greek and the rest 
chiefly Ottoman), with an aggregate tonnage 
of 4,606,200, or one fourth of the whole na- 
tional trade. Much shipping business is car- 
ried on at Smyrna, Salonica, and Trebizond. 
Adrianople, Aleppo, Damascus, and Bagdad 
are the most prominent interior commercial 
centres of the empire. The imports consist 
chiefly of British and other manufactures and 
colonial goods, and the chief exports com- 
prise grain, cotton, fruit, wine, tobacco, coffee, 
honey and wax, silk, emery, carpets, and mad- 
der. The average annual estimated value of 
imports into European Turkey in 1868-'70 
was about $90,000,000, and of exports $50,- 
000,000 ; there are no trustworthy later data, 
and none at all in regard to Asiatic Turkey. 
The exports to England in 1874 amounted to 
6,000,000, and the imports from that country 
to 7,000,000 ; the exports to Russia, about 
20,000,000 rubles, and the imports 6,000,000 
rubles. The imports from the United States 
amounted, in the year ending June 30, 1874, 
to $2,559,551, and the exports to $786,877. 
With the exception of a few great thorough- 
fares, there are no roads worthy of the name 
throughout the empire. The first railway dates 
from 1862. The principal railways (1876) are 
those from Constantinople to Adrianople, Var- 
na to Rustchuk, Kustendji to Tchernavoda, Sa- 
lonica to Mitrovitza, and Novi to Banialuka, 
in Europe, and from Smyrna to Ephesus, Ai- 
din, and Alashehr, and Scutari to Ismid, in 
Asia Minor. According to a convention with 
Austria, Sept. 80, 1875, the Belovar-Sofia line 
was to bo completed in 1876, and its exten- 
sion to Nissa and connection with Belgrade in 
1879. The aggregate length of railroads fin- 
ished in European -Turkey is nearly 1,000 m.; 
in Asiatic, not much more than 100 m. The 
Danube with its navigable tributaries forms 
the great channel of commerce for the north- 
ern portions of Turkey in Europe. The lines 
of telegraph have an aggregate length of 17,- 
864 m., and the wires of 28,973 m. There 
were 400 telegraph offices. The communica- 
tions with the interior were of the most inef- 
ficient description until March 1, 1876, when 
the entire postal service of the empire was for 
the first time undertaken by the government, 
which proposes to organize it after the best 
European models. The Ottoman empire, in- 



TURKEY 



61 



eluding its dependencies, almost closely corre- 
sponds to the Byzantine empire in the times 
of its greatest extent. It arose when the lat- 
ter had been stripped by Saracen and Seljuk 
conquest of all its possessions in Asia and Afri- 
ca, excepting some territories in the north and 
west of Asia Minor. It derives its name from 
Othman or Osman, the successor to the pow- 
er of the Seljuk sultans of Iconium or Roum, 
who conquered Nicsea in Bithynia (1299) and 
several neighboring districts. (See SELJTTKS, 
OTHMAN, and TURKS.) The Ottoman power 
was increased by his son Orkhan's capture of 
Brusa, the Bithynian capital (1326), and by 
his invasion of Thrace. Othman's grandson 
Amurath I. took Adrianople in 1361, regularly 
organized the janizaries (see JANIZARIES), van- 
quished the princes of Bulgaria and Servia, 
and was killed at the moment of his signal 
victory over the Serbs at Kosovo in 1389. His 
son Bajazet I. invaded Wallachia and Hungary, 
besieged Constantinople for several years and 
then retreated, defeated Sigismund of Hungary 
at Nicopolis (1396), and overran the Morea; 
but having previously completed the conquest 
of Asia Minor, he was obliged to evacuate 
Greece and to protect the former region against 
the invasion of Tamerlane, by whom he was 
finally defeated and captured in 1402, a year 
before his death. His grandson Amurath II. 
(1421-'51), son of Mohammed I., conquered 
Thessalonica and Janina. He was defeated by 
Hunyady at Belgrade in 1439, and on subse- 
quent occasions, but in 1444 achieved a great 
victory over Hunyady and King Ladislas of 
Poland and Hungary at Varna. He over- 
whelmed the Hungarians in a second battle 
at Kosovo, three years before his death. His 
son Mohammed II. (1451-'81) gave the final 
death blow to the Byzantine empire by his 
conquest of Constantinople, after a memorable 
eiege of 53 days, May 29, 1453; and in 1454 
he completed the conquest of Servia. At Bel- 
grade he was repulsed by Hunyady (1456), but 
he subdued most of the Morea (1460), and soon 
afterward Trebizond, Wallachia, and almost all 
the islands of the archipelago. He was repeat- 
edly defeated by Scanderbeg in Albania, and 
subjugated that country only after the latter's 
death (1467). Mohammed was the founder of 
the greatness of Turkey, and was surnamed 
the Conqueror. Remarkable among his suc- 
cessors was Selim I. (1512-'20), son of Baja- 
zet II., who extended his dominion over Meso- 
potamia, Assyria, Syria, and Egypt, and estab- 
lished a regular Ottoman navy. His son Soly- 
man II., the Magnificent, took Belgrade in 
1521 and Rhodes in 1522, defeated the Hun- 
garians at Mohacs in 1526, captured Buda in 
1529, and marched on Vienna, where he was 
repulsed with great loss, and again in 1532. 
Subsequently he conquered Armenia, Croatia, 
Yemen, Shirvan, and Georgia; but his naval 
forces, which had extended his sway over the 
Barbary coast, were defeated at Malta in 1565, 
and in 1566 he was repeatedly repulsed by 



Zrinyi at Sziget, and died a few days before 
the last and fatal assault on that Hungarian 
fortress. The reign of Solyman marks the 
zenith of the military power of Turkey, which 
began to decline after his death, his son Selim 
II. being the first of the sultans who did not 
command the troops, and who led the life of a 
voluptuary. After conquering Cyprus, he lost 
in 1571 the great naval battle of Lepanto. He 
was succeeded by a series of still more inef- 
ficient rulers, under whom the janizaries be- 
came omnipotent despite the decline of their 
military organization, and murders and con- 
spiracies in the seraglio and revolts of pashas 
in remote provinces more and more frequent. 
The more important of these sultans were 
Amurath III. and IV., Mohammed IV. (who 
conquered Candia after a protracted struggle), 
and Mahmoud I., accounts of whose reigns are 
given under their own names. Frequent wars 
with Poland, Austria, Persia, Venice, and Rus- 
sia were waged, but rarely with success. Mon- 
tecuculi, Sobieski (who routed Mohammed IV.'s 
army before Vienna in 1683), Louis of Baden, 
and Prince Eugene destroyed the Turkish pow- 
er on the Danube ; and at the peace of Carlo- 
vitz in 1699 Mustapha II. surrendered nearly 
all his Hungarian possessions to Austria, Azov 
to Peter the Great of Russia, Podolia and 
Ukraine to Poland, and the Morea to Venice. 
During almost the whole of the 18th century 
Turkey was at war with Russia, and much of 
the time with Austria also. Though occasion- 
ally successful, as in the reconquest of the Mo- 
rea under Ahmed III. (1715), this protracted 
warfare was disastrous to Turkey, and she 
lost the Crimea and all her possessions N. of 
the Black sea, and the exclusive navigation of 
that sea and the straits connected with it. In 
other quarters, too, losses were suffered. Se- 
lim III. (1789-1807) was an enlightened ruler, 
but could not avert continuous disasters. The 
peace concluded with Russia at Jassy in 1792 
made the Dniester the frontier between the 
two empires. Several provincial governors 
aspired to independence, and the conquest of 
Egypt by Bonaparte led to a war with France, 
which ended in considerable concessions to that 
power ; and wars with Russia and England 
and the revolt of the janizaries aggravated the 
critical condition of the country. Servia rose 
under the leadership of Czerny George (1805), 
and subsequently achieved its semi-indepen- 
dence under Milosh Obrenovitch. Selim was 
deposed in 1807, and Mustapha IV. was placed 
on the throne chiefly through the i. fluence of 
the janizaries, but was displaced and put to 
death in 1808 by his brother Mahmoud II., 
who after a terrible struggle finally disband- 
ed that body in 1826, massacring thousands 
of them. In the mean time he had also dis- 
played great energy in Albania by crushing 
Ali Pasha of Janina (1822), but the Greek rev- 
olution proved fatal; and as Mahmoud disre- 
garded the European remonstrances against the 
cruelties perpetrated in Greece by Ibrahim 



62 



TURKEY 



Pasha and others, the Turco-Egyptian fleet was 
destroyed by the English, French, and Russian 
squadrons at Navarino, Oct. 20, 1827. Hostili 
ties virtually ceased in 1829. Greece achieve( 
her independence, and after a victory by ttu 
Russians under Diebitsch, who had crossed 
the Balkan, the treaty of Adrianople, Sept. 14 
1829, restored peace between Russia and Tur- 
key. In 1832 began the contest of the Porte 
with Mehemet Ali, the viceroy of Egypt. The 
sultan was repeatedly defeated, and the strug- 
gle was not ended at the time of his death 
(1839), and only a year after the accession of 
his son Abdul-Medjid, through the interven- 
tion of England and her allies in behalf of the 
Porte, whose admission into the political sys- 
tem of European states was for the first time 
officially conceded by the treaties of July 15, 
1840, and July 14, 1841. The integrity of 
Turkey became a cardinal principle of Euro- 
pean diplomacy, and was strengthened by the 
coalition of England, France, and Sardinia with 
Turkey in the Crimean war (1853-'5), which 
resulted in the discomfiture of Russia, and the 
neutralization of the Black sea by the treaty 
of Paris (1856). A French army and an Eng- 
lish fleet again interfered in 1860 to terminate 
the conflict between the Druses and Maronites, 
after fearful massacres of Christians at Da- 
mascus and in the Lebanon, and great loss of 
life on both sides. The reign of Abdul-Medjid 
was also troubled by conflicts with Montene- 
gro, and a rising in Herzegovina. He died 
June 25, 1861, and was succeeded by his bro- 
ther Abdul- Aziz. In December of the same year 
the Danubian principalities were permanently 
united under the name of Roumania, and in 
1866 Charles I. of the house of Hohenzollern 
was elected hereditary prince. A Cretan in- 
surrection broke out in the same year, and led 
to serious collisions with Greece, which were 
finally terminated by a conference of the great 
powers at Paris, Jan. 9, 1869. In the mean 
time Servia had taken advantage of these com- 
plications to obtain (1867) the independence of 
all her fortresses ; while Egypt, after codpor- 
ating with Turkey in Crete, made extravagant 
pretensions which would have resulted in war 
but for the influence of foreign powers. The 
Franco-German war (1870-71) impaired the 
prestige of the Forte's steadiest ally, and 
enabled Russia to recover her former vantage 
ground in the East by insisting npon a modifi- 
cation of the treaty of Paris of 1856 (November, 
1870), and its provisions which had neutralized 
the Black sea ports and other articles restrict- 
ing Russia were abrogated by a conference in 
London, January, 1871. The grand vizier Aali 
1-asha died in the same year, and Fuad Pasha 
having died two years before, Abdul-Aziz was 
deprived of his most influential advisers. Af- 
ter vain attempts to check the ambition of 
hgypt, the sultan finally granted (June 1873) 
important privileges to the present khedive, 
Ismail Pasha, making him almost an absolute 
ruler. In July, 1875, the Turkish port of Zei- 



TURKEY BUZZARD 

lah,. in the gulf of Aden, was added to Egypt, 
bringing the entire African coast of the Red sea 
under her domination. In November the khe- 
dive transferred all his shares in the Suez ca- 
nal to England, without apparently asking the 
consent of the Porte or any other government. 
In the summer of 1875 an insurrection broke 
out in Herzegovina, and in October Turkey 
declared her partial insolvency. Other grave 
complications threatening a dismemberment 
of the empire, the six powers who had signed 
the treaty of Paris of 1856 proposed a scheme 
of reforms in February, 1876, which the sul- 
tan mainly accepted ; but the insurgents, re- 
fused to lay down their arms, and his situation 
became more and more critical, and was great- 
ly aggravated by the opposition of the Turkish 
fanatics to Christian equal rights, and the 
massacre of the French and German consuls 
at Salonica in May. A conference at Berlin 
between Russia, Austria, and Germany contem- 
plated more exacting terms for the protection 
of the Christians and restoration of tranquillity, 
but England took no part in it. The adver- 
saries of Abdul- Aziz, prominent among whom 
were the softas, comprising about 20,000 stu- 
dents in Constantinople, who were alienated by 
his alleged subserviency to Russia, his refusal 
to restore his spoils (which were afterward con- 
fiscated), and his attempted change of the order 
of succession, brought about his deposition on 
May 30, and the accession of his nephew as 
Amurath V., who on June 4 announced his pre- 
decessor's alleged suicide. The new sultan is 
beset by formidable financial and other diffi- 
culties. Herzegovina is s^ill in revolt (June, 
1876) ; Servia, Montenegro, and Bosnia main- 
tain a threatening attitude ; and Bulgaria and 
other provinces are disaffected. But the Eu- 
ropean powers, and especially England in her 
antagonism to Russia, strive to prevent the 
dismemberment of Turkey, although the gen- 
eral confidence in the stability of Ottoman 
domination over Christian communities has 
never since the conquest of Constantinople 
been so low as now. See ffeschichte des os- 
manischen Reich*, by Haramer-Purgstall (10 
vols., Pesth, 1827-'84) ; " History of the Otto- 
man Empire," by E. Upham (2 vols., Edin : 
>urgh, 1829) ; Geschichte des osmanischen Reiclis 
in JEuropa, by Zinkeisen (7 vols., Gotha, 1840- 
63) ; VAsie Mineure, by P. Tchihatcheff (8 
vols., Paris, 1853-'69); "The Turkish Em- 
pire," by E. Joy Morris (Philadelphia, 1854) ; 
Vutoire de la Turquie, by Lamartine (0 vols.. 
3 aris, 1854) ; " History of the Ottoman Turks," 
by E. S. Creasy (2 vols., London, 1854) ; Ge- 
chichte der Turlcei neuester Zeit, by Rosen, 
2 vols., Leipsic, 1866-'7) ; fitudes historigues 
ur les populations cJiretiennes de la Turquie 
d 1 Europe, by Ubicini (Paris, 1867); "Modern 
Turkey," by J. Lewis Farley (London, 1872) ; 
md Der Islam im neumehnten Jahrhundert, 
V Vambery (Leipsic, 1875). 
TfBKEY BUZZARD, the popular name of one 
f the common American vultures, cathartes 



TUKKEY BUZZARD 

(rhinogryphus) aura (Illig.). It is about 2 ft. 
long aud 6 ft. in extent of wings ; the bill is 
long and comparatively slender, with an arched, 
strong tip ; a large soft cere, two thirds the 
length of the bill, in which the pervious nos- 
trils are placed; wings long and pointed, the 
third and fourth quills nearly equal and longest ; 
tail moderate and nearly even ; tarsi short, 
plumed below the knee, and with small scales ; 
toes weak, united by a small membrane, hind 
one short and weak, and claws strong; head 
and neck naked, no fleshy crest, and the plu- 
mage black. All the vultures which have the 
nostrils horizontal and perforate, with a basal 
web between the middle and inner toes, belong 
to the new world. The color is brownish black, 
with a purplish lustre, darkest on the back and 
upper part of tail, and some pale edgings ; bill 
yellowish; head and neck bright red, with a 
few scattered hair-like feathers and wrinkled 
ekin ; plumage commencing on the neck with 




Tmrkey Buzzard (Cathartes aura). 

a circular ruff of prominent feathers. It is 
found all over North America, except the arctic 
regions, going on the Pacific coast as far N. as 
the British possessions, but on the Atlantic 
rarely seen N. of New Jersey ; but it is most 
abundant in the southern states, migrating 
thither from the colder parts. It is essentially 
a carrion eater, though it will devour any kind 
of fresh meat, and even small living mammals, 
birds, and reptiles ; it has been known to at- 
tack and kill weak and sickly animals in the 
fields. It associates in flocks of 25 to 30, even 
when not feeding, becoming very familiar in 
the southern cities, where it devours any car- 
rion or animal filth left in the streets. It finds 
out its prey at a great distance, and sails for 
miles without apparent effort, with the tips of 
the wings bent upward by the weight of the 
body; it is often seen in company with the 
black vulture, hawks, kites, and crows; it is 
also a good walker. Its average weight is 6^ 
Ibs., which is somewhat less than that of the 
801 VOL. xvi. 5 



TURKISH LANGUAGE, &c. 63 

black vulture. It is fond of particular roosting 
places, generally high and dead cypresses in 
deep swamps ; it is very sensitive to cold, and 
liable to disease about the eyes and legs in the 
shape of warts and excrescences ; when alarmed 
or provoked it utters a loud hissing noise. In 
the southern states the breeding season begins 
early in February, the nest being usually placed 
in the hollow of a dead tree, or, it is said, even 
on the ground, and containing two eggs, 2-J 
by 2 in., light cream-colored, with black and 
brown marks ; both sexes incubate, each feed- 
ing the other and the young with the disgorged 
contents of the stomach; incubation lasts 32 
days ; only one brood is raised yearly. 

TURKISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE. The 
languages spoken by the different tribes of 
Turkish or Tartar origin form a principal di- 
vision of the great Uralo-Altaic or Turanian 
family, of which the chief common character- 
istics have been pointed out under TURANIAN 
RACE AND LANGUAGES. They constitute to- 
gether a well marked group of nearly related 
idioms ; even the Yakut the one which differs 
most from the rest, and is supposed to have 
severed itself from the main stem before the 
division of the latter into its other branches 
is so distinctly a Turkish language that its 
relationship is apparent upon the most super- 
ficial examination; and it has been asserted, 
though with questionable accuracy, that a Ya- 
kut from the Lena could make himself passably 
understood at Constantinople. The Tartar dia- 
lects are for the most part known only by 
scanty vocabularies and the descriptions of 
travellers ; a few have been treated grammat- 
ically ; three or four, as the Uigur, the Jagatai 
or oriental Turkish, and the Osmanli, have re- 
ceived literary culture, and are to be studied 
in writtan monuments. Of these last, the dia- 
lect of the tribe which has been for 500 years 
dominant in European and Asiatic Turkey, or 
the Osmanli Turkish, as it is distinctively 
called, is of by far the greatest importance, 
and to it we shall chiefly direct our attention. 
Its peculiarities are such as naturally result 
from its position and its culture under the 
powerful influence of Arabic and Persian ; 
every part of its vocabulary, and even some 
departments of its grammar, are filled with 
Arabic and Persian elements; so that it pre- 
sents the remarkable and unique spectacle of a 
dialect made up of materials derived from the 
three grand and totally disconnected families 
of language, the Turanian, Semitic, and Aryan 
or Indo-European, to the detriment, of course, 
of its native character, by the corruption of its 
forms and the artificiality of ita style. This is 
true especially of the language taught in the 
grammars and written in the literature ; the 
vernacular idiom of the people is a much purer 
Turkish. The Osmanli is usually written with 
the Arabic alphabet, which is exceedingly ill 
suited to it, as to the Persian, since it marks 
the vowels very imperfectly, and in its dis- 
tinction of consonantal sounds is in part de- 



TURKISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 



fective and in part redundant; to construct 
the spoken alphabet and phonetic form of the 
language from the published grammars is well 
nigh impossible. It is also sometimes written 
with the Armenian alphabet, which represents 
it much more faithfully. It has nine vowels : 
four hard, a, 0, , and a peculiar guttural i; 
and five soft, a (a flat), e, , o (French eu), and 
u (French w). In the same word, as a general 
rule, only vowels of one or of the other of 
these classes are allowed to succeed one an- 
other ; the dominant syllable, which is usually 
the final one of the root or theme, assimilating 
to its own character all that follow it. The 
consonants are y, r, I; ng, n, m; , 2, *A, zh; 
kh, gh,f, v; k, g, t, d, p, b; h; and the com- 
pounds tch, j. The language has no proper 
articles, although its numeral " one " and its 
demonstrative are sometimes used nearly as 
articles. The adjective is uninflected. The 
nouns have no distinction of gender; their 
plural is formed by the addition of lar or ler. 
There is no nominative case ending; the un- 
changed theme is employed as subject, in ad- 
dress (vocative), and also as indefinite object 
of a verb. Of cases, formed by inseparable 
affixed particles, which may properly be re- 
garded as terminations of declension, there are 
an accusative, in i; a genitive, in ung ; a dative, 
in e ; an ablative, in den ; an instrumental, in 
le ; and a locative, in de. These affixes are, 
saving certain slight euphonic changes, invari- 
able ; they are appended to the simple theme 
in the singular, and to the plural sign ler in 
the plural. The numerals are : I, Mr; 2,iki; 
3, utch ; 4, dort; 5, besh; 6, elti ; 7, yedi; 8, 
sekiz ; 9, dokuz; 10, on; 11, on J/r, &c. ; 20, 
yeyirmi; 3Q,otuz; 40, kirk; 5Q,elli; 60, elt- 
mish ; 70, yetmish ; 80, seksen ; 90, doksan; 
100, yoz; 1000, bing. To form the ordinals, 
inji is added. The personal pronouns, which 
alone offer some anomalies of declension, are : 
I, ben; we, bis; thou, sen; ye, iz. In the 
third person we have rather a demonstrative 
than a personal pronoun: that one, ol; those, 
anlar. Possessive pronominal suffixes are : 
OT, my; wife, our; n, thy; niz, your; * or si, 
his, hers, its; lari or leri, their. These are 
appended directly to the nominal theme, 
singular or plural, and the affixes of case 
follow them, as baba-lar-um-dan, from my 
fathers. There is no relative pronoun, except 
the Persian ki. The verbal roots are not al- 
ways reducible to a monosyllabic form. From 
each root are formed a number of themes of 
derivative conjugation, by adding conjugational 
affixes; these are: for the passive, il; for the 
reflexive, in; for the reciprocal, ish; for the 
causal, der; and for the negative me; which 
last, by prefixing e, becomes a sign of impossi- 
bility. Any or all of these affixes may be com- 
bined at once with a verbal root, so far as the 
idea admits of their combined modification ; so 
that in theory we may have as many as 86 
themes from one root, each conjugated through- 
out in the same manner as the simple root : 



e. g., from sev-mek, to love (mek is infinitive 
affix), come sev-il-me-mek, not to be loved ; 
sev-der-il-mek, to be made to love; sev-ish-il- 
eme-mek, not to be able to be loved by one 
another, &c. The root of the verb, without 
affix, is the second person singular imperative: 
e. g., sev, love 1 The tenses and moode are of 
two kinds, simple and periphrastic. The for- 
mer are formed either by appending a predi- 
cative pronominal suffix to a participle (except 
in the third person, which is left without suf- 
fix), or by adding a possessive suffix to a noun 
of action ; thus, from dogmak, to strike : pres. 
part, dogur, striking ; pres. dogur-um, striking- 
I, i. e., I am striking, I strike ; pret. dogd-um, 
striking-mine, . e., I have struck. The peri- 
phrastic tenses are formed by combining a par- 
ticiple or noun of action with an auxiliary 
verb ; as dogmish idum, having struck was I, 
i. e., I had struck. By these means, a great 
variety of more or less genuine verbal forms 
is produced, in the admission and classifica- 
tion of which, however, grammarians greatly 
differ ; and the verbal paradigm is a very rich 
one as regards the number and nicety of its 
distinctions. What are prepositions in other 
languages are in Turkish postpositive affixes; 
but many proper prepositions are borrowed 
by it from the Arabic and Persian, and are 
placed and construed according to the usage 
of those languages. It is almost entirely des- 
titute of any conjunctions except those of 
Arabic and Persian origin, some of which 
as those for and, but, or, if, as, that are in 
frequent and familiar nse, although more in 
the formal and written style than in the con- 
versational. The place of conjunctions is 
supplied by gerundives and possessive forms, 
through means of which the different mem- 
bers of a compound sentence are twined into 
one, with the principal verb always at the end. 
This position of the verb, together with the 
operation of the rule that the determining 
word must precede the determined, gives the 
Turkish construction an inverted form which 
often seems very strange. LITERATURE. The 
earliest literature produced by any of the divis- 
ions of the Turkish race is that of the Uigurs, 
a remote eastern branch of the family, who 
originally occupied the country south of Lake 
Baikal, but later established themselves about 
the Tangnu Tagh, and played a conspicuous part 
in the contests and migrations of central Asia 
during several centuries, until their nationality 
was swallowed up in the Mongol empire, about 
A. D. 1200. Something of culture and Chris- 
tianity was communicated to them from Syria, 
doubtless by Nestorian missionaries ; and their 
scanty alphabet, of 14 characters, formed from 
the Syriac, became later the parent of the Mon- 
gol and Mantchoo alphabets. Most of the 
Uignr literature is lost, and of what remains 
only a few relics have found their way to Eu- 
rope; little is known of it in detail, although 
it has been made to yield some information 
respecting the history of the people. They are 



65 



said by the Chinese to have received and trans- 
lated the Chinese classics and histories, and 
they are known also to have adopted to some 
extent the Buddhist doctrines and literature. 
The second era of Turkish culture dates from 
the conquest by Turkish tribes of the countries 
of Mohammedan Asia, beginning with the lat- 
ter half of the 10th century. Overrunning first 
the N. E. provinces of Iran, and finding there 
the new Persian literature beginning its career, 
their wild chiefs became its admirers, patrons, 
and imitators, and the Turkish mind and lan- 
guage received that strong Persian impress 
which they have ever since borne. The east- 
ern Turkish literature, or that produced beyond 
the Caspian, is usually called the Jagataian, 
from the name given to the country E. of the 
Oxus in the partition of the Mongol empire. 
It is much less abundant, and also much less 
known, than the literature of the western 
branch. Its most flourishing period was from 
the time of Tamerlane (1400) to that of Baber 
(died 1530). Its most admired author is Mir 
Ali Shir, the vizier of Sultan Hussein, and a 
munificent patron of Persian authors, particu- 
larly of the poet Jami; his most interesting 
work, perhaps, is his collection of biographies 
of earlier Jagataian poets, with specimens of 
their productions. The memoirs of his own 
life and times by Sultan Baber, the conqueror 
of Hindostan and founder of the Mongol dy- 
nasty, cover a period of nearly 40 years, and 
are written with entire simplicity and natural- 
ness. The astronomical works prepared at 
Samarcand, under the patronage and direction 
of Ulugh Beg (died 1449), grandson of Tamer- 
lane, deserve honorable notice. The literature 
of the western or Osmanli Turks, to which 
alone we usually apply the name of Turkish 
literature, is exceedingly rich, but it is upon 
the whole of inferior interest, because it con- 
tains so little that is original and distinctively 
national in style and spirit. It is mainly an 
imitation, more or less successful, of Persian 
models, but in part also of Arabic. As the 
language of the Osmanlis is full of Persian 
words, compounds, phrases, and even forms of 
construction, so is their history, their philoso- 
phy, their poetry, a reworking of Persian ma- 
terial, an echo of Persian taste. The history 
of the Osmanli literature begins with that of 
Osmanli nationality ; even before the power 
of the dynasty was established by the capture 
of Constantinople, works had been produced 
which the nation has never let perish, and has 
hardly excelled; prominent among the great 
names of this era are those of Sheikhi, the ro- 
mantic poet, and also the ablest physician of 
his time, of Solyman Tchelebi, and of Nesimi 
the free-thinker. But the most flourishing pe- 
riod in the whole history of the literature was 
the 16th century, chiefly during the reigns of 
Solyman the Magnificent and his son Selim II. 
Meshihi, renowned as an elegiast, and Kemal 
Pasha Zadeh, a man of universal learning and 
an admired author in many different depart- 



ments, especially in history and in Moslem ju- 
risprudence, wrote early in the century. Both 
these branches are of great importance and 
prominence in the Turkish literature. The 
latter, of inferior interest to us, but of the 
highest consequence to the Turks themselves, 
in its double aspect, religious and legal, and 
indispensable to those who would fully under- 
stand the internal life of the nation, is illus- 
trated by an unbroken series of great writers. 
In history, besides general and independent 
authors, such as Mohammed Effendi, Betchevi, 
and Hadji Khalfa, the line of official histo- 
riographers and annalists of the realm, com- 
mencing with Saad ed-Din, deserve especial 
notice. Among his successors were Nahna, 
Reshid, Izzi, and Vasif. Notwithstanding the 
turgid and affected style of the official histori- 
ans, they are most valuable authorities for the 
history of the Ottoman empire, in its internal 
and its external relations. Saad ed-Din wrote 
under Solyman, and has been excelled by none 
who came after him in dignity and philosophic 
spirit ; he brought the story of the rise and 
growth of the Turkish power down to 1526. 
Of the same period is Lami'i, one of the 
most highly esteemed of Turkish authors, and 
in some departments quite unsurpassed; his 
works are both in prose and verse, and include 
many translations from the Persian. Fasli, 
distinguished by depth of thought and tender- 
ness of sentiment, lived till 1563. But the chief 
ornament of the century is Baki, the acknowl- 
edged prince of Turkish lyric poets, and ranked 
by the orientals with the Persian Hafiz and the 
Arab Motanebbi in the trio of unrivalled mas- 
ters of song. He died at a great age in 1600. 
A new period of literary activity and excel- 
lence, although decidedly inferior to that al- 
ready referred to, followed in the lYth century, 
under the patronage of the great vizier Koprili, 
in the reign of Mohammed IV. Most worthy 
of note here are Nebi, the most admired poet 
of the century, Nefi, the first of Turkish satir- 
ists, Naima the historian, and Hadji Khalfa, 
the historian, geographer, biographer, and en- 
cyclopaedist, a man of immense learning and 
industry, whose history of Arabic, Persian, 
and Turkish literature, in Arabic, is a chief 
authority upon its subject, for both the East 
and the West. In the 18th century, the dis- 
tinguished vizier Raghib Pasha is eminent both 
as an author and as a patron of learning ; but 
among the innumerable writers, in every depart- 
ment, of the last century or two, there are few 
who deserve to be particularly noticed ; we 
may mention merely Said Rufet Effendi, Aini 
Effendi, and Pertev Effendi as the most esteemed 
poets. The Turks have done little for the 
grammatical and lexicographical illustration of 
their own language, but a great deal for that 
of the Arabic and Persian. The press was in- 
troduced into Constantinople early in the 18th 
century, by Ibrahim Effendi, and, both there 
and elsewhere, has been actively engaged in 
publishing the most important works in Ara- 



66 



TURKISTAtf 



bio, Persian, and Turkish, especially the last 
(including the series of official histories), to- 
gether with hosts of less valuable or altogether 
insignificant productions. Many translations 
have been made by the Turks of European as 
well as oriental works. Among original works 
are a history of the Turkish sultans by Hajru- 
hah Effendi (1854 et eq.), the biographical 
works of Resnu Ahmed Effendi and Faik 
(1853), the works of travel by Mehemed Khur- 
shid Effendi (1861), and Prince Subti's numis- 
matical writings (1862). Several societies have 
been established in Constantinople for the pro- 
motion of various branches of scientific re- 
search, and besides the regular journals of 
these, several literary and scientific magazines 
of some merit are now published. The most 
accessible and useful grammars are those of Da- 
vids (London, 1832) and Redhouse (in French, 
Paris, 1846). Kazem-Beg's grammar (in Rus- 
sian; German by Zenker, Leipsic, 1848) in- 
cludes also the other dialects, and is valuable 
for the comparative study of the language. 
Bohtlingk's Yakut grammar (in German, St. 
Petersburg, 1851) is also important in this 
bearing. Of chrestomathies, we have one by 
Dieterici (in French, Berlin, 1854), and Bar- 
ker's reading book, grammar, and vocabulary 
(London, 1854). The best dictionaries are those 
of Kieffer and Bianchi (2d ed., Paris, 1843-'6, 
Turkish-French), and Redhouse (London, 1856 
-'7). A new and more complete one, by Zen- 
ker, explained intrench and German, and em- 
bracing the Turkish, Arabic, and Persian lan- 
guages, is now (1876) nearly completed. 

TCRKISTABf, a region of central Asia, ex- 
tending from the Caspian sea eastward half 
way across the desert of Gobi, mainly be- 
tween the 36th and 46th parallels of N". lati- 
tude, bounded N. by the Russian dominions, 
and S. by Persia, Afghanistan, India, and Thi- 
bet. Its name is due to the fact that it is 
considered the earliest known abode of the 
Turks or Turkomans, and thus as a seat of 
the Tartar race it has also long been called 
Tartary. The region is separated into the 
two great natural divisions of East and "West 
Turkistan by the junction of the Thian-shan 
mountains with the Hindoo Koosh in the lofty 
table land of Pamir, which is a ridged plateau, 
rising W. of Kashgar to an average altitude of 
15,000 ft. above the sea. According to Ilum- 
boldt, the two great ranges are united by a 
transverse chain, called the Belur or Bolor 
Tagh (Cloud mountains), bordering Pamir on 
the east, the separate existence of which, how- 
ever, is rendered doubtful by recent explora- 
tions, although commonly assumed on maps 
of Asia. West Turkistan, formerly known as 
Independent Tartary, comprises the khanates 
of Khiva and Bokhara, the former khanate of 
Khokan, annexed by Russia in March, 1876, 
the territories previously annexed by Russia 
from the three khanates, and in the south 
Wakhan, Badakhshan, Koondooz (including 
Khooloom), and Balkh, lately incorporated into 



Afghanistan. East Turkistan, also called Chi- 
nese Tartary, is the extensive region E. of the 
table land, in which Kashgar is now the para- 
mount state. The hydrographic systems of 
Turkistan originate in the lofty, lake-studded 
region of culmination which wo have men- 
tioned. On the southern edge of the Puinir 
steppe, in the Sir-i-kol (Lake Sir), according 
to the latest authorities 13,900 ft. above the 
ocean, rises the Oxus or Amoo Darya, flowing 
westward down the steep slope of the plateau 
through Bokhara and along the border of 
Khiva into the sea of Aral. The Sir Darya 
or Jaxartes, which under the name of the 
Naryn has its source in the Thian-shan range 
300 m. N., and also empties into the Aral sea, 
waters Khokan and the N. part of Russian 
Turkistan. Between these two great rivers, 
and enclosed by parallel ranges stretching 
westward from the central table land, runs 
the smaller Zerafshan, in whose fertile val- 
leys are the cities of Bokhara and Samarcand. 
Though naturally an affluent of the Oxus, its 
waters are exhausted for irrigation. Down 
the eastern and more gradual slope of Pamir 
into Chinese Tartary flow numerous streams, 
of which the most important are the Yarkand 
and Kashgar rivers, which are believed to co- 
alesce with others to form the eastward-flow- 
ing Tarim, emptying into Lob-nor, the great 
lake or swampy expanse of the Gobi desert. 
Of West Turkistan, Khiva, Bokhara, Khokan, 
Badakhshan, and Balkh have been described 
under their own titles. The territory is natu- 
rally divisible into three physical regions. The 
first comprises the more elevated mountainous 
districts among the outlying spurs of the Pamir 
steppe, which afford rich summer pasturage for 
the flocks of the hardy inhabitants. Thence 
flow innumerable torrents to the Oxus, the Sir 
Darya, and their tributaries, and enrich the al- 
luvial soil of their upper valleys and plains, con- 
stituting the second distinctive region, which is 
populous, fertile, and well cultivated. Here 
are found the principal cities. Still further 
westward toward the sea of Aral, the area of 
cultivation ceases, and the rivers flow through 
the third region, comprising vast tracts of arid 
saline deserts, only relieved at the delta of the 
Oxus by the facilities there for irrigation. Al- 
most the entire country stretching from the 
shores of the Caspian eastward to the valley 
of the Oxus, and from lat. 46 southward to 
the frontiers of Persia and Afghanistan, is oc- 
cupied by the Turkoman steppes, including fhe 
Ust-Urt plateau between the Caspian and the 
sea of Aral, of which the Tchink mountains 
constitute the S. declivity, and the Khiva or 
Kara-Kum desert, S. of Khiva. Many parts 
of these sandy and trackless wastes are below 
the level of the sea. The ancient bed of the 
Oxus leading to the Caspian traverses the coun- 
try, whose chief rivers now are the Murghab 
from Afghanistan, which loses itself in the 
sands N. of the town of Merv, and the Attrek, 
on the southern border. The wells of the 



I desert yield only brackish or bitter water. Al- 
most all is confined to their vicinity or that of 
the streams. The climate is always dry, ex- 
ceedingly hot in summer, and very cold in 
winter, which however is short. Salt and sul- 
phur are obtained on the steppes. The ani- 
mals of the desert comprise gazelles, horses, 
asses, pigs, foxes, and hares. Although pre- 
serving a nominal independence, Khiva and 
Bokhara are practically subject to Eussia. 
The portions annexed by the Eussians pre- 
vious to the annexation of Khokan in 1876 
have been united with a part of the Siberian 
province of Semipolatinsk to form the gov- 
ernment general of Turkistan ; area in 1875, 
about 400,000 sq. m. ; pop. about 2,000,000. 
It comprises all that part of the country 
which is N. of the khanates and the Thian- 
shan range, from Kulja inclusive on the east 
(see KULJA) to the sea of Aral on the west, 
with the lower course of the Oxus for the S. 
W. frontier. But Kulja is usually regarded by 
geographers as belonging not to Turkistan, but 
to Dzungaria or Sungaria, a country inhabited 
by Kirghiz, Olots, the once powerful tribe of 
the Dzungarians, and others, the Chinese por- 
tion of which lies between the Thian-shan 
mountains, the Altai, and Mongolia. The west- 
ern part of Eussian Turkistan is overspread 
with steppes. The desert of Kizil Kum (red 
sand) occupies the region between the Oxus and 
the river which gives the province its name. 
The eastern part of the government general is 
mountainous. It is drained by the river Hi, 
flowing into the great Balkash lake, and the 
Tchu river, flowing N". W. from the vicinity of 
the more southerly lake Issik-kul. Lake Bal- 
kash is 780 ft. above the sea level, and has an 
area of 400 sq. m.. while Issik-kul covers about 
335 sq. m. of surface at an altitude of 4,540 
ft. The most populous parts of Eussian Tur- 
kistan (exclusive of Khokan) are in the vicinity 
of the principal towns, Tashkend, Samarcand, 
and Khojend. The plains are permanently 
habitable and capable of cultivation only in 
the neighborhood of the watercourses. The 
mineral wealth of Eussian Turkistan, especially 
in gold and coal, is supposed to be large, but 
remains undeveloped. The government is di- 
vided into nine administrative districts, besides 
Khokan. The governor general, who is also 
the military commander-in-chief, has his head- 
quarters at Tashkend. The fundamental classi- 
fication of the inhabitants of West Turkistan, 
according to Mr. E. B. Shaw, is into Turks or 
Tartars and Tajiks or Aryans. A cross classifi- 
cation is into the Kirghiz or nomads and the 
Sarts or settled population. In the towns of 
West Turkistan the Tajik element predominates 
in numbers, except in Khokan. In this race 
the features are handsome, the complexion 
fair, the face usually bearded, and there is a 
general resemblance to the Aryans of northern 
India. The language of the Tajiks is a variety 
of Persian. In the khanates the Uzbecks are 
the ruling class, whose nomadic kinsmen are 



TUEKISTAN 



67 



the hordes of Kirghiz in the north and east, 
and the Turkomans of Khiva and the adjacent 
steppes. The Kirghiz are described as stunted 
in appearance, with prominent cheek bones, 
flattened noses, and scarcely any beard. The 
Uzbecks of the towns are handsomer, with 
some resemblance to the Tajiks in many cases. 
The Turkoman is generally above middle stature, 
powerfully developed, with a white skin, round 
head, small nose and chin, and scanty whiskers. 
A careful estimate of all the tribes indicates 
that their number is about 8,000,000 persons. 
They are fierce, haughty, and given to deeds 
of rapine and plunder, irascible and violent, 
but usually truthful and hospitable. All the 
tribes mentioned are Sunni Mohammedans. 
The commerce of the country is considerable, 
and is conducted entirely by means of cara- 
vans. Native productions form but a small 
part of this commerce ; but the towns are 
convenient places of exchange for the products 
of Eussia, Persia, Afghanistan, India, and the 
Chinese empire. The manufactures consist 
chiefly of some silk and cotton stuffs, sabres, 
knives, and other weapons. The exports are 
cotton, mostly from China, wool from Thibet, 
fruits, hides, sheepskins, and silk. The im- 
ports are muslins, brocades, sugar, shawls, and 
white cloths from India; European manufac- 
tured goods from Eussia ; porcelain, musk, tea, 
rhubarb, and cotton from China; and wool 
from Thibet. East Turkistan is bounded N. 
by the Thian-shan range, E. by the desert of 
Gobi, S. by Cashmere and Thibet, and W. by 
the Pamir plateau. Its area is estimated at 
about 500,000 sq. m., and its population at from 
600,000 to 1,000,000. The country has long 
been denominated Alti-shahar or Alti-tchakan 
(the six cities), from the towns of Kashgar, 
Yarkand, Khoten, Yang-shahr, Ush-Turfan, and 
Aksu, which constitute its principal centres of 
population and trade. It is now divided into 
seven provincial governments under the ruler 
of Kashgar. The portion bordering Pamir is 
extremely mountainous, as are also the north- 
ern and southern frontiers ; but the interior is 
an extensive plain with a general elevation of 
from 3,000 to 5,000 ft., described by Shaw as 
resembling an immense bay with its convex 
side toward the mountains and its concave side 
toward the desert. The chief rivers are afflu- 
ents of the Tarim, the course of which extends 
about 500 m. from the 81st meridian eastward 
into the desert ; among them are the Khoten 
from the south, the Yarkand from the south- 
west, and the Kashgar from the west, all named 
from the largest cities on their banks. The 
climate is extremely dry, and the land is there- 
fore a desert except where there is natural or 
artificial irrigation. The temperature in the 
west ranges from 26 below zero in winter 
to 150 above in summer, but in the east and 
south is more equable. Along the streams are 
fertile belts of productive soil, where the vege- 
tation is most abundant, and under the intense 
heats of summer many of the semi-tropical 



68 



TURKISTAN 



fruits and vegetables ripen. The field crops 
are cotton, rice, wheat, hemp, flax, barley, and 
maize, while the gardens produce tobacco and 
melons, and the orchards of the more favored 
districts yield an abundance of apples, pears, 
peaches, apricots, and other fruits. The herds 
of cattle are very large, and afford the princi- 
pal article of export. The wild animals are 
generally the same as those of West Turkistan, 
with the addition of the tiger, the panther, 
and a peculiar species of stag found in the Lob- 
nor region of forest, jungle, and reed growth. 
The minerals are gold, found in the mountain 
streams and in the Thian-shan mountains, sil- 
ver, iron, copper, nitre, sal ammoniac, sulphur, 
asbestus, agate, and the precious jasper, which 
was formerly a monopoly of the Chinese em- 
pire. The inhabitants are not so distinctly 
classified as the tribes of West Turkistan, all 
of which, however, are represented in those 
parts of the country to which modern explora- 
tion extends. The Turanian element is most 
prominent, although Shaw regards the Yarkan- 
dees as Tartarized Aryans. The inhabitants of 
the Lob region are a wild race of huntsmen, 
concerning whom little is known. The ruling 
class consists mainly of Uzbecks and Kiptchaks. 
Sunni Mohammedanism is the prevailing reli- 
gion. The villages are made up of aggregated 
enclosures, each wall surrounding a house and 
a garden or fields. The western part of Tur- 
kistan was known as Turania to the ancient 
writers on Persia. It was the theatre of re- 
peated terrible conflicts between the Iranian 
or Persian and the Turanian races, in the early 
ages of Persian history, and the Persian hero 
Jemshid figures as largely in some of these as 
Achilles in those of the early Greeks. The 
Iranians finally remained masters of the south- 
ern part of the country, and at the begin- 
ning of the historic period it was comprised in 
the Persian satrapies of Bactria and Sogdiana, 
which were afterward conquered successively 
by Alexander the Great, the Parthians, the 
later Persians, the Arabs, and the Tartars or 
Mongols of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane, un- 
der whom the Tartar elements almost entire- 
ly replaced the Indo-European. The Mongols 
ruled over the southern portion till about the 
beginning of the 16th century, when their sul- 
tan Baber, the future founder of the Mogul 
empire in Hindostan, was driven out by the 
Turkish tribe of the Uzbecks. The Uzbecks 
established a powerful monarchy, which con- 
tinued about 160 years, and then separated 
into numerous independent khanates, of which 
Bokhara, Khiva, and the late khanate of Kho- 
kan are the modern representatives. For the 
history of the advance and establishment of 
the Russian power in this region, see BOKHA- 
RA, KHIVA, and RUSSIA. The Russian prov- 
ince of Turkistan, already described, was es- 
tablished in 1865, and the influence of Russia 
is paramount throughout all this part of Asia. 
The various forts and towns are garrisoned by 
a military force, numbering in 1874 about 



TURKS 

30,000 enlisted men. In East Turkistan the 
chief state is now Kashgar, and the history of 
the country is given under that title. See 
Vambery's " Travels in Central Asia " (Lon- 
don, 1865), "Sketches from Central Asia" 
(1867), and "Bokhara, its History and Con- 
quest" (1873); Die Rusen in Centralatien, 
by Friedrich von Ilellwald (1874); "Khiva 
and Turkestan," translated from the Russian 
by Capt. H. Spalding (1874); "England and 
Russia in the East," by Sir Henry Ravvlinson 
(1875); and, as to East Turkistan, Robert 
Shaw's "High Tartary, Yarkand, and Kash- 
gar" (1871), and "Kashmir and Kashghar," 
by Dr. H. W. Bellew, C. S. I. (1875), being a 
narrative of Sir Douglas Forsyth's embassy 
from India to Kashgar in 1873-'4. 

TURKOMANS. See TURKISTAN, and TURKS. 

TURKS, one of the most important branches 
of the Turanian family. (See TURANIAN RAGE 
AND LANGUAGES, and TURKISH LANGUAGE AND 
LITERATURE.) In former ethnological classifi- 
cations they were sometimes set down as a 
Caucasian race, and in physical characteristics 
some of their tribes are nearly or quite Cau- 
casian; but more recent science shows that 
they have no connection with the Aryan or 
Indo-European family. They made their first 
appearance in northern and central Asia among 
the Hunnic and Tartaric hordes who for sev- 
eral centuries before and after our era were 
the terror of the Chinese. (See CHINA, vol. 
iv., p. 459, HUNS, and TARTARS.) Turk is used 
in central Asia as synonymous with Tartar, 
or to designate the Mongolians generally. Be- 
fore the commencement of the Christian era 
a tribe of Turks had wandered westward as 
far as the Don ; they are mentioned by Pliny 
under the name of Turcte, and by Pomponius 
Mela under that of lure ; while other tribes 
had not long after penetrated into the moun- 
tainous regions of Asia Minor. In the 4th 
and 5th centuries of the Christian era a por- 
tion of the Turks who had remained in N. W. 
China conquered two provinces of that coun- 
try, which they organized as independent king- 
doms, to which the Chinese give the names 
of Chao and Northern Liang ; but the greater 
part of those who were driven out in the 3d 
century rallied around Lake Balkash, and after 
the 5th century made no further separate ap- 
pearance in history. In the early part of 
the 6th century a new Turkish empire, appa- 
rently having its nucleus in what is now East 
Turkistan, threatened the peace of Asia. These 
Turks renewed their conflicts with China at 
the east, and with Persia at the southwest, 
and in 569 formed an alliance with Justin II., 
then emperor of Constantinople, for the over- 
throw of the Sassanides. But this Turkish 
empire (which the Chinese called Tu-kiu), like 
all the attempts of the Turks at imperial dom- 
ination, was an agglomeration of dissimilar 
peoples in one huge nation, with no common 
bond of union or citizenship, and its very 
vastness contributed to its weakness. In 744 



TURKS 

the empire was overthrown by the attacks of 
the Hoei-he or Hoei-hu, as the Chinese named 
them (the Uigurs of western writers), another 
Turkish tribe who had previously been sub- 
jects of the Tu-kiu empire. There were at 
this time, and had been for some centuries, 
eight distinct Turkish tribes or nations in cen- 
tral Asia. The Uigurs never attained to the 
vast power of their predecessors, but they 
were the first of the Turkish tribes to adopt 
a written language. At first they were Bud- 
dhists ; but about the 4th century they became 
very generally disciples of Zoroaster, and in 
the 9th or 10th century embraced Islamism. 
In the west their empire was overthrown in 
848 by the Kirghiz Tartars; but they main- 
tained an independent kingdom in the valleys 
of the Thian-shan range till about A. D. 1000, 
when the increasing power of the Khitans in 
China compelled their emigration westward. 
The invasion of Genghis Khan overthrew the 
last remains of the Turkish empire in central 
Asia ; but the prominent officers of that con- 
queror and his successors were taken from this 
very tribe of Uigurs on account of their supe- 
rior intelligence. But meanwhile the Turks 
had been acquiring new territories in the west. 
In the 6th and 7th centuries they were already 
in possession of an extensive region in what 
is now Asiatic Turkey, and were pressing for- 
ward toward S. E. Europe. In the 9th and 
10th centuries the Tulunides and Ikshides, who 
founded short-lived dynasties in Egypt before 
the Fatimites, were Turks. In the 9th cen- 
tury a Turkish dynasty, the Taherides, ruled 
in Khorasan ; and their successors, the Ghuz- 
nevides and the Ghorides, extended their sway 
from Persia to India between the 10th and 
12th centuries. But a more famous Turkish 
dynasty than either of these was that of the 
Seljuks, whose dominion extended in the lat- 
ter part of the llth century from the frontiers 
of China to the vicinity of Constantinople. 
(See SELJUKS.) Like its predecessors, this vast 
empire crumbled to pieces from its want of 
homogeneity, and the Seljukian sultans sub- 
mitted to be tributaries of the Mongol emper- 
ors. About the beginning of the 14th century 
the Ottoman empire was founded by Othman, 
a Turkish chief, and in the succeeding centu- 
ries spread over a vast territory in Asia and 
Europe. (See TURKEY.) The Turkish tribes 
which had submitted to the Mongol invasion 
in the 13th century, and still remained in the 
region of the Thian-shan mountains, the Aral, 
and the Caspian, sent out colonies N. of the 
Caspian into that portion of southern Russia 
lying on the borders of the Black sea, where, 
under the name of Tartars, several tribes of 
them still occupy extensive territories: While 
acknowledging the Russian sway, they are still 
zealous Mohammedans. The Mongol invaders 
of Turkistan, instead of impressing their own 
habits and language upon the Turks of that 
country, gradually became identified with the 
people they had conquered; and eventually, 



TURMERIC 



69 



the Turkish element again predominating, in 
the age following the death of Tamerlane they 
had invaded and subdued Armenia and the 
countries bordering on the Tigris and Euphra- 
tes. From this region they were expelled in 
the 16th century by the Sufis. In the same 
century the Uzbecks, a Turkish tribe, prima- 
rily inhabiting the southern provinces of Chi- 
nese Turkistan below the Thian-shan moun- 
tains, and said to be descendants of the Uigurs 
and the Naimans, made their way westward, 
and overran not only East Turkistan but the 
countries adjacent as far as the Euphrates, and 
were, after maintaining their power for more 
than a century, reduced to subjection by still 
another Turkish tribe, the Turkomans. The 
Turkomans and Uzbecks are now, in the an- 
cient seat of the Turks, the principal remain- 
ing tribes of that powerful race. The Cal- 
mucks between the lower Volga and Don, the 
Bashkirs between the Volga and Irtish, and the 
Yakuts on the banks of the Lena, are also Turk- 
ish tribes. The Yakuts are the only Turkish 
race professing Shamanism. 

TURK'S ISLANDS, or Turqnes, a group of islets 
in the S. E. extremity of the Bahama archi- 
pelago, about 90 m. N. of Hayti ; pop. about 
2,500. The population fluctuates greatly at 
different times, as many people annually come 
from the Bermudas to work at salt raking, re- 
turning when the season is over. The islands 
are completely barren, and all kinds of sup- 
plies are imported. Grand Key or Turk's is 
the principal island. Since Jan. 1, 1874, the 
group with the Caicos group has been under 
the legislative control of Jamaica. The ports 
of entry are Grand Turk, Salt Cay, East Har- 
bor, and . West Caicos. The chief export is 
salt. For the year ending Sept. 30, 1874, the 
entries were 5 steamers of 3,555 tons, and 
344 sailing vessels of 47,879 tons; total value 
of imports, $100,622; of exports, $115,682. 

TURMERIC, a name of unknown origin, given 
to the rootstocks of several species of cur- 
cuma (Pers. Jcurkum, the name also for saffron, 
and applied to this because of its similarly yel- 
low color), especially to C. longa, plants of the 




Turmeric, Long and Round. 

ginger family, which some botanists include in 
the scitaminece or banana family. The plants 
are indigenous to southern Asia, and are culti- 



70 



TURNBULL 



vated in various eastern countries. They have 
perennial, palmately divided, tuber-like root- 
stocks, and annual stems ; the large lanceolate 
leaves are radical, and from among them rises 
a short stem, bearing a thick spike, from be- 
tween the bracteal scales of which the flowers 
appear in succession, much as in the related 
ginger and arrowroot, figured under their titles 
In commerce the rhizomes are called roots, and 
are distinguished as long and round, though 
both are produced by the same plant, and are 
also known by the names of the localities of 
export, each of which has its long and round 
kinds. Long turmeric is about the size of the 
little finger, 2 or 3 in. long, curved, and tuber- 
culated from a tendency to branch ; the round 
is more usually oval, an inch thick and 2 in. 
long; both kinds are marked by transverse 
scars or wrinkles, are yellowish externally, and 
internally orange-yellow or reddish brown ; 
they have an odor like that of ginger, but pe- 
culiar, and a warm aromatic taste, and when 
chewed tinge the saliva yellow ; they form an 
orange-yellow powder, the condition in which 
they are generally kept in the shops. The 
drug contains about one per cent, of an essen- 
tial oil, and a peculiar coloring matter, curcu- 
mine, which is crystallizable, almost insoluble 
in water, but very soluble in alcohol and ether. 
Turmeric was formerly employed in medicine 
as an aromatic tonic, but its use is now solely 
to color 'ointments, tinctures, and other prepa- 
rations. Though the color is fugitive, it is 
considerably used in dyeing ; it gives a fine 
yellow upon silk, and is used as the basis of 
some greens, and upon woollens to produce 
some shades of brown. It forms an important 
ingredient in curry powder (see CURRY), and is 
much used to color varnishes (see LACQUER). 
The changes produced in curcumine by alka- 
lies and other chemical agents make it avail- 
able as a test ; turmeric paper, made by stain- 
ing paper with a tincture of the root, is often 
employed in the laboratory as a useful though 
not very accurate test, as one acid at least 
produces a reaction similar to that of the alka- 
lies. Turmeric paper touched with an alkaline 
solution changes from yellow to brownish red, 
becoming violet on drying ; boracio acid pro- 
duces a similar change, but the tint is orange, 
and when an alkali is added it turns to blue. 

TURNBULL, Robert, an American clergyman, 
born at Whiteburn, Linlithgowshire, Scotland, 
Sept. 10, 1809. He graduated at Glasgow uni- 
versity, studied theology, preached for a short 
time in Scotland and England, and in 1833 
settled in Danbury, Conn. In 1835 he became 
pastor of the Baptist church in Detroit, in 1837 
of the South Baptist church, Hartford, Conn., 
in 1839 of the Boylston street (now Harvard 
street) Baptist church in Boston, and in 1845 
of the first Baptist church in Hartford, where 
he still resides (1876). In 1851 he received 
the degree of D. D. from Madison university. 
He has published "The Theatre" (Boston 
1840); "Olympia Morata" (1842); "Vinet's 



TURNER 

Vital Christianity," translated, with an intro- 
duction and notes (1846) ; " The Genius of 
Scotland" (New York, 1847); "The Genius 
of Italy" (1849); "Theophany, or the Mani- 
festation of God in Christ " (Hartford, 1851) ; 
" Vinet's Miscellanies " (New York, 1852) ; 
" Pulpit Orators of France and Switzerland " 
(1853); "Christ in History, or the Central 
Power" (Boston, 1856); and "Life Pictures, 
or Sketches from a Pastor's Note Book " 
(New York, 1857). He has edited Sir Wil- 
liam Hamilton's " Discussions on Philosophy," 
and was for several years editor of the " Chris- 
tian Review." 

TURNER, a S. E. county of Dakota, recently 
formed, and not included in the census of 1870 ; 
area, 648 sq. m. It is intersected by Vermil- 
ion river, and consists of fertile prairies and 
bottom lands. Capital, Swan Lake. 

TURNER, Joseph Mallord William, an English 
painter, born in London, April 28, 1775, died 
in Chelsea, Dec. 19, 1851. His father was a 
hairdresser in Maiden lane, Covent Garden, 
and in this neighborhood the painter passed 
his childhood. After a year or two of school- 
ing, during which he occupied himself more 
with sketching from nature than with books, 
he was employed by the engraver John Raphael 
Smith to color prints, and afterward he put in 
skies, backgrounds, and other accessories for 
architectural designs. Dr. Munro gave him 
and Girtin access to his collection, and bought 
their water-color sketches. In 1789 he be- 
came a student at the royal academy, and in 
1790 he exhibited a water-color "View of the 
Archbishop's Palace, Lambeth." Other works 
depicting scenes in the neighborhood of Lon- 
don followed, and with each year he showed 
increasing power and originality. In 1793 he 
was engaged to illustrate Walker's " Itinerant " 
and the "Pocket Magazine;" and during the 
next five or six years he made sketches in many 
parts of England, besides giving lessons in 
drawing and devoting much time to illustrating 
books. In 1799 ho was elected an associate of 
the academy, and in 1802 an academician. He 
had hitherto been best known as a water-color 
painter, and had confined himself chiefly to 
representations of English or Welsh scenery. 
He now produced in oil such subjects as " The 
Fifth Plague of Egypt," " The Army of the 
Medes destroyed in the Desert by a Whirl- 
wind," and "The Tenth Plague of Egypt;" 
but these were less popular than his " Dutch 
Boats in a Gale," " Fishermen upon a Lee 
Shore in Squally Weather," or " Falls of the 
Clyde," which afforded a field for the display 
of the surpassing excellence of his representa- 
tions of marine scenery and of water under all 
conditions. In 1802 he visited France, and 
commemorated his arrival there by a picture 
of " Calais Pier ;" and thenceforth at irregu- 
lar periods he made extended tours through 
France, Switzerland, and the Rhine land, the 
fruits of which appeared in numerous sketches, 
drawings, and finished pictures. In 1807 he 



TURNER 



71 



was elected professor of perspective to the 
royal academy. His works may be divided 
into three periods. The first extends to 1802, 
and covers the time employed chiefly in paint- 
ing English scenes in water colors, and in 
studying the works and methods of his English 
predecessors. The second period, from 1802 
to 1829, shows the effects of foreign travel and 
study of the great continental masters. His 
desire to rival and if possible to surpass Claude 
Lorraine led to the publication in 1808 of his 
Liber Stvdiorum, the superiority of which over 
the Liber Veritatis of Claude does not how- 
ever afford a fair test of the comparative merits 
of the two painters ; Turner's studies being 
elaborate and careful illustrations of all the 
principal forms of landscape composition, while 
Claude's are but incidental memoranda of pic- 
tures. In further competition with Claude he 
painted his " Sun rising through a Mist," 
" Crossing the Brook," " Apuleia in search of 
Apuleius," " Dido building Carthage," and 
some others of less note ; but his individuality 
soon broke through the shackles of mere imi- 
tation, and from 1815 he worked according to 
his own ideas, indifferent to the examples of 
preceding masters. The variety of subjects he 
attempted during the 12 years previous to this 
time exhibits the originality and audacity of 
his genius. Not content with the production 
of works like " The Shipwreck," " The Wreck 
of the Minotaur," and " The Snow Storm 
Hannibal crossing the Alps," which presented 
with incomparable power the elements in their 
wildest fury, or like the " Edinburgh from Cal- 
ton Hill" and "Falls of Schaffhausen," he ran- 
sacked Lempriere's dictionary for subjects, 
painted humorous pieces, such as a " Country 
Blacksmith disputing upon the Price charged 
to the Butcher for Shoeing his Pony," and 
even attempted sacred history, having in 1803 
exhibited a " Holy Family." From 1815 his 
conceptions expanded with his increasing ob- 
servation; and after his first visit to Italy in 
1819 his style underwent a material change, 
light instead of dark now predominating in 
his pictures. His return from his second 
visit to Italy in 1829 begins his third period, 
when he employed an entirely original style. 
His " Bay of Baise," " Ulysses deriding Poly- 
phemus," " Caligula's Palace and Bridge," 
" Childe Harold, or Modern Italy," " Slavers 
throwing overboard the Dead and Dying 
Typhoon coming on," "The Fighting Teme- 
raire towed to her last Moorings," and other 
works produced within this period, represent 
the highest efforts of landscape painting in 
composition, in color, and in the general vein 
of poetic sentiment which pervades them. 
The change in his style of coloring, dating from 
this second visit to Italy, consists in an in- 
creased diffusion of light proceeding from the 
more illuminated parts of the landscape, and 
forming a bluish haze which contrasts too 
strongly with the surrounding portion in 
shadow. From 1833 this diffusion of light 



becomes more and more vertical, and from 
1839 the vertical streaks are apparent in all his 
pictures. Every illuminated point is changed 
into a vertical line, the elongation being gen- 
erally in exact proportion to the brightness of 
the light. Dr. R. Liebreich, ophthalmic sur- 
geon of St. Thomas's hospital, London, in a 
lecture before the royal institution, March 8, 
1872, attributes this change to a change in 
Turner's eyes, developed during the last 20 
years of his life. After he reached the age 
of 55, Dr. Liebreich believes, the crystalline 
lenses of his eyes became dim, dispersed light 
more strongly, and consequently threw a bluish 
mist over illuminated objects. The aspect of 
nature gradually changed for him, and he re- 
produced what he saw. After his last visit to 
Italy in 1840, and during the last ten years of 
his life, the tendency toward brilliancy of light 
and color became the most marked feature of 
his style; and, disregarding individuality of 
form or local color, he made light with all its 
prismatic varieties the sole object of his stud- 
ies. In one department of his art, that of 
designing from nature for illustrated works, 
Turner remained in the highest request until 
the close of his life; and in none of his pro- 
ductions does he appear more truly great than 
in his finished drawings and engraved designs. 
Among the most famous of these are his " Riv- 
ers of England," " Rivers of France," " Eng- 
land and Wales," " Scenery of the Southern 
Coast," and the exquisite illustrations of the 
poems of Rogers, Byron, Scott, and others, in 
all of which he shows a knowledge of land- 
scape in its infinite variety of forms superior to 
that of any other artist. Fine line engravings 
of large size have also been executed from 
some of his most remarkable paintings; and, 
as if conscious that his reputation was destined 
to rest in a great measure upon this class of 
his works (an anticipation which has partially 
proved correct, as many of his pictures, owing 
to a careless use of pigments and varnishes, are 
rapidly losing their effects and crumbling to de- 
cay), he devoted much time to retouching the 
proofs, adding and altering the details down to 
the minutest twig ; and all of his pictures en- 
graved during his lifetime were executed un- 
der his own supervision. From 1Y90 until his 
death he contributed to every academy exhibi- 
tion except three, sending altogether 259 pic- 
tures. Turner never married, and exhibited an 
eccentricity which, whether real or assumed, 
subjected him to many injurious aspersions. 
One of his most prominent characteristics was 
a love of mystification, under the influence of 
which he worked and travelled alone, often 
concealed his abode for months from his most 
intimate friends, and died finally after a pro- 
tracted absence from London in lodgings at 
Chelsea, where he was known under the name 
of Brooks, his legal adviser being the only friend 
acquainted with his abode. He bequeathed the 
bulk of his large fortune to found an asylum 
for decayed artists, to be called "Turner's 



72 



TURNER 



Gift," and such of his pictures as were in Ins 
possession to the nation. His intentions were 
partially thwarted by the unskilful manner in 
which the will was drawn ; and while his 
pictures, drawings, and sketches have been 
secured to the nation, the remainder of his 
property, with the exception of 20,000 ap- 
propriated to the royal academy, was divided 
among his next of kin. The oil paintings, 
numbering upward of 100, and comprising 
specimens of his style from the outset to the 
termination of his career, are in the national 
gallery. Two of them, " The Building of Car- 
thage," which he esteemed so highly that he is 
said to have announced his intention of being 
buried in it, and " Sun rising through a Mist," 
he directed should be hung next to prominent 
works by Claude. The drawings, studies, and 
sketches, numbering altogether upward of 19,- 
000, have been cleaned, mounted, and arranged 
by Mr. Ruskin. Turner wrote a poem in blank 
verse entitled "The Fallacies of Hope," ex- 
tracts from which, for the most part "destitute 
of rhyme, rhythm, or reason," were frequently 
appended to the titles of his pictures in the 
royal academy catalogues. The prominent 
position which Turner occupies is largely due 
to John Ruskin, whoso "Modern Painters" 
contains an exhaustive analysis of his works. 
His remains were buried in the crypt of St. 
Paul's, beside those of Reynolds, and his statue 
by McDowell was erected in the cathedral in 
1863. The only extended biography of Tur- 
ner is by Walter Thornbury (2 vols., London, 
1862 ; new ed., 1874). 

TURNER, Samuel Hnlbeart, an American clergy- 
man, born in Philadelphia, Jan. 23, 1790, died 
in New York, Dec. 21, 1801. He graduated at 
the university of Pennsylvania in 1807, studied 
theology, and was ordained deacon in the Pro- 
testant Episcopal church, Jan. 27, 1811. He 
became rector of the church at Chestertown, 
Md., in 1812, resigned in 1817, and officiated for 
a time in New York and Brooklyn. In 1818 
he was elected professor of historic theology 
in the general theological seminary in New 
York, and in 1821 of Biblical learning and the 
interpretation of Scripture. From 1830 he 
was in addition professor of Hebrew in Colum- 
bia college. He published " Notes on the Epis- 
tle to the Romans " (1824) ; " Companion to the 
Book of Genesis" (1841); "Biographical No- 
tices of Jewish Rabbis " (1847) ; " Parallel Ref- 
erences of the New Testament" (1848); "Es- 
say on our Lord's Discourse at Capernaum " 
(1851); "Thoughts on Scriptural Prophecy" 
(1852); commentaries on Romans, Hebrews, 
Ephesians, and Galatians (1852-'6); "Teach- 
ings of the Master" (1858); "Spiritual Things 
compared with Spiritual" (1859); "The Gos- 
pels according to the Ammonian Sections and 
the Tables of Eusebius" (1861); and, in con- 
junction with Bishop Whittingham, "Intro- 
duction to the Old Testament," from the Latin 
and German of Jahn (1827), and " Introduction 
to Sacred Philology and Interpretation," from 



TURNING 

the German of Planck (1834). His "Autobi- 
ography " was published in 1862. 

TURNER* I. Sharon, an English historian, 
born in London, Sept. 24, 1768, died there, 
Feb. 13, 1847. He was an attorney, but re- 
tired from business in 1829. His most impor- 
tant works are a "History of the Anglo-Sax- 
ons" (4 vols. 8vo, 1799-1805; 7th ed., revised 
by his son Sydney, 3 vols. 8vo, 1852), and a 
" History of England in the Middle Ages, with 
a Continuation to the Death of Elizabeth " (5 
vols. 4to, 1814-'29). He also published " In- 
quiry concerning the Early Use of Rime " 
(1802); "Sacred Meditations by a Layman" 
(1810); "A Prolusion on the Recent Great- 
ness of Britain, and other Subjects" (1819); 
" A Sacred History of the World, as displayed 
in the Creation and subsequent Events to the 
Deluge " (3 vols. 8vo, 1882 et eq.) ; and " Rich- 
ard III., a Poem " (1845). II. Sydney, an Eng- 
lish clergyman, son of the preceding, born 
April 2, 1814. He graduated at Trinity col- 
lege, Cambridge, in 1836, and in 1838 became 
superintendent of the reformatory school of 
the philanthropic society in London, and ef- 
fected its reorganization as the Red Hill re- 
formatory near Reigate in 1846. In 1857 he 
became inspector of reformatories in England 
and Scotland. He has published "Reforma- 
tory Schools, a Letter to C. B. Adderley, Esq., 
M. P." (8vo, 1855), and an enlarged edition of 
his father's "Sacred History of the World." 

TURNER, William, an English naturalist, born 
in Morpeth, Northumberland, about 1515, died 
July 7, 1568. He studied medicine and divin- 
ity at Cambridge, took part in the religious 
discussions of the time, and was imprisoned. 
After his release he studied natural history 
at Zurich and Bologna. Upon the death of 
Henry VIII. he returned home, and in the 
reign of Edward VI. became physician to the 
protector Somerset, and later prebendary of 
York, dean of Wells, and canon of Windsor. 
He again lived abroad during the reign of 
Mary. The work on which his reputation 
rests is his " Herball," the first book of which 
appeared in London (fol., 1551), and the sec- 
ond at Cologne (1562). He wrote also Avinm 
Pracipuarum, quorum apud Plinium et Aris- 
totelem Mentio est, Hittoria (8vo, Cologne, 
1554), and the account of British fishes in 
Gesner's Ilistoria Animalium ; and published 
a collation of the English Bible with the lie- 
brew, Greek, and Latin copies. 

TURNHOIT, a town of Belgium, in the prov- 
ince and 25 m. E. N. E. of the city of Antwerp : 
pop. about 15,000. It has a large church and 
extensive manufactories of linen, ticking, and 
lace. Leeches are reared here. In 1597 Mau- 
rice of Nassau routed the Spaniards here with 
the assistance of English troops, and compelled 
the fortress of Turnhout to surrender. 

TURNING, the art of shaping wood, metal, or 
other hard substances into forms having usu- 
ally curved, and most commonly circular out- 
lines, and also of executing figures composed 



TURNING 



of curved lines upon plane or cylindrical sur- 
faces, by means of appropriate tools and a 
machine called a lathe. Theodore of Samos, 
named by Pliny as the inventor of turning, 
may have originated the application of the 
process to the shaping of hard substances. 
The principle of turning is simple. A piece 
of wood or other hard substance being so 
fixed in a horizontal position by pivots or oth- 
erwise at its two ends as to be allowed to 
revolve freely about an axis in the direction 
of its length, and caused to turn rapidly in 
this manner, while a chisel or other cutting 
tool is approached to the piece so as to meet 
it as it advances on one side, and held firmly 
to it, the tool will cut away from the piece 
at that place all the material outside of a cir- 
cle whose radius is the distance of its point 
from the axis of motion ; thus it will give to 
the part a circular outline, and will reduce the 
diameter of this circle as its point is advanced 
further into the material. The tool being 
gradually moved along the length of the turn- 
ing piece, it can thus be made to reduce suc- 
cessively the entire length to the circular out- 
line, and, by cutting to different depths in dif- 
ferent parts, to produce a turned piece marked 
with circular grooves, or other forms of curved 
surface. Outside circular turning is the most 
common, and is known as " centre work." 
With lathes of peculiar construction the work 
may be turned hollow, or bored or reamed, or 
turned both inside and out. The most sim- 
ple lathe for wood turning is called the pole 
lathe, made of two horizontal and parallel 
planks or beams, having a narrow space be- 
tween them in which there are two uprights 
or puppets, one stationary, at the end of the 
bed, the other having a tenon passing through 
the space and secured by a wedge beneath, so 
as to be movable along the bed, to accommo- 
date it to the length of the work. Near the 
upper end of each puppet, on the sides facing 
each other, is a conical iron or steel point, the 
two being in the same line. The piece is 
placed between the points, and the movable 
puppet brought up so that both points are 
pressed slightly into its ends ; the line between 
these is the axis about which the piece will 
revolve. The fixed rest is placed convenient- 
ly for steadying the tool ; while to turn the 
work, a groove being cut about it, usually at 
the left end, a stout cord or catgut is passed 
twice or oftener about the piece, then drawn 
straight and attached below to a treadle to 
which the workman's foot is applied, and 
above to an elastic pole or lath fixed at one 
end to the ceiling overhead, whence, probably, 
the name pole lath, or simply lath, or lathe. 
The workman holds the gouge or chisel to the 
work, and pressing down the treadle with his 
foot, the work is caused to spin rapidly round 
toward the point of the tool ; and so long the 
latter takes effect. When the treadle, having 
come quite down, is released by the foot, the 
recoil of the lath carries back the cord and 



work in the reverse direction, and the tool 
does not cut. If it is required to turn the 
entire length of the piece, the cord must be 
shifted after a time to the finished part. This 
contrivance serves for ordinary wood turning ; 
but on account of its imperfections, and es- 
pecially the loss of time during the return or 
rising of the treadle, it is now little used. For 
light or fine work, the pole is often replaced 
by an elastic bow and string overhead, the 
cord giving the revolution being attached to 
the middle of the string. But the forms now 
more usual, and especially for heavy work, 
are : 1, the foot lathe, in which the treadle is 
by a link made to give motion to a crank, 
from a larger grooved wheel upon which a 
cord crosses in form of an 8 to a smaller 
grooved wheel or pulley fixed upon an axis 
at one end of the work, and giving motion 
to it ; 2, the hand-wheel lathe, in which the 
power is applied by the action of one or two 
persons in turning a wheel, from which a band 
communicates movement to the axis and work ; 
and 3, the power lathe for the heaviest work, 
moved by horses, water, or steam. Any wood- 
en lathe, such as is used by turners in wood, 
is also distinguished as a bed lathe ; while 
those of iron, for the best work in metals, are 
called bar lathes. In any form of lathe such 
as those now considered, the turning axis at 
one end of the work, to receive the power 
and give motion to the piece, in place of the 
simple point which can be used in the pole 
lathe, becomes indispensable. This axis is called 
the mandrel, and sometimes the " live spindle." 
The chucks, or contrivances fixed upon the 
end of the mandrel, are of various forms and 
construction, according to the kind of work 
they are intended to secure; the most common 
being the screw chuck, the hollow, drill, uni- 
versal, concentric or die, and ring chuck, and 
the carrier and driver. The crowning improve- 
ment in the adaptation of the lathe to accuracy 
of work, and to that of all varieties, is attained 
through the invention of the slide rest, a car- 
riage upon which the tool is supported^ and by 
the construction of which it can be moved along 
the work by the machine or by hand, and at 
the same time advanced toward it, or set at 
any angle, as the character of the work may 
require. In the cases thus far considered, 
there is but one axis or centre line of the work ; 
that is, the centre line is a fixed direction 
throughout the process of cutting. But it is 
desirable to execute work in which the cutting 
in different parts or moments shall be in refer- 
ence to two or more different axes through the 
solid or surface acted upon. A simple mode 
of effecting this is that of fixing the work suc- 
cessively with the different axes, and turning 
it at two or more operations. But practically, 
a far more complete and satisfactory result is 
attained, the forms executed being variable at 
the pleasure of the workman, by incorporating 
into the lathe devices which shift the place or 
direction of the single axis of motion, and in a 



7 TURNING 

defined manner and degree, while the work is 
rotated and the tool continually acting upon it. 
This species of turning, with a variable centre 
of the work at different moments, takes sever- 
al names according to the devices employed or 
the particular results secured, as eccentric, 
geometric, oval, and rose-engine turning. Such 
work is said to be figure-turned ; and the gen- 
eral principle is that of employing some form 
of chuck which shall give an oscillation or lat- 
eral movement to the axis or the work during 
its revolutions, so as to insure those deviations 
from a simple circular application of the cutter 
required for the intended form or figure. The 
chucks employed are designated as the eccen- 
tric, the geometric, the oval, or more properly 
elliptical, and as rosettes ; while a straight line 
chuck can also be employed to cut plane sur- 
faces or square work. In all work of this 
character, the amateur turner prides himself 
not only on the delicacy and elegance of his 
results, but quite as much on the difficulty of 
execution; and the value of turned work is 
often estimated by the degree in which it de- 
parts from the circular figure. For eccentric 
turning, a single eccentric chuck is one fixed 
upon a strong plate that can slide laterally 
within straight guides screwed upon the face 
of the mandrel, and which, having upon it a 
toothed wheel and click, is called the click 
plate ; the slide, and the nose upon it for car- 
rying the work, can be shifted into various 
positions out of centre, before applying the cut- 
ter. In the double eccentric chuck, a second 
plate or slide at the back of the first, and at 
right angles to it, can further vary the position 
of the axis. By aid of such a chuck, any re- 
quired part of a disk can be brought in lino 
with the centre of the mandrel, and holes bored 
in any part of it, or the edges hollowed out in 
curves of like or different radii, or polygons 
with curvilinear sides accurately produced. 
Ornamental work with these chucks consists 
mostly in the execution of variously curved 
figures on surfaces, without cutting away or 
changing the general outline, as in ornament- 
ing ivory or fine work in wood. The ivory 
turner often employs a small instrument called 
an eccentric cutter, in which the tool revolves 
rapidly, being moved by a bow, and with 
which, by means of a single eccentric chuck 
and a separate adjustment of the cutter, in- 
volved figures like those ordinarily requiring 
the double eccentric chuck are produced. For 
geometric turning, a chuck of similar name is 
employed. In this, a wheel concentric with 
the mandrel, while the latter and the chuck 
revolve, gives, by means of a train of smaller 
wheels, an independent movement to the click 
plate and axis of the work. By varying the 
relative sizes of the wheels, by introducing an 
added wheel to cause the work to turn at the 
same time in a direction the reverse of that of 
the mandrel, and by changing the position of 
tne_tool, or giving movement at the same time 
to it, an almost infinite variety of curiously 



TURNIP 

involved curved figures may be engraved or 
marked upon a plane surface to which motion 
ia thus imparted under the point of the tool 
By this machine some of the most perfect ro- 
settes and other lathe work of bank notes, in 
the United States largely relied on as a means 
for the prevention of successful counterfeiting, 
are executed. The figures will vary with the 
construction of the machine; of which, save 
by actual inspection or model, no duplicate can 
be constructed. The geometric lathe of the 
American bank-note company of New York, 
the single one of its kind, is a foot lathe of 
highly complicated and perfect workmanship, 
the construction of which is said to have occu- 
pied three years' time, at a cost of $10,000. 
Elliptical turning is accomplished by means of 
the elliptical or oval chuck, in which the pres- 
sure of an eccentric ring, moving within and 
clasped by rubbers, is made to draw the slide 
out of centre alternately in the opposite direc- 
tions, so that a stationary tool, held to a plate 
to which this movement is imparted during a 
revolution of the mandrel, will describe an 
ellipse instead of a circle ; while the size, direc- 
tion, and form of the ellipses can also be va- 
ried ; and, as in the other forms of lathe hero 
described, the micrometer screw may be intro- 
duced for determining the accuracy of pro- 
portions in the work. Of the few machines 
which have been invented for turning irregu- 
lar forms, in heavy or ordinary work, that of 
Blanchard is perhaps the best known and most 
successful. The principle of this machine is, 
that forms are turned by a pattern the exact 
shape of the object to be produced, which in 
every part of it is successively brought in con- 
tact with a small friction wheel ; this wheel 
precisely regulates the motion of chisels ar- 
ranged upon a cutting wheel acting on the 
rough block, so that as the friction wheel suc- 
cessively traverses every portion of the rota- 
ting pattern, the cutting wheel pares off the 
superabundant wood from end to end of the 
block, leaving a precise resemblance of the 
model. This remarkable machine, with modi- 
fications and improvements, is in use in the 
national armories as well as in England, and 
in various forms is applied to many operations 
in making musket stocks, such as cutting in 
the cavity for the lock, barrel, ramrod, butt 
plates, and mountings, comprising, together 
with the turning of the stock and barrel, 13 
different machines. Besides gun stocks, it is 
also applied to a great variety of objects, such 
as busts, shoe lasts, handles, spokes, &c. For 
further information respecting the tools and 
materials used in turning, see Holtzapffel'8 
" Turning and Mechanical Manipulations" (8 
vols., London, 1847-'52) ; and for the general 
subject, see the article "Lathe" in "Apple- 
tons' Dictionary of Machines," &c. (New York, 
1857), and Valicourt's Nouveau manual com- 
plet du tourneur (3 vols., Paris, 1848-'58). 

TURNIP, a variety of brassica campestris, hav- 
ing two very marked forms: one with small 



TURNIP 



root, but abundant stems and leaves, cultiva- 
ted for its foliage and its oleiferous seeds, as 
rape ; the other with a large, fleshy root, and 
comparatively little foliage, which is important 
in agriculture, and presents numerous subva- 
rieties, all included under turnip. The genus 
brassica, of the family cruciferca, is described 
and figured under another species (see MUS- 
TARD), and the characters of B. campestris are 
given under EAPK. Both forms of the species, 
rape and turnip, are recognized in the wild 
state, though there the root of the turnip is 
comparatively small ; when the two are sown 
together, they cross very freely and produce a 
great number of intermediate forms ; the tur- 
nip form is spontaneous in Armenia, Russia, 
and Scandinavia, and is a weed of cultivation 
in various countries. There are two very dis- 
tinct classes of turnips : 1, those with the root 
rounded and often broader than long, and usu- 
ally lobed, hairy, and rough radical leaves ; 
these are called common, round, and English 




Varieties of the Turnip. 1. Red-top Strap Leaf. 2. Cow- 
horn. 8. Long White French. 4. Kuta-baga. 

turnips, and when turnip is used by cultivators 
without a prefix, this kind is intended ; 2, those 
with larger, elongated, and more solid roots, 
and with the radical leaves smooth and cov- 
ered with a bloom, like those of the cabbage ; 
these are known as Swedish or Russian tur- 
nips (by English farmers as " Swedes "), and 
more generally as ruta-bagas (Sw. rota-bag- 
gar, root rams). There are yellow- and white- 
fleshed varieties in both classes, and the ex- 
terior is often more or less colored, from rose- 
purple to dark violet. All are biennials, at 
least in cultivation, and as their roots are not 
perfectly hardy, they must be stored for the 
winter. Turnips are cultivated as a garden 
and as a field crop. The early garden crop is 
of some of the quick-growing round kinds, 
such as the flat Dutch ; the seeds must be 
sown as early as the soil can be worked, as 
hot weather soon makes the roots spongy. 
The main crop in garden or field is sown later ; 



the ruta-baga sorts require a longer season, and 
are sown late in June or early in July, and 
other varieties, according to their requirements, 
until early in September, and in the southern 
states much later. In field culture, the ruta- 
bagas and other large kinds are sown in drills, 
and kept well cultivated, while the quicker 
growing, smaller sorts are often sown broad- 
cast; good crops of these are frequently ob- 
tained by sowing the seed broadcast among 
Indian corn, just before that crop is cultivated 
for the last time. Turnips, when just ger- 
minated, suffer much from the attacks of the 
small flea beetle (haltica), which are often 
"very disastrous (see TURNIP FLY) ; the only 
remedy is to use an abundance of seed, and 
to sprinkle the young plants copiously with 
slaked lime or ashes. These, with other roots, 
do not occupy the important place in our agri- 
culture that they do in that of England, our 
abundance of Indian corn rendering them less 
a necessity as winter food for animals; still 
their value as affording a variety is becoming 
more appreciated, and their culture is rapidly 
increasing. The ruta-baga sorts, though cost- 
ing more labor to raise, are the most nutri- 
tious and the best keepers ; they are preserved 
in cool cellars or in heaps in the open ground, 
the roots being stacked in pyramidal piles and 
covered with sufficient straw and earth to pre- 
vent severe freezing. Turnips are most valued 
as food for cattle and sheep ; they are sliced 
and sometimes pulped in a machine for the 
purpose. In England, and in some parts of 
this country, turnips are fed to sheep in the 
field ; a space is enclosed with hurdles or mov- 
able fences, and when the sheep have cleared 
off the turnips from this portion, the hurdles 
are removed to enclose another section ; for 
swine and horses they are less valued than 
other roots. The amount of nutritive matter 
in turnips is very small; the common kinds 
have from 90 to 92 and the ruta-bagas about 
87 per cent, of water ; the albuminoids are 
from 1 to 1-6 per cent., and the carbohydrates 
vary from 5 per cent, in the common to 9 per 
cent, in the ruta-bagas. The leading garden 
sorts, besides the white Dutch already men- 
tioned as the earliest, are: the red-top strap- 
leaved, the best of the flat kinds; the cow- 
horn, a foot long and 3 in. through, the half 
which grows above ground being green also 
grown as a field crop ; and yellow Aberdeen, 
purplish above and yellow below, with a yel- 
low flesh. The white French, one of the ruta- 
baga kinds, has the root all below ground, is 
twice as long as thick, of medium size, and 
keeps well ; though called French, its origin is 
unknown ; it is superior to all others for the 
table, unless it be the sweet German, which 
differs only in being broader than long ; both 
are probably strains of the same variety, dif- 
fering in the shape of the root. The Teltow 
is a great favorite with the Germans ; the root 
is about 3 in. long and an inch thick, with a 
very piquant flavor which resides in the rind ; 



76 



TURNIP FLY 



it is valued for flavoring soups and stews. In 
England the list of ruta-bagas or Swedes for 
field culture is long, and each year adds new 
varieties; in this country varieties known as 
the improved American, Skirving's purple-top, 
Carter's, and Laing's ruta-bagas are the prin- 
cipal sorts cultivated. 

TURNIP FLY, a name given to several in- 
sects of different orders, but especially to the 
small chrysomelian beetles of the genus haltica 
(Illig.), which attack the turnip in its various 
parts and stages of growth. In the genus hal- 
tica (Gr. dAn/cdf, skilled in leaping) the body is 
very convex above, oval, with short thorax 
and wide head ; antennae slender ; hind thighs 
very thick and formed for leaping ; surface of 
the body generally smooth and shining, and 
often prettily colored ; claws notched and 
hooked, enabling them to keep firm hold of the 
leaves of plants on which they feed, especially 
the cruciferous vegetables, to which they are 
often very injurious. They are all very small, 
the largest not more than two lines long and 
one line wide ; most are shining green, tinged 
with brown or yellowish. The turnip fly of 
England is the H. nemorum (Illig.) ; it devours 




English Turnip Fly (Ualtica oemorum). 

the seed leaves of the turnip as they appear 
above the ground, continuing its ravages all 
summer; in winter it conceals itself in some 
dry and sheltered place, laying its eggs in spring 
on the leaves; the larvae eat the soft pulpy 
substance, making little galleries in which they 
undergo their changes, and in this way are a's 
injurious as the full-grown beetles; they are 
slender grubs, tapering at each end, with six 
legs, and become perfect insects in a few weeks, 
a constant succession occurring through the 
summer. The loss to the turnip crop from 
their ravages is sometimes very large. (See 
TURNIP.) The H. striolata (Fabr.), the wavy- 
striped flea beetle of the United States, much 
resembles the preceding ; it is less than T ^ of 
an inch long, shining black, with a broad, wavy, 
buff stripe on each wing cover, and the knees 
and feet reddish yellow; it is abundant on 
the seed leaves of the turnip and other plants 
early in May, in some seasons threatening to 
be almost as injurious as the European insect. 
Among the lepidoptera, the pontia oleracea 
(Harris), potherb or white butterfly, is often 
called turnip fly. The wings are white or yel- 
lowish, dusky near the body; back black, and 
antennse blackish with narrow white rings- 
the expanse of wings about 2 in. Toward the 
beginning of June it may be seen fluttering 



TURNSTONE 

over turnip and cabbage beds for the purpose 
of attaching three or four of its eggs to the 
under side of the leaves ; the eggs are yellow- 
ish, pear-shaped, ribbed longitudinally, and 




White Butterfly (Pontia oleracea). 

T V of an inch long; they are hatched in about 
10 days, attain their full size of 1J in. in three 
weeks, when they are pale green, and eat ir- 
regular holes in any part of the leaf; they 
pass a chrysalis state of 11 days, suspended by 
silken threads attached to the hind feet and 
fore part of the body in some protected place. 
They are again abundant toward the beginning 
of August, laying eggs for a second brood, 
the chrysalids from which survive the winter, 
coming out perfect insects in May or June ; 
the chrysalis is four fifths of an inch long. 
The larva are eaten by titmice and other in- 
sectivorous birds; the chrysalids can be col- 
lected on boards placed for them near the 
ground, and the butterflies are easily caught 
in bag nets, as they fly low and lazily. This 
species is rarely found S. of the latitude of 
New Hampshire. Some dipterous insects, as 
the flower flies (anthomyiadai), in the larva 
state infest the roots of turnips, &c., eating 
also the pulpy parts of the leaves and stems. 

TURNSOLE. See HELIOTROPE. 

TURNSPIT. See TERRIER. 

TURNSTONE, a wading bird of the oyster- 
catcher family (hcematopodidcB) and genus strep- 
silas (Illig.), so named from its turning over 
by its strong bill the stones and weeds along 
the margins of the sea and of lakes and rivers 
in search of insects, mollusks, and crustaceans. 




Turnstone (Strepsilas Interpres). 

The only well characterized species, -9. inter- 
pret (Illig.), is about 9 in. long and 18 in. in 
alar extent ; above it is irregularly variegated 
with black, dark rufous, and white ; head and 



TURNVEREIN 



TURPENTINE (OiL OF) 



77 



neck white above, with numerous spots and 
stripes of brownish black; in front of eyes 
and on throat white, usually bordered with 
black ; lower parts, back, rump, and under wing 
coverts, white; quills brownish black, with 
white shafts ; tail white at base and tip, with 
terminal half brownish black ; conspicuous 
white bar on wings, bill black, and legs orange. 
The bill is shorter than the head, compressed, 
obtusely pointed, and slightly bent upward at 
tip ; legs moderate and stout, with tarsi scaled 
in front ; toes short and not webbed, the hind 
one touching the ground ; wings long, the first 
quill longest ; tail moderate and rounded. It 
is generally seen in small flocks of five or six, 
sometimes in company with various sand- 
pipers ; it is not at all shy, and emits a loud 
whistling note during flight ; in its spring and 
summer dress it is very handsome; the eggs 
are four, 1$ by li in., pale yellowish green 
with a few black lines and irregular patches of 
brownish red. It is found all over the world. 

TURNVEREIN. See GYMNASTICS. 

TlTlOCZ, a N. W. county of Hungary, bor- 
dering on the counties of Trentschin, Arva, 
Lipto, Zolyom, Bars, and Neutra ; area, 444 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 45,346, almost all Slovaks. 
It is traversed by the Carpathian mountains, 
and drained by the Waag and its affluent the 
Turocz. It abounds in rich pastures, meadows, 
and forests. Capital, Szent-Marton. 

TURPENTINE, a term applied to several oleo- 
resins which exude from coniferous trees, and 
also from the pistacia terebinthus, the tree 
called by the Greeks reptfiivdos, which furnished 
the principal variety known to the ancients. 
Of commercial turpentine there are several 
varieties, which consist of a resin more or less 
dissolved in a volatile oil, called oil of turpen- 
tine. American turpentine is chiefly obtained 
from the pinus australis or " long-leaved " 
pine, which is abundant on the coast of the 
Carolinas and Georgia ; it is also obtained 
from "old field" pine or pinus tada; the 
largest quantity is produced in North Carolina. 
Canada turpentine, called also Canada balsam 
and balsam of fir, is the product of abies bal- 
tamea or balm of Gilead fir, a small tree which 
grows in Canada and the state of Maine.. The 
German turpentine is principally derived from 
the Scotch fir, pinvs sylvestris ; French or 
Bordeaux turpentine is obtained from pinus 
maritima, which grows in southern Europe 
and along the Mediterranean coast ; Strasburg 
turpentine from the silver fir, aMes picea, and 
from spruce fir, aMes excelsa. That from silver 
fir is quite liquid, having the odor of lemons 
and a sharp, bitter taste ; that from spruce fir 
has a strong balsamic odor and a sweetish, 
aromatic taste. Venice turpentine is obtained 
from the larch, larix Europcea ; it is a ropy 
liquid, of a transparent brownish or greenish 
color and a bitter taste. Hungarian and Car- 
pathian turpentines are from pinus pumilio 
and pinus cembra. Cyprian, Syrian, or Scio 
turpentine is obtained in Scio from pistacia 



tereMnthus, and in Syria from pistacia vera, 
which is also the tree that furnishes pistachio 
nuts ; it has the odor of fennel and an aro- 
matic taste like mastic. When exposed to the 
air, turpentine slowly hardens, partly from eva- 
poration of the oil, and partly from oxidation. 
It softens and liquefies by heating, takes fire 
readily, and burns with a dense smoky flame. 
It is completely soluble in alcohol and ether. 
On boiling with water the volatile oil passes 
off with the steam, while the resin remains in- 
timately mixed with a small quantity of oil 
and water, forming a dingy, turbid mass called 
" boiled turpentine." At a stronger heat the 
water and remaining portion of oil are ex- 
pelled, and colophony remains, as a transparent 
resin, more or less colored. Colophony was 
formerly regarded as a mixture of two iso- 
meric acid resins, pinic and sylvic acids ; but 
recent investigations of Maly have shown it to 
consist mainly of abietic anhydride, CuHesO^ 
which when treated with aqueous alcohol takes 
up water and is converted into abietic acid, 
Ci4He4O 6 . The turpentines are the sources of 
the oil of turpentine of commerce, which con- 
stitutes from 10 to 25 per cent, of crude tur- 
pentine. The remainder is principally rosin, 
from which the turpentine is distilled. (See 
ROSIN, and TURPENTINE, OIL OF.) 

TIRPEKTISE, Oil of, called also spirits of tur- 
pentine, the volatile oil distilled from turpen- 
tine, and naturally contained in the wood, 
bark, and leaves of the trees from which it 
is obtained. It is prepared by distilling the 
crude turpentine either alone or with water. 
It was formerly supposed that all the oils 
thus obtained, which have the formula CioHie, 
Lad the same properties; but recent investi- 
gations, particularly by Berthelot, show that 
the oils obtained from different sources pos- 
sess different physical (particularly optical) 
properties, and that they are generally mix- 
tures of two or more isomeric or polymeric 
hydrocarbons ; and furthermore, that the modi- 
fications are often produced hy heat and chem- 
ical reagents during the distillation or purifica- 
tion of the oil. But they all belong to the 
class of terpenes, of which the volatile oils of 
aurantiaceous plants, as the orange and lemon, 
are members, as well as the oils of caraway, 
juniper, and lavender, which are isomeric; 
also the oils of copaiba and cubebs, which are 
polymeric (CsoHsa). These terpenes are mem- 
bers of a large group, designated by Berthelot 
as camphenes, which also have the formula 
CioHis. The several varieties of turpentine oil, 
when purified by repeated rectification with 
water, are colorless mobile liquids having a 
peculiar aromatic odor. They are insoluble in 
water, slightly soluble in aqueous alcohol, but 
dissolve in all proportions in absolute alcohol, 
ether, and bisulphide of carbon. They dis- 
solve iodine, sulphur, and phosphorus, and also 
fixed oils and resins, on which account they 
are used for mixing with paints and for ma- 
king varnishes. The oils f different origin 



78 



TURPENTINE (Oil. OF) 



vary slightly as to specific gravity and boiling 
point, but more particularly in regard to their 
optical rotatory power ; but many of them are 
derived from several sources, and as before 
remarked vary when of the same origin on 
account of different modes of preparation. 
French turpentine oil, obtained from French 
or Bordeaux turpentine, consists of a hydro- 
carbon, OioHu, called by Berthelot tereben- 
thene. It cannot be readily obtained from the 
commercial oil, which is too much contamina- 
ted with products of transformation, but may 
be obtained pure by treating French turpentine 
with an alkaline carbonate, and distilling it 
first over a water bath and then in a vacuum, 
by which transformation by heat or reagents is 
avoided. Terebenthene obtained in this way 
has a constant specific gravity of 0*864, a boil- 
ing point of 321-8 F., and a rotatory power of 
13-3. (See LIGHT, OPTICS, and saccharim- 
etry in the article SUGAR.) This oil also con- 
tains an isomeric hydrocarbon, terepentilene, 
boiling below 356 F., and also a polymeric 
oil, parterebenthene, which boils at about 482. 
The principal oil contained in English turpen- 
tine is australene, or austraterebenthene, hav- 
ing the same specific gravity and boiling point 
as the French oil terebenthene, but an optical 
rotatory power of +2T5 . The English oil 
also contains, according to Berthelot, an iso- 
meric body called australene. Both the Eng- 
lish and French oils, before their constituents 
are separated, possess rather less rotatory pow- 
er. Venetian oil of turpentine has a rotatory 
power of 5"2. All these oils possess the com- 
mon property of absorbing oxygen from the 
air and ultimately becoming resinous, at the 
same time producing carbonic, acetic, and 
formic acids. In this gradual oxidation ozone 
is produced, as it is more rapidly by dipping a 
warm glass rod in a jar filled with vapor of 
turpentine; and turpentine oil exposed for 
some time to the sun's rays contains oxygen 
and ozone in solution. A paper soaked in oil 
of turpentine and immersed in a jar of chlo- 
rine takes fire, producing a dense black smoke 
and white fumes of hydrochloric acid. When 
treated with excess of iodine the combination 
takes place explosively. Turpentine oil is 
violently acted upon by nitric acid, often taking 
fire, producing nitro-benzene. Oil of turpen- 
tine, besides being used in making varnishes, 
is, on account of its solvent action generally 
on oils and resins insoluble in water, used for 
discharging such substances from cloth, rags, 
fec. It is one of the most energetic of volatile 
oils. Its vapor is quickly destructive to plants 
and to many insects. It acts more powerfully 
on the lower animals than on man, easily blis- 
tering the skin of the horse. It is used in 
medicine as a diuretic and anthelmintic, and 
as a stimulant to the mucous membranes of the 
bowels and genito-urinary organs. It is often 
of great benefit in the ulcerated condition of 
the small intestines consequent upon typhoid 
fever, and also in diarrhoeas. It also possesses 



TURQUOISE 

many interesting chemical characteristics, tho 
study of which has been of great advantage to 
the progress of theoretical chemistry. 

TURPIN, Tnlpln, or Tilpin, archbishop of 
Rheims, a friend and companion of Charle- 
magne, died Sept. 2, 800. He was originally 
a Benedictine monk of the convent of St. 
Denis, and was made archbishop about 763. 
His name is prefixed to a Latin chronicle, 
which relates the expedition of Charlemagne 
against the Saracena of Spain and the fight 
of Roncesvalles. Turpin's authorship of the 
chronicle is disputed, though Pope Calixtus II. 
in 1122 declared it to be authentic. The work 
is among the earliest productions relating to 
the events of Charlemagne's reign, and from 
it the tales of chivalry of the middle ages were 
largely taken. It was translated from Latin 
into French in 1206 by a clerk of Renaud, 
count of Boulogne. The original was first 
printed in the collection of Schardius (fol., 
Frankfort, 1566). The best editions are by 
Ciampi (Florence, 1822) and by Reiffenberg in 
Chronique de Philippe Mousket (2 vols., Brus- 
sels, 1836). See Gaston Paris, De Pseudo- 
Turpino (Paris, 1865). 

TURQUOISE, a native hydrated phosphate of 
aluminum, found in the mountains near Nisha- 
pur, in Khorasan, Persia, and much valued as 
a gem. It is called by the Persians biruta, and 
is probably the callau of Pliny. An inferior 
variety is also found at Jordansmuhle in Sile- 
sia, and at Oelsnitz in Saxony. Major Mao- 
ri onald discovered in Arabia Potnea, near Mt. 
Sinai, a variety of turquoise in a layer of red 
sandstone ; it is darker and said to be of a finer 
blue than the Persian turquoise, but unfortu- 
nately it changes color, especially under the 
wheel of the lapidary. Persian turquoise has 
the chemical composition represented by the 
formula 2AUOj,P a O,5IIO; it is uniform and 
stalactitic in structure, of hardness 6 on a scale 
of 10 ; sp. gr. 2-6 to 2'8 ; color a peculiar bluish 
screen to azure-blue and white, slightly trans- 
lucent to opaque, with small conchoidal frac- 
ture. Specimens of a fine blue are much the 
most highly prized. "When heated, the turquoise 
decrepitates strongly, gives off water, and, if 
colored, turns black. It tinges the blowpipe 
Harne green, and with fluxes gives reactions of 
iron and copper. An analysis by Hermann of 
a blue oriental turquoise gave 28'9 of phosphoric 
anhydride, 47'45 alumina, 2-02 cupric oxide, 
I'l ferric oxide, 0*5 manganic oxide, 1'85 
Ime, and 18-18 water. The turquoise is much 
used in oriental countries for ornamenting har- 
ness, girdles, swords, amulets, and charms, and 
is believed to have the power of protecting its 
wearer against contagion, or, when he is af- 
fected with disease, of changing color and be- 
coming pale. Several antique cameos and in- 
taglios cut in turquoise are in the Vatican at 
Rome. Fragments of the gem, which appear 
to have been parts of amulets, are often met 
with in Egyptian ruins. The shah of Persia 
is supposed to have in his possession all the 



TURKETIN 



TURTLE 



79 



and prominent ; the head is so placed on the 
neck as to allow the nostrils to he easily raised 
above the surface, their openings heing closed 
by a fleshy valve. Much sea water is swal- 
lowed with their food, and when the former 
is of necessity regurgitated the latter is re- 
tained by the numerous horny processes, point- 
ing backward, in the oesophagus. The very 
young are longer in proportion to their width, 
and grow broader. Though lower than the 
tortoises, the turtles exhibit features resem- 
bling those of birds in the form of the anterior 
limbs, the mode of locomotion, the preponder- 
ance of the fore part of the body, bill-like jaws, 
and overlapping epidermic appendages. All 
are marine, excellent swimmers, and rarely ap- 
proach the shore except to deposit their eggs ; 
some feed entirely on sea weeds, but a few eat 
mollusks, crustaceans, and other aquatic ani- 
mals ; they are generally timid, and make but 
little resistance, though they are more bold 
and regardless of danger in the pairing season. 
The flesli of- the herbivorous species is a whole- 
some food, and much sought after by epicures, 
while that of the carnivorous is disagreeable 
if not positively injurious ; the callipee, or 
under part of the breast and abdomen, is con- 
sidered the choicest part ; the liver and fat are 
also much esteemed. They come on shore to- 
ward the end of spring to lay their eggs on the 
sandy beaches above high-water mark ; they 
generally select desert islands or keys, and a 
still moonlight night ; they dig a trench in the 
sand with their hind feet about 1 ft. deep, 
and deposit therein about 100 eggs at each of 
three layings, with an interval of two or three 
weeks between them ; the eggs are lightly cov- 
ered with sand, and left to be hatched by the 
heat of the sun ; if undisturbed, they return to 
the same shore year after year. They are 
caught on the shore, and turned on their 
backs, a position from which they cannot es- 
cape, owing to the flatness and width of the 
shell ; they are harpooned and taken in nets 
in the water, and in the Indian seas are cap- 
tured by means of the remora. (See SUCKING 
FISH.) In the chelonioidm the body is widest 
about midway, and the vertebral column de- 
scends continuously and gently to the tail ; the 
shoulders and hind limbs are better protected 
than in the other family ; the shield is more or 
less heart-shaped, with the posterior angle not 
prolonged into a point extending far over the 
tail ; all the genera are represented on the 
coast of the United States, and are far less 
rapid swimmers than the sphargididce. The 
latter family has only the single genus sphargis 
(Merrem), showing well the inequality of the 
natural groups called families ; the body is 
more conical than in the other turtles, the 
carapace leaving the hind legs as well as the 
shoulders and neck much exposed from its 
great contraction behind and in front ; the low- 
er parts are equally unprotected by the plas- 
tron, this with the carapace forming little more 
than a wide girdle around the thorax and ab- 



80 



TURTLE 



domen ; the skeleton is light, the paddles large 
and free, and everything seems arranged for 
rapid and long continued voyages. The green 
turtle (chelonia midas, Schw.), sometimes at- 
taining a length of 5 or 6 ft. and a weight of 
5 or 6 cwt., received its name from the color 
of the delicate fat which enriches the soup and 




Green Turtle (Chelonia midas). 

other dishes of a course of turtle. It has a 
short and rounded snout, and jaws acting like 
straight-edged shears cutting from behind for- 
ward, the upper slightly notched, the lower 
with a deeply serrated margin and a hook in 
front ; shell smooth, with 13 plates, 5 vertebral 
and 8 lateral, not imbricated, slightly notched 
and serrated behind, and with 25 marginal 
plates ; anterior limbs rounded at shoulder, cov- 
ered with a tough skin and a few small plates; 
forearm and hand with large plates on the an- 
terior border, smaller ones elsewhere, and an 
extensile fold of skin along the posterior mar- 
gin ; hind limbs short and flattened, covered 
with small plates and a larger fold of skin on 
the margin ; a single nail to each limb ; the 
shell is light brown, with darker lines and 
blotches, and sometimes with a greenish tinge ; 
below pale yellowish white. It is abundant in 
the tropical waters of America, whence great 
numbers are carried alive to the northern 
states and to Europe ; the West Indies are its 
headquarters, whence it wanders to the gulf 
of Mexico and the coasts of Guiana and Brazil ; 
it is rarely found above lat. 34 N. on the At- 
lantic coast, and never on the shores of Europe; 
the Tortugas islands are a favorite resort. It 
browses on the turtle grass (zostera marina), 
eating the succulent part nearest the root, the 
rest rising to the surface and disclosing the 
feeding grounds to the practised eye ; in con- 
finement it will eat and grow fat upon purslane 
(portulacca oleracea) ; numbers are kept for a 
long time in pens or crawls filled at every tide. 
It is often seen many hundred miles from land, 
and is easily taken when asleep on the surface ; 
its capture gives employment to many and food 
to thousands in the West Indies. (For an ac- 
count of other methods of taking them, and 
of the manner in which the eggs are laid see 
Audubon's " Ornithological Biography " vol 
ii., pp. 370-76, Boston, 1835.) During the 



actual laying of the eggs nothing can disturb 
their labors ; they are hatched in eight or nine 
weeks. The flesh is exceedingly delicate, and 
wholesome in moderate quantities ; the eggs of 
this and of all the species are also considered 
a delicacy. In the young the carapace is rela- 
tively narrrower, and the colors of the adults 
vary much. As in all the species, the eggs are 
dropped one by one, and disposed in regular 
layers, during a period of about 20 minutes; 
they are round, 2 to 3 in. in diameter, with 
the external membrane flexible, very white, 
and containing a considerable quantity of cal- 
careous matter ; the shell of the young is soft, 
and affords but little protection. The logger- 
head turtle (thalassochefys caouana, Fitz.) has 
the body very wide across the shoulders ; the 
head very large and flat, with wide mouth, 
the upper jaw nearly straight, and the lower 
hooked; shell smooth, with a keel along the 
median line, and a crescentic notch in the pos- 
terior border; the plates are thin and flexible, 
5 vertebral and 10 lateral, not imbricated, and 
the marginal plates 25; each limb has two 
nails, corresponding to the first two fingers; 
the color above is light brown, sometimes with 
an olive tinge and often bordered with dirty 
yellowish ; and the shield, as in the other tur- 
tles, is frequently more or less covered with 
barnacles, serpulte, and other parasites. It has 
an extensive range on the American coast of the 
Atlantic, from Virginia to Brazil, and probably 
on the shores of Europe and in the Mediterra- 
nean ; it is more common than the green tur- 
tle, and grows to 15 or 16 cwt. ; it is voracious, 
feeding principally on mollusks, being able to 
crush with its powerful jaws the strongest 
shells; the flesh of the young is sometimes 
eaten, but that of the old is rank and tough ; 
the scales are of little value, and even the eggs 
have a musky flavor ; it is taken only for the 
considerable quantity of excellent burning oil 
which it furnishes. The hawk's bill or imbri- 
cated turtle (eretmochelys imbricata, Fitz.) has 
a low and rather wide head, a long and narrow- 
mouth, the upper jaw prolonged and hooked 




Hawk's Bill Turtle (Eretmochelys Imbricata). 

like the beak of a hawk, the lower jaw with a 
smaller hook, and both with serrated margins ; 
the shell is slightly keeled, flattened and ser- 
rated behind, with five vertebral and eight 
lateral plates strongly imbricated or overlap- 
ping like the scales of a fish ; the plastron has 



TURTLE 

two keels, more or less worn off by age ; there 
are two nails to each limb ; anterior limbs very 
long and wing-like; the head is protected by 
14 scales ; the tail is conical, not extending be- 
yond the shell. The color is yellowish above, 
marbled with rich chestnut brown, and yellow- 
ish white below ; in the young there is a black 
spot on the four posterior pairs of plates. It' 
is found in the West Indies, the gulf of Mexico, 
on the coasts of Guiana and Brazil, and has 
even strayed to the Mediterranean ; the E. 
squamata (Ag.) is found in the Pacific and 
Indian oceans, the best being taken about the 
Moluccas and Papua. The food consists of sea 
weeds, crabs, mollusks, and fishes ; in confine- 
ment it is fiercer than the preceding two ; it 
rarely grows more than 3 ft. in length ; its 
flesh is indifferent, and it is said unwholesome, 
though the eggs are good, and the species is 
sought after only for its beautiful horny plates, 
which constitute the tortoise shell of commerce. 
These are not considered of value unless from 
an animal weighing at least 160 Ibs., as other- 
wise they are too thin ; 15 Ibs. of shell from a 
single one is a large amount, and yet in ani- 



TURTLE DOVE 



81 




Trunk Turtle (Sphargis coriacea). 

mals of the same size the imbricated would be 
worth 10 times as much as the green turtle. 
Singapore and Canton are the great marts for 
tortoise shell. It was consumed in large quan- 
tities in ancient Rome, even the door posts of 
the rich being inlaid with it ; the carapace was 
used as a cradle and a bath tub for children, 
and as a shield for warriors. The leathery or 
trunk turtle {sphargis coriacea, Merr.) is so 
named from having the carapace overlaid by 
a leathery skin instead of horny plates, smooth 
in the adult, but tuberculated in the young, 
and with seven longitudinal ridges ; the head 
is large, narrowed in front of eyes, with small 
and circular nostrils, and large eyes with lids 
opening nearly vertically ; jaws very strong 
and sharp-edged, the upper with three notches, 
the hook of the lower shutting into the cen- 
tral one ; neck short and very thick ; anterior 
limbs twice as long as the hind ones, the for- 
mer falcate, the latter the widest ; tail sharp, 
compressed on the sides, and not extending be- 
yond the shell ; the color is dark brown above, 
with lighter spots along the ridges. It is the 
largest of the turtles, attaining a length of 8 ft. 



and a weight of nearly a ton ; its food consists 
of mollusks, crustaceans, fish, sea urchins, and 
marine plants ; its flesh is of no value, but its 
shell has been used along the Mediterranean 
for making small boats, drinking troughs for 
animals, and children's bath tubs. It is found 
on both sides of the Atlantic, especially in the 
tropics, coming north as far as Massachusetts 
bay, and following the Gulf stream across the 
Atlantic to the coasts of Europe and the Medi- 
terranean ; those of E. Asia and S. Africa may 
perhaps be a different species; none of this 
genus have nails on the litnbs. It was known 
to the ancients. The marine species have great 
tenacity of life under mutilation and depriva- 
tion of food. Turtles are found as far back 
as the Jurassic period, continued through the 
cretaceous, becoming more abundant and ad- 
vancing further north than at the present day, 
though they were not so large as the existing 
species; in the limited strata of the eocene 
clay of the island of Sheppey more species 
have been discovered than now exist ; large 
species have been found in the tertiary of 
South Carolina and the greensand of New Jer- 
sey, of several genera. 

TURTLE DOYE, the common name of several 
small pigeons, especially of the genera turtvr 
and ?, characterized by a smaller size than 
the domestic pigeon, weaker bill, longer toes 
(the inner exceeding the outer), and a longer 
and wedge-shaped tail ; they are both arboreal 
and terrestrial, feeding on the ground, but 
roosting and nesting in trees. The word turtle 
signified a dove until the discovery of America, 
when it was applied to the marine tortoises. 
In the genus turtvr (Selby) the bill is slender 
and straight, with the tip slightly arched and 
acute ; wings long, the second and third quills 
the longest ; tail moderate, rounded or even ; 
tarsi almost as long as the middle toe, for the 
most part naked, and the toes long and slender. 
There are more than a dozen species, found in 
various parts of Europe, India, and Africa, in 
woods and jungles, making their presence 
known by their pleasant cooing ; from Europe 
they migrate to the south in winter ; they are 
generally seen in flocks of about 20, in open 
cultivated districts, feeding on grain, seeds of 
grass, &c. ; the nest is made in thick woods, of 
small twigs loosely put together, and the eggs 
are two. The common European turtle dove 
(T. auritus, Selby) is 11 in. long; the head, 
neck, breast, and back are wood-brown tinged 
with pearl-gray ; a patch of black feathers mar- 
gined with white on each side of the neck ; 
scapulars and wing coverts black, shading into 
grayish, and edged with buff; lower parts 
white, as are the tips of the tail feathers except 
the two middle ones. It arrives in temperate 
Europe in May, leaving at the end of summer ; 
it is found also in Asia and Africa, and is only 
a rare visitor to Great Britain ; it has been 
supposed to be the origin of some of the small- 
er partly domestic varieties which are kept 
only in aviaries. The collared turtle dove (T. 



82 



TURTLE DOVE 




risorius, Selby) is 10 in. long; the general 
colors are different shades of pale wood-brown, 
with even paler edgings, tinged with vinace- 
ous on the under 
parts, and with a 
half collar of black 
on the hind neck. 
It is found wild in 
most parts of Af- 
rica, bat is now 
widely distributed 
as a cage bird. If 
left at liberty, it 
flies away, and 
does not seem ca- 
pable of domesti- 
cation like the 
common pigeon ; 
in warm climates 
seven or eight 
broods are raised 
in a season. It is 
doubtless the tur- 
tle of the Scrip- 
tures, and is still 
numerous in Egypt and Asia Minor, deri- 
ving its specific name from a fancied resem- 
blance of its cooing to a human laugh. In 
the genus ana (Selby) the bill is moderate and 
very slender, the wings long with the first 
three quills nearly equal and longest, and the 
tail of 12 feathers, very long and wedge-shaped, 
with the two middle feathers narrowed. The 
Cape turtle dove (CE. Capensw, Selby) is 10 in. 
long, of which the tail is more than half, the 
closed wings reaching to about one third the 
length of the tail ; in the male the forehead, 
chin, throat, and upper breast are intense black ; 
crown, sides of neck and body, and lesser wing 
coverts pale French gray ; middle of abdomen 
white ; back pale brown ; wings deeper brown, 
with a few metallic purple spots ; two black 
bars on the rump ; middle tail feathers grayish 
brown, with terminal half black, and the rest 
bluish gray with a broad black band near the 
tip ; bill and feet yellow. It is seen on trees 
bordering the rivers of S. Africa, making its 



Collared Turtle Dove (Turtur riso- 
rius). 




Carolina Turtle Dove (Zenaidura Carolinensis). 

nest in low bushes. In North America is found 
the Carolina turtle dove (senaidura Carolinen- 
sis, Bonap.), about 12| in. long and 17J- in. in 



TUSCALOOSA 

alar extent; the bill is weak and black; the 
wings pointed, with the second quill the long- 
est, and the first and third nearly equal ; tail 
longer than the wings, much graduated and 
wedge-shaped, and of 14 feathers; though 
much smaller, it resembles the passenger or 
wild pigeon in its lengthened tail. It is bluish 
above, mixed with light brownish olive, the 
former purest on the crown, wings, and upper 
surface of tail ; the rest of head, sides of neck, 
and under parts generally light brownish red, 
purplish on breast, becoming brownish yellow 
behind ; patch of metallic purplish on the sides 
of neck ; sides of body and under surface of 
wings light blue ; black spots on wings, and 
patch of same below ears; tail above with a 
subterminal black bar and light tip ; feet yel- 
low ; the female is smaller and less reddish 
below. It is found all over the United States 
and in Cuba, and from ocean to ocean ; it is 
rare in the British Atlantic provinces, though 
common on the Columbia river. The flight is 
extremely rapid and long eontinued, but not at 
a great height, and accompanied by a whistling 
noise ; it walks with ease and grace, and runs 
swiftly ; it seldom bathes, but drinks by swal- 
lowing water in long draughts, with the bill 
deeply immersed ; it is rather shy, and difficult 
to shoot from the rapid flight ; 200 or 300 con- 
stitute a large flock, which scatter over so large 
a space that it is not easy to kill more than 
one at a shot, except in winter when they 
come near farm houses ; the flesh is excellent, 
and great numbers are killed in the southern 
states in winter. In Louisiana they begin to 
lay by the last of March, but in New England 
not before the middle of May ; the nest is 
made in any kind of tree, and is very loosely 
constructed ; it breeds in aviaries, raising sev- 
eral broods in a season. The eggs are two,*l 
by | in., equally rounded at both ends, and 
pure white. None of the turtle doves commit 
serious depredations in the fields of grain, as 
they are rather gleaners than reapers. The fam- 
ily characters have been given under PIGEON. 

TISCALOOSA, a W. county of Alabama, inter- 
sected by the Black Warrior and Sipsey rivers; 
area, 1,450 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 20,081, of 
whom 8,294 wore colored. The surface is hilly 
and the soil highly fertile. Iron ore, bitumi- 
nous coal, and carboniferous limestone are 
found. The Alabama and Chattanooga rail- 
road traverses it. The chief productions in 
1870 were 7,551 bushels of wheat, 343,569 of 
Indian corn, 7,718 of oats, 6,951 of peas and 
beans, 41,262 of sweet potatoes, 120,010 Ibs. 
of butter, and 6,458 bales of cotton. There 
were 1,245 horses, 1,378 mules and asses, 2,768 
milch cows, 5,418 other cattle, 6,139 sheep, and 
1 1,046 swine ; 2 manufactories of cotton goods, 

1 of iron castings, 2 of stone and earthen ware, 

2 flour mills, 2 tanneries, 2 currying establish- 
ments, and 1 saw mill. Capital, Tuscaloosa. 

TIS< ALOOSA, a city of Alabama, capital of 
Tuscaloosa co., and of the state from 1826 to 
1846, on the left bank of the Black Warrior 



TUSCANY 



83 



river, at the head of steamboat navigation, 90 
m. N. W. of Montgomery; pop. in 1870, 1,689, 
of whom 787 were colored ; in 1875, about 
2,500. The Alabama and Chattanooga railroad 
passes within a mile. The streets are wide and 
well shaded. A mile above the town are the 
grounds of the university of Alabama. The 
buildings, with their contents, were burned in 
1865, and have been only partially restored. 
In 1874-'5 the university had eight professors, 
besides other officers, 74 students, and a library 
of 4,000 volumes. The Alabama insane hos- 
pital, about a mile beyond the university, has 
a front of 780 ft., with extensive outbuildings 
and grounds. It was opened in 1860, and now 
has about 360 inmates. Situated at the head 
of the cotton-planting and at the foot of the 
mineral region of Alabama, Tuscaloosa is the 
centre of trade for a district containing rich 
resources, as yet but imperfectly developed. 
It has a considerable trade in cotton, wheat, 
coal, &c. There are flour mills, a shoe and 
leather manufactory, and an extensive cotton 
factory in the vicinity. It has a national bank 
with a capital of $56,000, two weekly news- 
papers, and one male and four female semina- 
ries, one of the latter being in the old state cap- 
itol. There are five churches : Baptist, Episco- 
pal, Methodist, Presbyterian, and Roman Cath- 
olic. The city, county, and river take their 
name from the Indian chief Tuscaloosa (" black 
warrior "), who was defeated by De Soto in 
the bloody battle of Mavilla, Oct. 18, 1540. 

TUSCANY (It. Toscana), a division of central 
Italy, bordering on the Mediterranean, and 
including the provinces of Arezzo, Florence, 
Grosseto, Leghorn with the island of Elba, 
Lucca, Massa e Carrara, Pisa, and Siena ; area, 
9,287 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 2,142,525. It is 
divided from Piacenza, Parma, and Reggio by 
the Ligurian Apennines, and from Modena and 
the Romagna by the Tuscan Apennines, begin- 
ning with Monte Cimone and extending S. E. 
about 80 m. (See APENNINES.) The princi- 
pal rivers, besides the Tiber, the head waters 
of which are in the province of Arezzo, are 
the Arno, Cecina, and Ombrone, all flowing 
into the Mediterranean. The coast from the 
mouth of the Arno to the border of Latium 
is occasionally bold, but generally low and 
swampy, and on the south are several bays. 
The climate is severe in the mountains, but in 
the valleys vegetation is hardly interrupted ; 
and excepting in the marshy regions, which in 
autumn are deserted (see MAREMME), the coun- 
try is very salubrious. Grain, wine, silk, olives 
and olive oil, and cheese are produced in great 
abundance ; sheep and pigs and large asses 
abound; woollen and. silk goods and many 
other articles are made. The purest Italian is 
spoken in Tuscany, and education is advanced. 
The principal seaport is Leghorn. Capital, 
Florence. The ancient Etruria or Tuscia com- 
prised the present division of Tuscany and ad- 
joining territories to the east and southeast. 
(See ETEURIA.) After the fall of the Roman 



empire it passed from the Goths to the Lom- 
bards, and Charlemagne governed it through 
local counts or marquises, who continued to 
rule, under the Carlovingians or the German 
emperors, and occasionally almost indepen- 
dently, till the latter part of the 12th century. 
The most celebrated of these Tuscan rulers was 
the countess Matilda (died 1115), who figured 
so conspicuously on the papal side in the strug- 
gle of Gregory VII. and his successors against 
the emperor Henry IV., and whose sway ex- 
tended beyond the limits of Tuscany. She be- 
queathed her dominions to the papal see, but 
this bequest was disregarded by the emperors, 
of whom Frederick I. finally acquired Tuscany 
by purchase from the last marquis. Pope In- 
nocent III. subsequently renewed the claims of 
Rome to the heritage of Matilda, and Tuscany, 
distracted by Guelph and Ghibelline feuds, was 
split up into numerous states, among which the 
republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, and Lucca, 
which had long been rising into power, became 
the most important. After a bitter contest 
with Pisa and other cities, the republic of Flor- 
ence became the ruling power. (See FLOR- 
ENCE, and MEDICI.) Despite civil and foreign 
wars, the republic flourished and became cel- 
ebrated in letters and art, especially under 
Cosmo and Lorenzo de' Medici. In 1532 Ales- 
sandro de' Medici was made duke by Pope 
Clement VII., with the assistance of the em- 
peror of Germany and the king of France. 
After his assassination in 1537, Cosmo the 
Great was first appointed chief of the repub- 
lic, and then assumed the title of grand duke 
of Tuscany (1569). His line becoming ex- 
tinct in 1737, Francis, duke of Lorraine, con- 
sort of Maria Theresa of Austria, became 
by treaty grand duke of Tuscany as Fran- 
cis II., and was subsequently elected emperor 
of Germany as Francis I. After his death 
the grand duchy was ruled by Leopold I. 
(afterward the emperor Leopold II.) and his 
son Ferdinand III. In 1799 it was invaded 
by the French. Napoleon created in 1801 the 
kingdom of Etruria, which he gave to Louis, 
crown prince of Parma, whose wife, Maria 
Louisa of Spain, succeeded him as regent. In 
1808 Napoleon made his sister Elisa Bacciochi 
grand duchess of Tuscany. In 1814 it was 
occupied by the allies on behalf of Ferdinand 
III., who was restored in 1815, Elba and other 
territories being added to his dominions ; and 
Lucca, comprised in the possessions of Napo- 
leon's widow Maria Louisa, grand duchess of 
Parma, reverted to Tuscany in 1847. The 
grand duke Leopold II., son of Ferdinand III., 
was compelled to abdicate in 1859 ; his son and 
nominal successor, Ferdinand IV., was dispos- 
sessed in 1860 by Victor Emanuel, and Tus- 
cany became part of the kingdom of Italy. 
(See ITALY.) See Storia civile della Toscana 
dal 1738 al 1848, by Zobi (5 vols., Florence, 
1853); "Tuscany in 1849 and 1859," by Mrs. 
Trollope (London, 1859); and La Toscane au 
moyen age, by G. R. de Fleury (Paris, 1870). 



TUSCARAWAS 



TUSSER 



TUSCABAWAS, an E. county of Ohio, inter- 
sected by the Tuscarawas river, one of the 
head streams of the Muskingum ; area, 520 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 33,840. The surface is 
undulating and the soil fertile. Iron ore and 
bituminous coal abound. It is traversed by 
the Ohio canal, the Tuscarawas branch of the 
Cleveland and Pittsburgh railroad, and the 
Lake Shore and Tuscarawas Valley and the 
Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis railroads. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 509,295 
bushels of wheat, 20,520 of rye, 723,659 of 
Indian corn, 683,594 of oats, 18,192 of barley, 
133,705 of potatoes, 496,414 Ibs. of wool, 917,- 
708 of butter, 97,112 of cheese, and 41,459 
tons of hay. There were 9,188 horses, 10,077 
milch cows, 11,369 other cattle, 128,301 sheep, 
and 20,361 swine ; 3 manufactories of agricul- 
tural implements, 3 of brick, 24 of carriages 
and wagons, 13 of clothing, 1 of pig iron, 4 
of iron castings, 13 of saddlery and harness, 
3 of salt, 5 of woollen goods, 16 flour mills, 
16 tanneries, 13 currying establishments, 3 
breweries, 3 planing mills, and 8 saw mills. 
Capital, New Philadelphia. 

TUSCARORAS, one of the Six Nations of Iro- 
quois, which separated from the others at an 
early period, and according to tradition went 
southwest and then southeast to North Caro- 
lina. They were divided into seven clans, and 
about the year 1700 occupied 15 villages and 
had 1,200 warriors. In 1711 they attempted 
to massacre the whites, but troops were called 
from South Carolina, and Barnwell routed 
them in the battle of the Neuse, Jan. 28, 1712, 
killing and wounding 400. They made peace, 
but hostilities were soon resumed. Col. Moore 
marched against Nahucke, a Tuscarora fort 
near Snowhill, and took it March 20, 1713, 
capturing 800 prisoners, who were given to 
his Indian allies. The remaining Tuscaroras 
fled, most of them making their way to New 
York. The Tuscaroras under Tom Blunt had 
taken no part in the hostilities. A treaty had 
been made with them, Nov. 25, 1712, and 
Blunt was made king of all the tribe in Caro- 
lina. They were placed first on Pamlico riv- 
er, and were afterward removed to the Roa- 
noke in the present Bertie co. Those who 
removed to New York were well received by 
the Five Nations and allowed to settle at the 
S. E. end of Oneida lake, and were formal- 
ly admitted as a sixth nation in the league. 
During the wars with the French the Tusca- 
roras served under the English. In 1766 the 
Carolina band leased part of their lands for 
150 years, and 160 removed to New York. 
During the revolution they sided with con- 
gress, and some of their chiefs were commis- 
sioned as captains and lieutenants ; and in 1794 
the United States indemnified the tribe for 
losses during the war. The whole tribe in 
time removed from North Carolina, continuing 
to receive rents for their lands; but as this 
caused difficulties, an arrangement was made 
by which North Carolina in 1829 sold the re- 



version and paid the money to the tribe. The 
tribe in New York occupied a reservation on 
Niagara ridge given them by the Senecas and 
confirmed by the state of New York, and an 
adjoining tract purchased by them from the 
Holland land company. A Baptist mission 
and school were established among them about 
1800, and they have since advanced in agri- 
culture and the arts of civilized life. In 1874 
there were 388 Tuscaroras on the reservation, 
and there are a number in Canada with the 
bands of the Six Nations who emigrated thith- 
er. The name Tuscarora means shirt wearer, 
and must be of comparatively recent adoption. 

Tl'SCULA, an E. county of the S. peninsula of 
Michigan, bounded N. W. by Saginaw bay and 
intersected by the Cass river ; area, about 850 
sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 13,714; in 1874, 16,998. 
The surface is level, the soil productive, and 
timber is abundant. The Detroit and Bay City 
railroad traverses it. The chief productions 
in 1870 were 116,480 bushels of wheat, 82,880 
of Indian corn, 84,475 of oats, 12,610 of peas 
and beans, 122,102 of potatoes, 40,635 Ibs. of 
wool, 359,136 of butter, and 14,996 tons of 
hay. There were 2,163 horses, 8,333 milch 
cows, 4,861 other cattle, 9,428 sheep, and 3,713 
swine ; 2 flour mills, 1 tannery, 25 saw mills, 
and 1 woollen factory. Capital, Vassar. 

TUSCCLUM. See FBASCATI. 

TtSClMBIA, a city and the capital of Colbert 
co., Alabama, on the Memphis and Charleston 
railroad, 2 in. S. of the Tennessee river, and 
about 180 m. N. N. W. of Montgomery ; pop. 
in 1870, 1,214, of whom 450 were colored ; 
in 1875, about 1,500. Steam navigation is 
interrupted at this point by Muscle shoals, 
around which a canal is in process of construc- 
tion. Tuscumbia has a healthful and agree- 
able climate, and is situated in a very fer- 
tile region, with coal and iron near at hand. 
About the centre of the city is a large spring 
of pure water, giving rise to Spring creek, 
which flows into the Tennessee. There are 
two large flouring mills, to one of which a 
cotton gin is attached, a female seminary, a 
small academy, a weekly newspaper, and eight 
churches (five for white and three for colored 
people). Tuscumbia was first settled in 1816, 
and was incorporated under its present name 
in 1822. It suffered much during the civil 
war, but is beginning to recover. 

TISSER, Thomas, an English poet, born at 
Rivenhall, near Witham, Essex, about 1515, 
died in London about 1580. He became a 
chorister, and finally served as a retainer in 
the family of William Lord Paget. Afterward 
he became a farmer at Katwade (now Catti- 
wade) in Suffolk, where he wrote " A Hun- 
dreth Good Pointes of Husbandrie" (1557). 
This was the first didactic poem in the lan- 
guage, and in 1573 appeared as "Fiue Hun- 
dreth Points of Good Husbandry vnited to 
as many of Good Huswiferie" (reprinted by 
Dr. Mavor in 1812). Fuller says Tusser was 
"successively a musician, schoolmaster, serv- 



TUTUILA 



TWESTEN 



85 



ing man, husbandman, grazier, poet, more skil- 
ful in all than thriving in any vocation." 

TCTUILA. See SAMOAN ISLANDS. 

TUXPAJV, a town of Mexico, in the state and 
145 m. N. W. of the city of Vera Cruz, on the 
river Tuxpan, 5 m. from the gulf of Mexico ; 
pop. about 5,000. It is situated at the foot of 
several verdure-covered hills, with groves of 
mangoes, oranges, and palms in the vicinity. 
A surrounding tract of 400,000 acres, suitable 
for sugar, tobacco, and fruit plantations, be- 
longs to a stock company. The commerce of 
Tuxpan is annually increasing; its most im- 
portant trade is in cedar logs. In the year 
ending Sept. 30, 1874, 105 vessels arrived, and 
109 cleared. The total imports were $71,876 ; 
exports, $175,329. A bar at the mouth of the 
river cannot be crossed by large vessels, but 
the river is navigable for small craft 60 m. 

TVER. I. A central government of Kussia, 
bordering on Novgorod, Yaroslav, Vladimir, 
Moscow, Smolensk, and Pskov; area, 25,223 
sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,528,881. The surface 
is elevated in the south, and slopes toward 
the north, where it terminates in an extensive 
plain. The Volga rises in this goverment, and 
is connected with the Neva by canal. Among 
the numerous other rivers is the Diina. There 
are several lakes, the largest of which, Lake 
Seliger, covers 76 sq. m. The soil is inferior, 
and the quantity of grain raised is scarcely 
sufficient for home consumption. A large por- 
tion of the surface is covered with forests, 
principally birch, beech, and pine. The rail- 
way connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg 
passes through the government, and, together 
with its water communication with the Baltic, 
Black, and Caspian seas, gives it an important 
transit trade. II. A city, capital of the gov- 
ernment, at the junction of the Tvertza with 
the Volga, 98 m. N. "W. of Moscow ; pop. about 
30,000. It has a fortress, a suburb on the op- 
posite bank of the Volga, streets and squares 
beautifully rebuilt after the fire of 1763, fine 
promenades, a female gymnasium and one for 
boys, a large Gothic cathedral and 30 other 
churches, and many private and public palaces. 
Tver is the chief emporium of the upper Vol- 
ga, with an extensive trade. In former times 
it was the capital of the grand duchy of Tver, 
and now it is the seat of an archbishop and a 
governor general. 

TWEED, a river of Scotland and England, 
which rises at Tweedshaws, at the S. ex- 
tremity of Peeblesshire, 1,500 ft. above sea 
level, among the Lowther hills, whence it runs 
about 20 m. N. E., and then turning E. crosses 
the counties of Selkirk and Eoxburgh, sepa- 
rates Berwickshire from the English county 
of Northumberland, and for the last 4J- m. of 
its course lies wholly within English territory. 
It^ enters the North sea at the town of Ber- 
wick. Its length is 95 m., and it drains an 
area of 1,870 m., more than any other Scottish 
river except the Tay. Its principal affluents 
from the north are the Biggar, Gala, Leader, 



and Adder, and from the south the Yarrow, 
Ettrick, Teviot, and Till. It is navigable only 
a few miles from its mouth, but is remarkable 
for its salmon fisheries (once worth 15,000 a 
year, but now much reduced) and its scenery. 

TWEED, William DIarey, an American politician, 
born in New York, April 3, 1823. He learned 
the trade of chair making, and later in life was 
admitted to the bar. In 1852-'3 he was an 
alderman, in 1853-'5 a member of congress, in 
1856 a supervisor of the city and chairman of 
the board, in 1856-'7 a school commissioner, 
from 1861 to 1870 deputy street commissioner, 
and from 1867 to 1871 a state senator. In 
April, 1870, he was appointed commissioner of 
the department of public works, and while he 
held this office he and his "ring," especially in 
connection with the building and furnishing of 
the new city court house, appropriated vast 
sums of public money to private use. On 
Oct. 28, 1871, he was arrested in a civil suit 
on charges of malfeasance, brought by Charles 
O'Conor on behalf of the people, and gave bail 
in $1,000,000. In November of the same year 
he was reflected to the state senate, but did 
not take his seat. On Dec. 16 he was arrested 
on a criminal charge of fraud, but was released 
on $5,000 bail. On Jan. 30, 1873, the first of 
the suits was tried, and the jury disagreed. On 
Nov. 19 he was found guilty of fraud, and was 
sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment on as 
many different counts, and to pay a fine of 
$12,550. He was sent to the penitentiary on 
Blackwell's island, and subsequently was dis- 
barred. On April 7, 1875, a suit was begun 
in the supreme court of New York on behalf 
of the people to recover $6,000,000 from him. 
These are the principal of several suits both 
civil and criminal brought against him. On 
June 15 the court of appeals decided that his 
further imprisonment was illegal, on the ground 
that the court below had exceeded its powers 
in its cumulative sentence, and ordered his dis- 
charge. He was then ordered to find bail to 
the amount of $3,000,000 in the pending civil 
suits, and in default of the same was sent to 
Ludlow street jail. On Dec. 4, while visiting 
his residence in charge of two keepers, he es- 
caped from custody. 

TWEEDDALE. See PEEBLESSHIRE. 

TWESTEN. I. August Detlcv Christian, a German 
theologian, born in Gluckstadt, April 11, 1789, 
died in Berlin, Jan. 8, 1876. He studied at 
Kiel, and taught at Berlin, where he adopted 
the views of Schleiermacher. In 1814 he be- 
came professor of theology at Kiel, and soon 
ranked next to Glaus Harms in the Lutheran 
church of Holstein. In 1835 he succeeded 
Schleiermacher at Berlin, and in 1850 became 
a member of the new supreme ecclesiastical 
council of the United Evangelical church. He 
was one of the chief representatives of those 
who strive to reconcile the views of Schleier- 
macher with orthodox Lutheranism. His works 
include Vorlesungen uber die Dogmatik der 
evangelisch-lutherischen Kirche (2 vols., Ham- 



86 



TWICKENHAM 



burg, 1826-'37), and Grundriss der analyti- 
schen Logik (Kiel, 1834). II. Karl, a German 
author, son of the preceding, born in Kiel, 
April 22, 1820, died in Berlin, Oct. 14, 1870. 
He became connected with the judicial service, 
and was one of the founders of the progres- 
sive party, which in 1861 involved him in a 
duel with Gen. Manteuffel, in which he lost his 
right arm. In the same year he was elected 
to the Prussian chamber of deputies, and he 
was one of the founders of the national-liberty 
party and an early member of the North Ger- 
man Reichstag. Persecuted for advocating 
the fullest parliamentary freedom, he retired 
in 1868 after being fined. His works include 
Schiller in seinem Verhdltniss zur Wissen- 
schaft (Berlin, 1863), Machiavelli (1868), and 
the posthumous Die religiosen, politischen und 
sodalen Ideen der asiatischen Culturvolker und 
derAegypter in ihrer historiscnen Entwickelung 
(edited by M. Lazarus, 1873). 

TWICKENHAM, a village and parish of Middle- 
sex, England, on the left bank of the Thames, 
opposite Richmond, with which it is connected 
by a handsome bridge, about 10 m. "W. S. W. 
of St. Paul's, London; pop. in 1871, 10,533. 
It is celebrated as the residence of Pope, whose 
villa has been destroyed ; but his grotto is still 
standing, and his monument is in the parish 
church, where he was buried. Walpole's seat, 
called Strawberry Hill, is about 1 in. distant. 
At Twickenham is also Orleans house, occu- 
pied by Louis Philippe while a refugee in Eng- 
land before his accession to the throne, and 
still belonging to his family. In 1874 the large 
church of St. Stephen was completed, and a 
new quarter between the old village and Rich- 
mond bridge was added to the parish. 

TWIGGS, a central county of Georgia, bounded 
W. by the Ocmulgee river ; area, 400 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 8,545, of whom 5,632 were col- 
ored. The surface is moderately hilly and the 
soil fertile. The Georgia Central railroad 
crosses the N. border, and the Macon and 
Brunswick railroad intersects the W. part. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 164,145 bushels 
of Indian corn, 18,163 of sweet potatoes, and 
6,189 bales of cotton. There were 473 horses, 
1,046 mules and asses, 1,172 milch cows, 2,583 
other cattle, 794 sheep, and 6,991 swine; 5 
flour mills, and 1 saw mill. Capital, Marion. 

TWILIGHT, the faint light which appears in 
the sky a little before sunrise, and again for 
some time after sunset, the amount and dura- 
tion of the light varying materially in different 
latitudes and at different seasons. The light 
is caused by the reflection of the sun's rays, 
when below the horizon, from the vapors and 
minute solid particles floating in it, and per- 
haps from the material atoms of the air itself. 
To this property of reflection possessed by the 
atmosphere its illumination is due beyond the 
direct reach of the rays proceeding from the 
sun, as under the shadow of clouds and behind 
opaque objects upon the surface, where, unless 
the light were directed upon some principle 



TWILIGHT 

of general diffusion, intense darkness would 
prevail. So also a sudden illumination would 
attend the rising of the sun and instantaneous 
darkness accompany his setting. As the sun 
sets to any point upon the surface of the earth, 
the atmosphere above this point all around the 
horizon is illuminated by direct rays, and the 
reflection from so broad an illuminated sur- 
face brings to the earth a large amount of 
light ; but as the dark shadow of the earth, in 
consequence of the continued sinking of the 
sun, rises higher and higher into the atmos- 
phere at this locality, the reflected light stead- 
ily diminishes, and finally disappears when no 
direct rays from the sun reach the higher 
regions of the atmosphere above the horizon- 
tal line extended toward the sunset. By ob- 
serving the time after the setting of the sun to 
the disappearance of the reflected rays, data 
are afforded upon which an approximate esti- 
mate may be made of the height of the atmos- 
phere, or at least of that portion of the atmos- 
phere which is capable of being illuminated in 
the manner above described ; and it is on this 
method chiefly that this calculation is based. 
On the equator, Avhen the sun is in the equi- 
noctial, and apparently descending vertically, 
and occupying as much time below as above 
the horizon, the duration of the twilight is an 
hour and 12 minutes, or one tenth of the semi- 
circumference, equal to 18; whence it is con- 
cluded that such must be its depression below 
the horizon at any place before the twilight 
can end ; and it is reckoned from this that the 
height of the atmosphere is a little over 52 m. 
But this cannot be otherwise than a rude ap- 
proximation, the calculation proceeding on the 
supposition of there being but one direct re- 
flection, whereas the rays may be reflected 
again and again, and no account being made 
of the refraction the rays must experience in 
their direct passage through the dense stratum 
of air near the surface, and entering it again 
when turned back from the upper strata. By 
a different calculation, founded on observations 
of the progress of the edge of the dark shadow 
(known till it reaches the zenith as the anti- 
crepuscular, and afterward as the crepuscular 
curve), made in the pure and transparent air 
at the summit of high mountains, the height 
of the atmosphere has been found by French 
astronomers (whose observations are recorded 
in the Annuaire meteorologique de France, 
1850) to be 71-46 m. This curve they found 
set when the sun was 17 below the horizon. 
The variable length of the twilight at the same 
place in different seasons results from the vary- 
ing declination of the sun and the consequent 
difference of time required to sink 17 or 18 
below the horizon, as his course is vertical or 
more or less approaching it. Near the poles, 
where the sun attains at noon no great height 
above the horizon, it also keeps near it after 
disappearing each night ; and if its depression 
does not exceed 18, the twilight is continuous 
into the dawn. This is the case in some por- 



TWISS 



TYLER 



87 



tion of the summer in all places for which the 
least polar distance of the sun is only 18 
greater than the latitude, that is, all places in 
higher N. or S. latitude than 48i (the comple- 
ment of 18 + 23$, or 41). At a place in 
48i X. or S. latitude, the midnight depression 
of the sun at midsummer amounts to 41 , the 
complement of the latitude, diminished by 23, 
the obliquity of the ecliptic, that is, to 18 ; and 
there is therefore no twilight at midnight at 
this the most favorable season of the year. At 
lower latitudes there is of course no twilight 
at midnight. In higher and higher latitudes, 
as the sun is less and less depressed below the 
horizon at midnight in summer, the twilight 
increases in brilliancy, and is finally lost du- 
ring the period that the circuit of the sun is 
above the horizon. A beautiful feature attend- 
ing the twilight is the rich coloring of the 
clouds upon which the direct rays of the sun 
strike, and from which they are reflected in 
gorgeous tints, which slowly change their hues 
as the angle of reflection varies. This phenom- 
enon is seen in greatest perfection in moun- 
tainous regions and over wide districts, where 
the air remains in a uniform condition un- 
affected by local causes. The presence of much 
moisture is also favorable for the display of 
the finest colors. Thus at sea, especially in 
the warm atmosphere of the Gulf stream, these 
exhibitions are of the finest character, as also 
over the waters of inland seas. Even when 
no clouds are formed, brilliantly colored bands 
are produced along the horizon, which change 
in a somewhat regular order with the con- 
tinued rising or declining of the sun. These 
tints are due to the different powers of pene- 
tration possessed by the different rays of which 
white light is composed. In the same manner 
as the solar rays are decomposed and present 
different colors in passing through a piece of 
glass covered with smoke in layers of different 
thickness, these rays are also decomposed in 
penetrating the dense and humid lower strata 
of the atmosphere. A slight obstruction of 
this kind extinguishes the blue rays, and causes 
those which pass through to appear yellowish 
red ; next to this the yellow is arrested, and 
the light is orange ; till with further obstruc- 
tion the yellow entirely disappears, and the 
red rays alone reach the surface. 

TWKS, Sir Trayers, an English jurist, born in 
London in 1810. He graduated at Oxford in 
1840, and was professor of political economy 
there from 1842 to 1852, afterward of inter- 
national law at King's college, London, and 
from 1855 to 1870 regius professor of civil 
law at Oxford. During the same time, after 
his admission to the bar, he held various of- 
fices, and in 1867 was knighted on becoming 
queen's advocate general, from which office he 
retired in 1872. His works include "Epitome 
of Xiebuhr's History of Rome " (1837) ; " The 
Law of Nations, considered as independent Po- 
litical Communities " (1861), in a revised and 
edition of which (1876) he maintains 



that the three points of the Geneva court of 
arbitration served only to settle a passing dis- 
pute, and are now a dead letter ; " The Black 
Book of the Admiralty," relating to ancient 
maritime customs and laws (1874 et seq.) and 
Monumfnta Juridiea (3 vols., 1875 e t seq.). The 
last two were published under the auspices of 
the master of the rolls. He has also published 
an annotated edition of Livy (4 vols., 1840-'41). 

TWITE. See LIXXET. 

TWO MOOiTAIXS (Fr. Deux Montagne\ a 
S. W. county of Quebec, Canada, on the N. 
bank of the Ottawa river, at its entrance into 
the St. Lawrence ; area, 258 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1871, 15,615, of whom 13,972 were of French, 
770 of Irish, 348 of Scotch origin or descent, 
and 416 Indians. It is watered by the riviere 
du Nord and riviere du Chene, affluents of the 
Ottawa. Capital, Ste. Scholastique. 

TYBEE, an island and sound at the mouth 
of the Savannah river, Georgia. The sound is 
more properly a bay of the Atlantic ; it extends 
from Tybee island on the south to Hilton Head 
island on the north. The island is about 6 m. 
long and 3 m. broad. In the civil war it was 
occupied by the federal forces, under Brig. 
Gen. T. W. Sherman, Nov. 28, 1861, and Fort 
Pulaski was reduced by their batteries on April 
10-11, 1862. 

TYCHE. See FOBTTNA. 

TTCHO BRAHE. See BKAIIE. 

TYCHSEN, Otais Gerhard, a German oriental- 
ist, born in Tondern, Schleswig, Dec. 14, 1734, 
died in Rostock, Dec. 30, 1815. He was edu- 
cated at Gottingen, and in 1760 became pro- 
fessor of oriental literature at Butzow. "When 
the university was removed to Rostock in 1789 
he was appointed chief librarian and keeper of 
the museum. His most important work is a 
journal called Butsov^eJie Nebenttunden ("Lei- 
sure Hours at Butzow," 6 vols., l766-'9). He 
is noted for his dissertations upon the rabbini- 
cal language, oriental numismatics, and epi- 
graphy. His life has been written by Hart- 
mann (4 vols., Bremen, 1818-'20). 

TYCOON, or Shogm. See JAPAN, vol. ix., pp. 
542, 543. 

TYLER. I. A N. W. county of West Vir- 
ginia, bordering on the Ohio river, and inter- 
sected by Middle Island creek ; area, 390 sq. 
m.; pop." in 1870, 7,832, of whom 10 were col- 
ored. The surface is undulating or rolling, 
and the soil in the valleys productive. Iron 
ore, bituminous coal, and excellent building 
stone and limestone are found in great abun- 
dance. The chief productions in 1870 were 
157,302 bushels of Indian corn, 41,262 of wheat, 
42,480 of oats, 21,886 of potatoes, 47,969 Ibs. 
of tobacco, 26,704 of wool, 108,080 of butter, 
and 4,365 tons of hay. There were 1,897 
horses, 1,566 milch cows, 3,615 other cattle, 
12,115 sheep, and 5,402 swine; 2 saw mills, and 
2 woollen factories. Capital, Middlebourne. 
II. An E. county of Texas, bounded N". and E. 
by the Neches river; area, 1,130 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 5,010, of whom 1,472 were colored. 



88 



TYLER 



The surface is level and the soil fertile, and 
timber is abundant. The chief productions in 
1870 were 121,723 bushels of Indian corn, 
41,580 of sweet potatoes, 13,666 Ibs. of rice, 
and 2,236 bales of cotton. There were 1,303 
horses, 10,350 cattle, 3,175 sheep, and 16,781 
swine. Capital, Woodville. 

TYLER, Bennet, an American clergyman, born 
in Middlebury, Conn., July 10, 1783, died in 
South Windsor, May 14, 1858. He graduated 
at Yale college in 1804, was pastor of the Con- 
gregational church in South Britain, Conn., 
from 1808 to 1822, president of Dartmouth 
college from 1822 to 1828, and pastor of the 
second Congregational church in Portland, Me., 
from 1828 to 1833. The controversy on the 
"new divinity " awakened by the writings of 
Dr. Taylor (see TAYLOB, NATHANIEL WILLIAM), 
of which he was the principal opponent, re- 
sulted in the formation of a pastoral union in 
September, 1833, by the Connecticut clergy- 
men who held to Dr. Tyler's opinions, and the 
resolution to found a theological seminary at 
East Windsor, of which he was president and 
professor of Christian theology till his death. 
His principal works are : " History of the New 
Haven Theology, in Letters to a Clergyman " 
(1837); "A Review of Day on the Will" 
(1837); " Memoir of Rev. Asahel Nettleton, D. 
D." (Hartford, 1844) ; " Nettleton's Remains " 
(1845); "A Treatise on the Sufferings of 
Christ" (New York, 1845); "A Treatise on 
New England Revivals" (1846); and two se- 
ries of "Letters to Dr. Horace Bushnell on 
Christian Nurture " (1847-'8). After his death 
appeared his "Lectures on Theology," with a 
memoir by his son-in-law, the Rev. Nahum 
Gale, D. D. (1859). 

TYLER, John, tenth president of the United 
States, born in Charles City co., Va., March 
29, 1790, died in Richmond, Jan. 17, 1862. He 
was the second son of John Tyler, who was a 
prominent revolutionary patriot, governor of 
the state from 1808 to 1811, afterward judge 
of the federal court of admiralty, and died 
in 1813. lie graduated at William and Mary 
college in 1807, and in 1809 was admitted to 
the bar. Two years later he was elected a 
member of the legislature, and he was reelect- 
ed for five successive years. In 1816 ho was 
elected to congress to fill a vacancy, and was 
twice reflected. He voted for the resolutions 
of censure on Gon. Jackson's conduct during 
the Seminole war, and opposed internal im- 
provements by the general government, the 
United States bank, the protective policy, and 
all restrictions on slavery. Ill health com- 
pelled him to resign before the expiration of 
his term. In 1823 and the two following years 
he was a leading member of the state legis- 
lature. In December, 1825, he was chosen 
governor by the legislature, and at the next 
session was reelected by a unanimous vote. 
He succeeded John Randolph as United States 
senator in March, 1827, and was reelected in 
1833. In the presidential election of 1824 he 



had supported Mr. Crawford, who received 
the vote of Virginia. He however approved 
the choice of Mr. Adams in preference to 
Gen. Jackson by the house of representatives ; 
but seeing in Adams's first message " an al- 
most total disregard of the federative prin- 
ciple," he sided in the senate with the op- 
position to him, consisting of the combined 
followers of Jackson, Crawford, and Calhoun. 
He voted against the tariff bill of 1828, and 
against all projects of internal improvement. 
During the debate on Mr. Clay's tariff resolu- 
tions in 1831-'2, he made a three days' speech 
against a tariff for direct protection, but advo- 
cating one for revenue with incidental protec- 
tion to home industry. In 1832 he avowed his 
sympathy with the nullification movement in 
South Carolina, and made a speech against the 
force bill, which passed the senate with no 
vote but his in the negative, Mr. Calhoun and 
the other opponents of the bill having retired 
from the chamber ; but he voted for Mr. Clay's 
compromise bill. In the session of 1833-'4 he 
supported Mr. Clay's resolutions of censure 
upon President Jackson for the removal of the 
deposits, which he regarded as an unwarrant- 
able assumption of power, although he con- 
sidered the bank unconstitutional. The legis- 
lature of Virginia having in February, 1836, 
adopted resolutions instructing the senators 
from that state to vote for expunging those 
resolutions from the journal of the senate, Mr. 
Tyler resigned and returned to his home, 
which about this time he had removed to Wil- 
liamsburg. In 1836, as a whig candidate for 
vice president, he obtained the votes of Mary- 
land, Georgia, South Carolina, and Tennessee. 
In 1838 he was elected to the legislature by 
the whigs of James City co., and during the 
subsequent session of that body he acted en- 
tirely with the whig party. He was a delegate 
from Virginia to the whig national presidential 
convention which met at Harrisburg, Dec. 4, 
1839, and was nominated for vice president 
with Gen. Harrison as president, and elected 
in November, 1840. President Harrison died 
just one month after his inauguration, and the 
administration devolved on the vice president. 
Mr. Tyler requested the members of the cabi- 
net to remain in the places they held under 
President Harrison. Three days later he pub- 
lished an inaugural address, which in its indi- 
cations of political principle was satisfactory 
to the whigs, and he at once began to remove 
from office the democrats appointed by pre- 
vious administrations, and to fill their places 
with whigs. In his message to the congress 
which convened in extra session, May 31, 1841, 
he discussed at considerable length the question 
of a national bank, at that period a leading 
feature of whig policy ; and he intimated to 
several members his desire that congress should 
request a plan for a bank from the secretary 
of the treasury. Resolutions for this purpose 
were adopted by both houses, and Mr. Ewing 
sent in a bill for the incorporation of the 



TYLER 



89 



" Fiscal Bank of the United States," the essen- 
tial features of which were framed in accor- 
dance with the president's suggestions and in 
deference to his peculiar views of the institu- 
tion. The bill was finally passed by congress 
on Aug. 6, with a clause concerning branch 
banks differing from Mr. Ewing's, and sent to 
the president, who returned it with a veto 
message, in which he declared the act uncon- 
stitutional in several particulars. Thia veto 
created great excitement and anger among 
the whigs throughout the country. The whig 
leaders in congress, however, made yet anoth- 
er effort to conciliate the president and secure 
his assent to their favorite measure. A bill 
was prepared embracing certain features sup- 
posed to be acceptable to the president, and 
was privately submitted to and approved by 
him and his cabinet, and finally without any 
alteration passed by the house, Aug. 23, and 
by the senate two weeks later ; but the presi- 
dent, who by some communications was made 
to believe that the bill was framed with the 
object of entrapping him into an act of in- 
consistency, vetoed it. Very soon after the 
promulgation of the veto, the cabinet, with 
the exception of Mr. Webster, the secretary 
of state, sent in their resignations, and pub- 
lished statements of their reasons for this step, 
reflecting severely on the conduct of Presi- 
dent Tyler. The president filled their places 
by appointing Walter Forward of Pennsylva- 
nia secretary of the treasury; John C. Spen- 
cer of New York, secretary of war; Abel P. 
Upshur of Virginia, secretary of the navy; 
Charles A. Wickliffe of Kentucky, postmaster 
general ; and Hugh S. Legar6 of South Caro- 
lina, attorney general all of them whigs, or 
at least opponents of the democratic party. 
Before the adjournment of congress, Sept. 
13, the whig members published a manifesto 
proclaiming that all political relations between 
them and the president were at an end. The 
course taken by Mr. Webster, though con- 
demned by some of the whigs, was justified by 
the greater portion of the people on the ground 
of the critical condition of our relations with 
Great Britain on the subject of the northeast- 
ern boundary, in regard to which he was at 
the time engaged in negotiations with the 
British ministry. After a satisfactory treaty 
was arranged and ratified (August, 1842), Mr. 
Webster resigned, and was succeeded by Mr. 
Legar6, who died soon after. In July, 1843, 
President Tyler reorganized his cabinet as fol- 
lows : Mr. Upshur, secretary of state ; Mr. 
Spencer, secretary of the treasury ; Mr. Wick- 
liffe, postmaster general; James M. Porter of 
Pennsylvania, secretary of war; David Hen- 
shaw of Massachusetts, secretary of the navy ; 
John Nelson of Maryland, attorney general. 
Messrs. Porter, Henshaw, and Nelson were 
democrats, and the first two were rejected by 
the senate when -their nominations came be- 
fore it. In their places the president appoint- 
ed William Wilkins of Pennsylvania, secretary 



of war, and Thomas W. Gilmer of Virginia, of 
the navy, who were confirmed, Feb. 15, 1844. 
On Feb. 28 Mr. Gilmer and Mr. Upshur, while 
inspecting the steamer Princeton, were killed 
by the bursting of a gun, and Mr. Calhoun of 
South Carolina was appointed secretary of 
state, and John Y. Mason of Virginia secre- 
tary of the navy. Under the management of 
Mr. Calhoun a treaty of annexation was con- 
cluded between the United States and Texas, 
April 12, 1844, which was rejected by the sen- 
ate. But the scheme of annexation was vig- 
orously prosecuted by the president, and at the 
very close of his administration brought to a 
successful issue by the passage of joint resolu- 
tions by congress, approved March 1, 1845. 
The other most important measures of his ad- 
ministration were the act establishing a uniform 
system of proceedings in bankruptcy, passed in 
August, 1841, and the protective tariff law of 
1842. Toward the close of Mr. Tyler's term it 
became evident that he had lost the confidence 
of the whigs without having secured that of 
the democrats. In May, 1844, a convention 
composed chiefly of officeholders assembled at 
Baltimore and tendered him a nomination for 
the presidency, which he accepted ; but in Au- 
gust, perceiving that he had really no popular 
support, he withdrew from the canvass. In 
1861 he was a member of the peace conven- 
tion, composed of delegates from the " border 
states," which met at Washington to endeavor 
to arrange terms of compromise between the 
seceded states of the south and the federal 
government. Of this convention he was elect- 
ed president, but nothing resulted from its de- 
liberations. He subsequently renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and gave his 
support to the confederate cause. At the 
time of his death he was a member of the con- 
federate congress. 

TYLER, Royall, an American author, born in 
Boston, July 18, 1757, died in Brattleboro, 
Vt., Aug. 16, 1826. He graduated at Harvard 
college in 1776, and studied law under John 
Adams. He was for a short time aide to Gen. 
Lincoln. In 1790 he commenced the practice 
of law in Guilford, Vt. From 1800 to 1806 
he was chief justice of the state supreme court, 
and he published "Reports of Cases in the Su- 
preme Court of Vermont" (2 vols., 1809). He 
was also known as a dramatist, his play " The 
Contrast," produced in New York in 1786, 
being the first American play acted by a regu- 
lar company, and the first also in which an 
attempt was made to portray the conventional 
Yankee character. It was followed by "May 
Day, or New York in an Uproar" (1787), and 
" The Georgia Spec, or Land in the Moon " 
(1797). He also published " The Algerine Cap- 
tive," a novel (2 vols., 1799). 

TYLER, Samuel, an American author, born 
in Prince George's co., Md., Oct. 22, 1809. 
He was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1831, 
and settled in Frederick City, where he has 
since resided. In 1836 he contributed to the 



90 



TYLER 



" Princeton Review" an article on " Balfour s 
Inquiry," which was followed by several phil- 
osophical articles, and a volume entitled "A 
Discourse of the Baconian Philosophy " (1844). 
He has also published " Burns as a Poet and 
as a Man" (New York, 1848); " The Progress 
of Philosophy in the Past and in the Future 
(1859; 2d ed., 1868); and a biography of 
Chief Justice Taney (1872). 

TYLER, William Seymour, an American lin- 
guist, born at Harford, Pa., Sept. 2, 1810. He 
graduated at Amherst college in 1830, and in 
1831 became a classical teacher in Amherst 
academy. He afterward studied at Andover 
theological seminary, and was licensed to preach 
by the third presbytery of New York city in 
1836 ; but, being elected professor of the Latin 
and Greek languages and literature in Amherst 
college about the same time, he was not or- 
dained till 22 years later. In 1847 the pro- 
fessorship of ancient languages was divided, 
Prof. Tyler retaining that of Greek. In 1855 
he visited Europe and the East, and in 1869 
Greece and Egypt. He has published "The 
Germania and Agricola of Tacitus " (New York, 
1847); "The Histories of Tacitus" (1848); 
" Prize Essay on Prayer for Colleges" (1854) ; 
" Plato's Apology and Crito" (1859) ; a " Life 
of Dr. Henry Lobdell, Missionary at Mosul" 
(Boston, 1859) ; "Theology of the Greek Poets " 
(1867) ; " History of Amherst College " (Spring- 
field, Mass., 1873) ; " Demosthenes De Corona" 
(Boston, 1874) ; and " The Olynthiacs and Phi- 
lippics of Demosthenes" (1875) ; besides papers 
in the " Transactions of the American Philo- 
logical Association," and contributions to the 
"Biblical Repository," "Bibliotheca Sacra," 
" American Theological Review," &c. 

TYLOR, Edward Burnett, an English author, 
born in London, Oct. 2, 1832. He was edu- 
cated at the school of the society of Friends, 
Grove house, Tottenham, and in 1871 was 
elected a member of the royal society. He 
has published "Anahuac, or Mexico and the 
Mexicans, Ancient and Modern" (London, 
1861) ; " Researches into the Early History of 
Mankind, and Development of Civilization" 
(1865); and "Primitive Culture: Researches 
into the Development of Mythology, Philoso- 
phy, Religion, Art, and Custom " (2 vols., 1871). 

TYMPANUM. See EAB. 

TYNDALE, William, an English reformer, born 
at North Nibley, Gloucestershire, about 1484, 
executed at Vilvoorden, in Brabant, Oct. 6, 
1536. He was educated at Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, took orders, and was tutor and chap- 
lain in the house of Sir John Welch near Bris- 
tol. He sympathized with the reformation, 
and while in this family he translated the En- 
chiridion Militis, or "Soldier's Manual," of 
Erasmus into English. His boldness of speech 
induced suspicion, and he went to London, 
where he began his translation of the New 
Testament. He was soon compelled to flee 
again, and with the promise of an annuity of 
10 from Alderman Munmouth, on condition 



TYNDALL 

of praying for the souls of the alderman's 
parents, he went to Hamburg, where for a 
year he gave himself to his work ; thence to 
Cologne, where the first ten sheets of his trans- 
lation were put to press ; and thence to Worms, 
where in 1525 two editions were published 
anonymously. They had speedy and wide cir- 
culation. The edict of the bishop of London, 
forbidding under heavy penalties their use or 
their possession, only increased the demand. 
Tyndale was lampooned by Sir Thomas More 
in seven books of elaborate abuse, and plots 
were laid to arrest him, which he foiled by 
removing in 1528 to Marburg, where he pub- 
lished his work on " The Obedience of a Chris- 
tian Man." In 1529 a fifth edition of the New 
Testament was printed ; and in 1580 appeared 
Tyndale's translation of the Pentateuch. A 
new edition of the New Testament, revised 
and corrected, was issued at Antwerp in 1584, 
in which Tyndale avowed his responsibility for 
the work. At the instance of the English gov- 
ernment he was arrested at Antwerp, and after 
18 months' imprisonment at Vilvoorden was 
strangled and then burned at the stake. The 
works of Tyndale and Frith his assistant, col- 
lected and published after the reformation was 
established, were issued in London in 8 vols. 
8vo in 1831, and by the "Parker Society" in 
1848-'50. The translation of the New Testa- 
ment was the principal model and basis of the 
King James version, and its diction is but little 
more obsolete. An edition of it was published 
in London in 1836, edited by George Offer 
(reprinted, Andover, Mass., 1837). A memo- 
rial was erected to Tyndale at Nibley Knoll, 
Gloucestershire, in November, 1866. 

TYNDALL, John, a British natural philoso- 
pher, born at Leighlin Bridge, county Carlow, 
Ireland, Aug. 21, 1820. Under the guidance 
of his father, he received a strict religious 
training, and early became thoroughly con- 
versant with the Bible. Having mastered Eu- 
clid, conic sections, and plane trigonometry, he 
was employed in the Irish and English ord- 
nance surveys from 1839 to 1844. During the 
three succeeding years he was a railway engi- 
neer, and in 1847 he accepted a post in Queen- 
wood college, Hampshire, which he resigned 
in the following year to attend the lectures of 
Bnnsen at the university of Marburg. Here, 
in conjunction with Prof. Knoblauch, he un- 
dertook a series of experiments in magnetism 
and diamagnetism, proving the existence of a 
relation between the molecular constitution of 
matter and magnetic force, and demonstrating 
that the direction of greatest magnetic energy 
will fall in the line of greatest molecular con- 
densation. The results of their combined in- 
vestigations were embodied in a paper "On 
the Magneto-optic Properties of Crystals, and 
the Relation of Magnetism and Diamagnetisra 
to Molecular Arrangement," published in the 
" Philosophical Magazine " for 1850. On grad- 
uating in 1851, he prepared a mathematical 
dissertation on screw surfaces (Die Schrauben- 



TYNDALL 



91 



flache mit geneigter Erseugungslinie, und die 
Bedingungen des Glelchgewichts auf solchen 
Schrauben). In the same year he removed to 
Berlin, where for some time he was engaged in 
the laboratory of Prof. Magnus. Shortly after 
his return to England he was elected a fellow of 
the royal society, and in 1852 one of the sec- 
retaries of the physical section of the British 
association. In June, 1853, he was appointed 

Erofessor of natural philosophy at the royal 
istitution, which office he still retains (1876). 
Tyndall first visited Switzerland in 1849, and 
in company with Prof. Huxley made a second 
journey in 1856, since which time he has vis- 
ited the Alps every year. In the winter of 
1859 he succeeded in establishing himself on 
the Montanvert, and determined the rate of 
winter motion of the Mer de Glace. With the 
cooperation of Dr. Frankland, he planted sev- 
eral thermometric stations on the slopes and 
summit of Mont Blanc, and made numerous 
observations relating to combustion at great 
altitudes. In 1861 he scaled the hitherto in- 
accessible peak of the Weisshorn, and in 1868 
reached the summit of the Matterhorn, crossing 
it from Breuil to Zermatt. The results of his gla- 
cial investigations were published in the " Phil- 
osophical Transactions " (jointly with Prof. 
Huxley's) for 1858, and subsequently in "Gla- 
ciers of the Alps" (London, 1860), and "Hours 
of Exercise in the Alps" (1871). He opposed 
the views of Agassiz respecting the occurrence 
of laminae in glaciers, definitely ascribing the 
true cause of their formation to mechanical 
pressure. Through the direct application of 
the doctrine of regelation, he arrived at a satis- 
factory understanding of the nature of glacial 
motion, proving, by carefully repeated obser- 
vations on the structure and properties of ice, 
the inefficacy of the generally admitted plas- 
tic theory to account for that phenomenon. 
This discovery led to a protracted controversy 
with Professor (afterward Principal) Forbes 
of Edinburgh. (See GLACIEK, ICE, and FORBES, 
JAMES DAVID.) In 1863 he published " Heat 
considered as a Mode of Motion," which placed 
him in the front rank of scientific expounders. 
In 1866 he relieved Faraday in his duties at 
the Trinity house, and on the death of that 
philosopher in 1867 became superintendent of 
the royal institution. To observe the solar 
eclipse of December, 1870, he accompanied the 
British expedition to Algeria, and on his re- 
turn voyage instituted a number of simple in- 
quiries in relation to the color of the ocean. 
He demonstrated that the change of color fre- 
quently observed at different portions of the 
sea is due to the reflection of certain rays of 
light from the surfaces of innumerable parti- 
cles of matter held in mechanical suspension 
at varying depths of the water's mass. Prof. 
Tyndall visited the United States in 1872, and 
delivered a course of lectures in some of the 
principal cities of the east, the proceeds of 
which, $13,000, were given to the establish- 
ment of a fund designed for promoting the 



study of the natural sciences in America. In 
the "Contemporary Review" for July, 1872, 
Prof. Tyndall published with commendation a 
letter addressed to himself, wherein the writer 
proposed that the efficacy of prayer should be 
tested by making one ward of a hospital the 
special object of the prayers of the faithful 
for a term of years, and then comparing its 
rate of mortality with that of other wards du- 
ring the same time. This gave rise to a wide- 
spread controversy, and was popularly denom- 
inated " Tyndall's prayer test." In August, 
1874, while presiding over the annual meet- 
ing of the British association, he delivered 
the famous inaugural known as the "Belfast 
Address," which was denounced as a declara- 
tion of materialism. The labors of Prof. Tyn- 
dall, though more particularly directed toward 
the examination of the molecular constitution 
of matter, have not been confined to any spe- 
cial branch of physics. Between 1849 and 
1856 he was mainly occupied with the prose- 
cution of his experiments in magnetism and 
electricity, in the course of which he conclu- 
sively settled the question of diamagnetic or 
reversed polarity, the existence of which, ori- 
ginally asserted by Faraday, and reaffirmed by 
"Weber in 1848, had been subsequently denied 
by the former. In 1859 he initiated a remark- 
able series of researches in radiant heat, which 
were extended over a period of more than ten 
years. The diathermancy of simple and com- 
pound gases, as well as of various vapors and 
liquids, was experimentally tested, and the de- 
grees of their opacity to radiant heat deter- 
mined with great precision. Dry atmospheric 
air, which had hitherto afforded but negative 
results to Melloni, was ascertained to have an 
absorptive power about equal to that of its 
main elementary components, and but a mere 
fraction of that of aqueous vapor ; a discovery 
which, in its bearings on terrestrial and solar 
radiation, has exerted a marked influence on 
the progress of meteorology. The principle 
of the physical connection of the emission and 
absorption of undulations (first enunciated by 
Euler), which formed the basis of Angstrom's 
experiments on the radiation and absorption 
of incandescent solids, and which laid the 
foundation for the science of spectrum analy- 
sis, was applied by Tyndall to gases and va- 
pors some time previous to the publication of 
Kirchhoff 's more specialized generalizations re- 
specting refrangibility. Tyndall's investiga- 
tions on obscure and luminous radiations, and 
on the nature of calorescence, or the transmu- 
tation of heat rays, form some of the most 
noteworthy of his contributions to molecular 
physics. By means of a filter composed of a 
solution of iodine and the bisulphide of car- 
bon, so constituted as to intercept all but the 
ultra-red rays of any luminous source of heat, 
he has ascertained that the visible thermal rays 
emanating from any particular body bear but a 
small ratio to the total number of thermal rays 
emitted by that body. He has also shown, by 



92 



TYNE 



experiments made on his own eyes, that the 
calorific energy of a concentrated electric beam, 
capable of raising platinized platinum foil to 
vivid redness, and of instantaneously explo- 
din- gunpowder at an absolute dark focus, is 
incompetent to excite the sense of vision in 
the human retina. The subject of gaseous con- 
ductivity (which led to views antagonistic to 
those entertained by Magnus), the action of 
odors and colors on radiant heat, and the vari- 
ous laws governing acoustic and optical phe- 
nomena, have also engaged his attention. To 
him is due the beautiful interpretation of the 
azure color of the firmament, as well as of the 
changing tints accompanying the morning and 
evening twilight. (See LIGHT.) Since 1873 
his labors have been more generally related to 
those of the Trinity house, in connection with 
inquiries made into the causes which affect 
the acoustic transparency of the atmosphere. 
Prof. Tyndall is a strenuous advocate of the 
doctrine of evolution. His vigorous language 
and felicitous method of exposition have giv- 
en him the highest position among scientific 
lecturers. Besides the works already men- 
tioned, he has published " Mountaineering in 
1861" (1862); "On Radiation" (1865); 
" Sound, a Course of eight Lectures " (1867 ; 
3d ed., embracing his important observations 
on acoustic opacity, 1875); "Faraday as a 
Discoverer" (1868); "Natural Philosophy in 
Easy Lessons " (1809) ; " Notes of a Course 
of nine Lectures on Light" (1870); "Re- 
searches on Diarnagnetism and Magne-crystal- 
lic Action" (1870); "Notes of a Course of 
seven Lectures on Electrical Phenomena and 
Theories" (1870); "Essays on the Use and 
Limit of the Imagination in Science" (1870); 
" Fragments of Science for Unscientific Peo- 
ple" (1871); "The Forms of Water in Clouds 
and Rivers, Ice and Glaciers" (1872); and 
"Contributions to Molecular Physics in the 
Domain of Radiant Heat" (1872). Some of 
these have been translated into various Euro- 
pean languages. His work on " Sound " has 
been published in Chinese at tho expense of 
the Chinese government. 

TYNE, a river of Northumberland, England, 
formed by the junction of the North and South 
Tyne, the former of which rises in the Cheviot 
hills, on the border between England and Scot- 
land, and the latter in the E. part of Cum- 
berland. These two streams unite near Hex- 
ham in the S. part of Northumberland, and 
the Tyne thence has a course of 35 m., gener- 
ally E., to the North sea. It is navigable by 
vessels of 300 or 400 tons as far as Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne. Its principal affluent is the Der- 
went. The Tyne is the great outlet of the sea- 
borne coal trade, and once possessed valuable 
salmon fisheries. 

TYNEMOUTH, a town of Northumberland, 
England, on a promontory at the mouth of 
the Tyne, and adjoining North Shields, 8 m. 
N. E. of Newcastle ; pop. in 1871, 38,941. It 
has a fine harbor in the form of a basin en- 



TYPE 

closed by rocky walls, and in the season is much 
resorted to for sea bathing. It has many hand- 
some houses, and extensive rope manufactories, 
and holds four cattle fairs annually. There is 
a chalybeate spring; and in the vicinity are 
traces of a Roman fort, and the ruins of Tyne- 
mouth priory, founded in 625 and repeatedly 
rebuilt. 

TYNG. I. Stephen Higginson, an American cler- 
gyman, born in Newburyport, Mass., March 
1, 1800. He graduated at Harvard college in 
1817, for two years was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits, then studied theology, and was or- 
dained to the ministry of the Episcopal church, 
March 4, 1821. He preached for two years in 
Georgetown, D. C., and for six years in Queen 
Anne's parish, Prince George's co., Md. In 
1829 he became rector of St. Paul's church, 
Philadelphia, in 1833 of the church of the 
Epiphany, and in 1845 of St. George's church, 
New York, which office he still occupies (1876). 
He has received the degree of D. D. from 
Jefferson and Harvard colleges. Dr. Tyng 
has published " Lectures on the Law and the 
Gospel" (1832); "Sermons preached in the 
Church of the Epiphany" (1839); "Recollec- 
tions of England" (1847); "Christ is All" 
(1849 ; 4th ed., 1864) ; " The Captive Orphan : 
Esther, Queen of Persia" (1859); "Forty 
Years' Experience in Sunday Schools" (1860); 
"The Prayer Book Illustrated by Scripture" 
(3 series, 1863-'7) ; and "The Feast Enjoyed" ' 
(1868). For several years he edited the " Epis- 
copal Recorder" and the "Protestant Church- 
man." lit Stephen IUgginson, jr., an American 
clergyman, son of the preceding, born in Phila- 
delphia, June 28, 1839. He graduated at Wil- 
liams college in 1858, studied at the Virginia 
Episcopal theological seminary, was ordained 
on May 8, 1861, and was assistant to his father 
in St. George's church for two years. In 1863 
he became rector of the church of the Media- 
tor, New York, and two years later he organ- 
ized a new parish in the same city, that of the 
Holy Trinity, which erected a new and enlarged 
church in 1873-'4, and of which he is still 
pastor (1876). He is editor of the "Working 
Church," a weekly journal. He received the 
degree of D. D. from Williams college in 1872. 

TYPE (Gr. Tfartiv, to stamp), a piece of metal 
or wood having the form of a letter or other 
character in relief upon one end, used in print- 
ing. The various forms of type have been 
described in tho article PRINTING, which also 
contains the history of their invention, the 
methods of their use, &c. The material of 
which book and newspaper types are made is 
an alloy known as type metal, composed of 
lead, antimony, tin, and sometimes copper and 
other metals. The metals of this alloy are 
combined in different proportions, to meet the 
different requirements of hardness, softness, 
tenacity, or cheapness. Lead is the chief con- 
stituent ; antimony is added to compensate for 
the softness of the lead, tin to give toughness, 
and sometimes copper to give a still greater 



TYPE 



93 



degree of tenacity. Copper is sparingly used ; 
one per cent, of it gives to type metal a per- 
ceptible reddish tint. Type metal, although 
melting at a comparatively low heat, fills the 
mould with great solidity, and shrinks very 
slightly in cooling. It does not oxidize serious- 
ly when exposed to the action of air, water, 
ley, or ink. The durability of types has been 
greatly improved by the process of copper- 
facing, invented and patented in 1850 by Dr. 
L. V. Newton of New York. Through the 
agency of the electrotype battery (see GALVAN- 
ISM, vol. vii., p. 601) a thin film of copper is 
deposited on the face of the type, making an 
efficient protection against abrasion and rapid 
wear. The success of typography depends on 
the accuracy of the types. They must be made 
so that they can be combined and recombined 
and interchanged with the greatest facility. 
The page of a daily newspaper, which may 
contain 150,000 pieces of metal, must be truly 
square, as if made of one piece. The first step 
is the making of punches, which consists in 
cutting on the end of a short bar of soft steel 
a model for each character which will be used 
in the font or assortment of types. When the 
steel has been hardened, the punch is struck 
on the side of a thin bar of rolled copper, pro- 
ducing a reversed duplicate of the model type, 
which when truly squared and fitted to a mould 
constitutes the matrix. All the matrices of a 
font are made to fit one mould. The type 
mould consists of two firmly screwed combina- 
tions of several pieces of steel, making right 
and left halves, each of which is almost the 
counterpart of the other. These halves are 
immovable in the direction which determines 
the height or depth of the body, but are readi- 
ly adjustable in the direction which determines 
the width of the letters, so that they can pro- 
duce either 1 or W with no further delay than 
that caused by the change of matrix. At one 
end of the mould the matrix is fitted ; at the 
other end is an opening through which the 
melted metal is injected. The founding of 
book and newspaper types is now done by a 
type-casting machine, which contains in the ' 
centre of the framework a pot of type metal i 
kept fluid by a fire beneath. The mould is j 
connected with the melted metal through a 
channel. In the pot is fitted a piston or plung- 
er, which, receiving motion from a cam, forces 
the fluid metal through the channel into the 
mould and matrix. The metal injected, fused 
at low heat, and cooled by a blast of cold air, 
solidifies almost instantaneously. As soon as 
the mould receives the metal, it opens, the 
matrix springs backward, and a little hook 
throws out the type. The mould closes, the 
matrix falls into its seat, and the plunger in- 
jects a new supply of metal, which is again 
thrown out as a type. The speed of the ma- 
chine is governed by the time required for 
cooling the metal in the mould, varying from 
70 types of pica to 150 types of nonpareil in a 
minute. The type thrown out of the mould is 



usually perfect as to face, but imperfect as to 
body. A long piece of metal, called the jet, is 
attached to the foot, and must be broken off ; 
the fracture made by this breaking must be 
grooved out ; the corners of the body are sharp 
or wiry, and must be rubbed down on a grind- 
stone. The types are then set up in rows and 
carefully examined, one by one, under a mag- 
nifying glass. The defective letters are thrown 
into the melting pot, and those approved are 
packed in paper, ready for the printer. For 
the large displayed letters of posters, types are 
made of wood, usually maple or bay mahogany, 
and rarely of smaller size than one square inch. 
As these types are used only in single lines, 
and are kept in true line by straight strips of 
wood called reglet, they do not require the 
accuracy of body which is indispensable in 
metal types. Wood types are made by an in- 
genious application of the pantagraph, the in- 
vention of William Leavenworth of Allentown, 
N. J., who introduced it in 1834. A tracing 
point at one end of the pantagraph follows the 
outline of a large model letter; this tracing 
motion is accurately repeated at the opposite 
end by a rapidly revolving cutter or router, 
which cuts a letter of similar shape out of a 
block of wood. The routing tool does nearly 
all the work ; only a few cuts of the graver 
are required to finish the type. The types of 
all American type founderies are made to the 
standard height of $ of an inch. British 
types are usually of the same height, but those 
of founderies on the European continent are 
variable; some German types are nearly an 
inch, and Russian types are more than an inch 
in height. In all countries the graduations of 
sizes or of bodies of types has been very irreg- 
ular. Pierre Simon Fournier of Paris, in 1V64, 
proposed the first practicable system. He di- 
vided a selected body of type, then known as 
" Cicero," into 12 equal parts, and made one 
such part, which he called a typographic point, 
the unitary basis for determining the dimen- 
sions of every larger size. All sizes were to be 
even multiples of the typographic point. Four- 
nier's system, which was adopted in France, 
had the serious defect of an undetermined size 
for the body Cicero. To remedy this defect, 
Didot fixed the body Cicero at fa part of the 
royal French foot, and gave all the bodies made 
therefrom standard numerical names, which 
defined the number of points belonging to each 
body. Didot's system is now used in nearly 
all type founderies on the continent, but it 
has the disadvantage of being based on a dis- 
used measure, the royal foot, and of being in 
entire disagreement with the French metrical 
system. It has not been adopted by any Eng- 
lish or American type founder. In 1822 George 
Bruce of New York introduced in his own 
type foundery a new system, in which the di- 
mensions of the bodies were determined by 
the rule of geometrical progression, doubling 
every seventh size in any part of the series of 
sizes, and making each size 12-2462 per cent. 



94 TYPE 

smaller than the 'size following it. The dis- 
tances between the sizes are irregular, but the 
dimensions of the bodies are in proper correla- 
tion. (See FEINTING, vol. xiii., p. 847.) The 
matrices and moulds of the first printers were 
always made by goldsmiths and mechanicians, 
but the printers cast the types. As early as 
1550 type founding was made a business en- 
tirely distinct from printing. Although types 
are now cast by machinery, and with improved 
appliances, the more important tools used in 
making them (the punch, matrix, and mould) 
are substantially the same as those used in the 
15th century. Attempts have been made repeat- 
edly to cast many types by one operation in 
multiple moulds, or to cut them like nails out of 
cold metal, but they have failed chiefly through 
the inability to secure accuracy of body. As 
the required accuracy can be produced only 
by casting types in an adjustable mould, it may 
be assumed that the inventor of the type mould 
was the inventor of typography. The literal 
translation of a tablet put up at Mentz in 1507 
says that John Gutenberg was the first to make 
printing letters in brass. Engravings made by 
Amman at Frankfort in 15G4, and by Moxon 
at London in 1683, prove that the old method 
of casting types by hand was that used by all 
type founders at the beginning of this century. 
The first important improvement in hand cast- 
ing was made in 1811 by Archibald Binney of 
Philadelphia, who attached a spring lever to 
the matrix of the hand mould, giving it an 
automatic return movement which enabled the 
type caster to double his old performance. In 
1834 David Bruce of New York attached a 
hand force pump to the mould, which was of 
great value in the casting of large types, and 
gave a new impetus to the making of orna- 
mental letters. William M. Johnson of Hemp- 
stead, Long Island, invented in 1828 a type- 
casting machine, which was used for some 
years by Elihu White of New York; but it 
was finally abandoned on account of the po- 
rousness of the types made by it. In 1838 
David Bruce, jr., patented the machine which 
is the basis of most of those now used in 
America and Europe. The making of matrices 
by the electrotype process instead of by punch- 
ing (a process of some value in the reproduc- 
tion of matrices from types, or engravings in 
wood or soft metal) is the only recent improve- 
ment which has been generally adopted. Types 
were first made in the United States by Chris- 
topher Sower of Germantown, Pa., about 1735. 
He cast several fonts in German and English 
for himself, and perhaps for others, and the 
anvil on which he forged his matrices of cop- 
per is still to be seen at Germantown. Sower, 
a publisher of books, was prevented from 
printing the Bible in English by the patent 
then held by the university of Oxford. As 
there was no patent on the Bible in German 
he undertook this enterprise, making types, 
ink and paper for the purpose, and published 
the nrst German edition of the book in Amer- 



ica (4to, 1743). Christopher Sower, jr., con- 
tinued the business, but neither he nor his 
father can fairly be considered as type founders 
to the trade. Their type-founding material 
was bought by Binney and Ronaldson of Phila- 
delphia in 1798, who were materially aided by 
a grant of $5,000 from the state of Pennsyl- 
vania, and by the use of type-founding imple- 
ments bought by Franklin when he was min- 
ister at Paris. Mitchelson, a Scotchman, made 
types in Boston in 1768, but soon abandoned 
the business. In 1769 Abel Buell of Killing- 
worth, a silversmith, petitioned the assembly 
of Connecticut for money to establish a type 
foundery. He made types at the Sandemanian 
meeting house in New Haven, but with no 
benefit to himself or to the printers. William 
Wing of Hartford, in 1805, made unsuccessful 
attempts to cast types in conjoined moulds. 
His partner, Elihu White, established a type 
foundery at New York in 1810, and afterward 
at Buffalo and Cincinnati. Robert Lothian, 
from Scotland, began to make types at New 
York in 1806. He failed, but many years after- 
ward was succeeded by his son George. John 
Baine, a type founder of Edinburgh, at the 
close of the revolutionary war established a 
foundery at Philadelphia. In 1813 the print- 
ers David and George Bruce, who then had the 
first stereotype foundery in the United States, 
began business as type founders. George 
Bruce won a high reputation as a punch cutter 
and as a scientific type founder. 

TYPES, Chemical, a term used to designate the 
characteristics of chemical substances which 
are supposed to have an analogous molecular 
architecture, or are built up of elements which, 
although unlike, bear a certain relation to each 
other, by reason of which the materials of one 
part of the chemical fabric may be replaced by 
others without altering the general structure. 
Thus, hydrochloric acid, II Cl, may be taken as 
a type of the chlorides in general, which may 
be regarded as derived from it by substitution ; 
as for example, chloride of potassium, KC1, 
when the constituents are both monatomic 
elements; BaCla, in which barium is diatomic, 
and demands two atoms of chlorine ; and 
SbClj, in which antimony (stibium) is triatomic, 
and requires three atoms of chlorine. The 
history of the development of the theory of 
types may be briefly stated as follows : Gay- 
Lussac observed that wax bleached by chlorine 
gave np oxygen and absorbed an equal volume 
of chlorine. Dumas observed the same action 
with regard to oil of turpentine, and from 
other observations he was led to the conclu- 
sion that a body containing hydrogen, subject- 
ed to the action of chlorine, bromine, iodine, 
or oxygen, takes up an atom of such element 
for every atom of hydrogen removed. In 1839 
he arrived at a " theory of types," which may 
be enunciated as follows : 1. The elements of a 
compound may, in numerous cases, be replaced 
in equivalent proportions by other elements, 
and by compound bodies which play the part 



TYPE-SETTING MACHINE 

of elements. 2. When this substitution takes 
place in equal numbers of equivalents, the body 
in which the substitution occurs retains its 
chemical type, and the elements which have 
entered into it play therein the same part as 
the element which has been abstracted. The 
chemical type included bodies containing the 
same number of atoms of their elements, and 
resembling each other in their principal chemi- 
cal properties, such as chloroform, bromof orm, 
and iodoform. But when the number of ele- 
ments varied while the number of atoms of the 
substance remained the same, they were re- 
garded as belonging to the same molecular type, 
as marsh gas, CH 4 , formic acid, CHaOa, chlo- 
. roform, CHC1 3 , and chloride of carbon, CC14. 
Berzelius opposed this theory, holding that 
acetic acid and trichloroacetic acid, which Du- 
mas regarded as belonging to the same type, 
did not so belong, but that acetic acid is an 
oxide of a radical, while trichloroacetic acid 
consists of oxalic acid copulated with chloride 
of carbon ; and so of other substitution com- 
pounds. But to maintain this position it was 
necessary to invent many radicals for com- 
pounds which were evidently analogous; and 
therefore when Melsens showed that acetic can 
be produced from trichloroacetic acid by the 
action of sodium amalgam, the idea that these 
two bodies were not built upon the same type 
could no longer be maintained. Gerhardt, by 
the introduction of his " theory of residues," 
reconciled the radical and substitution or type 
theories by supposing that a radical can be 
substituted for an element in a compound 
without altering the type ; not, however, by 
direct substitution, but by the formation of 
a body of elements from each of the bodies 
brought together, by which residues are form- 
ed that subsequently unite. The discovery of 
the alcoholic ammonia bases by Wurtz and Hof- 
mann in 1850, by which it was shown that the 
hydrogen in ammonia, NH 3 , may be replaced 
by equivalents of the radicals ethyle and me- 
thyle, favored the union of the two theories. 
This conclusion was still further strengthened 
in the same year by Williamson's explanation 
of the general relations of the ethers and al- 
cohols by referring them to the type of water, 
H a O. Four principal types are now recog- 
nized, which are illustrated by the union of 
one, two, three, and four molecules of a mon- 
atomic element respectively with another mo- 
nad, dyad, triad, or tetrad, as HH, OH S , NH 8 , 
CH 4 ; and nearly all organic compounds may be 
regarded as formed by a combination of two 
or more of these types. The same compound 
may often be referred to different types. Thus, 
trichloride of phosphorus, PC1 3 , maybe formed 
from three molecules of hydrochloric acid, 
3H01, by the substitution of one molecule of 
the triad phosphorus for three hydrogen mo- 
nads ; or from one molecule of ammonia, NH 3 , 
by the equivalent substitution of phosphorus 
for hydrogen. 

TYPE-SETTING MACHINE. See FEINTING. 
803 VOL. xvi. 7 



TYPE WRITERS 



95 



TYPE WRITERS, mechanical contrivances for 
writing or printing with a system of movable 
types instead of a pen. They involve : 1, a po- 
sition movement, for bringing type to a print- 
ing point ; 2, an inking device ; 3, an impres- 
sion movement ; and 4, a device for letter and 
line spacing. These elements have been com- 
bined in a variety of ways. The most primi- 
tive is that in which the types are engraved 
on a cylindrical bar, which bar is revolved on 
its axis and also moved backward or forward 
by the hand of the operator, to present the 
desired type to the common printing point. 
This bar is then depressed, thereby delivering 
the impression through a saturated ribbon upon 
a sheet of paper wrapped around a cylinder 
placed at right angles with the type-carrying 
impression bar. To the paper cylinder a ro- 
tary and a longitudinal movement are impart- 
ed for the purpose of accomplishing the letter 
and line space. Nearly the reverse of this is 
the machine in which the types are arranged 
on a sliding rod or a narrow bed, and the im- 
pression is given by a bar or lever, the impres- 
sion point of which is equal in size to the face 
of a letter. This machine was designed to 
form wax matrices for stereotype moulds, but 
can be used for printing by interposing paper 
and inking ribbon between the type and the im- 
pression bar. A combination of the essential 
elements of these two machines was patented 
in the United States in 1868, the types being 
arranged on a plate in parallel rows, and the 
impression given by a plunger or striker. All 
necessary movements in this machine are ac- 
complished by mechanical means, the operator 
being simply required to move or depress a 
key corresponding to the letter desired to be 
printed. Another class of type writers may 
be generally described as consisting of a letter 
wheel or disk, on the periphery of which the 
types are engraved, which type wheel is re- 
volved on its axis for the purpose of presenting 
the desired letter to the printing point, after 
which either paper or wheel is moved to give 
the impression. Another method of type wri- 
ting is by means of a section of a globe or hemi- 
sphere, having a series of perforations from 
circumference to centre, in which are placed 
sliding plungers. On the inner end of each 
plunger is engraved a type, and on the outer 
end, upon a button or knob, the corresponding 
letter. These plungers are directed toward a 
common centre or printing point, and the pa- 
per is fed past this point to produce the letter 
and line space. The principal mechanical de- 
vice of another type-writing machine consists 
of an arrangement of key levers of varying 
lengths, which levers are made to pass each 
other and present their type-bearing ends at a 
common printing point. The Sholes andGlid- 
den type writer consists of a series of swing- 
ing type bars of equal length, pivoted on the 
circumference of a circle, in such manner that 
their type-bearing ends, when brought to the 
printing point, will strike at the centre of the 



96 



TYPE WRITERS 



circle. By this means a series of type bars of 
uniform length are caused to present their type 
at a common printing point. The paper is fed 
past this point, to accomplish the letter and 
word spacing, by the longitudinal movement 




PIG. 1. Sholes and Glidden Typo Writer. 
A. The bank of keys. B. Type-lever disk, showing one lev- 
er In printing position. C. Space bar. D. Space bale and 
yoke. E. Wheel and axle for return of paper car. F. 
paper car turned back upon its hinge to expose printing. 

of a paper car, bearing a cylindrical platen, 
which platen is moved upon its axis a certain 
distance to accomplish the line spacing. The 
movement of the paper car past the printing 
point is effected by a spring escapement, and 
governed by a bale or lever which is moved 
by the depression of any key. Fig. 1 repre- 
sents a front view of the Sholes and Glidden 
type writer, with working parts exposed. A 
saturated inking ribbon is interposed between 
the type and paper, and is moved automati- 
cally through the slots shown on each side of 
the disk. A type writer recently invented by 
L. S. Crandall of New York consists mainly 
of a vibrating platen and paper feed arranged 
in connection with a series of type bars, which 
are provided with more than one type and 
operated by oscillating finger levers in such 
manner that, according to the backward or 
forward motion of the same, two adjoining 
types are printed on a common centre. The 
number of centres may be increased, in pro- 
portion to the number of types on the bars, 
by definite vibrations of the platen. For ex- 
ample, if there are six types on a bar, two 
of them are brought to the printing point in 
ihe manner above stated, and to utilize the 



remaining four one forward and one backward 
vibration of the platen is required. The types 
are placed on eight bars, arranged in the seg- 
ment of a circle, and connected with eight 
finger cups by oscillating levers. Two thumb 
keys, with connecting mechanism, effect the 
transverse movements of the platen. The lon- 
gitudinal movement of platen, for accomplish- 
ing the letter space, is by common means. 
This machine, being operated by the fingers 
without changing position of hands, may be 
used by the blind with facility, but the reading 
requires sight. In fig. 2, 1 represents a side 
elevation, showing the arrangement of its prin- 
cipal elements ; 2 and 3 are detail side views 
of the finger lever and type bar, showing their 
duplex motion. The type bars A are so con- 
nected with the finger levers B, and stationary 
supporting arms C, that a double action may 
be imparted to them simultaneously with their 
swinging motion toward the printing points. 
The double action throws the lever a fixed 
distance in a forward or backward direction, 
and thereby admits the use of two types on 
each type bar for each printing point or cen- 
tre. The double action of the type bar is pro- 
duced by projecting cams or shoulders, D, 
which, by the forward or backward oscilla- 
tion of the finger levers, are thrown into con- 
tact with corresponding projections or recess- 
es, E F, of the fixed arm C, BO as to define the 
extent of movement required for the coupled 
pair of types to strike their printing point on 
the platen, G. In the "Zachos steno-phono- 
type reporter " the types are placed on twelve 
shuttle bars, according to a definite scheme, 
and two or more of the bars may be placed 




Fio. 2. Crandall's Type Writer. 

in position simultaneously. The impression 
is given by a plunger or platen common to all 
the shuttle bars. By his scheme any mono- 
syllabic word of the English language may be 
produced at one impression. 



TYPHA 



TYRE 



97 



TYPHA (Gr. rt^of, a fen), a genus of mono- 
cotyledonous plants, growing in fenny or 
marshy places, in this country popularly called 
cat-tail, and in England bulrush (a name here 
given exclusively to scirpus) and also reed- 
mace. With one other genus (sparganium) 
this makes up the small family typhacece, 
which in a systematic arrangement is grouped 
with the aroids. Ty- 
phas are found in 
most parts of the 
globe. They have per- 
ennial creeping root- 
stocks, sessile, linear, 
and nerved leaves, and 
monoecious flowers, 
crowded in a spike at 
the end of the stem ; 
the flowers have nei- 
ther calyx nor corol- 
la, their place being 
supplied by numerous 
long hairs ; the upper 
part of the spike con- 
sists of stamens only, 
intermingled with 
hairs, and the lower 
and more dense por- 
tion is made up of 
minute pistils, sur- 
rounded by and close- 
ly packed in numer- 
ous brown hairs ; the 




Cat-tail (Typha latifolia). 



ovary ripens into a 
small one-seeded nut, 
upon a stalk, sur- 
rounded by the copious down of the enlarged 
hairs. The best known species is the common 
or broad-leaved cat-tail (typha latifolia), found 
all over this and nearly all other countries ; it 
is often 8 or 10 ft. high, and in some localities 
occupies the marsh to the exclusion of all 
other vegetation. The leaves are flat, and the 
spike is a foot or more long, with no inter- 
val between the staminate and pistillate por- 
tions ; the stamens, when they have performed 
their office, fall away, leaving the upper por- 
tion of the stem bare. Our only other species 
is the small or narrow-leaved cat-tail (T. an- 
gustifolia), which' is much smaller ; the leaves 
are narrower, and channelled at the base ; the 
spikes are more slender, with usually a space, 
often an inch long, between the pistillate and 
staminate portions , the two grow together, 
though this is much the less common, and all 
the characters which distinguish them are va- 
riable. In autumn the spikes disintegrate, and 
in localities where the plants abound the air is 
annoyingly filled with the copious down. The 
dried down has been used in beds as a substi- 
tute for feathers; but unless the ticking is 
very tight, or waxed on the inside, the hairs 
will work through and annoy the sleeper. At 
present it is largely manufactured into a non- 
conducting covering for steam pipes and boil- 
ers. The quantity of foliage produced by these 



plants in favorable localities is immense, and it 
now nearly all goes to waste ; unsuccessful at- 
tempts have been made to utilize it as paper 
stock. In France, where it is called massette, 
the leaves of cat-tail are used in the nurseries 
as a ligature in budding. 

TYPHOID FEVER. See FEVEES, vol. vii., p. 
167. 

TYPHON, in Greek mythology, the personi- 
fication of volcanic phenomena and violent 
winds. The common account made Typhon the 
son of Tartarus and Gsea, destined to revenge 
the defeat of the Titans by the Olympian gods. 
According to Pindar, his head reached to the 
stars, his eyes darted fire, his hands extended 
from the east to the west, terrible serpents 
were twined about the middle of his body, and 
100 snakes took the place of fingers on his 
hands. Between him and the gods there was 
a dreadful war. Jupiter finally killed him 
with a flash of lightning, and buried him un- 
der Mt. jEtna. For Typhon (or Set) in Egyp- 
tian mythology, see DEMONOLOGY, vol. v., p. 
794, and OSIEIS. 

TYPHOON. See HUBBICANE. 

TYPHUS. See FEVEES, vol. vii., p. 166. 

TYRANT, in ornithology. See KING BIED. 

TYRE (in classical writers, Tyrus ; in the 
Hebrew Scriptures, Tzor, rock), the wealthiest 
and most powerful city of Phoenicia, founded 
by the Sidonians, in a naturally strong position 
on the coast of the Mediterranean, 23 m. S. of 
Sidon. In later times it extended over a 
small adjacent island, the new part gradually 
becoming the more important, and the old re- 
ceiving the name of Palsetyrus or Old Tyre, 
now called Eas el-Ain. The latter is designated 
in the historical books of the Old Testament 
as the " stronghold " or " fortress " (mibtzar) 
Tzor, while, no doubt in allusion to its insular 
part, the city is called by Isaiah the " strong- 
hold of the sea," and described by Ezekiel, in 
his glowing picture of its wealth, splendor, 
and maritime power, as situated "in the heart 
of the seas." On its site now stands a poor 
village called Sur. The island on which the 
town stood was originally severed from an- 
other small island bearing the temple of Mel- 
kart; but when the latter was rebuilt by 
Hiram, the little arm of the sea between the 
two islands was filled up, and by means of em- 
bankments toward the south the extent of 
the island was more than doubled. On the land 
thus obtained was built a new quarter of the 
city, which the Greeks called Eurychoron. 
Tyre was protected on all sides by dikes, and 
surrounded by fortified enclosures. Hiram 
built a palace in this insular town, which con- 
stantly grew in importance, while Pala3tyrus 
was neglected and became comparatively in- 
significant. Both parts withstood a long siege 
by the Assyrians (under Shalmaneser accord- 
ing to Josephus, but more probably under 
Sargon), but only that built on the island is 
believed to have successfully resisted a longer 
one by Nebuchadnezzar ; while Alexander the 



98 



TYROL 



Great, by the construction of a mole from 
the mainland to the island, succeeded in redu- 
cing the whole of Tyre. This mole, grad- 
ually enlarged and strengthened by ruins and 



alluvial deposits, has since permanently con- 
nected the two sites of the ancient city, con- 
verting the island into a promontory. Even 
the ruins of the "daughter of Sidon" and 




Ruins of Tyre. 



mother of Carthage have mostly been cov- 
ered by the sea. The burial places still tes- 
tify to the existence of the ancient city. Most 
of the tombs are rock-cut and subterranean. 
They contain generally more than one cham- 
ber, in the walls of which are recesses holding 
embalmed corpses in coffins. There are also 
the ruins of a Christian cathedral, which Euse- 
bius dedicated in 324 and describes in his eccle- 
siastical history. It was restored by the cru- 
saders, and in it were placed the remains of 
the emperor Frederick Barbarossa. An earth- 
quake destroyed the rebuilt town in the begin- 
ning of the 13th century. In 1874 the tract of 
land on which the cathedral was situated was 
purchased by the German government for the 
purpose of excavating it, and the edifice has 
been partly unearthed. (For the history of 
Tyre, see PHCENIOIA.) 

TYROL (Ger. also Tirol), a crownland or 
province of Cisleithan Austria, bounded N. 
by Bavaria, E. by Salzburg and Carinthia, 8. 
by Italy, and \V. by Switzerland; area, inclu- 
ding Vorarlberg, 11,325 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 
885,789, nearly two thirds of German and the 
rest of Italian descent, and all Roman Cath- 
olics. The principal towns are Innspruck, the 
capital, Brixen, Trent, Bregenz (in Vorarlberg), 
and Botzen, the first four respectively the cap- 
itals of the four circles into which the prov- 
ince is divided. It is as mountainous and pic- 
turesque as Switzerland, being traversed by 
several chains of the Alps. The northern chain 
is known as the Tyrolese or German, and the 
southern as the Trent Alps, the latter joining 
on the east the Carnic Alps. The Rhjetian 
Alps, which occupy the centre, and are the lofti- 



est mountains in^ Austria, embrace the Ortler- 
spitze (12,800 ft!), on the confines of Tyrol, 
Italy, and Switzerland, terminate in the N. E. 
part of Tyrol ; and the Gross-Glockner (about 
12,500 ft. according to the latest measure- 
ments), the highest point of the Noric Alps, 
rises on the confines of Tyrol, Carinthia, and 
Salzburg. Many of the summits are above the 
line of perpetual snow, and more than 150 sq. 
m. is covered with glaciers. These chains are 
crossed by some of the lowest Alpine passes, 
the best known being the Brenner pass, trav- 
ersed by the railway from Innspruck to Bot- 
zen. The Inn and Adige are the largest rivers 
besides the Rhine, which separates Vorarl- 
berg from Switzerland. Lakes Constance and 
Garda are partly in the province, on the N. 
W. and S. W. borders respectively. The cli- 
mate is generally severe except in the south. 
About one third of the whole surface is cov- 
ered by perpetual snows, glaciers, and bar- 
ren rocks, and an equal space by forests ; the 
rest consists of pasture and arable land. The 
total value of landed property in 1870 was 
estimated at about 300,000,000 florins, and of 
cattle at 23,500,000 florins. Maize and other 
grain, fruit, wine, and silk are produced. 
Goats and sheep abound, as well as the cha- 
mois, hares, marmots, and eagles. The miner- 
als include gold, iron, copper, lead, and coal. 
Lace, embroidery, gloves, hardware, and toys 
are made, and there is an active transit trade 
and general commerce. About 30,000 Tyro- 
lese 'annually migrate in summer and return in 
autumn. The country is rich in schools, inclu- 
ding a university at Innspruck. The Tyrolese 
are a fine-looking race, wearing picturesque cos- 



TYRONE 

tumes, and are noted for their national songs, 
piety, patriotism, and industry. In early times 
the country was inhabited by Rhsetian and Cel- 
tic tribes. Under the reign of Augustus it be- 
came part of Ehsetia. (See RH^ETIA.) Subse- 
quently it was occupied successively by various 
races, and was ultimately divided into petty 
states or lordships, tributary to the dukes of 
Bavaria, among which the duchy of Meran 
was the most important. These were finally 
united, and in 1364 were annexed to the duchy 
of Austria by Duke Rudolph IV., to whom Mar- 
garet, surnamed Maultasch, the heiress of Tyrol, 
had ceded her rights. After various changes 
Tyrol was inherited in 1490 by Maximilian, 
the future emperor of Germany, and after new 
changes finally reunited with the main line of 
the house of Austria in 1665. By virtue of 
the treaty of Presburg (Dec. 26, 1805), the 
country passed into the possession of Bavaria. 
This gave rise to the insurrection under An- 
dreas Hofer in 1809, during which the women 
fought by the side of the men, and hundreds 
of them were slain. (See HOFEK.) Austria 
recovered Tyrol in 1814. The local constitu- 
tion dates from 1861. The diet consists of 68 
members, including the prince-archbishop of 
Salzburg, whose jurisdiction extends over part 
of Tyrol, the two prince-bishops of Trent and 
Brixen, the rector of the university, 4 clerical 
delegates, 10 of the landholding aristocracy, 
13 of large cities, 3 of chambers of commerce 
and industry, and 34 of rural communities. 
They are elected for six years. The president 
of the diet is appointed by the emperor. Vo- 
rarlberg has its own constitution and diet. The 
Tyrol diet elects 10 members to the Reichstag. 
The Italian or Welsh Tyrolese, who inhabit the 
southern districts, favor a union with Italy, 
but Garibaldi's attempt in 1866 to wrest these 
districts from Austria proved abortive. The 
ultramontane party preponderates excepting in 
some of the larger cities, and recent attempts 
to diminish the influence of the clergy encoun- 
tered a violent opposition. See Hormayr, Ge- 
scJiichte der gefwrsteten GrafscTiaft Tirol (2 
vols., Tubingen, 1806-'8), and Dai Land Tirol 
und der Tirolerkrieg von 1809 (2 vols., Leipsic, 
1845) ; Egger, Geschichte Tirols ton den altes- 
ten Zeiten bis in die Neuzeit (2 vols., Innspruck, 
1872-'4); Miss R. H. Busk, "The Valleys of 
Tyrol" (London, 1874); H. Baden Pritchard, 
" Tramps in the Tyrol " (London, 1874) ; Steub, 
Drei Sommer in Tyrol (3 vols., enlarged ed., 
Stuttgart, 1875) ; and W. A. Baillie Grohman, 
"Tyrol and the Tyrolese" (London, 1876). 

TYRONE, a N. county of Ireland, in the 
province of Ulster, bordering on Lough Neagh, 
which separates it from Antrim, and the coun- 
ties of Armagh, Monaghan, Fermanagh, Don- 
egal, and Londonderry; area, 1,260 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1871, 215,668. The chief towns' are 
Strabane, Dungannon, and Omagh, the capi- 
tal. The surface is greatly diversified, and has 
many fertile plains and valleys. The only con- 
siderable rivers are the Foyle and Blackwater. 



TYTLER 



99 



Coal is found, but turf is the usual fuel. The 
Londonderry and Enniskillen railway passes 
through Tyrone near Strabane. 

TYRRELL, an E. county of North Carolina, 
bordering on Albemarle sound, and bounded 
E. by Alligator river ; area, about 350 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 4,173, of whom 1,802 were col- 
ored. The surface is level and the soil sandy. 
A large portion of the county is covered with 
swamps and heavy forests of pine, cypress, and 
red cedar; and shingles, staves, tar, and tur- 
pentine are extensively exported. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 105,308 bushels of 
Indian corn, 22,544 of sweet potatoes, 507 
bales of cotton, and 17,894 Ibs. of rice. There 
were 306 horses, 2,478 cattle, 1,539 sheep, and 
4,664 swine. Capital, Columbia. 

TYRTMJS, a Greek poet of the 7th century 
B. C., a native of Attica or of Laceda3mon. An 
ancient tradition recounts that, in the second 
Messenian war, the Spartans were commanded 
by an oracle to apply to the Athenians for a 
leader. In answer the Athenians sent Tyrtasus, 
a schoolmaster of low family and reputation, 
and deformed, as the most unfit person they 
could select for the purpose ; but he so inspired 
the Spartans with his war songs, that the Mes- 
senians were subdued. His poems were of two 
kinds : marching songs in anapaestic measures, 
to be sung with the music of the flute, and 
elegiac exhortations to constancy and courage. 
The fragments of them are in Gaisford's Poetcs 
Minores Grteci (translated into English verse 
by Polwhele, 1786-'92), and in Bergh's Poetce 
Lyrici Grceci (3d ed., Leipsic, 1866). They 
have been newly collected and annotated by 
A. Lami (Leghorn, 1874). 

TYRWHITT, Thomas, an English author, born 
in London, March 29, 1730, died there, Aug. 
16, 1786. He graduated at Oxford in 1750, 
and in 1756 was appointed under secretary of 
war, and in 1762 clerk of the house of com- 
mons. He resigned office in 1768. Two years 
previous to his death he was appointed a cura- 
tor of the British museum. His principal works 
in English are "Observations on some Pas- 
sages in Shakespeare" (8vo, Oxford, 1766), and 
an edition of Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," 
with an "Essay on his Language and Versifi- 
cation, an Introductory Discourse, and Notes " 
(5 vols. 8vo, London, 1773-'8). He aided in 
the publication of Chatterton's " Poems by 
Rowley," and supported the authorship of 
them by Chatterton. He also published in 
Latin notes, animadversions, and conjectures 
on writings by Plutarch, Babrius (the supposed 
author of ^Esop's fables), ^Eschylus, Euripides, 
Aristophanes, Strabo, and others. His princi- 
pal work in this department of literature was 
an edition of Aristotle's " Poetics," published 
posthumously in 1794. 

TYTLER. I. William, a Scottish author, born 
in Edinburgh, Oct. 12, 1711, died Sept. 12, 
1792. He was a writer to the signet, but his 
reputation rests chiefly upon his "Historical 
and Critical Enquiry into the Evidence pro- 



100 



TZANA 



duced by the Lords of Murray and Morton 
against Mary Queen of Scots" (Edinburgh, 
1760 enlarged ed., 2 vols. 8vo, London, 1790) ; 
and he edited the " Poetical Eemains of James 
I." (Edinburgh, 1783). II. Alexander Fraser, a 
Scottish jurist, son of the preceding, born in 
Edinburgh, Oct. 15, 1747, died there, Jan. 5, 
1813. He was called to the bar in 1770, and 
became professor of universal history in the 
university of Edinburgh in 1786, judge advo- 
cate of Scotland in 1790, and judge of the 
court of session, with the title of Lord Wood- 
houselee, in 1802. He published a "Supple- 
ment to Lord Kames'a Dictionary of Decisions 
to 1778 " (Edinburgh, 1778 ; 2d ed., to 1796, 
1797) ; " Flans and Outlines of a Course of 
Lectures on Universal History, Ancient and 
Modern " (1782) ; "Essay on the Principles of 
Translation" (1791); "England Profiting by 
Example " (1799) ; " Essay on the Military Law 
and the Practice of Courts Martial" (1800); 
"Elements of General History" (1801); "Me- 
moirs of the Life and Writings of Henry Home 
of Kames" (2 vols. 4to, 1807); and "Histori- 
cal and Critical Essay on the Life and Writings 
of Petrarch " (1810). His lectures were post- 
humously published under the title "Universal 
History, from the Creation of the World to 
the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century " (6 
vols. 18mo, London, 1834-'5). III. Patrick 
Fraser, a Scottish author, son of the preceding, 
born in Edinburgh, Aug. 30, 1791, died in Mal- 
vern, England, Dec. 24, 1849. He was admitted 
to the faculty of advocates in 1813, and after 
practising law for several years devoted him- 
self to literature. In 1844 he received a gov- 
ernment pension of 200 a year for literary 
services. He published " Life of James Crich- 
ton of Cluny, commonly called the Admirable 
Crichton" (Edinburgh, 1819); "Life and Wri- 
tings of Sir Thomas Craig of Riccarton " (1823) ; 
"Life of John Wicklyff" (1826); "History 
of Scotland, 1149-1603" (9 vols., 1828-'43); 
"Lives of Scottish Worthies" (3 vols., 1831- 
'3) ; " Historical View of the Progress of Dis- 
covery on the more Northern Coasts of Amer- 
ica" (1832); "Life of Sir Walter Raleigh" 
(1833); "Life of King Henry VIII." (1837); 
and " England under the Reigns of Edward VI. 
and Mary, with the Contemporary History of 
Europe " (2 vols., 1839). 

TZANA, or Dembea, a lake of Abyssinia, in lat. 
12 N., Ion. 37 15' E., in a fertile grain-pro- 
ducing region, 6,110 ft. above the sea. It is 
50 m. long, 25 m. wide, has a depth in some 
places of 600 ft., and contains several islands, 
some of which are inhabited. It receives nu- 
merous streams, and is traversed in the S. part 
by the Abai, the Nile of Bruce. 



TZSCHIRNER 

TZAR. See CZAR. 

TZAESKOTE SELO (Rus., "the czar's vil- 
lage ") or Sofia, a town of Russia and the im- 
perial 'summer residence, in the government 
and 15 m. S. of the city of St. Petersburg ; 
pop. about 12,000. It grew out of a country 
house and park of Peter the Great. The pres- 
ent palace was built in 1744 by the empress 
Elizabeth, and embellished by Catharine II. 
The main facade, besides the side wings, is 
nearly 800 ft. long. The high walls of the 
banquet hall and other rooms are resplendent 
with gold and other precious metals. The ball 
rooms are among the largest and most gor- 
geous of the kind anywhere. One room is en- 
tirely panelled in amber ; another is fitted up 
in Chinese fashion. The marble gallery com- 
municating with the palace is a stupendous 
and brilliant structure. The palace grounds 
extend over a circumference of 18 m., employ 
600 persons, and contain some of the most 
wonderful artificial and natural attractions in 
the world. They include a Gothic castle with 
Dannecker's " Christ," monuments of distin- 
guished Russians, a pretty pavilion near the 
lake, and the arsenal in an English-Gothic red 
brick building erected by the emperof Nicholas 
for collections of armor and curious relics. A 
new and less costly palace was built by Alex- 
ander I., and i inhabited in summer by the 
imperial family. Conspicuous among the many 
churches is that connected with the palace, 
with gilded dome and cupolas. On the way 
to the neighboring Pavlovsk is a triumphal 
arch which Alexander I. erected to his com- 
rades in the Napoleonic wars. In the same vi- 
cinity are imperial villas at Gatchina, Tchesme, 
and Krasnoye Selo, all, like Tzarskoye Selo, 
connected by rail with St. Petersburg. 

TZSCHIRNER, Helnrich Gottlieb, a German the- 
ologian, born at Mittweida, Saxony, Nov. 14, 
1778, died Feb. 17, 1828. He studied theology 
at Leipsic, entered holy orders in 1801, and 
became professor of theology at Wittenberg in 
1805, and at Leipsic in 1809, superintendent at 
Leipsic in 1815, and prebendary of Meissen in 
1818. He was one of the most effective oppo- 
nents of the Catholic reaction in Germany. 
His works include a continuation of the church 
history of Schrokh (2 vols., Leipsic, 1810) ; Pro- 
testantismua und Katholicumut aus dem Stand- 
punkte der Politik letrachtet (1822; transla- 
ted into English, French, and Dutch); Das 
Reactionssyttem (1824) ; Brief e eines Deutschen 
an die Herren Chateaubriand, De Lamennais, 
&c. (edited by Krug, 1828); Vorlesungen uber 
die christliche Glaubenslehre (edited by Hase, 
1829) ; and Der Fall des Heidenthumt (unfin- 
ished ; edited by Niedner, 1829). 



u 



UDINE 



101 



U 



UTHE 21st letter and 5th vowel of the 
English alphabet. It is not found in 
the Semitic languages, which have no dis- 
tinct letters for vowels proper, and was prob- 
ably originally wanting in the Greek, in which 
its modern equivalent is ov ; in the Hebrew its 
place is supplied by the letter vav and in the 
Armenian by hiun, both of which are pro- 
nounced sometimes as vowels and sometimes 
as consonants. In the Latin also it frequently 
had the force of a consonant, as in the words 
uaco, uelox, silua, now written vaco, velox, silva. 
It was in fact constantly confounded with V, 
and for some time a distinction was made be- 
tween U vowel and U consonant, the latter 
name being applied to the character V ; and till 
near the close of the 16th century they were 
used interchangeably in printing, V sometimes 
only as the capital and sometimes as the initial 
letter in all cases, and u as the small letter in 
all cases or only in the interior of words. In 
the Gothic alphabets the distinction was made 
much earlier than in the Latin. In the so- 
called long sound peculiar to the English u, as 
in dupe, there is an intimate junction of the 
sounds of e and oo, exactly represented by ew 
in few ; it is expressed in Italian and Spanish 
by iu, as in fiume and ciudad, and in French 
by iou, as in Sioux. In u initial, as in unite, 
the e is replaced by its liquid equivalent y, the 
pronunciation becoming yoonite. In an unac- 
cented syllable, the union of a preceding d, s, 
z, or t with the y element of u produces the 
sound of j, sh, zh, or ch, as in verdure, tonsure, 
measure, azure, virtue. This effect also ap- 
pears under accentuation in sure and its de- 
rivatives and sugar, and vulgarly in sumach. 
The short sound of u in sup is peculiar to the 
English and Dutch, being nearly equivalent to 
short o in most other languages, and to eu in 
French and o in German. The normal sound 
of u in Italian, German, and most other Euro- 
pean languages is oo, long and short. The lat- 
ter is heard in the English bull, full, pulpit, 
&c. The former (as in loot) is commonly 
said to be the sound of u after r, as in rule ; 
but the great majority of educated speakers, at 
least in the United States, seem to make this 
nearly identical with the u in dupe. In French 
the letter has a sound of its own (that of e 
modified in the direction of oo), which cannot 
be represented in our tongue, and resembling 
the German u. In some cases in English, and 
in many more in other languages, u when fol- 
lowed by another vowel has the sound of Eng- 
lish w, as after q. In English and French it is 
silent between g and a vowel, while in Spanish 
it is pronounced before a ; in the latter again 
(as usually also in French) it is silent after q, 
for which c is substituted when the u is to be 
pronounced, as in ciiestion. In Italian and 
German u is never silent. U is interchange- 



able with a, as in the Arabic definite article, 
which is rendered ul and al, or in Ger. Hut, 
Eng. hat ; with i, as Lat. maxumus and maxi- 
mus ; with o, as Lat. dulcis, It. dolce ; with the 
diphthongs CB and oi, as Lat. cura, old form 
coira or ccera; with au, as Lat. mus, Ger. 
Maus ; with e, as Lat. Siculus, Gr. ZiKeMz, 
Lat. tabula, Ger. Tafel, Ger. Ulme, Eng. elm; 
with I, as Eng. stout, Ger. stole, Fr. autel, 
Eng. altar. U never occurs in ancient Latin 
inscriptions, V being used instead. 

I'ltlCI.M, Jean Henri Abdolonyme, a French 
author, born in Issoudun, Oct. 20, 1818. He 
early explored the East, and in 1848 partici- 
pated in the revolution at Bucharest, and be- 
came secretary of the provisional government. 
Subsequently he settled in Paris. His works 
include Lettres sur la Turquie (2 vols., 1849- 
'51; English, London, 1856); La Turquie ac- 
tuelle (1855) ; and La question des principautes 
danubiennes de-cant VEurope (1858). He has 
also translated the Saturnalia of Macrobius 
(1845) and edited the works of Voiture (1856), 
and for several years the Revue de V Orient. 

HAY ALL See AMAZON, and PERU. 

I ('CELLO (PAOLO DI DONO), an Italian paint- 
er, born in Florence about 1390, died about 
1472. He was called Uccello from his predilec- 
tion for birds. He was the first painter to de- 
velop the principles of perspective. He paint- 
ed principally in fresco. Few of his works 
remain. 

I HIKES, a small tribe of American Indians, 
first found on both sides of the Savannah river 
as far down as the Ogeechee. They were civil, 
orderly, and industrious, and their women 
were noted for chastity. In the troubles about 
the time of the Yemassee war they moved to 
the Chattahoochee, and finally were merged 
in the Creek confederacy, emigrating with them 
to the Indian territory. Though long identi- 
fied with the Creeks, they retain their own 
language and customs. The former is peculiar- 
ly harsh and guttural. 

I'DALL, Nicholas, an English author, born in 
Hampshire in 1506, died in 1564. He was 
educated at Oxford, was master successively 
of Eton and Westminster schools, and in the 
early part of the reign of Edward VI. was 
appointed to a canonry at Windsor. He pub- 
lished "Flovres for Latyne Spekynge" (Lon- 
don, 1533), a series of selections from Terence ; 
some translations from the Latin works of Eras- 
mus; and a Latin tragedy, De Papatu (1540). 
He was probably the first writer of regular 
English comedies, divided into acts and scenes. 
Wood says he wrote several, but only one is 
extant, " Ealph Eoister Doister " (reprinted by 
the Shakespeare society, London, 1847). 

UDINE. I. A N. E. province of Italy, in 
Venetia, embracing the larger portion of the 
former duchy of Friuli, and bordering on Aus- 



102 



UEBERWEG 



tria and the Adriatic; area, 2,515 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1872, 481,586. The chief river is the Ta- 
gliamerito. The N. part is covered with off- 
shoots of the Alps, and the S. part is marshy; 
about one half of it is level. Agriculture has 
made considerable progress during the last 50 
years, and the cereals produced in the level dis- 
tricts now suffice for the whole province. In 
the production of silk Udine occupies the first 
rank in Italy. It has also marble caves and 
sulphur springs. The province is divided into 
17 districts. II. A town, capital of the prov- 
ince, in an extensive plain on the canal of La 
Rbja, 60 m. 1ST. E. of Venice, and 38 m. N. W. 
of Trieste ; pop. about 26,700. It is walled 
and fortified, and has a fine -cathedral, several 
hospitals, and a monumental pillar by Camalli, 
erected to commemorate the peace of 1797 
concluded at the neighboring village of Campo 
Formio. The campo santo is one of the finest 
cemeteries in Europe. 

UEBERWEG, Friedrieh, a German historian of 
philosophy, born near Solingen, Rhenish Prus- 
sia, Jan. 22, 1826, died in Konigsberg, June 7, 
1871. He completed his studies at Gottingen 
and Berlin, and was a tutor at the university 
of Bonn from 1852 to 1862, and subsequently 
professor of philosophy at Konigsberg. His 
works include System der Logik und Geschichte 
der logischen Lehren (Bonn, 1857 ; 3d ed., 1868 ; 
English translation by Thomas Lindsay, Lon- 
don, 1871), in which he agreed with Trende- 
lenburg in the renewed founding of logic on 
Aristotelian principles ; Grundrm der Geschichte 
der Philosophic von Thales Ms auf die Gegen- 
wart (3 vols., Berlin, 1862-'6 ; English trans- 
lation from the 4th German ed., " History of 
Philosophy," by George S. Morris, with addi- 
tions by President Porter of Yale college, a 
preface by Professors Henry B. Smith and 
Philip Schaff, and an appendix on Italian philos- 
ophy by Vincenzo Botta, New York, 1872-'4); 
and a translation of Berkeley's " Principles of 
Human Knowledge " (in Kirchmann's Philoso- 
phische Bibliothek, 1869), which gave rise to a 
controversy. See Friedrieh Ueberweg, by Prof. 
Fr. A. Lange of Zurich (Berlin, 1871). 

UFA. I. An E. government of European 
Russia, bordering on Perm, Orenburg (of 
which till 1865 it formed the N. W. part), 
Samara, Kazan, andViatka; area, 47,031 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 1,364,925. The Ural moun- 
tains constitute the E. frontier; the rest of 
the surface is hilly or level. It is watered by 
the Bielaya river, a tributary of the Kama, 
and its numerous affluents, the most important 
of which is the Ufa. The region of the Bie- 
laya is the most fertile in the Ural mountains. 
II. A city, capital of the government, at the 
confluence of the Ufa and Bielaya, built on 
rocks and surrounded by mountains, 200 m. 
N. by E. of Orenburg; pop. in 1867, 20,166. 
It is the seat of a Greek bishop and of a 
Mohammedan mufti, and has an ecclesiastical 
seminary, a gymnasium, 12 Greek churches, 
and a mosque. In January a large fair is held, 



UJLTI 

lasting ten days. Ufa was laid out as a fpr- 
tress toward the close of the 16th century, and 
was improved after a conflagration in 1816. 

UGGIONE, Marco da. See OGGIONE. 

UGOCSi, a N. E. county of Hungary, in the 
Trans-Tibiscan circle, bordering on the coun- 
ties of Bereg, Marmaros, and Szatmar; area, 
460 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 67,498, chiefly Ru- 
thenians and Magyars. The N. and E. parts 
are mountainous. It is intersected by the 
Theiss. Pastures, forests, and mines abound, 
and the principal pursuits are cattle raising 
and fishing. Capital, Nagy-Szollos. 

IGOLUVO. See GHERABOESCA. 

UGRIANS. See FINNS. 

UHLAND, Johann Ludwig, a German poet, born 
in Tubingen, April 26, 1787, died there, Nov. 
13, 1862. He graduated in law at Tubingen in 
1810, and from 1812 to 1814 practised at Stutt- 
gart in connection with the ministry of jus- 
tice. He wrote poetry for periodicals as early 
as 1806. The war of independence against 
Napoleon roused his patriotic feelings, and the 
first collection of his Gedichte (1815) was re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm ; and over 50 edi- 
tions, gradually enlarged, have since appeared. 
In 1819 he became a member of the Wurtem- 
berg assembly. He was professor of the Ger- 
man language and literature at Tubingen from 
1830 to 1833, when he resigned to take a more 
active part as a liberal leader in the diet, from 
which he retired in 1839. In 1848 he was 
a member of the Frankfort parliament. His 
works include, besides the above mentioned 
collection of Gedichte, the dramas Ernst von 
Schwaben and Ludwig der Bayer (1817-'19 ; 
3d ed., 1863) ; Alte hoch- und niederdeuteche 
Volkslieder (1844-'5) ; and Schriften zur Ge- 
schichte der Dichtung und Sage (8 vols., 1865- 
'73), comprising his learned works relating to 
early German and Norse literature and my- 
thology. He had in his days no superior as a 
lyrical poet. Longfellow has translated some 
of his pieces. Alexander Platt translated his 
"Poems" (Leipsic, 1848), W. W. Skeat his 
"Songs and Ballads" (London, 1864), and W. 
C. Sanders his "Poems" (1869). See Ludwig 
Uhland, seine Freunde und Zeitgenossen, by 
Mayer (2 vols., Stuttgart, 1867); UJiland's Le- 
ten, edited by his widow (Stuttgart, 1874) ; and 
Uhland und Ruckert, by S. Pfizer (1875). 

UIGURS. See TCRKS. 

M Yl'\ II. the W. county of Wyoming, bounded 
N. by Montana, S. by Utah, and W. by Utah, 
Idaho, and Montana ; area, about 13,500 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 856. It is crossed by the Rocky 
mountains, and contains the sources of the 
Green, Snake, Yellowstone, and Missouri riv- 
ers. It contains deposits of coal. The N. por- 
tion is occupied by the Yellowstone national 
park. (See WYOMING.) The Union Pacific rail- 
road crosses the S. part. The Uintah mountains 
lie along its S. border in Utah, projecting E. 
from the Wahsatch range. Capital, Evanston. 

UJIJI, a district of central Africa, on the E. 
shore of Lake Tanganyika, about half way 



UKRAINE 



ULFILAS 



103 



between its centre and N. extremity, bounded 
N. by the district of Urundi, E. by Ubuha, 
S. by Ukaranga, and W. by the lake. The 
surface is hilly, the soil exceedingly fertile, 
and the climate humid. It is one of the most 
productive districts in the region. The princi- 
pal crops are ground nuts, peas, beans, haricots, 
and holcus ; but sugar cane, tobacco, and cot- 
ton are sometimes raised. Among the fruits are 
the Guinea palm and the plantain, and among 
the vegetables are the sweet potato, yam, egg 
plant, manioc, and cucumber. The inhabitants, 
the Wajiji, are a large, strong race, with dark 
skins, which they tattoo, woolly hair, and large 
flat feet and hands. What is generally called 
the town of Ujiji, or Kawele, is a collection of 
huts and mud hovels on the shore of the lake 
(lat. 4 58' 3" S., Ion. 30 4' 30" E.), around a 
raised plot of ground called the bazaar, where 
the coast Arabs come to trade. It was here 
that Stanley found Livingstone, Nov. 10, 1871. 

UKRAINE (Pol. Ukraina, border land), for- 
merly the name of a S. E. province of inde- 
pendent Poland, on both sides of the Dnieper, 
and bordering on the Tartar territories. In 
later times it was divided into Polish and Rus- 
sian Ukraine. Since 1793 it has wholly be- 
longed to Russia, and it is now identical with 
Little Russia, comprising the governments of 
Kiev, Tchernigov, Poltava, and Kharkov. (See 
COSSACKS.) 

CLEABORG. I. The northernmost Ian of Fin- 
land, Russia, bordering on Norway and Swe- 
den ; area, 63,955 sq. m. ; pop. in 1872, 185,- 
890. It is mountainous, and contains a vast 
number of lakes and marshes, including Lake 
Enar'e. On account of its high latitude, it is 
little fitted for agriculture. The chief product 
is berries. The main pursuits are fishing and 
bird catching. II. A town, capital of the Ian, 
on a peninsula at the mouth of the Ulea (Swed. 
UUd] in the gulf of Bothnia, 330 m. N. of 
Helsingfors ; pop. in 1867, 7,602. It has a 
lighthouse, a fine church, and much industry 
and trade, in which it ranks next to Abo. On 
an adjacent island is the old castle of Ulea- 
borg. In 1854 an English fleet destroyed much 
national Russian property at Uleaborg, as well 
as at Brahestad, in the same province. 

ULEMA (the Arabic plural of alim, a learned 
man), the collective name of the body of learned 
men in Turkey. In a general sense ulema are 
persons who are learned in both law and di- 
vinity. They form a distinct body in Constan- 
tinople, whose office is to watch over the cor- 
rect interpretation of the Koran and the right 
application of its teachings to law and polity. 
The head of the ulema is the grand mufti or 
sheikh ul-islam; next to him come the kazia- 
skiers, of whom there is one for Europe and 
one for Asia ; the third class are the mollahs, 
the superior judges in the provinces ; and after 
them are the cadis and the common muftis. 
(See CADI, and MXJFTI.) The kaziaskiers have 
a voice and vote in the divan, and all cadis 
are appointed by and subject to them. 



IXEX, a genus of much branched, very thorny 
shrubs of the leguminosce, popularly called furze 
and gorse, and sometimes whin. The simple 
leaves are mostly reduced to mere prickles, 
and the numerous short branches terminate 
in spines ; the axillary, yellow flowers have a 
calyx deeply divided into two lips, and colored 
like the petals ; the stamens are united to form 
a complete tube ; the pod is few-seeded. There 
are about a dozen species, natives of Europe 
and northern Africa ; two are found in Great 
Britain, and others are sometimes cultivated. 
The common furze (U. Europceus) is a very 
social plant, often covering large tracts, form- 
ing a feature in the landscape, and when in 
flower is very attractive. In exposed situa- 
tions it is a straggling bush, but in the shelter 
of woods it grows 10 ft. high, and in southern 
Europe 18 ft. ; it is sometimes seen in collec- 
tions of shrubbery in this country, but it is 
difficult to keep in the northern states ; in Eng- 
land, though a native, in severe winters it is 
killed to the ground. The principal use of 
the plant is as 
a food for cat- 
tle ; it has long 
been the cus- 
tom in Norman- 
dy to cut the 
tops, and, after 
passing them 
through a mill 
to crush the 
spines, to feed 
them in the 
green state; it 
is there culti- 
vated for this 
purpose, as it 
has been in 
parts of Eng- 
land, but its in- 
trinsic value as 
food does not 
warrant the cost of its cultivation and prepara- 
tion ; its growth is encouraged in England as a 
game cover. There is a double-flowered vari- 
ety, and another form with compact and erect 
branches called Irish furze. Some regard the 
dwarf or French furze as a variety of the pre- 
ceding, while others consider it distinct (V. 
nanus) ; it is much smaller, and has deeper 
yellow flowers, which appear from August to 
December, while the other blooms in spring. 

ULFILAS, Ophites, Ulfila, or Wulfila, a Gothic 
bishop, born among the Goths in 310 or 311, 
died in Constantinople about 381. He is be- 
lieved to have belonged to a family of Cappa- 
docian Christians, whom the Goths had carried 
into captivity about 267. He was master of 
the Gothic, Greek, and Hebrew languages, be- 
came bishop of the Goths in 341, and in 348, 
at the head of the Christian minority of his 
people, and with the permission of the empe- 
ror Constantius, he settled in Mcesian territory, 
near Nicopolis. He persuaded his followers 




Furze or Gorse (Ulex Europeans). 



104 



ULLMANN 



to devote themselves to agriculture and the 
peaceful arts, while the pagan majority only 
thought of war. He propagated among his 
people the love of letters, formed an alphabet 
of 24 characters based on the Greek, and trans- 
lated for popular use into Moaso-Gothic the 
whole Bible except the books of Kings. This 
version, in which it is thought he was assist- 
ed by his friend and successor Senelas, and of 
which only fragments exist, is the earliest 
known specimen of the Teutonic language. 
Among its recent editors and commentators 
are Gabelenz, Lobe, Massmann, and Stamm. 
A new edition, by E. Bernhardt, with various 
readings, a commentary, and critical introduc- 
tion, together with the Greek text, appeared 
at Halle in 1876. Ulfilas's Bible was in con- 
stant use among the Gothic peoples so long as 
they preserved their nationality. (See GOTHIC 
LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE, vol. viii., pp. 124, 
125, and ARGENTEUS CODEX.) He was a semi- 
Arian, subscribed the creed of Rimini in 359, 
was at the Arian synod of Constantinople in 
360, and died while attending the oecumenical 
council of 381. See Waitz, Ueber das Leben 
und die Lehre des Ulfilas (1840), and Bessel, 
Ueber da Leben des Ulfilas und die Bekehrung 
der Q-othen (1860). 

CLLMAM, Karl, a German theologian, born 
at Epfenbach, Bavaria, March 15, 1796, died 
in Oarlsruhe, Jan. 12, 1865. He was succes- 
sively professor at Halle and Heidelberg, and 
in 1853 became bishop of the state church in 
Baden, and in 1856 president of the supreme 
ecclesiastical council, retiring in 1860. He 
was a friend and adopted the views of Schlei- 
ermacher. In 1828 he joined Umbreit in es- 
tablishing the Protestant quarterly review en- 
titled Studien und Kritiken, for which he wrote 
able essays, afterward enlarged in separate 
publications. His works include Cfregor von 
Nazianz (Darmstadt, 1825); Historisch oder 
mythisch ? directed against Strauss' s " Life of 
Christ" (Hamburg, 1838); Ueber den Cultus 
des Genius (1840 ; English translation, " The 
Worship of Genius," London, 1846) ; Ueber 
die Reformatoren wr der Reformation (2 vols., 
1841; English translation, " Reformers before 
the Reformation," by Robert Menzies, 2 vols., 
Edinburgh, 1855) ; Ueber die SfmdlosiglceU 
Cftrifti j[1841 ; 7th ed., Gotha, 1863; English 
translation, "Apologetic View of the Sinless 
Character of Jesus," Edinburgh, 1841); and 
Ueber das Wesen des Christenthums (Hamburg, 
1845 ; 4th ed., Gotha, 1854). 

ILLOV, Antonio de, a Spanish naval officer, 
born in Seville, Jan. 12, 1716, died in the 
Isla de Leon, near Cadiz, July 3, 1795. He 
was educated for the navy, became in 1733 a 
member of the royal marine guards, and in 
1735 a lieutenant, when he was sent to South 
America with the French academicians who 
were commissioned to measure a degree of 
the meridian at the equator. From this he 
was called away to assist in putting the coast 
m a state of defence against Lord Anson's 



ULM 

expedition. In October, 1744, he embarked 
for Europe, but was captured by the British, 
and carried to London, where his scientific 
friends obtained his liberty, and made him a 
member of the royal society. On his return 
to Spain in 1746 he wrote a history of the 
expedition, the scientific portion being written 
by his companion, Jorge Juan (4 vols., Madrid, 
1748; translated into English, "A Voyage to 
South America," 2 vols., London, 1772 ; 4th 
ed., 1806). In 1755 he went a second time to 
America, and after the peace of 1763 was 
made governor of Louisiana, where he arrived 
in March, 1766. An insurrection obliged him 
to leave the colony, and he returned to Europe. 
In 1772 he published a volume of essays on 
the natural history and antiquities of America, 
and in 1778 "Observations of a Solar Eclipse 
made at Sea." He was now a lieutenant gen- 
eral in the naval service, and was appointed 
to the command of a squadron intended to 
capture off the Azores an English merchant 
fleet heavily laden, and afterward to sail to 
Havana and join an expedition fitting out 
against Florida. Absorbed in his scientific 
investigations, Ulloa forgot to open his sealed 
orders, and after cruising about for two months 
without success returned. He was tried in 
1780 by a court martial demanded by himself, 
and, though acquitted, never again engaged in 
active service. 

ULM, a city of Wurtemberg, capital of the 
circle of the Danube, situated in a fertile val- 
ley on the left bank of the Danube at its junc- 
tion with the Iller and Blau, and at the foot 
of the E. spurs of the Swabian Alps, 45 m. S. 
E. of Stuttgart; pop. in 1871, 26,214. 'The 
Danube becomes here fully navigable, and forms 
the boundary between Wurtemberg and Ba- 
varia. The town has the quaint and stately 
aspect of most former imperial cities, and con- 
tains many memorable public and private build- 
ings. The Munster is one of the most celebra- 
ted achievements of early German architecture, 
and one of the largest Protestant churches in 
Germany. Its stained glass windows are of 
remarkable finish, and it has many works of 
art and a very large organ. The tower, origi- 
nally designed to be 500 ft. high, only rises to 
about 250 ft. The edifice has been for some 
time in process of restoration. The provincial 
authorities occupy the former' palace of the 
order of Teutonic knights, and there is also 
a royal palace. The city library, one of the 
earliest in Germany, contains a collection of 
remarkable antiquities. Ulm is one of the great 
commercial centres of Wurtemberg, though 
railway traffic has become a formidable rival 
of the trade on the Danube. The railways to 
Stuttgart, Friedrichshafen, Augsburg, Kemp- 
ten, and Blaubeuern all form a junction at Ulm 
in a single station. The products include fine 
flour and pipe bowls, which have a wide repu- 
tation. The trade is especially active in deals. 
Ulm was formerly an imperial city of the 
Swabian circle, and held the most prominent 



ULPIAN 



ULSTER 



105 



place in the Swabian diet. In the 15th cen- 
tury it had more than 50,000 inhabitants, be- 
sides 40,000 in the adjoining territory, then 
belonging to the town. Its wealth became 
proverbial, but the strategical importance of 
Ulm involved it in nearly all great German 
wars. In 1803 it was annexed to Bavaria. 
The Austrian general Mack surrendered here 
to Napoleon, Oct. 20, 1805, with his entire 
army of 23,000 men. Subsequently it was re- 
stored to Bavaria, and in 1810 it was allotted 
to Wurtemberg, the former country retaining 
only the village of Neu-Ulm, on the opposite 
bank of the Danube. The extensive fortifica- 
tions of Ulm are situated partly in Wurtem- 
berg, partly in Bavarian territory. 

ULPIAN (DoMixius ULPIANUS), a Roman ju- 
rist, assassinated at Rome, A. D. 228. He was 
of Tyrian origin, and during the reigns of Sep- 
timius Severus and Caracalla wrote juristical 
works. When Elagabalus ascended the throne 
in 218 he was banished, but in 222 he became 
one of the chief advisers of Alexander Severus, 
who made him Scriniorum magiater, consilia- 
rius, and prcefectus annonce. He also held the 
office of praetorian prefect. He was killed 
by the soldiers in the presence of the emperor 
and his mother. Ulpian was one of the most 
distinguished of the Roman jurists, and from 
his works were taken about one third of the 
excerpts made for Justinian's Digest. 

ULRICI, Hermann, a German philosopher, born 
at Pforten, Lusatia, March 23, 1806. He was 
educated at Halle and Berlin, and practised 
law for some time, but in 1829 devoted him- 
self to philosophical studies, and in 1834 be- 
came professor at Halle. He was also one of 
the joint editors of the ZeitscJirift fur Philo- 
sophie. His position in philosophy is inde- 
pendent, and he strives to mediate between 
realism and idealism. His works include Oe- 
sehiehte der hellenischen Dichtkunst (2 vols., 
Berlin, 1835); Ueber Shakspeare's dramatische 
Kunst (Halle, 1839; 3d ed., 1868; English 
translation by A. I. W. Morrison, London, 
1846) ; Ueber Princip und Methode der HegeV- 
schen Philosophic (1841) ; Das Grundprincip 
der Philosophic (Leipsic, 1845-'6) ; System der 
LogiTc (1852) ; Olauben und Wissen, speculative 
und exacte Wissenschaft (1858) ; Compendium 
der Logik (1860 ; enlarged ed., 1872) ; Gott und 
die Natur (1862 ; 2d ed., 1866) ; Gott und der 
Mensch (1866 et seq.) Zur logischen Frage 
(Halle, 1870) ; and Der Philosoph &riwtf(1878). 

ULSTER, a S. E. county of New York, 
bounded E. by the Hudson river, and drained 
by the Esopus, Rondout, and Wallkill creeks ; 
area, 1,204 sq. m. ; pop. in 1875, 88,271. The 
surface is broken by the Catskill and Shawan- 
gunk ridges, and the soil is generally best 
adapted to grazing. Iron ore, limestone, slate, 
and marl are found, and there are indications 
of the existence of coal, lead, plumbago, and 
alum. Large quantities of flagging stone are 
exported. The Delaware and Hudson canal 
passes through it, and it is also intersected by 



the New York, Kingston, and Syracuse rail- 
road. The chief productions in 1870 were 
42,532 bushels of wheat, 107,502 of rye, 394,- 
004 of Indian corn, 447,837 of oats, 132,515 of 
buckwheat, 688,435 of potatoes, 1,631,956 Ibs. 
of butter, 41,595 of wool, and 97,995 tons of 
hay. There were 8,928 horses, 17,640 milch 
cows, 12,597 other cattle, 14,119 sheep, and 
14,070 swine. There were 690 manufacturing 
establishments; capital invested, $4,938,201; 
value of products, $10,213,187. The principal 
manufactories were 54 of carriages and wagons, 
3 of hubs and wagon material, 10 of bricks, 11 
of cement, 13 of cooperage, 2 of edge tools and 
axes, 14 of furniture,! of glass ware, 9 of iron, 
3 of lime, 4 of machinery, 7 of marble and 
stone work, 1 of paints, 4 of paper, 5 of wool- 
lens, 38 saw mills, 6 breweries, 15 tanneries, 
and 34 flour mills. Capital, Kingston. 

ULSTER, one of the four provinces of Ireland, 
constituting the N. part of the island, bounded 
W. and N. by the Atlantic ocean, E. by the 
North channel and Irish sea, S. E. by Leinster, 
and S. W. by Connaught ; area, about 8,550 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1871, 1,830,398, nearly half of them 
Protestants. It is divided into the counties 
of Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, 
Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan, and Ty- 
rone. The coasts are generally rugged and in- 
dented by numerous bays and harbors, the 
chief of which are Carlingford bay, Dundrum 
bay, Strangford lough, Belfast lough, Lough 
Larne, Lough Foyle, Lough Swilly, Mulroy 
bay, Sheep Haven, and Donegal bay. The 
principal rivers are the Erne, Foyle, Bann, and 
Lagan. A considerable part of the surface is 
mountainous, and two chains traverse the 
province from E. to W., the highest peaks being 
in the counties of Donegal and Down ; Errigal 
in the former and Slieve Donard in the latter 
are respectively 2,460 and 2,796 ft. high. Be- 
tween these ranges is an extensive tract of un- 
dulating ground, near the centre of which is 
Lough Neagh. Other large lakes are Upper and 
Lower Lough Erne, and Loughs Melvin, Shee- 
lin, Oughter, Derg, Esk, and Veagh. Ulster 
is the seat of the Irish linen manufacture, 
which supports about one fourth of the popu- 
lation. Cotton is extensively manufactured in 
Belfast and vicinity. Internal communication 
is facilitated by railways and canals, and nu- 
merous excellent roads. Ulster was partly 
conquered and held as an earldom tinder Henry 
II. by John de Courcy, from whom it was 
transferred to Hugh de Lacy ; and by descent 
from him, through the De Burgh and Mortimer 
families, the title was merged in the crown of 
England under Edward IV. James L colo- 
nized Ulster with Scotch and English Protestant 
settlers, to whom he gave grants of land in 
lots of 1,000, 1,500, and 2,000 acres. The in- 
surrection of 1641 was to overthrow these 
Protestant settlements. Several towns were 
taken, the country was devastated, many thou- 
sand lives were sacrificed, and it was not till 
1649 that the rebellion was completely quelled. 



106 



ULTRAMARINE 



ULTRAMARINE, a beautiful blue pigment ori- 
ginally made from lapis lazuli (see LAPIS LA- 
ZULI), but now prepared in large quantities 
artificially. Its fabrication was suggested by 
the discovery of blue masses on taking down 
soda furnaces and lime kilns ; and the societe 
d 1 encouragement at Paris in 1824 offered a prize 
of 6,000 francs for its production, which was 
awarded to Guimet of Toulouse in 1828. A 
mode of preparation had previously been pub- 
lished by Christian Gmelin, in the beginning of 
the same year. Guimet's process was first ap- 
plied on the manufacturing scale, but was kept 
secret. Gmelin's process was long followed, 
but many others have finally come into use. 
The following process, given by Prof. Miller 
of London, answers well upon a small scale : 
An intimate mixture of 100 parts of finely 
washed kaolin, 100 of sodic carbonate, 60 of 
sulphur, and 12 of charcoal is exposed in a 
covered crucible to a bright red heat for three 
hours and a half. The residue, which should 
not be in a fused condition, is green. The 
product after grinding is well washed, dried, 
and mixed with one fifth of its weight of sul- 
phur, and exposed in a thin layer to a gentle 
heat a little above that required to burn off the 
sulphur, which being accomplished the process 
is repeated two or three times, until the mass 
becomes bright blue. The green modification, 
the product of the initial process, is also manu- 
factured for the market. There is some doubt 
as to the nature of the coloring matter of ultra- 
marine. According to the experiments of 
Wilkens, ultramarine is composed of two por- 
tions, one constant, containing the coloring 
matter and soluble in hydrochloric acid, while 
the other contains a variable amount of clay, 
ferric oxide, and sulphuric acid. 

ULTRAMONTANISTS (Lat. ultra monies, be- 
yond the mountains), the name formerly ap- 
plied to all theologians in the Roman Catholic 
church who advocated the highest spiritual and 
temporal power of the papacy, and bestowed 
since 1870 on all who accept the decrees of the 
Vatican council. The name originated with 
the French Gallicans, who denied to the popes 
all right to depose sovereigns or to inter- 
fere in the temporal affairs of states and of 
national churches, and maintained that the 
doctrinal judgments of the popes only become 
infallible and binding on the conscience when 
confirmed by the consent of the church, and 
that the authority of a general council is 
superior to that of the pope. The contrary 
view being held "beyond the Alps" and 
throughout Italy, its supporters were called 
Transalpini and ultramontani. At the coun- 
cil of Constance, where these adverse opinions 
came conspicuously into conflict, the designa- 
tion of ultramontane was extended to persons 
of every nationality who denied the superiority 
of the council over the pope. After that coun- 
cil the question of the direct or indirect power 
of the papacy over states and sovereigns be- 
came the chief point of dispute, and the ques- 



ULYSSES 

tion everywhere assumed a national character. 
In Germany Febronius (Bishop Hontheim) 
wrote a powerful work against ultramontan- 
ism; and in 1786, at the convention of Ems, 
the 'archbishops of Mentz, Treves, Cologne, 
and Salzburg denounced it. In Italy its chief 
opponent in the last century was Scipione 
Ricci, bishop of Pistoja, who convened a synod 
in that city in September, 1786, and promul- 
gated disciplinary decrees and a doctrinal ex- 
position favoring extreme Gallicanism and Jan- 
senism. These were partly confirmed, April 
23, 1787, by an assembly of the bishops of 
Tuscany ; bnt the grand duke, who had been 
the chief promoter of these measures, having 
become emperor as Leopold II. in 1790, al- 
lowed his successor to restrain and punish 
Ricci and his followers. The acts of the synod 
of Pistoja were condemned by Pius VI. in the 
dogmatic bull Auctoremfidei of Aug. 28, 1794. 
The political aspects of ultramontanism were 
once more brought into prominent notice in 
1869-'70 in connection with the council of the 
Vatican and the doctrine of papal infallibility. 
Since then the tendencies of ultramontanism 
in its bearings on civil allegiance have been 
vehemently discussed, especially in Germany, 
Switzerland, Italy, and England. 

ULYSSES, or Odyssens (Gr. 'Odwnrei-f), one of 
the Greek leaders at the siege of Troy. Ac- 
cording to the Homeric account, he was the 
son of Laertes and Anticlea, and married Penel- 
ope, the daughter of Icarius, by whom he had 
a son named Telemachus. He ruled in Itha- 
ca, and only with great difficulty could be in- 
duced to join the expedition against Troy. 
According to one form of the legend, he simu- 
lated insanity to avoid taking part, and ploughed 
the sand on the beach ; Palamedes exposed the 
deception by placing his infant son Telemachus 
in the furrow, at which Ulysses turned the 
plough aside. The falsity of his madness being 
thus disclosed, he joined the Grecian fleet at 
Aulis with 12 ships, and when the expedition 
had reached Tenedos was sent with Menelaus 
to Troy to demand Helen and the stolen prop- 
erty. The mission was unsuccessful. In the 
ten years' war he was distinguished for his 
prowess as a warrior, but far more for his elo- 
quence, sagacity, and inexhaustible resources 
under difficulties. After the death of Achilles 
his armor was offered as a prize to the greatest 
warrior in the Greek army, and Ulysses and 
Ajax became rivals for the honor, the former 
proving successful. By his contrivance the 
Palladium was carried away from Troy by 
stealth, and he was one of the heroes con- 
cealed in the wooden horse which the Trojans 
to their ruin introduced into the city. His 
ten .years' wanderings after the close of the 
siege form the subject of the Odyssey. After 
various adventures he was thrown upon the 
coasts of the Lotophagi, where his compan- 
ions, having eaten of the lotus, wished to re- 
main. But he induced them to depart, sailed 
to the island of the Cyclops, and with 12 of 



UMATILLA 



UMBRE 



107 



his followers entered the cave of Polyphemus, 
who devoured six of his companions. Ulysses 
made the giant drunk with wine, put out his 
one eye with a burning pole, and then tying 
himself and his companions under the bodies 
of the sheep, escaped when these were let out 
of the cave. Polyphemus implored his father 
Neptune to visit Ulysses with his vengeance, 
and the remainder of his voyage was constant- 
ly disturbed. Reaching the island of ^Eolus, 
Ulysses was presented by that deity on his de- 
parture with a bag containing the winds that 
were to bring him home ; but his followers 
opened the bag without his knowledge, the 
winds escaped, and the vessels were driven 
back to the island. After six days he reached 
the country of the cannibal Lsestrygones, from 
which he escaped with only one ship. Thence 
he sailed to ^Esea, inhabited by the sorceress 
Circe, who changed part of his followers into 
swine. Through the aid of Mercury he over- 
came her spells, and his companions resumed 
their human shape. Circe now treated them 
kindly, and by her advice Ulysses descended 
into Hades to consult the seer Tiresias. The 
prophet assured him that everything would 
turn out right if the herds of Helios in Trina- 
cria should be left unharmed. Returning to 
^Esea, he was carried to the island of the sirens, 
but by filling the ears of his companions with 
wax and tying himself to the mast he passed 
them in safety. His ship then came between 
Scylla and Charybdis, and the monster Scylla 
carried off and devoured six of his companions. 
Coming to Trinacria, he was compelled by his 
companions to land. There they were detained 
by storms, and while he was sleeping some of 
the finest of the cattle of Helios, which they 
had sworn not to touch, were killed and eaten 
by his followers. As soon as they were again 
on the open sea, another storm arose, and the 
vessel was destroyed by lightning, all on board 
being drowned except Ulysses. He was car- 
ried to the island of Ogygia, inhabited by the 
nymph Calypso, who promised him immortali- 
ty and eternal youth if he would marry and 
remain with her. But after a stay of seven 
years he embarked on a raft, and reached Sche- 
ria, from which place he was sent to Ithaca in 
a ship, having been absent 20 years. He found 
his wife beset by suitors (see PENELOPE), all 
of whom he slew with the aid of Minerva and 
his son Telemachus. Of his later life and of 
his death there are different accounts. In 
one, his son Telegonus by Circe, being sent to 
look for his father, and being shipwrecked on 
Ithaca and beginning to plunder for the sake 
of obtaining food, was attacked by Ulysses and 
Telemachus, and in the contest that followed 
Telegonus slew his own father. 

CMATILLA, a N. E. county of Oregon, border- 
ing on Washington territory, bounded N. W. 
by the Columbia river and E. by the Blue 
mountains, and watered by the Umatilla river 
and other streams; area, 5,300 sq. m. ; pop. in 
1870, 2,916, of whom 70 were ChineUe. The 



river valleys are fertile ; back of these are roll- 
ing prairies and high table lands covered with 
pasturage, and beyond these hills well wooded 
with pines. Gold is mined in the mountains 
and on the bars of the Columbia. Coal, cop- 
per, and iron are also found. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 28,209 bushels of wheat, 
9,789 of Indian corn, 66,634 of oats, 11,782 of 
barley, 26,413 of potatoes, 97,564 Ibs. of wool, 
72,730 of butter, and 3,394 tons of hay. There 
were 13,712 horses, 7,317 milch cows, 9,240 
other cattle, 29,960 sheep, and 2,027 swine. 
Capital, Pendleton. 

UMBER* a pigment much used by artists 
for brown and grave colors. It is made from 
an argillaceous brown hematite having the for- 
mula 2FeaO3,3H 2 O, by roasting, pulverizing, 
and mixing it with variable proportions of clay 
or ochre, and sometimes with a little oxide of 
manganese, or it may be used alone. Ordinary 
roasting does not drive off all the water, and 
in this state it is called raw umber. When 
strongly heated it is completely dehydrated, 
and is called burnt umber. It is used both in 
oil and water colors, and is often mixed with 
other pigments. 

II9IBRE, a wading bird of the heron family, 
and genus scopua (Briss.). The bill is longer 
than the head, elevated at the base, compressed 




Tufted Timbre (Scopus umbretta). 

laterally, keeled above and below, and a little 
bent at the point ; the nostrils prolonged in a 
furrow ; third and fourth quills equal and long- 
est ; tail short and even ; tarsi longer than 
middle toe and scaled; front toes united by 
membrane to first phalanx, the hind one rest- 
ing wholly on the ground ; claws short and 
slightly curved. The only described species, 
the tufted umbre (S. umbretta, Gmel.), is 20 
in. long, with a bill of 3 in. ; the color is a 
uniform umber brown, the wings and tail 
barred with darker ; the male has an occipital 
crest about 4 in. long, of loose feathers. It is 
a native of Africa. 



108 



UMBREIT 



HIBREIT, Friedrich WMhelm Karl, a German 
Protestant theologian, born' at Sonneborn, 
Gotha, April 11, 1795, died in Heidelberg, 
April 26, 1860. He studied theology at Got- 
tingen, especially under Eichhorn, and wrote 
a prize essay, Commentatio Historiam Emiro- 
rum-al-Omrah ex Abulfeda exUbens (Gottin- 
gen, 1816). In 1820 he was appointed ex- 
traordinary professor of theology and philoso- 
phy in Heidelberg, in 1823 ordinary professor 
of philosophy, and in 1829 ordinary profes- 
sor of theology. His works include Lied der 
Liebe (Gottingen, 1820) ; Uebersetzung und Aus- 
legung des Buches Hiob (Heidelberg, 1824); 
Oommentar uler die Spriiche Salomes (Heidel- 
berg, 1826); Ohristliche Erbauung aus dem 
Psalter (Hamburg, 1835) ; Grundtone des Alien 
Testaments (Heidelberg, 1843) ; and Commen- 
tar uber die Propheten des Alien Testaments 
(4 vols., Hamburg, 1841-'6), his principal work. 
He was also, with his friend Dr. Ullmann, edi- 
tor of the Studien und Kritiken, the principal 
theological quarterly of Protestant Germany. 

UMBRELLA (diminutive of Lat. umbra, a 
shade), a folding shade or screen, carried 
over the head as a protection from rain or 
sun. When small and used by ladies only as 
a sunshade, it is called a parasol (Ital. parare, 
to ward off, and sole, the sun). An umbrella 
consists of a frame covered with silk, cotton, 
alpaca, or other material, which can be ex- 
panded at pleasure or brought down snugly 
around a central stick. This stick is furnished 
at the lower end with a handle, and near the 
upper end is a metallic ring (the top notch), 
around which are hinged the upper ends of 
the ribs to which the cover is attached. Near 
the middle of each rib is hinged a metallic rod 
or stretcher, of which the lower ends all meet 
in a ring (the runner), sliding from the handle 
up far enough to spread out the ribs to the 
required extent. The number of ribs is usu- 
ally 8, although 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, and 16 have 
been employed, and in the Chinese and Japan- 
ese umbrellas they amount to 40 or 50. Rat- 
tan is largely used for the ribs of the cheapest 
umbrellas, but its employment is steadily dimin- 
ishing. Whalebone, which at one time was 
the principal material for the ribs, has been 
almost entirely superseded by steel, which, 
combining strength with lightness, has rapidly 
grown in favor since its introduction about 
1840. Modern improvements have generally 
been in the reduction of the weight and the 
greater perfection of the mechanism. The 
most important step in this direction was the 
invention of the paragon ribs, patented in Eng- 
land in 1852 by Samuel Fox. These are of 
sheet steel rolled in a semi-elliptical shape, 
making the least weight of material with the 
greatest strength. The weight of the other 
metallic parts of the umbrella has also been 
much reduced within 30 years. The sticks for 
common umbrellas are generally made from 
planks sawed into strips, then turned, and bent 
or curved ; maple is largely used for this pur- 



UMBRELLA 

pose. The better class of sticks are root-ended, 
such as bamboo, partridge or hair wood, pi- 
mento, dogwood, myrtle, and orange. Metal 
tubes have been used quite largely at times. 
Handles are made of wood, ivory, bone, horn, 
tortoise shell, and a great variety of other ma- 
terials. The covering of the umbrella of 50 
years ago was oiled silk or glazed cotton cloth, 
which was very cumbrous and inconvenient ; 
now silk, cotton, and alpaca or similar worsted 
fabrics are the principal materials. Cotton 
fabrics are sometimes, after dyeing, treated to 
render them less pervious to water, and to 
fasten the color. The Chinese and Japanese 
umbrellas are made entirely of bamboo, paper, 
and twine. Sliding caps to fit over the ends 
of the ribs, and hold the umbrella closed, have 
lately come into general use. Folding um- 
brellas are among the early inventions of which 
there are recorded patents, but they have never 
attained to general favor, being complicated 
and troublesome. Among other forms are um- 
brellas enclosed in walking sticks, self-opening, 
with sticks on which the cover can be thrown 
to one side, with windows in the covering, and 
with every variety of form and attachment. 
The English patent records show nearly 300 
patents from 1780 to I860 for improvements 
or changes in umbrellas. From 1808 to 1848, 
124 patents were granted in France; and in 
1873, 25 patents were taken out in the United 
States, bearing upon the same subject. Yet 
very few changes of any value are produced. 
The umbrella is found sculptured on the ruins 
of Nineveh and on the monuments of Egypt. 
In China and India its use is very ancient. It 
had also apparently some religious signification. 
In the fifth incarnation of Vishnu, the god is 
spoken of as going down to the infernal regions 
bearing an umbrella in his hand. In the Sci- 
rophoria, the feast of Athena Sciras, a white 
parasol was borne by the priestesses from the 
Acropolis to the Phalerus; and the umbrella 
was also used in the feasts of Bacchus. The an- 
cient Greeks and Romans had umbrellas, which 
from the paintings on vases appear to have been 
very much like those of the present time ; they 
were used only by women. In many countries 
the umbrella seems to have been part of the 
insignia of royalty, and its use permitted only 
to the king and great nobles. This still con- 
tinues in some parts of Asia and Africa, and in 
many cases it is made very large and much or- 
namented. The umbrellas of the Siamese kings 
are said to be made with several separate cir- 
cles one above another, while the nobles use 
them with only a single circle. During the 
middle ages there are occasional references to 
umbrellas. In the basilican churches of Rome 
was suspended a large umbrella, and the cardi- 
nal who took his title from the church had the 
privilege of having an umbrella carried over 
his head in solemn processions. In Wright's 
" Domestic Manners of the English" (1862) a 
drawing is given from the Harleian MS. No. 
603, representing an Anglo-Saxon gentleman 



UMBRELLA 

walking out, attended by his servant carrying 
an umbrella with a handle that slopes back- 
ward, so as to bring the umbrella over the 
head of the person in front. Until a com- 
paratively recent time umbrellas were used in 
Italy and France only as a protection from the 
sun. Kersey's " English Dictionary " (1708) 
defines an umbrella as a " screen commonly used 
by women to keep off rain." Jonas Hanway 
is said to have been the first man who com- 
monly carried an umbrella in the streets of 
London, about 1750; at that time their use 
was considered a mark of great effeminacy. 
They were at first kept in the halls of great 
houses, and at coffee houses, to be used in pass- 
ing from the door to the carriage. In 1787 
an English advertisement speaks of "a great 
assortment of much approved pocket and porta- 
ble umbrellas." For a considerable time after 
the introduction of umbrellas into the United 
States, in the latter half of the 18th century, it 
was considered effeminate to carry one. Their 
manufacture was begun about 1800, and has 
risen to be an important branch of industry, 
the products equalling the best English and 
French. It is confined almost entirely to the 
cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston. 
By the census of 1870, the number of hands 
employed directly in the making of umbrellas 
and canes was 2,618, and the value of the pro- 
duction $4,098,032; and since that time the 
business has maintained a steady growth. The 
silk for covering umbrellas is a special branch 
of weaving, principally carried on about Ly- 
ons, France ; but the neighborhood of Crefeld 
on the Rhine also produces a large quantity, 
and in Switzerland and England a limited quan- 
tity is made. Some silks and alpacas for um- 
brellas have been made in the United States, 
but not with much success. The manufacture 
of the metal parts and of the handles is gener- 
ally a separate branch. The census of 1870 
gives 578 hands employed upon metallic um- 
brella furniture, producing a value of $724,034. 
UMBRELLA (Lam.), a genus of gasteropod 
mollusks, so called from the resemblance of 



UMBRELLA BIRD 



109 




Umbrella umbellate. 

the flattened shell to an umbrella. The animal 
has a very large tuberculated foot, deeply 



notched in front; the shell is small and lim- 
pet-like, merely covering the most important 
organs. The U. umbellata (Lam.), the Chinese 
umbrella shell, is a native of the Indian ocean. 
UMBRELLA BIRD, the popular name of a sin- 
gular South American bird, placed by the latest 
authors among the chatterers (ampelidai), sub- 
family gymnoderince or fruit birds, and genus 
cephalopterus (Geoffr.). The bill is stout, long, 




Umbrella Bird (Cephalopterus ornatus). 

flattened, gradually curved, with the tip notched 
and slightly hooked; wings moderate, rather 
pointed, with the third quill longest ; tail short 
and rounded ; toes long and slender, with 
curved claws. The C. ornatus (Geoffr.) is about 
as large as a crow, glossy black, with violet, 
blue, and metallic reflections on the crest and 
pectoral appendage. The head of the male is 
surmounted by a large crest of 50 to 80 feathers 
springing from over the nostrils, the lower 
half a white stiff shaft, and terminating each 
in a tuft of black hair-like feathers spreading 
in all directions, but principally forward ; it 
arises from a contractile skin on the top of 
the head, and when erected almost hides the 
bill from view ; it is 5 in. in length and about 
4 in. wide, somewhat resembling a beautiful 
blue umbrella. The skin of the neck is very 
loose, and from it grows a cylindrical fleshy 
process, about as thick as a goose quill, 1 in. 
long, from which extends a tuft of imbricated 
feathers, bordered with metallic blue, and 
hanging down several inches. It is found in 
the islands of the great South American rivers, 
feeding principally on fruits ; it is arboreal, 
and utters a very loud and deep note, which 
has gained for it from the tribes of the Rio 
Negro the name of piper bird. The araponga 
or bell bird (proenias alba, Thunb.) is about 12 
in. long and pure white ; it has a singular cylin- 
drical fleshy appendage, with a few small feath- 
ers, rising from the base of the bill ; the mouth 
is very wide ; the voice resembles the tolling 
of a bell, and may be heard, according to Wa- 



110 



UMBRIA 



terton, nearly three miles, and during the heat 
of the day, when most other birds are silent ; 
it is a native of the forests of tropical South 

America. _ . , , , 

IMBRIV, a country of ancient Italy, boundet 
N hy Cisalpine Gaul, E. and S. by the Adriatic, 
Picenum, and the territory of the Sabines, and 
W by the Tiber, separating it from Etruria. 
Its principal cities were Ariminum (now Ki- 
mini), Pisaurum (Pesaro), Fanum Fortunse 
(Fano), Sena Gallica (Sinigaglia), Narma (Nar- 
ni), Iguvium (Gubbio), Fulginium (Foligno), and 
Spoletium (Spoleto). The N. E. part stretched 
out toward the coast in fertile plains. , 1ft 
sides the Tiber, the principal rivers were the 
Rubicon, Ariminus (Marecchia), Pisaurus (*< 
glia), Metaurus (Metauro), and ^Esis (Esmo), all 
flowing into the Adriatic, and the Nar (Nera), 
an affluent of the Tiber. The inhabitants, the 
Umbri, were one of the most ancient races of 
the peninsula, and at an early period became 
the most powerful people of central Italy. 
Etruria was originally in their possession. The 
Romans overcame them in 308 B. 0. The bat- 
tle of Sentinum, 295 B. 0., when the Samnites, 
Gauls, Etruscans, and Umbrians were defeated 
by the Romans under Quintus Fabius, is some- 
times called the battle of Umbria. The name 
Umbria has been revived in modern times to 
designate a portion of what was formerly the 
Papal States, comprised chiefly in the delega- 
tions of Spoleto and Perugia. It constitutes 
now a province of the kingdom of Italy, also 
called Perugia. (See PERUGIA.) 

1I3IPQUA, a river of Oregon, which, rising in 
the Cascade mountains and pursuing a general 
W. N. W. course, breaks through the Coast 
range and flows into the Pacific ocean at Ump- 
qua head, lat. 43 41' 1ST. It has a total length 
of about 200 m., and is navigable by steamers 
of light draught to Eoseburg, about 90 m. 
from its mouth, though more than half this 
distance is obstructed by rapids. 
nilUTSIIt. See AMRITSIK. 
ram. See SLOTH. 

UNCAS, a North American Indian, sachem of 
the Mohegan tribe in Connecticut, died about 
1682, at a great age. He was originally a war 
chief of the Pequot nation, but about 1G35 re- 
volted from the Pequot sachem Sassacus, and 
gathered a band of Indians who were known 
by the old title of Mohegans once borne by 
the Pequots. In May, 1637, he joined the 
English in the war against the Pequots, and 
proved a valuable auxiliary, receiving for his 
services another portion of the Pequot lands. 
Many of the Pequots were shielded by him 
from the vengeance of the English when the 
war was over, and for this he was for a time 
in partial disgrace with the authorities ; but he 
was soon received again into so great favor 
with the whites that several attempts were 
made by different Indians to assassinate him. 
Uncas accordingly attacked and reduced Se- 
quasson, sachem of the Connecticut river, and 
in 1643 defeated and took the powerful Narra- 



UNGUICULATA 

gansett sachem Miantonomoh, whom he finally 
put to death. He was a brave but tyrannical 
chief, and frequent complaints were made to 
the colonial government of his oppression. 
In 1648 the Mohawks, Pocomtocks, and other 
tribes made war against Uncas with but little 
success. He was besieged in 1 657 in his strong- 
hold on the Connecticut by the Narragnnsett 
chief Pessacus, and nearly starved out ; but he 
was relieved at almost the last moment by En- 
sign Leffingwell, who took in to him at night 
a canoe laden with supplies. For this act, it 
is said, Uncas gave to Leffingwell a deed for 
all the land upon which tho town of Norwich 
now stands, though that chief afterward sold 
it to a company. He was characterized in 
1674 as "an old and wicked, wilful man, a 
drunkard, and otherwise very vicious; who 
hath always been an opposer and underminer 
of praying to God." He was the ally of the 
English in all their wars against the Indians. 

UNG, a N. E. county of Hungary, in the 
Cis-Tibiscan circle, bordering on Galicia and 
the counties of Zempln, Szabolcs, and Bereg; 
area, 1,180 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 130,032, the 
majority Slavs, and the rest Magyars. The 
N. part of the county is traversed by thickly 
wooded branches of the Carpathians, and it is 
watered by the Ung and the Latorcza. The 
chief products are rye, oats, wine, and hemp. 
It contains the mineral springs of Szobrancz. 
The capital, Ungvar, is situated on the Ung, 
85 m. N. N. E. of Debreczin ; pop. in 1870, 
11,017. It is the seat of a Unitea Greek bish- 
op, and has an episcopal seminary and lyceum, 
a gymnasium, an ancient castle, and mineral 
springs. 

IINGER, Franz, a German palaeontologist, born 
in Styria in 1800, died in Gratz, Feb. 13, 1870. 
He took his medical degree in Vienna in 1827, 
and practised as a physician till 1836, when he 
became professor of botany at Gratz, whence 
he removed in 1850 to the university of Vienna. 
His most noteworthy publications are Anato- 
mie und Physiologic der Pflamen (1855) ; Bo- 
tanische Streifziige avf dem Gebiete der Cultur- 
geschichte (1857 et seq.) ; Geologic der europai- 
schen Waldbaume (1869 et eq.)\ and Ueber 
LiescJiTcolben der VorweU (1870). His life has 
been written by Reyer (Gratz, 1871). 

I M.IHI L VTA, and Ungulate, terms originally 
applied by Ray to mammals, according as they 
possessed claws or hoofs, though Aristotle had 
made a similar division of quadrupeds, placing 
among unguicnlates the monkeys, bats, carni- 
vora, and rodents, and among the ungulates the 
pachyderms, ruminants, and solipeds (horse). 
Ray placed among unguiculates the camel, ele- 
phant, and edentates, as well as those above 
mentioned; Linnaeus followed Ray in his di- 
vision of quadrupeds. This system has been 
variously modified by Cuvier, Swainson, Oken, 
C. L. Bonaparte, and Owen, the last restricting 
the nnguiculates to the monkeys and carni- 
vora, and the ungulates to the onmivora, rn- 
minants, solipeds, and pachyderms. The un- 



UNICOI 

gulates are divided by Huxley into the two sec- 
tions of perissodactyls or odd-toed, and artio- 
dactyls or even-toed ; the former including the 
rhinoceros, tapir, and horse, the latter the om- 
nivorous pig and hippopotamus, and the rumi- 
nating animals. (See MAMMALIA, vol. xi., pp. 
79, 80, and 82.) 

UNICOI, an E. county of Tennessee, separated 
from North Carolina by the Unaka mountains, 
and watered by the Nolichucky river and its 
tributaries; area, about 300 sq. m. ; pop. about 
2,000. It was formed in 1875 from Carter and 
Washington counties. It is a rugged mountain 
region, some peaks attaining a height of 5,500 
ft. The arable land is confined to a few val- 
leys and river basins. The slopes are well 
wooded with pine, chestnut, hemlock, cherry, 
spruce, and poplar. The tops of some of the 
peaks are bald, and furnish good pasturage. 
Iron ore is abundant. The climate is severe 
in winter, but cool and bracing in summer. 
Wheat, corn, oats, buckwheat, rye, and pota- 
toes are the chief crops. Apples flourish, and 
peaches grow well in the recesses of the moun- 
tains. Capital, Longmire. 

UNICORN, a fabulous animal resembling a 
horse, with a single horn issuing from the mid- 
dle of the forehead, well known as the sup- 
porter with the lion of the coat of arms of 
England. The unicorn of various versions of 
the Bible undoubtedly originated in a mis- 
translation of a Hebrew word which proba- 
bly denoted a kind of wild ox with two horns. 
Though the animal above described is often 
mentioned by ancient writers, none of them 
had ever seen one, and modern naturalists gen- 
erally disbelieve that any such ever existed. 
The rhinoceros with a single horn does not 
correspond in any other particular to the de- 
scription. The sea unicorn is the narwhal. 

UNICORN PLANT. See MARTYNIA. 

UNION, the name of 16 counties in the United 
States. I. A N. E. county of New Jersey, 
bounded N. W. by Passaic river, E. by Staten 
Island sound and Newark bay, and S. partly 
by Rahway river, and drained by Elizabeth 
river and several small streams; area, 101 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 41,859. The surface is nearly 
level, and the soil generally fertile. It is trav- 
ersed by the New Jersey, the New Jersey 
Central, and other railroads. The chief pro- 
ductions in 1870 were 5,339 bushels of wheat, 
4,215 of rye, 94,618 of Indian corn, 36,948 of 
oats, 61,544 of potatoes, and 114,763 Ibs. of 
butter. There were 1,428 horses, 2,780 milch 
cows, 899 other cattle, 460 sheep, and 1,116 
swine. There were 315 manufacturing estab- 
lishments, with $3,570,450 capital, and an an- 
nual product valued at $5,986,512. The prin- 
cipal manufactories were 34 of carriages and 
wagons, 1 of cars, 2 of cordage and twine, 1 
of cutlery and edge tools, 7 of wagon material, 
5 of iron, 3 of machinery, 3 of floor oil cloth, 1 
of paving materials, 5 of sash, doors, and blinds, 
9 flour mills, 3 bleaching and dyeing establish- 
ments, and 1 straw goods bleachery. Capital, 
804 TOL. xvi. 8 



UNION 



111 



Elizabeth. II. A central county of Pennsyl- 
vania, bounded E. by the West branch of the 
Susquehanna river, and drained by Penn's, 
Buffalo, and White Deer creeks; area, about 
250 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 15,565. Spurs of 
the Alleghany range traverse a large part of 
the county ; the soil along the streams is very 
rich. Iron ore, bituminous coal, and limestone 
abound. The chief productions in 1870 were 
262,639 bushels of wheat, 297,513 of Indian 
corn, 318,154 of oats, 75,374 of potatoes, 265,- 
936 Ibs. of butter, and 19,542 tons of hay. 
There were 3,271 horses, 3,565 milch cows, 
3,305 other cattle, 2,639 sheep, and 6,128 
swine; 2 manufactories of agricultural imple- 
ments, 1 of boots, 12 of carriages and wagons, 
2 of pig iron, 2 of iron castings, 8 tanneries, 1 
planing mill, 4 saw mills, and 1 woollen mill. 
Capital, Lewisburg. HI. A S. county of North 
Carolina, bordering W. and S. on South Caro- 
lina, drained by Lynches creek and branches 
of the Catawba and Yadkin rivers ; area, about 
350 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 12,217, of whom 
2,694 were colored. The surface is generally 
hilly, and the soil in some parts fertile. Gran- 
ite and slate abound, and excellent stone for 
hones and whetstones is found. Gold mines 
of some value have been worked. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 79,934 bushels of 
wheat, 203,032 of Indian corn, 72,308 of oats, 
16,945 of sweet potatoes, 75,096 Ibs. of butter, 
8,262 of tobacco, 12,444 of wool, and 1,196 
bales of cotton. There were 1,624 horses, 3,501 
milch cows, 4,735 other cattle, 8,973 sheep, and 
12,163 swine. Capital, Monroe. IV. A N. 
county of South Carolina, bounded E. by Broad 
river and S. by the Ennoree, and intersected 
by the Pacolet and Tyger rivers ; area, 500 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1875, 21,965, of whom 12,505 were 
colored. The surface is hilly, and the soil fer- 
tile. Iron ore and granite abound, and gold 
was formerly mined. It is intersected by the 
Spartanburg and Union railroad. The chief 
productions in 1870 were 36,286 bushels of 
wheat, 314,981 of Indian corn, 18,491 of oats, 
30,610 of sweet potatoes, 92,094 Ibs. of butter, 
6,562 of wool, 5,282 of tobacco, and 8,537 bales 
of cotton. There were 1,674 horses, 1,839 
mules and asses, 3,446 milch cows, 4,935 other 
cattle, 4,550 sheep, and 12,666 swine ; 15 flour 
mills, and 2 iron works. Capital, Unionville. 
V. A N. county of Georgia, bordering on North 
Carolina, and drained by the head streams of 
the Hiawassee and Tocoa rivers; area, about 
400 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 5,267, of whom 114 
were colored. It is traversed by the Blue 
Eidge. The highlands are well adapted to pas- 
turage. Iron, marble, and granite are found, 
and there were formerly profitable gold mines. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 7,681 bush- 
els of wheat, 10,632 of rye, 139,127 of Indian 
corn, 12,099 of oats, 90,098 of sweet potatoes, 
50,155 Ibs. of butter, 12,458 of wool, 20,268 of 
tobacco, and 225 tons of hay. There were 800 
horses, 1,622 milch cows, 3,008 other cattle, 
6,345 sheep, and 9,723 swine. Capital, Blairs- 



112 



UNION 



ville. VI. A N". county of Mississippi, drained 
by the head waters of the Tallahatchie river ; 
area, about 400 sq. m. It has been formed 
since the census of 1870. The surface is gen- 
erally level and the soil productive. Cotton, 
grain, sweet potatoes, &c., are grown. Capi- 
tal, New Albany. VII. A N. parish of Louisi- 
ana, bordering on Arkansas, bounded E. by 
the Washita river, and intersected by Bayou 
D'Arbonne and other affluents of that stream ; 
area, about 1,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1875, 12,158, 
of whom 4,667 were colored. The surface is 
moderately hilly, and the soil sandy and fertile. 
The Washita and D'Arbonne are navigable for 
steamboats. The chief productions in 1870 
were 230,282 bushels of Indian corn, 50,445 of 
sweet potatoes, 28,800 Ibs. of butter, and 6,675 
bales of cotton. There were 1,400 horses, 
1,138 mules and asses, 2,741 milch cows, 6,246 
other cattle, 5,502 sheep, and 20,175 swine. 
Capital, Farmersville. VIII. A S. county of 
Arkansas, bordering on Louisiana, bounded N. 
E. by the Washita river, and drained by sev- 
eral of its tributaries ; area, about 1,230 sq. m. ; 
pop. in 1870, 10,571, of whom 4,896 were col- 
ored. The surface is hilly, and the soil fertile. 
The chief productions in 1870 were 232,038 
bushels of Indian corn, 9,308 of peas and beans, 
56,623 of sweet potatoes, 44,471 Ibs. of butter, 
and 6,181 bales of cotton. There were 1,290 
horses, 1,007 mules and asses, 3,071 milch cows, 
4,973 other cattle, 4,697 sheep, and 14,810 
swine. Capital, El Dorado. IX. A N. E. 
county of Tennessee, intersected by Clinch 
river, and bounded N. by Powell's river ; area, 
about 400 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 7,605, of whom 
214 were colored. The surface in the north 
and centre is mountainous, and in other parts 
hilly, and the soil adapted to grazing. Iron 
and lead are found. The chief productions in 
1870 were 29,615 bushels of wheat, 168,579 of 
Indian corn, 69,799 of oats, 53,470 Ibs. of but- 
ter, 10,673 of wool, and 14,169 of tobacco. 
There were 1,451 horses, 1,264 milch cows, 
1,987 other cattle, 6,326 sheep, and 6,971 swine. 
Capital, Maynardville. X. A N. W. county of 
Kentucky, separated from Indiana and Illinois 
by the Ohio river, and drained by Tradewater 
and Highland creeks ; area, 350 sq. m. ; pop. 
in 1870, 13,640, of whom 2,574 were colored. 
The surface is undulating or hilly, and the soil 
fertile. Bituminous coal is abundant, and there 
are several sulphur and chalybeate springs. The 
chief productions in 1870 were 82,892 bushels 
of wheat, 771,186 of Indian corn, 34,398 of 
oats, 69,731 Ibs. of butter, 19,402 of wool, 
and 2,096,260 of tobacco. There were 2,800 
horses, 2,130 milch cows, 4,958 other cattle, 
7,816 sheep, and 14,976 swine; 3 flour mills, 
and 1 woollen mill. Capital, Morganfield. XI. 
A central county of Ohio, drained by affluents 
of Scioto river ; area, 445 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
18,730. The surface is level and the soil fer- 
tile. It is intersected by the Cleveland, Co- 
lumbus, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis, and the 
Atlantic and Great Western railroads. The 



chief productions in 1870 were 208,660 bushels 
of wheat, 808,275 of Indian corn, 156,436 of 
oats, 60,341 of potatoes, 451,407 Ibs. of butter, 
43,654 of cheese, 390,281 of wool, and 30,027 
tons of hay. There were 6,876 horses, 5,073 
milch cows, 9,106 other cattle, 75,924 sheep, 
and 19,252 swine; 11 manufactories of car- 
riages and wagons, 5 flour mills, 1 woollen 
mill, 1 distillery, 2 planing mills, and 14 saw- 
mills. Capital, Marysville. XII. A S. E. county 
of Indiana, bordering on Ohio, drained by tho 
East fork of Whitewater river; area, 168 sq. 
m. ; pop. in 1870, 6,841. The surface is gen- 
erally undulating and the soil very fertile. The 
Cincinnati and Indianapolis Junction railroad 
traverses it. The chief productions in 1870 
were 261,895 bushels of wheat, 417,555 of In- 
dian corn, 59,400 of oats, 16,527 of potatoes, 
160,540 Ibs. of butter, 13,514 of wool, and 
2,699 tons of hay. There were 2,469 horses, 
1,884 milch cows, 3,378 other cattle, 4,215 
sheep, and 16,955 swine; 1 manufactory of 
agricultural implements, 4 of carriages and 
wagons, 2 planing mills, 3 saw mills, 1 woollen 
mill, and 9 flour mills. Capital, Liberty. XIII. 
A S. county of Illinois, bounded W. by the 
Mississippi ; area, 320 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 
16,518. The surface is undulating and the soil 
fertile. Iron ore, lead, chalk, bituminous coal, 
porcelain clay, alum, and copperas are found. 
It is intersected by the Illinois Central railroad. 
Tho chief productions in 1870 were 180,231 
bushels of wheat,' 679,753 of Indian corn, 124,- 
473 of oats, 95,352-of Irish and 75,052 of sweet 
potatoes, 93,545 Ibs. of butter, 24,653 of wool, 
and 22,291 of tobacco. There were 3,919 
horses, 2,907 milch cows, 5,127 other cattle, 
9,342 sheep, and 25,145 swine; 5 manufac- 
tories of agricultural implements, 9 of carriages 
and wagons, 1 of lime, 1 of stofae and earthen 
ware, and 1 2 flour mills. Capital, Jonesborough. 
XIV. A S. W. county of Iowa, drained by tho 
head waters of tho Platte and Grand rivers; 
area, 432 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 5,986. The 
surface is level or undulating, and tho soil fer- 
tile. The Burlington and Missouri River rail- 
road passes through it. Tho chief productions 
in 1870 were 58,217 bushels of wheat, 259,063 
of Indian corn, 65,145 of oats, 27,707 of pota- 
toes, 92,797 Ibs. of butter, 19,622 of wool, and 
9,817 tons of hay. There were 2,058 horses, 
1,557 milch cows, 3,119 other cattle, 4,675 
sheep, and 5,231 swine. Capital, Afton. XV. 
The N. E. county of Oregon, bounded N. by 
Washington territory and E. by Idaho, sepa- 
rated from the latter by Snake river, and wa- 
tered by Grand Rondo and Powder rivers; 
area, 4,550 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 2,552, of 
whom 45 were Chinese. The Blue mountains 
are on the W. border, and tho surface is gen- 
erally elevated, three fourths of it consisting 
of mountains and hills, the former covered 
with forests of pine, larch, and fir, and the 
latter with pasturage. The valley of the Grand 
Ronde is large and very productive. Gold, 
silver, and copper are found, and some mines 



UNION CHRISTIAN COLLEGE 

are in operation. The chief productions in 
1870 were 61,335 bushels of wheat, 69,660 of 
oats, 29,666 of barley, 26,877 of potatoes, 8,154 
Ibs. of wool, 84,020 of butter, and 6,752 tons 
of hay. There were 2,204 horses, 3,585 milch 
cows, 4,328 other cattle, 2,791 sheep, and 5,270 
swine ; 5 flour mills, and 4 saw mills. Capital, 
La Grande. XVI. The S. E. county of Dakota, 
bordering on Iowa and Nebraska, and lying 
between the Big Sioux and Missouri rivers ; 
area, about 380 sq. m. ; pop. in 1870, 3,509. 
The Dakota Southern railroad passes through 
the S. part. The river bottoms are very fer- 
tile. The chief productions in 1870 were 89,- 
618 bushels of wheat, 78,550 of Indian corn, 
55,170 of oats, 9,019 of potatoes, and 100,010 
Ibs. of butter. There were 1,005 horses, 4,238 
cattle, 350 sheep, and 933 swine ; 1 flour mill, 
and 4 saw mills. Capital, Elk Point. 

UNION CHRISTIAN COLLEGE, a seat of learning 
at Merom, Sullivan co., Indiana, midway be- 
tween Terre Haute and Vincennes, on the 
Wabash river. It was incorporated in 1859, 
and its buildings, erected at an expense of 
$50,000, are on a bluff about 200 ft. high. 
The college edifice is of brick, 109 ft. long, 65 
ft. broad, 83 ft. to floor of cupola, and 128 ft. 
to top of central spire. It is four stories high, 
and comprises 26 commodious apartments. 
Both sexes are admitted as students. There 
are five departments : academic, business, mu- 
sical, scientific, and classical. There are seven 
instructors and 170 students. The endowment 
is $100,000. Disabled soldiers receive instruc- 
tion free. The presidents of the college have 
been the Rev. N. Summerbell, D. D., the Rev. 
Thomas Holmes, D. D., and the Rev. T. Cor- 
win Smith, A. M. The institution is under the 
control of the Christian connection. 

UNION UNIVERSITY, an institution of learn- 
ing in the state of New York, comprising 
Union college with its preparatory classical 
institute and school of civil engineering in 
Schenectady, and the medical college, the law 
school, and the Dudley observatory in Albany. 
Union college was incorporated by the regents 
of the university of the state of New York in 
1795. It was the second college incorporated 
in the state, and the first north of the city of 
New York and west of the Hudson river. It 
received its name from the circumstance that 
several religious denominations cooperated in 
its organization. The first president was the 
Rev. John Blair Smith of Philadelphia, who re- 
signed in 1799, and was succeeded by Jonathan 
Edwards the younger. The latter died in 1801, 
and the Rev. Jonathan Maxcy, then president 
of Brown university, was chosen president in 
1802. He was succeeded in 1804 by the Rev. 
Eliphalet Nott, who held the office more than 
61 years, till his death in 1866. The Rev. 
Laurens P. Hickok, who had long acted as 
vice president, was elected his successor, but 
resigned in 1868. The Rev. Charles A. Aiken 
succeeded Dr. Hickok in 1869, and resigned in 
1871, when the Rev. Eliphalet Nott Potter, 



UNITARIANISM 



113 



grandson of Dr. Nott, was elected to the office, 
which he still holds (1876). The college lands 
comprise more than 200 acres, a large part of 
which, being admirably adapted to ornamen- 
tal purposes, is reserved for a college park, 
while the remainder has been put under culti- 
vation for a school of agriculture. The col- 
lege buildings comprise, besides the memorial 
hall, a gymnasium, chapel, and library. Be- 
sides a preparatory department, the college 
has a classical, a scientific, and an eclectic 
course, and provides special instruction in the 
oriental languages. There is also a special 
school of civil engineering, founded in 1845. 
In 1875-'6 there were 18 instructors and 175 
students in the college, and 4 instructors and 
35 students in the school of civil engineering. 
The college has a library of 18,000 volumes, 
and valuable philosophical apparatus and col- 
lections in natural history. Numerous scholar- 
ships have been founded for the benefit of in- 
digent students. Since 1871 the college has 
received gifts amounting to more than $250,- 
000. Union college acquired by its charter 
full university powers, but the creation of post- 
graduate institutions in Schenectady was not 
found practicable. In 1873 the institutions 
above named were united under the charter 
arid board of trustees of Union college, but 
each retains its respective rights, powers, and 
corporate existence. The general management 
of the university is vested in a board of gov- 
ernors consisting of the permanent trustees of 
Union college and representatives from each 
of the post-graduate departments. The medi- 
cal college was established in 1838, and in 1876 
had 16 instructors and 123 students. The mu- 
seum of the college is one of the most valua- 
ble institutions of the kind in the country. 
Many of the professors are connected with the 
Albany hospital, to the cliniques, lectures, and 
practice of which the students of the college 
are admitted without charge. The law school 
was organized in 1851, and in 1876 had 6 in- 
structors and 93 students. The Dudley ob- 
servatory was incorporated in 1852 and in- 
augurated in 1856. It was named in honor 
of Charles E. Dudley, from whose widow the 
institution has received gifts and a bequest 
amounting to more than $105,000. Over 
$100,000 has been expended on the build- 
ings, instruments, grounds, &c., and $70,000 
invested as a permanent fund for the support 
of the institution. There is a meteorological 
department connected with it. 

UNITiRIANISM, in Christian theology, the 
general name for the class of opinions reject- 
ing the doctrine of the Trinity, and asserting 
the absolute unity of God. The term as defi- 
ning a belief denies the deity of Christ and his 
equality with God the Father, but does not re- 
ject his divinity, or any exalted rank consistent 
with his subordination to God. The denial of 
the deity of Christ naturally led to the rejec- 
tion of the doctrine of total depravity and 
moral inability, and of the necessity of a vica- 



114 



UNITARIANISM 



rious atonement. But this rejection is more 
or less absolute according to the views of indi- 
viduals, some Unitarians accepting the doc- 
trine of the fall, but denying that its conse- 
quences destroy the innate rectitude of human 
nature ; and in respect of the atonement Uni- 
tarian belief ranges from a modified concep- 
tion of the redeeming office of a Saviour to 
the opinion that his mission was solely that of 
a teacher and exemplar. Beyond these beliefs 
Unitarianism does not formulate a special creed, 
but leaves the largest latitude to individual 
opinion. Some Unitarians regard the gospel 
as designed by the Deity for the redemption of 
a fallen race ; others as a recognition of nat- 
ural religion, with precepts, truths, laws, mo- 
tives, and hopes, exalting individual responsi- 
bility in character and life. Baptism and the 
Lord's supper are generally recognized rites, 
and in some congregations such festivals as 
Easter and Christmas are commemorated. 
Unitarians affirm that their belief is simply a 
return to the primitive Christian doctrine ; 
that the teaching of Christ and his apostles as 
conveyed in the New Testament strictly con- 
formed to the Hebrew tenet of the absolute 
unity of God ; that for more than a century 
the early Christians were taught and believed 
this tenet ; that this belief was first impaired 
by the speculations of the Alexandrian and 
Platonic schools on the mode of the divine ex- 
istence and manifestations ; and that the Trini- 
tarian dogma obtained acceptance through 
the cooperating influences of ecclesiastical au- 
thority and imperial dictation. It is also as- 
serted, as a matter of history, that an earnest 
opposition to the doctrine of the Trinity in 
its initiatory and developed formularies opened 
the most bitter controversy in the early church ; 
and that through the successive centuries there 
has been an unbroken line of individual and 
associated believers, who as Unitarians, how- 
ever differing in other points of controversy, 
have stood together in their opposition to 
Trinitarianism. Discussions on the deity of 
Christ were simultaneous with the earliest 
speculations on the Logos. Toward the close 
of the 2d century Theodotus and Artemon 
founded schools in Rome, and nearly contem- 
porary were Beryllus and Praxeas, who taught 
in the same city, and Noetus in Smyrna. In 
the 3d century Sabellius announced his doc- 
trine. Arianism originated in the 4th cen- 
tury, and was the parent of Socinianism, which 
was the progenitor of the later Unitarianism. 
All these teachers held to the belief in the in- 
divisible unity. Their differing views in re- 
spect of other doctrines, and the varying 
shades of opinion adopted by their disciples as to 
the degree of elevation to be ascribed to Christ 
as an inspired teacher, an infallible guide, an 
impeccable being, and a perfect human exam- 
ple, are shown in the articles ABIANISM, ARICS, 
JMoETiANs, SABELLIUS, and SOOINUS. For a 
long time before the reformation there was in 
Italy much dissent from the Trinitarian tenet 



The reformation developed the extent of this 
dissent, and its adherents were driven from 
the country. At the same time Ludvvig Hetzer, 
Johann Denk, and Sebastian Frank in Ger- 
many, and Claudius in Switzerland, preached 
monotheism and the simple humanity of Christ. 
In the 16th century Unitarianism was also 
widely disseminated in Holland and France. 
About 1549 Lffllius Socinus came from Venice 
to Zurich. In 1553, for his disbelief in the 
Trinity and other opinions, Michael Servetus 
was burned at the stake in Geneva, and after 
his death the Swiss Anabaptists and those who 
rejected the Trinity were called Servetists. 
(See SERVETUS.) In 1563 Bernardino Ochino 
published in Zurich his dialogues discussing 
the doctrine of the Trinity. Contemporary 
teachers in Geneva were Matteo Gribaldi and 
Giorgio Blandrata. A few years later Gio- 
vanni Valentino Gentilio, a Servetist, was be- 
headed at Bern. In 1577 Faustus, the nephew 
of Lrolius Socinus, who had inherited the 
writings of his uncle, proclaimed in Basel that 
the Trinity was a pagan doctrine. "With many 
others he took refuge in Poland, and hia 
writings were published in Rakow. Several 
exiles settled at Pinczow, and were known as 
Pinczovians. After years of prosperity in 
Poland, the Lublin church was broken up in 
1627, the Rakow school was destroyed in 1638, 
and later the decree making death the penalty 
for professing Arianism drove many into the 
abandonment of their belief; others went to 
Transylvania, Prussia, Silesia, and the Neth- 
erlands ; and at the end of the century Unita- 
rians in Europe, as a body, were known only 
in Transylvania. In England there are traces 
of Unitarianism coeval with the reformation. 
In the time of Edward VI., George Van Paris, 
for denying the divinity of Christ, was burned 
at Smithfield, as were Francis Wright at Nor- 
wich in 1588, and Bartholomew Legate in 
Smithfield and Edward Wightman in Lichfield 
in 1612. John Biddle (1615-'62), by his pub- 
lications, preaching, and foundation of a sect 
called Biddellians, earned the title of "the 
father of English Unitarians." (See BIDDI.E, 
JOUN.) In 1640 the synods of London and 
York directed a special canon against Socini- 
anism. In 1652 the Racovian (Rakow) cate- 
chism was burned in London. According to 
Dr. Owen, the denial of the divinity of Christ 
was in 1655 common throughout England. Be- 
fore the close .of the 17th century Unitarians 
had places of worship in London. Milton's 
Arianism was completely established after his 
death. Locke indirectly favored Unitarian 
views. In 1705 there were "troops of Unita- 
rian and Socinian writers." Thomas Firmin 
disseminated Unitarian doctrines within the 
establishment. Evelyn revived Arianism in 
Dublin, and afterward preached it in London ; 
and Hartley's "Observations on Man" gave 
rise to the school of which Joseph Priestley 
was the head. The growth of the denomi- 
nation warranted the foundation in 1825 of 



UNITARIANISM 



UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST H5 



the British and foreign Unitarian association, 
which has regularly held its anniversaries in 
London, celebrated its semi-centennial in 1875, 
and is devoted to the dissemination of books 
and tracts, to limited missionary efforts, to 
philanthropic labors, and the help of feeble 
Unitarian societies. From the first settlement 
of the New England colonies there were modi- 
fications of the Puritanic creed which assumed 
the phases of moderate Calvinism, Arminian- 
ism, and Arianism. In 1785 the congregation 
of King's chapel, Boston, eliminated Trinita- 
rianism and the direct worship of Christ from 
the "Book of Common Prayer." In 1805 a 
Unitarian was made professor of divinity at 
Cambridge. In 1815 the controversy between 
Dr. Channing and Dr. Worcester resulted in 
the separation of the Unitarians from the Con- 
gregationalists, and the establishment of a sect. 
The ministers of a large number of the Congre- 
gational churches of Boston and vicinity and 
throughout the state with their flocks joined 
the movement. Harvard college was in their 
hands, and still remains so. In 1825 the Amer- 
ican Unitarian association was organized in 
Boston, where it celebrated its semi-centennial 
in 1875. Its general purposes are similar to 
those of the British and foreign association. 
It has observed its anniversaries by public meet- 
ings, which have afforded opportunities for 
displaying such denominational zeal and pro- 
moting such interests as are consistent with the 
spirit and objects of the association. Under 
the name of the " National Conference of Uni- 
tarian and other Christian Churches," a consid- 
erable number of congregations and religious 
and benevolent societies are represented by 
ministers and dolegates in biennial gatherings. 
The organization of the conference is of the 
most informal character, and its chief purpose 
is to afford opportunities for discussion, coun- 
sel, and advice on practical religious interests. 
The "Unitarian Year Book" for 1876 esti- 
mates the total number of churches and socie- 
ties in the United States at 362. In England 
the Unitarians rank with the first among the 
minor religious bodies, and their influence is in- 
creasing, especially in London and in the man- 
ufacturing districts. The principal churches 
are in London, Liverpool, Manchester, Bir- 
mingham, and Sheffield. Among the Scotch- 
Irish population in the north of Ireland there 
are more than 40 congregations, the most 
important being in Belfast ; and there is a 
" North of Ireland Unitarian Society," besides 
the " Irish Unitarian society." There are also 
South Wales and Scotch Unitarian associations, 
but the number of congregations in Scotland 
is small. In London the Unitarians have an 
extensive Sunday school association, and the 
Manchester New college, removed from Man- 
chester in 1857. The "Memorial Hall" was 
in 1865 erected for a separate Unitarian col- 
lege in the city of Manchester, and students 
from the Unitarian denomination are admit- 
ted to the Presbyterian college at Carmarthen, 



Wales. Several of the British colonies offer 
a new field for Unitarianism, especially Aus- 
tralia, where the most influential churches are 
at Adelaide, Melbourne, and Sydney. The 
total number of Unitarians in English-speaking 
communities all over the world was estimated 
in 1876 at 1,000,000, besides great numbers 
sympathizing with the humanitarian elements 
of Unitarianism, though nominally belonging 
to other denominations. The persecution of 
the Unitarians in Hungary and Transylvania, 
which took place mainly after the annexation 
of the latter country to Austria in 1713, ceased 
toward the close of the 18th century, owing 
to the tolerant policy of the emperor Joseph 
II. The Transylvanian Unitarians are the only 
members of that persuasion who are governed 
by an ecclesiastical council and a bishop. They 
have a great Unitarian college at Klausenburg, 
besides other institutions. They have over 
100 small congregations with nearly 60,000 
members, chiefly Szeklers, and their number 
is steadily increasing. A meeting of Hunga- 
rian, American, and English Unitarians, held 
at Buda-Pesth, June 15, 1873, in connection 
with the national Transylvanian convention at 
Klausenburg, favored the employment of a 
larger number of teachers in the Unitarian 
institutions of that city, and the establishment 
of a church in the capital of Hungary. 

UNITAS FRATRUM. See MOEAVIAKS. 

UNITED BRETHREN IN CHRIST, a Protestant 
church, frequently confounded with the Mora- 
vians, with whom, however, they have no ec- 
clesiastical connection. They arose among the 
Germans in Pennsylvania about 1760. In 1752 
Philip William Otterbein, a missionary of the 
German Reformed church, sent out to America 
by the synod of Holland, began to preach in 
Lancaster, Pa., but, soon becoming convinced 
that he was not himself converted, rested not 
until he experienced what he regarded as the 
new birth. This new experience led him to 
institute meetings during the week for prayer 
and religious conference, and he also held in 
various places outside of his pastoral charge 
what were called "great meetings." To one 
of these, held at Isaac Long's in Lancaster co., 
all persons who had experienced a change of 
heart, without respect to their ecclesiastical 
relations, were especially invited. A large as- 
sembly, in which Lutherans, Reformed, Men- 
nonites, Dunkers, Amish, and Moravians were 
represented, convened ; and among the number 
was found Martin Boehm, a Mennonite preach- 
er, who had also some time before obtained 
what he deemed the new life. At the con- 
clusion of a remarkably effective sermon by 
Boehm, Otterbein arose, embraced him, and 
exclaimed, "We are brethren!" This was 
the origin of the name of the new church. 
Otterbein and Boehm labored together for 
more than 50 years, and as the calls for preach- 
ing became numerous, laymen selected from 
the converts were licensed to preach. These 
laborers at first held conferences at the great 



116 

meetings: but when this became impractica- 
ble annual conferences were appointed, where 
preachers were licensed, examined, disciplined, 
and directed in their labors. (See OTTEBBEIN, 
PIIILIP WILLIAM.) The first annual conference 
met in 1800, the first general conference in 
1815 In 1875 this denomination had 43 annual 
conferences, 4,010 organized churches, 1,967 
ministers, and 136,076 members. It has at 
Dayton, Ohio, an extensive printing establish- 
ment, where several periodicals and a variety 
of books are issued in English and German. 
The aggregate circulation of the periodicals 
published by this church, in July, 1874, was 
181 500 copies. At the quadrennial meeting of 
the general conference in 1873, the receipts of 
the book concern during the preceding four 
years were reported at $322,370, the expen- 
ditures at $318,628, and the excess of as- 
sets over liabilities at $96,525. In 1875 the 
church owned ten institutions of learning, viz. : 
Lebanon Valley college, Annville, Pa. ; Otter- 
bein university, Westerville, O. ; the Union 
Biblical seminary, Dayton, O. ; Hartsville uni- 
versity, Hartsville, Ind. ; Green Hill seminary, 
Poolsville, Ind. ; Roanoke seminary, Roanoke, 
Ind. ; Westfield college, Westfield, 111. ; West- 
ern college, Western, Iowa ; Lane university, 
Lecompton, Kansas; and Philomath college, 
Philomath, Oregon. The United Brethren in 
Christ are Arminian in theology, and supply 
their churches with preaching on the itinerant 
plan. They have quarterly, annual, and gen- 
eral conferences. The highest e6clesiastical 
body is the general conference, which meets 
every four years. Until 1873 it consisted ex- 
clusively of clerical delegates ; but in that year 
it adopted the principle of lay delegation, and 
the church ratified it when it was submitted 
to a general vote. It elects bishops (in 1873, 
four) for a term of four years, and assigns to 
each a district. No slaveholder, no adhering 
member of any secret combination, and no 
manufacturer, seller, or drinker of intoxicating 
liquors can be a member of the church. They 
regard a change of heart as indispensable to 
membership. Baptism is administered by 
either sprinkling, pouring, or immersion, each 
member being permitted to exercise his own 
judgment in regard to the mode ; infants are 
baptized when it is desired. Open communion 
is practised. Until about 1825 the United 
Brethren in Christ confined their labors almost 
exclusively to persons speaking German, but 
most of the communicants now speak English. 
Being one of the most outspoken anti-slavery 
churches, they had before the civil war hardly 
any congregations in the southern states ; since 
then they have established several there. In 
some of the western states this church is among 
the largest denominations. Foreign missions 
have been established in Africa and Germany. 
See "History of the United Brethren in 
Christ," by G. Lawrence. 

UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH, an ecclesiasti- 
cal denomination in Germany, which arose in 



UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH 



1817 out of a union of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed churches. Attempts at uniting these 
two churches were made as early as 1529 
when leading theologians of both schools held 
a conference at Marburg. These attempts 
were often renewed, and other religious con- 
ferences between theologians of the two de- 
nominations were held at Leipsic in 1631, and 
at Cassel in 1661. In 1703 Frederick I. of 
Prussia convened several Lutheran and Re- 
formed theologians at Berlin, to discuss the 
practicability of a union. He erected union 
churches at Berlin and Charlottenburg, and 
had the orphans of the two denominations 
brought up in the same establishments ; but the 
Lutheran clergy successfully resisted the pro- 
gress of these schemes. A " Plan of Union " 
proposed by Klemm and Pfaff, theologians of 
Tubingen (1710-1722), met with little favor. 
Frederick William I. issued several decrees 
designed to promote a union. The rise of 
rationalism, toward the close of the 18th cen- 
tury, disposed the theologians generally in 
favor of a union of the two churches, whose 
distinctive tenets, it was generally admitted, 
had but few believers among the clergy of 
either. Schleiermacher proposed to establish 
at first only an external church unity, and 
to leave the controversies of scientific the- 
ology open to discussion. The tercentenary of 
the reformation in 1817 led at length to the 
practical establishment of the union, which, 
however, in the opinion of many of its advo- 
cates, was to consist at first only in the estab- 
lishment of a common church government and 
the common celebration of the Lord's supper. 
The leadership in this movement was assumed 
and has ever since been maintained by the 
government of Prussia. The clergy of Berlin 
issued a declaration in favor of the union, and 
a circular of the minister of the interior con- 
firmed it, and decreed that the united church 
should bear henceforth the name Evangeli- 
cal Christian church. It was thought that 
the union would be gradually and peaceably 
consummated by an agreement respecting a 
constitution, church property, and ordinary 
usages. It was also decided that the Lord's 
supper should be celebrated by a mere break- 
ing of the bread and a faithful recitation of 
the words used in the original institution. 
For several years this work appeared to be in 
process of accomplishment in the several ec- 
clesiastical corporations, sometimes by public 
enactments and sometimes as the government 
directed, by a practical acceptance of the break- 
ing of the bread and an acknowledgment of 
the authorities of the united church ; but it 
was considerably disturbed by the introduc- 
tion of a new liturgical book, the Agenda. A 
theological commission, appointed to compose 
such an instrument, accomplished nothing. 
The king then published an Agenda, which had 
been introduced by his cabinet (1822) into the 
court church, gave orders that it should be 
introduced into the garrison churches of his 



UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH 



117 



kingdom, and recommended it to all the con- 
gregations of the realm, instead of the conflict- 
ing and arbitrary forms which had previously 
heen used in the different provinces. Many 
objections were raised against the Agenda, es- 
pecially by the strict Lutherans ; and when in 
1834 a royal decree was issued ordering its in- 
troduction into all non-united as well as united 
congregations of the kingdom, a number of 
strict Lutherans seceded from the national 
church. For several years the government 
endeavored by the suspension of ministers to 
coerce them back into the national church ; 
but in 1845 Frederick "William IV. conceded 
liberty of worship. They then organized an in- 
dependent Lutheran church, which numbered 
in 1871 about 20,000 members. All the rest 
of the former Lutheran and Reformed churches 
of Prussia nominally connected themselves 
with the United Evangelical church. But there 
was great difference of opinion as to the nature 
and extent of the union by which the United 
Evangelical church had been called into exis- 
tence. One party, generally called the con- 
federalists, under the leadership of Prof. Heng- 
stenberg and Dr. Stahl, maintained that the 
union consisted in a mere external confedera- 
tion and subjection to the same general church 
government; that the individual churches re- 
mained Lutheran, Reformed, or (if they have 
expressly adopted the union) United ; and that 
if the right of adhering to the old standards of 
the Lutheran confession should be curtailed, it 
would become the duty of the party to secede. 
A second party, commonly called the consen- 
sus party, took for its doctrinal basis the Bible 
and the common dogmas of the Lutheran and 
Reformed confessions. It controlled the theo- 
logical faculties of most of the universities, not 
only in Prussia, but in the other German states. 
Among its leading men were Nitzsch, Twesten, 
Hoffmann, Niedner, Tholuck, Julius Mtiller, 
Jacobi, Dorner, Lange, Liebner, Stier, Ullmann, 
Umbreit, Ebrard, Herzog, and Rothe. A third 
party, frequently designated as the union party, 
rejected the authoritative character of the old 
symbolical books of both the Lutheran and Re- 
formed denominations, and based themselves 
on the Bible simply, claiming at the same time 
the right of subjecting the authenticity of the 
Old and New Testaments to critical exami- 
nation. This party embraced many of the dis- 
ciples of Schleiermacher, the school of Tubin- 
gen, and liberal divines of different shades of 
opinion. The second and third parties agreed 
in asking for the introduction of a presbyterian 
church constitution, embracing district, pro- 
vincial, and general synods ; but their exertions 
were vigorously resisted by the confederalists. 
Frederick William IV., who repeatedly de- 
clared his wish to restore full self-government 
to the national church, convoked in 1846 a 
general synod, in order to complete her organi- 
zation. The work was interrupted by the 
revolution of 1848, but resumed in 1856 by 
another general conference. While the gov- 



ernment of Frederick William IV. had strongly 
favored the first of these three parties, his 
successor William I. showed an outspoken 
sympathy with the second. The supreme ec- 
clesiastical council tried to check the manifes- 
tations of the Lutheran clergymen and socie- 
ties who endeavored to maintain the strict- 
ly denominational character of the formerly 
Lutheran section of the church. The annexa- 
tion to Prussia of Schleswig-Holstein and Han- 
over, both of which countries had a Lutheran 
state church that had never accepted the union, 
created new difficulties in the way of carrying 
it through. A radical change in the constitu- 
tion of the church began in 1874, when the 
state government, in accordance with the laws 
passed in 1873, substituted the principle of ec- 
clesiastical self-government for that of the 
consistorial administration heretofore exercised 
by the state. Church councils were elected in 
all congregations, and circuit synods, consisting 
of delegates of the congregations, were con- 
voked. In January and February, 1875, pro- 
vincial synods, composed of delegates of the 
circuit synods, met in all the eight old prov- 
inces of Prussia (those belonging to Prussia 
before the annexations of 1866), and in Novem- 
ber and December an extraordinary general 
synod, formed of delegations of the eight pro- 
vincial synods and members appointed by the 
king, met in Berlin to make all necessary pre- 
parations for a transfer of the government of 
the church to a regular general synod. The 
Prussian government makes the utmost exer- 
tions to render it possible for the discordant 
ecclesiastical parties to live peaceably side by 
side in the national church, but large numbers, 
especially of the adherents of strict Lutheran 
principles, may ultimately prefer secession to 
a continuance of their church communion with 
parties which they consider heretical. The 
example of the king of Prussia in consolida- 
ting the Lutheran and Reformed churches into 
a United Evangelical church was followed in 
other German states. Thus the union was in- 
troduced, either by resolution of synods or by 
a general vote, in Nassau (1817), the Bavarian 
Palatinate (1818), Baden (1821), and even in 
Wurtemberg (1827), where the Reformed 
church had hardly an existence. The union 
may be considered permanently established in 
the Bavarian Palatinate and in Baden, in both 
of which the church has a presbyterian con- 
stitution, inclusive of a general synod, which 
in both churches is unanimous in maintain- 
ing the union. Saxony, the bulk of Bavaria 
proper, Mecklenburg, Brunswick, and several 
other states were too exclusively Lutheran, 
Switzerland too exclusively Reformed, to fall 
in with the movement. In many of the small 
states the views of the people on the sub- 
ject of union could not be ascertained, as 
the church was without a synodal constitu- 
tion and entirely controlled by the govern- 
ment. The introduction of the synodal con- 
stitution, which in 1875 had been completed 



118 UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH 

in the large majority of the Protestant state 
churches, United Evangelical as well as Luther- 
an, will ere long define the position of every 
church in regard to the union. In Austria 
and France a fusion of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed churches has also many friends, but 
nothing has been done in the way of practical 
execution. See Hering, Geschichte der kirch- 
lichen Unionsversuche (2 vols., Leipsic, 1836- 
'8) ; Nitzsch, Urkundtnbueh der evangelischen 
Union (Bonn, 1853) ; Julius Muller, Die evan- 
qelische Union (Leipsic, 1854) ; Stahl, Die lu- 
therische Kirche und die Union (Berlin, 1858). 
^A branch of the United Evangelical church 
in the United States was established at St. 
Louis in 1840, when six German ministers or- 
ganized an ecclesiastical body called Evan- 
gelisoher Kirchenverein dea Westens (Evangeli- 
cal Church Union of the West). In 1856 this 
body was divided into three districts, in 1866 
it changed its name into " German Evangelical 
Synod of the West," and in 1870 it reported at 
the "General Assembly," held in Louisville, 
162 ministers, 300 congregations, 12,000 voting 
members, about 20,000 communicants, and a 
total population of about 50,000. Independent 
of this organization, another branch of the 
United Evangelical church was constituted in 
1848 under the name of "Evangelical Synod 
of North America." In May, 1859, it split into 
two independent bodies, one of which assumed 
the name " United Evangelical Synod of the 
Northwest," and the other " United Evangeli- 
cal Synod of the East." Both of them united 
in 1872 with the " German Evangelical Synod 
of the West," constituting henceforth the 
fourth and fifth districts of this bodv. In 1874 




UNITED STATES 

the church was redistricted by the general con- 
ference held in Indianapolis into seven partic- 
ular synods; it numbered at this time about 
300 ministers and 40,000 communicants. The 
church has a theological seminary in Warren 
co., Mo., and another educational institution 
at Elmhurst, 111. In 1876 the German language 
was still exclusively used in all the congre- 
gations of this church. It publishes three de- 
nominational papers. 

UNITED PROVINCES. See NETHERLANDS. 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, a federal repub- 
lic in North America, comprising the central 
portion of the continent and the territory of 
Alaska, separated from the rest by British Co- 
lumbia. (See ALASKA.) The main portion lies 
between lat. 24 30' and 49 24' N. (at the lake 
of the Woods, W. of which the boundary fol- 
lows the 49th parallel), and Ion. 66 50' and 
124 45' W. It is bounded N. by British 
America, from which it is in part separated by 
Lakes Superior, Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and 
Ontario, with their connecting streams, and 
the river St. Lawrence (see CANADA, vol. iii., 
p. 672); E. by New Brunswick and the At- 
lantic ocean; S. by the gulf and republic of 
Mexico, from which it is partly separated by 
the Rio Grande; and W. by the Pacific ocean. 
The British American boundary, according to 
the war department map (1869), measures 
3,540 m. ; the Mexican, 1,550 m. The great- 
est length, from Cape Cod on the Atlantic to 
the Pacific near the 42d parallel, is nearly 
2,800 m., and the greatest breadth, from the 
N. W. extremity of Minnesota to the south- 
ernmost point of Texas, 1,600 m. ; general 
breadth, about 1,200 m. The area, according 




there is no evidence that the 
tnlon a bundle of thirteen 
place of the old one, whic 
which was unauthorized by *; 



Great Seal of tne United States. 

* f *> con, on June 20, 17.2, and re- 

se was ever m, Tn th x^ and a ,^ ver8e - substantially as here depicted; but 
and the Ct?e^ was th,? 8 S?& or ^ na "^"opted, the ea^le held in hi* 8 ini s ter 
ecome wora nlv^fv ! but ^ h n ' in 184 L new seal was made to take the 

Ulon - Whether 



)iace ot the old one, which had become worn onlv sir ' ' 8 new 8eal was made to *&** the 

which was unauthorized by law, was made by design or by ac'w"^''! 6 ! P " t V** the 1 ea ^ le ' 8 **\tm. Whether this change, 

*^>^^^^^^ 



UNITED STATES 



119 



to the republic at the peace of 1783, 1,171,- 
931 sq. m. were added by the Louisiana pur- 
chase from France in 1803 (supplemented by 
the Oregon treaty with Great Britain in 1846), 
59,268 sq. m. by the Spanish cession of 1819, 
and 967,451 sq. m. from Mexico, viz. : 376,133 
sq. m. by the annexation of Texas in 1845, 545,- 
783 sq. m. by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 
in 1848, and 45,535 sq. m. by the Gadsden 
purchase in 1853. The republic is divided 
into 37 states, one federal district (District of 
Columbia, ceded by Maryland), nine organ- 
ized territories, and two unorganized territo- 
ries (Alaska and Indian territory). By the 
act of congress of March 3, 1875, Colorado is 
authorized to frame a constitution and to sub- 
mit it to a vote of the people in July, 1876, 
when, in case of its adoption, the president is 
to issue a proclamation declaring the territory 
admitted into the Union as a state. A bill 
for the admission of New Mexico as a state 
passed the senate March 10, 1876, and is (June 
1) pending before the house of representatives. 
For convenience the states are generally clas- 
sified by geographers as follows ; eastern or 
New England states, Maine, New Hampshire, 
Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- 
necticut ; middle states, New York, New Jer- 
sey, Pennsylvania, Delaware ; southern states, 
Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, 
Tennessee, Kentucky; western states, Ohio, 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska; Pa- 
cific states, California, Oregon, Nevada. An- 
other classification is : Atlantic and Pacific 
states, those on the Atlantic and Pacific slopes 
respectively; gulf states, those bordering on 
the gulf of Mexico ; southwestern states, Louisi- 
ana, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas ; north- 
western states, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minne- 
sota, Iowa, Nebraska ; central states, Ohio, In- 
diana, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee. The 
slave states, those in which slavery existed at 
the outbreak of the civil war, numbered 15, 
viz. : Delaware, Maryland, Virginia (then in- 
cluding West Virginia), North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Missis- 
sippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, Missouri ; the others were known 
as the free states. Of the states, 13 existed 
at the formation of the constitution, and 24 
have been admitted under its provisions. Of 
these one (Texas) was an independent repub- 
lic, four were formed directly from other states 
(Kentucky from Virginia, Maine from Massa- 
chusetts, Vermont from territories claimed by 
New York and previously also by New Hamp- 
shire, and West Virginia from Virginia), and 
the rest were created from the public domain. 
The following tables contain a list of the states 
and territories, with various particulars. The 
second and third columns of the first give for 
the original states the date and order of ratifi- 
cation of the federal constitution, for the oth- 



er states the date and order of admission into 
the Union, and for the territories the date and 
order of organization. The areas are taken 
from the report of the census of 1870. Many 
of these, as well as the general figures given 
above, are based mainly on approximative com- 
putations. In a few instances slightly different 
figures have been given in the articles on the 
states and territories, those in PENNSYLVANIA 
being the estimate of the state geologist. The 
aggregate population in the second table in- 
cludes tribal Indians, as estimated by the su- 
perintendent of the census in 1870. 



STATES. 


1 


1 


Arcs in 
square miles. 


s 

1 


CAPITALS. 


Alabama 


1819 
1836 
1850 
1788 
1787 
1845 
1788 
1818 
1816 
1846 
1861 
1792 
1812 
1820 
1788 
1788 
1837 
1858 
1817 
1821 
1867 
1S64 
1788 
1787 
1788 
1789 
1802 
1859 
1787 
1790 

1788 
1796 
1845 
1791 

1788 
1868 
1848 


f 

12 
18 

5 

l 
14 
4 
g 
6 
16 
21 
8 
5 
10 

Ci 
18 
T.I 
7 
11 
24 
'8 
9 

8 

11 
12 
4 

20 
2 
18 

8 
15 
1 
10 
22 
17 


50,722 
52,198 
188,981 
4,750 
2.120 
59,268 
58,000 
55,410 
83,809 
55,045 
81,318 
87,680 
41,846 
85,000 
11,124 
7,800 
56,451 
88,581 
47.156 
65,350 
75,995 
104.125 
9,280 
8,320 
47,000 
50,704 
89,964 
95,274 
46,000 
1,306 

34,000 
45,600 
274.856 
10,212 
38,848 
28,000 
53,924 


16 
15 
2 
85 
!)<> 
9 
10 
12 
2^ 
18 

25 
22 
26 
8(1 
84 
11 
6 
16 
8 

82 
88 
19 
17 
28 
4 
20 
87 

27 
21 
1 
81 

24 
20 
14 


Montgomery. 
Little Rock. 
Sacramento. 
Hartford. 
Dover. 
Tallahassee. 
Atlanta. 
Springfield. 
Indianapolis. 
Des Moines. 
Topeka. 
Frankfort. 
New Orleans. 
Augusta. 
Annapolis. 
Boston. 
Lansing. 
St. Paul. 
Jackson. 
Jefferson City. 
Lincoln. 
Carson City. 
Concord. 
Trenton. 
Albany. 
Raleigh. 
Columbus. 
Salem. 
Harrisburg. 
Newport and 
Providence. 
Columbia. 
Nashville. 
Austin. 
Montpelier. 
Richmond. 
Wheeling. 
Madison. 

Tucson. 
Denver. 
Yankton. 
Washington. 
Boise City. 


Arkansas 


California 


* Connecticut 


* Delaware 


Florida 


* Georgia 


Illinois 


Indiana 




Kansas 


Kentucky. 


Louisiana 




* Maryland 


* Massachusetts 


Minnesota 


Mississippi 


Missouri 


Nebraska 


Nevada 


* New Hampshire. . . 
* New Jersey 


* New York 


* North Carolina 
Ohio 


Oregon 




* Rhode Island 


* South Carolina 
Tennessee 


Texas 


Vermont 


* Virginia 


West Virginia 


Wisconsin 


Total states 




1,984,467 


TERRITORIES. 




.. 


1863 
1861 
1861 
1801 
1868 


7 

5 
G 
1 
8 


113,916 
104.500 
148,932 
64 
86,294 
68.991 


4 
6 
1 

11 

7 
Hi 


Colorado 


Dakota 


Dist. of Columbia. ..t 






1864: 9 
1850 3 
1850 2 
1853 4 
186810 


145.776 
121,201 
84,476 
69,994 
97,888 


I CXOOOODtO 


Helena. 
Santa F6. 
Salt Lake City. 
Olympia. 
Cheyenne. 

Sitka. 
Washington. 


New Mexico 


Utah 


Washington 


Wyoming 


Total territories 


1,042,027 


Total U. 8., exclu- 
sive of Alaska... 




- 




8,026,494 




Alaska t 
Total United States 


1867 


- 


577,390 






8,608,884 




* The thirteen original states, 
t Date when congress assumed exclusive jurisdiction. 
$ Date of cession by Russia. 



120 



UNITED STATES 





STATES. 


White. 


a, 

^ c 

l\ 

3 * 
l & 


POPBX. 

Colored. 


mo 

*S ' 

11 

I 1 

3 
12 
29 
26 
21 
14 
1 
19 
20 
27 
23 
10 
7 
81 
11 
24 
25 
84 
4 
18 
33 
86 
85 
18 
17 
6 
16 
87 
15 
28 
5 
8 
9 
82 
2 
22 
80 




AS BETTTB 

1 
l 

P 


JED 

1 ^ 

P 


- 

BY THE CEH 

IT 

i 1 


8U8 

&7 

1.1 

a* 

i* 


[>F 1870. 

~Ski 

oca 

III 

a i a 

ill 


si 
1% 


Population per 
qtuur* mill. ' 


fl 

3 3. 


| 




521,884 
862,115 
4'J9,424 
527,549 
102,221 
96,057 
638,926 
2,511,096 
1.655,837 
1,183,207 
346,877 
1.098,692 
362,065 
624,809 
605,497 
1,443,156 
1,167,282 
438,257 
382,896 
1,603,146 
122,117 
38.959 
317,697 
875,407 
4,330,210 
678,4^0 
2,001,946 
86,929 
8,456,609 
212,219 
289,667 
930,119 
564.700 
329.613 
712,089 


21 
26 
22 
20 
34 
35 
16 
4 
5 
8 
28 
10 
27 
17 
18 
7 
9 
23 
25 
6 
33 
37 
30 
13 
1 
15 
8 
86 

32 
31 
12 
19 
29 
14 


475,510 
122,169 
4,272 
9,663 
22,794 
91,689 
545.142 
28,762 
24.560 
5.762 
17,108 
222,210 
864,210 
1.606 
175,891 
13,947 
11,849 
759 
444,201 
118,071 
789 
857 
580 
30,658 
52,081 
891.650 
63,213 
346 
65,294 
4,9*0 
415,614 
822.831 
258,475 
924 
512.841 
17,980 
2,113 


987,080 
479,445 
860,416 
428,815 
115,879 
182,781 
1,172,982 
2,024,693 
1,589,168 
989,328! 
816.007 
1,257,613 
665,088 
678,034 
697,4e2 
1,104,082 
916,049 
279,009 
816,781 
1,499,028 
92,245 
23,690 
288,689 
717,153 
8,244,406 
1,068,882 
2,292.767 
79.828 
2,976,642 
161,957 
697,582 
1,289,204 
756,168 
288,896 
1,211,409 
424,928 
690,171 


14 

24 
27 
26 
84 
82 
10 
4 
6 
18 
28 
7 
22 
23 
20 
11 
15 
31 
16 
6 
35 
87 
29 
18 
1 

^ 
8 

86 
2 
38 
19 
8 
17 
80 
9 
25 
21 


9,962 
6,026 
209,SU 
113,639 
9,136 
4.967 
11,127 
615,198 
141,474 
204,692 
48,892 
68,898 
61,827 
48,881 
68,412 
858,819 
268,010 
160.697 
11,191 
222,267 
80,748 
18,801 
29.611 
18s,948 
l,18-.853 
8,029 
872,493 
11,600 
545.809 
65,896 
8.074 
19,316 
62.411 
47,155 
18.754 
17,091 
864,499 


82 
85 
9 
14 
83 
86 
81 
8 
13 
10 
21 
16 
18 
20 
15 
6 
7 
12 
80 
8 
28 
26 
24 

>} 
87 
4 
29 
2 
19 
84 
26 
17 
22 
28 
27 
6 


996,992 
484,471 
660,247 
637,454 
125,015 
ls7,748, 
1,184,109 
2.589.891 
1,6-0,687 
1,194,020 
364.899 
1,821.011 
726,915 
626,915 
780,894 
1,457,851 
1,184,059 
489.706 
827,922 
1,721,295 
122,998 
42,491 
818,800 
906,096 
4,882,759 
1.071,861 
2,666,260 
90,928 
8.521.951 
217,858 
706,606 
1,258,520 
818,579 
380,561 
1,225,168 
442,014 
1,054,670 


16 

26 
24 
25 
84 
88 
12 
4 
6 
11 
29 
8 
21 
23 
20 
T 
18 
28 
18 
6 
86 
87 
81 

*I 

ii 

8 

86 
2 
82 
22 
9 
1 
80 
10 
27 
15 


19-66 
9-80 
2-96 
118-15 
68-97 
8-1T 
20-42 
45 -b4 
49-71 
21 69 
4-48 
85-88 
17-68 
17-91 
70-20 
166-84 1 
20-97 
6-26 
17-56 
26-84 
1-62 
0-41 
84-80 
108-91 
98-25 
21-18 
66-69 
0-95 
76-56 
166-48 
20-75 
27-60 
2-98 
82-87 
81-96 
19-22 
19-66 


28 
29 
84 
1 

9 

82 
22 
11 
10 
21 
81 
12 
27 
26 
7 
1 
19 
80 
28 
17 
85 
87 
18 
4 
6 
18 
8 
86 
6 
2 
20 
16 
88 
14 
15 
25 
24 


996,999 

4-4.471 
5S'2,081 
687,451 
126,015 
l!>>,248 
1.184,109 
2,589,891 
1,680,687 
1,192,098 
878,899 
1,821,011 
726,916 
626,915 
780,884 
1,457.861 
1,187,284 
44<;,066 
827,922 
1,721,295 
129,822 
58.711 
818,800 
906,096 
4,U-<7,464 
l,i>71,861 
2,665.260 
101.688 
8..V21.-1K) 
217,888 
705,606 
1,268,680 

hi -.-'.19 

880,561 
I,'22!>,lf8 
442.014 
1,064,965 






Connecticut 


Florida 




















Massachusetts 












New Hampshire.. 
New Jersey 
New York 
North Carolina. . . 
Ohio 




Pennsylvania 
Ehode Island 
South Carolina. . . 








"West Virginia 
Wisconsin 


4-24,033 24 
1,051,351, 11 


Total states 

TERRITORIES. 


33,203,128 .. 


4,835,106 




82,642,612; .. 


6,478,029 




88,116,641 




19-21 




88,208,210 


9,581 
89,221 
12,887 

88,27* 
10,61 S 


9 
4 

7 
2 

8 


26 
456 
94 
48,4(4 
60 


9 
2 
7 
1 

8 


8.649 
88,265 
9,866 
115,446 
7,114 


10 
4 
7 
1 
6 


5.R09 
6,699 
4,815 
10.254 
7,8s6 


6 
6 
9 
2 
4 


9,666 
89,864 
14,181 
181,700 
14,999 


9 

4 
8 
1 
T 


008 
0-88 
0-09 

2,067-61 
0-17 


10 

4 
8 
1 

e 


41,710 
47,164 
40,601 
181,700 
20,688 
f,-,152 
89,895 
111,808 
99,661 
87,488 
11,618 






Dist. of Columbia 
Idaho 


Indian Territory. 


18,806. 6 
90,898 1 
86,049 3 
22,195 5 
8,726 10 


183 
172 
118 
207 
183 


4 
5 
6 
8 

4 


12,616 6 
86,254 2 
66.084 8 
18,9811 6 
5,605 9 


7.979 
5,6-20 
80,702 
6,024 
8,518 


8 

7 
1 
8 
10 


20,595 6 
91,874 2 
66,786 8 
28,956, 6 

Ml- 10 


0-14 
0-76 
1-08 
0-84 
0-09 


7 
8 

'2 
fi 

9 


New Mexico 
Utah 


AVashinpton 
Wyoming 


Total territories. 

Total U 8.. exclu 
sive of Alaska.. 


886,249 




44,903 


.. 


843,580 




94,200 





442,73C 


.. 


0*49 




649,589 


83,589.371 




4,880,009 .. 


32,991,142 




6,667,229 





88,558,871 




18-74 




:;-.-.V2,74& 
7i>4(H 


Alaska 
Total United St's.j 33,589,871 




4,880,00! 


1 " 
.. 


82,991,142 




5,667,229 


.. 


Kju&jn 


.. 


10- TC 




86,928,210 



A state census was taken in Michigan in 1874, 
and censuses were taken by 14 states in 1875. 
The population according to these enumera- 
tions, except in Florida, from which the re- 
turns have not (June 1, 1876) been received, 
was as follows : Iowa, 1,350,544 ; Kansas, 528,- 
437; Louisiana, 857,039 (404,916 white and 
452,123 colored); Massachusetts, 1,651,652; 
Michigan, 1,334,031 ; Minnesota, 597,407 ; Ne- 
braska, 246,280 ; Nevada, 52,540 ; New Jersey, 
1,019,413; New York, 4,705,208; Oregon, 104,- 
920 ; Rhode Island, 258,239 ; South Carolina, 
925,145 (350,754 white and 574,391 colored) ; 



Wisconsin, 1,236,729. According to the census 
of 1870, there were 52 cities with more than 
25,000 inhabitants each, of which 8 bad upward 
of 200,000, 6 from 100,000 to 200,000, 11 from 
50,000 to 100,000, and 27 from 25.000 to 50,- 
000. Besides these there are 9 cities which, 
according to the state censuses named above, 
contained upward of 25,000 inhabitants each, 
in 1874 or 1875. The table on the next page 
contains a list of these 61 cities with their pop- 
ulation as returned by the United States census 
in 1870, and the population in 1874 or 1875 of 
such as are contained in the state censuses. 



UNITED STATES 



121 



CITIES. 


POPULATION. 


1870. 


1875. 


New York N. Y 


942,292 
674,022 
896,099 
310,864 
298,977 


1,046,037 


Philadelphia, Pa 


Brooklyn NY 


484,616 




Chicago 111 




Baltimore, Md 


267,354 
250,526 
216,239 
191,418 
149,473 


' 34l',9i9 


Cincinnati Ohio 




203,439 


San Francisco 1 , Cal 


Buffalo N Y 


117,714 
109,199 
105,059 
100,753 
92,829 


134,578 
' 123,816 


Washington, D. C 




Cleveland Ohio 




Pittsburgh, Pa 


86,076 
82,546 
79,577 
71,440 
69,422 
68,904 
62,386 
53,180 




Jersey City, N. J 


109,227 
*101,255 
100,775 
86,013 
100,675 
81,678 


Detroit, Mich 


Milwaukee, Wis 


Albany, N. Y 


Providence, E I . . . . 


Rochester, N. Y 






51,038 




New Haven, Conn 


50,840 
48.956 

48,244 




Charleston, S. C 


56,540 


Indianapolis, Ind 


Troy, N. Y 


46,465 
43,051 
41,105 
40,928 
40,226 
89634 


48.821 
48,315 
49,265 
49,677 


Syracuse, N. Y 


Worcester, Mass 


Lowell, Mass 


Memphis, Tenn 




47,838 




87,130 


Scranton, Pa 


35,092 




Beading, Pa ... 


83,930 
88,579 
32,260 
82,034 
31,534 




Paterson, N. J 


88,814 


Kansas City, Mo 


Mobile, Ala 




Toledo, Ohio 




Portland, Me 


31,413 
81,274 
80,841 
80,473 




Columbus, Ohio 




Wilmington, Del 




Dayton, Ohio 




Lawrence, Mass 


23,921 
28,804 
28,323 
23,235 
28,233 
26,766 
26,703 
25,865 


84,907 
82,070 


Utica, N. Y 


t Charlestown, Mass 


Savannah, Ga 




Lvnn, Mass 


82,600 
45,840 
81,053 


Fall River, Mass 


Springfield, Mass 


Nashville, Tenn 


Salem, Mass 
Trenton, N. J 


24,117 
22,874 
21,320 
20,882 
20,297 
20,045 
20,030 
16,507 
13,066 


25,955 
25,031 
25,876 
25,928 
24,766 
83,852 
83,178 
*25.928 
82.721 


New Bedford, Mass 


Elizabeth, N. J 


Hoboken, N. J 


Camden, N. J 


St. Paul, Minn 
Grand Rapids, Mich .... 


Minneapolis, Minn . . . 



With the exception of a small portion of 
the N". E. coast, the shores on the Atlantic 
and gulf are low, while those on the Pacific 
are mostly bold and rocky. The most im- 
portant indentations on the Atlantic are Pas- 
samaquoddy, Frenchman's, Penobscot, Casco, 
Massachusetts, Cape Cod, Buzzard's, Narra- 
gansett, New York, Earitan, Delaware, and 
Chesapeake bays, and Long Island, Alhe- 
marle, and Pamlico sounds ; on the gulf, Tam- 
pa, Appalachee, Pensacola, Mobile, Galveston, 
Matagorda, Espiritu Santo, Aransas, and Cor- 
pus Christi bays, with those about the delta 
of the Mississippi; and on the Pacific, San 
Diego harbor, Monterey bay, San Francisco 
bay, and the strait of Fuca. The length of 
coast line, not including indentations of the 

* 1374. t Annexed to Boston in 1874. 



land, according to the United States coast 
survey, is 5,715 m., viz. : 2,349 m. on the At- 
lantic, 1,556 on the gulf of Mexico, and 1,810 
on the Pacific. The shore line of the great 
lakes, according to estimates made in the coast 
survey office, measures 3,450 m., viz. : Supe- 
rior, 955; Michigan, 1,320; Huron, 510; St. 
Clair, 65 ; Erie, 370 ; Ontario, 230. The rivers 
of the United States may be comprised in four 
distinct classes: 1. The Mississippi and its 
affluents, which drain the region between the 
Alleghanies and the Rocky mountains. The 
chief of these affluents are : on the east, the 
Wisconsin, Kock, Illinois, Ohio, Yazoo, and 
Big Black; on the west, the Minnesota, Des 
Moines, Missouri, St. Francis, Arkansas, and 
Red river. Several of these are from 1,000 to 
2,000 m. in length, while many of the secon- 
dary affluents have courses extending from 300 
to 1,000 m. 2. The rivers which rise in the Al- 
leghany chain and flow into the Atlantic. Of 
these, the most important, beginning at the 
northeast, are the Penobscot, Kennebec, Mer- 
rimack, Connecticut, Hudson, Delaware, Sus- 
quehanna, Potomac, James, Roanoke, Neuse, 
Cape Fear, Great Pedee, Santee, Savannah, 
and Altamaha, most of which exceed 300 m. 
in length, and are navigable to a considerable 
distance from the sea. 3. The rivers of the 
southern slope, flowing into the gulf of Mexico, 
the principal of which, E. of the Mississippi, 
are the Appalachicola, Mobile, and Pearl, and 
W. of the Mississippi, the Sabine, Neches, 
Trinity, Brazos, Colorado, Nueces, and Rio 
Grande (which forms the boundary between 
Texas and Mexico). 4. The rivers which flow 
into the Pacific, of which the most important 
are the Columbia, which has several large 
affluents ; the Sacramento and the San Joaquin, 
which flow into the bay of San Francisco, and 
drain the fertile valley between the Sierra 
Nevada and Coast mountains ; and the great 
Colorado of the West, which has its terminus 
in the gulf of California, and drains the region 
between the Wahsatch and Rocky mountains. 
Besides these may be mentioned the' shallow 
streams of the Great Basin, which have no 
outlet to. the ocean; the Red river of the 
North, which empties into Lake Winnipeg in 
British America; the St. Lawrence, which 
forms part of the boundary between New York 
and Canada, and discharges the waters of the 
great lakes and their affluents ; the St. John 
and St. Croix, which form part of the boun- 
dary between Maine and New Brunswick ; and 
the St. John's, in Florida. Few countries in 
the world contain so many lakes as the United 
.States, though these are principally confined 
to the northern portion. Of the five great 
lakes, as they are called, the largest bodies of 
fresh water on the globe, with perhaps the 
exception of the newly discovered and imper- 
fectly known lakes in the interior of Africa, 
four, viz., Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, 
lie on the northern border, partly in the Uni- 
ted States and partly in British America, while 



122 



UNITED STATES 



Lake Michigan is wholly within the territory 
of the republic ; so is nearly all of Lake Cham- 
plain. Near the S. end of the last, in New 
York, is Lake George, renowned for its beau- 
tiful scenery, a feature equally characteristic 
of other lakes in the neighboring wilderness 
of the Adirondacks and in New England. 
Among the last mentioned, the most impor- 
tant are Moosehead in Maine, Wiunipiseogee 
in New Hampshire, and Memphremagog, part- 
ly in Vermont and partly in Canada. The 
central parts of Maine are thickly strewn with 
lakes of great beauty and considerable size; 
and -in almost every part of New England 
sheets of water are abundantly found under 
the designation of ponds, which in Europe 
from their size and beauty would be classed 
as lakes. The central and western parts of 
New York contain several large lakes, the 
most remarkable of which are Otsego, Oneida, 
Skaneateles, Cayuga, Seneca, Keuka (former- 
ly Crooked), and Chautauqua. In the south- 
ern states lakes of fresh water are rarely 
found except in Florida, where the principal 
is Okeechobee, and in Louisiana, where there 
are many lakes formed by expansions of the 
numerous rivers. In the states of the north- 
west, lakes are very numerous in Michigan, 
"Wisconsin, and Minnesota; the great num- 
ber and size of those in the last form indeed 
one of its most remarkable geographical fea- 
tures. The most noted on the Pacific slope is 
Great Salt lake. In the Great Basin, in Utah 
and Nevada, are many other lakes or sloughs, 
most of which, like this, are salt. In Califor- 
nia and E. Oregon are several similar bodies of 
water. The area of the United States, with 
reference to its watersheds, is divided, accord- 
ing to Walker's " Statistical Atlas of the United 
States," as follows : 1. The Pacific slope, 854,- 
314 sq. m., including the basin of the Columbia, 
219,706 sq. m. ; Great Basin, 210,274; basin 
of the Colorado of the West, 264,386 ; coast 
basins, 159,948. 2. The Mississippi valley, 
1,257,545 sq. m., including the Missouri basin, 
527,690 sq. m. ; upper Mississippi, 179,635; 
Ohio, 207,111; Arkansas, 184,742; Red river, 
92,721; lower Mississippi, 65,646. 3. The 
gulf slope W. of the Mississippi, 279,768 sq. 
m., of which the Rio Grande basin occupies 
101,334, and the gulf slope E. of the Missis- 
sippi 145,990 sq. m. 4. The Atlantic slope 
proper, 304,538 sq. m. 5. The basins of the 
St. Lawrence and Red river of the North, 
184,339 sq. m. The United States is crossed 
in a general N. and S. direction by two great 
systems of mountains, the Rocky mountains 
in the west and the Appalachian or Allegheny 
chain in the east, between which is the exten- 
sive and fertile Mississippi valley. The preat 
mass of the Rocky mountain system is "W. of 
the 105th meridian. Its two main chains are 
the Rocky mountains proper, extending through 
New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Mon- 
tana, and the Sierra Nevada in California, with 
its extension, the Cascade range, in Oregon 



and Washington territory. Between these two 
chains is a plateau, crossed by numerous moon- 
tain ranges, which through its centre E. and 
W. is from 4,000 to 5,000 ft. high, falling off 
toward the north and south from that line. 
The Wahsatch mountains are the most impor- 
tant range of the plateau. They extend S. and 
S. W. through Utah and S. E. Nevada, and 
form the E. rim of the Great Basin, the W. 
rim being the Sierra Nevada. They rise from 
4,000 to 6,000 ft. above the plateau, Mt. Nebo 
being 11,992 ft. high. The Blue mountains 
in E. Oregon are little known. The most ele- 
vated portion of the plateau is between the 
Wahsatch and Rocky mountains, and em- 
braces the Colorado " parks " and the Laramie 
plains in Wyoming. The average elevation 
here is from 7,000 to 9,000 ft., being greatest 
on the N. edge of the South park, whence 
there is a gentle decline in either direction. 
The loftiest portion of the Rocky mountains 
is in Colorado, where there are many peaks 
upward of 14,000 ft. high. The Wind River 
mountains in N. W. Wyoming, and the Bitter 
Root mountains, forming part of the boundary 
between Idaho and Montana, are important 
spurs of this chain. In the Wind River moun- 
tains rise the Missouri river, the Green river, 
forming the main branch of the Colorado of the 
West, and the Snake, one of the main branch- 
es of the Columbia. The Black hills, on the 
border of Wyoming and Dakota, may be con- 
sidered an outlying group of the Rocky moun- 
tains. The Sierra Nevada and Cascade moun- 
tains run nearly parallel with the Pacific coast, 
from 100 to 150 m. from it. In the former 
are several peaks more than 14,000 ft. high, 
Mt. Whitney (14,887 ft.) being the highest in 
the United States. The Coast range is the 
westernmost of the Rocky mountain system, 
running through California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington territory, at a distance of from 10 to 
50 m. from the coast. It averages from 2,000 
to 3,000 ft. in height, but a few peaks rise 
more than twice as high, and Mt. San Ber- 
nardino, the loftiest (which is however not 
generally considered as belonging to the Coast 
range), to an elevation of 11,600 ft. The Rocky 
mountain system embraces an area of nearly 
1,000,000 sq. m. It is widest between the 
36th and 41st parallels, where the breadth 
is from 800 to 1,000 m. It is lowest along 
the 32d parallel, where the greatest elevation 
is not more than 4,000 ft. The Appalachian 
chain extends S. W. from Canada to Ala- 
bama. It includes among other ranges the 
Green mountains in Vermont, the Catskills in 
New York, the Blue Ridge in Virginia, the 
Black mountains in North Carolina, and as 
outlying spurs the White mountains in New 
Hampshire and the Adirondacks in New York. 
Mt. Washington in the White mountains is 
6,293 ft, high (according to Prof. Hitchcock) ; 
the loftiest peak of the chain is the Black 
Dome in the Black mountains, about 6,700 
ft. The greatest width of the chain, not in- 



UNITED STATES 



123 



eluding outliers, is 100 ra., in Pennsylvania 
and Maryland. The height of the plain at the 
base is 500 ft. in New England, and becomes 
1,200 ft. S. of Virginia; the W. base in Vir- 
ginia and Tennessee is from 1,000 to 2,000 ft. 
high. The Appalachians make their nearest 
approach to the sea in the Highlands on the 
Hudson, which are about 30 m. from Long Isl- 
and sound ; in the south the distance from the 
coast is 200 m. The Atlantic slope, between 
the Appalachians and the ocean, is in general 
hilly, with level tracts near the shore, particu- 
larly in the south. The great central district 
between the two mountain systems is a region 
of prairies and plains, sloping from each to- 
ward the Mississippi river, with a gentle south- 
ern decline to the gulf of Mexico. A portion 
in the northeast slopes toward the great lakes, 
and the basin of the Eed river of the North 
toward the north. The elevation at the base 
of the Rocky mountains in Montana is 4,091 
ft. ; at the mouth of the Yellowstone river, on 
the border of Montana and Dakota, 2,010 ft.; 
at Denver, Colorado, 5,267 ft. ; of the Llano 
Estacado in Texas and New Mexico, 3,200 to 
4,700 ft. ; of the source of the Mississippi in 
Minnesota, 1,680 ft. Some details of the dis- 
tribution of the great geological formations 
over the territory of the Union, and the rela- 
tions of these to its geography, have already 
been given in the article GEOLOGY, vol. vii., 
p. 695. It is there stated that the eozoic for- 
mations bearing the names of Laurentian, Hu- 
ronian, Montalban, and Norian make up the At- 
lantic belt of the Appalachians, extending from 
E. Canada through New England and E. New 
York to N. E. Alabama. To these eozoic groups 
belong the "White mountains, the Green moun- 
tains, the Adirondacks, the Highlands of New 
York and New Jersey, the South mountain of 
Pennsylvania, and its continuation south of the 
Potomac, the Blue Kidge. The lower levels of 
E. New England are also, with some excep- 
tions, occupied by eozoic rocks, and the same 
is true of a broad belt of rolling country be- 
tween the E. base of the Blue Eidge and the 
low lands of the coast. In addition to what 
has been said with regard to the distribution 
of the various formations over this area, it 
may be noted that rocks of the Laurentian age 
extend from the Hudson to the Schuylkill, 
while further southward Huronian and Mont- 
alban rocks prevail, including however a belt 
of Laurentian in Virginia. Westward from the 
Adirondacks eozoic rocks, embracing the four 
great types already mentioned, extend through 
Canada to N. Michigan and Wisconsin, while 
southward they reappear in the Ozark moun- 
tains of Arkansas, and also in small areas in Mis* 
souri. In the Rocky mountains eozoic rocks 
appear which seem to be identical in their char- 
acter with those of the Appalachians, but have 
not yet been critically studied. At the W. base 
of the Green mountains, and thence extending 
along the W. flank of the South mountain and 
the Blue Ridge as far as Georgia, is a series of 



rocks to which Prof. Emmons gave the name of 
the Taconic system. He described them as hav- 
ing a total thickness of about 20,000 ft. and con- 
sisting of an upper and a lower division ; the 
latter consisting of sandstones and quartzites, 
followed by a great mass of limestones inter- 
stratified with and overlaid by argillaceous and 
magnesian schists, and destitute of fossils ; while 
the upper division, including sandstones, slates,* 
and limestones, contained a palaeozoic fauna 
supposed by him to be older than that of the 
Potsdam and calciferous of New York, which 
latter were declared to overlie unconformably 
the Taconic system. These views were op- 
posed by most American geologists, and chiefly 
by Mather, H. D. Rogers, and Logan. Accord- 
ing to these authorities, the whole Taconic sys- 
tem represented in a modified condition the 
middle and upper Cambrian rocks, from the 
Potsdam to the Oneida. (See GEOLOGY, tabular 
view, vol. vii., p. 694.) Later researches have 
confirmed the views of Emmons as to the an- 
tiquity of a portion of the fauna of the upper 
Taconic rocks, while the lower Taconic may 
correspond to the lower Cambrian of Europe, 
or perhaps to a still earlier period more closely 
related to the eozoic rocks already noticed. 
These rocks are important as making up the 
chief part of the floor of the great Appalachian 
valley from Lake Champlain to Georgia, a re- 
gion remarkable for fertility of soil and for the 
great deposits of brown hematite (limonite) 
iron ore which belong to the lower Taconic 
strata. The American subdivisions of the mid- 
dle and upper Cambrian rocks, from the Pots- 
dam to the summit of the Loraine (or Hudson 
river) shales, appear in their characteristic forms 
in the valleys of the Mohawk and the St. Law- 
rence. From this great plain around the base 
of the Adirondacks they extend westward to 
the Mississippi valley, and thence southward 
as far as Texas. They are also found at inter- 
vals along, the eastern border of the palaeozoic 
basin as far as Tennessee, but their precise 
relations to the Taconic rocks along this line 
are still involved in discussion. The base of 
the next great palaeozoic division, the Silurian 
proper, is the Oneida, which rests unconforma- 
bly upon the preceding, and, being a strong 
and massive sandstone or conglomerate, gives 
rise to a conspicuous ridge along the eastern 
border of the basin. It forms the Shawangunk 
mountains of S. E. New York and the Kit- 
tatinny mountain of Pennsylvania, stretching 
thence southward and bounding the great Ap- 
palachian valley on its N. and W. side, while 
the crystalline rocks of the South mountain and 
the Blue Ridge enclose it on the south and east. 
The whole eastern portion of the great palaeo- 
zoic basin has been much disturbed by undu- 
lations of the strata having a general N. E. 
and S. W. direction, often complicated by frac- 
tures with great vertical displacements of the 
strata, which may be described as upthrows 
on the N. W. side of the faults. This disturbed 
region includes the whole of the palaeozoic 



124 



UNITED STATES 



series to the top of the coal, embracing va- 
rious massive sandstones and conglomerates. 
As the combined result of these disturbances 
and the subsequent erosion of the surface, 
the whole region has been converted into a 
mountainous belt of parallel ridges, extend- 
ing along the N. W. side of the great Appala- 
chian valley from the Catskill mountains of 
* New York throughout all its length, and con- 
stituting the Alleghany mountain belt, of 
which the Kittatinny may be considered as the 
eastern limit. In this disturbed region occur 
the anthracite and semi-bituminous coal basins 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, and 
the dislocations just alluded to are in repeated 
instances so great as to bring up the base of 
the palaeozoic series on the N. W. side of the 
detached areas of coal. To the westward these 
disturbances become less and less marked, and 
the Devonian and carboniferous rocks are seen 
comparatively undisturbed. Further to the 
west we reach the Cincinnati axis, which is 
traced from Lake Ontario to N. Alabama, and 
brings up on a gentle anticlinal the upper 
Cambrian beds, known in this region as the 
Cincinnati group, from Cincinnati with some 
interruptions to Nashville, Tenn. Further 
southward it sinks beneath the coal formation 
of Alabama. To the east of this great dividing 
line extends the Appalachian coal field from 
Alabama through E. Tennessee, Kentucky, and 
Ohio, including "West Virginia and the W. half 
of Pennsylvania; while to the west of it are 
three other palaeozoic coal fields, that of Mich- 
igan, that of Illinois, including parts of Indi- 
ana and western Kentucky, and that west of 
the Mississippi, extending from Iowa, through 
Missouri, Kansas, and Arkansas, into Texas. 
(See COAL.) To the westward of this last coal 
field are great areas of newer rocks of trias- 
sic, Jurassic, cretaceous, and tertiary periods, 
which extend to the base of the Rocky moun- 
tains and beyond. The cretaceous and tertia- 
ry strata, after stretching southward through 
Texas, reach up the Mississippi valley as far as 
the mouth of the Ohio, eastward along the 
gulf of Mexico, and thence northward to the 
coast of Massachusetts, in a belt of gradually 
diminishing breadth, including Long Island and 
a part of Martha's Vineyard. The valley of 
the Mississippi, with the greater part of Flor- 
ida and a border of varying width along the 
seaboard, is overlaid with deposits which are 
regarded as post-tertiary. The whole of these 
newer strata along the Atlantic region rest in 
a nearly horizontal attitude on the eozoic and 
paleozoic rocks. The cretaceous strata are 
in many parts concealed, but are recognized 
along the N. portion of Long Island, and pass 
across New Jersey and N. Delaware to the 
head of Chesapeake bay. Thence they are ex- 
posed at a few points in E. Virginia, the Caro- 
hnas, and Georgia, till in the W. part of this 
state they appeal in a broad belt extending 
through central Alabama and curving north- 
ward through N. Mississippi and E. Tennessee. 



These newer rocks along the Atlantic coast 
form the tide-water region, and are nowhere 
affected by the movements which have dis- 
turbed the older rocks. What has been called 
the new red sandstone formation of the At- 
lantic belt extends in a narrow line from N. 
Massachusetts along the Connecticut valley to 
New Haven. It is again continued from the 
Hudson across New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
into Virginia, and is found in smaller areas in 
S. E. Virginia and in North Carolina. From 
its organic remains this sandstone is regarded 
as lower mesozoic, probably including the tri- 
assic and Jurassic periods. In Virginia and 
in North Carolina it includes beds of work- 
able coal, which rest upon the eozoic crys- 
talline rocks. In a similar relation there is 
a considerable area of coal-bearing rocks in 
Rhode Island and Massachusetts, which are 
however of palreozoic age like the coals of the 
Appalachian field. Small areas of fossiliferous 
lower Cambrian, Silurian, and Devonian are 
found in various localities among the crystal- 
line rocks of New England. Over the N. E. 
portions of the United States is widely spread 
the so-called drift formation or diluvium of 
post-pliocene ago (see DILUVIUM), consisting 
of unstratified bowlder drift and modified or 
stratified drift. The southern limit of these 
deposits and of the marks of glaciation is about 
lat. 40 N. The crystalline rocks to the north 
of them present hard, smoothly worn, or stri- 
ated surfaces, except in some protected locali- 
ties ; but further southward they are generally 
decayed or softened to a greater or less depth, 
sometimes 100 ft. or more, from a process of 
chemical change. The great elevated western 
or Rocky mountain region differs widely in 
general features from that just described. Upon 
the broad area of crystalline rocks, which re- 
produce on a grand scale the characteristics 
of the Appalachian belt, are found all the mem- 
bers of the palaeozoic series, overlaid for the 
most part by older mesozoic rocks and by a 
great thickness of cretaceous and tertiary strata, 
in which each one of the three great divisions 
of the latter is well represented. These newer 
rocks constitute vast arid plains, and in the 
cretaceous and eocene or lower tertiary strata 
the great coal deposits of this region are found. 
These strata have been disturbed by great faults, 
penetrated and overflowed by vast volumes of 
eruptive rocks, and subjected to erosion on a 
grand scale. The crystalline rocks which bound 
the great palaeozoic basin of the United States 
to the east and the north are rich in ores of 
iron, and include also gold, copper, lead, nickel, 
and chrome. The native copper of the S. shore 
of Lake Superior belongs to a peculiar group 
of strata, unknown elsewhere, lying at the very 
base of the palaeozoic series. Various horizons 
in the palaeozoic rocks, up to the coal inclu- 
sive, abound in ores of iron, and in the Mis- 
sissippi valley in lead, zinc, and copper ; while 
salt and petroleum occur at several horizons 
in the palaeozoic series in different parts of the 



UNITED STATES 



125 



great basin. The western or Rocky mountain 
region is the great source of the precious met- 
als, the deposits of which, as has been observed, 
may be described in a general way as arranged 
in parallel zones coinciding with the mountain 
belts. Along the Pacific Coast range are de- 
posits of quicksilver, tin, and chrome, while 
the belt of the Sierra Nevada and the Cascades 
carries a range of copper mines near its base, 
and a line of gold-bearing veins and gold allu- 
vium on its western flank. Along the E. slope 
of the Sierra lies a zone of silver mines stretch- 
ing into Mexico, and including the great Corn- 
stock lode of Nevada, while silver ores abound 
in the subordinate ranges between the Sierra 
and the Wahsatch. The silver-lead ores of 
New Mexico, Utah, and western Montana, and 
the still more eastern gold deposits of New 
Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana, 
follow the same general distribution. (For 
particulars of the mineral deposits of the Uni- 
ted States, see ANTHRACITE, BORAX, COAL, 
COPPER MINES, GYPSUM, IRON ORE, MARBLE, 
PETROLEUM, SALT, and the articles on tke 
different metals and states.) The republic 
abounds in natural curiosities and other ob- 
jects of interest. Immense numbers of per- 
sons annually resort to the mineral springs, 
the most prominent of which are mentioned 
in the article MINERAL SPRINGS. The White 
mountains and other portions of the Appala- 
chian chain are noted for their striking or pic- 
turesque scenery ; while the great mountain 
ranges of the Pacific slope present innumerable 
scenes of unsurpassed beauty and sublimity, 
among which are the " parks" and lofty peaks 
of Colorado, the Yellowstone national park in 
Wyoming, and the Yosemite valley in Califor- 
nia. The prairies and arid plains are notewor- 
thy features. Besides the great cataract of 
Niagara and the Yosemite falls, the falls of the 
Missouri in Montana, St. Anthony's falls of the 
Mississippi in Minnesota, and the falls of the 
Snake river in Idaho may be instanced. The 
most remarkable caves are the Mammoth cave 
in Kentucky; Madison's cave and Weyer's cave, 
Virginia; Nicojack cave, Georgia; and Foun- 
tain cave, near St. Paul, Minnesota. Not the 
least interesting among the picturesque features 
of the country are the remarkable channels cut 
by some, of the rivers through ranges of hills 
or rocky ridges. Such are the passage of the 
Hudson through the Highlands of New York ; 
the Delaware Water Gap ; the passage of the 
Potomac through the Blue Ridge at Harper's 
Ferry; the "gates of the Rocky mountains " 
on the upper course of the Missouri in Mon- 
tana ; the deep cafions of the Colorado of the 
West; and the "cascades" w'here the Colum- 
bia river breaks through the Cascade range on 
the boundary between Washington territory 
and Oregon. The natural bridge of Virginia, 
the pictured rocks on the shore of Lake Su- 
perior in Michigan, the mammoth trees of 
California, the geysers, and the popular sea- 
side resorts, as well as nearly all the scenes 



above mentioned, are described in other arti- 
cles. The climate of the United States is as 
varied as might be expected in a country stretch- 
ing through 25 degrees of latitude, and rising 
from low swampy shores to vast elevated and 
arid table lands and prodigious mountain ranges. 
Except in the extreme south and on the Pacific 
coast, it is characterized by fickleness and by 
great difference in temperature between sum- 
mer and winter. Transitions from heat to cold 
and from cold to heat, to the extent of 30 in 
a few hours, are common at all seasons, and 
the alternations from rain to drought are nearly 
as remarkable. The summer is marked by in- 
tense heat, the thermometer rising sometimes 
several degrees above 100 F. In the north 
this extreme is seldom continued for more 
than a few days at a time, and in the southern 
states the heat, though long continued, is seldom 
so great. In winter the thermometer often 
falls below zero in the north, and it has been 
known, particularly in Minnesota and Dakota, 
to reach the freezing point of mercury (40). 
The Atlantic states have in general a tempera- 
ture about 10 more severe than countries of 
the same latitude in western Europe, while 
California has a climate as mild as that of 
Italy. The northeastern states are subject to 
chill winds from the Atlantic (and at points 
along the coast to fogs), especially in the spring 
months ; and the ice fields of British North 
America are the cradle of cold blasts which, 
having no mountain barrier to overcome, sweep 
over the northern states upon every consider- 
able rise in the temperature further south. 
The great lakes mitigate to some extent the 
temperature of the country surrounding them, 
and other local features, such as the elevated 
plains and lofty ranges of the Rocky mountain 
system, affect the climate of particular parts 
of the country. The average annual tempera- 
ture varies from 76 in S. Florida to 36 in N. 
E. Minnesota. The isothermal lines are irreg- 
ular, but between the Pacific and the upper 
Mississippi they have a general tendency to- 
ward the north. On the Pacific coast the 
annual temperature of 52 in lat. 48 corre- 
sponds to a like temperature on the Atlantic 
coast in lat. 41. Rain is abundant over the 
greater part of the republic, and pretty equally 
distributed throughout the year. In the north 
Atlantic states the fall is more regular than in 
the coast states S. of Washington, being in the 
latter more plentiful than in the former, and 
more frequent in summer than in winter. On 
the Pacific coast the rains are periodical, oc- 
curring chiefly in winter and spring, and S. of 
lat. 40 in autumn also. In the northern states 
snow frequently falls to a considerable depth, 
and in the most northerly portions it does not 
melt until spring. It is comparatively rare S. 
of the Potomac and on the Pacific coast, and 
when it does occur in these districts it lasts 
but a short time. The average annual precipi- 
tation of rain and melted snow on the Atlantic 
coast and on the gulf as far W. as the Sabine 



126 



UNITED STATES 



river varies from 36 to 60 inches, being gener- 
ally from 40 to 50 inches ; in the greater part 
of Texas and in the Mississippi valley it is from 
24 to 50 inches, diminishing toward the north 
and west. The greatest precipitation occurs in 
Oregon and Washington territory, between the 
Coast mountains and the Pacific, varying from 
80 inches in the N. part of the latter to 68 in 
the former. Between the Coast and Cascade 
mountains it is from 24 to 44 inches, and in N. 
California from 20 to 36, diminishing in the 
S. portion of that state. In the region bounded 
W. by the Cascade and Sierra Nevada moun- 
tains and E. by an irregular line commencing 
at the 95th meridian in N. Minnesota, and in- 
tersecting the 101st meridian in N. W. Texas, 
it does not exceed 20 inches, and is generally 
much less than that. Very little of this fall 
occurs in summer, and irrigation is a necessary 
adjunct to agriculture. In the mountains of 
this region snow falls to a great depth in winter. 
The most fatal diseases of the New England 
and middle states are affections of the lungs ; 
of the southern states, bilious fevers, with oc- 
casional severe visitations of yellow fever along 
the gulf ; and of the western states, intermit- 
tent and bilious fevers and dysentery. The 
fever and ague so prevalent in the west is at- 
tributed to the miasmatic exhalations incident 
to the breaking up of new lands, and rapidly 
disappears as the country becomes settled. The 
cholera has generally been more fatal in the 
valley of the Mississippi than in any other part 
of the country. The soil presents almost every 
variety, from the dry sterile plains in the re- 
gion of the Great Salt lake to the rich alluvi- 
ums of the Mississippi valley. It can most 
conveniently be described by following the 
seven great divisions indicated by the river 
systems of the country, viz. : the St. Lawrence 
basin, the Atlantic slope, the Mississippi val- 
ley, the Texas slope, the Pacific slope, the in- 
land basin of Utah, commonly called the Great 
Basin, and the basin of the Red river of the 
North. 1. The St. Lawrence basin embraces 
parts of Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Min- 
nesota, and all of Michigan ; it is an elevated 
and fertile plain, generally well wooded. 2. 
The Atlantic slope includes all New England 
except a part of Vermont : all of New Jersey, 
Delaware, the District of Columbia, South 
Carolina, and Florida; and portions of New 
York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, "West 
Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
and Mississippi. It may be subdivided into 
two regions, a N. E. section and a 8. W. sec- 
tion, separated by the Hudson river. The 
former is hilly, and generally better adapted to 
grazing than tillage, though some parts of it 
are naturally fertile, and a large proportion is 
carefully cultivated. The S. W. section may 
be again divided into a coast belt from 30 to 
150 m. in width, running from Long Island 
sound to the mouth of the Mississippi, and in- 
cluding the whole peninsula of Florida; and 



an inland slope from the mountains toward 
this coast belt. The former as far S. as the 
Koanoke river is sandy and not naturally fer- 
tile, though capable of being made highly pro- 
ductive ; from the Roanoke to the Mississippi 
it is generally swampy, with sandy tracts here 
and there, and a considerable proportion of 
rich alluvial soil. The inland slope is one of 
the finest districts in the United States, the 
soil consisting for the most part of alluvium 
from the mountains and the decomposed prim- 
itive rocks which underlie the surface. 3. The 
Mississippi valley occupies more than two fifths 
of the area of the republic, and extends from 
the Allegheny to the Rocky mountains, and 
from the gulf of Mexico to British North 
America, thus including parts of New York, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, "West Vir- 
ginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, Louisiana, Texas, New Mexico, Colo- 
rado, Wyoming, Montana, Dakota, Ohio, Indi- 
ana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and 
all of Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Indian 
territory, Missouri, Iowa, Nebraska, and Kan- 
sas. It is for the most part a prairie country, 
of fertility unsurpassed by any region on the 
globe, except perhaps the valley of the Ama- 
zon. The ground in many places is covered 
with mould to the depth of several feet, in 
some instances 25 ft. But the N. W. part of 
the valley offers a strong contrast to the re- 
mainder. There is a plateau from 200 to 400 
m. wide lying at the base of the Rocky moun- 
tains, part of it incapable of cultivation on ac- 
count of the deficiency of rain and lack of 
means of irrigation, and part naturally sterile. 
4. The Texas slope includes the country S. W. 
of the Mississippi valley, drained by rivers 
which flow into the gulf of Mexico, and em- 
bracing nearly all of Texas and portions of 
Louisiana and New Mexico. (See TEXAS.) 5. 
The Pacific slope, embracing the greater part 
of California, Oregon, and Idaho, with Wash- 
ington territory and Arizona, and parts of New 
Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Mon- 
tana, is generally sterile. That part however 
between the Coast range and the ocean, and 
the valleys between the Coast range and the 
Cascade range and Sierra Nevada are very fer- 
tile ; and the same may be said of a few other 
valleys and mountain slopes, though these are 
commonly better adapted to pasturage than to 
agriculture. 6. The great inland basin of Utah, 
which besides Utah includes Nevada and parts 
of California, Oregon, and Idaho, is probably 
the most desolate portion of the United States, 
though in parts the soil with irrigation yields 
good crops, and grazing may be more exten- 
sively pursued. It abounds in salt lakes. 7. 
That portion of the basin of the Red river of 
the North which belongs to the United States 
is confined to the small tract in the N. part of 
Dakota and Minnesota ; it contains some very 
productive lands, especially in the river bot- 
toms. The varied physical aspects of the 
country indicate a correspondingly varied ve- . 



UNITED STATES 



127 



getation, and an elaborate survey of its botani- 
cal features would require its subdivision into 
20 or more regions characterized by the pre- 
vailing vegetable forms ; but a mere glance at 
a few broad geographical divisions must suf- 
fice, noticing only the more conspicuous flower- 
ing plants. 1. The northern states, east of the 
Mississippi, from the northern border to Vir- 
ginia and Kentucky, present a flora essentially 
European in its general aspects, though it is 
largely wanting in the alpine and subalpine 
plants so common in northern Europe. Our 
alpine or arctic flora (excepting that of Alaska) 
is confined to the limited areas presented by 
the tops of the higher mountains of New 
England and New York; and of the little over 
30 species found on these, only 4 are peculiar- 
ly American. The trees of this division are 
largely of European genera ; the pine, spruce, 
birch, oak, maple, ash, elm, and others, which 
make up the bulk of the forest growth, are 
also the prevailing genera of Europe, but they 
are mostly represented here by different spe- 
cies. The principal trees not of European 
genera are the magnolias, tulip tree, yellow- 
wood, buckeye, locust, honey locust, liquidam- 
bar, tupelo, sassafras, and all the hickories; 
while among the conifers are the arbor vitaB and 
the hemlock spruce, which by some botanists 
is placed in a genus distinct from the spruces. 
Abundant shrubs of European genera are su- 
machs, thorns, azaleas, rhododendrons, dog- 
woods, whortleberries, blackberries, &c. ; while 
the laurel (Kalmia), papaw (asimina), prickly 
ash, witch hazel, spice bush, leatherwood, buf- 
falo berry, and others, are peculiarly American. 
As in most floras, the composite are here very 
numerous, one eighth of all the species belong- 
ing to this family ; some of these, as the solida- 
fos, asters, sunflowers, and others, are so abun- 
ant as to give a warm coloring to the autumn 
landscape. Two or three cacti and one pitcher 
plant, and the mistletoe, genera very abundant 
in other regions, are found here. A remark- 
able analogy has been noticed between the 
flora of the eastern coast of this continent and 
corresponding portions of eastern Asia, many 
of the genera of this region being found else- 
where only in Japan, China, and the Himalayas. 
The flora of this division gradually blends with 
that of the next. 2. The southern states, from 
the preceding to the gulf of Mexico, exclusive 
of southern Florida. Along the mountains 
northern plants extend far southward. Among 
southern species of northern genera of trees, 
the most conspicuous are the great magnolia 
(M. grandiflora), one of the finest of evergreen 
trees, the live oak, so valued for timber, and 
the old-field and long-leaved pines ; the pecan, 
really a hickory, abounds here, and the planer 
tree, hackberry, persimmon, and holly, not 
common at the north, have here their centres 
of greatest abundance ; the deciduous or bald 
cypress, barely a native of the northern region, 
is here abundant and valuable. Among the 
trees of genera not found in the northern di- 
805 VOL. xvi. 9 



vision are Osage orange, catalpa, wild China, 
sorrel tree, Georgia bark, devilwood, and alli- 
gator pear. Torreya is a very local conifer ; 
and of the four palms, the cabbage palmetto 
may be ranked as a tree; a grass, the giant 
cane, often reaches 20 to 30 ft., and forms 
dense jungles known as canebrakes. The her- 
baceous plants present great attractions to the 
botanist, and some from their contrast with 
northern forms arrest the attention of the un- 
botanical traveller. Long or Spanish moss is 
a true epiphyte, and hangs from the trees in 
such abundance as to form a feature in the 
scenery; and other tillandsias, several ferns, 
and two orchids are other epiphytes to be met 
with in the far south. This region is the home 
of the pitcher plants (Sarracenia), and of the 
very local Venus's fly trap (Dioncea), the most 
wonderful of all carnivorous plants. The 
bright colors of the coral plant, several species 
of hibiscus, the Carolina pink (Spigelia), the 
abundance of phloxes, gerardias, and convolvu- 
luses, and the fragrance of the Carolina jas- 
mine (gelsemium), remind the northerner that 
he is surrounded by a new flora. 3. Southern 
Florida, especially the "keys," presents very 
distinct features, the trees particularly being 
those characteristic of the West Indies. Con- 
spicuous among these are the mangrove (also 
found elsewhere along the gulf), the mahogany 
and lignum vitas trees, the poisonous manchi- 
neel, several small-fruited figs, the tropical 
papaw (Carica), calabash, and many others. 
In the Florida arrowroot or coontie (zamia) 
is found our only representative of the cycads. 
The orange grows here as a naturalized plant 
in such abundance that many regard it as a 
native. 4. The plains west of the Mississippi, 
and the Rocky mountains. Immediately west 
of the Mississippi the flora is not widely differ- 
ent from that on the eastern side ; but as the 
wide plains and the elevated dry plateaus are 
reached, a different vegetation appears, while 
that of the Rocky mountains is mainly unlike 
that of the high eastern peaks ; some wide dis- 
tricts have the soil so strongly impregnated 
with alkali that few plants can exist. The 
plains are mostly destitute of trees, except 
along the courses of the streams, where the 
cottonwoods (species of poplar) are most abun- 
dant. Here are found wide areas of single or 
few species ; on the more fertile portions the 
buffalo grass covers vast tracts, multiplying so 
freely by its spreading stems that it rarely pro- 
duces seed. On the sterile portions the " ever- 
lasting sage brush " (Artemisia tridentata) 
gives a sombre hue as far as the eye can reach ; 
the " greasewood " of the travellers (sarco- 
latus) and other chenopods are often abun- 
dant; plants of this family, with a few com- 
posites, grasses, and sedges, make up the flora 
of the wide alkaline stretches. On the more 
fertile plains the leguminous plants, and those 
of the phlox and evening primrose families, 
are frequent. The mountains afford a rich 
and varied flora; here are found a great va- 



128 



UNITED STATES 



riety of pines, spruces, and firs, and above them 
a truly alpine region, which has enriched our 
flora with a long list of choice species. 5. The 
Pacific coast, with the neighboring mountain 
ranges, within the influence of the mild atmos- 
phere of the ocean, has a wonderfully varied 
flora. Among trees, maples, buckeye, cherry, 
buttonwood, oaks in great number, chestnut, 
birches, willows, and others of genera common 
to the northern states of the east, are here rep- 
resented by species peculiar to the coast. The 
conifers of this region are among the loftiest ; 
and pines, spruces, firs, cypresses, and arbor- 
vitas make up an arboreal vegetation of great 
variety and interest. Among the trees of genera 
not found in the other divisions are the madrofia, 
sometimes called strawberry tree, a magnificent 
broad-leaved evergreen (arbutus Memiesii), 
and the California laurel or bay (oreodaphne). 
The genus Torreya, of which there is a species 
in Florida, is represented here by the "nut- 
meg tree;" California white cedar, sometimes 
reaching 140 ft., is a lilocedrua ; here is the 
home of the sequoias or redwoods, of which 
8. gigantea, widely known as the mammoth 
tree, towering from 300 to 450 ft., is one of 
the two largest trees of the world. The shrub- 
by growth of this region presents numerous 
species of eastern genera, and is equally varied. 
Among herbaceous plants, the 'range from the 
coast to the mountain tops is wide, and pre- 
sents a flora so rich that the labors of botanists 
have not yet exhausted it. Many of the choice 
ornaments of our gardens, eschscholtzias, gili- 
as, nemophilas, the mimulus, whitlavia, collo- 
mia, lupines, pentstemons, and others, have 
here their homes ; perhaps the most interest- 
ing plant of this region is the Darlingtonia, 
a pitcher plant of curious structure, and, like 
its eastern relatives the sarracenias, carnivo- 
rous. A marked feature of the flora of this 
region is the wide areas occupied by single 
species, almost to the exclusion of all others. 
A great many interesting native grasses are 
found here. 6. Western Texas, 200 m. from 
the coast, is a high plateau, and with the lower 
parts of New Mexico and Arizona forms a 
region the vegetation of which is more like 
that of Mexico than of any other part of the 
United States ; it is a region of elevated table 
lands, cut up by sterile mountain ranges, with 
but few streams and very little rain. Along 
the watercourses are found cottonwoods and 
willows, but the majority of the few trees 
which occur elsewhere are of the leguminosce, 
the most frequent being the mezquite and the 
related screw bean; these and the tesota or 
ironwood (Olneya), polo verde or green tree 
(cercidium and ParUnsonid), cassias, and oth- 
ers, the Mexican pistachio, Spanish buckeye 
( Ungnadia), mulberry, and a few others, make 
up the tree growth, except in the mountains, 
where in favorable localities pines, oaks, &c., 
occur. The shrubs are numerous, and, in 
common with other vegetation, abundantly 
armed with prickles and spines ; some shrubs, 



such as Kaiberlinia and holocantha, rarely show 
any leaves, the green bark answering their 
purpose, but have every branch and twig 
sharpened to form a formidable spine, and the 
leafy shrubs often have their branches thus 
terminated, or are furnished with special 
thorns; a thick growth of these spinescent 
shrubs is known as " chaparral," and forms an 
impenetrable barrier to man and beast. In 
this division are found agaves, dasylirions, and 
yuccas, some reaching the stature of a tree. 
The most characteristic plants of a large part 
of this region are the cacti, which occur in a 
great number of species presenting a wide 
variety of forms and size. Opuntias of the 
prickly pear style are numerous ; some are 6 
ft. high, others with cylindrical stems are 
scarcely bigger than a quill, while the tree-like 
0. arborescens is as large as an apple tree. 
Species of the globular mammillarias are not 
larger than a walnut, while some of the oblong 
echinocacti are of the size of a barrel; all 
these are dwarfed by the giant cereus, the can- 
delabra-like stems of which sometimes reach 40 
or 50 ft. In some localities almost the whole 
vegetation is made up of these plants, which 
present nature in her most grotesque aspect. 
Flowerless or cryptogamous plants, especially 
those of a lower organization, are much less 
restricted in their distribution than flowering 
plants. Among the higher orders of these, the 
ferns and club mosses, many of the genera and 
also of the species are the same as those of 
Europe, and in the mosses, lichens, and lower 
forms the number of European species is still 
greater ; but all these families present a large 
number of peculiarly American genera, and 
American species of European genera. Among 
ferns, the most noticeable of the northern and 
southern states are the maiden -hair (adiantum), 
the walking fern (camptosortts), the climbing 
fern (lygodhirri), the golden fern (polypodium 
aitreum), and the so-called sensitive fern (ono- 
clea). The smallest of our ferns is schizcea, very 
local in New Jersey, and one of the most stri- 
king is rittaria, an epiphyte in Florida, the 
fronds of which are more like a tuft of grass 
than a fern. The Pacific coast, the Rocky 
mountains, and even the desert region of Ari- 
zona, have their peculiar species. In mosses 
and hepaticas the country is very rich, and in 
these as well as in lichens the few botanists 
who devote themselves to their special study 
are continually adding to the number of known 
species. The fungi, though but partially in- 
vestigated, are numerous, with a large number 
of edible species among them. In algse the 
Atlantic coast, while it has many that are com- 
mon to the shores of Europe, produces its pe- 
culiar species of interest ; but owing to the 
sandy character of a great portion of the shores, 
the marine vegetation is as a whole very meagre. 
The keys of Florida are rich in species, many 
of which, as well as those of the gulf of Mex- 
ico, are also common to the Mediterranean, 
On the Pacific coast are found the gigantic 



UNITED STATES 



129 



macrocystis, with stems several hundred feet 
1'iiiiT, and other gigantic algso, which make 
fields so dense and extended that navigators 
carefully avoid them. The partial study that 
our fresh-water algro have received shows that 
this obscure vegetation is rich in interesting 
forms. A marked feature of the vegetation 
of a large portion of our territory is the intro- 
duced plants, which are not only numerous as 
species, but as individuals ; the climate being 
especially favorable to their development, many 
foreign plants appear to thrive better here than 
at home. The great majority of the agricul- 
tural weeds are of exotic origin ; in some of the 
older states the meadows are white with oxeye 
daisy or yellow with foreign buttercups, while 
in Virginia they are blue with viper's bugloss 
(echium) ; the thistles, docks, purslane, crab 
grasses, and other pests of the farmer and gar- 
dener, are natives of other countries, as are 
also the stramoniums, hemlock, and other oc- 
cupants of waste places around settlements. 
Many natural meadows are due to foreign 
grasses, and white clover is so generally in- 
troduced that farmers in the eastern states 
seldom sow it, being quite sure that, with a 
favorable soil, it will " come in." Two plants 
in the southern states afford remarkable in- 
stances of rapid naturalization. A few years 
ago a little prostrate composite (acanthosper- 
mum) appeared in the waste places, especially 
along the railroads, suddenly and completely 
carpeting the ground ; it is a South American 
plant, the seeds of which were probably intro- 
duced with wool. The other is a little legu- 
minous plant called Japan clover (lespedeza 
striata), which at the close of -the civil war ap- 
peared all over the southern states. As cattle 
eat it, the introduction cannot be regarded as 
a misfortune ; but this wide and sudden distri- 
bution of a Japanese species still remains a 
puzzle. Upon the Pacific coast, the most promi- 
nent introduced plants are mostly valuable 
ones ; the wild oat (avenafatua), which covers 
such wide ranges to the exclusion of all other 
vegetation, is a European species; and bur 
clover (medicago) and alfilaria (erodium), 
which in certain seasons are the main reliance 
of stock growers, are both weeds introduced 
by the early Spanish settlers. The zoology of 
the United States is essentially that of North 
America, nearly every species found on the 
North American continent having its habitat 
in some part of the states or territories. The 
quadrumana, embracing the entire monkey 
tribe and its congeners, are wanting. Of the 
cheiroptera, or bat tribe, there are 3 genera 
and 11 species (outside of Alaska, the fauna 
of which is not included in this description). 
Of the carnivora, the largest is the couguar 
or catamount, a formidable animal, inferior in 
strength and ferocity to the South American 
jaguar. There are 6 or 7 species of the fox. 
Of wolves there are the gray wolf of the 
wooded districts, of which there are several 
varieties, and the prairie wolf, the American 



representative of the jackal. To the digiti- 
grada also belong the pine marten or Ameri- 
can sable, the fisher, mink, weasel, ekunk, and 
ermine. Among the plantigrada we have the 
black bear, the grisly bear, the largest and 
most formidable of American carnivora, and 
the California bear. The remaining members 
of the order found here are the badger, the 
wolverene or glutton, and the raccoon. Of 
the pinnigrada, the common seal occurs on 
the Atlantic coast, and the northern sea bear 
(callorhinus ursinus), which is taken in great 
numbers on the Pribyloff islands belonging 
to Alaska, occurs as far south as the mouth 
of the Columbia. The ruminantia are repre- 
sented in considerable numbers. Among the 
cervidce or deer family we have the moose 
and caribou, now confined to the N. E. states, 
and very scarce even there ; the wapiti, incor- 
rectly called the elk ; and 6 or 6 species of 
deer. There is an antelope, the prong-horn, a 
native of the Rocky mountain region ; and a 
representative of the sheep family, the big- 
horn or Rocky mountain sheep, found in the 
region of the Rocky mountains and Sierra Ne- 
vada. The bison, usually called the buffalo, is 
the only wild representative of the ox family. 
Of the amphibious mammals, a species of the 
manatee or sea cow frequents the shores of 
Florida and the gulf of Mexico. The porpoise 
and 5 or 6 species of the dolphin, among them 
the white whale, and the narwhal, are found 
along the coast; and the smaller species of 
whale are not uncommon, while the great 
sperm whale appears at some distance from 
the Pacific coast. The insectwora are represent- 
ed by the mole, 3 genera and 7 or 8 species, 
and by 12 species of shrew. Among the ro- 
dentia are the beaver, porcupine, 10 or 12 
squirrels proper, several flying squirrels, 4 or 5 
prairie squirrels, 2 prairie dogs, and the gopher 
or pouched rat, of which there are several 
species ; the woodchuck or American marmot ; 
the muskrat ; the rat tribe, of which 2 genera 
and 3 or more species are indigenous ; the 
mouse tribe, of which there are 4 genera and 
about 20 species; the meadow mouse, of nu- 
merous species ; the hare, of which there are 
4 or 5 ; and the rabbit, of which there are at 
least 6 species. The marsupialia are repre- 
sented by a single genus, the opossum. Of 
birds the genera and species are so numerous, 
that only the more prominent can be named. 
Of the order raptores (birds of prey), the eagle, 
of which 5 species have been ascertained to- 
exist in the United States, takes the first place. 
Next follow the vultures, of which at least 
half a dozen species inhabit the United States, 
from the king vulture of California to the tur- 
key buzzard and carrion crow ; the hawks, of 
which there are not less than 25 ar 30 species, 
including the falcon, kite, hen hawk, goshawk, 
sparrow hawk, &c. ; and the owls, of which 
there are at least 40 species. The scansores or 
climbers are represented by the Carolina par- 
rot and the' woodpeckers, a well known genus, 



130 



UNITED STATES 



of which there are many species. The order 
insessores is very numerous in the United 
States, and includes the song birds as well as 
those distinguished by their cry or sharp shrill 
note. The most common members of the order 
are the thrush tribe, including the bird here 
called robin, the mocking bird, and the cat 
bird; the warblers and flycatchers ; the swal- 
lows, a numerous family; the finch tribe, 
which includes the sparrows ; the kingfishers, 
the crow tribe, the orioles, the grakles, and 
the humming birds. The rasores, divided into 
the suborders columbce and gallina, are nu- 
merously represented. Pigeons and doves of 
many species are found in vast numbers in 
the wooded portions of the western and north- 
western states, and are not uncommon in any 
part of the Union. There are no true par- 
tridges in the United States, the partridge 
of the northern states being a grouse, and 
that of the southern states a quail; but the 
grouse, of at least a dozen species, quail, wild 
turkey, and several other species of gallina- 
ceous birds, occur in great numbers. Of the 
grallatores or waders we have the flamingo, 
several herons, the ibis, the crane, the coot or 
mud hen, the rail, sandpiper, snipe, plover, &c. 
The natatores or swimmers are here a very 
numerous order. Of the anserince or geese 
there are about 20 species, including 2 species 
of swans ; and of the anatidce or duck family, 
at least 30. There are also 2 species of pelicans, 
a great number of species of gulls, and half a 
dozen cormorants. In reptiles the United States 
are less prolific than some other countries. 
There is a considerable variety of tortoises, 
though few of great size; and the keys or 
small coral islets along the coast of Florida, 
and the sandy spits along the shores of the 
southern Atlantic and gulf states, are fre- 
quented by the green and other sea turtles in 
great numbers. The alligator inhabits the 
rivers and bayous of the gulf states. The sau- 
rians are abundant, especially in the southern 
states, and include a great variety of lizards, 
skinks, horned frogs, monitors, &c. The ophid- 
ians or serpents are numerous, but only the 
rattlesnakes, the moccason snakes, and the 
vipers are venomous. The black snake is the 
only large constrictor in the United States. 
The batrachians embrace numerous species of 
frogs, tree frogs, 2 or 3 species of toad, the 
menobranchus, siren, 3 or 4 tritons or newts, 
and about 20 species of salamander. The num- 
' ber of genera and species of fish visiting or in- 
habiting the waters of the United States is too 
great to be enumerated. The most remarkable 
of the spine-finned are the perch, mackerel, 
sword fish, and mullet. Among those with 
soft abdominal fins, the best known are the sal- 
mon, shad, menhaden, alewife, herring, pike, 
and carp ; of those with soft fins at the throat, 
cod, flounders, flat fish, &c. ; and of fish with- 
out ventral fins, several species of eels, both 
fresh and salt water fish, and the lamprey 
The shark, of which there are 16 or 18 species 



and the ray or skate, of which there are 30 
or 40, are the most formidable on the Ameri- 
can coasts. Other fish well known and highly 
prized for the table are the halibut, tautog, 
blue fish, sea and striped bass, tomcod, porgy, 
perch, roach, dace, brook trout, lake trout, giant 
pike or muscalonge, and the delicious white 
fish of the lakes. Of mollusks, the acepJiala 
are widely distributed on the sea coast and 
through the lakes and rivers. The oyster of 
numerous varieties attains a flavor and excel- 
lence unknown elsewhere. The pearl oyster 
has been found on the California coast, and sev- 
eral of the unionidcs secrete pearls of consid- 
erable value. The soft-shelled clam (mya are- 
naria) and the quahaug or round clam ( Venut 
mercenarid) are also much prized in some dis- 
tricts as articles of food. The pecten or scol- 
lop and the mussel are also edible species of 
bivalves. Others of the order are the cockle, 
hammer shell, razor shell, club shell, waterpot 
shell, and teredo or ship worm ; and in the 
rivers the numerous species of unio and ano- 
donta, usually called fresh-water clams, are 
abundant. There are many genera and spe- 
cies of land snails and slugs, and many spe- 
cies of fresh- water and marine gasteropoda; 
and the Atlantic, Pacific, and gulf of Mexico 
wash upon our shores great numbers of the 
cephalopods which inhabit their waters, among 
them the squid. The Crustacea are numerous, 
and many of them edible. Crabs, lobsters, 
shrimps, horseshoes or king crabs, &c., abound 
on the coast ; and the crawfish and land crab 
are found in the interior. Of the arachnida 
there are in the gulf states some venomous 
species, as the tfcorpion and several species of 
spider ; but for the most part the spiders, mites, 
&c., of the United States are harmless. The 
centipede, though properly belonging to the 
tropics, is occasionally found in the south- 
western states. The insect tribes are too nu- 
merous to receive more than a passing notice. 
The beetles are very abundant, and include 
many genera. There are several species of 
locust, some of them as destructive to vegeta- 
tion as the locust of oriental countries. The 
bee, wasp, hornet, and bumblebee, each of 
numerous species; the vast tribe of butter- 
flies; the whole family of flies, including a 
blistering fly nearly equal to the Spanish ; and 
the other insect orders, all have their repre- 
sentatives; and as we approach the tropics 
their number and variety greatly increase. 
The population of the country prior to the first 
census, according to Bancroft, was as follows : 



YEARS. 


Wblu. 


Colorad. 


Total. 


1688... 






200,000 


1714 


875750 


B&8BO 


484600 


1727 


602000 


78000 


580000 


1760 


1 040*000 


220 000 


1 260000 


1754 


I 165000 


200000 


1 425 000 


1760 


1 886 000 


810000 


1 6D5 000 


1770 


1 S50000 


462 000 


2812000 


1774 


2100000 


500000 


2 GOO 000 


1780 


2883000 


562000 


2 945 000 











UNITED STATES 



131 



The population as reported by the decennial 
censuses has been as follows : 



YEARS. 


White. 


Colored. 


Free colored. 


Slave. 


Aggregate. 


1790. 
1800. 
1810. 
1820. 
1830. 
1840. 
1850. 
18GO. 
1S70 


8,172,006 757,208 
4,806,446 1,002,087 
5,862,073 1,877,808 
7,862,166 1,771,656 
10,537,378 2,828,642 
14,195,8052,878,649 
19,553,068 8,638,808 
26,922,587 4,441,830 
88.589.377 4.-.SIUHW 


59,527 
108,485 
186,446 
283,684 
819,599 
886,298 
484,495 
488,070 
4.880.009 


697,681 
898,602 
1,191,362 
1,538,022 
2,009,048 
2,487,856 
3,204,818 
8,958,760 


8,929,214 
5,808,483 
7,239,881 
9,638,822 
12,866,020 
17,069,453 
28,191,876 
81,448,821 
88.558.371 



Included in the aggregate for 1860 were 44,021 
Indians and 34,993 Chinese, and in that for 
1870, 25,731 Indians out of tribal relations, 63,- 
199 Chinese, and 65 Japanese. The number 
of Indians sustaining tribal relations in 1870 
was estimated at 357,981. In 1875 the num- 
ber was reported by the commissioner of Indian 
affairs at 279,337, exclusive of 11,650 in Alaska; 
land reserved for Indians, 165,729,714 acres; 
number of agencies, 82. The representative 
population, excluding Indians not taxed and 
the inhabitants of the territories, was 38,115,- 
641. The average increase in the aggregate 
population since 1870, in the 14 states that 



took censuses in 1875 and one in 1874, was 
over 15 per cent. ; at the same rate the popu- 
lation of the United States in 1875 would be 
about 44,590,000. The density of population in 
1870 was 10 '7 persons to the square mile, or, ex- 
cluding the territories, 1 9 - 2 1 . The total number 
of families in the United States was 7,579,363, 
having an average of 5 '09 persons to each ; 
the number of dwellings was 7,042,833, with 
an average of 5 '47 persons to each. Of the 
total population in 1870, 32,991,142 were born 
in the United States and 5,567,229 in foreign 
countries. The number born of foreign parents 
was 9,734,845, and there were 1,157,170 per- 
sons of mixed (half native and half foreign) 
parentage, making 10,892,015 persons having 
one or both parents foreign. Only the nativity 
of those born in foreign countries is reported 
by the census. The distribution of the entire 
foreign element (10,892,015) into the chief 
nationalities has been computed as follows: 
Irish, 3,630,839 ; German, 3,307,205 ; British, 
1,496,739; Scandinavian, 467,183; all others, 
1,990,049. (See EMIGRATION.) The distribu- 
tion of population by sex, nativity, and color, 
in 1860 and 1870, was as follows : 







1860. 






1870. 






Total. 


Mle. 


Female. 


Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


Population 


81,443,321 


16,085,204 


15,858,117 


88,558,871 


19,493,565 


19,064,806 


Native 


27,304,624 


18,856,318 


18,448,811 


82,991,142 


16,486,622 


16,504,520 




4,188,697 


2,228,891 


1,909,806 


5.567,229 


8006,943 


2.660,286 


White 


26,922,587 


18,811,887 


18,111,150 


88,589,377 


17,029,088 


16.560,289 


Native 


22,869,805* 


11,643,081 


11,226,724 


28,095,665 


14,086,509 


14,009,156 




4,181,686* 


2,225,879 


1,906,307 


5,493,712 


2,942,579 


2,551,183 


Colored 


4,441,830 


2,216,744 


2,225,086 


4,880,009 


2,893,263 


2,486,746 


Blacks 


3,853,467 


1,936,586 


1,916.931 


4,295,960 


2,115,880 


2,180,580 


Mulattoes 


588,863 


280,208 


308,155 


584,049 


277,896 


306,158 


Chinese and Japanese 


34,983 


33,149 


1,784 


63,254 


58,680 


4,574 


Indians 


44,021 


23,924 


20.097 


25.731 


12.534 


13.197 



The number of males and females of school 
age, of males of the military and voting ages, 
with the distinctions of general nativity and 
race, and of male citizens of the voting age, 
was as follows in 1870 : 



PARTICULARS. 


Total. 


Mai*. 


Female. 


From 5 to 18 years of age 
Native 


12,055,443 
11,509,126 
546,317 
10,422,564 
1,620,978 
4,143 
7,758 
7,570,487 
5,697,085 
1,873,402 
6,655,811 
861,164 
48,666 
4,846 


6,086,872 
5,811,780 
275,142 
6,264,685 
814,676 
8,666 
8,995 


5,968,571 
5,697,896 
271,175 
5,157,929 
806,402 
477 
8,768 


Foreign 


White 


Colored 


Chinese 


Indians 


Males 18 to 45 years of age .... 
Native 
Foreign 






White 
Colored 
Chinese 






Indians 






Males 21 yrs. of age and upward. 
Native . 
Foreign 
White 


9,439,206 
6,896,623 
2,542,588 
8,353,719 
1,082,475 
47,531 
5,481 

8,425,941 










Colored 






Chinese 






Indians 






Male citizens 21 years of age 
and upward 







* Including civilized Indians. 



The total population 10 years of age and over 
was 28,228,945, of whom 14,258,866 were 
males and 13,970,079 females. There were en- 
gaged in all occupations 12,605,923, of whom 
10,669,635 were males and 1,836,288 females, 
and 739,164 were from 10 to 15 years of age; 
in agriculture, 5,922,471 (5,525,503 males and 
396,968 females), including 2,885,996 laborers 
and 2,977,711 farmers and planters; in profes- 
sional and personal services, 2,684,793 (1,618,- 
121 males and 1,066,672 females), including 
2,053 actors, 43,874 clergymen, 975,734 domes- 
tic servants, 5,286 journalists, 1,031,666 labor- 
ers not specified, 40,736 lawyers, 62,383 physi- 
cians and surgeons, and 126,822 teachers not 
specified ; in trade and transportation, 1,191,- 
238 (1,172,540 males and 18,698 females); and 
in manufactures and mechanical and mining 
industries, 2,707,421 (2,353,471 males and 353,- 
950 females), including, besides 41,619 mill and 
factory operatives not specified, 111,606 cot- 
ton and 58,836 woollen mill operatives, and 
152,107 miners. The total number of blind 
was 20,320; deaf and dumb, 16,205; insane, 
37,432 ; idiotic, 24,527. The total deaths from 
all causes during the year ended May 31, 1870, 
as reported by the census, were 492,263, being 



132 



UNITED STATES 



1-28 per cent, of the entire population, exclu- 
ding the territories. The highest rates of mor- 
tality were 2 per cent, in Louisiana and 1'77 in 
Massachusetts ; lowest, 6'69 in Oregon, 0'80 in 
Minnesota, and 0'81 in Iowa. The total num- 
ber of births during the year, and living on 
May 31, was 1,100,475. Of the total number 
of deaths, 188,684 were from general diseases, 
of which 94,832 were chiefly acute and 93,852 
chiefly chronic. Under general diseases are 
classed those affections which involve a great 
number of diverse organs, or the whole frame, 
rather than any special part of it, the most 
important being fevers and consumption. Un- 
der local diseases were classed 60,455 deaths 
from those of the nervous, 17,034 of the cir- 
culatory, 63,971 of the respiratory, and 73,999 
of the digestive system, 4,744 of the urinary 
system and male organs of generation, and 
1,318 of the female organs of generation ; 
4,810 from affections connected with preg- 
nancy; 2,187 from diseases of the organs of 
locomotion, and 2,778 of the integumentary sys- 
tem. Besides these, there were 28,493 deaths 
from conditions not necessarily -associated with 
general or local diseases, 2,351 from poisons, 
1,069 from worms, 364 from malformations, 
22,740 from accidents and injuries, and 17,266 
from unknown causes. The number of deaths 
from certain principal diseases, with their ratio 
to the total number from all causes, was as 
follows : 



the commerce of the country; in 1874 they 
amounted to more than $700,000,000 in value. 
The exports of breadstuffs were valued at 
$161,198,864, including wheat worth $101 - 
421,459, wheat flour $29,258,094, and Indian 
corn $24,769,951 ; of provisions, $78,328,990, 
including bacon and hams valued at $38,883 - 
908, cheese $11,898,995, preserved meats $19*,- 
308,019, and pork $5,808,712; of cotton, $211,- 
223,580; and of leaf tobacco, $30,399,181. The 
following are the most important statistics of 
agriculture, as reported by the censuses of 1860 
and 1870: 



PARTICULARS. 



Cholera infantum 

Consumption 

Croup , 

Whooping cough 

Measles 

Pneumonia 

Smallpox 

Diphtheria 

Scarlet fever 

Intermittent fever. . . 

Remittent fever 

Cancer 

Cerebro-spinal fever. 

Enteric fever 

Typhus fever 

Diarrhoea 

Dysentery 

Enteritis... 



Number 
death!. 



20.255 

69.896 

10,61)2 
9,008 
9,23T 

40,012 
4.507 
6.303 

20.320 
7,142 
4.281 
6,224 
651 

22,1 S7 
1,170 

14,195 
7.912 
9,046 



Deathi from 
all cauKt 
to one from 

dfMMO 

ipecifled. 



407.212,68 
168,110,72 

244,101,81 



2,044,07 

19 

$6,645,045,00 

$246,118,141 



24 8 

7-0 

46-0 

54'6 

53-8 

12-8 

109-2 

1S-5 

48-1 
79-1 

20-0 



i 



Land in farms, acres ......... 

" improved ..... 

" woodland ____ 

" other unim- 
proved .............. 

Percentage of unimproved to 
total ...................... 

Number of farms ............ 

Average size, acres .......... 

Cash value of farms .......... 

" " of farming Imple- 
ments and machinery ...... 

Total amount of wages paid 
during the year, including 
value of board ............. 

Total estimated value of all 
farm productions, including 
betterments and additions' 
to stock ................... 

Produce of orchards, value. . . 
of market gardens. . . 
" of forests 
Home manufactures ......... $24,546,876 

Animals slaughtered or sold 
for slaughter .............. '< $218,6ia92 

$l,08!'.82'.i.915 
6.249,174 
1,185,614 
1,151,148 
-- 



UN. 



$19,991,885 
$16,159,498 



The highest death rate for consumption was in 
the New England states; the lowest in the 
southern and western states, and especially the 
territories. Intermittent and remittent fevers 
were most destructive in the southern states, 
and least in New England. -The agriculture 
resources of the United States, though but 
partially developed, contribute largely to its 
ESr and P litical importance. Of the 12 - 
ei Wlmall occupations in 



KO 
, 5,922,471 were employed in agriculture 



I ' rmerS an Ptersand 

2885 996 laborers. The exports of agricultural 
produce form the most important feature of 



All live stock 

Horses on farms, number. . . 

u not on farms 

Mules and asses 

Milch cows 

Working oxen 

Other cattle 

Neat cattle not on farms 

Sheep 

Swine i.' 

W heat, bushels 

" spring 

" winter 

Rye 

Indian com . . . 

Oats 

Barley '.'. 

Buckwheat 

Rice, ibs ; ; 

Tobacco 

Cotton, bales 

Wool, Ibs 

Peas and benns, bushels .... 

Potatoes, Irish 

" sweet 

Wine, gallons 

Butter. Ibs 



Cheese (on farms)... 
Milk sold, gallons.... 

Hay, tons 

Seed, clover, bushels . 

" grass 

Hops, Ibs 

Hemp, tons 

Flax, Ibs 

Flaxseed, bushels 

Silk cocoons, Ibs. 



2,254,911 
14.779,878 

8,847,1109 
99,471978 

83,612.867 
178,104,924 



21,101,8*0 
838,792,742 
172,648,185 



17,671,818 
187,167,082 



6,887,052 

f>0,2tt4,918 

15.061,996 

111,148,867 

42,095.026 

1,627,192 

459,681,872 

108,668,927 



Sugar, cane, hhds ..... 

sorghum ....... 

maple, Ibs ...... 

Molasses, cane, gallons. 



Wax, Ibs 
Honev. . 



sorghum 
maple 



lt,M8,8M 

956,188 

000,040 

10,991,996 

74.498 

4,720,145 

B6&88I 

11,944 

280,982 



40,120.205 
14,1168.996 
6,749,128 
1,597,589 
1,822,787 



407,785,041 

188,921,099 

( 169,810,177 

I 69,508,765 

68-7 

2,659,985 

158 

$9,262,808,861 

$386,878,429 
$310,286,280 



$2.447,588 l 68 
$47,885,1*9 
$20,719.229 
$86,808,277 
$28,428,882 

$898,956,876 
$1,625,276.467 
7,145,870 
1,647,870 
1,125,415 
8,986,882 
1,819,271 
18,666,005 
4,278,978 
88,477,961 
25,184,669 
2>-7.745,626 
112,649,788 
175,196,898 
16,918,796 
760,944.549 
2S2,107,157 
29,761,806 
9,821,721 
78,686,041 
282,785,841 
8,011,996 
100,102,881 
6,746,027 
148,887,478 
21,709,824 
8,092,880 
514,092,688 
68,492,168 
288,500,699 
27,816,048 
639,657 
688,168 
26,456,669 
12,746 
27,188,084 
1,780,444 
8.987 
S7."-4:i 
24 

28,448,645 

6,598.828 

16,050,089 

921,057 

631.129 

14,702.816 



UNITED STATES 



133 



The leading crops in 1874, as reported by the 
department of agriculture, were as follows : ' 



PRODUCTS. 


Number of 
bushels, &e. 


Number of 
acrei. 


Value. 


!i 


Ind. corn, bush. 
Wheat. . . 


850,148,500 
809,102,700 
14,990,900 
240,369,000 
32,552,500 
8,016,600 
105,981,000 


41,036,918 
24,967,027 
1,116,716 
10,897,412 
1,580,626 
452,590 
1,810,041 


$550,048,080 
291,107,895 
12,870,411 
125,047,530 
29,988,769 
6,477,885 
71,828,880 


20-7 
12-8 
13-4 
22-0 
20-6 
17-7 
80-9 


Rye 


Oats 


Barley 


Buckwheat... 
Potatoes 


Total 


1,561,161,200 


81,861,830 


$1,087,353,900 




Tobacco, Ibs.. 
Hay, tons 
Cotton, bales. . 


178,855,000 
24,133,900 
3.800.000 


281,662 
21,769,772 


$28,862,765 

831,420,738 
256.215.000 


632-2 
1-11 



The number and value of farm animals in 1874 
were as follows : 



ANIMALS. 


Number. 


Average 
price. 


Value. 




9,504 200 


$68 01 


$646 370 939 


Mules 


1,393,750 


80 00 


111,502,713 


Milch cows 


10,906,800 


28 52 


311,089,824 


Oxen and other cattle. . . 
Sheep 


16,313,400 
33,788,600 


18 68 
2 79 


804,858,859 
94,820,652 


Swine... 


23.062.200 


5 84 


149.669.234 



The states producing the most wheat in 1873 
were: Iowa, 34,600,000 bushels; Illinois, 28,- 
417,000; Minnesota, 28,056,000; Wisconsin, 
26,322,000; California, 21,504,000; Indiana, 
20,832,000; Ohio, 18,567,000; Pennsylvania, 
15,548,000; Michigan, 14,214,000; Missouri, 
11,927,000; Tennessee, 7,414,000; Kentucky, 
7,225,000; New York, 7,047,000. Indian 
corn: Illinois, 143,634,000; Iowa, 105,200,000; 
Ohio, 88,422,000; Missouri, 70,846,000; Indi- 
ana, 67,840,000 ; Kentucky, 58,451,000. Oats: 
Illinois, 35,360,000; Pennsylvania, 31,229,000 ; 



New York, 27,548,000; Ohio, 23,090,000; 
Iowa, 21,130,000 ; Wisconsin, 18,862,000 ; Mis- 
souri, 15,670,000. Rye: Pennsylvania, 3,283,- 
000; Illinois, 2,078,000; New York, 1,853,- 
000; Wisconsin, 1,240,000; Kentucky, 1,107,- 
000. Barley: California, 10,213,991; New 
York, 5,876,000; Iowa, 4,500,000; Illinois, 
2,280,000 ; Ohio, 1,576,000 ; Wisconsin, 1,515,- 
000; Minnesota, 1,060,000. Buckwheat: New 
York, 2,947,000 ; Pennsylvania, 2,022,000. To- 
bacco: Kentucky, 152,000,000 Ibs.; Virginia, 
50,000,000; Ohio, 32,500,000; Tennessee, 23,- 
750,000; Maryland, 19,300,000; Missouri, 13,- 
200,000. Wool (census of 1870) : Ohio, 20,- 
539,643 Ibs.; California, 11,391,743; New 
York, 10,599,225 ; Michigan, 8,726,145; Penn- 
sylvania, 6,561,722 ; Illinois, 5,739,249 ; In- 
diana, 5,029,023; Wisconsin, 4,090,670. The 
chief cotton-producing states are Mississippi, 
Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, 
South Carolina, Tennessee, North Carolina, 
and Florida. In 1874 the greatest number of 
horses was in Illinois, of mules in Tennessee, 
of oxen and other cattle in Texas and Illinois, 
of milch cows in New York, and of hogs in 
Iowa and Illinois. The wool product of 1873 
was estimated at 146,000,000 Ibs. The indus- 
try of wool growing, though progressing but 
little east of the Mississippi, has been increas- 
ing from the Missouri to the Pacific coast. 
The states reporting the largest number of 
sheep in 1874 were California, 4,683,200; 
Ohio, 4,639,000; Michigan, 3,486,300; New 
York, 2,037,200; Iowa, 1,732,600; Indiana, 
1,722,500; Pennsylvania, 1,674,000; Missouri, 
1,408,500; Illinois, 1,408,200; Texas, 1,338,- 
700; and Wisconsin, 1,187,600. The growth 
of manufactures is shown by the following 
statistics, reported by the censuses of 1850, 
1860, and 1870 : 



PARTICULARS. 


I860. 


1860. 


1870. 




123 025 


140438 


252148 


Steam engines, number 






40,191 


" " horsepower 






1,215,711 


Water wheels, number 






51,018 








1,180,431 


Hands employed, all 


957 059 


1 811 246 


2,053,996 


" males above 16 


781 187* 


1,040 349* 


1,615,598 


" females above 15 


225 922t 


270,897t 


828,770 


" youth 






114,628 


Capital 


$538 245 851 


$1,009,855,715 


$2,118,208,769 


Wages 


$236 755 464 


$378,878,966 


$775,584,848 


Value of materials 


$5f5123822 


$1 031 605,092 


$2,488,427,242 


" of products ... 


$1.019.106.616 


$1,885,861,676 


$4,232,325,442 



Tb.9 difference between the schedules used in 
1870 and those of 1860 and 1850 renders the 
above statements only approximately valuable 
for purposes of comparison. Certain indus- 
tries are included in the results of 1870 which 
are excluded from those of 1860 ; others re- 
ported in 1860 do not appear in the above 
totals for 1870. The marked increase in the 
value of products between 1860 and 1870 is 
especially noticeable. Making allowance for 
the differences above referred to, and estima- 
ting the increase due to special administrative 



efforts in 1870 at $250,000,000, the superin- 
tendent of the census computes that the value 
of products in 1870 should be reduced to 
$3,924,958,660, in order to be fairly compa- 
rable with that of 1860. This would show an 
increase of $2,039,096,984, or 108-12 per cent., 
56 per cent, of which is attributed to the gen- 
eral advance in prices, leaving 52 per cent, as 
the actual increase of manufacturing produc- 
tion. In 1870 the leading industries were: 



* Total males. 



t Total females. 



134 



UNITED STATES 



INDUSTRIES. 


Number o 
establiih- 

i in-lit;, 1-7. 


Hands 
employed, 
1870. 


Capital. 


Wage.. 


Value of 

Material.. 


Value of 
Product*. 




2,076 
88 
89 
89 
91 
26,864 
250 
174 
600 
271 
28,428 
489 
234 
275 
11 
80 
8,650 
8,114 
64 
635 
157 
509 
17,142 
474 
2)5 
11,847 
170 
46 
167 
1,818 
91 
26 
7,888 
1,847 
170 
949 
4,961 
27 
7 
201 
619 
27 
128 
82 
102 
202 
19 
97 
22 
126 
46 
10 
22,573 
97 
6,452 
529 
132 
85 
166 
221 
62 
88 
680 
155 
62 
4S8 
69 
194 
248 
802 
66 
8S6 
2,828 
826 
82 
806 
18 
98 
142 
22 
74 
1 
710 
6 
62 
17 
7 
4,287 


25,249 
8,170 
444 
1,097 
808 
62,982 
4,172 
2,881 
7,697 
2,773 
185,889 
4,509 
4,486 
8,877 
448 
757 
14,126 
48,293 
2,090 
6,206 
2,425 
1,881 
67,864 
1,016 
12,098 
54,928 
15,981 
1,632 
8,478 
4,607 
1,81)9 
1,880 
106,679 
11,696 
1,870 
6,826 
28,814 
1,082 
266 
8,698 
129,442 
244 
6,077 
2,111 
2,317 
4,729 
543 
8,520 
910 
2,601 
8,297 
1,746 
68,448 
6,869 
40,886 
12,462 
2,908 
2^59 
12.968 
4,058 
442 
989 
14.286 
2,566 
1,014 
16,178 
1,141 
4,845 
14,788 
8,721 
6,025 
27,554 
87,980 
18,325 
2,902 
47,891 
859 
4,423 
7.770 
2,129 
630 
852 
10,274 
89 
6S9 
100 
66 
20,784 


$34,884,600 
8,158,101 
478,100 
1,290,600 
2,118,577 
15,977,992 
5,006,950 
1,665,198 
6,819,410 
BUM 
48,994,866 
8,571,942 
1,148,025 
4,788,585 
562,800 
1,243,450 
10.025,966 
20,504,238 
2.973,250 
2,015,602 
1,683,998 
2,099.905 
25,110,428 
810,744 
12,540,750 
86,568,095 
16,632,792 
1,521,600 
2,398,088 
8,690,075 
1,583,725 
882,700 
49,891,080 
8,520,213 
6.770,888 
4,995,298 
9,798,847 
8,158,600 
1,608.750 
8,530,470 
183,288,797 
276.800 
7,392,295 
2.246.S80 
1.680,717 
12.750,800 
1.227,500 
4,219,2(15 
875,000 
4.895,948 
4,016.902 
2,825,250 
151, 565.876 
2.335,925 
86.804,029 
7.643.SS4 
8.472.267 
8.244,560 
10.867,082 
2,K40,550 
841,980 
4.060.400 
18,869,815 
1.482,225 
1,168,685 
6,489,571 
1.605,830 
1.707,600 
10,981,260 
4,050,609 
7,486.600 
66.145,826 
47,745.241 
19.aS3,720 
4,506,788 
59,119,094 
276,480 
4.263.227 
9,091,912 
6,311,095 
406,200 
750,000 
11,S67.S5 
246,000 
2,191,600 
2,054.500 
830,000 
42,720,505 


$12,161,604 
958,106 
184,982 
452,517 
454,187 
9.246,549 
1,783,449 
1,225,996 
8,095,821 
792,957 
51,972,712 
1,909,088 
1,222,888 
1,781,806 
888,484 
886,008 
5,558,184 
10,768,858 
1,128,858 
1,263,875 
691,405 
646,346 
29,169,588 
141,148 
4,681,718 
21,272,780 
9.659,992 
631,998 
1,294,707 
706,566 
887,782 
805,840 

tnjttum 

2,518,966 
1.184.559 
2,091.826 
7,819,818 
677,129 
188,875 
1,284,272 
87,1'80,S56 

;.s7c, 

1.748,651 
973,864 
1,157,904 
2,141.288 
800,755 
1.997,795 
816,168 
766,712 
2,490,774 
424,946 
14,677,583 
771,648 
18.051,591 
8,622.940 
1,042.805 
1,508,277 
6,841,148 
980.549 
184,787 
670,279 
6,845.640 
1,062.059 
637,287 
6,574,490 
858,516 
1,045,188 
4,429,085 
1.544,896 
2,559,877 
12.475,250 
20.679,798 
8,156.121 
1.195.964 
27,002.829 
165,682 
1.665,426 
8,961.172 
1,155,910 
821,101 
210.000 
4,498,348 
28.500 
287,628 
115,020 
82,755 
7,984,416 


$21,478,926 
2,624,682 
1,053,468 
8,827,678 
8,281,204 
18,2-?8,907 
08,106,614 
1,214,016 
8,026,870 
1,817,028 
93,582,528 
4,286,745 
1,553,777 
:;.-!: ..(..".i 
704,870 
907,908 
22,211,656 
7,418,097 
8.289,771 
8,672,aS7 
1,812,897 
11,089,928 
63,943,115 
-I!K.V.'.-. 
18,577,998 
22,787,841 
18,117.707 
778,192 
1.204.779 
14,089,284 
786.610 
816,409 
86,117.281 
6,887,978 
21.450.lsii 
6,7l#.560 
K'.s.Sl,7!'i; 
10,715,400 
1,777,686 
6.739.608 
106,807.962 
088,461 
6,1864800 
101,098 
862,014 
11,681,405 
1.275,484 
2,418,555 
I.2SS139 

H.MiMt-jr, 

1.100,999 
1,121,467 
867,392,122 
8,094,846 
21,878,427 
8,979,748 
4,816,122 
1,400,760 
4,734.406 
1,864,146 
6.114,668 
2,270,747 
9,188.064 
1,257.947 
2.074.959 
12,262,407 
1,424,845 
2,276.577 
9,886,828 
2,204,718 
7,484,742 
46,498,017 
89.178,481 
9,044.069 
5,685,466 
88,884,268 
858,824 
4,021,070 
18,792.868 
4,872,907 
688,116 
167,000 
9,252.425 
r,'...-:.7-!< 
2,807,074 
B.808,800 
988.189 
68,069,491 


f.V_'.nr,6.-75 
4.MI7.HC-4 
1,488,968 
8,261,679 
4..V.MI4S 
4l.s-J.v.6 
68.571,498 
8.800,776 
14,077,80* 
8,889,091 
181,644,090 
8,222,488 
8.917,169 
6,865,766 
1,264,966 
1.849,018 
86,907,704 
29,028,8 
6,476,175 
6,622,286 
2.694,62 
18.664,0*1 
182.901,482 
1,005,827 
21,761,578 
65,862,881 
81,070,784 
8,068,881 
8,161,104 
16,771,665 
2,515,684 
2,509,648 
147,650,878 
12,900,688 
26.942,287 
15,992,648 
2(1,868,784 
11,684,128 
2.890.460 
8,979.882 
168,457,858 
720,117 
-.T-'i.'JIT 
1,888,601 
2,789,998 
19,417.194 
2,058,800 
...l-J.. r :('J 
2.277,641 
6.815,118 
6,582,268 
8,178,778 
444,985,148 
5,425,677 
58,521,680 
10,567,104 
8,908,052 
8,811,808 
15.384,564 
8,908,08] 
6,085,846 
4,011,889 
22.237,82* 
8,227,128 
8,226.768 
24.648,167 
8,425,150 
4,768$M 
18,411.664 
6,285,167 
1 4,5(56.874 
60.640.498 
76,458,558 
23.889,665 
7,647,054 
128,062,627 
884400 
7,191,151 
24.828,996 
7,869,194 
1,268.756 
472,000 
22,821,029 
747,700 
8,499,188 
12.861.959 
1,218,864 
66,170,588 












Bleaching and dyeing (exclusive of straw goods).. . . 
Boats 












Brass foundin" and finishing 








Brick 


















Cars, railroad, and repairs 






Cheese 


Chronics and lithographs 


Clocks 


Clothing, men's 


l; women's 


Coal oil. refined. 


Confectionery 


Cooperage 


Copper, milled and smelted 


" rolled 


Cordage and twine 


Cotton goods, not specified 


" batting and wadding 


" thread, twine, and yarns 


Cutlery 


" and edge tools, not specified 


Drugs and chemicals ... ... 


Dye woods, stuffs, and extracts 


Edge tools and axes 


Envelopes 


Fertilizers (not ground plaster) .... 


Firearms '. 


Flax and linen goods. 


Flouring and grist-mill products 


Fruits and vegetables, canned and preserved 


Furniture, not specified 


" chairs 


Furs, dressed 


Glass, window 


" other 


Gloves and mittens 


Grease and tallow 


Gunpowder 


Hardware 


" for saddlery 


Hat materials 


Hats and caps 


Heating apparatus 


Hoop skirts and corsets 


Hosiery 


Hubs, spokes, bows, shafts, wheels, and feUoes.. . 


India-rubber and elastic goods.. 


Iron, piers 


" castings, not specified. . 


" stoves, heaters, and hollow ware . . 
blooms . . . 


" forged and rolled 


'' anchors and cable chains. 


bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets 


nails and spikes, cut and wrought 


pipe, wrought. 


'' railing, " 


' ship building and marine engines... 


Lead, bar and sheet. 
' Pi? 
Pipe 


' shot 
Leather, tanned.... 



UNITED STATES 



135 



INDUSTRIES. 


Number of 
Mtabllth- 
ments, 1870 


Haodi 
tmploysd 
1870. 


Capital. 


Wagei. 


Value of 
Materials. 


Value of 

product*. 




3,083 
118 
26 
110 
1,001 
719 
1,972 
898 
820 
1,113 
25,817 
1,737 
838 
9 
150 
663 
208 
923 
1,049 
2,264 
75 
17 
86 
206 
1,663 
837 
105 
76 
156 
53 
101 
26 
77 
84 
63 
75 
163 
235 
225 
46 
15 
819 
203 
42 
311 
40 
1,199 
609 
296 
7,607 
2S2 
1,6C5 
72 
49 
IS 
49 
762 
13 
63 
35 
55 
614 
195 
3 
20 
41 
777 
713 
59 i 
227 
6,646 
61 
512 
4,631 
222 
83 
59 
87 
175 
733 
1,001 
1,933 
102 


10,027 
8,006 
528 
898 
6,450 
5,181 
12,448 
1,486 
8,587 
18,640 
149,871 
80,781 
8,918 
888 
20,015 
22,962 
1,640 
13,190 
6,719 
11,043 
2,556 
499 
435 
5,551 
7,205 
2,383 
1,460 
1,566 
4,141 
543 
1,487 
664 
945 
1,411 
1,008 
1,932 
2,770 
8,167 
8,111 
8,862 
869 
2,436 
4.235 
8,894 
10,063 
1,390 
13,130 
5,555 
2,973 
23,553 
2,953 
20,879 
1,595 
1,003 
1,532 
7,291 
11,063 
849 
4,176 
2,528 
815 
4,422 
2,072 
329 
1,898 
1,021 
6,116 
21,299 
4,597 
2,638 
25,828 
1,431 
20,368 
26,049 
3,479 
2,618 
415 
1.816 
4,270 
4,103 
2,318 
77.870 
12,920 


$12,303,785 
3,854,072 
906,000 
1,340,450 
5,344,154 
15,545,116 
48,779,435 
2,334.394 
2,590,020 
18,007,041 
143,399.082 
40,388,960 
10,603,424 
986,000 
28,222,761 
25,987,452 
8,017,248 
11,287,677 
4,942,063 
2,546,425 
1,523,802 
1,549,100 
496,700 
20,078,987 
2,425,926 
3,462,360 
1,759,600 
1,775,850 
6,019,311 
2,072,532 
1,490,131 
1,225,350 
8,862,956 
2,237,000 
3,742,150 
7,414,250 
5,001,820 
16.771,920 
6,276,600 
6,314,674 
1,415,500 
6,667,634 
4,556,125 
13,367,553 
16,839.993 
2,128,993 
14,947,887 
6,007,854 
10,910,822 
13,935,961 
6,561,615 
21,239,809 
2,883,891 
1,019.500 
9.147,830 
8.759,431 
9,102,335 
757,100 
4,019,630 
2,223,500 
1,282,550 
10.454,860 
2,741.675 
853,000 
8,979,400 
2,426,500 
5,294,398 
10,248,475 
20,545,220 
902,225 
21,027,876 
1,767,100 
11,788,714 
11,368,516 
2,185,694 
1,737,757 
2,168,740 
2,666,183 
4,200,700 
2,751,544 
1,740,249 
97,173,482 
10,085,778 


$4,154,114 
1,678,226 
841,445 
897,574 
1,936,158 
2,019,810 
6,758,602 
280,650 
1,628,653 
6,222,076 
89,966,817 
17,812,493 
4,632,9 J 3 
807,414 
12,541,818 
12,572,244 
700,624 
'7,601,471 
2,490,296 
2,471,700 
616,714 
173,180 
111,595 
1,722,326 
1,156,581 
923,703 
896,119 
1,139,780 
3,071,392 
298,975 
277,895 
292,032 
458,387 
687,288 
550.463 
1,016,574 
1.028,208 
3,400,033 
1,249.821 
1,470.446 
829,267 
1,017,795 
2,850,169 
8,438,089 
7,156,332 
760,275 
8,163,515 
2,710,234 
2,460,631 
7,046,207 
1.147,910 
10,059,812 
995,609 
663,451 
664,408 
5,142,248 
5,594,686 
489,100 
1.328.389 
624,917 
542.113 
1,925,951 
900,719 
176,000 
1,256,632 
601,706 
2,247,173 
1,230,119 
8,177.288 
476,284 
9,516.357 
546,538 
4,670.095 
9,098,709 
1,810,798 
887,580 
252,059 
1,804,304 
1,802,617 
1,499,565 
260,419 
26,648,272 
4,868,857 


$43,565,593 
6,623,066 
8,211,749 
2,099,735 
4,458,542 
19,729,432 
28,177,684 
I, -203,172 
2,466,313 
28,72;<,348 
103,102,393 
22,675,692 
5,246,874 
913,833 
11,952,840 
19,784,404 
9,002,094 
8,034,858 
8,709,518 
7,015,782 
1,179,666 
2,531,552 
1,524,680 
46.577,864 
3,365,132 
1,687,931 
1,166,424 
743,351 
2,924,777 
7,582,576 
2,782,361 
1,333,631 
7,216,414 
2,548,768 
8,998,106 
7,480,622 
3,478.709 
16,120,363 
4,420.240 
6,009,751 
1,315,106 
7,319,752 
8,771,981 
43,873,358 
11,398,131 
1,525,773 
8,709,632 
2,966.709 
12,446,974 
16,068.310 
1,760;670 
17,581,814 
1,332.891 
920:870 
1,248.135 
3,055,786 
8,252,394 
1,424,944 
4,126,821 
4,197,752 
1,222,428 
15,232,587 
8.884.909 
1,373,812 
3.417,923 
1,662,920 
1,702,705 
6,069,271 
96,899,431 
2,146,090 
19,067,015 
1,782.8-29 
20,351,607 
12,522,171 
8,315,038 
1.926,056 
3,311,097 
412,783 
4,512.891 
1,648,008 
8,504,052 
98.406.884 
14,808,198 


$54,191,161 
9,997,460 
4,018,115 
2,859,972 
8,917,405 
86,191,133 
65,706,643 
2,225,238 
6,962,235 
42,179,702 
209,852,527 
54,429,684 
18,311,118 
1,636,530 
27,565,650 
41,576,264 
12,016,515 
21,316,860 
8,916,654 
14,587,185 
3,540,008 
8,760,802 
1,950,306 
66,429,331 
6,518,222 
4,222,278 
2,616,149 
2,960,165 
8,329,594 
9,728,667 
3,993,189 
2,205,610 
8,881,962 
4,211,579 
5,720,758 
11,211,647 
6,406,817 
25,200,417 
7,706,317 
9,263,384 
2,165.510 
16,257,720 
8,142,150 
54,446,044 
28,995,214 
3,568,823 
25,393,029 
8,511,934 
18,386,406 
32,709,981 
4.818,229 
36.625,806 
3,175,239 
2,823,816 
8,425,473 
14,097,446 
17,910,828 
2,445,526 
7,066,487 
5,672,875 
2,344,357 
22.535,337 
5.994,422 
1,818,220 
6,936,566 
2.928,993 
6,045,536 
10.388,368 
108.941,911 
8,585,225 
40,636,811 
3,337,274 
36,258,177 
32,166,598 
7,725,488 
4,098,032 
4,991,405 
2,319,080 
8,017,625 
4,959,191 
4,675.926 
151,298,196 
22,090,881 


" morocco, tanned and curried 
























" fire engines 




" steam engines and boilers 


Malt 


Marble and stone work, not specified 


" " " monuments and tombstones 
Masonry, brick and stone 




Meat, cured and packed, not specified 




" " pork 


Millinery 




Musical instruments, not specified 


" " organs and materials 


" " pianos and materials 


Oil, animal 


" flsh 


" cotton-seed 


" linseed 


Oil floor cloth 


Faints, not specified 


" lead and zinc . . 


Paper, not specified 


" printing 


" wrapping 


" writing 


Paper hangings 


Patent medicines and compounds 


Plated ware 


Printing cotton and woollen goods 


Printing and publishing, not specified 


" " " book 


" " " newspaper. . . 




Quartz, milled 


Saddlery and harness 
Salt 


Sash, doors, and blinds 


Saws 


Scales and balances 


Screws 


Sewing machines 


Ship building, ship materials, and repairs. . . .... 


Shovels and spades 


Silk goods, not specified 


Silk, sewing and twist 


Silverware 


Soap and candles 


Starch 


Steel, Bessemer 


" cast 


Steel springs 


Stone and earthen ware 


Sugar and molasses, raw cane 


" " " refined cane 


Tar and turpentine 


Tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware 


Tobacco and cigars 


Tobacco, chewing and smoking, and snuff 


" cigars 


Trunks, valises, and satchels 


Umbrellas and canes.. 


Varnish 


Watches 


Wire 


Wood, turned and carved 


Wool-carding and cloth-dressing 


Woollen goods 


Worsted goods 





Taking the value of products as a standard, 
the leading manufacturing states were : New 



York, $785,194,651 ; Pennsylvania, $711,894,- 
344 ; Massachusetts, $553,912,568 ; Ohio, $269,- 



136 



UNITED STATES 



713,610; Missouri, $206,213,429; Illinois, $205,- 
620,672 ; New Jersey, $169,237,732 ; Connec- 
ticut, $161,065,474; Michigan, $118,394,676; 
Ehode Island, $111,418,354; and Indiana, $108,- 
617,278. The great centre for the manufac- 
ture of boots and shoes, straw goods, cotton 
and woollen goods, and textiles in general, is in 
Massachusetts. The manufacture of iron (ex- 
cepting castings), machinery, cast-steel springs, 
and glass ware is most extensively carried on 
in Pennsylvania ; of leather, flour, sewing ma- 
chines, and refined molasses and sugar, in 
New York ; of silk goods, in New Jersey ; of 
agricultural implements, in Ohio ; and of clocks, 
India-rubber and elastic goods, and hardware, 
in Connecticut. The following statement af- 
fords a comparison between the values of lead- 
ing products in 1870 and 1860: 



INDUSTRIES. 


VALUE OF PKODUCT8. 


I860. 


1870. 




$17,487,960 
91,889,298 
11,263,147 
7.857,686 
80,830,555 
7,280,606 
115,681,774 
_M>.>i>.:',i;.-, 
5,768,450 
2,628,178 
12,748,727 
81,888,705 
86,182.088 
2,030,718 
889,222 
26,768,225 
21,810,988 
96,715,854 
51,887,266 
9,857,228 
7,689,960 
2,568,386 
2,289,504 
4,255,820 
18,464,574 


$52,066,875 
181,644,090 
29,302,016 
21,761,678 
147,650,878 
18,411,564 
177,489,789 
444.985,143 
14.666,874 
7.647,054 
69.640,498 
120,814.158 
99.848.218 
8,885,669 
8,499,188 
86,191,133 
56,706,648 
210,159,327 
188,519,246 
23,101,082 
13,249,241 
9,728,667 
4,818,229 
14,097,446 
22,535,387 
12,789,862 
9,609,986 
108.941,911 
8,585,225 

88.88S859 
83,878.685 
165,405,36.8 
22.090.331 














Flouring and grist-mill products.. 
India-rubber and elastic goods 


" pig- 
















Machinery 
Nails and tacks 






Salt 






Silk 


6,607,771 
1,778,240 
42,241,884 
1,081,356 

21,820,535 
9,068,778 
61,894,986 
3.701.378 


Steel 


Sugar and molasses (cane), refined. 
Tar and turpentine 


Tobacco, chewing and smoking, 
and snuff. 


Tobacco, cigars '..... 


Woollen goods 


"Worsted roods... 



The number of cotton (spinning) mills in the 
United States in 1875 was 875, having a total 
of 9,539,364 spindles ; of these, 694 mills, with 
9,057,543 spindles, were in northern, and 181 
mills, with 481,821 spindles, in southern states. 
The quantity of cotton consumed during the 
year ending June 30 was 1,242,080 bales of 
576,742,753 Ibs., including 1,097,001 bales in 
northern and 145,079 in southern mills. The 
total number of spindles has increased from 
7,114,000 in 1870 to 9,539,364 in 1875, the ratio 
of increase being larger in the southern than 
in the northern states. The consumption of 
cotton has increased from 930,736 bales in 
1870 to 1,242,080 in 1875. For the produc- 
tion and manufacture of cotton in the United 
States, see COTTON, and COTTON MANUFAC- 
TURE. The statistics of mining in 1870 were 
as follows : 



MINERALS. 



Asphaltum 

Cinnabar 

Coal, anthracite. 

" bituminous 

Copper. 

Gold, hydraulic 

mined 

Gold, placer 

mined 

Gold quartz 

" and sliver. 

Iron ore 

Lead 

Marble 

Nickel 

Peat, cut 

Petroleum 

Silver quartz... . 

Slate 

Stone 

Zinc 



Total 7,974 



No. of 

wtabliih- 

menti. 



1 

4 

281 

1,835 

40 



1,682 

224 

67 

420 

112 

23 

1 

4 

2,814 

102 

101 

997 

15 



Handi 

employed. 



Amount of 
capital. 



811 

68,096 

41,658 

5,404 

1,978 



8,297 

2.114 

15,022 

1,126 

795 

48 

89 

4,488 
1,056 
1,749 
12,678 
688 



154,828 



$514,286 
11,900,000 
51,016,785 
68,991,244 

7,789,874 

1,887,484 
6,624.549 

'.>. i. r >4.r,u<> 

29,062,400 

17,778.985 

618,786 

1,816,600 

60,000 

18,100 

10,048,884 

4.016,000 

2,788,289 

7,152,854 

2,414,942 



1222,384,854 



Vlue of 
product*. 



$450,000 

817,700 

8S,4!15,745 

85,029,247 

5,201,819 

2,508,581 

7,266,618 
4.860,121 



13,204,188 

786,004 

804,800 

24,000 

8.200 

19,804,224 

8,248,861 

1,811,492 

9,971,100 



$152,598,994 



Of the above named minerals, nearly one half 
in value were the product of Pennsylvania, 
which produced nearly all of the anthracite 
coal and of the petroleum, more than a third of 
the bituminous coal, and more than a fourth 
of the iron ore. The census returns of gold 
and silver were greatly below the actual pro- 
duction. The annual production of gold in 
the United States to 1873 and of silver to 1874 
is given in the articles GOLD, vol. viii., p. 81, 
and SILVER, vol. xv., p. 67. The produc- 
tion of gold in 1874 amounted to about $42,- 
000,000, and that of silver in 1875 to about 
$40,000,000. The production of pig iron in 
the United States has increased from 784,178 
tons in 1855 to 919,770 in 1860, 931,682 in 1866, 
1,865,000 in 1870, 2,854,558 in 1872, 2,868,278 
in 1873, and 2,689,413 in 1874. About one 
fourth of the total amount is smelted from 
Lake Superior ores. The production of Besse- 
mer steel has increased from 8,000 tons in 1867 
to 40,000 in 1870 and 176,579 in 1874; that of 
other steel from 15,262 tons in 1865 to 85,000 
in 1870 and 47,481 in 1874. In 1875 there 
were 10 establishments producing Bessemer 
and 42 other steel. The latest statistics of the 
production of iron and steel in the United 
States, as reported by the American iron and 
steel association, are as follows : 



PRODUCTS NET TONS. 


1879. 


1878. 


1874. 


Pig Iron 


-.-.4..V" 
1,941,992 


I.B8MT8 

1,966,445 


j.r,-'.>.4iM 
1,889,660 


All rolled Iron, Including nails. . . . 



II EVUDU UVUi UM9BUUUBI J1U11D U1IU. 

excluding rails I 941,992 1,076,868 1,110,147 



Rails of all kinds 
Bessemer steel rails. . . 
Iron and all other rails 
Street rails 



1,000,0001 690,077 

94.070 129,015 

905.980 761,062 

16.000! 9,480 



Kegs of cut nails and spikes 4,065,822 4,024,704 4,912,180 

Merchantable Bessemer steel 



other than rails 16,480 

Total of merchantable Bessemer 



steel 

Crucible cast steel 

Open-hearth steel 

All other steel 

Blooms from ore and pig iron 



110.600 

27.260 

8.000 

7.740 

5&.OOOJ 



27,986 

157,000 
82,786 
8.600 

1M.714 
62.564 



7-29,4 18 
144,944 
064,409 

r..7.T. 



81,686 

176,679 

84.128 

7,000 

LBM 

61.670 



UNITED STATES 



13T 



The recent growth of the foreign commerce 
of the country is shown in the following state- 



ment of the grdss specie value of imports and 
exports for years ending June 30 : 



YEARS. 


IMPORTS. 


EXPORTS OK FOREIGN PRODUCTS. 


EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC PRODUCTS. 


Merchandise. 


Coin and 
bullion. 


Total. 


Merchandise. 


Coin and 
bullion. 


Total. 


Merchandise. 


Coin and 
bullion. 


Total. 


Muted 
values, gold 
and curr'cy. 


1850... 


178.509,526 
210,771,429 
207,440,398 
263,777,265 
297,623,039 
257,808,708 
310,432,310 
348,428,342 
263,388,654 
331,333,341 
353,616,119 
289,310,542 
189,356,677 
243,335,815 
316,447,283 
238,745,580 
484,812,066 
395,768,100 
857,486,440 
417,506,879 
435,953,403 
520,223,684 
626,595.077 
642,136,210 
567,406.342 
533,005,436 


4,628,792 178,188,818 
5,453,508 216,224,932 
5,505,044 212,945,442 
4,201,882 267,978,647 
6,939,342804,562,381 
8,659,812 : 261,468,520 
4,207,682314,639,942 
12,461,799 860,890,141 
19,274,496 282,613,150 
7,434,789 338,768,130 
8,550,185862,166,254 
46,339,611 335,650,158 
16,415,052205,771,729 
9,584,105 252,919,920 
13,115,612329,562,895 
9,810,072248,555,652 
10,700,092!445,512,158 
22,070,475 417,838,575 
14,188.368 ! 371,624,808 
19,807,876 437,314,255 
26,419,179 462,877,587 
21,270,024 541.498.708 


9,475,493 
10,295,121 
12,053,084 
18,620,120 
21,631,260 
26,158,368 
14,781,872 
14,917,047 
20,660,241 
14,509,971 
17,883,634 
14,654,217 
11,026,477 
17,960,535 
15,338,961 
29,089,055 
11,841,420 
14,719,332 
12,562,999 
10.951,000 
16,155,295 
14,421,270 


5,476,815 

11,403,172 
5,286,298 
8,988,340 
8,'218,984 
2,289,925 
1,597,206 
9,058,570 
10,225,901 
6,385,106 
9,599,388 
5,991,210 
5,842,989 
8,163,049 
4,922,979 
3,025,102 
8,400,697 
5,892,176 
10,038,127 
14,222,414 
14,271,864 
14,038,629 


14,951,808 
21,698,298 
17,289,382 
17,558,460 
24,850,194 
28,448,298 
16,878,578 
28,975,617 
80,886,142 
20,865,077 
26,983,022 
20,645,427 
16,869,466 
26,123,584 
20,256,940 
32,114,157 
14,742,117 
20,611,508 
22,601,126 
25,178,414 
80,427,159 
28,459,899 
22,769,749 
28,149,511 
23,780,838 
22,433,624 


184,900,233 
178,620,188 
154,931,147 
189,869,162 
218,985,286 
192,751,185 
266,438,051 
278,906,713 
251,851,0=38 
278,892,080 
316,242,423 
204,899,616 
179,644,024 
186,003,912 
148,504.027 
186.940,248 
337,518,102 
277,641,898 
269,389,900 
275,166,697 
376,616,478 
428,898,908 
428,487,181 
505,083,439 
569,433.421 
499,284,100 


2,046,679 
18.069,560 
37,437,837 
23,548,535 
88,062,570 
53,957,418 
44,148,279 
60,078,352 
42,407,246 
57,502,805 
56,946,851 
28,799,870 
31,044,651 
55,993,562 
100,473,562 
64,618,124 
82,643,374 
54,976,196 
83,745,975 
42.915,966 
43,883,802 
84,403,359 
72,798,240 
73,905,546 
59,699,686 
83,857,129 


186,946,912 
196,689,718 
192,868,9b4 
213,417,697 
252,047,806 
246,708,558 
810,586,380 
888,985,065 
293,758,279 
835,894,885 
873,189,274 
228,699.486 
210,688,675 
241,997,474 
243,977,589 
201,558,372 
420,161.476 
882,618,089 
853,135,875 
818,082,663 
420,500,275 
512,802,267 
501,285,871 
578,938,985 
629.138,107 
588,141,229 




1851 




1852 




1853 




1854 




1855 




1856 




1857 




1858 




1859 




1860 




1861 


213,069,519 
305.884,998 
820,085,199 
828,743,187 
550,684,277 
488,577,812 
454,801,718 
418,961,115 
499,092,148 
562,518,651 
549,219,718 
649,182,563 
693,089,054 
648,094,767 


1862 


1863 


1864 


1865 


1866 


1867 


1868 


1869 


1870... 


1871 


1S72 


13,743.689 
21,480,937 
28,454,906 
20,900,717 


640,338,766 
663,617,147 
595,861,248 
553,906,153 


15,690,455 
17,446,488 
16,849,619 
14,158,611 


7,079,294 
10,703,028 
6,930,719 
8,275,018 


1873 


1874 


1875 





To the total value of domestic exports in 1874 
should be added $10,200,059 gold or $11,424,- 
066 currency, and to the value of those in 
1875, $15,596,524 gold, for merchandise which 
the Canadian reports show to have been ex- 
ported from the United States, but which does 
not appear in the returns of this country. The 
average yearly value in gold of the imports 
and exports, from the formation of the govern- 
ment to 1850, was as follows : 



YEARS. 


Imports. 


Exports of foreign 
products. 


Exports of domes- 
tic products. 


1789 to 1799. 
1799 ' 1809. 
1809 ' 1819. 
1819 ' 1329. 
1829 ' 1339. 
1839 ' 1849. 


$52,359,269 
98,351,628 
81,906,927 
80,220,651 
126,641,148 
119,678,698 


$15,175,257 
87,827,500 
13,357,458 
23,826,438 
19,564,916 
13,288,998 


$27,944,992 
37,287,530 
45,838,432 
52,832,653 
83,845,630 
110,840,752 



The chief articles of import and of domestic 
export during the year ending June 30, 1875, 
with their values, were as follows : 



IMPORTS. 

Chemicals, drugs, dyes, and medicines 

Coffee 

Gold and silver, coin and bullion 

Gums 

Hides and skins, other than fur 

India-rubber and gutta-percha, crude and man- 
ufactures of. 

Paper materials, rags and other 

Silk, raw 

Tea 

Animals, living 

Books, engravings, &c 

Barley 

Cotton manufactures 

Earthenware 

Fancy goods 

Flax "and manufactures of 

Fruit* *'.'/. 

Furs and fur skins, dressed 

Glass and glass ware 

Hemp and manufactures of 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of 



$10,272,571 

50,591,488 

20,900,717 

2,321,383 

18,586,902 

5,189,469 
4,770.745 
4,504,306 

22,673,708 
2,861,002 
2,688,796 
6,297,738 

27,788,401 
4,265,210 
6,623,949 

17,720,647 

12,952,680 
8,017,631 
5,806,115 
8,219,385 

18,475,733 



Jute and other grasses, and manufactures of. ... $3,882,268 

Leather and manufactures of 10,245,597 

Opium 2,037,793 

Precious stones 8,612,280 

Seeds 6,687,192 

Silk, manufactures of. 24,380,923 

Soda and salts of 5,563,526 

Spices 2,285.525 

Straw and palm leaf, manufactures of 2,325,539 

Sugar, brown 70,015,757 

Molasses 11,685,224 

Melado 8,313,597 

Tin and manufactures of 15,365,565 

Tobacco and manufactures of 6.861,384 

Watches, clocks, &c 2,566,195 

Wines and spirits 7,769,527 

Wood, manufactures of 6,182.988 

Wool, unmanufactured 11,071,259 

" manufactures of 44,609,704 

All other articles 62,084,493 



Total $552,918,857 



Total merchandise, exclusive of specie $532,018,140 

DOMESTIC EXPORTS. 

Agricultural implements $2,625,372 

Animals, living 2,672,505 

Indian corn 24,456,987 

Wheat 59,607,863 

Wheat flour 28,712,440 

Cotton, raw 190,638,625 

" manufactured 4,071,882 

Chemicals, dyes, and medicines 2,925,322 

Furs and fur skins 4,396,424 

Gold and silver, coin and bullion 88,857,129 

Hides and skins, other than fur 4,729.725 

Iron and steel, and manufactures of 19,349,671 

Leather and manufactures of 7,324.796 

Naval stores 2,90i;625 

Oil cake 5,138,300 

Oils, mineral, refined or manufactured 80,078,568 

Provisions 81,343,401 

Spirits of turpentine 1,924,544 

Sugar and molasses 8,793,517 

Tallow 5,692,203 

Tobacco and manufactures of 27,844,490 

Wood " " " 17.740,085 

All other articles 



Total $643,064,767 



Total merchandise, exclusive of specie $559,207,688 



138 



UNITED STATES 



The chief countries represented in the foreign 
commerce in 1875 were as follows : 



Argentine Republic 

Belgium 

Brazil 

Central American states. ... 

Chili 

China 

France 

French West Indies and Guiana. , 

Germany , 

England. 

Scotland , 

Ireland 

Nova Scotia, New Brunswick 

Quebec, Ontario, &c 

British Columbia 

" West Indies and Honduras 

" Guiana 

" East Indies 

" Hong Kong 

" Australasia 

Hayti 

Italy 

Japan 

Mexico 

Netherlands 

Dutch East Indies 

Peru 

Portugal 

Russia on the Baltic . . . 



Imports.* 



Cuba 

Porto Rico 

All other Spanish possessions 

Turkey in Europe 

United States of Colombia 

Uruguay 

Venezuela ! 

All other countries, islands, &c.. . 



$5,884,709 

6,169,098 

42,083,046 

2,627,359 

789,242 

18,480,440 

68.842,681 

2,037,266 

40,898,886 

144,195,581 

11,615,189 

1,287,167 

8,896,350 

26,808,456 

2,154,758 

4,642,891 

2.499,245 

15,584,099 

1,206,816 

8,755,590 

2,207,173 

9,190,182 

7,772.802 

11,634,988 

2,858,658 

6,775.899 

1,844,695 

480,362 

698,221 

4,534,878 

66.745.527 

6.980,082 

6,830,187 

72.459 

12.942,805 

2,935,089 

5,690,224 

10,445,378 



Total. :llu; ^ ll:i _ ] $553,906,153 $648,094,767 



Domestic 

exports. t 



$1,801.294 

12,867,59( 
7,684,86. 
1,042,784 
2,062,191 
1,465,984 

50.133,711 
1,167,276 

52,517,918 
821,014,348 

17,457,991 

28,327,535 
7,724,820 

28,909,158 
1,082,888 
7,687,218 
1,830,807 
473,049 
7,296,070 
8,505,845 



7,226,554 
1,647,197 
8,895,792 
7,488,010 
1,084,159 
2,448.657 
2.620,099 

10,420,706 
7,540,086 

15.586,653 
2,877,757 
89,889 
8,454,795 
4.272,950 
1,440.665 
2.423.254 

14,198,956 



The total number of vessels entered in the 
foreign trade during the year ended June 30, 
1875, was 27,961, with an aggregate tonnage 
of 11,692,810. Of these, 11,074, of 3,573,950 
tons, were American, and 16,887, of 8,118,860 
tons, were foreign; 1,028, of 1,141,734 tons, 
were American ocean steamers, and 1,246, of 
3,142,723 tons, foreign ocean steamers. The 
total number cleared was 28,236, of 11,896,507 
tons, including 11,216 American vessels, of 
3,736,639 tons, and 17,020 foreign vessels, of 
8,159,868 tons. Besides the above, 74,027 ves- 
sels, of 31,614,282 tons, entered, and 73,324, 
of 30,440,626 tons, cleared in the coastwise 
trade and fisheries. The extent of the mer- 
chant marine of the United States at different 
periods has been as follows : 



YEARS. 


Sail, tons. 


Steam, tons. 


Total, toni. 


1790 


478.377 




478,877 


1810 
1820 


972,492 
1,424,788 




972.492 
1,424,788 


1830.... 
1S40.... 


1,127,804 
1 97S455 


64,472 


1,280,167 
1,191,776 


185ft 


8 rtl o 020 




2,180,764 


1855. .. 








1860 


4 4^5 <)31 




5.212,001 


18651.... 

1870$.. . 


4.029,648 


1,067.189 


5,358,868 
5.087.782 


187o 


816S&064 


1,168,668 


4,246.507 
4,858,782 



The distribution of the merchant marine has 
been as follows : 



YEARS. 


Foreign 
trade, ton*. 


Coutwka 
trade, toni. 


Whale 

fisheries, 
torn. 


Cod and 
mackerel 
flsheriee, 

t> ni. 


1790 


846,254 


108,775 




28848 


1800 


667,107 


272,492 


8460 


28427 


1810 


981,019 


406,847 


;; :,MI 


84828 


1620 


583,667 


688,025 


86,446 


72040 


1880 


M;T .'JIM 


616,979 


89706 


97 529 


1840 


762,888 


1,176,694 


186 927 


104805 


1850 


1 439,694 


1,797,625 


146 017 


161 918 


1855 


2,848,858 


2.548,255 


186848 


188640 


1860 


2.379,896 


2,644,667 


166841 


16 764 


1865 


1 518850 


8 881 522 


90516 


Jill", Mi)4 


1870 


1,448.846 


2,688,247 


07964 


Ml 460 


1875 


1,515,598 


8,219,698 


88,229 


80*207 













The classification of the merchant shipping of 
the United States in 1870 and 1875 was as 
follows : 



CHARACTER. 


Year ending June 30, 
1870. 


Year ending June 80, 
1875. 


Vessels. 


Tom. 


Veueb. 


Ton.. 


Registered, perma- 
nent 


1,982 
1.010 


1,098,649-69 
428.160-87 


2,030 
951 


1,125,898-82 
427.929-60 


Registered, tempo- 
rary . . . 



Enrolled, pennan'nt 21.150 2,684,792'81 



Enrolled, temporary | 
Licensed under 20 
tons 



Total. 



876 
4,581 



98,147-81 
51,766-65 



28,879 8,106,440-86 



684 
6,891 



25,998, 4,246,607-23 82,286 



129,948-68 
61,514-68 



4,858,782-14 



Of those reported in 1875, 23,440, of 3,867,- 
618-01 tons, were returned for the Atlantic 
and gulf coasts ; 1,225, of 229,257'51 tons, for 
the Pacific coast; 5,496, of 837,891-76 tons, 
for the northern lakes; and 2,124, of 418,964 
86 tons, for the western rivers. The number, 
class, and tonnage of vessels built in the United 
States for a series of years have been : 



t Mixed values. 
. -artiy old and partly new measurement 
i New measurement. 











Sloope, 








YEARS. 


Ship, 
and 


Brlgi. 


Schoon- 


canal 
boate, 


Stmun- 


Total. 


Total 




bulu. 




ers. 


and 


tn. 




tonnage. 










target. 








1620. 


21 


60 


801 


162 




684 


47,784 


1880. 


25 


66 


4ns 


116 


'87 


687 


68,094 


1840. 


97 


109 


878 


224 


64 


872 


118,809 


1850. 


247 


117 


647 


290 


259 


1,860 


272,218 


iav>. 


8S1 


126 


605 


669 


268 


2,047 


6J-8,450 


I860. 


110 


86 


873 


2S9 


264 


1,071 


212,892 


1861. 


110 


88 


860 


871 


264 


1,148 


288,194 


1662. 


62 


17 


207 


897 


188 


864 


175,076 


1888. 


97 


84 


212 


1,118 


867 


1,828 


810.8S4 


1864. 


112 


45 


822 


1,889 


498 


2,866 


415.741 


1865. 


109 


46 


869 


868 


411 


1,788 


888,80* 


1866* 


96 


61 


467 


926 


848 


1, 


886,147 


1868. 


80 


48 


690 


848 


236 


1,802 


286,806 


1S70. 


78 


27 


619 


709 


290 


i.c.m 


276,968 


1872. 


15 


10 


426 


900 


292 


1.648 


209,052 


1874. 


71 


22 


656 


995 


404 


2,147 


482,725 


1876. 


114 


22 


602 


840 


828 


1,801 


297,689 


On June 30, 1875, there were employed in the 
cod and mackerel fisheries 1,259 vessels of 68,- 
703 tons, and in the whale fisheries 165 vessels 


of 38,229 tons. The products of the year end- 


ing on that date were valued at $13,688,581, 


* New measurements from 1866. 



UNITED STATES 



139 



including $2,841,002 whale and $10,747,579 
other fisheries. (See FISHERIES.) The num- 
ber and chief nationalities of emigrants arri- 
ving in the United States each year to the close 
of 1873 are given in the article EMIGRATION. 
For the years 1874 and 1875 they were: 



COUNTRIES. 


1874. 


1875. 




48,896 


80,040 




47,683 


29,969 




8,765 


6,739 


"Wales, Man, Jersey, and Channel islands. . 


573 


431 


Total British isles 


100,422 


66,179 




30,596 


28,420 




6,581 


4,465 


Sweden 


4,836 


6,031 




8,188 


1,951 


Holland 


1,538 


1,078 


Germany 


56,927 


86,565 




6891 


6039 




7.447 


4,869 




8,741 


8,607 


Switzerland 


2,436 


1,641 


Italy 


5,787 


8,815 


All other countries 


25,929 


27,576 


Total 


260,814 


191,281 









The whole number of customs districts in the 
United States is 112, each having a port of 
entry. There are also 15 interior ports of de- 
livery, at which duties may be collected on ap- 
praised merchandise transported in bond from 
exterior ports of entry, viz. : Albany, N. Y. ; 
Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Parkersburg and Wheeling, 
W. Va. ; Cincinnati, O. ; Evansville, Ind. ; 
Cairo and Galena, 111. ; Burlington and Du- 
buque, Iowa ; Omaha, Neb. ; Louisville, Ky. ; 
Memphis and Nashville, Tenn. ; and St. Louis, 
Mo. Of these the following have also been 
made ports of entry, to which merchandise 
may be transported directly without prior ap- 
praisement : Cincinnati, O. ; Evansville, Ind. ; 
Louisville, Ky. ; Memphis, Tenn. ; Pittsburgh, 
Pa. ; and St. Louis, Mo. The railroad, canal, 
telegraph, and postal systems of the United 
States are described in the special articles on 
those subjects. The wealth, taxation (not na- 
tional), and public debt (not national) in 1860 
and 1870 were as follows : 



PARTICULARS. 


1860. 


1870. 


True value of real and personal 
estate 


$16,159,616,068 
6,973,006,049 

5,111,553,956 
12,084,560,005 


$30,068.518,507 
9,914,780,825 

4,264,205,907 
14,178,986,782 
68,051,298 
77,746,115 
184,794,108 
280,591,521 
824,747,959 
28,118,739 
157,955,880 
29,609,660 

271,119,668 

57,124.52 
868,676,758 


Assessed value of real estate. . 
" " of personal es- 
tate.. . 


Assessed value, total 


Taxation, state _ . . 


" county 




" town, city, &c 




" total 


94,186,746 


Public debt, state, bonded 


" " " all other. . . 




" " county, bonded. . 




" all other. 
" " town, city, &c., 
bonded 






Public debt, town, city, &c., 
all other 




Public debt, aggregate 








The several states of the Union, so far as 
their internal affairs are concerned, are su- 



preme and independent, while for the com- 
mon interests of all they delegate a portion of 
their powers to a central government, whose 
laws, so long as they are not in conflict with 
the constitution, are paramount to state au- 
thority. All powers not expressly granted by 
the constitution to the federal government, 
nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved 
to the states respectively or to the people. 
The government consists of three branches, 
the legislative, executive, and judicial. The 
executive power is vested in a president, who 
together with a vice president is elected for 
four years by a college of electors, each state 
returning as many electors as it is entitled to 
have senators and representatives in congress. 
The present total number of electors is 366. 
The constitution provides that they shall be 
appointed in such manner as the respective 
legislatures may direct. At first they were 
generally chosen by the legislatures themselves, 
and this continued to be done in South Caro- 
lina till 1860 ; but now they are designated in 
all the states by popular vote at an election 
held every four years (counting for this cen- 
tury from 1800), on the Tuesday next after 
the first Monday in November. The electors 
meet in each state on the first Wednesday in 
December and cast their votes for president 
and vice president. On the second Wednesday 
in February the certificates of the votes thus 
cast are opened by the president of the senate 
in presence of 'the two houses of congress, 
when the votes are counted and the result 
declared. The official term of the officers de- 
clared elected begins on the 4th of March fol- 
lowing. In case of the removal, death, resig- 
nation, or inability of the president, the vice 
president succeeds to the presidency, and, if 
the disability be not temporary, serves the re- 
mainder of the presidential term ; and in case 
of the failure of both president and vice presi- 
dent, congress has authority to declare what 
officer shall act as president until the disabil- 
ity be removed or a president shall be elected. 
By act of congress approved March 1, 1792, 
the president of the senate pro tempore, or 
in case there be no president of the senate, 
the speaker of the house of representatives, is 
to act as president in such a case, and a new 
president is to be elected if the vacancy occurs 
more than five months before the end of the 
existing presidential term. Neither the presi- 
dent of the senate nor the speaker of the house 
has ever succeeded to the presidency under 
this law. Three presidents have died in office 
and been succeeded by vice presidents, viz. : 
William Henry Harrison in 1841, succeeded 
by Vice President John Tyler ; Zachary Tay- 
lor in 1850, succeeded by Millard Fillmore ; 
and Abraham Lincoln in 1865, succeeded by 
Andrew Johnson. When there is no election 
of president by the people for want of a ma- 
jority of electoral votes for any one candidate, 
the house of representatives chooses the presi- 
dent from the three having the highest num- 



140 



UNITED STATES 



ber of votes, the body of representatives from 
each state casting a single vote. Two elec- 
tions by the house have occurred, viz. : in 1801 
(under the original provision of the constitu- 
tion, -which required that the candidate hav- 
ing the highest number of votes for president 
should be president and the candidate having 
the next highest number vice president), when, 
there being a tie between Thomas Jefferson 
and Aaron Burr, the former was chosen pres- 
ident by the house; and in 1825, when John 
Quincy Adams was chosen. When the elec- 
tion results in no choice for vice president, 
that officer is chosen by the senate from the 
two who have received the highest number 
of votes. In 1837 Richard M. Johnson was 
thus chosen vice president by the senate. The 
president may be removed from office on im- 
peachment for and conviction of treason, bri- 
bery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors. 
He is commander-in-chief of the army and 
navy, and of the militia of the several states 
when they are called into the actual service 
of the general government ; and has power, 
by and with the advice and consent of the sen- 
ate, to make treaties, and to appoint ministers 
and other public officers of the United States 
whose appointment is not otherwise provided 
for. He receives a salary of $50,000 (until 
1873, $25,000) a year, and the vice president 
$10,000. All acts of congress must be pre- 
sented to him before they can become law, and 
he may within ten days from its presentation 
return any bill of which he disapproves to the 
house in which it originated, stating his objec- 
tions. If on reconsideration the bill is again 
passed by two thirds of each house, it becomes 
law. The president and vice president must 
be native-born citizens, 35 years of age, and 
14 years resident within the United States. 
The president is assisted by a cabinet of seven 
ministers, called the secretaries of state, of the 
treasury, of the interior, of war, and of the 
navy, the attorney general, and the postmaster 
general, who are nominated by him and con- 
firmed by the senate. They receive $8,000 a 
year each. These are the heads of the seven 
executive departments of the government, viz., 
state, treasury, interior, war, navy, justice, and 
post office. There are two assistant secretaries 
in the department of state, two in that of war, 
two in the treasury, and one in the interior 
department. There are three assistant post- 
masters general, and three assistant attorneys 
general in addition to the solicitor general, 
who is the first assistant of the attorney gen- 
eral. These officers are also appointed by 
the president with the consent of the senate. 
The principal duties of the secretary of state 
relate to foreign affairs. Besides other mat- 
ters relating more directly to finance, the sec- 
retary of the treasury superintends the collec- 
tion of duties and internal revenue ; he also 
has general supervision of the lighthouses of 
the 'United States. There are in the depart- 
ment of the treasury a treasurer, commission- 



er of customs, commissioner of internal rev- 
enue, and comptroller of the currency ; also 
a bureau of statistics, which collects and pub- 
lishes statistics relating to commerce and navi- 
gation; and a bureau of the mint, which has 
under its control all the mints and assay offices 
of the United States. The secretary of the 
interior is charged with the supervision of 
public business relating to : 1, the census ; 2, 
public lands, including mines ; 8, Indians ; 4, 
pensions and bounty lands ; 5, patents ; 6, 
custody and distribution of publications ; 7, 
education ; 8, government hospitals for the 
insane ; 9, Columbia asylum for the deaf and 
dumb ; also certain duties relating to the ter- 
ritories. The most important of these func- 
tions are intrusted to the commissioner of the 
general land office, commissioner of Indian af- 
fairs, commissioner of pensions, commissioner 
and assistant commissioner of patents, superin- 
tendent of public documents, and commissioner 
of education, who are appointed by the presi- 
dent with the consent of the senate. The de- 
partment of agriculture (which is not an exec- 
utive department), tinder the charge of a com- 
missioner of agriculture, is designed to obtain 
and diffuse useful information relating to agri- 
culture, and to procure and distribute new and 
valuable seeds and plants. Annual reports are 
made to congress through the president by the 
chiefs of the departments above named. The 
general supervision of Indian affairs is vested 
in a board consisting of not more than ten com- 
missioners, who are appointed solely by the 
president " from men eminent for intelligence 
and philanthropy," and who serve without 
pecuniary compensation. They are required 
to supervise all expenditures for the Indians, 
and to inspect all goods purchased for them. 
Inspectors, not exceeding five, are appointed 
by the president to visit the Indian superin- 
tendencies and agencies as often as twice a 
year and investigate their affairs. There are 
four superintendents of Indian affairs, who ex- 
ercise a general supervision and control over 
the official acts of all persons employed by 
the government in that service. The national 
legislature consists of a congress composed of n 
senate and house of representatives. The sen- 
ate consists of two senators from each state 
chosen by the respective legislatures for six 
years, in such a way that one third of the whole 
body goes out of office every two years. The 
act of congress of 1866 provides that in every 
state each branch of the legislature shall first 
vote separately and vita voee for senator. 
These votes are declared in joint assembly on 
the following day, and if no candidate has re- 
ceived a majority vote of each house, both 
houses in joint assembly elect a senator by bal- 
lot. If a vacancy occur in the senate when 
the legislature of the state interested is not in 
session, it may be filled by appointment of the 
governor until the legislature next meets, when 
a senator is chosen for the unexpired term. 
The vice president of the United States is 



UNITED STATES 



141 



president of the senate ex officio, and the sen- 
ate elects a president pro tempore to serve in 
his absence ; the vice president has only a cast- 
ing vote. A .senator must be 30 years of age, 
nine years a citizen of the United States, and 
at the time of his election resident within the 
state for which he is chosen. The senate has 
sole po wer to try all impeachments. The house 
of representatives is composed of members 
chosen for two years by the people of each 
state; they must be 25 years of age, seven 
years citizens of the United States, and at the 
time of their election resident within the states 
for which they are chosen. The number of 
representatives in congress is fixed by the law 
of 1872 at 292, and they are apportioned among 
the several states according to their represen- 
tative population, excluding Indians not taxed. 
The number of representatives in congress and 
of electoral votes of each state are as follows : 



STATES. 


S 

H 


Electoral 
vote. 


STATES. 


H 


Electoral 
votes. 


Alabama 


R 


10 


Nebraska 


1 


8 


Arkansas 


4 


6 


Nevada ... 


1 


3 


California 


4 


6 




3 


5 


Connecticut 


4 


6 


New Jersey 


7 


9 


Delaware 


1 


3 




83 


85 


Florida 


9 


4 




8 


10 


Georgia 





11 


Ohio 


20 


22 


Illinois 


11 


21 




1 


3 


Indiana 


1S 


15 




27 


29 


Iowa 


q 


11 




2 


4 


Kansas 


8 


5 




5 


7 


Kentucky 


10 


12 


Tennessee 


10 


12 


Louisiana 


6 


8 


Texas 


6 


8 


Maine 


5 


7 




3 


5 


M;irvland 





8 




9 


11 


Massachusetts. . . . 
Michigan 


11 

9 


13 
11 


West Virginia 
Wisconsin 


3 

ft 


5 

10 


Minnesota 


a 


5 








Mississippi 





ft 


Total 


292 


866 


Missouri 


18 


15 
























The admission of Colorado as a state with 
one representative and two senators will add 
three to the total number of electoral votes. 
Every state is entitled to at least one repre- 
sentative. New states admitted after the ap- 
portionment (which is made after each de- 
cennial census) elect representatives in addi- 
tion to the limited number of 292, but such 
excess continues only till the next apportion- 
ment. There are also delegates, one from 
each organized territory, who are entitled to 
speak in the house, but not to vote. The elec- 
tion for representatives and delegates to con- 
gress is held biennially on the Tuesday next 
after the first Monday of November in even 
years. The house of representatives chooses 
its own speaker and other officers; has the 
solo power of impeachment; and originates all 
bills relating to revenue. Members of both 
senate and house receive $5,000 a year, and 
mileage at the rate of 20 cents for each mile of 
travel in going to and returning from the seat 
of government. The pay of the speaker of the 
house is $8,000 a year. The regular sessions of 
congress begin on the first Monday of Decem- 



ber in each year, and extra sessions may be 
called by the president whenever he deems it 
necessary. The term of office of representa- 
tives, and consequently the duration of each 
congress, expires by law on the 4th day of 
March of every odd year. Congress has pow- 
er to lay and collect taxes, imposts, and ex- 
cises, which must be uniform throughout the 
United States ; to borrow money on the credit 
of the United States; to regulate commerce 
with foreign nations, among the several states, 
and with the Indian tribes ; to coin money ; to 
define and punish piracy and offences against 
the law of nations; to declare war; to raise 
and support an army and navy ; to provide for 
calling forth the militia when required; and 
to exercise exclusive legislation over the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Congress can' make no law 
respecting an establishment of religion, or pro- 
hibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridg- 
ing the freedom of speech or of the press, or 
the right of the people peaceably to assemble 
and to petition the government for a redress 
of grievances. It has passed general laws of 
bankruptcy and for the protection of inven- 
tions, copyrights, and trade marks. (See BANK- 
RUPT, PATENTS, COPYRIGHT, and TRADE MARK.) 
The judiciary comprises a supreme court, cir- 
cuit courts, district courts, and the court of 
claims. There are also the supreme court of 
the District of Columbia and the territorial 
courts, the judges of which are appointed by 
the president. The former has jurisdiction 
corresponding to that of the state courts and 
also that of the federal district courts ; the 
jurisdiction of the latter is specially defined 
by the acts providing for their creation. Be- 
sides these, each state has its own indepen- 
dent judiciary. The supreme court consists 
of a chief justice (salary $10,500) and eight 
associate justices (salary $10,000 each). It 
holds one session annually in Washington, be- 
ginning on the second Monday in October. 
The United States is divided into nine judicial 
circuits, as follows : 1, Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island ; 2, 
Vermont, Connecticut, and New York ; 3, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware ; 
4, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, North 
Carolina, and South Carolina; 5, Georgia, 
Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and 
Texas ; 6, Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee; 7, Indiana, Illinois, and Wiscon- 
sin ; 8, Nebraska, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, 
Kansas, and* Arkansas ; 9, California, Oregon, 
and Nevada. There is a circuit judge (salary 
$6,000) resident in each circuit, and a jus- 
tice of the supreme court visits each circuit 
for the purpose of holding circuit court. Cir- 
cuit courts are held by the justice of the su- 
preme court assigned to the circuit, or by the 
circuit judge of the circuit, or by the district 
judge of the district, or by any two of them 
sitting together. The United States is also 
divided into 57 districts, in each of which 
there is a district court composed of one 



142 



UNITED STATES 



judge, who resides in the district for which 
he is appointed. In many states the distric 
is coextensive with the state ; in others the 
state is divided into two or three districts 
The court of claims consists of a chief justice 
and four associate judges; its sessions are helc 
in Washington. All the judges of the federa 
courts are appointed for life by the presiden 
with the consent of the senate ; but they may 
be removed for cause. (For the jurisdiction 
of the federal courts, see COURT, vol. v., pp 
432-'3.) The qualifications of voters in the 
United States are prescribed by the states re- 
spectively ; the fifteenth amendment to the 
federal constitution provides that the right oi 
citizens to vote shall not be denied or abridged 
on account of race, color, or previous condition 
of servitude. The executive power of each 
organized territory is vested in a governor, 
who is appointed for four years by the pres- 
ident of the United States with the consent 
of the senate, and receives a salary of $3,000. 
The secretary is appointed in the same man- 
ner and for the same period, and receives a 
salary of $2,500. The legislative power is 
vested in a council and house of representa- 
tives, chosen by the people for two years ; the 
sessions are biennial. A delegate to congress 
is elected by the people in each territory for 
two years. The legislation of the territories 
is subject to revision by congress. The judi- 
cial power is vested in a supreme court con- 
sisting of a chief and two associate justices, 
who are appointed for four years by the presi- 
dent with the consent of the senate, and re- 
ceive a salary of $3,000 each ; in three district 
courts each held by a judge of the supreme 
court ; and in inferior courts organized by the 
territory. Territories are admitted as states 
into the Union by special acts of congress. The 
District of Columbia is under the exclusive 
jurisdiction of congress. By act of June 20, 
1874, the government is vested in a commis- 
sion of three persons appointed by the presi- 
dent with the consent of the senate. All min- 
isters to foreign countries are appointed by the 
president and confirmed by the senate. The 
constitution forbids the suspension of the writ 
of habeas corpus, unless when in cases of re- 
bellion or invasion the public safety may re- 
quire it ; the passing of any bill of attainder 
or ex post facto law ; the imposition of any 
capitation or other direct tax except in propor- 
tion to the census, or of any tax or duty on 
articles exported from any state ; and the 
passing of any commercial or revenue regula- 
tion giving a preference to the ports of one 
state over those of another state. No money 
can be drawn from the treasury except in 
consequence of appropriations made by law, 
and a statement of the public receipts and 
expenditures must be published from time to 
time. No title of nobility can be granted by 
the United States, and no person holding any 
office of profit or trust under them can with- 
out the consent of congress accept of any 



present, emolument, office, or title of any kind 
from any king, prince, or foreign state. The 
right of the people to bear arms may not be 
infringed ; soldiers may not be quartered in 
any house in time of peace without the con- 
sent of the owner, nor even in time of war 
except in a manner to be prescribed by law. 
The persons, houses, papers, and effects of 
the people are exempt from search and seizure 
except under a warrant issued upon probable 
cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and 
particularly describing the place to be searched 
and the persons or things to be seized. No 
person may be held to answer for a capital or 
otherwise infamous crime unless on a present- 
ment or indictment of a grand jury, except in 
cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in 
the militia when in actual service in time of 
war or public danger ; nor may any person be 
subject for the same offence to be twice put in 
jeopardy .of life or limb ; nor be compelled in 
any criminal case to be a witness against him- 
self ; nor be deprived of life, liberty, or prop- 
erty, without due process of law. In all crim- 
inal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the 
right to a speedy and public trial by an impar- 
tial jury of the state and district wherein the 
crime shall have been committed ; to be in- 
formed of the nature and cause of the accu- 
sation; to be confronted with the witnesses 
against him ; to have compulsory process for 
obtaining witnesses in his favor ; and to have 
the assistance of counsel for his defence. Ex- 
cessive bail may not be required, nor excessive 
fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punish- 
ments inflicted. Private property may not be 
taken for public use without just compensa- 
tion. No state can enter into any treaty, alli- 
ance, or confederation ; grant letters of marque 
and reprisal ; coin money, emit bills of credit, 
or make anything but gold and silver a legal 
tender for debts; pass any bill of attainder, 
ex post facto law, or law impairing the obliga- 
tion of contracts ; grant any title of nobility ; 
or lay any imposts or duties on imports and 
exports, without the consent of congress, ex- 
cept what may be necessary for executing its 
inspection laws. The net produce of all im- 
posts and duties laid by any state on imports 
or exports shall be for the benefit of the trea- 
sury of the United States. Without the con- 
sent of congress no state may lay any duty on 
tonnage ; keep troops or ships of war in times 
of peace ; enter into any agreement or compact 
with another state or with a foreign power; 
or engage in war unless actually invaded, or 
n such imminent danger as will not admit of 
delay. Treason against the United States con- 
sists only in levying war against them, or in 
adhering to their enemies, giving them aid 
ind comfort. The punishment of treason is 
eft to be defined by congress, but no attain-, 
der of treason shall work corruption of blood 
or forfeiture except during the life of the per- 
son attainted. Full faith and credit shall be 
given in each state to the public acts, records, 



UNITED STATES 



143 



and judicial proceedings of every other state, 
and citizens of each state are entitled to all 
the privileges and immunities of citizens in 
the several states. Slavery is prohibited by 
the thirteenth amendment of the constitution. 
All persons born or naturalized in the Uni- 
ted States are declared to be citizens there- 
of, and every state is prohibited from making 
or enforcing any law which shall abridge the 
privileges or immunities of such citizens. New 
states may be admitted into the Union by con- 
gress, but no new state can be erected within 
the jurisdiction of any other state, nor any 
state be formed by the junction of two or 
more states or parts of states, without the 
consent of the legislatures of the states con- 
cerned as well as of congress. The several 
states have exclusive power to prescribe the 
qualifications of voters and state officers, and 
the form of their state government. The con- 
stitution only requires that the form of govern- 
ment be republican, and that no law or ordi- 
nance be passed which would conflict with any 
law of the United States. Congress has pow- 
er to dispose of and make all needful rules 
and regulations respecting the territories or 
other property belonging to the United States. 
Amendments to the constitution may be pro- 
posed by two thirds of both houses of con- 
gress, or by a convention convoked by con- 
gress on the application of the legislatures of 
two thirds of the states; they become valid 
when ratified by the legislatures of or con- 
ventions in three fourths of the states. The 
army of the United States comprises 25 regi- 
ments of infantry, 10 of cavalry, and 5 of ar- 
tillery, besides a corps of engineers, &c. The 
chief officers are : the general (in 1876, William 
T. Sherman), annual salary $13,500; the lieu- 
tenant general (Philip H. Sheridan), $11,500; 
three major generals, $7,500 each; and six brig- 
adier generals, $3,500 each. The United States 
is divided into four military divisions, which 
are respectively under the command of the lieu- 
tenant general and the three major generals. 
The division of the Atlantic, with headquar- 
ters in New York, constitutes but one depart- 
ment ; that of the Missouri, with headquarters 
in Chicago, comprises the departments of Da- 
kota, Missouri, the Platte, and Texas ; that of 
the South, headquarters in Louisville, Ky., in- 
cludes the departments of the South and of the 
Gulf ; that of the Pacific, headquarters in San 
Francisco, the departments of California, the 
Columbia, and Arizona. The numerical strength 
of the army is about 25,000 enlisted men. 
The national armory is at Springfield, Mass. 
There are United States arsenals at Augusta, 
(la. ; Augusta, Me. ; Benicia, Cal. ; Fort Union, 
N. M. ; Indianapolis, Ind. ; Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo. ; New York city (arsenal and agency) ; Old 
Point Comfort, Va. ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; Pikes- 
ville, Md. ; Pittsburgh, Pa. ; Kock Island, 111. ; 
San Antonio, Texas; Vancouver, W. T. ; Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Watertown, Mass. ; and West 
Troy, N. Y. The soldiers' home, for honora- 
806 VOL. xvi. 10 



bly discharged soldiers of the regular army 
who have served 20 years or have been dis- 
charged for disability contracted in the service, 
is situated in the District of Columbia, near 
Washington. It is under the supervision of a 
board of commissioners consisting of the sur- 
geon general, adjutant general, and commissary 
general of subsistence of the army. The na- 
tional home for disabled volunteer soldiers is 
at Dayton, Ohio, and has branches at Augus- 
ta, Me., Milwaukee, Wis., and Hampton, Va. 
These homes are under the direction of a board 
of managers, and are maintained by annual 
congressional appropriations. (See PENSION.) 
In 1876 there were for the interment of sol- 
diers and sailors 81 national cemeteries in the 
United States, most of them being near famous 
battle fields of the war. The total number of 
interments to 1875 was 306,053. The ceme- 
teries were classified as follows : 



FIRST CLASS. 


Arlington, Va. 


Mound City, 111. 


Andersonville. Ga. 


Memphis, Tenn. 


Beaufort, 8. C. 


Murfreesboro, Tenn. 


City of Mexico, Mexico. 


Marietta, Ga. 


Corinth, Miss. 


Nashville, Tenn. 


Camp Nelson, Ky. 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 


Natchez, Miss. 
Pittsburgh Landing, Tenn. 


Chalmette, La. 


Poplar Grove, Va. 


Fredericksburg, Va. 


Port Hudson, La. 


Gettysburg, Pa. 
Hampton, Va. 


Richmond, Va. 
Salisbury, N. C. 


Jefferson Barracks, Mo. 


Soldiers' Home, D. 0. 


Little Kock, Ark. 


Vicksburg, Miss. 


SECOND CLASS. 


Alexandria, Va. 


Fort Scott, Kan. 


Alexandria, La. 


Knoxville, Tenn. 


Brownsville, Texas. 


Mill Springs, Ky. 


Baton Kouge, La. 


Mobile, Ala. 


Barrancas, Fla. 


New Berne, N. C. 


City Point, Va. 


Philadelphia, Pa. 


Culpeper, Va. 


Pvaleigh, N. C. 


Fort Leavenworth, Kan. 


Wilmington, N. C. 


Fort Smith, Ark. 


Winchester, Va. 


Florence, S. C. 


Torktown, Va. 


THIRD CLASS. 


Annapolis, Md. 


Fort Vancouver, "W. T. 


Ball's Bluff, Va. 


Glendale, Va. 


Battle Ground, D. C. 


Grafton, W. Va. 


Beverly, N. J. 
Camp Butler, 111. 


Jefferson City, Mo. 
Keokuk, Iowa. 


Cave Hill, Ky. 


Laurel, Md. 


Cold Harbor, Va. 
Crown Hill, Ind. 


Lebanon, Ky. 
Lexington, Ky. 


Cypress Hills, N. T. 


London Park, Md. 


Danville, Ky. 


New Albany, Ind. 


Danville, Va. 


Rock Island, 111. 


Fayetteville, Ark. 


San Antonio, Texas. 


Finn's Point, N. J. 


Santa Fe, N. M. 


Fort Donelson, Tenn. 


Seven Pines, Va. 


Fort Gibson, Indian Ter. 


Springfield, Mo. 


Fovt Harrison, Va. 


Staunton, Va. 


Fort McPherson, Neb. 


Woodlawn (Elmira), N. T. 


Fort St. Philip, La. 





The law provides for the enrolment in the 
militia of every able-bodied male citizen of 
the respective states between the ages of 18 
and 45 years, except those specially exempted. 
The organization and control of the militia 
when not in active service are left to the re- 
spective states. The president is empowered to 
call out the militia whenever the United States 
is invaded, or in imminent danger of invasion 
from any foreign nation or Indian tribe, or in 
case of rebellion. (See MILITIA, vol. xi., p. 
540.) In 1876 the navy comprised 147 vessels 



144 



UNITED STATES 



of 152,492 tons measurement, carrying 1,195 
guns. Of these, 26 were sailing vessels, 26 iron- 
clads, and 95 ordinary steam vessels, including 
25 tugs. The chief officers on the active list 
are the admiral (in 1876, David D. Porter), an- 
nual salary $13,000 ; vice admiral (Stephen C 
Rowan), salary $9,000 when at sea and $8,000 
when on shore duty; 12 rear admirals, each 
receiving $6,000 a year when at sea and $5,000 
on shore duty; 25 commodores, 50 captains, 
and 90 commanders. The whole field of nava 
operations in every part of the world is divided 
into six stations, each commanded by a rear ad- 
miral, designated as the European, the Asiatic, 
the South Pacific, the North Pacific, the South 
Atlantic, and the North Atlantic. There are 
United States navy yards at Kittery, Me. ; Bos- 
ton, Mass. ; New London, Conn. ; Brooklyn, N. 
Y. ; League Island (Philadelphia), Pa. ; Wash- 
ington, D. 0. ; Norfolk, Va. ; Pensacola, Fla. ; 
and Mare Island, Gal. Nine naval hospitals 
are maintained by the United States, as fol- 
lows : Annapolis, Md. ; Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Chel- 
sea, Mass. ; Mare Island, Cal. ; Norfolk, Va. ; 
Pensacola, Fla. ; Philadelphia, Pa.; Washing- 
ton, D. 0. ; and Yokohama, Japan. (See 
NAVY.) The national debt of the United 
States, past and present, has accrued chiefly in 
consequence of the war of the revolution, that 
of 1812, the Florida war, the Mexican war, 
and the civil war. The cost of the revolution- 
ary war was estimated by Hamilton at $135,- 
193,703 in specie; the estimated cost of the 
war of 1812 was $75,450,930, and of the Mex- 
ican war $82,232,745. Acquisitions of terri- 
tory have added $72,200,000 to the debt, as fol- 
lows: the purchase of Louisiana from France 
in 1803, for $23,500,000 (including certain 
claims in addition to the price of the territory) ; 
of Florida from Spain in 1819 for $6,500,000; 
the Texas cession in 1850, $10,000,000; the 
acquisition of California from Mexico in 1848, 
$15,000,000; theGadsden purchase from Mex- 
ico in 1853, $10,000,000; and the purchase of 
Alaska from Russia in 1867, $7,200,000. In 
1790 the secretary of the treasury reported 
that the aggregate foreign and domestic debt 
on Dec. 31, 1784, was $54,124,464; the state 
debts, including interest, were estimated at 
$25,000,000. The outstanding principal of the 
public debt of the United States on Jan. 1 of 
each year from 1791 to 1843 inclusive, and on 
July 1 from 1844 to 1875, has been as follows- 



YEARS. 


Amount. 


YEARS. 


Amount. 


1791... 
1792 


$75,468,476 
77,227 924 


1804... 
1805 


$86,427,120 


1798 
1794 
1795 
1796 
1797 
1798 

17QQ 


80,352,634 
78,427,404 
80,747,687 
88.762,172 
82,064,479 
79,228,529 


1806 
1807 
1808 
1809 
1810 
1811 


75,728,270 
69,218,898 
65,196,817 
67,028,192 
68,178,217 
48,005,687 


1800 

1801.... 
1802 
1808 


82,976,294 
83.088,050 
80,712,682 
77,054,686 


1812 
1818... 
1814..., 
1815 
1816 


A209,787 
65,962,827 
81,487,846 
99.888,660 
127,884,988 



YEARS. 


Amount. 


YEARS. 


Amount. 


181T 


$123,491,966 


1847... 


f 88 826 584 


1818 


103,466,683 


1848 


47' 044 '862 


1819 


95,529,648 


1849 


68'o6l'&68 


1820 


91,015,566 


1860 


68 452,'778 


1821 . .. 


89,987,427 


1861 


68^8M,7M 


1822 


98,646,676 


1862 


66,199 841 


1823 


90,876,877 


1858 


69 808*117 


1824 


90,269,777 


1854 


42 242 222 


1825 


88,788,482 


1866 


8fi.666.906 


1826 


81,064,069 


1866 


81 972 587 


1827 


78,987,857 


1867 


28 6!i9 s81 


1828 


67,475,048 


1658 


44 91] 881 


1829 


58,421,418 


1869 


6S,4%'>87 


1880 


48,666,406 


1860 


64 842 87 


1881 


89,128,191 


1861 


90 580 h"8 


1882 


24,822,285 


1802.. 


624 l~c'412 


1888 


7,001,698 


1868 


1 119 772 138 


1884 


4,760.0S2 


1864. 


1 816 784 370 


1886 


87,518 


1866 


2'68o'647' l ^i9 


1886 


836,957 


1866.. 


2778286 178 


1887 


8,808,124 


1867 


2 678 126,108 


1888 


10,434,221 


1 -.> 


2 61l'667861 


1889 


8,578,848 


1869 


2 688 452 218 


1840 


6,260,876 


1870 


2 480 672 427 


1841 


18,694,480 


1871 


2 868 111 882 


1842... 


20,601,226 


1872 


Jj'258'''61 's28 


1848 


82,742,922 


1878 


*2 234 4^'j ')'I8 


1844 


28,461,662 


1874 . 


*22')l'690'468 


1845 


16,926.808 


1876 


*S " : ;" "-I r,yi 


1846 


15,550,202 







In 1885 the country was entirely out of debt, 
the small amount unpaid having been provided 
for. The total amount of loans and treasury 
notes issued by the government previous to the 
year 1861 was $492,371,087, all of which has 
been paid, with the exception of $1,408,050, 
which has matured but has not been presented 
for payment. The whole amount of loans and 
treasury notes issued since 1861 is $5,011,818,- 
908. Under the acts of Feb. 8, July 17, and 
Aug. 5, 1861, were issued $207,736,350 of 
bonds redeemable in 1881, bearing 6 per cent, 
interest payable semi-annually, and known as 
sixes of '81. Under the acts of July 17, 1861, 
June 80, 1864, and March 8, 1865, treasury 
notes to the amount of $970,087,250 were is- 
sued in denominations of $50 and over, bear- 
ing 7^5 per cent, interest, and known as seven- 
thirties. With an unimportant exception, all 
of these have been paid or funded. Under 
the acts of Feb. 25, 1862, March 8, 1864, and 
Jan. 28 and March 8, 1865, $1,602,697,000 of 
coupon and registered bonds were issued, re- 
deemable after 5 and payable in 20 years, 
bearing 6 per cent, interest payable semi-an- 
nually in coin, and known as five-twenties of 
62, '64, and '65, and consols of '65, '67, and 
68; outstanding, April 1, 1876, $701,318,800. 
tinder the act of March 8, 1864, were issued 
$196,117,300 of "ten-forty" bonds, redeem- 
able in 10 and payable in 40 years in coin, 
with 5 per cent, interest payable semi-annu- 
ally; outstanding, $194,566,300. Under the 
acts of July 14, 1870, and Jan. 20, 1871, were 
ssued $500,000,000 of 5 per cent, bonds pay- 
able in coin after 10 years, and the interest 
quarterly. Under the act of March 8, 1868, 

* Included in these sums are certificates of deposit amount- 
ng to $81,780,000 in 1S78, $58,760.000 in 1874, and $68 415,000 
n 1875. These certificates are offset by notes held on deposit 
for their redemption, and should he deducted from the prin 
cipal of the public debt in comparing with previous years. 



UNITED STATES 



145 



$266,595,440 of compound interest notes were 
issued, payable in three years with 6 per cent, 
interest; outstanding April 1, 1876, $336,700. 
The acts of Feb. 25 and July 11, 1862, author- 
ized the issue of $300,000,000 of legal-tender 
notes fundable into a bond bearing 6 per cent, 
interest in gold. The demand notes previous- 
ly issued, $60,000,000, were also made a legal 
tender by the act of March 17, 1862. The 
act of March 3, 1863, authorized an additional 
issue of $150,000,'000 ; and the right to ex- 
change such notes for 6 per cent, bonds was 
limited to July 1, 1863. The act of June 30, 
1864, provided that the total amount of such 
notes should not exceed $400,000,000, and such 
additional sum, not exceeding $50,000,000, as 
might be lawfully required for the redemption 
of temporary loans. The amount outstand- 
ing on April 1, 1876, was $370,823,645. (See 
MONEY, vol. xi., p. 743.) On Jan. 1, 1861, 
the debt amounted to $66,243,721. During 
the next six months it increased at the rate of 
about $4,000,000 a month ; during the year be- 
ginning July 1, 1862, at the rate of about $36,- 



000,000 a month ; during the following year at 
the rate of $49,500,000 a month. Increasing 
more than $70,500,000 a month from Dec. 1, 
1863, to April 1, 1865, and $84,400,000 a month 
during the five months following, it reached its 
maximum on Aug. 31, 1865, when it amounted 
to $2,845,907,626, composed as follows: 

Funded debt $1,109,568,192 

Matured debt 1,508,020 

Temporary loans 107,148,718 

Certificates of debt 65,098,000 

Five per cent, legal-tender notes 88,954,230 

Compound Interest legal-tender notes 217,024.160 

Seven-thirty notes 830,000,000 

United States notes (legal tenders) 438,160,569 

Fractional currency 26,844,742 

Suspended requisitions uncalled for 2,111,000 

Of these obligations, $684,138,959 were a legal 
tender in the payment of all debts, public and 
private, except customs duties and interest on 
the public debt. The amount of legal-tender 
notes, demand notes, fractional currency, and 
national bank notes outstanding on Aug. 31, 

1865, and annually thereafter, from Jan. 1, 

1866, to Jan. 1, 1876, inclusive, was : 







UNITED 8 


TAXES ISSUES. 




National bank 




DATES. 


Fractional 
currency. 


Old demand 
notes. 


Legal-tender 
notes.* 


Total. 


national gold 
bank notes. 


Aggregate. 


August 81, 1865 


$26 344 742 




$433160569 


$459 505 811 


$176 213,955 


$685 719 266 


January 1, 1866 


26,000 420 




426,281 389 


452,281,809 


298,588,419 


750 82o'228 


" 1,1867 


28,732,812 




880,497,842 


409,230,654 


299,846,206 


709,076 860 


" 1,1868 


81 597 583 




356 159 127 


887 756,710 


299,747 569 


687 504 279 


" 1,1869 


84,215,715 




856,021,073 


390,286,788 


299,629 822 


689 866 110 


1,1870 


89,762,664 


$118,098 


856,000,000 


895,875,762 


299.904,029 


695 779 791 


1, 1871 


89 995 089 


101 086 


856 000 000 


896 096 175 


806 807 672 


702 408 847 


1,1872 


40 767,877 


92,801 


857,500 000 


398,860 678 


828,465 431 


726'826'l09 


1,1878 


45,722,061 


84,887 


858,557,907 


404,364,355 


844,582,812 


748947167 


1,1874 


48,544,792 


79,637 


878,401,702 


427,026,181 


850,848,236 


777,874,867 


" 1,1875 


46 890 598 


72817 


882 000 000 


428 462 915 


854,128,250 


782591165 


" 1.1876... 


44.147.072 


69.642 


371.827.220 


416.043.934 


846.479.756 


762.528.690 



The refunding of the national debt was au- 
thorized by the acts of congress of July 14, 
1870, and Jan. 20, 1871. The amount of six 
per cent, gold-bearing bonds outstanding on 
Jan. 1, 1870, was $1,886,349,800, and of five 
per cent, bonds $221,589,300. On Jan. 1, 
1876, the former amounted to $1,017,615,400, 
and the latter to $670,384,750, showing a de- 
crease in the funded debt of $419,938,950. 
The reduction in the total debt during this 
period (excluding $35,175,000 of special de- 
posits of legal-tender notes) was $435,716,254. 
The temporary loans, certificates of indebt- 
edness, seven-thirty notes, and all the items 
of the debt bearing interest in lawful money, 
with the exception of the navy pension fund, 
either have been paid, have matured and 
ceased to bear interest, or have been funded. 
The public debt outstanding on April 1, 1876, 
is shown in the following statement. Besides 
this, $64,623,512 of 6 per cent, bonds, matu- 
ring 30 years from their date, have been issued 
to the several Pacific railway companies, which 
are to pay them at maturity. 

* No interest-bearing notes, hut demand notes only, are 
included with legal-tender notes from Aug. 81, 1865. to 
Jan. 1, 1870. 



$1,695,087,250 00 



14,000,000 00 
9,183,860 26 



Debt bearing interest in coin : 

Bonds at 6 per cent $984,999,650 00 

Bonds at 5 per cent 710,087,600 00 

Debt bearing interest in 

lawful money : 
Navy pension fund at 8 

per cent 

Debt on which interest has 

ceased since maturity % .. 

Debt bearing no interest : 
Old demand and legal- 
tender notes $370.828,645 50 

Certificates of deposit. . . 84,230,000 00 

Fractional currency 42,604,893 71 

Coin certificates 82,887,600 00 

479,996,139 21 

Total debt $2,198,216,749 4T 

The total receipts and expenditures of the gov- 
ernment during each decade to 1860 were : 



PERIODS. 


KECEIPTS. 


EXPENDITURES. 


Net 
ordinary. 


Gross. 


Net 
ordinary. 


Grow. 


1791-1800. 
1800-1810. 
1810-1820. 
1820-1880. 
1880-1840. 
1840-1850. 
1850-1860. 


$56,800,000 
132,000,000 
201,800,000 
212,200,000 
810,000,000 
246,400,000 
589,200,000 


$77,200,000 
183,600.000 
312,400,000 
280,800,000 
329,500,000 
874,200,000 
646,200,000 


$34,000,000 
55,900.000 
182,900,000 
122,000,000 
280,700,000 
298,900,000 
545,500,000 


$75,000,000 
131,900,000 
814.200,000 
226.600,000 
800,600,000 
874.400,000 
645,800,000 



146 



UNITED STATES 



The annual receipts and expenditures of the and objects, have been as follows, the fiscal 
government for 20 years, with the chief sources year ending June 30 : 



RECEIPTS. 



YEARS. 


Customs. 


Internal 
revenue. 


Direct tmi. 


Public 

lands. 


Miscel- 
laneous. 


Net ordinary 
recelpU. 


Premiums. 


Receipt! from 
loani and 
treasury notei. 


GroM 

receipts. 


1856 
1867 


$64,022,868 
63,875,905 






$8,917,644 
8,829,486 
8,513,715 


$1,116,190 
1.259,920 
1,862,029 


$74,066,699 
66,966.312 

4li.<i5r..:!f.r. 




$200 
8,900 
28,717,800 


$74,056,899 
68,969,212 
70,872,666 




49 565 824 






1,756,687 


1,454,596 


62,777,107 


$709,867 


28,287,600 


81,778,986 


1860 


58!l87',511 
39 582 125 






1,778,557 
870,658 


1,088,680 
1,028,516 


66,054,599 
41,476,299 


10.008 
88,630 


20,776,800 
41,861,708 


76,841,407 
88,871,640 


1862 


49,'056,397 




$1,795,881 


152,208 


915,827 


51,919,261 


68,400 


52!>,692,460 


681,680,121 


1863 


69,059,642 


$87,640,787 


1,485,108 


167,617 


8,741,794 


112,094,945 


602,845 




889,879.tt>2 


1864 


102,816,152 


109,741,184 


475,648 


588,333 


80,291,701 










1865 


84,928,260 


209,464,215 


1,200,578 


996,558 


25,441,556 










1866 


179,046,651 


809,226,818 


1,974,754 


665.081 


29,036,314 


619,949,564 








1867 . ... 


176,417,810 


266,027,587 


4,200,233 


1,163,575 


15,087,522 


462,846,679 


27,767,880 






1868 


164,464,599 


191,087,589 


1,788,145 


1,849,715 


17,745,403 


876,484,458 


29.21)8,629 




1,080,749,516 


1869 


180,048,426 


158,356,460 


765,685 


4,020,344 


18.997,888 


857,188,256 








1870 


194,588,374 


184,899,756 


229,102 


8,850,481 


12,942,118 


895,969, b88 


16,295,648 




696,729.978 


1871 


206,270,408 


143,098,153 


680,855 


2,888,646 


22,093,541 


874,481,104 


8.892.889 


268,768,628 


652,092,468 




216870286 


130 642,177 




2,575,714 


15,106,051 


864,694,229 


9,412.687 


805,047,064 


679,158.921 


1878'!!.'!.. 


188,'089,522 


118,729,814 


315,254 


2,882,812 


17,161,270 


822,177,678 


11,560,580 


214,981,017 


648,669,221 


1874 


168 103 838 


102,409,784 




1,852,428 


*82,575,048 


299,941,090 


6,087,666 


439,272,585 


744,251,291 


1875 


157,167,722 


110,007,493 




1,418,640 


16,481,915 


284,020,771 


8,979,279 


887,971,556 


676,971,607 



EXPENDITURES. 



s 

? 


War. 


Navy. 


Indian i. 


Pensions. 


Mitcel- 

laneoui. 


Net ordinary 
expenditure!. 




Interest. 


Public debt. 


Grou 
ezpendltuni. 


1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1868 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1878 
1874 
1875 


$16,963,160 
19,159,150 
25,679,121 
28,154,720 
16,472,202 
23,001,530 
889,178,562 
603,814,411 
690,891,048 
1,030.690,400 
283,154,676 
95,224,415 
128,246,643 
78,501,990 
57.655,675 
85,799,991 
85,372,157 
46,323,138 
42,313,927 
41.120,645 


$14,074,834 
12,651,694 
14,058,264 
14,690,927 
11,614,649 
12,387,156 
42,640,853 
68,261,2:35 
85,704,963 
122,617,434 
48,235,662 
81,084,011 
25,775,502 
20.000,757 
21,780,229 
19,431,027 
21,249,309 
23,526.256 
30,932,587 
21,497,626 


$2,644,268 
4,854,418 
4,978.266 
:f,4'.Hi., r >:;4 
2,991,121 
2,865,481 
2,827.948 
8.152,082 
2,629.975 
5,059,860 
3,295,729 
4,642,581 
4100,682 
7,042,928 
8,407,938 
7,426,997 
7,061,728 
7,951,704 
6,692,462 
8,384,656 


$1,296,229 
1,310,880 
1,219,768 
1,222,222 
1,100,802 
1,034,599 
852,170 
1.078,618 
4:985,478 
16,847,621 
15,605,549 
20,986,551 
28,732,886 
28.476,621 
28,840,202 
84.448,894 
23,538,402 
29,859,426 
29,038,414 
29,456,216 


fil.T'.M.o:!-* 
28,565,498 
26,400.016 
23,797,644 
27,977,978 
23,827,237 
21,886,862 
23.198,382 
27,572,216 
42,989,883 
40,618,114 
51,110,228 
58,009,SC7 
66,474,061 
53.287,461 
60,481,916 
60,984,757 
78,828,110 
*85,141,593 
71,070,702 


$66,772,527 
66,041,148 
72,380,487 
66,355,950 
60,056,754 
62,616,1165 
456,87!".Mi6 
694,004,575 
611,2S3,r,7! 
1,217,704,199 
886,954.781 
202,947,788 
229,915.08s 
190,496.354 
164,421.r.07 
157,588,827 
158,201.856 
180.48S.W<> 
194,118.986 
171,629,848 


$*-f..372 
868,572 
674,448 


$1,958,822 $8,614.618 
1,598,266 8,276,606 
1,662,066 7,606,260 
2,t>87,649 14,>85,048 
8,144,120 18,854,250 
4,084,167 18,787,100 
18.190,844 B6.0'.i7.rt22 
24.729,700 181,0t>l,686 
68,686,421 480,572,014 
77.896,090 609,616,141 
183,067,624 620.2lW.249 
148.761,591 785,636,9M) 
140,424,045 692,549,6)-5 
180,694,242 2I>1,!12,718 
129.285.498 898,254,282 
l-.\.7b.:,65 899,508.670 
117,857.t?89 406,007.807 
104,750,683 288,699,352 
107,119.815 422,05,o60 
108,098,644 407,877,492 


$72,726,841 
71,274,587 
82,062,186 
68,67*, 642 
77,066,126 
86,887,818 
666,667,568 
899,816,911 
1,295,641,114 
1,906,488,881 
1,189,844,081 
1,098,079,655 
1,069.889,970 
684,777.996 
702,907,842 
691,680,858 
682,625,270 
624,044.597 
724,69f,ii88 
682,000,886 












1,717,900 
68,476 
10,818,849 
7,001,161 
I,674,(i80 
15,96.666 
9.016,794 
6.968,266 
5,106,919 
1,895,078 





The receipts and expenditures of the post office 
department are not included in the above state- 
ment. They are given from 1790 to 1874 in 
the article POST, vol. xiii., p. 754. The re- 
ceipts for the year ending June 30, 1875, were 
$26,791,360, of which $24,490,942 were for 
stamps, stamped envelopes, and postal cards. 
The expenditures were $33,611,309, of which 
$18,779,201 were for transportation of the 
mails, $10,464,746 for compensation of post- 
masters and clerks, $1,877,210 for compensa- 
tion of letter carriers, and $724,186 for postage 
stamps. (For particulars concerning internal 
revenue, see TAXES, vol. xv., p. 589.) The 
total production of gold from 1848 to 1874, 
inclusive, was $1,282,927,092 ; of silver, $217,- 
051,114. The coinage of the mints from 1793 
to Jan. 1, 1876, was : of gold, $920,070,958 ; of 
silver, $169,669,963; of minor coinage, $12,- 
717,198. Of this amount, $471,433,936 of gold, 
$116,153,632 of silver, and all of the minor, 
were coined at Philadelphia ; and $390,427,157 

* Including the Geneva award, $15,500,000. 



of gold, and $19,175,425 of silver, coined at 
San Francisco. (See GOLD, SILVER, and MINT.) 
A law for the establishment of a national 
banking system was passed by congress in Feb- 
ruary, 1863, and was superseded by the national 
bank act of June 3, 1864. (See BANK, vol. ii., 
p. 281.) The act of June 20, 1874, authorized 
the retirement of the circulation of national 
banks, and the surrender of bonds held as 
security therefor, upon the deposit of legal- 
tender notes in the treasury for the amount of 
the circulation thus retired. It also repealed 
the provision requiring a reserve on circula- 
tion, and provided for a system of redemption 
of national bank notes in the treasury depart- 
ment. The act of Jan. 14, 1875, provides for 
the unlimited issue of circulating notes to na- 
tional banks, subject to the provisions of ex- 
isting laws, and the reduction of the legal- 
tender notes at the rate of 80 per cent, upon 
the amount of additional bank notes issued, 
until the legal-tender notes shall be reduced 
to $300,000,000. The following table exhibits 



UNITED STATES 



147 



in millions of dollars the resources and liabili- 
ties of state banks in the years 1857 and 1875, 
and of national banks in 1865 and 1875 : 



RESOURCES. 


STATE BANKS. 


NATIONAL BANKS. 


Jan., 1857, 
1,416 bka. 


Jan., 1875, 
551 bks. 


Oct., 1865, 
1,513 bks. 


Oct., 1875, 
2,087 bks. 


Loans and discounts. . . . 
Bonds for circulation . . . 


Millions. 
$684-5 


Millions. 

$176-3 
3 
23-7 
19-9 
9-0 
1-2 

26-7 


Millions. 
$487-2 
272-6 
155-1 
107-4 
14-7 
18-1 

206-2 


Millions. 

$984-7 
870-8 
61-6 
144-7 
42-4 
8-1 

97-6 

48-8 
75-1 
19-7 
29-2 


Other stocks and bonds. 
Due from banks 


59-3 
65-9 
26-1 
58-8 

28-1 


Real estate 


Specie 


Legal-tenders and bank 
notes 


United States certificates 
Clearing-house exch'ges. 
Due from U. 8. treasurer 
Other resources 














81-0 


15-2 


98-5 


Total 


$958-2 


$272-8 


$1,359-8 


$1,882-2 





LIABILITIES. 


BTATE BANKS. 


NATIONAL BANES. 


Jan., 1857, 
1,416 bki. 


Jan., 1875, 
551 bki. 


Oct., 1865, 
1,513 bki. 


Oct., 1875, 
2,087 bki. 


Capital stock 


Millions. 

$370-8 


Millions. 
$69-1 
6-8 
9-0 
2 
165-9 
10-6 
10-8 


Mill..,,, . 
$398-2 
88-7 
82-4 
171-8 
549-1 
174-2 
9 


Millions. 
*.^I4'S 
184-4 
58-0 
818-4 
675-4 
179-7 
16-6 


Surplus fund 


Other profits 


69-7 
214-8 
280-4 
57-7 
19-8 


Circulating notes 


Deposits 


Due to banks 


Other liabilities 


Total... 


$958-2 


$272-8 


$1.859-8 


$1.882-2 



The following table exhibits for each year, 
from 1868 to 1875 inclusive, the amount of 
circulation and of net deposits of the national 
banks, together with the reserve required and 
held by them, the figures below hundreds of 
thousands being omitted : 



DATES. 


Number 
of 

banks. 


LIABILITIES. 


BESERYE. 


CLASSIFICATION OF 
RESERVE. 


Circula- 
tion. 


Net 
deposits. 


Total. 


Required. 


mid. 


Ratio. 


Specie. 


Other 
lawful 
money. 


Due from 
agents. 


Oct. 5, 1868 


1,645 
1,617 
1,615 
1,767 
1,919 
1,976 
2,004 
2,087 


Millions. 
$295-7 
293-6 
291-8 
815-5 
833-5 
839-1 
833-2 
818-4* 


Millions. 
$559-2 
504-4 
528-5 
636-7 
619-8 
678-8 
717-8 
731-9 


Millions. 
$854-9 
798-0 
815-8 
952-2 
953-3 
1,012-4 
1,050-5 
1,050-3 


Millions. 

$172-3 
160-1 
163-2 
191-3 
187-4 
199-5 
210-0 
208-9 


Millions. 
$234-5 
208-2 
203-4 
238-4 
209-9 
2-29-1 
244-9 
235-1 


Per cent. 
27-4 
26-1 
24-9 
24-5 
22-0 
22-6 
23-3 
22-4 


Millions. 
$11-5 
22-0 
14-5 
12-0 
10-2 
19-9 
21-2 
8-1 


Millions. 
$156-0 
129-5 
122-6 
134-5 
119-0 
113-1 
139-8 
141-4 


Millions. 
$67-0 
56-7 
66-3 
86-9 
80-7 
96-1 
83-9 
85-6 


Oct. 9, 1869 


Oct. 8, 1870 


Oct. 2, 1871 


Oct. 8, 1872 


Sept. 12, 1873 


Oct. 2, 1874 


Oct.1, 1875 





The total amount of circulation on March 1, 
1876, was $342,819,073, of which $24,452,580 
is being retired, lawful money having been de- 
posited with the treasurer for that purpose. 
The remainder of the circulation, $318,366,493, 
is secured by $356,680,150 of United States 
bonds, the value of which in currency on 



March 1, 1876, was $427,947,224, and in gold 
$374,582,200. The following statement shows 
by geographical divisions the average number 
of national, state, private, and savings banks 
during the six months ending May 81, 1875, 
with their average capital and deposits in mil- 
lions of dollars : 



GEOGRAPHICAL 
DIVISIONS. 


NATIONAL BANKS. 


STATE BANKS AND PEI- 
VATE BANKERS. 


SAVINGS BANKS WITH 
CAPITAL. 


SAVINGS BANKS 
WITHOUT CAPIT'L. 


Number. 


Capital. 


Deposits. 


Number. 


Capital. 


Deposits. 


Number. 


Capital. 


Deposits. 


Number. 


Deposits. 


New England states. . . 
Middle states 


511 
595 
175 

753 


Millions. 

$161-7 
190-3 
84-5 

110-4 


Millions. 
$132-5 
387-2 
88-0 

162-5 


128 
1,307 
529 

1,808 


Millions. 
$11-4 
98-1 
85-5 

66-7 


Millions. 
$22-5 
232-2 
45-4 

176-8 


2 
8 
5 

22 


Millions. 
$0-3 
0-2 
0-5 

4-9 


Millions. 
$4-7 
2-3 
0-5 

83-1 


426 
215 
5 

40 


Millions. 
$395-7 
869-0 
1-9 

48-4 


Southern states 


Western states and ter- 
ritories 


United States 


2,034 


$496-9 


$720-2 


8,767 


$211-7 


$476-4 


87 


$5-9 


$40-6 


686 


$815-0 



There is no national system of education in 
the United States, and the general government 
exercises no control over public schools and 
makes no regular provision for their support, 
except that the military academy at West 
Point, N". Y., the school of artillery at For- 
tress Monroe, Va., and the naval academy at 
Annapolis, Md., are wholly supported and con- 
trolled by the government. Officers are also 
detailed by the government to give military 

* The total amount of circulation outstanding on Oct. 1, 
1875 (2,302 banks), was $347.900.082. which amount includes 
the notes in circulation of banks which have failed, are in 
liquidation, and have deposited legal-tender notes under the 
act of June 20, 1874. 



instruction in certain colleges. (See MILITARY 
SCHOOLS, and ANNAPOLIS. For the aid given 
by the government for the advancement of 
learning, see SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION.) The 
regulation of all matters pertaining to educa- 
tion is left entirely to the states, each of which 
maintains a system of public instruction in- 
dependently of the others. In each state free 
common schools are provided by law for all 
persons of school age. But the general gov- 
ernment has made liberal provision for pur- 
poses of education by various grants of land, 
dating as far back as 1803. More than 75,- 
000,000 acres of land have thus been set apart 



148 

for common schools and universities, including 
^830,000 reserved by act of congress gassed 
July 2 1862, for the establishment in the sev 
eraf states of colleges for the benefit of a g n- 
culture and the mechanic arts. The orgam 
tion and control of these institutions are given 
to the respective states and many of the 
are in operation. The following are the most 
fmportSacts relating to the common schools 
in the United States in 1874, as reported j>y 
the bureau of education, the number of states 
in the Union being 37, and of territories, in- 
cluding the District of Columbia, 11 : 



UNITED STATES 




PARTICULARS. 



School population ... 

Estimated number be- 
tween 6 and 16 years 
of age ,,-; 

Number enrolled in pu 
lie schools 

Number in daily atten- 
dance 

Pupils in private schools 

Total number of teachers 

Male 

Female 

Public school income. . . 
" " expenditure 

Permanent school fund. 



13,735,672 

10,442,492 
8,030,772 

4,488,075 

852,460 

289,873 

87,395 

129,049 

$81,277,688 

$74,169,217 

$75,251,008 



139,878 

94,155 
69,209 

88,489 

10,128 

1,427 

499 

781 

$881,210 
$805,121 



The higher and special institutions of instruc- 
tion were as follows : 



INSTITUTIONS. 


Number. 


Teachen. 


Pupils. 






16,488 

966 
677 
5,466 
697 
609 
2,285 
8,783 
579 
181 
1,121 
780 
86 
122 
138 
50 
625 
275 
812 
125 


976,887 
24,405 
25,892 
98,179 
11,414 
7,244 
28,445 
66,692 
4,856 
2,585 
9,095 
6,888 
808 
565 
481 
908 
1,942 
4,900 
1,266 
l,68fl 




124 
126 
1,081 
91 
72 
209 
848 
113 
38 
99 
63 
4 
7 
11 
14 
29 
40 
9 
55 








Scientific and agricultural schools 
















Dental 




Institutions for the blind 


" deaf and dumb. . . 
" " feeble-minded... 
Kindereiirten . . . 



The charitable educational institutions em- 
braced, besides those mentioned for the blind, 
deaf and dumb, and feeble-minded, 56 reform 
schools, 156 orphan asylums, 21 soldiers' or- 
phans' homes, 9 infant asylums, and 57 miscel- 
laneous charities. There were 26 industrial 
schools, with 259 teachers and 6,096 pupils. 
Art instruction, including training in indus- 
trial art, was afforded by 26 institutions. 
There were 44 museums of natural history, 
and 27 of art. (See EDUCATION, vol. vi., pp. 
424-431.) No general provision is made by 
the United States for the treatment of the in- 
sane, idiotic, deaf and dumb, or blind. Such 
institutions are organized and maintained by 



the states and by corporations. (See BLIND 
DEAF AND DUMB, IDIOCY, and INSANITY.) There 
is a government hospital for the insane in the 
District of Columbia, intended for the treat- 
Dent of the insane of that district and of the 
army and navy. The superintendent is ap- 
Dointed by the secretary of the interior. The , 
Columbia deaf and dumb institution is intend- 
ed primarily for the deaf and dumb of the 
District of Columbia; but pupils residing in 
the states, not exceeding 40 in number, may be 
admitted to the collegiate department without 
charge for tuition. For an account of the char- 
itable and reformatory institutions maintained 
or aided by congress in the District of Colum- 
bia, see DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, and WASHING- 
TON United States prisoners are confined in 
state or territorial prisons. For the prison 
systems of the states and the mode of treating 
paupers, see PRISONS AND PKISON DISCIPLINE, 
and PAUPERISM; see also REFORMATORIES. 
The total number of libraries in 1870 was 164,- 
815 having 45,528,938 volumes. Of these, 
108 800 with 26,072,420 volumes were pri- 
vate, and 56,015 with 19,456,518 volumes other 
than private. They were classified as follows : 
1 congressional library, with 190,000 volumes; 
14 departmental, 115,185 ; 53 state and territo- 
rial, 653,915; 1,101 town, city, &c., 1,237,430; 
1,073 court and law, 425,782; 14,375 schoo , 
college, &c., 8,598,537 ; 33,580 Sabbath school, 
8,346,153; 4,478 church, 1,634,915 ; 47 of his- 
torical, literary, and scientific societies, 590,- 
002; 9 of charitable and penal institutions, 
13 890 ; 43 of benevolent and secret associa- 
tions, 114,581 ; and 1,241 circulating, 2,536,128. 
In 1876 the library of congress had more than 
300,000 volumes. (See LIBRARY, vol. x., p. 
404 ) The whole number of newspapers and 
periodicals in 1870 waa 5,871, having an aggre- 
gate circulation of 20,842,475, and issuing an- 
nually 1,508,548,250 copies. There were 574 
daily, with a circulation of 2,601,547; 107 tri- 
weekly, 155,105; 115 semi-weekly, 247,197; 
4295 weekly, 10,594,643; 96 semi-monthly, 
1,349,820; 622 monthly, 5,650,843; 13 bi- 
monthly, 31,650; and 49 quarterly, 211,670. In 
1875 the total number was reported at 7,870, 
including 718 daily, 80 tri- weekly, 107 semi- 
weekly, 6,957 weekly, 24 bi-weekly, 106 semi- 
monthly, 802 monthly, 8 bi-monthly, and 68 
quarterly. (See NEWSPAPERS, vol. xii., p. 342.) 
There is no established or state church in the 
United States. The most numerous denom- 
inations are the Methodists, Roman Catholics, 
Baptists, and Presbyterians, which are gener- 
ally found in all parts of the country, though 
the number of Presbyterians is not great in 
New England, and the Baptist denomination 
is not relatively so strong there as in other 
parts of the country. But a small proportion 
of the Roman Catholics are of American par- 
entage, being mostly of Irish, German, and 
French nativity. Of the 2,887 Congregational 
organizations reported by the census of 1870, 
1,400 were in New England and 1,178 in New 



UNITED STATES 



York, Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, Wisconsin, and 
Michigan. The greatest numerical strength of 
the Friends is in Pennsylvania, though the 
denomination is well represented in Ohio, New 
York, Iowa, Indiana, New Jersey, Massachu- 
setts, North Carolina, and Maryland. The 
Jews are found in most of the states, chiefly 
in the largest cities, the greatest numbers be- 
ing in New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and 
California. More than a third of all the Lu- 
therans were reported in Pennsylvania and 
Ohio. Of the 72 Moravian organizations, 15 
were in Pennsylvania, 13 in Wisconsin, 10 
in North Carolina, 6 each in New York and 
Minnesota, and 5 in Iowa. The Mormons are 
almost exclusively in Utah. Of the 471 organi- 
zations of the Reformed church in America 
(late Dutch Reformed), 304 were in New York, 
97 in New Jersey, and 22 in Michigan; and 
of the 1,256 of the Reformed church in the 
United States (late German Reformed), 712 
were in Pennsylvania and 288 in Ohio. Of 
the 18 Shaker organizations, 15 were in Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, 
and Ohio. More than half of the Spiritualists 
are in Massachusetts and Michigan. Of the 
331 Unitarian societies, 180 were in Massa- 
chusetts, 23 in New Hampshire, and 22 in New 
York. Seven Chinese religious organizations 
were reported in California. The total num- 
ber of religious organizations, as reported by 
the census of 1870, was 72,459, having 63,082 
edifices with 21,665,062 sittings, and property 
valued at $354,483,581. The denominations 
were represented as follows : 



DENOMINATIONS. 


Organi- 
zations. 


Edifices 


Sittings. 


Property. 


Baptist, regular 


14,474 
1,355 
8,578 

2,887 
2,885 
815 
692 
189 
8,032 
25,278 
27 

72 
1S9 

90 
6,262 
1,562 

471 

1,256 
4,127 
225 
18 
95 
831 
1,445 
719 
26 
409 


12,857 
1,105 
2,822 
2,715 
8,601 
641 
662 
152 
2,776 
21,337 
17 

67 
171 

61 
5,683 
1,388 

46S 

1,145 
8,806 
140 
18 
22 
310 
937 
602 
27 
552 


3,997,116 
863,019 
865,602 
1,117,212 
991,051 
198,796 
224,664 
73,265 
977,332 
6,528,209 
6,935 

25,700 

87,838 

18,755 
2,199,900 
499,344 

227,228 

481,700 
1,990,514 
84.555 
8,850 
6,970 
155,471 
265,025 
210,884 
11,925 
153,202 


$89,229,221 
2,878,977 
6,425,137 
25,069,698 
86,514,549 
2,801,650 
8,939,560 
5,155,234 
14,917,747 
69,854,121 
135,650 

709,100 
656,750 

869,700 
47,823.732 
5,436,524 

10,359,255 

5,775,215 
60,985,566 
806,240 
86,900 
100,150 
6,282.675 
1,819,810 
5,692,325 
637,800 
965,295 


" other 


Christian 


Congregational 


Episcopal, Protestant 
Evangelical Association . . 
Friends 


Jewish 


Lutheran 


Methodist 


Miscellaneous 


Moravjan (Unitas Fra- 
trum) 


Mormon 


New Jerusalem (Sweden- 
borgian) 


Presbyterian, regular 
44 other 
Reformed Church in 
America (late Dutch 
Reformed) 


Reformed Church in the 
United States Hate Ger- 
man Reformed) 


Roman Catholic 


Second Advent 


Shaker 


Spiritualist 


Unitarian 


United Brethren in Christ 
Universalist 


Unknown (local missions) 
Unknown (union) 




Among the miscellaneous denominations were 
7 Chinese and 2 Greek organizations in Cali- 
fornia ; 1 Bible Communist in Connecticut and 



2 in New York ; 1 Catholic Apostolic each in 
Connecticut, Illinois, and Massachusetts, and 
2 in New York ; 1 Sandemanian in Connecti- 
cut; 1 Plymouth church in Massachusetts; 1 
Bible Christian and 1 Schwenkfelder in Penn- 
sylvania ; and 1 Huguenot in South Carolina. 
HISTOEY. When first visited by the Europe- 
ans, the country now comprised within the 
United States was exclusively inhabited by the 
red or copper-colored race commonly called 
American Indians. Of the origin of these 
people nothing is positively known, though 
their own vague traditions and their general 
resemblance to the tribes of N. E. Asia give a 
certain degree of plausibility to the theory that 
their ancestors came to America by way of 
Behring strait or the Aleutian islands. There 
is reason to believe that these savages were 
not the first occupants of the land, in almost 
every part of which, and especially in the val- 
ley of the Mississippi, are found monument* 
consisting of mounds and other earthworks of 
great extent, which must have been erected by 
an unknown and long extinct race. In physi- 
cal appearance, manners, customs, religion, and 
social and political institutions, the Indians 
were so strikingly alike as to form but one 
people ; yet they were divided into a multitude 
of tribes almost perpetually at war with each 
other, and speaking a great variety of dialects. 
While in possession of its savage aborigines, 
the country from the Mississippi to the Atlan- 
tic, and from the lakes to the gulf of Mexico, 
with comparatively slight exceptions, was one 
vast forest, inhabited by wild beasts, whose 
pursuit formed the principal occupation of the 
Indians, and gave them their chief means of 
subsistence and clothing. (See AMERICAN AN- 
TIQUITIES, AMERICAN INDIANS, and AMERICAN 
INDIANS, LANGUAGES OF THE.) According to the 
Scandinavian sagas, Leif, a Norwegian, sailed 
about 1001 from Iceland for Greenland, but was 
driven southward by storms till he reached a 
country called Vinland, from the wild grapes 
he found growing there. Other Scandinavian 
adventurers followed him, and made settle- 
ments, none of which were permanent. By 
many writers Vinland is supposed to have been 
Rhode Island or some other part of the coast 
of New England, but of its real position noth- 
ing is certainly known. If these northern le- 
gends be rejected as too vague to afford a 
basis for history, we must conclude that the 
territory now comprised within the United 
States was first visited by Europeans about five 
years after Columbus discovered the West In- 
dies. In 1497 John Cabot, a Venetian, com- 
manding an English ship under a commission 
from Henry VII., sailed from Bristol west- 
ward, and on June 24 discovered land (coast 
of Labrador), along which he coasted to the 
southward nearly 1,000 m., landing at various 
points, and planting on the soil the banners of 
England and of Venice. In 1498 his son Se- 
bastian Cabot sailed with two ships from Bris- 
tol in search of a northwest passage to China ; 



150 



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but finding the ice impenetrable, he turned to 
the south and coasted along as far as the en- 
trance of Chesapeake bay. A few years later, 
about 1508, it is probable that Verrazzano, a 
Florentine in the French service, made a cruise 
on the coast of North America ; but there is 
no authentic account of his discoveries, the 
letter over his signature addressed to Francis I. 
and long received as genuine being now sus- 
pected to be spurious. In 1513 the Spaniard 
Ponce de Leon discovered Florida, and took 
formal possession of the country near where 
St. Augustine now stands ; but on attempting 
afterward to plant a colony, he was repulsed 
and mortally wounded by the natives. In 1539 
took place the famous expedition of the Span- 
iard De Soto, who landed with several hun- 
dred followers in Tampa bay on the west coast 
of Florida, and fought his way in the course 
of two years through the region which now 
forms the states of Georgia, Alabama, and Mis- 
sissippi, to the river Mississippi, beyond which 
he penetrated for about 200 m., and to which 
he returned to die in 1542. After his death his 
discouraged followers descended the river in 
boats, and crossed the gulf to the Spanish set- 
tlements in Mexico. For a long period no fur- 
ther attempt was made by the Spaniards to 
colonize Florida. But in 1562 the French Cal- 
vinists, under the direction of Admiral Coli- 
gni, endeavored to found there a colony which 
might become a place of refuge for the per- 
secuted Huguenots. Charles IX. conceded an 
ample charter, and an expedition under Jean 
Riba'ult made a settlement at Port Royal in 
South Carolina, the name of Carolina being 
then first given to the country in honor of 
King Charles. This colony was soon aban- 
doned, and another, composed also of Protes- 
tants, was planted on the banks of the St. John's 
in Florida, which in 1565 was surprised and 
massacred by the Spaniards, who in the same 
year founded St. Augustine, the first perma- 
nent settlement in the United States. The dis- 
coveries of the Cabots had given the English 
crown a claim to North America, which, though 
not prosecuted for nearly a century, was never 
relinquished, and which in the reign of Eliza- 
beth led to efforts at colonization on a large 
scale. In 1585 an expedition sent by Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh made a settlement on Roanoke isl- 
and in North Carolina, which failed so utterly 
that in a few years not a trace of it remained. 
In 1602 Bartholomew Gosnold effected a settle- 
ment on the Elizabeth islands in Massachusetts, 
which was abandoned the same year. James 
I. in 1606 established two great divisions in the 
American territory claimed by England : South 
Virginia, extending from Cape Fear to the Po- 
tomac, and North Virginia, from the mouth of 
the Hudson to Newfoundland. Two companies 
were formed in England for the colonization 
of America : the London company, to which 
was granted South Virginia, and the Ply- 
mouth company, to which was granted North 
Virginia; and it was agreed that the region 



between the Potomac and the Hudson should 
be neutral ground on which either company 
might make settlements. The London com- 
pany sent out three ships and 105 emigrants, 
who entered Chesapeake bay, and founded 
on May 13, 1607, the commonwealth of Vir- 
ginia by building Jamestown on James river, 
both names being given in honor of the Eng- 
lish king. Capt. Newport commanded the 
expedition, but the master spirit of the enter- 
prise was the celebrated Capt. John Smith. 
The natives were conciliated by the marriage 
of Pocahontas, the daughter of their king or 
principal chief Powhatan, to an Englishman, 
and remained friendly for some years. The 
government of Virginia was at first retained 
by the king in the hands of councils subject 
to his appointment or control; but after re- 
peated changes the constitution was at length 
so framed that a house of burgesses chosen by 
the people was instituted, which met for the 
first time July 30, 1619. This was the begin- 
ning of representative government in America. 
In August, 1619, a Dutch man-of-war entered 
James river, and sold 20 Africans to the plant- 
ers, thus introducing slavery into the colony ; 
and in 1621 the cultivation of cotton was begun. 
Capt. John Smith had returned to England in 
1609, and in 1614 sailed again for America; 
and having examined the coast from the Penob- 
scot to Cape Cod, he named the country New 
England. On his return home he published a 
map and description of New England, which, 
together with his personal representations of 
the advantages of emigration, excited much 
enthusiasm in England for colonizing America; 
and a patent was obtained from the king for a 
new company incorporated as " the council es- 
tablished at Plymouth in the county of Devon 
for the planting, ruling, ordering, and govern- 
ing New England in America," which gave the 
planters absolute property, with unlimited ju- 
risdiction, the sole powers of legislation, and 
the appointment of all officers and all forms of 
government, over the territory, extending in 
breadth from the 40th to the 48th degree of 
north latitude, and in length from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific. The first English settlement 
within its limits, however, was established 
without the knowledge of the corporation and 
without the aid of King James, by the " pilgrim 
fathers of New England," a body of Puritans 
(102 in number) who, led by John Carver, 
William Brewster, William Bradford, Edward 
Winslow, and Miles Standish, sailed from Eng- 
land, Sept. 6, 1620, in the Mayflower, a ves- 
sel of 180 tons burden. They anchored first 
at Cape Cod (Nov. 9), and on Dec. 11 (O. 
S.) an exploring party landed at a harbor in 
Massachusetts bay, where the Mayflower an- 
chored a few days afterward. Here they be- 
gan to build a town, which they called Ply- 
mouth in memory of the hospitalities received 
at the last English port from which they had 
sailed. The government of the colony was 
strictly republican. The governor was elected 



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151 



by the people, and restricted by a council of 
five (afterward seven) assistants. The legisla- 
ture at first comprised the whole body of the 
people, but as population advanced the repre- 
sentative system was adopted. The foundation 
of the Plymouth colony was followed by that 
of Massachusetts Bay, where Salem was settled 
by John Endicott in 1628. A reinforcement 
of 400 colonists landed in 1629. In 1630 a fleet 
arrived with about 700 additional emigrants, 
with John Winthrop as governor, and Thomas 
Dudley as deputy governor. In September of 
the same year they settled Boston, which they 
named in honor of the town in England from 
which came their minister, the Eev. John Cot- 
ton. In 1692 Plymouth colony was united to 
Massachusetts. While these settlements on 
Massachusetts bay were in progress, Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges and John Mason obtained a pat- 
ent for a territory called Laconia, extending 
from the Atlantic to the St. Lawrence and 
from the Merrimack to the Kennebec, and set- 
tled Portsmouth and Dover in New Hampshire 
in 1623. In Maine a French colony had been 
planted in the island of Mount Desert as early 
as 1613, which was soon broken up by an ex- 
pedition from Virginia; and the first perma- 
nent English settlements in Maine were made 
at Monhegan in 1622 and at Saco about the 
same time, or according to Bancroft, probably 
at the mouth of the Pemaquid in 1626. These 
settlements ultimately fell under the jurisdic- 
tion of Massachusetts, and Maine continued to 
form a part of that commonwealth till 1820. 
Connecticut was colonized in 1635-' 6 by emi- 
grants from Massachusetts, who settled at 
Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield, though 
a trading post had been established at Windsor 
somewhat earlier, and the Dutch, who claimed 
the territory, had built a fort and trading house 
at Hartford in 1633. Rhode Island was first 
settled at Providence in 1636 by Roger Wil- 
liams, who had been exiled from Massachusetts 
for maintaining religious and political opinions 
at variance with those of the rulers of that 
colony. In September, 1609, Henry Hudson, 
an Englishman in the service of the Dutch 
East India company, entered New York har- 
bor and went up the river to which his name 
has been given, exploring it beyond the mouth 
of the Mohawk. The region thus discovered 
was claimed by Holland and named New Neth- 
erland ; and in a few years trading posts were 
erected at Fort Orange (now Albany) and on 
Manhattan island. In 1623 permanent settle- 
ments were made at Fort Orange and at New 
Amsterdam on Manhattan island, on the pres- 
ent site of the city of New York. The Dutch 
settlements gradually spread up the river, and 
eastward to the Connecticut, and westward 
and southward to the Delaware. On the Dela- 
ware they came in collision with the Swedes, 
who had settled there in 1638 and occupied 
both banks nearly to the site of Philadelphia, 
and named their settlements New Sweden. 
They were finally expelled in 1655 by a Dutch 



army. The English claimed the whole coun- 
try under the right given by Cabot's discovery, 
and, after much diplomatic controversy pro- 
tracted through nearly half a century, at length 
ended the contest by seizing New Amsterdam 
in 1664, and with it the whole of New Nether- 
land. The province in the same year had been 
granted by Charles II. to his brother the duke 
of York and Albany, in whose honor the name 
of New Amsterdam was changed to New York, 
which also became the name of the province, 
while Fort Orange became Albany. New Jer- 
sey at this time acquired its distinctive name 
from Sir George Carteret, who had been gov- 
ernor of the island of Jersey, and in conjunc- 
tion with Lord Berkeley had purchased the 
territory from the duke of York and made it a 
separate colony. In 1681 the territory west 
of the Delaware was granted to William Penn, 
who colonized it chiefly with Friends or 
Quakers, and founded Philadelphia in 1682. 
Pennsylvania soon became one of the most 
flourishing of the colonies, and was honorably 
distinguished among them for the kindness and 
justice of its treatment of the Indians, and its 
consequent exemption for nearly a century 
from savage warfare. About 1730 a large 
immigration of Germans began, which peopled 
several counties and gave a peculiar character 
to the population of the province. The coun- 
try between the southern line of Pennsylvania 
and the Potomac was early called Maryland, 
in honor of Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles 
I. The first settlement within its limits was 
made in 1631 by Capt. William Clayborne, 
with a party of men from Virginia, on Kent 
island in Chesapeake bay. In 1632 Charles I. 
granted the province by a charter to Cecilius 
Calvert, Lord Baltimore, who sent out in 1633 
a colony of about 200 persons, nearly all of 
them Roman Catholic gentlemen and their 
servants, led by the brother of the lord pro- 
prietor, Leonard Calvert, who became the first 
governor of the province. They landed on 
St. Mary's river, March 27, 1634, and began a 
settlement. In 1649 the assembly passed the 
memorable act by which Christians of all sects 
were secured in the public profession of their 
faith, and allowed to worship God according 
to the dictates of their own consciences. The 
first permanent settlement in North Carolina 
appears to have been made about 1663, on 
Albemarle sound, by emigrants from Virgin- 
ia. The first permanent settlement in South 
Carolina was made in 1670 by colonists from 
England on the Ashley river, near the site 
of Charleston, which began to be settled about 
the same time. The territory S. of Virginia 
had been granted in 1663 by Charles II., under 
the name of Carolina, to Clarendon, Monk, 
and others as proprietaries. A constitution 
for the government of the country, framed by * 
the philosopher Locke, was adopted by the 
proprietaries in 1670 ; but, being impracticable, 
it never completely went into operation, and 
was abrogated in 1693. In 1729 the king. 



152 



UNITED STATES 



bought out the proprietors and divided the 
colony into two, called respectively North and 
South Carolina. The present state of Georgia 
originally formed part of Carolina, but in 1732 
George II., in honor of whom it was named, 
granted the territory to a corporation entitled 
"the trustees for settling the colony of Geor- 
gia." In the same year a colony of about 120 
persons sailed for the new province, under the 
direction of Gen. James Oglethorpe, and in Feb- 
ruary, 1733, founded Savannah. In the course 
of little more than a century from the settle- 
ment of Jamestown, 13 permanent colonies 
were thus founded by the English within the 
present limits of the United States. Within 
the same limits the Spaniards had also settled 
in Florida and New Mexico, and the French had 
established posts in Michigan, in Illinois, and 
in Louisiana near the mouth of the Mississippi. 
Though agriculture was the chief pursuit of 
the colonists, manufactures and commerce were 
not wholly neglected. But as early as 1660 
the mother country began to hamper their 
trade with navigation acts designed to compel 
the commerce of the Americans to pass exclu- 
sively through English hands. The house of 
commons in 1719 declared " that the erecting 
of manufactories in the colonies tended to 
lessen their dependence upon Great Britain," 
and laws were accordingly enacted prohibiting 
or restricting manufactures. Prompt atten- 
tion was paid to education. Provision was 
made for a school in Virginia in 1621, and in 
1692-'3 William and Mary college was estab- 
lished at Williamsburg. A school was founded 
in New Amsterdam in 1033. Harvard college 
in Massachusetts was founded in 1686, and 
Yale college in Connecticut in 1700; the col- 
lege of Now Jersey was incorporated in 1746, 
and King's (now Columbia) college in New 
York in 1754. In the New England colonies, 
as soon almost as they were founded, laws 
were enacted providing for a liberal system of 
common schools. The details of colonial his- 
tory being given in this work under the names 
of the individual states, wo shall only no- 
tice here the most prominent events of gen- 
eral interest, which may be classed under the 
three heads of Indian wars, French wars, and 
political struggles against the English govern- 

. ment. The Indians at first received the whites 
as friends; but the steady encroachments of 
the settlers on their hunting grounds and oth- 
er causes led at length to war, though to the 
last a few tribes continued faithful friends to 
the Europeans. The first serious encounter 
took place in 1622, after the death of the 
friendly Powhatan, when a general conspiracy 
of the Indians of Virginia broke out in a bloody 
massacre, in which in one hour about 350 of 

% the English fell beneath the tomahawk. The 
colonists were victorious in this contest, and 
again in 1644-'6, when the Virginian tribes 
made their last struggle for independence, led 
by Opechancanough, who was captured and 
kept in prison till he died. In 1636 the pow- 



erful Pequot tribe began hostilities in Connec- 
ticut, which resulted in its destruction in 1637 
by Massachusetts and Connecticut troops. In 
1675 the famous Poinetacom, sachem of the 
Wampanoags, or King Philip as he was called 
by the English, effected a general combina- 
tion of the aborigines against the colonists. 
A terribly destructive war ensued, which for 
some months threatened the extermination of 
the European population of New England, 
but was finally ended by the defeat and death 
of Philip in 1676. The Carolines became in- 
volved in a fierce and sanguinary struggle 
with the Corecs and Tuscaroras in 1711, and 
with the Yeinassees in 1715, in both of which 
the whites were victorious. Toward the close 
of the 17th century the hostile Indians on 
the northern and western frontiers began to 
receive powerful aid and encouragement from 
the French in Canada, who, whenever their 
mother country was at war with England, 
carried on hostilities with the English colo- 
nies, and frequently, accompanied by their 
savage allies, made destructive inroads into 
New England and New York. In one of these 
incursions, in 1689, Dover in New Hamp- 
shire was burned by the Indians, and the in- 
habitants were killed or carried away captive ; 
and in 1690 a similar fate was inflicted on 
Schenectady in New York, by a party from 
Montreal. A few years later (1704-'8) Deer- 
field and Haverhill in Massachusetts were de- 
stroyed, with hundreds of men, women, and 
children, by bands led by Ilertel do Rouville, 
a French officer. Father Marquette, Louis 
Joliet, Robert Cavelier do la Salle, and other 
missionaries and adventurers, had carried the 
cross and the standards of France through the 
wilderness, from the St. Lawrence and the 
great lakes to the Mississippi und the gulf ; and 
gradually the English settlements on the At- 
lantic were flanked on their western side by 
a chain of French posts. This threatening 
lodgment of the French in the rear of their 
American colonies greatly excited the jealousy 
of the English, who, under the charters grant- 
ed by James I., claimed dominion westward 
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, south of the 
latitude of the north shore of Lake Erie, while 
the French claimed all the territory watered 
by the Mississippi and its tributaries under the 
more plausible title of having made the first 
explorations and settlements. But the earliest 
conflict between the two nations in America 
arose not from any colonial quarrel, but from 
the revolution of 1688, and is known as King 
William's war. It lasted seven years, and du- 
ring its continuance the colonies suffered ex- 
ceedingly from the incursions of the Frein h 
and their Indian allies. In retaliation for 
these attacks efforts were made by the colo- 
nists to conquer Canada, against which in 1690 
two expeditions were sent, one from Massa- 
chusetts under Sir William Phips, and another 
from Connecticut and New York under Gen. 
Winthrop, neither of which accomplished any- 



UNITED STATES 



153 



thing of importance. The war was terminated 
by the treaty of Kyswick, Sept. 20, 1697, but 
peace was not long maintained. The war of 
the Spanish succession involved in its hostili- 
ties the French and English in America (1702), 
where the contest is known as Queen Anne's 
war. Its effects were chiefly felt in New Eng- 
land, whose whole western frontier was rav- 
aged by the Indians to such an extent that 
most of the remote settlements were destroyed 
or abandoned. In 1707 an ineffectual attack 
was made upon the French colony of Aca- 
dia; but in 1710 an expedition from Boston 
conquered it and annexed it to the English 
empire, under which it received the name of 
Nova Scotia. In 1711 a powerful armament 
of English and New .England troops, under 
Sir Ilovenden Walker, attempted the conquest 
of Canada by sea, but failed, as did another 
expedition which at the same time marched 
from Albany to attack Montreal. The peace 
of Utrecht ( April 11, 1713) terminated hos- 
tilities, which were not resumed for 30 years. 
At the expiration of that period the war of 
the Austrian succession broke out in Europe, 
and spread to America, where it is known as 
King George's war. Its principal event was 
the capture of Louisburg, the chief stronghold 
of the French in America, which was taken 
Juno 17, 1745, by a force from New England 
led by William Pepporell, a wealthy merchant 
of Maine. This exploit excited much enthu- 
siasm in England as well as in the colonies, and 
gave the Americans an idea of their own mili- 
tary strength which had an important influence 
in the future. The war ended by the treaty 
of Aix-la-Ohapelle, Oct. 18, 1748, and Louis- 
burg was restored to the French. Disputes 
having arisen with the French on the Ohio, 
an expedition under Washington was sent to- 
ward that river, which on May 28, 1754, out 
to pieces a French detachment under Juinon- 
ville, who was slain. This affair began the 
long contest known in America as the French 
and Indian war (nearly simultaneous with the 
seven years' war in Europe). Hostilities were 
waged in America for two years before war was 
formally declared between France and England. 
In 1755 four expeditions were undertaken 
against the French. Gen. Braddock, with a 
force of regulars and provincials, the latter 
commanded by Washington, proceeded against 
Fort Duquesne on the Ohio; but about 10 m. 
from that post he fell into an ambush, and was 
defeated and mortally wounded. The army 
was withdrawn from danger chiefly by the 
steadiness and skill of Washington and his 
provincials, who covered the retreat. The 
result of this expedition shook the confidence 
of the people in the prowess of the British 
soldiery, and gave Washington a hold on pop- 
ular esteem and confidence which was never 
afterward shaken. An expedition against Ni- 
agara and Frontenac on Lake Ontario, com- 
manded by Gov. Shirley of Massachusetts, also 
failed. An attack on the French posts near 



the head of the bay of Fundy, led by Gen. 
Winslow, a New Englander, resulted in their 
capture and the expulsion of the French inhab- 
itants from Acadia. The fourth expedition, 
composed chiefly of New England troops, was 
led by Sir William Johnson against Crown 
Point. It encountered the enemy at the head 
of Lake George, and in one day, Sept. 8, suf- 
fered a repulse and gained a complete victory, 
in which the French commander Dieskau was 
incurably wounded and made prisoner. John- 
son failed to follow up this success, and the 
campaign of 1755 ended on the whole more 
favorably for the French than for the English. 
The energy and ability of the marquis de Mont- 
calm, who succeeded Dieskau as comrnander- 
in-chief in Canada, gave during the next two 
years a still more marked superiority to the 
French arms. Oswego, with an immense 
amount of military stores, was captured by 
them in 1756 ; and Fort William Henry, at the 
head of Lake George, was compelled to sur- 
render in 1757, an event long remembered from 
the massacre of part of the garrison after the 
capitulation by Montcalm's Indian allies. In 
1758 the current of affairs, under the man- 
agement of the new English premier William 
Pitt, was reversed. Louisburg was taken after 
a siege of seven weeks by Generals Amherst 
and Wolfe; Fort Frontenac was captured by 
Col. Bradstreet, with a provincial force; and 
Fort Duquesne met the same fate from an 
expedition of which Washington was one of 
the commanders. These advantages, however, 
barely counterbalanced the repulse of an at- 
tack on Ticonderoga made by a powerful army 
under Gen. Abercrombie and Lord Howe, in 
which the latter officer fell at the head of his 
troops, while the former was obliged to retreat 
with a loss of 2,000 men. Abercrombie was 
promptly superseded by Amherst, before whose 
approach in 1759 the French fled from Ticon- 
deroga and Crown Point without striking a 
blow. Almost at the same time Niagara was 
taken by Sir William Johnson, and a large force 
sent to its relief was completely routed. The 
crowning exploit of the campaign and of the 
war was the taking of Quebec by an army led 
by Gen. Wolfe, after a battle on the plains of 
Abraham (Sept. 13), in which both Wolfe and 
Montcalm were mortally wounded. The sur- 
render of Quebec virtually decided the con- 
test in America, though it continued in Eu- 
rope and on the ocean till 1763, when by the 
treaty of Paris Canada and its dependencies 
were formally ceded to Great Britain. The 
transfer from the French to the English of 
the posts between the great lakes and the 
Ohio led to a war with the Indian tribes, of 
which the master spirit was Pontiac. It broke 
out in May, 1763, and lasted several years. 
Detroit was besieged, and many posts were 
captured and their garrisons put to death. 
(See PONTIAO.) The termination of this war 
left the colonies poor and exhausted, for their 
contributions in men and money had been 



154 



UNITED STATES 



very large, and they had suffered severely from 
the enemy during the mismanagement of the 
first half of the contest. Nevertheless they 
had gained greatly by the struggle. The con- 
quest of Canada, of Louisburg, and of the mili- 
tary posts on their western frontier, extin- 
guished their chief source of anxiety and dan- 
ger, and freed them for ever from any seri- 
ous dread of the Indians, who were really for- 
midable only when supported by the French. 
Then, too, the incapacity of the English gen- 
erals and the defeats sustained by large bodies 
of English troops had materially weakened 
their superstitious reverence for the power of 
the mother country, while their own exploits 
in the war had given them a confidence in 
their strength hitherto unfelt. The general 
characteristics of the people were intelligence, 
industry, and a high degree of moral and re- 
ligious culture. They were descended for the 
most part from intelligent and enterprising 
ancestors, who had emigrated from the old 
world either to secure to themselves greater 
freedom to worship God or better opportu- 
nities to acquire competence or wealth. The 
passage across the Atlantic was tedious and 
expensive, and life in the new settlements hard 
and perilous. The lazy, the timid, the improvi- 
dent, the brutally ignorant, shrank from the ter- 
rors of the sea and the wilderness, and the vast 
majority of the emigrants were of the respect- 
able and energetic middle class. Religious in- 
fluences operated powerfully, not only in giving 
an impulse to emigration, but on the character 
of the emigrants in their new homes ; and not 
only on the Puritans, Huguenots, and Quakers, 
who came avowedly from the highest motives, 
but on vast bodies of churchmen, Dutch Cal- 
vinists, and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians. Much 
care was devoted to the education of children, 
and especially to training them in a knowledge 
of the Bible and the catechism, and in rever- 
ence for the sabbath. In Virginia the laws 
enacted that in every settlement there should 
be " a house for the worship of God." Ab- 
sence from church was punished by a fine, and 
travelling or shooting on the sabbath was for- 
bidden. In the Carolines there were similar 
laws, and in Pennsylvania acts were passed 
against "stage plays, playing of cards, dice, 
May games, masques, and balls." Similar also 
was the legislation of the New England colo- 
nies, where in addition at some periods sump- 
tuary laws and laws regulating the use of to- 
bacco were in force. The spirit of political free- 
dom was strongly developed among the colo- 
nists, and republican ideas and feelings trans- 
mitted from the period of the commonwealth 
in England were widely diffused, though at the 
same time a warm attachment existed for the 
mother country and a devoted loyalty to the 
crown. This attachment was disinterested, for 
though England afforded protection during the 
wars with the French, these wars, with the 
single exception of that recently concluded 
had originated in Europe, and were waged for 



objects with which America had neither con- 
cern nor sympathy. In many other respects 
the connection was injurious to the colonies. 
Their trade and manufactures were systemati- 
cally restricted for the selfish benefit of Eng- 
land ; but though these oppressive enactments 
were heavily felt by the colonists, they made no 
resistance so long as the imperial authority con- 
fined itself to measures which, however harsh 
or injurious, were not clearly unconstitution- 
al. But in 1761 parliament authorized sher- 
iffs and officers of the customs to use "writs 
of assistance " or general search warrants which 
empowered them to enter stores and private 
dwellings and search for merchandise which it 
was suspected had not paid duty. These writs 
were first used in Massachusetts, where they 
roused great excitement and opposition. Obe- 
dience was refused to them on the ground of 
illegality, and a trial ensued in which the elo- 
quent James Otis, the advocate general of the 
crown, refused to defend them, but resigned 
his office and appeared in behalf of the peo- 
ple. His speech made a profound impression. 
The judges evaded a decision, and the writs, 
although secretly granted, were never exe- 
cuted. In Virginia two years later occurred 
a collision between the royal prerogative and 
the colonial legislation on the subject of dues to 
the clergy, in which the cause of the colony 
was defended by Patrick Henry. It was at 
length decided in England to tax the colonies 
directly in spite of all their protests, and the 
stamp act passed the house of commons on 
Feb. 27, 1765, and the house of lords on March 
8, and received the royal assent on March 22. 
This act declared that every document used in 
trade or legal proceedings, to be valid, must 
have affixed to it a stamp, the lowest in value 
costing a shilling, and the duty increasing indefi- 
nitely in proportion to the value of the writing. 
To enforce the act, against which while it was 
under discussion the colonies had vehemently 
remonstrated, parliament authorized the min- 
istry to send as many troops as they saw proper 
to America, for whom the colonies were re- 
quired to find " quarters, fuel, cider or rum, 
candles, and other necessaries." These acts 
created great excitement and indignation in 
America. The Virginia assembly passed reso- 
lutions, introduced by Patrick Henry, declaring 
that the general assembly of that colony pos- 
sessed the sole right and power to lay taxes on its 
inhabitants. The legislature of Massachusetts 
resolved that the courts should conduct their 
business without the use of stamps. In New 
York and Pennsylvania the opposition, though 
not so genera], was yet very strong. Every- 
where the people determined not to use the 
stamps, and associations calling themselves 
" sons of liberty " were organized in opposi- 
tion to the act and for the general defence of 
the rights of the colonies. So powerful were 
these combinations, and so intense the populrr 
indignation, that when the day came (Nov. 1) 
on which the obnoxious law was to go into 



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155 



effect, it was found that all the stamp distribu- 
tors had resigned their offices. Meantime in 
June the Massachusetts legislature issued a cir- 
cular inviting all the colonies to send delegates 
to a congress at New York on the first Tuesday 
of October. On that day delegates from nine 
of the colonies appeared. The congress drew 
up a declaration of rights, a memorial to parlia- 
ment, and a petition to the king, in which they 
claimed the right of being taxed only by their 
own representatives; and these proceedings 
were approved by the colonial assemblies. The 
merchants of the principal cities agreed to pur- 
chase no more goods in England till the act 
was repealed, and the people pledged them- 
selves to use no articles of English manufacture. 
These demonstrations of popular feeling in 
America led to the repeal of the stamp act on 
March 18, 1766, an event celebrated with great 
rejoicings both in the colonies and in the Eng- 
lish seaports, whose trade was already seriously 
affected. But the plan of taxing America was 
not yet given up, and in June, 1767, parliament 
passed an act imposing duties on paper, glass, 
tea, and some other articles imported into the 
colonies. The colonies in return revived with 
renewed vigor their non-importation associa- 
tions. Massachusetts, and especially the town 
of Boston, was foremost in the opposition; 
and in Boston, on the occasion of the seizure 
(June 10, 1768) of a sloop belonging to John 
Hancock for an alleged false entry, a disturb- 
ance occurred, which the commissioners of 
customs made the pretext for retiring to a ves- 
sel of war in the harbor. The government re- 
solvei to take vengeance on "the insolent 
town of Boston," and a military force under 
Gen. Gage was sent to occupy the place in Sep- 
tember. A collision took place March 5, 1770, 
between the soldiers and a crowd of citizens, 
in which three of the latter were killed and 
eight wounded. This "Boston massacre," as 
it was called, caused great excitement through- 
out the country, and had much influence in 
heightening the popular feeling against Eng- 
land. The non-importation associations soon 
produced such an effect in England, that in 
April, 1770, the government removed all the 
duties except that of threepence a pound on 
tea, which was retained at the express command 
of George III., who said that "there should 
be always one tax, at least, to keep .up the right 
of taxing." This did not satisfy the Ameri- 
cans, who objected not to the amount of the 
taxes, but to the principle of taxation without 
representation ; and combinations were formed 
against the importation and use of tea, and 
measures taken to prevent its being either 
landed or soli. At Boston, on the evening of 
Dec. 16, 1773, a band of men disguised as In- 
dians went on board three tea ships, which had 
recently arrived from England and lay at one 
of the wharves, and, taking out the chests, 
emptied the tea into the water, and then qui- 
etly retired. When the news of this action 
reached England, the government determined 



to punish the colonies, and especially to make 
an example of Boston. Parliament according- 
ly, in March, 1774, passed the " Boston port 
bill," which closed that port to all commerce, 
and transferred the board of customs to Mar- 
blehead and the seat of colonial government 
to Salem. Bills were also passed abrogating 
the most popular features of the colonial char- 
ter, and authorizing the commander to quarter 
his army in towns, and to transfer to another 
colony or to Great Britain any persons informed 
against or indicted for crimes committed in 
supporting the revenue laws or suppressing 
riots. These acts excited to a still greater pitch 
the already deep indignation of the people. 
Boston was everywhere regarded as the cham- 
pion of popular rights, and as the victim of 
ministerial persecution ; and money and pro- 
visions were sent to it from the most distant 
colonies and from England. Hutchinson was 
superseded as governor of Massachusetts in 
May, 1774, by Gen. Gage. Meanwhile conven- 
tions were held and delegates chosen to the 
congress at Philadelphia, known as the "old 
continental congress," which met Sept. 6 in 
Carpenters' hall, all the colonies being repre- 
sented except Georgia and North Carolina ; but 
delegates from the latter arrived on the 14th. 
Among the 53 members were Washington, Pat- 
rick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, Edward and 
John Rutledge, Christopher Gadsden, Samuel 
Adams, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Philip 
Livingston, William Livingston, and John Jay. 
Peyton Randolph of Virginia (succeeded by 
Henry Middleton of South Carolina on Oct. 
22) was chosen speaker, and Charles Thomson 
of Pennsylvania secretary. The discussions 
were opened on the second day by Patrick 
Henry in a speech of surpassing eloquence, in 
which he said : " British oppression has effaced 
the boundaries of the several colonies ; the dis- 
tinctions between Virginians, Pennsylvanians, 
New Yorkers, and New Englanders are no 
more. I am not a Virginian, but an Amer- 
ican." A declaration of rights was agreed 
upon, in which was set forth the claim of the 
colonists as British subjects to participate in 
making their own laws and in imposing their 
own taxes, to the right of trial by a jury of the 
vicinage, of holding public meetings, and of pe- 
titioning for redress of grievances. The main- 
tenance of a standing army in the colonies 
without their consent was protested against, as 
were eleven acts passed since the accession of 
George III. in violation of colonial rights and 
privileges. The measures of redress which 
they proposed were peaceable, and comprised 
the formation of an " American association," 
pledged not to trade with Great Britain or the 
West Indies, nor with those engaged in the 
slave trade, and not to use British goods or 
tea. Among the papers issued by them were 
a petition to the king and an address to the 
people of Canada, written by John Dickinson 
of Pennsylvania ; an address to the people of 
Great Britain, by John Jay ; and a memorial 



156 



UNITED STATES 



to the people of the colonies, by Kichard Hen- 
r Lee. The congress adjourned on Oct. 26, 
after providing for another congress to meet 
the following May, in case redress of grievances 
should not meanwhile be obtained. Perceiving 
a conflict to be almost inevitable, the people of 
the colonies began to prepare earnestly for 
war, and in Massachusetts nearly all men able to 
bear arms were trained daily in military exer- 
cises, and engaged to take the field at a mo- 
ment's notice, whence originated their name 
of "minute men." Gen. Gage began to for- 
tify Boston neck, and to seize arms and ammu- 
nition in the surrounding towns. Small stores 
of these had been accumulated by the pro- 
vincial government of Massachusetts at Wor- 
cester and at Concord. Gage, on the night of 
April 18, 1775, secretly despatched a large force 
to destroy the stores at Concord. The move- 
ments of the British were vigilantly watched, 
and the minute men were roused in every di- 
rection. At Lexington, half way between Bos- 
ton and Concord, on the following morning, 
the first blood of the revolution was shed. 
Major Pitcairn ordered the soldiers to fire 
upon the citizens who appeared in arms upon 
the common, and eight were killed and nine 
wounded. The British proceeded to Concord, 
and destroyed some stores, but met with such 
resistance at the north bridge over Concord 
river that they were forced to retreat, and, 
hotly pursued by the Americans, made their 
way back to Boston with a loss of 273 killed, 
wounded, and missing. The entire loss of the 
Americans during the day was 49 killed, 34 
wounded, and 5 missing. This action brought 
the political contest between the colonies and 
England to a summary ending, and inaugurated 
the war of the revolution. The tidings of the 
fight spread with wonderful rapidity while it 
was going on, and everywhere throughout 
New England the people sprang to arms ; and 
on the night of the day following the action 
the king's governor and army found them- 
selves closely beleaguered in Boston. The 
provincial congress of Massachusetts on April 
22 resolved unanimously that a New England 
army of 30,000 men should be raised, of 
which the quota of Massachusetts should be 
13,600. As the news from Lexington and 
Concord spread westward and southward, the 
people everywhere rose in arms, and before 
the close of summer the power of all the royal 
governors from Massachusetts to Georgia was 
at an end. Volunteer expeditions from Ver- 
mont and Connecticut, led by Ethan Allen and 
Benedict Arnold, seized the important for- 
tresses of Ticonderoga (May 10) and Crown 
point (May 12), whose cannon and ammuni- 
tion were of incalculable value to the poorly 
equipped forces of America. In North Caro- 
lina a convention assembled at Charlotte, 
Mecklenburg co., in May, proclaimed their 
constituents absolved from all allegiance to 
the British crown, and organized a local gov- 
ernment with preparations for military de- 



fence. The second continental congress as- 
sembled on May 10 at Philadelphia, in the state 
house, now known as Independence hall. 
Among the members were Franklin, Hancock, 
Samuel Adams, John Adams, Washington, 
Kichard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Jay, 
George Clinton, and Robert R. Livingston. 
Hancock, -who with Samuel Adams had been 
proscribed as a rebel, was elected president 
on May 24, Peyton Randolph vacating the 
chair to attend the Virginia legislature. Con- 
servative and moderate to the last, the con- 
gress sent still another petition to the king, 
denying any intention of separation from Eng- 
land, and asking only for redress of griev- 
ances. But they took measures to raise an 
army, to equip a navy, and to procure arms 
and ammunition. The forces before Boston 
were adopted as the continental army, and at 
the suggestion of the New England members 
Washington was nominated and unanimously 
chosen (June 15) as commander-in-chief. Be- 
fore he could reach the seat of war the battle 
of Bunker Hill had been fought, June 17. 
(See BUNKER HILL.) Four days later he ar- 
rived, and on July 8 assumed command of the 
army in Cambridge. Charles Lee, Philip Schuy- 
ler of New York, Artemas Ward of Massachu- 
setts, and Israel Putnam of Connecticut had 
been elected major generals. Horatio Gates 
(adjutant general), Seth Pomeroy, Richard 
Montgomery, David Wooster, William Heath, 
Joseph Spencer, John Thomas, John Sullivan, 
and Nathanael Greene were chosen brigadiers. 
The army was unorganized, undisciplined, 
poorly clad, imperfectly armed, and almost 
destitute of powder. With the aid of Gates, 
who almost alone of the generals had had 
much experience in war, Washington brought 
the troops into tolerable order, and regularly 
beleaguered Boston till March 17, 1776, when 
the British evacuated the city and sailed for 
Halifax, carrying with them a large body of 
loyalists. Meantime an invasion of Canada, 
whose inhabitants were reported to be disaf- 
fected to British rule, was decided upon by 
congress, and carried out with insufficient 
forces under command of Gen. Montgomery. 
Montreal was taken, and Quebec was attacked 
Dec. 81, 1775, by parties led by Montgomery 
and Arnold. The assault was conducted with 
great courage and energy, but was repulsed, 
and Montgomery was slain and Arnold severe- 
ly wounded. After a blockade of the city 
continued for some months, the Americans, 
whose forces were totally inadequate in num- 
bers and equipment to the enterprise, on the 
arrival of powerful reinforcements to the 
British, abandoned the province in June, 1776. 
On June 28 a British fleet made an attack on 
Charleston, S. C., where they were, repulsed 
with great loss by a small force in Fort Sulli- 
van (afterward Fort Moultrie), commanded by 
Col. Moultrie. In all these operations the 
Americans were greatly impeded by want of 
powder and other munitions of war. Cruisers 



UNITED STATES 



157 



were fitted out by order of congress and by 
some of the colonies, and several of .the Brit- 
ish supply ships were captured. Congress also 
appointed a naval committee with authority 
to build 13 frigates. A secret committee ap- 
pointed to correspond privately with the 
friends of the colonies in Europe may be re- 
garded as the germ of the state department. 
A financial committee and a war committee 
had already been instituted, and thus the main 
departments of the government of the united 
colonies were put in operation. The success 
of the colonial armies at Boston and at Charles- 
ton, and the outrages committed by British 
commanders on the coast and in Virginia, 
greatly stimulated the feeling in favor of inde- 
pendence, which Samuel Adams and a few 
others had desired from the beginning of the 
contest ; and a powerful impulse was given to 
this sentiment by Thomas Paine's " Common 
Sense," which was issued about the beginning 
of 1776 and widely circulated. On June 7 
Kichard Henry Lee introduced a resolution 
into congress declaring " That these united 
colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and 
independent states; that they are absolved 
from all allegiance to the British crown, and 
that all political connection between them and 
the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, 
totally dissolved." This was adopted on July 
2 by the vote of twelve colonies, the delegates 
from New York, pending the decision of the 
question by the people of that colony, not 
voting. On the 4th the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, written by Jefferson, setting forth 
the reasons for the separation, was adopted by 
the same vote, and in this document the colo- 
nies were first designated the " United States 
of America." On the same day it was au- 
thenticated by the president and secretary of 
congress, and published, but it was not then 
signed by the members. Having been en- 
grossed on parchment, it was signed on Aug. 
2 by 54 delegates, and subsequently by two 
others, 56 in all, representing all the thirteen 
colonies, the New York convention having ap- 
proved the act on July 9. The text of the 
declaration is as follows : 

When, In the course of human events, it becomes necessary 
for one people to dissolve the political bands which have con- 
nected them with another, and to assume among the powers 
of the earth the separate and equal station to which the laws 
of nature and of nature's God entitle them, a decent respect 
to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare 
the causes which impel them to the separation. 

We hold these truths to be self-evident : That all men are 
created equal ; that they are endowed by their Creator with 
certain unalienable rights ; that among these are life, liberty, 
and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, 
governments are instituted among men, deriving their just 
powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever 
any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it 
is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute 
a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, 
and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem 
most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, 
indeed, will dictate that governments long established should 
not be changed for light and transient causes ; and according- 
ly, all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed 
to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves 
by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But 
when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing inva- 
riably the same object, evinces a design to reduce them under 



absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw 
off such government, and to provide new guards for their fu- 
ture security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these 
colonies, and such is now the necessity which constrains them 
to alter their former systems of government. The history 
of the present king of Great Britain is a history of repeated 
injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the estab- 
lishment of ati absolute tyranny over these states. To prove 
this, lot facts be submitted to a candid world : 

He has refused his assent to laws the most wholesome and 
necessary for the public good. 

He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate 
and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation 
till his assent should be obtained ; and, when so suspended, 
he has utterly neglected to attend to them. 

He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation 
of large districts of people, unless those people would relin- 
quish the right of representation in the legislature ; a right 
inestimable to them, and formidable to tyrants only. 

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, 
uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their pub- 
lic records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into com- 
pliance with his measures. 

He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for op- 
posing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the 
people. 

He has refused, for a long time after such dissolutions, to 
cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, 
incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large 
for their exercise ; the state remaining, in the mean time, ex- 
posed to all the danger of invasion from without and convul- 
sions within. 

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these 
states ; for that purpose obstructing the laws for naturaliza- 
tion of foreigners, refusing to pass others to encourage their 
migration hither, and raising the conditions of new appropria- 
tions of lands. 

He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refu- 
sing his assent to laws for establishing judiciary powers. 

He has made judges dependent on his will alone for the 
tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their 
salaries. 

He has erected a multitude of new offices, and sent hither 
swarms of officers to harass our people and eat out their sub- 
stance. 

He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies, 
without the consent of our legislatures. 

He has affected to render the military independent of, and 
superior to, the civil power. 

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction 
foreign to our constitution and unacknowledged by our laws, 
giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation 

For quartering large bodies of armed troops amoflg us ; 

For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for 
any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants 
of these states ; 

For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world ; 

For imposing taxes on us without our consent ; 

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by 

jury; 

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended 
offences ; 

For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neigh- 
boring province, establishing therein an arbitrary govern- 
ment, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once 
an example and fit instrument for introducing the same abso- 
lute rule into these colonies ; 

For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable 
laws, and altering", fundamentally, the powers of our govern- 
ments ; 

For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring them- 
selves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases 
whatsoever. 

He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of 
his protection and waging war against us. 

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burned our 
towns, and destroyed the lives-of our people. 

He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mer- 
cenaries, to complete the works of death, desolation, and 
tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and 
perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and 
totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. 

He has constrained our fellow citizens, taken captive on the 
high seas, to bear arms against their country, to become the 
executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall them- 
selves by their hands. 

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has 
endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers the 
merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare is au 
undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions. 

In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for 
redress in the most humble terms. Our repeated petitions 
have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince, 



158 



UNITED STATES 



whose character is thus marked by every act which may de- 
fine a tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. 

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British 
brethren. We have warned them, from time to time, of a 
tempts made by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable 
jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the cir- 
cumstances of our emigration and settlement here We have 
appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, ami 1 we 
have conjured them, by the ties of our common kindred to 
disavow these usurpations, which would inevitably interrupt 
our connections anS correspondence. They too, have been 
deaf to the voice of justice and consanguinity. We must, 
therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our 
separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, 
enemies in war, in peace friends. 

We, therefore, the representatives of the United States of 
America, in general congress assembled, appealing to the 
Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our inten- 
tions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good 
people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare that 
these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and 
independent states; that they are absolved from all alle- 
giance to the British crown, and that all political connec- 
tion between them and the state of Great Britain is, and 
ought to be, totally dissolved ; and that, as free and inde- 
pendent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude 
peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all oth- 
er acts and things which independent states may of right do. 
And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance 
on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge 
to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. 

" The declaration was not only the announce- 
ment of the birth of .a people," says Bancroft, 
" but the establishment of a national govern- 
ment ; a most imperfect one, it is true, but still 
a government, in conformity with the limited 
constituent powers which each colony had con- 
ferred upon its delegates in congress. The 
affairs of internal police and government were 
carefully retained by each separate state, 
which could, each for itself, enter upon the 
career of domestic reforms. But the states, 
which were henceforth independent of Britain, 
were not independent of one another; the 
United States of America assumed powers over 
war, peace, foreign alliances, and commerce." 
Soon after the evacuation of Boston by the 
British, Washington had transferred his army 
to the city of New York. On June 29 a fleet 
from Halifax, bearing Gen. Howe and the late 
garrison of Boston, entered New York harbor, 
and on July 2 landed the forces on Staten Isl- 
and. A few days later arrived Admiral Lord 
Howe, to whom, in conjunction with his bro- 
ther Sir William, the king had intrusted the 
control of American affairs. The British gov- 
ernment, unable to recruit the army to the 
desired number from its own people, who dis- 
approved the war, had hired from German 
princes, and especially from Hesse-Cassel, large 
bodies of mercenaries; and with these and 
fresh troops brought from the south by Sir 
Henry Clinton, the force on Staten Island was 
augmented to 30,000 men. Washington's army 
was much less in numbers, and every way in- 
ferior in supplies and equipments. The cam- 
paign began on Long Island, where on Aug. 27 
the Americans were defeated with heavy loss, 
and forced to abandon that island, and soon 
after the city of New York. Having fought 
another unsuccessful battle at White Plains 
(Oct. 28), Washington early in December was 
compelled to retreat beyond the Delaware at 
the head of but 3,000 men, poorly clad, half 



starved, and destitute of blankets end tents. 
About the same time the British seized and 
held the island of Khode Island, and at Bask- 
ingridge, N. J., captured Gen. Charles Lee. 
On the night of Dec. 25 Washington crossed 
the Delaware in open boats with 2,400 men, 
and falling upon the British forces at Trenton 
captured about 1,000 Hessians. A few days 
later (Jan. 3, 1777), he defeated the enemy 
again at Princeton, taking 230 prisoners. Soon 
after the army went into winter quarters at 
Morristown. When the campaign opened in 
the spring of 1777, Washington's force con- 
sisted of about 7,500 men. Gen. Howe, after 
vainly attempting to bring on a general en- 
gagement, withdrew his forces (June 80) from 
New Jersey to Staten Island, and afterward 
sailed with nearly 20,000 men for the Chesa- 
peake, where he landed on Elk river and 
threatened Philadelphia. To defend the capi- 
tal Washington was forced to give battle on 
the Brandy wine, Sept. 11, but was outnumbered 
and compelled to retreat with the loss of near- 
ly 1,000 men. Lafayette, who had recently 
entered the service of the United States as a 
volunteer, and had been made a major general, 
was severely wounded on this occasion. On 
the 26th the British took possession of Phila- 
delphia without opposition. On Oct. 4 Wash- 
ington made an attack on the British at Ger- 
mantown, seven miles from Philadelphia, but 
was repulsed with heavy loss; and soon after- 
ward both armies went into winter quarters, 
the Americans at Valley Forge, on the Schuyl- 
kill, 20 m. from Philadelphia. The want of 
success in this region was more than counter- 
balanced by victories in the north. A Brit- 
ish army, 7,500 strong, besides Indians, com- 
manded by Gen. Burgoyne, advanced from 
Canada by Lake Champlain, and took Ticon- 
deroga, Fort Independence, and Whitehall. 
Strong detachments, which were sent to Ben- 
nington, Vt., to destroy a collection of stores, 
were met there (Aug. 16) and defeated with 
the loss of about 200 killed and 600 prisoners 
by the Vermont and New Hampshire militia 
led by Gen. Stark. Burgoyne advanced to Still- 
water on the Hudson, where he was encoun- 
tered by Gen. Gates; and on Sept. 19 an inde- 
cisive engagement was fought at that place, in 
which the British lost more than 600 men. 
The American encampment had been strongly 
fortified by Kosciuszko. On Oct. 7 a second 
battle (commonly called the battle of Sarato- 
ga) was fought on nearly the same ground, in 
which the Americans had the advantage ; and 
ten days later Burgoyne with his whole army 
capitulated at Saratoga. The consequences of 
this victory were of the highest importance 
at home and abroad. On Dec. 1 Baron Steu- 
ben, a German officer, arrived in the coun- 
try, and during the winter joined Washing- 
ton at Valley Forge. He was afterward ap- 
pointed inspector general, and was of great 
service in introducing discipline into the army. 
From the beginning of the conflict the French 



UNITED STATES 



159 



government had secretly encouraged the re- 
volt of the colonies, and had furnished them 
with supplies of arras and military stores, 
without which it would have been almost im- 
possible to carry on the war. Franklin, Silas 
Deane, and Arthur Lee had been sent by 
congress as commissioners to France short- 
ly after the declaration of independence, but 
received no open countenance from the court 
till after the surrender of Burgoyne. That 
event decided the negotiations in their favor ; 
and in February, 1778, treaties of alliance and 
of amity and commerce were signed at Paris. 
Sir Henry Clinton, who succeeded Howe as 
coinmander-in-chief of the British, evacuated 
Philadelphia in the night of June 17 with more 
than 17,000 men, and on the 18th began his 
march toward New York. Washington pur- 
sued, and on the 28th the two armies engaged 
in battle on the plains of Monmouth, near the 
village of Freehold, N. J. The action was not 
decisive, but the Americans remained masters 
of the field, while the British retreated to New 
York and remained inactive for the rest of the 
summer. On July 8 a French fleet from Tou- 
lon, under Count d'Estaing, anchored in Dela- 
ware bay, but too late to intercept the British 
squadron and transports retreating from Phila- 
delphia. An attempt made in August with 
the assistance of the French fleet to drive the 
British from Ehode Island proved a failure, 
and d'Estaing, without having accomplished 
anything of importance, sailed in November 
for the West Indies. At the close of the cam- 
paign of 1778 the position of the British was 
not at all advanced from that which their 
forces held in 1776. They occupied nothing 
but Khode Island and the island of Manhattan, 
while the Americans had gained largely in 
knowledge of the art of war, and had secured 
the powerful alliance of France. But great em- 
barrassment was felt from the wretched con- 
dition of the national finances, the continental 
money issued by congress having depreciated 
to a very low point. In this emergency the 
patriotism and the financial skill and credit 
of Robert Morris were of the highest value. 
In 1779 the principal theatre of war was at 
the south, where Gen. Benjamin Lincoln com- 
manded the Americans. Toward the end of 
1778 Gen. Clinton had sent an expedition to 
Georgia, which defeated the American forces 
at Savannah, and took possession of the city, 
Dec. 29 ; and the colony was soon completely 
in the power of the British. In September, 
1779, Savannah was besieged by a French and 
American force, and on Oct. 9 an assault was 
made upon it, which was repulsed with a loss to 
the allies of nearly 800 men, among them Casi- 
mir Pulaski. The siege was thereupon aban- 
doned. About this time the British evacuated 
Rhode Island, to concentrate their forces at New 
York. Paul Jones, commanding an Ameri- 
can frigate, captured on Sept. 23 two British 
ships of war in the English channel, in one of 
the most desperate naval battles ever fought. 
807 TOL. xvi. 11 



During the whole war in fact Paul Jones was 
actively employed against the enemy on the 
sea, and, together with a swarm of privateers 
from New England, inflicted immense loss on 
the mercantile marine of England. One of the 
most brilliant achievements of the war was 
the storming (July 16) of Stony Point on the 
Hudson by Gen. Wayne at the head of 1,200 
men, taking 543 prisoners ; only 15 of his men 
were killed, while the British killed num- 
bered 63. About the beginning of 1780 Clin- 
ton, leaving the Hessian general Knyphausen 
in command at New York, sailed south with 
8,500 men to carry the war into the Carolinas. 
Charleston was besieged for several weeks, and 
Gen. Lincoln after a feeble defence surrendered 
on May 12, the garrison becoming prisoners of 
war. The rest of the state of South Carolina 
was overrun by detachments of the British, 
and nominally submitted to the restoration of 
the royal authority, so that Clinton, deeming 
his conquest complete, sailed for New York on 
June 5, leaving Lord Cornwallis in command. 
But a guerilla warfare, under the command of 
Surnter, Marion, and other partisan leaders, con- 
tinually harassed not only the British but the 
tories, as the American royalists were common- 
ly called, of whom there were great numbers 
in the state. Congress sent Gen. Gates to re- 
cover South Carolina. On his first encounter 
with Cornwallis at Camden, Aug. 16, he was 
routed with great loss, Baron de Kalb, a French 
officer of experience, who was second in com- 
mand, being mortally wounded. Gates with 
the remnant of his force fled to North Caro- 
lina. Within three months two American 
armies had been destroyed, while the most 
formidable of the partisan bands, that of Sum- 
ter, had been dispersed by Col. Tarleton. Early 
in September Cornwallis marched into North 
Carolina, where on Oct. 7, at King's moun- 
tain, a detachment from his army was totally 
defeated by 900 militia, who killed and cap- 
tured upward of 1,100 of the enemy. This 
serious reverse, and the renewed activity of 
Marion, Sumter, and other partisan leaders, in- 
duced Cornwallis to withdraw to South Caro- 
lina. During the summer the only military 
operation of importance in the north was an 
unsuccessful irruption of the British into New 
Jersey. Soon after, on July 10, a French fleet 
arrived at Newport, bringing the count de- 
Rochambeau and 6,000 soldiers. Washington 
went to Hartford in September to confer with 
the French officers, and during his absence- 
it was discovered that Benedict Arnold, who* 
commanded the important fortress of West 
Point, had agreed to deliver that stronghold 
and its dependencies into the hands of Sir 
Henry Clinton. Arnold escaped, but Major 
Andr6, the British officer who communicated 
with him, was caught and hanged as a spy.. 
The principal military operations of 1781 were 
in the south, where Greene had been made 
commander in place of Gates. At Cowpens, 
S. 0., on Jan. 17, Gen. Morgan won a brilliant 



160 



UNITED STATES 



victory over tho British under Col. Tarlcton. 
On March 15, at Guilford Court llouso, N. <.'., 
a buttle was fought in which tho British gained 
tho victory, but drew from it no ad vain 
and on Sept. 8 occurred tho drawn battle of 
Eutnw Springs, a bloody action which nearly 
terminated tho war in South Carolina. At 
tho close of tho year tho British in tho states 
south of Virginia wore confined to Charles- 
ton and Savannah. Cornwallis, having ad- 
vanced into Virginia in April, was opposed 
by Lafayette, Wayne, and Steubon, and forti- 
fied himself at Yorktown, where be gathered 
a considerable army. Meanwhile tho Amer- 
ican army under Washington and tho French 
army of Itochambeau had formed a junc- 
tion on tho Hudson; and while the British 
commander, Sir Henry Clinton, was kept from 
sending aid to Cornwallis by apprehensions 
that Now York was threatened, the allied 
army was far on its way toward Yorktown, 
where it arrived Sept. 28, 1781, and begun a 
regular siego, which lasted till Oct. 19, when 
Cornwallis surrendered with his whole force 
of 7,247 men, besides 840 sailors; 106 guns 
wore taken. This victory substantially ter- 
minated the contest, and secured tho indepen- 
dence of America. The French contributed 
87 ships (under Do G rosso) and 7,000 men to 
the besieging force, and the Americans 9,000 
men. In England Lord North and his admin- 
istration were forced to retire, March 20, 1782, 
and wero succeeded by a cabinet opposed to 
tho further prosecution of tho war, headed by 
the marquis of Kookingham. Orders wore sent 
to the British commanders in America to cease 
hostilities, and in July, 1782, Savannah was 
evacuated, and Charleston on Dec. 14. Adams, 
Franklin, Jay, and Laurens on the part of the 
United States, and Strachey, Oswald, and Fitz- 
horbert on the part of Great Britain, signed 
a preliminary treaty of peace at Paris on Nov. 
80, 1782; and on Sept. 8, 1788, a definitive 
treaty was signed at Versailles, by which the 
United States wore formally acknowledged by 
Great Britain to be free, sovereign, and inde- 
pendent. New York, the last position held by 
tho British on our coast, was evacuated Nov. 
25, 1788. In tho seven years of the revolu- 
tionary war Great Britain sent to America 
about 112,000 soldiers and 22,000 seamen. Tho 
forces raised by tho United States during tho 
same period consisted of about 282,000 con- 
tinental soldiers and 50,000 militia. On Nov. 
2 Washington issued a farewell address to tho 
armies of the United States, and, after taking 
leave on Deo. 4 of his officers at Now York, 
proceeded to Annapolis, Md.. where congress 
was then in session, and on Dec. 88 resigned 
his commission as commander-in-chiof and re- 
tired to his estate at Mount Vernon. Tho exis- 
tence of tho United States as a political entity 
may be dated from tho assembling of tho sec- 
ond continental congress, May 10, 1775, as tho 
first assumed no political powers. From that 
date to March 1, 1781, when tho articles of 



confederation were finally ratified, the gov- 
ernment of the 1'nion was revolutionary, the 
powers exercised by congress being assumed 
by that body and conceded by tin- states from 
the necessity of tho situation. The period f 
tho confederation extended to March 4, 17M 1 . 
\\lien the constitution went into effect. On 
Juno 12, 1770, while the resolution of inde- 
pendence was under consideration in con : 
a committee of one from each colony was 
created to draft a form of confederation, and 
the articles reported by it were adopted, Nov. 
15, 1777. They were ratified by South Caro- 
lina on Fob. 5, 1778, and by ten other states 
before tho close of that year. Delaware rati- 
fied them on Feb. 1, 1779, and Maryland on 
Jan. 80, 1781; and, being signed by delegates 
from all tho states, they went into effect as 
above stated. Tho delay of Maryland was 
caused by her refusal to ;join the confederation 
until those states claiming territory beyond 
their settled limits should cede it to the Union 
for the common benefit. Cessions having been 
made, an ordinance was passed by congress, 
July 18, 1787, for tho government of the terri- 
tory N. W. of the Ohio river, since famous as 
the ordinance of 1787. Dissatisfaction with 
tho confederation, owing to the weakness of 
tho central government under it, soon became 
widespread, and in September, 1780, a con- 
vention of delegates from several states at 
Annapolis, Md., recommended the calling of 
a convention of delegates from all the states 
to propose changes in the articles of confeder- 
ation. This plan was approved by congress on 
Feb. 21, 1787, and tho convention organized at 
Philadelphia on May 25, by the choice of Wash- 
ington as president. It remained in sos>ion 
in Carpenters' hall until Sept. 17, when it ad- 
journed after adopting tho constitution. All 
the states were represented except Rhode Isl- 
and. On the 28th congress passed a resolu- 
tion transmitting the constitution to the sev- 
eral states to bo acted upon by conventions. 
Delaware ratified it on Dec. 7, and ten other 
states prior to Sept. 18, 17H8, when a resolu- 
tion of congress declared it ratified by nine 
states (the constitution providing that when 
ratified by that number it should go into effect 
in the states ratifying), fixed the tirst Wednes- 
day of January, 1789, for the choice of presi- 
dential electors in the several states, and tho 
first Wednesday of February for the choice of 
president by the electors, and provided that 
the now government should go into operation 
on tho first Wednesday of March. The sec- 
ond continental congress expired on March 4, 
1789, having maintained its corporate identity 
for nearly 14 years, though changed from time 
to time in its membership. Its presidents, 
though without power or patronage, were re- 
garded as the personal representatives of tho 
sovereignty of the Union. The following arc 
their names, with the date of their election: 
Peyton Randolph of Virginia, May 10, 1775; 
John Hancock of Massachusetts, May 24, 1775; 






UNITED STATES 



161 



Henry Lanrens of South Carolina, Nov. 1, 1777; 
John Jay of New York, Dec. 10, 1778; Sam- 
uel Iluntington of Connecticut, Sept. 28, 1779; 
Thomas MoKoan of Delaware, July 10, 1781 ; 
John Hanson of Maryland, Nov. 5, 1781 ; Elias 
I5oudinot of New Jersey, Nov. 4, 1782; Thom- 
as Mifflin of Pennsylvania, Nov. 3, 1788 ; Rioh- 
nrd Henry Lee of Virginia, Nov. 80, 1784; 
Nathaniel Gorham of Massachusetts, Juno 6, 
1786; Arthur St. Olair of Pennsylvania, Feb. 
2, 1787; Oyrus Griffin of Virginia, Jan. 22, 

1788. The first congress under the constitu- 
tion was long without a quorum ; the house 
did not organize till March 80, 1789, nor the 
senate till April 6. The electoral votes wore 
then counted, when Washington, having re- 
ceived tho entire number (69), was declared 
elected president, and John Adams, who had 
received the next highest number (84), was 
declared elected vice president. Adams took 
his seat as president of the senate on April 21, 
and Washington was inaugurated in New York 
on April 30. The president appointed Jeffer- 
son secretary of state, Hamilton secretary of 
the treasury, Henry Knox of Massachusetts 
secretary of war, and Edmund Randolph of 
Virginia attorney general, those officers then 
constituting the whole of the cabinet. North 
Carolina ratified tho constitution on Nov. 21, 

1789, and Rhode Island on May 29, 1790, com- 
pleting the list of the original states. Ten 
amendments in the nature of a bill of rights, 
suggested by the conventions in some of the 
states, and adopted by the first congress, be- 
came a part of the constitution in 1791. An 
eleventh amendment, taking from the federal 
courts jurisdiction of actions prosecuted against 
a state by citizens of another state, became 
operative in 1798, and a twelfth, changing the 
method of electing tho president and vice pres- 
ident, in 1804. No further amendments were 
made for more than 60 years. Tho seat of 
government was removed to Washington in 
1800, tho first session of congress held there 
commencing on Nov. 17. Tho previous seats 
of government were as follows, the dates being 
those of tho opening of sessions of congress : 
Philadelphia, May 10, 1775 ; Baltimore, Dec. 
20, 1776; Philadelphia, March 4, 1777; Lan- 
caster, Pa., Sept. 27, 1777; York, Pa., Sept. 
80, 1777; Philadelphia, July 2, 1778; Prince- 
ton, N. J., June 30, 1783 ; Annapolis, Md., 
Nov. 26, 1783; Trenton, N. J., Nov. 1, 1784; 
New York, Jan. 11, 1785, where the constitu- 
tional government was organized in 1789 ; and 
Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 1790. The beneficial in- 
fluence of the new government was immedi- 
ately felt in the restoration of public confi- 
dence, the revival of commerce, and the gen- 
eral prosperity of tho country. A system of 
finance, advocated in an able report by Hamil- 
ton, was adopted, and the debts of the late 
confederacy and of the individual states were 
assumed by the general government. A bank 
of tho United States was incorporated in 1791, 
and a mint was established at Philadelphia in 



1792. In the summer of 1790 an Indian war 
broke out with the tribes of tho northwest, 
who, after inflicting defeats on Gens. Harmar 
and St. Olair, were finally quelled by Gen. 
Wayne, and peace was restored in August, 1795. 
The great revolution in Franco, which broke 
out at the beginning of Washington's adminis- 
tration, was powerfully felt in its principles 
and effects in this country. Two parties had 
already been formed: the federalists, com- 
posed of those who favored the maintenance 
of the constitution just as it was ; and the re- 
publicans or democrats, who desired to intro- 
duce amendments to limit the federal power, 
and to increase that of the states and the peo- 
ple. Washington, Adams, Hamilton, and Jay 
were accounted among the federalists ; while 
Jefferson, Madison, Gallatin, and Edward Liv- 
ingston were among the leaders of the repub- 
licans. The federal party on the French ques- 
tion advocated a strict neutrality, while the 
republicans freely avowed their sympathy for 
France, and their willingness to aid the French 
republic in its struggle with the European mon- 
archies. Party spirit ran high on this point, 
yet at the second presidential election in 1792 
Washington again received the unanimous votes 
(132) of the electoral colleges. Adams was re- 
elected vice president, receiving 77 votes, while 
George Clinton, the republican candidate, re- 
ceived 50 votes, and 5 were cast for others. 
The feeling against Great Britain existing since 
the revolution was strongly stimulated by the 
obnoxious conduct of the British government 
in retaining possession of forts in the west to 
which its title had been coded by the treaty of 
1783, and in seizing American vessels and im- 
pressing American seamen. After in vain re- 
monstrating against these outrages, the presi- 
dent sent John Jay as a special envoy to Eng- 
land, where, in November, 1794, a treaty was 
concluded, which was regarded by the repub- 
licans as so favorable to England that the re- 
quisite confirmation by the senate was obtained 
with difficulty, and its promulgation among the 
people raised an extraordinary clamor against 
Jay and the president, which however soon 
subsided. In pursuance of this treaty the forts 
were surrendered in 1796. Its ratification ex- 
asperated the French government, which openly 
showed its displeasure by decrees under which 
American commerce suffered continual annoy- 
ances and losses. Among the important do- 
mestic events of Washington's administration 
were the admission into the Union of the new 
states of Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), 
and Tennessee (1796), and the whiskey insur- 
rection against an unpopular excise law, which 
in 1794 threw western Pennsylvania into con- 
fusion, but was energetically suppressed by the 
president, who called out 15,000 militia. On 
the approach of the third presidential election, 
Washington positively declined to be a candi- 
date, and the two great parties at once arrayed 
themselves against each other with a bitterness 
of zeal never since equalled. The federalists 



162 



UNITED STATES 



supported John Adams and the republicans 
Thomas Jefferson. Adams, who received 71 
electoral votes, was chosen president, while 
Jefferson, who received 68, the next highest 
number, became, by the constitution as it then 
was, the vice president. The two next highest 
candidates were Thomas Pinckney and Aaron 
Burr. Timothy Pickering was made secretary 
of state, Oliver Wolcott of the treasury, James 
McHenry of war, and Charles Lee attorney 
general. In 1798 the navy department was 
created, and Benjamin Stoddert made secre- 
tary. The relations between France and the 
United States were so threatening that one of 
the first acts of President Adams was to con- 
vene congress in extra session, May 13, 1797. 
Three envoys, C. 0. Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, 
and John Marshall, were sent to France with 
authority to adjust all difficulties. The French 
government refused to receive them, but inti- 
mated that a considerable present of money 
would greatly facilitate negotiations, and that 
a refusal to pay the bribe would lead to war. 
" War be it then," replied Pinckney; " millions 
for defence, but not a cent for tribute." Pinck- 
ney and Marshall, who were federalists, were 
ordered to quit France ; but Gerry, who was a 
republican, was allowed to remain. The insult 
to their envoys excited great indignation in 
the United States, and congress made prepara- 
tions for war. The army and navy were en- 
larged, and Washington was appointed com- 
mander-in-chief, with the rank of lieutenant 
general. The frigate Constellation captured a 
French frigate in the West Indies, and disabled 
another of superior force in an action lasting 
five hours. The decided measures adopted by 
the United States were not without effect on 
the French government, and overtures were 
made to the president for a renewal of nego- 
tiations. A fresh embassy was sent, and, Na- 
poleon Bonaparte having attained to power, a 
treaty was promptly concluded, Sept. 30, 1800. 
During these troubles with France two acts 
were passed by congress, known as the alien 
and sedition laws : the first, which was limited 
to two years, empowering the president to or- 
der aliens who were conspiring against the 
peace of the United States to quit th.e country ; 
the other, which was to remain in force till 
March 4, 1801, providing among other things 
for the punishment by fine and imprisonment 
of seditious libels upon the government. The 
alien law was defended on the ground that 
the country swarmed with French and English 
emissaries, whose mission was to embroil the 
United States with European quarrels ; while 
the apology for the sedition law was the un- 
questionable licentiousness of the press, which 
at that time was chiefly conducted by refugees 
and adventurers from Great Britain and Ire- 
land. Nevertheless these laws became exceed- 
ingly unpopular, and were bitterly denounced 
as harsh and unconstitutional. They contrib- 
uted largely to the dissatisfaction with Mr. 
Adams's administration, which prevailed espe- 



cially in the south and west, and which led in 
the next presidential election to the success of 
the republican candidates, Jefferson and Burr, 
each of whom received 73 votes, while Mr. 
Adams received 65, C. C. Pinckney 64, and Jay 
1. The tie in the votes for Jefferson and Burr 
threw the election into the house of represen- 
tatives, where on the 36th ballot Jefferson was 
chosen president and Burr vice president. 
This contest led to the adoption of the twelfth 
amendment of the constitution, requiring the 
electors to designate which person is voted for 
as president and which as vice president, while 
the original article required them to vote for 
two persons, of whom the one who had the 
highest number of votes was to be president, 
and the next highest vice president. Jeffer- 
son's cabinet consisted of James Madison, secre- 
tary of state ; Samuel Dexter, and afterward 
Albert Gallatin, of the treasury ; llenry Dear- 
born, of war ; Benjamin Stoddert, and after- 
ward Kobert Smith, of the navy ; and Levi 
Lincoln, attorney general. For the most part 
his administration was marked by vigor and 
enlightened views, and in 1804 he was re- 
elected for a second term, receiving 162 votes. 
George Clinton was elected vice president by 
the same vote. The opposition ticket, C. C. 
Pinckney of South Carolina and Rufus King 
of New York, received only 14 votes, those of 
Connecticut and Delaware and 2 from Mary- 
land. During his first term Ohio was admit- 
ted (1802), and Louisiana was purchased of 
France in 1803. The insolence of the pirati- 
cal states on the Barbary coast was humbled 
by the bombardment of Tripoli in 1804, and 
by the invasion of that state by a small force 
led from Egypt by Capt. Eaton, an American 
officer, which led to a satisfactory treaty in 
1805. In 1806 Aaron Burr secretly organized, 
chiefly in the western states, a military expe- 
dition, which led to his arrest and trial at Rich- 
mond in 1807 on a charge of attempting to 
dismember the Union and to establish an in- 
dependent dominion west of the Alleghanies ; 
but no overt act being proved against him, he 
was acquitted. The amicable relations which 
had existed between the United States and 
Great Britain for several years began in the 
latter part of 1805 to be disturbed by the 
condemnation by British courts of several 
American vessels for alleged violations of neu- 
trality ; and the situation was aggravated by 
the operation of an order in council (May 16, 
1806) of the British government declaring the 
whole coast of Europe, from the Elbe to Brest, 
to be in a state of blockade ; an order which 
Napoleon retaliated by declaring in a decree 
issued at Berlin, Nov. 21, 1806, a blockade of 
all the ports of the British islands. Under 
these and other orders and decrees great num- 
bers of American vessels were seized by French 
and English cruisers, and our foreign com- 
merce, which had attained extraordinary pros- 
perity from the neutral position of the coun- 
try, was nearly destroyed. The irritation 



UNITED STATES 



163 



against Great Britain produced by her depre- 
dations on our commerce was greatly increased 
by her persistent assertion of the right to 
search American vessels for suspected deserters 
from her navy, a right continually exercised 
by her cruisers in the most offensive manner, 
and in the practice of which multitudes of na- 
tive-born American seamen were forced into 
the British navy. The insolence of the Brit- 
ish naval officers was at length carried so far 
that in June, 1807, the frigate Chesapeake was 
stopped near the entrance to Chesapeake bay 
by the English man-of-war Leopard, and on 
the refusal of her commander to submit to a 
search was fired into, and 21 of her crew were 
killed or wounded. This outrage, for which 
immediate reparation was demanded by Jef- 
ferson, was not atoned for till four years 
later, and even then the right of search was 
still claimed by the British government, and 
eventually became a cause of war. In Feb- 
ruary, 1806, an act had been passed prohib- 
iting the importation of certain articles of 
British production, the first of a series of sim- 
ilar measures designed to bring Great Britain 
to terms. In December, 1807, congress, on 
the recommendation of the president, laid an 
embargo, which prohibited the departure from 
American ports of vessels bound for foreign 
countries. This measure was vehemently de- 
nounced by the federal party, and for a time 
it prostrated the shipping and commercial in- 
terests of the United States. It was repealed 
in February, 1809, just before the expiration 
of the president's second term. In the presi- 
dential election of 1808 the republican (or, as 
it was now often called, the democratic) party 
supported Jaines Madison for president and 
George Clinton for vice president. Madison 
and Clinton were elected, the former receiving 
122 votes and the latter 113, while the federal 
candidates, C. C. Pinckney and Eufus King, re- 
ceived each 47, a few votes being cast for other 
candidates. The ruinous operation of the em- 
bargo law had considerably weakened the demo- 
cratic party, particularly in the commercial east- 
ern and middle states. Mr. Madison formed 
his cabinet as follows: Robert Smith, secre- 
tary of state ; Albert Gallatin, of the treasury ; 
William Eustis, of war ; Paul Hamilton, of the 
navy ; and Caesar A. Rodney, attorney gener- 
al. Congress met in May, 1809, in extra ses- 
sion, and continued the non-importation sys- 
tem. A long negotiation was carried on with 
the English government on this subject, the 
orders in council, and the right of search, 
which resulted only in augmenting the un- 
friendly feeling between the two countries. 
Though the president was exceedingly averse 
to forcible measures, the pressure of public 
opinion, and the influence of Clay, Calhoun, 
Lowndes, and other leaders of the war party, 
at length induced him to acquiesce reluctantly 
in a declaration of hostilities. He sent to con- 
gress, June 1, 1812, a message on the subject 
of the aggressions of Great Britain, which was 



referred to the committee on foreign relations 
in the house of representatives, who on June 
3 reported a manifesto as a basis of the decla- 
ration of war, for these reasons : the impress- 
ment of American seamen by the commanders 
of British ships of war ; the British doctrine 
and system of blockade ; the orders in coun- 
cil ; and, lastly, various depredations commit- 
ted by British subjects on the commerce of 
the United States. The house adopted the 
measure by a vote of 79 to 49, and the senate 
by a vote of 19 to 13; and on June 18 the 
president signed the act declaring war. For 
several months thereafter the British govern- 
ment did little toward counter hostilities. But 
although the United States had the advantage 
that the main force of their enemy was occu- 
pied by the great European conflict, their own 
preparation for the contest was in every re- 
spect inadequate. The treasury was almost 
empty, the revenue having been nearly ruined 
by the non-importation acts and embargoes ; 
the army at first numbered but 10,000 men, 
half of them raw recruits, and was very de- 
ficient in officers of experience; while the 
navy comprised only eight frigates, two sloops, 
and five brigs. Long before war was declared 
British emissaries, as was alleged, had been 
engaged in exciting the northwestern Indians 
against the Americans ; and in the summer of 
1811 hostilities were actually begun by the 
tribes north of the Ohio tinder the lead of 
Tecumseh. William Henry Harrison, governor 
of Indiana territory, encountered them with a 
considerable force on the banks of the Tippe- 
canoe river, Nov. 7, 1811, and defeated them. 
After the declaration of war, Gen. Hull, then 
governor of Michigan territory, was ordered 
to invade Canada from Detroit, which he ac- 
cordingly did at the head of 1,800 men. His 
force was wholly inadequate to the enterprise, 
and he was soon compelled to fall back ; and 
his men being reduced by various casualties to 
800, on Aug. 16, 1812, he surrendered his army, 
Detroit, and all Michigan to Gen. Brock. An 
invasion of Canada on the Niagara frontier 
was almost equally unsuccessful, and the cam- 
paign of 1812 closed with little or no credit 
to the American arms on land. But the navy, 
small as it was, had achieved a series of bril- 
liant victories. The frigate Constitution, Capt. 
Isaac Hull, captured the British frigate Guer- 
riere, Aug. 19 ; the sloop of war Wasp, Capt. 
Jones, captured the brig Frolic, Oct. 18 ; the 
frigate United States, Capt. Decatur, captured 
the frigate Macedonian, Oct. 25 ; and the Con- 
stitution, of which Capt. Bainbridge had now 
taken command, captured the frigate Java, 
Dec. 29. In these contests the British loss 
in killed and wounded was vastly in excess of 
that of the Americans, and the result highly 
elated the public, with whom the navy hith- 
erto had been in no special favor. A swarm 
of privateers scoured the ocean, preying upon 
British commerce to such an extent that their 
captures in this year alone amounted to more 



164 



UNITED STATES 



than 300 vessels. The campaign of 1813 was 
marked by alternate successes and reverses. 
In January a detachment of 900 men from the 
western army, under Gen. Winchester, was de- 
feated and captured at the river Kaisin, and 
many of the prisoners massacred by the In- 
dian allies of the English. In April Gen. Pike 
with 1,600 Americans captured York (now To- 
ronto), which was defended by 800 men, but 
was himself killed by the explosion of a maga- 
zine, by which 200 of his men were killed or 
wounded. In May an attack on Sackett's 
Harbor by the British under Gen. Prevost was 
repulsed by Gen. Brown, and Fort George in 
Canada was taken by the Americans. In Oc- 
tober Gen. Harrison defeated the British, who 
had abandoned Detroit, near the Thames river 
in Canada, with severe loss, the Indian chief 
Tecumseh being among the slain. Attempts 
at an invasion of Canada from Lakes Ontario 
and Champlain, with a view to the capture 
of Montreal, came to nothing, partly through 
disagreement between Gens. Wilkinson and 
Hampton. The navy as usual was more suc- 
cessful than the army. On Lake Erie, Sept. 
10, a British fleet of six vessels was captured 
after a severe contest by Commodore O. H. 
Perry, which rendered the Americans mas- 
ters of the lake. On the ocean, the Hornet, 
Capt. Lawrence, captured the Peacock, Feb. 
24 ; and the Enterprise, Lieut. Burroughs, 
captured the Boxer, Sept. 5. On the other 
hand, the frigate Chesapeake, commanded by 
Capt. Lawrence, was on June 1 captured by 
the British frigate Shannon, Capt. Broke. 
The campaign of 1814 was conducted with 
more vigor on both sides, and was marked 
by obstinate and sanguinary engagements on 
the Niagara frontier. On July 5 the British 
were defeated at Chippewa by Gen. Brown, 
and on the 25th at Bridgewater or Lundy's 
Lane by Gens. Brown and Winfield Scott, the 
latter of whom had also distinguished him- 
self at Chippewa. The war in Europe hav- 
ing closed, large reenf or cements, consisting of 
troops who had served under Wellington in 
Spain, were sent to Canada by the British 
government ; and Sir George Prevost, at the 
head of 12,000 men, invaded New York on 
the northern frontier and laid siege to Platts- 
burgh, defended by Gen. Macomb. The army 
was supported by a powerful fleet on Lake 
Champlain, commanded by Commodore Dow- 
nie. On Sept. 11 the United States fleet, under 
Commodore Macdonough, totally defeated the 
English fleet, and on the same day the Brit- 
ish army retreated in disorder to Canada. In 
August a British fleet arrived in the Chesa- 
peake with an army of 5,000 men commanded 
by Gen. Eoss, who landed in the Patuxent 
and marched on Washington, and, after put- 
ting to flight the militia at Bladensburg, took 
possession of the federal city on the 24th, and 
burned the capitol, the president's house, and 
other public buildings. On the day after this 
barbarous exploit the British retired to their 



ships, and on Sept. 12-13 made an attack 
on Baltimore, where they were . repulsed' by 
the citizens, and Gen. Ross was killed. On 
the ocean during this year and the beginning 
of 1815 the British vessels of war Epervier, 
Avon, Keindeer, Cyane, Levant, Penguin, and 
Nautilus were taken by the Americans, who 
on their part lost the frigates Essex and Presi- 
dent, both captured by greatly superior forces, 
besides two or three smaller vessels. After 
protracted negotiations a treaty of peace was 
signed at Ghent. Dec. 24, 1814, on the part of 
the United States, by Henry Clay, John Quin- 
cy Adams, Jonathan Russell, Jamts A. Bayard, 
and Albert Gallatin. The treaty provided for 
the mutual restoration of all territory taken 
during the war, and for the mutual appoint- 
ment of commissioners to determine the north- 
ern boundary of the United States. Nothing 
was said of the impressment of American sea- 
men, one of the main causes of the war, but 
the practice was discontinued. Before the 
news of peace could cross the Atlantic, a Brit- 
ish army 12,000 strong, led by Gens. Paken- 
hain, Gibbs, Keene, and Lambert, landed on the 
coast of Louisiana and made an attack on New 
Orleans, which was defended by Gen. Andrew 
Jackson with less than 5,000 men, chiefly mili- 
tia from Tennessee and Kentucky. The attack 
was repelled, Jan. 8, 1815, with a loss to the 
British of 2,000 killed, wounded, and prison- 
ers, while the Americans lost only a few men. 
The war from its beginning had been distaste- 
ful to the majority of the people of New Eng- 
land, who, being mostly federalists, regarded 
it not only as unnecessary and impolitic, but 
as waged chiefly to gratify democratic preju- 
dice against England and partiality for France. 
They suffered from it immense losses by the 
destruction of their commerce and their fish- 
eries, and the federal government did little 
or nothing for their protection from the en- 
emy. To remedy these evils the celebrated 
Hartford convention was held. (See HABT- 
FORD CONVENTION.) For many years the demo- 
crats continued to impute treasonable designs 
to that convention, and it was one of the 
causes which led to the decay and extinction 
of the federal party. In the latter part of 
1813 and the beginning of 1814 the country 
of the Creek Indians, within the present lim- 
its of Alabama, was invaded by four columns, 
one under Gen. Jackson, and that tribe was 
severely defeated and compelled to cede the 
greater part of its lands. During the war the 
Algerines had resumed their old practice of 
piracy, had seized several American vessels, 
and had insulted and plundered the American 
consul. Immediately after the conclusion of 
peace with Great Britain a naval force com- 
manded by Decatur was sent to the Mediterra- 
nean, which captured several Algerine cruisers, 
and in a few weeks compelled the rulers of Al- 
giers, Tunis, and Tripoli to moke indemnity 
for their outrages, and to agree to abstain 
from depredations on American commerce. 



UNITED STATES 



165 



The national finances were in a very confused 
state at the close of the war, the debt created 
by which exceeded $80,000,000. The banks, 
except in New England, had suspended specie 
payments, and the want of a uniform and sol- 
vent currency was urgently felt. To remedy 
this latter evil, congress in 1816 chartered for 
20 years a national bank at Philadelphia, with 
a capital of $35,000,000, whose notes furnished 
a convenient and uniform circulating medium, 
convertible at all times into gold and silver. 
The presidential election of 1812 had resulted 
in the choice of Mr. Madison for a second term 
by a vote of 128, against 89 for De "Witt Clin- 
ton, who was supported by the federalists. 
Elbridge Gerry was chosen vice president by 
131 votes to 86 for Jared Ingersoll. On the 
approach of the presidential election of 1816, 
James Monroe of Virginia, Mr. Madison's sec- 
retary of state, received the democratic nomi- 
nation, and in the election was chosen by 183 
votes, against 34 votes given to Rufus King 
by the federal states of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, and Delaware. Daniel D. Tomp- 
kins of New York was elected vice president. 
The administration of Mr. Madison terminated 
March 4, 1817. The war with Great Britain was 
its principal feature, but among other events 
of importance were the admission of Louisi- 
ana into the Union in 1812, and of Indiana in 
1816. President Monroe's cabinet was consti- 
tuted as follows : J. Q. Adams, secretary of 
state; William H. Crawford, of the treasury; 
John 0. Calhoun, of war ; Benjamin W. Crown- 
inshield, of the navy ; and William Wirt, attor- 
ney general. His administration commenced 
under very favorable circumstances. Party 
distinctions had so nearly disappeared, that 
democrats and federalists combined to support 
the government. Monroe was reflected in 
1820 by all the electoral votes except one. 
Daniel D. Tompkins was reflected vice presi- 
dent by nearly the same vote. In the spring 
of 1818 Gen. Jackson led a force against the 
Seminole Indians in Florida, and destroyed sev- 
eral of their villages. The main event of Mon- 
roe's administration was the Missouri controver- 
sy, by which for the first time the country was 
divided upon the slavery question. The admis- 
sions to the Union hitherto had been of slave- 
holding and non-slaveholding states in compen- 
sating order. Vermont and Kentucky, Tennes- 
see and Ohio, Louisiana and Indiana had offset 
each other; and in 1817 the slaveholding state 
of Mississippi was admitted, followed imme- 
diately in 1818 by non-slaveholding Illinois. 
Congress in its session of 1818-'19 authorized 
the territory of Alabama, which was rapidly 
filling with a slaveholding population, to form 
a constitution without any prohibition of sla- 
very. A similar bill was brought forward for 
the territory of Missouri, and James Tallmadge 
of New York moved in the house of represen- 
tatives to insert a clause prohibiting any further 
introduction of slaves, and granting freedom to 
the children of those already there on their 



attaining the age of 25 ; and this motion was 
carried by a vote of 87 to 76. A few days 
later John W. Taylor of New York moved 
as an amendment to a bill for the organiza- 
tion of the territory of Arkansas, that sla- 
very should not thereafter be introduced into 
any part of the territories ceded by France 
to the United States N. of lat. 36 30'. This 
was intended as a compromise, but was warm- 
ly opposed, a large number both of northern 
and southern members declaring themselves 
hostile to any compromise whatever, and the 
amendment was consequently withdrawn. The 
slaveholders contended that for congress to 
prohibit slavery in the territories would be a 
violation of the constitutional right of the citi- 
zen to enjoy his property anywhere within the 
jurisdiction of the United States. The restric- 
tionists, on the other hand, denied that men 
could be property under the jurisdiction of the 
United States, however the case might be un- 
der the laws of particular states; and they 
maintained that the constitutional question was 
conclusively settled by the action of the con- 
gress contemporaneous with the framing of the 
federal constitution, which in 1787 introduced 
into the bill for the government of the terri- 
tory N. W. of the Ohio the proviso that " there 
shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude in said territory, otherwise than in pun- 
ishment for crime." And in further confirma- 
tion of their views, they brought forward the 
fact that the most distinguished statesman of 
the south, Thomas Jefferson, had in 1784 in- 
troduced and urged with all his influence the 
passing of a bill in congress prohibiting slavery 
not only in all the territory held by the United 
States, but in all that might be afterward ac- 
quired. The debate on this subject was long 
and excited. The southern orators declared 
that if the restriction should be persisted in 
the south would retire and the Union be dis- 
solved. The senate refused to concur in the 
restriction imposed by the house, and conse- 
quently the Missouri bill failed for the ses- 
sion of 1818-'19. During the recess of con- 
gress a strong public agitation against sla- 
very arose in the middle states, and finally 
spread to New England, both democrats and 
federalists cooperating in it. Alabama was 
admitted into the Union early in the session of 
1819-'20, an event promptly followed by the 
admission of Maine. When the legislatures of 
the free states met in their annual session in 
1820, the agitation among the people on the 
slavery question was forcibly expressed by their 
representatives. Pennsylvania led off by a 
solemn appeal to the states "to refuse to cov- 
enant with crime," and by a unanimous decla- 
ration that it was the right and the duty of 
congress to prohibit slavery in the territories. 
The rest of the middle states also unanimously 
adopted similar resolutions. Ohio and Indiana 
took the same position ; and though the New 
England legislatures were silent, numerous 
memorials from towns, cities, and public meet- 



166 

ings there in favor of freedom were laid before 
congress. The legislatures of the slave states 
expressed themselves, on the other hand, very 
strongly in opposition to restriction. In con- 
gress the debate was long and acrimonious. 
The senate sent to the house the Missouri bill 
with the prohibition of slavery in that state 
struck out, but with the proviso that it should 
not thereafter be tolerated K of lat. 86 30'. 
The striking out of the restrictive clause was 
reluctantly assented to by the house by a vote 
of 90 to 87, a very few northern members vo- 
ting for it. The compromise by which slavery 
was prohibited for ever N". of 86 80' was then 
agreed to by a vote of 134 to 42. The north- 
ern states acquiesced in this compromise as a 
political necessity, and as finally settling a con- 
troversy dangerous to the peace and stability 
of the Union, and the slavery agitation sub- 
sided for a time. Missouri was finally admit- 
ted as a state in 1821. The other great ques- 
tion of Mr. Monroe's administration was the 
recognition of the Spanish American republics, 
which had declared and maintained their inde- 
pendence for several years. Chiefly by the 
efforts and the eloquence of Henry Clay, their 
independence was acknowledged in 1822 ; and 
ia the following year the president in his an- 
nual message put forth a declaration which has 
since been famous as the " Monroe doctrine. 1 ' 
In this it was announced that any attempt on 
the part of European governments to extend 
their system to any portion of this hemisphere 
would be considered dangerous to the peace 
and safety of the United States ; that the re- 
public would not interfere with existing colo- 
nies or dependencies, but would regard as the 
manifestation of an unfriendly disposition to 
the United States any attempt of a European 
power to oppress or control the destiny of the 
governments whose independence the United 
States had acknowledged. In 1819 Florida 
had been ceded by Spain. In the presidential 
election of 1824 the confused state of parties 
led to the nomination of four candidates, none 
of whom had a majority of the electoral votes. 
Andrew Jackson received 99, John Quincy 
Adams 84, William H. Crawford 41, and Hen- 
ry Clay 37. The election went to the house of 
representatives (the choice being between the 
three highest candidates), where Mr. Adams 
received the vote of 13 states, and was declared 
president ; while Jackson received the vote of 
7 and Crawford of 4 states. John C. Calhoun 
had been elected vice president by the electoral 
colleges, receiving 182 votes to 78 for all oth- 
ers. The total popular vote (the electors in 
six states being chosen by the legislature) was 
352,062, viz. : 155,872 for Jackson, 105,821 for 
Adams, 46,587 for Clay, and 44,282 for Craw- 
ford. The political views of Mr. Adams did 
not differ from those of Mr. Monroe, and his 
foreign and domestic policy was very similar. 
He appointed Henry Clay secretary of state, 
Richard Rush of the treasury, James Barbour 
of war, Samuel L. Southard of the navy, and 



William Wirt attorney general. His adminis- 
tration was remarkable for order, method, and 
economy, though party spirit was higher than 
it had been for many years. Perhaps the most 
important event in his term was the adoption 
of what was called the American system of 
protecting home manufactures by a heavy duty 
upon foreign articles of the same kind, a sys- 
tem popular in the manufacturing north, but 
bitterly opposed in portions of the agricultural 
south. A tariff law enacted in 1828 on the 
principle of protection led a few years later 
to serious political complications. The presi- 
dential contest of the same year was carried 
on with great animation and virulence, chiefly 
by means of discussions on the personal char- 
acter and history of the candidates, Gen. Jack- 
son having been nominated in opposition to 
Mr. Adams. The result was the election of 
Jackson by 178 votes to 83 for Adams, while 
John C. Calhoun was reflected vice president 
in opposition to Richard Rush. The popular 
vote was 647,231 for Jackson and 509,097 for 
Adams. President Jackson selected for his 
cabinet Martin Van Buren, secretary of state ; 
Samuel D. Ingham, of the treasury ; John H. 
Eaton, of war ; John Branch, of the navy ; 
John McPherson Berrien, attorney general ; 
and William T. Barry, postmaster general. 
The last named officer was now for the first 
time made a member of the cabinet. In his 
first annual message, December, 1829, the 
president took strong ground against the re- 
newal of the charter of the United States 
bank, as an institution not authorized by the 
constitution. A long and excited contest en- 
sued in congress and among the people on this 
question. Congress in 1882 passefl a bill to 
recharter the bank, but Jackson vetoed it ; 
and as it failed to receive the votes of two 
thirds of the members of both houses, the bank 
charter expired by limitation in 1836. The 
commercial part of the community in this con- 
test generally took the side of the bank, and 
the party formed in opposition to the presi- 
dent assumed the name of whig, while his sup- 
porters adhered to the old name of democrats. 
The tariff of 1828 had always been distasteful 
to the cotton-growing states, and on the pass- 
ing of an act of congress in the spring of 1832 
imposing additional duties upon foreign goods, 
the discontent of South Carolina broke out in 
almost actual rebellion. A state convention 
held there in November declared the tariff acts 
unconstitutional and therefore null and void, 
and proclaimed that any attempt by the gen- 
eral government to collect duties in the port of 
Charleston would be resisted by force of arms, 
and would produce the secession of South Car- 
olina from the Union. The chief leaders of 
the nullifiers, as this South Carolina party was 
called, from their assertion of the right of a 
state to nullify an act of congress which she 
deemed unconstitutional, were John C. Cal- 
houn, who had resigned the vice presidency 
and become a senator of the United States; 



UNITED STATES 



167 



Robert Y. Hayne, also a senator ; and George 
McDuffie, governor of the state. The nullifiers 
made considerable military preparations, and 
for a time civil war between South Carolina 
and tho federal government seemed inevitable. 
Jackson had just been reflected for a second 
term by 219 electoral votes, against a divided 
opposition which cast 49 votes for Henry Clay, 
11 for John Floyd, and 7 for William Wirt, 
while Mr. Van Buren was chosen vice presi- 
dent. The popular vote was 687,502 for Jack- 
son and 530,189 for his opponents. All the 
disposable army was' ordered to assemble at 
Charleston under Gen. Scott, and a ship of 
war was sent to that port to insure the col- 
lection of duties. A proclamation was issued, 
Dec. 10, 1832, denying the right of a state to 
nullify any act of the federal government, and 
warning all engaged in fomenting the rebel- 
lion that the laws against treason would be en- 
forced at all hazards and to their utmost pen- 
alties. The leaders of the nullifiers were also 
privately given to understand that if they com- 
mitted any overt act they should surely be 
hanged. The firmness of the president, who 
in this conjuncture was warmly supported by 
the great mass of the nation of all parties, 
gave an effectual check to the incipient rebel- 
lion, and the affair was finally settled by a 
proposition brought forward in congress by 
Henry Clay, the leading champion of the pro- 
tective system, for the modification of the tariff 
by a gradual reduction of the obnoxious du- 
ties ; a compromise which was accepted by the 
nullifiers as the only means of escape from 
the perilous position in which they had placed 
themselves. Meanwhile the president's vehe- 
mence in party matters had led to sweeping 
removals from office, and a personal quarrel 
to changes in the cabinet, which in the latter 
part of 1831 was constituted thus : Edward 
Livingston, secretary of state ; Louis McLane, 
of the treasury ; Lewis Cass, of war ; Levi 
Woodbury, of the navy; and Roger B. Taney, 
attorney general. Barry remained postmaster 
general. In his annual message in Decem- 
ber, 1832, the president recommended the re- 
moval of the public funds from the bank of 
the United States, where they were by law de- 
posited. Congress by a decisive vote refused 
to authorize the removal, and the president on 
his own responsibility directed the secretary 
of the treasury to withdraw the deposits and 
place them in certain state banks. That offi- 
cer refusing, he was removed, and Mr. Taney, 
the attorney general, appointed in his place, 
who complied with the order. This step was 
attended by a financial panic, and great com- 
mercial distress immediately ensued. A reso- 
lution censuring the president was passed in 
the senate, but the house of representatives 
sustained him. The foreign policy of President 
Jackson was very successful. Useful commer- 
cial treaties were made with several countries, 
and indemnities for spoliations on American 
commerce were obtained from France, Spain, 



Naples, and Portugal. At home the principal 
events of his administration, besides those al- 
ready mentioned, were the extinction of the na- 
tional debt, the beginning, toward the close of 
1835, of the war with the Seminole Indians in 
Florida, and the admission of Arkansas (1836) 
and Michigan (1837) into the Union. In the 
presidential contest of 1836 Mr. Van Buren, 
who was supported by the democrats, received 
170 electoral votes, and was elected ; while the 
opposition or whig vote was divided between 
William Henry Harrison (73), Hugh L. White 
(26), Daniel Webster (14), and Willie P. Man- 
gum (11). No candidate having been elected 
vice president, Richard M. Johnson, who had 
received the highest number of votes (147, 
against 77 for Francis Granger, 47 for John 
Tyler, and 23 for William Smith), was chosen 
by the senate. The popular vote was 761,549 
for Van Buren and 736,656 for the opposition 
candidates. President Van Buren selected as 
his cabinet, John Forsyth, secretary of state; 
Levi Woodbury, of the treasyry ; Joel R. Poin- 
sett, of war ; Mahlon Dickerson, of the navy ; 
B. F. Butler, attorney general ; and Amos Ken- 
dall, postmaster general. All of these except 
Mr. Poinsett had been members of President 
Jackson's cabinet at the close of his last term ; 
but several changes were subsequently made, 
James K. Paulding becoming secretary of the 
navy and Felix Grundy attorney general in 
1838, Henry D. Gilpin attorney general and 
John M. Niles postmaster general in 1840. 
The new administration commenced under 
most untoward circumstances. ' The business 
of the country, affected by excessive specula- 
tion and overtrading, and by sudden contrac- 
tions and expansions of the currency, was on 
the verge of ruin. Within two months after 
the inauguration of the president the mercan- 
tile failures in the city of New York alone 
amounted to more than $100,000,000. Nearly 
the whole of Mr. Van Buren's term was occu- 
pied with attempts to remedy these evils by 
legislative measures for the establishment of a 
stable currency and a sound system of govern- 
ment finance. A favorite measure of the pres- 
ident was the independent treasury system for 
the custody of the public funds, which was 
ultimately sanctioned by congress, and is still 
in force. The war with the Seminoles was 
not ended till 1842. The pecuniary troubles 
were imputed in great measure to the finan- 
cial policy of the administration by its political 
opponents ; and, as the presidential election of 
1840 approached, the state elections indicated 
that the democratic party was in danger of 
overthrow. A whig national convention (the 
congressional caucus system for nominating 
candidates having been abandoned) was held 
at Harrisburg, Dec. 4, 1839, and Gen. Harri- 
son was nominated for president, with John 
Tyler for vice president. The national demo- 
cratic convention met at Baltimore, May 5, 
1840, and unanimously nominated Mr. Van 
Buren. The canvass was one of the most ani- 



168 



UNITED STATES 



mated and exciting that have ever taken place, 
and the result was that Harrison and Tyler 
each received 234 electoral votes, and Van 
Buren 60 (those of New Hampshire, Virginia, 
South Carolina, Illinois, Alabama, Missouri, 
and Arkansas), while the same number were 
divided between K. M. Johnson, L. W. Taze- 
well, and James K. Polk as democratic candi- 
dates for the vice presidency. The popular 
vote was 1,275,011 for Harrison and 1,128,702 
for Van Buren. Gen. Harrison was inaugura- 
ted March 4, 1841, and selected as his cabinet 
Daniel Webster, secretary of state; Thomas 
Ewing, of the treasury; John Bell, of war; 
George E. Badger, of the navy ; Francis Gran- 
ger, postmaster general ; and J. J. Crittenden, 
attorney general. Before any distinctive line 
of policy could be adopted by the new admin- 
istration, the president died, April 4. The 
presidential office devolved on John Tyler, who 
retained the cabinet of his predecessor until 
the following September, when all but the sec- 
retary of state resigned in consequence of the 
unexpected development of a policy on the 
part of the president in relation to a national 
bank much more in accordance with the views 
of the democratic party, to which he had 
formerly been attached, than to those of the 
whigs, by whom he had been elevated to pow- 
er. A treaty was concluded in 1842 with Great 
Britain by Mr. Webster for the settlement of 
the northeastern boundary. On April 12, 
1844, a treaty to annex Texas to the United 
States was concluded by Mr. Calhoun and the 
agents of the 'new republic, but was rejected 
by the senate, on the ground that it would in- 
volve the country in a war with Mexico. The 
Texas question immediately became the promi- 
nent issue in the presidential contest of that 
year, the democratic party supporting and the 
whigs opposing annexation. At the south it 
was advocated as a means of strengthening tlie 
slavery interest, and at the north it was in 
great part opposed for the same reason, the 
anti-slavery element in both the parties being 
at this period of considerable strength. The 
friends of Texas soon obtained control of the 
democratic party, and, Mr. Van Buren having 
expressed unconditional opposition to annexa- 
tion, at the national convention of that party 
at Baltimore, May 27, 1844, James K. Polk 
was nominated for president, and George M. 
Dallas for vice president. The whig national 
convention, which met at Baltimore May 1, had 
already nominated for president Henry Clay, 
and for vice president Theodore Frelinghuysen. 
The result of the election was 170 electoral 
votes for Polk and Dallas, and 105 for the whig 
candidates. The popular vote was 1,337,243 
for Polk and 1,299,062 for Clay. The manage- 
ment of the Texas question was now assumed 
by congress, and joint resolutions for annexing 
that country to the United States as one of the 
states of the Union were signed fty President 
Tyler March 1, 1845 ; and his last important 
official act was to sign two days later the bill 



for the admission of Florida and Iowa into the 
Union. President Polk appointed as his cabi- 
net James Buchanan, secretary of state ; Rob- 
ert J. Walker, of the treasury; William L. 
Marcy, of war ; George Bancroft, of the navy ; 
Cave Johnson, postmaster general; and John 
Y. Mason, attorney general. At the beginning 
of his administration the country was involved 
in disputes with Mexico, growing out of the an- 
nexation of Texas to the United States. Gen. 
Zachary Taylor was sent with a small army to 
occupy the region between the Nueces and the 
Rio Grande, which the United States claimed 
as belonging to Texas, while the Mexicans 
maintained that Texas had never extended be- 
yond the Nueces. In April, 1846, a slight col- 
lision occurred on the Rio Grande between 
Gen. Taylor's army and that of the Mexican 
commander, Gen. Arista. On May 11 the 
president sent a special message to congress 
declaring that " war existed by the act of 
Mexico," and asking for men and money to 
carry it on. Congress, by a vote of 142 to 14 
in the house, and of 40 to 2 in the senate, ap- 
propriated $10,000,000, and gave authority to 
call out 50,000 volunteers. Taylor meanwhile 
had defeated the Mexicans at Palo Alto, May 
8, and at Resaca de la Palma, May 9, and on 
being reenforced continued the war by brilliant 
victories at Monterey in September, and at 
Buena Vista, Feb. 23, 1847. (See TAYLOB, 
ZACHARY.) The conduct of the war was now 
assumed by Gen. Scott, commanding in chief. 
On March fl, 1847, he landed near Vcra Cruz 
with about 12,000 men; that city was imme- 
diately besieged, and surrendered before the 
end of the month. Gen. Scott entered the city 
of Mexico on Sept. 14, after a series of hard- 
fought and uniformly successful battles. (See 
SCOTT, WINFIELD.) Meanwhile Gen. Stephen 
W. Kearny, at the head of a small force, had 
marched from Fort Leavenworth over the great 
plains to Santa Fe, and conquered New Mexico 
in August, 1846. He instituted an American 
government over the province, and then re- 
sumed his march toward California, which had 
already been conquered by Col. Fremont and 
Commodore Stockton. On his arrival at Mon- 
terey, Gen. Kearny assumed the office of gover- 
nor, and on Feb. 8, 1847, proclaimed the annex- 
ation of California to the United States. While 
Kearny was on his way to California, Col. Doni- 
phan, at the head of 1,000 Missouri volunteers, 
had made a prodigious march across the plains, 
and taken the city of Chihuahua, after routing, 
Feb. 28, 4,000 Mexicans, who met him about 
18 m. from the city. Gen. Scott's army occu- 
pied the Mexican capital until after the ratifi- 
cation of a treaty of peace which was nego- 
tiated at Guadalupe Hidalgo, Feb. 2, 1848, by 
Nicholas P. Trist on the part of the United 
States. By this treaty Mexico granted to the 
United States the line of the Rio Grande as a 
boundary, and also ceded New Mexico and 
California. On their part the United States 
agreed to pay Mexico $15,000,000, and to as- 



UNITED STATES 



169 



sume the debts due by Mexico to American 
citizens to an extent not exceeding $3,500,000. 
At the beginning of the Mexican war negotia- 
tions in relation to the Oregon region were 
going on between Great Britain and the United 
States. " The whole of Oregon up to 54 40' " 
had been one of the watchwords of the demo- 
cratic party during the recent presidential can- 
vass, and Mr. Polk in his inaugural address had 
declared that " our title to the cpuntry of the 
Oregon was clear and unquestionable." But 
Great Britain, on various pretexts, asserted a 
claim to the whole country, and the president 
after much negotiation finally offered as an 
amicable compromise the boundary of the par- 
allel of 49, with a modification giving to her 
the whole of Vancouver island, which was 
agreed to by Great Britain. The other im- 
portant measures of Mr. Folk's administration 
were the revision of the tariff in 1846, by 
which its protective features were lessened, 
and the admission (1848) of Wisconsin into 
the Union as the 30th state, Florida and Texas 
having been admitted in 1845, and Iowa in 
1846. In the democratic national convention 
which met at Baltimore May 22, 1848, Lewis 
Cass was nominated for president, and Wil- 
liam 0. Butler for vice president. By the 
whig convention, which met at Philadelphia 
on June 7, Zachary Taylor and Millard Fill- 
more were nominated. The question of sla- 
very had a powerful influence on the politi- 
cal combinations of this period. After the 
subsidence of the Missouri agitation in 1821, 
slavery attracted little attention until the es- 
tablishment of the " Liberator " newspaper 
by William Lloyd Garrison at Boston, Jan. 1, 
1831, -and the formation of anti-slavery socie- 
ties in the free states in 1832-'3 by Arthur 
Tappan and others. These societies relied ex- 
clusively on moral and religious influences to 
promote emancipation, and avoided political 
action, affirming that congress had no right 
to interfere with slavery in the states, though 
they petitioned that body to abolish slavery 
in the territories, in the District of Columbia, 
and wherever else the federal government had 
constitutional jurisdiction. Violent attempts 
were made to suppress the agitation through- 
out the country, resulting in many places in 
serious riots. Several of the southern legisla- 
tures called upon those of the north to sup- 
press the movement by penal enactments. 
President Jackson in his message to congress 
in 1835 recommended the adoption of a law 
prohibiting the circulation of anti-slavery pub- 
lications through the mails ; and a bill for that 
purpose reached a third reading in the senate, 
but was finally rejected. In the house of rep- 
resentatives a rule was adopted in 1836 that all 
anti-slavery petitions should be laid on the 
table without reference or consideration ; this 
rule was finally rescinded in 1845. In 1840 a 
disagreement among the abolitionists led to 
their separation into two divisions, one of 
which, consisting only of a few hundred men, 



under the lead of Mr. Garrison, in 1844 took 
the position that the compromises of the con- 
stitution on the subject of slavery were im- 
moral, and that consequently it was sinful to 
swear to support that instrument or to hold 
office or vote under it, and that the union of 
the states was " an agreement with hell and a 
covenant with death," which ought to be at 
once dissolved. The other and far more nu- 
merous division of the abolitionists, with whom 
the followers of Mr. Garrison were often er- 
roneously confounded, adhered to the Union 
and the constitution, and, having become satis- 
fied that both the whig and democratic parties 
were completely under the control of the slave- 
holders, established in 1840 the "liberty party," 
and at a national convention held at Albany 
nominated James G. Birney for president and 
Thomas Earle for vice president. Their entire 
vote at the election of 1840 was 7,059. In 
1844 Mr. Birney was again nominated for 
president, with Thomas Morris for vice presi- 
dent, and received 62,300 votes. These figures, 
however, imperfectly represented the numbers 
of the opponents of slavery, most of whom 
still maintained their connection with the two 
great parties, on whose action they had a pow- 
erful influence. In 1846, during the Mexican 
war, a bill being before congress authorizing 
the president to use $2,000,000 in negotiating 
a peace, David Wilrnot, a democratic represen- 
tative from Pennsylvania, moved to add there- 
to the proviso that, " as an express and funda- 
mental condition to the acquisition of any ter- 
ritory from the republic of Mexico by the 
United States, by virtue of any treaty to be 
negotiated between them, and to the use by 
the executive of the moneys herein appro- 
priated, neither slavery nor involuntary servi- 
tude shall ever exist in any part of said terri- 
tory, except for crime, whereof the party shall 
be first duly convicted." This proviso was 
adopted in the house, nearly all the members 
from the free states voting for it, but failed 
in the senate from want of time. At the 
next session, 1846-' 7, a similar bill appropri- 
ating $3,000,000 was finally passed without 
the proviso. On the termination of the war, 
the practical question involved in the Wil- 
mot proviso, whether the introduction of sla- 
very should be allowed or prohibited in the 
territories newly acquired from Mexico, be- 
came of prominent interest. In the whig na- 
tional convention by which Gen. Taylor was 
nominated were several delegates from the 
northern states representing what were called 
" free-soil " opinions, that is, opinions hostile 
to the extension of slavery ; several of these 
withdrew on the rejection of a resolution com- 
mitting the party against the introduction or 
existence of slavery in the territories, and sub- 
sequently separated themselves from the whig 
party. A similar schism had already taken 
place in the democratic national convention of 
the same year, the " barnburners," as the free- 
soil democrats were termed, having seceded 



170 



UNITED STATES 



partly on anti-slavery and partly on personal 
grounds. An agreement was soon made be- 
tween these seceding whigs and democrats and 
the liberty party to unite their forces in oppo- 
sition to the extension of slavery ; and a con- 
vention was held at Buffalo, Aug. 9, 1848, 
which was attended by delegates from all the 
free states and from Delaware, Maryland, Vir- 
ginia, and the District of Columbia. A free- 
soil or free democratic party was formed, and 
Martin Van Buren was nominated for presi- 
dent and Charles Francis Adams for vice presi- 
dent. A platform was adopted, declaring that 
the new party was formed " to maintain the 
rights of free labor against the aggressions of 
the slave power, and to secure free soil to a 
free people ; that slavery, in the several states 
of this Union which recognize its existence, de- 
pends upon the state laws alone, which cannot 
be repealed or modified by the general govern- 
ment, and for which laws that government is 
not responsible; we therefore propose no in- 
terference by congress with slavery within the 
limits of any state ; that the only safe means of 
preventing an extension of slavery into terri- 
tory now free is to prohibit its extension in all 
such territory by an act of congress ; that we 
accept the issue which the slave power has 
forced upon us, and to their demand for more 
slave states and more slave territory, our calm 
but final answer is, no more slave states and 
no more slave territory." Van Buren and 
Adams received at the presidential election, in 
November, 1848, a popular vote of 291,263, but 
secured no electoral vote. The democratic 
candidates, Cass and Butler, received 127 elec- 
toral votes; and the whig candidates, Taylor 
and Fillmore, received 163 electoral votes, and 
were elected. The popular vote for Taylor 
was 1,360,099 and for Cass 1,220,544. Presi- 
dent Taylor was inaugurated on Monday, March 
5, 1849, and appointed as his cabinet John 
M. Clayton, secretary of state ; William M. 
Meredith, of the treasury ; George W. Craw- 
ford, of war; William B. Preston, of the navy ; 
Thomas Ewing, of the interior (nn office cre- 
ated by congress two days before, March 3, 
1849) ; Jacob Collamer, postmaster general ; 
and Reverdy Johnson, attorney general. One 
of the earliest and most difficult of the questions 
which pressed on the new administration arose 
out of the acquisition of California, the people 
of which in 1849 framed a constitution prohibit- 
ing slavery. This being presented to congress 
early in 1850 with a petition for the admis- 
sion of that region as a state, great excitement 
in congress and throughout the country arose. 
The extreme slavery party, led by Mr. Calhoun, 
demanded not only the rejection of California, 
but, among other concessions, an amendment 
of the constitution that should equalize the 
political power of the free and slave states. 
The question was still further complicated by 
the application of New Mexico for admission, 
and by a claim brought forward by Texas to a 
western line of boundary which would include 



a large portion of New Mexico. Finally a com- 
promise was proposed by Henry Clay in the 
senate as a final settlement of the whole ques- 
tion of slavery, and after a long discussion the 
result aimed at by Mr. Clay was attained by 
separate acts, which provided for: 1, the ad- 
mission of California as a free state ; 2, terri- 
torial governments for New Mexico and Utah 
without excluding slavery, but leaving its ex- 
clusion or admission to the local population ; 
3, the settlement of the Texas boundary ques- 
tion ; 4, the abolition of the slave trade in the 
District of Columbia; 5, the enactment of a 
stringent law for the arrest and return of fugi- 
tive slaves. Ten of the southern senators, in- 
cluding Mason and Hunter of Virginia, Soule 
of Louisiana, and Jefferson Davis of Mis- 
sissippi, published a final protest against the 
admission of California after the vote was 
taken ; and the free-soil party at the north de- 
nounced the concessions to Texas and the re- 
fusal to prohibit slavery in New Mexico and 
Utah as unjust and unwise, and proclaimed the 
fugitive slave law unconstitutional, immoral, 
and cruel. While the compromise bills were 
yet before congress, President Taylor died, 
July 9, 1850, and was succeeded by the vice 
president, Millard Fillmore, who soon after 
reconstructed the cabinet as follows : Daniel 
Webster, secretary of state ; Thomas Corwin, 
of the treasury ; Charles M. Conrad, of war ; 
Alexander H. H. Stuart, of the interior ; Wil- 
liam A. Graham, of the navy ; Nathan K. Hall, 
postmaster general ; and John J. Crittenden, 
attorney general. The acts relating to Cali- 
fornia, New Mexico, Utah, and Texas were 
signed by Mr. Fillmore on Sept. 9, the fugitive 
slave act on the 18th, and the District of Co- 
lumbia act on the 20th ; and the whole weight 
of his administration was given to the support 
of these measures. During the remainder of 
his term the events of most importance were 
the invasion of Cuba, in August, 1851, by a 
band of "filibusters" from New Orleans, led 
by Gen. Lopez, who was speedily captured and 
executed with many of his followers ; the visit 
of Louis Kossuth to the United States in Decem- 
ber, 1851 ; a dispute with England on the subject 
of the fisheries in 1852, which was settled by 
mutual concessions ; and lastly the negotiation 
of a treaty with Japan by Commodore Perry, 
in command of an American fleet, by which 
the commerce of that empire was thrown open 
to the world. On the approach of the presi- 
dential election of 1852 it became evident that, 
notwithstanding the apparent acquiescence of 
the great mass of the people in the compromise 
measures of 1850, the question of slavery was 
still a source of political agitation. The demo- 
crats of the south were divided into " Union 
men" and "southern rights men," the latter 
maintaining the right of a state to secede from 
the Union whenever its rights were violated 
by the general government. On the other 
hand, the whigs of the south were mostly 
Union men and satisfied with the compromise 



UNITED STATES 



171 



measures, while a majority of the whigs of the 
north were opposed to the fugitive slave law, 
though not offering resistance to its execution, 
and were still desirous of preventing the ex- 
tension of slavery by national legislation. The 
democratic national convention met at Balti- 
more, June 1, 1852, and nominated for presi- 
dent Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, who 
was known to hold opinions satisfactory to the 
south on the subject of slavery. William E. 
King of Alabama was nominated for vice presi- 
dent. The platform declared resistance to " all 
attempts at renewing in congress or out of it 
the agitation of the slavery question, under 
whatever shape or color the attempt may be 
made ;" and also a determination to " abide by 
and adhere to a faithful execution of the acts 
known as the compromise measures settled by 
the last congress, the act for reclaiming fugi- 
tives from service or labor included." The 
whig national convention met at Baltimore, 
June 16, and nominated for president Gen. 
Winfield Scott and for vice president "William 
A. Graham of North Carolina. The platform 
declared that " the series of acts of the 31st 
congress, commonly known as the compromise 
or adjustment, the act for the recovery of fu- 
gitives from labor included, are received and 
acquiesced in by the whigs of the United States 
as a final settlement in principle and substance 
of the subjects to which they relate ; . . . . 
and we deprecate all further agitation of the 
questions thus settled, as dangerous to our 
peace, and will discountenance all efforts to 
continue or renew such agitation, whenever, 
wherever, or however made." The national 
convention of the free-soil party was held at 
Pittsburgh, Aug. 11, all the free states being 
represented, together with Delaware, Maryland, 
Virginia, and Kentucky. John P. Hale was 
nominated for president, and George W. Ju- 
lian for vice president. A platform was adopt- 
ed declaring " that the acts of congress known 
as the compromise measures of 1850, by making 
the admission of a sovereign state contingent 
upon the adoption of other measures demanded 
by the special interest of slavery, by their 
omission to guarantee freedom in the free ter- 
ritories, by their attempt to impose uncon- 
stitutional limitations on the power of congress 
and the people to admit new states, and by 
their invasion of the sovereignty of the states 
and the liberties of the people through the 
enactment of an unjust, oppressive, and un- 
constitutional fugitive slave law, are proved 
to be inconsistent with all the principles and 
maxims of democracy, and wholly inadequate 
to the settlement of the questions of which 
they are claimed to be an adjustment. That 
no permanent settlement of the slavery ques- 
tion can be looked for except in the practical 
recognition of the truth that slavery is sec- 
tional and freedom national ; by the total sepa- 
ration of the general government from slavery, 
and the exercise of its legitimate and constitu- 
tional influence on the side of freedom ; and 



by leaving to the states the whole subject of 
slavery and the extradition of fugitives from 
justice." At the election, Nov. 2, 1852, the 
democratic candidates, Pierce and King, re- 
ceived 254 electoral votes from 27 states. Scott 
and Graham received the 42 votes of Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Kentucky, and Tennes- 
see. The popular vote for Pierce and King 
was 1,601,474, for Scott and Graham 1,386,578, 
and for Hale and Julian 155,825. President 
Pierce was inaugurated March 4, 1853, and 
appointed as his cabinet William L. Marcy, 
secretary of state ; James Guthrie, of the trea- 
sury ; Jefferson Davis, of war ; James C. Dob- 
bin, of the navy; Robert McClelland, of the 
interior ; James Campbell, postmaster general ; 
and Caleb Gushing, attorney general. One of 
the first questions that occupied the admin- 
istration was a boundary dispute with Mex- 
ico concerning a tract of land bordering on 
New Mexico and comprising 45,535 sq. m., 
which finally by negotiation and purchase be- 
came a part of the United States. It is known 
as the Gadsden purchase, from the American 
minister who negotiated the treaty, and forms 
part of Arizona and New Mexico. In 1653 va- 
rious expeditions were sent out to explore the 
routes proposed for a railroad from the Missis- 
sippi to the Pacific. In January, 1854, Stephen 
A. Douglas, chairman of the senate committee 
on territories, reported a bill for the organiza- 
tion of two new territories, Kansas and Ne- 
braska, in the region west of Missouri and north 
of lat. 36 30'. By this bill the Missouri com- 
promise act of 1820 was repealed, and slavery 
allowed to enter where it had been formally 
and for ever excluded. The measure was 
warmly supported by the administration and 
by the leaders of the democratic party, and 
was strenuously opposed in debates of extraor- 
dinary length and interest by Chase and Wade 
of Ohio, Everett and Sumner of Massachusetts, 
Seward of New York, Fessenden of Maine, 
Houston of Texas, and Bell of Tennessee, in 
the senate, where it finally passed by a vote 
of 37 to 14. In the house it was opposed by 
Thomas H. Benton of Missouri and others; 
but it passed by a vote of 113 to 100, and the 
bill became a law on the last day of May. This 
bill roused great excitement and indignation 
in the free states, where it was denounced as 
a flagrant breach of faith, and its enactment 
greatly increased the strength of the anti- 
slavery party. Much dissatisfaction also was 
caused in those states by a conference at Os- 
tend between the United States ministers to 
England, France, and Spain (Buchanan, Mason, 
and Soul6), in the circular issued by whom it 
was proposed to buy Cuba from Spain, or, if, 
necessary to prevent emancipation in the isl- 
and, to take it by force. The attempt to ob- 
tain Cuba was regarded at the north as prompt- 
ed, like the repeal of the Missouri compromise, 
chiefly by a desire to extend and strengthen 
the slaveholding influence in the United States. 
So also were the filibuster expeditions against 



172 



UNITED STATES 



Nicaragua led by William Walker, whose en- 
voy at Washington, Vijil, was formally recog- 
nized by the president in 1856. (See WALKER, 
WILLIAM.) As, by the terms of the Kansas 
and Nebraska act,- the people of those terri- 
tories were to be left free to determine for 
themselves whether or not slavery should be 
tolerated there, a struggle soon began in Kan- 
sas, to which chiefly emigration was directed, 
between the anti-slavery and pro-slavery par- 
tie's, which, after many acts of violence and a 
long period of confusion amounting almost to 
civil war, terminated in the adoption by the 
people of Kansas of a state constitution ex- 
cluding slavery. (See KANSAS.) In the course 
of the debates on the Kansas question Mr. 
Sumner of Massachusetts made a speech in 
the senate, May 19 and 20, 1856, and two 
days afterward was assailed in the senate 
chamber by Preston S. Brooks of South 
Carolina for expressions therein, and so much 
injured that he was long unable to resume 
his duties. This event increased still further 
the anti-slavery feeling at the north ; and 
when the canvass for president began in 1856, 
an anti-slavery party appeared in the field of 
far more formidable dimensions than any pre- 
vious organization of the kind. This party 
assumed the name of republican, and absorbed 
the entire free-soil party, the greater part of 
the whig party, and considerable accessions 
from the democratic party. The first deci- 
sive exhibition of its strength was the election 
in the congress of 1855-'6 of N. P. Banks, a 
former democrat, as speaker of the house of 
representatives. The whig party about this 
period disappeared from the field, that por- 
tion of it opposed to anti-slavery measures 
having been merged, especially at the south, 
in an organization called the American party 
from its opposition to foreign influence, and 
particularly to Roman Catholic influence, in 
our political affairs, but popularly known as 
the " Know-Nothing party " from the secrecy 
of its organization and the reticence of its 
members. This party held a national conven- 
tion at Philadelphia, Feb. 22, 1856, and, after 
adopting a platform virtually recognizing the 
principles of the Kansas-Nebraska act and 
approving the fugitive slave law, nominated 
Millard Fillmore for president, and Andrew J. 
Donelson of Tennessee for vice president. The 
democratic national convention met at Cin- 
cinnati, June 2, and reaffirmed the Baltimore 
platform of 1852, with the addition of resolu- 
tions condemning the principles of the Ameri- 
can party, recognizing the Kansas-Nebraska 
act as the only safe solution of the slavery 
question, affirming the duty of upholding state 
rights and the Union, and assenting gener- 
ally to the doctrines of the Ostend circular. 
James Buchanan of Pennsylvania was nomi- 
nated for president, and John C. Breckin- 
ridge of Kentucky for vice president. The re- 
publican national convention met at Philadel- 
phia, June 17, and adopted a platform declaring 



that "the maintenance of the principles pro- 
mulgated in the -Declaration of Independence 
and embodied in the federal constitution is 
essential to the preservation of our republican 
institutions, and that the federal constitution, 
the rights of the states, and the union of the 
states shall be preserved;" and that "the consti- 
tution confers upon congress sovereign power 
over the territories of the United States for 
their government, and in the exercise of this 
power it is the right and the duty of congress 
to prohibit in the territories those twin relics 
of barbarism, polygamy and slavery." John 
C. Fremont of California was nominated for 
president, and William L. Dayton of New Jer- 
sey for vice president. The election resulted 
in the choice of Buchanan and Breckinridge 
by 174 electoral votes, against 114 for Fremont 
and 8 for Fillmore. The popular vote for Bu- 
chanan was 1,888,169, for Fremont 1,841,264, 
and for Fillmore 874,584. Fillmore received 
the vote of Maryland, Buchanan the votes of 
all the other slave states and of New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois, and California 
(19 in all), and Fremont those of the 11 remain- 
ing free states. President Buchanan appointed 
as his cabinet Lewis Cass, secretary of state ; 
Howell Cobb, of the treasury; John B. Floyd, 
of war; Isaac Toucey, of the navy; Jacob 
Thompson, of the interior; Aaron V. Brown, 
postmaster general; and Jeremiah 8. Black, 
attorney general. With the exception of a re- 
bellion of the Mormons in Utah in 1867-'8, 
which was suppressed without bloodshed, and 
of the admission into the Union of Minnesota 
in 1858 and of Oregon in 1859, the chief inter- 
est of Mr. Buchanan's administration centred 
around the slavery controversy, which still con- 
tinued in Kansas, in the halls of congress, and 
in the legislatures of the free states. Several 
of the latter bodies, under the influence of a 
growing public opinion in opposition to the jus- 
tice and constitutionality of the fugitive slave 
law, passed acts designed to impede its opera- 
tion, and to secure to alleged fugitives the 
right to trial by jury nnd to the legal assistance 
usually given to those charged with criminal 
offences. These acts were commonly called 
personal liberty laws. An important element 
in the slavery controversy was the decision of 
the supreme court in the case of Dred Scott, 
rendered soon after the inauguration of Presi- 
dant Buchanan. (See TANEY, ROGER BROOKE.) 
A constitution for Kansas framed at Lecomp- 
ton in 1857 was laid before congress in the 
session of 1857-'8, nnd was strongly opposed 
by the republicans on the ground that it had 
been fraudulently concocted by the pro-slavery 
party there, that it did not represent the 
wishes of the people of Kansas, and that some 
of its provisions were cunningly framed for 
the purpose of forcing slavery into the new 
state in spite of the opposition of the in- 
habitants. A powerful section of the demo- 
cratic party, headed by Stephen A. Douglas, 
sided with the republicans in this matter ; but 



UNITED STATES 



173 



the so-called " Lecompton bill," submitting this 
constitution to the people under certain con- 
ditions, after a parliamentary struggle of ex- 
traordinary intensity and duration, was passed 
by congress by the votes of the democratic 
majority, led in the house by Alexander H. 
Stephens of Georgia, and in the senate by Jef- 
ferson Davis of Mississippi, John M. Mason of 
Virginia, and John Slidell of Louisiana. The 
president lent all his influence to the measure, 
on the ground that it would pacify the country, 
and would not prevent Kansas from becoming 
a free state if the people desired to exclude 
slavery. This contest resulted in a schism in 
the democratic party, and eventually in its di- 
vision into two bodies, one of which looked 
upon Mr. Douglas as its leader, while the other 
supported for the presidency John 0. Breckin- 
ridge of Kentucky. An attempt to free slaves 
by force of arms, made at Harper's Ferry 
in October, 1859, by John Brown of Kansas, 
for which he was hanged by the authorities of 
Virginia, Dec. 2, created a profound sensation 
throughout the country. (See BROWN, JOHN, 
vol. in., p. 338.) In January, 1861, after the 
withdrawal pf southern members of congress, 
Kansas was admitted into the Union under a 
constitution framed at Wyandotte in 1859. 
The democratic national convention met at 
Charleston, April 23, 1860, and a controversy 
on the subject of slavery immediately arose. 
On the 30th a platform was adopted by a vote 
of 165 to 138, the essential portion of which 
was as follows : " Inasmuch as differences of 
opinion exist in the democratic party as to the 
nature and extent of the powers of a territo- 
rial legislature, and as to the powers and du- 
ties of congress, under the constitution of the 
United States, over the institution of slavery 
within the territories ; resolved, that the demo- 
cratic party will abide by the decisions of the 
supreme court of the United States on the 
questions of constitutional law." Most of the 
southern delegates thereupon withdrew, and on 
May 3 the convention adjourned to meet at 
Baltimore on June 18, after recommending that 
the vacant seats be filled prior to that date. 
The seceding delegates met, adopted a plat- 
form, and adjourned after calling a convention 
to assemble at Kichmond on June 11. The 
portion of their platform relating to slavery 
was as follows: "That the government of a 
territory organized by an act of congress is 
provisional and temporary ; and, during its ex- 
istence, all citizens of the United States have 
an equal right to settle with their property in 
the territory, without their rights, either of 
person or property, being destroyed or im- 
paired by congressional or territorial legisla- 
tion. That it is the duty of the federal govern- 
ment, in all its departments, to protect, when 
necessary, the rights of persons and property 
in the territories, and wherever else its consti- 
tutional authority extends. That when the 
settlers in a territory having an adequate pop- 
ulation form a state constitution, the right of 



sovereignty commences, and, being consum- 
mated by admission into the Union, they stand 
on an equal footing with the people of other 
states ; and the state thus organized ought to be 
admitted into the federal Union, whether its con- 
stitution prohibits or recognizes the institution 
of slavery." The regular convention assembled 
in Baltimore pursuant to adjournment, and 
nominated Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois for 
president and Benjamin Fitzpatrick of Ala- 
bama for vice president, though a further with- 
drawal of delegates took place. Mr. Fitzpat- 
rick subsequently declined, and Herschel V. 
Johnson of Georgia was substituted by the 
national committee. The convention called 
by the seceding delegates met first at Kich- 
mond, but adjourned, and convened finally at 
Baltimore on June 23, when it adopted the 
Charleston platform and nominated John C. 
Breckinridge of Kentucky for president and 
Joseph Lane of Oregon for vice president. 
The " Constitutional Union " party, composed 
mainly of the American party, held its national 
convention at Baltimore May 9, and nominated 
for president John Bell of Tennessee, and for 
vice president Edward Everett of Massachu- 
setts. This party declared that it recognized 
" no political principle other than the constitu- 
tion of the country, the union of the states, 
and the enforcement of the laws." The re- 
publican national convention assembled at Chi- 
cago on May 16, and nominated for president 
Abraham Lincoln of Illinois, and for vice pre- 
sident Hannibal Hamlin of Maine. The por- 
tion of the platform adopted by the convention 
relating to slavery was as follows : " That the 
maintenance of the principle promulgated in 
the Declaration of Independence and embodied 
in the federal constitution, ' that all men are 
created equal ; that they are endowed by their 
Creator with certain unalienable rights; that 
among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit 
of happiness ; that to secure these rights gov- 
ernments are instituted among men, deriving 
their just powers from the consent of the gov- 
erned,' is essential to the preservation of our 
republican institutions; and that the federal 
constitution, the rights of the states, and the 
union of the states, must and shall be pre- 
served. That the maintenance inviolate of 
the rights of the states, and especially the 
right of each state to order and control its 
own domestic institutions according to its own 
judgment exclusively, is essential to that bal- 
ance of powers on which the perfection and 
endurance of our political fabric depend ; and 
we denounce the lawless invasion by armed 
force of the soil of any state or territory, no 
matter under what pretext, as among the 
gravest of crimes. That the new dogma that 
the constitution, of its own force, carries sla- 
very into any or all of the territories of the 
United States, is a dangerous political heresy, 
at variance with the explicit provisions of that 
instrument itself, with contemporaneous ex- 
position, and with legislative and judicial pre- 



1Y4 



UNITED STATES 



cedent; is revolutionary in its tendency, and 
subversive of the peace and harmony of the 
country. That the normal condition of all the 
territory of the United States is that of free- 
dom; that, as our republican fathers, when 
they had abolished slavery in all our national 
territory, ordained that ' no person should be 
deprived of life, liberty, or property, without 
due process of law,' it becomes our duty, by 
legislation whenever such legislation is neces- 
sary, to maintain this provision of the consti- 
tution against all attempts to violate it ; and 
we deny the authority of congress, of a terri- 
torial legislature, or of any individuals to give 
legal existence to slavery in any territory of 
the United States." In the presidential elec- 
tion of Nov. 6, 1860, Mr. Lincoln received the 
electoral votes of all the free states (except 
three votes in New Jersey, which were given 
to Mr. Douglas), to the number of 180, and 
was elected. Mr. Bell received the votes of 
Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, 39; Mr. 
Douglas the 9 votes of Missouri, which added 
to 3 from New Jersey gave him a total of 12 
votes ; and the remaining southern states cast 
their 72 electoral votes for Breckinridge. The 
popular vote for Lincoln was 1,866,452; for 
Douglas, 994,139; for Breckinridge, 669,082; 
for Bell, 575,193 ; and 575,327 votes were cast 
for fusion tickets opposed to Lincoln. The 
total vote was 4,680,193. "When this result 
became known, the legislature of South Caro- 
lina ordered the election of a convention to 
consider the question of secession. The con- 
vention assembled Dec. 17, and on Dec. 20 
unanimously adopted a secession ordinance, 
declaring that " the union now subsisting be- 
tween South Carolina and other states, under 
the name of the United States of America, is 
hereby dissolved." The alleged reason for this 
action was hostility on the part of the success- 
ful party to the institution of slavery. Before 
the end of May, 1861, 11 states had passed 
ordinances of secession, in the following order: 
South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, 
Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, 
Tennessee, and North Carolina. The western 
portion of Virginia refused to be bound by the 
ordinance of that state, and in 1863 was ad- 
mitted into the Union as a separate state un- 
der the name of West Virginia. In eastern 
Tennessee also the prevailing sentiment con- 
tinued favorable to the Union. On Feb. 4, 
1861, a congress, composed of delegates from 
the states that had then seceded, assembled at 
Montgomery, Ala., and framed a constitution 
for the " Confederate States of America." 
Jefferson Davis of Mississippi was chosen pre- 
sident, and Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia 
vice president; a government was organized, 
and measures were taken to create an army. 
The senators and representatives from the 
seceded states withdrew from the United 
States congress. Nothing was done by Presi- 
dent Buchanan's administration to thwart the 
purposes of the secessionists, who proceeded 



to seize the arsenals, custom houses, navy 
yards, and forts throughout the south. At 
the close of his term only Fort Sumter at 
Charleston, S. C., and Fort Pickens at Pensa- 
cola, Fla., with the posts on the Florida keys, 
remained in the possession of the government 
in the seven states that had then seceded. 
Various measures were proposed looking to 
conciliation, but without effect. For details 
of these, as well as of the progress of secession 
and the organization of the confederacy, see 

CONFBDEBATE STATES OF AMERICA. In his 

inaugural address, March 4, 1861, President 
Lincoln declared that the accession of a repub- 
lican administration afforded no ground to the 
southern states for apprehending any invasion 
of their rights, and that the power confided 
to him would bo used "to hold, occupy, and 
possess the property and places belonging to 
the government, and collect the duties and 
imposts; but, beyond what may be necessary 
for these objects, there will be no invasion, 
no using of force against or among the people 
anywhere." "The course here indicated will 
be followed, unless current events and experi- 
ence shall show a modification or change to be 
proper." (See LINCOLN, ABBAHAM.) He ap- 
pointed as his cabinet "William H. Seward, 
secretary of state; Salmon P. Chase, of the 
treasury; Simon Cameron, of war; Gideon 
"Welles, of the navy ; Caleb B. Smith, of the 
interior ; Edward Bates, attorney general ; and 
Montgomery Blair, postmaster general. The 
last two were from the slave states of Missouri 
and Maryland. In 1862 Cameron was suc- 
ceeded by Edwin M. Stanton (Jan. 14) and 
Smith by John P. Usher; in 1864 Chase was 
succeeded by William P. Fessenden, Blair by 
William Dennison, and Bates by James Speed. 
Upon Lincoln's second inauguration (1865) 
Hugh McCulloch succeeded Fessenden. The 
army at the beginning of active measures on 
the part of the south was only 16,000 strong 
(on Jan. 1, 1861, it consisted of 16,402 officers 
and men, of whom 14,657 were present for 
duty), and by orders from Mr. Floyd, the sec- 
retary of war, who was himself a party to the 
secession movement, had been dispersed in the 
remotest parts of the country, while the navy 
was mostly absent on foreign stations. Under 
Floyd's orders also an extensive transfer of 
arms and ammunition from northern to south- 
ern arsenals was made during 1860. Before 
the inauguration of Mr. Lincoln Gen. Twiggs, 
commanding in Texas, had surrendered to the 
Texan authorities half the military force of the 
Union. Most of the army and many of the 
navy officers from the south resigned upon the 
secession of their states. The first warlike act 
was the bombardment by the confederates, 
under Gen. Beauregard, of Fort Sumter, which 
was commanded by Major Anderson with a 
garrison of 109 men. Fire was opened on 
April 12, 1861, and continued on the 13th, and 
Major Anderson was compelled to evacuate the 
fort on the 14th, sailing with his garrison to 



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175 



New York. (See SUMTER, FORT.) The next 
day (April 15) President Lincoln issued a proc- 
lamation calling upon the governors of the 
several states for a force of 75,000 militia for 
three months. The utmost enthusiasm was 
aroused throughout the north. On the even- 
ing of the 16th several companies from Penn- 
sylvania reached Washington, and on the 17th 
the 6th regiment of Massachusetts started for 
that city. On the 19th, in company with ten 
companies from Philadelphia, it reached. Balti- 
more, where it was attacked by a party of 
secessionists, and three of its members were 
killed and eight seriously injured. The Phila- 
delphia troops were compelled to return, but 
the 6th Massachusetts proceeded to Washing- 
ton. On the 25th several other regiments 
reached that city. On May 13 Gen. B. F. 
Butler took military possession of Baltimore, 
repressing the secession element in that city. 
In the mean time the United States arsenal at 
Harper's Ferry (April 18), and the Gosport navy 
yard, near Norfolk, Va. (April 21), fell into 
the hands of the confederates. On April 19 
and 27 the president issued proclamations de- 
claring a blockade of the ports of the seceded 
states. On April 15 he called an extra session 
of congress to meet on July 4. This body 
made large appropriations for the organization 
and support of the army and navy, which were 
continued by subsequent congresses. Various 
loans were authorized and other financial mea- 
sures adopted during the struggle, to which 
reference has been made in a previous portion 
of this article. The states and subordinate 
political bodies also promptly raised large sums 
in aid of the war, and did not relax their efforts 
till its close. Bounties were offered to soldiers 
enlisting, by the United States and by state and 
local authorities. On May 3, 1861, a second 
call was made by the president for 42,034 vol- 
unteers for three years, 22,714 men for the 
regular army, and 18,000 seamen. The acts of 
July 22, 25, and 31 authorized the president to 
accept not exceeding 1,000,000 volunteers for 
periods of from six months to three years. No 
formal call was made, but men came forward 
promptly under these acts, which were re- 
garded in the apportionment of quotas as a call 
for 500,000 men for three years. On July 2, 
1862, a call was made for 300,000 volunteers 
for three years, and on August 4 a draft was 
ordered of 300,000 men for nine months, to be 
made by the state authorities from the militia. 
On March 3, 1863, an act was passed providing 
for the enrolment and drafting of the military 
forces of the Union, and creating in the war 
department the bureau of the provost marshal 
general to carry it into effect. A draft was 
commenced under its provisions in July, which 
resulted in little direct benefit to the army, but 
served greatly to stimulate volunteering. This 
draft gave rise to severe riots in New York, 
continuing three days. On Oct. 17 a call was 
made for 300,000 volunteers for three years, 
followed by others on Feb. 1 and March 14, 
808 VOL. xvi. 12 



1864, for 200,000 each for the same period. In 
April a draft was commenced to supply the 
deficiencies in these calls. On July 18 a call 
was made for 500,000 men for one, two, and 
three years, and on Dec. 19 another for 300,000 
for the same periods ; and these calls were fol- 
lowed by drafts. Recruiting was ordered to 
be discontinued on April 13, 1865. Simulta- 
neously with the organization of the army 
measures were taken to enlarge the navy, which 
for service against the confederacy was largely 
recruited by the purchase of steamers and 
other vessels from the merchant marine. On 
May 24, 1861, the national forces took pos- 
session of Arlington heights and Alexandria 
on the Potomac, opposite Washington. On 
the 27th federal troops under Gen. McClel- 
lan entered western Virginia. They soon ob- 
tained control of that part of the state, and at 
the close of the year scarcely any armed con- 
federates were found W. of the Alleghanies 
in Virginia. On July 21 was fought the bat- 
tle of Bull Kun, near Manassas Junction, Va., 
the first of any magnitude during the war, in 
which the Union forces under Gen. McDowell 
were defeated by the confederates under Gen. 
Beauregard, and fell back in disorder to Wash- 
ington. (See BULL KUN.) Soon after Gen. 
McOlellan was placed in command of the army 
of the Potomac, and began to reorganize and 
discipline his forces, in which occupation the 
rest of the summer and the following winter 
were quietly passed. On Aug. 29 Forts Hat- 
teras and Clark, at Hatteras inlet, the main en- 
trance to Pamlico sound on the coast of North 
Carolina, were taken by a military and naval 
expedition under Gen. Butler and Com. String- 
ham. On Oct. 29 a fleet of 75 vessels under 
command of Com. Du Pont, with transports 
conveying 10,000 men under Gen. T. W. Sher- 
man, sailed from Hampton roads, and on the- 
night of Nov. 3 arrived off Port Royal, S.. 
0. On the 7th they attacked Forts Beaure- 
gard and Walker at the entrance of the har- 
bor, and after a bombardment of nearly five 
hours put the garrisons to flight, thus securing 
the finest harbor on the southern coast. Mean- 
time troops in aid of the confederacy had been 
organized in Missouri, and others had come in 
from Arkansas and Texas. On Aug. 10 a bat- 
tle was fought at Wilson's creek, near Spring- 
field, in the S. W. part of Missouri, between 
the confederates under Gen. McCulloch and 
the federals under Gen. Lyon. The former 
lost 265 killed, 800 wounded, and 30 missing ; 
the latter 223 killed (including Gen. Lyon), 721 
wounded, and 292 missing. After the battle 
the Union army, under Col. Sigel, fell back to 
Rolla in the central portion of the state. Gen. 
Fremont, having been appointed to the com- 
mand of the western department, took the 
field in Missouri near the end of September, 
and by degrees drove the confederates under 
Gen. Price back to the S. W. corner of the 
state; but on Nov. 2 he was superseded by 
Gen. Hunter. The federal army again fell 



1T6 



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back to Rolla, the confederates advancing as 
it receded. On the 12th Gen. Halleck took 
command of the department, and by the end 
of December Price was again in full retreat 
toward Arkansas, losing within a few days 
2,500 prisoners and a large amount of stores. 
A conspicuous incident of the struggle in Mis- 
souri was the defence of Lexington, on the 
Missouri river, against a greatly superior force, 
by 2,780 men under Col. Mulligan, who sur- 
rendered (Sept. 21) only after being three days 
cut off from water. About Oct. 1 the confed- 
erate army before Washington began to fall 
back, and the national lines to be pushed for- 
ward. On the 21st a portion of Gen. Stone's 
command, having crossed the Potomac at Ball's 
bluff, about midway between Harper's Ferry 
and Washington, was disastrously defeated by 
the confederate general Evans, with a loss of 
1,000 out of 1,900 men. Col. Baker, United 
States senator from Oregon, was among the 
killed. On Oct. 31 Winfield Scott, general-in- 
chief of the armies of the United States, re- 
tired from active service, and was succeeded 
by Gen. McClellan. On Nov. 8 Capt. Wilkes, 
in command of the frigate San Jacinto, inter- 
cepted the British mail steamer Trent, from 
Havana for Southampton, and forcibly took 
from on board Messrs. Mason and Slidell, com- 
missioners from the southern confederacy to 
England and France. The action was resented 
by the British government, and produced a 
great display of feeling against the United 
States. A war with England seemed immi- 
nent, when the president decided to surrender 
the commissioners to the British minister. On 
Dec. 20 Brig. Gen. Ord routed the confederates 
with heavy loss at Dranesville, on the road 
from Washington to Leesburg. In the west, 
Bishop Polk of Louisiana, serving as major 
general in the confederate army, had occupied 
Hickman and Columbus, Ky., on the Missis- 
sippi, and begun to fortify them. Gen. Grant, 
commander of the federal forces at Cairo, 111., 
consequently took possession (Sept. 6) of Pa- 
ducah, on the Ohio just below the mouth of 
the Tennessee. About the same time Gen. 
Zollicoffer led a confederate force from Ten- 
nessee into S. E. Kentucky. This was subse- 
quently placed under Gen. G. B. Crittenden, 
and was defeated on Jan. 19, 1862, by Gen. G. 
H. Thomas at Mill Spring, Zollicoffer himself 
being killed. On Feb. 6 the federal commo- 
dore Foote, with a fleet of gunboats from Cai- 
ro, reduced Fort Henry on the E. bank of the 
Tennessee river in Tennessee; and on the 16th 
Fort Donelson, on the W. bank of the Cum- 
berland, surrendered with about 13,000 men 
after some severe fighting to Gen. Grant. (See 
FORT DONELSON AND FORT HENEY.) On the 
15th Gen. Mitchel, advancing from Louisville, 
had occupied Bowling Green, Ky., a place of 
great natural strength, the confederate forces 
under Gen. A. S. Johnston retiring to Nashville, 
Tenn. That city was occupied by the federal 
forces on the 26th, Gen. Johnston retreating as 



far as Corinth, Miss. ; and on March 2 Colum- 
bus, Ky., was evacuated by the confederates. 
The whole of Kentucky and a part of Ten- 
nessee were thus secured by the federal arms. 
To command the Mississippi, the confederates 
had fortified island No. Ten in a sharp bend 
of that river, a few miles above New Madrid, 
Mo., which was also fortified and defended 
by a confederate force. On March 8 Gen. 
Pope invested the town, which he took posses- 
sion of on the 14th, the confederates having 
abandoned it during the preceding night, leav- 
ing 33 guns and a large quantity of small arms, 
ammunition, &c. Com. Foote, having in the 
mean time moved a fleet of gunboats down the 
river, opened on the island on the 15th. Two 
of the gunboats succeeded in running past it ; 
and a canal 12 m. long having been cut through 
a peninsula on the Missouri side, enabling the 
fleet to get below it, Gen. Pope on April 7 
crossed a portion of his troops to the E. side. 
The confederates, thus cut off from retreat, sur- 
rendered during the following night, and near- 
ly 7,000 prisoners, 123 cannon, 7,000 stand of 
small arms, and an immense quantity of stores 
fell into the hands of the federals. The federal 
fleet proceeded down the river, and after some 
opposition from forts and gunboats received 
the surrender of Memphis on June 6. Tho 
command was now devolved on Com. Davis, 
Com. Foote having been disabled by a wound. 
The fleet continued its course down the river, 
reaching Vicksburg, Miss., before the end of 
June, where the first serious obstacle was en- 
countered. In the mean time the federal forces 
under Gen. Grant had advanced from Fort Don- 
elson up the Tennessee river, and when en- 
camped in the vicinity of Shiloh church, Tenn., 
near Pittsburgh Landing on the river, were 
attacked by the confederates under Gens. A. S. 
Johnston and Beauregard, who had advanced 
from Corinth, about 20 m. distant. The bat- 
tle, which at first threatened to overwhelm 
the federals, raged two days (April and 7), 
when the confederates fell back to Corinth, 
leaving the field in the possession of the Union 
army. (See SHILOH.) After the battle Gen. 
Halleck assumed command of the Union army, 
and with augmented forces operated against 
Corinth, which the confederates evacuated on 
May 29. About the same time Gen. Mitchel 
entered N. Alabama, capturing Huntsville and 
other points, and destroying much confederate 
property. A confederate force had entered 
New Mexico from Texas early in 1862, but 
they were driven out before the close of the 
spring, and subsequently that territory was 
unmolested. A victory was gained by the na- 
tional forces under Gen. Curtis at Pea Ridge, 
Ark., March 7 and 8, over the armies of Van 
Dorn, Price, and McCnlloch, which had just 
been driven out of Missouri. Gen. Curtis sub- 
sequently met with little resistance, and in July 
occupied Helena on the Mississippi. During 
the latter half of the year there were numer- 
ous conflicts in Missouri and Arkansas between 



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177 



small forces of confederates and federals, the 
advantage being in favor of the latter. The 
battle of Prairie Grove, Ark., was fought on 
Dec. 7, the Union forces being commanded by 
Gens. Herrori and Blunt, and the confederates 
by Gen. Hindman. The latter retreated during 
the ensuing night, leaving the federals in pos- 
session of the field. Ship island, about 10 m. 
from the coast of Mississippi, had been occu- 
pied in the latter part of 1861, and here troops 
were collected for the capture of New Orleans, 
to be under the command of Gen. Butler, who 
reached the island March 25, 1862. New Or- 
leans was defended by Forts Jackson and St. 
Philip, on opposite sides of the Mississippi, 
about 83 m. below the city. Both of these 
works were of great strength, and between 
them the passage had been barred by chains 
and hulks. On April 18 a bombardment was 
commenced by a federal fleet of 47 vessels, 
carrying 289 guns and 21 mortars, the whole 
commanded by Oapt. Farragut, the mortar fleet 
being under the special command of Oapt. 
Porter. On the morning of the 24th, the bar- 
riers having been previously removed, Capt. 
Farragut ran past the forts with a part of his 
fleet, destroyed a squadron of the enemy's rams 
and gunboats, silenced the batteries above the 
forts, and reached New Orleans on the 25th. 
Gen. Lovell, in command of the confederate 
troops, evacuated the city on his arrival, and 
destroyed all the cotton, sugar, and other val- 
uable stores. Forts Jackson and St. Philip 
surrendered to Oapt. Porter on the 28th. Gen. 
Butler now moved up with his army, took for- 
mal possession of New Orleans (May 1), and 
placed it under martial law. Farragnt's fleet 
passed up the river, captured Baton Rouge, and 
afterward proceeded to Vicksburg, the only 
remaining stronghold of the confederates on 
the Mississippi, of which a bombardment was 
begun on June 26. On the morning of the 
28th Gapt. Farragut with seven vessels passed 
the city, and joined Capt. Davis's flotilla from 
Memphis. The siege of Vicksburg was aban- 
doned about the end of July, Capt. Farragut, 
who had repassed the batteries, dropping down 
the river with his fleet. On Aug. 5 the con- 
federate Gen. Breckinridge was repulsed in an 
attack on Baton Kouge by Gen. Williams, who 
fell at the moment of victory. In December 
Gen. Butler was superseded by Gen. Banks. 
Another expedition, under the command of 
Gen. Burnside and Com. Goldsborough, sailed 
from Hampton roads Jan. 12, 1862, entered 
Pamlico sound by way of Hatteras inlet, and 
attacked Roanoke island, which the confeder- 
ates had strongly fortified. The troops landed 
Feb. 7, and on the following day stormed the 
intrenchments, and obliged about 2,700 of the 
enemy to surrender. On the 9th the fleet 
passed up the sound to Elizabeth City, N. 0., 
and destroyed the confederate flotilla. On 
March 14 Gen. Burnside captured New Berne 
after a severe battle, taking 500 prisoners and 
C9 guns, and immediately afterward marched 



a force thence to Beaufort, which made no 
resistance ; but Fort Macon, which defended 
the entrance to it from the sea, held out until 
April 25. Washington, Plymouth, and other 
towns on the coast were also occupied. On 
April 11 Fort Pulaski, on Cockspur island at 
the mouth of the Savannah river, was reduced 
by bombardment from batteries on Tybee isl- 
and. On March 8 the confederate ironclad Vir- 
ginia (formerly Merrimack), coming out from 
Norfolk, attacked the federal fleet in Hampton 
roads, and destroyed the frigates Cumberland 
and Congress. During the ensuing night the 
ironclad Monitor, under command of Lieut. 
Worden, arrived from New York, and in the 
morning engaged the Virginia, which retired 
after a protracted contest. (See HAMPTON 
ROADS.) On May 10 Norfolk was occupied 
without resistance by a detachment from For- 
tress Monroe under Gen. Wool, and the Vir- 
ginia was blown up to prevent it from falling 
into his hands. In June, 1862, Gen. Buell left 
Corinth, Miss., and moved east, threatening 
Chattanooga, Tenn. Gen. Bragg, in command 
of the confederates, thereupon moved from 
Tupelo, Miss., through N. Alabama and Geor- 
gia, reaching Chattanooga in advance of Buell. 
Toward the end of August he started on an. 
invasion of Kentucky, which his forces en- 
tered from E. Tennessee. On the 30th a corps 
under Kirby Smith encountered a raw Union 
force under Gen. Manson at Richmond, Ky., 
and totally defeated it with a loss of several 
thousand in disabled and prisoners. Lexington 
was occupied on Sept. 4. On the 17th Bragg 
captured Munfordsville, with the Union force 
there of about 2,000 men under Col. Wilder, and 
on Oct. 1 entered Frankfort. In the mean time 
Buell had marched by way of Nashville, which 
he left strongly garrisoned, to Louisville, where 
his army arrived between Sept. 25 and 29. On 
Oct. 1 he began to move against Bragg, who 
slowly retreated to Perryville, where he made 
a stand, and on the 8th a battle ensued, in which 
the confederates lost 2,500 men and the federals 
more than 4,000. During the succeeding night 
Bragg continued his retreat, and joining Kirby 
Smith passed into E. Tennessee. On the 30th 
Buell was superseded by Maj. Gen, Rosecrans. 
The confederates under Gen. Price having oc- 
cupied Inka, Miss., Gen. Rosecrans attacked 
that place on Sept. 19, and severe fighting en- 
sued, which was ended by darkness. During 
the succeeding night Price retreated, and at 
Ripley united with a stronger confederate 
force under Gen. Van Dorn, who soon ad- 
vanced against Corinth, now defended by Gen. 
Rosecrans. The attack was commenced on 
Oct. 3, and ended on the following day with a 
strong and determined assault, which was re- 
pulsed with great loss, the federal pursuit con- 
tinuing as far as Ripley. (See COKINTH, vol. v., 
p. 354.) Gen. Rosecrans, having assumed com- 
mand in Kentucky, began on Nov. 10 to move 
to Nashville. On Dec. 26 he began to march 
thence upon Murf reesboro, where Bragg' s forces 



178 



UNITED STATES 



were concentrated ; he encountered some op- 
position, and reached Stone river near that 
place on the 29th and 30th. Here bloody en- 
gagements occurred, Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 
2, 1863, which resulted in the abandonment 
of Murfreesboro by the confederates during 
the night of Jan. 3-4. (See MTJRFREKSBOKO.) 
The other operations in this vicinity during 
the winter and spring were confined to cavalry 
raids. On Nov. 28, 1862, Gen. Grant, in com- 
mand in W. Tennessee, commenced an advance 
into Mississippi with the design of operating 
against Vicksburg. He had reached Oxford 
when, on Dec. 20, a blow was struck at his 
communications in the capture of Holly Springs 
by Van Dorn, who took more than 1,000 pris- 
oners and destroyed a vast quantity of muni- 
tions and stores, compelling Grant to abandon 
the movement. On Oct. 8 Galveston, Texas, 
was occupied by a naval force, and was held 
till Jan. 1, 1863, when it was retaken by Gen. 
Magruder. Operations of greater magnitude 
had in the mean while taken place on the east- 
ern theatre of the war. About April 1, 1862, 
Gen. McClellan, who now had command only of 
the department of the Potomac, transferred his 
forces to Fortress Monroe, and began a move- 
ment upon Richmond up the peninsula between 
the York and James rivers. On the 4th an 
advance was made upon Yorktown, which was 
besieged for a month, when it was abandoned 
by the confederates. McClellan then contin- 
ued his advance, and a series of bloody battles 
was fought, viz. : at Williamsburg, May 5 ; Han- 
over Court House, May 27 ; Seven Pines and 
Fair Oaks, May 31 and June 1 ; Mechanicsville, 
June 26 ; Cold Harbor, June 27 ; Savage's Sta- 
tion, June 29 ; Frazier's Farm, June 30 ; and 
Malvern Hill, July 1, on the James. During the 
night of July 1 Gen. McClellan withdrew his 
troops to Harrison's Landing, 7 m. below Mal- 
vern Hill, where he remained till about the mid- 
dle of August, when his army was transferred 
to the Potomac. The confederate army in this 
campaign was at first commanded by Gen. Jo- 
seph E. Johnston, who was succeeded by Gen. 
Robert E. Lee. Soon after the battle of Mal- 
vern Hill it retired to Richmond, to assume the 
offensive against Washington. (For a detailed 
account of the peninsular campaign, see CHICK- 
AHOMINY.) In the mean time a confederate 
force under Gen. "Stonewall" Jackson and 
federal forces under Gens. Banks and Fremont 
had been operating in the Shenandoah val- 
ley. (See CROSS KEYS.) Several battles were 
fought, and about the middle of June Jackson 
was summoned with the greater part of his 
force to Richmond. In July Gen. Pope was 
placed in command of the federal army of Vir- 
ginia, consisting of the forces that had been 
operating in the valley and of those under Gen. 
McDowell covering Washington. About the 
same time Gen. Halleck was summoned from 
the west to act as general-in-chief at Washing- 
ton, On Aug. 9 a portion of Pope's army un- 
der Banks was repulsed with loss at Cedar 



mountain, near Culpeper Court House, by a 
superior body of confederates under Jackson, 
who formed the van in Lee's offensive opera- 
tions. On Aug. 29 and 30 occurred the second 
battle of Bull Run, between the Union army 
under Pope and the confederate forces under 
Jackson and Longstreet, in which the latter 
had the advantage. (See BULL RUN.) Pope 
retreated within the defences of Washington 
and resigned, Gen. McClellan assuming com- 
mand of the remnant of his army. Lee moved 
to the Potomac above Washington and crossed 
into Maryland. McClellan soon started to 
meet him, and encountered portions of the 
enemy on Sept. 14 at Turner's and Crampton's 
gaps in the South mountain, from which they 
were driven after severe fighting. The next 
day Harper's Ferry, with 11,583 men, 73 guns, 
13,000 small arms, and other stores, was sur- 
rendered to a detachment of Lee's army under 
Jackson. McClellan, advancing, found Lee 
on the 15th strongly posted across Antietam 
creek near the village of Sharpsburg, where 
on the two following days a bloody but in- 
decisive battle was fought. (See ANTIETAM, 
BATTLE OF.) On the night of the 18th Lee 
retreated into Virginia. McClellan crossed the 
Potomac about Nov. 1, and advanced to War- 
renton, near the Rappahannock. On the 7th 
he was directed to turn over the command to 
Gen. Burnside, who moved down the Rappa- 
hannock to Fredericksburg, which was sum- 
moned without effect on the 21st. Lee had 
made a parallel movement down the S. bank 
of the river, and strongly intrenched himself 
on the bluffs behind the town. On Dec. 13 
Burnside crossed the river and made repeated 
attacks on the enemy's position, but was re- 
pulsed with great slaughter, and on the 15th 
returned to the N. bank. (See FREDERICKS- 
BURG, BATTLE OF.) On Jan. 26, 1868, Burn- 
side was superseded by Gen. Joseph Hooker. 
About the close of April Hooker began to cross 
the Rappahannock, and concentrated his forces 
at Chancellorsville, where a bloody engagement 
ensued, May 24, in which the Union arrny was 
worsted by the forces under Lee, Hooker re- 
crossing to the N. side of the river. In this bat- 
tle Jackson was mortally wounded. (See CHAN- 
CELLORSVILLE, BATTLE OF.) About the begin- 
ning of June Lee, again assuming the offensive, 
advanced into the Shenandoah valley, cap- 
turing Winchester on the 15th, whence he 
drove a federal force under Gen. Milroy, taking 
many prisoners. The main body of the con- 
federate army crossed the Potomac above Har- 
per's Ferry, June 24-25, and marching across 
Maryland entered Pennsylvania. Hooker had 
begun on June 13 to move north, so as to 
cover Washington, and on the 26th crossed the 
Potomac about half way between Washington 
and Harper's Ferry, advancing to Frederick, 
Md. On the following day he resigned his 
command, in consequence of a difference with 
Gen. Halleck respecting the disposition of a 
force at Maryland Heights opposite Harper's 



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179 



Ferry, and on the 28th was succeeded by Gen. 
Meade. The latter advanced into Pennsylva- 
nia, and on July 1, 2, and 3 the two armies 
met in the great battle of Gettysburg, which 
ended in the discomfiture of the confederate 
army. (See GETTYSBURG, BATTLE OF.) On the 
4th Lee began his retreat, and on the 13th re- 
crossed the Potomac at one of the points where 
he had crossed on his advance. Meade crossed 
a little below Harper's Ferry on the 18th, and 
reached Warrenton on the 25th, where he was 
soon confronted by Lee on the other side of 
the Rappahannock. Few important move- 
ments were made by either army during the 
remainder of the year, and the campaign of 
1863 closed with the. abortive attempt of Meade 
upon Lee's position on Mine run, a small afflu- 
ent of the Rapidan, at the end of November. 
About Dec. 20, 1862, Gen. W. T. Sherman with 
30,000 men proceeded down the Mississippi 
from Memphis, and on the 29th assaulted the 
fortifications and batteries commanding Vicks- 
burg from the north. The assault was repelled 
with a loss of nearly 2,000, and the forces a 
few days after were withdrawn to Milliken's 
Bend, where on Jan. 4, 1863, Gen. McOler- 
nand assumed command. An expedition into 
Arkansas was immediately undertaken for the 
capture of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post on 
the Arkansas river, which was reduced on the 
llth, the federals suffering a loss of 977 and 
capturing 17 guns, several thousand prisoners 
and small arms, and a large quantity of muni- 
tions and stores. Returning from this expedi- 
tion, the forces were moved down the Missis- 
sippi, and on the 22d landed at Young's Point 
on the "W. bank, about 9 m. above Vicksburg, 
where Gen. Grant arrived and assumed chief 
command, Feb. 2. Two months were now 
spent in unavailing attempts to flank the de- 
fences of Vicksburg by means of a canal at 
this point and through various bayous. Final- 
ly, a part of Admiral Porter's fleet and several 
transports having run past the batteries of 
Vicksburg and "Warrenton and Grand Gulf be- 
low, a portion of Grant's army, which had 
marched down the "W". bank of the Mississippi, 
crossed the river on April 30. Grand Gulf, 
being thus taken in the rear, was abandoned 
on May 3, and a few days after Grant was 
joined by Sherman's corps, which had remained 
above Vicksburg. An advance was then made 
up the left bank of the Big Black river, en- 
countering some opposition at Raymond (May 
12) and Jackson (May 14). On the 16th a battle 
was fought at Champion Hills, between Jack- 
son and Vicksburg, by Grant's forces, against 
Gen. Pemberton, who had marched out of 
Vicksburg with the design of taking Grant in 
the rear. Pemberton was driven back with 
loss, and retreated to the Big Black river, across 
which he was driven the following day. The 
federal forces then advanced upon Vicksburg, 
and on the 19th the investment was complete. 
Porter immediately obtained control of the 
Yazoo river. On the 19th and 22d unsuccessful 



assaults were made, in the latter of which the 
loss was nearly 3,000. On July 3, the last 
day of the battle of Gettysburg, Gen. Pem- 
berton, reduced by famine, surrendered with 
27,000 men, and on the 4th Grant occupied the 
city. The result of this campaign rent the 
confederacy in twain, and was the severest blow 
it had yet received. On July 16 Gen. Sherman 
drove out of Jackson Gen. Joseph E. John- 
ston, who during the siege had been opera- 
ting in the rear of Grant. On July 3 Helena, 
Ark., held by Gen. Prentiss with 3,800, was 
attacked by about 7,700 confederates under 
Gen. Holmes, who were repulsed with a loss 
of nearly 1,700. In Louisiana Gen. Banks in- 
vested Port Hudson on the Mississippi in May, 
1863, and on the 27th made an assault which 
was repulsed with a loss of about 1,850 men. 
The place was then closely besieged, and sur- 
rendered on July 8 with 6,408 men. Other 
operations were carried on during the year 
in Louisiana between Gens. Banks and Tay- 
lor, but they were not decisive. Early in 
September an expedition under Gen. Franklin, 
consisting of 4,000 men and several gunboats, 
was despatched from New Orleans to proceed 
against Houston, Texas, by way of Sabine 
pass ; but the gunboats, being disabled in an 
attack on the fortifications at Pass Frank- 
lin, returned to New Orleans. On Oct. 26 a 
new expedition, consisting of 6,000 men un- 
der Banks, started for the Rio~ Grande, and 
landed at Brazos Santiago Nov. 2. Having 
taken possession of Brownsville and other 
points in W. Texas, Banks left Gen. Dana in 
comman