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I. The origin, affinities and primary signification of English words, as far as thev have been ascertained. 
II. The genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage, or to just principles of analoqy. 
III. Accurate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations. 











He that wisliesto be counted among the benefactors of posterity, must add, by his own toil, to the acquisitions of his ancestors. — Rambler. 






I" ^ 3e IT REMEMBERIED, That Oil (he fourteenth day of April, in the fifty-second year of the Independence of the United States of America. 
Mat 9» Noah Webster, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a BooIj, the right whereof he claims as Author, in the words 

following, to wit : 
" An American Dictionary of the English Language ; intended to exhibit, J. The origin, affinities, and primary signification of English words, as far 
as they have been ascertained. II. The genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage, or to just principles of analogy. 
III. Accurate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations. To which are prefixed, an introductory dissertation on the ori- 
gin, history and connection of the languages of Western Asia and of Europe, and a concise Grammar of the English language. By Noah Webster, LL. D. 
in two volumes." 

In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled, " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts 
and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." — And also to the act, entitled, " An act supplementary to 
an act, entitled * An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and booifs, to the authors and proprietors of such copies 
during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connecticut. 
A true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me, 

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the District of Connetticvi. 
April 14th, 1828. 





J A C 

J • This letter has been added to the En 
ghsh Alphabet in modern days ; the letter 
I being written formerly in words wher 
J is now used. It seems to have had th 
sound of y, iu many words, as it still has 
in the German. The English sound of 
this letter may be expressed by dzh, or 
edzh, a compound sound coinciding ex- 
actly with that of g-, in genius ; the French 
J, with the articulation d preceding it. It 
is the tenth letter of the English Alpha- 

JAB'BER, V. i. [D. gabberen, or Fr. jaboter. 
Class Gb.] 

To talk rapidly or indistinctly ; to chatter : 
to prate. Sivift. 

JAB'BER, n. Rapid talk with indistinct ut- 
terance of words. Swiff. 

JAB'BERER, n. One that talks rapidly, 
indistinctly or unintelligibly. 

JAB'BERING, ppr. Prating ; talking rap- 
idly and confusedly. 

JAB'BERMENT, n. Idle prate. 06s. 


.TAB'IRU, 11. An aquatic fowl of the crane 

The Jabiru is the Mydeiia Americana. It 
resembles the stork. Cuvier. 

JA€'AMAR, n. A kind of fowls arranged 
by Linne under the genus Alcedo ; but 
their toes are differently placed, and their] 
food consists of insects. They are about 
the size of a lark. Numerous species are 
described. Encyc. 

The Jacamars are arranged in a separate 
genus, Galbula, and along with the wood- 
peckers in the order of climbers. Cuvier. 

JA'CENT, a. [L. jacens, jaceo, to lie.] Lying 
at length. Wotton. 

JA'CINTH, n. [a different orthography of 

1. A genus of plants. [Sec Hyacinth.] 

'i. A species of pellucid gems. [See Hyt 
cinth.] Rev. xxi. 

Vol. II. 

J A C 

JACK, n. [zeku, in Ethiopis, is the pronotm 
he, or she.] 

1. A nickname or diminutive of John, used 
as a general term of contempt for any 
saucy or paltry fellow. Johnson. 

2. The name of an instrument that supplies 
the place of a boy; an instrument to pull 
off boots. fVatts. 

3. An engine to turn a spit ; as a kitchen 
jack; a. smoke jack. 

4. A young pike. Mortimer. 

5. A coat of mail. [Sp. xaco, laqueta.] 


6. A pitcher of waxed lether. Dryden 

7. A small bowl thrown out for a mark tc 
the bowlers. 

8. Part of a musical instrument called a vir 
ginal. Bacon. 

9. The male of certain animals, as of the 
ass. [Arm. ozach, a husband.] 


10. A horse or wooden frame on which 
wood or timber is sawed. Mnsivorth. 

11. In sea-language, a flag, ensign or colors, 
displayed from a staff on the end of a bow- 
sprit. Mar. Diet. 

12. In Yorkshire, half a pint. Grose. A 
quarter of a pint. Pfgge- 

Jack at all trades, a person who can turn 
his hand to any kind of business. 

Jack by the hedge, a plant of the genus Erjs- 
imum, that grows under hedges. 

Fam. of Plants. 

Jack in a box, a plant of the genus Hernan- 

2. A large wooden male screw, turning in a 
female one. Mar. Diet. 

Jack, with a lantern, an ignis fatuus, a me- 
teor that appears in low moist lands. 

Jack of the clock-house, a little man that 
strikes the quarters in a clock. 

JACK'ALENT, n. [Jack in lent, a poor 
starved fellow.] 

A simple sheepish fellow. Shak. 


J A C 

JACK'ANAPEP, n. [jack and ape.] A 
monkey ; an ape. 

2. A coxcoiub ; an impertinent fellow. 

A young ufsiatt jackanapes. Arbiithnot. 

JACK'ASS, n. The male of the ass. 

JACK'-BLOCK, n. A block attached to 
the top-gallant-tie of a ship, to sway up 
or to strike the yard. Mar. Did. 

JACK'BOOTS, n. [See No. 5. supra.] 
Boots that serve as armor for the legs. 


JACK'DAW, n. [jack and daw.] A fowl of 
the genus Corvus, thievish and mischiev- 
ous to the farmer.. - Encyc. 

JACK'FLAG, n. A flag hoisted at the sprit- 
sail top-mast-head. Encyc. 

JACK'PUDDING, n. [jack and pudding.] 
A merry Andrew ; a buffoon ; a zany. 


JACK'SMITH, n. A smith who makes 
jacks for the chimney. 

JACK'AL, n. [Sp. chacal; Turk, chical] 
An animal of the genus Canis, resembling 
a dog and a fox ; a native of Asia and Af- 
rica. It preys on poultry and other small 
animals. It is the Canis aureus of Linne. 
Encyc. Cyc. 

JACK'ET, 71. [Sp. xaqueta, a short loose 
coat; xaco, a short jacket; xaquelilla, a. 
jacket ; Fr. jaquettc ; Basque, jacaya.] A 
short close garment worn by males, ex- 
tending downwards to the hips ; a short 

JACKETED, a. Wearing a jacket. 

JA€'OBIN, n. [So named from the place of 
meeting, which was the monastery of the 
monks called Jacobines.] 

The Jacobins, in France, during the late rev- 
olution, were a society of violent revolu- 
tionists, who held secret meetings in 
which measures were concerted to direct 
the proceedings of the National Assem- 
bly. Hence, a Jacobin is the tnember of a 
club, or other person, who opposes gov- 

J A D 

J A L 


ernment in a secret and unlawful manner 
or by violent means; a turbulent dema 

JAC'OBINE, n. A monk of the order of| 

2. A pigeon with a high tuft. Ainstoorth. 

JA€OBIN'I€, I Resembling the Jaco- 

JA€OBIN'I€AL, I "' bins of France ; tur- 
bulent; discontented with government; 
holding democratic principles. 

JA€'OBINISM, n. Jacobinic principles ; 
unreasonable or violent opposition to le- 
gitimate government; an attempt to over 
throw or change government by secret 
cabals or irregular means ; popular turbu- 

JAC'OBINIZE, V. t. To taint with Jacobin 
ism. Burke. 

JA€'OBITE, n. [from Jacotu«, James.] A 
partizan or adherent of James II. king of 
England, after he abdicated tiie throne, 
and of his descendants; of course, an op- 
poser of the revolution in 1(388, in favor of 
William and Mary. Bolingbroke. 

2. One of a sect of christians in Syria and 
Mesopotamia, who hold that Jesus Christ 
had but one nature. Encyc. Cijc. 

JA€'OBlTE, a. Pertaining to the partizans 
of James II. 

JA€'OBITISM, n. The principles of the 
partizans of James II. Mason. 

JA€OB'S-LADDER, ?i. A plant of the ge- 
nus Polemonium. Fa7n. of Planls. 

JA€OB'S-ST'AFF, n. A pilgrim's staff. 

2. A staff conceaHng a dagger. 

3. A cross staff; a kind of astrolabe. 

JAe'OBUS, n. [Jacobus, James.] A gold 

coin, value twenty-five shillings sterling. 

struck in the reign of James I. 

L" Estrange. 
JA€ONET', n. A kind of coarse muslin. 
J.\€'TANCY, Ji. [h. jactantia.] A boasting- 

[JVot used.] 
JACTITATION, n. [L. judito, jado. It 

ought rather to be jadation, h.jadatio.] 

1. A tossing of the body ; restlessness. 


2. A term in the canon law for a false pre- 
tension to marriage ; vain boasting. 

JAC'ULATE, t>. t. [L. jaculor.] To dan. 
JACULA TION, n. Tlie action of darting, 

throwing orlanching, as missive weapons. 


JAC'ULATOR, 71. The shooting fish, t 

species of Chaitodon. 
JAC'ULATORY, a. Darting or throwing 

out suddenly, or .suddenly thrown out ; 

uttered in short sentences. [See Ejacu- 

JADE, n. [of unknown origin. Qu. Sp.jarf- 

ear, to pant.] 

1. A mean or poor horse ; a tired horse; n 
worthless nag. 

Tired as a jade in overloaden cart. Sidney 

2. A mean woman ; a word of contempt 
noting sometimes age, but generally vice 

Slic shines the first of battered jades. 


3. A young woman; in irony or slight con- 
tempt. Jlddwon 

JADE, n. A mineral called also nephrite oi 
uephritic stone, remarkable for its liard 

nesB and tenacity, of a color more or less 
green, and of a resinous or oily asjject 
when pohshed. It is fusible into a gli 
or enamel. Cleaveland divides jade into 
three subspecies, nephrite, saussurite. and 
axestone. It is found in detached masses 
or inhering in rocks. 

Werner. Jameson. Cleaveland. 
JADE, V. t. To tire ; to fatigue ; to weary 

with hard service ; as, to jade a horse. 
3. To weary with attention or study ; to 

The mind once jaded by an attempt above 
its power, is very hardly brought to exert its 
force again. Locke 

3. To harass ; to crush. Shak. 

4. To tire or wear out in mean offices ; as a 
jaded groom. Shak. 

5. To ride ; to rule with tyranny. 

I do not now fool myself, to let imagination 
jade me. Shak 

JADE, V. i. To become weary ; to lose 
spirit ; to sink. 

They are promising in the beginning, but 

they fail and jade and tire in the prosecution. 


JA'DED, pp. Tired; wearied; fatigued; 
' arassed. 

JA'DERY, n. The tricks of a jade. 


J A'DING, ppr. Tiring; wearying ; haras- 

JA'DISH, a. Vitious; bad, like a jade. 

2. Unchaste. UEslrange. 

JAG, n. [Sp. ~aga, a load, packed on the 
back part of a carriage. Qu.] A small 
load. JVew-England. 

^AGG, V. t. [perhaps G. zacken, a tooth, 
prong, to indent ; Sw. tagg, a sharp 

To notch ; to cut into notches or teeth like 
those of a saw. 

JAGG, ? ,, A tooth of a saw ; a denticula- 

JAG, S ' tioii- I" botany, a cleft or divis- 

JAG'GED, pp. Notched ; uneven. 

2. a. Having notches or teeth ; cleft ; divi- 
led ; laciniaie ; as jagged leaves. 

JAG'GEDNESS, n. The state of being den- 
ticulated ; unevenness. Peacham 

JAG'GING, ppr. Notching; cutting into 
teeth ; dividing. 

JAG'GY, a. Set with teeth ; denticulated ; 

JAGUAR', n. The American tiger, or once 
ofBrasil, belonging to the genus Fells. 

JAH, Ji. Jehovah. 

JAIL, 71. [Fr. geole ; Arm. geol or jol ; Sp, 
jaiila, a cage, a ceU. Sometimes written 
very improperly gaol, and as improperly 
pronounced gole.] 

A prison ; a building or place for the con 
finement of jiersons arrested for debt or 
for crime, and held in the cu.stody of the 

JA'ILBIRD, 7). A prisoner; one who has 
been confined in prison. 

J.\'ILER, 71. The keeper of a prison. 

JA'ILFEVER, 71. A contagious and fata 
fever generated in jails and other places 
crowded with people. 

JAKES, 71. [Qu. L. jacio, to throw.] A 
house of office or back-house ; a ])rivv. 


J AL'AP, 71. [Port, jalapa ; Fr. jalap ; 

xalapa ; so called from Xalapa, a province 
in Mexico, whence it is imported.] 

Tfie root of a plant, a species of Convol- 
vulus. It is brought in thin transverse 
slices, and also whole, of an oval shape, 
hard, solid and heavy. It has little or no 
taste or smell, but is much used in pow- 
der as a cathartic. Cyc. 

JAM, 71. A conserve of fruits boiled with 
sugar and water. 

2. A kind of frock for children. 

IJAM, V. t. [Russ. jem, a press ; jmu, to 

1. To press; to crowd ; to wedge in. 

2. In England, to tread hard or make firm 
I by treading, as land by cattle. Grose. 
JAM, > Among the lead miners of Men- 
JAMB, <y • dip, a thick bed of stone which 

hinders them when pursuing the veins of 

ore. Cue. 

JAMB, 71. jam. [Fr. jambe, a ]eg;jambes 

deforce, a corbel or pier; It. gamba, a leg; 

gambo, a stem or stalk.] 
In architecture, a supporter ; the side-piece 

or post of a door ; the side-piece of a fire- 
JAMBEE', 71. A name formerly given to a 

fashionable cane. Taller. 

JAM'BEUX, 71. [supra.] Armor for the 

legs. Obs. Dryden. 

JANE, 71. A coin of Genoa. Spenser. 

2. A kind of fustian. 

JAN'GLE, V. i. [G. zanken.] To quarrel 
n words ; to altercate ; to bicker ; to 

wrangle. Shak. 

JAN'GLE, V. t. To cause to sound untuua- 

bly or discordantly. 

— E'er monkish rhymes 
Had Jajigrd their fantastic chimes. Pricr. 
JAN'GLER, 71. A wrangling, noisy fellow. 
JAN'GLING, p;)r. Wrangling; quarreling; 

sounding discordantly. 
JAN'GLING, n. A noisy dispute ; a wrang- 

JANTTOR, 71. [L.] A door-keeper ; a por- 

JANIZA'RIAN, 71. Pertaining to the Janiza- 
ries, or their government. Burke. 

JAN'IZARY, 71. [Turkish, i/e7mien ; ^CTii 
and askari, new troops. Eton.] 

A soldier of the Turkish foot guards. The 
Janizaries were a body of infantry, and 
reputed the Grand Seignor's guards. 
They became turbulent, and rising in arms 
against the Sultan, were attacked, defeat- 
ed and desti-oyed in Constantinople, in 
June 182(1. 

JAN'NOCK, 71. Oat-bread. [Local] 

JAN'SRNISM, 71. The doctrine of Jansen 
in regard to free will and grace. 

JAN'SENIST, »i. A follower of Jansen, 
bishop of Ypres, in Flanders. 

J>ANT, V. i. [In Fr. jante is the felly of a 
wheel, and the original root signified 
probably to extend or to run, to ramble.] 

To ramble here and there; to make an ex- 
ciu-sion. Shak. 

J'ANT, 71. An excursion; a ramble: a short 
journey. .Mil/on. 

J>ANTILY, adv. [from janty.] Briskly ; air- 

I ilv ; gavlv. 

J'ANTINESS, 71. Airiness; flutter; brisk- 

IJ'ANTY, n. Airy ; showy ; fluttering ; fin- 

I ical. Hobbts. 


J A S 

J A W 

JAN'UARY, )!. [Ir. ^oiibhar or gionvar; 
Russ. geiivar ; Vr. janvicr ; It. gennaio ; 
Sp.enero; Port. Janeiro ; L.. januarius. It 
is evident from the Irisli and Russian 
words, tiiat tiie first syllable o( January, is 
from the root of L. geno, to beget, Eng. 
to begin, Sax. aginnan. Var is said to 
signify a revolution. January then signi- 
fies the beginning, or first month. Janus 
is probably from the same root.] 

The first month of the year, according to 
the present computation. At the founda- 
tion of Rome, March was considered the 
first month. January and February were 
introduced by Nuraa Pompillus. Encyc. 

JAPAN', n. [from the country in Asia, so 

This name is given to work varnished and 
figured in the manner practiced by the 
natives of Japan. Encyc. Cyc. 

JAPAN-EARTH, n. Catechu, a combina- 
tion of gummy and resinous matter, ob- 
tained from the juice of a species of palm 
tree. JVicholson. 

Japan-earth or catechu, is obtained by de- 
coction and evaporation from a species of 
Mimosa. It consists chiefly of tannin 
combined with a peculiar species of ex- 
tractive. Thomson. 

JAPAN', V. t. To varnish in the manner of 
the Japanese. 

2. To black and gloss, as in blacking shoes 
or boots. Gay. 

JAPANE'SE, a. Pertaining to Japan or its 

JAPANE'SE, n. A native of Japan ; or the 
language of the inhabitants. 

JAPAN'NED, pp. Varnished in a particular 

JAPAN'NER, n. One wlio varnishes in the 
manner of the Japanese, or one skilled in 
the art. 

2. A shoe-blacker. Pope. 

JAPAN'NING,ppc. Varnishing in the man- 
ner of the Japanese ; giving a glossy 
black surface. 

JAPAN'NING, n. The art of varnishinn 
and dr.-iwing figures on wood or othei 
material, in the manner practiced by the 
Japanese. Encyc. 

JAPE, V. i. [Ice. geipa.] To jest. Obs. 


JAPE, V. t. [Sax. geap, deceitful.] To cheat. 
Obs. Chaucer. 

JAPE, »i. A jest ; a trick. 06s. Chaucer. 

JA'PER, n. A jester. Obs. 

JAPHET'IC, a. Pertaining to Japheth, the 
eldest son of Noah ; as the Japhetic na 
tions, which people the North of Asia and 
all Europe ; Japhetic languages. 

JAP'U, n. A bird of Brasil that suspends its 

J'AR, V. i. To strike together with a short 
rattle or tremulous sound ; to strike un- 
tunably or harshly ; to strike discordant- 
ly ; as a jarring sound. 

A string may jar in the best master's hand. 

2. To clash ; to interfere ; to act in opposi- 
tion ; to be inconsistent. 

For orders and degrees 
Jar not with liberty, but well consist. 


3. To riuarrel ; to dispute ; to clash in words, 


4. To vibrate regularly ; to repeat the same 
,«ound. Shak, 

J'AR, r. t. To shake ; to cause to tremble ; to| 
cause a short tremulous motion in a thing. 

J'AR, Ji. A rattling vibration of sound ; a 
shake ; as a trembling jar. Holder. 

2. A harsh sound ; discord. 

3. Clash of interest or opinions ; collision ; 
discord ; debate. 

And yet his peace is but continual jar. 


4. The state of a door half open, or ready 
to move and strike the post. Swi/l. 

5. Repetition of the noise made by the pen- 
dulum of a clock. Shak. 

J'AR, n. [Sp. jarra, jarro ; Port, id.; It. 

A vessel with a large belly and broad 

mouth, made of earth or glass ; as a jar 

of honey. Dryden. 

We say, an electrical battery of mnejars. 

1. A certain measure ; as ajar of oil. 

JARARACA, n. A species of serpent in 
America, seldom exceeding 18 inches in 
lengtli, having prominent veins on its head, 
and of a dusky brownish color, variegated 
with red and black spots. It is very poi- 
sonous. Cyc. 

J'ARBLE, > , To bemire. [JVot in use.] 

JAV'EL, S ^ ' Spenser. 

JARDES, n. [Fr.] Callous tumors on the 
legs of a horse, below the bend of the 
ham on the outside. Far. Diet. 

J'ARGLE, V. i. To emit a harsh or shrill 
sound. [JVot in use.] Bp. Hall, 

J'ARGON, n. [Fr. jargon ; It. gergo, ger- 
gone; Sp. xerga, jargon, aiul coarse frieze, 

1. Confused, unintelligible talk or language ; 
gabble ; gibberish ; cant. 

All jargon of the schools. Prior 

2. A mineral, usually of a gray or greenisli 
white color, in small irregular grains, or 
crystalized in quadrangular prisms sur- 
mounted with pyramids,or in octahedrons 
consisting of double quadrangular prisms. 
[See Zircon.] Kirwan. 

JARGONELLE, n. jargonel'. A species of| 

JARGON'le, a. Pertaining to the mineral 

J^ARRED, pp. [from jar.] Shaken 

J'ARRING, ppr. Shaking; making a harsh 
sound ; discordant. 

J'ARRING, n. A shaking; discord; dis- 
pute ; collision. Burnet. 

JAS'HAVVK, n. A young hawk. Ainsioorth. 

JAS'MIN,_ I „ [Fr. jasmin ; Sji. jaz " 
It. ! ■ ■ 

JAS'MINE, S It. gelsomino. The Ar. is 
A.M L J . It is sometimes written in Eng- 
lish jessamine.] 

A plant of the genus Jasminum, bearing beau- 
tiful flowers. There are several species. 
The common white jasmin is a climbing 
.shrub, rising on supports 15 or 20 feet 
high. The name is also given to several 
plants of different genera ; as the Arabian 
Jasmin, of the genus Nyctanthes; the 
bastard Jasmin, of the genus Cestrum, 
and also of the genus Lycium ; the Pe, 
sian Jasmin, of the genus Syringa ; the 
red Jasmin, of the genus Plumeria ; the 
scarlet and yellow Jasmin, of the genus 
Biirnonia, <fec. Encyc. 

JAS'PAeHATE, n. A name anciently giv- 
en to some varieties of agate jasper. 


JASPER, I!. [Fr.jaspc; L. iaspis ; Gr. 
lasrtij ; It. diaspro ; Ar. (_jixi j ; Hcb. nsty'.] 

A mineral of the siliceous kind, and of sev- 
eral varieties. It is less hard than flint or 
even than common quartz, but gives fire 
with steel. It is entirely opake, or some- 
times feebly translucent at the edges, and 
it presents almost every variety of color. 
Its varieties are common jasper, striped 
jasper, Egyptian jasper, &c. It admits 
of an elegant polish, and is used for vases, 
seals, snuff-boxes, &c. 

Clcavcland. Kirwan. 

Jasper is a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz, 
of five kinds, Egyptian, striped, porcelain, 
common, and agate jasper. Jameson. 

J' ASPERATED, a. Mixed with jasper; 
containing particles of jasper ; as jaspera- 
ted agate. Fourcroy. 

JASPIDE'AN, a. Like jasper; consisting 
of jasper, or partaking of jasper. 


J'ASPONYX, n. The purest horn-colored 
onyx, with beautiful green zones, compo- 
sed of genuine matter of the finest jas- 
pers. Encyc. 

JAUNCE, V. i. [Fr. jancer.] To bustle ; to 
jaunt. Obs. Shak. 

JAUNDICE, n. j'andis. [Fr. jaunisse, from 
jaune, yellow.] 

A disease which is characterized by a suf- 
fusion of bile over the coats of the eye 
and the whole surface of the body, by 
which they are tinged with a yellow color. 
Hence its name. 

JAUNDICED, a. fandised. Affected with 
the jaundice ; suffused with a yellow col- 
or ; as a jaundiced eye. 

2. Prejudiced ; seeing with discolored or- 

JAUNT. [SeeJan<.] 

JAV'EL, V. t. To bemire ; and as a noun, a 
wandering or dirty fellow. Obs. 


JAVELIN, n. [Fr.javeline ; It. ginvellotto ; 
Sp. jabalina, the female of the wild boar, 
and a javelin, fromjabali, a wild boar.] 

A sort of spear about five feet and a half 
long, the shaft of which was of wood, but 
pointed with steel ; used by horse or foot. 
Every Roman soldier carried seven jav- 

JAW, re. [Fr. joue, the cheek. It coincides 
in origin with chatv, chew, Arm. joaga, to 
chew ; javed or gaved, a jaw. In old au- 
thors, jaiv is written chaic. It belongs to 
Class Cg. See Chaw and Cheio.] 

1. The bones of the mouth in which the 
teeth are fixed. They resemble a horse 
shoe. In most animals, the under jaw 
only is movable. 

2. The mouth. 

3. In vulgar language, scolding, wrangling, 
abusive clamor. 

JAW, V. i. To scold ; to clamor. [Vulgar.] 

JAW, V. t. To abuse by scolding. [Vul- 

JAW'ED, a. Denoting the appearance of 
the jaws. Skelton. 

JAW'FALL, n. [jaw and fall] Depression 
of the jaw ; figuratively, depression of 
spirits. M. Griffith. 

JAW'FALLEN, a. Depressed in spirits; 

J E A 

J E H 

J E R 

JAWN, V. i. To yawn. [JVot in use. See 

JAW'Y, a. Relating to the jaws. Gaylon. 

JAY, n. [Fr. geai ; Sp. gayo.] A bird, the 
Corviis glandarius. Encyc 

JAYET. [See Jet.] 

JA'ZEL, n. A gem of an azure blue color 
[Qu. Sp. azut, corrupted.] 

.TEALOUS, a. jel'us. [Fr. jaloux ; It. geloso. 
The Spanish use zeloso from zelo, zeal : 
but the Italian word seems to be of dis- 
tinct origin from zeal, and to belong to 
Class Gl.] 

1. Suspicious; apprehensive of rivalship ; 
uneasy through fear that another has 
withdrawn or may withdraw from one 
the affections of a person he loves, or en 
joy some good which he desires to obtain 
followed by of, and applied both to the ob 
ject of love and to the rival. We say, a 
young man is jealous of the woman lie 
loves, or jealous of his rival. A 
jealous of his wife, and the wife of her 

3. Suspicious that we do not enjoy the affec 
tion or respect of others, or that another 
is more loved and respected than our- 

.^. Emulous; full of competition. Dryden. 

4. Solicitous to defend the honor of; con- 
cerned for the character of. 

I have been veiy jealous for the Lord God 
of hosts. 1 Kings xix. 

5. Suspiciously vigilant ; an.xiously careful 
and concerned for. 

I nmjealous over you with a godly jealousy. 
2 Cor. xi. 

6. Suspiciously fearful. 

'Tis doing wrong creates such doubts as 

.TEALOUSLY, adv. jel'usly. With jealousy 
or suspicion ; emulously ; with suspicious 
fear, vigilance or caution. 

.lEALOUSNESS, n. jel'usness. The state 
of being jealous ; suspicion ; suspic' 
vigilance. King Charles. 

JEALOUSY, n. jel'usy. [Fr. jalousie ; It. 

1. That passion or peculiar uneasiness which 
arises from the fear that a rival may rob us 
of the affection of one wliom we love, or 
the suspicion that he has already done it ; 
or it is the uneasiness which arises from 
the fear that another does or will enjoy 
some advantage whicli we desire for our- 
.selves. A man'a jealousy is excited by the 
attentions of a rival to his favorite lady. 
A woman's jealousy is roused by her hus- 
band's attentions to another woman. The 
candidate for office manifests a jealousy 
of others who seek the same office. The 
jealousy of a student is awakened by the 
apprehension that his fellow will bear 
away the palm of praise. In short, jeal- 
ousy is awakened by whatever may exalt 
others, or give them pleasures and advan- 
tages whicli we desire for ourselves. Jeal- 
ousy is nearly allied to envy, for jealousy, 
liefore a good is lost by ourselves, is con- 
verted into envy, after it is obtained by 

Jealousy is the apprehension of supmiority. 

Whoever had qualities to alarm ou: jealousy, 
had excellence to deserve our fondness. 


2. Suspicious fear or apprehension. 


3. Suspicious caution or vigilance ; an earn 
est concern or solicitude for the welfare 
or honor of others. Such was Paul's god 
\y jealousy for the Corinthians. 

4. Indignation. God's jealousy signifies his 
concern for his own character and 
ernment, with a holy indignation against 
those who violate his laws, and offend 
against his majesty. Ps.lxxix. 

JEARS, n. In sea-language, an assemblagi 
of tackles by which the lower yards of a 
ship are hoisted or lowered. Hoisting is 
called swaying, and lowering is called 
striking. This word is sometimes writ- 
ten g-cer* or gears. [See Gear.] Mar. Diet. 

JEAT, n. A fossil of a fine black color. [See 

JEER, V. i. [G. scheren, to rail at, to jeer, 
to shear, to shave, D. scheeren, Dan. 
skierer, Sw. skara, Gr. xtipco, without a 
prefix. These all seem to be of one family. 
Class Gr. The primary sense is probably 
to rub, or to cut by rubbing; and we use 
rub in a like sense ; a dry rub, is a keen, 
cutting, sarcastic remark.'] 

To utter severe, sarcastic reflections ; to 
scoff; to deride ; to flout ; to make a mock 
of; as, to Jf cr at one in sport. Herbert. 

JEER, V. t. To treat with scoffs or derision. 

JEER, ?!. Railing language ; scoff; taunt ; 
biting jest; flout; jibe; mockery; deri- 
sion ; ridicule with scorn. 
Midas exposed to all their jeers. 
Had lost his art, and kept his ears. Swift. 

JEE'RED, pp. Railed at ; derided. 

JEE'RER, n. A scofter; a railer ; a scorn- 
er ; a mocker. 

JEE'RING, ppr. Scoffing; mocking ; deri- 

JEE'RING, n. Derision. 

JEE'RINGLY, adv. With raillery ; scorn- 
fully ; contemptuously ; in mockery. 


JEF'FERSONITE, n. A mineral occur- 
ring in ci-ystaline masses, of a dark olive 
green color passing into brown, found im- 
bedded in Franklinite and garnet, in New 
Jersey. Phillips. 

JEG'GET, n. A kind of sausage. [Mt in 
use.] Ainsioorth. 

JEHO'VAII, n. The Scripture name of the 
Supreme Being, Heb. T\T\\ If, as is sup- 
posed, this name is from the Hebrew sub- 
stantive verb, the word denotes the Per- 
manent Being, as the primary sense of 
the substantive verb in all languages, is 
to be fixed, to stand, to remain or abide. 
This is a name peculiarly appropriate to 
the eternal Spirit, the unchangeable God, 
who describes himself thus, I am that I 
AM. Ex. iii. 

JEUO'VIST, n. Among critics, one who 
maintains that the vowel-points annexed 
to the word Jehovah in Hebrew, are the 
proper vowels of the word and expre 
the true ])ronunciation. The Jehovists are 
opposed to the Monists, who hold that 
the points annexed to the word Jehovah, 
are the vowels of the word Adonai. 


JEJU'NE, a. [L.jejunus, empty, dry.] 

1. Wanting; empty; vacant. Bacoti. 

8. Hungry ; not saturated. 

.3. Dry; barren; wanting interesting mat- 
ter ; as H jejune narrative. 

JEJU'NENESS, n. Poverty ; barrenness ; 
particularly, want of interesting matter ; 
a deficiency of matter that can engage the 
attention and gratify the mind ; as the 
jejuneness of style or narrative. [Jejunity 
is not used.] 

JEL'LIED,a. [See Je%and Gelly.] Brought 
to the consistence of jelly. 

JEL'LY, n. [Hp.jalea, from L. gelo, to con- 
geal. See Gelly.] 

1. The inspissated juiceof fruit, boiled with 

2. Something viscous or glutinous ; some- 
thing of the consistency of jelly ; a trans- 
parent sizy substance, obtained from ani- 
mal substances by decoction ; portable 

JEL'LYBAG, n. A bag through which jel- 
ly is distilled. 

JEN'ITE, n. A different orthography of 
yenite, which see. 

JEN'NET, n. A small Spanish horse, prop- 
erly genet. 

JEN'NETIi\G, n. [said to be corrupted 
from juneting, an apple ripe in June, or at 
St. Jean.] A species of early apple. 


JEN'NY, n. A machine for spinning, moved 
by water or steam and used in manufac- 

JENT'LING, n. A fish, the blue chub, 
found in the Danube. 

JEOFAIL, n.jeffail. [Fr.j'aifailli,lha.\'e 

An oversight in pleading or other proceed- 
ing at law ; or the acknowledgment of a 
mistake. Blackstone. 

JEOPARD, 1'. t. jep'ard. [See Jeopardy.] 
To hazard ; to put in danger ; to expose 
to loss or injury. 

Zebulon and Naphtali were a people that 
jeoparded their lives to the death in the high 
places of the field. Judges v. 

JEOPARDER, n. jep'arder. One who puts 
to hazard. 

JEOPARDIZE, V. t. jep'ardize. To expose 
to loss or injury ; to jeopard. [This is a 
modern word, used by respectable writers 
in America, but synonymous with jeopard 
and therefore useless.] 

JEOPARDOUS, a. jep'ardous. Exposed to 
danger; perilous; hazardous. 

JEOPARDOUSLY, adv. jep'ardously. With 
risk or danger. 

JEOPARDY, n. jep'ardy. [The origin of 
this word is not settled. Some authors 
suppose it to be Fr. j^ai perdu, I have 
lost, or jeu perdu, a lost game. Tyrwhitt 
supposes it to be jeu parti, an even game, 
or game in which the chances are even. 
" Si nous les voyons a jeu parti." If we 
see them at an even game. Froissarl, vol. 
i. c. 234. But jeopardy may be corrupted 
from the G. gefahr, danger, hazard ; g-c- 
fdhrden, to hazard, to jeopard. See Fare.] 

Exposure to death, loss or injury ; hazard ; 
danger ; peril. 

They were tilled with water and were in 
ienparilt/. Luke viii. 

JER'BOA, n. A quadruped having very 
short fore legs. 

J E S 

J E T 

J I B 

JERK, V. t. [This is probably the Ch. Heb. 
DT, to reach, to spit, that is, to throw ont 
with a sudden effort, Sax. hrmcan, herca. 
If not, I know not its origin or affinities 
It seems to be a different ortliography of 

1. To thrust out ; to thrust with a sudden 
effort ; to give a sudden pull, twitch, thrust 
or push ; as, to jerk one under the ribs ; to 
jerk one with the elbow. 

2. To throw with a quick, smart motion ; 
as, to jerk a stone. We apply this word to 
express the mode of throwing to a little 
distance by drawing the arm back of the 
body, and thrusting it forward against the 
side or hip, which stops the arm suddenly. 

JERK, V. t. To accost eagerly. [JVot in 
use.] Dryden. 

JERK, n. A short sudden thrust, push or 
twitch ; a striking against something with 
a short quick motion ; as a jerk of the el- 

His jade gave him a jerk. B. Jonson. 

2. A sudden spring. 

Lobsters swim by jerks. Grew. 

JERK'IN, ji. A jacket; a short coat; a 
close waistcoat. Shak. South. 

2. A kind of hawk. Ainsworth. 

JER'SEY, n. [from the ieland so called.] 

1. Fine yarn of wool. Johnson. 

2. The finest of wool separated from the 
rest ; combed wool. Bailey. Encyc. 

a species of Helianthus or Sunffower. 

JESS, n. Short straps of lether tied round 
the legs of a hawk, by which she is held 
on the fist. Hanmer. 

2. A ribin that hangs down from a garland 
or crown in falconry. Encyc.l 

JES'SAMIN, n. A genus of plants andtheirl 
flowers. [See Jasmin.] I 

JES'SE, n. A large brass candlestick! 

branched into many sconces, hangingi 

down in the middle of a church or choir.; 


JESS'ED, a. Having jesses on ; a term in 

JEST, n. [Sp. and Port, chiste, a witty say- 
ing, a jest or joke ; chistoso, gay, face- 
tious ; allied perliaps to L. gestio.] 

1. A joke ; something ludicrous uttered and 
meant only to excite laughter. Rehgion 
should never be the subject of jest. 

2. The object of laughter or sport; a laugh- 
ing stock. 

Then let me be youtjesi, I deserve it. J 


In jest, for mere sport or diversion ; not 
in truth and reality ; not in earnest. I 

— And given in earnest what I begged in jest.] 

3. A mask. 

4. A deed ; an action. Obs. j 
JEST, 1'. ;. To divert or make merry byi 

words or actions; to joke. " I 

Jest not with a rude man, lest thy ancestors' 

be disgraced. Ecclus.' 

2. To utter in sport'; to say whatisnot true,^ 
merely for diversion. 

3. To play a part in a mask. Shak.\ 
JEST'ER, n. A person given to jesting.! 

sportive talk and merry pranks. i 

— He rambled up and down I 

With shuWow jesters. Shak.^ 

2. One given to sarcasm. | 

Now, as a jester, I accost you. Swijl.'i 

3. A buffoon ; a merry-andrew, a person 
formerly retained by princes to make sport 
for them. 

JEST'ING, ppr. Joking ; talking for diver- 
sion or merriment. 

JEST'ING, n. A joking ; concise wit ; wit 
that consists in a trope or verbal figure, in 
a metaphorical sense of words, or in a 
double sense of the same word, or in 
similitude of sound in different words. 


JESTTNGLY, adv. In a jocose manner; 
not in earnest. Herbert. 

JEST'ING-STOCK, n. A laughing stock 
a butt of ridicule. Googe 

JES'UIT, n. s as :. One of the society of 
Jesus, so called, founded by Ignatius Loy 
ola ; a society remarkable for their cun 
ning in propagating their principles. 

JES'UITED, a. Conforming to the princi 
pies of the Jesuits. ff'hite. 

JES'UITESS, Ji. A female Jesuit in princi 
pie. Bp. Hall. 

JESUIT'le, I Pfertaining to the Jesuit 

JESUIT'I€AL, S "■ or their principles and 

2. Designing ; cunning ; deceitful ; prevar 

JESUIT'IeALLY, adv. Craftily. 

JES'UITISM, n. The arts, principles and 
practices of the Jesuits. 

2. Cunning ; deceit ; hypocrisy ; prevarica 
tion ; deceptive practices to effect a pur 

JES'UITS'BARK, n. Peruvian bark ; the 
bark of the Cinchona, a tree of Peru 

JET, 71. [D. git ; Fr. jaytt ; L. gagates.] 
A solid, dry, black, inflammable fossil sub- 
stance, harder than asphalt, susceptible of 
a good polish, and glossy in its fracture, 
which is conchoidal or undulating. It is 
found not in strata or continued masses, 
but iu unconnected heaps. It is wrought 
into toys, buttons, mourning jewels, <fcc. 
J^cholson. Encyc. 
Jet is regarded as a variety of lignite, oi 
coal originating in wood. 

Haiiy. Cleaveland. 

JET, n. [Fr. jet. It. g'eHo, a cast ; probably 
from L. jactus, whence Fi-. jetter. It. get- 
tare, to throw.] 

1. A spout, spouting or shooting of water; 
a jet d' can. 

2. A yard. Tttsser. Drift ; scope. [Xot 
or local.] 

JET, V. i. [See the Noun.] To shoot for- 
ward ; to shoot out ; to project ; to jut ; tc 
intrude. Shak. 

2. To strut; to throw or toss the body in 
haughtiness. Shak. 

1 3. To jerk; to jolt; to be shaken. 


[This orthography is rarely used. See 


JETTEAU, n. jet'to. [Fr. jet af'eau.] A 

ow or spout of water. Addison. 

JET'.SAM, j) [Fr. jetter, to throw.] In 

JET'SON, > n. law and commerce, uro^er- 

JET'TISON, ^ ly, the throwing of goods 

overboard iu order to lighten a ship in a 

tempest for her preservation. The word 

may however be used for the goods thus 

thrown away, or adverbially. 

Jetsam is where goods are cast into the sea, 
and there sink and remain tinder water ; flot- 

sam, IS where they continue swimming ; ligan 
is where they are sunk in the sea, but tied to a 
cork or buoy. Park. Blackstone. 

JET'TEE, 11. A projection in a building. 

JETTY, «.t. To jut. 

JET'TY, n. A small pier or projection into 
a river for narrowing it and raising the 
water above that place. Cyc. 

JET'TY, a. Made of jet, or black as jet. 

Prior. Pope. 

JET'TYHEAD, n. The projecting part of 
a wharf; tlie front of a wharf whose side 
forms one of the cheeks of a dock. 

Mar. Diet. 

JEW, n. [a contraction fff Judas or Judah.] 
A Hebrew or Israelite. 

JEVy^EL, n. [It. gioia, joy, mirth, a jewel ; 
gioiello, &']e\ve\; Fr.joyau; Sp. joya,juy- 
el ; G. juwel ; D. juiveel. It is from the 
root of joy. Low L. jocale. Class Cg.] 

1. An ornament worn by ladies, usually con- 
sisting of a precious stone, or set with one 
or more ; a pendant worn in the ear. 

2. A precious stone. Shak. 

3. A name expressive of A moth- 
er calls her child, her jewel. 

JEW'EL, V. t. To dress or adorn with jew- 
els. B. Jonson. 

JEW'EL-HOUSE, } . The place where 

JEW'EL-OFFICE, S the royal ornaments 
are reposited. Shak. 

JEW'EL-LIKE, a. Brilliant as a jewel. 


JEWELED, pp. Adorned with jewels. 

JEW'ELER, n. One who makes or deals 
in jewels and other ornaments. 

JEWELING, ppr. Adorning with jewels. 

JEWELRY, 71. Jewels in gineral. 

JEW'ESS, ?i. A Hebrew woman. Acts 

JEWISH, a. Pertaining to the Jews or He- 
brews. Tit. i. 

JEWISHLY, adv. In the manner of the 
Jews. Donne. 

JEWISHNESS, n. The rites of the Jews. 

JEWRY, n. Judea ; also, a district inhab- 
ited by Jews, whence the name of a street 
in London. Chaucer. 

JEWS-EAR, n. The name of a species of 
Fungus, the Pcziza auricula, bearing some 
resemblance to the human ear. 
_ Johnson. Lee. 


JEWS-HARP, n. [Jew and hatp.] An in- 
strument of music shaped like a harp, 
which, placed between the teeth and by 
means of a spring struck by the finger, 
gives a sound which is modulated by "the 
breath into soft melody. It is called also 

JEWS-MALLOW, n. A plant, a species of 

JEWS-PITCH, n. Asphaltum, which see. 

JEWS-STONE, n. The clavated spine of a 
very large egg-shaped sea urchin petrified. 
It is a regular figure, oblong and rounded, 
about three quarters of an inch in length, 
and half an inch in diameter. Its color is 
a pale dusky gray, with a tinge of dusky 
red. Hilt. 

JEZ'EBEL, n. An impudent, daring, vi- 
llous woman. Spectator. 
JIB, n. The foremost sail of a ship, being a 
large stay-sail extended from the outer 


J O C 

J O I 

enil of the jib-boom towards the fore-top 
mast-head." In sloops, it is on the bow 
sprit, and extends towards the lower mast 
head. Mar. Diet. 

JIB-BOOM, n. A spar which is run out 
from the extremity of the bowsprit, and 
which serves as a continuation of it. Be- 
yond this is sometimes extended the Jlying- 

JIBOY'A, n. An American serpent of the 
largest kind. 

JIG, n. [It. giga ; Ft. gigut. . Sec Gig-.] A 
kind of light dance, or a tune or air. 

2. A ballad^ B. Jonson. 

JIG, V. {. To dance a jig. 

JIG'GER, n. Ill sea-language, a machine 
consisting of a rope about five feet long, 
with a block at one end and a sheave at 
the other, used to hold on the cable when 
it is heaved into the ship, by the revolution 
of the windlass. Mar. Diet. 

JIG'GISH, a. Suitable to a jig. 

JIG'MAKER, n. One who makes or plays 
jigs. Sliak. 

2. A ballad maker. Dekkcr. 

JIG'PIN, n. A pin used by miners to hold 
the turn-beams, and prevent them from 
turning. C'ye. 

JILL, 11. A young ^voman ; in contempt. 

was a great job to erect Centra! wharf, in| 
Boston. Tiie mechanic has many small 
jobs on hand. 

2. A lucrative business ; an undertaking 
ith a view to profit. 

No cheek is known to blush nor heart to 

Save when they lose a question or a Job. 


3. A sudtlen stab with a pointed Instrument. 
[This seems to be nearly the original 

To do the job for one, to kill him. 

JOB, V. t. To strike or stab with a sharp in- 
strument. VEstrange. 

3. To drive in a sharp pointed instrument. 

JOB, V. i. To deal in the public stocks; to 
buy and sell as a broker. 

[See GiU.] 

-FLIRT, n. A light wanton woman. 
JILT, n. [of uncertain etymology.] A wo- 
man who gives her lover hopes and capri 
ciously disappoints him ; a woman who 
trifles with her lover. Olway. 

2. A name of contempt for a woman. 

JILT, V. t. To encourage a lover and then 
frustrate his hopes; to trick in love; to 
give hopes to a lover and then reject him. 
JILT, V. i. To play the jilt ; to practice de- 
ception in love and discard lovers. 

JIM'MERS, n. Jointed hinges. Bailey. 

JIN'GLE, V. i. [Qu. Ch. and Syr. Jl, xjj a 

little bell ; or Persii 

jijCij zank, a lit 
It may be aUied to 

tie brass ball or bell 

To sound with a fine sharp rattle ; to clink 
asjingling chains or bells. 

JIN'GLE, t;. t. To cause to give a sharp 
sound, as a little bell or as pieces of me- 

The bells she jingled, and the whistle blew 

JIN'GLE, 71. A rattling or clinking sound 
as of little bells or pieces of metal. 

2. A little bell or rattle. 

3. Correspondence of sound in rhymes. 


JIN'GLING, ppr. Giving a sharj) fine rat- 
tling sound, as a little bell or as pieces of 

JIP'PO, n. [Vr. jape..] A waistcoat or kind 
of stays for females. 

JOB, n. [of unknown origin, but perhaps 
allied to chop, primarily to strike or drive.] 

1. A piece of work ; any thing to be done, 
whether of more or less importance. The 
carpenter or mason undertakes to bull " 
house by the job. The erection of West 
minster bridge was a heavy job ; 

The judge shall job, the bishop bite the town, 
■ • ■ ' ■' ■ rdsfo 


And mighty dukes pack cards forhalf a 

JOB'BER, n. One who does small jobs 

2. A dealer in the public stocks or funds ; 
usually called a stock-jobber. Swift. 

3. One who engages in a low, lucrative af- 

JOB'BERNOWL, n. [said to be from Flem- 
ish Jotie, dull, and Sax. knot, head or top.] 
A loggerhead ; a blockhead. [A low word.] 

JOB'S-TEARS, n. A plant of the genus 

JOCK'EY, n. [said to be from Jackey, a di 
minutive of Jack, John ; primarily, a boy 
that rides horses.] 
A nian that rides horses in a race. 

A dealer in horses ; one who makes it his 
business to buy and sell horses for gain, 
3. A cheat ; one who deceives or takes un- 
due advantage in trade. 
JOCK'EV, V. I. To cheat; to trick ; to de- 

in trade. 
3. To jostle by riding against one. Johnson 
JOCK'EYSHIP, n. The art or practice of 
riding horses. Cowper. 

JO€0'SE, a. [L.jocosus, from jocus, ajoke.' 
1. Given to jokes and jesting; merry; wag- 
gish ; used of persons. 
'.. Containing a joke ; sporti 
jocose or comical airs. 
JOCO'SELY, adv. In jest ; for sport or 
game; waggishly. Broome. 

JOCO'SENESS, n. The quality of being 
jocose ; waggery ; merriment. [Jocosity ' 
not used.] 
JOCO-SE'RIOUS, a. Partaking of mirtli 

nd seriousness. G, 


1. Jocose ; waggish ; merry ; given to je 

ing ; used of persons. 
3. Containing jokes ; sportive ; not seriou 

as ajocular expression or style. 
JOeULAR'ITY, n. Merriment ; je.sting. 

JOCULARLY, adv. In jest; for sport or 

mirth. Bp. Laving!' 

JOCULARY, a. Jocular. [Not in use.] 

Ash. Bacon 
JOC'ULATOR, n. [L.] A jester; a droll 
t-il a minstrel. Strutt 

itllJOCULATORY, a. Droll ; merrily said. 


[L. jocularis, from jociis, a 

JO€'UND, a. [L. jocundus, from jocus, a 
joke.] Merry ; gay ; airy ; lively ; sport- 

Rural sports 2.nd jocund strains. Prior. 

JOCUNDITY, I ^ State of being merry : 
JOCUNDNESS, ^"-gayety. 
JOCUNDLY, adv. Merrily; gayly. 
JOG, V. t. [Qu. VV. gogi, to shake, or D. 
schokken, to ioh or shake, which seems to 
be the Fr. choquer, Eng. shock, shake.] 
To push or shake with the elbow or hand ; 
to give notice or excite attention by a 
slight push. 

Sudden I jogged Ulysses. Pope. 

JOG, II. i. To move by jogs or small shocks, 
like those of a slow trot. 

So hung his destiny, never to rot. 
While he might still jo"- on, and keep his trot. 
2. To walk or travel idly, heavily or slowly. 
Thus they Jog^ on, still tricking, never thriving. 
JOG, n. A push ; a slight shake ; a shake or 
push intended to give notice or awaken at- 
tention. When your friend falls asleep at 
church, give him a jog-. 
2. A rub ; a small stop ; obstruction. 

JOG'GER, n. One who walks or moves 
heavily and slowly. 

2. One who gives a sudden push. 
JOGGING, ppr. Pushing slightly. 
JOG'GING, n. A slight push or shake. 
JOG'GLE, t). <. [from jog.] To shake shght- 

ly ; to give a sudden but slight push. 

JOG'GLED, pp. Slightly shaken. 

JOG'GLING,;j;jc. Shaking slightly. 

JOHAN'NES, n. [John, latinized.] A Por- 
tuguese gold coin of the value of eight 
dollars ; contracted often into_;oe,- as a joe, 
or half-Jop. It is named from the figure 
of king John, which it bears. 

JOHN'APPLE, n. A sort of apple, good for 
spring use, when other fruit is spent. 


JOIN, V. t. [Fr.joindre; It. giugne re ; from 
L. jimgo, jungere ; jungo for jugo ; Sp. 
and Port. jMnter, to join ; L.jugiim; Eng. 
yoke ; Gr. ^uyoj and fsuyoj, a yoke, and a 
pair ; fvyou, to yoke ; ^ivyn'fu, to join ; Ch. 

J"; Sy-..^oi zug; Ar. ,lj to join, 
to couple, to marry, to pair; Eth. H®T 
zog, a pair, as in Arabic. It signifies also 
in Syriac, to rage, to cry out ; showing that 
the primary sense is to strain, to stretch, 
to extend, precisely as in span.] 
1. To set or bring one thing in contiguity 
with another. 

Woe to them thai join house to house, thai 
I,iy field to field. Is. v. 

3. To couple ; to connect ; to combine ; as, 
to Join ideas. Locke. 

3. To unite in league or marriage. 

Now Jehoshaphat had riches and honor in 
abundance, and joined affinity with Aliab. 2 Cli. 

I. To 


Go near and join thyself to this chariot. .\c 

5. To unite in any act. 

Thy tuneful voice witli numbers Jo 


J O 1 

J O K 

J O S 

B. To unite in concord. 

But that ye be perfectly joinerf together in the 
same mind, and in tlie same judgment. 1 Cor. i 

The phrase, to join battle, is probably elhp 
tical, for join in battle ; or it is boriow 
ed from the Latin, committere prwlium, U 
send together the battle. 

In general, join signifies to unite two entire 
things without breach or intermixture, by 
contact or contiguity, either temporary or 
permanent. It differs from connect, which 
signifies properly, to unite by an interme 
diate substance. But join, unite, and con 
nect are often used synonymously. 

JOIN, v.i. To grow to; to adhere. The 
place where two bones of the body join, 
is called a joint or articulation. 

2. To be contiguous, close or in contact ; as 
when two houses join. 

3. To unite with in marriage, league, con- 
federacy, partnership or society. Russia 
and Austria joined in opposition to Buona- 
parte's ambitidus views. Men j'oi?i in 
great undertakings, and in companies for 
trade or manufacture. They j'oin in en- 
tertainments and amusements. They join 
in benevolent associations. It is often fol- 
lowed by loith. 

Any other may join with him that is injured, 
and assist him in recovering satisfaction. 


Should we again break thy commandments, 

and join in affinity with the people of these 

abominations ? Ezra ix. 

JOIN'DER, n. A Joining; as a joinder in 
demurrer. JBlackstone 

JOIN'ED, pp. Added; united; set or fas- 
tened together; associated; confederated. 

JOIN'ER, n. One whose occupation is tc 
construct things by joining pieces of wood 
but appropriately and usually, a raechan 
ic who does the wood-work in the cover 
ing and finishing of buildings. This is 
the true and original sense of the word in 
Great Britain and in New England. This 
person is called in New York, a carpenter. 
[See Carpenter.] 

JOIN'ERY, n. The art of fitting and join- 
ing pieces of timber in the construction of 
utensils or parts of a building, so a 
form one entire piece. 

.fOIN'HAND, n. Writing in which letters 
are joined in words ; as distinguished 
from writing in single letters. Mdison. 

.lOIN'ING, ppr. Adding; making contigu 
oiis ; uniting ; confederating. 

JOINT, n. [Fr. join<; S-p. junta, juntura : It 
ginntura ; li.junctura. See Join.] 

1. The joining of two or more things. 

2. In anatomy, the joining of two or more 
bones ; an articulation ; as the elbow, the 
knee, or the knuckle. 

3. A knot ; the union of two parts of a plant ; 
or the space between two joints; an in 
ternode ; as the joint of a cane, or of ; 
stalk of maiz. 

4. A hinge ; a juncture of parts which ad 
mits of motion. 

5. The place where two pieces of timber are 

tJ. In joinery, straight lines are called a joint, 
when two pieces of wood are planed. 


7. One of the limbs of an animal cut up by 
the butcher. 

Old of joint, luxated ; dislocated ; as when 
the head of a bone is displaced from 
its socket. Hence figuratively, confused; 
disordered ; misplaced. 

JOINT, a. Shared by two or more ; as joint 

2. United in the same profession ; having 
an interest in the same thing ; as a joint- 
lieir or heiress. 

3. United ; combined ; acting in concert ; as 
a j'oi?if force ; joint efiorts ; joint vigor. 

JOINT, V. t. To form with joints or articu- 
lations; usedmostly in the participle ; as the 
fingers are jointed ; a cane has a jointed 

2. To form many parts into one ; as jointed 
ood. Drydtn. 

3. To cut or divide into joints or quarters. 

JOINT'ED, /jp. Formed with articulations, 
as the stem of a plant. 

2. Separated into joints or quarters. 

JOINT'ER, n. A long plane, a joiner's 

JOINT'-HEIR, n. [joint and heir.] An heir 
having a joint interest with another. Rom. 

JOINT'LY, adv. Together ; unitedly ; in 
concert ; with cooperation. 

2. With union of interest ; as, to be jointly 
concerned in a voyage. 

JOINT'RESS,n. A woman who has a joint- 
ure. Biackstone. 

JOINT'STOOL, n. A stool consisting of 
])arts inserted in eacli other. South 

JOINT-TEN' ANCY, n. [joint and tenant.] 
A tenure of estate by unity of interest, ti- 
tle, time and possession. Biackstone 

JOINT-TEN'ANT, n. [joint and tenant.] 
One who holds an estate by joint-tenancy, 

JOINT'URE, n. [Fr.] An estate in lands or 
tenements, settled on a woman in consid 
eration of marriage, and which she is to 
enjoy after her husband's decease. 


JOINT'URE, V. t. To settle a jointure upon, 

JOINT'URED, pp. Endowed with a joint- 

JOIST, n. [Scot, geist or gest. Qu. Fr.g-esir. 
to lie.] 

A small piece of titnber, such as is framed 
into the girders and summers of a build- 
ing to support a floor. Encyc. 

JOIST, V. t. To fit in joists ; to lay joists. 

JOKE, n. [L. j'ocus ,• Dan. giek, a joke ; giek- 
ker, to joke ; Sw. ghcka, to ridicule ; G. 

1. A jest; something said for the sake of ex- 
citing a laugh ; something witty or sport- 
ive ; raillery. A jealous person will rarely 
bear a joke. 

2. An illusion ; something not real, or to no 

Inclose whole downs in walls, "lis all a joke ! 


In joke, in jest ; for the sake of raising a 

laugh ; not in earnest. 
JOKE, V. i. [L. j'ocor.] To jest ; to he merry 

in words or actions. 
JOKE, V. t. To rally; to cast jokes at ; to 

make merry with. 
JO'KER, n. A jester ; a merry fellow. 

JO'KIJ^G, ppr. Jesting : makingmerry with. 

JOLE, n. [sometimes written jowl; Sax. 
ceoZe, the jaw or cheek ; Ir.giat. Qu. Arm. 
chagell, contracted.] 

[1. The cheek ; used in the phrase, cheek by 
jolt, that is, with the cheeks together, 
close, tete a t^te. Dryden. 

2. The head of a fish. Pope. 

JOLE, r. t. To strike the head against 
any thing ; to clash with violence. [J\fot 
used.] Shak. 

JOL'LILY, adv. [See Jolly.] With noisy 

mirth ; with a disposition to noisv mirth. 


JOLLIMENT, n. Mirth; merriment. Obs. 

JOL'LINESS, } [from jo%] Noisy mirth ; 

JOL'LITY, I 'gayety ; merriment; fes- 

AU was now turned to jollily and game. 


2. Elevation of spirit; gayety. 

He with a proud jollity commanded him to 
leave that quarrel for him who was only wor- 
thy to enter iuto it. Sidney. 

[This word in America is not now applied to 
respectable company.] 

JOL'LY, a. [Fr. j'o/i, pretty ; It. giulivo, joy- 
ful, merry. Qu. Sax. geola, gehol, a feast, 
the yule, or feast of the nativity.] 

1. Merry; gay ; lively ; full of life and mirth; 
jovial. It expresses more life and noise 
than cheerful ; as a jolly troop of hunts- 
men. Shak. 

[It is seldom applied in colloquial usage 
to respectable company. We rarely say 
of respectable persons, they are jolly. It 
is applied to the young and the vulgar.] 

2. Expressing mirth or inspiring it. 
And with his j'oW^ pipe delights the groves. 

The coachman is swelled into jolly dimen- 
ions by frequent potations of malt liquors. 


3. Exciting mirth and gayety; as jolly May. 


4. Like one in high health ; pretty. South. 
IJOL'LY-BOAT, n. A small boat belonging 

to a ship. [Sw. julle, a yawl.] 

JOLT, V. i. To shake withshort abrupt ris- 
ings and fallings ; as a carriage nioving on 
rough ground." The carriage jo/<s. 

JOLT, V. t. To shake with sudden jerks, as 
in a carriage on rough ground, or on a high 
trotting horse; as the horse or carriage 
jolts the rider. 

JOLT, n. A shock or shake by a sudden 
jerk, as in a carriage. Swifl. 

JOI.TER, n. He or that which jolts. 

JOLTHEAD, n. A greathead ; a dunce ; a 

I hliickhead. Shak. 

JOLTING, ppr. Giving sudden jerks or 

I shakes. 

[JON'QUIL, n. [Fr. jonqnille; Jt. giunchiglia ; 
giu7ico, L.juncus, a rush, and It. giglio, a 
lily. It is sometimes called the rush leafed 

\ plant of the genus Narcissus or daffodil, 
bearing beautiful flowers, of various col- 
ors, yellow and white. Encyc. 

JOR'DEN, n. A vessel for chamber uses. 

JO'SO, n. A small fisli of the gudgeon kind. 

TOS'TLE, v.t.jos'l. [Fr.jouter,forjouster; 
It. giosirare ; Sp. justar. Written also j'us- 
tle.] To run against ; to push. 

J o u 


J U B 

30S'TLET),pp. Run against ; pushed. We 
say, a thing isJosWetZoutof its place. 

JOS'TLING, ppr. Running against ; push 

JOS'TLING, n. A running against ; a crowd 

JOl^ n. [Gr. lura, Ch. Heh. ^od, Syr. yudh 

the name of the letter •■ or J.] 
An iota ; a point ; a tittle ; the least quan- 
tity assignable. 

Till heaven and eaith pass, one jot or one tit 
tie shall in no wise pass from the law till all 
shall be fulfilled. Matt. v. 

A man may read much, and acquire not a jot 
of knowledge, or be a jot the wiser. 

JOT, V. t. To set down ; to make a meino- 

ratidum of. 
JOT'TING, n. A memorandum. Todd, 

JdUIS'SANCE, n. [Fr.] Jollity ; merriment. 
[JVot in iwe.] Spenser. 

JOURNAL, n. jur'nal. [Fr. jojtrnal ; It. 
giornah, from giorno, a day ; Corn.Jurno : 
W. diumod ; L. diurnum. This was orig- 
inally an adjective, signifying daily, as in 
Spenser and Shakspeare ; but the adject- 
ive is obsolete.] 

1. A diary; an account of daily transactions 
and events ; or the book containing such 

2. Among merchants, a book in which every 
particular article or charge is fairly enter- 
ed from the waste book or blotter. 

3. In navigation, a daily register of the ship's 
course and distance, the winds, weather, 
and other occurrences. 

4. A paper published daily, or otlier news- 
paper ; also, the title of a book or pamph- 
let pubhshed at stated times, containing an 
account of inventions, discoveries and im- 
provements in arts and sciences ; as the 
Journal de Savans; the Journal of Sci- 

JOVRNALIST, n.jur'nalist. The writer of 
a journal or diary. 

JOURNALIZE, I', t. jur'nalize. To enter in 
a journal. 

JOURNEY, n.jur'ny. [Fr.jovrnie, a day or 
day's work; It. giornata, a day; 
nada, a journey, or travel of a day ; It. 
giorno, a day, from L. diurnus, dies.] 

1. The travel of a day. Obs. Milton. 

3. Travel by land to any distance and for 
any time, indefinitely ; as a journeij from 
London to Paris, or to Rome ; ajom-ney to 
visit a brother ; a week's journey ; wc 
made two journeys to Philadelphia. 

3. Passage from one place to another ; as a 
long Journfi/ from the upper regions. 


4. It may sometimes include a passing by 

JOURNEY, V. i. jur'ny. To travel from 
place to place ; to pass from home to a d" 

Abram journeyed, going on still towards the 
south, (icn. .\ii. 

JOURNEYING, ppr. Traveling ; passing 
from place to |)lace. 

JOUR'NEYING, n. A traveling or passing 
from one place to another ; as the jour 
neyings of the children of Israel. 

JOUR'NEYMAN, n. [journey and man.' 
Strictly, a man hired to work by the day 
but in fact, any mechanic who is hired to 
work for another in his employment 

whether by the month, year or other term, 
It is applied only to mechanics in their 
own occupations. 

JOUR'NEY-VVC)RK,n. Work done for hire 
by a mechanic in his proper occupation, 
[This ivord is never applied to farming.] 

JOUST. [See Just.] 

JOVE, n. [L. Jovis,gen. of Jupiter, Gr. Jsv;.] 

1. The name of the Supreme Deity among 
the Romans. 

2. The planet Jupiter. 
Or ask of yonder argent fields above 
Why Jove's satellites are less than Jove.' 


3. The air or atmosphere, or the god of the 

And Jove descends in showers of kindly rain 
Dry den 

JO'VIAL, a. [from Jove, supra.] Under the 
influence of Jupiter, the planet. 
— The fi.\cd stars astrologically differenced by 
the planets, and esteemed Martial or /oo/ai ac- 
cording to the colors whereby they answer these 
planets. Brt 

JO'VIAL, a. [Fr. and Sp. id. ; It. gioviale ; 
probably from the root of giovane, young, 
or from that of joy. If it is from Jofc, it 
must be from the sense of airy or fresh.] 

1. Gay; meny; airy; joyous; jolly; as £ 
jovial youth ; a jovial throng. 

2. Expressive of mirth and hilarity. 

His odes are some of them panegyrical, oth- 
ers moral, the rest are jovial or bacchanalian. 

JO'VIALIST, n. One who hves a jovial life 

JO'VIALLY, adv. Merrily; gayly; with 
noisy mirth. 

JO'VIALNESS, n. Noisy mirth ; gayety. 

JOWL, n. The cheek. [See Jole.] 

JOWL'ER, n. The name of a hunting dog. 
beagle or other dog. Dryden. 

JOW'TER, n. A fish driver. Carew. 

JOY, n. [Fr.joie; It. gioia; Arm. joa, con- 
tracted; G. jauchzen, to shout ; Ti.juichen, 
to rejoice ; Sp. gozo ; Port. id. This word 
belongs to the Class Cg, and its radical 
sense is probably, to shout, or to leap, or 
to play or sport, and alhed perhaps to joke 
aiK] juggle.] 

1. The passion or emotion e.xcited by the ac 
quisition or expectation of good ; that e.x 
citement of pleasurable feelings which i: 
caused by success, good fortune, the grat 
ification of desire or some good possessed, 
or by a rational prospect of possessing 
what we love or desire ; gladness; e.xult- 
ation ; exhilaration of spirits. 

Joy is a delight of the mind, from the con- 
sideration of the present or assured approaching 
possession of a good. Locke. 

— Peace, 
Bring heavenly balm to heal my countiy's 

Joy to my soul and transport to my lay. 

D. Humphrey. 

2. Gayety; mirth; festivity. 
The roofs with joy resound. Ihydcn. 

3. Happiness ; felicity. 

Her heavenly form beheld, all wished hei 
joy. Dryden. 

4. A glorious and triumphant state. 

5. The cause of joy or ha|)piness. 

For ye are our glory and joy. 1 Thess. ii. 
(J. A term of fondness; the cause of joy. 
JOY, V. i. To rejoice ; to be glad ; to exult. 

I will jo.v in the God of my salvation. Hah. 

JOY, r. t. To give joy to ; to congratulate ; 
to entertain kindly. 

2. To gladden ; to exhilarate. 

My soul was joyed in vain. Pope. 

3. [Fr. jouir.] To enjoy ; to have or possess 
with pleasure, or to have pleasure in the 
possession of [Little used. See Enjoy.] 

Milton. Dryden. 
JOY'ANCE, n. [Old Fr. joiant.] Gayety : 
festivity. Obs. Spenser. 

SOY'ED, pp. Gladdened; enjoyed. 
JOY'FUL, a. Full of joy ; very glad ; ex- 

My soul shall he joyful in my God. Is. hi 
Rarely, it has q/" before the cause of joy. 
Sad for Ihcir loss, hut joyfid of ow life. 

JOY'FULLY, arfi'. With joy; gladly. 
Never did men more joyfidly obey. 

Dryden . 
JOY'FULNESS, n. Great gladness; joy. 

Dent, xxviii. 
JOY'LESS, a. Destitute of joy ; wanting 


With downcast eyes the joyless victor sat. 

Dryden . 
Rarely followed by of; as joyless of the 
grove. Dryden. 

2. Giving no joy or pleasure. 

A /o^es-s, dismal, black and sorrowful issue. 

JOY'LESSLY, adv. Without joy. Milton. 
JOY'LESSNESS, n. State of being joyless. 
JOY'OUS, a. [Fr. joyeux.] Glad; gay: 
merry ; joyful. 
Joyous the birds ; fresh gales and gentle airs 
Whispered it. Mdton. 

2. Giving joy. 

They, all as glad as birds oi joyous prime — 
It has of, before the cause of joy. 

And joyous of our conquest early won. 

JOY'OUSLY, adv. With joy or gladness. 
JOY'OUSNESS, n. The state of being joy- 
JUB, n. A bottle or vessel. Obs. Chaucer. 
JU'BILANT, a. [h.jubilans. See Jubi'ee.] 
Uttering songs of triumph ; rejoicing ; 
shouting with joy. 

While the bright pomp ascended Ji(6i7<rn*. 

JUBILA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. jubitatio. 
See Jubilee.] The act of declaring tri- 
JU'BILEE, n. [Fi: jubile; L. jubilmn, from 
jubilo, to shout for joy; Sp. jubileo ; It. 
giubbileo ; Heb. ^3' or S3V, the blast of a 
trumpet, coinciding with Eng. baid, peal, 
. Among the Jews, every fiftieth year, be- 
ing the year following the revolution of 
seven weeks of years, at which time all 
the slaves were liberated, and all lands 
which had been alienated during the 
whole period, reverted to their former 
owners. This was a time of great rejoic- 



2. A season of great public joy and festivity. 

3. A church solemnity or ceremony celebra- 
ted at Rome, in which the pope grants 
plenary indulgence to sinners, or to as 
many as visit thechurchesof St. Peter and 
St. Paul at Rome. Encyc. 

J U D 

JU€UND'ITY, n. [L. jumnditas, (com ju 

cundus, sweet, pleasant.] 
Pleasantness ; agreeableness. [Little used. 
JUDA'le, I Pertaining to the Jews. 
.TUDA'I€AL, I "■ Mihur. 

JUDA'leALLY, adv. After the Jewish 

manner. Milton. 

JU DAISM, n. [Fr. judaismc, from Judah, 

whence Jew.] 

1. The religious doctrines and rites of the 
Jews, as enjoined in the laws of Moses. 
Judaism was a temporary dispensation. 

2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and « 
monies. Encyc. 

jJlI'DAIZE, V. i. [Fr. judaiser, from Judah.] 
To conform to the rehgious doctrines and 
rites of the Jews. 

They— prevailed on the Galatians to judaize 
so far as to observe the rites of Moses in vari- 
ous instances. Milner. 

JU'DAIZER, n. One who conforms to the 
religion of the Jews. Macknight. 

JU'DAIZING, ppr. Conforming to the doc- 
trines and rites of the Jews. 

JU'DAS-TREE, n. A plant of the genus 

JUD'DOCK, ?i. A small snipe, called also 

JUDGE, n. [Fr. juge; Sp.juez; Vort.juiz; 
It. giudice ; I., judex, supposed to he 
pounded of jus, law or right, and dice, to 
pronounce. " Hinc judex, quod jus dicat 
accepta potestate." Varro.] 

1. A civil officer who is invested with au 
thority to hear and determine causes, 
civil or criminal, between parties, accord 
jng to his commission ; as the judges of 
the king's bench, or of the common pleas ; 
judges of the supreme court, of district 
courts, or of a county court. The judge 
of a court of equity is called a chancellor. 

Q. The Supreme Being. 

Shall not the judge of all the earth do right i 
Gen. xviii. 

3. One who presides in a court of judica- 

4. One who has skill to decide on the merits 
of a question, or on the value of any thing 
one who can discern truth and propriety 

A man who isno^Hd^f of law, maybe a goo( 
judge of poetry or eloquence, or of the merits 
of a painting. Dryden 

5. In the history of Israel, a chief magistrate, 
with civil and military ijowers. The Is- 
raelites were governed by judges more 
than three hundred years, and the history 
of their transactions" is called the hook of 

6. A juryman or juror. In criminal suits, 
the jurors are judges of the law as well ai 
of the fact. 

JUDGE, V. i. [Fr. jnger ; L. judico ; It 
giudicare ; Sp. juzgar.] 

1. To compare facts or ideas, and perceivi 
their agreement or disagreement, and thui 
to distinguish truth from falsehood. 

Judge not according to the appearance. John 

'3. To form an opinion ; to bring to issue the 
reasoning or deliberations of the mind. 

If I did not know the originals, I should n( 
be able to judge, by the copies, which was Vi 
gil and which Ovid. Drydei 

."i. To hear and determine, as in causes on 
Trial ; to pass sentence. He was present 

Vol. II. 

J U D 

on the bench, but could not judge in the 

The Lord judge between thee and me. Gen. 
XV i. 
4. To discern ; to distinguish ; to consider 
accurately for the purpose of forming an 
opinion or conclusion. 

Judge in yourselves ; is it comely that a wo- 
man pray unto God uncovered .' 1 Cor. xi. 
JUDGE, V. t. To hear and determine a case ; 
to examine and decide. 

Chaos shall j'urfge the strife. Milton 

2. To try ; to examine and pass sentence on 
Take ye him and judge him according to 

your law. John xviii. 

God shall judge the righteous and the wick- 
ed. Eccles. iii. 

3. Rightly to understand and discern. 
He thati 


spiritual, judgeth all things. 

4. To censure rashly ; to pass severe sen- 

Judge not, that ye be not judged. Matt.^vii 

5. To esteem ; to think ; to reckon. 
If ye have judged me lo be faithful to the 

Lord — Acts xvi. 
To rule or govern. 

The Lord shall judge his people. Heb. x. 

7. To doom to punishment ; to punish. 

I will judge thee according to thy ways 
Ezek. vii. 

JUD6'ED, pp. Heard and determined ; tried 
judicially ; sentenced ; censured ; doomed 

JUDG'ER, n. One who judges or passes 

JUDGESHIP, n. judj'sUp. The office of a 

JUDg'ING, ppr. Hearing and determining ; 
forming an opinion ; dooming. 

JUDG'MENT, 71. [Fr. jugement.] The act 
of judging ; the act or process of the 
mind in comparing its ideas, to find their 
agreement or disagreement, and to ascer- 
tain truth ; or the process of examining 
facts and arguments, to ascertain propriety 
and justice ; or the process of examining 
the relations between one proposition and 
another. Locke. Encyc. Johr, 

2. The faculty of the mind by which man is 
enabled to compare ideas and ascertain 
the relations of terms and propositions 
as a man of clearJ^{c?g•?nc7l<orsound_;■«rfg• 
?nen<. The judgment may be biased byj 
prejudice. Judgment supplies the want of 
certain knowledge. 

3. The determination of the mind, formed 
from comparing the relations of ideas, or 
the comparison of facts and arguments. 
In the formation of our judgments, we 
should be careful to weigh and compare 
all the facts connected with the subject 

4. In laic, the sentence or doom pronounced 
in any cause, civil or criminal, by the judge 
or court by which it is tried. Judgment 
may be rendered on demurrer, on a ver- 
dict, on a confession or default, or on 
non-suit. Judgment, though pronounced 
by the judge or court, is properly the de- 
termination or sentence of the late. A 
pardon may be pleaded in arrest of judg- 

5. The right or power of passing sentence. 

6. Determination ; decision. 
Let reason govern us in the formation of our 

judgment of things proposed to cur inquiry 

7. Opinion : notion. 

J U D 

She, in my judgtneni , was as fair as you. 


8. In Scripture,the spirit of wisdom and pinj- 
dence, enabling a person to discern right 
and wrong, good and evil. 

Give the king thy judgments, O God. Fs. 

9. A remarkable punishment; an extraor- 
dinary calamity inflicted by God on sin- 

Judgments are prepared for seorners. Prov. 
xix. Is. xxvi. 

10. The spiritual government of the world. 

The Father hatli committed all judgment to 
the Son. John v. 

11. The righteous statutes and command- 
ments of God are called his judgments. 
Ps. cxix. 

12. The doctrines of the gospel, or God'.-* 
word. Matt. xii. 

13. Justice and equity. Luke xi. Is. i. 

14. The decrees and purposes of God con- 
cerning nations. Rom. xi. 

15. A court or tribunal. Matt. v. 

16. Controversies, or decisions of controver- 
sies. 1 Cor. vi. 

17. The gospel, or kingdom of grace. Matt, 

18. The final trial of the human race, wher» 
God will decide the fate of every individ- 
ual, and award sentence according to jus- 

For God shall bring every work into judg- 
ment, with every secret thing, whether it be 
good, or whether it be evil. Eccles. xii. 

Judgment of Cod. Formerly this term was 
applied to extraordinary "trials [of secret 
crimes, as by arms and single combat, by 
ordeal, or hot plowshares, &c.; it being 
imagined that God would work miracles 
to vindicate innocence. 

JUDG'MENT-DAY, n. The last day, or day 
when final judgment will be pronounced 
on the subjects of God's moral govern- 

JUDG'MENT-HALL, n. The hidl where 
courts are held. 

JUDg'MENT-SEAT, n. The seat or bench 
on which judges sit in court. 

2. A court ; a tribunal. 

We shall all stand before the judgment-seat 
Christ. Rora. xiv. 

JU'DICATIVE, a. Having power to judge. 

JU'DICATORY, a. Dispensing justice. 

JU'DICATORY, n. [L. judicatorium.] A 
court of justice ; a tribunal. Atterhury. 

2. Distribution of justice. Clarendon. 

JU'DICATURE, n. [Fr.] The power of 
distributing justice by legal trial and deter- 
mination. A coart of judicature is a court 
invested with powers to administer justice 
between man and man. 

2. A court of justice ; a judicatory. South. 

JUDI"CIAL, a. Pertaining to courts of jus- 
tice ; as judicial power. 

2. Practiced in the distribution of justice; as 
judicial proceedings. 

3. Proceeding from a court of justice ; as a 
judicial determination. 

4. Issued by a court under its seal ; as a. ju- 
dicial writ. 

5. Inflicted, as a penalty or in judgment; as 
judicial hardness of heart ; a judicial pun- 

JUDP'CIALLY, adv. In the forms of legal 
justice ; as a sentence jut/jan/Zi/ declared. 



J U N 

2. By way of penalty or judgment; as, to be 

judicially punished. 
JUDI"CIARY, n. [Fr.judiciaire ; L.judicia- 


1. Passing judgment or sentence. Boyle. 

2. Pertaining to the courts of judicature or 
legal tribunals. 

JUDI"CIARy, n. That branch of gov 
ment which is concerned in the trial and 
determination of controversies between 
parties, and of criminal prosecutions; tli« 
system of courts of justice in a govern- 
ment. An independent judiciary is the 
lirmest bulwark of freedom. 

United States. 

JUpP'CIOUS, c. [Fr. judicieux; ll. giudi- 

1. According to sound judgment : wise ; 
prudent; rational; adapted to obtain a 
good end by the best means ; used of things. 
Nothing is more important to success in 
the world than a judicious application of 
time, unless it may be a judicious e.xpeud- 
ilure of money. 

2. Acting according to sound judgment; 
possessing sound judgment ; wise ; direct- 
ed by reason and wisdom ; vsed of per- 
sons ; as a judicious magistrate ; a judi- 
cious historian. 

JUDI'CIOUSLY, adv. With good judg- 
ment ; with discretion or wisdom ; skill- 

Longinus has judiciously preferred the sub- 
lime genius that sometimes errs, to the mid- 
dling or indifferent one, which makes few faults, 
but seldom rises to excellence. Bruden. 

JlIDI"CIOUSNESS, 71. The quality of act- 
ing or being according to sound judg- 

JUG, n. [Junius mentions the Danish jvgge, 
an urn or water-pot, and the Sa.x. has ceac, 
Low L. caucus. Qu.] 

A vessel, usually earthen, with a swelling 
belly and narrow mouth, used for holding 
and conveying liquors. Swijl. 

JUG'GLE, V. i. [D. guichelen or goochelen ; 
G. gaukeln ; It. giocotare ; Dan. giigler, 
to juggle; g'ieAArtr, to j oke ; S\v. gack, a 
jester ; g&cka, to mock, to make sport ; L. 
jocutor, to jest, fromjoeus, a joke ; jocor, to 
joke, which coincides with the Sp. and 
Port, jugar, to play, to sport ; Fr. joiier, 
contracted. It is certain that joke and 
jocular, and probable that Joy, are from the 
.same root as juggle ; perhaps Ch. im 
hukk, or chuk, to laugh, to play, to sport. 
Class Gk. No. 18.] 

I . To play tricks by shght of hand ; to amuse 
and make sport by tricks, which make a 
false show of extraordinary powers. 

1. To practice artifice or imposture. 

Be these juggling fiends no more believed. 
JUG'GLE, V. t. To deceive by trick or arti- 
Is't possible the spells of France shouldj»g^/t 
Men into such strange mockeries ? Shak 

JUG'GLE, n. A trick by legerdemain. 

2. An imposture ; a deception. Tillolson. 
JUG'GLER, n. [Sp. juglar; Vr. jongleur; 

It. giocolatore ; D. guichelwr.] 
1. One who practices or exhibits tricks by 
sliglit of hand ; one who makes .sport by 
tricks of extraordinary dexterity, by which 
the spectator is deceived. Jugglers are 
jiuni-shable by law. 

2. A cheat ; a deceiver ; a trickish fellow. 

JUG'GLING, ppr. Playing tricks by slight 

of hand ; deceiving. 
JUG'GLING, n. The act or practice of ex 

hibiting tricks of legerdemain. 
JUG'GLINGLY, adv. In a deceptive man 

JU'GULAR, a. [L.jugulum, the neck, either 
from jugum, a yoke, or from its radica 
sense, to extend, to join. See Join.'] 

Pertaining to the neck or throat ; as the j« 
gutar vein. 

JU'GULAR, 71. A large vein of the neck. 

JUICE, ? . [D. juys ; Fr. jus. The reg 

JUSE, I "-J"*'- ula/onbography isjuse.f 

The sap of vegetables ; the fluid part of ani- 
mal substances. Encyi 

JUICE, V. t. To moisten. 

JUICELESS, a. ju'seless. Destitute o; 
juice ; dry ; without moisture. More 

JUICINESS, n. ju'siness. The state of 
abounding with juice; succulence 

JUICY, a. ju'sy. Abounding with juice ; 
moist ; succulent. Bacon. 

JUISE, n. [L.jHS.] Judgment; justice. Obs. 

LrU'JUB, ? „ r, . . p " - 
JU'JUBE, < "• [L.:!:i//)Au)n;Pers. 

Confused mixture. 

The name of a plant and of its fruit, which 
is pulpy and resembles a small plum. The 
plant is arranged under the genus Rham 
nus. The fruit was formerly used in pec 
toral decoctions, but it is now in little repu 
tation. Encyc. Miller. 

JUKE, D. i. [Fr. jucher.] To perch. [Xot 



• "^s- julabon ; Pers. id.; 

Fr. julep ; If. giultbbo.] 

In pharmacy, a medicine composed of some 
proper liquor and a sirup of sugar, of ex 
temporaneous preparation, serving as a 
vehicle to other forms of medicine. 

Encyc. Q^uincy. 

JU'LIAN, a. Noting the old account of the 
year, as regulated by Julius Cesar, which 
continued to be used till 1752, when the 
Gregorian year, or new style, was adopted. 

Julian Alps, called also Carniau, between 
Venetia and Noricum. U'Anville. 

JU'LIS, n. A small fish with a green back. 

JU'LUS, n. [Gr. toD>.o5, a handful or bundle 

1. In botany, a catkin or ament, a species 
of calyx or inflorescence, consisting of 
chafTy scales arranged along a stalk, as in 
hazle, birch, willow, &c. Martyn. 

2. A genus of multiped insects, of the order 
of Apters, of a semi-cylindrical form, with 
moniliform antennte, and two articulated 
palpi. Encyc. 

JULY', n. The seventh month of the year, 
during which the sun enters the sign Leo. 
It is so called from Julius, the surname of| 
Caius Cesar, who was born in this monti 
Before that time, this montb was called 
(^uintilis, or the fifth month, according to 
the old Roman calendar, in which March 
was the first montb of the year. 

JULY-FLOWER, n. The name of certain 
species of plants. The clove July-fower is 
of the genus Dianthus ; the queen's July- 

flower of the genus Hesperis; and tiie 
stock July-flower of the genus Cheiranthus. 
[See Gillyfloicer.] Eet 

JU'MART, «. [Fr.] The offspring of a bull 
and a mare. Locke. 

JUM'BLE, !). /. [Chaucer, jomire.] To mix 
in a confused mass ; to put or throw to- 
gether without order. It is often followed 
by together. 

One may observe how apt that is to jumble 
together passages of Scripture. Locke. 

JUM'BLE, V. i. To meet, mix or unite in a 
onfused manner. Su-ift. 

JUM'BLE, n. Confused mixture, mass or col- 
lection without order. Swift. 

JUM'BLED, pp. Mixed or collected in a con- ■ 
fused mass. 

[JVot in use.] 
f JUM'BLER, a. One who mixes things in 

JUM'BLING, ppr. Putting or mixing in a 
confused mass. 

JU'MENT, n. [Fr. from L. jumentum, a 

A beast of burden. [JVot used.] Brown. 

JUMP, V. i. [Qu. the root of It. zampillare, 
to spring.] 

1. To leap ; to skip ; to spring. Applied to 
men, it signifies to spring upwards or for- 
wards with both feet, in distinction from 
hop, which signifies to spring with one 
foot. A man jumps over a ditch ; a beast 
jumps over a fence. A man Jump* upon a 
horse ; a goa.l jumps from rock to rock. 

2. To spring over any thing ; to jiass to at 
a leap. 

Here, upon this bank and shelve of time, 

We'd jump the life to come. Shak. 

We see a little, presume a great deal, and so 

jump to the conclusion. Spectator. 

3. To bound ; to pass from object to object ; 
to jolt. 

The noise of the rattling of the wheels, and 
of the prancing horses, and of the jumping 
chariots. Nahum ill. 

4. To agree ; to tally ; to coincide. 
Ib some sort it jumps with my humor. 

[This use of the word is now vulgar, and 
in America, I think, is confined to the sin- 
gle phrase, to jump in judgment.] 
JUMP, V. t. To pass by a leap ; to pass over 
eagerly or hastily ; as, to jump a stream. 

J But over is understood.] 
MP, Ji. The act of jumping; a leap; a 

spring; a bound. 
2. A lucky chance. Shak. 

JUMP, n. [Fr. jupe; It. giubba.] A kind of 

loose or limber stays or waistcoat, vvorii 

by females. 
JUMP, arft). Exactly; nicely. Obs. 

JUMPER,)!. One who jumps. 
JUMP'ING, ppr. Leaping; springing; 

JUNC'ATE, n. [It. giuncata, cream cheese ; 

Fr. jonchee de crime, a kind of cream 

cheese served in a frail of green rushes, 

and for that reason so called, or because 

iiiade in a frail or basket of rushes; L. 

juncus, a rush.] 
A cheese-cake ; a kind of sweetmeat of 

curds and sugar. Johnsoi:. 

2. Any kind of delicate food. Milton. 

.3. A furtive or private entertaicmeut. [It 

is now written junAc/.} 

J U N 

J U R 


JUNCOUS, a. [L.junceus or juncosus, from 

juncus, a rush.] 
Full of bulrushes. [Little used.] 
JUNCTION, n. [Fr. from L. jundio, from 

jungo, to join.] 

1. The act or operation of joining; as the 
jttndion o( two armies or detachments. 

2. Union ; coalition ; combination. 

3. The place or i)oint of union. 
JUNCTURE, n. [L. jundura ; Sp. junlura 

It. giuntura ; from L. jungo, to join.] 

1. A joining; union; amity; &s \.\\e jundure 
of hearts. [lAttle used.] King Charles. 

2. A union of two bodies ; a seam ; particu- 
larly, a joint or articulation. Encyc. 

3. The line or point at which two bodie 
are joined. Boyli 

4. A point of time ; particularly, a point 
rendered critical or important by a con- 
currence of circumstances. Addison. 

JUNE, n. [L Junius ; Fr. juin ; It. giugno ; 
Sp. Junio.] 

The sixth month of the year, when the 
enters the sign Cancer. 

JUN'GLE, ;i. [Hindoo.] In Hiudoostan, a 
thick wood of small trees or shrubs. 

Asiat. Res. 

JUN'GLY, a. Consisting of jungles; a- 
bounding with jungles. Ibm 

JU'NIOR, a. [L. 'fron^ juvenis, young ; quasi 

Younger; not as old as another; as a ju- 
nior partner in a company. It is applied 
to distinguish the younger of two persons 
bearing the same name in one family or 
town, and opposed to elder ; as John Doe 

JU'NIOR, n. A person younger than an- 

The fools, my juniors by a year — Swift 

JUNIOR'ITY, n. The state of being junior 

JU'NIPER, n. [L. juntperus ; It. ginepro 
Fr. gencvre ; Sp. enebro.] 

A tree or shrub bearing berries of a bluish 
color, of a warm, pungent, sweet taste, 
yielding when fresh, by expression, a 
rich, sweet, aromatic juice. They 
useful carminatives and stomachics. The 
wood of the tree is of a reddish color, hard 
and durable, and is used in cabinet work 
and veneering. The oil of juniper mixed 
with that of nuts makes an excellent var- 
nish ; and the resin powdered is used un- 
der the name of pounce. Encyc 

JUNK, n. [L. juncus. It. giunco, Sp. junco, 
Fr. jonc, a bulrush, of which ropes were 
made in early ages.] 

1. Pieces of old cable or old cordage, used 
for making points, gaskets, mats, &c., and 
when untwisted and picked to pieces, it 
forms oakum forfilUngthe seams of ships, 

Mar. Did. 

2. A small ship used in China ; a Chinese 
vessel. [An eastern word.] 

JUNK'ET, n. [See Juncate.] A sweetmeat, 
2. A stolen entertainment. 
JUNK'ET, V. i. To feast in secret; to make 
an entertainment by stealth. Swift. 

2. To feast. 

Job's children ^/un&cfed and feasted togethei 
often. South. 

JUN'TO, n. [Sp. junta, a meeting or coun- 
cil, from L. junctus, joined ; It. giunto.] 

. Primarily, a select council or assembly 
which deliberates in secret on any affair 
of government. In a good sense, it is 
used in English ; but hence, 

a. A cabal ; a meeting or collection of i 
combined for secret deliberation and in- 
trigue for party purposes ; a faction ; as a 
junto of ministers. Gulliver. 

JU'PITER, n. [L. the air or heavens; 
Jovis pater.] 

1. The supreme deity among the Greek 
and Romans. 

2. One of the superior planets, remarkable 
for its brightness. Its diameter is about 
eighty-nine thousand miles ; its distance 
from the sun, four hundred and ninety 
millions of miles, and its revolution round 
the sun a little less than twelve years 

JUPPON', n. [Fr.jupon; It. giubbone.] A 
short close coat. Dryden 

JU'RAT, n. [Fr. from L. juratus, sworn, 
from jure, to swear.] 

In England, a magistrate in some corpora 
tions ; an alderman, or an assistant to a 
bailiff. Encyc 

JU'RATORY, a. [Fr. juratoire, from "L 
juro, to swear.] 

Comprising an oath ; as juratory caution 
[Little used.] Ayliffe. 

JURID'I€AL, a. [L. juridicus ; jus, juris. 
law, and dico, to pronounce.] 
Acting in the distribution of justice ; per- 
taining to a judge. 

2. Used in courts of law or tribunals of jus- 
tice. Hale. 

JURID'ICALLY, adv. According to forms 
of law, or proceedings in tribunals of jus 
tice ; with legal authority. 

JURISeON'SULT, n. [h. juris consultus ; 
jus and consultus, consulo, to consult.] 

Among the Romans, a man learned in the 
law ; a counselor at law ; a master of Ro- 
man jurisprudence, who was consulted or 
the interpi'etation of the laws. Encyc. 

JURISDICTION, n. [Fr. frotn L. jumrfic- 
tio ; jus, juris, law, and dictio, from dico, 
to pronounce ; It. siuridizione ; Sp. juris- 
diccione ; Port, junsdicam.] 

1. The legal power or authority of doing 
justice in cases of complaint; the powei 
of executing the laws and distributing jus 
tice. Thus we speak of certain suits or 
actions, or the cognizance of certain 
crimes being within the jurisdiction of a 
court, that is, within the limits of their 
authority or commission. Inferior courts 
have jurisdiction of debt and trespa 
of smaller offenses; the supreme courts 
have jurisdiction of treason, murder, and 
other high crimes. Jurisdiction is secular 
or ecclesiastical. 

3. Power of governing or legislating. The 
legislature of one state can exercise no 
jurisdiction in another. 

3. The power or right of exercising author- 
ity. Nations claim exclusive jurisdiction 
on the sea, to the extent of a marine 
league from the main land or shore. 

4. The limit within which power may be 

Jurisdiction, in its most general sense, is the 
power to make, declare or apply the law ; 
when confined to the judiciary depart- 
ment, it is what we denominate the judi- 
cial power, the right of administering jus- 

tice through the laws, by the means 
which the laws have provided for thai 
purpose. Jurisdiction, is limited to place 
or territory, to persons, or to particular 
subjects. Du Ponceau. 

JURISDICTIONAL, a. Pertaining to ju- 
risdiction ; as jurisdictional rights. 

JURISDICTIVE, a. Having jurisdiction. 

JURISPRU'DENCE, n. [Fr. from L. juris- 
prudentia; jus, law, and prudentia, sci- 

The science of law ; the knowledge of the 
laws, customs and rights of men in a 
state or community, ncces.«ary for the due 
administration of justice. The study of 
jurisprudence, next to that of theology, is 
the most important and useful to men. 

JURISPRU'DENT, a. Understanding law. 

JURISPRUDENTIAL, a. Pertaining to ju- 
risprudence. Ward. 

JU'RIST, »!. [Fr.juriste;h. giurista ; Sp. 
jurista; from L.jus,jttris, law.] 

1. A man who professes the science of law ; 
one versed in the law, or more particu- 
larly, in the civil law; a civilian. Bacon. 

2. One versed in the law of nations, or who 
writes on the subject. 

JUROR, n. [L. jurator ; or rather juro, to 

One that serves on a jury ; pne sworn to 
deliver the truth on the evidence given 
him concerning any matter in question or 
on trial. 

JU'RY, Ji. [Fr. jure, sworn, L. juro, to 

A number of freeholders, selected in the 
manner prescribed by law, empanneled and 
sworn to inquire into and try any matter 
of fact, and to declare the truth on the 
evidence given them in the case. Grand 
juries consist usually of twenty four free- 
holders at least, and are summoned to try 
matters alledged in indictments. Petty 
juries, consisting usually of twelve men, 
attend courts to try matters of fact in civil 
causes, and to decide both the law and 
the fact in criminal prosecutions. The 
decision of a petty jury is called a ver- 

JU'R YMAN, JI. One who is empanneled on 
a jury, or who .serves as a juror. 

JU'RYRPAST, n. A mast erected in a ship 
to supply the place of one carried away 
in a tempest or an engagement, &c. Tlio 
most probable origin of the word jury, in 
this compound, is that pro|)osed by Thom- 
son, viz. from the Fr. jour, day, quasi, 
joure, temporary, or from L. juvare, to 

JUST, a. [Fr. juste ; Sp. justo ; It. giusto ; 
L. Justus. The primary sense is probably 
straight or close, from the sense of set- 
ting,"erecting, or extending.] 

1. Regular; orderly; due; suitable. 
When all 

2. Exactly proportioned ; proper. 
Pleaseth your lordship 

To meet his grace, just distance 'tween our 
armies ? Shak. 

3. Full; complete to the common standard. 

He was a comely personage, a little above 
just st.uure. £acon. 


4. Full ; true ; a sense allied to the preced 
ing, or the same. 

—So that once the skirmish was like to have 
come to a just battle. Knolles 

5. Ill a moral sense, upright ; houest ; having 
principles of rectitude ; or conforming ex- 
actly to the laws, and to principles of rec- 
titude in social conduct; equitable in the 
distribution of justice ; as a just judge. 

C. In an evangelical sense, righteous; rel: 
gious ; influenced by a regard to the laws 
of God ; or living in exact conformity to 
the divine will. 

There is not a. just man on earth, that doeth 
good, and sinneth not. Eccles. vii. 

7. Conformed to rules of justice ; doing equal 

Just balances, ^'ws< weights, njust ephahand 
a just hin shall ye have. Lev. xix. 

8. Conformed to truth ; exact ; proper ; ac- 
curate ; a.s just thoughts ; just expressions ; 
just images or representations; a just 
description ; a just inference. 

9. True ; founded in truth and fact ; as a just 
charge or accusation. 

10. Innocent; blameless; without guilt. 

How should man he just with God? Job ix. 

11. Equitable; due; merited; as a juii rec- 
ompense or reward. 

— WTiose damnation is just. Rom. iii. 

12. True to promises ; faithful ; as jusl to 
one's word or engagements. 

13. Impartial ; allowing what is due ; giving 
fair representation of character, merit or 

JUST, ade. Close or closely ; near or near- 
ly, in place. He stood just by the speak- 
er, and heard what he said. He stood 
just at the entrance of the city. 

9. Near or nearly in time ; almost. Just at 
that moment he arose and fled. 

3. Exactly ; nicely ; accurately. They re- 
main just of the same opinion. 

'Tis with our judgments as our watches ; 

Go just alike, yet each believes his own. 

4. Merely ; barely ; exactly. 

— And having just enough, not covet more. 
Dry den. 

5. Narrowly. He just escaped without in- 

JUST, n. [Fr. jouste, now joule ; Sp. jusla; 
Port. id. ; It. giostra ; probably from the 
root of jostle or justle. The primary sense 
is to thrust, to drive, to push.] 

A mock encounter on horseback ; a combat 
for sport or for exercise, in which the 
combatants pushed with lances and 
swords, man to man, in mock fight ; a 
tilt; one of the exercises at tournaments. 

JUST, I), i. [Fr. jouter; Sp. and Port, jus- 
tar ; It. giostrare.] 

1. To engage in mock fight on horseback. 

2. To push; to drive; to justle. 
JUST'ICE, n. [Fr.; Sp. justida; It. gius- 

tizia; from I-. justiiia, frotn Justus, just.] 
9. The virtue which consists in giving to 
every one what is his due ; practical con- 
formity to the laws and to principles of 
rectitude in the dealings of men with 
each other; honesty; integrity in com- 
merce or mutual intercourse. Justice is 
dist-.-^bulive or commutative. Dislribxilive 
justice belongs to magistrates or rulers, 


and consists in distributing to every man 
that right or equity which the laws and 
the principles of equity require ; or in de- 
ciding controversies according to the laws 
and to principles of equity. Commutative 
justice consists in fair dealing in trade 
and mutual intercourse between man and 

2. Impartiality ; equal distribution of right 
in expressing opinions ; fair representa- 
tion of facts respecting merit or demerit 
In criticisms, narrations, history or dis- 
course, it is a duty to do justice to every 
man, whether friend or foe. 

.3. Equity ; agreeableness to right ; as, he 
proved the justice of his claim. This 
should, in strictness, be justness. 
Vindictive retribution ; merited punish 
ment. Sooner or later, justice overtakes 
the criminal. 

5. Right; application of equity. His arm 
will do him justice. 

(5. [Low L. jusliciarius.] A person com 
sioned to hold courts, or to try and decide 
controversies and administer justice to 
individuals ; as the Chief Justice of the 
king's bench, or of the common pleas, 
in England ; the Chief Justice of the su- 
preme court in the United States, &c. 
and justices of the peace. 

JUST'ICE, V. t. To administer justice. 

J Little iised.] Bacon. 

ST'ICEABLE, a. Liable to account in a 
court of justice. [Ldttle used.] Hayward. 
JUST'ICER, n. An administrator of justice. 
[Uttle used.] Bp. Hall. 

JUST'ICESHIP, n. The ofiice or dignity 
of a justice. Swift. 

JUSTP'CIARY, ? „ [L. jusliciarius.] An 
JUSTI"CIAR, ^ '■ adininistrator of just 
B. Burke. 

9. A chief justice. Blackstone. 

3. One that boasts of the justice of his own 
act. [N'ol used.] Dering. 

JUST'IFIABLE, a. [from justify.] That 
maybe proved to be just; that may be 
vindicated on principles of law, reason 
rectitude or propriety ; defensible ; vindi 
cable. No breach of law or moral obli 
gation is justifiable. The execution of ; 
malefactor in pursuance of a sentence oi 
court, is justifiable homicide. 

JUST'IFIABLENESS, n. The quality of 
being justifiable ; rectitude; possibility of 
being defended or vindicated. 

King Charles. 

JUST'IFIABLY, adv. In a manner that 
admits of vindication or justification ; 

JUSTIFICA'TION, n. [Fr. from justifter, 
to justify.] 

1. The act of justifying; a showing to be 
just or conformable to law, rectitude or 
propriety ; vindication ; defense. The 
court listened to the evidence and argu 
ments \n justification of the prisoner's con 
duct. Our disobedience to God's com 
maiids admits no justification. 

9. Absolution. 

I hope, for my brother's JHs//^catio(i, he wrote 
this but as an essay of my virtue. Shak 

3. In law, the showing of a sufficient reasor 
in court why a defendant did what he is 
culled to answer. Pleas in justification 
must set forth some special matter. 

4. In theology, remission of sin and absolu 


tion from guilt and punishment ; or an 
act of free grace by which God pardons 
the sinner and accepts him as righteous, 
on account of the atonement of Christ. 

JUSTIF'ICATIVE, a. Justifying; that has 
power to justify. 

JUSTIFICA'TOR, n. One who justifies. 
[Little used.] 

JUST'IFIER, n. One who justifies ; one 
who vindicates, supports or defends. 

9. He who pardons and absolves from guilt 
and punishment. 

That he might be just, and the justifier of 
him who believeth in Jesus. Rom iii 

JUST'IFY, v.t. [Fr. Justifier; ap.juslificar; 
It. giuslificare ; L. justus, just, and facia, 
to make.] 

1 To prove or show to be just, or conform- 
able to law, right, justice, propriety or 
duty; to defend or maintain; to vindi- 
cate as right. We cannot justify disobe- 
dience or ingratitude to our Maker. We 
cannot justify insult or incivility to our 
fellow men. Intemperance, lewdness, pro- 
faneness and dueling are in no case to be 

2. In theology, to pardon and clear from 
guilt ; to absolve or acquit from guilt and 
merited pimishment, and to accept as 
righteous on account of the merits of the 
Savior, or by the application of Christ's 
atonement to the oflfender. St. Paul. 

3. To cause another to appear comparatively 
righteous, or less guilty than one's self. 
Ezek. xvi. 

4. To judge rightly of 

Wisdom is justified by her children. Matt, 

5. To accept as just and treat withi favor. 
James ii. 

JUST'IFY, V. i. In printing, to agree ; to 
suit ; to conform exactly ; to form an even 
surface or true line with something else. 
Types of different sizes will not justify 
with each other. 

JUS'TLE, V. i. jus'l. [See Jostle and Just.] 
To run against; to encounter; to strike 
against ; to clash. 

The chariots shall rage in the streets ; they 
shall justle one against another in the broad 
wavs. Nah. ii. 

JUS'TLE, V. t. jus'l. To push ; to drive ; to 
force by rushing against ; commonly fol- 
lowed by off or om<; as, to justle a thing 
off the table, or out of its place. 

JUST'LY, adv. [from just.] In conformity 
to law, justice or pi-opiiety ; by right. Tiie 
offender is justly condemned. The hero 
is justly rewarded, applauded or hon- 

9. According to truth and facts. His char- 
acter h justly described. 

3. Honestly ; fairly ; with integrity ; as, to 
do justly. Mic. vi. 

4. Properly ; accurately ; exactly. 
Their feet assist their hands, and justly beat 

the ground. Dryden. 

JUST'NESS, n. Accuracy; exactness; as 
the justness of proportions. 

9. Conformity to truth ; as the J usiwss of a 
description or representation. 

}. Justice ; reasonableness ; equity; as the 
justness of a cause or of a demand. [Just- 
7iess is properly applied to things, and 
justice to persons ; hut the distinction is 
not always observed.] 

JUT, V. i. [a diflerent spelling of jet.] To 

K A L 

shoot forward ; to project beyond the 
main body ; as the jutting part of a biiild- 
hig. A point of \and juts into the sea. 
JUT, n. Asliooting forward; a projection, 
JIIT'TING, iwr. Shooting out; projectnig, 
JUT'TY, I', t. Tojut. [Mtused.] Shak. 
JUT'TY, n. A projection in a building ; also 

a pier or mole. 
JUT- WINDOW, n. A window that projects 
from the lino of a building. 

K E C 

JU'VENILE, a. [L. juvenilis, I'lom juvenis, 

1. Young ; youthful ; as juvenile years or 

2. Pertaining or suited to youth ; as juvenile 

JOVENIL'ITY, «. Youthfulness ; youthful 
age. Glanville. 

2. Light and careless manner ; the manners 
or customs of youth. GtanrtUe 

K E E 

JUXTAPOS'ITED, a. [L.juxta, near, and 
posited.] Placed near ; adjacent or con- 
tiguous. Macquer. 

JUXTAPOSI'TION, n. [L. juita, near, 
and position.] 

A placing or being placed in nearness or 
contiguity ; as the parts of a substance or 
of a composition. The connection of 
words is sometimes to be ascertained by 


K, the eleventh letter of tlic English Al- 
phabet, is borrowed from the Greeks, be- 
ing the same character as the Greek 
kappa, answering to the oriental kaph. 
It represents a close articulation, formed 
by pressing the root of the tongue against 
the upper part of the mouth, with a de- 
pression of the lower jaw and opening of 
the teeth. It is usually denominated a 
guttural, but is more properly a palatal, 
Before all the vowels, it has one invariable 
sound, corresponding with that of c, be 
fore a, o and ii, as in keel, ken. In mono 
syllables, it is used after c, as in crack, 
check, deck, being necessary to exhibit a 
correct pronunciation in the derivatives, 
cracked, checked, decked, cracking, for witi: 
out it, c, before the vowels e and i, would 
be sounded like s. 

Formerly, k was added to c, in certain 
words of Latin origin, as in musick, pub 
lick, republick. But in modern practice, k 
is very properly omitted, being entirely 
superfluous, and the more properly, as it 
is never written in the derivatives, music 
al, publication, republican. It is retained 
in traffick, as in monosyllables, on account 
of the pronunciation of the derivatives, 
trafficked, trafficking. 

K is silent before n, as in know, knife, knee. 

As a numeral, K stands for 250 ; and with 
a stroke over it, thus, k, for 250,000. 

This character was not used by the ancient 
Romans, and rarely in the later ages of 
their empire. In the place ofk, they used 
c, as in clino, for the Greek xf-wu. In the 
Teutonic dialects, this Greek letter is 
sometimes represented by h. [See H.] 

KAALING, n. A bird, a species of starlin 
found in China. 

KAB'BOS, II. A fish of a brown color, with- 
out scales. 

KALE, n. [h.caulis;W.caivl.] Sea-cale, 
an esculent plant of the genus Crambe. 

KAL'ENDAR, n. [See Calendar.] 

KA'LI, n. [Ar. ^5^3 the ashes of the 

Sahcornia, from ^jXi' kalai, to fry.] 
A plant, a species of Salsola, or glass-wort, 
the ashes of which are used in making 
glass. Hence alkali, which see. 
KA'LIF, n. [See Calif.] 

KAL'MIA, n. The name of a genus of ever- 
green shrubs, natives of N. America, call- 
ed laurel, ivy-bush, calico-bush, &c. 

KAM, a. rW. cam.] Crooked. [M)t used.] 

■- ^ Shak. 

KAN, i In Persia, an officer answering 

KAUN, > n. to a governor in Europe or 

KHAN, ) America. Among the Tartars, 
a chief or prince. [See Khan.] 

KANGAROO', n. A singular animal found 
in New Holland, resembling in some res- 
pects the opossum. It belongs to the ge- 
nus Didelphis. It has a small head, neck 
and shoulders, the body increasing 
thickness to the rump. The fore legs 
very short, useless in walking, but used 
for digging or bringing food to the mouth. 
The hind legs, which are long, are used in 
moving, particularly in leaping. Encyc. 

KA'OLIN, n. A species of earth or variety 
of clay, used as one of the two ingredient; 
in the oriental porcelain. The other in 
gredient is called in China petunse. Its 
color is white, with a shade of gray, ye 
low or red, Encyc. Cleaveland. 

KAR'AGANE, n. A species of gray fox 
found in the Russian empire. Tooke 

KARPH'OLITE, n. [Gr. xap^oj, straw, and 
■KiBoi, a stone.] 

A mineral recently discovered. It has a 
fibrous structure and a yellow color. 

Werner. Cleaveland. 

KA'TA, n. In Syria, a fowl of the grous 

KAW, V. i. [from the sound.] To cry as s 
raven, crow or rook. Locke 

KAW, n. The cry of the raven, crow or 
00k. Dnjden. 

KA WN, n. In Turkey, a pubhc inn. 

KAYLE, 71. [Fr. quille, a nine-pin, a keel.' 

\. A nine-pin, a kettle-pin ; sometimes writ 
ten keel. Sidney. Careiv. 

2. A kind of play in Scotland, in whicl: 
holes ranged in threes, are made in the 
ground, and an iron ball rolled in among 
them. Johnson 

KECK, V. i. [G. kOken.] To heave the stom 
ach ; to reach, as in an effort to vomit 
[Little used.] Bacon. Swiji 

KECK, n. A reaching or heaving of the 
stomach. Cheyne 

KECK'LE, V. t. [Qu. G. kugeln, to roll.] 
To wind old rope round a cable to pre 
serve its surface from being fretted, or t< 
wind iron chains round a cable to defend' 

it from the friction of a rocky bottom, or 
from the ice. Mar. Diet. 

KECK'SY,«. [Qu. Fr. «Vi(e, L. cicuta. It 
is said to be commonly pronounced kex.] 

Hemlock ; a hollow;jointed plant. [M)t ^ised 
in America.] Shak. 

KECK'Y, a. Resembling a ke.\. 

2. An Indian scepter. Greiv. 

KED(iE, n. [allied probably to ca^and keg.] 
A small anchor, used to keep a ship steady 
when riding in a harbor or river, and par- 
ticularly at the turn of the tide, to keep her 
clear of her bower anchor, also to remove 
her from one part of a harbor to another, 
being carried out in a boat and let go, as 
in warping or kedging. [Sometimes writ- 
ten kedger.] Mar. Diet. 

KEDGE, v. t. To warp, as a ship ; to move 
by means of a kedge, as in a river. 

KED'LACK, n. A weed that grows among 
wheat and rye ; charlock. [/ believe not 
used in America.] Tusser. Johnson. 

KEE, plu. of cow. [Local in England and 
not used in. America.] Gay. 

KEECH, n. A mass or lump. [JVot in use.] 
KEEL, n. [Sax.ccBle; G. and Ji. kiel ; Dan. 
kiil,kiol ; Kass.kil; Sw. k'ol ; Fr. quille; 
Sp. quilta ; Port, quilha. The word, in dif- 
ferent languages, signifies a keel, a pin, 
kayle, and a quill ; probably from extend- 
L The principal limber in a ship, extending 
from stem to stern at the bottom, and sup- 
porting the whole frame. Mar. Diet. 

2. A low flat-bottomed vessel, used in the 
river Tyne, to convey coals from Newcas- 
tle for loading the colliers. 

3. In botany, the lower petal of a papiliona- 
ceous corol, inclosing the stamens and 
pistil. Marlyn. 

False keel, a strong thick piece of timber, 
bolted to the bottom of the keel, to pre- 
serve it from injury. 

On an even keel, in a level or horizontal po- 

KEEL, y. /. [Sax. cffiffn.] To cool. Ohs. 


KEEL, V. t. To plow with a keel ; to navi- 
gate. J. Barlow. 

2. To turn up the keel ; to show the bottom. 

To keel the pot, in Ireland, to scum it. 


KEE'LAtiE, n. Duty paid for a ship enter- 
ing Hartlepool, Eng. 

K E E 

K E E 

K E E 

KEE'LED, a. In botany, carinated ; having 
a longitudinal prominence on tlie back ; 
as a keeled leaf, calyx or nectary. Marlyn. 

KEE'LFAT, n. [Sax. ccelan, to cool, and 
fat, vat.] 

A cooler ; a vessel in which liquor is set for 
cooling. [M)t %ised.] 

KEE'LHAUL, v. t. [D. kielhaalen ; keel and 

To haul under the keel of a ship. Keel 
hauling is a punishment inflicted in tlie 
Dutch navy for certain offenses. The of 
fender is suspended by a rope from one 
yard arm, with weights on his legs, and a 
rope fastened to him, leading under the 
ship's bottom to the opposite yard arm, 
and being let fall into the water, 
drawn under the ship's bottom and raised 
on the other side. Mar. Did 

KEE'LING, n. A kind of small cod, of] 
which stock fish is made. 

KEELSON, n. kel'son. A piece of timber ir 
a ship, laid on the middle of the floor tim 
hers over the keel, fastened with long 
bolts and clinched, and thus binding the 
floor timbers to the keel. Mar. Did. 

KEEN, a. [Sax. cene ; G. kiihn ; D. koen , 
properly, bold, stout, eager, daring, from 
shooting forward. Class Gn.] 

1. Eager ; vehement ; as hungry curs too 
keen at the sport. Tatter. 

The sheep were so keen on the acorns— 


2. Eager ; sharp ; as a keen appetite. 

3. Sharp ; having a very fine edge ; as a 
keen razor, or a razor with a keen edge. 
We say a keen edge, but a sharp point. 

4. Piercing ; penetrating ; severe ; applied 
to cold or to wind ; as a keen wind ; the 
cold is very keen. 

5. Bitter ; piercing ; acrimonious ; as keen 
satire or sarcasm. 

Good father cardinal, cry thou amen, 
To my keen curses. Shak. 

KEEN, V. t. To sharpen. [Unusual] 

KEE'NLY, adv. Eagerly; vehemently. 
2. Sharply; severely; bitterly. 
KEE'NNESS, ?i. Eagerness; vehemence; 
as the keenness of hunger. 

2. Sharpness ; fineness of edge ; as the keen- 
ness of a razor. 

3. The quality of piercing ; rigor ; sharp- 
ness J as the keenness of the air or of cold. 

4. Asperity ; acrimony ; bitterness ; as the 
keenness of satire, invective or sarcasm. 

5. Acuteness ; sharpness ; as the keenness of 

KEEP, V. I. pret. and pp. kept. [Sax. cepan, 
Syr. \:^:i kaba, Eth. O'^R akab, to 
keep. Class Gb. No. 68. 85. The word 
coincides in elements with have, L. haheo, 
and capio, but I think the radical sense to 
be different.] 

1. To hold ; to retain in one's power or 
session ; not to lose or part with ; as, to 
keep a house or n farm ; to keep any thing 
in the memory, mind or heart. 

2. To have in custody for security or pres 

The crown of Stephanus, first king of Hun 
gary, was always kept in the castle of Vice 
grade. Knolles 

3. To preserve ; to retain. 

The Lord God, merciful and gracious, keep 
ing mercy for thousands— Ex. xx\iv. 

4. To preserve from falling or from danger ; 
to protect ; to guard or sustain. 

And behold, I am with thee, and will keep 
thee. Gen. xxviii. Luke iv. 

5. To hold or restrain from departure ; to 

— That I may know what keeps me here wit! 
you. Dry den 

6. To tend ; to have the care of. 
And the Lord God took the man and put liim 

in the garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it 
Gen. ii. 

7. To tend ; to feed ; to pasture ; as, to keep 
a flock of sheep or a herd of cattle ' 
yard or in a field. He keeps his horses on 
oats or on bay. 

8. To preserve in any tenor or state. Keep 
a stiff rein. 

Keep the constitution sound. .Qddison. 

[). To regard ; to attend to. 

While the stars and course of lieaven I keep— 
10. To hold in any state ; as, to keep in or- 
U. To continue any state, course or action ; 
as, to keep silence ; to keep the same road 
or the same pace ; to keep reading or talk 
ing; to keep a given distance. 

12. To practice ; to do or perform ; to obey 
to observe in practice ; not to neglect oi 
violate ; as, to keep the laws, statutes or 
commandments of God. Script' 

13. To fulfill ; to perform ; as, to keep one's 
word, promise or covenant. 

14. To practice ; to use habitually ; as, to 
keep bad hours. Pope. 

15. To copy carefully. 
Her servant's eyes were fixM upon her face. 
And as she moved or turned, her motions 

Her measures kept, and step by step pursued, 
IC. To observe or solemnize. 

Ye shall keep it a feast to the Lord. Ex. xii, 

17. To board ; to maintain ; to supply with 
necessaries of life. The men are kept at 
inoderate price per week. 

18. To have in the house; to entertain; as, 
to keep lodgers. 

19. To maintain; not to intermit ; as,tokeep 
watch or guard. 

20. To hold in one's own bosom ; to confine 
to one's own knowledge ; not to disc 
or communicate to others ; not to betray ; 
as, to keep a secret ; to keep one's own 

21. To have in pay; as, to keep a servant 
To keep back, to reserve ; to withhold ; not to 

close or communicate. 

I will keep nothing back from you. Jer. xlii. 

2. To restrain ; to prevent from advancing. 
Keep back thy servant also from presumptu- 
s sins. Ps. xix. 

3. To reserve ; to withhold ; not to deliver. 
Acts V. 

To keep company with, to frequent the soci 
ety of; to associate with. Let youth keep 
company unth the wise and good. 

2. To accompany ; to go with ; as, to keep 
company ivith one on a journey or voyage 

To keep doicn, to prevent from rising ; not t 

lift or suffer to be raised. 
To keep in, to prevent from escape ; to hold 

in confinement. 

3. To conceal; not to tell or disclose. 
3. To restrain ; to curb. Locke. 
To keep off, to hinder from approach or at- 
tack : as, to keep off an enemy or an evil. 

To keep under, to restrain ; to hold in sub- 
jection ; as, to keep under an antagonist or 
a conquered country ; to keep under the 
appetites and passions. 

To keep up, to maintain ; to prevent from 
falling or diminution ; as, to keep up the 
price of goods ; to keep tip one's credit. 

2. To maintain ; to continue ; to hinder from 

To keep out, to hinder from entering or tak- 
ing possession. 

To keep bed, to remain in bed without rising : 
to be confined to one's bed. 

To keep house, to maintain a family state. 
His income enables hitn to keep house. 

2. To remain in the house ; to be confined. 
His feeble health obliges him to keep 

To keep from, to restrain ; to prevent ap- 

To keep a school, to maintain or support it ; 
as, the town or its inhabitants keep ten 
schools ; more properly, to govern and in- 
struct or teach a school, as a preceptor. 

KEEP, V. {. To remain in any state ; as, 
to keep at a distance ; to keep aloft ; to keep 
near ; to keep in the house ; to keep before 
or behind ; to keep in favor ; to keep out of 
company, or out of reach. 

2. To last ; to endure ; not to perish or be 
impaired. Seek for winter's use apples 
that will keep. 

If the malt is not thoroughly dried, the ale it 
makes will not keep. Mortimer. 

3. To lodge ; to dwell ; to reside for a time. 
Knock at the study, where, they say, he keeps. 

To keep to, to adhere strictly ; not to neglect 

or deviate from ; as, to keep to old cus- 
toms ; to keep to a rule ; to keep to one's word 

or promise. 
To keep on, to go forward ; to proceed ; to 

continue to advance. Dryden. 

To keep up, to remain unsubdued ; or not to 

be confined to one's bed. 
In popular language, this word signifies to 

continue ; to repeat continually ; not to 

KEEP, n. Custody; guard. [lAttle used.] 
Colloquially, case ; condition ; as in good 

keep. English. 

3. Guardianship; restraint. [Little used.] 


A place of confinement ; in old castles, 

the dungeon. 
KEE'PER, n. One who keeps; one that 

holds or has possession of any thing. 

2. One who retains in custody ; one who has 
the care of a prison and the custody of 

3. One who has the care of a park or other 
inclosure, or the custody of beasts ; as the 
keeper of a park, a pound, or of sheep. 

4. One who has the care, custody or super- 
intendence of any tiling. 

In Great Britain, the keeper of the great seal, 
is a lord by his office, and one of the privy 
council. All royal grants, commissions and 
charters pass through his hands. He is 
constituted lord-keeper by the delivery of 
the great seal. The keeper of the privy 
seal is also a lord by his office, and a mem- 
ber of the privy council. 


K E R 


KEE'PERSHIP, n. The office of a keejier. 
[Little used.] Carew. 

KEE'PING, ppr. Holding ; restraining ; 
preserving ; guarding ; protecting ; per- 

KEE'PING, 71. A holding ; restraint ; cus- 
tody ; guard ; preservation. 

2. Feed ; fodder. The cattle have good 

3. In painting, a representation of objects in 
the manner they appear to the eye at dif- 
ferent distances from it. 

KEE'PSAKE, n. Any thing kept, or given to 
be kept for the sake of the giver ; a token 
of friendship. 

KEF'FEKIL, n. A stone, white or yellow 
which hardens in the fire, and of whicl 
Turkey pipes are made. J^'icholson 

KEG, n. [Fr. caque.] A small cask or bar- 
rel ; written more correctly cag. 

KELL, n. A sort of pottage. [JVot used in 
.Imerica.] Ainsworth 

KELL, 11. The caul or omentum. [See 
Caul, the usual orthography of the word.] 

2. The chrysahs of the caterpillar. B. Jonaon. 

KELP, n. [Ar. and Pers.] The calcined ash- 
es of sea weed, used in the manufacture 
of glass. This is a dark colored alkaline 
substance, which, in a furnace, vitrifies and 
becomes transparent. Encyc. 

KELP'Y, n. An imaginary spirit of the wa- 
ters, in the form of a horse. [Local and 

KEL'SON. [See Keelson.] 

KELT'ER, n. [Dan. kilter, to gird, to tru; 
up ; kilte, a folding.] 

The jjhrase, he is not in ktlter, signifies, he 
not in a proper dress or equi]>age, or not 
in readiness. 

KEMB, V. t. [Sax. cemban, to comb.] To 
comb, which see. Ketnb is an obsolete or- 
thography. B. Jonson. Drydm. 

KEM'ELIN,n.[Qu.Gr.)efi/ii;Jiior, furniture.] 
A tub ; a brewer's vessel. [J^ot in xise.] 

KEN, V. t. [W. ceniaw, to see ; ctiniaw, to 
take a view, to perceive ; which Owen de- 
duces from can, coin, clear, bright, fair, 
white, and sight, brightness, and this coin- 
cides with L. canus, white, caneo, to be 
white, and this with L. cano, to s'mg, canto, 
Eng. to cant, to chant. These coincide in 
elements with G. kennen, to know, erken- 
■ncn, to see, know, discern ; D. kennen. 
Sw. kunna, Dan. kiender, to know, to be 
able ; Sax. connan, eunnan, Goth, knniian, 
to know. In Sax. ceunan is to bear, L. 
gigno, Gr. ytmau. The radical sense is to 
strain, extend, reach. In Sans, kanna is 
an eye. See Can.] 

1. To see at a distance ; to descry. 

Wc ken them from afar. Mdison. 

3. To know ; to understand. Obs. Shak. Gay. 
[This verb is iised chiefly in podn/.] 

KEN, V. i. To look round. Burton. 

KEN, n. View; reach of sight. 

Coasting they kept the land within their ken. 

KEN'DAL-GREEN, n. A species of green 
cloth made of kcndal. Shak. 

KEN'NEL, 7!. [Vr.chtnil;\l.camle; from 
L. canis, a dog.] 

1. A house or cot fur dogs, or for a pack of 

2. A pack of hounds or their cry. Encyc. ] 

3. The hole of a fox or other beast ; a haunt 
KEN'NEL, n. [h.canate; Fr. caiial ; Eng 

1. The water-course of a street ; a little ca- 
nal or channel. 

2. A puddle. 
KEN'NEL, v.i. To lodge; to lie ; to dwell 

as a dog or a fox. 

The (log kenneled in a hollow tree. 


KEN'NEL, V. t. To keep or confine in a 
kennel. Taller. 

KEN'NING, ?!. View ; sight. Bacon. 

KEN'TLE, n. [VV. cant, a hundred ; L. 

In commerce, a hundred pounds in weight; 
as a kentk of fish. [It is written and pro- 
nounced also quintal.] 

KENT'LEDGE, n. In seamen''s language, 
pigs of iron for ballast laid on the floor of 
a ship. Mar. Diet. 

KEPT, pret. and pp. of keep. 


KER CHIEF, n. [contracted from cover 
chief; Fr. couvrir, to cover, and chef, the 
head. Chaucer.] 

A head dress ; a cloth to cover the head. 

2. A cloth used in dress. Hayward. 

The word is now seldom used, except in 
compound, handkerchief, and sometimes 

KER'CHIEFED, ) Dressed ; hooded 

KERCHIEFT, ^ "' covered. MUton 

KERF, n. [Sax. cyrf; ceorfan, cearfan, tc 
ut, Eng. to carve ; D. kerf a notch ; ker- 
en, to cut; G. kerb,kerben, Ir. cearb.] 

The cut of an ax, a saw, or other instru- 
ment ; the notch or slit made in wood by 


.3 kinniran, coc 

KERM'ES, ... L....^^j. 

cus baphica. Castell.] 

In zoology, an insect produced in the ex 
crescences of a species of small oak, or th( 
body of an insect transformed into a grain 
berry, or husk. This body is full of red- 
dish juice, which is used in dyeing red 
Hence the word crimJOTi. Encyc 

KERM'ES-MINERAL, n. A mineral sub 
stance, so called from its color. It is a 
precipitate of antimony, obtained by fu- 
sion with a fixed alkali and subsequent so- 
lutitn in boiling water, or by simple ebul- 
lition. JVicholson. Encyc. 

KERN, n. An Irish footman or foot-soldier. 

''2. In English laws, an idle person or vaga- 
bond. Encyc. 

iKERN, n. A hand-mill consisting of two 
stones, one of which is turned by the hand 
usually written ^Mern. which see. 

2. A churn. Obs. 

KERN, V. i. [G. and D. kern, a kernel ; G. 
kernen, to curdle.] 

1. To harden, as corn in ripening. Carew. 

2. To take the form of corns ; to granulate. 

KERN'-BABY, n. [corn-baby.] An image 

dressed with corn, and carried before 

reapers to their harvest-home. 

KERN'EL, n. [Sax. cyrnel, a little corn, 

I grain or nut ; G. and D. kern ; Fr. cer- 

W. cicartn. a gland, a kernel.] 

The edible substance contained in llie 
hell of a nut. More. 

2. Any thing included in a shell, husk or in- 
tegument ; a grain or corn ; as a kernel of 
wheat or oats. 

3. The seed of pulpy fruit ; as the kernel of 
an apple. Bacon. 

4. The central part of any thing; a small 
mass around which other matter is con 
creted ; a nucleus. Arbuthnot. 

5. A hard concretion in the flesh. 
KERN'EL, r. i. To harden or ripen into 

kernels ; as the seeds of plants. 

KERN'ELLY, a. Full of kernels; resem- 
bling kernels. 

KER'SEY, n. [H.kerzaai; Fi: cariset; Sp. 

A species of coarse woolen cloth ; a coarse 
stuff made chiefly in Kent and Devon- 
shire in England. Encyc. 

KERVE, V. t. To carve. [Aot used.] 

IKERV'ER, n. A carver. [Not used.] 

KE'SAR, n. [from C'e^ar.] An emperor. 
Obs. Spenser. 

KES'TREL, n. A fowl of the genus Faico, 
or hawk kind ; called also siannel and 
windhover. It builds in hollow oaks, and 
feeds on quails and other small birds. 


KETCH, jj. [Fr. quaiche ; G. and D. kiL] 
A vessel with two masts, a main and miz- 
en-mast, usually from 100 to 250 tons bur- 
den. Ketches are generally used as yachts 
or as bomb-vessels. The latter are called 
bomb-ketches. Mar. Diet. 

KETCHUP, n. A sauce. [See Catchup.] 

KET'TLE, n. [Sax. cell, celel or cyfel ; G. 
kessel ; D. ketel ; Dan. kedel ; Sw. kittel ; 

' Russ. kotel.] 

A vessel of iron or other metal, with a wide 
mouth, usually without a cover, used for 
heating and boiling water or other liquor. 

Among the Tartars, a kettle represents a 
family, or as many as feed from one ket- 

! tie. 

Among the Dutch, a battery of mortars sunk 
in the earth, is called a kettle. Encyc. 

KETTLE-DRUM, «. An instrument of 
martial music, composed of two basins of 
copper or brass, rounded at the bottom 
and covered with vellum or goat-skin. 


KETTLE-DRUMMER, n. The man who 
beats the kettle-drum. 

KET"rLE-PINS, n. Nine pins ; skittles. 

KEV'EL, n. In ships, a piece of timber 
serving to belay the sheets or great ropes 
by which the bottoms of the fore-sail ami 
main-sail are extended. Mar. Did. 

KEX, n. Hemlock; the stem of the teasel; 
a dry stalk. [See Kecksy.] 

KEY, ?!. ke. [Sax. co'g.] In a general sense, 
a fastener ; that which fastens ; as a piece 
of wood in the frame of a building, or in a 
chain, &c. 

a. An instruirrfjnt for shutting or opening a 
lock, by pushing the bolt one way or the 
other. Keys are of various forms, aud 
fitted to the wards of the locks to vvltich 
they belong. 

3. An instrument by which something is 
screwed or turned ; as the key of a watch 
or other chronometer. 

4. The stone which binds an arch. [See 

K I C 

K I D 

K I L 

5. In an organ or harpsichord, the key, or fin 
ger key is alittle lever or piece in the fore 
part by which the instrument is played on 
by the fingers. 

C. In mudc, the key, or key note, is the fui 
damental note or tone, to which the whole 
piece is accommodated, and with which it 
usually begins and always ends. There 
are two keys, one of the major, and one of 
the minor mode. Key soiueumes signifies 
a scale or system of intervals. Rousseau. 

7. An index, or that which serves to explain 
a cypher. Hence, 

8. That which serves to explain any thing 
difficult to be understood. 

9. In the Romish church, ecclesiastical juris- 
diction, or the power of the pope ; or the 
power of excommunicating or absolving. 


10. A ledge or lay of rocks near the surface 
of the water. 

11. The husk containing the seed of an ash. 


KEY, n. [Ir. ceigh; D. kaai ; G. kai ; Fr. 
quai ; Arm. qae. The word is probably 
contracted from the root of the preceding 
word, signifying, to hold, make fast, re- 
strain. Class Cg.] 

A bank or wharf built on the side of a river 
or harbor, for the convenience of loading 
and unloading ships, and securing them in 
their stations. Hence keys are furnished 
with posts, rings, cranes, capstans, &c. 
It is sometimes written quay. Encyc. 

KE'YAgE, Ji. Money paid for the use of a 
key or quay. 

KE'Y-eOLD, a. Lifeless. [JVotinuse.] 

KE'YED, a. Furnished with keys; as a 
keyed insu-nment. 

2. Set to a key, as a tune. 

KE'YHOLE, n. A hole or aperture in a 
door or lock, for receiving a key. 

KE'YSTONE, n. The stone on the top or 
middle of an arch or vault, wliich being 
wider at the top than at the bottom, enters 
like a wedge and binds the work ; proper- 
ly, tbefastening-sto7ie. ^ 

KHAN, n. kaun. In .^sia, a governor 
king ; a prince ; a chief. In Persia, the 
word denotes the governor of a province; 
among the Tartars, it is equivalent to 
king or prince. Eton. 

2. An inn. 

KHANATE, n. kaun'ate. The dominion or 
jurisdiction of a khan. Tooke. 

KIBE, n. [This word has the elements of 
chap, gap, gape. Class Gb. No. 7. Per 

haps it is of Persian origin, ^Axi^ 

kafidan, to crack, to split. Qu. Dan. kiebe, 

the chops.] 
A chap or crack in the flesh occasioned by 

cold ; an ulcerated chilblain ; as in the 

KI'BED, a. Chapped ; cracked with cold ; 

affected with chilblains ; as kibed heels. 
KI'BY, a. Affected with kibes. 
KICK, v.t. [VV. ciciaw, from cic, tlie foot, 

Owen. Pers. -^S> a kicking.] 

To strike with the foot ; as, a horse kicks a 
servant ; a man kicks a dog. 

KICK, V. i. To practice striking with the foot 
or feet ; as a horse accustomed to kick. 

2. To thrust out the foot or feet with vio- 
lence, either in wantonness, resistance, 
anger or contempt ; to manifest opposition. 
Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice ? 1 Sam. 
Jeshurun waxed fat and kicked. Deut. xxxii. 
It is hard for thee to kick against the goads. 
Acts ix. 

KICK, n. A blow with the foot or feet ; a 
striking or thrust of the foot. 

KICK'ED, pp. Struck with the foot or feet. 

KICK'ER, n. One that kicks. 

KICK'ING, ppr. Striking with the foot; 
hrusting out the foot with violence. 

KICK'ING, n. The act of striking with the 
foot, or of yerking the foot with violence. 
What cannot be effected by kicking, may 
sometimes be done by coaxing. 

KICK'SHAW, n. [corrupted from Fr. ^uei- 
que chose, something.] 

1. Something fantastical or uncommon, or 
something that has no particular name. 

2. A dish so changed by cooking, that it can 
arcely be known. Johnson. 

KICK'SHOE, n. A dancer, in contempt ; a 

caperer ; a buffoon. [A word used only 

by Milton.] 
KID, n. [Dan. kid ; Sw. kid,kidling ; W. cidtcs, 

a goat, cidysen, a young goat ; L. hwdus ; 

vulgar Gr. yi6a; Sans, ada ; Turk, gctsi; 

Heb. Ch. nj ; Syr. Ut-vv * kid ; Russ. 

kidayu, to throw, to bring forth young.] 

1. A young goat. 

2. A faggot; a bundle of heath and furze. 

KID, V. t. or {. To bring forth a young goat. 

2. To make into a bundle, as faggots. Eng. 

KID, V. t. [Sax. cythan.] To show, discover 
or make known. Obs. Gower. 

KID'DER, n. [Sw. kyfa, to truck.] An en- 
grosser of corn, or one who carries corn, 
provisions and merchandize about the 
country for sale. Eng. 

KID'DLE, n. A kind of wear in a river for 

catching fish; corruptly pronounced kittle. 

Mag. Charta. 

KID'DOW, n. A web-footed fowl, called al- 
so guillemot, sea-hen, or skout. 


KID'LING, n. [Sw.] A young kid. 


KID'NAP, V. t. [G. kinderdieb ; D. kinder- 
dief, child-thief. Kid is usually supposed 
to be contracted from kind, a child, in 
which case, nap may be the oriental 3JJ, 
to steal. See Knab.] 

To steal a human being, man, woman or 
child ; or to seize and forcibly carry away 
any person whatever from his own coun- 
try or state into another. Encyc. 

KID'NAPPED, pp. Stolen or forcibly car- 
ried away ; as a human being. 

KID'NAPPER, n. One who steals or forci- 
bly carries away a human being; a n 

KID'NAPPING, ppr. Stealing or forcibly 
carrying away human beings. 

KID'NAPPING, n. The act of stealing, or 
forcible abduction of a human being from 
his own country or state. This crime was 
capital by the Jewish law, and in modern 
limes is highly penal. 

KID'NEY, n. [I have not found this word 
in any other language.] 
The kidneys are two oblong flattened 
bodies, extending from the eleventh and 
twelfth ribs to the fourth lumbar verte- 
bra, behind the intestines. Their use is to 
separate the urine from the blood. 

Parr, ^uincy. 

2. Sort ; kind. [A ludicrous use of the word.] 
, , Shak. 

3. A cant term for a waiting servant. 


KID'NEY-BEAN, n. A sort of bean so na- 
med from its resemblance to the kidney. 
It is of the genus Phaseolus. 

KIDNEY-FORM , > „ Having the form 

KID'NE Y-SHAPED, I "' or shape of a kid- 
ney. Kinoan. 

KIDNEY-VETCH, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus Anthylhs. 

KID'NEY- WORT, n. A plant of the genus 

KIF'FEKILL, > „ A mineral, the meer- 

KEF'FEKILL, ^ "• schaum, which see. 

KIL, n. A Dutch word, signifying a channel 
or bed of a river, and hence a stream. 

KIL'DERKIN, n. [Qu. D. kinderkin.] A 
small barrel ; a liquid measure containing 
two firkins, or 16 or 18 gallons. Encyc. 

KILL, V. t. [The Dutch has keel, the throat, 
and keelen, to cut the throat, to kill. In 
Russ. kolyu is to stab. But this word 
seems to be allied to Sax. cwellan, to kill, 
to quell, that is, to beat down, to lay ; and 
if so, it may be connected witli D. kivellen, 
G. qualen, Sw. qublia, Dan. quceler, to tor- 
ment, but in Danish to stifle, choke or 
quell. This affinity is rendered probable 
by the seamen's phrase, to kill the wind, 
that is, to allay or destroy it.] 

1. To deprive of life, animal or vegetable, in 
any manner or by any means. To kill an 
animal or a plant, is to put an end to the 
vital functions, either by destroying or es- 
sentially injuring the organs necessary to 
life, or by causing them to cease from ac- 
tion. An animal may be killed by the 
sword or by poison, by disease or by suf- 
focation. A strong solution of salt will 
kill plants. 

2. To butcher ; to slaughter for food ; as, to 
kill an ox. 

3. To quell ; to appease ; to calm ; to still : 
as, in seamen's language, a shower of 
rain kills the wind. 

KIL'LAS, n. An argillaceous stone of a 
pale gray or greenish gray, of a lamellar 
or coarsely granular texture, found in 
Cornwall, England. Micholson. 

KILL'DEE, n. A small bird in America, sp 
called from its voice or note ; a species of 

KILL'ED, pp. Deprived of life ; quelled ; 

KILL'ER, n. One who deprives of life ; he 
or that which kills. 

KILL'ING, ppr. Depriving of life ; quell- 

KIL'LINITE, n. A mineral, a variety of 
spodumene, found at Killeney, in Ireland. 
KIL'LOW, n. An earth of a blackish or 
^ deep blue color. Jf'oodward. 

KILN, n. kil. [Sax. cyln, from cyjene, a fur- 
nace or kitchen ; L. cidina ; W. cyl and 


K I N 

K 1 N 

1. A large stove or oven ; a fabric of brick 
or stone which may be heated for the pur- 
pose of hardening, burning or drying any 
thing ; as a kiln for baking or hardening 
earthen vessels ; a kiln for drying grain 

2. A ])ile of brick constructed for burning or 
hardening; eaJled also abrick-kiln. 

KIL/N-DRIED, pp. Dried in a kiln. 

KILN-DRY, V. t. kil-dry. To dry in a kiln ; 
as, to kiln-diy meal or grain. 

KIL'N-DRYING, ppr. Drying in a kiln. 

KIL'OGRAM, n. [Fr. kilogramme ; Gr.l 
;tAto(, a thousand, and yfxiuim. See Gram.] 

In the new system of French weights and 
measures, a thousand grams. According 
to Lunier, the kilogram is equal in weight 
to a cubic decimeter of water, or two 
pounds, five drams and a half 

KIL'OLITER, »!. [Fr. kilolitre ; Or. jrAco., 
a thousand, and 'hirpa, a Greek measure. 
See Liter.] 

In the new French measures, a thousand li- 
ters ; or 264 gallons and 44,231 cubic in-j 
ches. According to Lunier, it is nearly! 
equal to a tun of wine of Bourdeau.x. j 

KILOM'ETER, n. [Fr. kilometre; Gr.j 
XI.7MI, a thousand, and ^frpoi-, a meter.] i 

In the French system of measures, a thou 
sand meters ; "the meter being the unit of 
linear measure. The kilometer is nearly 
equal to a quarter of a French league. 


KILT, n. A kind of short petticoat worn by 
the liiu'hlanders of Scotland. 

Kll.T. pp. Killed. Obs. 

KI.AI liO, I [probablv from the Celtic 

KLAI BOW, ^ "■ cam, crooked. The Italian 
sghembo, crooked, awry, is from the same 

Crooked ; arched ; bent ; as a kimbo handle. 

To set the arms a kimbo, is to set the hands 
on the hips, with the elbows projecting! 
outward. j 

KIN, n. [Sax. n/n, cynn, or cind, gecyndj 
kind, genus, race, relation ; Ir. cine ; G.I 
kind, a child ; D. kind ; W. cenal, cciioio ;| 
L. genus ; Gr. yiio; ; connected with L.I 
gigno, geno, Gr. yivofiai. Class Gn. No. I 
29. See Beg-i'ji.] I 

1. Relation, properly by consanguinity or 
blood, but perhaps sometimes used forre-j 
lation by affinity or marriage. 

This man is of A-m to me. 

Bacon. Dryden. 

2. Relatives ; kindred ; persons of the same 

— The father, mother and the kin beside. 


3. A relation ; a relative. Davies. 

4. The same generical class ; a thing rela- 

And the ear-deafening voice of th' oracle. 
Kin to Jove's thunder. Shak. 

5. As a termination, kin is used as a dimin- 
utive, denoting small, from the sense of 
child ; as in manikin, a little man : Tom 
kin, mikin. Pipkin. 

KIN, a. Of the same nature ; kindred : con 
genial. Chaucer. 

KIN' ATE, n. A salt formed by the union of 
kinic acid with a base. " Ure. 

KIND, n. [Sax. cyn, or cynn. See Kin.]\ 

1. Race ; genus ; generic class : as in 

Vol. II. 

kind or human;A:i)id. In technical Ian 
guage, fc?7i</ answers to genus. 

2. Sort, in a sense more loose than genus 
as, there are several kinds of eloquence 
and of style, many kinds of music, many 
kinds of government, various kinds of ar- 
chitecture or of painting, various kinds of 
soil, &c. 

3. Particular nature ; as laws most perfect 
in their kind. Baker. 

Natural state ; produce or commodity, as 
distinguished from money ; as taxes paid 
in kind. 

5. Nature ; natural propensity or determina- 

Some of you, on pure instinct of nature. 
Are led by kind I' admire your fellow creature. 

6. JIanner ; way. [Little used.] Bacon. 
Sort. He spoke with a kind of scorn or 

KIND, a. [W. and Arm. CM»i, kind, favora- 
ble, attractive. In Ir. ceann, is affection. 
This word would seem to be connected 
with the preceding, but in sense it coin- 
cides best with the Teutonic gunstig, fa- 
vorable, kind, from G. gonnen, to be glad 
or pleased, to love to see, to favor, D. 
gunnen, to grant or vouchsafe.] 

1. Disposed to do good to others, and to 
make them happy by granting their re 
quests, supplying their wants or assist 
ing them in distress; having tenderness 
or goodness of nature ; benevolent ; be- 

God is kind to the unihankful, and to th( 
evil. Luke vi. 

Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted 
Eph. iv. 

2. Proceeding from tenderness or goodness 
of heart ; benevolent ; as a kind act ; a 
kind return of favors. 

KIND'ED, a. Begotten. Obs. [See Kin.] 


KIN'DLE, V. t. [W. cynneu; L. accendo ; 

from the root of canrfeo, caneo, to be light 

or white, to shine.] 

1. To set on fire; to cause to burn with 
flame ; to light ; as, to kindle a fire. 

2. To inflame, as the passions; to exasper- 
ate ; to rouse ; to provoke ; to excite to ac- 
tion; to heat; to fire ; to animate ; as, to 
kindle anger or wrath ; to kindle resent- 
ment ; to kindle the flame of love, or love 
into a flame. 

So is a contentious woman to kindle strife. 
Prov. xxvi. 

3. Tobring forth. [Sax. «?!)ian.] [jVotused.] 

KIN'DLE, V. i. To take fire ; to begin to 
burn w ith flame. Fuel and fire well laid, 
will kindle without a bellows. 

2. To begin to rage, or be violently excited ; 
to be roused or exasperated. 

It shall kindle in tlie thickets of the forest 
Is. ix. 

KINDLED, pp. Set on fire ; inflamed ; ex- 
cited into action. 

KIN'DLER, n. He or that which kindles or 
sets on fire. 

KINDLESS, a. Destitute of kindness: un- 
natural. Shak. 

KINDLINESS, n. Affection; affectionate 
disposition ; benignity. 

2. Natural disposition. Milton. 


KIN'DLING, ppr. Setting on fire ; causing 
to burn with flame ; exciting into action. 

KINDLY, a. [See Kind, the noun.] Homo- 
gcneal ; congenial; kindred; of the same 
nature. This Johnson supposes to be the 
original sense ; but it is also used as a de- 
rivative of the adjective, in the sense of 

2. Mild ; bland ; softening ; as kindly show- 
ers. Prior. 

KINDLY, adv. With good will ; with a dis- 
position to make others happy or to oblige ; 
benevolently ; favorably. Let the poor be 
treated kindly. 

" kindly affectioned one to another, with 

brotherly love — Rom. 

tuito them. Gen. 1 

lierly 1 
od he 

comforted Ihein 

and spake kindly 

KINDNESS, n. [from kind, the adjective.] 

1. Good will ; benevolence ; that teniper or 
disposition which delights in contributing 
to the hapjiiness of others, which is exer- 
cised clieerfully in gratifying their wishes, 
supplying their wants oi" alleviating their 
distresses; benignity of nature. Kindness 
ever accompanies love. 

There is no man whose kindness we may not 
sometime want, or by whose malice we may 
not sometime suffer. Ramhler. 

2. Act of good will ; beneficence; any act of 
benevolence which promotes the happi- 
ness or welfare of others. Charity, hos- 
pitahty, attentions to the wants of others, 
&c., are deemed acts of kindness, or kind- 
nesses. Acts xxviii. 

KIN'DRED, Ji. [from kin, kind; Sax. 
a/nren ; W. cenal, cenedyl.] 

1. Relation by birth ; consanguinity. 

Like her, of equal kindred to the throne. 


2. Relation by marriage ; aflinity. 

3. Relatives by blood or marriage, more 
pi'operly the former. 

Thou shalt go unto my country and to my 
kindred. Gen. xxiv. 

4. Relation ; suit ; connection in kind. 


KIN'DRED, a. Related; congenial; of the 
like nature or properties ; as kindred souls ; 
kindred skies. Dryden. 

KINE, plu. of cow ; D. koeyen. But cows, 
the regular plural, is now in general use. 

KING, n. [Sax. cyng, cynig, or cyning ; G. 
konig; D. koning; S\v. homing, kung ; 
Dan. kongc ; W. citn, a chief, a leader, one 
that attracts or draws. If the Welsh word 
is the same or of the same family, it proves 
that tlie primary sense is a leader, a guide, 
or one who goes before, for the radical 
sense of the verb must be to draw. It 
coincides in elements with the Ir. cean, 
liead, and with the oriental khan,ov kaun. 
The primary sense is probably a head, a 

1. The chief or sovereign of a nation ; a 
man invested with supreme authority over 
a^ nation, tribe or country ; a monarch. 
Kings are absolute monarchs, when they 
possess the powers of government with- 
out control, or the entire sovereignty over 
a nation ; they are limited monarchs, when 
their power is restrained by fixed laws ; 
and Ihey are absolute, when they possess 
the whole legislative, judicial, and execu- 
tive power, or when the legislative or ju- 
dicial powers, or both, are vested in other 
bodies of men. Kings are hereditaiy sove- 
reigns, when they hold the powers of gov- 

K I N 

K I S 

K N A 

eminent by right of birth or inheritance, 
and elective, when raised to the throne by 

Kings will be tyrants from policy, when sub- 
jects are rebels from principle. Burke. 
9. A sovereign ; a prince ; a ruler. Christ 
is called the king of his church. Ps. ii. 

3. A card having the picture of a king ; as 
the king of diamonds. 

4. The chief piece iu the game of chess. 
King at arms, an officer in England of great 

antiquity, and formerly of great authority, 
whose business is to direct the heralds, 
preside at their chapters, and have the 
jurisdiction of armory. There are three 
kings at arms, viz. garter, clarencieux, 
and norroy. The latter [northroy] offi- 
ciates north of the Trent. Encyc. 

KING, V. t. In ludicrous language, to supply 
with a king, or to make royal ; to raise to 
royalty. Shak. 

KING'APPLE, n. A kind of apple, so 

KING'S BENCH, n. A higli court or tribu 
nal in England ; so called because the kinj 
used to sit there in person. It is the sii 
preme court of common law, consisting of 
a chief justice and three other justices. 


KING'BIRD, n. A fowl of the genus Para- 
disea; also, a species of the genus Musci- 
capa, so called from its courage in attack- 
ing larger fowls. 

KING'€R"AFT, n. The craft of Idngs; the 
act of governing ; usually in a bad sense. 

KING'€IJP, n. A flower, crowfoot. Gay. 

KING'S-EVIL, n. A disease of the scrofu- 
lous kind. 

KINGFISHER, n. A fowl of the genus 

KING'S-SPEAR, n. A plant of the genus 

KING'STONE, n. A fish. Ainsworlh. 

KING'DOM, n. {king and dom, jurisdic- 

I. The territory or country subject to a king ; 
an undivided territory under the domin- 
ion of a king or monarch. The foreign 
yiossessions of a king are not usually inclu- 
ded in the term kingdom. Thus we speak 
of the kingdom of England, of France or 
of Spain, without including the East or 
West Indies. 

?. The inliabitants or population subject to 
a king. The whole kingdom was alarmed. 

3.- In natural history, a division ; as the ani- 
mal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. 

4. A region ; a tract ; the place where any 
thing prevails and holds sway; as the 
watery kingdom. Shak. 

5. In Scripttire, the government or universal 
dominion of God. 1 Chron. xxix. Ps. 

6. The power of supreme administration. 
1 Sam. xviii. 

7. A princely nation or state. 

Ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests. 
Ex. xix. 

8. Heaven. Matt. xxvi. 

9. State of glory in heaven. Matt. v. 

10. The reign of the Messiah. Matt. iii. 

II. Government; rule: supreme adminis- 

KING'DOMED, a. Proud of royalty. 


KING'IIOOD, n. State of being a king. 

Obs. Gou'er. 

KING'LESS, a. Having no king. Byron. 
KING'LIKE, a. Likeaking. 
KING'LING, n. A Utile king. 
KING'LY, o. Belonging to a king; suitable 

to a king ; as a kingly couch. Shak. 

a. Royal ; sovereign ; monarchical ; as a 

kingly government. 

kingly g 
I. Noble; 

august ; splendid f beeoniing a 

king ; as kingly magnificence. 
KING'LY, adv. With an air of royalty ; with 

a superior dignity. 
Low bow'd the rest ; he, kingly, did but nod 
KING'SHIP, n. Royalty; the state, offict 

or dignity of a king. King Charles 

KIN'I€, a. Pertaining to cinchona ; as 

the kinic acid. Ure. 

KINK, n. [Sw. kink, D. kink, a bend or 

turn. Qu. L. cingo.] 
The twist of a rope or thread, occasioned by 

a spontaneous winding of the rope or 

thread when doubled, that is, by an effort 

of hard twisted ropes or threads to un- 
twist, they wind about each other. 
KINK, V. i. To wind into a kink; to twist 

KINK'IIAUST, n. The chincough. [M)t 

KI'NO, ji. An a.stringent resin obtained 

from an African tree. Hooper. 

Kina consists of tannin and extractive. 

KINS'FOLK, )i. [kin and folk.] Relations 

kindred ; persons of tlie same family 

KINS'MAN, n. [kin and man.] A man of 

the same race or family ; one related by 

blood. Dryden. 

KINS'WOMAN, n. A female relation. 

KIP'PER, n. A terra applied to a salmon, 

when unfit to be taken, and to the time 

when they aie so considered. Eng. 

KIRK, n. kurk. [Sax. cyrc or cirici Gr. 

, from xtipioj, lord.] 
In Scotland, a church. This is the same 

word as church, differently written and 

pronounced. [See Church'.] 
KIRK'MAN, n. One of the church of Scot- 

KIR'TLE,.r!. ker'tl. [Sax. cyr/ei ; Sw. kiortel.] 

An upper garment; a gown ; a petticoat ; 

a short jacket ; a mantle. 

Johnson. Encyc. 
2. A r|uantity of flax, about a hundred 

pounds. _ Encyc. 

[I know not that this word is used in 

KIR'TLED, a. Wearing a kirtle. 
KISS, ti. t. [Sax. cyssan; G. kiissen; D. 

kuschen ; Sw. kyssa ; Dan. kysser.] 

1. To salute with the lips. 

2. To treat with fondness ; to caress. 
The hearts of princes kiss obedience. 


3. To touch gently. 
When the sweet wind did gently kiss the 

trees. Shak. 

KISS, n. A salute given with the lips ; a com- 

token of affection. 
KISS'ED, pp. Saluted with a kiss. 
KISS'ER, Ji. One that kisses. 
KISS'ING, ppr. Saluting with tlie lips. 

KISS'ING-€OMFIT, n. Perfumed suga;*- 
plums to sweeten the breath. Shak. 

KISS'ING-€RUST, n. In cookery, the crust 
of a loaf that touches another. 

KIST, n. A chest. [JVot used.] 

KIT, ji. [I), kit.] A large bottle. Skinner. 

2. A small fiddle. Grew. 

3. A kind of fish-tub, and a milk-pail. 

[I knoio not that this word is xised in 

KIT'-CAT, n. A term applied to a club in 
Loudon, to which Addison and Steele be- 
longed ; so called from Christopher Cat, a 
pastry cook, who served the club with 
mutton pies ; applied also to a portrait 
three fourths less than a half length, pla- 
ced in the club-room. Todd. 

KITCH'EN, n. [Sax. cycene ; G. kiifhe ; D. 
keuken ; Sv/.kok; l>ar\. kokke ; W.cegin; 
It. cucina ; L. coquina ; Sp. cocina ; from 
the root of L. coquo, to cook.] 

1. A cook-room; the room of a house ap- 
propriated to cookery. 

A fat kitchen makes a lean will. Franklin. 

2. In ships, the galley or caboose. 

3. A utensil for roasting meat ; as a tin 

KITCH'EN-GARDEN, n. ?A garden or 
piece of ground appropriated to the rais- 
ing of vegetables for the table. 

KITCH'EN-3IAID, n. A female servant 
whose business is to clean the kitchen and 
utensils of cookery, or in general, to do the 
work of a kitchen. 

KITCH'EN-STUFF, n. Fat collected from 
pots and dripping pans. Donne. 

KITCHEN-WENCH, n. The woman who 
cleans the kitchen and utensils of cookery. 

KITCH'EN- WORK, n. Work done in the 
kitchen ; as cookery, washing, &c. 

KITE,n. [Sax. cyta.] A rapacious fowl of 
the genus Faico or hawk, remarkable fo? 
gliding through the air without frequently 
moving its wings ; hence called glide. 

2. A name of reproach, denoting rapacity. 


3. A light frame of wood and paper con- 
structed for flying in the air for the amuse- 
ment of boys. 

KITE, n. In the north of England, the belly. 
KI'TEFOOT, n. A sort of tobacco, so called. 
KI'TESFOQT, n. A plant. Ainsicorth. 

KITH, n. [Sax. cyththe.] Acquaintance. Obs 
KIT'LING, n. [L. catulus.] A whelp; the 

young of a beast. B. Jonson. 

KIT'TEN, n. kit'n. [D. katje.] A young 

cat, or the young of the cat. 
KIT'TEN, r.f. kit'n. To bring forth young, 

as a cat. 
KIT'TIWAKE, n. A fowl of the genus 

Larus, or gull kind. 
KIT'TLE, V. t. [Sax. citelan.] To tickle. 

[J^ol used.]_ Sherwood. 

KLICK, v. i. [a different orthography or 

diminutive of clack.] 

1. To make a small, sharp sound by striking 
two things together. 

2. In Scotland, to pilfer, by taking with a 

KLICK, n. A stroke or blow. [A word in 

vulgar itse.] 
KNAB, V. I. nab. [D. knappen ; G. id.] To 

bite ; to gnaw ; to nibble. [This wordi 

K N A 

K N E 

K N I 

may belong to the root of nibble, an 
properly signifies to catch or seize i 
denly with the teeth.] L'Estrange. 

KNAB'BLE, v. i. To bite or nibble. [JVot 
used.] Brown. 

KNACK, n. nak. A little machine ; a petty 
contrivance; a toy. 

A knack, a toy, a trick, a baby's cap. 


2. A readiness; habitual facility of perform- 
ance ; dexterity ; adroitness. 

My author has a great knack at remarks. 

The Dean was famous in his time. 
And had a kind of ktiack at rhyme. Swift. 

3. A nice trick. 

For how 'should equal colors do the knack 7 

CameleoDS who can paint in white and black ? 


KNACK, V. i. nak. [G. knacken ; Dan. 


To crack ; to make a sharp abrupt noise 

[Little used.] Johnson. 

KNACK'ER, n. nak'er. A maker of knacks, 

toys or small work. Mortimer. 

2. A rope-maker, or collar-maker. [jYot 

use.] Ainsworth. Entick. 

KNAti, n. nag. [Dan. knag, Sw. knagg, a 
knot in wood, Ir. cnag, W. cnwc.] 

1. A knot in wood, or a protuberant knot ; a 

2. A peg for hanging things on. 

3. The shoot of a deer's horns. 
KNAG'GY, n. nag'gy. Knotty; full of 

knots; rough with knots; hence, rough in 

KNAP, n. nap. [Sax. cmr/>, W. c(ia;j, a but- 
ton, a knob, D. knap.] 

A protuberance ; a swelling. [Little used. 
See Knob.] Bacon. 

KNAP, v.t. nap. [D. knappen. See Knab.] 

1. To bite; to bite off; to break short. [Lit- 
tle used.] More. 

2. To strike with a sharp noise. [Little 
used.] Bacon. 

KNAP, V. i. nap. To make a short, sharp 
sound. Wiseman. 

KNAP'BOTTLE, n. nap'bottle. A plant. 

KNAP'PISH, a. nap'pish. Snappish. [See 

KNAP'PLE,!'. i". nap'ple. To break off with 
an abrupt sharp noise. 

KNAP'SACK, n. nap'sack. [G. knappsack ; 
D. knapzak, from knappen, to eat.] 

A soldier's bag, carried on his back, and con- 
taining necessaries of food and clothing. 
It may be of lether or coarse cloth. 

KNAP' WEED, »i. nap'weed. A plant of the 
genus Centauroa, so called probably from 
knap, a button. Fam. of Plants. 

KNAR, Ji. n'ar. [G. knor or knorren ; D. 
knor.] A knot in wood. Dryden. 

KN^ARLED, o. Knotted. [See Gnarled.] 

KN^ARRY, o. Knotty. Chaucer. 

KNAVE, n. nave. [Sax. cnapa or cnafa, a 
boy ; G. knaht ; D. knaap ; Dan. knab ; 
originally, a boy or young man, then a 
servant, and lastly a rogue] 

1. A boy ; a man-child. Obs. 

2. A servant. Ohs. Dryden. 

3. A false deceitful fellow ; a dishonest man 
or boy. 

In defiance of demonstration, knaves will con- 
tinue to proselyte fools. Jlines. 

4. A card with a soldier painted on it. 


KNA'VERY, «. na'venj. Dishonesty ; de- 
ception in traffick; trick; petty villainy ; 
fraud. Shak. Drydcn. 

2. Mischievous tricks or practices. 

KNAVISH, a. na'vish. Dishonest; fraudu- 
lent; as a knavish fellow, or a knarnsh 
trick or transaction. 

2. Waggish; mischievous. 
Cupid is a knavish lad. 
Thus to make poor females mad. Shak. 

KNA'VISHLY, navishly. Dishonestly; 

2. Waggishly; mischievously. 

KNA'VISHNESS, n. iia'vishness. The 
quality or habit of knavery ; dishonesty. 

KNAW'EL, n. naw'el. A species of plant. 

KNEAD, V. t. nead. [Sax. cncedan ; G. kne- 
ten; T>. kneeden ; Dan. kneder; Sw. kn&- 

To work and press ingredients into a mass, 
usually with the hands ; particularly, to 
work into a well mixed mass the materi- 
als of bread, cake or paste ; as, to knead 

The cake she kneaded was the savory meat. 

KNE'ADED, pp. ne'aded. Worked and 
pressetl together. 

KNE'ADING, ppr. ne'ading. Working and 
mixing into a well mi.xed mass. 

KNE'ADING-TROUGH, n. ne'ading-trauf. 
A trough or tray in which dough is work- 
ed and mixed. 

KNEB' ELITE, n. neb' elite, [from Von 

A mineral of a gray color, spotted with dirty 
white, brownish green, or green. 


KNEE, n. nee. [Sax. cneow ; G. knie; D. 
frjiie ; Sw. knh ; Dan. knee ; Fr. g-eno« ; It. 
ginocchio ; L. genu ; Gr. yovv ; Sans. janu. 
As the same word in Saxon signifies gen- 
eration, it appears to belong to the family 
of ywo/Mi, geno, and to signify a shoot or 

1. In anatomy, the articulation of the thigh 
and leg bones. 

2. In ship-building, a piece of timber some- 
what in the shape of the human knee 
when bent, having two branches or arms, 
and used to connect the beams of a ship 
with her sides or timbers. Mar. Diet. 

KNEE, v.t. nee. To supplicate by kneeling. 
[JS/ot used.] Shak. 

KNEE-eRQOKING, a. nee'crooking. Ob- 
sequious. Shak. 

KNEED, a. need. Having knees; as in- 
kneed, out-kneed. 

2. In botany, geniculated ; forming an ob- 
tuse angle at the joints, like the knee 
when a little bent ; as kneed-gra^s. 


KNEE-DEEP, a. nee'-deep. Rising to the 
knees ; as water or snow knee-deep. 

2. Sunk to the knees ; as wading in water 
or mire knee-deep. 

KNEE-HIGH, a. nee-hi. Rising to the knees; 
as water knee-high. 

KNEE'HOLLY, n. nee'holly. A plant of 
the genus Ruscus. 

KNEE'HOLM, n. nee'home. KneehoUy. 

KNEE'PAN, 71. nee'pan. The round bone 
on the fore part of the knee. 

KNEEL. V. i. neel. [D. knielen ; Dan. kna:- 
ler ; Fr. ageuouiller, from genouil, the 

To bend the knee ; to fall on the knees ; 
sometimes with down. 

As soon as you are dressed, kneel down and 

worships by kneeling. 

KNEE'LING, ppr. nee'ling. Falling on the 

KNEE'TRIBUTE, n. nee'tribute. Tribute 
paid by kneeling ; worship or obeisance 
by genuflection. Milton. 

KNELL, n. nell. [Sax. cnyll ; cnyllan, to 
beat or knock ; W. cnul, a passing bell ; 
G. knallen, to clap or crack ; Sw. knalla ; 
Dan. gneller, to bawl.] 

Properly, the stroke of a bell ; hence, the 
sound caused by striking a bell ; appro- 
priately and perhaps exclusively, the 
sound of a bell rung at a funeral ; a toll- 

KNEW, prel. of know. 

KNIFE, n. nife; plu. knives; nives. [Sax. 
cnif; Dan. kniv ; Sw. knif; Fr. ganif or 
canif. This word seems to have a con- 
nection with the D. knippen, Sw. knipa, to 
clip or pinch, to nip; Dan. kniber, G. 
kneifen, W. cneiviaw, to clip, to shear. Its 
primary sense then is an instrument that 
nips off, or cuts off with a stroke.] 

1, A cutting instrument with a sharp edge. 
Knives are of various shapes and sizes, 
adapted to their respective uses ; as table 
knives ; carving knives or carvers ; pen- 
knives, &.c. 

2. A sword or dagger. Spenser. 
KNIGHT, n. nile. [Sax. cniht, cneoht, a 

boy, a servant, Ir. cniocht, G. knecht, D. 
knegt, Sw. knecht, Dan. knegl.] 

1. Originally, a knight was a youth, and 
young men being employed as servants, 
hence it came to signify a servant. But 
among our warlike ancestors, the word 
was particularly applied to a young man 
after he was admitted to the privilege of 
bearing arms. The admission to this 
l)rivilege was a ceremony of great impor- 
tance, and was the origin of the institu- 
tion of knighthood. Hence, in feudal 
times, a knight was a man admitted to 
military rank by a certain ceremony. 
This privilege was conferred on youths of 
family and fortune, and hence sprung the 
honorable title of knight, in modern usage. 
A knight has the title of Sir. 

_ Encyc. Johnson. 

2. A pupil or follower. " Shak. 

3. A champion. Drayton. 
Knight of the post, a knight dubbed at the 

whipping post or pillory ; a hireling wit- 
ness. Johnson. 

Knight of the shire, in England, one of the 
representatives of a county in parliament, 
originally a knight, but now any gentle- 
man having an estate in land of six hun- 
dred pounds a year is qualified. Johnson. 

KNIGHT, V. i. nite. To dub or create a 
knight, which is done by the king who 
gives the person kneeling a blow with a 
sword, and says, rise. Sir, Johnson. 

KNIGHT-ER'r'aNT, n. [hiight and L. 
errans, erro, to wander.] 

A wandering knight ; a knight who traveled 
in search of adventures, for the purpose 
of exhibiting military skill, prowess and 

K N O 

KNIGHT-ERRANTRY, ri. The practice 
of wandering in quest of adventures; the 
manners of wandering knights. 

KNIGHT-HEADS, n. In ships, bollard tim- 
bers, two pieces of timber rising just with- 
in the stem, one on each side of the bow- 
sprit to secure its inner end ; iilso, two 
strong frames of timber which inclose and 
support the ends of the windlass. 

Mar. Did. 

KNIGHTHOOD, n. The character or dig- 
nity of a knigiit. 

a. A military order, honor, or degree of an- 
cient nobility, conferred as a reward of 
valor or merit. It is of four kinds, mili- 
tary, regular, honorary, and social. 


KNiGHTLINESS, n. Duties of a knight, 

KNIGHTLY, a. Pertaining to a knight; 

becoming a knight ; as a knightly combat 


KNIGHT-MARSHAL, n. An officer in 
the household of the British king, who 
has cognizance of transgressions within 
the king's household and verge, and of 
contracts made there. Encyc. 

KNIGHT-SERVICE, n. In English feudal 
law, a tenure of lands held by knights on 
condition of performing military service, 
every possessor of a knight's fee, or estate 
originally of twenty pounds annual value 
being obliged to attend the king in hi: 

KNIT, V. t. nit. pret. and pp. knit or knit 
led. [Sax. cnyllan ; Sw. knyta ; Dan. knyt 
/cr; probably L. nodo, whence nodus, Eng. 

1. To unite, as threads by needles ; to con 
nect in a kind of net-work ; as, to knit a 

2. To unite closely ; as, let our hearts 
knit together in love. 

3. To join or cause to grow together. 

Nature cannot knit the bones, while t)ie 
parts are under a discharge. Wiseman. 

4. To tie ; to fasten. 

And he saw heaven opened, and a certain 
vessel descending to hini, as it were a great 
sheet knit at the lour corneis. Acts x. 

5. To draw together; to contract; as, to 
knit the brows. 

KNIT, V. i. nit. To unite or interweave by 

2. To unite closely ; to grow together. Bro- 
ken bones will in time knit and become 

KNIT, n. nit. Union by knitting; texture. 

[Little used.] 
KNIT'TABLE, a. nit'table. That may be 

KNIT'TER, n. nit'ter. One that knits. 
KNIT'TING, ppr. nit'ting. Uniting by nee 

dies ; forming texture ; uniting in growth. 
KNIT'TING, 71. Junction. IVotton. 

KNIT'TING-NEEDLE, n. nit' ting-needle. 

A long needle usually made of wire, used 

for knitting threads" into stockings, gar 

ters, &c. 
KNIT'TLE, re. nit'l. [from knit.] A string 

that gathers or draws together a purse. 
jj. A small line used in ships to sling ham- 

mocs. Mar. Diet. 

KNOB, n. noh. [Sax. cno'.p ; G. knopf; D. 

knoop ; Sw. knopp ; Dan. knop,knub, knap ; 

K N O 

W. aiwb, cnwpa. The word signifies a 

button, a top, a bunch.] 
A hard protuberance ; a hard swelling or 

rising ; a bunch ; as a knob in the flesh or 

on a bone. Ray. 

KNOB'BED, a. nob'bed. Containing knobs ; 

full of knobs. 
KNOB'BINESS, re. nob'biness. [from knob- 

The quality of having knobs, or of being full 

of protuberances. 
KNOB'BY, a.nob'by. Full of knobs or hard 

protuberances ; hard. 
KNOCK, v.i. nok. [Sax. cnuaan ; W. cwo- 

ciaw ; Sw. knacka?] 

1. To strike or beat with something thick 
or heavy ; as, to knock with a club or with 
the fist ; to knock at the door. We never 
use this word to express beating with a 
small stick or whip. 

2. To drive or be driven against; to strike 
against; to clash; as when one heavy 
body knocks against another. 

To knock under, to yield; to submit; to ac- 
knowledge to be conquered ; an expres- 
sion borrowed from the practice ofknock- 
ing under the table, when conquered. 


KNOCK, V. t. nok. To strike ; to drive 
against ; as, to knock the head against ; 

2. To strike a door for admittance ; to raj 

To knock down, to strike down ; to fell ; to 
prostrate by a blow or by blows 
knock down an ox. 

To knock out, to force out by a blow or by 
blows ; as, to knock out the brains. 

To knock up, to arouse by knocking. I 
popular ttse, to beat out ; to fatigue till 
unable to do more. 

To knock off, to force off by beating. At 
auctions, to assign to a bidder by a bl 
on the counter. 

To knock on the head, to kill by a blow or by 

KNOCK, n. nok. A blow ; a stroke with 
something thick or heavy. 

2. A stroke on a door, intended as a re- 
quest for admittance ; a rap. 

KNOCK'ER, n. noker. One that knocks. 

2. An instrument or kind of hammer, fas- 
tened to a door to be used in seeking for 

KNOCK'ING, ;>p)-. nok'ing. Beating; stri- 

KNOCKING, n. nok'ing. A heating; a 

KNOLL, V. t. noil. [Sax. cnyllan, to beat or 
strike. See Knell.] 

To ring a bell, usually for a funeral. Shak. 

KNOLL, 1'. i. noil. To soimd, as a bell. 


[This word, I believe, is not used in Amer- 

KNOLL, n. noil. [Sax. cnoU; Sw. knyl, 
knM; W. cnoL] 

The top or crown of a hill; but more gen- 
erally, a little round hill or mount ; a small 
elevation of earth. 

KNOP, re. nop. [a different spelling of knap 
or 7iob.] 

A knob ; a tufted top ; a bud ; a bunch 

KNOP'PED, a. nop'ped. Having knops or 
knobs ; fastened as vvitli buttons. 

K N O 

KNOT, n. Twt. [Sax. cnotta ; G. knoten ; D. 
knot ; Sw. knota ; Dan. knude : L. nodus ; 
probably connected with knit, but perhaps 
from swelling or gathering.] 

1. The complication of tin-eads made by 
knitting ; a tie ; union of cords by inter- 
weaving ; as a knot ditiicult to be untied. 

2. Any figure, the lines of which frequently 
intersect each other ; as a knot in garden- 

In beds and curious knots. Milton. 

3. A bond of association or union ; as the 
nuptial knot. 

4. The part of a tree where a branch shoots. 

5. The protuberant joint of a plant. 
Maiiyn . 

6. A cluster ; a collection ; a group ; as a 
knot of ladies ; a knot of figures in paint- 

7. Difficulty ; intricacy ; something not eas- 
sily solved. South. 

8. Any intrigue or difficult peri)lexity of af- 
fairs. Drydcn. 

9. A bird of the genus Tringa. 

10. An epaulet. 

11. In seamen's language, a division of the 
logline, which answers to half a minute, as 
a mile does to an hour, or it is the hun- 
dred and twentieth part of a mile. Hence, 
when a ship goes eight miles an hour, she 
is said to go eight knots. Mar. Diet. 

KNOT, V. t. not. To complicate or tie in a 
knot or knots ; to form a knot. 

2. To entangle ; to perplex. 

3. To unite closely. Bacon. 
KNOT, V. i. not. To form knots or joints, 

in plants. 

2. To knit knots for fringe. 

KNOT'BERRY, re. nofberry. A plant of 
the genus Rubus. 

KNOT'GRASS, n. not'grass. The name of 
several species of plants, so denominated 
from the joints of the stem. The common 
knotgrass is the Polygonum aviculare. 

KNOT'LESS, a. not'less. Free from knots; 
without knots. Martyn. 

KNOT'TED, a. not'ted. Full of knots ; ha- 
'ing knots; as the knotted oak. Dryden. 

-. Having intersecting figures. Shak. 

KNOT'TINESS, n. not'tiness. [from knot- 

(. Fullness of knots; the quality of having 

many knots or swellings. 
2. Difficulty of solution ; intricacy. 
KNOT'TY, a. nol'ty. Full of knot; 


a knot- 

many knots ; as knotty timber. 

2. Hard ; rugged ; as a knotty head. 

3. Difficult ; intricate ; perplexed ; as 
ty question or point. 

KI^OUT, re. nout. A punishment in 
inflicted with a whip. 

KNOW, V. t. no. pret. knew ; pp. known. 
[Sax. cnawan ; Riiss. znnyu, with a pre- 
fix. This is probably from the same ori- 
ginal as the L. nosco, cognosco, Gr. yituoxu, 
although much varied in orthography. 
JVosco makes novi, which, with g or c pre- 
fixed, gnovi or cnovi, would coincide with 
know, ktiew. So L. cresco, crevi, coincides 
with grow, grew. The radical sense of 
knoieing is generally to take, receive, or 

1. To |)erceive with certainty ; to under- 
stand clearly ; to have a clear and certain 
perception of truth, fact, or any thing that 
actually e.\ists. To know a thing pre- 

K N O 

eludes all doubt or uncertainty of its ex- 
istence. We knmv what we see with our 
eyes, or perceive by other senses. We 
know that fire and water are different sub- 
stances. We knoio that truth and false- 
hood express ideas incompatible with 
each other. We know that a circle is, 
not a square. We do not know the truth 
of reports, nor can we always know whatl 
to believe. 

2. To be informed of; to be taught. It is 
not unusual for us to say we know things! 
from information, when we rely on tlie 
veracity of the informer. 

3. To distinguish ; as, to know one man 
from another. We know a fixed star from 
aplanet by its twinkling. 

4. To recognize by recollection, remem- 
brance, representation or description. We 
do not always know a person after a long 
absence. We sometimes know a man by 
having seen his portrait, or having lieard 
him described. 

5. To be no stranger to ; to be familiar. 
This man is well known to us. 

6. In Scripture, to have sexual commerce 
with. Gen. iv. 

7. To approve. 

The Lord knoweth tlie way of the rigliteous. 
Ps. i. 

8. To learn. Prov. i. 

9. To acknowledge %vith due respect. 1. 
Thess. V. 

10. To choose; to favor or take an interest 
in. Amos iii. 

11. To commit ; to have. 

He hath raade him to be sin for us, who 
knew no sin. 2 Cor. 

12. To have full assurance of; to have 
isfactory evidence of any thing, though 
short of certainty. 

KNOW, I! i. no. To have clear and certain 
perception ; not to be doubtful ; 
times with of. 

If any man will do his will, lie shall know of 
the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I 
speak of myself. John vii. 

2. To be informed. 

Sir John must not kiww of it. Shak 

3. To take cognizance of; to examine. 

inow of your youth— examine well youi 
blood. " Shak 

KNOWABLE, a. no'able. That may be 
known; that may be discovered, under 
stood or ascertained. Locke. Bentley. 

KNOWER, n. no'er. One who knows. 

KNOWING, ppr. no'ing. Having clear and 
certain perception of. 

2. a. Skillful ; well informed ; well instruct 
ed ; as a knoioing man. 

The knowing and intelligent part of the 
world. South. 

3. Conscious; intelligent. 

A knoicing prudent cause. Blackmore. 

KNOWING, n. no'iiig. Knowledge. Shak. 
KNOWINGLY, adv. no'ingly. With knowl 
edge. He would not knotmngli/ offend. 



KNOWL'EDgE, ji. nol'lej. [Chaucer, 
knoivleching, from knowleche, to acknowl 
edge. Ciu. the sense of ^ee/i.] 

1. A clear and certain perception of that 
which exists, or of truth and fact ; the 
perception of the connection and agree- 
ment, or disagreement and repugnancy of 
our ideas. Encyc. Locke 

We can have no knowledge of that 
which does not exist. God has a perfect 
knowledge of all his works. Human 
knowledge is very limited, and is mostly 
gained by observation and experience, 

2. Learning ; illumination of mind. 
Ignorance is the curse of God, 
Knowledge the wing wherewith we Hy to 

heaven. Shak. 

3. Skill ; as a knowledge of seamanship. 

4. Acquaintance with any fact or person. 1 
have no knowledge of the man or thing. 

5. Cognizance ; notice. Ruth ii. 

6. Information ; power of knowing. Sidney. 

7. Sexual intercourse. But it is usual tc 
>refix carnal ; as carnal knowledge. 

OWLEDgE, for acknowledge or avow. 
is not used. Bacon. 

KNUB, I ,, , nub, I To beat ; to 

KNUB'BLE, I "• '• nub'ble. I strike with 
the knuckle. [JVot ttsed.] 

KNUCK'LE, n. nuk'l. [Sax. cnucl ; G. kno 
chel ; D. kneukel ; W. cnuc, a joint or June 
tion ; cmiciaiv, to join, to couple.] 

1. The joint of a finger, particularly when 
protuberant by the closing of the fingers. 

i. The knee joint of a calf; as a knuckle of| 

3. The joint of a plant. [J^ot used.] 


KNUCK'LE, V. i. nuk'l. To yield ; to sub- 
mit in contest to an antagonist. 

KNUCK'LED, a. Jointed. Bacon. 

KNUFF, n. nuff. A lout ; a clown. [JsTot 

KNUR, I nur, ) [G. knorren, a knot, 

KNURLE, \ "• nurk. $ a knag, a guar.] 

A knot ; a hard substance. Woodward 

KNURL'ED, a. nurl'ed. Full of knots. 

KNUR'LY, a. nur'ly. [from knur.] Fidl 
of knots ; hard. This seems to be the 
same as gnarly. 

KNUR'RY, a. nur'ry. Full of knots. 

KOBA, n. An antelope, with horns close at 
the base. 

KO'KOB, n. A venomous serpent of Amer 

KOL'LYRITE, n. [Gr. xo'KKveuyv.] A variety 
of clay whose color is pure white, or with 
a shade of gray, red or yellow. 


KOM'MANIC, n. The crested lark of Ger- 

KON'ILITE, 71. [Gr. xowj, dust, and XiSoj, 

A mineral in the form of a loose powder, 
consisting chiefiy of silex, and remarkably 
fusible. Phillips. 

K Y A 

KONITE. [See Conilc] 

KO'PECK, n. A Russian coin, about the 
value of a cent. 

KO'RAN, 71. pronounced by oriental schol- 
ars korawn. [Ar. • (3 from \ 3 to 
read, to call, to teach.] 

The Mohammedan book of faith ; the alko- 

KO'RET, 71. A delicious fish of the East 

KO'RIN, n. An antelope with slender smooth 

KOUPH'OLITE, «. [Gr. ^otyoj, light, and 
^605, stone.] 

A mineral, regarded as a variety of prehn- 
ite. It occurs in minute rhomboidal 
plates, of a greenish or yellowish white, 
translucid, glistening and pearly. It is 
found in the Pyrenees. Cleaveland. 

KRAAL, n. In the southern part of Africa, 
among the Hottentots, a village ; a collec- 
tion df huts. 

KRAG, JI. A species of argillaceous earth. 

KRA'KEN, n. A supposed enormous sea 
animal. Guthrie. 

KRU'KA, n. A bird of Ru.ssia and Sweden, 


i sparrow. Pennant. 

KU'FIe, a. The Kufic letters were the an- 
cient letters of the Arabic, so called from 
Kufa, on the Euphrates. 

KU'MISS, n. A liquor or drink made from 
mare's milk fermented and distilled ; milk- 
spirit, used by the Tartars. Tooke. 

KU'RIL, n. A bird, the black petrel. 


KURIL'IAN, a. The Kurilian isles are a 
chain in the Pacific, extending from the 
southern extremity of Kamschatka to 

KY, 71. Kine. [Xot in use.] 

KY'ANITE, 71. [G. kyanit, Werner ; from 
the Gr. xvam?, sky-colored. It is written 
also cya7iite, but most improperly, if pro- 
nounced kyanite. Kyanite is doubtless the 
preferable orthography.] 

A mineral found both massive and in regu- 
lar crystals. It is frequently in broad or 
compressed six-sided prisms, with bases a 
little inclined ; or this crystal may be 
viewed as a four-sided prism, truncated on 
two of its lateral edges, diagonally oppo- 
site. Its prevailing color is blue, whence 
its name, but varying from a fine Prussian 
blue to sky-blue, or bluish white. It oc- 
curs also of various shades of green, and 
even gray, or white and reddish. It is in- 
fusible by the common blowpipe. This 
mineral is called by Haily and Brongniart, 
disthene, and by Saussure, sappare. 


KYAN'06EN, n. [Gr. xfaio;, blue, and 
ycfvau, to beget.] 

Carbureted azote ; the compound base of 
prussic acid; called also prussine. 



li, the twelfth letter of the English Alpha 
bet, is usually denominated a semi-vowel, 
or a liquid. It represents an imperfect! 
articulation, formed by placing the tip of 
the tongue against the gum that incloses 
the roots of the upper teeth ; but the sides 
of the tongue not being in close contact 
with the roof of the mouth, the breath of 
course not being entirely intercepted, thii 
articulation is attended with an imperfec 
sound. The shape of the letter is evi 
dently borrowed from that of the oriental 
lamed, or lomad, nearly coincidiijg with 
the Samaritan Z . 

L has only one sound in English, as in like, 
canal. At the end of monosyllables, it is 
often doubled, as in fall, full, tell, bell; but 
not after diphthongs and digraphs ; foul, 
fool, prowl, growl, foal, &c. being written 
with a single I. 

With some nations, I and r are commutablc ; 
as in Greek, Xipior, L. lilium ; It. scoria, an 
escort, Sp. Port, escolfa. Indeed, I and r 
are letters of the same organ. 

By some nations of Celtic origin, I, at tlie 
beginning of words, is aspirated and 
doubled in writing, as in the W. lied, L. 
laius ; llan, a lawn ; llawr, a foor ; Sj). 
llamar, L. clamo. 

In some words, I is mute, as in hcdf, calf, 
walk, talk, chalk. 

In our mother tongue, the Anglo-Saxon, I is 
sometimes preceded by h, and aspirated, 
as in hlaf, loaf; hladan, to lade or load ; 
hlot, lot ; hlinian, Meonian, to lean, Gr. 
xXivu, L. clino. In the latter word, the 
Saxon h represents the Greek x and Latin 
c, as it does in many other words. 

In English words, the terminating syllable 
^e is unaccented, the e is silent, and I has a 
feeble sound ; as in able, eagle, pronoun- 
ced abl, eagl. 

As a numeral, L denotes 50, and with a 
dash, L, 50,000. As an abbreviation, in 
Latin, it stands for Lucius ; and L.L.S. 
for a sesterce, or two librm and a half. 


LA, exclam. [perhaps corrupted from look, 
but this is doubtful.] 

Look ; see ; behold. Shak. 

LA, in music, the syllable by which Guido 

denotes the last sound of each hexachord. 


LAB, 71. A great talker ; a blabber. Obs. 


LAB'ADIST, n. The Labadists were follow- 
ers of Jean dc Labadie, who lived in the 
17tli century. They held that God can 
and does deceive men, that the observance 
of the sabbath is a matter of indifference, 
and other peculiar or heretical opinions. 

LABDANUM. [See Ladanum.] 


LABEFACTION, n. [L. labefaclio, from 
labefacio ; labo, to totter, and facio, to 

A weakening or loosening; a failing; de- 
cay ; downfall; ruin. 

LAB'EFY, V. t. To weaken or impair. [JVb< 
used.] Diet. 

LA'BEL, n. [W. llab, a strip ; labed, a label.] 

1. A narrow slip of silk, paper or parch- 
ment, containing a name or title, and af- 
fixed to any thing, denoting its contents. 
Such are the labels affixed to the vessels 
of an apothecary. Labels also are affixed 
to deeds or writings to hold the appended 
seal. Harris. 

2. Any paper annexed to a will by way of 
addition ; as a codicil. Encyc. 

3. In heraldry, a fillet usually placed in the 
middle, along the chief of the coat, with- 
out touching its extremities. It is adorned 
with pendants, and used on the arms of 
tlie eldest son, to distinguish him from the 
younger sons, while the father is hving. 


4. A long thin brass rule, with a small sight 
at one end, and a center-hole at the other, 
commonly used with a tangent line on the 
edge of a circumferentor, to take altitudes. 
&c. Encyc. 

LA'BEL, V. t. To affix a label to. 

LA'BELED, pp. Furnished with a label. 

LA'BELING,^/)r. Distinguishing by a label 

LA'BENT, a. [L. labens.] Sliding ; gliding 

LA'BIAL, a. [Fr. from L. labium, a lip. See 

Pertaining to the lips ; formed by the lips 
as a labial articulation. Thus b, p, and n 
are labial articulations, and oo, Fr. ou. It 
u, is a labial vowel. 

LA'BIAL, n. A letter or character repre 
senting an articulation of the lips; as b,f, 
m, p, V. 

LA'BIATE, } [from L. labiuvi, lip.] 

LA'BIATED, S In botany, a labiate co- 
rol is irregular, monopetalous, with two 
lips, or monopetalous, consisting of a nar 
row tube with a wide mouth, divided into 
two or more segments arranged in two 
opposite divisions or lips. A labiate flow 
er has a labiate corol. Martyn. Encyc. 

LA'BILE, a. [Low L. labilis.] Liable to err, 
full or apostatize. [JVot used.] Cheyne. 

LABIODENT'AL, a. [labium, a lip, and 
dens, a tooth.] 

Formed or pronounced by the cooperation of 
the lips and teeth ; as/ and v. Holder. 

LA'BOR, n. [L. labor, from labo, to fail.] 
Exertion of muscular strength, or bodily 
exertion which occasions weariness ; par- 
ticularly, the exertion of the limbs in oc- 
cupations by which subsistence is obtain- 
ed, as in agriculture and manufactures, in 
distinction from exertions of strength in 


play or amusements, which are denomi- 
nated exercise, rather than labor. Toil- 
some work; pains; travail; any bodily 
exertion which is attended with fatigue. 
After the labors of the day, the farmer re- 
tires, and rest is sweet. Moderate labor 
contributes to health. 

What is obtaiaed by labor, will of right be the 
property of him by whose labor it is gained. 

3. Intellectual exertion ; application of the 
mind which occasions weariness; as the 
labor of compiling and writing a history. 

3. Exertion of mental powers, united with 
bodily employment ; as the labors of the 
apostles in propagating Christianity. 

4. Work done, or to be done ; that which re- 
quires wearisome exertion. 

Being a labor of so great difficulty, the exact 
performance thereof we may rather wish than 
look for. Hooker. 

5. Heroic achievment ; as the toior* of Her- 

C. Travail ; the pangs and efforts of child- 
7. The evils of life; trials; persecution, &c. 

They rest from ijieir labors — Rev. xiv. 
LA'BOR, V. i. [L. laboro.] To exert muscu- 
lar strength ; to act or move with painful 
effort, particularly in servile occupations; 
to work ; to toil. 

Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thj 
work — Ex. XX. 
3. To exert one's powers of body or mind, 
or both, in the prosecution of any design ; 
to strive ; to take pains. 

Labor not for the meat which perisheth. 

3. To toil ; to be burdened. 

Come unto me all ye that labor, and are 
heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Matt. xi. 

4. To move with difficulty. 
The stone that labors up the hill. 


5. To move irregularly with little progress ; 
to pitch and roll heavily ; as a ship in a 
turbulent sea. Mar. Diet. 

6. To be in distress ; to be pressed. 
—As sounding cymbals aid the laboring 

moon. Dryden. 

7. To he in travail ; to suffer the pangs of 

8. To journey or march. 

Make not all the people to labor tliiUicr. 
Josh. vii. 

9. To perform the duties of the pastoral of- 
fice. 1 Tim. V. 

10. To perform christian offices. 

To labor under, to be afflicted with ; to be 
burdened or distressed with; as, to labor 
under a disease or an affliction. 

LA'BOR, V. I. To work at ; to till ; to culti- 

The most excellent lands are lying fallon-, or 
only labored by children. Tooke. 

'2. To prosecute with effort ; to urge ; as, to 
labor a point or argument. 




S. To form or fabricate with exertion ; as, to 
labor arms for Troy. Dnjden. 

4. To heat; to belabor. [The latter tvordis 
generally used.] Drydtn. 

5. To form with toil and care ; as a labored 

[JVot used. 

LAB ORATORY, n. [Fr. laboratoire, from 

1. A house or place where operations and 
experiments in chiinistry, pharmacy, pyro- 
techny, &c., are performed. 

2. A place wliere arms are manufactured or 
repaired, or fire-works prepared ; as the 
laboratory in Springfield, in Massachu- 

3. A place where work is performed, or any 
thing is prepared for use. Hence the 
stomach is called the grand lahorntortj ofj 
the human body ; the hver, the laboratory 
of the bile. 

LA'BORED.p;). Tilled; cultivated; formed 
with labor. 

LA'J50RER, n. One who labors in a toil- 
some occupation ; a man who does work 
that requires little skill, as distinguished 
from an artisan. 

LA'BORING, ppr. Exerting muscular 
strength or intellectual power; toiling; 
moving with pain or with difficulty ; cul- 

3. A laboring man, or laborer, is often used 
for a man who performs work that re- 
quires no apprenticeship or professional 
skill, in distinction from an artisan ; but 
this restricted sense is not always observ- 
ed. A hard laboring majt, is one accus- 
tomed to hard labor. 

LABO'RIOUS, a. [L. laboriosus ; Fr. labo- 

1. Using exertion; employing labor; dili- 
gent in work or service ; assiduous; used 
of persons ; as a laborious husbandman or 
mechanic ; a laborious minister or pastor. 

2. Requiring labor ; toilsome ; tiresome; not 
easy ; as laborious duties or services. 

3. Requiring labor, exertion, perseverance 
or sacrifices. 

Dost tliou love watchings, abstinence or toil. 

Laborious virtues all ? Learn these from 

Cato. Addison. 

LABO'RIOUSLY, adv. With labor, toil or 
difiicultv. Pope. 

LABO'RIOUSNESS, n. The quality of be- 
ing laborious, or attended with toil ; toil- 
someiiess ; difficulty. 

2. Diligence ; assiduity. 

LA'BORLESS, a. Not laborious. 


LA'BORSOME, a. Made with great labor 
and diligence. [JVot in use.] Sandys. 

LABURN'UM, n. A tree of the genus Cy- 

LAB'YRINTH, n. [L. labyrinthus ; Gr. 
J.a6vpi»'0o5.] I 

L Among the ancients, an edifice or place 
full of intricacies, or formed with winding; 
passages, which rendered it difficult to find 
the way from the interior to the entrance. 
The most remarkable of these edifices! 
mentioned, are the Egyptian and the Cre- 
tan labyrinths. Encyc. Lempriere: 

2. A maze ; an inexplicable difficulty. j 

3. Formerly, an oniamental maze or wilder-j 
ness in gardens. Spenstr.\ 

4. A cavity in the ear. Quincy. 

LABYRINTH'IAN, a. Winding; intricate; 
perplexed. Bp. Hall. 

LAC, n. [Sp. laca; G. lack; Dau. D. lak 
said to be from the Arabic] 

Gum-lac, so called, but improperly, not be- 
ing a gum, but a resin. It is deposited on 
different s])ecies of trees in the East In- 
dies, by an insect called Chennes lacca 
Stick lac is the substance in its natural 
state, encrusting small twigs. When 
broken off and boiled in water, it loses 
its red color, and is called seed lac. When 
melted and reduced to a thin crust, it 
called shell lac. United with ivory black 
or vermilion, it forms black and red seer/- 
ing wax. A solution with borax, colored 
by lampblack, constitutes Indian ink. Lac 
dissolved in alcohol or other menstrua, by 
different methods of preparation, consti- 
tutes various kinds of varnishes and lack- 
ers. Thomson 

LA€'CIC, a. Pertaining to lac, or produced 
from it ; as laccic acid. 

LACE, n. [Sp. lazo, a tie or knot, Fr. lacet 
It. lacdo, L. laqueus.] 

1. A work composed of threads interwoven in- 
to a net, and worked on a pillow with spin- 
dles or pins. Fine laces are manufactured 
ill France, Italy and England. 

2. A string ; a cord. " Sper 

3. A snare ; a gin. Fairfax. 

4. A plaited string with which females fas- 
ten their clothes. 

Doll ne'er was called to cut her lace. Swift. 
LACE, V. t. To fasten with a string through 
eyelet holes. 

WTien Jenny's stays are newly laced — 

2. To adorn with lace ; as cloth laced with 
Iver. Shak. 

3.. To embellish with variegations or stripes. 
Look, love, what envious streaks 
Do lace the severing clouds in yonder east. 
To beat ; to lash ; [probably to make 
stripes on.] 

I'll lace your coat for ye. V Estrange. 

LACE-BARK, n. A shrub in the W. in- 
dies, the Daphne lagetto, so called from 
the texture of its inner bark. 
LA'CED, pp. Fastened with lace or a string ; 

also, tricked off with lace. 
Laced coffee, coffee with spirits in it. 


LA CEMAN, n. A man who deals in lace. 
LA'CEWOMAN, n. A woman who make 

or sells lace. 
LAC'ERABLE, a. [See Lacerate.] That 
may he torn. Harvey. 

LACERATE, i'. t. [L. lacero, to tear.] To 
tear; to rend ; to separate a substance by 
violence or tearing ; as, to lacerate the 
flesh. It is applied chiefly to the flesh 
figuratively to the heart. But sometimes 
it is apjdied to the political or civil divi- 
sions in a state. 

LAC'ERATED, i^/'"'"-^^"'''^"'- 

2. In botany, having the edge variously cut 

into irregular segments ; as a lacerated leaf. 


LACERA'TION, n. The act of tearing or 

ending; the breach made by rending. 


LACERATIVE, a. Tearing; having the 

I power to tear; as Ulcerative humors. 

I Harvey. 

LAC'ERTINE, a. [L. laccrtus.] Like a liz- 

I ard. Joun\. of Science. 

iLACER'TUS, )!. The girroc, a fish of the 
gar-fish kind ; also, the lizard-fish. 

I Did. JVat. Hist. Cyc. 

ILACHE, ? , [Norm. Fr. lachesse, from 

LACH'ES,^"- lache; I., laxus, lax, slow.] 

I In law, neglect ; negligence. 

LACH'RYMABLE, a. Lamentable. 

\ Morley. 

LACH'RYMAL, a. [Fr. from L. lachryma, 

\ a tear.] 

jl. Generating or secreting tears ; as the 

1 lachrymal gland. 

2. Pertaining to tears ; conveying tears. 

|LACH'RYMARY, a. Containing tears. 


LA€HRYMA'TION, n. The act of shed- 

I ding tears. 

1LA€H'RYMAT0RY, n. [Fr.lachrymatoire.] 
A vessel found in sepiilchers of the an- 
cients, in which it has been supposed the 
tears of a deceased person's friends were 
collected and preserved with the ashes 
and urn. It was a small glass or bottle 
like a phial. Encyc. 

LA'CING, ppr. Fastening with a string j 
adorned or trimmed with lace. 

LACIN'IATE, I [L. lacinia, a hem.] 

LACIN'IATED, <, "' Adorned with fringes. 

2. In iota?!^, jagged. Martyn. 

LACK, V. t. [D. leeg, empty ; leegen, to emp- 
ty ; Dan. lak, a fault ; /aiA:cr, to decline or 
wear away ; Goth, ujligan, to lack or fail ; 
L. deliquium, which seems to be connect- 
ed with linquo, to leave, to faint, and with 
liquo, to melt, liquid, &c.] 

1. To want; to be destitute of; not to have 
or possess. 

If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask it of 
God— James i. 

2. To blame. [.A'ot in use.] Chaucer. 
LACK, V. i. To be in want. 

The young lions do lack and sulTcr hunger. 
Ps. xxxiv. 

2. To be wanting. 

Perhaps there shall lack five of the fifty right- 
eous. Gen. xviii. 

LACK, n. Want ; destitution ; need ; fail- 

He that gathered little, had no lack. Ex. 

Lack of rupees is one hundred thousand ru- 
pees, which at 55 cents each, amount ta 
fifty five thousand dollars, or at 2s. 6d. 
sterling, to £12,500. 

LACK-A-DAY, exclam. of sorrow or regret; 

LACK'BRAIN, n. One that wants brains, 
or is deficient in understanding. Shak. 

LACK'ER, I [Fr. laque.] A kind of 

LACQUER, \ '"■ varnish. The basis of 
lackers is a solution of the substance call- 
ed seed-lac or shell-lac, in spirit of wine or 
alcohol. Varnishes applied to metals im- 
prove their color and preserve them from 
tarnishing. Encyc. Cyc. 

Lackers consist of different resins in a state 
of solution, of which the most common 
are mastick, sandarach, lac, benzoin, co- 
pal, amber, and asphalt. The menstrua 
are either expressed or essential oils, or 
spirit of wuie. MicboLsoM. 




LACK'ER, ti. f. To varnish; to smear oyer 
with lacker, for the purpose of improving 
color or preserving from tarnishing and 

LACK'ERED, pp. Covered with lacker; 

LACK'EY, n. [Fr. laquais ; Sp. lacayo ; 
Port, lacaio; it. laccM ; Eth. t\hf\ lak, 
to send, whence l\l\^ lake, a servant ; 
L. lego, to send. From this root is the 
Sliemitic -[xSo, a messenger.] 

An attending servant ; a footboy or foot- 
man. Addison. 

LACK'EY, V. t. To attend servilely. 


LACK'EY, V. i. To act as footboy ; to pay 
servile attendance. 

Oft have I servants seen on horses ride, 
The free and noble lackey by their side. 


LACK'LINEN, a. Wanting shirts. {Uttk 
used.] Shak. 

LACK' LUSTER, o. Wanting luster or 
brightness. Shak. 

LAcbN'l€, \ [Yr.laconique ; h.lacon- 

LA€ON'l€AL,S "'kus; from Laconia or 
Lacones, the Spartans.] 

1. Short; brief; pithy; sententious; ex- 
pressing much in few words, after the 
manner of the Spartans ; as a lac 
phrase. Pope. 

2. Pertaining to Sparta or Lacedemonia. 

trans, of Pausanias. D'Anvilk 
LACON'ICALLY, adv. Briefly ; concisely 

as a sentiment laconically expressed. 
LA€ON'l€S, n. A bo6k of Pausanias, 

which treats of Lacedemonia. 
LA'€ONISM, I [L. laconismus.] A con- 
LACON'ICISM, I "-cise style. 
2. A brief sententious phrase or expression, 
LAC'TA6E, n. The produce of animals 

vieli]ii;g milk. Shuckford. 

LAc'TANT, a. [L. lactans, from lacto, to 

give suck ; lac, milk.] Suckling ; giving 

suck. [Little used.] 
LAC'TARY, a. [L. lactarius, from lacto; 

lac, milk.] 
Milky ; full of white juice like milk. [Litth 

used.] Brown. 

LA€'TARY, n. [L. laclanus.] A dairy 

LACTATE, 71. In cMmislry, a salt formed 

by the lactic acid, or acid of milk, with s 

base. Fourcroy 

LACTA'TION, n. [L. lacto, to give suck.; 

The act of giving suck ; or the time of 

suckling. Johnson. Encyc. 

LACTEAL, a. Pertaining to milk. 
2. Conveying chyle ; as a lacteal vessel. 
LACTEAL, n. A vessel or slender tube of 

animal bodies, for conveying chyle from 

the intestines to the common reservatory. 


LACTEOUS, a. [L. iadew, from te, milk.] 

1. Milky ; resembling milk. Broum. 

2. Lacteal ; conveying chyle ; as a lacteous 
vessel. Benlley. 

LA€TES'CENCE, n. [L. lacteacens, lades- 
CO, from lacto; lac, milk.] 

1. Tendency to milk ; milkiness or milky 
color. Boyh 

2. In botany, milkiness ; the liquor which 
flows abundantly from a plant, when 
wounded ; commonly white, but some- 
times yellow or red. .Martyn 

LACTES'CENT, a. Producing milk or 
white juice. Arbuthnot. 

2. Abounding with a thick colored juice. 


LA€'TI€, a. Pertaining to milk, or procu- 
red from sour milk or whey ; as the lactic 
acid. Fourcroy. 

LACTIF'EROUS, a. [L. ^ac, milk, and /fro, 
to bear.] 

1. Bearing or conveying milk or white juice ; 
as a lactiferous duct. Boyl 

2. Producing a thick colored juice ; as 
plant. Ency 

LA€'UNAR, n. [L.] An arched roof or 

LA€U'NOUS, \ [L. laeunosus, from lacu 
LA€UNO'SE, S "■ na, a ditch or hollow.] 
Furrowed or pitted. A lacunose leaf has 
the disk depressed between the veins. 

LAD, ji. [W. llawd, a lad ; and Sax. leod, G. 
leuk, Russ. lead, people, are probably from 
the same root ; Ir. lath, a youth, D. loot, 
a shoot ; Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. nV, to pro- 
create or bear young; Eth. ©A.^ Ar. 
j^Jj walada, id. Class Ld. No 29.] A 

young man or boy ; a stripling. Locke. 

LAD'ANUM, n. [said to be Arabic] The 
resinous juice which e.xsudes from the 
leaves of the Cistus ladanifera, a shrub 
which grows in Arabia, Candia, and other 
parts of the Archipelago. It is collected 
with a kind of rake, with lether thongs 
attached to it, with which the shrubs are 
brushed. The best sort is in dark-color- 
ed black masses, of the consistence of a 
soft jilaster. The other sort is in long rolls 
coiled up, harder than the former, and of| 
a paler color. It is chiefly used in exter- 
nal applications. Encyc. Parr. 

LAD'DER, n. [Sax. Madder ; D. ladder or 
ledcr; G. leiter, a ladder, a leader, a guide ; 
leiten, to lead.] 

A frame of wood, consisting of two side- 
))ieces, connected by rounds inserted in 
them at suitable distances, and thus form- 
ing steps, by which persons may ascend 
a building, &c. 

2. That by which a person ascends or rises 
means of ascending ; as a ladder made of 
cords. Shak. 

Lowliness is young ambition's ladder. 


3. Gradual rise ; elevation. 

Mounting fast towards (he top of the laddci 
ecclesiastical. Swift. 

LADE, V. t. pret. laded ; pp. laded, laden. 
[Sax. ladan and Madan ; G. laden ; D, 
laaden ; Sw. ladda ; Dan. ladder; Russ, 
klad, a load or cargo ; kladu, to put, tc 
lay, to make, build or found, to lay eggs, 
to give, to suppose, &c. Here we observe 
that to load or lade is to throw, that is 
put on or in, for to send, thrust, throw, is 
the sense of laying eggs. Now this is pre- 
cisely the radical signification of the words 
loud, lad, W. llawd, clod, L. plaudo, &c.] 

1. To load ; to put on or in, as a burden oi 
freight. We terfe a ship with cotton. We 
lade a horse or other beast with corn. 

And they laded their asses with the com and 
departed thence. Gen. xlii. 

2. To dip ; to throw in or out, as a fluid. 

with a ladle or dipper ; as, to lade water 
out of a tub or into a cistern. 

3. To draw water. [A/ot in use.] 

LADE, n. The mouth of a river. Obs. 


LA'DED, ? ^ Loaded ; charged with a 

LA'DEN, I PP- burden or freight. 

2. a. Oppressed ; burdened. 

LA'DING, ppr. Loading ; charging with a 
burden or freight; throwing or dipping 

LA'DING, n. That which constitutes a load 
or cargo ; freight ; burden ; as the lading 
of a ship. Acts xxvii. 

LAD'KIN, n. A little lad ; a youth. [Lit- 
tle used.] 

LA'DLE, n. [Sax. hkedle, from hladan, su- 

1. An utensil somewhat like a dish, with a 
long handle, used for throwing or dipping 
out liquor from a vessel. 

2. The receptacle of a mill wheel, which re- 
ceives the water which moves it. 

3. In gunnery, an instrument for drawing the 
charge of a cannon. Mar. Diet. 

LA'DLE-FUL, ?!. The quantity contained in 
a ladle. Stvift. 

LA'DY, n. [Sax. hlafdig, hlafdiga, hlafdia. 
The first syllable of this word occurs in 
hlaford, lord, and this is supposed to be 
hlaf a loaf, and the words to signify bread- 
givers. But this is doubtful ; the meaning 
of the last syllable not being ascertained in 
either word.] 

1. A woman of distinction. Originally, the 
title of lady was given to the daughters of 
earls and others in high rank, but by cus- 
tom, the title belongs to any woman of 
genteel education. 

2. A word of complaisance ; used of women. 


3. Mistress ; the female who jiresides or has 
authority over a manor or a family. 

lI'DyJug'?'] a ^'"-" ••\d vaginopen- 
I Kinv r'r\\\T >n. nous or sheath-wmged 

la'Ey:fl?'J ■--'■ ^'^y- 

A coleopterous insect of the genus Coc- 
cinella. Linne. 

LADY'S BED-STRAW, n. A plant of the 
genus Galium. 

LADY'S BOWER, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S €OMB, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S CUSHION, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus Saxifraga. 

LADY'S FINGER, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY"S MANTLE, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S SEAL, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S SLIPPER, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus Cvpripedium. 

LADY'S S3IOCK, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S TRACES, n. A plant of the genus 

LA'DY-DAY, n. The day of the annuncia- 
tion of the holy virgin, March 25th. 

LA'DY-LIKE, a. Like a lady in manners ; 
genteel ; well bred. 

2. Soft ; tender ; delicate. Dryden. 

LA'DYSHIP, )i. The title of a lady. 

Shak. Dryden. 

L A K 



LAG, a. [This word belongs to the root of] 
slack, slow, shiggish, languish, long ; Goth 
laggs ; W. Hag, llac ; Gr.^oyytvw, Xo/yya^u 
Class Lg. See the Verb.] 

1. Coining after or behind ; slow ; sluggish ; 
tardj\ Shak. 

% Last ; long delayed ; as the lag end. Shak 

[This adjective is not now in use.] 
LAG, n. The lowest class ; the rump ; the 
fag end. 

2. lie that comes behind. [JVot in use.] 


LAG, V. i. [VV. llag,llac, slack, loose ; Goth. 
laggs, long; Eng. to jlag, am\Jlacceo, lan- 
gtuo, to languish, &c. The sense is to 
extend or draw out, or to become lax or 
loose. Class Lg.] 

To walk or move slowly ; to loiter ; to stay 

I sliall not lag behind. Milton. 

LAG'GARD, n.Slow ; sluggish ; backward. 
[M>t used.] Collins. 

LAG'GER, a. A loiterer ; an idler ; one 
who moves slowly and falls behind. 

LAG'GING, ppr. Loitering ; moving slow- 
ly and falling behind. 

The nurse went lagging after with the child 

LAGOON,' } [It. Sp. laguna, from the root 

LAGU'NE, \ "■ otlake.] A fen, moor, marsh, 
shallow pond or lake ; as the lagunes of 
Venice. Ray. Smollel. 

LAI€, ? [It. toiVo, taicaZc, Fr. taigue, Sp. 

LAICAL, \ "'laycal, D. leek, L. laicus, from 
Gr. >.aixo5, from Jmo;, people. The Greek 
Xaoj is probably a contracted word.] 

Belonging to the laity or people, in distinc- 
tion from the clergy. 

LA'I€, 71. A layman. Bp. Morton. 

LAID, pret. and pp. of lay ; so written for lay- 

LAIN, pp. oilie. Lien would be a more 
regular orthography, but lain is generally 

LAIR, n. [G. lager, from the root of to/, L. 

1. A place of rest; the bed or couch of a 
boar or wild beast. Milton. Dryden. 

2. Pasture ; the ground. Spenser. 
LAIRD, >i. [contracted from Sax. hlaford, 

In the Scots dialect, a lord ; the proprietor 

of a manor. Cleaveland. 

LA'ITY, n. [Gr. Xao;, people. See Laic.] 

1. The people, as distinguished from the 
clergy ; the body of the people not in or- 
ders. Swifl. 

2. The state of a layman, or of not being in 
orders. [JVot used.] -^v/if/fe, 

LAKE, V. i. [Sw. leka ; Dan. leger ; Goth, 

To play ; to sport. J\'orth of England. This 
is play. Sax. plegan, without a prefix. 

LAKE, n. [G. lache, a puddle ; Fr. lac ; L. 
lacus ; Sp. It. logo ; Sax. luh ; Scot, loch ; 
Ir. lough ; Ice. laugh. A lake is a stand 
of water, from the root of lay. Hence L. 
lagena, Eng. Jtagon, and Sp. laguna, la- 

1. A large and extensive collection of water 
contained in a cavity or hollow of the 
earth. It differs from a pond in size, the 
latter being a collection of small extent ; 
but sometimes a collection of water is call- 
ed a pond or a lake indifferently. North 
America contain.s some of the largest lakes 

Vol. II. 

on the globe, particularly the lakes On-I 
tario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior. 

2. A middle color between ultramarine and 
milion, made of cochineal. Dryden. 

LA'KY, a. Pertaining to a lake or lakes. 


LAMA, n. The sovereign i)ontiff, or rather 
the god of the AsiaticTartars. Encyc. 
A small species of camel, the Camelus 
lama of South America. 

LAM'ANTIN, ? A species of the walrus 

LAM'ENTIN, S "' or sea-cow, the Triche- 
chusmanatus. Encyc. 

LABIB, n lam. [Goth, and Sax. lamb ; D, 
Dan. /am ; G.lamm; Sw. lamb. The let- 
ter 6 is casual and useless. I suspect the 
word to signify a shoot, as in other cases 
of the young of animals, from a root whicli 
is retained in the Welsh llamu, to bound 
to skip.] 
. The yoimg of the sheep kind. 

2. The Lamb of God, in Scripture, the Sav- 
ior Jesus Christ, who was typified by the 
paschal lamb. 

Behold the lamb of God, who taketh away 
the siu of the world. John i. 

LAMB, V. t. To bring forth young, as sheep. 

LAM'BATIVE, a. [L. lambo, to lick; W. 
llaib, lleibietir, to lap.] 

Taken bv licking. {Little used.] Brown. 

LAM'BATIVE, ji. a medicine taken by 
licking with tlie tongue. Wiseman, 

LABI'BENT, a. [L. lambens, lambo, to lick.] 
Playing about ; touching lightly ; gliding 
over ; as a lambent flame. Dryden. 

LAMBKIN, 71. lam'kin. A small lamb. 


LAMBLIKE, a. lam'like. Like a lamb ; 
gentle ; humble ; meek ; as a lamblike tein 

LAMDOID'AL, a. [Gr. 7M,iiSa.,the name of] 
the letter A, and tiSoj, form.] 

In the form of the Greek A, the English L 
as the lamdoidal suture. Sharp 

LAME, a. [Sax. lame or lama; G. lahm ; D 
Dan. lam ; Sw. lahm. It is probably alli- 

ed to limp.] 

1. Crippled or disabled in a limb, or other- 
wise injured so as to be unsound and im- 
paired in strength ; as a lame arm or leg 
or a person lame in one leg. 

2. Imperfect ; not satisfactory ; as a lame 
excuse. Stviff 

3. Hobbling ; not smooth ; as numbers in 
verse. Dryden 

LAME, I', t. To make lame ; to cripple oi 

disable ; to render imperfect and unsound ; 

as, to lame an arm or a leg. Dryden 

LAM' EL, 71. [L.tamellarw. llavyn. Set 

Lamin.] A thin plate or scale of any thing 
LAM'ELLAR, a. [from lamel.] Disposed 

in thin plates or scales. 
LAM'ELLARLY, adv. In thin plates or 

LAM'ELLATE, > Formed in th 
LAM'ELLATED, ^ "■ plates or scales, or 

covered with them. 
LAMELLIF'EROUS, a. [L. lameUa and 

fero, to produce.] 
Producing plates ; an epithet of polypiers 

presenting lamellar stars, or waved fur- 
rows garnished with plates. 

Diet. JVat. Hi.^t 
LAM'ELLIFORM, a. [L. lamella, a plate, 

and/o7TO.] Having the form of a plate. 
Journ. of Science. 


I cripple ; 

LA'MELV, adv. [See Lame.] Like; 
with impaired strength ; in a 
inanner ; as, to walk lamely. 
Imperfectly; without a complete exhibi- 
tion of parts ; as a figure lamely drawn : 
a scene lamely described. 

3. Weakly; poorly; unsteadily ; feebly. 

LA'MENESS, n. An impaired state of the 
body orhmbs; loss of natural soundness 
and strength by a wound or by disease ; 
particularly applied to the limbs, and im- 

of the leg or .- 
2. Imperfection ; weakness ; as the lamemss 

of an argument or of a description. 
LAMENT', j>. I. [L. lamentor.] To mourn ; 
to grieve ; to weep or wail ; to express sor- 
Jeremiah Za7ne»7<e<£for Josiah. 2Chron. xxxv. 
2. To regret deeply ; to feel sorrow. 
LAMENT', V. t. To bewail; to mourn for; 
to beiuoan ; to deplore. 
One laughed at follies, one lamented crimes. 
LAMENT',?!. [L.lamentum.] Grief or sor- 
row expressed in complaints or cries ; la- 
mentation ; a weeping. 
Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage. 

[This noun is used chiefly or solely in 
LAM'fiNTABLE, a. [Fr. from L. lamentab- 

1. To be lamented ; deserving sorrow; as a 
lamentable declension of morals. 

2. Mournful; adapted to awaken grief; as a 
lamentable tunc. 

3. Expressing sorrow ; as lamentable cries. 

4. Miserable ; pitiful ; low ; poor ; in a sense 
rather ludia-ous. [Little used.] 


LAM'ENTABLY, adv. Mournfully; with 

expressions or tokens of sorrow. Sidney. 

2. So as to cause sorrow. Shak. 

3. Pitifully ; despicably. 

LAMENTA'TION, 71. [L. lamentatio.] Ex- 
pression of sorrow ; cries of grief; the act 
of bewaihng. 

In Rama was there a voice heard, lamenta- 
tion and weeping. Matt. ii. 

2. Intheplural, a book of Scripture, contain- 
ing the lamentations of Jeremiah. 

LAMENTED, pp. Bewailed ; mourned for. 

LAMENT'ER, n. One who mourns, or cries 
out with sorrow. 

LAMENTIN. [See Lamantin.] 

LAMENT'ING, ppr. Bewailing ; mourning ; 

LAMENT'ING, ?t. A mourning; lamenta- 

LAMIA, 7!. [L.] A hag; a witch ; a de- 

LAM'IN, I ,, [L. lamina ; W. llavyn, from 
LAJI'INA, ^ "• extending, W. llav.] 

1. A thin plate or scale ; a layer or coat lying 
over another ; applied to the plates of 
minerals, bones, &c. Encyc. 

2. A bone, or part of a bone, resembling a 
thin plate, such as the cribriform plate of 
the ethmoid bone. Pan: 

3. The lap of the ear. Parr. 

4. The border, or the upper, broad or spread- 
ing part of the petal, in a polypetalous 
corol. Martyn. 

LAM'INABLE, a. Capable of being formed 
into thin plates. Kirwan. 


LAM'INAR, a. In plates ; consisting of thin 

plates or layers. 
LAM'INATE, \ Plated; consisting of 
LAM'INATED, J "' plates, scales or layers, 

one over another. 
LAMM, V. t. To beat. [JVot in vse.] 

LAM'MAS, 71. [Sax. hlammccsse, from 

hlafmcesse, loaf-mass, bread-feast, or feast 

of first fruits. Lye.] 
The first day of August. Bacon. 

LAMP, n. [Fr. tampe ; L. lampas; Gr. 

iafiTtas, from 7.afino, to shine ; Heb. and 

Ch.TsS. Qu.] 

1. A vessel for containing oil to be burned 
by means of a wick; or a light, a burning 
wick inserted in a vessel of oil. Hence, 

2. Figuratively, a light of any kind. The 
moon is called the lamp of heaven. 

Thy gentle eyes send forth a quickening spirit, 
To feed the dying lamp of life within me. 


Lamp of safety, or safety lamp, a lamp for 
lighting coal mines, without exposing 
workmen to the explosion of inflammable 
air. Davy. 

LAM'PAS, n. [Fr.] A lump of flesh of the 
size of a nut, in the roof of a horse's mouth, 
and rising above the teeth. Far. Did. 

LAMP'BLACK, n. [lamp and black ; being 
originally made by means of a lamp or 

A fine soot formed by the condensation of 
the smoke of burning pitch or resinous 
substances, in a chimney terminating in a 
cone of cloth. Fourcroy. 

LAMP'IATE, n. A compound salt, compo- 
sed of lampic acid and a base. lire. 

LAMP'IC, a. The lampic acid is obtained 
by the combustion of ether by means of a 
lamp. Ure. 

LAMP'ING, a. [It. lampante.] Shining; 
sparkling. [JVot used.] Spenser. 

LAMPOON', n. [Qu. Old Fr. lamper.] 
A personal satire in writing ; abuse ; cen- 
sure written to reproach and vex rather 
than to reform. 

Johnson. Dryden. Pope. 

LAMPOON', V. t. To abuse with personal 
censure ; to reproach in written satire. 

LAMPOON'ER, n. One who abuses with 

personal satire; the writer of a lampoon. 

The squibs are those who are called libelers, 

lampooners, and pamphleteers. Taller. 

LAMPOON'ING, ppr. Abusing with per- 
sonal satire. 

LAMPOON'RY, n. Abuse. 

LAM'PREV, Ji. [Fr. lamproie ; S&x. tamp- 
rccda ; G. lamprete ; D. lamprei ; Dan. 
lampret ; S|). and Port, lamprea ; It. lam- 
preda; W. lleiprog ; Arm. lamprezenn. 
In Arm. lampra signifies to slip or glide. 
In Welsh lleipiaw, is to lick or lap, and 
lleipraw, to make flabby. If m is casual, 
which is probable, the Armoric lampra for 

lapra, coincides with L. lahor, to shp, and 
most probably the animal is named from 
slipping. If, however, the sense is taken 
from licking the rocks, as Camden suppo 
ses, it accords with the sense of the tech- 
nical name of the ^enus petromyxon, the 
A genus of anguilliform fishes, resembling the 
eel, and moving in water by winding, like 
the seri)ent on land. This fish has si 
Rpiraclcs on each side of the neck, and a 


fistula or aj>erture on the top of the head, 
but no pectoral or ventral fins. The ma- 
rine or sea lamprey is sometimes found so 
large as to weigh four or five pounds. 

Lamprei and lampron. [See Lamprey.] 
LA'NATE, I [L. lanatus, from lana, 
LAN'ATED, p- wool.] Wooly. In hot- 
any, covered with a substance like curled 
hairs; as a lanated leaf or stem. 
LANCE, 71. I'ans. [L. lancea ; Fr. lance ; 
Sp. lanza ; It. lancia ; G. lame ; D. Sw. 
lans; Dan. lantse; Slav, lanzha ; Gr. 
i.oyzv- This word probably belong 
Class Lg, and is named from shooting, 
A spear, an oflfensive weapon in form of 
a half pike, used by the ancients and 
thrown by the hand. It consisted of the 
shaft or handle, the wings and the dart. 

LANCE, V. t. [Arm. langza, to shoot, to 

1. To pierce with a lance or with a sharp 
pointed instrument. 

— Seized tiie due victim, and with fury lanc'd 
Her back. IJryd. 

i. To pierce or cut ; to open with a lancet ; 
as, to lance a vein or an abscess. 

LANCELY, a. Pansly. Suitable to a lance, 

LAN'CEOLAR, a. In botany, tapering to- 
wards each end. ^s. Res. 

LAN'CEOLATE, > Shaped hke a lance; 

LAN'CEOLATED, ^ "' oblong and gradual- 
ly tapering toward each extremity ; spear- 
shaped ; as a lanceolate leaf. Martyn. 

LANCEPESA'DE, n. [It. lancia-spezzata, 
a demi-lance-man, a light horseman.] An 
officer under the corporal. J. Hall. 

L'ANCER, n. One who lances; one who 
carries a lance. 

L^ANCET, 77. [Fr. lancetle, from lance.] A 
surgical instrument, sharp-pointed and 
two-edged ; used in venesection, and in 
opening tumors, abscesses, &c. Encyc. 

2. A pointed window. ff'arton. 

L'ANCH, V. t. [from lance, Fr. lancer.] To 

throw, as a lance ; to dart ; to let fly. 

See whose arm can la/ich the surer bolt. 

Dryden. Lee. 

2. To move, or cause to slide from the land 
into the water ; as, to lanch a ship. 

L^ANCH, V. i. To dart or fly off"; to push 
off; as, to lanch into the wide world ; to 
lanch into a wide field of discussion. 

L'ANCH, 71. The, sliding or movement of a 
ship from the land into the water, on ways 
prepared for the purpose. 

2. A kind of boat, longer, lower, and more 
flat-bottomed than a long boat. 

Mar. Diet. 

LAND, 71. [Goth. Sax. G. D. Dan. Sw. land. 
I suppose this to be the W. llan, a clear 
place or area, and the same as latvn ; 
Cantabrian, landa, a plain or field. It 
Sp. landa. The final d is probably ad- 
ventitious. The primary sense is a lay or 
spread. Class Ln.] 

1. Earth, or the .solid matter which consti- 
tutes the fixed ])nrt of the surface of the 
globe, in distinction from the sea or other 
waters, which constitute the fluid or mova- 
ble part, llcnce we say, the globe is ter- 


raqueous, consisting of land and water. 
The seaman in a long voyage longs to see 

2. Any portion of the solid, superficial part 
of the globe, whether a kingdom or coun- 
try, or a particular region. The United 
States is denominated the land of fi-eedom. 

Go, view the land, even Jericho. Josh. ii. 

3. Any small portion of the superficial part 
of the earth or ground. We speak of the 
quantity odand in a manor. Five hun- 
dred acres of land is a large farm. 

4. Ground ; soil, or the superficial part of the 
earth in respect to its nature or quality ; 
as good land; poor land; moist or dry 
land. ' 

5. Real estate. A traitor forfeits all his lands 
and tenements. 

6. The inhabitants of a country or region ; 
" nation or people. 

These answers in the silent night received, 
The king himself divulged, the land believed. 

7. The ground left unplowed between fur- 
rows, is by some of our farmers called a 

To make the land, } In seaman's language, 

To make land, ^ is to discover land from 
sea, as the ship approaches it. 

To shut in the land, to lose sight of the land 
left, by the intervention of a point or prom- 

To set the land, to see by the compass how 
it bears from the ship. 

LAND, n. [Sax. hland or hlond.] Urine ; 
whence the old expression, land dam, to 
kill. Obs. Shak. 

LAND, V. t. To set on shore; to disembark; 
to debark ; as, to la7id troops from a ship 
or boat ; to land goods. 

LAND, V. i. To go on shore from a ship or 
boat ; to disembark. 

LAN'DAU, n. A kind of coach or carriage 
whose top may be opened and thrown 
back ; so called from a town in Germany. 

LAND'-BREEZE, n. [land and breeze.] A 
current of air setting from the land to- 
wards the sea. 

L.'VND'ED, pp. Disembarked ; set on shore 
from a shii) or boat. 

2. a. Having an estate in land ; as a landed 

The house of commons must consist, for the 
most part, o{ landed men. Addison. 

3. Consisting in real estate or land ; as 
landed security ; landed property. The 
landed interest of a nation is the interest 
consisting in land ; but the word is used 
also for the owners of that interest, the 
in-oprietors of land. 

LAND'FALL, n. [land and/aH.] A sud- 
den translation of property in land by the 
death ofa rich man. Johnson. 

2. In seamen's language, the first land dis- 
covered after a voyage. Mar. Did. 

LAND'FLQQD, 71. [land and flood.] An 
overflowing of land by water; an inun- 
dation. Properly, a flood from the land 
from the swelling of rivers ; but I am not 
sure that it is always used in this sense. 

LAND'-F0RCE,7!. [land anA force.] A mil- 
itary force, army or troops serving on land, 
lis distinguished from a naval force. 

LAND'GRAVE,7i. [G.landgrnf; 
granf. Graf or graaf is an carl or count. 




Sax. gerefa, a companion or count. It 
contracted into reeve, as in sheriff, or shii 
In Germany, a count or earl ; or an officer 
nearly corresponding to the earl of Eng- 
land, and the count of France. It is now 
a title of certain princes who possess es- 
tates or territories called laudgraviates. 
LANDGRA'VIATE, n. The territory held 
by a landgrave, or his office, jurisdiction 
or authority. Encyc. 

LAND'HOLDER, n. A holder, owner or 
proprietor of land. 

LAND'ING, ppr. Setting on shore ; coming 
on shore. 

LAND'ING, ) A place on the 

LAND'ING-PLACE, \ "" shore of the 
or of a lake, or on the bank of a river, 
where persons land or come on shore, or 
where goods are set on shore. 

LAND'JOBBER, n. A man who makes a 
business of buying land on speculation, or 
of buying and selling for the profit of bar- 
gains, or who buys and sells for others. 

LAND'LADY, n. [See Landlord.] A wo- 
man who has tenants holding from her. 


2. The mistress of an inn. Sunfl. 

LAND'LESS, a. Destitute of land; having 
no property in land. Shak. 

LAND'LOCk,D.<. [land and lock.] To in 
close or encompass by land. 

LAND'LOCKED, pp. Encompassed by 
land, so that no point of the compass is 
open to the sea. Encyc. 

LAND'LOPER, n. [See Leap and Inteilo 

A landman ; literally, a layid runner ; a term 
of reproach among seamen to designate a 
man who passes his life on land. 

LAND'LORD, n. [Sax. land-hlaford, lord of 
the land. But in German lehen-herr, D. 
leen-herr, is lord of the loan or fief. Per 
haps the Saxon is so written by mistake, 
or the word may have been corrupted. ~ 

1. The lord of a manor or of land ; the own- 
er of land who has tenants under him. 


2. The master of an inn or tavern. 


LAND'MAN, n. A man who serves on land : 
opposed to seaman. 

LAND'MARK, n. [land and mark.] A 
mark to desig-nate the boundary of land ; 
any mark or fixed object ; as a marked 
tree, a stone, a ditch, or a heap of stones, 
by which the limits of a farm, a town or 
other portion of territory may be known 
and preserved. 

Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor's land- 
mark. Deut. xix. 

2. In navigation, any elevated object on 
land that serves as a guide to seamen. 

LAND'-OFFICE, n In the UnUed States, _.. 
office in which the sales of new land are 
registered, and warrants issued for the lo- 
cation of land, and other business respect- 
ing unsettled land is transacted. 

LAND'SCAPE, n. [D. landschap ; G. land- 
schaft; Dan. landskab ; Sw. landskap ; 
land and shape.] 

1. A portion of land or territory which the 
eye can corapreliend in a single view, in- 
cluding mountains, rivers, lakes, and what- 
ever the land contains. 

— Wiilst the landscape round it 
Russet lawns and fallows gray, 
Where the nibbling flocks do stray. J^rdlon. 

2. A picture, exhibiting the form of a district 
of country, as far as the eye can reach, or 
a particular extent of land and the objects 
it contains, or its various scenery. 

Addison. Pope. 

3. The view or prospect of a district of 

LAND'SLIP, n. A portion of a hill or moun- 
tain, which slips or slides down ; or the 
sliding down of a considerable tract of 
land fi'om a mountain. Landslips are not 
unfrequent in Swisserland. Goldsmith} 

LAND'SMAN, n. In jcamaji's language, a! 
sailor on board a ship, who has not before] 
been at sea. 

LAND'STREIGHT, n. A narrow slip of 
land. [A'otused.] Moimtagne. 

LAXD'-TAX, ?!. A tax assessed on land 
and buildings. 

LAND'-TURN, n. A land breeze. Encyc. 

LAND-WAITER, n. An officer of the cm ' 
toms, whose duty is to wait or attend on' 
the landing of goods, and to examine,! 
weigh or measure, and take an account of 
them. Encyc. 

LAND'VVARD, adv. Toward the land. 


LAND'-WIND, n. A wind blowing from the 

LAND'- WORKER, n. One who tills the 
und. Pownall.i 

LANE, n. [D. laan, a lane, a walk. Class 

1. A narrow way or passage, or a private 
passage, as distinguished from a public 
road or highway. A lane may be open to 
all passengers, or it may be inclosed and 
appropriated to a man's private use. Ini 
the U. States, the word is used chiefly in' 
the country, and answers in a degree, to 
an alley in a city. It has sometimes been 
used for alley. In London, the word lane 
is added to the names of streets ; as chan- 
cery lane. 

2. A passage between lines of men, or |>eo-l 
pie standing on each side. Baconl 

LAN'GRAgE, I Langrel shot or langrage} 

LAN'GREL, J "" is a particular kind of 
shot used at sea for tearing sails and rig- 
ging, and thus disabling an enemy's ship. 
It consi.sts of bolts, nails and other pieces 
of iron fastened together. Mar. Diet. 

LANGTERALOO', n. A game at cards. 


LAN'GUAgE, n. [Fr. langage ; Sp. lengua) 
lenguage ; Port, linguagem ; It. linguag-\ 
gio ; Arm. langaich; from L. lingua, the} 
tongue, and speech. It seems to be con- 
nected with Zmg-o, to lick; the n is evi- 
dently casual, for ligula, in Latin, is a little 
tongue, and this signifies also a strap or 
lace, as if the primary sense were to ex-] 
tend.] j 

1. Human speech ; the expression of ideas 
by words or significant articulate sounds,! 
for the communication of thoughts. Lan-\ 
guage consi.sts in the oral utterance of 
sounds, which usage has made the repre-i 
sematives of ideas. When two or morej 
persons customarily annex the same! 
sounds to the .same ideas, the expression! 
of these sounds by one person communi- 
cates his ideas to another. This is the pri-l 

mary sense of language, the use of which 
is to communicate the thoughts of one 
person to another through the organs of 
liearing. Articulate sounds are repre- 
sented by letters, marks or characters 
which form words. Hence language con- 
sists also in 

2. Words duly arranged in sentences, writ- 
ten, printed or engraved, and exhibited to 
the eye. 

3. The speech or expression of ideas pecul- 
iar to a particular nation. Men had orig- 
inally one and the same language, but 
the tribes or families of men, since their 
dispersion, have distinct languages. 
Style; manner of expression. 

Others for language all their care express. 


5. The inarticulate sounds by which irra- 
tional animals express their feelings and 
wants. Each spCcies of animals has pe- 
culiar sounds, which are uttered instinct- 
ively, and are understood by its own spe- 
cies, and its own species only. 

6. Any manner of expressing thoughts. 
Thus we speak of the language of the eye, 
ulanguage very expressive and intelligible. 

7. A nation, as distinguished by their speech. 
Dan. iii. 

LAN'GUAgED, a. Having a language ; as 
many-languaged nations. Pope. 

LANGUAGE-MASTER, n. One whose 
profession is to teach languages. 

LAN'GUET, n. [Fr. languette.] Any thine 

in the shape of the tongue. [JVot English^ 


LAN'GUID, a. [L. languidics, from langueo, 
to droop or flag. See Languish.] 

\. Flagging; drooping; hence, feeble; weak; 
heavy ; dull ; indisposed to exertion. The 
body is languid after excessive action, 
which exhausts its powers. 

2. Slow ; as languid motion. 

3. Dull ; heartless ; without animation. 
And fire their languid soul widi Cato's virtue. 

LANGUIDLY, adv. Weakly ; feebly ; 
owly. Boyle. 

LAN'GUIDNESS, n. Weakness from ex- 
haustion of strength; feebleness; dull- 
ness ; languor. 
2. Slowness. 

LAN'GUISH, V. i. [Fr. languir, languis- 
sant ; Arm. languifza ; It. languire ; L. 
langueo, lachinisso ; Gr. Xayyivu, to flag, 
to lag. This word is of the family of W. 
llac, slack, loose ; llaciatv, to slacken, to 
relax. L. laxo, laius, flacceo, and Goth. 
laggs, long, may be of the same family.] 
, To lose strength or animation ; to be or 
become dull, feeble or spiritless; to pine; 
to be or to grow heavy. We languish 
under disease or after excessive exertion. 
She that hath borne seven languisheth. Jer. 

2. To wither; to fade ; to lose the vegeta- 
ting power. 

For the fields of Heshlion languish. Is. xvi. 

3. To grow dull ; to be no longer active and 
vigorous. The war languished for want 
of supplies. Commerce, agriculture, man- 
ufactures languish, not for want of money, 
but for want of good markets. 


L A P 


. To pine or sink under sorrow or any con- 
tinued passion ; as, a woman languishes 
for the loss of lier lover. 

Therefore shall the land mourn, and everj' 
one that dwelleth therein shall languish. Ho- 

5. To look with softness or tenderness, as 
with the head reclined and a peculiar cast 
of the eye. Dryden. 

LAN'GUISH, r. t. To cause to droop or 
pine. [Little used.] Shak. 

LAN'GUISH, n. Act of pining; also, a soft 
and tender look or appearance. 

And the blue languish of soft Allia's eye. 

LAN'GUISIIER, n. One who languishes 
or pines. 

LAN'GUISHING, ppr. Becoming or being 
feeble ; losing strength ; pining ; wither-; 
ing ; fading. j 

2. a. Having a languid appearance ; as a 
languishing eye. 

LAN'GUISHINGLY, adv. Weakly ; feebly ; 
dully ; slowly. 

2. With tender softness. 

LAN'GUISHMENT, n. The state of pin- 
ing. Spenser. 

2. Softness of look or mien, with the head 
reclined. Dryden.] 

LAN'GUOR, ?i. [L. languor; Fr. langueur.' 

1. Feebleness ; dullness ; heaviness ; lassi 
tude of body ; that state of the body 
which is induced by e.xhaustion of 
strength, as by disease, by extraordinary 
exertion, by fhe relaxing effect of heat, or 
by weakness from any cause. 

2. Dullness of the intellectual faculty; list- 
lessness. fFaits. 

3. Softness; laxity. 

To isles of fragrance, lily-sUvered vales, 
Diflusing languor in the parting gales. 


LAN'GUOROUS, a. Tedious ; melancholy, 

Obs. Spensei: 

LAN'GURE, V. t. To languish. [JVot in 

use.] Chaucer. 

LANIARD, n. lan'yard. [Fr. laniere, s 

A short piece of rope or line, used for fasten- 
ing something in ships, as the laniards ofi 
the gun-ports, of the buoy, of the cathook,! 
&c., but especially used to extend the 
shrouds and stays of the masts, by their 
communication with the dead eyes, &c. 
Mar. Diet. 
LA'NIATE, V. I. [L. lanio.] To tear in 

pieces. [Little used.] 
LANIA'TION, ji. A tearing in pieces. [Lit- 
tle used.] 
LANIF'EROUS, a. [h.lanifer; iana, wool, 
and fero, to produce.] Bearing or produ-j 
cing wool. I 

LAN'IFICE, n. [L. lanijicium ; lana, wool, 
and /ario, to make.] i 

Manufacture of wool. [Little used.] \ 

LANIG'EROUS, a. [L. laniger; lana, wool,' 
and g-ero, to bear.] Bearing or producing 
LANK, a. [Sax. hUtnca ; Gr. Jjiyopo,- ; prob- 
ably allied lajlank, and W. llac, slack, lax ; 
llaciato, to slacken ; G. schlank.] 
1. Loose or lax and easily yielding to pres- 
sure ; not distended ; not stiff or firm by 
distension ; not plump ; as a lank bladder 
or purse. 

The clergy's bags 
Are lank and lean with thy extortions. 


2. Thin ; slender ; meager ; not full and 
firm ; as a lank body. 
Languid ; drooping. [See Languish.] 

LANK'LY, adv. Thinly ; loosely ; laxly. 
LANK'NESS, n. Laxity ; flabbiness ; lean- 
ness ; slenderness. 
LANK'Y, n. Lank. [Vulgar.] 
LAN'NER, I [Fr.lanier;h.laniarius, 

LAN'NERET, l"-lanius, a butcher.] A 

species of hawk. 
LANS'aUENET, n. [lance and knecht, 

boy, a knight.] 
L A common foot soldier. 

A game at cards. Johnson. Encyc. 

LAN'TERN, n. [Fr. lanterne ; L. laterna ; 
G. lateme ; D. lantaai-n ; Sp. lintema.] 

1. A case or vessel made of tin perforated 
with many holes, or of some transparent 
substance, as glass, horn, or oiled paper ; 
used for carrying a candle or other hght 
in the open air, or into stables, &c. 

A dark lantern is one with a single open- 
ing, which may be closed so as to conceal 
the light. 

2. A light-house or light to direct the course 
of ships. Addison 

3. In architecture, a little dome raised over 
the roof of a building to give light, and 
to serve as a crowning to the fabric. 


4. A square cage of carpentry placed over 
the ridge of a corridor or gallery, between 
two rows of shops, to illuminate them. 


Magic lantern, an optical machine by which 

painted images are represented so much 

magnified as to appear like the efiect of 


IN'TERN-FLY, n. An insect of the ge- 
uus Fulgora. Encyc. 

LAN'TERN-JAWS, n. A thin visage. 

LANU'GlNOUS, a. [L. lanuginosus, from 

lanugo, down, from lana, wool.] 
Downy; covered with down, or fine soft 

LAODICE AN, a. Like the christians of 

Laodicea; lukewarm in religion. 
LAODICE'ANISM, n. Lukewarmness in 
religion. E. Stiles. 

h.\P, n. [Sax. loeppe ; G. lappen ; D. Dan. 
lap ; Sw. lapp. This word seems to be a 
different orthogniphy of Jlap.] 
\. The loose part of a coat; the lower part 
of a garment that plays loosely. Swift. 
2. The part of clothes that lies on the knees 
when a person sits down ; hence, the 
knees in this position. 

Men expect that happiness should drop into 
their laps. Tillotson. 

LAP, V. t. To fold ; to bend and lay over or 
on ; as, to lap a piece of cloth. 

To lap boards, is to lay one partly over 
2. To wrap or twist round. 

I lapped a slender thread about the paper. 

}. To infold ; to involve. 

l1>. and lavs hiu 


LAP, V. i. To be spread or laid ; to be turn- 
ed over. 

The upper wings are opacous ; at their hind- 
er ends where they lap over, transparent like the 
wing of a fly. Grew. 

LAP, V. i. [Sax. lappian ; D. labhen ; Arm. 
lappa; Fr. taper; Dan.laber; W.llepiaiv, 
Ueibiaw ; Gr. Xartru. If m is casual in L. 
lambo, as it probably is, this is the same 
word. Class Lb. No. 22.] 
To take up hquor or food with the tongue ; 
to feed or drink by licking. 

The dogs by the river NUus' side being 

thirsty, lap hastily as they run along the shore . 


And the number of them that lapped were 

three hundred men. Judg. vU. 

LAP, V. t. To take into the mouth with the 

tongue ; to lick up ; as, a cat laps milk. 


LAP'DOG, n. A small dog fondled in the 

lap. Dryden. 

LAP'FULL, n. As much as the lap can 

contain. 2 Kings iv. 
LAP'ICIDE, n. A stone-cutter. [N'ot used.] 
LAPIDA'RIOUS, a. [L. lapidarius, from 
lapis, a stone.] Stony ; consisting of 
LAP'IDARY, 71. [Fr. lapidaire ; L. lapida- 
rius, lapis, a stone.] 

1. An artificer who cuts precious stones. 

2. A dealer in precious stones. 

3. A virtuoso skilled in the nature and 
kinds of gems or precious stones. Encyc. 

LAP'IDARY, a. Pertaining to the art of 
cutting stones. The lapidary style de- 
notes that which is proper for monumental 
and other inscriptions. Encyc. 

LAPIDATE, V. t. [L. lapido.] To stone. 
[.Xot used.] 

LAPIDA'TION, n. The act of stoning a 
person to death. Hall. 

LAPID'EOUS, a. [L. lapideus.] Stony ; of 
the nature of stone ; as lapideous matter. 
[Little used.] Ray. 

LAPIDES'CENCE, n. [L. lapidesco, from 
lapis, a stone.] 

1. The process of becoming stone ; a hard- 
ening into a stony substance. 

3. A stony concretion. Brown. 

LAPIDES'CENT, a. Growing or turning 
to stone ; that has the quahty of petrify- 
ing bodies. Encyc. 

LAPIDES'CENT, ?t. Any substance which 
has the quality of petrifying a body, or 
converting it to stone. 

LAPIDIF'IC, a. [L. tapis, a stone, and fa- 

cia, to make.] Jf ormuig or couverting in- 
to stone. 

LAPIDIFICA'TION, n. The operation of 
forming or converting into a stony sub- 
stance, by means of a liquid charged with 
earthy particles in solution, which crys- 
talize in the interstices, and end in form- 
ing free stone, pudding stone, &c. 

Diet. J\at. Hist. 

LAPID'IF-f, I', t. [L. lapis, a stone, and 
facin, to form.] To form into stone. 

LAPID'IF?, v.i. To turn into stone; tc 
become stone. 

L.\P'1DIST, n. A dealer in precious stones. 
[See Lapidary.] 

LAPIS, in Latin, a stone. Hence, 

Lapis Bononiensis, the Bolognian stone. 

Lapis Hepaticus, liver stone. 


Lapis Lazuli, azure stone, an aluminous 
mineral, of a rich blue color, resembling 
the blue caibonate of copper. [See La- 

Lapis Li/dius, touch-stone ; basanite ; a va- 
rirtcv (if siliceous slate. 

LAP PliD, pp. [See Lap.] Turned or fold- 

LAl' I'ER, n. One that laps; one that 
wraps or folds. 

2. One that takes up with his tongue. 

LAP'PET, n. [dim. of hp.] A part of a 
ffarraent or dress that hangs loose. 


LAP'PING, ppr. Wrapping ; folding ; lay- 
ing on. 

2. Licking ; taking into the mouth with the 

LAPSE, n. laps. [L. lapsus, from labor, to 
slide, to fall. Class Lb.] 

1. A sliding, gliding or flowing ; a smooth 
course ; as the lapse of a stream ; the 
lapse of time. 

2. A falling or passing. 

The lapse to mdolence is soft and impercep- 
tible, but the return to diligeace is difficult. 

3. A slip ; an error ; a fault ; a failing it 
dut}' ; a shght deviation from truth or rec 

This Scripture may be usefully applied as : 
caution to guard against those lapses and tail 
ings to which our infirmities daily expose us. 

So we say, a lapse in style or propriety 

4. In ecclesiastical law, the slip or omission of 
a patron to present a clerk to a benefice, 
within six months after it becomes void, 
In this case, the benefice is said to be laps- 
ed, or in lapse. Encyc. 

5. In theology, the tail or apostasy of Adam 
LAPSE, I'.!, laps. To glide ; to pass slowly, 

silently or by degrees. 

This disposition to shorten our words by re- 
trenching the vowels, is nothing else but a ten 
dcncy to lapse into the barbarity of those north 
em nations from wliich we descended. Swift 

2. To slide or slip in moral conduct ; to fail 
in duty ; to deviate from rectitude ; to 
commit a faidt. 

To lapse in fullness 
Is sorer than to lie for need. Shak. 

3. To slip or commit a fault by inadvertency 
or mistake. 

Homer, in his characters of Vulcan and 
Thersites, has lapsed into the burlesque chai-i 
acter. ^IddisonJ 

4. To fall or pass from one proprietor to an-j 
other, by the omission or negligence of 
the patron. 

If the archbishop shall not fill it up within sL\ 
months ensuing, it lapses to the king. Ayliffe. 

5. To fall from a state of innocence, or from 
truth, faith or perfection. 

Once more I will renew 
His lapsed powers. Mdton. 

LAPSED, pp. Fallen ; passed from one 
proprietor to another by the negligence of|] 
the patron ; as a lapsed benefice. A laps 
ed legacy is one which falls to the heirs 
tlirough tlie failure of the legatee, as when 
the lesatee dies before the testator. 
LAP'SIDED, a. [lap aud side.] Having one 
side heavier than the other, as a ship. 

Mar. Did 

L A R 

LAPS' ING, ^p?-. Gliding; flowing; failing; 
falling to one person through the omission 
of another. 

LAP'WING, n. A bird of the genus Trin- 
ga; the tewit. 

LAP' WORK, »i. Work in which one part 
laps over another. Grew. 

IL'AR, n. plu. lares. [L.] .\ household deity. 

L'ARBOARD, n. [Board, bord, is a side ; 
but I know not the meaning oflar. The 
Dutch use bakboord, and the Germans 

The left hand side of a ship, when a person 
stands with his face to the head ; opposed 
to starboard. 

L\\RBOARD, a. Pertaining to the left hand 
side of a ship ; as the larboard quarter. 

L'ARCENV, n. [Fr.larcin; Norm, larcini; 
Arm. laeroncy, or lazroncy, contracted from 
L. latrocinium, from the Celtic ; W. lladyr, 
theft ; lladron, thieves ; Sp. ladron ; It. 
ladro, ladrone.] 

Theft; the act of taking and carrying away 
the goods or property of another feloni- 
ously. Larceny is of two kinds ; simph 
larceny, or thei't, not accompanied with 
any atrocious circumstance ; and vtixed or 
compound larceny, which includes in it the 
aggravation of taking from one's house or 
person, as in burglary or robbery. The 
stealing of any thing below the value of 
twelve pence, is called petty larceny ; above 
that value, it is called grand larceny. 


L>ARCH, »!. [L.larix; Sp.alerce; It. larice; 

I G. hrchenbaum ; D. lorkenboom.] 

The common name of a division of the ge 

1 nus Pinus, species of which are native: 
of America, as well as of Europe. 

JL'ARD, n. [Ft. lard; L. lardum, laridiim; 
It. and Sp. lardo; Arm. lardt. Qu. W. 
Uar, that spreads or drops, soft.] 

1. The fat of swine, after being melted and 
separated from the flesh. 

J2. Bacon; the flesh of swine. Dryden. 

VARD, V. t. [Fr. larder; Aim. tarda.] To 
stuff with bacon or pork. 

The larded thighs on loaded altars laid. 


2. To fatten : to enrich. 
Now Falstatr sweats to deatli. 

And lards the lean earth. Shak. 

3. To mix with sometliing by way of im- 

— Let no alien interpose. 
To lard with wit thy hungry Epsom prose. 

L'ARD, v. i. To grow fat. Drayton. 

L.\RDA'CEOUS, a. Of the nature of lard 
consisting of lard. Coxe. 

LWRDED, pp. Stuffed with bacon ; fat 
tened ; mixed. 

L'ARDER, n. A room where meat is kept 
or salted. Bacon 

L^ARDRY, n. A larder. [Xot iised.] 

L'ARgF., a. larj. [Fr. large; Sp, Port. It 
largo ; Arm. larg ; L. largus. The prima- 
ry sense is to spread, stretch or distend, 
to diffuse, hence to loosen, to relax ; Sp. 
largar, to loosen, to slacken, as a rope. 
Class Lr. It seems to be connected with 
Gr. xavpos, wide, copious, and perhaps 
with Jloor, W. llaicr, and with llaicer, 
much, many. In Ba.sque, larria, is gross, 
and larritu, to srow.l 

ii A R 

1. Big; of great size; bulky; as a large 
body ; a large horse or ox ; a large moun- 
tain ; a large tree ; a large ship. 

'2. Wide ; extensive ; as a large field or 

1 plain; a. large extent of territory. 

3. Extensive or populous ; containing many 
'habitants ; as a large city or town. 


. large 

)n the importance and 
the wind is large 

Abundant ; plentiful ; 
supply of provisions. 
,5. Copious ; diffusive. 

I might he very large > 
advantages of education. 

6. In seamen's language, 
when it crosses the line of a ship's i 
in a favorable direction, particularly on 
the beam or quarter. Encyc. 

7. Wide; consisting of much water; as a 
large river. 

8. Liberal ; of a great amount ; as a large 

At large, without restraint or confinement ; 
as, to go at large ; to be left at large. 

2. Diffusely ; fully ; in the full extent ; as, 
to discourse on a subject at large. 

L'ARgE, 71. Formerly, a musical note equal 
to four breves. " Busbu. 

i of heart; liberaUty. [.Yot used.] 
i Bp. Reynolds. 

LARGELY, adv. Widely; extensively. 
'2. Copiously ; diffusely ; amply. The sub- 
j ject was largely discussed. 

3. Liberally; bountifully. 
I — How he lives and eats ; 

How largely gives. Dryden. 

4. Abundantly. 

I They their fill of love and love's disport 

1 Took largely. Milton. 

JL^ARGENESS, n. Bigness ; bulk ; magni- 
I tude ; as the largeness of an animal. 
|2. Greatness ; comprehension ; as the large- 
ness of mind or of capacity. 

3. Extent ; extensiveness ; as largeness of 

4. Extension; amplitude; liberabty ; as the 
I Zargenfss of an offer; /ai'g-e)i£S5 of heart. 
I Hooker. Waller. 

5. Wideness ; extent ; as the largeness of a 
i river. 

ILV-VRgESS, n. [Fr. largesse ; L. largitio ; 
I from largus, large.] 

L\ present ; a gift or donation ; a bounty be- 
j stowed. Bacon. Dryden. 

'L'ARgISH, o. Somewhat large. [Unusual] 
I Cavallo. 

L'ARGO, > [It.] Musical terms, di- 

;LARGHET TO, I reeling to slow inove- 
j ment. Largo is one degree quicker than 
] grave, and two degrees quicker than ada- 

. gio. Diet. 

L'ARK, n. [Sa.x. laferc, lauerce ; Scot, la- 
verok, lauerok ; G. lerche ; D. leeuwrik ; 
Dan. lerke ; Sw. l&rka ; Icl. lava, loova. 
As the Latin alauda coincides with laudo, 
Eng. loud, so tlie first sjllable of lark, laf, 
lau, lave, may coincide with the Dan. lover, 
to praise, to sing or cry out. But I know 

' not the sense of the word.] 

A bird of the genus Alauda, distinguished 

I for its singing. 

LARKER,"/!. A catcher of larks. Did. 

|L'ARKLIKE, a. Resembling a lark in 

A flower called Indian 





L A T 

L ARKSPUR, 11. A plant of the genus Del- 

LARMIER, n. [Fr. from larme, a tear or 

The flat jutting part of a cornice; literally, 
the dropper ; the eave or drip of a house. 

LAR'UM, n. [G. lann, bustle, noise; Dan. 

Alarm ; a noise giving notice of danger. [See 
Mann, which is generally used.] 

L'ARVA, ? [L. larva, a mask; Sw. larf; 

L'ARVE, S "■ Dan. G. larve.] 

An insect in the caterpillar state ; eruca ; the 
state of an insect when the animal is 
masked, and hefore it has attained its 
winged or perfect state ; the first stage in 
the metamorphoses of insects, preceding 
the chrysalis and perfect insect. Linne. 

L'ARVATED, a. Masked ; clothed as with 

LARYN'gEAN, a. [See Laiynx.] Pertain- 
ing to the larynx. 

LARYNGOT'OMY, n. [larynx and Gr. 
riuiu, to cut.] 

The operation of cutting the larynx or wind- 
pipe ; the making of an incision into the 
larynx for assisting respiration when ob- 
structed, or removing foreign bodies ; 
bronchotomy ; tracheotomy. 

Coxe. Quijiny. 

LAR'YNX, n. [Gr. >.optiy|.] In anatomy, the 
upper part of the windpipe or trachea, a 
cartilaginous cavity, which modiilate.s the 
voice in speaking and singing. Quincy. 

LAS'€AR, n. In the East Indies, a native 
seaman, or a gunner. 

ed. See the next words.] 

LASCIV'IOUS, a. [Fr. lascif; It. Sp. las- 
civo; from L. lascivus, from laxus, laxo, to 
relax, to loosen. Class Lg.] 

1. Loose ; wanton ; lewd ; lustful ; as lasciv- 
ious men ; lascivious desires ; lascivious 
eyes. Milton. 

2. Soft; wanton; luxurious. 

He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber. 
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute. Shak. 
LASCIVIOUSLY, adv. Loosely ; wanton- 
ly ; lewdly. 
LASCIV'IOUSNESS, n. Looseness; irreg- 
ular indulgence of animal desires ; wan- 
tonness : lustfulness. 

Who, being past feeling, have given them- 
selves over to lasdviousness. Eph. iv. 
2. Tendency to excite lust, and promote ir- 
regular indulgences. 

The reason pretended by Augustus was, the 
lascimousness of his Elegies and his Art of 
Love. Dry den 

LASH, n. [This may be the same word as 
hash, Fr. laisse, or it may be allied to tl 
G. lasche, a slap, laschen, to lash or slap,' 
and both may be from one root.] 

1. The thong or braided cord of a whip. 

t observed that your whip wanted a lash to it.] 

2. A leash or string. 

3. A stroke with a whip, or any thing pliant 
and tough. The culprit was whipped 
thirty nine lashes. 

4. A stroke of satire; a sarcasm; an expres- 
sion or retort that cuts or gives pain. 

The moral is a latih at the vanity of arrogating 
that to ourselves which succeeds well. 


LASH, V. t. To strike with a lash or any 

thing phant ; to whip or scourge. 

We lash the pupil and defraud the ward. 


2. To throw up with a sudden jerk. 
He falls ; and lashing up his heels, his rider 

throws. Dryden. 

3. To beat, as with something loose ; to dash 

And big waves lash the frighted shores — 


4. To tie or bind with a rope or cord ; to se- 
cure or fasten by a string ; as, to lash any 
thing to a mast or to a yard ; to lash a 
trunk on a coach. 

5. To satirize ; to censure with severity ; as, 
to lash vice. 

LASH, V. i. To ply the whip ; to strike at. 
To laugh at follies, or to lash at vice. 


To lash out, is to be extravagant or unruly. 

LASH'ED, pp. Struck with a lash ; whip- 
ped ; tied ; made fast by a rope. 

2. In botany, ciliate ; fringed. Lee. 

LASHER, n. One that whips or lashes. 

LASH'ER, ) A piece of rope for binding 

LASH'ING, \) "'or making fast one thing to 
another. Mar. Diet. 

LASH'ING, n. Extravagance ; unruliness 

L'ASS, n. [Qu. from laddess, as Hickes sug- 

A young woman ; a girl. Philips. 

LAS'SITUDE, n. [Fr. from L. lassitudo, 
from lassus, and this from laxus, laxo, to 

1. Weakness ; dullness ; heaviness ; weari- 
ness ; languor of body or mind, proceed- 
ing from exhaustion of strength by exces- 
sive labor or action, or other means. 

2. Among physicians, lassitude is a morbid 
sensation or languor which often precedes 
disease, in which case it proceeds from an 
impaired or diseased action of the organs. 

L'ASSLORN, a. Forsaken by his lasi 


L'AST, a. [contracted from latest ; Sax. last, 
from latost ; G. letzt ; D. laatst, from laat, 
late. Qu. is the Gr. J^iaSoj from the same 
root .'' See Late and Let.] 

1. That comes after all the others ; the lat- 
est ; applied to time ; as the last hour of the 
day ; the lasl day of the year. 

2. That follows all the others ; that is be- 
hind all the others in place; hindmost; as, 
this was the lasi man that entered the 

3. Beyond which there is no more. 
Here, last of Britons, let your names be read 


4. Next before the present ; as the lasl week ; 
\\\elast year. 

5. Utmost. 

Their last endeavors bend, 

T' outshine each other. Dryden 

It is an object of the lasl importance. 

Lowest ; meanest. 
Takes the last prize. Poj)e 

At last, at the last, at the end ; in the conclu- 

Gad, a troop shall overcome him ; but he 
•shall overcome at the last. Gen. xlix. 
To the lasl, to the end ; till the conclusion. 
And blander on in business to the last. 


In the phrases, "you are the last man I 
should consult," " this is the last place in 
which I should expect to find you," the 
word last implies improbability ; this is the 
most improbable place, and therefore I 
should resort to it last. 
L'AST, adv. The last time ; the time before 
the present. I saw him last at New York. 
2. In conclusion ; finally. 

Pleased with his idol, he commends, ad- 
Adores; and last, the thing adored desires. 


L'AST, V. i. [Sax. lastan, la:stan. This verb 

seems to be from the adjective la^t, the 

primary sense of which is continued, 

drawn out. See Let.] 

1. To continue in time ; to endure ; to re- 
main in existence. Our government can- 
not last long unless administered by hon- 
est men. 

2. To continue unimpaired ; not to decay or 
perish. Select for winter the best apples 
to last. This color will last. 

3. To hold' out ; to continue unconsumed. 
The captain knew he had not water on 
board to last a week. 

LAST, n. [Sax. hlaste ; G. Sw. D. Dan. 
last; Russ. lasle ; Fr. lest; Arm. lastr ; 
W.llwyth. See Load.] 

A load ; hence, a certain weight or measure. 
A last of codfish, white herrings, meal, and 
ashes, is twelve barrels ; a last of corn is 
ten quarters or eighty bushels ; of gun- 
powder, twenty four barrels ; of red her- 
rings, twenty cades ; of hides, twelve doz- 
en ; of lether, twenty dickers ; of pitch and 
tar, fourteen barrels ; of wool, twelve 
sacks ; of flax or fethers, 1700 lbs. 


LAST, n. [Sax. lasle, Iccste ; G. leisten ; D. 
leest ; Dan. Iwst ; Sw. Ihst.] 

A mold or form of the human foot, made of 
wood, on which shoes are formed. 
The cobler is not to go beyond his last. 

L' Estrange 

L'ASTAGE, n. [Fr. lestage. See Last, a 

1. A duty paid for freight or transportation. 
[M'ot used in the U. States.] 

2. Ballast. [M>t used.] 

3. The lading of a ship. [.Vol used.] 
L'ASTERY, n. A red color. [Xot in use.] 


L'ASTING, ppr. Continuing in time ; en- 
during ; remaining. 

2. a. Durable ; of long continuance ; that 
may continue or endure ; as a lasting good 
or evil ; a lasting color. 

L'ASTINGLY, adv. Durably ; with contin- 

LASTINGNESS, n. Durability ; the qual- 
-ty or state of long continuance. 


L'ASTLY, adv. In th.e last place. 

2. In the conclusion ; at last ; finally. 

LATCH, n. [Fr. loquet ; Arm. licqed or 
clicqed, coinciding with L. ligula, from 
ligo, to tie, and with English lock. Sax. 
la:can, to catch. The G. klinke, D. Mink, 
coincide with Fr. clenche, which, if n is 
casual, are the Arm. elicqed, clinch. 
The same word in W. is elided, a latch, 
and the It. laccio, a snare, L. laqueus, 
fro;n which we have lace, may belong to 
the same root. The primary sense of tho 

L A T 

i-oot is to catch, to close, stop or make 

1. A small piece of iron or wood used to fas- 
ten a door. Ga^. 

2. A small line like a loop, used to lace the 
bonnets to the courses, or the drabblers tc 
the bonnets. Di<:t 

LATCH, t'. t. To fasten with a latch ; to 
fasten. Locke. 

2. [Fr. lecher.] To smear. [JVot used.] 


LATCH'ET, n. [from latch, Fr. lacel.] The 
string that fastens a shoe. Mark i. 

LATE. a. [Sax. la:t, lot ; Goth, lata ; D, 
laat ; Sw. lat ; Dan. lad, idle, lazy ; Goth, 
latyan, Sax. latian, to delay or retard, 
This word is from the root of let, the sense 
of which is to draw out, extend or pro- 
long, hence to be slow or late. See 
Let. This adjective has regular termiua 
tions of the comparative and superlative 
degrees, later, latest, but it has also latter, 
and latest is often contracted into last.] 

1. Coming after the usual time; slow; tar- 
dy ; long delayed ; as a late spring ; a late 
summer. The crops or Iiarvest will be 

2. Far advanced towards the end or closi 
as a Idle hour of the day. He began at 
late period of his life. 

3. Last, or recently in any place, office or 
character ; as the late ministry ; the late 

4. Existing not long ago, but now decayed 
or departed ; as the late bishop of Lon 

5. Not long past ; happening not long ago 
recent ; as the late rains. We have receiv 
ed late intelligence. 

LATE, adv. After the usual time, or the 
time appointed; after delay; as, he arriv 
ed late. 

2. After the proper or usual season. This 
year the fruits ripen late. 

3. Not long ago ; lately. 

And round them throng 

With leaps and bounds the late imprison'd 

young. Pope. 

4. Far in the night, day, week, or other pai 
ticular period ; as, to lie a-bed late ; to sit 
up late at night. 

Of late, lately, in time not long past, or near 
the present. The practice is of late un 

Too late, after the proper time ; not in du< 
time. We arrived too late to see the pro 


LA'TED, a. Belated ; being too late. 

LAT'EEN, <T. A lateen sail is a triangular 
sail, extended by a lateen yard, which 
slung about one quarter the distance from 
the lower end, which is brought down at 
the tack, while the other end is elevated 
at an angle of about 45 degrees; used in 
xebecs, polacres and setees, in the Medi- 
terranean. Mar. Diet. 

LA'TELY, adv. Not long ago ; recently. 
Wc called on a gentleman who has lately 
arrived from Italy. 

LA'TENCY, n. [See Latent.] The state of| 
being concealed ; abstruseness. Paley 

LA'TENESS, n. The state of being tardy, 
or of coming after the usual time ; as the 
lateness of spring or of harvest. 

2. Time far advanced in any particular pe 


riod; as lateness of the day or night; late- 
ness in the season ; lateness in hfc. 

3. The state of being out of time, or after 
the appointed time ; as the lateness of one's 

LA'TENT, a. [L. latens, lateo ; Gr. t^j^Cw, 
r^avBavu; Heb. Oih, to cover, or rather Ch. 
NoS, to hide or be hid. Class Ld. No. 1. 

Hid ; concealed ; secret ; not seen ; not vis- 
ible or apparent. We speak of latent mo 
tives; latent reasons; fa<en< springs of ac 

Latent heat, is heat in combination, in dis 
tinction from sensible heat ; the portion of 
heat which disappears, when a body chang- 
es its form from the sohd to the fluid, or 
from the fluid to the aeriform state. 


LA'TER, a. [comp. deg. of late.] Posterior; 

LAT'ERAL, a. [Fr. from L. lateralis, from 
latus, a side, and broad, Gr. rc'Katvi; coin 
ciding with W. lied, llyd, breadth, am 
probably with Eiig./a<, W. plad or llez, oi 
both. The primary sense of these words 
is to extend, as in late, let.] 

1. Pertaining to the side; as the /aierai view 
of an object. 

2. Proceeding from the side ; as the lateral 
branches of a tree ; lateral shoots 

LATERAL'ITY, n. The quality of having 
distinct sides. [J^ot used.] Broivn. 

LAT'ERALLY, adv. By the side; side- 
ways. Holder. 
2. In the direction of the side. 
LAT'ERAN, n. One of the churches al 
Rome. The name is said to have been 
derived from that of a man. Encyc. 
A latere, [L.] A legate a latere, is a pope's le 
gate or envoy, so called because sent from 
his side, from among his favorites and 

^LA'TERED, a. Delayed. Obs. Chaucer. 
[LATERIFO'LIOUS, a. [L. latus, side, and 

folium, leaf] 
,In botany, growing on the side of a leaf al 

the base ; as a laterifolious flower. 
1 Lee. Martyn 

,LATER1"T10US, a. [L. lateritius, from 
I later, a brick.] Like bricks ; of the color 
I of bricks. Med. Repos 

Lateritious sediment, a sediment in urine re- 
I sembling brick dust, observed after the 
1 crises of fevers, and at the termination of 
1 gouty paroxysms. Parr 

:L'ATH, n. [W. clatpd,a thin board, or lldth 
a rod; Fr. latte : Sp. latas, p\\i.; G. lalte ; 
' D.lot.] 

1. A thin, narrow board or slip of wood 
t nailed to the rafters of a building to sup 
] port the tiles or covering. 

2. A thin narrow slip of wood nailed to the 
studs, to support the plastering. 

L^ATH, V. t. To cover or line with lath 


L>ATH, n. [Sax. leth. The significatioi 
this word is not clearly ascertained. It 
may be from Sax. lathian, to call together, 
and signify primarily, a meeting orassem 
biy. See Jf'apenktae.] 

In some parts of England, a part or division 
of a county. Spenser, Spelman and 
Blackstone do not agree in their 


Edward the Confessor, the lath, in some 
counties, answered to the Irithing or third 
part of a county in others. Wilkins. 

LATHE, n. [Qu. lath, supra, or W. lathru. 
to make smooth.] 

An engine by which instruments of wood, 
ivory, metals and other materials, are turn- 
ed and cut into a smooth round form. 

LATH'ER, V. i. [Sax. lethrian, to lather, to 
anoint. Qu. W. llathru, to make smooth, 
or llithraiD, to glide ; Uithrig, slippery, or 
llyth, soft ; llyzu, to spread.] 

To form a foam with water and soap ; to 
become froth, or frothy matter. 

LATH'ER, V. t. To spread over with the 
loam of soap. * 

LATH'ER, ji. Foam or froth made by soap 
moistened with water. 

2. Foam or froth from profuse sweat, as of 
a horse. 

L'ATllY, a. Thin as a lath ; long and slen- 
der. Todd. 

L'ATHY, a. [W. lleth, llyth.] Flabby; 
weak. JVejo England. 

LATIB'ULIZE, v. i. [L. latibidum, a hiding 

To retire into a den, burrow or cavity, and 
lie dormant in winter ; to retreat and He hid. 
The tortoise latibulizes in October. 

Shaw's Zool. 

LAT'I€LAVE, n. [L. laticlavium ; latus, 
broad, and clavus, a stud.] 

Anornament of dress worn by Roman sena- 
tors. It is supposed to have been abroad 
stripe of purple on the fore part of the tu- 
nic, set with knobs or studs. Encyc. 

LAT'lN, a. Pertaining to the Latins, a peo- 
ple of Latium, iu Italy ; Roman ; as the 
Latin language. 

Latin church, the western church ; the 
christian church in Italy, France, Spain 
and other countries where the Latin lan- 
guage was introduced, as distinct from 
the Greek or eastern church. Encyc. 

LAT'lN, n. The language of the ancient 

2. An exercise in schools, consisting in turn- 
ing English into Latin. Ascham. 

L.-^T'INISM, n. A Latiu idiom ; a mode of 
speech peculiar to the Latins. Addison. 

LAT'INIST, n. One skilled in Latin. 

LATIN'ITY, JI. Purity of the Latin style or 
idiom ; the Latin tongue. 

LAT'INiZE, V. t. To give to foreign words 

Latin terminations and make them Latin. 


LAT'INIZE, V. i. To use words or phrases 
borrowed from the Latin. Dryden. 

LATIROS'TROUS, a. [L. latus, broad, and 
rostrum, beak.] Having a broad beak, as 
a fowl. Brown. 

LA'TISH, a. [from late.] Somewhat late. 

LAT'lTANCY, n. [L. latitans, latito, to lie 
hid, from lateo. See Latent.] 

The state of lying concealed ; the state of 
lurking. Brown. 

LAT'ITANT, a. Lurking ; lying hid ; con- 
cealed. Boyle. 
[These words are rarely used. See 

LAT'lTAT, n. [L. he lurks.] A writ by 
which a person is summoned into the 
king's bench to answer, as supposing he 
lies concealed. Blackstone. 

LAT'lTUDE. n. [Fr. from L. latituda. 

of the lath; but according to the laws ofll breadth ; latus, broad ; W. llyd, breadth. 

L A T 

L A U 

L A U 

1. Breadth; width; extent from side to side. 


2. Room; space. Locke. 

[In the foregoing senses, little used.] 

3. In astronomy, the distance of a star north 
or south of the ecliptic. 

4. In geography, tlie distance of any place 
on the globe, north or south of the equa- 
tor. Boston is situated in tlie forty tliird 
degree of north latitude. 

5. Extent of meaning or construction ; in- 
definite acceptation. The words will not 
bear this latitude of construction. 

e. Extent of deviation from a settled point; 
freedom from rules or limits ; laxity. 

In human actions, there are no degrees and 
precise natural limits described, but a lalihule 
is indulged. Thylor. 

7. Extent. 

I pretend not to treat of them in their full 
latitude. Locke. 

LATITU'DINAL, a. Pertaining to latitude; 
in the direction of latitude. Gregory. 

LATITUDINA'RIAN, a. [Fr. latiludinaire.] 
Not restrained ; not confined by precise 
limits; free ; thinking or acting at large ; 
as latitudinarian opinions or doctrines. 

LATITUDINA'RIAN, n. One who is mod- 
erate in his notions, or not restrained by 
precise settled limits in opinion ; one who 
indulges freedom in thinking. 

2. In theology, one who departs in opinion 
from the strict principles of orthodoxy ; or 
one who indulges a latitude of thinking 
and interpretation ; a moderate man. 

liberality of opinion, particularly in theol- 
ogy. Ch. Obs. 

2. Indifference to religion. fV. Jones. 

LA'TRANT, a. [L. latro, to bark.] Bark- 
ing. Tickell. 

LA'TRATE, v. i. To bark as a dog. [JVot 

LATRA'TION, n. A barking. [JVot used.] 

LA'TRIA, n. [L. from Gr. 7M.ipna.] The 
highest kind of worship, or that paid to 
God ; distinguished by the catholics from 
dulia, or the inferior worship paid to 
saints. Encyc. 

LATRO'BITE, n. [from Latrobe.] A newly 
described mineral of a pale pink red color, 
massive or crystalized, from an isle near 
the Labrador coast. Phillips. 

LAT'ROCTNY, n. [L. latrocinium.] Theft ; 
larceny. [Not in use.] 

LAT'TEN, n. [Fr. leton or laiton ; D. 
latoen ; Arm. laton.] Iron plate covered 
with tin. Encyc. 

LAT'TEN-BRASS, n. Plates of nfilled 
brass reduced to different thicknesses, ac- 
cording to the uses they are intended for. 

LAT'TER, a. [an irregular comparative of 

1. Coming or happening after something 
else ; opposed to former ; as the former 
and latter rain ; former or latter harvest. 

2. Mentioned the last of two. 

The difference between reason and revela- 
tion—and in what sense the latter is superior. 

3. Modern ; lately done or past; as in these 
loiter ages. 

LATTERLY, arfu. Of late ; in time not 
long past; lately. Richardson. 

LAT'TERMATH, n. The latterniowing : 
that which is mowed after a former mow- 

^T'TICE, n. [Fr. latlis, a covering ofl 
laths, from latte, a lath ; W. cledrwy, from 
cledyr, a board, shingle or rail.] 

Any work of wood or iron, made by crossing 
laths, rods or bars, and forming open 
squares like net- work; as the /aftice of a 

The mother of Sisera looked out at a window, 
and cried through the lattice. Judg. v. 

LAT'TICE, a. Consisting of cross pieces ; 
s lattice work. 

2. Furnished with lattice work ; as a lattice 

LAT'TICE, V. t. To form with cross bars, 
and open work. 
To furnish with a lattice. 

LAT'TICED, pp. Furnished with a lattice. 

LAUD, n. [h. laus, laudis ; W.clod; I 
cloth ; allied to Gr. xXuu, x^fos. This 
from the same root as Eng. loud, G. laid, 
and the primary sense is to strain, to utter 
soimd, to cry out. See Loud.] 

1. Praise ; commendation ; an extolling in 
words ; honorable mention. [Little used.] 


2. That part of divine worship whicli con- 
lists in praise. Bacon. 
Music or singing in honor of any one. 

LAUD, V. t. [L. laudo.] To praise in words 
alone, or with words and singing ; to cele- 
brate. Bentley. 

LAUD'ABLE, a. [L. laudabilis.] Praise- 
worthy ; commendable ; as laudable mo- 
tives ; laudable actions. 
Healthy ; salubrious ; as laudable juices 
of the body. Arbulhnot 

Healthy ; well digested ; as laudable pus 

LAUD'ABLENESS, n. The quality of de- 
serving praise ; praiseworthiness ; as the 
laudableness of designs, purposes, motives 
or actions. [LaudahUity, in a like sense, 
has been used, but rarely.] 

LAUD'ABLY, adv. In a manner deservinj 

JD'ANUM, n. [from L. laudo, to praise, 
pium dissolved in spirit or wine ; tincture 
' opium. Coxe. 

LAUD'ATIVE, n. [L. laudativus.] A paneg- 
^_ic; an eulogy. [Litlle used.] Bacon. 

LAUD'ATORY, a. Containing praise ; tend- 
ing to praise. 

^UD'ATGRY, n. That which contains 
praise. Milton 

LAUD'ER, n. One who praises. 

LAUGH, V. i. Vaff. [Sax. hlihan ; Goth 
hlahyan ; G. lachen ; D. lachgen ; Sw. le ; 
Dan. leer ; Heb. and Ch. iyh, laag. Class 
Lg. No. 17.] 

1. To make the noise and exhibit the fea- 
tures which are characteristic of mirth in 
the human species. Violent laughter is 
accompanied with a shaking of the sides 
and all laughter expels breath from the 
lungs. Bacon 

2. In poetry, to be gay ; to appear gay, cheer- 
ful, pleasant, lively or brilliant. 

Tlien laughs the childish year with flow'rcts 

crown'd. Dryden. 

And o'er the foaming bowl, the laughing 

wine. i'ope. 

To laugh at, to ridicule ; to treat with some 

degree of contempt. 

No fool to laugh at, which he valued more. 

To laugh to scorn, to deride ; to treat with 
mockery, contempt and scorn. Neh. ii. 

LAUGH, n. laff. An expression of mirth 
pecuhar to the human species. 
But feigns a laugh, to see me search around. 
And by that laugh the willing fair is found. 


LAUGHABLE, a. laffable. That may justly 
excite laughter ; as a laughable story ; a 
laughable scene. 

LAUGHER, re. I'affer. One who laughs, 
or is fond of merriment. 

TTie laughers are a majority. Pope. 

LAUGHING, ppr. laffing. Expressing 
mirth in a particular manner. 

LAUGHINGLY, adv. Paffingly. In a merry 
way ; with laughter. 

LAUGHING-STOCK, ?t. An ohjectof ridi- 
cule; a butt of sport. Spenser. Shak. 

LAUGHTER, n. Paffter. Convulsive merri- 
ment; an expression of mirth peculiar to 
man, consisting in a peculiar noise and 
configuration of features, with a shaking 
of the sides and expulsion of breath. 
I said o{ laughter, it is mad. Eccles. ii. 

LAUGH-WORTHY, a. Deserving to be 
laughed at. B. Jonson. 

LAU'MONITE, n. Efflorescent zeolite ; so 
called from Laumont, its discoverer. It is 
found in laminated masses, in groups of 
prismatic crystals or prismatic distinct con- 
cretions. Exposed to the air, it disinte- 
grates. Cleaveland. 

LAUNCH. [See Lanch, the more correct 

LAUND, n. A la 

awn. [Not used.] 


LAUNDER, n. lander, [from L. lavo, to 

A washer-woman ; also, a long and hollow 
trough, used by miners to receive the 
powdered ore from the box where it is 
beaten. Encye. 

LAUNDER, V. t. lander. To wash ; to wet. 

LAUNDERER, n. Vanderer. A man who 
follows the business of washing clothes. 


LAUNDRESS, n. landress. [Fr. lavandiere ; 
Sp. lavandera ; It. lavandaia ; from L. lavo, 
Sp. lavar, to wash.] 

A washer-woman ; a female whose employ- 
ment is to wash clothes. 

LAUNDRESS, v. i. landress. [supra.] To 
practice washing. Blount. 

LAUNDRY, n. landry. [Sp. lavadero.] 

1. A washing. Bacon. 

2. The place or room where clothes are 

LAU'REATE, a. [L. laureatus, from laurea, 
a laurel.] 

Decked or invested with laurel ; as laureate 

hearse. Milton. 

Soft on her lap her laureate son reclines. 


Poet laureate, in Great Britain, an officer of 
the king's household, whose business is to 
compose an ode annually for the king's 
birth day, and for the new year. It is 
said this title was first given him in the 
time of Edward IV. Encyc. 




LAU'REATE, v. t. To honor with a degree 
in the university, and a present of a wreath 
of laurel Warton. 

LAU'REATED,;)p. Honored wiih adegi 
and a laurel wreath. 

LAUREA'TION, n. The act of conferring 
a degree in the university, togetlier with 
a wreath of laurel ; an honor hestowed 
on those who exeelled in writing verse. 
This was an ancient practice at Oxford, 
from which probably originated the de- 
nomination ol' poet laureate. It'arton. 

LAU'REL, n. [L. laurus ; It. lauro ; Fi 
laurier ; Sp. laurel; Port, laurdro ; W. 
Uoruyz, Uonvyzen, laurel wood, from the 
root of llawr, a floor, llor, that spreads ; 
Dan. laur-bmr-tree ; G. lorbeer, the laurel oi' 
bay-berry. Laur coincides in elements 
with J!ower,Jloreo.] 

The bay-tree or Laurus, a genus of plants 
of several species. Encyc. 

LAU'RELED, a. Crowned or decorated 
with laurel, or with a laurel wreath ; lau- 

LAURIF'EROUS, a. [L. laurus and fero, 
to bear.] Producing or bringing laurel. 

LAU'RUSTIN,?!. [y.. lauruslinus.] A plant 
of the genus Viburnum, an evergree 
shrub or tree, whose flowers are said to 
continue through the winter. 

LAUS'KRAUT, n. [G. lausekraut, loi 
plant.] A ])Jaiit of the genus Delphiui 

LAU'TU, n. A band of cotton, twisted 
worn on the head of the Inca of Peru, 
badge of royalty. J. Barlow. 

L^AVA, n. [probably from flowing, and 
from the root of L. Jluo, or lavo ; It. laua, 
a stream, now lava.] 

1. A mass or stream of melted minerals or 
stony matter which bursts or is thrown 
from the mouth or sides of a volcano, and 
is sometimes ejected in such quantities as 
to overwhelm cities. Catana, at the foot 
of Etna, has often been destroyed by it, 
and in 1783, a vast tract of land in Iceland 
was overspread by an eruption of lava 
from mount Hecla. 

2. The same matter when cool and har- 

LAVA'TION, )!. lL.lavat{o,rvomhvo.] A 
washing or cleansing. Hakeivill. 

LAVATORY, n. [See Lave.] A place for 

2. A wash or lotion for a diseased part. 

3. A place where gold is obtained by wash- 
ing. Encyc. 

LAVE, i>. <. [Fr. laver; Sp.lavar; It. lavare; 

L. lavo ; Gr. J.oi'u ; Sans, allava ; proba- 
bly contracted from logo or laugo.] 
To wash ; to bathe ; a word used chief y 

in poetry or rhetoric. Milton. Dryden. 

LAVE, V. i. To bathe ; to wash one's self 

LAVE, V. i. [Fr. lever.] To throw up or 

out ; to lade out. [JVb( in use.] 

B. Jonson. 
LA'VE-EARED, a. Having large pendant 

ears. \JVot in use.] Bp. Hall. 

LAVEE'R, 1). t. [Fr. louvoyer or louvier ; D. 

laveeren.] In seamen's language, to tack; 

to sail back and forth. [I believe this 

word is not in common use.] 
LAVENDER, ji. [L. lavendula.] A plant, 

or a genus of aromatic plants, Lavandula. 
LA'VER, ?!. [Fr. lavoir, from laver, to lave.] 

A vessel for washing ; a large bason ; in 

Vol. II. 

scripture history, a bason placed in the 

court of the Jewish tabernacle, where the 

officiating priests washed their hands and 

feet and the entrails of victims. Encyc. 

LAVEROCK. [See Lark.] 

LA'VING, ppr. Washing ; bathing. 

LAVISH, a. [I know not from what source 

we have received this word. It coincides 

in elements with L. liber, free, liberal, and 

L. lavo, to wash.] 

1. Prodigal ; expending or bestowing with 
jn-ofusion ; profuse. He was lavish of ex 
pense ; lavish of praise ; lavish of encomi 
ums ; lavish of censure ; lavish of blood 
and treasure. 

2. Wasteful ; expending without necessity ; 
liberal to a fault. Dryden. 

3. Wild ; unrestrained. 

Curbing his lamsh sijiiit. Shak. 

LAVISH, v. t. To expend or bestow with 
profusion | as, to lavish praise or encomi 

9. To waste ; to expend without necessity 
or use ; to squander ; as, to lavish money 
on vices and amusements. 

LAVISHED, pp. Expended profusely ; 

LAV'ISHER,)!. A prodigal; a profuse per 

LAVISHING, ppr. Expending or laying 
out with profusion ; wasting. 

LAVISHLY, adv. With profuse expense 
prodigally ; wastefully. Dryden. Pope 

LAVISHNESS, n. Profusion ; prodigality 

LAVOL'TA, )!. [It. /afo?<cf, the turn.] An 
old dance in w hich was much turning and 
capering. Shak, 

LAW, n. [Sax. laga, lage, lag, or lah ; Sw. 
lag; Dan. lov ; It.legge; Sp.ley; Fr. loi; 
L. lex ; from the root of lay. Sax. leci 
Goth, lagyan. See Lay. A law is that 
which islaid, set or fixed, like statute, con- 
stitution, from L. statuo.'] 

1. A rule, particularly an established or per- 
manent rule, prescribed by the supreme 
power of a state to its subjects, for regulat- 
ing their actions, particularly their social 
actions. Laws are imperative or manda- 
tory, commanding what shall be done ; 
prohibitory, restraining from what is to be 
forborn ; or permissive, declaring what 
may be done without incurring a penally. 
The latvs which enjoin the duties of piety 
and morality, are prescribed by God and 
found in the Scriptures. 

Law is beneficence acting by rule. Burke. 

2. Municipal law, is a rule of civil conduct 
prescribed by the supreme power of a 
state, commanding what its subjects are to 
do, and prohibiting what they are to for- 
bear ; a statute. 

Municipal or civil laws are estabhshed 
by the decrees, edicts or ordinances of 
absolute princes, as emperors and kings, 
or by the formal acts of the legislatures of 
free states. Law therefore is sometimes 
equivalent to decree, edict, or ordinance. 

3. Laiv of nature, is a rule of conduct arising 
out of the natural relations of human be- 
ings established by the Creator, and exist- 
ing prior to any positive precept. Thus it 
is a laiv of nature, that one man should 
not injure another, and murder and fraud 
would be crimes, independent of any pro- 
hibition from a supreme power. 


4. Laws qf animal nature, the inherent prin- 
ciples by which the economy and func- 
tions of animal bodies are performed, 
such lis respiration, the circulation of the 
blood, digestion, nutrition, various secre- 
tions, &c. 

5. Laws of vegetation, the principles by 
which plants are produced, and their 
growth carried on till they arrive to per- 

6. Physical laws, orlaws of nature. The inva- 
riable tendency or determination of any 
species of matter to a particular form with 
definite properties, and the determination 
of a body to certain motions, changes, 
and relations, which uniformly take place 
in the same circumstances, is called a 
physical late. These tendencies or deter- 
minations, whether oalled laws or affec- 
tions of matter, have been established by 
the Creator, and are, with a peculiar feli- 
city of expression, denominated in Scrip- 
ture, o?'rfina?!ces of heaven. 

7. Latvs of nations, the rules that regulate 
the mutual intercourse of nations or states. 
These rules depend on natural law, or the 
principles of justice which spring from 
the social state ; or they are founded on 
customs, compacts, treaties, leagues and 
agreements between independent commu- 

By t)ie law of nations, we are to under- 
stand that code of public instruction, whicli 
defines the rights and prescribes the duties of 
nations, in their intercourse with each other. 


8. Moral latv, a law which prescribes to men 
their religious and social duties, in other 
words, their duties to God and to each 
other. The moral law is summarily con- 
tained in the decalogue or ten command- 
ments, written by the finger of God on 
two tables of stone, and delivered to Moses 
on mount Sinai. Ex. xx. 

9. Ecclesiastical law, a rule of action pre- 
scribed for the government of a church ; 
otherwise called canon law. 

10. Jfrillen law, a law or rule of action pre- 
scribed or enacted by a sovereign, and 
promulgated and recorded in writing; a 
written statute, ordinance, edict or de- 

11. Unwritten or common law, a rule of ac- 
tion which derives its authority from long 
usage, or established custom, which has 
been immemorially received and recogni- 
zed by judicial tribunals. As this law can 
be traced to no positive statutes, its rules 
or principles are to he' found only in the 
records of courts, and in the reports of 
judicial decisions. 

12. By-law, a law of a city, town or private 
corporation. [See By.] 

13. Mosaic law, the institutions of Moses, or 
the code of laws prescribed to the Jews, 
as distinguished from the gospel. 

14. Ceremonial law, the Mosaic institutions 
which prescribe the externa! rites and 
ceremonies to be observed by the Jews, 
as distinct fron^ the moral precepts, which 
are of perpetual obhgation. 

15. A rule of direction; a directory; as rea- 
son and natural conscience. 

Tliese, having not the law, are a law to 
themselves. Rom. ii. 




16. That which governs or has a tendency 
to rule ; that which has the power of 

But I see another Imv in my members 
ring against the law of my mind, and bringing 

: mto captivity 

I the law of sin which is in 

my members. Rom. 7. 

17. The word of God ; the doctrines and 
precepts of God, or his revealed will. 

But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and 
in his law doth he meditate day and night. 
Ps. i. 

18. The Old Testament. 

Is it not written in your latv, I said, ye are 
gods ? John X. 

19. The institutions of Moses, as distinct 
from the other parts of the Old Testament 
as the laio and the prophets. 

20. A rule or axiom of science or art; set- 
tled principle ; as the laioa of versification 
or poetry. 

31. Law martial, or martial law, the rules or- 
dained for the government of an army 
military force. 

22. Marine laws, rules for the regulation of 
navigation, and the commercial inter- 
course of nations. 

23. Commercial law, law-merchanl, the sys- 
tem of rules by which trade and commer- 
cial intercourse are regulated between 

24. Judicial process; prosecution of right 
in courts of law. 

Tom Touchy is a fellow famous for taking 
the law of every body. Spectator. 

Hence the phrase, to go to law, to pros- 
ecute ; to seek redress in a legal tribunal. 

25. Jurisprudence ; as in the title, Doctor oj 

26. In general, law is a rule of action pre- 
scribed for the government of rational 
beings or moral agents, to which rule they 
are bound to yield obedience, in default of 
which they are exposed to punishment ; 
or law is a settled mode or course of ac- 
tion or operation in irrational beings and 
in inanimate bodies. 

Civil law, criminal law. [See Civil and Crim- 

Laws of honor. [See Honor.] 

Laiv language, the language used in legal 
writings and forms, particularly the Nor- 
inan dialect or Old French, which was 
used injudicial proceedings from the days 
of William the conqueror to the 36th year 
of Edward 111. 

IVager ojlaw, a species of trial formcriy used 
in England, in which the defendant gave 
security that he would, on a certain day, 
make his law, that is, he woidd make oath 
that he owed nothing to the plaintiff', and 
would produce eleven of his neighbors as 
compurgators, who should swear that 
they believed in their consciences that he 
had sworn the truth. Blackstone. 

I,AW'-BREaKER, 71. One who violates 
the law. Milton. 

LAW-DAY, n. A day of open court. 


2. A lect or sheriff's tourn. 

LAWFUL, a. Agreeable to law ; conform- 
able to law ; allowed by law ; legal ; legit- 
imate. That is deemed laitfxd which no 
law forbids, but many things are lawful 
which arc not expedient. 

Constituted by law; rightful ; as the law- 
ful owner of lands. 

LAWFULLY, adv. Legally ; in accordance 
with law ; without violating law. We 
may laufulbj do what the laws do not 

LAWFULNESS, n. The quality of being 
conformable to law ; legality. The law- 
fulness of an action does not always prove 
its propriety or expedience. 

LAWGIVER, n. {law and give.] One who 
makes or enacts a law ; a legislator. 


LAWGIVING, a. Making or enacting 
aws ; legislative. fValler. 

LAW'ING, 7!. Expeditation ; the act of cut- 
ting off" the claws and balls of the fore feet 
of mastiffs to prevent them from running 
after deer. Blackstone. 

LAWLESS, a. Not subject to law ; unre- 
strained by law ; as a laicless tyrant ; law- 
less men. 

2. Contrary to law ; illegal ; unauthorized ; 
a lawless claim. 
He needs no indirect nor lawless course. 


3. Not subject to the ordinary laws of na- 
ture ; uncontrolled. 

He, meteor-like, flames lawless through the 

void. Pope. 

LAWLESSLY, adv. In a manner contrary 

to law. Shak. 

LAWLESSNESS, n. The quality or state 

of being unrestrained by law ; disorder. 

LAW-MAKER, n. One who enacts or or- 
dains laws ; a legislator ; a lawgiver. 
Law-makers should not be law-breakers. 
LAW-MONGER, n. A low dealer in law ; 
a pettifogger. Milton. 

LAWN, n. [W. llan, an open, clear place. 
It is the same woril as land, with an ap- 
propriate signification, and coincides with 
plain, planus, Ir. cluain.] 
An open space between woods, or a plain 
in a park or adjoining a noble seat. 
Betwixt them lawtis or level downs, and 

Grazing the tender herbs, were interspers'd. 
LAWN, n. [Fr. linon, from lin, flax, L. 

A sort of fine linen. Its use in the sleeves 
of bishops, explains the following line. 
A saint in crape is twice a saint in lawn. 


LAWN, a. Made of lawn. 

LAWN'Y, a. Level, as a plain ; like a lawn. 

2. Made of lawn. Bp. Hall. 

LAWSCIT, n. [See Suit.] A suit in law 

for the recovery of a supposed right ; a 

process in law instituted by a party to 

compel another to do him justice. 

LAWYER, n. [that is, lawer, contracted 

from law-wer, law-man.] 
One versed in the laws, or a practitioner of 
law ; one whose profession is to institute 
suits in courts of law, and to prosecute or 
defend the cause of clients. This is a 
general term, comprehending attorneys, 
counselors, solicitors, barristers, Serjeants 
and advocates. 
LAW YER-LIKE, a. Like a real lawyer. 
LAW'YERLY, a. Judicial. Milton. 

LAX, a. [L. laxus ; Sp. laso ; It. lasso ; Fr. 
lache, for lasche.] 

1. Loose; flabby; soft; not tense, firm or 
rigid ; as lax flesh ; a lax fiber. 

2. Slack; not tight or tense ; as a lax cord. 

3. Not firmly united ; of loose texture ; as 
gravel and the like laxer matter. 


4. Not rigidly exact ; as a lax moral dis- 
course. Baker 

5. Not strict ; as lax morals. 

G. Loose in the bowels; having too frequent 

LAX, n. A looseness; diarrhtea. 
2. A species of fish or salmon. [Sax. tex.] 

[JVot in use.] 
LAXA'TION, n. [L. laxatio.] The act of 

loosening or slackening ; or the state of 

being loose or slackened. 
LAX'ATIVE, a. [Fr. laxatif, from L. laxo.] 

Having the power or quality of loosening 

or opening the bowels, and relieving from 

LAX'ATIVE, n. A medicine that relaxes 

the bowels and relieves from costiveness; 

a gentle purgative. Coxe. 

LAX'ATIVENESS, n. The quahty of re- 
LAX'ITY, n. [L. laxitas.] Looseness ; 

slackness; the opposite of tenseness or 


2. Looseness of texture. Bentley. 

3. Want of exactness or precision ; as laxity 
of expression. 

4. Looseness; defect of exactness; as laxity 
of morals. 

5. Looseness, as of the bowels ; the oppo- 
site o{ costiveness. 

6. Openness ; not closeness. 

LAX'LY, adv. Loosely ; without exactness. 

LAX'NESS, n. Looseness ; softness ; flab- 
biness ; as the laxncss of flesh or of mus- 

2. Laxity; the opposite of /enxioj. 

3. Looseness, as of morals or discipline. 

4. Looseness, as of the bowels. 

5. Slackness, as of a cord. 

LAY, pret. of lie. The estate lay in the 
county of Hartford. 

When Ahab heard these words, he rent his 
clothes, and put sackcloth upon his head, and 
fasted and lay in sackcloth. 1 liings xxi. 

LAY, V. t. pret. and pp. laid. [Sax. lecgaUf 
legan ; D. leggen ; G. legen ; Svv. Ihgga ; 
Dan. legger ; Russ. loju ; L. loco, whence 
locus, W. lie, place, Eng. ley or lea; W. 
lleau, to lay. Hence Fr. lieu. Arm. lech, a 
place ; Ir. legadh, Ann. lacqaat, to lay. 
The primary sense is to send or throw ; 
hence this word is the L. lego, legare, dif- 
ferently applied ; Gr. Xtyouoi, to lie down ; 
Eth.' f\h'n Ink, to send, whence lackey. 
Class Lg. No 1. and 21. It coincides with 
lodge and with lie.] 

1. Literally, to throw down ; hence, to put 
or place ; applied to things broad or long, 
and in this respect differing from set. 
We lay a book on the table, when we 
place it on its side, but we set it on the 
end. We lay the foundation of a house, 
but we set a building on its fjundation. 
He laid his robe from him. Jonah iii. 
Soft on the flowery herb 1 found me laid. 

Miltoti , 




A stone was brought and laid on tlie moutli of 
tlie den. Dan. vi. 

2. To beat down ; to prostrate. Violent 
winds witli rain lay corn and grass. 

3. To settle ; to fix and keep from rising. A 
shower lays the dust. 

4. To place in order ; to dispose with regu- 
larity in building ; as, to lay bricks or 
stones in con.structing walls. 

5. To spread on a surface ; as, to lay plas- 
ter or paint. 

G. To spread or set ; as, to lay snares. 

7. To calm ; to appease ; to still; to allay. 

After a tempest, when the winds are laid. 


8. To quiet ; to still ; to restrain from walk- 
in? ; as, to lay the devil. U Estrange. 

9. To spread and set in order; to prepare; 
as, to lay a table for dinner. 

10. To place in the earth for growth. 

The chief time of laying gilUflowers, is it 
July. Mortimer 

11. To place at hazard ; to wage ; to stake ; 
as, to lay a crown or an eagle ; to lay 

12. To bring forth ; to exclude ; as, to lay 

13. "f o add ; to join. 

Wo to them that join house to house, that 
lay field to field. Is. v. 

14. To put ; to apply. 

She layetfi her hand to the spindle. Prov 

15. To assess ; to charge ; to impose ; as, tc 
lay a tax on land ; to lay a duty on salt. 

16. To charge ; to impute ; as, to lay blame 
on one ; to lay want of prudence to one's 

17. To impose, as evil, burden, or punish 

The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of u: 
all. Is. liii. 

18. To enjoin as a duty ; as, to lay com 
mands on one. 

19. To exhibit ; to present or offer ; as, to 
lay an indictment in a particular county, 

20. To prostrate ; to slay. 

The leaders first 
He laid along. Dryden 

21. To depress and lose sight of, by sailing 
or departing from ; as, to lay the land ; o 
seaman's phrase. 

22. To station ; to set ; as, to lay an am- 

23. To contrive ; to scheme ; to plan. 

To lay a cable, to twist or unite the strands, 

To lay apart, to put away; to reject. 
Lay apart all filthiness. James i. 

To lay aside, to put off or away ; not to re- 

Let us lay aside every weight, and the sic 
that doth so easily beset us. Heb. xii. 

2. To discontinue ; as, to lay aside the use 
of any thing. 

To lay away, to reposit in store ; to i)ut asiile 
for preservation. 

To lay before, to exhibit ; to show ; to pre- 
sent to view. The papers are laid before 

To lay by, to reserve for future use. 

Let every one of you lay by him in store, as 
God hath prospered him. 1 Cor. xvi. 

2. To put away ; to dismiss. 

Let brave spirits not be laid by, as persons 
unnecessary for the time. Bacmi 

S. To put off 

And she arose and went an'aj-, and laid by 
her veil. Gen. Kxxviii. 
To lay down, to deposit, as a pledge, equiva- 
lent or satisfaction ; to resign. 

I lay down my Ufe fur the sheep. John x. 
2. To give up ; to resign ; to quit or relin- 
quish ; as, to lay down an office or coin- 

3. To quit ; to surrender the use of; ai 
lay down one's arms. 

4. To offer or advance ; as, to lay down a 
proposition or principle. Addison. 

To lay one's self down, to commit to repose. 
I will both lay me down in peace and sleep — 

Ps. iv. 
To lay hold of, to seize ; to catch. To lay 

hold on, is used in a like sense. Locke. 
To lay in, to store ; to treasure ; to provide 

previously. Addison. 

To lay on, to apply with force ; to inflict 

as, to lay on blows. 
To lay open, to open ; to make bare ; to un 

cover ; also, to show ; to expose ; to re 

veal ; as, to lay open the designs of an en 

To lay over, to spread over ; to incrust ; to 

cover the surface ; as, to lay over with 

gold or silver. 
To lay out, to expend ; as, to lay out money, 

or sums of money. 
3. To display ; to discover. 

He takes occasion to lay out bigotry and 
false confidence in all its colors. Atterbury 

3. To plan ; to dispose in order the several 
parts ; as, to lay out a garden. 

4. To dress in grave clothes and place in a 
decent posture ; as, to lay out a corpse 
Shakspeare uses to lay forth. 

5. To exert ; as, to lay out all one's strength. 
So with the reciprocal pronoun, to lay 
one's self out, is to exert strength. 

To lay to, to cliarge upon ; to impute. 

9. To apply with vigor. Thtsser 

3. To attack or harass. Obs. Knolles. 

4. To check the motion of a ship, and cause 
her to be stationary. 

To lay together, to collect ; to bring to one 
place ; also, to bring into one view. 

To lay to heart, to permit to affect greatly. 

To lay under, to subject to ; as, to lay one 
vnder restraint or obligation. 

To lay up, to store ; to treasure ; to reposit 
for future use. 

Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven. 
Matt. vi. 

2. To confine to the bed or chamber. He is 
laid up with the gout. 

To lay siege, to besiege ; to encompass with 
an army. 

To lay wait, to station for private attack ; to 
lay in ambush for. 

To lay the course, in sailing, is to sail to- 
wards the port intended, without gibing. 

To lay waste, to destroy; to desolate ; to de- 
prive of inhabitants, improvements and 

To lay the land, in seamen's language, is to 
cause the land apparently to sink or ap- 
pear lower, by sailing from it ; the dis- 
tance diminishing the elevation. 

LAY, V. i. To bring or produce eggs. 

Hens will greedily eat the herb that will 
make them lay the better. Mortimer. 

2. To contrive; to forma scheme. [Unu- 

To lay about, to strike or throw the arms on 
all sides ; to act with vigor. 

Spenser. South 

To lay at, to strike or to endeavor to strike. 

To lay in for, to make overtures for ; to o 
gage or secure the possession of. 

I have laid in for these. Drydi 

To lay on, to strike ; to beat ; to deal blows 

incessantly and with vehemence. 
2. To act with vehemence; used of expenses. 
To lay out, to purpose ; to intend. lie lays 

out to make a journey. 
2. To take measm-es. 

I made strict inquiry wherever I came, and 
laid out for intelligence of all places. 

To lay upon, to importune. 06s. 
LAY, n. That which lies or is laid ; a row ; 
a straturti ; a layer ; one rank in a series 
reckoned upward ; as a lay of wood. 

A viol should have a lay of wirc-stiings be- 
low. Bacon. 

2. A bet ; a wager. [Little used.] Graunt. 

3. Station ; rank. [JVoi used.] 

LAY, 11. [Sax. leag, leah, lege ; W. He ; Russ. 
lug ; L. locus ; Fr. lieu. See Lay, the 
verb. The words which signify ^Zace, are 
from verbs which express setting or lay- 
ing. It is written also ley, and lea, but less 

A meadow ; a plain or plat of grass land. 
A tuft of daisies on a flowery lay. Dryden 
The lowing herd wind slowly o er the lea. 


LAY, n. [Sax. kgh or ley; Gr. "K^jxiu, to 
sound. It might also be deduced front 
G. lied, a song ; D. id. ; Sax. leoih ; Scot. 
kid, lecle, or luid ; Ir. lyidh ; Gael, laoidh ; 
from the root of loud, L. laudo, plaudo. 
Sax. hlydan.] 

A song ; as a loud or soft lay ; immortal 
lays. Spenser. Milton. 

[It is used chiefly in poetry.] 

LAY, a. [Fr. lai, L. laicus. It. laico, Sp. 
lego, a layman ; Gr. Xaixo;, from fMo;, 

Pertaining to the laity or people, as distinct 
from the clergy ; not clerical ; as a lay 
person ; a lay preacher ; a lay brother. 

LAY-€LERK, )i. A vocal officiate in a ca- 
thedral. Busby. 

LA'YER, n. la'er. [from lay, the verb.] A 
stratum ; a bed ; a body spread over an- 
other; as a Za^er of clay" or of sand. 

2. A shoot or twig of a plant, not detached 
from the stock, laid under ground for 
growth or propagation. Encyc. 

3. A hen that lays eggs. Mortimer. 
LA'YING, ppr. Putting; placing ; applying; 

imputing ; wagering. 
LA'YLAND, n. Land lying untiiled ; fallow 

ground. [Local.] 
LA'YMAN, n. la'man. [lay and man.] A 

man who is not a clergyman ; one of the 

laity or people, distinct from the clergy. 

Diyden. Swifl. 

2. An image used by painters in contriving 
attitudes. Dryden, 

3. A lay -clerk, 




LA'YSTALL, n. [lay and stall.] A heap of 
dung, or a place where dung is laid. 


LA'ZAR, n. [from Lazarus; Sp. lazaro.] 
A person infected with nauseous and pes- 
tilential disease. Shak. Dryden. 

LAZARET', ? „ [Sp. lazareto ; It. laz- 

LAZARET TO, J "' zeretto ; Fr. lazaret ; from 

A public building, hospital or pest-house for 
the reception of diseased persons, particu- 
larly for those affected with contagious 

LA'ZAR-HOUSE, n. A lazaretto ; also, a 
hospital for quarantine. 

LA'ZAR-LIKE, ^ Full of sores ; lep- 

LA'ZARLY, I "■ rous. Bp. Halt. 

LA'ZARWORT, } Laserpitium,a genus of 

LA'SERWORT, ^ "' plants of several i 
cies, natives of Germany, Italy, Frau'ce, 

LAZE, II. i. To hve in idleness. [Vulgar 

LAZE, v.t. To waste in sloth. [Vulgar 

LA'ZILY, adv. [from lazy.] In a heavy, 
sluggisli manner ; sluggishly. 

Whether he lazily and listlessly dreams away 
his time. Locke. 

LA'ZINESS, n. [from lazy.] The state or 
quality of being lazy ; indisposition to ac 
tion or exertion ; indolence ; sluggishness ; 
heaviness in motion ; habitual sloth. La- 
ziness differs from idleiiess ; the latter be- 
ing a mere defect or cessation of action, 
but laziness is sloth, with natural or ha- 
bitual disinclination to action. 

Laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soonj 
overtakes him. Franklin 

2. Slowness ; tardiness. 

LA'ZING, a. Spending time in sluggish in 
action. L' Estrange 

[ This is an ill-formed, inelegant tvord.] 

LAZ'ULI. Lapis Lazuli is a mineral of ! 
fine, azure blue color, usually amorphous, 
or in rounded masses of a moderate ! ' 
It is often marked by yellow spots or veins 
of sulphuret of iron, and is much valued 
for ornamental work. It is distinguished 
from lazulite, by the inteuseness of its co- 
lor. [Qu. Ar. azul] Cleaveland. 

LAZ'ULITE, n. A mineral of a light, indi 

go blue color, occiu-ring in small masses, 

or crj'staUzed in oblique four-sided prisms. 


LA'ZY, a. [G. lass,lassig; W.llesg. Tlie 
Fr. Idche is from L. laxus, and it is doubtful 
whether this is of the same family.] 

1. Disinchned to action or exertion; natu 

rally or habitually slothful; sluggish; in 

dolent ; averse to labor ; heavy in motion. 

Wicked men will ever live like rogues, and 

not fall to work, but be lazy and spend victuals, 


% Slow ; moving slowly or apparently with 
labor; as a lazy stream. 

Ttie night-owi's lazy flight. Shak. 

LD, stands for lord. 

LEA, \ [See Lay.] A meadow or plain 

LEY, S "• The Welsh write iie, but as tliis 
word is from the root of lay, the latter is 
the Miore correct orthography. 
LIOACII, V. t. [Sw. laka, to fall in drops, to 
dislill ; liika, to leak ; Dan. IMcer, to drop, 
to leak. Sec Leak. Peihaps L. lix may 
be from the same root.] 
To wash, as ashes, by percolation, or caus- 
ing water to pass through them, and thus 

to separate from them the alkali. The 
water thus charged with alkali, is called 
lye. I 

LEACH, n. A quantity of wood ashes,! 
tlirough which water passes, and thus im- 
bibes the alkali. 

LE'ACH-TUB, n. A wooden vessel or tub 
in which ashes are leached. It is some- 
times written letch-tub. 

LEAD, n. led. [Sax. terf; G. loth ; Ji.lood; 
Dan. Sw. lod ; Russ. lot, probably a mass, 
like clod.] 

\. metal of a dull white color, with a cast of 
blue. It is the least elastic and sonorous 
of all the metals, and at the same time it is 
soft and easily fusible. It is found na- 
tive iu small masses, but generally mine- 
ralized by sulphur, and sometimes by oth- 
er substances. Lead fused in a strong 
heat, throws off vapors which are un- 

2. A plummet or mass of lead, used in sound- 
ing at sea. 

3. Leads, a flat roof covered with lead. 
Shak. Bacon. 

ffldle lead, the oxyd of lead, ground with one 

third part of chalk. Fourcroy. 

LEAD, V. t. led. To cover with lead ; to fit 

with lead. 
LEAD, V. t. pret. and pp. led. [Sax. ladan 

G.leiten; T>.leiden; Sw. leda ; Dan. leder ; 

probably to draw, to strain, or extend.] 
. To guide by the hand ; as, to lead a chi 

It often includes the sense of drawing as 

well as of directing. 

2. To guide or conduct by showing the way 
to direct ; as, the Israelites were led by i 
pillar of a cloud by day, and by a pillar of^ 
tire by night. 

3. To conduct to any place. 
He leadeth me beside the still waters. Ps 

4. To conduct, as a chief or commander, im 
plying authority ; to direct and govern ; as 
a general leads his troops to battle and to 

Christ took not on him flesh and blood, that 

he might conquer and rule nations, lead armies — 


5. To precede ; to introduce by going first. 
-•Vs Hesperus that leads the sun his way. 

C. To guide ; to show the method of attain 

ing an object. Self-examination may lead 

us to a knowledge of ourselves. 
7. To draw ; to entice ; to allure. The love 

of pleasure leads men into vices which de 

grade and inipoverisli them. 

To induce ; to prevail on; to influence. 
He was driven by the necessities of the times 

more than led by his own disposition to any 

rigor of actions. IC. Charles. 

9. To pass ; to spend, that is, to draw out ; 

as, to lead a life of gayety, or a sohtary 


That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life 

in all godliness and honesty. 1 Tim. i" 
To lead astray, to guide in a wrong way or 

into error ;" to seduce from truth or rect' 

To lead captive, to carry into captivity. 
LEAD, V. i. To go before and show the way. 

I will lead on softly. <Jen. xxxiii. 
2. To conduct, as a chief or commander. 

Let the trooi)S follow, where their general 


3. To draw ; to have a tendency to. Ga- 
ming leads to other vices. 

4. To exercise dominion. Spenser. 
To lead off or out, to go first ; to begin. 

LEAD, n. Precedence ; a going before ; 

guidance. Let the general take the lead. 

[A colloquial word in reputable use.] 
LEADEN, a. led'n. [from lead.] Blade of 

lead ; as a leaden ball. 

2. Heavy ; indisposed to action. Shak. 

3. Heavy ; dull. Shak. 
LEADEN-HE' ARTED, a. Stupid ; desti- 
tute of feeling. Thomson. 

LEADEN-HEE'LED, a. Moving slowly. 


LEADEN-STEP'PING, a. Moving slowly. 


liE'ADER, n. One that leads or conducts ; 

guide ; a conductor. 

2. A chief ; a commander; a captain. 

3. One who goes first. 

4. The chief of a party or faction ; as the 
leader of the whigs or of the tories ; a lead- 
er of the Jacobins. 

5. A performer who leads a band or choir in 

LE' ADING, ppr. Guiding; conducting; pre- 
ceding; drawing; alluring; passing hfe. 

2. a. Chief; principal; capital; most influ- 
ential ; as a leading motive ; a leading man 
in a party. 

3. Showing the way by going first. 
He left his mother a countess by patent, 

which was a new leading example — Wotton. 

LE'ADING, n. Guidance ; the act of con- 
ducting ; direction. Shak. Spenser. 

LEADING-STRINGS, n. Strings by which 
children are supported when beginning to 
walk. Dryden. 

To be in leading strings, to be in a state of 
infancy or dependence, or in pupilage un- 
der the guidance of others. 

LE'ADMAN, n. One who begins or leads a 
dance. Obs. B. Jonson. 

LEADWORT, n. led'wort. Plumbago, a 
genus of plants. 

LEADY, a. led'dy. Of the color of lead. 

LEAF, n. phi. leaves. [Sax. leafe ; D. loof; 
G.laub; Sw. lof; Dan. lov ; Goth, latif.] 

1. In botany, leaves are organs of perspira- 
tion and inhalation in plants. They us- 
ually shoot from the sides of the stems and 
branches, but sometimes from the root ; 
sometimes they are sessile ; more generally 
supported by petioles. They are of vari- 
ous forms, flat, extended, linear, cylindric, 

2. The thin, extended part of a flower; a 

3. A jiart of a book containing two pages. 

4. The side of a double door. 1 Kings vi. 

5. Something resembling a leaf in thinness 
and extension ; a very thin plate ; as gold 

G. The movable side of a table. 

LEAF, V. i. To shoot out leaves ; to pro- 
duce leaves. The trees Zcff/'in May. 

LE'AF/\GE, n. Abundance of leaves. 

LE'AFED, pp. Having leaves. 

LE'.\FLESS, a. Destitute of leaves ; as a 
leafless tree. Pope. 

LE'AFLET, ?i. A httle leaf. 

2. In botany, one of the divisions of a com- 
pound leaf; a foliole. 




LE'AF-STALK, n. The petiole or stalk 
which supports a leaf. Martyn. 

LE'AFY, a. Full of leaves ; as the leafy 
forest. Dryden. 

LEAGUE, n. lees. [Ft. ligue ; It. lega ; Si) 
liga ; from L. hgo, to bind.] 

An alliance or confederacy between prnices 
or states for their mutual aid or defense ; 
a national contract or compact. A league 
may be offensive or defensive, or both. It 
is offensive, when the contracting parties 
agree to unite in attacking a common en- 
emy ; defensive, when the parties agree to 
act in concert in defending each other 
against an enemy. 

2. A combination or union of two or 
parties for the purpose of maintaining 
friendship and promoting their mutual in- 
terest, or for executing any design in con- 

And let there be 
'Twist us and them no league, nor amity. 

LEAGUE, V. i. leeg. To unite, as princes or 
states in a contract of amity for mutual 
aid or defense ; to confederate. Russia 
and Austria leagued to oppose the ambi- 
tion of Buonaparte. 

3. To unite or confederate, as private per- 
sons for mutual aid. 

LEAGUE, 71. leeg. [of Celtic origin. W. 
llec, a flat stone, whence Low L. leuea, Sp. 
legiia, It. Itga, Fr. lieue, Ir. leac. It aj 
pears from the Welsh, that this word is 
from the root o(lay.'\ 

1. Originally, a stone erected on the public 
roads, at certain distances, in the manner 
of the modern mile-stones. Hence, 

3. The distance between two stones. Wit 
the English and Americans, a league is the 
length of three miles ; but this measure is 
used chiefly at sea. The league on the 
continent of Europe, is very d 
among different nations. The Dutch and 
German /eag-we contains four geographical 
miles. Encyc. 

LE'AGUED, pp. lee'ged. United in mutual 
compact ; confederated. 

LEAGUER, n. lee'ger. One who unites in 
a league ; a confederate. Encyc. 

LE'AGUER, n. [D. beleggeren. See Bt 

Siege ; investment of a town or fort by an 
army. [Little vsed.] Shak 

LEAK, n. [D. lek, a leak, and leaky ; lekken, 
to leak, to drop, to sleek or make smooth 
Ickker, dainty, delicate, nice, delicious ; G 
leek, a leak, and leaky ; lecken, to leak, to 
drop out, to jump, to lick ; lecker, dainty 
delicious, lickerish ; Sw. laka, to distill or 
drop, and Ihka, to leak ; Dan. lek, leaky 
lekke, a leak ; lekkefad, a dripping pan 
lekker, to leak, to drop ; lekker, dainty, del 
icate, nice, KcA-emA; Sax. Wece, leaky. If 
the noun is the primary word, it may be 
the Gr. T-axtj, a fissure or crevice, from 
Xjjxfu, Dor. t.a.xtu, to crack, to soimd, or to 
burst with sound, coinciding with L. lacero 
and loquor, and perhaps Eng. clack. I 

1. A crack, crevice, fissure or hole in a ves 
sel, that admits water, or permits a fluid 
to escape. 

2. The oozing or passing of water or other 
fluid or liquor through a crack, fissure or 

aperture in a vessel, either into it, as into 
a ship, or out ofh, as out of a cask. 

To spring a leak, is to open or crack so as tc 
let in water ; to begin to let in water. 

LEAK, a. Leaky. [jVot in use.] Spenser 

LEAK, V. i. To let water or other liquor in 
to or out of a vessel, through a hole oi 
crevice in the vessel. A ship leaks, when 
she admits water through her seams or an 
aperture in her bottom or sides, into the 
hull. A pail or a cask teaks, when it ad 
mits liquor to pass out through a hole or 

To leak out, to find vent ; to escape privately 
from confinement or secresy ; as a fat 

LE'AKAgE, n. A leaking; or the quantity 
of a liquor that enters or issues by leak- 

2. An allowance, in commerce, of a certain 
rate per cent, for the leaking of casks, or 
the waste of liquors by leaking. 

LE'AKY, a. That admits water or other 
liquor to i»ass in or out ; as a leaky ves- 
sel ; a leaky ship or barrel. 

2. Apt to disclose secrets ; tattling ; not close 

LE'AMER, n. A dog ; a kind of hound. 

LEAN, V. i. [Sax. hlinian, hleoman, to lean 
linian, to recline; G. lehnen ; O. leunen 
Dan. t(E7ier : Sw. lS,na sig ; Ir. claonaim ; 
Russ. klonyu ; Gr. xXtvu ; L. clino. Class 
Ln. No. 3.] 

L To deviate or move from a straight or 
perpendicular hne ; or to be in a position 
thus deviating. We say, a column leans 
to the north or to the east ; it leans to the 
right or left. 

3. To incline or propend ; to tend toward. 
They delight rather to lean to their old cu^ 

toms — Spcnse, 

Trust in the Lord with all thine heart, and 
leati not to thine own understanding. Prov. iii 

3. To bend or incline so as to rest on some 
thing ; as, to lean against a wall or a pil 

I lar ; to lean on the arm of another. 

4. To bend ; to be in a bending posture. 
LEAN, V. t. To inchne ; to cause to lean. 
I Shak 
2. To conceal. [Ice. luna.] [Not in use.] 

LEAN, a. [Sax. tone or fttene; D. Dan. G 

klcin, small, lean ; Sw. klen ; allied perhaps 

to L. lenis, and Eng. slender.] 
\. Wanting flesh ; meager ; not fat ; as : 
1 lean body ; a lean man or animal. 

2. Not rich ; destitute of good qualities 
I bare ; barren ; as lean earth. 

3. Low ; poor ; in opposition to rich or 
1 great; as a /ean action. [Unusual.] 
•A. Barren of thought ; destitute of that 

which improves or entertains ; jejune 
j a lean discourse or dissertation. 
|LEAN, n. That part of flesh which consists 

of muscle without the fat. Farquhar 

iLE'ANLY, adv. Meagerly ; without fat or 

LE'ANNESS, re. Destitution of fat ; i 

seems 'that lickerish is' from the root ofjl of flesh ; thinness of body ; meagernsss 
leak, and signifies properly watery.] 

applied to animals. 
,2. Want of matter ; poverty ; emptiness ; i 
j the leanness of a purse. Shak 

|3. In Scripture, want of grace and spiritual 
I comfort. 
I He sent leanness 

LE ANY, a. Alert; brisk; active. L-Vo( l,i 
e.] Spenser. 

LEAP, V. i. [Sax. hleapan, Goth. Maupan, 
to leap ; G. laufen ; D. loopen, Sw. lopa, 
Dan. liiber, to run, to pass rapidly, to flow, 
slip or glide ; W. lluf, aleap. From these 
significations, it may be inferred that this 
word belongs to the family of L. labor, 
perhaps Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. Eth. n'7n. 
Class Lb. No. 30. Qu. L. lupus, a wolf, 
the leaper.] 

1. To spring or rise from the ground with 
both feet, as man, or with all the feet, as 
other animals ; to jump ; to vault ; as, a 
man leaps over a fence, or leaps upon a 

A man leapeth better with weights in his 
hands than without. Bacon. 

2. To spring or move suddenly ; as, to leap 
from a horse. 

3. To rush with violence. 

And the man in whom the evil spirit was, 
leaped on them and overcame them — Acts 

To spring ; to bound ; to skip ; as, to leap 
for joy. 
5. To fly ; to start. Job xli. 

He parted frowning from me, as if ruin 

Leaped from his eyes. Shak. 

[Our common peo])le retain the Saxon 
aspirate of this word in the phrase, to clip 
it, to run fast.] 
LEAP, V. t. To pass over by leaping ; to 
spring or bound from one side to the oth- 
er ; as, to leap a wall, a gate or a g-ulf; to 
leap a stream. [But the phrase is ellipti- 
cal, and over is understood.] 
2. To compress ; as the male of certain 
beasts. Dryden. 

LEAP, n. A jump; a spring; abound; act 

2. Space passed by leaping. 

3. A sudden transition or passing. Sunfl. 

4. The space that may be passed at a bound. 

'Tis the convenient leap I mean to try. 


5. Embrace of animals. Dryden. 

6. Hazard, or effect of leaping. Shak. 

7. A basket ; a weel for fish. [Not in use.] 

ff'ickliffe. Sherwood. 

LE'APER, n. One that leaps. A horse is 
called a good leaper. 

LE'AP-FROG, n. A play of children, in 
which they imitate the leap of frogs. 


LE'APING, ppr. Jumping ; springing ; 
bounding ; skipping. 

LE'APINGLY, adv. By leaps. 

LE'AP-YEAR, n. Bissextile, a year con- 
taining 360 days ; every foiu'th year, which 
leaps over a day moie than a common 
year. Thus in common years, if the first 
day of March is on Monday, the present 
year, it will, the nest year, fall on Tues- 
day, but in leap-year it will leap to Wed- 
nesday ; for leap-year contains a day more 
than a common year, a day being added 
to the month of February. Brotvn. 

LEARN, V. t. lern. [Sax. leornian ; G. lem- 
en ; D. leeren ; Dan. terer ; Sw. Ihra. 
The latter coincides with the Sax. laran, 
to teach, the same word having both sig- 
nifical^ns, to teach and to learn. In pop- 
ular use, learn still has both senses.l 




1. To gain knowledge of; to acquire knowl- 
edge or ideas of something before un- 
known. We leani the use of letters, the 
meaning of words and the principles of 
science. We learn things by instruction, 
by study, and by experience and observa- 
tion. It is much easier to learn what is 
right, than to unlearn what is wrong. 

Now learn a parable of the fig-tree. Matt. 
9. To acquire skill in any thing ; to gain by 
practice a faculty of performing ; as, to 
learn to play on a flute or an organ. 

The chief art of learning is to attempt but 
little at a time. Locke. 

3. To teach ; to communicate the knowl- 
edge of something before unknown. 
Hast thou not learned me how 
To make perfumes ? Shak. 

[This use of learn is found in respecta- 
ble writers, but is now deemed inelegant 
as well as improper.] 
LEARN, V. i. lern. To gain or receive 
knowledge ; to receive instruction ; to 
take pattern ; with of. 

Take my yolfe upon you, and learn of me ; 
for I am meek and lowly—. Matt. xi. 

2. To receive information or intelligence. 
LEARNED, f lern'ed, f Obtained as 
LEARNT, S PP' lernt. S knowledge or 

LEARNED, a. lern'ed. Versed in literature 
and science ; as a learned man. 

2. Skillful ; well acquainted with arts 
knowing; within; as learned in martial 

3. Containing learning ; as a learned treatise 
or publication. Coxe. 

4. Versed in scholastic, as distinct from other 

Men of much reading are greatly learned,hat 
may be litde knowing. Locke 

The learned, learned men ; men of erudition 

LEARNEDLY, adv. leni'edly. With learn- 
ing or erudition ; with skill ; as, to discuss 
a question learnedly. 

Every coxcomb swears as learnedly as they 

LEARNER, n. lem'er. A person who is 
gaining knowledge from instruction, from 
reading or study, or by other means ; one 
who is in the rudiments of any science or 

LEARNING, ppr. lern'ing. Gaining knowl- 
edge by instruction or reading, by study 
by experience or observation ; acquiring 
skill by practice. 

LEARNING, n. lern'ing. The knowledge 
of principles or facts received by instr 
tion or study ; acquired knowledge or 
ideas in any branch of science or litera- 
ture ; erudition ; literature ; science. The 
Scaligers were men of great learning. 
[This is the proper sense of the word.] 

2. Knowledge acquired by experience, ex- 
periment or observation. 

3. Skill in any thing good or bad. Hooker. 
LE'ASABLE, a. That may be leased. 

LEASE, n. [Fr. laisser. See the Verb.] 
1. A demise or letting of lau<ls, tenements 
or hereditaments to another for life, for 
termof yeard, or at will, for a rent or con 
pensation reserved ; also, the contract for 
such letting, Kncyc. 

2. Any tenure by grant or permission. 
Our high placed Macbeth 
Shall live the lease of nature. .Shak. 

LEASE, v.t. [Fr. laisser; a different orthog- 
raphy of Eng. let. See Let.] 

To let ; to demise ; to grant the temporary 
possession of lands, tenements or heredit- 
aments to another for a rent reserved. 
A leased to B his land in Dale for the an- 
nual rent of a pepper corn. 

LEASE, V. i. leez. [Sax. lesan, to collect, al- 
so to free, to liberate, to redeem ; D. lee- 
zen ; G. lesen, to gather, to cull, to sift, al- 
so to read, like L. lego; Dan. User, Sw. 
l&sa, to read.] 

To glean ; to gather what harvest men have 
left. Obs. Dryden. 

LE'ASED, pp. Demised or let, as lands or 

LE'ASEHOLD.a. Held by lease ; as a ;ca.9t 
hold tenement. Swift. 

LE'ASER, n. A gleaner ; a gatherer after 

LEASH, n. [Fr. laisse, lesse ; D. letse. Qu 
It. laccio, L. laquens.] 
A thong of letlier, or long line by which e 
falconer holds his hawk, or a courser his 
dog. 5 

2. Among sportsmen, a brace and a half; 
tierce; three; three creatures of any kind, 
especially greyhounds, foxes, bucks and 
hares. Shak. Dennis. 

A band wherewith to tie any thing. 


LEASH, t). (. To bind ; to hold by a string. 

LE'ASING, n. s as z. [Sax. leasttnge, from 
lease, leasa, false.] 

Falsehood; lies. [Obsolete or nearly so.] 

LE'ASOW, n. [Sax. lasioe.] A pasture. 
Obs. Wickliffe. 

LEAST, a. [superl. of Sax. Ims, less, con- 
tracted from Icesest. It cannot be regu- 
larly formed frotn little.] 

Smallest; little beyond others, either in size 
or degree ; as the least insect ; the least 

Least is often used without the nou 
which it refers. " I am the of the 
apostles," that is, the least apostle of all 
the apostles. 1 Cor. xv. 

LEAST, adv. In the smallest or lowest de 
;ree; in a degree below all others; as, tc 
evvard those who least deserve it. 

M least, } to say no more ; not to de- 

/It the least, I mand or affirm more than is 

barely sufllcient ; at the lowest degre 

If he has not incurred a penalty, he at 

least deserves censure. 

He who tempts, though vain, at least asperses 

The tempted with dishonor. Milton 

2. To say no more. Let useful observations 
be at least a part of your conversation. 

The least, in the smallest degree. His fac 
ulties are not in the least impaired. 

At leastwise, in the sense of at least, is obso 

LE'ASY, a. s as z. Thin ; flimsy. It is tisu 
ally pronounced sleazy. Jlscham. 

LEAT, 71. [Sax. Iwt, du'xit.] .\ trench to con 
duct water to or fVom a mill. 

LEATH'ER, ? [Sax. tether; G. D.leder; 

LETH'ER, S Sw. lader; Dan. Mher ; 
Arm. lezr ; Ir. leather. The most correct 
orthography is lether.] 

1. The skin of an animal dressed and pre- 
pared for use. 

2. Dressed hides in general. 

3. Skin ; in an ironical sense. 
LEATH'ER, 1 „ Lethern ; consisting of 
LETH'ER, ^ "• lether; as a ictter glove. 
LEATHER-COAT, n. An apple with a 

tough coat or rind. Shak. 

LEATHER-DRESSER, n. One who dress- 
es lether ; one who prepares hides for use. 

LEATH'ER-JACKET, n. A fish of the Pa- 
cific ocean. Cook. 


By leather-mouthed fish, I mean such a.s 
have their teeth in their throat, as the chub. 


LEATH'ERN, } „ Made of lether ; consist- 

LETH'ERN, J "• ing of lether ; as a lethern 
])urse ; a lethern girdle. 

LEATHER-SELLER, ? A seller or deal- 

LETH'ER-SELLER, ^ "• er in lether. 

LEATHER-WINGED, ) Having wines 

LETH'ER-WINGED, I "' like lefher. 


LEATHERY, ) „ Resembhng lether; 

LETH'ERY, J "' tough. Grew. 

LEAVE, n. [Sax. leaf, lefe, from leafan, le- 
fan, lyfan, to permit, to grant, to trust, to 
believe ; G. erlaub, D. oorlof verlof leave, 

furlow; Sax. leofan, to /iV,'and to leave.' 
; allowance ; license ; hberty 


No friend has leave to bear away the dead. 

David earnestly asked have of me. 1 Sam. 


2. Farewell ; adieu ; ceremony of departure ; 
a formal parting of friends ; used chiefly 
in the phrase to take leave. Acts xviii. 

LEAVE, V. t. pret. and pp. left. [Sax. lafan, 
to leave ; lefan, to permit, to believe ; lefe, 
leave ; lejian, to hve; leofan, to leave, to 
live ; leofa, leave, permission, licence ; ly- 
fan, to permit, also to live. But live is al- 
so written liban, libban, with b, which 
leave is not. Belifan, to remain or be left ; 
oilman, to permit ; ge-lmfan, to leave, to per- 
mit, to believe; ge-leaf, leave, license, as- 
sent, consent, faith or belief ; g-e-/f/an, to be- 
lieve, to think or suppose, to permit, to live ; 
ge-leofan, id. ; ge-lyfan, to believe, to trust ; 
ge-lyjfed, permitted or allowed, believed, 
lawtul. also alive, having life ; leaf loved ; 
Inft, love, belief; leoflie, faithful; 
hiflic, willingly, lubenter ; lujlie, lovely. 
The German \\a.sleave in urlaub, a furlow, 
and belief in glaube ; live in teben ; and 
love in Hebe, lieben, the Latin libel, lubet. 
Gr. ^firtu. Dan. lever, Sw. lefva, to live. 
These are a small part of the affinities 
of this word. The Germans and Dutch 
express the sense of leave, by lassen, 
Inaten, which is our let, Fr. laisser ; and 
let in English has the sense both of permit 
and of hinder. The most prominent sig- 
nifications of leave, are to stop or forbear, 
and to withdraw.] 

1. To withdraw or depart from ; to quit for 
a longer or shorter time indefinitely, or 
for perpetuity. We left Cowes on our re- 
turn to the United States, May 10, 1825. 
We leave home for a day or a year. The 


L E C 


fever leaves the patient daily at a certain 
hour. The secretary has left the business 
of his office with his first clerk. 

A man shall leave his fatlier and his mother, 
and cleave to his wife. Gen. ii. 
a. To forsake ; to desert ; to abandon ; to 

We have left all and followed thee. Mark x. 

3. To suffer to remain ; not to take or re- 

Let no man leave of it till the morning. E.\. 

4. To have remaining at death ; as, to leave 
a good name. 

5. To commit or trust to, as a deposit ; or to 
suffer to remain. I left the papers in the 
care of the consul. 

C. To bequeath ; to give by will. The de- 
ceased has left his lands to his sons, but 
he has left a legacy to his only daughter. 

7. To permit without interposition. Of this 
he leaves the reader to judge. 

8. To cease to do ; to desist from ; to for- 

Let us return, lest my father leave caring for 
the asses and take thought for us. 1 Sam. is. 

9. To refer ; to commit for decision. 

To be left to one's self, to be deserted or for- 
saken ; to be permitted to follow one's 
own opinions or desires. 

To have off, to desist from ; to forbear ; as, 
to leave off work at six o'clock. 

To leave off, to cease wearing ; as, to leave off 
a garment. 

2. To forsake ; as, to leave off an old ac- 
quaintance. Arhuthnot. 

To leave out, to omit ; as, to leave out a word 
or name in writing. 

LEAVE, V. i. To cease; to desist. 

He began" at the eldest and left at the 
youngest. Gen. xliv. 

To leave off, to cease ; to desist ; to stop. 

But when you find that vigorous heat abate, 
Leave off, and for another summons wait. 


LEAVE, V. t. [Fr. lever.] To raise. [JVot 
used.] Spenser. 

LE'AVED, a. [fromleaf; but leafed would 
be preferable.] 

1. Fitrnished with foliage or leaves. 

2. Having a leaf, or made with leaves or 
folds ; as a two-leaved gate. 

LEAVEN,?!, iev'n. [Fr.levain,fromkver, to 
raise, L. leva, Eng. to lift.] 

1. A mass of sour dough, which, mixed with 
a larger quantity of dough or paste, pro- 
duces fermentation in it and renders it 
light. During the seven days of the pass- 
over, no leaven was permitted to be in the 
houses of the Jews. Ex. xii. 

3. Any thing w hich makes a general change 
in the mass. It generally means some- 
thing which corrupts or depraves that 
with which it is mixed. 

Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of 
the Sadducees. Matt. xvi. 
LEAVEN, V. t. Iev'n. To excite fermenta 
tion in ; to raise and make light, as dough 
or paste. 

A little leaven leaveneth tlie whole lump. 
Cor. v. 

2. To taint ; to imbue. Priot 
LEAVENED, ;)p. leo'ened. Raised and made 

light by fermentation. 
LEAVENING,^;))-. Jev'eni7jg. Making light 
by fermentation. 

LEAVENING, n. lev'ening. That wliicl 
leavens or makes light. Bacon 

LEAVENOUS, a. lev'enous. Containing 
leaven ; tainted. Milton 

LE'AVER, ?i. [from leave.] One who leaves 
or relinquishes ; one who forsakes. 


LEAVES, n.;)/u. of ?co/. 

LE'AVING, ppr. Quitting; withdrawing 
from ; relinquishing ; suffering to remain 
ceasing ; desisting from. 

LE'AVINGS,7!.p/«. Things left ; remnant 

The leavings of Pharsalia. ..Addison 

2. Refuse ; offal. Sivifl 

LE'AVY, a. [from leaf] Full of leaves; 
covered with leaves. [An improper word ; 
it ought to be leafy.] Sidney. Shak 

LECH, for lick. Obs. [See Lick.] 

LECH'ER, n. [It. lecco, gluttony, lechery 
leccare, to lick ; leccardo, greedy ; G. lecken 
D. likker. See lick, leak and lickerish. But 
in Saxon leger-scipe is lewdness, from le 
ger, a layer, or a lying down ; lecgan, tc 
lay ; ligan, to lie. See Lubricity.] 

A man given to lewdness ; one addicted, in 
an exorbitant degree, to the indulgence of 
the animal appetite, and an illicit com- 
merce with females. 

LECH'ER, V. {. To practice lewdness ; tc 
indulge lust. B. Jonson 

LECH'EROUS, a. Addicted to lewdness ; 
prone to indulge lust; lustful ; lewd. 


2. Provoking lust. Chaucer. 

LECH'EROUSLY, adv. Lustfully; lewdly. 

LECH'EROUSNESS, n. Lust, or strong 
propensity to indulge the sexual appe- 

LECH'ERY, )i. Lewdness ; free indulgence 
of lust ; practice of indulging the animal 
appetite. Sliak. 

LE€'TION, n. [L. lectio, from lego, to read, 
Jr. leighim, leagham, Gr. Atyu, Fr. lire.] 

1. A reading. 

2. A difference or variety in copies of a man- 
icript or book. Halts. 

.3. A lesson or portion of Scripture read in 
livine service. 

LEG'TIONARY, n. The Romish service- 
book, containing portions of Scripture. 

LECTURE, n. [Fr. lecture, from L. lectura, 
from lego, to read.] 

. A discourse read or pronounced on any 
subject ; usually, a formal or methodical 
discourse, intended for instruction ; as a 
lecture on inorals, philosophy, rhetoric, or 

2. A reading ; the act or practice of reading 
as in the lecture of Holy Scripture. [Little 
used.] Brown 

3. A magisterial reprimand ; a formal re 
proof. Addison. 

4. A recitation ; rehearsal of a lesson. 

Eng. Univ. 
LECTURE, f. t. To read or deliver a form 

al discourse. 
2. To practice reading lectures for instruc 

tion. We say, the professor lectures on 

geometry, or on chimistry. 
LE€'TURE, V. t. To instruct by discourses. 
2. To instruct dogmatically or authorita 

tively ; to reprove ; as, to lecture one for 

his faults. 

LECTURER, n. One who reads or pro- 
nounces lectures; a professor or an in- 
structor who delivers formal discourses 
for the instruction of others. 

2. A preacher in a church, hired by the par- 
ish to assist the rector, vicar or curate. 


LECTURESHIP, n. The office of a lec- 
turer. Sivifl. 

LEG'TURING, ppr. Reading or delivering 
a discourse ; reproving. 

LEG'TURN, n. A reading desk. [JVo< in 
rise.] Chaucer. 

LED, pret. and pp. of lead. 

LED'EN, ji. [Sax. lyden.] Language ; true 
meaninc. Obs. Chaucer. Spenser, 

LEDGE, n. [Sax. leger, a layer ; D. Itggen, 
to lay, Sax. lecgan.] 

1. A stratum, layer or row. 

The lowest ledge or row should be merely of 
stone. Wotton. 

2. A ridge ; a prominent row ; as a ledge of 

3. A prominent part; a regular part rising 
or projecting beyond the rest. Swijt. 

4. A small molding. 

5. A small piece of timber placed athwart 
ships, under the deck between the beams. 

0. A long ridge of rocks near the surface of 
the sea. Mar. Diet. 

LEDG'ER, n. The principal book of ac- 
counts among merchants; the book into 
which the accounts of the journal are car- 
ried in a summarj- forn). [See Leger.] 

LEE, n. plu. lees. [Vr.lie.] Dregs; sedi- 
ment. [See Lees.'] 

LEE, n. [Qw.lh; Dan. la:. In Sax. hleo, 
hleow, is a bovver or shelter; Scot, le, 
calm, sheltered ; Ice. We, D. ly, let, and 
luw, sheltered from the wind ; W. clyd, 
sheltering, warm ; Sp. lua, lee.] 

Literally, a calm or sheltered place, a place 
defended from the wind ; hence, that part 
of the hemisphere towards which the 
wind blows, as opposed to that from 
which it proceeds. 

Under the lee, denotes properly, in the part 
defended from the wind. 

Under the lee of the land, is properly, near the 
shore which breaks the force of the wind. 

Under the lee of a ship, on the side opposite 
to that on which the wind blows. 

LEE, I', i. To lie. [JVot used. See Lie.] 


LEE' -BOARD, n. A frame of plank affixed 
to the side of a flat-bottomed vessel, to 
prevent it from faUing to leeward when 

LEE'-GAGE, n. A greater distance from 
the point whence the wind blows, than 
another vessel has. 

LEE'-LURCH, n. A sudden and violent roll 
of a ship to leeward in a high sea. 

LEE'-SHORE, n. The shore under the lee 
of a ship, or that towards which the wind 

LEE'-SIDE, n. The side of a ship or boat 
farthe jt from the point whence the wind 
blows ; opposed to the iceather-s'ide. 

LEE'-TIDE, 7!. A tide running in the same 
direction that the wind blows. A tide un- 
der the lee, is a stream in an opposite di- 
rection to the wind. 

LEE'WARD, a. Pertaining to the part to- 
wards which the wind blows; as a/e«- 
ward ship. 


LEE'WARD, adv. Towards the lee, or that 
part towards which the wiud blows ; op- 
posed to viindivard; as fall to leeward. 

LEE'WAY, n. The lateral movement of a 
ship to the leeward of her course, or tlie 
angle which the line of her way makes 
with her keel, when she is close-hauled. 

Mar. Diet. 

LEECH, n. [Goth, leikeis, Sax. tec, a host or 
innkeeper, a physician ; Dan. lliege ; la- 
ger, to heal ; Sw. Ibkia, to heal ; Ihkiare, a 
physician ; Ir. liagh ; Russ. liakar.] 

A physician ; a professor of the art of heal- 
ing. Spender. Dnjden. Gay. 
[This word, in the United States, is near- 
ly or wholly obsolete. Even eow leeeh is not 

2. [Sax. Ueccan, to seize.] A blood-sucker; 
an animal of the genus Hirudo, a species 
of aquatic worm, which is used in the 
medical art for topical bleeding. One 
large species of this animal is called horse- 

3. In seamen's language, the border or edge 
of a sail, which is sloping or perpendicular ; 
as the fore-leech, the after-leech, &c. 

LEE'CH-€RAFT, n. The art of healing. 

- Obs. Davies 

LEE'CH-LINE, n. Leech-lines are ropes 
fastened to the middle of the leeches of 
the main-sail and fore-sail, serving to truss 
them up to the yards. 

LEE'CH-ROPE, n. That part of the bolt- 
rope to which the skirt or border of a sail 
is sewed. Mar. Diet. 

LEEF, a. Kind ; fond ; pleasing ; willing. 
Obs. [See !«>/.] Spenser. 

LEEK, n. [Sax. leac ; G. lauch ; D. look ; 
Sw. m ; Dan. log.] 

A plant of the genus Allium, with a bulbous 
root. Numb. xi. 

LEE'LITE, n. A mineral, so called from 
Dr. Lee, of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
It is described as a siliceous stone, and 
by some mineralogists considered to be a 
hydrate of silica. Phillips. 

LEER, V. i. [D. gluuren, begluuren.] To 
look obliquely ; to ttu-n the eye and cast a 
look from a corner, either in contempt 
defiance or frowning, or for a sly look. 


2. To look with a forced countenance. 


LEER, V. t. To allure with smiles. Dryden 

LEER, n. [Sax. hleare, hleor, the cheek.] 

L The cheek. Obs. 

2. Complexion ; hue ; face. Obs. Shak. 

3. An oblique view. 

— With jealous leer malign 
Eyed them askance. MiUon. 

4. An affected cast of countenance. 

Damn with faint praise, concede with civil 

leer. Pope. 

LEER, a. [Sax. g-eter.] Empty ; also, 

trifling ; frivolous. Obs. B. jonson. 

LEERING, ppr. Looking obliquely, cast- 
ing a look askance. 
LEE'RINGLY, a(ii!. With au arch oblique 

look or smile. 
LEES, n. [Fr. lie ; Arm. ly ; probably 

contracted word. It is used in the plural 

The grosser parts of any liquor which have 

settled on the bottom of a vessel ; dregs; 

sediment ; as the lees of wine. 


LEESE, V. t. To lose. Obs. [See Lose.] 

B. Jonson. 

LEESE, V. t. [L. Icesus.] To hurt. Obs. 

LEET, n. In Great Britain, a court. The 
court-leet or view of frankpledge, is s 
court of record held once a year and nol 
oftener, within a particular hundred, lord- 
ship or manor, before the steward of the 
leet. Its original intent was to viexv the 
frankpledges or freemen within the liber- 
ty, to preserve the peace, and punish cer- 
tain minute offenses. All freeholders with- 
in the precinct are obliged to attend this 
court. Blackstone. 

The court-leet is for the most part super- 
seded by the county court. 

LEET-ALE, n. A feast or merrj' making in 
the time of leet. Eng. 

LEFT, pret. and pp. ofleave. 

LEFT, a. [L. laivus ; Gr. ?^«)j, Hesych. 
?ia$oj ; probably from the root of leave, 
Gr. >.!i«co, and properly weak, deficient. 
Applied to the hand or arm, it denotes the 
weak arm, as opposed to the right, the 
strong or dextrous. Hence the ancient 
idea of sinister, unfortunate, attached 
the left arm or side.] 

1. Denoting the part opposed to the right of 
the body ; as the left hand, arm or side 
Hence, the noun being omitted, we say, 
on the left, that is, on the left side oi 
wing, as of an army. 

3. The left bank of a river, is that which is 
on the left hand of a person whose face it 
towards the mouth of the river. 

LEFT-HAND'ED, a. Having the left hand 
or arm more strong and dextrous than 
the right ; using the left hand and 
with more dexterity than the right. 

2. Unlucky ; inauspicious ; unseasonable. 
Obs. B. Jonson 

LEFT-HAND'EDNESS, n. Habitual use 
of the left hand, or rather the ability to 
use the left hand with more ease and 
strength than the right. 

LEFT-HAND'INESS, n. Awkwardness. 

LEG, n. [Dan. teg-; It. lacca.] The limb 
of an animal, used in supporting the body 
and in walking and running ; properly, 
that part of the limb from the knee to the 
foot, but in a more general sense, the 
whole limb, including the thigh, the leg 
and the foot. 

2. The long or slender support of any thing ; 
as the leg of a table. 

To make a leg, to bow ; a phrase introduced 
probably by the practice of drawing the 
right leg backward. [LitUe used.] 

Locke. Swift. 

To stand on one's own legs, to support one's 
self; to trust to one's own strength or ef- 
forts without aid. 

LEG'ACY, n [Sp. legado ; Fr. legs ; L. le- 
gatum, from lego, to send, to bequeath ; 

Elh. A ATI lak, Ar. ^iTiki alaka, 
send. Class Lg. No. 1.] 
A bequest ; a particular thing, or certain 
sum of money given by last will or testa 

Good counsel is the legacy a father can 
leave to his child. L. Estrange 


LEGACY-HUNTER, n. One who flatters 

and courts for legacies. 
LE'GAL, a. [Fr. from L. legaiis, from lex, 

legis, law.] 

1. According to law ; in conformity with 
law ; as a legal standard or test ; a legal 

2. Lawful ; permitted by law ; as a legal 
trade. Any thing is legal which the laws 
do not forbid. 

According to the law of works, as distin- 
guished from free grace ; or resting on 
works for salvation. Scott. Milton. 

4. Pertaining to law ; created by law. 

The exception must be confined to legal 



e use the phrase, criminal law. 

LEGAL'ITY, n. Lawfulness ; conformity 
to law. 

2. In theology, a reliance on works for salva- 
tion. Scott. 

LEGALIZE,!). «. To make lawful: to ren- 
der conformable to law ; to authorize. 
What can legalize revenge.' 

2. To sanction ; to give the authority of law 
to that which is done whhout law or au- 
thority. Irregular proceedings may be 
legalized by a subsequent act of the legis- 

LE'GALLY, adv. Lawfully ; according to 
to law ; in a manner permitted by law. 

LEG'ATARY, n. [Fr. legataire ; L. legata- 
rius, from lego, to bequeath.] 

A legatee ; one to whom a legacy is be- 

[But legatee is generally used.] 

LEG'ATE, n. [Fr. legal ; L. legalus, from 
lego, to send. See Lackey.] An embas- 
sador ; but especially, 

2. The pope's embassador to a foreign 
prince or state ; a cardinal or bishop sent 
as the pope's representative or commiss- 
ioner to a sovereign prince. Legates are 
of three kinds ; legates a latere, or counsel- 
ors and assistants of his holiness, legates 
de latere, who are not cardinals, and legates 
by office. Encyc. 

LEGATEE', n. [L. lego, to send.] One 
to whom a legacy is bequeathed. 


LEG'ATESHIP, n. The office of a legate. 

LEG'ATINE, a. Pertaining to a legate ; as 
legatine power. Shak. 

2. Made by or proceeding from a legate ; as 
a legatine constitution. '^yliffe. 

LEGA'TION, n. [L. legatio, from lego, to 
send.] An embassy ; a deputation ; prop- 
erly a sending, hut generally, the person 
or persons sent as envoys or embassadors 
to a foreign court. Bacon. 

LEGA'TOR, ji. [L.] A testator; one who be- 

queaths a legacy. [Little used.] Dryde 

to all ^ . V ;-• 




lighten. [JSTot 

LEG'END, n. [It. leggenda ; L. legenda, 
from lego, to read ; originally, in the 
Romish church, a book of service or les- 
sons to be read in worship.] 

1. A chronicle or register of the lives of 
saints, formerly read at matins and at the 
refectories of religious houses. Hence, 

2. An idle or ridiculous story told respecting 
saints. Encyc. 

3. Any memorial or relation. Johnson. 

4. An incredible, unauthentic narrative. 




L E M 

5. An inscription, particularly on medals 

and on coins. Mdison. 

LEg'END, v. t. To tell or narrate, as a le 

gend. Hall. 

LEG'ENDARY, a. Consisting of legends ; 

fabulous ; strange. 

LEG'ENDARY, n. A book of legends ; j 
relator of legends. Sheldon 

LEg'ER, n. [D.leggeii, to lie, Sax. kcgan.' 
Any thing that lies in a place ; that which 
rests or remains ; sometimes used as ; 
noun, but more frequently as an adjective 
as a leger ambassador, that is, resident 
but the word is now obsolete, except in 
particular phrases 

A leger-line, in music, a line added to the 
staff of live lines, when more lines than 
five are wanted, for designating notes 
cending or descending. 

A leger-book, or leger, a book tliat lies in the 
counting house, the book into which 
merchants carry a summary of the ac- 
counts of the journal ; usually written 

LEG'ERDEINIAIN, 71. [Fr. leger, It. leg- 
giero, light, slight, and Fr. de main, of 
hand. See lAght.] 

Slight of hand ; a deceptive performance 
wliich depends on dexterity of hand ; a 
trick performed with such art and adroit- 
ness, that tlie manner or art eludes obser- 
vation. The word is sometimes used ad 
jectively ; as a legerdemain trick. 

LEgER'ITY, )!. [Fr. legerete.] Lightness 
nimbleness. [JVbt in use.] Shak 

LEG'GED, a. [from leg.] Having legs ; 
used iu composition ; as a two-legged ani 

LEG'GIN, n. [from leg.] A cover for the 
leg ; a garment that incloses the leg. 


LEGIBILITY, ji. Legibleuess; the quahty 
or state of being legible. 

LEG'IBLE, a. [L. legibilis, from lego, to 

1. That may be read ; consisting of letters or 
figures that may be distinguished by the 
eye ; as a fair, legible manuscript. 

2. That may be discovered or understood by 
apparent marks or indications. Tlie 
thoughts of men are often legible iu their 

LEG'IBLENESS, n. The quality or state of 

being legible. 
LEG'IBLY, adv. In such a manner as may 

be read ; as a manuscript legibly written. 
LE'GION, n. [L. legio, from lego, to collect.] 

1. Iu Roman antiquity, a body of infantry 
consisting of different numbers of men at 
difterent periods, from three to five thou- 
sand. Each legion was divided into ten 
cohorts, each cohort into ten companies, 
and each company into two centuries. 

„ . ... Encyc. 

2. A military force ; military bands. Sfiak. 
■i. A great number. 

Wliere one sin has entered, legions will force 
their way tlirough the same breach. Rogers. 
My name is legion, for we are many. Mark v. 
LE'GlONARY, a. Relating 
to legions. 

3. Consisting of a legion or of lecioni 
legionary force. 


LEGIONARY, n. One of a legion. 


LEG'ISLATE, v. i. [L. lex, legis, law, and 
fero, latum, to give, ])ass or enact.] 

To make or enact a law or laws. It is a 
question whether it is expedient to legis- 
late at present on the subject. Let us not 
legislate, when wo have no power to en- 
force our laws. 

LEgISLA'TION, «. [Fr.] The act of pass- 
ing a law or laws; the enacting of laws. 
Pythagoras joined legislation to his philoso- 
phy. Littleton. 

LEG'ISLATIVE, «. [Fv. legislatif.] Giv- 
ing or enacting laws ; as a legislative body. 

2. Capable of enacting laws ; as legislative 

3. Pertaining to the enacting of laws ; suita 
ble to laws ; as the legislative style. 

4. Done by enacting ; as a legislative act. 
[.Xote. In this word, and in legislator, 

legislatri.r, legislature, the accent is nearly 
equal on the first and third syllables, and 
a, in the third, has its first or long sound.] 

LEgISLA'TOR, )i. [L.] a lawgiver; one 
who makes laws for a state or community. 
This word is limited in its use to a su- 
preme lawgiver, the lawgiver of a sove- 
reign state or kingdom, and is not applied 
to men that make the by-laws of a subor- 
dinate corporation. 

LEGlSLA'TORSHIP, n. The office of a le 
gislator. [.Yot in use.] Halifa.i 

LEGISLA'TRESS, ) „ A female wlio 

LEgISLA'TRIX, J "• makes laws 


LEGISLATURE, 71. [Sp. legislatura.} The 
body of men in a state or kingdom, invest 
ed with power to make and repeal laws 
the supreme power of a state. The legis 
lature of Great Britain consists of the house 
of lords and the house of commons with 
the king, whose sanction is necessary to 
every bill before it becomes a law. The 
legislatures of most of the states in Ameri- 
ca, consist of two houses or branches, but 
the sanction of the governor is required 
to give their acts the force of law, or a 
concurrence of two thirds of the two 
houses, after he has declined and assigned 
his objections. 

LE'GIST, n. One skUIed in the laws. 


LEgIT'IMACY, n. [from legitimate.] Law- 
fulness of birth ; opposed to bastardy. 


2. Genuineness ; opposed to spuiiousness. 
The legitimacy of his conclusions is not ti 
be questioned. 

LEGIT'IMATE, a. [Fr. legiH^iie ; L. legiti 
?nus; from ler, law.] 

1. Lawfully begotten or born ; born in wed 
lock ; as legitimate heirs or children. 

2. Genuine ; real ; proceeding from a pure 
source ; not false or spurious ; as legiti- 
mate arguments or inferences. 

LEGIT'IMATE, v. t. [Fr. legitlmcr ; Sp. 
legitimar ; It. legittimare.] 

1. To make lawful. 

2. To render legitimate ; to communicate 
the rights of a legitimate child to one that 
is illegitimate ; to invest with the rights of 
a lawful heir. -'iyliffe 

-i n ,■•'■ , LEGIT'IMATELY, adv. Lawfully;' 

.5. L-ontaming a great number ; as a legion-\\ cordinn- to 1 
ary body of errors. B,o»,» I'o r.-.n.M.oi,, 

Broton.\\2. Genuinely 

not falsely. 



LEtilT'IMATENESS, «. Legahty; law- 
fulness ; genuineness. 
LEGITIMATION, H. [Fr.] Tlie act of ren- 
dering legitimate, or of investing an ille- 
gitimate child with the rights of one born 
in wedlock. 
2. Lawful birth. [Unusual.] Shak. 

LEG'IJME, I ,, [L. legumen ; Fr. legxme ; 
LEGU'MEN, \ "• probably from L. ifgo, to 
collect, and signifying that which collects, 
or holds, or a collection.] 
In botany, a pericarp or seed-vessel, of two 
valves, in which the seeds are fixed to one 
suture only. In the latter circumstance it 
differs from a siliqua, in which the seeds 
are attached to both sutures. In popular 
use, a legume is called a pod, or a cod ; as 
a pea-pod, or peas-cod. Martyn. 

2. In the plural, pulse, peas, beans, &c. 
LEGU'MINOUS, a. Pertaining to pulse; 
consisting of pulse. Legimmious plants 
are such as have a legume for a pericarp, 
as peas and beans. 
LEIS'URABLE, a. s as :. [See Leisure.] 
Vacant of employment; not occupied ; as 
leisurable hours. [Little 7ised.] Brown. 
LEIS'URABLY, adv. At leisure ; without 
hurry. [Little used.] Hooker. 

LEISURE,)!, lezh'ur or lee'zhur. [Fr. loisir. 
This is doubtless from the same root as 
Sw. and Dan. ledig, void, empty, vacant, 
free, eased ; Sw. ledighet, Dan. ledighed, 

Freedom from occupation or business ; 
vacant time ; time free from employment. 
The desire of leisure is much more natural 
tlian of business and care. Temple. 

I shall leave with him that rebuke to be con- 
sidered at his leisure. Locke. 
2. Convenience of time. 

He sigh'd, and had no leisure more to say. 
[A'ot used.] JJryden. 

LEIS'URELY, a. Done at leisure; not 
hasty ; deliberate ; slow ; as a leisurely 
walk or march ; a leisurely survey of life. 
LEIS'URELY, adv. Not in haste or hurry; 
slowly ; at leisure ; deliberately. 

We descended very leisurely, my fiiend being 

careful to comit the steps. Addison. 

LE'MAN, n. [probably contracted from lif- 

man, leveman ; Sax. leof, loved, and man. 

See Love and Lief.] 

A sweetheart ; a gallant, or a mistress. Obs. 

Chaucer. Spenser. Shak. 

LEME, n. [Sax. leoma.] A ray of light. 

[A'oi in use.] Chaucer. 

LEME, V. i. To shine. Obs. 

LEM'MA, n. [Gr. >.r^^t^a, from ^afiSavo, to 

In 7nathematics, a previous proposition prov- 
ed, or a proposition demonstrated for the 
purpose of being used in the demonstra- 
tion of some other proposition. It is there- 
fore a received truth. Day. 
LEM'MING, I „ A species of animal be- 
LE'MING, 5 "• longing to the genus 3Ius ; 
akind of rat, in the north of Europe, which 
sometimes migrates from north to south iu 
immense numbers. Encyc. 
Lemnian earth, or sphragide, from the isle of 
Lemnos, in the Egean sea, a kind of as- 
tringent medicinal earth, of a fatty con- 
sistence and reddish color, used in the 
same cases as bole. It has the external 
appearance of clay, with a smooth sur- 
face resembling agate, especially in recent 

L E N 

L E N 

L E N 

fractures. It removes impurities like 
soap. Encyc. JVicholson. 

LEM'NISCATE, n. [L. lemniscus, a ribin ; 
lemniscatus, adorned with ribins.] A curve 
ill the form of the figure 8. 

LEM'ON, n. [Fr. Sp. limon ; It. limone. 
This word is found in the Arabic of Avi- 
cenna, and in the Amharic dialect of Ethio- 
pia, we find lime or lome, the same word.] 

1. The fruit of a tree belonging to the genus 
Citrus, which grows in warm cliinates. 
This fruit furnishes a cooling acid juice, 
which forms an ingredient in some of our 
most delicious liquors. 

2. Lemon or lemon tree, the tree that produces 

LEMONA'DE, n. [Fr. limonade; Sp. limon- 
ada ; from limon.] 

A liquor consisting of lemon juice mixed 
with water and sweetened. 

LE'MUR, n. [L.] A genus of quadrupeds, 
the Makis, natives of Africa and the East 

LE'MURES, n. [L.] Hobgoblins; evil spir- 
its. [JVot English.] 

LEND, V. t. pret. and pp. lent. [Sax. Icenan ; 
Sw. l&na ; Dan. laaner ; G. leihen ; D. 
leenen. Lend is a corrupt orthography of 
len, or loan, or derived from it. See Loan.] 

1. To grant to another for temporary use, 
on the express or implied condition that 
the thing shall be returned ; as, to lend a 
book ; or 

2. To grant a thing to be used, on the con- 
dition that its equivalent in kind shall be 
returned ; as, to lend a sum of money, or a 
loaf of bread. 

n. To afford ; to grant ; to furnish, in gen- 
eral ; as, to lend assistance ; to lend an ear 
to a discourse. 

Cato, lend me for a while thy patience. 


4. To grant for temporary use, on condition 
of receiving a compensation at certain pe- 
riods for the use of the thing, and an ulti- 
mate return of the thing, or its full value. 
Thus money is lent on condition of receiv- 
ing interest for the use, and of having the 
principal sum returned at the stipulated 
time. Lend is correlative to borrow. 

5. To permit to use for another's benefit. A 
lent his name to obtain money from the 

0. To let for hire or compensation ; as, to 
lend a horse or gig. [This sense is used 
by Paley, and probably may be common in 
England. But in the United States, I be- 
lieve, the word is never thus used, except 
in reference to money. We lend money 
upon interest, but never lend a coach or 
horse for a compensation. We use let.] 
LEND'ABLE, a. That may be lent. 

LEND'ER, n. One who lends. 

The horrowei- is servant to the lender. Piov. 


2. One who makes a trade of putting money 

to interest. Bacon. Dryden. 

LEND'ING, ppr. Granting for temporary 

use. [See Lend.] 
LEND'ING, n. The act of loaning. 
2. That which is lent or furnished. Shak. 
LENDS, n. [Sax.] Loins. [JVolinuse.] 

LP;NGTI[, n. [Sax. lengthe, from leng, long 
D. lengte.] 

1. The extent of any thing material from end 
to end ; the longest line which can be 
drawn through a body, parallel to its 
sides ; as the length of a church or of a 
ship ; the length of a rope or line. 

2. Extent ; extension. 
Stretch'd at his lengthhe spurns the swarthy 

ground. Dryden, 

3. A certain extent ; a portion of space ; 
with a plural. 

Large lengths of seas and shores — Sh 

4. Space of time ; duration, indefinitely ; 

a great length of time. What length of 
time will this enterprise require for its ac- 
complishment ? 

5. Long duration. 
May heaven, great monarch, still augment 

your bliss, 
With length of days, and every day like this. 

6. Reach or extent ; as, to pursue a subject 
a great length. 

7. Extent ; as the length of a discourse, es- 
say, or argument. 

8. Distance. 

He had marched to the length of Exeter. 

[ Unusual and inelegant.] Clarendon. 

Jit length, at or in the full extent. Let the 

name be inserted at length. 
2. At last; at the end or conclusion. 


LENGTH, V. t. To extend. [JVot used.] 
LENGTH'EN, v. t. length'n. To extend in 
length; to make longer; to elongate; as, 
to lengthen a line. 
2. To draw out or extend in time ; to pro- 
tract ; to continue in duration ; as, to 
lengthen life. The days lengthen from De- 
cember to June. 
■i. To extend ; as, to lengthen a discourse or 

a dissertation. 
4. To draw out in pronunciation ; as, to 
lengthen a sound or a syllable. This verb 
is often followed by out, which may be 
sometimes emphatical, but in general is 

What if I please to lengthen out his date ? 


LENGTH'EN, v. i. To grow longer; tc 

extend in length. A hempen rope con 

tracts when wet, and lengthens when 


LENGTH' EN ED, pp. Made longer ; drawn 

out in length ; continued in duration. 
LENGTH'ENING, ppr. Making longer; 

extending in length or in duration. 
LENGTH'ENING, n. Continuation; 

traction. Dan. iv. 

LENGTHFUL, a. Of great length in 

measure. Pope 

LENGTH'WISE, adv. In the direction of 

the length ; in a longitudinal direction 
LENGTH'Y, a. Being long or moderately 
long ; not short ; not brief; applied mostly 
to moral subjects, asto discourses, writings, 
arguments, proceedings, &c. ; as a lengthy 
sermon ; a lengthy dissertation ; a lengthy 

Lengthy periods. 

Washington's Letter to Plater. 
No ministerial act in France, in matters 
judicial cognizance, is done without a proces 
verbal, in which the facts are stated amidst a 
great deal of lengthy formality, with a degree 
of minuteness, highly profitable to tlie verbali- 
zing otliccrs and to the revenue. 
I .?m. Jieiiiew, .an. Oct. 1811 

P. S. Murray has sent or will send a doable 
copy of the Bride and Giaour; in the last one, 
some lengthy addiUons ; pray accept them, ac- 
cording to old customs — 

Lord Byron's Letter to Dr. Clarke. 

Dec. 13, 1813. 

Chalmers' Political Annals, in treating of Soutii 

Carolina — is by no means as lengthy as Mr. 

Hewitt's History. 

Drayton's View of South Carolina. 
LE'NIENT, a. [L. leniens, from Itnio, lenis, 

soft, mild ; At. ^ y laina, to be soft, or 
smooth. Class Ln. No 4. The primary 
sense probably is smooth, or to make 
smooth, SMdblandus may be of the same 

1. Softening; mitigating; assuasive. 

Time, that on all things lays his lenient hand. 

Vet lames not this. Pope. 

Sometimes with of; as lenient of grief. 


2. Laxative; emollient. 

Oils relax the fibers, are lenient, balsamic — 

LE'NIENT, n. That which softens or as- 
suages ; an emollient. Wiseman. 

LEN'IFY, V. t. To assuage ; to soften ; to 
mitigate. [Little used.] 

Bacon. Dryden. 

LEN'IMENT, n. An assuasive. [JVot 

LEN'ITIVE, a. [It. lenitivo;Fi: lenitif; from 
L. lenio, to soften.] 

Having the quality of softening or mitiga- 
ting, as pain or acrimony ; assuasive ; 
emollient. Bacon. Arbuthnot. 

LEN'ITIVE, n. A medicine or application 
that has the quality of easing pain ; that 
which softens or mitigates. 

2. A palliative ; that which abates passion. 

LEN'ITY, II. [L. lenitas, from lenis, mild, 

Mildness of temper ; softness ; tenderness ; 
mercy. Yoimg offenders may be treated 
with lenity. It is opposed to severity and 

LENS, n. plu. lenses. [L lens, a lentil.] A 
transparent substance, usually glass, so 
formed that rays of light passing through 
it are made to change their direction, and 
to magnify or diminish objects at a cer- 
tain distance. Lenses are double-convex, 
or convex on both sides ; double-concave, 
or concave on both sides ; plano-convex, 
or plano-concave, that is, with one side 
plane, and the other convex or concave ; 
or convex on one side and concave on the 
other : the latter is called a menisctis. 


LENT, pp. of lend. 

LENT, n. [Sax. lencten, spring, lent, from 
leng, long ; lenegan, to lengthen ; so call- 
ed from the lengthening of the days.] 

The quadragesimal fast, or fast of forty days, 
observed by the christian church before 
Easter, the festival of our Savior's resur- 
rection. It begins at Ash- Wednesday, and 
continues till Easter. 

LENT'EN, a. Pertaining to lent ; used in 

lent; sparing; as silenten entertaiument ; 

a lenten sallad. Shak. 

LENTICULAR, a. [L. lenticularis, from 

lens, supra.] 
I. Resembling a lentil. 

L E P 

L E S 

L E 

2. Having the form of a lens; leutiform. 

LENTIC'ULARLY, adv. In the manner of 
a lens ; with a curve. 

LENTIC'ULITE, 71. A petrified shell. 

LENT'IFORM, a. [L. lena and forma, 
form.] Of the form of a lens. 

LENTlG'lNOUS, a. [L. lentigo, a freckle 
from L. lens.] Freckly; scurfy; furfura 

LE.\TI'GO, n. A frecklv eruption on the skin. 

LENTIL, n. [Fr. lentilk, from L. lens.] 
A plant of the genus Ervum. It is an an 
nual plant, rising with weak stalks about 
18 inches. The seeds, which are contain 
ed in a pod, are round, flat, and a little 
convex in the middle. It is cultivated for 
fodder, and for its seeds. Encyc. 

LEN'TISK, I [Fr.lenlisque; It. leniis- 

LENTIS'CUS, i "• chio; Sp. lentisco ; L. 

A tree of the genus Pistacia, the mastich 
tree, a native of Arabia, Persia, Syria, and 
the south of Europe. The wood is of a 
pale brown, resinous and fragrant. [Sec 

LENT'ITUDE, n. [L. lenlus, slow.] Slow- 
ness. [JVot used.] Did. 

LENT'NER, ji. A kind of hawk. Jfalton. 

LENT'OR, n. [L. from lenlus, slow, tough 
clammy ; Fr. lenleur.] 

1. Tenacity; viscousness. Bacon. 

2. Slowness ; delay ; sluggishness. 


3. Siziness ; thickness of fluids; viscidity; 
term used in the humoral pathology. 

Coxe. Quinct/. 

LENT'OUS, a. [L. lentus, slow, thick".] 
Viscid ; viscous ; tenacious. Brown 

LEN'ZINITE, n. [from Lenzius, a German 

A mineral of two kinds, the opaline and ar 
gillaceous ; a variety of clay, occurrinj 
usually in small masses of the size of a 
nut. Cleaveland. Phillips 

LEO, n. [L.] The Lion, the fifth sign of 
the zodiac. 

LE ONINE, a. [L. leonimts, from leo, lion. 
Belonging to a lion ; resembhng a lion, or 
partaking of his quahties ; as leonine 
fierceness or rapacity. 

Leonine verses, so named from Leo, the in 
ventor, are those, the end of which rhymes 
with the middle ; as, 

G\ona factorum temere conceditur horum. 

LE'ONINELY, adv. In the manner of a 
lion. Harris. 

LEOPARD, n. lep'ard. [L. leo, lion, and 
pardus, pard, Gr. xopSoj, from Heb. ns 
to separate, that is, spotted, broken into 

A rapacious quadrui)ed of the genus Fel 
It differs from the panther and tlie once 
in the beauty of its color, which is of a 
lively yellow, with smaller spots than 
those of the two latter, and disposed in 
groups. It is larger than the once and 
less than the panther. This animal is 
found in Africa and Asia, and so rapacious 
as to spare neither man nor beast. Encyc. 

LEOP'ARD'S-BANE, n. A plant of the 
genus Doronicum. The German Leopard's- 
bane is of the genus Arnica. Lee. 

LEP'ER, n. [L. lepra, leprosy, Fr. lepre,\ 
Ir. lobhar, Gr. 7.frtpa.] A person affected 
with leprosy. 

LEP'ID, a. [L. lepidus.] Pleasant; jocose 

[Little used.] 
LEP'IDOLITE, n. [Gr. T^iHif, a scale.] A 

found in scaly masses, ordinarily 
of a violet or lilac color; allied to mica- 


Lepidolite is of a peach-blossom red colo 
sometimes gray ; massive and in small 
concretions. On account of its beautiful 
color, it has been cut into snuff-boxes. It 
is sometimes called lilalite. 

Jameson. Ur 

LEP'IDOPTER, } [Gr. xtK^i, a scale, 

LEPIDOP'TERA, \ "and rtrtpor, a wing.] 
The Lepidopters are an order of insects 
having four wings covered with fine 
scales, like powder, as the butterfly. 

LEPIDOP'TERAL, a. Belonging to the 
order of Lepidopters. 

LEP'ORINE, a. [L. leporinus, from lepus, i 
hare. Qu. the Teutonic leap, to run.] 

Pertaining to a hare ; having the nature 01 
qualities of the hare. Johnson 

LEPROS'ITY, n. Squamousness. [Little 
used.] Bacon 

LEP'ROSY, 11. [See Leper.] A foul cutane 
ous disease, appearing in dry, white, thin, 
scurfy scabs, attended with violent itch 
Ing. It sometimes covers the whole body 
rarely the face. One species of it is call 
ed elephantiasis. Encyc. 

The term leprosy is applied to two very dis- 
tinct diseases, the scaly and the tubercu 
lated, or the proper leprosy and the ele- 
phantiasis. The former is characterized 
by smooth laminated scales, sometimes 
livid, but usually whitish; in the latter, the 
skin is thickened, livid and tuberculated 
It is called the black leprosy, but this term 
is also applied to the livid variety of the 
scaly leprosy. Good. 

LEP'ROUS, a. [Fr. lepreux. See Lepe 

Infected witli leprosy ; covered with white 

His hand was leprous as snow. Ex. iv. 

LEP'ROUSLY.arfv. In an infectious degree, 

LERE, )i. Learning ; lesson ; lore. Obs. 


LERE, V. t. To learn ; to teach. Obs. 


LE'SION, n. Ie'zhu7i. [L. la:sio, from Icedo. 
to hurt.] 

A hurting ; hurt ; wound ; injury. Rush. 

LESS, for unless. [JVot in use.] 

LESS, a terminating syllable of many 
nouns and some adjectives, is the Sax. 
leas, Goth, laus, belonging to the verb 
lysan, lausyan, to loose, free, separate. 
Hence it is a privative word, denoting 
destitution ; as a tcitless man, a man desti" 
tute of wit ; childless, without children 
fatherless ; faithless ; pennyless ; lawless, &c. 

LESS, a. [Sax. 1(es ; perhaps allied to Dan 
liser, to abate, to lessen, to relieve, to ease 
Less has the sense of the comparative de 
gree of Utile.] 

Smaller ; not so large or great ; as a less 
quantity or number; ahorse of less size 
or value. We are all destined to sufier 
affliction in a greater or less degree. 

LESS, adv. Not so much ; in a smaller or 
lower degree ; as less bright or loud ; less 
beautiful ; less obliging ; less careful. The 
less a man praises himself, the more dis 
posed are others to praise him. 
LESS, n. Not so much. 

They gathered 

some more. 

less. Ex 

2. An inferior. 

The less is blessed by the belter. Heb. ^ii. 

LESS, v. t. To make less. [JVot in use.] 

LESSEE', n. [from lease.] The person to 
whom a lease is given, or who takes an 
estate by lease. Blackslone. 

LESS'EN, V. t. les'n. [from less.] To make 
less ; to diminish : to reduce in bulk, size, 
quantity, number or amount; to make 
smaller; as, to lessen a kingdom or its 

2. To diminish in degree, state orqualiiy: 
as, awkward manners tand to lessen our 
respect for men of merit. 

3. To degrade ; to reduce in dignity. 
St. Paul chose to magnify Iiis office, when ill 

men conspired to lessen it. jltlerbwt/. 

LESS'EN, V. i. les'n. To become less ; to 
shrink; to contract in bulk, quantity, 
number or amount; to be diminished. 
The apparent magnitude of objects lessens 
as we recede from them. 

2. To become less in degree, quahty or in- 
tensity ; to decrease. The strength of the 
body, and the vivacity of the temper usu- 
ally lessen as we advance in age. 

LESS'ENED, /i;3. Made smaller; diminish- 

LESS'ENING, ppr. Reducing in bulk, 
amount or degree ; degrading. 

LESS'ER, a. [Sax. tesscr, kesse, from las. 
This word is a corruption ; but too well 
established to be discarded.] 

Less ; smaller. Authors always write the 
Lesser Asia. 

By the same reason, may a man in a state 

of nature, punish the lesser breaches of that 

law. Locke. 

God made the lesser light to rule the night. 

Gen. I. 

LES'SON, n. les'n. 
bly liave received from the Fr. lefon, 
lectio, from lego, to read, Fr. lire, lisant ; 
Sp. leccion ; It. lezione ; Sw. lexa ; and 
not from the D. leezen, G. lesen, to read.] 

1. Any thing read or recited to a teacher by 
a pupil or learner for improvement ; or 
such a portion of a book as a pupil learns 
and repeats at one time. The instructor 
is pleased when his pupils recite their 
lessons with accuracy and promptness. 

2. A portion of Scripture read in divine 
service. Thus endeth the first lesson. 

3. A portion of a book or manuscript as- 
signed by a preceptor to a pupil to be 
learnt, or for an exercise ; something to 
be learnt. Give him his lesson. 

4. Precept; doctrine or notion inculcated. 
Be not jealous over the wife of thy bosom, 

and teach her not an evil lesson against thy- 
self- Ecclus. 

5. Severe lecture ; reproof; rebuke. 
She would give her a lesson for walking so 

late. Sidney. 

6. Tune written for an instrument. Davies. 
i7. Instruction or truth, taught by experience. 

The lessons which sickness imparts, she 
leaves to be practiced when health is es- 

LES'SON, V. t. les'n. To teach ; t( 
Children should be lessoned into 1 
and detestation of this vice. V Estrange 

LES'SONED, pp. Taught; instructed. 

LES'SONING, ppr. Teaching. 

[■fhls word we proba- 
from the Fr. lecon, L. 



LES'SOR, n. [from lease.] One who leases; 
the person who lets to farm, or gives a 
lease. Blackstone. 

LEST, eon. [from the Sax. leas, Goth, laus, 
loose, separate. In Saxon it was prece 
ded by the, the leas, that less, that not, lu 
forte. Hence it denotes a loosing or sepa 
ration, and hence it comes to express pre- 
vention.] That not ; for fear that. 

Ye sliall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch 
it, lest ye die. Gen. iii. 

The phrase may be thus explained. Ye 
shall not touch it ; that separated or dis- 
missed, ye die. That here refeivs to the 
preceding command or sentence ; that 
being removed or not observed, the fact 
being not so, ye will die. 

Sin no more, lest a worse tiling come to 
thee. John v. 

Sin no more ; that fact not taking place, t 
worse thing will happen to thee. 

LET, V. t. pret. and pp. let. Letted is obso 
lete. [Sax. Man, letan, Goth, letan, U 
permit, to hinder, to dismiss or send 
away, to let go, to leave, to admit, to 
think or suppose, to dissemble, to retard 
to be late or slow, to dally or trifle, tc 
lease or let out; letan aiveg, to let away 
to throw ; W. lluz, hinderance ; lluziaw, to 
hinder ; D. laalen, to permit, to suffer, ti 
give, to leave, to loose, to put, to stow 
G. lassen, to let, to permit, grant, allow, 
suffer ; vertassen, to forsake ; unterlassen, 
to cease, to forbear ; Sw. UUa, to permit 
Dan. lader, to let, permit, allow, grant 
suffer, give leave. But in the four lattei 
dialects, there is another verb, which cor- 
responds with let in some of its significa- 
tions ; D. li/dai, G. leiden, Sw. lida, Dan. 
lider, to suffer, endure, undergo, to per 
niit. With this verb corresponds the En 
glish late, D. laat, Sw. lat, Dan. lad, sloth- 
ful, lazy ; and the G. lass, feeble, lazy, co- 
incides with lassen, supra, and this may be 
the Eng. lazy. To let out, like L. elocare, is 
to lease, Fr. laisser. Let is the Fr. laisser, 
in a different dialect. By the German 
and Welsh it appears tliat the last radi 
cal may have originally been th, ts or tz, 
or other compound. See Class Ld. No. 
2. 15. 19. 93. 32. and Class Ls. No. 30._ 

1. To permit; to allow; to suffer; to give 
leave or power by a positive act, or neg 
atively, to withhold restraint ; not to pre 
vent. A leaky ship lets water enter into 
the hold. Let is followed by the infinitive 
without the sign to. 

Pharaoh said, I will let you go. Ex- vni 

When the ship was caught and could 

bear up into the wind, wc let her drive. ^ 

2. To lease ; to grant possession and use for 
a compensation ; as, to let to farm ; to let 
an estate for a year ; to W a room to lod- 
gers ; often followed by oid, as, to let out 
a farm ; but the use of out is unnecessary. 

3. To suffer; to permit; with the usual 
sign of the infinitive. 

There's a letter for you, Sir, if your name be 

Horatio, as 1 am let to know it is. [JVot used.] 


4. In the imperative mode, let has the follow- 
ing uses. Followed by the first and third 
persons, it expresses desire or wish ; 
hence it is used in prayer and entreaty to 
superiors, and to those who have us 


their power; as, let me not wander from 
thy commandments. Ps. cxix. 

Followed by the first person plural, let 
expresses exhortation or entreaty; s 
rise, let us go. 

Followed by the third person, it irapli 
permission or command addressed to an 
inferior. Let him go, let them remain, art 
commands addressed to the second per 
son. Let thou, or let ye, that is, do thou 
or you permit him to go. 

Sometimes let is used to express a com- 
mand or injunction to a third person 
When the signal is given to engage, let 
every man do his duty. 

When applied to things not rational, it 
implies allowance or concession. 
O'er golden sands let rich Pactolus flow. 

5. To retard ; to hinder ; to impede ; to in- 
terpose obstructions. 2 Thess. 2. 

[This sense is now obsolete, or nearly 

To let alone, to leave ; to suffer to remain 
without intermeddling ; as, let alone this 
idle project ; let me alone. 

To let doxim, to permit to sink or fall 

yiie let them down by a cord through the 
window. Josh. ii. 

To let loose, to free from restraint; toper 
mit to wander at large. 

To let in or into, to permit or suft'er to en 
ter ; to admit. Open the door, let in my 
friend. We are not let into the secrets of 
the cabinet. 

To let blood, to open a vein and suffer the 
blood to flow out. 

To lei out, to suffer to escape ; also, to lease 
or let to hire. 

To let off, to discharge, to let fly, as an ar- 
row ;" or cause to explode, as a gun. 

LET, I', i. To forbear. Obs. Bacon. 

LET, n. A retarding ; hinderance ; obsta 
cle; impediment; delay. [Obsolete, im 
less in some technical phrases.] 

LET, a termination of diminutives; as ham 
let, a little house ; rivulet, a small stream 
[Sax. lyt, small, less, few. See Little.] 

LE'THAL, a. [h. tethalis, mortal, from Gr. 
XriSf;, oblivion.] Deadly ; mortal ; fatal. 


LETHALITY, n. Mortality. Mins. 

LETHAR'GK;, ) [h. lethargicus ; Fr. 

LETHAR'GKAL, S lethargique.] Pre- 
ternaturally inclined to sleep; drowsy; 
dull; heavy. Arbuthnot. 

LETIIAR'titcALLY, adv. In a morbid 

LETHAR'GICALNESS, ? Preternatur- 

LETllAR'GleNESS, S a' or morbid 
sleepiness or drowsiness. More. Herbert. 

LETH'ARGIED, ;>/). or a. Laid asleep ; en- 
tranced. Shak. 

LETH'ARgY, n. [L. lethargia ; Gr. >.^eop- 
yia, ; ?i.)j9(;, oblivion, and apyoj, idle.] 

L Preternatural sleepiness; morbid drow- 
siness ; continued or profound sleep, from 
which a person can scarcely be awaked, 
and if awaked, remains stupid. 

2. Dullness ; inaction ; inattention. 

Europe lay then under a deep lethargy. 


LETII'ARgY, v. I. To make lethargic or 
dull. Churchill 


LE'THE, n. le'thee. [Gr. XYiSt,, forgetfulnesi : 
■KriSio, L. lateo, to be hid.] Oblivion; a 
draught of oblivion. Milton. 

LETHE'AN, a. Inducing forgetfulness or 
oblivion. Lempriere. As. Res. 

LETHIF'EROUS, a.[ L. lethum, death, and 
fero, to bring.] 

Deadly ; mortal ; bringing death or destruc- 
tion. Robinson. 

LET'TER, n. [from let.] One who permits. 

2. One who retards or hinders. 

3. One who gives vent ; as a blood-/eHer. 
LET'TER, 71. [Fr. lettre ; It. lettera; L. 

litera; W.llythyr.] 

1. A mark or character, written, printed, 
engraved or painted ; used as the repre- 
sentative of a sound, or of anjarticulation 
of the human organs of speech. By 
sounds, and articulations or closures of the 
organs, are formed syllables and words. 
Hence a letter is the first element of 
written language, as a simple sound is the 
first element o{ spoken language or speech. 
As sounds are audible and communicate 
ideas to others by the ear, so letters are 
visible representatives of soimds, and com- 
municate the thoughts of others by means 
of the eye. 

2. A written or printed message ; an epistle ; 
a communication made by visible charac- 
ters from one person to another at a dis- 

The style of letters ought to be free, easy 
and natural. JValsh. 

The verbal expression ; the literal mean- 

We must observe the letter of the law, with- 
out doing violence to the reason of the law, 
and the intentions of the lawgiver. Taylor. 

4. Type ; a character formed of metal or 
wood, usually of metal, and used in 
printing books. 

5. Letters, in the plural, learning ; erudi- 
tion ; as a man of letters. 

Dead letter, a writing or precept, which is 
without authority or force. "The best law 
may become a dead letter. 

Letter of attorney, a writing by which one 
person authorizes another to act in his 

Letter of marque, a private ship commission- 
ed or authorized by a government to 
make reprisals on the ships of another 
state. [See Marque.] 

Letters patent, or overt, open, a writing exe- 
cuted and sealed, by which power and 
authority are granted to a person to do 
some act, or enjoy some right ; as letters 
patent under the seal of England. 

LET'TER, V. t. To impress or form letters 
on ; as, to letter a book ; a book gilt and 

LET'TER-CASE, n. A case or book to put 
letters in. 

LET'TERED, pp. Stamped with letters. 

LET'TERED, a. Literate ; educated ; vers-^ 
ed in literature or science. Collier. 

2. Belonging to learning; suiting letters. 

LET'TER-FOUNDER, n. One who casts 
letters ; a type-founder. 

LET'TERIN.G, JW- Impressing or form- 
ing letters on ; as lettering a book on the 

LET'TERLESS, a. IlUterate ; unlettered ; 
not learned. Waterland. 

L E \ 

LET'TER-PRESS, «. [klier and press.] 
Print ; letters and words impressed on 
paper or other material by types. 
LETTUCE, 71. hl'lis. [Fr. laitue; It. lattu 
ga ; Sp. lechuga ; Arm. laciuztn ; G. lat 
tick; Vt.latmo; from L. faduca, according 
to Varro, from lac, milk.] 
A genus of plants, the Lactuca, of many 
species, some of whicli are used as sal- 
LEU'CIN, I [Gr. ^fv«oj, white.] A pe 
LEU'CINE, \ ' culiar white pulverulent; 
substance obtained from beef-fibers, 
ed with sulphuric acid, and afterwards 
with alcohol. 

Braconnet. ff'ebster^s Manual 
LEU'CITE, n. [Gr. -Kivxoi, white.] A stony 
substance, so called from its whiteness 
found among volcanic productions in Ita 
ly, in crystals, or in iiTegular masses ; for- 
merly called crystals of white shorl, or 
white granite or granilite. 

Did. JVat. Hist. 

Haily calls this mineral, amphigene. It 

is called by some writers leucolite, and by' 

others, dodecahedral zeolite. 

LEU€0-ETHIOP'l€, a. [Gr. >.h,xo5, white, 

and 016104-, black.] 
White and black ; designating a white ani- 
mal of a black species, or the albino. 

LEUeOPHLEG'MACY, n. [Gr. f.svxo(, 

white, and fKfy^ia, phlegm.] 
A dropsical habit of body, or the coran]ence-| 
ment of anasarca; paleness, with viscid 
juices and cold sweats. 

Coie. Parr. Arbuthnot! 
LEU€OPHLEGMAT'I€, a. Having adrop-| 
sical habit of body with a white bloated 
LEUeO'THIOP, 11. [See Leuco-elhiopic] 
An albino ; a white man of a black race. 
LEU'THRITE, n. [from Leuthra, in Sax- 
A substance that appears to be a recomposed 
rock, of a loose texture, gritty and harsh! 
to the touch. Its color is a grayish white,! 
tinged here and there with an ocherousi 
brown. It includes small fragments of! 
mica. Phillips. 

LE'VANT, a. [Fr. levant, rising, from lever, 

L. leva.] 
Eastern; denoting the part of the hemis- 
phere where the sim rises. 

Forth rash the levant and the ponent winds. 


LEVANT', Ji. [iLlevante, the East, supra.]! 

Properly, a country to the eastward ; butj 

appropriately, the countries of Turkey,' 

Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, Egypt, &c.l 

which are washed by the Mediterranean 

and its contiguous waters. j 

LEVANTINE, a. Pertaining to the Levant.! 


2. Dssignatmg a particular kind of silk 

LEVANTINE, n. A particular kind of silk 

LEVA'TOR, n. [L. from leva, to raise.] In! 
anatomy, a muscle that serves to raise some! 
part, as the hp or the eyelid. I 

2. A surgical instrument used to raise a de- 
pressed part of the skull. Wiseman) 
LEVE, for believe. Obs. Gower} 

L E V 

LEVEE, 11. [Fr. from lever, to raise, L. 

1. The time of rising. 

2. The concourse of persons who visit a 
prince or great personage in the inorning. 


3. A bank or causey, particularly along a 
river to prevent inundation ; as the levees 
along the Mississippi. 

LEVEL, a. [Sax. te/f , id. ; W. %d7!, smooth, 
even, level, "sleek, slippery ; llyvelu, to level, 
to render uniform, to devise, invent, guess 
llyvnu, to make smooth. This seems to 
be connected with Uyvu, to lick. So like, 
D. gelyk, G. gleich, is smooth, even, level, 
equal, coinciding with Eng. sleek. The 
L. libella, libra, belong to this root ; It. 

1. Horizontal ; coinciding with the plane of 
the horizon. To be perfectly level is to be 
exactly horizontal. 

2. Even ; flat ; not having one part higher 
than another ; not ascending or descend- 
ing ; as a level plain or field ; level grouod; 
a level floor or pavement. In common 
usage, level is often applied to surfaces 
that are not perfectly horizontal, but 
which have no inequalities of magnitude. 

3. Even with any thing else ; of the same 
liighth ; on the same line or plane. 

4. Equal in rank or degree ; having no de 
gree of superiority. 

Be level in preferments, and you will soon be 
as level in your learning. Bentley 

LEV'EL, V. t. To make horizontal. 

2. To make even; to reduce or remove in- 
equalities of surface in any thing; as, to 
level a road or walk. 

3. To reduce or bring to the same highth 
with something else. 

And their proud structures level with the 
ground. Sandys 

To lay flat ; to reduce to an even surface 
or plain. 

He levels mountains, and he raises plains. 

Dryden. I 

L E V 

5. To reduce to equality of condition, state LEVER, n. [Fr. levier; It. leva; from le 

or degree ; as, to level all ranks and 

grees of men. 
). To point, in taking aim; to elevate or de 

press so as to direct a missile weapon to 

an object ; to aim ; as, to level a cannon i 


To aim ; to direct ; as severe remarks 

leveled at the vices and follies of the age. 
8. To suit ; to proportion ; as, to level obser-l 

vations to the capacity of children. ! 

LEV'EL, 11. t. To accord; to agree ; to suit.' 

[Utile tised.] SliakJ 

2. To aim at ; to point a gun or an arrow to! 

the mark, 

3. To aim at ; to direct the view or purpose. 
The ^lory of God and the good of his church, 

ought to be the mark at whicli we level. 


4. To be aimed ; to be in the same direction 
with the mark. 

He raised it till he leveVd right. Butler. 

5. To aim ; to make attempts. 
Ambitious York did level at thy crown. 


6. To conjecture ; to attempt to guess. [J^ot 
used.] Shak. 

LEV'EL, n. A horizontalhne, or a plane; 
a surface without inequalities^ Hale. 

2. Rate ; standard : usual elevation ; cus^ 
tomary highth ; as the ordinary level of tin; 

3. Equal elevation with something else ; a 
state of equality. 

Providence, for the most part, sets us on a 
'4,"<''- Spectator. 

4. The line of direction in which a missile 
weapon is aimed. 

5. An instrument in mechanics by which to 
find or draw a horizontal line, as in set- 
tmg buildings, or in making canals and 
drains. The instruments for these pur- 
poses are various ; as the air level, the car- 
penter's level, the mason's level, and the 
gunner's level. 

6. Rule; plan; scheme: borrowed from the 
mechanic's level. 

Be the fair level of thy actions laid — Prior. 
LEVELED, pp. Reduced to a plane; made 

2. Reduced to an equal state, condition or 

3. Reduced to an equality with something 

4. Elevated or depressed to a right line to- 
wards something; pointed to an object; 
directed to a mark. 

5. Suited ; proportioned. 
LEVELER, n. One that levels or makes 

2. One that destroys or attempts to destrov 
distinctions, and reduce to equality. 

LEVELING, ppr. Making level or'even. 

2. Reducing to an equality of condition. 

LEVELING, )!. The art or practice of 
finding a horizontal line, or of ascertain- 
ing the different elevations of objects 011 
the surface of the earth ; in other words, 
the difference in the distance of objects 
from the center of the earth. Encyc. 

LEVELNESS, n. Evenness ; equality of 

2. Equality with something else. 

LEVEN. [Sfte Leaven.] 

LEVEN, n. [Sax. hlijian.] Lightning. 
Obs. Chaucer. 

ver, levare, L. leva, to raise.] 

In mechanics, a bar of metal, wood, or other 
substance, turning on a support called the 
Adcrum or prop. Its arms are equal, as 
in the balance ; or unequal, as in steelyards. 
It is one of the mechanical powers, and is 
of three kinds, viz. 1. When the ful- 
crum is between the weight and the pow- 
er, as in the handspike, crotvbar, &c. 2. 
When the weight is between the power 
and the fulcrum, as in rowing a boat. 3. 
When the power is between the weight 
and the fulcrum, as in raising a ladder from 
the ground, by applying the hands to one 
of the lower rounds. The bones of ani- 
mals are levers of the third kind. 

LEVERET, n. [Fr. lievrct, from lievre, a 
hare.] A hare in the first year of her age. 

LEVEROCK, n. A bird, a lark. [See 
Lark.] Johnson, 

LEVET, n. [Qu. Fr. lever, to raise.] A 
blast of a trumpet; probably that by which 
soldiers are called in the morniny. [,\'ot 
used.] Hudibras. 

LEVIABLE, a. [from levy.] That may be 
levied ; that may be assessed and collect- 
ed ; as sums leviable by course of law. 




L I B 

LEVIATHAN, n. [Heb.p'iS.] An aquat- 
ic animal, described in the book of Job, 
ch. xli, and nwntioned in other passages 
of Scripture. In Isaiah, it is called 
the crooked serpent. It is not agreed 
what animal is intended by the writers, 
whether the crocodile, the whale, or a 
species of serpent. 

Q. The whale, or a great whale. Milton. 

LEVIGATE, V. t. [L. Im'igo, from torn, 
smooth, Gr. Xtiof.] 

1. In pharmacy and Ministry, to rub or grind 
to a fine impalpable powder ; to make 
fine, soft and smooth. 

2. To plane ; to polish. Barrow. 
LEV'IGATE, a. Made smooth. 
LEVIGATED, pp. Reduced to a fine im- 
palpable powder. 

LEVIGATING, ppr. Rendering very fine, 
soft and smooth, by grinding or rubbing. 

LEVIGA'TION, n. The act or operation 
of grinding or rubbing a solid substance 
to a fine impalpable powder. Encyc. 

LEVITA'TION, n. [L. Icvis, levitas.] Light- 
ness ; buoyancy; act of making light. 

LE'VITE, n. [from Leui, one of the sons of 

One of the tribe or family of Levi ; a de- 
scendant of Levi; more particularly, an 
officer in the Jewish church, who was 
employed in manual service, as in bring 
ing wood and other necessaries for thi 
sacrifices. The Levites also sung and 
played on instruments of music. They 
were subordinate to the priests, the de- 
scendants of Aaron, who was also of the 
family of Levi. Encyc. 

LEVIT'I€AL, a. Belonging to the Levites, 
or descendants of Levi ; as the Icvitical 
law, the law given by Moses, which pre 
scribed the duties and rights of the priests 
and Levites, and regidated the civil and 
religious concerns of the Jews. 

2. Priestly. Milton. 

LEVIT'ICALLY, adv. After the manner 
of the Levites. 

LEVIT'leUS, n. [from Levi, Levite.] A 
canonical book of the Old Testament, 
containing the laws and regulations which 
relate to the priests and Levites among 
the Jews, or the body of the ceremonial 

LEVITY, n. [L. levitas, from levis, light ; 
connected perhaps with Eng. K/7.] 

1. Lightness; the want of weigh't in a body, 
compared with another that is heavier. 
The ascent of a balloon in the air is owing 
to its levity, as the gas that fills it is light 
er than common air. 

2. Lightness of temper or conduct ; incon 
stancy ; changeableness ; unsteadiness 
as the levity of youth. Hooker. 

3. Want of due consideration ; vanity ; freak. 
He never employed his onuiipotence out 
o{ levity or ostentation. 

4. Gayety of mind ; want of seriousness ; 
disposition to trifle. The spirit of religion 
and seriousness was succeeded by levity. 

LEVY, V. t. [Fr.lever ; It. levare ; Sp. lerar ; 

L. leva ; Eng. to lift.] 
1 . To raise ; to collect. To levy troops, is to 

enlist or to order men into public service. 

To levy an army, is to collect troops and 

form an army by enrollment, conscriptioni 

or other means. 
. To raise ; to collect by assessment ; as,! 

to levy taxes, toll, tribute, or contributions.] 
To levy war, is to raise or begin war : to take 

arms for attack ; to attack. Blackstone. 
To levy a fine, to commence and carry on a 

suit for assuring the title to lands or tene-i 

ments. Blackstone. 

LEV'Y, n. The act of collecting men fori 

military, or other public service, as by en-j 

listment, enrollment or other means. 1 

Kings ix. 

2. Troops collected ; an army raised. 1 
Kings V. 

3. The act of collecting money for public 
use by tax or other imposition. 

4. War raised. [jVo( in nse.] Shak. 
LEW, a. [D. laauiv.] Tepid ; lukewarm ; 

pale ; wan. Obs. I 

LEWD, a. [W. llodig, having a craving ; 
llodi, to reach out, to crave ; llodineb, lewd- 
ness ; llawd, that shoots out or is growing, 
a lad; G. luder, lewdness; Heb. Ch. Syr 
Sam. nS' to beg«t, to bring forth; Ar. 

A^j, Eth. ©A^ id.] 

1. Given to the unlawful indulgence of lust 
addicted to fornication or adultery ; dis- 
solute ; lustful ; libidinous. Ezek. xxiii. 

2. Proceeding from unlawful lust ; as lewd 

3. Wicked ; vile ; profligate ; licentious. 
Acts xvii. 

LEWD, a. [Sax. Icewed, leivd. This seems 
to be a contracted word, and either from 
the root of laical, lay, or from the Sax. 
lead, G. leute, people, which seems to be 
from the same root as the foregoing word, 
VikeL.gens, from geno.] Lay; laical ;not 
clerical. Obs. Davies. 

LEWDLY, adv. With the unlawful indul- 
gence of lust ; lustfully. 

2. Wickedly ; wantonly. 

LEWD'NESS, n. The unlawful indulgence 
of lust ; fornication, or adultery. 

2. In Scripture, it generally denotes idola- 

3. Licentiousness ; shamelessness. Spenser. 

LEWD'STER, n. One given to the crimi- 
nal indulgence of lust ; a lecher. [Mit 
used.] Shak 

LEXICOGRAPHER, n. [See Lexicogra- 
phy.] The author of a lexicon or diction 

LEXICOGRAPH le, a. Pertaining to the 
writing or compilation of a dictionary. 


LEXICOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. Xf|«o., a dic- 
tionary, and 7pafu, to write.] 

1. The act of writing a lexicon or dictiona- 
ry, or the art of composing dictionaries. 

2. The composition or compilation of a dic- 

LEXICOL'OgY, n. [Gr. Xiiixov, a diction- 
ary, and >.oyo5, discourse.] 

The science of words; that branch of learn- 
ing which treats of the proper significa- 
tion and just application of words. 

Med. Repos. 

LEXICON, n. [Gr. Xsjixoi-, a dictionary, 
from >.f |i5, T.iya, to speak.] 

A dictionary ; a vocabulary or book con 
taining an alphabetical arrangement of the 

words in a language, with the definition of 
each, or an explanation of its meaning. 

LEX'ICONIST, n. A writer of a lexicon. 
[Little ^^sed.] Orient. Col. 

LEX'IGRAPHY, 71. [Gr. ^.^a, a word, and 
ypcujju, to write.} The art or practice of 
defining words. Med. Repos. 

LEY, a different orthography otlay and lea, 
a meadow or field. 

LHER'ZOLITE, n. [from Lherz, in the 

A mineral, a variety of pyroxene. When 
crystalized, its crystals are brilliant, trans- 
lucid, very small, and of an emerald green. 

LI'ABLE, a. [Pr. Her, to bind, L. ligo ; 
Norm, lige, a bond. See Liege.] 

1. Bound; obliged in law or equity; res- 
ponsible ; answerable. The surety is li- 
able for the debt of his principal. The 
parent is not liable for debts contracted by 
a son who is a minor, except for necessa- 

This use of liable is now common among 
lawyers. The phrase is abridged. The 
surety is liable, that is, bound to pay the 
debt of his principal. 

2. Subject; obnoxious; exposed. 

Proudly secure, yet liable to fall. Milton. 
Liable, in this sense, is always applied 
to evils. We never say, a man is liable to 
happiness or prosperity, but he is liable to 
disease, calamities, censure ; he is liable to 
err, to sin, to fall. 

LI'ABLENESS, ^ „ The state of being 

LIABILITY, \ "■ bound or obliged in 
law or justice ; responsibility. The offi- 
cer wishes to discharge himself from his 

2. E.xposedness ; tendency ; a state of be- 
ing subject ; as the liahleness of a man to 
contract disease in an infected room; a 
liability to accidents. 

LIA'R, ?i. [from lie.] A person who know- 
ingly utters falsehood ; one who declares 
to another as a fact what he knows to be 
not true, and with an intention to deceive 
him. The uttering of falsehood by mis- 
take, and without an intention to deceive, 
does not constitute one a liar. 

9. One who denies Christ. IJobnii. 

LI'ARD, a. Gray. Obs. Chaucer. 

LI'AS, n. A species of limestone, occurring 
in flat, horizontal strata, and supposed to 
be of recent formation. Encyc. 

LIB, v.t. [D.lubben.] To castrate. [JVot'in 
use.] Chapman. 

LIBA'TION, n. [L. libatio, from libo, to 
pour out, to taste.] 

1. The act of pouring a liquor, usually wine, 
either on the ground, or on a victim in 
sacrifice, in honor of some deity. The 
Hebrews, Greeks and Romans practiced 
libation. This was a solenm act and ac- 
companied with prayer. Encyc. 

2. The wine or other liquor poured out in 
honor of a deity. Stilllngfieet. Dryden. 

LIBBARD, an obsolete spelling of leopard. 

Spenser. Milton. 

LIB'BARD'S-BANE, n. A poisonous plant. 

B. Jonson. 

LI'BEL, n. [L. libellus, a little book, from 

liber, a book, from the sense of bark, and 

this from stripping, separating. Hence 

liber, a book, and liber, free, are the same 

word. Class Lb. No. 24. 27. 30. 31.] 

L I B 

1. A defamatory writing, L. Ubellusfamosus. 
Hence, the epithet being omitted, libel ex- 
presses the same tiling. Any book, pamph- 
let, writing or picture, containing repre- 
sentations, maliciously made or published, 
tending to bring a person into contempt, 
or expose him to public hatred and deris- 
ion. The communication of such defam- 
atory writing to a single person, is consid- 
ered in law a publication. It is immate- 
rial with respect to the essence of a libel, 
whether the matter of it is true or false, 
since the provocation and not the falsity is 
the thing to be punished criminally. But 
in a civil action, a libel must appear to be 
false, as well as scandalous. , Blackstone. 

In a more extensive sense, any blasphe- 
mous, treasonable or immoral writing or 
picture made public, is a libel, and punish- 
able by law. 

2. In the civil laio, and in courts of admirally, 
a declaration or charge in writing exhibit- 
ed in court, particularly against a ship or 
goods, for violating the laws of trade or of 

LI'BEL, I'. (. To defame or expose to pub 
lie hatred and contempt by a writing or 
picture ; to lampoon. 

Some wicked wits have IVoekd all the fair. 


2. To exhibit a charge against any thing in 
court, particularly against a ship or goods, 
for a violation of the laws of trade or rev- 

LI'BEL, V. i. To spread defamation, writ- 
ten or printed ; with against. He libels 
against the peers of the realm. [JVot now 
in -use.] 

LI'BELANT, n. One who libels ; one who 
brings a libel or institutes a suit in an ai 
miralty court. 

The counsel for the libelant, contended they 
had a right to read the instructions — 

Cranch, Rep. 

LI'BELED, pp. Defamed by a writing or 
picture made public. 

2. Charged or declared against in an admi- 
ralty court. 

LI'BELER, n. One who libels or defames 
by writing or pictures ; a lampooner. 

It is ignorance of ourselves which makes us 
the libelers of others. Buckminsier 

LI'BELING, ppr. Defaming by a pubhsh- 
ed writing or picture. 

2. Exhibiting charges against in court 

LI'BELOUS, a. Defamatory ; containing 
that which exposes a person to public ha 
tred, contempt and ridicule ; as a libelous 
pamphlet or picture. 

LIB'ERAL, a. [Fr. from L. liberalls, from 
liber, free. See Libel.] 

1 . Of a free heart ; free to give or bestow ; 
not close or contracted ; munificent ; 
bountiful ; generous ; giving largely ; as 
a liberal donor ; the liberal founders of a 
college or hospital. It expresses less than 
profuse or extravagant. 

2. Generous ; ample ; large ; as a liberal do- 
nation ; a liberal allowance. 

3. Not selfish, narrow or contracted ; catho- 
lic ; enlarged ; embracing other interests 
than one's own ; as liberal sentiments or 
views ; a liberal mind ; liberal policy. 

4. General ; extensive ; embracing litera- 
ture and the sciences generally ; as a libe- 
ral education. This phrase is often bu 

L I B 

not necessarily synonymous with collegi 
ate ; as a collegiate education. 

5. Free ; open ; candid ; as a liberal commu 
nication of thoughts. 

G. Large ; profuse ; as a liberal discharge of 
matter by secretions or excretions. 
Free ; not literal or strict ; as a liberal 
construction of law. 
Not mean ; not low in birth or mind. 

9. Licentious ; free to excess. Shak. 

Liberal arts, as distinguished from mechanical 
arts, are such as depend more on the ex- 
ertion of the mind than on the labor of 
the hands, and regard amusement, curios- 
ity or intellectual improvement, rather 
than the necessity of subsistence, or man- 
ual skill. Such are grammar, rhetoric, 
painting, sculpture, architecture, music, 

Liberal has q/" before the thing bestowed, and 
to before the person or object on which 
any thing is bestowed ; as, to be liberal of 
praise or censure ; liberal to the poor. 

LIBERAL'ITY, n. [L. liberalitas ; Fr. libe- 
rality. See Liberal.] 

1. Munificence ; bounty. 
That liberality is but cast away, 
Which makes us borrow what we cannot pay 


2. A particular act of generosity ; a dona- 
tion ; a gratuity. In this sense, it has the 
plural number. A prudent man is not im 
poverished by his liberalities. 

3. Largeness of mind ; Catholicism ; that 
comprehensiveness of mind which 
eludes other interests beside its own, and 
duly estimates in its decisions the value or 
importance of each. It is evidence of a 
noble mind to judge of men and things 
with liberality. 

Many treat the gospel with indifTerence under 
the name of liberality. J. M. Mason 

Candor ; impartiality. 
LIB ERALIZE, i.. t. To render liberal or 
catholic ; to enlarge ; to free from 
views or prejudices ; as, to liberalize the 
mind. Burke, ff'alsh. 

LIBERALIZED, pp. Freed from 

lews and prejudices ; made liberal, 
LIB'ERALIZING, ppr. Rendering liberal ; 
divesting of narrow views and prejudices, 
LIB'ERALLY, adv. Bountifully; freely 
largely ; with munificence. 

If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of 
God, who giveth to all men liberally, and up 
braideth not. James i. 
2. With generous and impartial regard to 
other interests than our own ; with en 
larged views ; without selfishness o 
meanness ; as, to think or judge liberally 
of men and their actions. 
Freely ; not strictly ; not literally. 
LIB'ERATE, v. t. [h. libera, from liber, free 
Fr. liberer ; It. liberare.] 

1. To free ; to release from restraint or 
bondage ; to set at liberty ; as, to liberate 
one from duress or imprisonment; to ii6- 
erate the mind from the shackles of preju- 

2. To manumit ; as, to liberate a slave. 
LIB'ERATED, pp. Freed; released from 

confinement, restraint or slavery ; manu 
LIB'ERATING, ppr. Delivering from re 
straint or slavery. 

L I B 

LIBERA'TION, n. [L. liberatio.] The act of 
delivering from restraint, confinement or 

LIBERATOR, n. One who liberates or de- 

LIBERTA'RIAN, a. [h.liber, free; libertas, 

Pertaining to liberty, or to the doctrine of 
free will, as opposed to the doctrine of ne- 

Remove from their mind libertarian preju- 
dice. Encyc. 

LIB'ERTINAGE, n. Libertinism, which is 
most used. 

LIB'ERTINE, n. [L. libertinus, frotn libtr, 

1. Among the Romans, a freedman ; a per- 
son manumitted or set free from legal ser- 

2. One unconfined; one free from restraint. 


3. A man who lives without restraint of the 
animal passion; one who indulges his lust 
without restraint ; one who leads a disso- 
lute, licentious life ; a rake ; a debauchee. 

LIB'ERTINE, a. Licentious; dissolute; not 
under the restraint of law or religion ; as 
libertine principles ; a libertine life. 

LIB'ERTINISM, n. State of a freedman. 
[Little used.] Hammond. 

2. Licentiousness of opinion and practice; 
an unrestrained indulgence of lust ; de- 
bauchery ; lewdness. Atterbury. 

LIB'ERTY, n. [L. libertas, from liber, free ; 
Fr. liberie; It. liberta ; Sp. libertad. Class 
Lb. No. 24. 27. 30. 3].] 

1. Freedom from restraint, in a general 
sense, and applicable to the body, or to the 
will or mind. The body is at liberty, when 
not confined ; the will or mind is at liberty, 
when not checked or controlled. A man 
enjoys liberty, when no physical force op- 
erates to restrain his actions or volitions. 

2. JVatural liberty, consists in the power of 
acting as one thinks fit, without any re- 
straint or control, except from the laws of 
nature. It is a state of exemption from 
the control of others, and from positive 
laws and the institutions of social life. This 
liberty is abridged by the establishment of 

3. Civil liberty, is the liberty of men in a 
state of society, or natural liberty, so far 
only abridged and restrained, as is neces- 
sary and expedient for the safety and in- 
terest of the society, state or nation. A 
restraint of natural liberty, not necessary 
or expedient for the public, is tyranny or 
oppression. Civil liberty is an exemption 
from the arbitrary will of others, which 
exemption is secured by established laws, 
which restrain every man from injuring 
or controlling another. Hence the re- 
straints of law are essential to civil liberty. 

The liberty of one depends not so much on 
the removal of all restraint from him, as on the 
due restraint upon the liberty of others. 


In this sentence, the latter word liberty 
denotes natural liberty. 

4. Political liberty, is sometimes used as sy- 
nonymous with civil liberty. But it more 
properly designates the liberty of a nation, 
the freedom of a nation or state from all 
unjust abridgment of its rights and inde- 
pendence by another nation. Hence we 

L I B 

L I C 


often speak o[ the political liberties of Eu 
rope, or the nations of Europe. 

5. Religious liberty, is the free right of adopt 
ingand enjoying opinions on religious sub 
jects, and of worshiping the Supreme Be 
ing according to the dictates of conscience, 
without external control. 

C. Liberty, in metaphysics, as opposed to ne 
cessity, is the power of an agent to do or 
forbear any particular action, according 
to the determination or thought of the 
mind, by which either is preferred to the 
other. Locke. 

Freedom of the will ; exemption from 
compulsion or restraint in willing or voli 

7. Privilege; exemption ; immunity enjoyed 
by prescription or by grant ; with a plu- 
ral. Thus we speak of the liberties of the 
commercial cities of Europe. 

8. Leave ; permission granted. The wit 
ness obtained liberty to leave the court. 

'.">. \ space in which one is permitted to pass 
without restraint, and beyond which he 
may not lawfully pass ; with a plural ; as 
the liberties of a prison. 

10. Freedom of action or speech beyond the 
ordinary bounds of civility or decorum. 
Females should rej)el all improper liber- 

To take the liberty to do or say any. thing, to 
use freedom not specially granted. 

To set at liberty, to deliver from confine- 
ment ; to release from restraint. 

To be at liberty, to be free from restraint. 

Liberty of the press, is freedom from any 
restriction on the power to publish books ; 
the free power of publishing what one 
pleases, subject only to punishment for 
abusing the privilege, or publishing what 
is mischievous to the public or injurious to 
individuals. Blackstone. 

LIB'ID1N[ST, n. One given to lewdness. 


LIBID'INOUS, a. [L. libidinosus, from lib- 
ido, lubido, lust, from libeo, libet, lubet, to, it pleaseth ; G. liebe, love ; lieben, to 
love ; Eng. love, which see. The root is 
lib or lub.] 

Lustful ; lewd ; having an eager appetite for 
venereal pleasure. Bentley. 

LIBID INOUSLY, a. Lustfully; with lewd 

LIBID'INOUSNESS, n. The state or qual- 
ity of being lustful ; inordinate appetite for 
venereal pleasure. 

LI'BRA, n. [L.] The balance ; the seventh 
sign in the zotliac, which the sun enters at 
the autumnal equinox, in September. 

LIBRA'RIAN, n. [L.librarius,w\th a differ- 
ent signification, from liber, bark, a book.] 

1. The keeper or one who has the care of a 
library or collection of books. 

2. One who transcribes or copies books. 
[.Vot now used.] Broome., 

LI'BRARY, n. [L. librarium, libraria, from 
liber, a book.] 

1. A collection of books belonging to a pri- 
vate person, or to a public institution or 
a company. 

2. An edifice or an apartment for liolding i 
collection of books. 

LI'BRATE, V. t. [L. libra, from libra, a bal- 
ance, a level ; allied perhaps to Eng 

To poise ; to balance ; to hold in equipoise 
LI'BRATE, V. i. To move, as a balance ; tc 
be poised. 

Their parts all tibraie on too nice a beam. 


LIBRA'TION, n. The act of balancing or 

state of being balanced ; a state of equ; 

poise, with equal weights on both sides of 

a center. 

2. In astronomy, an apparent irregularity of 
the moon's motions, by which it s 
librate about its axis. Encyc. 

Libration is the balancing motion or trepida 
tion in the firmament, whereby the declination 
of the sun and the latitude of the stars change 
from time to time. I>ict. Trev 

3. A balancing or equipoise between ex- 

LI'BRATORY, a. Balancing ; moving like 

a balance, as it tends to an equipoise 

LICE, plu. of louse. 
LICE-BANE, n. A plant. 
LI'CENSE, n. [Fr. from L. licentia, from 

liceo, to be permitted, Ir. leighim, ligim '~ 

allow or permit.] 

1. Leave ; permission ; authority or liberty 
given to do or forbear any act. A license 
may be verbal or written ; when u'riUen 
the paper containing the authority is call- 
ed a license. A man is not permitted to 
retail spirituous liquors till he has obtain 
ed a license. 

2. Excess of liberty ; exorbitant freedom 
freedom abused, or used in contempt of 
law or decorum. 

License they mean, when they cry liberty. 

LI'CENSE, V. t. To permit by grant of au 
thority ; to remove legal restraint by £ 
grant of permission ; as, to license a man 
to keep an inn. 

2. To authorize to act in a particular char- 
acter ; as, to license a physician or a law- 

•3. To dismiss. [A'ot in ttse.] Wolton. 

LI'CENSER, J!. One who grants permiss- 
ion ; a person authorized to grant per- 
mission to others ; as a licenser of the 

LICEN'TIATE, n. [from L. licentia.] One 
who has a license ; as a licentiate in physic 
or medicine. 

2. In Spain, one who has a degree ; as a li 
centiate in law or divinity. The olEcers of 
justice are mostly distinguished by this ti- 
tle. Encyc. 

LICEN'TIATE, v. t. To give license or 
permission. LEstrange. 

LICEN'TIOUS, a. [L. licentiosus.] Using 
license ; indulging freedom to excess ; un 
restrained by law or morality ; loose ; dis 
solute ; as a licentious man. 

2. Exceeding the limits of law or propriety ; 
wanton ; unrestrained ; as licentious de- 
sires. Licentious thoughts precede licen- 
tious conduct. 

LICEN'TIOUSLY, adv. With excess of 
liberty ; in contempt of law and morality. 

LICEN'TIOUSNESS, n. Excessive indul- 
gence of liberty ; contempt ofthe just re- 
straints of law, morality and decorum. 
The licentiousness of authors is justly con- 
demned ; the licentiousness of the press ' 
punishable by law. 

Law is the god of wise men ; licentiousness 
is the god of fools. Plato. 

LleH, a. [Sax. Kc. f:ee Like.] Like; even; 

I equal. Obs. Gower. 

LICH, n. [Sax. lie or lice, 'a body, the 
flesh, a dead body or corpse; lichama, a 
living body; hence lichwake, watching 
with the dead ; Lichfield, the field of dead 
bodies ; Goth, leik, the flesh, a body ; Ui- 
kan, to please. Sax. licean ; Goth, leiks, 
like; G. gleich, D. lyk and gelyk, like ; G. 
leiche, a dead body, D. lyk ; Heb. p'^n cha- 

lak, smooth ; Ar."^eJiX=> chalaka, to 
shave, to make smooth ; ^J^X^i galaka: 
to measure, to form, to create, to make 
smooth and equable, to be beautiful ; de- 
rivatives, creature, man, people. We see 
the radical sense is smooth, or rather to 
make even, equal, smooth ; hence like, 
likeness, and a body. We have here an 
instance of the radical sense of man and 
body, almost exactly analogous to that of 
Mam, from nm to make equal, to be like.] 

LleH'EN, n. [L. from Gr. J.iix'^':] In bota- 
ny, the name for an extensive division of 
cryptogamian plants, constituting a genus 
in the order of Algte, in the Linnean sys- 
tem, but now forming a distinct natural 
order. They appear in the form of thin 
flat crusts, covering rocks and the bark of 
trees, or in foliaceous expansions, or 
branched like a shrub in miniature, or 
sometimes only as a gelatinous mass, or a 
powdery substance. They are called rock 
moss and tree moss, and some of the liv- 
erworts are of this order. They also in- 
clude the Iceland moss and the reindeer 
moss ; but they are entirely distinct from 
the true mosses (Musci.) Ed. Encyc. 

|2. In surgery, a species of impetigo, appear- 
ing in the form of a red, dry, rough, and 
somewhat prurient spot, that gives ofi' 
small furfuraceous scales. Hoover. 


ograph V. 

scribes the lichens. 

Ll€HENOG'RAPHY, n. [lichen and ypo^u, 
to write.] 

A description of the vegetables called li- 
chens ; the science which illustrates the 
natural history ofthe lichens. Acharius 

LICIT, a. [L. licitus.] Lawful. 

LIC'ITLY, adv. Lawfully. 

LIC'ITNESS, n. Lawfulness. 

to lichen- 

One who de- 

LICK, V. t. [Sax. liccian ; Goth, luigwan ; G. 
lecken, schlecken ; D. likken ; Dan. likker. 
slikker; Sw. slekia, slikia ; Fr. lecher; It. 
leccare; Ir. leagaim, lighim ; Russ. lokayu, 
liju ; L. lingo ; Gr. utxu. Class Lg. No. 
12. 18. See Like and Sleek.] 

1. To pass or draw the tongue over the sur- 
face ; as, a dog licks a wound. Temple. 

2. To lap ; to take in by the tongue ; as, a 
' )g or cat licks milk. 1 Kings xxi. 

To lick up, to devour ; to consume entirely. 
Now shall tliis company lick up all that arc 
round about us, as an ox licketk up the grass of 
the field. Numb. xxii. 
To lick the dust, to be slain ; to perish in bat- 

His enemies shall lick *e dust. Ps. Ixsii. 

L I D 

L I E 


[Not an el 
fligo, is frc 

LICK, n. In America, a place where beasts 
of the forest lick for salt, at salt springs. 

LICK, 71. [W. llaf, a lick, a slap, a ray, a 
blade ; llapiaiv, to lick, to shoot out, to 
throw or lay about, to cudgel. Qu. the 
root of flog "and slay, to strike. See Ar. 

4^1 lakka, to strike. Class Lg. No. 14.] 

1. A blow ; a stroke. {J^ol an elegant ivord.] 

2. A wash ; something rubbed on. [Not in 

LICK, t'. t. To strike repeatedly for punish- 
ment ; to flog ; to chastise with blows. 
1 elegant word ; butprobably^og, L. 
from the root of tliis word.] 

LICK'ER, 71. One that licks. 

LICK'ERISH, a. [D. Dan. lekher, G. lecker, 
Sw. Ihcker, nice, dainty, delicate. This 
seems to be connected with D. lekken, G. 
lecken, Dan. lekker, Sw. Ihcka, to leak, for 
in D. the verb signifies also to make sleek 
or smooth, and in G. to lick, which unites 
the word with lick, and perhaps with like. 
In Sax. liccera is a glutton, and this is the 
It. lecco, a glutton, a lecher ; leccardo, 
greedy ; leccare, to lick. The Arm. has 
lickez, hckerish. The phrase, the mouth 
waters for a thing, may throw light on this 
word, and if the first syllable of delight, de- 
licious and delicate, is a prefix, tliese are of 
the same family, as may be the Gr.y>.Dxrj, 
sweet. The senses of watery, smooth, sweet, 
are allied ; likeness is often connected with 
smoothness, in radical sense, and sleek is 
probably from the root of lick, like.] 

1. Nice in the choice of food ; dainty ; as a 
lickerish palate. UEstrange. 

2. Eager ; greedy to swallow ; eager to taste 
or enjoy ; having a keen relish. 

Sidney. Dryden. Locke. 

3. Dainty ; tempting the appetite ; as lickerr 
ish baits. Milton. 

LICK'ERISHLY, adv. Daintily. 
LICK'ERISHNESS, n. Niceness of palate ; 

LICORICE, n. [It. liquirizia; L. glycyr- 
rhiza ; Gr. yKvxvppi^a ; yT^vxvi, sweet, and 
pt?a, root.] 

A plant of the genus Glycyrrhiza. The root 
of this plant abounds with a sweet balsam- 
ic juice, much used in pectoral composi- 
tions. Encyc. 

Ll€OROUS, LICOROUSNESS, for licker- 
ish, &c. not used. 

Lle'TOR, n. [L. Qu. lick, to strike.] An of- 
ficer among the Romans, who bore an ax 
and fasces or rods, as ensigns of his office. 
The duty of a lictor was to attend the chief 
magistrates when they appeared in public, 
to clear the way and cause due respect to 
be paid to them. A dictator was attended 
by twenty four lictors, a consul by twelve, 
and a master of the horse by six. It was 
also the duty of lictors to apprehend and 
punish criminals. Encyc. Johnson. 

LID, n. [Sax. Mid, a cover ; hlidan, to cov-| 
er; ge-hlid, a roof; D. Dan. lid; L. 
claudo, cludo; Gr. x%ho, contracted from 

aXfiSow; Heb. avh or eh to cover, Ar. J^] 
latta. Class Ld. No. 1. 8. 9.] 
A cover ; that which shuts the opening of a 
vessel or box ; as the lid of a chest or 

Vol. II. 

trunk ; also, the cover of the eye, the 
membrane which is drawn over the eye 
ball of an animal at pleasure, and which 
is intended for its protection ; the eyelid. 

LIE, water impregnated with alkahne salt, 
is written lye, to distinguish it from lie, a 

LIE, n. [Sax. lig or lyge ; Sw. logn ; Dan 
liign ; D. leugen ; G. lug, liige ; Russ. loj. 
The verb is probably the primary word.] 

1. A criminal falsehood ; a falsehood utter 
ed for the purpose of deception; an inten 
tional violation of truth. Fiction, or ; 
false statement or representation, not in 
tended to deceive, mislead or injure, as ii 
fables, parables and the like, is not a he 

It is willful deceit that makes a lie. A man 
may act a lie, as by pouiting his finger 
wrong direction, when a traveler inquires of 
him his road. Paley. 

2. A fiction ; in a ludicrous sense. Dryden. 

3. False doctrine. 1 John ii. 

4. An idolatrous picture of God, or a false 
god. Rom. i. 

5. That which deceives and disappoints 
confidence. Micah i. 

To giuc the lie, to charge with falsehood 

A man's actions may give the lie to his 

LIE, V. i. [Sax. ligan, leogan; Dan. lyver 

Sw. liuga ; G. liigen ; D. leugenen ; Russ 


1. To utter falsehood with an intention tc 
deceive, or with an immoral design. 

Thou hast not lied to men, but to God 
Acts v. 

2. To exhibit a false representation ; to say 
or do that which deceives another, wher 
he has a right to know the truth, or when 
morality reqiures a just representation. 

LIE, V. i. pret. lay ; pp. laiyi, [lien, obs.] 
[Sax. ligan or licgan ; Goth, ligan ; Sw 
liggia ; Dan. ligger ; D. liggen ; G. liegen , 
Russ. leju; Gr. Uyo^iai,. The Gr. word 
usually signifies to speak, which is to utter 
or throw out sounds. Hence to lie down 
is to throw one's self down, and probably 
lie and lay are of one family, as are jacio 
and jaceo, in Latin.] 

1. To be in a horizontal position, or nearly 
so, and to rest on any thing lengthwise, 
and not on the end. Thus a person lies 
on a bed, and a fallen tree on the ground, 
A cask stands on its end, but lies on its 

2. To rest in an inclining posture ; to lean ; 
as, to lie on or against a column. 

3. To rest ; to press on. 

4. To be reposited in the grave. 

All (he kings of the earth, even all of them, 
lie in glory. Is. xiv. 

5. To rest on a bed or couch ; to be pros- 
trate ; as, to lie sick. 

My little daughter lieth at the point of death, 
Mark v. 

6. To be situated. New Haven lies in the 
forty second degree of north latitude. 
Ireland lies west of England. 

Envy lies between beings equal in nature, 
though unequal in circumstances. Collier. 

7. To be ; to rest ; to abide ; to remain : 
often followed by some word denoting a 
particular condition ; as, to lie waste ; to 
lie fallow ; to lie open ; to lie hid ; to lie 
pining or grieving; to lie under one's di 


pleasure ; to lie at the mercy of a creditoi'. 
or at the mercy of the waves. 

8. To consist. 

He that thinks that diversion may not lie iu 
hard labor, forgets the early rising of the hunts- 
man. Locke. 

9. To be sustainable in law ; to be capable 
of being maintained. An action lies 
against the tenant for waste. 

An appeal lies in this case. Ch. J. Parsons. 
To lie at, to teaze or importune. [Little 

I object 


To lie at the heart, to be fixed as i 
of affection or anxious desire. 

The Spaniards have but one temptation to 
quarrel with us, the recovering of Jamaica, for 
that has ever lain at their hearts. Temple. 

To lie by, to be reposited, or remaining with. 
He has the manuscript lying by him. 

2. To rest ; to intermit labor. We lay by 
during the heat of the day. 

To lie in the %oay, to be an obstacle or im- 
pediment. Remove the objections that 
lie in the way of an amicable adjustment. 

To lie hard or heavy, to press ; to oppress ; to 

To lie on hand, to be or remain in possess- 
ion ; to remain unsold or undisposed of 
Great quantities of wine lie on hand, or 
have lain long on hand. 

To lie on the hands, to remain unoccupied 
or unemployed ; to be tedious. Men arc 
sometimes at a loss to know how to em- 
ploy the time that lies on their hands. 

To lie on the head, to be imputed. 

What he gets more of her than sharp words, 
let it lie on my head. Shak. 

To lie in wait, to wait for in conceabnent ; 
to lie in ambush ; to watch for an oppor- 
tunity to attack or seize. 

To lie in one, to be in the power of; to be- 
long to. 

As much as lielh in you, live peaceably with 
all men. Rom. xii. 

To lie doivn, to lay the body on the groimd 
or other level place ; also, to go to'rest. 

To lie in, to be in childbed ; to^ bring forth 

To lie under, to be subject to ; to suffer ; to 
be oppressed by. 

To lie on or upon, to be a matter of obliga- 
tion or duty. It lies on the plaintiff" to 
maintain his action. 

To lie with, to lodge or sleep with ; also, to 
have carnal knowledge of 

2. To belong to. It lies with you to make 

To lie over, to remain unpaid, after the time 
when payment is due ; as a note in bank. 

To lie to, to be stationary, as a ship. 

LIEF, a. [Sax. leaf, loved, D. lief, G. lieb. 
See Love.] Dear ; beloved. Obs. 

Spenser. Shak. 

LIEF, adv. [supra. This word coincides 
with love, L. lubet, libel, and the primary 
sense is to be free, prompt, ready.] 

Gladly ; willingly ; freely ; used in famil- 
iar speech, in the phrase, I had as lief go 
as not. It has been supposed that had in 
this phrase is a corruption of umuld. At 
any rate it is anomalous. 

LIEgE, a. [li.ligio; Fr.lige; from h. ligo, 
to bind ; Gr. Xuyow, to bind, to bend ; Xvyos, 
a withe.] 

Bound by a feudal tenure; obliged to be 
faithful and loyal to a superior, as a vas- 

L I F 

L I F 

L I F 

sal to his lord ; subject ; faithful ; as a 
liege man. By liege homage, a vassal was 
bound to serve his lord against all, with- 
out excepting his sovereign ; or against 
all, excepting a former lord to whom he 
owed like service. Encyc. 

2. Sovereign ; as a liege lord. [See the 

LIEgE, 71. [supra.] A vassal holding a fee 
by which he is bound to perform certain 
services and duties to his lord. 

2. A lord or superior ; a sovereign. 

[Note. This is a false application of the word, 
arising probably from transferring the word from 
the vassal to the lord ; the lord of liege men, 
being called liege lord. Johnson.] 

LIE'GE-MAN, n. A vassal; a subject. Obs. 
Spenser. Shak. 

LIEN, the obsolete participle of lie. [See 

LIEN, n. [supra.] A legal claim ; as a lien 
upon land. 

LIENTER'I€, a. [from lientery.] Pertain- 
ing to a lientery. Grew. 

Ll'ENTERY, n. [Fr. iienterie ; L. It. lien- 
teria; Gr. ^fior, smooth, and tvttpon, an 

A flux of the bowels, in which the aliments 
are discharged undigested, and with little 
alteration either in color or substance. 


LiER, n. [fromKc] One who lies down; 
one who rests or remains ; as a Her in 
wait or in ambush. Josh. viii. 

LIEU, n. [Fr. from the root of L. locus, 
Eng. ley or lea. See Ley.] 

Place ; room ; stead. It is used only with 
in. Let me have gold in lieu of silver. 
In lieu of fashionable honor, let justice be 

LIEUTENANCY, js. luten'ancy. [S 

L The office or commission of a lieutenant. 

2. The body of lieutenants. Felton. 

LIEUTENANT, n. luten'ant. [Fr.; compo- 
sed of lieu, place, and tenant, L. tenens. 

1. An officer who supplies the place of a 
superior in his absence. Officers of this 
kind are civil, as the \or(i-lieittenant of a 
kingdom or county ; or mihtary, as a lieu 
tenant general, a lieutenant colonel. 

2. In military affairs, the second commiss 
ioned officer in a company of infantry 
cavalry or artillery. 

.3. In ships of war, the officer next in rank to 

the captain. 
LIEUTEN.\NTSHIP. [See Lieutenancy.] 
LIEVE, for lief, is vulgar. [See Lief.] 
LIE'VRITE, n. A mineral, called also yen 

He, which see. 
LIFE, n. -phi. lives. [Sax. lif, hjf; Sw. lif 
Dan. liv ; G. leben ; D. leeven. See Live. 
1. In a general sense, that state of animals 
and plants, or of an organized being, in 
which its natural functions and motions 
are performed, or in wliich its organs are 
capable of performing their functions. A 
tree is not destitute of life in winter, when 
the functions of its organs are suspended; 
nor man during a swoon or syncope ; nor 
strictly birds, riuadrupeds or serpents dur- 
ing their torjiitude in winter. They arc 

not strictly dead, till the functions of their 
organs are incapable of being renewed. 

2. In animals, animation ; vitality ; and in 
man, that state of being in which the soul 
and body are united. 

He entreated me not to take his life. 


3. In plants, the state in which they grow 
or are capable of growth, by means of the 
circulation of the sap. The life of an oak 
may be two, three, or four hundred years. 

4. The present state of existence ; the time 
from birth to death. The life of man sel- 
dom exceeds seventy years. 

If in this life only we have hope in Christ, we 
are of all men most miserable. 1 Cor. xv. 

5. Manner of living ; conduct ; deportment, 
in regard to morals. 

I will teach my family to lead good lives. 

Mis. Barker. 

6. Condition ; course of living, in regard to 
happiness and misery. We say, a man'6 
life has been a series of prosperity, or mis- 

7. Blood, the supposed vehicle of animation 
And the warm life came issuing through the 

wound. Pope 

8. Animals in general ; animal being. 
Full nature swarms with life. Thomson 

9. System of animal nature. 
Lives through all life. Pojie 

10. Spirit; animation; briskness; vivacity 

They have no notion of life and fire in fancy 
and words. Felt 

11. The living form ; real person or state; 
opposition lo a copy ; as, a picture is taken 
from the life ; a description from the life 

12. Exact resemblance ; with to, before life. 
His portrait is drawn to the life. 

13. General state of man, or of social man 
ners ; as the studies and arts that polish 

14. Condition ; rank in society ; as high life 
and low life. 

15. Common occurrences; course of things; 
human affairs. 

But to know 
That which before us lies in daily life, 
Is the prime wisdom. Milton 

16. A person ; a living being ; usually or 
always, a human being. How many lives 
were sacrificed during the revolution ' 

17. Narrative of a past life ; history of the 
events of life ; biographical narration. 
Johnson wrote the life of Milton, and the 
lives of other poets. 

18. In Scripture, nourishment; support of 

For the tree of the field is man's life. Deut. 


J9. The stomach or appetite. 

His life abhoncth bread. Job xxxiii. 

20. The enjoyments or blessings of the pres 
ent life. 

Having the promise of the Ife that now is 
and of that which is to come. 1 Tim. iv. 

21. Supreme fehcity. 
To be spiritually minded is life and peace 

Rom. viii. 

22. Eternal happiness in heaven. Rom. v 

23. Restoration to life. Rom. v. 

24. The author and giver of supreme fell 

I am the way, the truth, and the life. John 

25. A quickening, animating and strength- 
ening principle, in a moral sense. John 

LI'FE-BLOOD, n. The blood necessary to 
life ; vital blood. Dryden. 

2. That which constitutes or gives strength 
and energy. 

Money, the life-blood of the nation. Swift. 

LI'FE-BLOQD, a. Necessary as blood to 
life ; essential. Milton. 

LIFE-ESTA'TE, n. An estate that contin- 
ues during the life of the possessor. 

LIFE-EVERLASTING, n. A plant of the 
genus Gnaphalium. 

LIFE-GIVING, a. Having power to give 
life ; inspiriting ; invigorating. 

Spenser. Milton. 

LI'FEGUARD, n. A guard of the life or 
person ; a guard that attends the person 
of a prince, or other person. 

LI'FELESS, a. Dead; deprived of life; as 
a lifeless body. 

2. Destitute of life ; unaniraated ; as lifeless 

3. Destitute of power, force, vigor or spirit ; 
dull ; heavy ; inactive. 

4. Void of spirit ; vapid; as liquor. 

5. Torpid. 

6. Wanting physical energy. 
LI'FELESSLY, adv. Without vigor ; dully ; 

frigidlv ; heavily. 

LI'FELESSNESS, »!. Destitution of life, 
vigor and spirit ; inactivity. 

LI'FELIKE, a. Like a living person. 


LI'FERENT, n. The rent of an estate that 
continues for life. 

LI'FESTRING, n. A nerve or string that is 
inagined to be essential to life. 

LIFETIME, n. The time that life contin- 
ues ; duration of life. Addison. 

LI'FEWEARY, a. Tired of life ; weary of 
living. SJiak. 

LIFT, v. t. [Sw. lyfla, Dan. Ufler, to lift ; 
Goth, hlifan, to steal; Sax. hlifan, to be 
high or conspicuous; Goth. hliflus, a thief. 
We retain this sense in shoplifter. L. leva, 
elevo, It. levare, to lift ; Sp. ^ei'ar, to carry or 
transport ; Fr. lever ; perhaps L. levis, 

1. To raise ; to elevate; as, to lift tlie foot 
or the hand ; to lift the head. 

2. To raise ; to elevate mentally. 
To thee, O Lord, do I lift up my soul. Ps. 

3. To raise in fortune. 
The eye of the Lord lifted up his head from 

misery. Ecclus. 

4. To raise in estimation, dignity or rank. 
His fortune has lifted him into notice, or 
into office. 

The Roman virtues lift up mortal man. 


5. To elate ; to cause to swell, as with pride. 
Up is often used after lift, as a qualify- 
ing word ; sometimes with effect or em- 
phasis; very often, however, it is useless. 

G. To bear ; to support. Spenser. 

7. To steal, that is, to take and carry away. 
Hence we retain the use of shoplifter, al- 
though the verb in this sense is obsolete. 

8. In Scripture, to crucify. 
When ye have lifted up the Son of man. 

John viii. 
To lift up the eyes, to look ; to fix the eyes 

L I G 

L I G 

L I G 

Lot lifted np his eyes and beheld Jordan. 
Gen. xiii. 
2. To direct the desires to God in prayer. 

Ps. cxxi. 
To lift up the head, to raise from a low con 

dition ; to e.\alt. Gen. xl. 
2. To rejoice. Luke xxi. 
To lift up the hand, to swear, or to confirm 
by oath. Gen. xiv. 

2. To raise the hands in prayer. Ps. xxviii. 

3. To rise in opposition to ; to rebel ; to as- 
sault. 2 Sam. xviii. 

4. To injure or oppress. Job xxxi. 

5. To shake off sloth and engage in duty, 
Heb. xii. 

To lijl up the face, to look to with confi- 
dence, cheerfulness and comfort. Job 

To lift up the heel against, to treat with in 
science and contempt. 

To lift up the horn, to behave arrogantly or 
scornfully. Ps. Ixxv. 

To lift up the feet, to come speedily to one's 
relief Ps. Ixxiv. 

To lift up the voice, to cry aloud ; to call out, 
either in grief or joy. Gen. xxi. Is. xxiv, 

LIFT, V. i. To try to raise ; to exert the 
strength for the purposeof raising or bear- 

The body strained by lifting at a weight too 
Ireavy — Locke. 

2. To practice theft. Ohs. Spenser. 

LIFT, n. The act of raising ; a lifting; as 

the lift of the feet in walking or running. 


The goat gives the fox a lift. V Estrange. 

2. An effort to raise; as, give us a Itft. 
[Popular use.] 

3. That which is to be raised. 

4. A dead lift, an ineffectual effort to raise ; 
or the thing which the strength is not suf- 
ficient to raise. 

5. Any thing to be done which exceeds the 
strength ;or a state of inability ; as, to help 
one at a dead lift. Butler. Sieijl. 

G. A rise ; a degree of elevation ; as the lift 
of a lock in canals. Gallatin 

7. In Scottish, the sky ; the atmosphere ; 
the firmament. [Sax. It/ft, air, Sw. lufl.] 

8. In seamen's language, a rope descendinj 
from the cap and mast-head to the ex 
tremity of a yard. Its use is to support 
the yard, keep it in equilibrio, and raise 
the end, when Uccasion requires. 

Mar. Did 

LIFT'ED, pp. Raised ; elevated ; swelled 
with pride. 

LIFT'ER, n. One that lifts or raises. 

LIFTING, ppr. Raising; swelling with 

LIFTING, n. The act of lifting ; assist- 

LIG, V. i. To lie. [See Lie.] Obs. 


LIG'AMENT, ji. [L. ligamentum, from ligo, 
to bind, that is, to strain.] 

1. Any thing that ties or unites one thing or 
part to another. 

Interwoven is the love of liberty with every 
ligament of your hearts. Washington 

2. In anatomy, a strong, compact substance 
serving to bind one bone to another. It is 
a white, solid, inelastic, tendinous sub- 
stance, softer than cartilage, but harder 
than membrane. 

Encyc. Quiiicy. Coxe 

3. Bond ; chain ; that which binds or re- 
strains. Addison. 

LIGAMENT'AL, ) Composing a liga- 

LIGAMENT'OUS, ^ "• ment; of the nature 
of a ligament ; binding; as a strong liga- 
mentous membrane. fViseman. 

LIGA'TION, n. [L. ligalio.] The act of 
binding, or state of being hound. 


LIG'ATURE, 71. [Fr. from L. tigatura.] 

1. Any thing that binds; a band or bandage. 


2. The act of binding ; as, by a strict ligature 
of the parts. Arbuthnot. 

3. Impotence induced by magic. 

Core. Encyc. 

4. In music, a band or line connecting notes. 

5. Among printers, a double character, or a 
type consisting of two letters or characters 
united; as Jt, f, in English. The old 
editions of Greek authors abound with 

6. The state of being bound. Mortimer. 

7. In medicine, stiffness of a joint. Coxe. 

8. In surgery, a cord or string for tying the 
blood vessels, particularly the arteries, tc 
prevent hemorrhage. 

LIGHT, 71. lite. [Sax. leoht,l{ht; B.G.licht. 
L. lux, light, and luceo,to shine; Port. Sp 
luz, light ; W. Hug, tending to break out or 
open, or to shoot, to gleam, and as a noun, 
a breaking out in blotches, a gleam, indis 
tinct light ; llieg, that is apt to break out, 
that is bright, a tumor, an eruption ; llygu 
to make bright, to clear, to break out, to 
appear in spots ; Hue, a darting, sudden 
throw, glance, flash ; llupiaw, to throw, to 
fling, to pelt ; lluged, a gleam, lightning 
This word furnishes a full and distinct ex- 
planation of the original sense of light, to 
throw, dart, shoot, or break forth ; and it 
accords with Eng. luck, both in elements 
and radical sense. Class Lg. No. 6. 7. "" 

1. That ethereal agent or matter which 
makes objects perceptible to the sense of 
seeing, but the particles of which are sepa- 
rately invisible. It is now generally be- 
lieved that light is a fluid, or real matter, 
existing independent of other substances, 
with properties peculiar to itself Its ve- 
locity is astonishing, as it passes through 
a space of nearly twelve millions of miles 
in a minute. Light, when decomposed, is 
found to consist of rays differently color- 
ed ; as red, orange, yellow, green, blue, 
indigo, and violet. The sun is the princi- 
pal source of light in the solar system : 
but light is also emitted from bodies igni- 
ted, or in combustion, and is reflected 
from enlightened bodies, as the moon 
Light is also emitted from certain putre 
fying substances. It is usually united with 
heat, but it exists also independent of it. 

Hooper. JVicholson. Encyc 

2. That flood of luminous rays which flows 
from the sun, and constitutes day. 

God called the light day, and the darkness h 
called night. Gen. i. 

3. Day ; the dawn of day. 

The murderer rising with the light, killeth 
the poor and needy. Job. xxiv. 

4. Life. 

0, .spring to light, auspicious babe, be born 

Any thing that gives light; as a lamp, 
■andle, taper, lighted tower, star, &c. 

Then he called for a light, and sprang in — 
Acts xvi. 

I have set thee to be a light to the Gentiles. 
Acts xiii. 

And God made two great lights. Gen. i. 

6. The illuminated part of a picture ; the 
part which lies open to the luminary by 
which the piece is supposed to be enlight- 
ened, and is painted in vivid colors ; oppo- 
sed to shade. 

7. Illumination of mind ; instruction ; knowl- 

I opened Ariosto in Italian, and the very first 
two lines gave me light to all 1 could desire. 


Light, understanding and wisdom — was iouud 
in him. Dan. v. 

8. Means of knowing. By using such Kgftfs 
as we have, we may arrive at probability, 
if not at certainty. 

9. Open view ; a visible state ; a state of be- 
ing seen by the eye, or perceived, under- 
stood or known. Further researches will 
doubtless bring to light many isles yet un- 
discovered ; further experiments will bring 
to light properties of matter yet unknown. 

10. Public view or notice. 

Wliy am I ask'd what next shall see the light ? 

11. Explanation; illustration; means of un- 
derstanding. One part of Scripture throws 
light on another. 

12. Point of view ; situation to be seen or 
viewed ; o wse of the word taken from paint- 
ing. It is useful to exhibit a subject in a 
variety of lights. Let every thought be 
presented in a strong light. In whatever 
light we view this event, it must be consid- 
ered an evil. 

13. A window ; a place tliat admits light to 
enter. 1 Kings vii. 

14. A pane of glass; as a window with 
twelve lights. 

15. In Scripture, God, the source of knowl- 

God is light. 1 John i. 

16. Christ. 

That was the true light, that lighteth every 
man that cometh into the world. John i. 

17. Joy ; comfort ; felicity. 

Light is sown for the righteous. Ps. xcvii. 

18. Saving knowledge. 

It is because there is no light in them. Is. 

19. Prosperity; happiness. 

Then shall thy light break forth as the morn- 
ing. Is. Iviii. 

20. Support ; comfort ; deliverance. Mic. 

21. The gospel. Malt. iv. 

22. The understanding or judgment. Matt, 

23. The gifts and graces of christians. 
Matt. V. 

24. A moral instructor, as John the Bap- 
tist. John V. 

25. A true christian, a person enlightened. 
Eph. V. 

26. A good king, the guide of his people. 
Sam. xxi. 

The light of the countenance, favor : smiles. 

Ps. iv. 
To stand in one's oiim light, to be the means 

of preventing good, or frustrating one's 

own purposes. 

L I G 

To come to light, to be detected ; to be dis-| 
covered or found. 

LIGHT, a. lite. Bright; clear; not dark or 
obscure ; as, the morning is light ; tiie 
apartment is light. 

2. In colors, white or whitish ; as a light 
color ; a light brown ; a light complexion. 

LIGHT, a. lite. [Sax. liht, leoht ; D. ligt ; G. 
leicht ; Fr. leger ; It. leggiero ; Port, ligeiro ; 
Sp. ligero ; Russ. legkei; Saas. leka. The 
Sw. Idtt, Dan. let, may be contractions of 
the same word. The Slavonic also has 
lehek and legok. Qu. L. alacer. This word 
accords with light, the fluid, in orthogra- 
phy, and may be from the same radix.] 

1. Having little weight ; not tending to the 
center of gravity with force ; not heavy. 
A fether is light, compared witli lead or 
silver ; but a thing is light only compara- 
tively. That which is light to a man, may 
be heavy to a child. A light burden for a 
camel, may be insupportable to a horse. 

2. Not burdensome ; easy to be lifted, borne 
or carried by physical strength ; as a light 
burden, weight or load. 

3. Not oppressive ; easy to be suffered or en-l 
dured ; as a light affliction. 2 Cor. iv. j 

4. Easy to be performed; not difficult; not; 
requiring great strength or exertion. Thf 
task is light ; the work is light. 

5. Easy to be digested ; not oppressive ti 
the stomach ; as light food. It may sig 
nify also, containing little nutriment. 

C. Not heavily armed, or armed with light] 
weapons ; as light troops ; a troop o( light 

7. Active; swift; nimble. | 

Asahel was as light of foot as a wild roe. 2' 
Sam. ii. 

8. Not encumbered ; unembarrassed ; clear 
of impediments. | 

Unmarried men are best masters, but not bestl 

subjects ; for they are light to run away. | 


0. Not laden ; not deeply laden ; not suffi-! 

ciently ballasted. The ship returned light. 

10. SHght; trifling; not important; as a' 
light error. Boyle] 

1 1. Not dense ; not gross ; as light vapors ;' 
light fumes. Dryden\ 

12. Small; inconsiderable; not copious or 
vehement ; as a light rain ; a light snow 

13. Not strong; not violent; moderate; as 
a light wind. 

14. Easy to admit influence ; inconsiderate ; 
easily influenced by trifling considerations; 
unsteady ; unsettled ; volatile ; as a light 
vain person ; a light mind. 

There is no greater argument of a light anc 
inconsiderate persoo, than profanely to scoff at 
religion. TUlotson. 

15. Gay ; airy ; indulging levity ; wanting 
dignity or solidity ; trifling. 

Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Plautus too; 
light. Skak: 

We may neither be light in prayer, nor wrath-; 
ful in debate. J. M. Mason.\ 

16. Wanton; unchaste; asa woman of KgWj 

A light wife doth make a heavy husband. 


17. Not of legal weight; clipped; diminish- 
ed ; as light coin. 

To .let light by, to undervalue ; to slight ; to 
treat as of no importance ; to despise. 

To make light of, to treat as of little conse- 
quence ; to slight ; to disregard. 

• carriage 

L I G 

LIGHT, v.t. lite. To kindle; to inflame; 
to set fire to ; as, to light a candle or lamp ; 
sometimes with up ; as, to light up an in- 
extinguishable flame. We often hear lit 
used for lighted, as, he tit a candle; but 
this is inelegant. 

2. To give light to. 
Ah hopeless, lasting flames '. like those that 

To light the dead— Pope. 

3. To illuminate ; to fill or spread over with 
light ; as, to light a room ; to light the 
streets of a city. 

4. To lighten ; to ease of a burden. [JVot 
in use. See Lighten.] Spenser. 

LIGHT, V. r. lite. [Sax. lihtan, alihtan, 
gelihtan, to light-or kindle, to lighten or al- 
leviate, and to alight ; hlihtan, to alight ; 
D. lichten, to shine ; ligten, to heave or 
hfl ; G. lichten, to weigh, to lighten.] 

1. To fall on ; to come to by chance ; to 
happen to find ; with on. 

To fall on ; to strike. 

They shall hunger no more, neither thirst 
any more ; neither shall the sun light ml them, 
nor any heat. Rev. vii. 

3. To descend, as from a horse 
with doivn, off, or from. 

He lighted doum from his chariot. 2 Kings v. 
She lighted off the camel. Gen. xxiv. 

4. To settle ; to rest ; to stoop from flight. 
The bee lights on this flower and that. 

LI'GHT-ARMED, a. Armed with light 

LIGHT-BEARER, n. A torch-bearer. 

B. Jonson. 

LI'GHT-BRAIN, n. An empty headed pe 
son. Martin. 

LIGHTED, pp. ti'ted. Kindled ; set on fire 
caused to burn. [Lit, for lighted, is inele- 

Sax. /i7i(on.] 

1. To flash; to burst forth or dart, as light- 
ning; to shine with an instantaneous illu- 

This dreadful night 
Tliat thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roar; 
As doth the lion. Shak 

2. To shine like lightning. Shak 

3. To fall ; to light. Obs. 

LIGHTEN, V. t. li'tH. To dissipate dark- 
ness ; to fill with light ; to spread over 
with light ; to illuminate ; to enlighten ; 
as, to lighten an apartment with lamps or 
gas : to lighten the streets. 

A key of fire ran all along the shore, 
And lightened all the river with a blaze. 


2. To illuminate with knowledge ; in a 
moral sense. 

A light to lighten the Gentiles. Luke ii. 

3. To free from trouble and fill with joy. 

They looked to him and were lightened. Ps. 

li'tn. [from light, the fluid ; 

LIGHTEN, V. t. li'tn. [fromlight, not heavy 
Sax. lihtan.] 

1. To make lighter; to reduce in weight 
to make less heavy; as, to lighten a ship 
by unloading; to lighten a load or burden. 

2. To alleviate ; to make less burdensome 
or afflictive ; as, to lighten the cares of 
life ; to lighten the burden of grief. 

L I G 

3. To cheer ; to exhilarate. 

He lightens my humor with his merry jes(. 


LIGHTER, n. li'ter. One that lights ; as a 
lighter of lamps. 

2. A large open flat-bottomed boat, used in 
loading and unloading ships. 

LIGHTERMAN, n. li'terman. A man who 
manages a hghter ; a boatman. 

LIGHTFINGERED, a. W tefingered. Dex- 
trous in taking and conveying away ; 
thievish ; addicted to petty thefts. 

HSSFWT, ) li'tefool, X Nimble 

LIGHTFQOTED, \ °" li'tefooted. I in run- 
nuig or dancing ; active. [Little used.] 

LI'GHTHEADED,a. [See Head.] Thoug*lu- 

less ; heedless ; weak ; volatile ; unsteady. 


2. Disordered in the head; dizzy; delirious. 

LI'GHTHEADEDNESS,n. Disorder of the 
head ; dizziness ; deliriousuess. 

LI'GHTHE'ARTED, a. Free from grief or 
anxiety; gay; cheerful; merry. 

LI'GHT-HORSE, n. Light armed cavalry. 

LI'GHT-HOUSE, n. A pharos ; a tower or 
building erected on a rock or point of 
land, or on an isle in the sea, with a light 
or number of lamps on the top, intended 
to direct seamen in navigating ships at 

LI'GHTLEGGED, a. Nimble; swifl of 
foot- Sidney. 

LIGHTLESS, a. li'teless. Destitute of light ; 
dark. ° 

LIGHTLY, adv. li'tely. With :Uttle weight ; 
as, to tread lightly ; to press lightly. 

2. Without deep impression. 

The soft ideas of the cheerful note. 

Lightly received, were easily forgot. Prior. 

3. Easily; readily; without difficulty; of 

4. Without reason, or for reasons of little 

Flatter not the rich, neither do thou willingly 
or lightly appear before great personages. 


5. Without dejection ; cheerfully. 

Bid that welcome 
VVHiich comes to punish us, and we punish it. 
Seeming to bear it lightly. Shak. 

G. Not chastely ; wantonly. Sivift. 

7. Nimbly ; with agility ; not heavily or 

He led me lightly o'er the stream. 

8. Gayly; airily; with levity; without heed 
or care. 

LIGHTMINDED, a. Unsettled; unsteady; 

volatile ; not considerate. 

He that is hasty to give credit, is lightmind- 

ed. Ecclus. 

LIGHTNESS, n. li'teness. Want of weight; 

levity; the contrary to heaxiiness; as the 

lightness of air, compared with water. 

2. Inconstancy; unsteadiness; the quality of 
mind which disposes it to be influenced by 
trifling considerations. 

— Such is the lightness of you common men. 

3. Levity; wantonness; lewdness; unchas- 
tity. Shak. Sid7iey. 

4. Agility; nimblencss. 
LIGHTNING, n. li'tening. [that is, lighten- 
ing, the participle present of lighten.] 

1. A sudden discharge of electricity from a 
cloud to the earth, or from the earth to a 
cloud, or from one cloud to another, that 

L I G 

is, from a body positively charged to one 
negatively charged, producing a vivid flash 
of light, and usually a loud report, called 
thunder. Sometiraes lightning is a mere 
instantaneous flash of light without thun- 
der, as heat-ligMning, lightning seen by 
reflection, the flash being beyond the lim- 
its of our horizon. 
2. [trom/ig-Ateii, to diminish weight.] Abate- 
ment ; alleviation ; mitigation. Spectator. 
LI'GHTROOM, n. In a ship of war, a small 
apartment, having double glass windows 
towards the magazine, and containing 
lights by which the gunner fills cartridges. 
Mar. Diet. 
LIGHTS, n. lites. plu. [so called from their 

The lungs; the organs of breathing in ani- 
mals. These organs in man we call lungs ; 
in other animals, lights. 
LIGHTSOME, a. li'tesome. Luminous ; not 
dark ; not obscure. 

White walls make rooms more lightsome than 

black. [Little itsed.] Bacon. 

The lightsome realms of love. Drydett. 

[Inthe latter passage, the word is elegant.] 

2. Gay; airy; cheering; exhilarating. 

That lightsome affection of joy. Hooker. 

LI'GHTSOMENESS, n. Luminousness; 

the quahty of being light ; opposed to 

darkness or darksom.eness. Cheyne. 

2. Cheerfulness; merriment; levity. 

[Thisicord is little used.] 
LIGN-AL'OES, n. [L. lignum, wood, and 

aloes.] Aloes-wood. Num. xxiv. 

LIG'NEOUS, a. [L. ligneus.] Wooden; 

made of wood ; consisting of wood ; re 

scmbling wood. The harder part of i 

plant is ligneous. 

LIGNIFICA'TION, n. The process of be 

coming or of converting into wood, or the 

hard substance of a vegetable. Good. 

LIG'NIFORM, a. [L. ligmtm, wood, and 

form.] Like wood ; resembling wood. 

LIG'NIFt, V. t. [L. lignum, wood, and/acio. 

to make.] To convert into wood. 
LIG'NIFY, v. i. To become wood. 
LIG'NITE, n. [L. lignum.] Fossil or bitu- 
minous wood, a mineral combustible sub- 
stance. Did. JVat. Hist. 
LIG'NOUS, a. Ligneous. [Little used.] 

LIGNUM-VIT/E, ,1. [L.] GuaiacumC 
pockwood, a genus of plants, natives of 
warm climates. The common Lignum- 
vitfe is a native of the warm latitudes of 
America. It becomes a large tree, hav- 
ing a hard, brownish, brittle bark, and its 
wood firm, solid, ponderous, very resin- 
ous, of a blackish yellow color in the mid- 
dle, and of a hot aromatic taste. It is of 
considerable use in medicine and the 
chanical arts, being wrought into utensils, 
wheels, cogs, and various articles of 
turnery. Ena/c. 

LIG'ULATE, I [L. ligula, a strap.] 

LIG'ULATED, I "" Like a bandage or 
strap; as a ligulate flower, a species of 
compound flower, the florets of which 
have their corollets flat, spreading out 
towards the end, with the base only tubu- 
lar. This is the semi-floscular flower of 
Tournefort. Botany. 

LIG'URE,n. A kind of precious stone. Ex. 

L I K 

LIG'URITE, n. [from Liguria.] A mineral 

occurring in oblique rhombic prisms, of an 

apple green color, occasionally speckled. 


LIKE, a. [Sax. lie, gelic, Goth, leiks, D. 
'i/^'i ff«'j/*. G- gleich, Sw. lik, Dan. lig, 
lige, like, plain, even, equal, smooth. The 
sense of like, similar, is even, smooth, 
equal, but this sense may be from laying. 
pressing, and hence this word may be al- 
lied to the Eth. A^O lakeo, to stamp, 
seal, impress, whence its derivative, an im- 
age ; or the sense be taken from rubbing 
or shaving. We observe that like has 
also the sense of please; to like is to 
be pleased. Now, if p in L. plaeeo, is a 
prefix, the latter may be formed on the 
root otlike. And if de is a prefix, in de- 
light, delecto, delicious, delicate, these may 
be of the same family. Like is evidently 
from the same root as the Ch. and Heb. 

^n, Ar 

chalaka, to be or make 
See Lick 

smooth. Qu. Gr. )jXixo{,)j?u 
and Lickerish.] 
Equal in quantity, quahty or degree ; a 
a territory of like extent with another 
men of tike excellence. 

More clergymen were impoverished by the 
late war, than ever in the like space before. 

2. Similar; resembling; having resemblance. 

Ellas was a man subject to like passions at 
we are. James v. 

Why might not other planets have been ere 
ated for like uses with the earth, each for its 
own inhabitants ? Bentleu 

Like is usually followed by to or unto, 
but it is often omitted. 

What city is like unto 

his great city .' 
• three unclean spirits like frogs. 


Amono- them all was found none like Daniel 
Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. Dan. i. 
3. Probable ; likely, that is, having the re- 
seniblance or appearance of an event ; 
giving reason to expect or beUeve. 

Ho is like to die of hunger in the place where 
he is, for there is no more bread. Jer. xxxviii 
Many were not easy to be governed, nor like 
to conform themselves to strict rules. 

LIKE, n. [elliptically, for like thing, lik( 
event, like person.] 

1. Some person or thing resembling anoth- 
er; an equal. The like may never happen 

He was a man, take him for all and all, 

I shall not look upon his like again. Shak. 
Had like, in the phrase, "he had like to 
be defeated," seems to be a corruption 
but iierhaps like here is used for resem 
blance or probability, and has the charac 
ter of a noun. At any rate, as a phrase, it 
is authorized by good usage. 
LIKE, adv. In the same manner. 

— Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed 
like one of these. Matt. vi. Luke xii. 

Like as a father pitieth his children, so the 
Lord pitieth them that fear him. Ps. ciii. 

2. In a manner becoming. 
Be strong, and quit yourselves like men. 1 

3. Likely ; probably ; as like enough it will 

L I K 

LIKE, v.t. [Sax. licean, lician ; Goth, leik- 
an; probably L. ;?/afeo and delecto, with 

L To be pleased with in a moderate degree; 
to approve. It expresses less than love and 
delight. We like a plan or design, when 
we approve of it as correct or beneficial. 
We like the character or conduct of a man 
when it comports with our view of recti- 
tude. We like food that the taste relishes. 
We like whatever gives us pleasure. 

He proceeded from looking to liking, and 
(wm liking to loving. tiidney. 

i. To please ; to be agreeable to. 

This desire being recommended to her maj- 
esty, it liked her to include the same within 
one entire lease. Obs. Bacon 

3. To liken. 06s. Shak. 

LIKE, V. i. To be pleased ; to choose. 

He may go or stay, as he likes. Locke. 

2. To like of, to be pleased. Obs. Knolko. 

LI'KELIHQQD, n. [likely and hood.] Prob- 
ability ; verisimiUtude ; appearance of truth 
or reality. There is little likelihood that 
an habitual drunkard will become tcin- 
jierate. There is little likelihood that an 
old offender will be reformed. Prudence 
directs us not to undertake a design, when 
there is little or no likeliliood of success. 

3. Appearance; show; resemblance. Obs. 

LI'KELINESS, n. [from likely.] Proba- 

2. The qualities that please. [See Likely.] 
LI'KELY, a. [that is, like-like.] Proba- 
ble ; that may be rationally thought or be- 
lieved to have taken place in time past, or 
to be true now or hereafter ; such as is 
more reasonable than the contrary. A 
likely story, is one which evidence, or the 
circumstances of the case render proba- 
ble, and therefore credible. 
Such as may be hked ; pleasing; as a 
likely man or woman. 

[This use of likely is not obsolete, as 
Johnson affirms, nor is it vulgar. But the 
Enghsh and their descendants in America 
difl^er in the application. The English ap- 
ply the word to external appearance, and 
with them, likely is equivalent to handsome, 
well formed; as a likely man, alikely horse. 
In America, the word is usually applied to 
the endowments of the mind, or to pleas- 
ing accomplishments. With us, a likely 
man, is a man of good character and tal- 
ents, or of good dispositions or accom- 
pUshments, that render him pleasing or 

LI'KELY, adv. Probably. 

While man was innocent, he was likely igno- 
rant of nothing important for him to know. 


LIKE-MINDED, a. Having a like dispo- 
sition or purpose. Rom. xv. 

LIKEN, v.t. li'kn. [Sw. likna; Dan. tigner.] 
To compare ; to represent as resembling 
or similar. 

Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, 
and docth them, I will liken him unto a wise 
man, that built his house on a rock. Matt. vi. 

LIKENED, pp. Compared. 

LI'KENESS, n. Resemblance in form ; si- 
militude. The picture is a good likeness 
of the original. 

2. Resemblance ; form ; external appear- 
ance. Guard against an enemy iu the 
likeness of a friend. 

L I M 


L I M 

3. One that resembles another ; a copy ; 


I took you for your likeness, Chloe. Prior, 
i. An image, picture or statue, resembling a 

person or thing. Ex. xx. 
LI'KENING, /ipr. Comparing; representing 

as similar. 
LI'KEWISE, adv. [like and ivise.] In like 

manner; also; moreover; too. 

For lie seeth that wise men die, likewise the 

fool and the brutish person perish, and leave 

their wealth to others. Ps. xlix. 
LI'KING, ppr. of like. Approving ; being 

pleased with. 
3. a. Plump ; full ; of a good ajipearance. 

Dan. i. Obs. 
LI'KING, n. A good state of body ; health- 
ful appearance ; plumpness. 

Their young ones are in good liking — Job 


2. State of trial. [Mil used.] Dryden 

3. Inclination; pleasure; as, this is an amuse- 
ment to your liking. Spenser 

4. Delight in; pleasure in; with /o. 

He wlio has no liking to the whole, ought not 
to censure the parts. Dryd> 

LILAC, n. [Fr. lilas; Sp. lilac] A plant 
shrub of the genus Syringa, a native of 
Persia. The common lilac is cultivated 
for its flowers, which are purple or white. 

LIL'ALITE, n. A species of earth of the 
argillaceous kind ; called also lepidolite, 
which see. Kirwan 

LILIA'CEOUS, a. [L. liliaceus, from lilium, 
a lily.] 

Pertaining to lilies ; lily-like. A liliaceous 
corol is one that has six regular petals. 


LIL'IED, a. Embellished withhlies. 

By sandy Ladon's lilted banlcs. Milton. 

LILL, v.t. [See Loll. But lill is used in 
New England.] Spenser. 

LILT, V. i. To do any thing with dexterity 
or quickness. [Local.] P^gge- 

2. To sing or play on the bagpipe. 

LIL' Y, n. [L. lilium ; Gr. T^itpiov ; Sp. lirio.] 
A genus of plants of many species, which 
are all bulbous-rooted, herbaceous peren 
nials, producing bell-shaped, hexapetalous 
(lowers of great beauty and variety of col- 

• ors. Encyc 

Lily of the valley, a plant of the genus Con- 

valiaria, with a monopetalous, bell-shaped 

corol, divided at the top into six segments. 


LILY-DAFFODIL, n. A plant and flower. 

LIL'Y-IIANDED, a. Having white deli- 
cate hands. Spenser. 

LIL'Y-HYACINTH, n. A plant. MiUer. 

LILY-LIV'ERED, a. White-livered; cow- 
ardly. [JVotuscd.] Shak. 

LIMA'TION, n. [L. lima, to file.] The act 
of filing or polLshing. 

LI'MATtJRE, n. [L. limo, to file.] A filing, 

2. Filings; particles rubbed off by filing. 


LIMB, n. Urn. [Sax. lim ; Dan. Sw. lem , 
L. limhus, edge or border, extremity 
limes, limit, coinciding perhaps with W 
llem, llym, sharp, or Uamu, to leap. The 
sense of limb is from shooting or extend 

1. Edge or border. This is the proper sig 
nification of the word; but in this sense i 
is limited chiefly to technical use, and ap 

plied to the sun, moon, or a star, to a leaf, 
to a quadrant, &c. We say, tlie sun or 
moon is eclipsed on its northern limb. But 
we never say, the limb of a board, of a tract 
of land or water, &c. 

2. In anatomy, and in common use, an extrem- 
ity of the human body ; a member; a pro 
jecting part ; as the arm or leg ; that is, a 

3. The branch of a tree ; applied only to 
branch of some size, and not to a small 

4. In botany, the border or upper spreading 
part of a monopetalous corol. Martyn. 

LIMB, V. t. lim. To supply with limbs 


2. To dismember ; to tear off the limbs. 

LIM'BAT, n. A cooling periodical wind in 
the isle of Cyprus, blowing from the north 
west from eight o'clock, A. M. to the mid- 
dle of the day or later. Encyc 

LIM'BE€, n. [contracted from alembic] 
\ still ; a tvord not now used. 

LIM'BE€, V. t. To strain or pass through a 
still. Obs. Sandys. 

LIMB'ED, o. In composition, formed with 
regard to limbs ; as we\l-limbed ; large- 
limbed; short-limbed. Pope. 

LIM'BER, a. [perhaps from the W. llib, 
llibin ; for m and b are convertible, and m 
before b, is often casual.] 

Easily bent ; flexible ; pliant ; yieldiiig. I 
America, it is applied to material things ; 
as a limber rod ; a limber joint. 

LIM'BER, n. In a ship, a square hole cut 
through the floor timbers, as a passage for 
water to the pump-well. Mar. Diet. 

LIM'BERNESS, n. The quality of being 
easily bent ; flexibleness; pliancy. 

LIM'B'ERS, n. A two-wheeled carriage 
having boxes for ammunition. 
Thills; shaftsof a carriage. [Ijocal.] 

LIM'BILITE,n. A mineral from Limbourg, 
in Swabia, of a honey yellow color, and 
compact texture. Saussure. 

LIMB'LESS, a. Destitute of limbs. 


LIMB-MEAL, a. Piece-meal. Shak. 

LIM'BO, I [L. limbus.] A region border- 

LIM'BUS, I "-ing on hell, or hell itself. 

Among catholics, a place where the 
souls of persons are lodged after death. 

2. A place of restraint. Dryden. 

LIME, n. [Sax. lim, lime, whence geliman. 
to glue ; Sw. Dan. lim, D. lym, G.leim and 
lehem, loam; L. limus ; It. Sp. limo; prob- 
ably Gr. y-riiir;, y'Kv/^l, and allied to clammy 
On this word is formed slime.] 

1. A viscous substance, sometimes laid on 
twigs for catching birds. Dryden 

2. Calcarious earth, oxyd of calcium, pro- 
cured from chalk and certain stones and 
shells, by expelling from them the carbon- 
ic acid, by means of a strong heat in a fur- 
nace. The best lime for mortar or ce- 
ment is obtained from limestone, or car- 
bonate of lime, of which marble is a fine 
species. Hooper. JVicholson 

3. The linden tree. 

4. [Fr. lime. See Lemon.] A species of 
acid fruit, smaller than the lemon. 

LIME, V. t. [Sax. geliman.] To smear with 

a viscous substance. VEstrange. 

2. To entangle; to ensnare. Shak. 

3. To manure with lime. 
Land may 

and liming. 

4. To cement. Shak. 
LrME-BURNER,n. One who burns stones 

to hme. 

LI'MED, pp. Smeared with lime ; entang- 
led ; manured with lime. 

LI'MEHOUND, n. A dog used in bunting 
the wild boar ; a limer. Spenser. 

LIMEKILN, n. li'mekil. A kiln or furnace 
in which stones or shells are exposed to a 
strong heat and reduced to lime. 

LI'MESTONE, n. Stone of which lime is 
made by the expulsion of its carbonic 
acid, or fixed air. It is called carbonate of 
lime. Of this there are several species. 

LI'METWIG, n. A twig smeared with lime. 

LI'METWIGGED, o. Smeared with lime. 

LI'MEWATER, n. Water impregnated 
with lime. 

LI'MING, ppr. Daubing with viscous mat- 
ter; entangling; manuring with lime. 

LIM'IT, n. [L. limes; Fr. limites. See 

1. Bound ; border ; utmost extent ; the part 
that terminates a thing ; as the limit of a 
town, city or empire ; the limits of human 

2. The thing which bounds; restraint. 

3. Limits, plu., the extent of the liberties of 
a prison. 

LIM'IT, V. t. To bound ; to set bounds to. 

2. To confine within certain bounds ; to cir- 
cumscribe ; to restrain. The government 
of England is a. limited monarchy. 

They tempted God and limited the Holy One 
of Israel. Ps. Ixxviii. 

3. To restrain from a lax or general signifi- 
cation. /fbrZrf sometimes signifies the uni- 
verse, and sometimes its signification is 
limited to this earth. 

LIM'ITABLE, a. That may be limited, 
circumscribed, bounded or restrained. 


LIM'ITANEOUS, a. Pertaining to bounds. 

.LIMITA'RIAN, a. That limits or circum- 

I scribes. 

LIMITA'RIAN, n. One that limits; one 

I who holds the doctrine that a part of 
the human race only are to be saved ; op- 
posed to universalist. Huntington. 

LIM'ITARY, a. Placed at the limit, as a 

— Proud limitary clierub. .Milton. 

LIMITA'TION, n. [L. limitatio.] The act 
of bounding or circumscribing. 

2. Restriction ; restraint ; circumscription. 
The king consented to a limitation of his 
prerogatives. Government by the limita- 
tion of natural rights secures civil liberty. 

3. Restriction ; confinement from a lax inde- 
terminate import. Words of general im- 
port are often to be understood with limit- 

4. A certain precinct within which friars 
were allowed to beg or exercise their 
fimctions. Gilping. 

LIM'ITED, pp. Bounded ; circumscribed ; 

2. a. Narrow; circumscribed. Our views 

of nature are very limited. 
LIM'ITEDLY, adv. With limitation. 

L I N 



LIM'ITEDNESS, n. State of being limit- 
ed. Parker. 

LIM'ITER, n. He or that which Umits or 

•2. A friar licenced to beg within certain 
bounds, or whose duty was limited to a 
certain district. 

LIMITLESS, a. Having no limits; un- 
bounded. Davies. 

LIM'MER, n. Alimehound; a mongrel. 


2. A dog engendered between a hound and 
a mastiff. Bailey. 

3. A thill or shaft. [Local. See Limber.] 

4. A thill-horse. [Local.] 
LIMN, V. t. Urn. [Fr. enluminer ; L. lumino.' 

To draw or paint ; or to paint in water 
colors. Encyc. 

LIM'NED, pp. lim'med. Painted. 

LIM'NER, n. [Fr. enlumineur ; L. illumina- 
tor, in the middle ages, alluminor.] 

1. One that colors or paints on paper or 
parchment ; one who decorates books with 
initial pictures. Encyc. 

2. A portrait painter. 

LIMN'ING, ppr. Drawing; painting; paint- 
ing in water colors. 

LIM'NING, n. The act or art of drawing 
or painting in water colors. Addison 

LI' MOUS, a. [L. limosus, from limus, slime.^ 
Muddy ; slimy ; thick. Brown. 

LIMP, V. i. [Sax. lemp-heali, lame ; gelimp 
an, to happen, that is, to fall ; alhed per- 
haps to la/ne.] To halt ; to walk lamely 

LIMP, n. A halt ; act of limping. 

LIMP, a. Vapid ; weak. [JVot used.] 


LIMP'ER, II. One that limps. 

LIM'PET, )i. [h.lepas ; Gi:-Ki)ia;,i:voimi7tu 
to peel or strip off bark.] 

A univalve sliell of the genus Patella, ad- 
hering to rocks. 

LIM'PID, a. [L. limpidus.] Pure; clear 
transparent ; as a limpid stream. 

LIM'PIDNESS, n. Clearness; purity. 

LIM'PIXG, ppr. Halting ; walking lamely 

LIM'PINGLY, adv. Lamely ; in a halting 

LIM'SY, a. [W. ttymsi.] Weak ; flexible. 

.V. England. 

LI'MY, a. [See Lime.] Viscous; glutinous; 

2. Containing lime; as alimy soil. 

3. Resembling lime ; having the qualities of| 

LIN, V. i. [Ice. linna.] To yield. Obs. 
LIN, n. [Celtic] A pool or mere. [jYot 

LINCH'PIN, n. [Sax. ly,ils, an axis, D. 

A pin used to prevent the wheel of a car 

riage from sliding off the axle-tree. 
LIN€'TURE, n. [L. lingo, linctus.] Medi 

cine taken by licking. Burton. 

LIN'DEN, n. [Sax. Sw. Dan. h'nrf; D. linde 

or linde-boom ; G. linde, lindenbaum.] 
The lime-tree, or teil-tree, of the genus 

Tilia. Dryden. 

LINE, n. [L. linea ; Fr. ligne, from L. li- 

num ; Gr. ^imv, flax ; G. leine ; D. lyn ; 

Sw. Una ; Dan. line.] 
i. In geometry, a quantity extended in length, 

without breadth or thickness ; or a limit 

terminating a surface. Encyc. 

2. A slender string ; a small cord or rope. 
The angler uses a line and hook. Tlie 
seaman uses a hand line, a hauling line, 
spilling lines, &c. 

A tliread, string or cord extended to di- 
rect any operation. 

We as by line upon the ocean go. Dryden. 

4. Lineament ; a mark in the hand or face. 
He tipples paliuistry, and dines 
On all her fortune-telling lines. Cleaveland. 

5. Delineation; sketch; as the lines of a 
building. Temple. 

6. Contour ; outline ; e.xterior limit of a 

Free as thy stroke, yet faultless as thy line. 

7. In zvriling, printing and engraving, the 
words and letters which stand on a level 
in one row, between one margin and an 
other ; as a page of thirty lines. 

8. In poetry, a verse, or the words which 
form a certain number of feet, according 
to the measure. 

D. A short letter ; a note. I received a line 
from my friend by the last mail. 

10. A rank or row of soldiers, or the dispo 
sition of an army drawn up with an ex 
tended front ; or the like disposition of a 
fleet prepared for engagement. 

11. A trench or rampart; an extended work 
in fortification. 

Unite thy forces and attack their lines. 


12. Method; disposition; as line of order. 

13. Extension ; limit ; border. 
Eden stretched her line 

From Auran eastward to the royal towers 
Of great Seleucia. Milton. 

14. Equator ; equinoctial circle. 
When the sun below the line descends- 


15. A series or succession of progeny or re- 
lations, descending from a common pro- 
genitor. We speak of the ascending or 
descending Ztne ; ihc liiie of descent; the 
male line ; a line of kings. 

16. The twelfth part of an inch. 

17. A straight extended mark. 

18. A straight or parallel direction. The 
houses must all stand in a line. Every 
new building nmst be set in a line with 
others on the same street. 

19. Occupation ; employment ; department 
or course of business. We speak of 
in the same line of business. 


20. Course ; direction. 
What general line of conduct ought to be pur- 
sued ? Washington. 

21. Lint or flax. [Seldom used.] Spenser. 

22. In heraldry, lines are the figures used in 
armories to divide the shield into different 
parts, and to compose difterent figures. 


23. In Scripture, line signifies a cord lor 
measuring ; also, instruction, doctrine. Ps. 
xix. Is. xxviii. 

Jl right line, a straight or direct line ; the 
shortest line that can be drawn between 
two points. 

Horizontal line, a line drawn parallel to the 

Equinoctial line, in geography, a great circle 
on the earth's surface, at 90 degrees dis- 
tance from each pole, and bisecting the 
earth at that part. In astronomy, the cir- 

cle which the sun seems to describe, in 

March and September, when the days and 

nights are of equal length. 
Meridian line, an imaginary circle drawn 

through the two poles of the earth, and 

any part of its surface. 
A ship of the line, a ship of war large enough 

to have a place in the line of battle. All 

ships carrying seventy four or more large 

guns, are ships of the line. Smaller ships 

may sometimes be so called. 
LINE, V. t. [supposed to be from L. linum, 

flax, whence linen, which is often used for 


1. To cover on the inside ; as a garment 
liried with linen, fur or silk; a box lined 
with paper or tin. 

2. To put in the inside. 
— What if 1 do line one of their hands > 


3. To place along by the side of any thing 
for guarding ; as, to line a hedge with ri- 
flemen ; to line works with soldiers. 

4. To strengthen by additional works or 

ime and new repair your towns of war 
With men of courage. Sliak. 

5. To cover ; to add a covering ; as, to line 
I crutch. Shak. 

6. To strengthen with any thing added. 
Who lined himself with hope. Shak. 

7. To impregnate; applied to irrational ani- 
mals. Creech. 

LIN'EAGE, n. [Fr. lignage, from ligne, 

Race ; progeny ; descendants in a line from 

a common progenitor. 
LIN'EAL, a. [L. linealis, from linea, line.] 

1. Composed of hues; delineated ; as lineal 
designs. ffotton. 

2. In a direct line from an ancestor ; as lin- 
eal descent ; lineal succession. Locke. 

3. Hereditary ; derived from ancestors. 

4. Allied by direct descent. 
For only you are lineal to the throne. 


5. In the direction of a line ; as lineal nieas- 

Lineal measure, the measure of length. 

LINEAL'ITY, n. The state of being in the 
form of a line. Am. Revieu: 

LIN'EALLY, adv. In a direct line; as, the 
prince is lineally descended from the con- 

LIN'EAMENT, n. [Fr. from L. lineamen- 

Feature ; form; make ; the outline or exte- 
rior of a body or figure, particularly of the 

Man he seems 
In all his lineaments. Jililton. 

— The lineaments of the body. Locke. 

— Lineaments of a character. Swift. 

LINEAR, a. [L. linearis.] Pertaining to a 
line ; co]isisting of lines ; in a straight di- 

2. In botany, like a line ; slender ; of the 
same breadth throughout, except at the 
extremities; as a linear leaf. 

Linear numbers, in mathematics, such as 
have relation to length only; such is a 
number which represents one side of a 
plane figure. If the plane figure is a 
square, the linear figure is called a root. 

L I N 

Linear problevt, that which may be solved 
geometrioaDy by the intersection of two 
right Unes. Encyc. 

LIN'EATE, a. In ftoton?/, marked longitudi- 
nally with depressed parallel Unes ; as a 
lineale leaf. 

LINEA'TION, n. Draught ; delineation, 
wliich see. Ifoodward. 

LI'NED,;)^. Covered on the inside. 

LIN'EN, n. [L. linum, flax, Gr. Xivm, W. 
llin, Ir. lin, Russ. len, G. kin. The sens 
is probably long, extended or smooth. I 
the latter sense, it would accord with L. 
linio, lenio.] 

1. Cloth made of flax or hemp. 

2. An under garment. 

LIN'EN, a. [L. Uncus.] Made of flax 
hemp ; as linen cloth ; a linen stocking. 

2. Resembling linen cloth ; white ; pale. 


Fossil-linen, a kind of amianth, with soft, 
parallel, flexible fibers. Encyc. 

LINEN-DRAPER, n. A person who deals 
in linens. 

lAnener and linen-man, in a like sense, are 

LING, n. [D. leng ; Ir. long ; probably Sax. 
leng, long.] 

A fish of the genus Gadus, or cod kind, 
which grows to the length of four feet or 
more, is very slender, with a flat head. 
This fish abounds on the coasts of Scot- 
land and Ireland, and forms a considera- 
ble article of commerce. Encyc. 

LING, n. [Ice. ling, from leng, long.] A spe- 
cies of long grass ; heath. 

Jamieson. Cyc. 

Ling, a Saxon termination, as in darling, 
firstling, denotes primarily state, condi 
tion, or subject. In some words, it de 
notes the young of an animal, or a small 

LIN'GER, V. i. [from the root of Jong-, Sax. 

1. To delay; to loiter; to remain or wait 
long ; to be slow. 

Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind. 
Whose judgnient now of a long time linger- 
eth not. 2 Pel. ii. 

2. To hesitate; to be slow in deciding; to be 
in suspense. 

Perhaps thou lingerest, in deep thought de- 
tained. .Milton 

3. To remain long in any state. The patient 
lingers on a bed of sickness. 

LIN'GER, V. t. To protract. Shak. 

LIN'GERER, n. One who lingers. 
LIN'GERING, ppr. Delaying; loitering. 
2. a. Drawing out in time ; remaining long ; 
protracted ; as a lingering disease. 

To die is the fate of man ; but to die with 
lingering anguish is generally his folly. 

LIN'GEPJNG, n. A delaying ; a remaining 
long ; tardiness ; protraction. 

The lingerings of holyday customs. 

LIN'GERINGLY, adv. With delay ; slow- 
ly ; tediously. Hale 
LIN'GET, n. [Fr. lingol, from languette, a 

a tongue.] 
A small mass of metal. Camden 

LIN'GLE,n. [Fr./ii^neW,from ligne.] Shoe- 
maker's thread. [.Vol in use or local.] 



LIN'GO, n. [L. lingua.] Language ; speech. 

LINGUADENT'AL, a. [L. h'ng-ua, tongue, 
and dens, a tooth.] 

Formed or uttered by the joint use of the 
tongue and teeth ; as the letters d and t. 

LINGUADENT'AL, n. An articulation 
formed by the tongue and teeth. 

LIN'GUAFORM, a. [lingtia and/orm.] Hav- 
ing the form or shape of the tongue. 


LIN'GUAL, a. [L. lingua, the tongue.] Per- 
taining to the tongue ; as the lingual 
nerves, the ninth pair, which go to the 
tongue ; the lingual nniscle, or muscle of 
the tongue. 

LIN'GUIST, n. [L. lingua, tongue.] A per- 
son skilled in languages ; usually applied 
to a person well versed in the languages 
taught in colleges, Greek, Latin, and He- 
brew. Milton. 

LIN'GULATE, a. [L. lingulatus, from lin- 
gua, tongue.] 

Shaped like the tongue or a strap. [But 
ligulate is more generally used.] 


LINGWORT, »i. An herb. 

LIN'IMENT, n. [Fr. from L. linimentum, 
from linio, lino, to anoint.] 

A species of soft ointment ; a composition of 
a consistence somewhat thinner than an 
unguent, but thicker than oil. Encyc. 

Ll'NlNG,ppr. [See Line.] Covering on the 
inside, as a garment. 

LI'NING, n. The inner covering of any 
thing, as of a garment or a box. The 
pleura is called the lining of the thorax. 

2. That which is within. Shak 

LINK, n. [G.gelenk, a joint, a ring, a swivel, 
a link, and as an adjective, flexible, lim- 
ber, from lenken, to bend ; Dan. lenke, a 
A single ring or division of a chain. 

2. Any thing doubled and closed like a link ; 
as a link of horse hair. Mortimer. 

3. A chain ; any thing connecting. 
— And love, the common link, the new crea- 
tion crowned. Dryden. 

4. Any single constituent part of a connected 
series. This argument is a link in the 
chain of reasoning. 

5. A series; a chain. 
LINK, n. [Gr. ^vxfos, L. lychnus, a lamp or 

candle, coinciding in elements with light.] 

A torch made of tow or hards, &c., and 
pitch. Shak. Dryden. 

LINK, V. t. To complicate. Johnson. 

2. To unite or cor.nect by something inter- 
vening or in other manner. 

— Link towns to towns by avenues of oak. 


— And creature link'd to creature, man to man. 


LINK, V. i. To be connected. Burke. 

LINK'BOY, ? A boy or man that carries 

LINK'MAN, I "• a link or torch to light pas- 
sengers. More. Gay. 

LINK'ED, pp. United; connected. 

LINK'ING, »pr. Uniting; connecting. 

LIN'NET, n. [Fr. linol ; W. llinos, from lien, 
flax, and called also in W. adern y llin, 
flax-bird ; Sax. linetwege. So in L. cardu- 
elis, from carduus, a thistle.] 

A small singing bird of the genus Fringilla 

LINSEED. [Sec Untseed.] 

L I P 

LIN'SEY-WQQLSEY, a. Made of linen 
and wool ; hence, vile ; mean ; of differ- 
ent and unsuitable parts. Johnson. 

LIN'STOCK, 7!. [lint and stock.] A pointed 
staff with a crotch or fork at one end, to 
hold a lighted match ; used in firing can- 
non. It may be stuck in the ground or in 
the deck of "a ship. Encyc. 

LINT, n. [Sax. linel, L. linteum, linteus, from 
linum, flax.] 

Flax ; but more generally, hnen scraped into 
a soft substance, and used for dressing 
wounds and sores. 

LINT'EL, n. [Fr. linteau ; Sp. lintel or din- 

The head-piece of a door-frame or window- 
frame ; the part of the frame that lies on 
the side-pieces. E.x. xii. 

LINT'SEED, n. [lint, Qax, and. seed ; Sax. 
linsmd.] Flaxseed. 

LI'ON, 71. [Fr. from L. leo, leonis, Gr. Uw, 
Arm. lean, W. lleio, a lion ; llewa, to swal- 
low, to devour.] 

1. A quadruped of the genus Felis, very 
strong, fierce and rapacious. The largest 
lions are eight or nine feet in length. The 
male has a thick head, beset with long 
bushy hair of a yellowish color. The lion 
is a native of Africa and the warm cli- 
mates of Asia. His aspect is noble, his 
gait stately, and his roar tremendous. 

2. A sign in the zodiac. 

LI'ONESS, 7!. The female of the lion kind. 
LI'ONLIKE, a. Like a lion ; fierce. 

LION-METTLED, o. Having the courage 

and spirit of a lion. Hillhouse. 

LION'S FOOT, n. A plant of the genu^ 

LION'S LEAF, n. A plant of the genus 

LION'S TAIL, n. A plant of the genus 


LIP, n. [Sax. lippa, lippe ; D. lip ; G. Dan. 
~ . Ihpp ; L. ii ' ■ 
It. lahhro ; Sp. labio ; Fr. levre ; Ir. dab or 


L. labium, labrum ; 

liobhar ; Pers. ^^]. It may be connected 

with W. llavaru, Ir. labhraim, to speak, 
that is, to thrust out. The sense is prob- 
ably a border.] 

. The edge or border of the mouth. The 
lips are two fleshy or muscular parts, com- 
posing the exterior of the mouth in man 
and many other animals. In man, the 
lips, which may be opened or closed at 
pleasure, form the covering of the teeth, 
and are organs of speech essential to cer- 
tain articulations. Hence the lips, by a 
figure, denote the mouth, or all the organs 
of speech, and sometimes speech itself. 
Job ii. 

2. The edge of any thing ; as the lip of a 
vessel. Burnet. 

3. In botany, one of the two opposite divis- 
ions of a labiate corol. Tlie upper is call- 
ed the helmet, and the lower the beard. 
Also, an appendage to the flowers of the 
orchises, considered by Linne as a nec- 
tary. Martyn. Smith. 

To make a lip, to drop the under lip in sul- 
lenness or contempt. Shak. 

LIP, V. t. To kiss. Shak. 

ILIP-DEVO'TION, n. Prayers uttered by 
I the lips without the desires of the heart. 

L I a 

LIP'-GQOD, a. Good in profession only. 

B. Jonson 
LIP'-LABOR, J!. Labor or action of the lips 

without concurrence of the mind ; word; 

without sentiments. 
LIP'OGRAM, n. [Gr. f-iMu, to leave, and 

yfiauixa, a letter.] 
A writing in which a single letter is wholly 

LIPOGRAM'MATIST, n. One who writes 

any tiling, dropping a single letter. 

LIPOTH'YMOUS, a. [See Lipothymy. 

Swooning ; fainting. 
LIPOTH'YMY, n. [Gr. iitirtoevjaux ; JtsiTtu, to 

fail, and ev/ios, soul.] 
A fainting ; a swoon. Coxe. Taylor. 

LIP'PED, a. Having hps. 
2. In botany, labiate. 
LIP'PITUbE, n. [L. lippiiudo, from lippiis, 

Soreness of eyes; blearedness. Bacon. 

LIP'-WISDOM, n. Wisdom in talk without 

practice ; wisdom in words not supported 

by experience. Sidney 

LIQ'UABLE, a. [See Uquate.] That may 

be melted. 
UaUA'TION, n. [L. liquatio. See LiqiMte.] 

1. The act or operation of melting. 

2. Tlie capacity of being melted ; as a sub- 
stance congealed bevond liquation. 


LI'QUATE, V. i. [L. liquo.] To melt; to li- 
quefy ; to be dissolved. [Ldttle used.] 


LIQIJEFA€'TION, n. [L. liquefaclio, from 

The act or operation of melting or dissolv- 
ing ; the conversion of a sohd into a liqui( 
by the sole agency of heat or caloric 
Liquefaction, in common usage, signifies 
the melting of any substance, but by some 
authors it is applied to the melting of sub- 
stances, which pass through intermediate 
states of softness before they become flu- 
id, as tallow, wax, resin, &c. 

Core's Dispensatory. 

2. The state of being melted. 

LIQ'UEFIABLE, a. That may be melted, 

or changed from a solid to a liquid state. 


LIQ'UEPIER, n. That which melts any 
solid substance. 

LIQ'UEFY, V. t. [Fr. liquejier, from L. lique- 
facio. See Liquid.] 

To melt; to dissolve ; to convert from a fix- 
ed or solid form to that of a liquid, and 
technically, to melt by the sole agency of 
heat or caloric. 

LIQ'UEFY, V. i. To be melted ; to become 
'iqi'itl- Addison. 

LIQ'UEFYING, ;j;,r. Melting; becoming 

LIQUES'CENCY, n. [L. liquescentia.] Apt- 
ness to melt. Johnson. 

LIQUES'CENT, a. Melting; becoming fluid. 

LIQUEUR, n. [Fr.] A spirituous cordial. 

LIQ'UID, a. [L. liquidus, from liquo, to 
inelt, Ir. leagham ; probably from flow- 
ing, and coinciding with Sax. loge, water, 
L. lix, and lug, in Lugdunum, Let/den, Ly- 

Fluid; flowing or capable of flowing; not 
fixed or solid. But liquid is not precisely 
synonymous wnh fluid. Mercury and air 
are fluid, but not liquid. ! 

Vol. II 


2. Soft ; clear ; flowing ; smooth ; as liquid^ 
melody. Crashaw. 

3. Pronounced without any jar ; smooth ; as 
a liquid letter. 

4. Dissolved ; not obtainable by law ; as a[ 
liquid debt. Ohs. Ayliffe. 

LIQ'UID, n. A fluid or flowing sulwtance ; 

a substance whose parts change their rel 

ative position on the slight! 

and which flows on an inclined plane 

water, wine, milk, &c. 
2. In grammar, a letter which has a smooth 

flowing sound, or which flows smoothly 

after a mute ; as / and r, in bla, bra. M 

and n are also called liquids. 
LIQ'UIDATE, v.t. [Fr. liquider ; L. liqui 

do.] To clear from all obscurity. 

Time only can liquidate the meaning of all 

parts of a compound system. ' Hamilton 

2. To settle ; to adjust ; to ascertain or re 

duce to precision in amount. 

Whicli method of liquidating the ameice 

ment to a precise sum, was usually performed 

in the superior couits. Blachstone. 

The clerk of the commons' house of assembly 

in 1774, gave certificates to the public creditors 
that their demands were liquidated, and should 

be provided for in the next tax-bill. Ramsay 
'The domestic debt may be subdivided 

liquidated and unliquidated. Hamilton 

.3. To pay; to settle, adjust and satisfy; as 

a debt. Wheaton 

Kyburgh was ceded to Zuric by Sigismond, 

to liquidate a debt of a thousand florins. 

Coxe's Switz 
LIQ'UIDATED, pp. Settled; adjusted; re 

duced to certainty ; paid. 
LIQ'UID ATING, ppr. Adjusting; ascer 

taining ; paying. 
LIQUIDA'TION, n. The act of settling and 

adjusting debts, or ascertaining thei 

amount or balance due. 
LIQ'UIDATOR, n. He or that which liqui 

dates or settles. E. Everett. 

LIQUID'ITY, n. [Fr. liquidite.] The quality 

being fluid or liquid. 
2. Thinness. Clanville 

LIQ'UIDNESS, n. The quahty of being 

liquid ; fluency. Boyle. 

LIQ'UOR, n. lik'or. [Sax. loge ; Fr. liqueur i 

L. liquor.] 
A liquid or fluid substance. [See Liquid.] 

Liquor is a word of general signification. 

extending to water, milk, blood, sap, juice! 

&c. ; but its most common application is 

to spirituous fluids, whether distilled or fer- 
mented, to decoctions, solutions, tinctures. 
LIQ'UOR, V. t. To moisten ; to drench. 

[Little used.] Bacon. 

LIQUORICE. [See Licorice.] 
LIS'BON, n. A species of wine exported 

from Lisbon, in Portugal. 
LISNE, n. A cavity or hollow. [JVot in 
] . Hale. 

LISP, V. i. [G. lispeln, D. lispen, to lisp ; 

Sax. vlisp or vlips, a lisping ; Sw. l&spa, 

Russ. lepetzu, to lisp.] 
To speak with a particular articulation of 

the tongue and teeth, nearly as in pro 

nouncing th. Lisping is particularly no 

ticed in uttering th for s, as yeth for yes. 

It is most common in children. 

I lisped in numbers, for the numbers came 



LISP, I'. I. To pronoimce with a lisp ; as, 
she lisped a few words. 

LISP, n. The act of lisping, as in uttering an 
aspirated th for s. 

HSP'ER, n. One that lisps. 

LISP'ING, ppr. Uttering with a lisp. 

LISP'INGLY, adv. With a lisp. Holder. 

LIST, n. [Sax. Sw. list ; It. Sp. lisla ; 
Fr. Dan. lisle; D. lyst ; G. litze. If 
list, a roll or catalogue, and list, a border 
or strip of cloth, are irom the same root, 
we find the original orthography in the 
Arm. lez, and Sp. liza, and perhaps the L. 
licium, Fr. lice. But in some languages 
the words are distinguished; Fr. lisle, a 
roll, and lisiere, a list or selvage of cloth.] 

1. In commerce, the border, edge or selvage 
of cloth ; a strip of cloth forming the bor- 
der, particularly of broadcloth, and serv- 
ing to strengthen it. 

2. A line inclosing or forming the extremity 
of a piece of ground, or field of combat ; 
hence, the ground or field inclosed for a 
race or combat. Hence, to enter the lists, 
is to accept a challenge or engage in con- 
test. Hence, 

3. A limit or boundary ; a border. 

4. In architecture, a little square molding ; 
fillet ; called also a listel. 

5. A roll or catalogue, that is, a row or line ; 
as a list of names ; a list of books ; a list 
of articles; a list of ratable estate. 

G. A strip of cloth ; a fillet. Swift. 

Civil list, in Great Britain and the United 
States, the civil oflicej-s of government, as 
judges, embassadors, secretaries, &c. 
Hence it is used for the revenues or ap- 
propriations of public money for the sup- 
port of the civil oflicers. 

LIST, V. t. [from list, a roll.] To enroll ; to 
register in a list or catalogue ; to enlist. 
The latter is the more elegant word. 

2. To engage in the public service, as sol- 

They in my name are listed. Dry den. 

3. To inclose for combat ; as, to list a field. 

4. To sew together, as strips of cloth ; or to 
form a border. fVotton. 

5. To cover with a list, or with strips of 
cloth ; as, to list a door. 

To hearken ; to attend ; a contraction of 

listen, which see. 
LIST, V. {. To engage in public service by 

enroUing one's name ; to enlist. [The 

latter is the more elegant word. See 

LIST, V. i. [Sax. lystan ; G. liisten ; D. lus- 

ten; Sw.lysta; Dan. lyster. See Lust. 

The primary sense seems to be to lean, 

incline, advance or stretch toward. [See 

the Noun.] 
Properly, to lean or incline; to be propense; 

hence, to desire or choose. 

Let otlier men think of your devices as they 

list. Whitgifte. 

The wind bloweth where it listeth. John iii. 

LIST, n. In the language of seamen, an 

inclination to one side. The ship has a 

luit to port. Mar. Did. 

LIST'ED, pp. Striped ; particolored in 


2. Covered with list. 

3. Inclosed for combat. 

4. Engaged in public service ; enrolled. 

L I T 

LIST'EL, 11. A list in architecture; a fillet. 


LIST'EN, V. i. lis'n. [Sax.lystan or hlystan; 

D. luisteren. Qu. G. taiischen ; Scot. 


1. To hearken ; to give ear ; to attend 
closely with a view to hear. 

On the green bank I sat, and listened long. 

2. To obey ; to yield to advice ; to follow 

LIS'TEN, V. t. lis'n. To hear ; to attend. 

LIST'ENER, 71. One who listens; a heark- 

LIST'ER, n. One who makes a list or roll. 

LIST'FUL, a. Attentive. Obs. Spenser. 

LIST'ING, ppr. Inclosing for combat ; cov- 
ering with list ; enlisting. 

LIST'LESS, u. Not listening ; not attend- 
ing ; indifferent to what is passing; heed- 
less ; inattentive ; thoughtless ; careless ; 
as a listless hearer or spectator. 

LIST'LESSLY, adv. Without attention ; 

LIST'LESSNESS, n. Inattention; heed- 
lessness ; indifference to what is passing 
and may be interesting. 

LIT, pref. of light. The bird lit on a tree 
before me. 

I lit my pipe with the paper. .Addison. 

[This word, though used by some good 
writers, is very inelegant.] 

LIT' ANY, n. [Fr. litame, Gr. utavcta. 
supplication, from Xtrtwvw, Xirofiai, Xiaao- 
juot, to pray.] 

A solemn form of supplication, used in pub- 
lic worship. 

Supplications for the appeasing of God's 
wrath, were by the Greek church termed lita- 
nies, by the Latin, rogations. Hooker. 

LITE, a. Little. [J^fot in use.] 

LITER, n. [Fr. litre, from Gr. Mpa..] A 
French measure of capacity, being a cubic 
decimeter, containing, according to Lu- 
nier, about a pint and a half old French 
measure. The liter is equal to 60,02800 
cubic inches, or nearly 2j wine pints. 


LIT'ERAL, a. [Fr. from L. litera, a letter.; 

1. According to the letter ; primitive ; real ; 
not figurative or metaphorical ; as the 
literal meaning of a phrase. 

2. Following the letter or exact words ; not 
free ; as a literal translation. 

3. Consisting of letters. 

The literal notation of numbers was known 
to Europeans before the ciphers. Johnson 

LIT'ERAL, n. Literal meaning. [JVol 
med.] Brown 

LIT'ERALISM, n. That which accords 
with the letter. Milton 

LITERAL'ITY, n. Originator literal mean 
ing. Broimi 

LITERALLY, adv. According to the pri- 
mary and natm-al import of words; not 
figuratively. A man and his wife cannot 
be literally one flesh. 

2. With close adherence to words ; word 
by word. 

So wild and ungovernable a poet cannot be 
translated literally. Dryden. 

LIT'ERARY, a. '[L. literarius.] Pertaining 
to letters or literature ; respecting learn 
ing or learned men ; as a literary history ; 
literary conversation. 

2. Derived from erudition ; as literary fame. 

3. Furnished with erudition ; versed in let- 
ters ; as a literary man. 
Consisting in letters, or written or printed 

compositions ; as literary property. 
LIT'ERATE, a. [L. literatus.] Learned ; 
lettered; instructed in learning and sci- 
ence. Johnson. 
LITERA'TI, n. plu. [L. literatus.] The 
learned; men of erudition. Spectator 
LIT'ERATOR, n. [L.] A petty school- 
master. Burke. 
LIT'ERATURE, n. [L. literatura.-] Learn- 
ing ; acquaintance with letters or books. 
Literature comprehends a knowledge of 
the ancient languages, denominated clas- 
sical, history, grammar, rhetoric, logic 
geography, &c. as well as of the sciences 
A knowledge of the world and good 
breeding give luster to literature. 
LITH, n. [Sax.] A joint or limb. Obs. 

LITHAN'THRAX, n. [Gr. y.iSoj, a stone, 

and atSpa?, a coal.] 
Stone-coal, a black, compact, brittle, inflam- 
mable substance, of laminated texture 
more or less shining. JVicholson. 

LITH'ARGE, n. [Fr. from L. lithargyros. 
Gr. Xt^apyvpos, the spume or scum of] 
A semi-vitreous oxyd of lead, produced in 
refining silver by cupellation with lead. 
It appears in the form of soft flakes, or 
semi-transparent shining plates. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. Encyc. JVicholson. 
LITHE, a. [Sax. Uth, lithe ; W. llyth.] That 
may be easily bent; pliant; flexible; lim- 
ber ; as the elephant's lithe proboscis. 

LITHE, V. t. To smooth ; to soften ; to pal- 
liate. Ohs. Chaucer. 
2. To listen. Obs. [See Listen.-] 
LI'THENESS, n. Flexibility; limbeniess. 
LI'THER, a. Soft ; ))liant. 06s. Shak 
2. [Sax. lythr.] Bad ; corrupt. Obs. 

LI'THERLY, arfu. Slowly; lazily. Obs. 

LI'THERNESS, »i. Idleness; laziness. Obs. 
LITH'IA, n. A new alkali, found in a min- 
eral called petalite, of which the basis is a 
metal called lithium. Davy. Ure. 

LITH'IATE, n. [Gr. XiSoj, a stone.] A salt 
or compound formed by the lithic acid 
combined with a base. Hooper. 

LITH'Ie, a. [supra.] Pertaining to tlie 
stone in the bladder. The lithic acid is 
obtained from a calculus in the blarhler. 
LITHOBIBLION. [See Lithophyl.] 
LITH'OCARP, n. [Gr. u6oi, a stone, and 
jtaprtos, fruit.] Fossil fruit ; fruit petrified. 
Diet. JVat. Hist. 
LITH'OCOLLA, «. [Gr. J-iSoj, a stone, and 
xoX7.a, glue.] A cement that unites stones. 
LITIIODEN'DRON, n. [Gr. T-iOoj, stone, 
and ^fvSpoi-, -tree.] Coral ; so called from 
its resembling a petrified branch. Parr. 
LITHOtJEN'ESY, n. [Gr. >.i9o5, stone, and 

yiviaif, generation.] 
The doctrine or science of the origin of min- 
erals composing the globe, and of the 
causes which have produced their form 
and disposition. Diet. JVat. Hist. 

L I T 

LITHOGLYPH'ITE, n. [Gr. jiiSoj, stone, 
and yf.vfu, to engrave.] 

A fossil that presents the appearance of be- 
ing engraved or shaped by art. Luiiier 

LITHOGRAPHER, n. [See Lithography.} 
One who practices lithography. 

LITHOGRAPHIC, ? Pertaining to 

LITHOGRAPH'ICAL, \ "' lithography. 

LITHOGRAPHICALLY, adv. By the lith- 
ographic art. 

LITHOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. TiiSo;, stone, and 
ypa^iu, to engrave or write.] 

The art of engraving, or of tracing letters, 
figures or other designs on stone, and of 
transferring them to paper by impression ; 
an art recently invented by Mr. Senne- 
felder of Munich, in Bavaria. 

Joum. of Science. 

LITHOLOG'IC, ? „ rs!„ T •,). ; 1 

LITHOLOG'ICAL, \ "' L^ee Lithology.] 

Pertaining to the science of stones. 

LITHOL'OGIST, 71. A person skilled in 
the science of stones. 

LITHOL'OgY, n. [Gr. Mos, stone, and >.o- 
yoj, discourse.] 

1. The science or natural history of stones. 
A treatise on stones found in the body. 

LITH'OMANCY, n. [Gr. i.i9os, stone, and 
/nwrfta, divination.] 

Divination or prediction of events by means 
of stones. Brown. 

LITHOMAR'GA, \ [Gr. nSoj, stone, and 

LITH'OMARgE, S L- marga, marl.] 

An earth of two species, friable and indura- 
ted, more siliceous than aluminous, dis- 
tinguished by its great fineness and its 
fusibihty into a soft slag. 

Did. JVat. Hist. Kirwan. Ure. 

LITHONTRIP'TIC,a. [Gr. Ji^eoj, stone, and 
fpiSio, to wear or break.] 

Having the quality of dissolving the stone 
in the bladder or kidneys. 

LlTHONTRIP'Tle, n. A medicine which 
has the power of dissolving the stone in 
the bladder or kidneys ; a solvent of stone 
in the human urinary passages. Coxe. 

LITH'ONTRIPTOR, } , An instrument for 

LITH'OTRITOR, ^ "' triturating the 
stone in the bladder, so that it may be ex- 
tracted without cutting; recently invent- 
ed by Dr. Civiale. 

LITH'ONTRIPTY, ^ The operation of 

LITH'OTRITY, ^ trituratingthestone 
in the bladder, by means of an instrument 
called lithotritor. 

LITHOPH'AGOUS, a. [Gr. W05, stone, 
and $ttycj, to eat.] 

Eating or swallowing stones or gravel, as 

the ostrich. 
LITH'OPIIOSPHOR, n. [Gr. JiiSos, stone, 

and ^uB^opoi.] 
A stone that becomes phosphoric by heat. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 

LITHOPHOSPHOR'IC, a. Pertaining to 

lithophosphor; becoming phosphoric by 


LITHOPHYL, n. [Gr. xiBos, stone, and 

^vWoi', a leaf.] 
Bibliolite orlithobiblion, fossil leaves, or the 

figures of leaves on fossils. 
LITH'OPHYTE, n. [Gr. JuSoj, stone, and 

turor, a plant ; literally, stone-plant.] 
Stouc-coral ; a name given to those species 


of polypiers, whose substance is stonj 

The older naturalists classed them with 

veofetables. Cuvier. Ray. 

LITHOPHYT'IC, a. Pertaining to litho- 

LITH'OPHYTOUS, a. Pertaining to or 

consisting of lithophytes. 
LITH'OTOME, n. [Gr. ueos, stone, and 

■tfliiw, to cut.] 
A stone so formed naturally as to appear 

if cut artificially. Did. JVat. Hist. 

LITHOTOM'le, a. Pertaining to or per- 
formed by lithotomy. 
LITHOT'OMIST, n. [See Lilhoiomij.] One 
who performs the operation of cutting for 
the stone in the bladder ; or one who 
skilled in the operation. 
LITHOT'OMY, n. [Gr. Xifloj, stone, and 

■et/iva, to cut.] 
The operation, art or practice of cutting for 

the stone in the bladder. 
LITHOX'YLE, n. [Gr. JiiSoj, stone, and 

tu^oi, wood.] 
Petrified wood. It differs from lignite, be 
ing really changed into stone ; such as 
silicified woods, which are changed into 
varieties of silex, &c. Did. JVat. Hist 
LITH'Y, a. [See Lithe.] Easily bent ; plia- 
ble. [This is probably the word which, 
in our popular use, is pronounced lathy.] 
LIT'IGANT, or. [See Litigate.] Contend- 
ing in law ; engaged in a lawsuit ; as the 
parties litigant •'iyliffe. 

LIT'IGANT, n. A person engaged in a law- 
suit. VEstrange. 
LIT'IGATE, V. t. [L. liligo, from lis, litis, a 

contest or debate ; Ar. JvJ ladda, to dis 
pute. Class Ld. No. 2. Lis, litis, coin 
cides with the Sax. flit, contention ; flitan 
to contend.] 
To contest in law ; to prosecute or defend 
by pleadings, exhibition of evidence, and 
judicial debate ; as, to litigate a cause 


bruising the archil, and adding quick limel 
and putrefied urine, or spirit of urine dis-! 
tilled from lime. The mixture, after cool 
ing and the evaporation of the fluid, be 
comes a mass of the consistence of paste, 
which is laid on a board to dry in square 
lumps. Encyc. 

LIT'ORN, ji. A bird, a species of thrush,| 
in size and shape resembling the hen- 
blackbird. Did. JVat. Hist. 

LIT'OTE, n. [Gr. >.tf 05, slender.] Diminu- 
tion ; extenuation. Pope. 

LIT'TER, n. [Fr. liliere, from M< ,• contract- 
ed from L. lectus, from the root of lego, 
Eng. lay; It. lettica or lettiga ; Sp. litem; 

LIT'IGATE, «. i. To dispute in law; 

carry on a suit by judicial process. 
LIT'IGATED, pp. Contested judicially. 
LIT'IGATING, ppr. Contesting in law. 
LITIGA'TION, n. The act or process of 

carrying on a suit in a court of law 01 

equity for the recovery of a right or claim 

a judioial contest. 
LITIG'IOUS, a. [Fr. litigieiix ; L. litigio- 

1. Inclined to judicial contest; given to the 

practice of contending in law ; quarrel 

some ; contentious ; applied to persons. A 

litigious man is a bad neighbor and a 

1. Disputable ; controvertible ; subject to 

contention; as litigious right. 

No fences, parted fields, nor marks nor 

Distinguish'd acres of litigious grounds. 

I.ITlG'IOUSLY, adv. In a contentious 

I.ITIG'IOUSNESS, n. A disposition to en- 
gage in or to carry on lawsuits ; inclina- 
tion to judicial contests. 

LIT'MUS, } ^^ A blue pigment, formed 

LAC'MUS, S ' from archil, a species of I 

lichen. [See .lichil.] It is prep 


Port, liteira ; Arm. leler.^ 
1. A vehicle formed with shafts supporting! 
a bed between them, in which a person | 
may be borne by men or by a horse. If; 
by the latter, it is called a horse-litter. Ai 
similar vehicle in India is called a palan-\ 

Straw, hay or other soft substance, used 
as a bed for and for other pur- 

3. [Ice.lider, generation, from the root of 
lad, lead.] A brood of young pigs, k 
puppies, or other quadrupeds. The word 
is applied only to certain quadrupeds of 
the smaller kinds. [Qu. the root of lad.] 

4. A birth of pigs or other small animals. 
Waste matters, shreds, fragments and 

the like, scattered on a floor or other 
clean place. 
LIT'TER, V. t. To bring forth young, ai 
swine and other small quadrupeds. It is 
sometimes applied to human beings ir 
contempt. "S/jaA- 

2. To scatter over carelessly with shreds, 
fragments and the like ; as, to litter a 
room or a carpet. Sunjl. 

3. To cover with straw or hay ; as, to litter 
table. Dryden 

4. To supply with litter; as, to litter cattle. 
LIT'TERED, pp. Furnished with straw. 

2. a. Covered or overspread with litter, 
pieces, shreds, &c. 

LIT'TLE, a. conip. less, lesser ; sup. least. 
[Sax. lytel, lytle ; Scot, lite, lyte, adv. lyt : 
Goth, leitil ; Sw. liten ; Dan. liden ; D. 
luttel ; probably from the sense of dimi 
ishing. Class Ld. No. 15. 22. 31.] 

1. Small in size or extent ; not great 
large ; as a little body ; a little animal ; a 
little piece of ground ; a little table ; a little 
book ; a little hill ; a little distance ; a little 

2. Short in duration ; as a little time or sea 
son ; a little sleep. 

3. Small in quantity or amount; as a. little 
hay or grass ; a little food ; a little sum ; a 
httle light ; a little air or water. 

4. Of small dignity, power or importance. 

When thou wast Utile in thy own sight, was 
thou not made the head of the tribes ? 1 Sam 

5. Of small force or effect; slight; inconsid- 
erable ; as little attention or exertions ; 
little effort ; little care or diligence ; little 

LIT'TLE, n. A small quantity or amount. 
He demanded much and obtained little. 
He had little of his father's liberality. 

L I V 

2. A small space. 
Much was in little writ — Ihyden. 

3. Any thing small, slight, or of inconsidera- 
ble importance. 

I view with auger and disd:iin. 

How ;i»/e gives thee Joy and pain. Prior. 

4. Not much. 
These they arc fitted for, and little else. 

LIT'TLE, adv. In a small degree ; slightly ; 
as, he is little changed. It is a litlk dis- 

2. Not much ; in a small quantity or space 
of time. He sleeps /iWe. 

3. In some degree; slightly; sometimes pre- 
ceded by a. The liquor is a little sour or 

LIT'TLENESS, n. Smallness of size or 
bulk ; as the littleness of the body or of an 

Meanness ; want of grandeur ; as little- 
ness of conception. 

3. Want of dignity. Contemplations on the 
majesty of God displayed in his works, 
may awaken in us a sense of our own 

4. Meanness; penuriousness. 
LIT'TORAL, a. [L. littoralis, from lillus, 

shore.] Belonging to a shore. [Little 

LITUITE, «. A fossil shell. 

L1TL'R'(JI€AL, a. [See Liturgy.] Pertain- 
ing to a liturgy. 

LIT'URgY, n. [Fr. liturgie; Sp. It. lUur- 
gia ; Gr. Xfifoupyto ; %eitof, public, and 
!l>yov, work.] 

1 a general sense, all public ceremonies 
that belong to divine service; hence, in a 
restricted sense, among the Romanists, 
the mass; and among protestants, the 
common prayer, or the formulary of pub- 
lic prayers. Johnson. Encyc. 

LIVE, v._ i. ■ liv. [Sax. liban, leofan, lifian ; 
Goth, liban; Sw.lefwa; Ban. lever ; G. 
leben; D. lieven. It coincides with leave. 
The primary sense probably is to rest, re- 
main, abide. If so, the root may be Ar. 

be, to abide. Class Lb. 

! labba. 
No. 1.] 

1. To abide ; to dwell : to have settled resi- 
dence in any place. Where do you live ? 
I live in London. He lives in Philadel- 
phia. He lives in a large house in Second 
street. The Swiss Kije on mountains. The 
Bedouin Arabs live in the desert. 

2. To continue ; to be permanent ; not to 

Men's evil manners live In brass ; their virtues 
We write in water. Shak. 

3. To be animated ; to have the vital princi- 
ple ; to have the bodily functions in ope- 
ration, or in a capacity to operate, as res- 
piration, circulation of blood, secretions, 
&c.; applied to animals. 

I am Joseph ; doth my father yet live 7 Gen. 

To have the principles of vegetable life ; 
to be in a state in which the organs do or 
may perform their functions in the circu- 
lation of sap and in growth ; applied to, 
plants. This tree will not live, unless wat- 
ered ; it will not live through the winter. 
5. To pass life or time in a particular man- 
ner, with regard to habits or condition. 
In what manner does your son livel Does 

L I V 

L I V 

lie live in ease and affluence ? Does he live 
according to the dictates of reason and the 
precepts of rehgion ? 

If we act by several broken views, we shall 
live and die in misery. Spectator. 

6. To continue in hfe. The way to live long 
is to be temperate. 

7. To live, emphatically ; to enjoy hfe; to 
he in a state of happiness. 

What greater curse could envious fortune give. 
Than just to die, when I began to live ? 


8. To feed ; to subsist ; to be nourished and 
supported in life ; as, horses live on grass 
or grain ; fowls live on seeds or insects ; 
some kinds of fish live on others ; carniv- 
orous animals live on flesh. 

9. To subsist; to be maintained in life; to 
be supported. Many of the clergy are 
obliged to live on small salaries. All men 
in health may live by industry with econo- 
my, yet some men live by robbery. 

10. To remain undestroyed; to float; not to 
sink or founder. It must be a good ship 
that lives at sea in a hurricane. 

Nor can our shaken vessels live at sea. 


11. To exist; to have being. 

As I live, saith the Lord — Ezek. xviii. 

12. In Scripture, to be exempt from death, 
temporal or spiritual. 

Ye shall therefore keep ray statutes and judg- 
ments, which if a man do, he shall liveia them. 
Lev. xviii. 

13. To recover from sickness ; to have life 

Thy son liveth. John iv. 

14. To be inwardly quickened, nourished 
and actuated by divine influence or faith. 
Gal. ii. 

15. To be greatly refreshed, comforted and 

For now we live, if ye stand fast in the Lord. 
1 Thess. iii. 

16. To appear as in life or reahty; to be 
manifest in real character. 

And all the writer lives in every line. Pope. 
To live with, to dwell or to be a lodger with. 
2. To cohabit ; to have intercourse, as male 

and female. Shak. 

LIVE, V. t. liv. To continue in constantly or 

habitually; as, to live a life of ease. 
2. To act habitually in conformity to. 

It is not enough to say prayers, unless they 

live them too. Parker. 

LIVE, a. Having life ; having respiration 

and other organic functions in operation, 

or in a capacity to operate ; not dead ; as 

a live ox. 

2. Having vegetable life ; as a live plant. 

3. Containing fire ; ignited; not extinct; as 
a live coal. 

4. Vivid, as color. Thomson. 
LIVELESS, not used. [See Lifeless.] 
LI'VELIIIOOD, n. [lively and hood, or life-'. 

lode, from lead. I find in Saxon lif-lade,\ 
lead or course of life, vilw iter.] 

Means of living; support of life; main- 
tenance. Trade furnishes many people 
with an honest livelihood. Men of enter- 
prise seek a livelihood where they can 
find it. 

LI'VELINESS, 11. [Crom lively.] The qual- 
ity or state of being lively or animated ; 
sprightliness ; vivacity ; animation ; spirit ; 
as the liveliness of youth, contrasted with 
the gravity of age. 

2. An appearance of life, animation or spirit ; 
as the liveliness of the eye or countenance 
in a portrait. 

3. Briskness ; activity ; eflTervescence, as of 

LIVELODE, for livelihood, not used. 

Hubherd's Tale 
LIVELONG, a. liv'long. [live and long.] 

1. Long in passing. 

How could she sit the livelong day. 

Yet never ask us once to play .' Swift. 

2. Lasting ; durable ; as a livelong monu- 
ment. [JVot used.] Milton. 

•3. A plant of the genus Sedum. 
LI'VELY, a. Brisk; vigorous; vivacious; 
active ; as a lively youth. 

2. Gay ; airy. 
From grave to gay, from lively to severe. 


3. Representing life ; as a lively imitation of| 

4. Animated ; spirited ; as a lively strain of] 
eloquence ; a lively description. 

.5. Strong ; energetic ; as a lively faith or 
hope ; a lively persuasion. 

Lively stones, in Scripture. Saints are called 
lively stones, as being quickened by the 
Spirit and active in holiness. Brown 

LI'VELY, adv. Briskly; vigorously. [Lit- 
tle used.] Hayward 

2. With strong resemblance of life. 

That part of poetry must needs be best, which 
describes most lively our actions and passions 
[Little used.'\ Dryden 

LIVER, n. One who lives. 

And tiy if life be worth the liver's care. 

It is often used with a word of qualifi- 
cation ; as a high liver ; a loose liver, &c. 

LIVER, n. [Sax. lifer, lifre ; D. lecver ; G 
leber; Sw.lefver; Dan. lever; Yxuss. liber. 
The Saxon word is rendered also libra- 
mentum, and this viscus may be named 
from its weight.] 

A viscus or intestine of considerable size 
and of a reddish color, convex on the an- 
terior and superior side, and of an unequal 
surface on the inferior and posterior 
It is situated under the false ribs, in the 
right hypochondrium. It consists of two 
lobes, of a glandular substance, and des- 
tined for the secretion of the bile. 

LIVER€OLOR, a. Dark red ; of the coTi 
of the liver. Woodward. 

LIVERED, a. Having a liver; as wUhe-liv- 
ered. Shsrwood. 

UVERGROWN, a. Having a large liv 


LIVERSTONE, ?i. [G.leber-stcin.] A stone 
orsi>ccies of earth of the liarytic genus, of 
a gray or brown color, which, when rub 
bed or heated to redness, emits the smell 
of liver of sulphur, or alkaline sulphuret. 

LIVERW^ORT, n. The name of many spe 
cies of plants. Several of the lichens are 
so called. The liverworts (Hepaticce) are 
a natural order of cryptogamian plants, 
whose herbage is generally frondose, and 
resembling the leafy lichens, but whose 
seeds are contained in a distinct capsule. 
The noble liverwort is the Anemone hepa 
tica. Smith. Lee. 

LIVERY, n. [Inform, from Fr. livrcr, to 

1. The act of delivering possession of land- 
or tenements; a term of English law 
It is usual to say, livery of seisin, which is 
a feudal investiture, made by the delivery 
of a turf, of a rod or twig, from the feoffor 
to the feoffee. In America, no such cere- 
mony is necessary to a conveyance of real 
estate, the delivery of a deed being sutS- 

2. Release from wardship ; deliverance. 
King Charles. 

The writ by which possession is obtained. 

4. The state of being kept at a certain rate ; 
as, to keep horses at livery. Spenser. 

5. A form of dress by which noblemen and 
gentlemen distinguish their servants. The 
Romish church has also liveries for con- 
fessors, virgins, apostles, martyrs, peni- 
tents, &c. Hence, 

A particular dress or garb, appropriate or 
peculiar to particular times or things ; as 
the livery of May ; the livery of autumn. 
Now came still evening on, and twilight gray- 
Had in her sober livery all things clad. 


7. The whole body of liverymen in London. 

LIVERY, v. t. To clothe in livery. Shak. 

JLIVERYMAN, n. One whowears ahvery : 
as a servant. 

,2. In London, a freeman of the city, of some 
distinction. The liverymen are chosen 
from among the freemen of each compa- 
ny, and from their number are elected the 
commoncouncil, sheriff and other superior 
officers of the city. They alone have the 
right of voting for members of parHament. 

LIVERY-STABLE, n. A stable where 

I horses are kept for hire. 

iLIVES, n. plu. odife. 

LI'VESTOCK, n. [live and stock.] Horses, 
cattle and smaller domestic animals ; a 
term applied in America to such animals 
as may be exported alive for foreign 

jLIVID, a. [Fr. livide; It. livido; h.lividus ; 
from liveo, to be black and blue.] 

Black and blue ; of a lead color ; discolored, 

[ as flesh by contusion. 

Upon my livid lips bestow a kiss. Dryden. 


A dark color, like tl 

LIVIDNESS, J "■ of bruised flesh. [Liv- 
idness is the preferable word.] 

LIVING, ppr. [from live.] Dwelling ; re- 
siding ; existing ; subsisting ; having life 
or the vital functions in operation ; not 

2. a. Issuing continually from the earth ; 
running; flowing; as a living springer 
fountain ; opposed to stagnant. 

3. a. Producing action, animation and vig- 
or; quickening; as a Ki'ing- principle ; a 
living faith. 

LIVING, n. He or those who are alive ; 
usually with a plural signification ; as in 
the land of the living. 

The living will lay it to his heart. Eccles 

LIVING, n. Means of subsistence; estate 
He divided to them his living. Luke xv. 
She of her want, did ca.-t in' all that she had, 
even all her living. Mark xii. 
2. Power of continuing life. There is nc 
living with a scold. 

There is no fe'ng^ without trusting some body 
or other in some cases. L' Estrange. 

L O A 

L O A 

L O A 

'S. Livelihood. He made a living by his oc-j 

cupation. The woman spins for a living} 
4. The benefice of a clergyman. He lost his 

living by non-confbrraity. 
LlVmOLY, adv. In a livuig state. 

Livonica terra, a species of fine bole found in, 

Livonia, brought to market in little cakes.' 
LI'VRE, n. [Fr.; L. libra.] A French money 

of account, equal to 20 sous, or ten pence 

LLXIV'IAL, } [L. lixivius, from lix, 
LIXIV'IOUS, p- lye.] 

1. Obtained by li.Yiviatiou ; impregnated 
with alkaline salt extracted from wood 
ashes. Lirivial salts are those which are 
obtained by passing water through ashes, 
or by pouring it on them. 

2. Containing salt extracted from the ashes 
of wood. 

3. Of the color of lye ; resembling lye. 

4. Having the qualities of alkahne salts from 
wood ashes. 

LIXIVIATE, ? Pertaining to lye or: 

LIXIVIATED, l"' lixivium; of the qual- 
ity of alkaline salts. 

2. Impregnated with salts from wood ashes. 

LIXIVIATE, V. t. [L. lixivia, lixivium, \ye.] 
To form lye; to impregnate with salts 
from wood ashes. Water is lixiviated byl 
passing through ashes. 

LIXIVIA'TION, n. The operation or pro-' 
cess of extracting alkaline salts from ashes' 
by pouring water on them, the water 
passing through them imbibing the salts. 

LIXIVIUM, »!. [L. from lix, lye, Sp. lexia, 
Fr. kssive.] 

Lye ; water impregnated with alkaline salts 
imbibed from wood ashes. It is some-j 
times applied to other extracts. Boyle.' 

LIZARD, n. [Fr. lezarde ; L. lacertus ; 
Sp. tngarto ; It. lucerta, lucertola ; Arm. 
gtasard. If lizard is the L. lacerta, there 
has been a change of c into z or s, which 
may be the fact. In Ethiopic, lalsekat is 
lizard. Gebelin deduces the word from 
an oriental word leza, to hide. But this is 

In zoology, a genus of amphibious animals, 
called Lacerta, and comprehending the| 
crocodile, alligator, chan;elion, salaman- 
der, &c. But the name, in common life,! 
is applied to the smaller species of this! 
genus, and of these there is a great va-j 
riety. These animals are ranked in the 
order of reptiles. The body is naked, 
with four feet and a tail. The body is 
thicker and more tapering than that of the 
serpent. Encyc. 

LIZ'ARD-TAIL, n. A plant of the genus 

Saururus, and another of the genus Piper. 

Fam. of Plants. 

LL. D. letters standing for Doctor of Laws, 
the title of an honorary degree. 

LO, exclam. [Sax. la. Whether this is a con- 



Look ; see ; behold ; observe. 

is used to excite particular attention in a 
hearer to some object of sight, or subject 
of discourse. 

Lo, here is Christ. Matt. xxiv. 

Lo, we turn to the Gentiles. Acts xiii. 

LOACH, } [Fr. loche.] A small fish of 

LOCHE, S ■ the genus Cobitis, inhabiting 

small clear streams, and esteemed dainty 

food. ITalton. 

LOAD, n. [Sax. hlad or lade ; W. Ihvytli. See 

1. A burden ; that which is laid on or put in 
any thing for conveyance. Thus we lay 
a load on a beast or on a man's shoulders, 
or on a cart or wagon ; and we say, a light 
load, a heavy load. A load then is indefi- 
nite in quantity or weight. But by usage, 
in some cases, the word has a more defi- 
nite signification, and expresses a certain 
quantity or weight, or as much as is usu- 
ally carried, or as can be well sustained. 
Load is never used for the cargo of a ship ; 
this is called loading, lading, freight, or 

2. Any heavy burden ; a large quantity borne 
or sustained. A tree may be said to have 
a /oarf of fruit upon it. 

3. That which is borne with pain or diffi- 
culty ; a grievous weight ; encumbrance ; 
in a literal sense. 

Jove lightened of its load 
Th' enormous m-iss — Pope. 

In a figurative sense, we say, a load of 
care or grief; a load of guilt or crimes. 

4. Weight or violence of blows. Milton 

5. A quantity of food or drink that oppress 
es, or as much as can be borne. Dryden 

G. Among miners, the quantity of nine dishe; 
of ore, each dish being about half a bun 
dred weight. Encyc. Cyc. 

LOAD, V. t. pret. and pp. loaded, [loaden, 
formerly used, is obsolete, and laden be 
longs to lade. Load, from the noun, is a 
regular verb.] 

1. To lay on a burden ; to put on or in 
thing to be carried, or as much as can be' 
carried ; as, to load a camel or a horse ; to 
load a cart or wagon. To load a gun, is to 
charge, or to put in a suflicient quantity of 
powder, or powder and ball or shot. 

2. To encumber ; to lay on or put in that 
which is borne with pain or ditKculty ; in 
a literal sense, as to load the stomach with 
meat ; or in a figurative sense, as to load 
the mind or memory. 

3. To make heavy by something added or 

Tliy dreadful vow, loaden with death — 

So in a literal sense, to load a whip. 

4. To bestow or confer on in great abun 
dance ; as, to load one with honors ; to load 
with reproaches. 

LOADED, pp. Charged with a load or car 

go ; having a burden ; freighted, as a ship; 

having a charge of powder, or powder and 

shot, as a gun. 
2. Burdened with any thing oppressive ; as 

loaded with cares, with guilt or shame. 
LOADER, n. One who puts on a load. 
LOADING, ppr. Charging with a load ; 

burdening ; encumbering ; charging, as a 

LOADING, 71. A cargo ; a burden ; also, any 

thing that makes part of a load. 
LOADMANAciE, n. Pilotage; skill of a pi- 
lot. [ATot rised.] 
LOADSMAN, n. [load and man.] A pilot. 

LOADSTAR, ) [lead and star.] The star 
LODESTAR, ^ "'that leads ; the polestar; 

the cynosure. Obs. Shak. 

LOADSTONE, n. [from the verb lead audi 

stone. The old orthography, lodeatone, is' 

most correct, as this word has no connec- 
tion with the verb to load.] 

The native magnet, an ore of iron in the 
lowest state of oxydatiou, which has the 
power of attracting metallic iron, as iron 
fihngs, and of communicating to masses of 
iron the same property of attraction, form- 
ing artificial magnets. [See Lodestone.] 

LOAF, n. plu. loaves. [Sax. hlaf or laf; 
Goth, hlaibs ; G. leib ; Polish, cidieb ; Bo- 
hemian, chleb ; Russ. chlib or chleb ; Croa- 
tian, Wii; Finnish, icipa or leipam; Lap- 
ponic, laibe. The German leib is rendered 
a loaf, and body, waist, belly; leiblich, 
which in English, would be loaf-like, sig- 
nifies corporeal, bodily, ioa/ then signi- 
fies a lump or mass, from some root that 
signifies to set, or to collect, or to form.] 

1. A mass of bread when baked. It is larger 
than a cake. The size and price of a loaf, 
in large cities, are regulated by law. 

2. A mass or lump, as of sugar. 

3. Any thick mass. 

LOAF-SUGAR, n. Sugar refined and form- 
ed into a conical mass. 

LOAM, n. [Sax. lam ; D. leem ; G. lehm ; L. 
litnus ; Sw. Urn ; Dan. Urn, Him ; so named 
from smoothness or softness ; W. 

probably : 

A natural mixture of sand and clay with 
oxyd of iron ; a species of earth or soil of 
different colors, whitish, brown or yellow, 
readily diffusible in water. 

Cleaveland. Encyc. 

LOAM, V. I. To cover with loam. Moxon. 

LOAMY, a. Consisting of loam ; partaking 
of the nature of loam, or resembling it. 

LOAN, n. [Sax. lan,Umn; Sw. mn; Dan. 
laan ; D. leen; G. lehen. See Lend.] 

1. The act of lending; a lending. 

2. That which is lent ; any thing furnished 
for temporary use to a person at his re- 
quest, on the express or implied condition 
that the specific thing shall be returned, 
or its equivalent in kind, but without com- 
pensation for the use ; as a loan of a book 
or of bread. 

3. Something furnished for temporary use, 
on the condition that it shall be returned 
or its equivalent, but with a compensa- 
tion for the use. In this sense, loan is 
generally applied to money. [See Lend.] 

4. A furnishing ; permission to use ; grant 
of the use ; as a loan of credit. Kent. 

LOAN, V. t. [Sax. la:nan ; G. lehnen ; D. 
leenen ; Sw. l&na ; Dan. laaner.] 

To lend ; to deliver to another for temporary 
use, on condition that the thing shall be 
returned, as a book ; or to deliver for use, 
on condition that an equivalent in kind 
shall be returned, as bread ; or to deliver 
for temporary use, on condition that an 
equivalent in kind shall be returned, with 
a compensation for the use, as in the case 
of money at interest. Bills of credit were 
issued, to be loaned on interest. 

Ramsay. Kent. Laws of the U. States. 
Stat, of Conn, and ofMiB York. 

LO'AN-OFFICE, n. In jlnierica, a public 
office in which loans of money are nego- 
tiated for the public, or in which the ac- 
counts of loans are kept and the interest 
paid to the lenders. 

LO'AN-OFFICER, n. A public oflicer em- 
powered to superintend and transact the 
business of a loan-office. 


L O C 


LOATH, ^ [Sax. lath, hateful; lathiai 

LOTH, S "■ lothe ; Sw. ledas, to lothe or 
nauseate ; Dan. leede, lothesome ; ke, aver- 
sion. In America, the primitive pronun- 
ciation of lath, that is, lawth, is retained 
in the adjective, which is written loth. 
The verb would be better written lothe, in 
analogy with cloth, clothe. See Loth.] 

Disliking ; unwilling ; reluctant. He was 
loth to leave the company. [See Loth.] 

LOATHE, ? , To hate ; to look on with 

LOTHE, I ' ' hatred or abhorrence ; par- 
ticularly, to feel disgust at food or drink, 
either from natural antipathy, or a sickly 
appetite, or from satiety, or from its ill 
taste. [See Lothe.] 

LOATHER, n. One that lothes. 

LOATHFUL, a. Hating ; abliorring througli 
disgust. HubberiTs Tale. 

2. Abliorred ; hated. Spenser. 

LOATHL\G, /)pr. Hating from disgust ; ab- 

LOATHINGLY, ado. Li a fastidious man- 

LOATHLY, a. Hateful ; exciting hatred. 
06*. Spenser. 

LOATHLY, adv. Unwillingly; reluctantly. 
[See Lothly.] 

LOATHNESS, n. Unwillingness; reluct- 
ance. [See Lothness.] 

LOATHSOME, a. Disgusting; exciting dis- 

2. Hateful ; abhorred ; detestable. 

3. Causing fastidiousness. [See Lothesome.] 
LOATHSOMENESS, n. The quality which 

excites disgust, hatred or abhorrence. 

LOAVES, plu. of loaf. 
LOB, n. [VV. Hob, allied to lubber, looby, 

club, &c. Qu. G. laff.] 

1. A dull, heavy, sluggish person. 

2. Something thick and heavy ; as in lob- 
worm. Walton. 

LOB, V. t. To let fall heavily or lazily. 
And (heir poor jades 
Lob down their heads. Shak. 

LO'BATE, } ^ [from lobe.] Consisting of 
LO'BED, ^ ■ lobes. In botany, divided to 
the middle into parts distant from each 
other, with convex margins. Martyn. 

LOB'BY, n. [Qu. G. laube, an arbor or 

1. An opening before a room, or an en- 
trance into a principal apartment, where 
there is a considerable space between that 
and the portico or vestibule. Encyc. 

2. A small hall or waiting room. Encyc. 

3. A small apartment taken from a hall or 

4. In a ship, an apartment close before the 
captain's cabin. Cyc. 

5. In agriculture, a confined place for cattle, 
formed by hedges, trees or other fencing, 
near the farm-yard. Cyc. 

LOBE, n. [Fr. lobe; Sp. Port, lobo; L.lo- 
bus ; Gr. >.o8o5.] 

1. Apart or division of the lungs, liver, &c. 

2. The lower soft part of the ear. 

3. A division of a simple leaf 

4. The cotyledon or jjlacentaof a seed. 
LO'BED, o. LoUate, which see. 
LOBSPOUND, n. A prison. Hudibras 
LOB'STER, n. [Sax. loppestre or lopystre. 

The first syllable coincides with Sax 
lobbf, a spider, and with loppe, a flea 

probably all named from their shape orj 
legs. The last syllable coincides with ster, 
in spinster, minister.] 
A crustaceous fish of the genus Cancer. 
Lobsters have large claws and fangs, and 
four pair of legs. They are said to change 
their crust annually, and to be frightened 
at thunder or other loud report. They 
constitute an article of food. 
LOB'ULE, n. [Sp. lobulo.] A small lobe 
LO'€AL, a. [Fr. Sp. local ; It. locale ; L. 
localis ; from locus, place. Sans, log ; from 
the root of lay, L. loco. See Lay.] 

1. Pertaining to a place, or to a fixed or lim- 
ited portion of space. We say, the local 
situation of the house is pleasant. We 
are often influenced in our opinions by lo- 
cal circumstances. 

2. Limited or confined to a spot, place, or 
definite district ; as a local custom. The 
yellow fever is local in its origin, and often 
continues for a time, to be a local disease. 

In law, local actions are such as must be 
brought in a particular county, where the 
cause arises ; distinguished from transito- 
ry actions. Blackstone. 
LOeAL'ITY, n. Existence in a place, or in 
a certain portion of space. 

It is thought that the soul and angels are de- 
void of quantity and dimension, and that they 
have nothing to do with grosser locality. 


2. Limitation to a county, district or place ; 
iocaKi^ of trial. BlacksU 

3. Position ; situation ; place ; particularly, 
geographical place or situation, as of 
mineral or plant. 

LO'€ALLY, adv. With respect to place; 

in place ; as, to be locally separated or dis 

LO'€ATE, v.t. [L. loco, locatus ; It. locare.] 

1. To place ; to set in a particular spot or 

2. To select, survey and settle the bounds of 
a particular tract of land ; or to designate 
a portion of land by limits ; as, to locate 
tract of a hundred acres in a particular 
township. U. States. 

•3. To designate and determine the place of 
as, a committee was appointed to locate 
a church or a court house. J^/". England. 

LOCATED, pp. Placed; situated; fixed in 

LO'eATING, ppr. Placing; designating 
the place of. 

LOeA'TION, n. The act of placing, or of 
designating the place of. 

2. Situation with respect to place. The lo- 
cation of the city on a large river is favor- 
able for commerce. 

.3. That which is located ; a tract of land de- 
signated in place. V. Slates 

4. In the civil law, a leasing on rent. 
LOCH, n. [Gaelic] A lake ; a bay or arm 

of the sea; used in Scotland. 

LOCH, 71. Loch or lohoch, is an Arabian 
name for the forms of medicines called 
eclegmas, lambatives, linctures, and the 
like. Qtiinc}). 

LOCH'AgE, n. [Gr. ».o;ro7'o{ ; Xoxof, a body 
of soldiers, and ayu, to lead.] 

In Greece, an officer who commanded a lo 
clius or cohort, the number of men in 
which is not certaitdy known. Mitford. 

LOCHE. [Seeiyoacft.] 

L0'€HIA, n. [Gr. %<ix(U3,.] Evacuations 
which follow childbirth. 

LO'€HIAL, a. Pertaining to evacuations 
from the womb after childbirth. 

LOCK, n. [Sax. loc or loce, an inclosed place, 
the fastening of a door, a tuft or curl of 
hair. In the latter sense, it is the G. locke, 
D. lok, L.Jloccus, Eng. lock; Ir. loc, a stop, 
hinderance ; W. Uoc, a mound, an inclosed 
place ; Russ. lokon, a lock of hair ; Sax. 
lucan, Goth, lukan, to lock ; Dan. lukke, a 
hedge, fence or bar ; hikker, to shut, to in- 
close, to fasten, to lock ; Fr. loguet, a latch ; 
Arm. licqued, or clicqed, W. elided. Lock 
and Jlock may be of one family. The pri- 
mary sense is to shut, to close, to press, 
strain or drive, which may be the radical 
sense of flock, Gr. tCKcxu, raoxos, L. pHco, as 
well as of lock. But see Class Lg. No. 48 
and 13. 14. 16.] 

1. Lock, in its primary sense, is any thing 
that fastens ; but we now appropriate the 
word tc an instrument composed of a 
spring, wards, and a bolt of iron or steel, 
used to fasten doors, chests and the like. 
The bolt is moved by a key. 

2. The part of a musket or fowling-piece or 
other fire-arm, which contains the pan. 
trigger, &c. 

3. The barrier or works of a canal, which 
confine the water, consisting of a dam, 
banks or walls, with two gates or pairs of 
gates, which may be opened or shut at 

4. A grapple in wrestling. Milto7i. 

5. Any inclosure. Dryden. 

6. A tuft of hair ; a plexus of wool, hay or 
other Hke substance ; a flock ; a ringlet of 

A lock of hair will draw more than a cable 
rope. Grew. 

Lock of water, is the measure equal to the 
contents of the chamber of the locks by 
which the consumption of water on a ca- 
nal is estimated. 

LOCK'-KEEPER, n. One who attends 
the locks of a canal. 

LOCK'-PADDLE, n. A small sluse that 
serves to fill and empty a lock. 

LOCK'-SIL, ji. An angular piece of timber 
at the bottom of a lock, against which the 
gates shut. 

LOCK'-WEIR, n. A paddle-weir, in canals, 
an over-fall behind the upper gates, by 
which the waste water of the upper pound 
is let down through the paddle-holes into 
the chamber of the lock. Cyc. 

LOCK, V. t. To fasten with a particular in- 
strument ; as, to lock a door ; to lock a 

2. To shut up or confine, as with a lock ; 
as, to be locked in a prison. Lock the se- 
cret in your breast. 

3. To close fast. The frost locks up our riv- 

4. To embrace closely ; as, to lock one in 
the arms. 

.5. To furnish with locks, as a canal, 
tj. To confine ; to restrain. Our shipping 
was locked up by the embargo. 

7. In fencing, to seize the sword-arm of an 
antagonist, by turning the left arm aroimd 
it, after closing the parade, shell to shell, 
in order to disarm him. Cyc. 

LOCK, v.i. To become fast. The dooi 
locks close. 


L O D 

2. To unite closely by mutual insertion ; as 
they lock into each other. Boyle 

LOCK' AGE, n. Materials for locks in a ca 
nal. Gallatin 

2. Works which form a lock on a canal 

Joum. of Sci 

3. Toll paid for passing the locks of a ca- 

LOCK'ED, pp. Made fast by a lock ; fur 

nished with a lock or locks ; closely em 

LOCK'ER, n. A close place, as a drawer 

or an apartment in a ship, that may be 

closed with a lock. 
A shot-locker is a strong frame of plank 

the pump-well in the hold, where shot 

are deposited. Mar. Diet. 

LOCK'ET, n. [Fr. loquet.] A small lock 

catch or spring to fasten a necklace 

other ornament. Johnson, 

LOCK'RAM, n. A sort of coarse hnen, 

LOCK'SMITH, n. An artificer whose oc 

cupation is to make locks. 
LOCK'Y, a. Having locks or tufts. 

LOCOMO'TION, n. [L. locus, place, anr 

7notio, motion.] 

1. Tiie act of moving from place to place 


2. The power of moving from place to place. 
3Iost animals possess locomotion ; plants 
have life, but not locomotion. 

LOeOMO'TIVE, a. Moving from place to 
place ; changing place, or able to change 
jjlace ; as a locomotive animal. Most 
nials are distinguished from plants by their 
locomotive faculty. 

Locomotive engine, a steam engine em])loyed 
in land carriage ; chiefly on railways. 

L0C03I0TIV'ITY, n. The power of chang- 
ing place. Bryant 

LOC'ULAMENT,n. [L. loculamentum, from 
locus, loculus.] 

Ill botany, the cell of a pericarp in which the 
seed is lodged. A pericarp is unilocul 
bilocular, &c. Maiiyn. 

LO'€UST, n. [L. locusta.] An insect of the 
genus Gryllus. insects are at times 
so numerous in Africa and the S. of Asia, 
as to devour every green thing, and whet 
they migrate, they fly in an immense 

LO'€UST, n. A name of several plants and 
trees ; as a species of Melianthus, and of 

LO'CUST-TREE, n. A tree of the genus 
Hymcnrea, and another of the genus Ro 
binia. The Honey-Locust-tree, is of the 
genus Gleditsia. 

LODE, n. [from Sax. Icedan, to lead.] 

L Among miners, a metallic vein, or any 
regular vein or course, whether metallic 
or not, but commonly a metallic vein. 

Encyc. Cyc. 

2. A cut or reach of water. Cyc. 

LO'DE-STONE, n. [from the verb to lead, 
and stone.] 

1. A magnet, an ore of iron; a stone found 
in iron mines, of a dark or black lead co- 
lor, and of considerable hardness and 
weight. It attracts iron filings, and com- 
municates to iron the same property of at- 
traction. But its peculiar value consists 
in its communicating to a needle the prop- 

L O D 

erty of taking a direction to the north and 
south, a property of inestimable utility in 
navigation and siu-veying. 

2. A name given by Cornish miners to 
species of stones, called also tin-stones; 
compound of stones and sand, of different 
kinds and colors. JVicholson 

LODG'ABLE, a. Capable of aflFording i 
temporary abode. [JVot used.] 

LOD(iE, V. t. [Fr. loger, to lodge; It. loggia 
a lodge ; alloggiare, to lodge ; Sp. alojar 
Arm. logea ; Van. logerer. The sense is 
to set or throw down. In Sax. logian is 
to compose, to deposit or lay up, also tc 
repair; lluss. loju, to lay, to put. It is 
probably allied to lay.] 

1. To set, lay or deposit for keeping or pres- 
ervation, for a longer or shorter time. The 
men lodged their arms in the arsenal. 

2. To place ; to plant ; to infix. 
He lodged an arrow in a tender breast. 


3. To fix ; to settle in the heart, mind or 

I can give no reason 
More than a lodged hate — Shak 

To furnish with a temporary habitation, 
or with an accommodation for a night 
He lodged the prince a month, a week, oi 
a night. [The word usually denotes a 
short residence, but for no definite time.] 

5. To harbor ; to cover. 
The deer is lodged. .Addison 

6. To afford place to ; to contain for keep- 

The memory can lodge a greater store of im- 
ages, than the senses can present at one time, 
To throw in or on ; as, to lodge a ball or a 
bomb in a fort. 
8. To throw down ; to lay flat. 

sighs, and tbey shall /urfo-e the 
corn. Shak 

LODGE, V. i. To reside; to dwell; to rest 
in a place. 

And lodge such daring souls in little men. 

To rest or dwell for a time, as for a night, 
a week, a month. We lodged a night at 
the Golden Ball. We lodged 4 week at 
the City Hotel. Soldiers lodge in tent.s 
summer, and in huts in winter. Fowls 
lodge on trees or rocks. 
3. To fall flat, as grain. Wheat and oats on 

strong land are apt to lodge. 
LODGE, n. A small house in a park or for 
est, for a temporary place of rest at night ; 
a temporary habitation ; a hut. 

Sidney. Shak 

2. A small house or tenement appended to 
a larger ; as a porter's lodge 

3. A den ; a cave ; any place where a wild 
beast dwells. 

LODG'ED, pp. Placed at rest ; deposited ; 

infixed ; furnished with accommodations 

for a night or other short time ; laid flat. 
LODG'ER-, n. One who lives at board, or ir 

a hired room, or who has a bed in anoth 

er's house for a night. 
2. One that resides in any place for a time. 

LODG'ING, ppr. Placing at rest; deposit 

ing ; furnishing lodging; 


Wits take lodgings in the sound of Bow. 

2. Resting for a night ; residing for a time. 

LODG'ING, n. A place of rest for a night, 
or of residence for a time ; temporary hab- 
itation ; apartment. I! 


Place of residence. 
Fair bosom — the lodging of delight. 


3. Harbor; cover; place of rest. Sidney. 

4. Convenience for repose at night. 

LODG'MENT, n. [Fr. logement.] The act 
of lodging, or the state of being lodged ; a 
being placed or deposited at rest for keep- 
ing for a time or for permanence. 

2. Accumulation or collection of something 
deposited or remaining at rest. 

3. In military affairs, an encampment made 
by an army. 

4. A work cast up by besiegers, during their 
approaches, in some dangerous post which 
they have gained, and where it is necessa- 
ry to secure themselves against the ene- 
my's fire. Cyc. 

LOFFE, v. i. To laugh. [Xot used.] 


LOFT, n. [Dan. loft, Sax. bjfte, the air, 
an arch, vault or ceiling ; probably allied 
to lift, Dan. lofler. Qu. Gr. >j)$os.] 

1. Properly, an elevation ; hence, in a build- 
ing, the elevation of one story or floor 
above another ; hence, a floor above 
another ; as the second loft ; third loft ; 
fourth lojt. Spenser seems to have used the 
word for the highest flooror top, and this 
may have been its original signification. 

2. A high room or place. Pope. 
LOFT'ILY, adv. [from toj^y.] On high ; in 

an elevated place. 

2. Proudly ; haughtily. 
They are corrupt and speak wickedly con- 
cerning oppression ; they speak loflily. Ps. 

3. With elevation of language, diction or 
sentiment ; sublimely. 

My lowly verse may loftily arise. Spenser. 
In an elevated attitude. A horse carries 
his head loftily. 
LOFT'INESS, ?!. Highth ; elevation in place 
or position ; altitude; as the loftiness of a 

2. Pride; haughtiness. 
Augustus and Tiberius had lo/iiness enough 

in their tempers — Collier. 

3. Elevationof attitude or mien ; as lofiness 
of carriage. 

4. Sublimity ; elevation of diction or senti- 

Three poets in tliree distant ages bom : 
The first in loftiness of thought surpass'd ; 
The next in majesty ; in both the last. 

LOFT'Y, a. Elevated in place ; high ; as a 
lofty tower ; a lofty mountain. [But it ex- 
presses more than high, or at least is more 
emphalical, poetical and elegant.] 

See Infty Lebanon his head advance. 


2. Elevated in condition or character. 
Thus saith the high and lofty One, (hat in- 

habitcth eternity, whose name is Holy — Is. 

3. Proud; haughty; as io/?^ looks. Is. ii. 
Elevated in sentiment or diction ; sub- 
lime ; as lofty strains ; lofty rhyme. 

|5. Stately : dignified ; as lofty steps. 
LOG, n. [This word is in-obably allied to D. 
log, logge, heavy, dull, sluggish ; a sense 


retained in water-logged; and to lug, lug- 
gage, periiaps to clog.] 

. A bulky piece or stick of limber unhew- 
ed. Pine logs are floated down rivers in 
America, and stopped at saw -mills. A 
piece of timber wlien hewed or squared, 
is not called a log, unless perhaps in con 
structing log-huts. 

. In navigation, a machine for measuring 
the rate of a ship's velocity through the 
water. The common log is a piece of 
board, forming the quadrant of a circle of 
about six inches radius, balanced by r 
small plate of lead nailed on the circula 

3. [Heb. ih.] A Hebrew measure of liquids, 
containing, according to some authors, 
three quarters of a pint ; according to oth 
ers, five sixths of a pint. According to Ar 
buthnot, it was the seventy second part 
of the bath or ephah, and the twelfth part 
of a bin. Johnson. Encyc 

LOG, V. i. To move to and fro. [JVol used.' 
LOG'-BOARD, n. In navigation, two boards, 
shutting like a book, and divided into col- 
umns, containing the hours of the day and 
night, direction of the wind, course of the 
ship, &c., from which is formed the log- 
book. Mar. Diet. 
LOG'-BOQK, »i. A book into which are trans- 
cribed the contents of the log-board. 

Mar. Did. 
LOG'-HOUSE, ) A house or hut whose 
LOG'-HUT, I "■ walls are composed of] 

logs laid on each other. 
LOG'-LINE, n. A line or cord about a bun 
dred and fifty fathoms in length, fastened 
to the log by means of two legs. This ' 
wound on a reel, called the log-reel. 

Encyc. Mar. Diet. 
LOG'-REEL, n. A reel in the gallery of a 
ship, on which the log-line is wound. 

Encyc. Mar. Diet. 
LOG'ARITHM, n. [Fr. logaHlhme ; Gr. 

Tjoyoi, ratio, and apiS/tos, number.] 
Logarithms are the exponents of a series of 
powers and roots. Day. 

The logarithm of a number is that exponent 
of some other number, which renders the 
power of the latter, denoted by the expo- 
nent,- equal to the former. Cyc. 
When the logarithms form a series in arith- 
metical progression, the corresponding 
natural numbers form a series in geomet 
rical progression. Thus, 
Logarithms 12-3 4 ! 
Natural numbers, 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 
The addition and subtraction of logaritl 
answer to the multiplication and division 
of their natural numbers. In like manner, 
involution is performed by multiplying the 
logarithm of any number by the number 
denoting the required power ; and evolu- 
tion, by dividing the logarithm by the 
number denoting the required root. 
Logarithms arc the invention of Baron 
Napier, lord of Marchiston in Scotland ; 
but the kind now in use, were invented by 
Henry Briggs, professor of geometry in 
Grcsham college, at Oxford. They are 
extremely useful in abridging the labor of 
trigonometrical calculations. 




LOGARITHMIC, ) consisting of | 

logarithms. Encyc. Lavoisier. 

LOG'GATS, n. The name of a play or 
game, the same as is now called kittle-pins. 
It was prohibited by Stat. 33, Henry VIII. 
[Not in use.] Hanmer. 

LOG'GERHEAD, n. [log and head.] A 

blockhead ; a dunce ; a dolt ; a thick-skull. 


2. A spherical mass of iron, with a long han- 
dle ; used to heat tar. Mar. Diet. 

To fall to loggerheads, 1 to come to blows ; 

To go to loggerheads, ^ to fall to fighting 
without weapons. L'Estrange. 

LOG'GERHEADED, a. Dull ; stupid ; dolt- 
ish. Shak. 

L0G'I€, n. [Fr. logique ; It. logica ; L. id. . 
from the Gr. Xoycxjj, from ^oyo;, reason, 
?.iyu, to speak.] 

The art of thinking and reasoning justly. 

Logic is tlie art of using reason well in oui 
Inquiries after truth, anJ the communication of 
it to others. Watts. 

Logic may be defined, the science or history 
of the human mind, as it traces the pro- 
gress of our knowledge from our first con 
ceptions through their different combina 
tions, and the numerous deductions that 
result from comparing them with one an- 
other. Encyc 

Correct reasoning implies correct thinking 
and legitimate inferences from premises, 
which are principles assumed or admitted 
to be just. Logic then includes the art of 
thinking, as well as the art of reasoning. 

The purpose of logic is to direct the intellect- 
ual powers in the investigation of truth, and in 
the communication of it to others. Hedge. 

L0G'I€AL, a. Pertaining to logic ; used in 
logic ; as logical subtilties. Hooker. 

2. According to the rules of logic ; as a log- 
ical argument or inference. This reason- 
ing is strictly logical. 

3. Skilled in logic ; versed in the art of think- 
ing and reasoning ; discriminating ; as a 
logical head. Spectator. 

LOG'IeALLY, adv. According to the rules 

of logic ; as, to argue logically. 
LOgP'CIAN, n. A person skilled in logic, or 
the art of reasoning. 

Each fierce logician still expelling Locke. 

LOGIS'TIC, n. Relating to sexagesimal 
fractions. Cyc. 

LOG'MAN, )!. A man who carries logs. 

2. One whose occupation is to cut and con- 
vey logs to a mill. [Local.] U. States. 
LOGOGRAPH'IC, } Pertaining to lo- 
LOGOGRAPH'ICAL, S gography. 
LOGOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. Xoyoj, a word, and 
1 ypaijju, to write.] 

A method of printing, in which a type rep- 
resents a word, instead of forming a letter. 
LOG'OGRIPHE, n. [Gr. :».oyo5 and yfii^o^.] 
A sort of riddle. Obs. B. Jonson. 

LOGOM'A€HIST, n. One who contends 
about words. E. T. Pitch. 

LOGOM'ACHY, n. [Gr. Xoyof, word, and 
;uo^);, contest, altercation.] 

L O L 

Pertaining tolContention iii words merely, or rather a 

logarithms ; I contention about words ; a war of words. 

■ • '^' Howell. 

LOGOMET'Rl€, a. [Gr. Jioyof, ratio, and 

I /litfiu, to measure.] 

A logometric scale is intended to measure or 
ascertain chimical equivalents. 

LOG'WOOD, n. A species of tree and wood, 
called also Cainpeachy-wood, from the 
bay of Carapeachy in Spanish America, 
of the genus Hsematoxylon, of which 
there is one species only. This tree has a 
crooked, deformed stem, growing to the 
highth of 20 or 24 feet, with crooked ir- 
regular branches, armed with strong 
thorns. The wood is of a firm texture 
and a red color. It is much used in dye- 
ing. Encyc. 
LO'HOCH, } [Ar.] A medicine ofamid- 
LO'HOCK, ^""dle consistence between a 
soft electuary and a syrup. [See Loch.] 
LOIN, n. [Sax. knd; G. D. lende ; Sw. llmd ; 
Dan. hend ; W. dun ; Arm. Icenenn or 
loinch ; Ir. luan or bleun ; L. dunis.] 
The loins are the space on each side of the 
vertebrje, between the lowest of the false 
ribs and the upper portion of the os ilium 
or haunch bone, or the lateral portions of 
the luiTibar region ; called also the reins. 
LOIT'ER, I', i. [D. leuteren; Russ. leitayu 

or letayu. Qu. its alliance to late and let] 
To finger ; to be slow in moving ; to delay ; 
to be dilatory ; to spend time idly. 

If we have loitered, let us quicken our pace. 
LOIT'ERER, n. A lingerer ; one that de- 
lays or is slow in motion; an idler; one 
that is sluggish or dilatory. 
Ever listless loiterers, that attend 
No cause, no trust, no duty and no friend. 

LOIT'ERING, ppr. Lingering; delaying; 

moving slowly. 
LOKE, n. [Qu. Ir. loch, dark; Gr. ^vy>;, 


1. In the Scandinavian mythology, the evil 
author of all calamities ; answer- 

deity, th( 

ing to the Arinii 

of the Persians. 

Mallet. Edda. 
A close narrow lane. [Local.] 
LOLL, V. i. [Eth. A A® A® alolo, to 
thrust out the tongue. The sense of this 
word is to throw, to send. Hence it co- 
incides with the Gr. ^a?.fu, W. lloliaw, to 
speak, to prate, Dan. laller, G. lalltji. It 
coincides also with lidl, to appease, that is, 
to throw down.] 

1. To recline ; to lean ; properly, to throw 
one's self down; hence, to lie at ease. 

Void of care he lolls supine in state. 


2. To suffer the tongue to hang extended 
from the mouth, as an ox or a dog when 
heated with labor or exertion. 

The triple porter of the Stj'gian seat, 

With lolling tongue lay fawning at his feet. 


LOLL, V. t. To thrust out, as the tongue. 

Fierce tigers couched around, and lolled 

their tongues. Dryden. 

LOLL'ARD, n. [Qu. G. teifcn, Men, to prate 

or to .sing.] 
The Ijollards were a sect of early reformers 

L O N 

L O N 

L O N 

in Germany aud England, the followers of 

LOLL'ARDY, ». The doctrines of the Loll- 

LOLLING, /!;))■. Throwing down or out; re- 
clining at ease; thrusting out the tongue. 

LOMBARD'Ie, a. Pertaining to the Lom- 
bards; an epithet applied to one of the an- 
cient alphabets derived from the Roman, 
and relating to the manuscripts of Italy. 

LO'MENT, n. [L. lomenlum.] An elongated 
pericarp, which never bursts. It consists, 
hke the legume, of two valves, with the 
seeds attached to the under suture, but is 
divided into small cells, each containing a 
single seed. Ed.Enajc. 

LOMENTA'CEOUS, a. [L. lomenhtm, bean 
meal, a color.] 

Furnished with a loment. The lomentacew 
are a natural order of plants, many of 
which furnish beautiful tinctures or dyes, 
and whose seeds are contained in a loment 
or legume. Linne. 

LOM'ONITE, n. Laumonite, or di-prismat- 
ic zeolite. Ure. 

LOMP, n. A kind of roundish fish. 


LON'DONISM, n. A mode of speaking pe 
culiar to London. Pegg^ 

LONE, a. [Dan. Ion, a corner, nook, a lurk 
ing place, secrecy ; Ibnlig, Sw. Ibnnlig, pri- 
vate, close, clandestine. The radical sense 
is probably to separate, or rather to with- 
draw or retire, and the word may be allied 
to Fr. loin. If alone is composed of all 
and one, which the Teutonic dialects indi 
cate, it has no connection with lone.] 

1. Solitary ; retired ; unfrequented ; having 
no company. 

And leave you in lone woods or empty walls 

2. Single ; standing by itself; not having 
others in the neighborhood ; as a lone 
house. Pope. 

3. Single ; unmarried, or in widowhood. 

LONE, n. A lane. [Local.] 
LO'NELINESS, n. Solitude; retirement: 
seclusion from company. He was weary 
of the loneliness of his habitation. 
•2. Love of retirement ; disposition to soli- 

I see 
The mystery of your loneliness. Shak. 

LO'NELY, a. Solitary; retired; sequester- 
ed from company or neighbors ; as a lonely 
situation ; a lonely cell. Dryden. 

2. Solitary; as the /onc/^ traveler. 

3. Addicted to solitude or seclusion from 
company. Roive. 

LO'NENESS, n. Solitude ; seclusion. 

LO'NESOME, a. Solitary ; secluded from 

How horrid will these lonesome seats appeai 
LO'NESOMENESS, n. The state of being 

solitary; solitude. 
LONG, a. [Sax. long, lang and leng; G, 

lange ; D. Dan. Imig ; Sw. lang; Goth. 

laggs; L. longus ; It. lungo; Fr. long. 

The Gothic word seems to connect this 

word with lag, in the .sense of drawing out. 

whence delaying.] 
L E.Ktended ; drawn out in a line, or in the 

Vol. II. 

direction of length ; opposed to short, and 
contradistinguished from broad or loide. 
Long is a relative term ; lor a thing niayj 
be long in respect to one tiling, and short 
with respect to another. We apply long' 
to things greatly extended, and to thingsl 
which exceed the common measure. Wej 
say, a long way, a long distance, a long 
line, and long hair, long arms. By the lat-j 
ter terms, we mean hair and arms cxceed-i 
ing the usual length. | 

2. Drawn out or extended in time ; as a lo7tgi 
time ; a long period of time ; a iong; while; 
a long series of events; a long sickness 
or confinement ; a long session ; a toig- de- 

3. Extended to any certain measure ex- 
pressed ; as a span long ; a yard long ; a 
mile long, that is, extended to the measure 
of a mile, &c. 

4. Dilatory : continuing for an extended 

Death will not be long in coming;. Ecchis. 

5. Tedious ; continued to a great length. 
A tale should never be too long. Prior. 

C. Continued in a series to a great extent ; 
as a long succession of princes ; -a long line 
of ancestors. 

Continued in sound ; protracted ; as a 
lo7ig note ; a long syllable. 

8. Continued ; lingering or longing. 

Praying for him, and casting a long look that 
way, he saw the galley leave the pursuit. 


9. Extensive; extending far in prospect or 
into futurity. ! 

The perennial existence of bodies corporate! 

and their fortunes, arc things particularly suited' 

to a man who has long views. Burke. ^ 

Long home, the grave or death. Eccles. xii. | 
LONG, ?i. Formerly, a musical note equal to 

two breves. Obs. 
LONG, adv. To a great extent in space ; as 

a long extended line. 

2. To a great extent in time ; as, they that 
tarry long at the wine. Prov. xxiii. 

When the trumpet soundelh Imig. Ex. xix. 
So in composition we say, loitg-expect- 
ed, /ojig'-forgot. 

3. At a point of duration far distant, either 
prior or posterior ; as not long before ; not 
long after ; long before the foundation ol"| 
Rome ; long after the conquest of Gaul by 
Julius Cesar. 

4. Through the whole extent or duration of 

The God who fed me all my Ufe long to this 
day. Gen. xlviii. 

The bird of dawning singeth all night long. 
LONG, adv. [Sax. gelang, cause or fault. 

Qu. belonging to, as the cause.] 
By means of; by the fault of; owing to. Obs. 
Mistress, all this evil is long of you. Shak. 
LONG, V. t. To belong. [JSTot used.] 

LONG, t'. i. [Sax. langian, with ajler. We 
now say, to long ajler, or to long for. The 
sense is to reach or stretch toward.] 

1. To desire earnestly or eagerly. 

I long to see you. Rom. i. 

I have longed after thy precepts. Ps. cxix. 

I have longed for lliy salvation. Ps. cxix. 

2. To have a preternatural craving appe- 
tite ; as a longing woman. 

3. To have an eager apjietite ; as, to long for 


LONGANIM'ITY, n. [L. longanimitas ; 
longus, long, and animus, mind.] 

Forbearance ; patience ; disposition to en- 
dure long under offenses. 

Brotvn. Howell. 

LONG'BOAT, n. The largest and strongest 
boat belonging to a sliip. Mar. Diet. 

LON'GER, a. [comp. of Jong-.] More long ; 
of greater length ; as a longer course. 

LON^GER, adv. For a greater duration. 
This evil can be endured no longer. 

LON'GEST, a. Of the greatest extent ; as 
the longestWue. 

LON'GEST, adv. For the greatest contin- 
uance of time. They who hve longest, are 
most convinced of the vanity of life. 

LONgE'VAL, a. [L. longus and mvum.] 
Long lived. Pope. 

LONGEVITY, n. [h. longwvilas ; longus, 
long, and wvum, age.] 

Length or duration of life; more generally, 
great length of life. 

The instances of /ojigCTJ/^ are chiefly among 
the abstemious. Arbuthnot. 

LONOE'VOUS, a. [L. longa:vus, supra.] 
Living a long time; of great age. 

LONG'-IIEADED, a. Having a great extent 
of thought. 

LONGIM'ANOUS, a. [L. longus, long, and 
manus, hand.] Having long hands. " 


LONGIM'ETRY, n. [L. tongus, long, and 
Gr. /itf-rpoi', measure.] 

The art or practice of measuring distances 
or lengths, whether accessible or inaccess- 
ible. Encyc. 

LONG'ING, ppr. Earnestly desiring ; hav- 
ing a craving or preternatural appetite. 

LONG'ING, n. An eager desire; a craving 
or preternatural appetite. 

LONG'INGLY, adv. With eager wishes or 

LONGIN'QUITY, n. [L. longinquilas.] 
Great distance. Barroip. 

LONG'ISH, a. Somewhat long ; moder- 
ately long. 

LON'GITUDE, n. [L. longitmlo, from lon- 
gus, long.] 

1. Properly, length ; as the longitude of a 
room ; hut in this sense not now used. Ap- 
propriately, in geography, 

2. The di.stance of any place on the globe 
fron) another place, eastward or west- 
ward ; or the distance of any place 
from a given meridian. Boston, in Mas- 
sachusetts, is situated in the 71st degree 
of longitude west from Greenwich. To 
be able to ascertain precisely the longi- 
tude of a ship at sea, is a great desidera- 
tum in navigation. 

3. The longitude of a star, is its distance 
from the equinoctial points, or the begin- 
ning of Aries or Libra. Bailey. 

LONgITU'DINAL, a. Pertaining to longi- 
tude or length ; as longitudinal distance. 

2. Extending in length; running length- 
wise, as distinguished from transverse or 
across ; as the lon^tudinal diameter of a 
body. The longitudinal suture of the 
head runs between the coronal and lam- 
doidal sutures. Baileii. 

LONGITUDINALLY, adv. In the direc- 
tion of length. 

Some of the fibers of the human body arc 
placed longitudinally, others transversely. 



LONG'LEGGED, a. Having long legs. 

LONG'LIVED, a. Having a long life or ex 
istence; living long; lasting long. 

tONG'LY, adv. Witli longing desire. [JVo« 
used.] Shak. 

LONG-MEASURE, n. Lineal measure 
the measure of length. 

LONG'NESS, n. Length. [Little used.] 

LONG-PRIMER, n. A printing type of a 
particular size, between small pica and 

LONG'SHANKED, a. Having long legs. 


LONG-SIGHT, 71. Long-sightedness. Good. 

LONG-SIGHTED, a. Able to see at a great 
distance ; used literally of the eyes, and 
figuratively of the mind or intellect. 

LONG-SIGHTEDNESS, n. The faculty of 
seeing objects at a great distance. 

5. In medicine, presbyopy ; that defect of 
sight by which objects near at hand are 
seen confusedly, but at remoter distances 
distinctly. Hooper. 

LONG'SOME, a. Extended in length ; tire- 
some ; tedious ; as a longsome plain. 04s. 

LONG'SPUN, a. Spun or extended to a 
great length. Addison. 

LONG-SUF'FERANCE,n. Forbearance to 
punish ; clemency ; patience. 

Com. Prayer. 

LONG-SUF'FERING, a. Bearing injuries 
or provocation for a long time ; patient : 
not easily provoked. 

The Lord God, merciful ami gracious, long- 
suffering and abundant in goodness. Ex, 

LONG-SUF'FERING, n. Long endurance : 
patience of offense. 

Despisest thou the riches of his goodness, and 
forbearance, and long-suffering? Rom. ii. 

LONG-TONGUED, a. Rating; babbling. 

LONGWAYS, a mistake for longwise. 

LONG-WIND'ED, a. Long breathed ; tedi- 
ous in speaking, argument or narration ; 
as a long-ivinded advocate. 

LONG'-WISE, adv. In the direction of 
length ; lengthwise. [Little used.] 


LO'NISH, a. Somewhat solitary. [JVot 
used and inelegant.] 

IjOO, n. A game at cards. Pope. 

LOOB'ILY, adv. [See Loohy.] Like a 
looby; in an awkward, clumsy manner. 


LOOB'Y, n. [W. llabi, a tall lank person, a 
looby, a lubber, a clumsy fellow ; Hob, a 
blockhead, an unwieldy lump.] An awk- 
ward, clumsy fellow ; a lubber. 

%Vho could give the looby such airs .' Swift. 

I, OOF, »i. The after part of a ship's bow, or 
the part where the planks begin to be in- 
curvated, as they approach the stem. 

Mar. Did. 

LOOF. [See Luff, which is the word used.] 

LOOF'ED, a. [See Jlloof.] Gone to a dis- 
tance. [JVot used.] Shak. 

LOOK, V. i. [Sax. locian ; G. lugen ; Sans. 
loklian. It is perhaps allied to W. lygu,to 
appear, to shine. See Light. The pri- 
mary sense is to stretch, to extend, to 
shoot, hence to direct the eye. We ob- 
serve its ])rimary sense is nearly the same 
as that of seek. Hence, to look for is to 


. To direct the eye towards an object, with 
the intention of seeing it. 

When the object is within sight, look is 
usually followed by on or at. We look on 
or at a picture ; we look on or at the m 
we cannot look on or at the unclouded sun 
without pain. 

M, after look, is not used in our version 
of the Scriptures. In common usage, at 
or on is now used indifferently in many 
cases, and yet in other cases, usage has 
established a preference. In general, on 
is used in the more solemn forms of ex 
pression. Moses was afraid to look on 
God. The Lord took on you and judge, 
In these and similar phrases, the useof a< 
would be condemned, as expressing too 
little solemnity. 

In some cases, at seems to be more 
properly used before very distant objects 
but the cases can hardly be defined. 

The particular direction of the eye is 
expressed by various modifying words 
to look down, to look up, to look back, to 
look fonvard, to look from, to look round, to 
look out, to look under. When the object 
is not in sight, look is followed by after, or 
for. Hence, to look after, or look for, is 
equivalent to seek or search, or to expect. 

2. To see ; to have the sight or view of. 
Fate sees thy life lodged in a brittle glass. 
And looks it through, but to it cannot pass. 

Dry den. 

3. To direct the intellectual eye ; to apply 
the mind or understanding ; to consider ; 
to examine. Look at the conduct of this 
man ; view it in all its aspects. Let every 
man look into the state of his own heart. 
Let us look beyond the received notions of 
men on this subject. 

To expect. 

He must look to fight another battle, befwc 
he could reach Oxford. [Little tised.'] 

To take care ; to watch. 

Look that ye bind them fast. Shak 

To be directed. 

Let thine eyes look riglit on. Prov. iv. 

7. To seem ; to appear ; to have a particular 
appearance. The patient looks better thi 
he did. The clouds look rainy. 

I am afraid it would look more like vanity 
than gratitude. Addison 

Observe how such a practice looks in another 
person. Watts. 

So we say, to look stout or big ; to look 
peevish; to look pleasant or graceful. 

8. To have a particular direction or situa 
tion ; to face ; to front. 

The gate that looketh toward the nortii 
Ezek. viii. 

The east gate of the Lord's house, that looketh 
eastward. Ezek. xi. 
To look about, to look on all sides, or in dif- 
ferent directions. 
To look about one, to be on the watch ; to be 
gilant; to be circumspect or guarded. 

To look after, to attend ; to take care of; as, 
to look after children. 

9. To expect ; to be in a state of expecta- 

Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for 
looking after those things which are coming on 
the eartli. Luke xxi. 
3. To seek ; to searcli. 


My subject does not oblige me to look after 

the water, or point forth the place whereunto it 

has now retreated. Woodward. 

To look for, to expect ; as, to look for naws by 

the arrival of a ship. 

Look now for no enchanting voice. 

2. To seek ; to search ; as, to look for lost 

money, or lost cattle. 
To look into, to inspect closely ; to obsene 
narrowly ; to examine ; as, to look into the 
works of nature ; to look into the conduct 
of another ; to look into one's affairs. 

Which things the angels desire to look into. 
1 Pet. i. 
To look on, to regard ; to esteem. 

Her friends would look on her the worse. 


2. To consider ; to view ; to conceive of; to 

1 looked o« Virgil as a succinct, majestic wri- 
ter. Dryden. 

3. To be a mere spectator. 
I'll be a candle-holder and look on. Shak. 

To look over, to examine one by one ; as, to 
look over a catalogue of books ; to look 
over accounts. 
To overlook, has a different sense, to pass 

over without seeing. 
To look out, to be on the watch. The sea- 

an looks out for breakers. 
To look to, or unto, to watch ; to take care of. 

Look well to thy herds. Prov. xxvii. 
2. To resort to with confidence or expecta- 
tion of receiving something ; to expect to 
receive from. The creditor may look to 
the surety for payment. 

Look to me anil be ye saved, all the ends ol 
the earth. Is. xlv. 
To look through, to penetrate with the eye, 
or with the understanding ; to see or un- 
derstand perfectly. 
LOOK, v. t. To seek; to search for. 

Looking my love, I go from place to place. 
Ol>s. Spenser. 

2. To influence by looks or presence ; as, to 
look down opposition. 

A spirit fit to start into an empire, 
And look the world to law. Dryden. 

To look out, to search for and discover. Look 

out associates of good reputation. 
To look one another in the face, to meet for 

combat. 2 Kings xiv. 
LOOK, in the imperative, is used to excite 
attention or notice. Look ye, look you ; 
that is, see, behold, observe, take notice. 
LOOK, n. Cast of countenance ; air of the 
face ; aspect ; as, a high look is an index 
of pride; a downcast ZooA indicates mod- 
esty, bashfulness, or depression of mind. 

Pain, disgrace and poverty have frightful 
looks. Locke. 

2. The act of looking or seeing. Every look 
filled him with anguish. 

3. View; watch. Sivinburne. 
LOOK'ER, n. One who looks. 

A looker on, a mere spectator; one that /ooA'j! 
on, but has no agency or interest in the 

LOOK'ING-GLASS, n. A glass which re- 
flects the form of the person who looks on 
it; a mirror. 

There is none so homely but loves a looking- 
g'<«»- South. 

LOOK'-OUT, n. A careful looking or watch- 
ing for any object or event. Mar. Diet. 

LOOL, 71. In metallurgi/, a vessel used to re- 
ceive the washings ot'ores of !uetals..£ttci,'.- 




LOOM, >!. [Sax. loma, geloma, utensils.] In 
composition, heir-loom, iu law, is a person 
al chattel tliat by special custom descends 
to an lieir with the inheritance, being 
such a thing as cannot be separated ironi 
the estate, without injury to it ; such as 
jewels of the crown, charters, deeds, and 
the like. Blackstont. 

2. A frame or machine of wood or other ma- 
terial, in which a weaver works threads 
into cloth. 

Hector, when he sees Andromache over- 
whelmed with terror, sends her for consolation 
to the loom and the distaff. Rambler 

3. [Dan. loni or loom, G. lohme.] A fowl of 
the size of a goose. 

4. That part of an oar which is within 
board. Mar. Did. 

LOOM, i>. i. [Q.U. Sax. leoman, to shine, 
from leoma, a beam of light. This does 
not give the exact sense of the word as 
now used.] 

To appear above the surface either of sea 
or land, or to appear larger than the real 
dimensions and indistinctly ; as a distant 
object, a ship at sea, or a mountain. The 
ship looms large, or the land looms high. 
Mar. Did. 

LOOM'-GALE, n. A gentle gale of wind, 


LOOM'ING, ppr. Appearing above the sur- 
face, or indistinctly, at a distance. 

LOON, n. [Scot, loun or loon. Qu. Sax. 
lun, needy, or Ir. Hun, sluggish.] 

1. A sorry fellow; a rogue ; a rascal. 

Drydtn. Shak. 

2. A sea-fowl of the genus Colymbus. [Ice. 

LOOP, n. [Ir. liibam, to bend or fold ; luh, 
liiba, a thong, a loop.] [ 

1. A folding or doubling of a string or a 
noose, through which a lace or cord may 
be run for fastening. 

That the probation bear no hinge, nor loop 
To hang a doubt on. She 

2. In iron-toorks, the part of a row or block 
of cast iron, melted ofl" for the forge or 

LOOP'ED, a. Full of holes. Shak. 

LOOP'HOLE, n. A small aperture in the 
bulk-head and other parts of a mercl 
ship, through which small arms are fired 
at an enemy. Mar. Did. 

2. A hole or aperture that gives a passage. 

3. A passage for escape ; means of escape. 


LOOP'HOLED, a. Full of holes or open- 
ings for escape. Hudibras. 

LOOP'ING, n. In metallurgy, the running 
together of the matter of an ore into a 
mass, when the ore is only heated for cal- 
cination. [D. loopen, to run.] Encyc. 

LOORD, )i. [D. te,-, a clown ; Fr. hard, 
Sp. lerdo, heavy, dull, gross.] 

,\ dull stupid fellow; a drone. [JVotinuse.] 

LOOSE, V. t. loos. [Sax. lysan, alysan,leosan ; 
Sw. Ibsa ; D. lossen, loozen ; G. losen ; Dan. 
loser ; Goth, lausyan ; Gr. >.vu, contracted 
from the same root. The W. llaesu, sig- 
nifies to relax, but may be from the root of 
lax. These words coincide with the Ch. 
Syr. Ar. Heb. |'Sn. Class Ls. No. 30.] 

1. To untie or unbind ; to free from any 

Canst thou loose the bands of Orion ? Job 

Ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her ; 
loose them, and bring them to me. Matt. xxi. 

2. To relax. 

The joints of his loins were loosed. Dan. v, 

3. To release from imprisonment ; to liber- 
ate ; to set at liberty. 

The captive exile hasteneth that he may be 
loosed. Is. li. 

4. To free from obligation. 

Art thou loosed from a wife ? seek not a wife 
1 Cor. vii. 

5. To free from any thing that binds or 
shackles ; as a man loosed from lust and 
pelf. Dryden 

G. To relieve ; to free from any thing bur 

densome or afflictive. 
Woman, thou 

Luke xiii. 
|7. To disengage 

one's hold. 

8. To put oflT. 

Loose thy shoe from off thy foot. Josh, v 

9. To open. 

Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose 
the seals thereof? Rev 

10. To remit ; to absolv 

Whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be 
loosed in heaven. Matt. xvi. 
LOOSE, V. {. To set sail ; to leave a port or 

Now when Paul and his company loosed from 
Paphos, they came to Perga, in Pamphylia 
Acts xiii. 
LOOSE, a. [Goth. ?a«s; T). los, losse ; G. 
los; Dan. los; Sw. los. Qu. W. llies, 
loose, lax.] 
I. Unbound ; untied ; unsewed ; not fasten 
ed or confined ; as the loose sheets of i 

:t loosed from thine infirmity 
to detach ; as, to loos( 

3. Not tight or close ; as a loose garment. 
3. Not crowded ; not close or compact. 

With horse and chariots rank'd in loose array. 
I miton. 

i4. Not dense, close or compact ; as a cloth 

or fossil of loose texture. 
|5. Not close ; not concise ; lax ; as a loose 
I and diffuse style. 

,C. Not precise or exact ; vague ; indeterm 
I inate ; as a loose way of reasoning. 
j7. Not strict or rigid ; as a loose observancf 
I of rites. 

8. Unconnected ; rambling ; as a hose indi- 
gested play. 

Viirio spends whole mornings in running ovei 
loose and unconnected pages. Watts 

9. Of lax bowels. Locke. 

10. Unengaged; not attached or enslaved. 
Their prevailing principle is, to sit as loose 

from pleasures, and be as moderate in the use of 
them as they can. Atierbwy. 

11. Disengaged; free from obligation ; with 
from or of. 

Now I stand 
Loose of my vow ; but who knows Cato's 
thought '. [Little used.'] .Addison. 

12. Wanton ; unrestrained in behavior ; dis- 
solute : unchaste ; as a loose man or wo- 

13. Containing unchaste language ; as a 
loose epistle. Dryden. 

To break loose, to escape from confinement ; 
to gain hberty by violence. Dryden.l 

To let loose, to free from restraint or confine- 
ment; to set at liberty. Locke.^ 

LOOSE, n. Freedom from restraint; lib- 

Come, give thy soul a loose. Dryden. 

Vent all its griefe, and give a loose to sorrow. 


We use this word only in the phrase, give a 

loose. The following use of it, " he runs 

with an unbounded loose," is obsolete. 

LOOS'ED, pp. Untied; unbound; free(i 

from restraint. 
LOOSELY, adv. loos'ly. Not fast ; not firmly ; 

that may be easily disengaged ; as things 

loosely tied or connected. 

2. Without confinement. 
Her golden locks for haste were loosely shed 
About her ears. Spenser. 

3. Without union or connection. 
Part loosely wing the region. Milton. 

4. Irregularly ; not with the usual restraints. 
A bishop living loosely, was charged that his 

conversatiou was not according to the apostle's 
lives. Camden. 

5. Negligently ; carelessly ; heedlessly ; as a 
mind loosely employed. Locke. 

6. Meanly ; slightly. 
A prince should not be so loosely studied, as 
remember so weak a composition. Shak. 

7. Wantonly ; dissolutely ; unchastely. 

LOOS'EN, V. I. loos'n. [from loose, or it is 
the Saxon infinitive retained.] 

1. To free from tightness, tension, firmness 
or fixedness ; as, to loosen a string when 
tied, or a knot ; to loosen a joint ; to loosen 
a rock in the earth. 

2. To render less dense or compact ; as, to 
loosen the earth about the roots of a tree. 

3. To free from restraint. 
It loosens his hands and assists his under- 
inding. Dryden. 

4. To remove costiveness from ; to facilitate 
or increase alvine discharges. 

Fear looseneth the belly. Bacon. 

LOOS'EN, v.i. To become loose; to be- 
come less tight, firm or compact. 

LOOS'ENED, pp. Freed from tightness or 

I fixedness ; rendered loose. 

LOOSENESS, n. loos'ness. The state of 
being loose or relaxed ; a state opposite to 
that of being tight, fast, fixed or compact ; 
as the looseness of a cord ; the looseness of 
a robe ; the looseness of the skin ; the 
looseness of earth, or of the texture of 

2. The state opposite to rigor or rigidness ; 
laxity ; levity ; as looseness of morals or 
of principles. 

3. Irregularity; habitual deviation from 
strict rules; as looseness of life. 


4. Habitual lewdness; nnchastitj*. Spenser. 

5. Flux from the bowels ; diarrhaea. Bacon. 
LOOS'ENING,;);)r. Freeing from tightness, 

tension or fixedness ; rendering less com- 

iLOOSESTRIFE, J!, loos' strife. In botany, iha 

' name of several species of plants, of the 
genera Lysimachia, Epilobiura, Lythruin, 
and Gaura. Lee. 

LOOS'ING, ppr. Setting free from confine- 

LOP, 1'. t. [I know not the affinities of this 
word, unless it is lob, or the W. llab, a 
stroke ; Uabiaw, to slap or strike, or the 
Eng. flap, or Ir. lubam, to bend. The 
primary sense is evidently to fall or fell, 


or to strike down, aud I think it connect 
ed vAth flap.] 
1. To cut off, as the top or extreme part 
of any thing ; to shorten by cutting off 
the extremities ; as, to lop a tree or its 

With branches lopp'd in wood, or mountain 
fell'd. Milton 

3. To cut off, as exuberances ; to separate, 
as superfluous parts. 

Expunge the whole, or lop the excrescent 
parts. Pope. 

3. To cut partly off and bend down ; as, to 
lop the trees or sapUngs of a hedge. 

4. To let fall ; to flap ; as, a horse lops his 


That which is cut from trees. 

LOP, n. [Sax. ;o;);3c.] A flea. [Local^ 
LOPE, pret. of leap. [Sw. Ibpa ; D. loopen.] 

Obs. Spi 

LOPE, n. [Sw. lopa, D. loopen, to run. See 

A leap ; a long step. [A toord t?s papula 

use in Jlmerica.] 
LOPE, V. i. To leap ; to move or run with 

a long step, as a dog. 
LO'PING, ppr. Leaping ; moving or run- 
ning with a long step. 
LOP'PED, pp. Cut off; shortened by cut 

ting off the top or end ; bent down. 
LOP'PER, n. One that lops. 
LOP'PING, ppr. Cutting off; shortenuig 

by cutting off the extremity ; letting fall. 
LOP'PING, n. That which is cut off. 
LOUUA'CIOUS, a. [L. loquax, from loquor, 

to speak. Qu. Eng. to clack.] Talkative ; 

given to continual talking. 

Loquacious, brawling, ever in the wrong. 


2. Speaking; noisy. 

Blind British bards, with volant touch, 
Traverse loquacious strings. Philips. 

3. Apt to blab and disclose secrets. 
LOQUA'CIOUSNESS, } [L. hquacitas.] 
LOQUACITY, S Talkativeness; 

the habit or practice of talking continually 
or excessively. 

Too great loquacity and too great taciturnity 
by fits. ' Arhulhnot. 

I,ORD, n. [Sax. Maford. This has been 
supposed to be compounded of hlaf, loaf, 
and ford, afford, to give; and hence 
lord is interpreted, a bread-giver. But lady, 
in Saxon, is in like manner written hlaif- 
dag; and da-g can hardly signify a givci 
The word occurs in none of the Teutonic 
dialects, except the Saxon ; and it is not 
easy to ascertain the original signification 
of the word. I question the correctness 
of the common interpretation.] 

1. A master; a person possessing supremt 
power and authority; a ruler; a gov 

Man over man 
He made not lord. MMon 

But now I was the lord 
Of tliis fair mansion. Shale 

2. A tyrant ; an oppressive ruler. Dryden. 

3. A husband. 

I oft in bitterness of soul deplored 

My absent daughter, and my dearer lord. 

My lord also being old. Gen. xviii. 

4. A baron ; the proprietor of a manor ; 
the lord of the manor. 


5. A nobleman ; a title of honor in Great 
Britain given to those who are noble by 
birth or creation ; a peer of the realm, in- 
cluding dukes, marquises, earls, viscountsl 
and barons. Archbishops and bishopsj 
also, as members of the house of lords 
are lords of parhament. Thus we say 
lords temporal and spiritual. By courtesy! 
also the title is given to the sons of dukes 
and marquises, and to the eldest sons ofl 
earls. Encyc.l 

|6. An honorary title bestowed on certain] 
official characters ; as lord advocate, lord] 
chamberlain, lord chancellor, lord chief 
justice, &c. 
7. In Scriplure, the Supreme Being; Jeho 
vah. When Lord, in the Old Testament, is 
printed in capitals, it is the translation of 
Jehovah, and so might, with more propri- 
ety, be rendered. The word is applied to 
Christ, Ps. ex. Col. iii. and to the Holy 
Spirit, 2 Thess. iii. As a title of respect, it 
is applied to kings. Gen. xl. 2 Sam. xix. 
to princes and nobles, Gen. xlii. Dan. iv. 
to a husband. Gen. xviii. to a prophet, 1 
Kings xviii. 2 Kings ii. and to a respect- 
able person. Gen. xxiv. Christ is called 
the Lord of glory, 1 Cor. ii. and Lord of 
lords, Rev. xix. 
LORD, V. t. To invest with the dignity and 
privileges of a lord. Shak. 

LORD, V. i. To domineer ; to rule with ar 
bitrary or despotic sway; sometimes fol 
lowed by over, and sometimes by it, in the 
manner of a transitive verb. 

The whiles she lordeth in licentious bliss. 

I see them lordijig it in London streets. 

They loided over them whom now they 
serve. Milton. 

LORD'ING, n. A little lord ; a lord, in con- 
tempt or ridicule. [Little rised.] Swift. 
LORD'LIKE, a. Becoming a lord. 

2. Haughty ; proud ; insolent. Dryden 
LORD'LINESS, n. [from lordly.] Dignity 

high station. Shak 

3. Pride; haughtiness. More. 
LORD'LING, n. A little or diminutive lord, 

LORD'LY, a. [lord and like.] Becommg a 
lord: pertaining to a lord. 

Lordly sins require lordly estates to support 
them. South. 

2. Proud; haughty; iniperious; insolent. 
Every rich and lordly swain, 
With pride would drag about her chain. 

LORD'LY, adu. Proudly; imperiously; 

A famished lion, issuing from the wood, 
Roars lordly fierce. Dryden 

LORD'SHIP, ?i. The state or quality of be- 
ing a lord ; hence, a title of honor given 
to noblemen, except to dukes, who have 
the title of grace. 

2. A titulary compellation of judges and 
certain other persons in authority and 
office. Johnson. 

3. Dominion; power; authority. 
They who are accounted to rule over the 

Gentiles, exercise lordship over them. Mark x. 

4. Seigniory; domain; the territory of a 
lord over which he holds jurisdiction ; a 


What lands and lordships for their owntr 

My quondam barber. Drydeu. 

LORE, n. [Sax. lar, from the root of Iwran, 
to learn ; D. leer ; G. lehre ; Dan. Imre ; Sw. 
lara.] Learning; doctrine; lesson; in- 

The law of nations, or the lore of war. 

Lo ! Rome herself, proud mistress now no 

Of arts, but thundering against heathen lore. 
LOR'EL, n. [Sax. leoran, to wander.] An 
abandoned scoundrel ; a vagrant. Obs. 

LO'RESMAN, n. [lore and man.] An in- 
structor. Obs. Gower. 
LOR'leATE, V. t. [L. lorico, loricatus, from 
lorica, a coat of mail.] 

1. To plate over ; to spread over, as a plate 
for defense. 

Nature hath loricated the sides of the tympa- 
num in animals with ear-wax. Ray. 

2. To cover with a crust, as a chimical ves- 
sel, for resisting fire. 

LOR'IeATED, pp. Covered or plated over : 

LOR'ICATING, ppr. Covering over with a 
plate or crust. 

LORI€A'TION, n. The act or operation 
of covering any thing with a plate or 
crust for defense ; as the lorication of a 
chimical vessel, to enable it to resist the 
action of fire, and sustain a high degree 
of heat. 

LOR'IMER, 71. [L. lomm, a thong ; Fr. lar- 

A bridle-maker ; one that makes bits for 
bridles, &c. [.Yot %tsed.] 

LO'RING, n. Instructive discourse. Obs. 


LO'RIOT, n. [Fr.] A bird called witwal ; 
the oriole. 

LO'RIS, n. A small quadruped of Ceylon. 

LORN, a. [Sax. Dan. forloren, lost. See 
Forlorn.] Lost ; forsaken ; lonely. 


LO'RY, n. A subordinate genus of fowls of 
the parrot kind, forming the link between 
the parrot and parroquet. 

Diet. J\rat. Hist. 

LoSABLE, a. That may be lost. [Little 
^ised.] Boyle. 

L(>SE, V. t. looz. pret. and pp. lost. [Sax. 
losian, forlosian, forlysan ; D. verliezen ; 
Goth, husan. The sense is probably to 
part, to separate, and from the root of 

1. To mislay; to pan or be separated 
from a thing, so as to have no knowledge 
of the place where it is; as, to lose a book 
or a paper ; to lose a record ; to lose a dol- 
lar or a ducat. 

2. To forfeit by unsuccessful contest ; as, to 
lose money in gaming. 

3. Not to gain or win ; as, to lose a battle, 
that i.s, to be defeated. 

4. To be deprived of; as, to lose men in bat- 
tle ; to lose an arm or a leg by a shot or 
by amputation ; to lose one's life or honor. 

5. To forfeit, as a penalty. Our first pa- 
rents lost the favor of God by their apos- 



If the salt hath lost its savor, wherewith shall 
it be salted > Matt. v. 
T. To ruin ; to destroy. 

The woman that deUberates is lost. 


8. To wander from ; to miss, so as not to be 
able to find ; as, to lose the way. 

9. To bewilder. 

Lost in the maze of words. Pope 

10. To possess no longer ; to be deprived of 
contrary to keep; as, lo lose a valuable 

11. Not to employ or enjoy ; to waste, li 
tus sighed to lose a day. 

Th' unhappy have but houre, and these they 
lose. Dryden 

12. To waste ; to squander ; to throw away 
as, to lose a fortune by gaming, or by dis- 

13. To suffer to vanish from view or percep- 
tion. We lost sight of the land at noon. 
I lost my companion in the crowd. 

Like following Ufe in creatures we dissect, 
We lose it in the moment we detect. Pop 

14. To ruin; to destroy by shipwreck, &:c. 
The Albion was lost on the coast of L-e 
land, April 23, 1822. The admiral lost 
three ships in a tempest. 

15. To cause to perish ; as, to be lost at sea 

16. To employ ineffectually ; to throw away 
to waste. Instruction is often lost on the 
dull; admonition is iosi on the profligate 
It is often the fate of projectors to lose 
their labor. 

17. To be freed from. 

His scaly back the bunch has got 
Wliich Edwm lost before. Parnell. 

18. To fail to obtain. 
He shall in no wise lose his reward. Matt. s. 

To lose one's self, to be bewildered ; also, 
to slumber; to have the memory and rea- 
son susi)emled. 
Lose, v. i. looz. To forfeit any thing in 
contest ; not to win. 

We'll talk with them too, 
■RTio loses and who wins ; who's in, who's 


2. To decline ; to fail. 

Wisdom in discourse with her 
Loses discountenanced, and like folly shows 

LOS'EL, n. s as z. [from the root of loose.] 
A wasteful fellow, one who loses by sloti 
or neglect ; a worthless person. Obs. 


LOS'ENGER, n. [Sax. leas, false; leas- 
unge, falsity.] A deceiver. Obs. 


L6SER, n. looz'er. One that loses, or that 
is deprived of any thing by defeat, forfeit 
ure or the like ; the contrary to winner oi 
gainer. A loser by trade may be honest 
and moral ; this cannot be said of a loser 
by gaming. 

LOSING, ppr. looz'ing. Parting from ; miss- 
ing ; forfeiting ; wasting ; employing to no 
good purpose. 

LOSS, n. Privation ; as the loss of property 
loss of money by gaming; loss of health 
or reputation. Every loss is not a d 
nient. We cannot regret the loss of bad 
company or of evil habits. 

2. Destruction ; ruin ; as the loss of a ship 
at sea ; the loss of an army. 

3. Defeat ; as the loss of a battle. 

5. Waste by leakage or escape ; as a toss of 
liquors in transportation. 

To bear a loss, to make good ; also, to sus- 
tain a loss without sinking under it. 

To he at a loss, to be puzzled ; to be unable 
to determine ; to be in a state of uncer 

LOSS'FUL, a. Detrimental. [ATot vsed.] 

Bp. Hall. 

LOSS'LESS, a. Free from loss. [JVot used.] 

LOST, pp. [from lose.] Mislaid or left in a 
place unknown or forgotten ; that cannot 
be found ; as a lost book. 

2. Ruined ; destroyed ; wasted or squandi 
ed ; employed to no good purpose ; as lost 
money ; lost time. 

]3. Forfeited ; as a lost estate. 

;4. Not able to find the right way, or the 

! place intended. A stranger is lost in Lon- 

j don or Paris. 

5. Bewildered ; perplexed ; being in a maze ; 

j as, a speaker may be lost in his argument 

|6. Alienated; insensible; hardened beyond 

I sensibility or recovery ; as a profligate lost 
to shame ; lost to all sense of honor. 

7. Not perceptible to the senses ; not visible ; 

I as an isle lost in fog ; a person lost in a 

1 crowd. 

'8. Shipwrecked or foimdered ; sunk or des- 
troyed ; as a ship lost at sea, or on the 
LOT, n. [Sax. Idol, hlodd, hlet, hhjt ; Goth. 
hlauts ; D. Fr. lot ; Sw. loll ; Dan. Arm. 
lod ; G. los ; It. lotto ; Sp. loteria, a lot 
tery. The primary sense is that which 
comes, falls or happens, or a part, a: 
division or share. The French, fromj 
lot, have loiir, to divide ; Arm. loda, id.i 
whence todecq, a co-heir.] 

1. That which, in human speech, is called 
chance, hazard, fortune ; but in strictness 
of language, is tiie determination of Prov- 
idence ; as, the land shall be divided by 
lot. Num. xxvi. 

2. That by which the fate or portion of one 
is determined ; that by which an event is 

I committed to chance, that is, to the de- 
termination of Providence ; as, to cast 
lots ; to draw lots. 

The lot is cast into the lap, but the whole 
disposing thereof is of the Lord. Prov. xvi. 
. The part, division or fate which falls to 
one by chance, that is, by divine deter 

The second lot came forth to Simeon. Josh 

L O 

turn or position of which, an event i.-? by 
previous agreement determined. 

To draw lots, to determine an event by draw- 
ingone thing from a number whose marks 
are concealed from the drawer, and thus 
determining an event. 

LOT, V. t. To allot ; to assign ; to distrib- 
ute ; to sort ; to catalogue ; to portion. 


LOTE, n. [L. lotus, lotos.] A plant of the 
genus Celtis, the jote-tree, of several spe- 
cies. The wood of one species is very 
durable, and is used for timber. In Italy, 
flutes and other wind-instruments arc 
made of"it, and in England it is used for 
the frames of coaches, &:c. Encyc. 

2. A little fish. 

LOTH, a. [Sax. lath, Sw. led, Dan. leede, 
odious, hated. The common orthography 
is loath, pronounced with o long, but both 
the orthography and pronunciation are 
corrupt. This word follows the analogy 
of cloth. Sax. clath. I have followed Mil- 
ton, Dryden, Waller, Spenser and Shak- 
speare in the orthography of the adjec- 
tive, and Cruden in that of the verb. The 
primary sense is to thrust, to turn or drive 
away. See the verb, and Class Ld. No. 
9. 15.1 

1. Literally, hating, detesting ; hence, 

2. Unwilling ; disliking ; not inclined ; re- 

Long doth he stay, as loth to leave the land. 
To pardon willing, and to punish loth. 

LOTHE, V. t. [Sax. latkian, to hate, to de- 
tost, to call, to invite ; gelathian, to call ; 
Goth, lathon, to call ; Sw. ledas, to lothe ; 
G. einladen, to invite, to lade or load, from 
laden, to lade, to invite, to cite or sum- 
mon. See Lade.] 
1. To feel disgust at any thing; properly, to 
have an extreme aver.sion of the appetite 
to food or drink. 

Ovn- soul Ivtheth this light bread. Num. 

4. Wciste ; useless application : as a loss oVi,To cast lots< 
time or labor. Ii some othc 

He was but born to try 

The lot of man, to suffer and to die. Pope.'y 

4. A distinct portion or parcel ; as a lot of; 

goods ; a lot of boards. ! 

J5. Proportion or share of taxes ; as, to payl 

scot and lot. \ 

In the U. States, a piece or division ofl 

land ; perhaps originally assigned by! 

drawing lots, but now any portion, piece! 

or division. So we say, a man has a lot\ 

of land in Broadway, or in the meadow ; 

he has a lot in the plain, or on the moun-! 

tain ; he has a home-lot, a house-/o«, a 


The defendants leased a house and lot in the 
city of New York. 

JSTent. Franklin, Law of Penn. 
to use or throw a die, or 
strument, by the unforeseen 

Lathing the honey'd cakes, I long'd for bread. 
2. To hate ; to dislike greatly ; to abhor. 

Ye shall lothe yourselves in your own sight 
for all your evils — Ezek. xx. 

Not to reveal the secret which 1 lothe. 

LOTHE, t'. i. To create disgust. Ohs. 

LO'THED, pp. Hated ; abhorred ; turned 

from with disgust. 
LO'THER, 71. One that lothes or abhors. 
LO'THFUL, o. Hating; abhorring. 

^Tiicii he did with lothful eyes behold. 


2. Disgusting ; hated ; exciting abhorrence. 
Above the reach of lothfid suiful lust. 

LO'THING, ppr. Feeling disgust at; hav- 
ing extreme aversion to ; as lothing food. 

2. Hating ; abhorring ; as lothiag sin. 

LO'THING, n. Extreme disgust; abhor- 
rence. Ezek. xvi. 

LO'THINGLY, adv. With extreme disgust 
or abhorrence ; in a fastidious manner. 

LOTH'LY, adv. Unwillingly ; reluctantly. 

This shows that you from nature lothly stray. 


LOTH'NESS, n. Unwillingness; reluct- 


There grew among 
and lothness to speak. Bacon. 

LO'THSOME, a. [Sw. ledesarn..] Causing 
an extreme aversion of appetite ; exciting 
fastidiousness. Num. xi. 

2. Exciting extreme disgust ; offensive ; as 
a lothsome disease. Ps. xxxviii. 

3. Odious ; exciting hatred or abhorrence : 
detestable ; as lothsome sloth. Spenser. 

LO'TIISOMENESS, n. The quality of ex- 
citing extreme disgust or abhorrence. 

LO'TION, n. [L. lotio, from lava, to wash.] 

1. A washing ; particularly, a washing of 
the skin for the purpose of rendering it 
fair. Encyc. 

2. A liquid preparation for washing some 
part of the body, to cleanse it of foulness 
or deformity. Eiici/c. 

3. In phaniiaci/, a preparation of medicines, 
by washing them in some Uquid, to re- 
move foreign substances, impurities, &c. 

LOT'TERY, n. [Fr. loterie ; Sp. loleria. 
See Lot.] 

1. A scheme for the distribution of prizes by 
chance, or the distribution itself. Lotte- 
ries are often authorized by law, but ma- 
ny good men deem them immoral in prin- 
ciple, and almost all men concur in the 
opinion that their effects are pernicious. 

2. Allotment. [J\/'ot used.] 
LOUD, a. [Sax. Mud or lud; G. laut ; D. 

litid ; Dan. /i/rf; h. laudo, to praise, and 
with a prefix, plaudo ; W. clod, praise, 
formed from llod, which signifies what is 
forcibly uttered ; llodi,to reach out; llawd, 
that shoots out, that is productive, also a 
lad. This is the Ch. Syr. Heb. Sam. nV, 

Eth. (J)f\^ walad, Ar. js,!, walada, to 
bring forth. The primary sense is obvi 
ous. Qu. its connection with the Ir 
blaodli and glaodh, a calling, and Sax. lath 
ian, to call. See Class Ld. No. 8. 29.] 

1. Having a great sound ; high sounding ; 
noisy ; striking the ear with great force ; 
as a loud voice; aloud cry; loud thunder. 

2. Uttering or making a great noise ; as loud 
instruments. 2 Chron. xxx. 

3. Clamorous ; noisy. 

She is loud and stubborn. Prov. vii. 

4. Emphatical ; impressive; as a /o«rf call to 
avoid danger. 

LOUD'LY, adv. With great sound or noise; 


Who long and loudly in the schools declaim- 
ed. Denlmin 
2. Clamorously ; with vehement complaintsj 

or importunity. He loudly complained of 

LOUD'NESS, n. Great sound or noisi 

the loudness of a voice or of thunder. I 

2. Clamor; clamorousness ; turbulence; up- 

LOUGH, n. loh. [Ir. and Scot.loch.] A lake; 
a different orthography of loch and lake. 


LOUIS D'OR,n. [a Lewis of gold.] A gold 
coin of France, first struck in 1640, in the 
reign of Louis XIII., value, twenty shil- 

lings sterling, equal to $4.4444, 
LOUNfiE, V. i. [Fr. T ' " 

longis, a lingerer, from 
lon^.] To live in idleness; to spend time 

L O V 

general 6ilcnce;iLOUNG'ER, n. An idler; one who loiters, 
away his time in indolence. 

LOUR. [SeeLotver.] 

LOUSE, n. lous. plu. lice. [Sax. lus, pluj 
lys; D. luis; G. laus ; Sw. Dan. lus.] I 

A small insect of the genus Pediculus. It 
has six feet, two eyes, with long feelers! 
and a sting in the mouth. It infests thej 
bodies of men and other animals; but dif-; 
ferent animals are infested with different 
species. Encyc. 

LOUSE, V. t. louz. To clean from lice. 


LOUSE-WORT, n. lous'-wort. A plant of 
the genus Pedicularis. The yellow louse- 
wort is of the genus Rhinanthus. 

Fam. of Plants. 

LOUS'ILY, adv. s as 2. [from lousy.] In a 
mean, paltry manner ; scurvily. 

LOUS'INESS, n. s as :. The state of 
abounding with hce. 

LOUS'Y, a. s as z. [from louse.] Swarming 
with lice ; infested with lice. Drydt 

2. Mean ; low ; contemptible ; as a lousy 
knave. Shi 

LOUT, n. [Qu. Sax. lead, G. leute, peopli 
A mean awkward fellow ; a bumpkin ; a 
clown. Shak. Gay. 

LOUT, V. i. [Sax. hlutan.] To bend ; to 
bow; to stoop. [Obsolete or local.] 

Spenser. B. Jonson. 

LOUT'ISH, (I. Clownish; rude; awkward. 

LOUT'ISHLY, adv. Like a clown ; in a 
rude, clumsy, awkward manner. 

LOUVER, n. loo'ver. [Fr. Vouvert] An 
opening in the roof of a cottage for the 
smoke to escape. Spenser. 

LOVABLE, a. Worthy of love ; amiable. 

LOV'AgE, n. A plant of the genus Ligus- 
ticuni. Fam. of Plants. 

LOVE, V. t. luv. [Sax. hifian, luvian; D, 
lieven : G. lieben ; Russ. lioblyu ; L. libeo, 
lubeo ; Sans, loab, love, desire. See Lief. 
The sense is probably to be prompt, free, 
willing, from leaning, advancing, or draw- 
ing forward.] 

1. In a general sense to be pleased with ; to 
regard with affection, on account of some 
quaUties which excite pleasing sensa- 
tions or desire of gratification. We love a 
friend, on account of some qualities which 
give us pleasure in his society. We love a 
man who has done us a favor ; in which 
case, gratitude enters into the composi- 
tion of our affection. We love our parents 
and our children, on account of their con- 
nection with us, and on account of many 
qualities which please us. We love to re- 
tire to a cool shade in summer. We love 
a warm room in winter. We love to hear 
an eloquent advocate. The christian /ouc« 
his Bible. In short, we love whatever gi 
us pleasure and delight, whether animal or 
intellectual ; and if our hearts are right, 
we love God above all things, as the sum 
of all excellence and all the attributes 
which can communicate happiness to in- 
telligent beings. In other words, the chris- 
tian loves God with the love of compla- 
cency in his attributes, the love of benev- 
olence towards the interests of his king- 
dom, and the love of gratitude for favors 

L O V 

Thou shaft love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy 

Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 
Matt. xxii. 
2. To have benevolence or good will for. 

John iii. 
LOVE, n. An affection of the mind excited 
by beauty and worth of any kind, or by 
the qualities of an object which communi- 
cate pleasure, sensual or intellectual. It 
is opposed to hatred. Love between the 
sexes, is a compound affection, consisting 
of esteem, benevolence, and animal desire. 
Lave is excited by pleasing qualities of 
any kind, as by kindness, benevolence, 
charity, and by the quaUties which render 
social intercourse agreeable. In the lat- 
ter case, love is ardent friendship, or a 
strong attachment springing from good 
will and esteem, and the pleasure derived 
from the company, civilities and kindness- 
es of others. 

Between certain natiu-al relatives, love 
seems to be in some cases instinctive. 
Such is the love of a mother for her child, 
which manifests itself toward an infant, 
before any particular qualities in the child 
are unfolded. This affection is apparent- 
ly as strong in irrational animals as in hu- 
man beings. 

We speak of the love of amusements, the 
love of books, the loiv of money, and the 
love of whatever contributes to our pleas- 
ure or supposed profit. 

The love of God is the first duty of man, 
and this springs from just views of his at- 
tributes or excellencies of character, which 
afford the highest delight to the sanctified 
heart. Esteem and reverence constitute 
ingredients in this affection, and a fear of 
offending him is its inseparable effect. 

2. Couitship; chiefly in the phrase, to make 
love, that is, to court ; to woo ; to solicit 
union in marriage. 

3. Patriotism; the attachment one has to 
his native land ; as the love of country. 

4. Benevolence; good wUl. 
God is love. 1 John iv. 

5. The object beloved. 
The lover and the love of human kind. 


6. A word of endearment. 
Trust me, love. Dryden. 

7. Picturesque representation of love. 
Such was his form as painters, when thej 

Their utmost art, on naked loves bestow. 


8. Lewdness. 
He is not lolling on a lewd loec-bed. Shak. 

9. A thin silk stuff. Obs. Boyle. 
Love in idleness, a kind of violet. Shak. 
Free of love, a plant of the genus Cercis. 

Fam. of Plants. 
LOVE-APPLE, n. A plant of the genus 

LOVE-BROKER, n. A third person who 

acts as agent between lovers. Shak. 

LOVED, pp. Having the affection of any 

LOVE-DARTING, a. Darting love. 


LOVE-DAY, n. A day formerly appointed 

for an amicable adjustment of differences. 


L O V 

LoVE-FAVOR, ji. Something given to be 
worn in token of love. Bp. Hall. 

LOVE-KNOT, n. luv'-not. A knot so call- 
ed, used as a token of love or representing 
mutual affection. 
LOVE-LABORED, a. Labored by love. 

LOVE-LASS, n. A sweetheart. 
LOVELESS, a. Void of love ; void of ten- 
derness or kindness. Milton. Shelton. 
LOVE-LETTER, n. A letter professing 

love ; a letter of courtship. 
LOVELILY, adv. luv'lilij. [from lovely.] 
Amiably ; in a manner to excite love. 

LOVELINESS, n. hw'liness. [from lovely.] 
Amiableness ; qualities of body or mind 
that may excite love. 

If there is such a native loveliness in the sex, 
as to make them victorious when in the wrong, 
how resistless their power when tliey are on the 
side of trutli. Spectator. 

LOVE-LOCK, n. A curl or lock of hair so 
called ; worn by men of fashion in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James L 

LOVE-LORN, a. [love and lorn.] Forsaken 
by one's love ; as the love-lorn nightingale. 
LOVELY, a. luv'ly. Amiable ; that may ex- 
cite love; possessing qualities which may 
invite affection. 

Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant 

in their lives— 2 Sam. i. 

LOVE-MONGER, n. [love and monger.] 

One who deals in affairs of love. [JVot 

used.] Shak. 

LOVE-PINED, a. Wasted by love. 

LOV'ER, n. One who loves ; one who has 
a tender affection, particularly for a fe- 

Love is blind, and lovers cannot see — 

i. A friend ; one who regards with kind- 

Your brother and his lover have embraced. 
;?. One who likes or is pleased with any 
thing ; as a lover of books or of science ; 
a lover of wine ; a lover of religion. 
Lover and loover. [See Louver.] 
LOVE-SE€RET, n. A secret between lov- 
ers. Dryden. 
LOVE-SHAFT, n. Cupid's arrow. Shak. 
LOVE-SICK, a. Sick or languishing with 
love or amorous desire ; as a lovesick 

To the dear mistress of my love-sick mind. 
2. Dictated by a languishing lover, or ex- 
pressive of languishing love. 

Where nightingales their love-sick ditty sing, 
LOVESOME, a. Lovely. [Xot used.] 

LOVE-SONG, n. A song expressing love. 

LOVE-SCIT, n. Courtship; solicitation of 
union in marriage. Shak 

LOVE-TALE, n. A narrative of love. 
Cato's a proper person to entrust 
A love-tale with. Addison 

LOVE-THOUGHT, n. Amorous fancy. 

[JVot used.] Shak. 

LOVE-TOKEN, Ji. A present in token of 

love. Shak. 


LOVE-TOY, n. A small present from a lov- 
er. Arbuthnot. 
LOVE-TRICK, n. Art or artifice expressive 
of love. 

Other love-tricks than glancing with the eyes. 
LOVING, ppr. Entertaining a strong af- 
fection for ; having tender regard for. 

2. a. Fond; affectionate; as a^otrjHg' friend. 

3. Expressing love or kindness ; as loving 

LOVING-KINDNESS, u. Tender regard ; 
mercy ; favor ; a scriptural word. 

My loving-kindness will I not utterly take 
from liim. Ps. Ixxxix. 

LOVINGLY, adv. With love ; with affec- 
tion ; affectionately. 

It is no great matter to live lovingly with 
meek persons. Taylor. 

LOVINGNESS, n. Affection ; Idnd regard. 

The only two bands of good will, loveliness 

and lovingness. Sidnei/. 

LOW, a. [D. laag, G. leg, Sw. l&g, low; 
Sax. loh, a pit or gulf; Russ. log, a low 
place, a hollow ; Dan. lag, a bed or layer, 
a row ; from the root oClay.] 

1. Not high or elevated ; depressed below 
any given surface or place. Low ground or 
laud, is land below the common level. 
Low is opposed to high, and both are rela- 
tive terms. That which is low with res- 
pect to one thing, may be high with respect 
to another. A loio house would be a high 
fence. A low flight for an eagle, would be 
a high flight for a partridge. 

2. Not rising to the usual highth ; as a man 
o{low stature. 

3. Declining near the horizon. The sun is 
low at four o'clock iu winter, and at six 
in sunmier. 

4. Deep; descending far below the adjacent 
ground ; as a low valley. 

The lowest bottom shook of Erebus. 


5. Sunk to the natural level of the ocean by 
the retiring of the tide ; as loic water. 

6. Below the usual rate or amount, or below 
the ordinary value ; as a low price of corn ; 
low wages. 

7. Not high or loud ; as a low voice. 

8. Grave ; depressed in the scale of sounds; 
as a low note. 

9. Near or not very distant from the equa- 
tor ; as a lotv latitude. ^Ve say, the low 
southern latitudes ; the high northern la 

10. Late in time ; modern ; as the lower ei 

11. Dejected; depressed in vigor; wanting 
strength or animation ; as low spirits ; loiv 
in spirits. His courage is low. 

12. Depressed in condition ; in a humble 

■ Why but to keep you low and ignorant ? 


13. Humble in rank ; in a mean condition ; 
as men of high and ioio .condition ; the 
ioiier walks of life ; a loiv class of people. 

14. Mean ; abject ; groveling ; base ; 
person odoiv mind. 

15. Dishonorable ; mean ; as a low trick or 

10. Not elevated or sublime ; not exalted ii 
tliought or diction ; as a low comparison 
a low metaphor ; loi'j language. 


In comparison of these ilivine writers, the 
noblest wits of the heathen world are low and 
dull. Felton. 

17. Vulgar; common ; as a low education. 
Submissive; humble; reverent. 

And pay their fealty 
With low subjection. Milton. 

But first low reverence done. Ilni. 

19. Weak ; exhausted of vital energy. His 
disease has brought him very low. 

20. Feeble ; weak ; without force ; as a low 

21. Moderate ; not inflammatory ; as a low 

22. Moderate ; not intense ; as a low heat ; 
low temperature. 

23. Impoverished; in reduced circumstan- 
ces. The ricli are often reduced to a low 

24. Moderate ; as a loiv calculation or esti- 

25. Plain ; simple ; not rich, high seasoned 
or nourishing ; as a Zoic diet. 

LOW, adv. Not aloft ; not on high ; often in 
composition ; as Zotf-brow'd rocks. 

Milton. Pope. 

2. Under the usual price ; at a moderate 
price. He sold his wheat low. 

3. Near the ground ; as, the bird flies very 

4. In a mean condition ; in composition ; as 
a /oiu-horn fellow ; a Zotc-horn lass. Shak. 

5. In time approaching our own. 

In the part of the world which was first inhab- 
ted, even as low down as Abraham's time, they 
pandered with their flocks and herds. Locke. 

C. With a depressed voice ; not loudly ; as, 
speak low. 

7. In a state of subjection, poverty or dis- 
grace ; as, to be brought low by oppression, 
by want or by vice. 

LOW, v. t. To sink ; to depress. [JVot used.] 

LOW, *. i. [Sax. hleorvan ; D. lecijen. It is 
probably a contracted word, coinciding 
with L. lugeo, to weep, the sense of which 
is, to cry out] 

To bellow, as an ox or cow. 

The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea. 


LOWBELL, n. [Sw. %e, flame; ISga, 
to flame ; Sax. lieg, leg, lig, id. ; Scot. 
lowe ; G. loke.] 

A kind of fowling in tlie night, in which the 
birds are wakened by a bell, and blinded 
by light, so as to be easily taken. Cowel. 

LOVVBELL, v. I. To scare, as with a low- 
hell. Hammond. 

LOW, > a termination of names, as in 

LOWE, ^ BeA-loio. [Sax. hlaw, a hill, heap 
or barrow, Goth, hluiw.] 

LOW-BORN, a. Born in low life. 

LOW-BRED, a. Bred in a low condition or 
manner ; vulgar. 

LOWER, V. I. [from low.] To cause to des- 
cend ; to let down ; to take or bring down ; 
as, to lower the main-sail of a sloop. 

2. To suffer to sink downwards. 


3. To bring down ; to reduce or humble ; as, 
to /oilier the pride of man. 

4. To lessen ; to diminish ; to reduce, as val- 

e or amount ; as, to lower the jirice or 
alue of goods, or the rate of interest. 
LOWER, v.i. To fall; to sink; to sjow 
less- Shak. 

L O W 

L O Z 

L U B 

LOWER, V. i. To appear dark or gloomy ; 
to be clouded ; to threaten a storm. 

And all the clouds that lowered upon youi 
house. Shak, 

The lowering spring. Dryden. 

2. To frown ; to look sullen. 

But sullen discontent sat lowering on her face, 


LOWER, n. Cloudiness ; gloominess. 

2. A frowning; sullenness. Sidney. 

LOWER, a. [comp. of low.] Less high or 

LOWERINGLY, adv. With cloudiness or 

threatening gloom. 
LOWERMOST, a. [from lo^v.] Lowest. 
LOWERY, a. Cloudy ; gloomy. 
LOWEST, a. [siiperl. of low.] Most low ; 
deepest ; most depressed or degraded, &c. 
LOWING, ppr. Bellowing, as an ox. 
LOWING, n. The bellowing or cry of cat- 
LOWLAND, n. Land which is low with re- 
spect to the neighboring country ; a low 
or level country. Thus the Belgic states 
are called Lo!('tonrf«. The word is some 
limes opposed to a mountainous country 
as the Lowlands of Scotland. Sometimes 
it denotes a marsh. Dryden. 

LOWLinOQD, n. A humble state. Obs. 


LOWLINESS, n. [from lowly.] Freedom 

from pride ; hiunility ; humbleness of mind. 


Walk — with all lowliness and meekness. 

Eph. iv. Phil. ii. 

2. Meanness; want of dignity ; abject state. 

[In this sense little used.] 

Spenser. Dryden. 
LOWLY, a. [low and like.} Having a low es- 
teem of one's own worth ; humble ; meek; 
free from pride. 

Take my yoke upon you and learn of mc, for 
I am meek i.nd lowly in heart. Matt. xi. 

He scometh the scomers ; but he givcth grace 
to the lowly. Prov. iii. 

2. Mean ; low ; wanting dignity or rank. 

One common riglit the great and lowly claim. 

3. Not lofty or sublime ; humble. 

These mral poems, and their lawly strain. 


4. Not high ; not elevated in place. 


LOWLY, adv. Humbly ; meekly ; modestly. 

Be lowly v/\se. .Mlton. 

2. Meanly ; in a low condition ; without 

grandeur or dignity. 

I will show "myself highly fed and lonely 
taught. Shak. 

LOWN, n. [See Loon.] A low fellow ; a 
scoundrel. .SVioA:. 

LOWNESS, n. The state of being low or 
depressed; the state of being less elevated 
than .something else ; as the lowness of the 
ground, or of the water after the ebb-tide. 

2. Meanness of condition. Men are not to 
be despised or oppressed on account of 
the lowness of their birth or condition. 

3. Meanness of mind or character ; want of 
dignity. Haughtiness usually springs from 
lowness of mind ; real dignity is distin- 
guished by modesty. 

4. Want of sublimity in style or sentimetit ; 
the contrary to loftiness. Dryden. 

5. Submissiveness ; as the lowness of obedi- 
ence. Bacon. 

6. Depression of mind ; want of courage or 
fortitude ; dejection; as lowness of spirits. 

7. Depression in fortune ; a state of poverty ; 
as the lowness of circumstances. 

Depression in strength or intensity ; as 
the lotvness of heat or temperature ; low- 
ness of zeal. 

9. Depression in price or worth ; as the low- 
ness of price or value ; the lowness of the 
funds or of the markets, 

10. Graveness of sound ; as the lowness of 

11. Softness of sound ; as the lowness of the 

LOW-SPIRITED, a. Not having animation 
and courage ; dejected ; depressed ; not 
lively or sprightly. Losses of property of- 
ten render men loiv-spirited. Excessive se- 
verity breaks the mind, and renders the 
child or pupil loiv-spirited. 

LOW-SPIRITEDNESS, n. Dejection of 
mind or courage ; a state of low spirits. 

LOW-THOUGHT'ED, a. Having the 
thoughts employed on low subjects; not 
having sublime and elevated thoughts or 
contemplations ; mean of sentiment ; as 
low-thoiighted care. Milton. Pope. 

LOW-WINES, n. [low and uxine.} The 
liquor produced by the first distillation of 
melasses, or fermented liquors ; the first 
rim of the still. Edwards, W. Ind. 

LOXODROM'le, a. [Gr. >.oio5, oMique, and 
8po/<o{, a course.] 

Pertaining to oblique sailing by the rhomb; 
as loiodromic tables. 

LOXODROM'leS, n. The art of oblique 
sailing by the rhomb, which always makes 
an equal angle with every ineridian ; that 
is, when a ship sails neither directly under 
the equator, nor under the same meridian, 
but obliquely. Harris. Bailey. 

LOY'AL, a. [Fr. loyal; It. leale ; Sp. leal ; 
from L. lex, law.] 

Faithful to a prince or superior; true to 
plighted faith, duty or love; not treacher- 
ous ; used of subjects to their prince, and 
of husband, wife and lovers ; as a loyal 
subject ; a loyal wife. 

There Laodamia with Evadne moves. 
Unhappy both ! but loyal in their loves. 


LOY'ALIST, n. A person who adheres to 
his sovereign ; particularly, one who main- 
tains his allegiance to his prinoe, and de- 
fends his cause in times of revolt or revo- 

LOY'ALLY, adv. With fidelity to a prince 
or sovereign, or to a husband or lover. 

LOY'ALTY, n. Fidelity to a prince or sove- 
reign, or to a husband or lover. 
He had such loyalty to the king 



LOZ'ENtiE, n. [Fr. losange ; Gr. Jiojos, ob- 
lique, and yuwo, a corner.] 

1. Originally, a figure with four equal sides, 
having two acute and two obtuse angles ; 
a rhomb. 

2. In heraldry, a four-cornered figure, re- 
sembling a pane of glass in old casements. 


3. Among jewelers, lozengr.'s nrr romnion to 
brilliants and rose di:iiiioii(ls. In liril- 

in the latter, by the meeting of the facets 
in the horizontal ribs of the crown. 


4. A form of medicine in small pieces, to be 
chewed or held in the mouth till melted. 


5. In confectionary, a small cake of preserv- 
ed fruit, or of sugar, &c. 

LOZ'ENgED, a. Made into the shape of 

LOZ'ENGY, a. In heraldry, having the field 
or charge covered with lozenges. 

Lp, a contraction of lordship. 

LU. [Seeioo.] 

LUBBARD. [JVbi used. See Lubber.] 

LUB'BER, n. [W. llabi, a tall lank fellow, a 
clumsy man, a stripling, a lubber, a looby ; 
llab, a flag or thin strip, a stripe or stroke ; 
llabiaw, to slap ; Hob, an unwieldy lump, a 
dull fellow. From the significations of 
llabi, it appears that the primary sense is 
tall and lank, like a stripling who gains his 
highth before he does his full strength, and 
hence is clumsy. But looby seems rather 
to be from Hob.] 

A heavy, cliunsy fellow ; a sturdy drone ; a 

And lingering lubbers lose many a penny. 


LUB'BERLY, a. Properly, tall and lank 
without activity ; hence, bulky and heavy ; 
clumsy ; lazy; as a lubberly fellow or boy. 

LUB'BERLY, adv. Clumsily; awkwardly. 

LU'BRI€, a. [L. lubricus, slippery.] Having 
a smooth surface ; slippery ; as a lubric 
throat. Crashaw. 

•2. Wavering ; unsteady ; as the lubric waves 
of state. Wotton. 

3. Lascivious; wanton; lewd. 

This /u6Wc and adulterate age. Dryden. 

[This word is now little used.] 

LU'BRI€ANT, n. [See Lubricate.] That 
which lubricates. 

LU'BRI€ATE, v. I. [L. lubrico, from lubri- 
cus, slippery ; allied to labor, to slip or 

To iTiake smooth or slippery. Mucilaginous 
and saponaceous medicines lubricate the 
parts to which they are applied. 

LU'BRICATED.;)/). Made smooth and slip- 

LU'BRI€ATING, ppr. Rendering smooth 
and slippery. 

LU'BRl€ATOR, n. That which lubricates. 

LUBRICITY, n. [Fr. lubricity] Smooth- 
ness of surface; slipperiness. 

2. Smoothness ; aptness to glide over any 
thing, or to facilitate the motion of bodies 
in contact by diminishing friction. Ray. 

3. Slipperiness ; instability ; as the lubricity 
of fortune. UEstrange. 

4. Lasciviousness; propensity to lewdness; 
lewdness ; lechery ; incontinency. 


LU'BRICOUS, a. [L. lubricus.] Smooth; 
slippery. Woodward. 

2. Wavering; unstable; as lubricous opin- 
ions. GlanvUle. 

LUBRIFAC'TION, n. [infra.] The act 
of lubricating or making smooth. 

Hants, they are formed liy thi 
the skill and the star facets i 

III.;: ofjLUBRIFl€A'TION, ;l| cio, to make.] 

[L. lubricus and fa 


The act or operation of making smooth and 
slippery. Ray- 

LUCE, n. A pike full grown. 

Johnson. Shak. 

LU'CENT, a. [L. lucens, from iuceo, to shine. 
See Light.] 

Shining ; bright ; resplendent ; as the sun's 
lucent orb. Milton. 

LU'CERN, n. [Qu. W. llysau, plants ; Uys- 
ieuyn, a plant ; Corn, luzuan ; or from Lu- 
cerne, in Switzerland.] 

A plant of the genus Medicago, cultivated 
for fodder. 

LU'CID, a. [L. lucidus, from luceo, to shine. 
See Light.] 

1. Shining; bright; resplendent; as the Tu- 
cid orbs of heaven. 

2. Clear; transparent; pellucid; as a lucid 
stream. Milton. 

3. Bright with the radiance of intellect; not 
darkened or confused by delirium or mad- 
ness ; marked by the regular operations of 
reason ; as the lucid intervals of a derang 
ed man. 

4. Clear ; distinct ; presenting a clear view 
easily understood ; as a lucid order or ar 

LUCID'ITY, n. Brightness. fJYot used.] 
LU'CIDNESS, n. Brightness J clearness. 
LU'CIFER, n. [L. lux; lucis, light, and fero, 
to bring.] 

1. The planet Venus, so called froi 

2. Satan. 

And when he falls, he falls like Lucifer, 
Never to hope again. 

LUCIFE'RIAN, a. Pertaining to Lucifer, 
or to the Luciferians. 

LUCIFE'RIANS, n. A sect that followed 
Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, in the fourtl 
century. They held to the carnal nature 
of the soul, and that there is no place for 
repentance for such as fall. 

LUCIF'EROUS, a. [L. lucifer, supra.] Giv- 
ing light ; affording light or means of dis- 
covery. Boyk. 

LUCIF'le, a. [L. lux, light, and facio. 
to make.] 

Producing light. Grew. 

LU'CIFORM, a. [L. lux, light, and forma, 

Having the form of light ; resembling light, 
The water prepares us, and purities our luci- 
form spirit to receive the divinity. 

Pans. Tians 

LUCK, n. [D. luk, geluk; G. gliick; Sw, 
lycka ; Dan. lykke ; Sans, lakki. The sense 
is that which comes, falls, happens. W 
Hue, a dart or throw ; llupaw, to throw. 

Qu. Gr. ^ayioju; Ar. LJiJ CIi 
No. 21.] 
That which happens to a person ; an event, 
good or ill, affecting a man's interest or 
happiness, and which is deemed casual 
fortune. Luck respects persons and theirj 
proceedings. We never say, in a literal 
sense, that a plant has the luck to grow in 
a particular place ; or a fossil has the luck 
to be of a particular form. We say 
person has the good luck to escape from 
danger ; or the ill luck to be ensnared or to 
suffer loss. He has had good luck, or bad 
luck in gaming, fishing or hunting. Luck, 
or what wjc call chance, accident, fortune 
is an event which takes place without be 

Vol. II. 

L U D 

ing intended or foreseen, or from some 
cause not under human control ; that 
which cannot be previously known or de- 
termined with certainty by human skill or 

Consider the gift of luck as below the care of 
a wise man. Ramhler. 

LUCK'ILY, adv. [from lucky.] Fortunately ; 
by good fortune ; with a favorable issue ; 
in a good sense. Luckily, we escaped in- 

LUCK'INESS, n. The state of being fortu- 
nate ; as the luckiness of a man or of an 

2. Good fortune ; a favorable issue or event, 
In this sense, luck is generally used.] 

LUCK'LESS,a. Unfortunate; meeting witli 
ill success ; as a luckless gamester ; a luck- 
less maid. 

2. Unfortunate ; producing ill or no good. 
Prayers made and granted in a luckless houi 

LUCK'Y, a. Fortunate ; meeting with good 
success ; as a lucky adventurer. 

2. Fortunate ; producing good by chance 
favorable ; as a lucky adventure ; a hicky 
time ; a lucky cast. 

LU'€RATIVE, a. [Fr. htcratif; L. lucrativus. 
rom lucror, to gain profit.] 

Gainful ; profitable ; making increase of mon- 
ey or goods ; as a lucrative trade ; lucra 
live business or office. 

LU'€RE, n. lu'ker. [L. lucrum ; Fr. lucre. 
Gain in .money or goods ; profit ; usually 
in an ill sense, or with the sense of some- 
thing base or unworthy. 

The lust o{ lucre, and the dread of death. 


A bishop must be blameless — not given to 

filthy fat-re. Tit. i. 

LU€RIF'EROUS, a. [L. lucrum, gain, and 
fero, to produce.] Gainful ; profitable 
[Little used.] Boyle 

LU€RIF'I€, a. [L. lucrum, gain, and/aa'o, 
to make.] Producing profit; gainful, 
[JVot used.] 

LUeTA'TION, n. [L. luctatio, from luctor, 
to wrestle or strive.] 

Struggle ; contest ; elTort to overcome it 
contest. [Little used.] 

LUC'TUAL, a. [L. luctus, grief.] Produ 
cing grief. [.Yot used.] Buck. 

LU'CUBRATE, v. i. [L. lucuhro, to study by 
candle-light, from lucubrum, from lux. 

To study by candle-light or a lamp ; to stud; 
by night. 

LUeUBRA'TION, n. Study by a lamp or by 
candle-light ; nocturnal study. 

2. That which is composed by night; that 
which is produced by meditation in retire- 
ment. Taller. 

LU'eUBRATORY, a. Composed by candle- 
light or by night. Pope 

LU'€ULENT, a. [L. luculcntus, from luceo, 
to shine.] 

1. Lucid; clear; transparent; as Incident 
rivers. Thomson. 

2. Clear ; evident ; luminous. 
The most luculent testimonies that the 

christian religion hath. Hooker. 

LU'CULLITE, n. A subspecies of carbon- 
ate of lime, of three kinds. 

Ure. Jameson. 

LUDIB'RIOUS, a. [L. tudibriosxis,from ludo, 
to sport.] Sportive ; wanton. /• Barlow. 



LU'D1€R0US, a. [L. ludicer, from ludo, to 

Sportive ; burlesque ; adapted to raise laugh- 
ter, without scorn or contempt. Ludi- 
crous differs from ridiculous ; the latter im- 
plying contempt or derision. 

Plutarch quotes this instance of Homer'.s 
judgment, in closing a ludicrous scene with de- 
cency and instruction. Broome. 

LU'DIeROUSLY, adt). Sportively; in bur- 
lesque ; in a manner to raise laughter with- 
out contempt. 

LU'Dl€ROUSNESS, n. Sportiveness ; the 
quality of exciting laughter without con- 
tempt ; merry cast. 

LUDIFICA'TION, n. [L. ludificor.] The 
act of deriding. 

LUDIF'ICATORY, a. Making sport ; tend- 
ing to excite derision. Barrow. 

LUFF, n. [Goth, lofa ; Scot, loof; Ir. lav, 
lamh; W. law.] The palm of the hand. 

LUFF, n. [Fr. lof; G. loof; D. loef; Arm. 

Weather-gage, or part towards the wind ; or 
the sailing of a ship close to the wind. 

LUFF, V. i. [D. loeven ; Arm. loffi.] To turn 
the head of a ship towards the wind ; to 
sail nearer the wind. Hence, in the im- 
perative, luff, is an order to put the tiller 
on tlie lee-side, in order to make the ship 
sail nearer the wind. Lifff round, or luff 
a-lee, is the extreme of this movement, in- 
tended to throw the ship's head into the 
wind. A ship is said to spring her luff, 
when she yields to the helm by sailing 
nearer the wind. Encyc. 

LUFF'-TACKLE, n. A large tackle not 
destined for any particular place in the 
ship, but movable at pleasure. 

Mar. Did. 

LUG, V. t. [Sax. lyccan, aluccan, geluggian, 
to pull, to pluck, Ir. luighim. See Pluck.] 

1. To haul ; to drag ; to' pull with force, as 
something heavy and moved with diffi- 

Jowler lugs him still 
Through hedges. Dryden. 

2. To carry or convey with labor. 

They must divide the image among them, 
and so lug off every one his share. Collier. 

To lug out, to draw a sword, in burlesque. 


LUG, 1'. i. To drag : to move heavily. [Qu.] 


LUG, )!. A small fish. Caretc. 

2. In Scotland, an ear. Obs. Johrison. 

3. A pole or perch, a land-measure. Obs. 


4. Something heavy to be drawn or carried. 
[ Vulgar.] 

LUG'GAgE, n. [from lug.] Any thing 
cumbersome and heavy to be carried ; 
traveling baggage. 

I am gathering up my luggage and preparing 
for my journey. Sunft. 

2. Something of more weight than value. 
What do you mean 
To dote on such luggage ? Shak, 

LUG'GER, n. [D. loger.] A vessel carry- 
ing three masts with a running bowsprit 
and lug-sails. Mar. Did. 

LUGGS, ji. An insect like an earth-worm, 
but having legs. 

LUG'-SAIL, n. A square sail bent upon a 
yard that hangs obliquely to the mast at 
one third of its length. Mar. Did. 

L U M 

L U M 

L U N 

LUGU'BRIOUS, a. [L. lugubris, from lugeo, 
to weep.] 

Mournful ; indicating sorrow ; as a lugubri- 
ous look. Decay of Piety. 

LU'KEWARM, a. [Sax. vlaco, tepid, mod- 
erately warm ; vlacian, to warm ; D. laauw, 
laauwen ; G. lau ; Dan. lunken, lukewarm ; 
lunker, to make tepid ; allied to flag, lag, 
or to lay, allay, or to slack,] 

1. Moderately warm; tepid; as lukewarm 
water ; lukewarm heat. 

li'iseman. J^ewton. 

3. Not ardent ; not zealous ; cool ; indiffer- 
ent ; as lukewarm obedience ; lukewarm 
patriots. Rev. iii. Dryden. Addison. 

LU'KE WARMLY, adv. With moderate 

2. With indifference ; coolly. 
LU'KEWARMNESS, n. A mild or moder- 
ate heat. 

9. Indifference; want of zeal or ardor; cold- 

The defect of zeal is lukewarmness, or cold- 
ness in religion. Sprat. 
LULL, v.t. [Dan. luller; G.D.lullen; L. 
lallo. Qu. Russ. Ideyu, to dandle or fon- 
dle. The sense is to throw down, to still, 
to appease. Seamen say, the wind lulls, 
when it subsides.] 
To quiet ; to compose ; to cause to rest. 
The nation may be lulled into security. 
— To lull him soft asleep. Spenser. 
Such sweet compulsion doth in music lie. 
To lull the daughters of necessity. Milton. 
LULL, V. i. To subside ; to cease ; to be- 
come calm ; as, the wind lulls. 
LULL, n. Power or quality of soothing. 

LULL'ABY, n. [lull and by, Russ. bayu. 

See By.] 
A song to quiet babes ; that which quiets. 

Shak. Locke. 
lA]hL'F.D, pp. Quieted; appeased ; compo- 
sed to rest. 
LULL'ER, n. One that lulls; one that fon- 
LULL'ING, ppr. Stilling ; composing to 

LUM, n. [Qu. Sax. leoma.] The chimney 
of a cottage. Todd. 

LUM'A€HEL, ) A calcarious stone 
LUMACHEL'LA, S composed of shells 
and coral conglutinated,but so far retain 
ing their organization as to exhibit differ 
ent colors, and so hard as to admit of 
polish. JVicholson. Fourcroy. 

LUMBAG'INOUS, a. Pertaining to lum- 
bago. Cheyne. 
LUMBA'GO, n. [L. Ivmbtts, loins.] A pain 
in the loins and small of the back, such 
as precedes certain fevers. Quincy 
A rheumatic affection of the muscles about 
the loins. Hooper. 
LUM'BAH, a. [L. hmbus, loins.] Pertain- 
ing to the loins. Tlie lumbar region is the 
posterior portion of the body between the 
false ribs and the upper edge of the 
haunch bone. Parr. 
LUM'BER, n. [allied to Sax. leoma, uten- 
sils, or to lump, clump, a mass, or Dan. 
lumpe, a rag ; lumperie, trifles ; Sw. lumpor, 
rags, old cloths ; D. lamp ; G. lumpen ; Fr. 
lambeau. In French, lambourde is a joist.] 
]. Any thing useless and cumbersome, or 
things bulky and thrown aside as of no 

The very bed was violated — 

.^nd thrown among the common lumber. 


2. In America, timber sawed or split for 
use ; as beams, joists, board.s, planks, 
staves, hoops and the like. 

3. Harm ; mischief. [Local.] P^gg^- 
LUM'BER, V. t. To heap together in disor- 
der. Rymer, 

2. To fill with lumber ; as, to lumber a room, 

LUMBER-ROOM, n. A place for the re- 
ception of lumber or useless things. 

LUftl'BRIe, n. [L. lumbricus, a worm.] A 
worm. Med. Repos 

LUM'BRI€AL, a. [L. lumbncus, a worm.] 
Resembling a worm ; as the lumbrical 

LUM'BRI€AL, a. Pertaining to the loins, 

LUM'BRI€AL, n. A muscle of the fingers 
and toes, so named from its resembling a 
worm. Of these muscles, there are four of 
the fingers and as many of the toes. 

LUMBRIC'IFORM, a. [L. lumbricus. 
worm, and form.] Resembling a worm in 

LUMINARY, n. [L. luminare, from lumen, 
light. Lumen is the Saxon leoma, a ray, 
or from luceo, by contraction, for lucmen. 

1. Any body that gives light, but chiefly one 
of the celestial orbs. The sun is the prin- 
cipal luminary in our system. The stars 
are inferior luminaries. 

2. One that illustrates any subject, or 
lightens mankind ; as, Bacon and Newton 
were distinguished luminaries. 

LUMINATION. [See Illumination.] 
LU'MINE, V. t. To enlighten. [J\i~ot used. 

See Illumine.] 
LUMINIF'EROUS, a. [L. lumen, light, and 

fero, to produce.] Producing light. 

LU'MINOUS, a. [L. luminosus ; Fr. lumin- 


1. Shining ; emitting light. The sun is a 
most luminous body. 

2. Light ; illuminated. The moon is ren- 
dered luminous by the rays of the sun. 

3. Bright; shining; as a iumino]** color. 

4. Clear ; as a luminous essay or argument 
LU'MINOUSLY, adv. With brightness or 

LU'MINOUSNESS, n. The quality of being 

bright or shining ; brightness ; as the lu- 

minousness of the sea. Encyc. 

2. Clearness ; perspicuity ; as the lumi7ious- 

ness of ideas, arguments or method. 

LUMP, n. [G. Dr.n. and Sw. klump ; D. 

klomp; W. clamp and clap. If 

radical, this belongs to Class Lb. Lump 

is clump, without the prefix.] 
A small mass of matter of no definite 

shape ; as a lump of earth ; a lump of but 

ter ; a lump of sugar. 

2. A mass of things blended or thrown to 
gether without order or distinction ; as 
copper, iron, gold, silver, lead, tin, promis- 
cuously in one lump. 

3. A cluster; as a himp of figs. 2 Kings xx. 
In the lump, the w hole together ; in gross. 

They may buy my papers in the himp. 

LUMP, II. t. To throw into amass; to unite 

The expenses ought to be lumped. Jiyliff(- 

2. To take in the gross. 

LUMP' EN, n. A long fish of a greenish 
color, and marked with lines. 

LUMP'FISH, n. A thick fish of the genus 
Cyclopterus. The back is sharp and ele- 
vated ; the belly flat, and of a crimson 
color. Along the body run five rows of 
sharp bony tubercles. It swims edgewise ; 
called also a sea-owl. Encyc. 

LUMP'ING, ppr. Throwing into a mass or 

2. a. Bulky; heavy. [Aloivword.] 


LUMP'ISH, a. Like a lump; heavy; gross; 
bulky. Raleigh. Dryde: 

Dull; inactive. Shak. 

LUMP'ISHLY, adv. Heavily; with dull- 
ness or stupidity. 

LUMP'ISHNESS, n. Heaviness; dullness; 

LUMP'Y, a. Full of lumps or small com- 
pact masses. Mortimer. 

Luna cornea, muriate of silver. Urt. 

LU'NACY, n. [from L.funa.the moon; W. 
llun, form, figure, image, the moon.] 

1. A species of insanity or madness, suppo- 
sed to be influenced by the moon, or peri- 
odical in the month. 

Madness in general. 
LU'NAR, ) [L. lunaris.] Pertaining to 
LU'NARY, ^ ■ the moon ; as lunar obser- 

2. Measured by the revolutions of the moon ; 
lunar days or years. 

3. Resembling the moon; orbed. Dryden. 

4. Under the influence of the moon. Obs. 

Lunar caustic, nitrate of silver, fused in a low 
heat. JVicholson. 

LUNA'RIAN, n. An inhabitant of the 

LU'NARY, n. Moonwort, a plant of the ge- 
nus Lunaria. 

LU'NATED, a. Formed like a half-moon. 

LU'NATIe, a. Affected by a species of mad- 
ness, supposed to be influenced by the 

LU'NATIe, n. A person affected by insan- 
ity, supposed to be influenced or produced 
by the moon, or by its position in its orbit ; 
a madman. Swijl. 

LUNA'TION, n. [L. lunalio.] A revolu- 
of the moon. 

LUNCH, ? [W. llwuc, a gulp, a 

LUNCH'EON, S s\vallow, the gullet ; 
Arm. louncqa, longein, to swallow greed- 


Literally, a swallow ; but in usage, a por- 
tion of food taken at any time, except at a 
regular meal. It is not unusual to take a 
luncheon before dinner. The passengers 
in the line-ships regularly have their 

I sliced the luncheon from the barley loaf. 


LUNE, ?i. [L. luna, the moon.] Any thing 

in the shape of a half-moon. [Little used^ 


2. A fit of lunacy or madness, or a freak. 
[A^( used.] Shak. 

3. A leash ; as the lune of a hawk. 
LU'NET, ? [Fr./mie«t, from ?i(nc, the 
LUNETTE, \"- moon.] 


in a body or sum without distinction of 1. In fortif cation, an enveloped counter 

guard, or elevation of earth made beyond 

L U R 

L U R 

L U S 

the second ditch, opposite to the places of 
arms ; or a covered place before the cour- 
tine, consisting of two faces that form an 
angle inward. It is commonly raised in 
ilitches full of water, to serve instead of 
fausse brays, to dispute the enemy's pass- 
age of the ditch. Encyc. Trevoux. 

2. In the manege, a half horse-shoe, which 
wants the spunge, or that part of the 
branch which runs towards the quarters 
of the foot. Encyc. 

3. A pieceof felt to cover the eyeof a vicious 
horse. Encyc. 

LU'NET, n. A little moon. Bp. Halt. 

LUNG, n. [Sax. lungen ; D. long; G. Dan. 
lunge; Sw. lunga.] 

1. The lungs are the organs of respiration in 
man and many other animals. There are 
two of these organs, each of which occu- 
pies its cavity in the thorax. They alter- 
nately inhale and expel the air, by means 
of which the necessary function of respira- 
tion is carried on. 

Each bing fills completely the cavity in 
■which ills placed. Wistar. 

2. Formerly, a person having a strong voice, 
and a sort of servant. B. Jonson. 

LUNgE, n. [See Allonge.'] A sudden push 
or thrust. 

LUNG ED, a. Having lungs, or the nature 
or resemblance of lungs; drawing in and 
expelling air. Dryden. 

LUNG'-GROVVN, a. Having lungs that ad- 
here to the pleura. Harvey. 

LUN'GIS, n. [Fr. longis, from long.] A lin- 
gerer; a dull, drowsy fellow. 

LUNG'WORT, n. A plant of the genus Pul- 

LU'NIFORM, a. [L. luna, the moon, and 

form.] Resembling the moon. 

:,UN - 

LUNISO'LAR, a. [L. luna, moon, and Sola- 
ris, sol, sun.] 

Compounded of the revolutions of the sui 
and moon. Johnson 

The lunisolar year consists of 53'2 comnioi: 
years ; found by multiplying the cycle of 
the sun by that of the moon. Encyc. 

LU'NISTICE, n. [L. hina, the moon, and 
sio, steti, or sisto, to stand.] 

The farthest point of the moon's northing 
and southing, in its monthly revolution. 


LUNT, n. [D. lonf, Dan. lunte, a match.] 
The match-cord used for firing cannon. 


LU'NULAR, a. [from L. Iu7ia, the moon.] 
In botany, like the new moon; shaped like 
a small crescent. 

LU'NULATE, a. [from L. luna, the moon.] 
In botany, resembling a small crescent. 

LU'PERCAL, a. Pertaining to the Luper- 
calia, or feasts of the Romans in honor of 
Pan ; as a noun, the feast itself. 

LU'PINE, n. [Fr. lupin; h. lupinus.] A 
kind of pulse. The genus Lupinus con- 
tains several species, mostly annual plants, 
bearing digitate leaves, and papilionaceous 
flowers. The seeds of the white lupine 
have a leguminous taste, accompanied 
with a disagreeable bitterness, and are said 
to be anthelmintic. Encyc. 

LU'PULIN, n. [L. lupulus, hops.] The fine 
yellow powder of hops. A. W. Ives. 

LURCH, n. [W. Here, a frisk, or frisking 
about, a loitering or lurking; llercian, to 
loiter about, to lurk. This is the same 

word radically as lurk. The primary 
sense is to run, start, leap or frisk about, 
as a :nan or beast that flies from one tree 
or other object to another to conceal him- 
self. Hence we see the peculiar applica- 
bility of this word in seamen's language.] 

In seamen^s language, a sudden roll of a 
ship. A lee-lurch is a sudden roll to the 
leeward, as when a heavy sea strikes the 
ship on the weather side. Cyt 

To leave in the lurch, to leave in a difficult 
situation, or in embarrassment ; to leave 
in a forlorn state or without help. 


LURCH, V. i. To roll or pass suddenly to 
one side, as a ship in a heavy sea. 

2. To withdraw to one side, or to a private 
place ; to lie in ambush or in secret ; to lie 
close. [For this, lurk is now used.] 


3. To shift ; to play tricks. 

I am fain to shuffle, to hedge and to lurch. 
LURCH, V. t. To defeat ; to disappoint, that 
is, to evade ; as, to lurch the expectation 
[Uttle used.] South 

2. To steal; to filch ; to pilfer. [Little used.] 
LURCH,!'.*. [L.htrco, a glutton.] To swal- 
low or eat greedily ; to devour. [jWot 
used.] " 

LURCH'ER, 71. One that lies in wait or 
lurks ; one that watches to pilfer, or to 
betray or entrap ; a poacher. 

Swift from the play the scudding lurcher flies 

2. A dog that watches for his game. 


3. [L. lurco, a glutton.] A glutton ; a gor- 

LUR'DAN, a. Blockish. [JVot used.] 

LUR'DAN, n. A clown ; a blockhead. [JVot 

LURE,n. ]Fr. leuire.] Something held out 

to call a hawk ; hence, 
2. Any enticement ; that which invites by 

the prospect of advantage or pleasure 

as the lures of beauty or of gain. 
LURE, V. i. To call hawks. 

LURE, V. t. To entice; to attract; to invite 
by any thing that promises pleasure or 

Lured on by the pleasure of the bait. 

And various science lures the learned eye. 

LU'RED, pp. Enticed ; attracted ; invited 

by the hope of pleasure or advantage. 

LURID, a. [L. luridus ; W. llur, livid, a 

gloom. Qu. the root onoH'cr.] Gloomy; 

dismal. Thomson 

hV'KlHG, ppr. Enticing; calling. 

LURK, V. i. [W. llercian, to frisk or loiter 

about, to lurk; G. lauern; D. loeren ; Sw, 

lura ; Dan. hirer. See Lurch.] 

1. To he hid; to lie in wait. 

Let us lay wait for blood ; let us lurk privily 
for the innocent. Prov. i. 

2. To lie concealed or unperceived. See 
that no selfish motive lurks in the heart. 

The lurking gold upon tlie fata! tree. 


.3. To retire from public observation ; to 
keep out of sight. 

The defendant lurks and wanders about In 
Berks. Blackstone. 

LURK'ER, 71. One that lurks or keeps out 
of sight. 

LURK'ING, ppr. Lying concealed ; keep- 
ing out of sight. 

LURK'ING-PLACE, n. A place in which 
one lies concealed ; a secret place ; a hi- 
ding place ; a den. 1 Sam. xxiii. 

LUS'CIOUS, a. [I know not the origin 
and affinities of this word. The Dutch 
express it by zoetlustig, sweet-lusty. Qu. 
the root of luxury.] 

1. Sweet or rich so as to cloy or nauseate; 
sweet to excess ; as luscious food. 

2. Very sweet ; delicious ; grateful to the 
And raisins keep their luscious native taste. 


3. Pleasing ; delightful. 

He will bait him in with the luscious propo- 
sal of some gainful purchase. South. 

4. Fullsome ; as luscious flattery. 

5. Smutty; obscene. [Unusual.] Steele. 
LUS'CIOUSLY, adv. With sweetness or 

richness that cloys or nauseates. 

2. Obscenely. Steele. 

LUS'CIOUSNESS, n. Immoderate rich- 
ness or sweetness that cloys or ofi'eDds. 


LU'SERN, n. A lynx. Johnson. 

LUSH, a. Of a dark, deep, full color. 

How lush and lusty the grass looks ; how 
green ! Obs. Shak. 

LUSK, a. [Fr. lasche.] Lazy ; slothful. [JVot 
in use.] 

LUSK, n. A lazy fellow ; a lubber. [JVot 
in use.] 

LUSK'ISH, a. Inclined to be lazy. 


LUSK'ISHLY, adv. Lazily. 

LUSKISHNESS, n. Disposition to indo- 
lence ; laziness. 06*. Spenser. 

LUSO'RIOUS, a. [L. lusorius, from ludo. 
lusi, to sport.] 

Used in play ; sportive. [Little used.] 


LU'SORY, a. [L. lusorius, as above.] Used 
in play ; playful ; as lusory methods of in- 
structing children. Jl'atts. 

LUST, n. [Sax. G. D. Sw. lust; Dan. lyst ; 
Ir. lasadh, lust, and a burning. The pri- 
mary sense is to extend, reach, expand, 
to stretch forward. It is the same as 

1. Longing desire ; eagerness to possess or 
enjoy ; as the lust of gain. 

My lust shall be satisfied upon them. Ex. 


2. Concupiscence; carnal appetite ; unlaw- 
ful desire of carnal pleasure. Rom. i. 2 
Pet. ii. 

3. Evil propensity; depraved afTections and 
desires. James i. Ps. Ix,xxi. 

4. Vigor ; active power. [JVot used.] 

LUST, V. i. [Sax. luslan ; G. liisten ; D. 

tusten ; Sw. lysta ; Dan. lyster.] 
1. To desire eagerly ; to long ; with ajler. 
Thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, 
•hatsoever thy soul lusteth after. Deut. xii 

L U S 

2. To have carnal desire ; to desire eagerly 
the gratification of carnal appetite. 

Lust not after her beauty in thy heart. Prov. 

Whosoever looketh on a woman to Itist after 
her, hath committed adultery with her already 
in iiis heart. Matt. v. 

3. To have irregular or inordinate desires. 

The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy. 
James iv. 

Lust not after evil things as they also lusted. 
1 Cor. X. 

4. To list ; to like. 
LUST'PyL, a. Having lust, or eager desire 

of carnal gratification ; libidinous 
intemperate and lustful man. 
2. Provoking to sensuality ; inciting to lust 
or exciting carnal desire. TUlotson. 

Thence liis lustful orgies he enlarged. 

,3. Vigorous; robust; stout. Sackville. 

"LUST'FULLY, adv. With concupiscence 

or carnal desire. 
LUSTFULNESS, n. The state of having 
■ carnal desires ; libidinousness. 
LUST'IHQQD, n. [lusty and hood.] Vigor 
of body. Obs. Spenser. 

LUST'ILY, adv. With vigor of body; 
stoutly ; with vigorous exertion. 

I determine to fight lustily for him. Shak 
LUST'INESS, n. Vigor of body ; stoutness; 
strength ; robustness ; sturdiness. 

Cappadocian slaves were famous for theii 
lustiness. Dryden 

LUST'ING, ppr. Having eager desire ; hav- 
ing carnal appetite. 
LUST'ING, n. Eager desire; inordinate 

desire ; desire of carnal gratification. 

LUST'LESS, a. Listless; not willing. Ohs 


2. Not vigorous. Gower. 

LUS'TRAL, a. [L. Utslralis, from lustro, to 


1. Used in purification ; as lustral water ; 
lustral waves. 

2. Pertaining to purification ; as lustral days. 
LUS'TRATE, v. t. [L. lustro, to cleanse. 

See iMSter.] 

1. To make clear or pure; to purify. [See 

2. To view ; to survey. 
LU-STRA'TION, n. The act or operation 

of making clear or pure; a cleansing or 
purifying by water. 

And holy water for lustration bring. 

2. In antiquity, the sacrifices or ceremonies 
by wliich cities, fields, armies or people 
defiled by crimes, were purified. Encyc 
LUS'TER, n. [Fr. lustre; L. lustrum; It 
lustro ; from L. lustro, to purify ; Dan. lys, 
light ; lyser, to sliine ; Sw. lysa ; D. luister, 
splendor ; Ir. lasadh, lasaim, leosam, to give 
light, to burn; leos, light.] 
1. Brightness; splendor ; gloss; aslhelustei 
of the sun or stars ; the luster of silk. 
The sun's mild luster warms (lie vital air. 

•2. The splendor of birth, of deeds or of 
fame ; renown ; distinction. 

His ancestors continued about four hundred 
years, rather without obscurity th»n with anj 
great share of luster. tVutton 

L U T 

3. A sconce with lights ; a branched candle- 
stick of glass. Pope. Encyc. 

4. The space of five years. [L. lustrum.] 

LUS'TRICAL, a. Pertaining to purification 
LUS'TRING, n. A species of glossy silk 
cloth. [Corruptly written and pronounced 


Bright ; shining ; lurain- 

Good sparks and lustrous. Shale. 

LUS'TRUM, n. In ancient Rome, the space 

of five years. 
LUST'-STAINED, a. Defiled by lust. 

LUST'WORT, n. [lust and woH.] A plant 

of the genus Drosera. 
LUST'Y, o. [from lust ; B. lustig.] Stout; 

vigorous ; robust ; healthful ; able of body. 

This is the correct sense of the word. 

comprehending full health and strength ; 

as a lusty youth. But it is now used 

the sense of, 

2. Bulky; large; of great size. This sense 
does not always include that of vigor. 

3. Handsome ; pleasant ; saucy. Obs. 
Goroer. Spenser. Shak 

Copious ; plentiful ; as a lusty draught. 
5. Pregnant; a colloquial %ise. 
LU'TANIST, n. [from lute.] A person that 
plays on the lute. 

A celebrated lutanist was playing to a large 
company. Msiat. Res. 

LUTA'RIOUS, a. [L. lutarius, from Mum, 

1. Pertaining to mud; living in mud. 

2. Of the color of mud. Grew 
LUTA'TION, n. [See Lute.] The act oi 

method of luting vessels. 

LUTE, n. [Fr. luth; It. liuto ; Sp. laud 
D. luit; G.laute; Sw. luta ; Dan. lut; 
Russ. liotnia. Q,u. loud, L. laudo.] 

An instrument of music with strings. It 
consists of four parts, viz ; the table, the 
body or belly which has nine or ten sides, 
the neck, which has nine or ten stops or 
divisions marked with strings, and the head 
or cross. In the middle of the table there 
is a passage for the sound. There is also 
a bridge to which the strings are fastened 
The strings are struck with the right 
hand, and with the left the stops are press- 
ed. Encyc. 

LUTE, ? ji [L. lutum, mud, clay.] 

LU'TING, \ ' Among chimists, a com- 
position of clay or other tenacious sub- 
stance used for stopping the juncture of 
vessels so closely as tV prevent the es- 
cape or entrance of air. 

LUTE, V. t. To close or coat with lute. 


LU'TE-€ASE, n. A case for a lute. Shak 

LU'TED, pp. Closed with lute. 

LU'TENIST, n. A performer on the lute 

1 TI'TFR ^ 

LU'TIST X "■ ^"^ ^^''° P'"y* °" * '"'®" 

LU'TE-STRING, n. The string of a lute. 

LUTHERAN, o. Pertaining to Luther, the 
reformer ; as the Lutheran church. 


LU'THERAN, n. A disciple or follower of 
Luther ; one who adheres to the doctrines 
of Luther. 

LU'THERANISM, n. The doctrines of re- 
ligion as taught by Luther. 

LU'THERN, n. In architecture, a kind of 
window over the cornice, in the roof of a 
building, to admit light into the upper 
story. Encyc. 

LU'TING, ppr. Closing with lute. 

LU'TULENT, a. [L. lutulentus, from lutum, 
mud.] Muddy; turbid; thick. 

LUX' ATE, V. I.' [L. htxo, Fr. hixer, to loos- 
en ; probably from the same root as lax, L. 
laxo, laxus.] 

To displace, or remove from its proper place, 
as a joint ; to put out of joint ; to dislo- 
cate. Lux, in a like sense, is, I believe, 
not now used. Encyc. 

LUX'ATED, pp. Put out of joint ; disloca- 

LUX'ATING, ppr. Removing or forcing 
out of its place, as a joint; dislocating. 

LUXA'TION, n. The act of moving or for- 
cing a joint from its proper place or artic- 
ulation ; or the state of being thus put out 
of joint. 
A dislocation ; that which is dislocated. 

LUXE, n. Luxury. [J^ot used.] 

LUXU'RIANCE, ? [h. luxurious, luxurio, 

LUXU'RIANCY, S to grow rank, or to 

. Rank growth ; strong, vigorotis growth ; 

Flowers grow up in the garden with the great- 
est luxuriancy and profusion. Spectator. 
'.. Excessive or superfluous growth. 

A fungus prevents healing only by its luxuri- 
ancy. Wiseman. 
LUXU'RIANT, a. Exuberant in growth; 
abundant; as a luxuriant growth of grass. 
. Exuberant in plenty ; superfluous ia 

Prune the luxuriant, the uncouth reiine. 


. A luxuriant flower multiplies the covers 

of the fructification so as to destroy the 

essential parts. Martyn. 

LUXURIANTLY, adv. With exuberant 


LUXU'RIATE, V. i. To grow exuberantly, 
or to grow to superfluous abundance. 

LUXURIA'TION, n. The process of grow- 
ing exuberantly, or beyond the natural 
growth. Lee. 

LUXU'RIOUS, a. [Fr. luxurieux; L. luxu- 
riosus, frotn, to loosen ; luxor, to 

1. Voluptuous ; indulging freely or excess- 
ively in the pleasures of the table, the 
gratification of appetite, or in rich and ex- 
pensive dress and equipage ; as a luxuri- 
ous life ; luxurious cities. 

2. Administering to luxury ; contributing to 
free or extravagant indulgence in diet, 
dress and equipage ; as luxuj-ious wealth. 


3. Furnished with luxuries ; as a lururious 

4. Softening by pleasure, or free indulgence 
in luxury ; as luxurious ease. 

5. Lustful ; libidinous ; given to the gratifi- 
cation of lust ; as a toiurtous bed. ■S'/iai. 

6. Lijsuriant; exuberant. 


M A C 


The work under oiir labor grows 

Luxuhows !)y restraint. [J\rot used.] MUton. 

LUXU'RIOUSLY, adv. In abundance of 

rich diet, dress or equipage ; deliciously ; 

voluptuously. Dryden. 

LUX'URIST, n. One given to luxury. 


LUX'URY, n. [L. lururia, from luxo, to 


1. A free or extravagant indulgence in the 
pleasures of the table, as in rich and ex- 
pensive diet, or delicious food and liquors ; 
voluptuousness in the gratification of ap- 
petite ; or the free indulgence in costly 
dress and equipage. 

Riches expose a man to pride and luxury. 


2. That which gratifies a nice and fastidious 
appetite ; a dainty; any delicious food or 
drink. The canvas-back duck is a lu.rury 
for an epicure. 

3. Any thing delightful to the senses. 

He cut the side of a rock for a garden, and 
by laying on it earth, furnished a kind of luxury 
for a hermit. Addlion 

4. Lust : lewd desire. [N'ot noio used.] 


5. Luxuriance ; exuberance of growth. [Abl 
710W used.] Bacon. 

LY, a termination of adjectives, is a con- 
traction of Sax. lie, G. lick, D. lyk, Dan. 
lige, Svv. lik, Eng. like ; as in lovely, manly, 
that is, love-like, man-like. As the termi- 
nation of names, ly signifies field or plain, 
Sax. leag, Eng. lay, lea or ley, L. locus. 

LY'AM, n. A leash for holding a hound. 


L\'€AN'THROP\', n. [Gr. >.i.xa.'9purt 
^vxoi, a wolf, and arSpurto;, man.] A kind 
of erratic melancholy. Coxe. 

LYCOS'TOM, n. A Baltic fish resetnbling 
a herring. 

LYD'IAN, a. [from Lydia.] Noting a kind 
of soft slow music anciently iu vogue. 


Lydian stone, flinty slate. Ure. 

LYE, n. [Sax. leak; G. lauge ; D. loog; 
Arm. iigeou or lichou ; Sp. leria ; Fr. les- 
sive ; L. Hi, whence lixivium. It coin- 
cides with Sax. loge, water ; Ant. L. lixa, 
whence Lugdunum, Leyden, Lyons, that is 

Water impregnated with alkaline salt im- 
bibed from the ashes of wood. 

LYE, n. A falsehood. [See Lie.] 

hY'lNG, ppr. o{ lie. Being prostrate. [Sec 

LY'ING, ppr. of lie. Telling falsehood. 

Lying in, being in childbirth. 

3. n. The act of bearing a child. 

LYM'NITE, n. A kind of freshwater snail 
found fossil. 

LYMPH, n. [L. lympha.] Water, or a col 
orless fluid in animal bodies, separated 
from the blood and contained in certain 
vessels called lymphatics. Encyc, 

LYMPH'ATE, \ Frightened into mad- 

LYMPH'ATED, S ness ; raving. 

LYMPHAT'lC, a. Pertaining to lymph. 

2. Enthusiastic. [JVot used.] Shaftsbury. 

LYMPHAT'I€, n. A vessel of animal bod- 
ies which contains or conveys lympli. 

The lymphatics seem to perform the whole 
business of absorption. Encyc. 

•2. A mad enthusiast ; a lunatic. [JVot used.] 

LYMPH'EDU€T, n. [L. lympha, lymph, 
and ductus, a duct.] 

A ves.sel of animal bodies which convey 
the lymph. 

LYMPHOG'RAPHY, n. [L. lympha, lymph, 
and Gr. ypa4)u, to describe.] 

A description of the lymphatic vessels, their 
origin and uses. Encyc. 

LYNX, n. [L. lynx; Gr. ?ioy| ; T). lochs; G 
luchs ; It. lince.] 

\ quadruped of the genus I'elife, resembling 
the common cat, but his ears are longer 
and his tail shorter. His hair is streaked 
with yellow, white and black colors. His 
air is sprightly; he howls like the wolf, 
and walks and leaps like a cat. This an- 
imal is celebrated for the sharpness of 
his sight. Encyc. 

LY'RATE, I [from lyre.] In botany, 

LY'RATED, I "■ divided transversely into 
several jags, the lower ones smaller and 
more remote from each other than the 
upper ones ; as a lyrate leaf. Martyn. 

LYRE, n. [Fr.lyre; L. lyra; Gr. ?ivpa; It. 
and Sp. lira; D. tier; G. leier.'] 

A stringed instrument of music, a kind of 
harp much used by the ancients. 

LYR'le, I [L. lyricus; Fr. lyrique.] 

LYR'ICAL, \ Pertaining to a lyre or ^.<T-E.Ho* 
harp. Lyric poetry is such as is sung to ''' ' -' 

the harp or lyre. This was much cultiva-< , 
ted by the ancients, among whom Anaq^' ' 
reon, Alcseus, Stesichorus, Sappho and 
Horace are distinguished as lyric poets. '. ' "• 

LYR'IC, «. A composer of lyric poems. \ >- 
Addison. \' 

LYR'ICISM, n. A lyric composition. '' 


LY'RIST, n. A musician who plays on the 
liarp or lyre. Pope. 

LYS, n. A Chinese measure of length, 
equal to 533 yards. Grosier. 

LYTE'RIAN, a. [Gr. ■Kvtrjfitos, from Xvu, to 

In medical science, terminating a disease; 
indicating the solution of a disease. 


LYTH'RODE, n. A mineral found in Nor- 
way ; its color, an aurora-red, passing into 
brownish red or brown. It appears to be 
allied to elaolite, or fettsteiu. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 

Lythrode is probably a variety of fettstein. 




JVI is the thirteenth letter of the English 
Alphabet, and a labial articulation, form 
cd by a compression of the lips. It is 
called a semi-vowel, as the articulation or 
compression of the lips is accompanied 
with a humming sound through the nose, 
which constitutes a difference between 
this letter and b. Its sound is uniform ; 
as in man, time, rim. 

M is a mime'ral letter, and among the 
cients stood for a thousand ; a use wliich 
is retained by the moderns. With a dash 
or stroke over it, M, it stands for a thou- 
sand times a thousand, or a million. 

As an abbreviation, M stands for Marc 
Martius, Manlius or Mutius. 

A. M. or IM. A. stands for artium magister, 
master of arts ; M. D. for medicina doc- 
tor, doctor of medicine ; A. M. for anno 

mundi, the year of the world ; MS. for 
manuscript ; MSS. for manuscripts. 

In astronomical tables, M stands for menW- 
ian, meridional, or mid-day. 

In medical prescriptions, M stands for man- 
iple, or handful, or misce, mix, or mixtura, 
a mixture. Encyc. 

In the late British Pharmacopteias it signi- 
fies mensurd, by measure. Parr. 

In law, M is a brand or stigma impressed on 
one convicted of manslaughter, and 
mitted to the benefit of clergy. 

MAB, n. [W. mah, a child.] In northern 
mythology, the queen of the imaginary 
beings called fairies. 

■3. A slattern. Ray. 

MAB, V. i. To dress negligently. Ray, 

MAC, in names of Scotch and Irish origin, 
signifies son. [See MaidL] 

MACARO'NI, n. [It. maccheroni, a sort of 
paste ; Fr. macaroni ; Gr. luaatop, hapjjy.] 

1 . A kind of biscuit made of flour, eggs, su- 
gar and almonds, and dressed with but- 
ter and spices. B. Jonson. 

2. A sort of droll or fool, and hence, a fop ; 
a fribble ; a finical fellow. 

MA€ARONT€, a. Pertaining to or like a 
macaroni ; empty ; trifling; vain;afiect- 

2. Consisting of a mixture or jumble of ill 
formed or ill connected words. 

MA€ARONTC, n. A kind of burlesque 
])Oetry, in which native words are made 
to end in Latin terminations, or Latin 
words are modernized. Jones. Encyc. 

MACAROON, the same as macaroni. 

MACAU'CO, n. A name of several species 
of quadrupeds of the genus Lemur. 



31 A C 


M A€ A W, > The name of a race of beau- 
MACA'O, I"' tiful fowls of the parrot kind, 
under the genus Psittacus. 

Did. J^at. Hist. 
MA€AW'-TREE,n. A species of palm tree. 
MA€'eABEES, n. The name of two apoc- 
ryphal books in the Bible. 
MAC'€OBOY, n. A kind of snuflF. 
MACE, ?i. [It. mazza, Sp. maza, Port, maca, 

Fr. masse, a club.] 
An ensign of authority borne before magis- 
trates. Originally, the mace was a club 
or instrument of war, made of iron and 
much used by cavalry. It was in the 
shape of a coffee mill. Being no longer 
a weapon of war, its form is changed ; 
it is made of silver or copper gilt, and or- 
namented with a crown, globe and cross. 
A leaden mace. Shall. 

A heavy iron 7nace. Knolles. 

MACE, n. [L. macis.'] A spice ; the second 
coat which covers the nutmeg, a thin and 
membranaceous substance of an oleagi- 
nous nature and yellowish color, being in 
flakes divided into many ramifications ; it 
is extremely fragrant and aromatic. 

MA'CE-ALE, n. Ale spiced with mace. 

MA'CE-BEARER,n. A person who carries 
a mace before men in authority. 

MACERATE, v. t. [L. macero, from macer, 
thin, lean ; maceo, to be thin or lean ; Fr. 
maigre ; Eng. meager ; It. macro ; Sp. ma- 
gro ; probably allied to Eng. meek, Ch. 
■jKO mak. Class Mg. No. 2. and 9.] 

1. To make lean ; to wear away. Harvey. 

2. To mortify ; to harass with corporea" 
hardships ; to cause to pine or waste 

Out of excessive zeal they macerate their 
bodies and impair their health. Fiddes. 

3. To steep almost to solution ; to soften 
and separate the parts of a substance by 
steeping it in a fluid, or by the digestive 
process. So we say, food is macerated it 
the stomach. 

MACERATED, pp. Made thin or lean 

steeped almost to solution. 
MACERATING, ppr. Making lean : steep 

ing almost to solution ; softening. 
MACERA'TION, n. The act or the procesi 
of making thin or lean by wearing away 
or by mortification. 
2. The act, process or operation of soft- 
ening and almost dissolving by steeping ' 
a fluid. 

The saliva serves for the maceration and di 

solution of the meat into chyle. Say 

MACE-REED, orREED-MACE, Ji. A plant 

of the genus Typha. 
MACHIAVE'LIAN, a. [from Machiavel, 
an Italian writer, secretary and histori 
ographer to the republic of Florence.] 
Pertaining to Machiavel, or denoting his 
principles ; politically cunning ; crafty ; 
cunniii;; in politii-al management. 
MACIIIAVF. I,IA\, „. One who adopts the 

principles of Machiavel. 
MACII lAVELIS.M, 71. The principles of 
Machiavel, or practice in conformity 
them; political cunning and artifice, 
tended to favor arbitrary power. Cyc. 

MACHI€0L A'TION, n. [Fr. meche, a match; 
and couler, to flow.] 

In old castles, the pouring of hot substances 
through apertures in the upper part of the 
gate upon assailants ; or the apertures 
themselves. Cyc 

MA€H'INAL, a. [See Machiyie.] Pertain- 
ing to machines. Diet 

MA€H'INATE, v.t. [L. macftinor, from Gr 
ixaxava or nrjx<'^'''l.] To plan ; to contrive 
to form a scheme. Sandys. 

MACHINATED, pp. Planned ; contrived. 

MA€H'INATING,;?;)r. Contriving ; schem- 

MACHINATION, n. [Fr. See Maclmie.] 
The act of planning or contriving a 
scheme for executing some purpose, par- 
ticularly an evil purpose ; an artful design 
formed with deliberation. Shak. 

MACH'INATOR, n. One that forms a 
scheme, or who plots with evil designs. 


MACHINE, n. [Fr. from L. jnacMna.] An 
artificial work, simple or complicated, that 
serves to apply or regulate moving power, 
or to produce motion, so as to save time 
or force. The simple machines are tl 
six mechanical powers, viz. ; the lever, 
the pulley, the axis and wheel, the wedge, 
the screw, and the inclined plane. Com- 
plicated machines are such as combine 
two or more of these powers for the pro- 
duction of motion or force. Encyc, 

2. An engine ; an instrument of force. 
With inward arms the dire machine they load 


3. Supernatural agency in a poem, or a su- 
perhuman being introduced into a poem 
to perform some exploit. Pope 

MACHINERY, n. A complicated work, 
or combination of mechanical powers in a 
work, designed to increase, regulate or 
apply motion and force ; as the machinery 
of a watch or other chronomoter. 
2. Machines in general. The machinery of 
a cotton-mill is often moved by a single 
J. In epic and dramatic poetry, superl 
beings introduced by the poet to solve 
difficulty, or perform some exploit which 
exceeds human power ; or the word may 
signify the agency of such beings, as sup- 
posed deities, angels, demons and the like. 
Nee Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incidit. Horace. 

A deity is not to be introduced, unless a 
diflSculty occurs that requires the inter- 
vention of a god. 

The machinery oiW\\lon''s Paradise Lost, 
consists of numerous superhuman person 
ages. Pope's Rape of the Lock is render- 
ed very interesting by the machinery of 
MACHINING, a. Denoting the machinery 
of a poem. [JVo< Mscrf.] Dryden. 

MACHINIST, »!. [Fr. machaniste.] A con 
structor of machines and engines, or one 
well versed in the principles of machines. 
MACIG'NO, n. [It.] A species of stone of 
two varieties, one of a grayish yellow 
color, the other of a bluish gray color. 

MAC'ILENCY, n. [See Macilent.] Lean- 

MAC'ILENT. a. [L.macilentus,(tommace,; 
lean, thin. See Macerate.] Lean ; thin ; 
having little flesh. 

MACK'EREL, n. [D. mackreel ; G. mack- 
rele ; Fr. maquereau ; Ir. mackreil ; W, 
macrell ; from the root of L. macula, a 
spot; the spotted fish. So in British, it is 
called brithilh. Arm. hresell, for the like 

A species of fish of the genus Scomber, an 
excellent table fish. 

MACK'EREL, n. [Old Fr. maquerel.] A 
pander or pimp. 

Mackerel-gale, in Dryden, may mean a 
a gate that ripples the surface of the sea. 
or one which is suitable for catchijig mack- 
erel, as this fish is caught with the bait in 

MACKEREL-SKY, n. A sky streaked or 
marked like a mackerel. Hooke. 

MAC'LE, n. A name given to chiastolite or 
hollow spar. Cyc. 

MACLU'RITE, n. A mineral of a brilliant 
pale green color, so called in honor of 
Maclure, the mineralogist. JVutlall. 

MACROCOSM, n. [Gr. fiaxpoj, great, and 
osfxoi, world.] 

The great world ; the universe, or the visi- 
ble system of worlds ; opposed to micro- 
cosm, or the world of man. Encyc. 

MACROL'OGY, n. [Gr. juaxpoj, great, and 
Xoyo;, discourse.] 

Long and tedious talk ; prolonged discourse 
without matter ; superfluity of words. 


MACTA'TION, n. [L. maeto, to kill.] The 
act of killing a victim for sacrifice. 


MACULA, n. [L.] A spot, as on the skin, 
or on the surface of the sun or other lu- 
minous orb. 

MACULATE, v.t. [L. maculo.] To spot; 
to stain. Elyot. 

MACULATE, > «!„„„„j 

MACULATED, \ "■ Spotted. 

MACULA'TION, n. The act of spotting ; a 
spot; a stain. Shak. 

MACULE, n. A spot, [supra.] {Uttle used:\ 

MAD, a. [Sax. gemaad ; h: amad ; It. matto, 
mad, foolish ; mattone, a brick, and an ar- 
rant fool ; matteria and mattezza, foolish- 
ness ; ammattire, to become distracted.] 

1. Disordered in intellect ; distracted ; furi- 

We must bind our passions in chains, lest like 
mad folks, they break their locks and bolts. 


2. Proceeding from disordered intellect or 
expressing it ; as a mad demeanor. 


3. Enraged ; furious ; as a mad bull. 
And being exceedingly mad against them, I 

persecuted them, even to strange cities. Acts 

4. Inflamed to excess with desire ; excited 
with violent and unreasonable passion or 
appetite ; infatuated ; followed properly 
by ajler. 

The world is running mad after farce, the 
extremity of bad poetry. Dryden. 

" Mad upon their idols," would be bet- 
ter rendered, " Mad after their idols." 
Jer. 1. 

5. Distracted with anxiety or trouble ; ex- 
tremely perplexed. 



M A G 

Thou shall be 7nad for the sight of thine eye 
Deut. xxviii. 

6. Infatuated with folly. 

The spiritual man is mad. Hos. ix. 

7. luflamed with anger ; very angry. [Tins 
is a common and perhaps the most general 
sense of the word in America. II is thus 
used by Arbuthnut, and is perfectly proper.] 

8. Proceeding from folly or infatuation. 

JWarf wars destroy in one year the worlis ol 
many years of peace. Franklin, 

MAD, V. t. To make mad, furious or angry, 

ftl.AD, t'. i. To be mad, furious or wild. 

mckliffe. Spenser. 

MAD, J [Sax. Goth, matha!] An earth- 

3IADE, I "■ worm. [But this is the Eng, 
moth.] Ray, 

MAD'AM, n. [Fr. 7na, my, and dame.] An 
appellation or complimentary title given 
to married and elderly ladies, or chiefly to 

MAD'APPLE, n. A plant of the genus So 

MAD'BRAIN, ) „ Disordered in mind ; 

MADBRAINED, < "• hot-headed ; rash. 


MAD'€AP, a. [mad-caput or cap.] A vio- 
lent, rash, hot-headed person ; a madman 

MAD'DEN, V. t. mad'n. To make mad. 


MAD'DEN, V. i. To become mad ; to act 
as if mad. 

They rave, recite and madden round the land. 

MADDENED, pp. Rendered mad. 

MAD'DENING, ppr. ftlaking mad or an- 

MAD'DER, n. [Sax. mceddere.'] A plant of 
the genus Rubia, one species of which is 
much used in dyeing red. The root ii 
used in medicine as an aperient and de 
tergent, and is in great reputation as ai 
emmenagogue. It is cultivated in France 
and Holland. Encyc. Hill. 

MAD'DING, ppr. of mad. Raging; furious 
Milton. Di-yden 

MADE, pret. and pp. of make. 

MADEFAC'TION, n. [L. madefacio.] The 
act of making wet. 

MAD'EFIED, ;)p. Made wet. Bacon 

MAD'EFY, V. t. [h. madefio.] To make wet 
or moist ; to moisten. [JVot much used.] 

MAD'EFYING, ppr. Making moist or wet 

MADEIRA, n. A rich wine made on the 
isle of Madeira. 

MADEMOISELLE, n. [Fr. ma, my, and 
demoiselle, damsel. See Damsel.] 

A young woman, or the title given to one ; 
miss ; also, the puppet sent from the Frencli 
metropolis to exhibit the prevaihng fasl; 
ions. Spectator. 

MAD'HEADED, n. Hot brained; rash. 


MAD'IIOUSE, n. A house where insane 
persons are confined for cure or for re- 

MAD'ID, a. [L. madidus.] Wet ; moist. 
[jYot in use.] 

MAD'LY, adv. [from mad.] Without rea- 
son or understanding ; rashly ; wildly. 

2. With extreme folly or infatuated zeal oi 

MAD'MAN, n. A man raving or furious 
with disordered intellect ; a distracted 

2. A man without understanding. 

3. One inflamed with extravagant passion, 
and acting contrary to reason. 

MAD'NESS, n. [from viad.] Distraction; 

a state of disordered reason or intellect, 

in which the patient raves or is furious. 

There are degrees of madness as of folly. 


2. Extreme folly ; headstrong passion and 
rashness that act in opposition to reason ; 
as the madness of a mob. 

3. Wildness of passion ; fury ; rage ; as the 
madness of despair. 

MADO'NA, ? [Sp. madona, It. madon- 

MADON'NA, $"• no, my lady.] A term 
of compellation equivalent to madam. It 
is given to the virgin Mary. 

MAD'REPORE, n. [Fr. madre, spotted, and 

A submarine substance of a stony hardness, 
resembling coral. It consists of carbonate 
of lime with some animal matter. It is of 
a white color, wrinkled on the surface, and 
full of cavities or cells, inhabited by a 
small animal. From a Uquor discharged 
by this animal, the substance is said to be 
formed. Madrepores constitute a genus 
of polypiers, of variable forms, always 
garnished with radiated plates. 

Encyc. Diet. JVat. Hist. 

MAD'REPORITE, n. A name given to 
certain petrified bones found in Normandy, 
in France, belonging to a cetaceous fish 
or to a species of crocodile. These bones 
contain many little brown lines in zigzag, 
resembling entangled threads. They have 
none of the properties of madrepore. 

Diet. JYat. Hist. 

MAD'REPORITE, n. A variety of lime- 
stone, so called on account of its occurring 
ill radiated prismatic concretions resem- 
bling the stars of madrepores. When 
rubbed, it emits the smell of sulphureted 
hydrogen gas. 

2. Fossil madrepore. 

MADRIE'R, )i. [Fr.] A thick plank armed 
with iron plates, with a cavity to receive 
the mouth of a petard, with which it is ap- 
])lied to any thing intended to be broken 
down ; also, a plank used for supporting 
the earth in mines. Chambers. Bailey. 

MADRIGAL, n. [Sp. Port. Fr. id.; It. 
madiigale. Its origin is not ascertained.] 
. A little amorous poem, sometimes called 
a pastoral poem, containing a certain 
number of free unequal verses, not confi- 
ned to the scrupulous regularity of a son- 
net or the subtilty of the epigram, but con- 
taining some tender and delicate, though 
simple thought, suitably expressed. Cyc. 

2. An elaborate vocal composition in five or 
six parts. Busby. 

MAD'WORT, n. A plant of the genus 

MjESTO'SO, an Italian word signifying 
majestic, a direction in music to play the 
part with grandeur and strength. 

MAF'FLE, v.i. To stammer. [Mot in use.] 

MAGAZINE, n. [Fr.magazin; It. magaz- 
zino ; Sp. magacen and almacen ; Port. 

almazem or armazem ; from Ar. 


gazana, to deposit or lay up for preserva- 

tion. This word is formed with the She- 
initic prefix m.] 

1. A stoi'e of arms, ammunition or provis- 
ions; or the building in which such store 
is deposited. It is usually a public store 
or storehouse. 

2. In ships of war, a close room in the hold, 
where the gunpowder is kept. Large 
ships have usually two magazines. 

Mar. Diet. 

3. A pampldet periodically published, con- 
taining miscellaneous papers or composi- 
tions. The first publication of this kind 
in England, was the Gentleman''s Mag- 
azine, which first appeared in 1731, under 
the name of Sylvanus Urban, by Edward 
Cave, and which is still continued. 

MAGAZiNER, ji. One who writes for a 
magazine. [Little used.] 


MAgE, ji. A magician. [JVot used.] 


Magellanic clouds, wiiitish clouds, or appear- 
ances like clouds near the south pole, 
which revolve like the stars ; so called 
from Magellan, the navigator. They are 
three in number. Cyc. 

MAG'GOT, n. [W. macai, plu. maceiod, 
magiod, a maggot or grub, from magu, to 

1. A worm or grub ; particularly, the fly- 
worm, from the egg of the large blue or 
green fly. This maggot changes into a 


2. A whim ; an odd fancy. 
MAGGOTY, a. Full of maggots. 
MAGGOTY-HEADED, a. Having a head 

full of whims. L. of fVood. 

MA'Gl, n. plu. [L.] Wise men or philoso- 
phers of the East. Fotherby. 

MA'6IAN, a. [L. magus ; Gr. luayog.] Per- 
taining to the Magi, a sect of philos- 
ophers in Persia. 

MA'GlAN, n. One of the sect of the Per- 
sian Magi, who hold that there are two 
principles, one the cause of good, the oth- 
er of evil. The knowledge of these phi- 
losophers was deemed by the vulgar to be 
supernatural. Encyc. 

MA'GIANISM, n. The philosophy or doc- 
trines of the Magi. 

MAG'IC, ji. [L. magia ; Gr. nayiia, from 
^ayo5, a philosopher among the Persians.] 

1. The art or science of putting into action 
the power of spirits ; or the science of 
producing wonderful efiects by the aid of 
superhuman beings, or of departed spirits ; 
sorcery ; enchantment. [This art or sci- 
ence is now discarded.] 

2. The secret operations of natural causes. 

JVatural magic, the application of natural 
causes to passive subjects, by which sur- 
prising effects are produced. Encyc. 

Celestial magic, attributes to spirits a kind 
of dominion over the planets, and to the 
planets an influence over men. 

Superstitious or geotic magic, consists in the 
invocation of devils or demons, and sup- 
poses some tacit or express agreement be- 
tween them and human beings. Encyc. 

Magic square, a square figure, formed by a 
series of numbers in mathematical propor- 
tion, so disposed in parallel and equal 

M A G 

ranks, as that the sums of each row or line 
taken perpendicularly, horizontally, or 
diagonally, are equal. Encyc. 

Magic lantern, a dioptric machine invented 
by Kircher, which, by means of a lamp in 
a dark room, exhibits images of objects in 
their distinct colors and proportions, with 
the appearance of life itself. Encyc. 

MAG'IC, I Pertaining to magic ; used 

MAG'1€AL, S "■ in magic ; as a magic wand : 
magic art. 

2. Performed by magic, the agency of spirits, 
or by the invisible powers of nature ; as 
magical effects. 

MAG'ICALLY, adv. By the arts of magic: 
according to the rules or rites of magic ; 
by enchantment. Camden. 

MAgP'CIAN, n. One skilled in magic ; one 
that practices the black art ; an enchant 
er ; a necromancer ; a sorcerer or sorcer 
ess. Locke. Waller. 

MAGISTE'RIAL, a. [See Magistrate.'] Per- 
taining to a master; such as suits a mas- 
ter ; authoritative. Dryden 

2. Proud ; lofty ; arrogant ; imperious ; dom- 

Pretenses go a great way with men that tak< 
fair words and magisterial looks for curren 
payment. L'Estrange 

3. In chimistry, pertaining to magistery, 
which see. 

MAGISTE'RIALLY, adv. With the air of 
a master ; arrogantly ; authoritatively. 

Bacon. South 

MAGISTE'RIALNESS, n. The air ant 

manuer of a master ; haughtiness ; impe 

riousness ; peremptoriness. JVelson. 

MA6'ISTERY,n. [h.magistcrium.] Among 

chimists, a precipitate ; a fine substance 

deposited by precipitation ; usually appl 

ed to particular kinds of precipitate, a» 

that of bismuth, coal, crab's eyes, sulphur, 

&c. Ob.i. Encyc. 

MAG'ISTRACY, n. [8ee Magistrate.] The 

office or dignity of a magistrate. 

Duelling is not only an usurpation of the di- 
vine prerogative, but it is an insult upon magis- 
tracy. Clarissa. 
2. The body of magistrates. 
MAG'ISTRAL, a. Suiting a magistrate ; 

authoritative. Obs. 
MAG'ISTRAL, n. A sovereign medicine or 

remedy. Obs. 
MAgISTRAL'ITY, n. Despotic authority 
in opinion. Obs. Bacon. 

MAG'ISTRALLY, adv. Authoritatively; 
with imperiousness. Obs. Bramhall. 

MAG'ISTRATE, n. [L. magistratus, frotn 
magister, master ; magis, major, and ster, 
Teutonic steora, a director; steoran, to 
steer ; tlie principal director.] 
A public civil officer, invested with the ex- 
ecutive government or some branch of it, 
In this sense, a king is the highest or first 
magistrate, as is the President of the Uni- 
ted States. But the word is more par- 
ticularly applied to subordinate officers, 
as governors, intendants, prefects, mayors, 
justices of the peace, and the like. 

The magistrate must have his reverence: 

the laws their authority. Surke. 

MAftlSTRAT'IC, a. Having the authority 

„fan,aL'iMrate. Taylor 

IMACi'lSTIlATURE, n. [Vi:] Magistracy 

[Little xised.] 


MAGNA €HARTA, n. [L .great charter.] 

1. The great charter, so called, obtained by 
the English barons from king John, A. D. 
1215. This name is also given to the char- 
ter granted to the people of England in 
the ninth year of Henry III. and confirmed 
by Edward I. 

2. A fundamental constitution which guar- 

anj,ees rights and privilege: 

iiitas ; 

MAGNANIMITY, n. ^lu. mag. 
magnus, great, and ammus, mind 

Greatness of mind ; that elevation or digni- 
ty of soul, which encounters danger and 
trouble with tranquillity and firmness, 
which raises the possessor above revenge, 
and makes him delight in acts of benevo- 
lence, which makes him disdain injustice 
and meanness, and prompts him to sacri- 
fice personal ease, interest and safety for 
the accomplishment of useful and noble 

RIAGNAN'IMOUS, a. [L. magnaniinus.] 
Great of mind ; elevated in soul or in sen- 
timent ; brave ; disinterested ; as a mag- 
nanimous prince or general. 
Dictated by magnanimity ; exhibiting no- 
bleness of soul ; liberal and honorable ; 
not selfish. 

There is an indissoluble union between a 
magnanimous policy and the solid rewards ol 
public prosperity and felicity. Washington. 

MAGNANIMOUSLY, adv. With greatness 
of mind ; bravely ; with dignity and eleva 
tion of sentiment. Milton 

MAGNE'SIA, n. s as z. [Fr. magnesie. Qu 
from Magnesia, the place where first 
found. Lunier says, from Gr. naypr/s, tl 
lodestone ; but the reason he does not 

A primitive earth, having for its base a ir 
tallic substance, called magnesium. It 
generally found in combination with other 
substances. It is absorbent and antacid, 
and moderately cathartic. Ure. 

MAGNE'SIAN, a. Pertaining to magnesia, 
or partaking of its qualities. 

MAG'NESITE, n. Carbonated magnesia, 
or magnesia combined with silex. It oc 
curs in amorphous masses, or in masses 
tuberous and spungiform ; its color is yel 
lowish gray, or white with spots, and den 
dritic delineations of blackish brown. 

Haiiy. Cyc. 

MAGNE'SIUM, n. The undecomposablc 
base of magnesia. 

MAG'NET, n. [L. from Gr. luoyiijs, from 
Magnesia, in Asia Minor.] 

The lodestone ; an ore of iron which has 
the peculiar properties of attracting metal 
lie iron, of pointing to the poles, and of 
dipping or inclining downwards. These 
properties it communicates to iron by con 
tact. A bar of iron to which these prop- 
erties are imparted, is called an artificial 
magnet. Encyc. 

MAGNET'le, ? Pertaining to the 

MAGNET'ICAL, \ magnet; possess 
ing the properties of the magnet, or cor 
responding properties ; as a magnetic bar 
of iron, or a magnetic needle. 

2. Attractive. 

She that had all magnetic force alone — 


MAGNET' ICALLY, adv. By means of| 
magnetism; by the power of attraction. 


MAGNET'ICALNESS, n. The quality of 

being magnetic. 
MAGNET'I€S, n. The science or princi- 
ples of magnetism. 
MAGNETIF'EROUS, a. Producing or con- 
ducting magnetism. Jottrn. of Science. 
MAG'NETISM, n. That branch of science 
which treats of the properties of the mag- 
net, the power of the lodestone, &c. 
Power of attraction; as the magnetism of 
interest. Glanville. 
Animal magnetism, a sympathy supposed to 
exist between the magnet and the human 
body, by means of which the magnet is 
said to be able to cure diseases ; or a fluid 
supposed to exist throughout nature, and 
to be the medium of influence between 
celestial bodies, and the earth and human 
MAGNETIZE, v. t. To communicate mag- 
netic properties to any thing ; as, to mag- 
netize a needle. 

Seveo of Deslon's patients were magnetized 
at Dr. Franklin's house. Encyc. 

MAG'NETIZE, v. i. To acquire magnetic 
properties ; to become magnetic. A bar 
of iron standing some time in an inclined 
position, will magnetize. 
MAG'NETIZED, pp. Made magnetic. 
MAG'NETIZING,;?;}r. Imparting magnet- 
ism to. 
MAG'NIFIABLE, a. [See Magnify:] That 
may be magnified; worthy of being mag- 
nified or extolled. Brown. 
MAGNIF'le, In v: i 
MAGNIF'IGAL, \ "■ t^- magnificus.] 
Gi-and; splendid; illustrious. Milton. 
MAGNIF'I€ATE, v. t. To magnify or ex- 
[JVot tised.] Marston. 
MAGNIF'ICEN€E, n. [L. magnificenlia.] 
Grandeur of appearance ; greatness and 
splendor of show or state; as the magnifi- 
cence of a palace or of a procession; the 
magnificence of a Roman triumph. 
MAGNIP'ICENT, a. Grand in appearance ; 
splendid ; pompous. 

Man he made, and for him built 
Magnificent this world. Milton. 

2. Exhibiting grandeur. Sidney. 

MAGNIF'ICENTLY, adv. With splendor 
of appearance, or pomp of show. The 
minister was magnificently entertained at 
2. With exalted sentiments. We can never 
conceive too magnificently of the Creator 
and his works. 
MAGNIF'I€0, ji. A grandee of Venice. 

MAG'NIFIER, n. [from magnify.] One 

who magnifies ; one who extols or exalts 

in praises. 
2. A glass that magnifies; a convex lens 

which increases the apparent magnitude 

of bodies. 
MAGNIFY, V. t. [L. magnifico ; magnus, 

great, and /ncio, to make.] 

1. To make great or greater ; to increase the 
apparent dimensions of a body. A con- 
vex lens magnifies the bulk of a body to 
the eye. 

2. To make great in representation ; to ex- 
tol ; to exalt in description or praise. The 
embassador magnified the king and queen. 

•3. To extol; to exalt; to elevate; to raise 
in estimation. 

M A I 



Thee that day 
I'hy thunders magnified. Aniton. 

The Lord magnijied Solomon exceedingly. 
1 Cliron. xxix. 
To magnify one''s self, to raise in pride and 

He shall magnify himself in his heart. Dan. 

3IAG'N1FYING, ppr. Enlarging apparent 
bulk or ditnensions ; extolling ; e.xalting. 

MAGNIL'OQUENCE, n. [L. magnvs,greai, 
and loquens, speaking.] 

A lofty manner of speaking; tumid, pomp- 
ous words or style. Bentley. 

MAG'NITUDE, n. [L. mag^iiludo.] Extent 
of dimensions or parts; bulk; size; ap- 
plied to tilings that have length, breadth or 

2. Greatness; grandeur. 

With plain heroic magnitude of mind. 


3. Greatness, in reference to influence or ef- 
fect; importance. In affairs o( magni- 
tude, disdain not to take counsel. 

MAGNO'LIA, n. Tbe laurel-leafed tulip- 
tree, of several species. 

MAG'PIE, n. [W.piog, L. pica, whh mag.] 
A chattering bird of the genus Corvus. 

MAG'UEY, n. A species of aloe in Mexico, 
which furnished the natives with timber 
for their buildings. Its leaves were used 
for covering the roofs of their houses, and 
for paper, clothing and cordage. Encyc 

The maguey is aspeciesof the genus Agave 
and is now cultivated in Mexico, for the 
purpose of preparing from its leaves 
spirituous liquor called pulque. 


MAHOG'ANY, n. A tree of the genus 
Swietenia, growing in the tropical cli 
mates of America. The wood is of a red 
dish or brown color, very hard, and sus 
ceptible of a fine polisli. Of this are made! 
our most beautiful and durable pieces of 
cabinet furniture. 

MAHOM'ETAN, ) This word and the 

MOHAM'MEDAN. I name of the Ara 
bian prophet, so called, are written ii 
many different ways. The best authori 
zed and most correct orthography seems 
to be Mohammed, Mohammedan. [See 

MA'HOUND, n. Formerly a contemptuous 
name for Jlohammed and the devil, &c. 

MAID, n. A species of skate fish. 
iVIAID, ) ^ [Sax. ma:gth, from ma-g, a 
MA'IDEN, ^ ■ general name of relation, 
man, boy, or woman; Gotli. magath; D. 
maagd ; G. magd ; Ir. mogh, a man ; Sp. 
m.ozo, a man-servant, a bachelor ; moza, t 
maid ; Port, macho, a male ; Russ. inuj 
It coincides in elements with Sax. magan, 
to be able, Eng. may.] 

1. An unmarried woman, or a young un- 
married woman ; a virgin. 

2. A female servant. Dryden. 

3. It is used in composition, to express the 
feminine gender, as in maid-servant. 

iNIATDEN, n. A maid ; also, an instrument 
for beheading criminals, and another for 
washing linen. 

MA'IDEN, a. Pertaining to a young woman 
or virgin ; as maiden charms. 

2. Consisting of young women or virgins. 
Amid the maiden throng. ..Addison 

Vol. II. 

3. Fresh ; new ; unused. 

He fleshed his maiden sword. Shak. 

MA'IDEN, V. i. To speak and act demurely 

or modestly. Bp. Hall. 

MA'IDENHAIR, n. A plant of the genus 

MA'IDENHOQD, n. [Sax. mwgdenhad, 


1. The state of being a maid or virgin; vir- 

Tlie modest lore of maidenhood. Milton 

2. Newness ; freshness ; uncontaminated 
state. Shak. 

MA'IDENLIKE, a. Like a maid ; modest. 

MA'IDENLINESS, n. The behavior that 
becomes a maid ; modesty ; gentleness. 

MA'IDENLIP, n. A plant. Ainsworth. 

MA'IDENLY, a. Like a maid; gentle 
modest ; reserved. Shak 

MA'IDENLY, adv. In a maidenlike man 
ner. Skelton. 

MA'IDHOOD, ji. Virginity. Shak. 

MAIDMAR'IAN, «. A dance; so called 

from a buffoon dressed like a man. Obs. 


MA'IDPALE, a. Pale, like a sick girl. 


MA'ID-SERVANT, n. A female servant. 

MAIL, n. [Fr. mai'Wf, a stitch in knitting, a 
mail ; Sp. malla, a mesh, net-work, a coat 
of mail ; Poit. id. and a spot ; It. maglia 
amlcamaglio; Arm. mailh; V.maal; W. 
magyl, a knot, a mesh : maglu, to knit, to 
entangle, to entrap, to form meshes. Th 
sense of spot, which occurs in the French 
and Portuguese, indicates this word to be 
from the root of L. macida, and the Welsh 
words prove it to be contracted from 

1. A coat of steel net-work, formerly worn 
for defending the body against swords, 
poniards, &c. The ma'il was of two sorts, 
chain and plate mail ; the former consist 
ing of iron rings, each having four others 
inserted into it ; the latter consisting of a 
number of small lamins of metal, laid over 
one another like the scales of a fish, and 
sewed down to a strong linen or lethern 
jacket. Cyc 

2. Armor; that which defends the body. 

We strip the lobster of his scarlet mail. 

We read also of shirts of mail, and gloves 
of mail. 

In ships, a square machine cotnposed of 
rings interwoven, like net-work, used for 
rubbing off the loose hemp on lines and 
white cordage. 
4. A rent. [Sax. mal] Also, a spot. 06*. 
MAIL, n. [Fr. malette ; Ir. mala ; Fr. malle ; 

Arm. mal] 
A bag for the conveyance of letters and pa- 
pers, particularly letters conveyed from 
one post office to another, under public 
MAIL, !'. t. To put on a coat of mail or ar- 
to arm defensively. Shak. 

2. To inclose in a wrapper and direct to a 
post oflice. We say, letters were mailed 
for Philadelphia. 
MA'IL-€OACH, n. A coach that conveys 
the public mails. 


[MA'ILED, /)p. Covered with a mail or with 
I ainior; inclosed and directed, as letters in 
! a bundle. 

12. a. Spotted; speckled. Sherwood. 
jMA'ILING, ppr. Investing with a coat of 

mail ; inclosing in a wrapper and direct- 

I ing to a post olfice. 

jMAIM, V. t. [Old Fr. mahemer or mahaigner : 

I Arm. mahaigna, 7nahagnein.] 

1. To deprive of the use of a limb, so as to 

I render a person less able to defend himself 
in fighting, or to annoy his adversary. 

I Blackstonc. 

|2. To deprive of a necessary part; to crip- 
ple ; to disable. 

Vou maim'd the jurisdiction of all bishops. 

I Shak. 

jMAIM, n. [written in law-language, may- 

1. The privation of the useof a limb or mem- 
ber of the body, so as to render the suffer- 

I er less able to defend himself or to annoy 
his adversary. 

2. The privation of any necessary part ; a 
1 crippling. 

! Surely there is more cause to fear lest the 

j want thereof be a maim, than the use of it a 

blemish. Hooker. 

13. Injury ; mischief Shak. 
|4. Essential defect. 

! A noble author esteems it to be a maim in 

: history. ^JVot vsed.'] Hayward. 

MA'IM£D,;7p. Crippled; disabled in limbs; 


MA'IMING, ppr. Disabling by depriving of 
the use of a limb ; crippling ; rendering 
lame or defective. 

MA'IMEDNESS, n. A state of being 
maimed. Bolton. 

MAIN, a. [Sax. mcegn, strength, force, pow- 
er, from magan, to be able or strong, that 
is, to strain or stretch, Eng. may, might. 
If g is radical in the L. magnus, this may 
be of the same family ; Goth, mickels; 
Eng. much.] 

1. Principal ; chief; that which has most 
power in producing an effect, or which is 
mostly regarded in prospect ; as the main 
branch or tributary stream of a river; the 
main timbers of an edifice ; a main de- 
sign ; a main object. 

Our main interest is to be as happv as we can, 
and as long as possible. " Tillotson. 

3. Mighty ; vast ; as the main abyss. 

I , Milt07l. 

3. Imi)ortant; powerful. 

This young prince, with a train of young no- 
blemen and gendemen, not with any mom army, 
came over to take possession of his patrimony. 
MAIN, n. Strength ; force ; violent effort ; 
as in the phrase, " with might and main." 

2. The gross; the bulk; the greater part. 
The mom of them may he reduced to lan- 
guage and an improvement in wisdom — 

3. The ocean ; the great sea, as distinguish- 
ed from rivers, bays, sounds and the like. 

He fell, and struggling in the maiii— 

. Dryden. 

4. 1 he continent, as distinguished from an 
isle. We arrived at Nantucket on Satur- 
day, but did not reach the main till Mon- 
day. In this use of the word, land is omit- 
ted ; main for main land. 

5. A hamper. .linsworth. 

M A I 


M A J 

6. A course ; a duct. Jld of Parliament. 

For the main, in the main, for the most part 
in the greatest part. 

MAIN, 11. [L. manus, hand ; Fr. main.] A 

hand at dice. We throw a merry main 

And lucky mains make people wise. [JVoi 

used.'i Prior. 

2. A match at cock fighting. 

MA'IN-LAND, n. Tlie continent ; the princi- 
pal land, as opposed to an isle. Dnjden. 

MA'INLY, adv. Chiefly ; principally. He 
is mainly occupied with domestic con- 

2. Greatly; to a great degree ; mightily. 


MA'IN-MAST, n. The principal mast in a 
ship or other vessel. 

MA'IN-KEEL, n. The principal keel 
distinguished from the false keel. 

MA'INOR, n. [Old Fr. manoevre, meinour, 
L. a manu, from the hand, or in the work.] 

The old law phrase, to be taken as a thief with 
the mainor, signifies, to be taken in the very 
act of killing venison or stealing wood, or 
in preparing so to do ; or it denotes the 
being taken with the thing stolen upon 
him. Blackstone. 

MAINPERNABLE, a. That may be ad- 
mitted to give surety by mainpernors ; that 
may' be mainprized. 

MAINPERN'OR, n. [Old Fr. main, the 
hand, aud prendre, to take ; pernon, pernez 
for prenon, prenez.] 

In law, a surety for a prisoner's appearance 
in court at a day. Mainpernors differ from 
bail, in that a man's bail may imprison or 
surrender him before the stipulated day of 
appearance ; mainpernors can do neitli 
they are bound to produce him to answer 
all charges whatsoever. Blaekslon 

MA'INPRIZE, n. [Fr. main, hand, and 
prendre, pris, to take.] 

1. In taiv, a writ directed to tlie sheriff', coi 
manding him to take sureties for the pr 
oner's appearance, and to let him go 
large. These sureties are called mat 
pernors. Blackstone 

2. Deliverance of a prisoner on security for 
his appearance at a dav. 

MA'INPRIZE, r. /. To suffer a prisoner to 
go at large, on his finding sureties, main 
pernors, for his appearance at a day, 

MA'IN-SAIL, n. The principal sail in a ship 
The main-sail of a ship or brig is extended 
by a yard attached to the main-mast, and 
that of a sloop, by the boom. 

MA'IN-SHEET, n. The sheet that extends 
and fastens the main-sail. 

MAINSWEAR, v. i. [Sax. manswerian; 
man, evil, and swerian, to swear.] 

To swear falsely ; to perjure one's self. 


MAINTA'IN, V. t. [Fr. mainlenir ; main, 
hand, and lenir, to hold ; L. manus and 


1. To hold, preserve or keep in any particu- 
lar state or condition; to support; to sus- 
tain ; not to suffer to fail or decline ; us 
to maintain a certain (lcf;nc cil" heat i" : 
furnace ; to maintain tlir ili;:i>ii\t' |.r.M(-- 
or powers of tliestOlri:irli ; t" iifiiiihiiil \\i' 
fertility of soil; to maintuin iJii-rni i-Ikh 
acter or reputation. 

2. To hold : to keep ; not to lose or surren- 
der ; as, to maintain a place or poi 

i. To continue ; not to suffer to cease ; as, 

to maintain a conversation. 

4. To keep up; to uphold; to support the 

expense of; as, to viaintain state or equip- 


5. To support with food, clothing and other 
conveniences ; as, to maintain a family by 
trade or labor. 

To support by intellectual powers, or by 
force of reason; as, to mainfaire an argu 

7. To support ; to defend ; to vindicate ; to 
justify; to prove to be just ; as, to main- 
tain one's right or cause. 
To support by assertion or argument ; tc 

la tragedy and satire, I maintain that this 
,e and the last have excelled the ancients. 

Dry den 

MAINTAINABLE, a. That may be main- 
tained, supported, preserved or sustained 

a. That may be defended or kept by force 
or resistance ; as, a military post is not 

.3. That may be defended by argument or 
just claim ; vindicable ; defensible. 

MAINTAINED, pp. Kept in any state 
preserved ; upheld ; supported ; defended 

MAINTA'INER, n. One who sujjports, pre 
serves, sustains or vindicates. 

MAINTA'INING, ppr. Supporting; pre- 
serving ; upholding ; defending ; vindica- 

MA'INTENANCE, n. Sustenance ; susten 
talion ; support by means of supplies ofl 
food, clothing and other conveniences ; 
as, his labor contributed little to the main- 

I <ena)ice of his family. 

9. Means of support ; that which supplies 

Those of better fortune not making learning 
their maintenance. Swift. 

3. Support; protection; defense; vindica- 
tion ; as the maintenance of right or just 

4. Continuance ; security from failure or 

Whatever is granted to the church for God's 
honor and the maintenance of his service, i; 
granted to God. South 

5. In laiv, an officious intermeddling in t 
suit in which the person has no interest 
by assisting either party with money or 
means to prosecute or defend it. This ' 
a punishable oflTense. But to assist a poor 
kinsman from compassion, is not mainte- 
nance. Encyc. 

MA'IN-TOP, 11. The topof the main-mast of] 

a ship or brig. 
MA'IN-YARD, n. The yard on which tl 

main-sail is extended, supported by the 

MAISTER, for master, is obsolete. 

MAISTRESS, for mistress, is obsolete. 

MAIZ, n. A plant of the genus Zea, the na 

live corn of America, called Indian corn, 

[In the Lettish and Livonic languages, in 
j the north of Europe, 7/ia7/se is bread. Tookc. 

In Ir. maise is food ; perhaps a different 
I orthography uf meat.] 

MA'JA, n. A bird ofCuba, of a beautiful yel- 
low color, whose flesh is accounted a deli- 
cacy. Diet. Mit. Hist. 
MAJES'TIe, a. [from majesty.] August ; 
having dignity of person or "appearance ; 
grand ; princely. The prince was majes- 
tic in person and appearance. 
In his face 
Sat meekness, hightened with majestic grace. 
2. Splendid ; grand. 

Get the start of this majestic world. Shak. 
Elevated ; lofty. 

The least portions must be of the epic kind ; 
all must be grave, majestic and sublime. 

4. Stately ; becoming majesty ; as a majestic 

MAJES'TI€AL, a. Majestic. [Little used.] 
M AJES'TICALLY, adv. With dignity ; with 

grandeur ; with a lofty air or appearance. 
MAJ'ESTY, n. [L. majestas, from the root 

of mage's, majoi; more, greater.] 

1. Greatness of appearance; dignity; gran- 
deur ; dignity of aspect or manner ; the 
quality or state of a person or thing which 
inspires awe or reverence in the beholder ; 
applied with peculiar propriety to God and 
his works. 

Jehovah reigneth ; he is clothed with majesty. 
Ps. xciii. 

The voice of Jehovah is full o{ majesty. Ps. 

It is applied to the dignity, pomp and 
splendor of earthly princes. 

When he showed the riches of his glorious 
kingdom — the honor of his excellent majesty 
many days — Esth. i. 

2. Dignity; elevation of manner. 
The first in loftiness of thought surpass'd, 
The next in majesty— Dryden. 

3. A title of emperors, kings and queens ; 
as most royal majesty ; may it please your 
majesty. In this sense, it admits of the 
jilural ; as, their majesties attended the 

MA'JOR, a. [L.] Greater in number, quan- 
tity or extent ; as the major part of the as- 
sembly ; the viajor part of the revenue ; 
the major part of the territory. 

2. Greater in dignity. 
My major vow lies here. Shak. 

3. In music, an epithet applied to the modes 
in which the third is four semitones above 
the tonic or key-note, and to intervals con- 
sisting of four semitones. Busby. 

Major and minor, in music, are applied to 
concords which differ from each other by 
a semitone. 

Major tone, the difference between the fifth 
and fourth, and major semitone is the dif- 
ference between the major fourth and the 
third. The major tone surpasses the mi- 
nor by a comma. Encyc. 

MA'JOR, n. In military affairs, an officer 
next in rank above a captain, and below 
a lieutenant colonel ; the lowest field ofK- 

2. The mayor of a town. [See Mayor.] 

Aid-major, an officer appointed to act as ma- 
jor on certain occasions. 

Brigade-major. [See Brigade.] 

Drum-major, the first drummer in a regi- 
ment, who has authority over the other 

Fife-major, the first or chief fifer. 

M A K 

M A K 

M A K 

Sergeant-major, a non-commissioned officer, 
subordinate to the adjutant. 

MA'JOR, n. In law, a person of full age to 
manage his own concerns. 

MAJOR, n. In logic, the first proposition of 
a regular syllogism, containing the princi 
pal term ; as, no unholy person is qualified 
for happiness in heaven, [the major.] 
Every man in his natural state is unholy, 
[minor.] Therefore, no man in his natu 
ral state, is qualified for happiness in hea 
ven, [conclusion or inference.] 

MAJORA'TION, n. Increase; enlargement. 
[Mil used.] Bacon 

MAJOR-DOMO, 71. [inajor and domus, 

A man who holds the place of master of the 

house ; a steward ; also, a chief minister. 


MA'JOR-tJENERAL, n. A military ofticer 
who commands a division or a number of 
regiments ; the next in rank below 
lieutenant general. 

MAJOR'ITY, n. [Fr. majority ; from major.] 

1. The greater number; more than half; as 
a majority of mankind; a majority of votes 
in Congress. A measure may be carried 
by a large or small majority. 

2. Full age; the age at which the laws of a 
country permit a young person to manage 
his own affairs. Henry III. had no 
er come to his majority, than the barons 
raised war against him. 

3. The oflice, rank or commission of a ma 

4. The state of being greater. 

It is not a plurality of parts, without majority 
of parts. [Little userf.] Grew 

5. [L. majores.] Ancestors ; ancestry. \J^ot 
xised.] Brown. 

C. Chief rank. [Xot used.] Shak. 

MAKE, 1'. /. pret. and pp. made. [Sax. mac- 
ian ; G. mnchen ; D. maahen ; Dan. ma- 
ger, to contrive ; mager paa, to make, to 
form, to mold, to contrive, to practice, 
The primary sense is to cause to act or 
do, to press, drive, strain or compel, 
the phrases, make your servant work, make 
him go.] 

1. To compel; to constrain. 

They should be made to rise at an early hour, 

2. To form of materials ; to fashion ; to mold 
into shape ; to cause to exist in a different 
form, or as a distinct thing. 

He fashioned it with a graving tool, after he 
had made it a molten calf. Ex. xxxii. 

God not only made, but created ; not only 
made the work, but the materials. 

Dwight, Theol. 

3. To create ; to cause to exist ; to form 
from nothing. God made the materials of 
the earth and of all worlds. 

4. To compose ; to constitute as parts, ma- 
terials or ingredients united in a whole. 
These several sums make the whole 

The heaven, the air, the earth, and boundless 

Make but one temple for the deity. 


5. To form by art. 

And art with her contending, doth aspire 
T' excel the natural with made delights. 


C. To produce or effect, as the agent. 

Call for Sampson, that he may make us sport 
Judges xvi. 

7. To produce, as the cause ; to procure ; to 
obtain. Good tillage is necessary to make 
good crops. 

Wealth maketh many friends. Prov 

8. To do ; to perform ; to execute ; as, to 
make a journey ; to make a long voyage 

9. To cause to have any quality, as by change 
or alteration. Wealth may make a man 
proud ; beauty may make a woman vain 
a due sense of human weakness should 
make us humble. 

10. To bring into any state or condition ; to 

See I have made thee a god to Pharaoh, 
Ex. vii. 

Who made thee a prince and a judge over 
Ex. ii. 

11. To contract; to establish; as, lo make 
friendship. Rowe. 

12. To keep ; as, to make abode. Dryden. 

13. To raise to good fortune; to secure in 
riches or happiness ; as when it is said, he 
is made for this world. 

Who makes or ruins with a smile or frown 

14. To suffer. 
He accuses Neptune unjustly, who makes 

shipwreck a second time. Bacon. 

15. To incur ; as, to make a loss. [Improper.] 

16. To commit ; to do. 
I will neither plead my age nor sicki 

excuse of the faults which I made. [Little 
vsed.'\ Dryden 

17. To intend or to do ; to purpose to do. 
Gomez, what mak'st thou here, with a wholi 

brotherhood of city bailiffs ? [JVot used.] 

We now say, what doest thou here ? 

18. To raise, as profit ; to gain ; to collect 
as, to make money in trade or by hus 
bandry ; to make an estate by steady in 

19. To discover; to arrive in sight of; a 
seaman's phrase. They made the land a 
nine o'clock on the larboard bow, distan 
five leagues. 

20. To reach ; to arrive at ; as, to make a 
port or harbor ; a seaman's phrase. 

21. To gain by advance ; as, to make little 
way witli a head wind ; we made our way 
to the next village. This phrase often im 
plies difficulty. 

22. To provide ; as, to make a dinner or en 

23. To put or place ; as, to make a difference 
between strict right and expedience. 

24. To turn ; to convert, as to use. 
Whate'er they catch, 

Their fury makes an instrument of war. 


25. To represent. He is not the fool you 
make him, that is, as your representation 
exhibits him. 

26. To constitute ; to form. It is melan 
choly to think that sensual pleasure makes 
the happiness of a great part of mankind. 

27. To induce ; to cause. Self-confidence 
makes a man rely too much on his own 
strength and resources. 

28. To put into a suitable or regidar form 
for use ; as, to make a bed. 

29. To fabricate ; to forge. He made the 
story himself. 

30. To compose ; to form and write ; as, to 
make verses or an oration. 

31. To cure ; to dry and prepare for preser- 
vation ; as, to make hay. 

To make ame7ids, to make good ; to give ad- 
equate compensation ; to replace the value 
or amount of loss. 
To make account of, to esteem ; to regard. 

To make away, to kill ; to destroy. 

Sidney. Addison. 
2. To alienate ; to transfer. Waller. 

We now usually say, to make over prop- 
To make free with, to treat with freedom ; to 
treat without ceremony. Pope. 

To make good, to maintain ; to defend. 

I'll either die, or I'll make good the place. 


2. To fulfill ; to accomplish ; as, to make 
good one's word, promise or engagement. 

3. To make compensation for ; to supply an 
equivalent ; as, to make good a. loss or dam- 

To make light of, to consider as of no conse- 
quence ; to treat with indifference or con- 

They made light of it, and went their way. 
Matt. xxii. 

To make love, } to court ; to attempt to gain 

To make suit, J the favor or affection. 

To make merry, to feast ; to be joyful or 
jovial. Bacon. 

To make much of, to treat with fondness or 
esteem ; to consider as of great value, or 
as giving great pleasure. 

To make of, to understand. He knows not 
what to make of the news, that is, he does 
not well understand it ; he knows not how 
to consider or view it. 

2. To jiroduce from ; to effect. 
I am astonished that those who have appear- 
ed against this paper, have made so very Utile of 
it. Addison. 

3. To consider ; to account ; to esteem. 
.Makes she no more of me than of a slave ? 


To make over, to transfer the title of; to con- 
vey ; to alienate. He made over his estate 
in trust or in fee. 

To make out, to learn ; to discover ; to ob- 
tain a clear understanding of. I cannot 
make out the meaning or sense of this dif- 
ficult passage. Antiquaries are not able 
to make out the inscription on this medal. 

2. To prove ; to evince ; to establish by evi- 
dence or argument. The plaintiff, not be- 
ing able to make out his case, withdrew 
the suit. 

In the passages from divines, most of the rea- 
sonings which make out both my propositions 
are already suggested. Atterbury. 

3. To furnish ; to find or supply. He prom- 
ised to pay, but was not able to make out 
the money or the whole sum. 

To make sure of, to consider as certain. 

2. To secure to one's possession ; as, to make 

sure of the game. 
To make up, to collect into a sum or mass; 

as, to make up the amount of rent ; to make 

up a bundle or package. 
2. To reconcile ; to compose ; as, to makeup 

a difference or quarrel. 

To repair ; as, to make up a hedge. Ezek, 


4. To supply what is wanting. A dollar is 

wanted to make upxhe stipulated sum. 
'^. To compose, as ingredients or parts. 

Oh, he was all made up of love and charms ! 


The parties among us are made up of mode- 

late whigs and presbyterians. Stoift. 

C. To shape; as, to make up a mass into 


7. To assume a particular form of features 
as, to make up a face ; wlience, to make up 
a lip, is to pout. 

8. To compensate ; to make good ; as, to 
make up a loss. 

9. To settle; to adjust, or to arrange for 
settlement ; as, to make up accounts. 

10. To determine ; to bring to a definite con^ 
elusion ; as, to make up one's mind. 

In seamen's language, to 7nake sail, to in 
crease the quantity of sail already ex 
To make sternway, to move with the stern 

To make ujaler, to leak. 
To make words, to multiply words. 
MAKE, V. i. To tend ; to proceed ; to m< 
He made towards home. The tiger m 
at the sportsman. Formerly authors used 
to make way, to make on, to make forth, to 
7nake about ; but these phrases are obso 
lete. We now say, to make at, to make to 
■2. To contribute ; to have effect. This ar 
gument makes nothing in his favor. He 
believes wrong to be right, and right to 
be wrong, when it makes for his advant 
3. To rise ; to flow toward land ; as, the tide 

makes fast. 
To make as if, to show ; to appear ; to carry 

Joshua and all Israel made as if they were 
beaten before them, and fled. Josh, viii, 
To make away with, to kill ; to destroy. 
To make for, to move towards ; to direct a 
course towards; as, we apprehended a 
tempest approaching, and made for a har 
2. To tend to advantage ; to favor. A wai 
between commercial nations makes for the 
interest of neutrals. 
To make against, to tend to injury. This ar- 
gument makes against his cause. 
To make out, to succeed ; to have success ai 
last. He made out to reconcile the con- 
tending parties. 
To make up, to approach. He made up to 

lis with boldness. 
To make up for, to compensate ; to supply by 
an equivalent. 

Have you a supply of friends to make up for 
those who arc gone ? Swift. 

To make up unth, to settle differences ; to be- 
come friends. 
To make with, to concur. Hooker. 

MAKE, n. Structure; texture; constitution| 
of parts in a body. It may sometimes be 
synonyujous with shape or form, but mo 
properly, the word signifies the manner 
which the parts of a body arc united ; as a 
man of slender make, or feeble make. 
Is our perfection of so frail a make 
As every plot can undermine and shake ? 

MAKE, n. [iiax.maca,grmaca; Dan. mage 
Eng. match. It seems allied to make, a 
peer, L. par, to Heb. K-a.] 

M A L 

A companion ; a mate. Obs. 

Spenser. B. Jonson. 
MA'KEBATE, n. {make and Sax. bate, con- 
One who excites contention and quarrels. 

MA'KELESS, a. Matchless ; without a 

mate. Obs. 
MA'KER, n. The Creator. 

The universal Maker we may praise. 


2. One that makes, forms, shapes or molds ; 
a manufacturer ; as a maker of watches, or 
of jewelry ; a maker of cloth. 

3. A poet. 
MA'KEPEACE, n. A peace-maker ; one 

that reconciles persons when at variance, 

MA'KEWEIGHT, n. That which is thrown 
into a scale to make weight. Philips. 

MA'KI, ?i. An animal of the genus Lemur. 

The ring-tailed maki is of the size of a cat. 


The common name of a subdivision of the 
Linnean genus Lemur, including the ma- 
cauco, the mongooz, and the vari. Cuvier. 

MA'KING, /ii^jr. Forming; causing ; com- 
pelling ; creating; constituting. 

MA'KING, n. The act of forming, causing 
or constituting. 

2. Workmanship. This is cloth of your owi 

3. Composition ; structure. 

4. A poem. 
MAL, or MALE, as a prefix, in composi 

tion, denotes ill or evd, Fr. mal, L. mains. 
[See Malady.] 

MAL'A€HltE, n. [Gr. fia%ax% mallows, 
L. malva, from ftaXaxo;, soft, so named 
from its resembling the color of the leaf 
of mallows.] 

An oxyd of copper, combined with carbonic 
acid, found in solid masses of a beautiful 
green color. It consists of layers, in the 
form of nipples or needles converging to 
wards a common center. It talies a good 
polish and is often manufactured into 
toys. Fourcroy. Diet. JVat. Hist 

MAL'ACOLITE, n. [Gr. ^oJ-a^, mallows, 
from its color.] 

Another name for diopside, a variety of py- 
roxene. Cleaveland. Lunier. 

MALA€0PTERYG'E0US, a. [Gr. na7.a.xoi, 
soft, and n-etfvyiov, a point or fether.] 

Having bony rays of fins, not sharp or point- 
■ at the extremity ; as a fish. 

MALA€OS'TOMOUS, a. [Gr. ^aXaxof, 
soft, and urofta, mouth.] 

Having soft jaws without teeth ; as a fish. 

and Administer.} 

Bad n)anagement of public affairs; vicious 
or defective conduct in administration, or 
the performance of ofiicial (Uitics, ))iirticu- 
larly of executive and ininistriKil ilniics, 
))rescribed by law ; as tlic malnilmini.-itnt- 
tion ofa king, or of any iliicf niagistrnic. 

MAL'ADY, n. [Fr. maladie ; It. malalUa, 
from the W. mall, softness, debility, an 
evil, a malady ; L. malum ; W. mallu, to 
make soft or flaccid, to deprive of energy, 
to make insipid, to make evil, to become 
evil. This coincides in origin with Eng 
mellow, L. mollis, Gr. ftoJioxoj. In oppo 


sition to this, virtue, value and health, are 
from the sense of strength, vigor.] 

1. Any sickness or disease of the human 
body ; any distemper, disorder or indispo- 
sition, proceeding from impaired, defect- 
ive or morbid organic functions ; more 
particularly, a lingering or deep seated 
disorder or indisposition. It may be ap- 
plied to any animal body, but is, I believe, 
rarely or never applied to plants. 

The maladies of the body may prove medi- 
cines to the miad. Buckminster. 

2. Defect or corruption of the heart; de- 
pravity ; moral disorder or corruption of 
moral principles. Depravity of heart is a 
moral malady. 

Disorder of the understanding or mind. 

MAL'AGA, n. A species of wine imponed 
from Malaga, in Spain. 

MALAN'DERS, n. [from mal, ill, and It 
andare, to go.] 

A dry scab on the pastern of a horse. 


MAL'APERT, a. [mal and pert.] Saucy ; 
quick, with impudence ; sprightly, without 
respect or decency; bold; forward. 

Are you growing »naiapf)-f .' Dryden 

MAL'APERTLY, adv. Saucily; with im- 
pudence. Skelton. 

MAL'APERTNESS, n. Sauciness; impu- 
dent pertness or forwardness ; sprightli- 
ness of reply without decency. 

MALAPROPOS, adv. malap'ropo. [Fr. mal, 
evil, and apropos, to the purpose.] Unsuit- 
al)ly. Dryden. 

MA'LAR, a. [L. mala, the cheek.] Pertain- 
ing to the cheek. 

MAL' ATE, n. [L. malum, an apple.] A salt 
formed by the malic acid, the acid of ap- 
ples, combined with a base. Chimistry. 

MAL'AXATE, v. t. [Gr. ^ia■Kaa6^.] To sof- 
ten ; to knead to softness. [JVot iised.] 

MALAXA'TION, »i. The act of moistening 
and softening; or the forming of ingredi- 
ents into a mass for pills or plasters. 
[Little ttsed.] Bailey. 

MALeONFORMA'TION, n. Ill form ; dis- 
proportion of parts. Tully. 

MAL'CONTENT, n. [mal and content.] A 
discontented subject of government ; one 
who murnmrs at the laws and adminis- 
tration, or who manifests his uneashiess 
by overt acta, as in sedition or insurrec- 

MAL'CONTENT, \ Discontented 

MALCONTENT'ED, \ with the laws 
or the administration of government ; un- 
easy ; dissatisfied with the government. 
The famous vuihnntent earl of Leicester. 


MALeONTENT'EDLY, adv. With dis- 

MAL€ONTENT'EDNESS, n. Discontent- 
edness with the government; dissatisfac- 
tion ; want of attachment to the govern- 
ment, manifested by overt acts. 


MALE, a. [Fr. male, for masle, from L. 
masculus, from mo*, viaris.] 

\. Pertaining to the sex that procreates 
young, and applied to animals of all kinds ; 
as a vtale child ; a male beast, fish or fowl. 

2. Denoting the sex ofa plant which produ- 
ces the fecundating dust, or a flower or 
plant that bears the stamens only, with- 
out pistils. 

M A L 

M A L 

M A I. 

3. Denoting the screw whose tlireads enter, 
the grooves or channels of the corres-j 
ponding or female ^crew. j 

MALE, ?i. Among animals, one of the sexj 
whose office is to beget young; a he-am-' 

a. In hotanxj, a plant or flower which produ- 
ces stamens only, without pistils. | 

3. In mechanics, the screw whose threads] 
enter the grooves or channels of the cor-| 
responding part or female screw. 

MALEDIC'ENCY, n. [L. maledicentia :\ 
male and dico.] 

Evil speaking ; reproachful language ; prone- 
ness to reproach. [Little used.] 


MAL'EDICENT,' a. Speaking reproach- 
fully ; slanderous. [Little used.] Sandys. 

MALEDICTION, n. [L. maledictio ; male, 
evil, and dico, to speak.] 

Evil speaking; denunciation of evil; a curs- 
ing; curse or execration. Hooker. 

MALEFA€'TION, n. [L. male, evil, and 
facia, to do.] 

A criminal deed ; a crime ; an offense 
against the laws. [LAttle used.] Shak. 

MALEFACTOR, n. [supra.] One who 
commits a crime ; one guilty of violating 
the laws, in such a manner as to subject 
him to public prosecution and punishment, 
particularly to capital punishment ; a 
criminal. Dn/den.\ 

MAL'EFICE, n. [Fr. See jMalefaction) An' 
evil deed ; artifice ; enchantment. [jVot 
in use.] Chaucer.^ 

MALEF1"CIATE, v. t. To bewitch. [.Vol} 
in use.] Burton.\ 

MALEFICIA'TION, n. A bewitching.l 
[Not in use.] \ 

31ALEFI"CIENCE, n. [L. maleficientia.\\ 
The doing of evil, harm or mischief. 

MALEFI"CIENT, a. Doing evil, harm or 
mischief. Burke.\ 

MALEN'GINE, n. [Fr. malengin.] Guile ;l 
deceit. [JVot in use.] Spenser.\ 

MAL'ET, n. [Fr. maleUe. See Mail] AJ 
httle bag or budget ; a portmanteau. [JVoii 
used.] ShtltonJ 

MALEVOLENCE, n. [L. malevolentia ; 
malum, evil, and volcns, volo, to will.] 

Ill will; personal hatred; evil disposition 
towards another ; enmity of heart ; incli- 
nation to injure others. It expresses less| 
than malignity. Shak. 

MALEVOLENT, a. Having an evil dispo- 
sition towards another or others ; wishing 
evil to others ; ill disposed, or disposed to 
injure others. A malevolent heart rejoices] 
in the misfortunes of others. t 

2. Unfavorable ; unpropitious ; bringing ca- 

MALEV'OLENTLY, adv. With ill will orl 
enmitv ; with the wish or design to injure.! 

MALEV'OLOUS, a. Malevolent. [Mot in\ 
use.] Warburfon.l 

MALFE'ASANCE, n. [Fr.] Evil doing ;i 
wrong ; illeffal deed. 

MALFORMA'TION, n. [mal and fonna-\ 

Ill or wrong formation ; irregular or anoma- 
lous formation or structure of parts. 


MA'LIC, a. [L. mahim, an apple.] Pertain-j 
ing to apples ; drawn from the juice ofj 
apples ; as malic acid. Chimistry.] 

MALICE, n. [Fr. It. ma lizia; Up. malicia ; 
L. malitia, from malus, evil ; W. mall. See 

Extreme enmity of heart, or malevolence ; a 
disposition to injure others without cause, 
from mere personal gratification or from 
a spirit of revenge ; unprovoked maligni- 
ty or spite. 

— Nor set down aught in malice. Shak. 

MAL ICE, V. t. To regard with extreme ill 
will. [JVot used.] Spenser. 

MALI'CIOUS, a. Harboring ill will or en- 
mity without provocation ; malevolent in 
the extreme ; malignant in heart. 
I giant him bloody. 
Sudden, malicioxis, smacking of every sin 
That has a name. Shak. 

3. Proceeding from extreme hatred or ill 
will ; dictated by malice ; as a malicious 

3IALI"CIOUSLY, adv. With malice ; with 
extreme enmity or ill will ; with deliber- 
ate intention to injure. Swift. 

MALI"CIOUSNESS, n. The tiuality of be- 
ing malicious; extreme enmity or dispo- 
sition to injure ; malignity. Hcrbert.\ 

MALIGN, n. mali'ne. [Fr. maligne ; L.| 
malignus, from malus, evil. See Malady.] 

1. Having a very evil disposition towards! 
others; harboring violent hatred or enmi- 
tv ; malicious ; as malign spirits. Milton. 

2. Unfavorable; pernicious; tending to in- 
jure ; as a malign aspect of planets. 


3. Malignant ; pernicious ; as a malign ulcer. 


M.'VLIGN, V. t. To regard with envy or 
malice ; to treat with extreme enmity ; to 
injure maliciously. 

The people practice mischief against private 
men, whom they malign by stealing thcii 
goods and murdering them. Sjje)i^er. 

2. To traduce ; to defame. 

MALIGN, V. i. To entertain malice. 


MALIG'NANCY, n. [See Maligna,it.] Ex- 
treme malevolence ; bitter enmity ; mal- 
ice: as mct/tg-najici/ of heart. 

2. Unfavorableness ; unpropitiousness ; as 

the jnalignancy of the aspect of planets. 

The malignancy of my fate might distemper 

yours. Shak. 

3." Virulence ; tendency to mortification or to 
a fatal issue ; as the malignancy of an ul- 
cer or of a fever. 

MALIG'NANT, o. [L. malignus, maligno, 
from malus, evil.] 

i. Malicious; having extreme malevolence 
or enmity ; as a malignant heart. 

2. Unpropitious; exerting pernicious influ- 
ence ; as malignant stars. Shak. 

3. Virulent ; as a malignant ulcer. 

4. Dangerous to life ; as a malignant fever. 

5. Extremely hainous ; as the malignant 
nature of sin. 

MALIG'NANT, n. A man of extreme en- 
mity or evil intentions. [JVot used.] 


MALIG'NANTLY, adv. Maliciously ; with 
extreme malevolence. 

a. With pernicious influence. 

MALIGNER, n. One who regards or treats 
another with enmity ; a traducer ; a defa- 
mer. Swifl. 

MALIG'NITY, n. [h. malignitas.] Ex- 
treme enmity, or evil dispositions of heart 

towards another; malice without provo- 
cation, or malevolence with baseness of 
heart ; deep rooted spite. 

2. Virulence ; destructive tendency ; as the 
malignity of an ulcer or disease. 

3. Extreme evilness of nature; as the ?na- 
lignity of fraud. 

4. Extreme sinfulness ; enormity or hain- 
ousness; as the malignity of sin. 

MALIGNLY, adv. With extreme ill will. 

2. Unpropitiously; perniciouslv. 
MAL'ISON, 71. Malediction. '[JVot in use.] 


MALKIN, n. maiv'kin. A mop ; also, a low 
maid-servant. Shak. 

MALL, n. maid. [Fr. mail; Sp. mallo ; Port. 
malho ; from L. malleus.] 

1. A large heavy wooden beetle; an instru- 
ment for driving any thing with force. 

3. A blow. Obs. Spenser. 
MALL, n. mal. [Arm. mailh. Qu. fiom a 

play with mall and ball, or a beaten 

A public walk ; a level shaded walk. Alice 
d'arbres battue et bordee. 

Gregoire''s Arm. Diet. 

MALL, V. t. maul. To beat with a mall; to 
beat with something heavy ; to bruise. 

MAL' LARD, n. A species of duck of the 
genus Anas. Pennant. 

MALLEABIL'ITY, n. [from malleable.] 
That quality of bodies which renders them 
susceptible of extension by beating. It is 
opposed to friability or brUtleness. Locke. 

MAL'LEABLE, a. [Fr. from L. maUeus. 
See .Mall.] 

That may be drawn out and extended by 
beating ; capable of extension by the ham- 
mer ; a quality of metals, particularly of 
gold. JVewton. 

MAL'LEABLENESS, n. Malleability, 
which see. 

MAL'LEATE, v. t. To hammer; to draw 
into a plate or leaf by beating. 

MALLEA'TION, n. The act of beatiug into 
a plate or leaf, as a metal ; extension by 

MAL'LET, n. [Fr. maUlet ; Russ. violot; 
Slav, vdat; L. malleus.] 

A wooden hammer or instrument for beat- 
ing, or for driving pins ; particularly used 
in carpentry, for driving the chisel. 

MALLOW, } [Sax. malu, meahce,malwe; 

MALLOWS, S'" Fr. ma^ive ; L. Sp. It. 
malva ; Gr. fiaXaxi, from fmXaxoi, soft, Eng. 
mellmv, W. mall. See Malady.] 

A i)lant of the genus Malva ; so called from 
its emollient quahties. 

Marsh-mallotvs, a plant of the genus Althnea. 

MALM'SEY,Ji. [Fr. malvoisie; It. malvosio; 
Sp. marvisia, from Malvasia,in Greece; L. 
vinum arvisium.] 

The name of a species of grape, and also of 
a kind of wine. 

MALPRA€'TICE, n. [mal and practice.] 
Evil practice ; illegal or immoral conduct; 
practice contrary to established rules. 

MaLT, n. [Sax. J?!eaH ; B. mout ; G. malz ; 
Sw. Dan. malt. Qu. W. 7nall, soft.] 
triey steeped in water, fermented and dried 
in a kiln, and thus prepared for brewing 
into ale or beer. 

MaLT, r. t. To make into malt ; as, to malt 

MaLT, v. i. To become malt. 




MALT'-DRINK, I A liquor prepared for 
MALT'-LIQUOR, ^ "• drink by an infu " 

of malt ; as beer, ale, porter, &c. 
MaLT'-DUST, n. The grains or remains of 


Malt-dust is an enricher of barren land. 


MALT'-FLOOR,n. A floor for drying malt. 


MaLT'-HORSE, n. A liorse employed in 

grinding malt ; hence, a dull fellow. 

iAIaLTMAN, } A man whose occupation 
MALTSTER, < "-is to make malt. Swift. 
MALTVVORM, n. [malt and ivorm.] A tip- 

ler. Shak. 

MAL'TALENT, n. [Old Fr.] Ill humor. 

[JVot in use.] Chaucer. 

MAL'THA, n. A variety of bitumen, vis- 
cid and tenacious, like pitch ; unctuous to 

the toucli and exiialing a bituminous odor. 


MALTRE'AT, v. I. [mal and treat.] To 

treat ill ; to abuse ; to treat roughly, rude 

ly, or witli unkindness. 
MALTRE'ATED, pp. Ill treated ; abused 
MALTRE'ATING, ppr. Abusing ; treating 

MALTRE'ATMENT, n. Ill treatment ; ill 

usage ; 
MALVA'CEOUS, a. [L. malvaceus, from 

malva, mallows.] Pertaining to mallows. 
MALVERSA'TION, n. [L. male, ill, and 

versor, to behave.] 
Evil conduct ; improper or wicked behavior: 

mean artifices, or fraudulent tricks. 

MAM, < [L. mamma, the breast or 

MAMM'A, I ■ pap, and mother ; W. mam ; 

Arm. mamm;lT. muime, a nurse ; Antiq, 

Gr. fiaiiiJ.ri.] 
A familiar word for mother, used by young 


MAM'ALUKE, ) „ The military force of 
MAM'ELUKE, S "' Egypt consisted of 

soldiers called Mamelukes, who were ori 

ginally mercenaries, but afterwards mas 

ters of the country. Their power has 

been recently annihilated by the present 

Pasliaw of Egypt. 
MAM'MAL, n. [L. mamma, the breast.] In 

zoologi/, an animal that suckles its young. 

[See Mammiftr.] Good. 

MAMMA'LIAN, a. Pertaining to the mam- 
3IAMMAL'OgIST, n. One who treats of 

mammiferous animals. 
MAMMAL'06Y,«. [L. mamma, breast, and 

Xoyof, discourse.] 
The science or doctrine of mammiferous an 

imals. [See Mammifer.] 
MAM'MARY, a. [See Mamma.] Pertainin; 

to the breasts or paps ; as the mammary 

arteries and veins. 
MAMMEE', n. A tree of the genus Mam 

mea, of two species, both large evergreens 

prodncpd in hot climates. Encyc. 

MAM'MET, n. A puppet ; a figure dressed. 
M.AiVI'lMIFER, n. [L. viamma, the breast. 

An animal v\ 1 
its younir- 
system of I 
the fetu^ i- 

means of one or more placentas, and thel 
young by milk secreted by the breasts. 

■ Diet. jYat. Hist. 

MAMMIF'EROUS, a. [supra.] Having 
breasts and nourishing the young by the 
milk secreted by them. 

MAM'MIFORM, a. [L. mamma and form.] 
Having the shape or form of paps. 

MAM'MILLARY, a. [h.mamilla.] Pertain- 
ing to the paps; resembling a pap; an 
epithet applied to two small protuberan- 
ces, like nipples, found under the fore ven- 
tricles of the brain, and to a process of the 
temporal bone. 

2. In mineralogy, applied to minerals compo- 
sed of convex concretions. 

MAM'MILLATED, a. Having small nip- 
ples, or little globes like nipples. Say. 
piece. [JVot 

A shapele 

pieces. [JVoi 



MAM'MOe, II. t. To tear 

MAM'MODIS, n. Coarse, plain India mus- 

MAM'MON, n. [Syr.] Riches ; wealth ; or 
the god of riches. 

Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Matt. 

MAM'MONIST, n. A person devoted to 
the acquisition of wealth ; one whose af- 
fections are placed supremely on riches ; 
a worldling. Hammond. 

MAM'MOTH, n. [Russ. mamant, the skel- 
of a huge animal, now extinct.] 

This name has been given to a huge quad- 
ruped, now extinct, whose bones are 
found on both continents. 

MAN, n. plu. men. [Sax. man, mann and 
mon, mankind, man, a woman, a vassal, 
also one, any one, like the Fr. on ; Goth. 
manna ; Sans, man ; D. man, a man 
husband ; mensch, a human being, man, 
woman, person ; G. id, ; Dan. man, men 
neske; S\v. man, meniskia; Sax. meimesc, 
human ; Ice. mann, a man, a husband ; 
W. mymc, a person, a body, from mwn, 
that which rises up or stretches out. The 
primary sense is, form, image, whence 
species, coinciding probably with the Fr. 
mine, Eng. mien. Arm. man or min, look, 
aspect, countenance ; Ch. and Heb. y 
species, kind ; Heb. nJlDH image, simil 
tude; Syr. Ji*iD > progeny. It is r< 
markable that in the Icelandic, this word, 
a little varied, is used in Gen. i. 26, 27. 
"Og Gud sagde, vervilium gera mannenn. 
epter mind og liking vorre." And God 
said, let us make man after our image and 
likeness. " Og Gud skapade mannenn 
epter sinne minct, epter Guds mind skapad 
hann hann, og han skapade than karlman 
og kvinnu." Literally, and God shaped 
man after his image, after God's image 
shaped he them, and he shaped them male 
and female ;*aWm«n, male, [See Carle and 
Churl,] and kvinnu, female, that is queen 
woman. Icelandic Bible. Man in its rad 
ical sense, agrees almost precisely with 
Adam, in the Shemitic languages.] 

I. Mankind ; the human race ; the whoU 
species of human beings ; beings distin 
guished from all other animals by the 
powers of reason and speech, as well as 
by their shape and dignified aspect. " Oi 
homini sublime dedil." 

And God said, Let us make man in our im- 
age, after our likeness, and let them have do- 
minion — Gen. i. 

Man that is bom of a woman, is of few 
days and full of trouble. Job xiv. 

My spirit shall not always strive with man. 
Gen. vi. 

I will destroy man whom I have created. 
Gen. vi. 

There hath no temptation taken you, but 
such as is common to man. 1 Cor. x. 

It is written, man shall not live by bread 
alone. Matt. iv. 

There must be somewhere such a rank as 
man. Pope. 

Respecting man, whatever wrong we call — 

But vindicate the ways of God to man. 


The proper study of mankind is man. 


In the System of Nature, man is ranked as a 
distinct genus. Encyc. 

When opposed to woTnan, man some- 
times denotes the male sex in general. 

Woman has, in general, much stronger pro- 
pensity than man to the discharge of parental 
duties. Cowper. 

2. A male individual of the human race, of 
adult growth or years. 

The king is but a man as I am. Shak. 

And the man dreams but what the boy 

believed. Dry den. 

3. A male of the human race ; used often in 
compound words, or in the nature of an 
adjective ; as a mon-child ; men-cooks ; 

4. A servant, or an attendant of the male 


I and my man will presently go ride. 


5. A word of familiar address. 
We speak no treason, man. Shak. 

6. It sometimes bears the sense of a male 
adidt of some uncommon quahfications ; 
particularly, the sense of strength, vigor, 
bravery, virile powers, or magnanimity, as 
distinguished from the weakness, timidity 
or impotence of a boy, or from the nar- 
row mindednessof low bred men. 

I dare do all that may become a man. 


Will reckons he should not have been the 
man he is, had he not broke windows — 


So in popular language, it is said, he is 
no man. Play your part like a man. He 
has not the spirit of a man. 

Thou art but a youth, and he a man of war 
from his youth. 1 Sam. xvii. 

7. An individual of the human species. 

In matters of equity between tnan and man — 
Under this phraseology, females may be 
comprehended. So a law restraining man, 
or every man from a particular act, com- 
prehends women and children, if of com- 
petent age to be the subjects of law. 
Man is sometimes opposed to boy or child, 
and sometimes to beast. 

9. One who is master of his mental powers, 
or who conducts himself with his usual 
judgment. When a person has lost his 
senses, or acts without his usual judg- 
ment, we say, he is not his own 7nan. 


10. It is sometimes used indefinitely, with- 
out reference to a particular individual ; 

M A N 

any person ; one. This is as much as a 
man can desire. 

A man, in an instant, may discover the as- 
sertion to be impossible. More. 

This word however is always used in 
tlie singular number, referring to an indi- 
vidual. In this respect it does not answer 
to the French on, nor to the useofmaji by 
our Suxon ancestors. In Saxon, man of- 
sloh, signifies, tliey sleio ; man sette vt, they 
set or Jitted out. So in German, man sagt, 
may he rendered, one says, it is said, they 
say, or people say. So in Danish, man 
siger, one says, it is said, they say. 

11. In popular usage, a husband. 

Every wife ought to answer for her man. 


12. A movable piece at chess or draughts. 

13. In feudal law, a vassal, a liege subject or 

The vassal or tenant, kneeling, ungirt, un- 
covered and holding up his hands between 
those of his lord, professed that he did become 
his man, from that day forth, of lile, limb, and 
eartlily honor. Btackstone. 

Man of war, a ship of war ; an armed ship. 

MAN-MIDWIFE, 7i. A man who practi- 
ces obstetrics. 

MAN, V. t. To furnish with men ; as, to 
man the lines of a fort or fortress ; to man 
a ship or a boat ; to man the yards ; to man 
the capstan ; to man a prize. It is, how- 
ever, generally understood to signify, to 
supply with the full complement or with 
a sufficient number of men. 

2. To guard with men. Shak. 

3. To strengthen ; to fortify. 

Theodosius having manned his soul with 
proper reflections — Addison. 

4. To tame a hawk. [Little used.] Shak. 

5. To furnish with attendants or servants. 
[Little used.] Shak. B. Jonson. 

G. To point ; to aim. 

Man but a rush against Othello's breast, 
And he retires. [JVot used.^ Shak. 

MAN'ACLE, n. [Fr. manicles ; It. manette ; 
Sp. maniota ; L. manica ; from manus, the 
hand ; W. man.] 

An instrument of iron for fastening the 
hands; hand-cufls; shackles. It is gen- 
erally used in the plural, manacles. 


MAN'ACLE, V. t. To put on hand-cuffs or 
other fastening for confining the hands. 

2. To shackle ; to confine ; to restrain the 
use of the limbs or natural powers. 

Is it thus you use tliis monarch, to manacle 
him hand and foot ? Arbuthnot 

MAN'ACLED, p;). Hand-cufied; shackled 

MAN'A€LING, ppr. Confining the hands ; 

MAN'AGE, v. t. [Fr. menager ; menage, 
house, household, housekeeping ; It. ma 
neggiare; Sp. Port, manejar. The prima 
ry sense seems to be to lead.] 

1. To conduct; to carry on; to direct the 
concerns of; as, to manage a farm ; to 
manage the affairs of a family. 

What wars I manage, and what wreaths 1 
gain. Prior. 

2. To train or govern, as a horse. 

They vault from hunters to the managed 
steed. Voung 

3. To govern; to control ; to make tame or 
tractable; as, the buflalo is too refracto 
ry to be managed. 


4. To wield ; to move or use in the manner 
desired ; to have under command. 

Long tubes are cumbersome, and scarce to be 
easily managed. JVewton. 

5. To make subservient. 
Antony managed him to his own views. 

G. To husband ; to treat with caution or 

The less he had to lose, the less he car'd 
To manage lothcsome life, when love was 
the reward. Drydi 

7. To treat with caution or judgment ; to 
govern with address. 

It was much his interest to manage his pro- 

testant subjects. Addison. 

MAN'AGE, v. {. To direct or conduct af 

fairs ; to carry on concerns or business. 

Leave them to manage for thee. Vryden. 

MAN'AGE, n. Conduct; administration: 

as the manage of the state or kingdom. 

Ohs. Shak. 

2. Government ; control, as of a horse, or 
the exercise of riding him. 

3. Discipline ; governance ; direction. 


4. Use ; application or treatment. 

Quicksilver will not endure the manage of 
the fire. Bacon. 

[This word is nearly obsolete in all its 
applications, unless in reference to horses. 
We now use management.] 
MAN'AGEABLE, a. Easy to be used or di- 
rected to its proper purpose ; not difficult 
to be moved or wielded. Heavy cannon 
are not very manageable. 

2. Governable ; tractable ; that may be con- 
trolled ; as a manageable horse. 

3. That may be made subservient to one's 
views or designs. 

MAN'AGEABCENESS, n. The quality of 
being easily used, or directed to its proper 
purpose; as the manageableness of an in 
strument. Boyle 

2. Tractableness ; the quality of being sus 
ceptible of government and control ; easi 
ncss to be governed. 

MAN'AGED, pp. Conducted ; carried on 
trained by discipline ; governed ; control! 
ed ; wielded. 

MAN'AgEMENT, n. Conduct ; adminis 
tration ; manner of treating, directing or 
carrying on ; as the management of a fan 
ily or of a farm ; the management of state 

2. Cunning practice ; conduct directed by 
art, design or prudence ; contrivance. 

Mark with what management their tribes di- 
vide. Dry den 

3. Practice ; transaction ; dealing. 

He had great management with ecclesiastics 

in the view to be advanced to the pontificate. 


4. Modulation ; variation. 

All directions as to the management of the 
voice, must be regarded as subsidiaiy to the i 
pression of feeling. Porter's Analyi 

MAN'AgER, ji. One who has the conduct 
or direction of any thing; as the manager 
of a theater ; the manager of a lottery, of 
a ball, &c. 

A skilful manager of the rabble. South 

An artful manager, that crept between — 


2. A person who conducts business witli 

economy and frugality ; a good husband. 


A prince of great aspiring tlioughts; intlu: 
lain, a manager of his treasure. Temple. 

MAN'AgERY, n. [from manage.] Conduct; 
direction ; administration. Clarendon. 

2. Husbandry ; economy ; frugality. 

Decay of Piety. 

3. Manner of using. /4m. 

[Little used or obsolete in all its applica- 

JIAN'A6ING, ppr. Conducting; regulating; 
directing; governing; wielding. 

MAN'AKIN, JI. The name of a beautiful 
race of birds found in warm climates. 

Did. jYut. Hist. 

MANA'TI, I The sea-cow, or fish-tailed 

MANA'TUS, 5 "walrus, an animal of the 
genus Trichechus, which grows to an en- 
ormous size ; sometimes it is said, to the 
length of twenty three feet. Of this ani- 
mal there are two varieties, the australis, 
or lamentin, and borealis, or whale-tailed 
manati. It has fore feet palmaled, and 
furnished with claws, but the hind part 
ends in a tail like that of a fish. The skin 
is of a dark color, the eyes small, and in- 
stead of teeth, the mouth is furnished with 
hard bones, extending the whole length of 
the jaws. [There are eight grinders on 
each side in each jaw. Cuvier.] It never 
leaves the water, but frequents the mouths 
of rivers, feeding on grass tjiat grows in 
the water. Enc'yc. Diet. J^'at. Hist. 

MANA'TION, n. [L. manalio, from mano, 
to flow.] 

The act of issuing or flowing out. [Little 

MAN'CHET, n. A small loaf of fine bread. 
[JVot used.] Bacon. 

MANCHINEE'L, n. [L. mancanilla.] A 
tree of the genus Hippomane, growing in 
the West Indies to the size of a large oak. 
It abounds in an acrid, milky juice of a 
poisonous quality. It bears a fruit of the 
size of a pippin, which, when eaten, caus- 
es inflammation in the mouth and throat, 
pains in the stomach, &c. The wood is 
valuable for cabinet work. Encyc. 

MAN'CIPATE, V. t. [L. mancipo, from 
manceps, mancipium ; manu capio, to take 
with the hand.] 

To enslave ; to bind ; to restrict. [lAtlle 
used.] 'Hale. 

MANCIPA'TION, n. Slavery; involuntary 
servitude. [Little xtsed.] Johnson. 

MAN'CIPLE, n. [L. manceps ; manu capio, 

A steward ; an undertaker ; a purveyor, par- 
ticularly of a college. Johnson. 

MANDA'MUS, n. [L. mando, to command ; 
mandamus, we command. The primary 
sense is to send.] 

In law, a command or writ, issuing from the 
king's bench in England, and in Atnerica, 
from some of the higher courts, directed 
to any person, corporation, or inferior 
court, requiring tlicin to do some act there- 
in specified, which appertains to their 
ofl^ce and duty ; as to admit or restore a 
person to an oflice or franchise, or to an 
academical degree, or to deliver papers, 
annex a seal to a paper, &c. Blackstone. 

MANDARIN, n. In China, a magistrate or 
governor of a province ; also, the come 
language of China. 


M A N 

M A N 

MAN'DATARY, ) [Fr. mandalaire, from 
MANDATORY, \ "' L. mando, to c 

1. A person to whom the pope has by his 
prerogative given a mandate or order for 
his benefice. -lylifff- 

2. One to whom a command or charge is 

MAN'DATE, n. [L. mando, to command.] 

1. A command; an order, precept or injunc- 
tion ; a connnission. 

This dream all powerful Juno sends ; I bear 

Her mighty mandates, and her words you 

hear. Dryden. 

2. In canon law, a rescript of the pope, com- 
manding an ordinary collator to put the 
person therein named in possession of the 
first vacant benefice in his collation. 


MANDA'TOR, n. [L.] A director. 


MAN'DATORY, a. Containing a command ; 
preceptive ; directory. 

MAN'DIBLE, n. [L. mando, to chew ; W 
mant, a jaw, that which shuts.] 

The jaw, the instrument of chewing ; appli- 
ed particularly to fowls. 

MANDIB'ULAR, a. Belonging to the jaw 

MAN'DIL, n. [Fr.mandtV/e, from the root of 
mantle ; W. mant.] A sort of mantle. 
[J^ot in use.] Herbert. 

MANDIL'ION, n. [supra.] A soldier's coat; 
a loose garment. Ainsworlh. 

MAN'DLESTONE, n. [G. mandelstein, al- 

Kernel-stone ; almond-stone, called also 
amygdaloid ; a name given to stones or 
rocks which liave kernels enveloped in 
paste. Did. JYat. Hist. 

MANDMENT, for commandment, is not in 

MAN'DOLIN, 71. [It. mandola.] A cithern 
or harp. [M>t in use.] 

MAN'DRAKE, n. [L. mandragoras ; It. 
mandragola ; Fr. mandragore.] 

A plant of the genus Atropa, growing natu- 
rally in Spain, Italy and the Levant. It 
is a narcotic, and its fi'esh roots are a vio- 
lent cathartic. Its effect in rendering 
barren women prolific is supposed to be 
imaginary. Encyc. 

MAN'DREL, n. An instrument for confi- 
ning in the lathe the substance to be turn- 
ed. Moxon. 

MAN'DRILL, n. A species of monkey. 

Diet. MU. Hist. 

MAN'DU€ABLE, a. That can be chewed: 
fit to he eaten. Herbert. 

MAN'DUCATE, v.t. [L. mando, whence 
Fr. manger.] To chew. 

MAN'DUCATED, pp. Chewed. 

IVIAN'DU€ATING, ppr. Chewing ; grind 
ing with tlie teeth. 

.MANDUCA'TION, n. The act of chewing 
or eating. 

MANE, n. [D. jiiaan, mane, and moon; G 
mahnc ; Sw. vian or mahn; Dan. man 
probably from extending, like man.] 

The hair growing on the upper side of the 
neck of a horse or other animal, usually 
hanging down on one side. 

MAN'EATER, n. A human being that feeds 
on human flesh ; a cannibal ; an anthi 

MA'NED, a. Having a raaue. 
MAN'EgE, h. [Fr.] A school for teaching 

horsemanship, and for training horses. 
MANERIAL. [See Manorial.] 
MA'NES, n. plu. [L.] The ghost, shade or 

sold of a deceased person ; and among the 

ancient pagans, the infernal deities. 
2. The remains of the dead. 

Hail, O ye holy jnanes .' Dryden. 

MANEU'VER, n. \Fr.manceuvre ; main,h. 

manus, the hand, and auvre, work, L. ope- 

1. Management ; dextrous movement, par- 
ticularly in an army or navy ; any evolu- 
tion, movement or change of position 
among companies, battalions, regiments, 
ships, &c. for the purpose of distributing 
the forces in the best manner to meet the 

2. Management with address or artful de- 

MANEU'VER, v. i. To move or change po- 
sitions among troops or ships, for the pur- 
pose of advantageous attack or defense; 
or in military exercise, for the purpose of 

2. To manage with address or art. 

MANEU'VER, J). «. To change the positions 
of troops or ships. 

MANEU'VERED, pp. Moved in position. 

MANEU'VERING, ppr. Changing the po- 
sition or order for advantageous attack or 

MAN'FUL, a. [man and full.] Having the 
spirit of a man ; bold ; brave ; courag- 

2. Noble ; honorable. 

MAN'FULLY, adv. Boldly ; courageously ; 

MAN'FULNESS, n. Boldness; courageous- 


MAN'GABY, n. A monkey with naked eye- 
■' Is ; the white-eyed monkey. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 
MAN'GANESE, n. A metal of 


white, or whitish gray color, very hard and 
diflicult to fuse. It never occurs as a nat- 
ural product in a metallic state. The sub- 
stance usually so called is an oxyd of man- 
ganese, but not pure. Cyc. Henry. 

MANGANE'SIAN, a. Pertaining to man- 
ganese ; consisting of it or partaking of its 
qualities. Seybert 

MANGANE'SIATE, n. A compound of 
manganesic acid, with a base. 

MANGANE'SI€, a. Obtained from manga- 
nese ; as the manganesic acid. Henry. 
[Manganic is ill formed.] 

MANGANE'SIOUS, a. Manganesious acid 
is an acid with a minimum of oxygen. 


MANG'€ORN, ?i. [Sax. 7neng-a)i, to mix, and 

A mixture of wheat and rye, or other spe- 
cies of grain. [JVo« used in America.] 

MaNgE, n. [Fr. mangeaison.] The scab 
or itch in cattle, dogs and other beasts.j 

MANGEL-WURZEL, n. [G. mangel, want, 
and umrzel, root.] 

The root of scarcity, a plant of the beet! 
kind. I 

MaNgER, n. [Fr. mangeoirc, from manger,\ 
to eat, L. mando.] | 

I. A trough or box in which fodder is laidi 

for cattle, or the place in which horse? 

and cattle are fed. 
2. In ships of war, a space across the deck. 

within the hawse-holes, separated from 

the after part of the deck, to prevent the 

water which enters the hawse-holes from 

running over the deck. 
MANgER-BOARD, n. The bulkhead on a 

ship's deck that separates the manger from 

the other part of the deck. Mar. Diet. 

MANgINESS, n. [from mangy.] Scabbiness : 

infection of the mange. 
MAN'GLE, v. t. [D. mangelen, G. ?nangeln, 

to want. Qu.] 

1. To cut with a dull instrument and tear, 
or to tear in cutting ; to cut in a bungling 
manner ; applied chiejly to the cutting of 


And seized with fear, forgot his mangled 
meat. Dryden. 

2. To curtail ; to take by piece-meal. 
MAN'GLE, n. [Dan. mangle ; G. mange : 

D. mangel ; from L. mango.] 

1. A rolling press or calender for smoothing 

2. A name of the mangrove, which see. 
MAN'GLE, V. t. To smooth cloth with a 

mangle ; to calender. 

MAN'GhED, pp. Torn in cutting ; smoothed 
with a mangle. 

MAN'GLER, n. One who tears in cutting ; 
one who uses a mangle. 

MAN'GLING, /);>r. Lacerating in the act of 
cutting ; tearing. 

2. Smoothing with a mangle. 

MAN'GO, n. The fruit of the mango tree, a 
native of the East Indies, of the genus 
Mangifera. It is brought to us only when 
pickled. Hence mango is the green fruit 
of the tree pickled. Encyc. 

2. A green muskmelon pickled. 

MAN'GONEL, n. [Fr. mangoneau.] An en- 
gine formerly used for throwing stones 
and battering walls. 

MAN'GONISM, n. The art of setting oft' to 
advantage. Obs. 

MAN'GONIZE, r. t. To polish for setting 
oft" to advantage. Obs. B. Jonson. 

MAN'GOSTAN, ? A tree of the East 

MANGOSTEE'N, ^ "' Indies, of the genus 
Garcinia, so called from Dr. Garcin, wlio 
described it. The tree grows to tbe highth 
of 18 feet, and bears fruit of the size of a 
crab apple, the pulp of which is very deli- 
cious food. Encyc. 

MAN'GROVE, n. A tree of the East and 
West Indies, otherwise called mangle, and 
of the genus Rhizophora. One species, 
the black mangle, grows in waters on the 
sides of rivers. The red mangrove does 
not grow in water. Its wood is of a deep 
red color, compact and heavy. The soft 
part of the bark of the white mangrove is 
formed into ropes. Encyc. 

2. The name of a fish. Pennant. 

MaNgY, a. [from mange.] Scabby ; infect- 
ed with the mange. Shak. 

MAN'HATER, n. [man andAa<e.] One who 
hates mankind ; a misanthrope. 

MAN'HOOD. «• [man and hood.] The state of 
one who is a man, of an adult male, or one 
who is advanced beyond puberty, boy- 
hood or childhood ; virility. 

2. Virility ; as opposed to womanhood. 



3. Human nature ; as the jnan/iooi of Christ 

4. The quaUties of a man ; courage ; brave- 
ry ; resolution. [lAttle iwed.] Sid?iey 

MA'NIA, n. [L. and Gr.] Madness. 

MAN'IABLE, a. JIanageable ; tractable. 
[JVot in use.] Bacon. 

MA'NIAe, a. [L. maniacus.] Mad ; raving 
with madness ; raging with disordered ' 
tellect. Gre^"- 

MA'NIAe, n. A madman; one raving with 
madness. Shenstone 

MANI'AeAL, a. Affected with madness. 

MANleHE'AN, a. Pertaining to the Mani- 

MANleHE'AN, } One of a sect in Persia, 

MANieriEE', ^"'who maintained that 
there are two supreme principles, the one 
good, the other evil, which produce all the 
happiness and calamities of the world. 
The first principle, or light, they held to 
be the author of all good ; the second, or 
darkness, the authorof all evil. The found 
er of the sect was Manes. Encyc. 

MAN'I€HEISM, n. [supra.] The doctrines 
taught, or system of principles maintain- 
ed by the Manichees. Encyc. Milner. 

MAN'i€HORD, ) [Ft. manichordion.] 

MANICORD'ON, ^ "' A musical instru 
men t in the form of a spiunet, whose strings 
like those of the clarichord, are coverec 
with little pieces of cloth to deaden and 
soften their sounds ; whence it is called the 
dumb spinntt. Encyc. 

MAN'ICON, n. A species of nightshade. 

MAN'IFEST, a. [L. manifestus, Ir. meanan, 
plain, clear ; minighim, to make smooth, to 
polish, to explain. Clearness maybe from 
polishing, or from opening, expanding, ex 

1. Plain ; open ; clearly visible to the eye or 
obvious to the understanding ; apparent ; 
not obscure or difficult to be seen or mi- 
derstood. From the testimony, the trutli 
we conceive to be manifest. 

Thus manifest to sight the god appeared. 

That which may be known of God is ma/ii- 
fest in them. Rom. i. 

2. Detected; with of. 

Calislho there stood manifest of shame. 
[Unusual.'\ Dryden. 

MAN'IFEST, n. An invoice of a cargo of 
goods, imported or laden for export, to be 
exhibited at the custom-house by the mas- 
ter of the vessel, or the owner or shipper. 
MAN'IFEST, ? [It. manifesto ; h.7nani- 
MANIFEST'O, ^ "-festus, manifest.] 
A public declaration, usually of a prince or 
sovereign, showing his intentions, or pro- 
claiming his opinions and motives ; as a 
manifesto declaring the purpose of a prince 
to begin war, and explaining his motives 
[Manifesto only is now used.] Addison. 
MAN' If EST, t). t. [L. manifesto.] To re 
veal ; to make to appear ; to show plain 
ly ; to make public ; to disclose to the eye 
or to the understanding. 

Nothing i3 hid, which shall not be manifested. 
Mark iv. 

He that loveth me, shall be loved of my 
Father, and I will love him, and will manifest 
myself to him. John iv. 
" Thy life did manifest thou lov'dst me not. 


2. To display ; to exhibit more clearly to the 

view. The wisdom of God is manifested 

in the order and harmony of creation 

Vol. II. 


MANIFESTA'TION, n. The act of disclos- 
ing what is secret, unseen or obscure ; dis- 
covery to the eye or to the understanding ; 
the exhibition of any thing by clear evi- 
dence ; display ; as the manifestation of 
God'ii power in creation, or of his benev 
olence in redemption. 

The secret manner in which acts of mercy 
ought to be performed, requires (his public man- 
gestation of them at the great day. 


MAN'IFESTED, pp. Made clear; disclos- 
ed ; made apparent, obvious or evident. 

MANIFEST'IBLE, a. That may be made 
evident. Brown. 

MAN'IFESTING, ppr. Showing clearly; 
aking evident ; disclosing ; displaying. 

MAN'IFESTLY, adv. Clearly ; evidently ; 
plainly ; in a manjier to be clearly seen or 

MAN'IFESTNESS, »i. Clearness to the 
sight or mind ; obviousness. 

MANIFESTO. [See Manifest.] 

MANIFOLD, a. [many and fold.] Of divers 
kinds; many in number ; numerous; mul- 

Lord, how manifold are thy works! Ps 

1 know your »»ani/b/(i transgressions. Amos v 
2. Exhibited or appearing at divers times or 

in various ways ; applied to icords in the 
singular number ; as the manifold wisdom 
of God, or his manifold grace. Epl; 
1 Pet. iv. 

MAN'IFOLDED, a. Having many doublings 
or complications ; as a manifolded shield. 
[JVot used.] Spenser. 

MAN'IFOLDLY, adv. In a manifold man- 
ner ; in many ways. Sidney. 

MAN'IFOLDNESS, n. Multiplicity. 


MANIG'LIONS, n. In gunnery, two han- 
dles on the back of a piece of ordnance- 
after the German way of casting. Bailey 

MAN'IKIN, n. A little man. Shak. 

MAN'IL, } [Sp. manilla, a bracelet, 

MANIL'LA, I "■ from L. manus, Sp. mono 
the hand.] 

A ring or bracelet worn by persons in Africa 

MA'NIO€, i A plant of the genus Ja- 

MA'NIHO€, > n. tropha, or Cassada plant 

MA'NIHOT, 3 It has palmated leaves 
with entire lobes. Encyc 

Manioc is an acrid plant, but from its 
root is extracted a pleasant nourishing 
substance, called cassava. This is obtain 
ed by grating the root, and pressing on 
the juice, which is an acrid and noxious 
poison. The substance is then dried 
and baked, or roasted on a plate of hot 
iron. Fourcroy. 

MAN'IPLE, n. [L. manipidus, a handful. 
Qu. L. manus and the Teutonic/«W.] 

1. A handful. 

2. A small band of soldiers ; a ivord applied 
only to Roman troops. 

3. A fanon, or kind of ornament worn about 
the arm of a mass priest ; or a garment 
worn by the Romish priests when they 
officiate. Sp. Diet. 

MANIP'ULAR, a. Pertaining to the mani 



MANIPULA'TION, n. [Fr. id. ; It. manip- 
olazione, from manipolare, to work with 
the hand, from L. vianipulus, supra.] 

In general, work by hand ; manual opera- 
in mining, the manner of digging 

chimistry, the operation of prepar 
i ; in phar 
macy, the preparation of drugs, 

g substances for experiments ; m pn 
if drugs, 
and kUl.] One who 

MAN'KILLER.n. [r, 

slays a man. 
MAN'KILLING, a. Used to kill men. 

MANKIND, n. [man and kind. This word 
admits the accent either on the first or 
second syllable; the distinction of accent 
being inconsiderable.] 
. The race or species of human beings. 
The proper study of mankind is man. 

2. A male, or the males of the human race. 
Thou shalt not lie with mankind as with wo- 
mankind. Lev. xviii. 
MANKIND, a. Resembling man in form, not 
woman. Frobisher. 

MAN'LESS, a. [man and less.] Destitute of 
men ; not manned ; as a boat. [Little 
used.] Bacon. 

3IAN'LIKE, a. Having the proper qualities 
of a man. Sidney. 

2. Of man's nature. Milton. 

MAN'LINESS, ?!. [from manly.] Thequah- 
ties of a man ; dignity ; bravery ; bold- 
ness. Locke. 
MAN'LING, n. A little man. B. Jonson. 
MAN'LY, a. [man and like.] Manlike ; be- 
coming a man ; firm ; brave ; undaunted. 
Serene and manly, hardened to sustain 
The load of life— Dryden. 

2. Dignified ; noble ; stately. 
He moves with jnan/y grace. Dryden. 

3. Pertaining to the adult age of man ; as a 
manly voice. 

4. Not boyish or womanish ; as a manly 
stride. Shak. 

MAN'LY, adv. With courage like a man. 

MAN'NA.n. [Ar. ^l^ mauna, to provide 
necessaries for one's household, to sustain, 

to feed them ; xi 
ions for a journey. This seems to be the 
true original of the word. In Irish, jKajiit 
is wheat, bread or food. Class Mn. No. 3.] 
. A substance miraculously furnished as 
food for the Israelites in their journey 
through the wilderness of Arabia. Ex. 

Josephus, Ant. B. iii. 1. considers the 
Hebrew word jn man, to signify tvhat. In 
conformity with this idea, the seventy 
translate the passage, Ex. xvi. 15. n tun, 
■tovro? what is this ? which rendering 
seems to accord with the following words, 
for they knew not what it was. And in 
the Encyclopedia, the translators are 
charged with making 3Ioses fall into a 
plain contradiction. Art. Manna. But 
Christ and his apostles confirm the com- 
mon version : " Not as your fathers ate 
manna, and are dead." John vi. 58. Ileb. ix. 
4. And we have other evidence, that the 
present version is correct ; for in the same 
chapter, Moses directed Aaron to " take a 
pot and put a homer full of manna there- 
in." Now it would be strange language 

munahon, provi 




to say, put an homer full of tckat, or U'hat 
is it. So also verse 35. " The children of 
Israel ate manna forty years, &c." In 
both verses, the Hebrew word is the same 
as in verse 15. 
9. In the materia medica, the juice of a cer- 
tain tree of the ash-kind, the Fraxinus or- 
nus, or flowering ash, a native of Sicily, 
Calabria, and other parts of the south of 
Europe. It is either naturally concreted, 
or e-xsiccated and purified by art. Thebest 
manna is in oblong pieces or flakes of a^ 
whitish or pale yellow color, light, friable, 
and somewhat transparent. It is a mild 
laxative. Encyc. Hooper. 

MAN'NER, n. [Fr. vianiere; It. maniera; 
Sp. manera ; Ann. manyell ; D. G. ivMnier ; 
Dan. maneer; Sw. maner. This word 
seems to be allied to Fr. manier. Arm. 
manea, to handle, from Fr. main, Sp. It. 
mano, Port, viam, L. viamis, the hand.] 
1. Form; method ; way of performing or 

Find thou the manner, and the means pre- 
pare. Dryden. 
9. Custom ; habitual practice. 

Show them the manner of the king that 
shall reign over them. This will be the 
of the king. 1 Sam. viii. 
Paul, as his manner was — Acts xvii, 
;l. Sort; kind. 

Ve tithe mint and rue, and all manner of 
herbs. Luke xi. 

They shall say all manner of evil against y 
falsely— Matt. v. 

In this application, manner has the sense 
of a plural word ; all sorts or kinds. 

4. Certain degree or measure. It is in s 
manner done already. 

The bread is in a manner common. 1 Sam 

This use may also be sometimes defined 
by sort or fashion ; as we say, a thing is 
done after a sort or fashion, that is, not 
well, fully or perfectly. 

Augustinus does in a manner confess the 
charge. Baker 

5. Mien; cast of look; mode. 

Air and manner are more expressive thar 
words. Clarissa 

6. Peculiar way or carriage ; distinct mode 

It can hardly be imagined how great a difl'er- 

cnce was in the humor, disposition and manner 

of the army under Essex and that under Waller. 


A man's company may be known by his jnan- 
;i«r of e.ipressing himself. Swift. 

7. Way ; mode ; of things. 

The temptations of prosperity insinuate them- 
selves after a gentle, but very powerful manner 

8. Way of service or worship. 

The nations which thou hast removed and 
placed in the cities of Samaria, know not tlie 
vianner of the god of the land— 2 Kings vii. 

9. In painting, the particular habit of a paint- 
er in managing colors, lights and shades. 

MAN'NER, V. t. To instruct in manners. 

MAN'NERISM, 71. Adherence to the 
manner; uniformity of manner. 

Edin. Rev. 
MAN'NERIST, n. An artist who performs 
his work in oue unvaried manner. 


terations 1 

MAN'NERLINESS,n. The quaUty of beingj 
civil and respectful in behavior ; civility;' 
complaisance. Hale.'. 

MAN'NERLY, a. Decent in external de- 
portment ; civil ; respectful ; complaisant ; 
not rude or vulgar. | 

What thou thinli'st meet and is most man 
nerly. Shak 

MAN'NERLY, adv. With civility ; respect 
fully ; without rudeness. Shak 

MAN'NERS, n. plu. Deportment ; carriage 
behavior; conduct; course of life ; in a 
moral seiise. 

Evil communications corrupt good manners. 
1 Cor. XV. 

2. Ceremonious behavior ; civility ; decent 
and respectful deportment. 

Shall we, in our applications to the great God, 

take that to be religion, which the common 

reason of mankind will not allow to be manners ? 


3. A bow or courtesy ; as, make your man- 
ner* ; a popular use of the word. 

MAN'NISH, a. [from man.] Having the ap- 
pearance of a man ; bold ; mascuhne ; as 
a mannish countenance. 

A woman impudent and mannish grown 
MANOM'ETER, n. [Gr. f<aros, rare, and 

fierpov, measure.] 

.iVn instrument to measure or show the al- 

the rarity or density of the air. 


MANOMET'RICAL, a. Pertaining to the 

manometer ; made by the manometer. 
MAN'OR, n. [Fr. manoir. Arm. maner, a 
country house, or gentleman's seat ; W. 
maenan or maenator, a manor, a districtj 
bounded by stones, from maen, a stone 
The word in French and Arnioric signifjes| 
a house, a habitation, as well as a manor 
and in this sense, the word would be nat 
urally deducible from L. maneo, to abide. 
But the etymology in Welsh is not im- 
probably the true one.] 
The land belonging to a lord or nobleman, 
or so much laud as a lord or great person 
age formerly kept in his own hands for the 
use and subsistence of his family. In thes( 
days, a manor rather signifies the jurisdic 
tio'n and royalty incorporeal, than the land 
or site ; for a man may have a manor in 
gross, as the law terms it, that is, the right 
and interest of a court-baron, with the per- 
quisites thereto belonging. Cowel. 
MAN'OR-HOUSE, \ The house belong- 
MAN'OR-SEAT, (, "• ing to a manor. 

Tliey have no civil liberty ; their children be- 
long not to them, but to their manorial lord. 
MAN'PLEASER, n. [man and pleaser.] 
One who pleases men, or one who takes 
uncommon pains togain the favor of men. 
MAN'QUELLER, n. [man and qtielL] A 
niankiller; auianslayer; a murderer. [JVol 
used.] Careiv. 

MANSE, n. mans. [L. mansio, from maneo. 

to abide.] 
1. A house or habitation; particularly, a 
parsonage house. A capital manse is the 
manor-house or lord's court. 
9. A farm. 
MAN'SERVANT.n. A male servant 

Pertaining to a manor. 

MAN'SION, n. [L. mansio, from maneo, to 

1. Any place of residence ; a house ; a hab- 

Thy mansion wants thee, Adam, rise. 

In my Father's house are many mansions. 
John xiv. 

2. The house of the lord of a manor. 

3. Residence; abode. 
These poets near our princes sleep, 
And in one grave their mansions keep. 

MAN'SION, V. i. To dwell ; to reside. 

MAN'SIONARY, a. Resident; resident- 
iary ; as mansionary canons. Encyc. 
MAN'SION-HOUSE, n. The house in 
which one resides ; an inhabited house. 

MAN'SIONRY, n. A place of residence. 
[JVot used.] Shak. 

MANSLAUGHTER, n. [man and slaugh- 
ter. See Slay.] 

. In a general sense, the killing of a man or 
of men ; destruction of the human spe- 
cies ; murder. Ascham. 
2. In law, the unlawful killing of a man with- 
out malice, express or implied. This may 
be voluntary, upon a sudden heat or ex- 
citement of anger ; or involuntary, but in 
the commission of some unlawful act. 
Manslaughter differs from miu-der in not 
proceeding from malice prepense or de- 
liberate, which is essential to Qonstitute 
murder. It differs from homicide excusa- 
ble, being done in consequence of some 
unlawful act, whereas excusable homicide 
happens in consequence of misadventm'e. 

MAN'SLAYER, n. One that has slain a 
human being. The Israelites had cities 
of refuge for manslayers. 

MAN'STEALER, n. One who steals and 
sells men. 

MAN'STEALING, n. The act of stealing a 
human being. 

MAN'SUETE, a. [L. mansuetus.] Tame ; 
gentle ; not wild or ferocious. [Little 
used.] Ray. 

MAN'SUETUDE, n. [L. mansuettido.] 
Tameness; mildness; gentleness. Herbert. 

MAN'TA, n. [Sp. manta, a blanket.] A flat 
fish that is very troublesome to pearl- 
fishers. Encyc. 

MANTEL. [See Mantle.] 

MAN'TELET, ? [dim. of mantle.] A 

MANT'LET, ^ "• small cloke worn by 
women. Johnson. 

2. \n fortification, a kind of movable parapet 
or penthouse, made of planks, nailed one 
over another to the highth of almost six 
feet, cased with tin and set on wheels. 
In a siege, this is driven before pioneers, 
to protect them from the enemy's small 
shot. Harris. 

MANT'IGER, rather mantichor, or manti- 
cor,n. [L. manticora,mantichora,Gr./iavri- 

A large monkey or baboon. Arhiithnot. 

MAN'TLE, ?i. [Siw. mcentel, mcntel ; It. Sp. 
manto ; G. D. mantel ; W. mantell. Qu. 
Gr. fiorStif, fiavSvaf, a cloke, from the Per- 
sic. In VV. mant is that which shuts.] 

1. A kind of cloke or loose garment to be 
worn over other garments. 


The herald and children are clothed with 
mantles of satin. Bacon. 

2. A cover. 

Well covered with the night's black mantle. 

3. A cover; that which conceals; as the 
mantle of charity. 

M.\N'TLE, v.t. To cloke; to cover; to 

" So the rising senses 

Begin to chase th' ignorant fumes, thatHian(/e 
Their clearer reason. Sficijt. 

MAN'TLE, V. i. To expand ; to spread. 
The swan with arched neck 
Between her white wings mantling, rows 
Her state with oary feet. Milton. 

2. To joy ; to revel. Johnson. 

My frail fancy, fed with full delights. 

Doth bathe in bliss, and mantleth most at 

ease. Spenser. 

[Qu. is not the sense to be covered or 

wrapped, to rest collected and secure ?] 

3. To be expanded ; to be spread or ex- 

He gave the mantling vine to grow, 

A trophy to his love. Fenton. 

4. To gather over and form a cover ; to col- 
lect on the surface, as a covering. 

There is a sort of men, whose visages 
Do cream and mantle like a standing pond. 

And the brain dances to the mantling bowl. 


5. To rusli to the face and cover it with a 
crimson color. 

When mantling blood 
Flow'd in his lovely cheeks. Smith. 

[Fermentation cannot be deduced from 

mantling, otherwise than as a secondary 

MAN'TLE, I „ The piece of tim- 

MAN'TLE-TREE, ^ her or stone in front 

of a chimney, over the fire-place, resting 

on the jambs. Enct/c 

[This word, according to Johnson, sig 

nihes the work over the fire-place, whici 

we call a mantle-piece.] 
MAN'TLE-PIECE, ) The work over a 
MAN'TLE-SHELF, <, "' fire-place, in fron 

of the chimney. 
MANT'LING, n. In heraldry, the repre 

sentalion of a mantle, or the drapery of a 

coat of arms. 
MAN'TO, n. [It.] A robe ; a cloke. Ricaid. 
IVIANTOL'OgY, n. [Gr. /iiairaa, divination, 

and >.oyo5, discourse.] 
The act or art of divination or prophesying 

[Liltle used.] 
MAN'TUA, n. [Fr. manleau. See Mantle.] 

A lady's gown. Pop: 

MANTUA-MAKER, n. One who makes 

gowns for ladies. Addison 

JMAN'UAL, a. [L. manualis, from manus, 

the hand, W. man.] 

1. Performed by the hand ; as manual labor 
or operation. 

•3. Used or made by the hand ; as a deed 
der the king's sign manual. 

MAN'UAL, n. A small book, such as may 
be carried in the hand, or conveniently 
handled ; as a manual of laws. Hale 

2. Tlie service book of the Romish church. 


Manual exercise, in the military art, the ex- 
ercise by which soldiers are taught the use 
of their muskets and other arms. 

MAN'UARY, a. Done by the hand. [Ao( 
used.] Fotherby. 


MANU'BIAL, a. [L. manubialis, from manu- 
bice, spoils.] 

Belonging to spoils ; taken in war. [lAttle 

MANUDUC'TION, n. [L. manus, band, and 

rf!(c(jo, a leading.] Guidance by the hand. 

GlanvUle. South. 

MANUDU€'TOR, n. [L. manus, hand, and 
ductor, a leader.] 

An officer in the ancient church, who gave 
the signal for the choir to sing, who beat 
time and regulated the music. Encyc. 

IMANUFAC'TORY, n. [See Manufacture] 
A house or place wliere goods are manu- 

MANUFA€'TURAL, a. Pertaining or rela- 
ting to manufactures. 

MANUFA€'TURE, n. [Fr. from L. inanus, 
hand, and /uao, to make.] 

1. The operation of making cloth, wares, 
utensils, paper, books, and whatever is 
used by man ; !the operation of reducing 
raw materials of any kind into a form 
suitable for use, by tlie hands, by art or 

2. Any thing made from raw materials by 
the hand, by machinery, or by art ; as 
cloths, iron utensils, shoes, cabinet work, 
sadlery, and the like. 

MANUFA€'TURE, v. f. To make or fab- 
ricate from raw materials, by the hand, by 
art or machinery, and work into forms 
convenient for use ; as, to manufacture 
cloth, nails, or glass. 

2. To work raw materials into suitable forms 
for use ; as, to manufacture wool, cotton, 
silk or iron. 

MANUFA€'TURE, v. i. To be occupied in 
manufactures. Boswell. 

MANUFA€'TURED, pp. Made from raw 
materials into forms for use. 

MANUFACTURER, n. One who works 
raw materials into wares suitable for use 

3. One who employs workmen for manu 
facturing ; the owner of a manufactory. 

MANUFA€'TURING, ppr. Making good. 

and wares from raw materials. 
MANUMISE, for manumit, not used. 
MANUMIS'SION, a. [L. manumissio. See 

The act of liberating a slave from bondage, 

and giving hira freedom. Arbuthnot 

MAN'UMIT, V. t. [L. manumitto ; manus, 

hand, and mitto, to send.] 
To release from slavery ; to liberate from 

personal bondage or servitude ; to free, as 

a slave. Dryden 

MAN'UMITTED, pp. Released from sla 

MAN'UMITTING, ppr. Liberating from 

personal bondage. 
MANU'RABLE, a. [from manure.] That 

may be cultivated. This, though the ori 

ginal sense, is rarely or never used. The 

present sense of manure, would give the 

following signification. 
2. That may be manured, or enriched by 


MANU'RACiE, 71. Cultivation. [JVotused.] 


MANU'RANCE, h. Cultivation. [JVotused.] 


MANU'RE, I'. /. [Fr. manauvrer, but in a 

different sense ; Norm, mainoverer, to m 

nure ; main, L. manus, hand, and ouvr( 

to work, L. operor.] 


To cultivate by manual labor; to till. 
[jbi this sense not now used.] MUton. 

2. To apply to land any fertilizing matter, 
as dung, compost, ashes, lime, fish, or any 
vegetable or animal substance. 

3. To fertilize; to enrich with nutritive sub- 

The corpsof half her senate . 
Manure the tields of Thessaly. Mdison. 

MANU'RE, n. Any matter which fertilizes 
land, as the contents of stables and barn- 
yards, marl, ashes, fish, salt, and every 
kind of animal and vegetable sub.stance 
applied to land, or capable of furnishing 
nutriment to plants. 
MANU'RED, pp. Dressed or overspread 

with a fertilizing substance. 
MANU'REMENT, n. Cultivation ; improve- 
ment. [Liltle used.] fVarton. 
MANU'RER, ji. One that manures lands. 
MANU'RING, ppr. Dressing or overspread- 
ing land with manure ; fertilizing. 
MANU'RING, n. A dressing or spread of 
manure on land. Mitford. 
MAN'USeRIPT, n. [L. manu scriptum, writ- 
ten with the hand ; It. manuscrillo ; Fr. 
jA book or paper written with the hand or 

MANUSCRIPT, a. Written with the hand : 

not printed. 
MANUTEN'ENCY, n. Maintenance, [^'ot 
in use.] Sancrofl. 

MANY, a. men'ny. [Sax. maneg, maneg, or 
menig ; D. menig ; G. mancher; Dan. 
mange ; Sw. m&nge ; Sax. menigeo, a mul- 
titude ; Goth, manags, many ; managei, a 
j multitude ; Russ. mnogei, many ; mnoju, 
i to multiply. It has no variation to ex- 
\ press degrees of comparison ; more and 
most, which are used for the comparative 
i and superlative degrees, are from a differ- 
i ent root.] 

,1. Numerous ; comprising a great number 
of individuals. 

Thou shall be a father of many nations. Gen. 

Not many wise men after the flesh, not many 
mighty, not many noble, are called. 1 Cor. i. 
Many are the' afflictions of the righteous. Ps. 

It is often preceded by as or so, and fol- 
lowed by so, indicating an equal number. 
As many books as you take, so many shall 
be charged to your account. 

So many laws argue so many sins. Jtfilton. 
It is also followed by as. 
As many as were willing-hearted brouglit 
bracelets. Ex. x.vxiv. 

It precedes an or a, before a noun in the 
singular number. 

Full many a gem of purest ray serene. 

2. In low language, preceded by too, it de- 
notes powerful or much ; as, they are too 
many for us. UEstrange. 

MANY, n. men'ny. A multitude ; a great 
number of individuals; the people. 

O thou fond many. Sliak. 

The vulgar and the many are fit only to be 

led or driven. South. 

MANY, n. men'ny. [Norm. Fr. meignee.] 

A retinue of servants ; household. Obs. 


MANY-CLEFT', a. Multifid ; having 

many fissures. Martyn. 




MANY-COL'ORED, a. Having many col- 
ors or hues. Pope. 

MANY-eOR'NERED, o. Having many cc 
ners, or more tlian twelve ; polygonal. 

MANV-FLOW'ERED, a. Having many 
flowers. Mariyn 

MANY-HE AD'ED, a. Having many heads ; 
as a many-headed monster ; many-headed 
tyranny. Dryden. 

MANY-LAN'GUAgED, a. Having many 
languages. Pope 

MANY-LE'AVED, a. Polypbyllous ; hav- 
ing many leaves. Martyn 

MANY-ftl'ASTERED, a. Having many 
masters. J. Barloio. 

IWANY-P'ARTED, a. Multipartite ; divided 
into several parts ; as a corol. Mariyn. 

MANY-PE'OPLED, a. Having a numer- 
ous population. Sandys. 

MANY-PET'ALED, a. Having many pet- 
als. Martyn. 

MANY-TWINKLING; a. Variously twiiik 
ling or gleaming. Gray. 

MANY-VALV'ED, a. Multivalvular ; hav- 
ing many valves. Mariyn 

MAP, n. [Sp. mapa ; Port, mappa; It 
mappamonda. Qu. L. mappa, a cloth or 
towel, a Punic word ; Rabbinic XSD. Maps 
may have been originally drawn on cloth.] 

A representation of the surface of the eartb 
or of any part of it, drawn on paper or 
other material, exhibiting the lines of lat- 
itude and longitude, and the positions of 
countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, 
rivers, &c. A map of the earth, or of a 
large portion of it, comprehends a repre- 
sentation of land and water; but a repre- 
sentation of a continent or any portion of 
land only, is properly a map, and a repre- 
sentation of the ocean only or any portion 
of it, is called a chart. We say, a map of 
England, of France, of Europe ; but a 
chart of the Atlantic, of the Pacific, &c. 

MAP, V. t. To draw or delineate, as the fig- 
ure of any portion of land. Shak. 

MA'PLE, I A tree of the genus 

MA'PLE-TREE, ^ "' Acer, of several spe- 
cies. Of the sap of the rock maple, sugar 
is made in America, in great quantities, by 

MAPLE-SU'GAR, n. Sugar obtained by 
evaporation from the juice of the rock 
maple. L 

MAP'PERY, n. [from map.] The art of 
planning and designing maps. Shak, 

M>AR, V. t. [Sax. merran, mirran, myrran, 
amyrran, to err, to deviate, to hinder, to 
lose, scatter or waste, to draw fi-om or mis- 
lead, to corrupt or deprave ; Sp. marrar, 
to deviate from truth and justice; marro, 
want, defect; li: mearaighim ; Gr. a^op- 
■tavu, [qu. Gr. fwnpatfu, L. marceo ;] It. 
smarrire, to miss, to lose ; smarrimenio, a 

1. To injure by cutting off a part, or by 
wounding and making defective ; as, to 
mar a tree by incision. 

I pray you, mar no inoio trees by writing 
songs in their barks. Shak. 

Neither shall tliou mar the corners of tliy 
beard. Lev. xix. 

3. To injure; to hurt; toimpair the strength 
or parity of 

When brewers mar their malt with water. 


3. To injure; to diminish ; to interrupt. 
But mirth is marred, and the good cheer is 

lost. Dryden. 

4. To injure ; to deform ; to disfigure. 

Ire, envy and despair 
Marr'd all his borrow'd visage. Milton. 

His visage was so marred more than any 
man. Is, lii. 

Moral evil alone mars the intellectual works 

of God. Buckminster. 

[This word is not obsolete in Atnerica.] 

MAR, in nightmar. [See J^ighlmar.] 

M'.4R, n. An injury. Ohs. 

2. A lake. [See Mere.] 

MAR'ACAN, n. A species of parrot in 

MAR'ACOCK, n. A plant of the genus 

MARANA'THA, n. [Syriac] The Lord 
comes or has come ; a word used by the 
apostle Paul in expressing a curse. This 
word was used in anathematizing persons 
for great crimes ; as much as to say, " may 
the Lord come quickly to take vengeance 
on thee for thy crimes." Calmei. 

MAR' ANON, n. The proper name of a 
river in South America, the largest in the 
world ; most absurdly called Amazon. 


MARAS'MUS, n. [Gr. |uapofff<05, from fo- 
, to cause to pine or waste away.] 

Atrophy ; a wasting of flesh without fever or 
apparent disease ; a kind of consumption. 
Coxe. Encyc. 

MARAUD', v.i. [Fr. marourf, a rascal ; Eth. 
^i^ marad, to hurry, to run. The 
Ileb. Tio to rebel, may be the same word 
differently applied. "Class Mr. No. 22. 
The Danish has the word in maroder, a 
robber in war, a corsair. So corsair is 
from L. cursiw, curro.] 

To rove in quest of plunder; to make an ex- 
cursion for booty ; to plunder. 

MARAUD'ER, n. A rover in quest of booty 
or plunder ; a plunderer ; usually applied 
to small parties of soldiers. 

MARAUD'ING, ppr. Roving in search of 

MARAUD'ING, Ji. A roving for plunder 
plundering bv invaders. 

MARAVE'DI," n. A small copper coin of 
Spain, equal to three mills American 
money, less than a farthing sterling. 

M'ARBLE, Ji. [Fr. marbre ; Sp. marmot ; It. 
marmo ; L. marmor ; Gr. ^ap/topo;, white.] 

1. The popular name of any species of cal- 
carious stone or mineral, of a compact 
texture, and of a beautiful appearance, sus- 
ceptible of a good polish. The varieties 
are numerous, and greatly diversified in 
color. Marble is limestone, or a stone 
which may be calcined to lime, a car- 
bonate of lime ; but limestone is a more 
general name, comprehending the calca- 
rious stones of an inferior texture, as well 
as those which admit a fine polish. Mar- 
ble is much used for statues, busts, pillars, 
chimney pieces, monuments, &c. 

2. A little ball of marble or other stone, i 
hy children in play. 

3. A stone remarkable for some inscription 
or sculpture. 

Arundel marbles, ? marble pieces with a 

Arundelian marbles, J chronicle of the city 

of Athens inscribed on them ; presented 

the university of Oxford, by Thomas, earl 
of Arundel. Encyc. 

M^ARBLE, a. Made of marble ; as a marble 

2. Variegated in color ; stained or veined 
like marble ; as the marble cover of a 

3. Hard ; insensible ; as a marble heart. 
M'ARBLE, V. t. To variegate in color ; to 

cloud ; to stain or vein like marble ; as, to 
marble the cover of a book. 

M'ARBLED,/)^. Diversified in color ; vein- 
ed like marble. 

MARBLE-HEARTED, a. Having a heart 
hke marble ; hard hearted ; cruel ; insen- 
sible ; incapable of being moved by pity, 
love or sympathy. Shak. 

3PARBLING, ppr. Variegating in colors ; 
clouding or veining hke marble. 

M'ARBLING, n. The art or practice of va 
negating in color, in imitation of marble. 

M'AR€ASITE, n. [ll. marcassiia ; Fr.mar- 

A name which has been given to all sorts of 
minerals, to ores, pyrites, and semi-met- 
als. It is now obsolete. 

JVichohon. Hill. Encyc. 

MAR€ASIT'I€, a. Pertaining to marca- 
site ; of the nature of marcasite. Encyc. 

MARCES'CENT, a. [L. marcescens, mar- 
cesco.] Withering ; fading ; decaying. 

MARCES'SIBLE, a. That may wither; 
liable to decay. 

M'ARCH, n. [L. Mars, the god of war.] 
The third month of the year. 

M'ARCH, V. i. To border on; to be contig- 
uous to. Obs. Gower. 

M'ARCH, v.i. [Fr. marcher; Sp. Port. 
marchar ; G. marschiren ; It. marciare, to 
march, to putrefy, L. marceo, Gr. napawu, ; 
Basque, mariatu, to rot. The senses of 
the Italian word unite in that of passing, 
departing. See Mar.] 

1. To move by steps and in order, as sol- 
diers ; to move in a mihtary manner. We 
say, tlie army marched, or the troops 

2. To walk in a grave, deliberate or stately 

Like thee, great son of Jove, like thee, 

When clad in rising majesty. 

Thou marchest down o'er Delos' hills. 


M'ARCH, V. t. To cause to move, as an 

army. Buonaparte marched an immense 

army to Moscow, but he did not march 

th«m back to France. 

2. To cause to move in order or regular 

procession. Prior. 

M'ARCH, n. [Fr.marche; It. marzo; D. 

mark ; G. marsch.] 

1. The walk or movement of soldiers in or- 
der, whether infantry or cavalry. The 
troops were fatigued with a long inarch. 

2. A grave, deliberate or solemn walk. 

The long majestic march. Pope. 

3. A slow or laborious walk. Addison. 

4. A signal to move ; a particular beat of 
the drum. Knolks. 

5. Movement ; progression ; advance ; as 
the march of reason ; the march of mind. 

M'ARCHER, n. The lord or oflicer who 
defended the marches or borders of a terri- 
tory. Davies. 

M-ARCHES, n. plu. [Sax.mcarc; Goth. 
marka ; Fr. marches ; D. mark ; Basque, 

M A R 

marra. It is radically the same word as 
mark and march.] 

Borders ; limits ; confines ; as lord of 
marches. England. 

M" ARCHING, ppr. Moving or walking in 
order or in a stately manner. 

M^ARCHING, n. IVIilitary movement ; pass 
age of troops. 

MARCHIONESS, n. The wife or widow 
of a marquis ; or a female having the rank 
and dignity of a marquis. Spelman 

M>ARCHPANE, n. [Fr. massepain ; L 
panis, bread.] 

A kind of sweet bread or biscuit. [JVb< used.' 

M'ARCID, a. [L. marcidus, from marceo, to 

Pining ; wasted away ; lean ; withered. 

Dry den. 

M^AReOR, n. [L.] The state of withering 
or wasting; leanness; waste of flesh 
[Little used.] Harvey 

MARE, n. [Sax.myra; G. mahre.] The fe- 
male of the horse, or equine genus of 

•i. [Sax. mara, D. merrie, the name of 
spirit imagined by the nations of the north 
of Europe to torment persons in sleep.] 
A kind of torpor or stagnation which 
seems to press the stomach in sleep ; the 
incubus. [It is now used only in the com- 
pound, nightmare, which ought to be writ- 
ten nightmar.] 

MAR'E€A, n. A species of duck in South 

MARE'NA, n. A kind of fish somewhat 
like a pilchard. 

M>ARESCHAL, n.m'arshai. [Fr. marechal ; 
D. G. marschalk ; Daa.marskalk, composed 
of W. marc, a horse, and the Teutonic 
scalk or skalk, schalk, a servant. This word 
is now written marshal, which see.] The 
chief commander of an army. Prior. 

M'ARGARATE, n. [L. margarita, a peari, 
from the Greek.] 

In chimistry, a compound of margaric acid 
with a base. 

MARG.\R'le, a. [supra.] Pertaining to 
pearl. The margaric acid is obtained by 
digesting soap made of hog's lard and pot- 
ash, in water. It appears in the form of 
pearly scales. Cyc. 

M'ARGARIN, ? A peculiar pearl-like 
MARGARINE, ^ substance, extracted 
from hog's lard ; called also margariteand 
margaric acid. Silliman. 

M'ARGARITE, n. A pearl. Peacham. 

2. Margaric acid. 

3. A mineral of a grayish white color found 
in Tyrol. Phillips. 

M'ARGAY, n. An American animal of the 

cat kind. 

[formerly marge or margent. 
Fr. marge ; Arm. marz ; It. margine ; Sp. 
margen ; L. margo ; Dan. marg. It coin- 
cides in elements with marches.] 

1. A border ; edge ; brink ; verge ; as the 
margin of a river or lake. 

2. The edge of the leaf or page of a book, 
left blank or filled with notes. 

.3. The edge of a wound. 

4. In botany, the edge of a leaf. Lee. 

M'ARGIN, V. t. To furnish with a margin : 

to border. 
2. To enter in the margin. 
MARGINAL, a. Pertaining to a margin. 


2. Written or printed in the margin ; as a 
marginal note or gloss. 

M'ARgINALLY, adv. In the margin of a 

M'ARgINATED, a. Having a margin. 

M'ARGODE, 71. A bluish gray stone, re- 
sembling clay in external appearance, but 
so hard as to cut spars and zeolites. 


M> ARGOT, 71. A fish of the perch kind, 
found in the waters of Carolina. Pennant. 

M^ARGRAVE, ti. [D. markgraff; G. mark- 
graf; Dan. margraeve ; compounded of 
mark, march, a border, and graff, graf or 
grave, an earl or count. See Reeve and 
Sheriff.] Originally, a lord or keeper of 
the marches or borders ; now a title of no 
bility in Germany, &c. 

MARGRA'VIATE, n. The territory or ju 
risdiction of a margrave. 

MAR'IETS, n. A kind of violet, [viola; 

MARIG'ENOUS, a. [L. 7;ia7-e, the sea, and 
gigno, to produce.] Produced in or by the 
sea. Kinvan. 

MARIGOLD, n. [It is called in Welsh goW, 
which is said to be from gol, going round 

M A R 

or covering. In D. it is called goudsbloem. 
gold-flower; in G.ringelblume, ring-flow- 
er; in Dan. guldblomst, gold-flower.] 

A plant of the genus Calendula, bearing a 
yellow flower. There are several plants 
of difterent genera bearing this name ; as 
the African marigold, of the genus Tagetes 
corn-marigold, of the genus Chrysanthe- 
mum ; Rg-ynarigold, of the genus Meseni- 
bryanthemum ; marsh-;7iangoW, of the 
genus Caltha. 

MAR'IKIN, n. Aspeciesof monkey having 
a mane. Diet. ATat. Hist 

MAR'INATE, v. t. [Fr. mariner, from ma- 

To salt or pickle fish, and then preserve them 
in oil or vinegar. [Little used.] Johnson 

MARINE, a. [Fr. from L. marinus, from 
mare, the sea, W. TTior. The seven lakes 
within the Delta Venetum were formeriy 
called septem maria, and mare may signify 
a stand of water.] 

1. Pertaining to the sea ; as marine produc- 
tions or bodies ; marine shells. 

3. Transacted at sea ; done on the ocean ; as 
ine engagenent. 

3. Doing duty on the sea 
cer; marine forces. 

MARINE, n. A soldier that serves on board 
of a ship in naval engagements. In the 
plural, marines, a body of troops trained to 
do military service on board of ships. 

2. The whole navy of a kingdom or state. 

The whole economy of naval afiairs, com 

prehending the building, rigging, equip 

ping, navigating and manage^nent of ships 

of war in engagements. 
MARINER, n. [Fr. marinier, from L. mare, 

the sea.] 
A seaman or sailor ; one whose occupation 

is to assist in navigating ships. 
MAR'IPUT, n. The zoril, an animal of the 

skunk tribe. 
MAR'ISH, 7!. [Fr. 7;wrats ; Sax. mersc ; D. 

moeras ; G. morast ; from L. mare, W. mor, 

the sea.] 
Low ground, wet or covered with water and! 

coarse grass ; a fen ; a bog ; a moor. It 
is now written marsh, which see. 

Sandys. Milton. 

MARTSH, a. -aioory ; fenny ; boggy. 


MAR'ITAL, a. [Fr. from L. marUus, Fr. 
?iian, a husband.] Pertaining to a hus- 
band, ^yliffe. 

MAR'ITIME, a. [L. maritimus, from mare, 
the sea.] 

1. Relating or pertaining to the sea or 
ocean ; as maritime aft'airs. 

2. Performed on the sea; naval; as mari- 
time service. 

3. Bordering on the sea ; s.s ^maritime coast. 

4. Situated near the sea ; as maritime towns. 

5. Having a navy and commerce by sea; as 
maritime powers. 

Maritimal is not now used. 
[Note. We never say, a maritime body, a 
maritime shell or production, a maritime offi- 
cer or engagement, a maritime league. See 
M'ARJORAM, n. [Fr. marjolaine; It. mar- 
gorana ; G. majoran ; D. mariolien ; Sp. 
mejorana ; Arm. marjol ; Port, mangerona.] 
A plant of the genus Origanum, of several 
species. The sweet marjoram is peculiar- 
ly aromatic and fragrant, and much used 
in cookery. The Spanish marjoram is of 
the genus Urtica. Fam. of Plants. 

M'ARK, n. [Qa.x.marc,mearc; D.merk; G. 
marke ; Dan. mcerke ; Sw. 7Hu7-Ae ; W. marc ; 
Fr. marque ; Arm. mercq ; Sp. Port. It. 
marca ; Sans, inarcca. The word coin- 
cides in elements with march, and with 
marches, borders, the utmost extent, and 
with market, and L. mercor, the primary 
sense of which is to go, to pass ; as we see 
by the Greek iitrtopuvofiai, from jtopfou^ai, 
to pass, Eng. fair, and fare. Thus in 
Dutch, mark signifies a mark, a boundary, 
and a march. Class Mr. No. 7. Ar.] 
A visible line made by drawing one sub- 
stance on another; as a mark made by 
chalk or charcoal, or a pen. 

2. A line, groove or depression made by 
stamping or cutting; an incision; a chan- 
nel or impression ; as the mark of a chis- 
el, of a stamp, of a rod or whip; the mark 
of the finger or foot. 

3. Any note or sign of distinction. 
The Lord set a mark upon Cain. Gen. 4. 

4. Any visible effect of force or agency. 
There are scarce any marks left of a subter- 
raneous fire. .Addison. 

5. Any apparent or intelligible effect ; proof, 

The confusion of tongues was a mark of sepa- 
ration. Bacon. 

6. Notice taken. 
The laws 

Stand like the forfeits in a barber's shop, 

As much for mock as mark. Shak. 

7. Any thing to which a missile weapon may 
be directed. 

France was a fairer mark to shoot at than 
Ireland. Dames. 

8. Any object used as a guide, or to which 
the mind may be directed. The dome of 
the State house in Boston is a good mark 
for seamen. 

9. Any thing visible by which knowledge of 
something may be obtained; indication; 
as the marks of age in a horse. Civility is 
a mark of politeness or respect. Levity is 
a mark of wealcness. 

M A R 

M A R 

M A R 

10. A character made by a person who can 
not write his name, and intended as a 
substitute for it. 

11. [Fr. »narc, Sp. marco.] A weight of 
tain commodities, but particularly of gold 
and silver, used in several states of Eu 
rope ; in Great Britain, a money of ac 
count, equal to thirteen shillings and four 
pence. In some countries, it is a coin. 

12. A license of reprisals. [See Marque.'] 
M'ARK, V. t. [Sax. mearcian; D. merkcn; 

G. marken ; Dan. vimrker ; Sw. mUrka ; 
Fr. marquer; Arm. mercqa ; Port, and Sp 
marcar ; It. marcare ; W. marciaw.] 

1. To draw or make a visible line or charac- 
ter with any substance ; as, to mark with 
chalk or with compasses. 

2. To stamp ; to impress ; to make a visibli 
impression, figure or indenture ; as, ti 
mark a sheep with a brand. 

3. To make an incision ; to lop off a part 
to make any sign of distinction ; as, to 
mark sheep or cattle by cuts in their ears. 

4. To form a name or the initials of a name 
for distinction ; as, to mark cloth ; to mark 
a handkerchief. 

5. To notice ; to take particular observation 

Mark them who cause divisions and offenses. 
Rom. xvi. 

Mark the perfect man, and behold the up- 
right, for the end of that man is peace. Ps. 

6. To heed ; to regard. Smith. 
To mark out, to notify, as by a mark ; to 

point out ; to designate. The ringleaders 
were marked out for seizure and punish- 

M'ARK, v.i. To note; to observe critically ; 
to take particular notice ; to remark. 

Mark, I pray you, and see how tliis man 
seeketh mischief. 1 Kings xx. 

M'ARKABLE, a. Remarkable. [Ao< in use.] 

M'ARKED, pp. Impressed with any note or 
figure of distinction ; noted ; distinguished 
by some character. 

M'ARKER, n. One who puts a mark on 
any thing. 

2. One that notes or takes notice. 

M'ARKET, n. [D. G. markt ; Dan. mar- 
ked ; Fr. marchi ; Arm. marchad ; It. mer 
cato ; Sp. Port, mercado ; L. mercatus, from 
mercor, to buy ; W. m,arcnat ; Ir. margadh 
See Mark.] 

1. A public place in a city or town, where 
provisions or cattle are exposed to sa' 
an appointed place for selling and buying 
at private sale, as distinguished from an 

2. A public building in which provisions are 
exposed to sale ; a market-house. 

;1. Sale; the exchange of provisions or goodi 
for money ; purchase or rate of purchasi 
and sale. The seller says he comes to a 
bad market, when the buyer says he comes 
to a good market. We say, the markets 
are low or high ; by which we understand 
the price or rate of purchase. We say 
that commodities find a quick or ready 
market ; markets are dull. Wo are not able 
to find a market for our goods or provis- 

4. Place of sale; as the British market; the 

American market, 
'i. The privilege of keeping a public market. 

MARKET, v.i. To deal in market ; to buy 
or sell ; to make bargains for provisions or 

M-ARKET-BELL, 71. The bell that gives 
notice of the time or day of market. 

M'ARKET-eROSS, ii. A cross set up 
where a market is held. 

MARKET-DAY, n. The day of a public 

M'ARKET-FOLKS, n. People that come 
to the market. Shak. 

M'ARKET-HOUSE, n. A building for a 
public market. 

M'ARKET-MAID, n. A woman that brings 
things to market. 

M>ARKET-MAN, n. A man that brings 
things to market. 

MARKET-PLACE, n. The place where 
provisions or goods are exposed to sal 

MARKET-PRICE, } The current price 

M'ARKET-RATE, $ "" of commodities at 
any given time. 

M>ARKET-TOWN, n. A town that lias the 
privilege of a stated public market. 

M'ARKET-WoMAN, n. A woman that 
brings things to market or that attends a 
market for selling any thing. 

M'ARKETABLE, a. That may be sold ; 
salable. Shak. 

3. Current in market ; as marketable value. 
Locke. Edwards. 

M'ARKSMAN, n. [Mark and man.] One 
that is skillful to hit a mark ; he that shoots 
well. Shak. Dryden. 

2. One who, not able to write, makes his 
mark instead of his name. 

M'ARL, n. [W. marl; D. Sw. Dan. G. 
mergel ; h. Sp. It. marga; Ir. marla; 
Arm. marg. It seems to be allied to Sax. 
merg, mearh ; D. merg, marrow, and to be 
named from its softness; Eth. <^Q'^ 
clay, gypsum, or mortar. See Marrow.] 

A species of calcarious earth, of different 
composition, being united with clay or 
fuller's earth. In a crude state, it effer- 
vesces with acids. It is found loose and 
friable, or more or less indurated. It pos- 
sesses fertilizing properties and is much 
used for manure. 

Marl is composed of cai-bonate of lime and 
clay in various proportions. Cteaveland. 

M'ARL, D. (. To overspread or manure with 

2. To fasten with marline. Ainsivorth. 

MARLA'CEOUS, a. Resembling marl; 
partaking of the qualities of marl. 

M'ARLINE, n. [Sp. merlin ; Port, merlim.] 

A small line composed of two strands little 
twi.sted, and either tarred or white ; used 
for winding round ropes and cables, to 
prevent their being fretted by the blocks, 
&c. Mar. Diet. 

M'ARLINE, V. t. To wind marline round 
a rope. 

M'ARLINE-SPIKE, n. A small iron like a 
large spike, used to open the bolt rope 
when the sail is to be sewed to it, &c. 


MARLING, n. The act of winding a sraaf 
line about a rope, to prevent its being gall- 
M'ARLITE, n. A variety of marl. 


MARLIT'IC, a. Partaking of the qualities 

of marlite. 

M'ARLPIT, n. A pit where marl is dug, 

M'ARLY, a. Consisting in or partaking of 

2. Resembling marl. Mortimer. 

3. Abounding with marl. 
M'ARMALADE, n. [Fr. marmelade ; Sp. 

mermelada; Port, marmelada, from mar- 
melo, a quince, L. melo, or Sp. melado, like 
honey, L. mel.] 

The pulp of quinces boiled into a consist- 
ence with sugar, or a confection of plums, 
apricots, quinces, &c. boiled with sugar. 
In Scotland, it is made of Seville oranges 
and sugar only. Quincy. Encyc. 

M'ARMALITE, n. [Gn^ap^aipu, to shine.] 
A mineral of a pearly or metallic luster; a 
hydrate of magnesia. Mittall. 

MARMORA'CEOUS, a. Pertaining to or 
like marble. [See Marmorean, the more 
legitimate word.] 

MARMORATED, a. [L. mnrnior, marble.] 
Covered with marble. [Little used.] 

MARMORA'TION, n. A covering or in- 
usting with marble. [Little used.] 

MARMO'REAN, a. [L. marmoreus.] Per- 
taining to marble. 

2. Made of marble. 

M'ARMOSE, n. An animal resembling the 

opossum, but less. Instead of a bag, this 

animal has two longitudinal folds near the 

thigh.s, which serve to inclose the young. 

Dict. JVat. Hist. 

M'ARMOSET, n. A small monkey. Shak. 

M-ARMOT, Ji. [It. marmotta.] A quadru- 
ped of the genus Arctomys, allied to the 
murine tribe. It is about the size of the 
rabbit, and inhabits the higher region of 
the Alps and Pyrenees. The name is also 
given to other species of the genus. The 
woodchiick of North America is called 
the Maryland marmot. Ed. Encyc. 

MAROON', n. A name given to free blacks 
living on the mountains in the West India 

MAROON', I', t. To put a sailor ashore on 
a desolate isle, under pretence of his hav- 
ing committed some great crime. 


M'ARaUE, } ^ [Fr.] Letters of marque 

M'ARK, \ ■ are letters of reprisal ; a 
license or extraordinary commission 
granted by a sovereign of one state to his 
subjects, to make reprisals at sea on the 
subjects of another, under pretense of 
indemnification for injuries received. 
Marque is said to be from the same root 
as marches, limits, frontiers, and literally 
to denote a license to pass the limits of a 
jurisdiction on land, for the purpose of 
obtaining satisfaction for theft by seizing 
the property of the subjects of a foreign 
nation. I can give no better account of 
the origin of this word. Lunier. 

2. The ship commissioned for making re- 

MARQUETRY, n. [Fr. marqueterie, from 
marque, marqueter, to spot.] 

Inlaid work ; work inlaid with variegations 
of fine wood, shells, ivory and the like. 

M'ARQUIS, n. [Fr. id.; Sp. marque.?; It. 
marchese; from march, marches, limits. 
See Marches.] 

A title of honor in Great Britain, next to 
that of duke. Originally, the marquis was 
an officer whose duty was to guard the 

M A R 

M A R 


marches or frontiers of the kingdom. The 
office has ceased, and marquis is now a 
mere title conferred by ])atent. Encyc. 

M'ARQUIS, n. A marchioness. Obs. 


MARQUISATE, n. The seigniory, dignity 
or lordship of a marquis. 

M-ARKER, V. [from mar.] One that mars 
hurts or impairs. Aschi 

MARRIABLE, for marriageable. [A'ot 

MAR'RIAGE, 91. [Fr. manage, from mc 
to marry, from man, a husband ; L. mas. 
maris; Sp. maridage.] 

The act of uniting a man and woman for 
hfe ; wedlock ; the legal union of a man 
and woman for life. Marriage is a con 
tract both civil and religious, by whicl 
the parties engage to live together in mu 
tual affection and fidelity, till death shall 
separate them. 3Iarriage was instituted 
by God himself for the purpose of pre 
venting the promiscuous intercourse ofl 
the sexes, for promoting domestic felicity, 
and for securing the maintenance and ed 
ucation of children. 

Mamage is honorable in all and the bed un 
defiled. Heb. xiii. 

2. A feast made on the occasion of a mar 

The kingdom of heaven is like a certain king-. 
who made a marriage for his son. Matt. 

3. In a scriptural sense, the union between 
Christ and his church by the covenant of 
grace. Rev. xix. 

MARRIAGEABLE, a. Of an age suitabli 
for marriage; fit to be married. Younj 
persons are marriageable at an earlier age 
in warm climates than in cold. 

2. Capable of union. Milloti 

MARRIAGE-ARTICLES, «. Contract or 
agreement on which a marriage is found 

MAR'RIED, })p. [from 7narry.] United ii 

2. a. Conjugal; connubial; as the married 

MAR'ROW, n. [Sax. merg, mearh ; D. merg; 
G. mark ; Dan. marv ; Sw. mhrg ; Corn. 
maru ; Ir. smir and smear; W. mer, mar- 
row ; Ch. unn mera, to make fat ; Ar. to 
be manly. See Marl.] 

1. A soft oleaginous substance contained in 
the cavities of animal bones. 

2. The essence ; the best part. 

3. In the Scottish dialect, a companion : 
fellow ; associate ; match. Tusser. 

MAR'ROW, V. t. To fill with manow or 

with fat ; to glut. 
MAR'ROW-BONE, n. A bone containing 

marrow, or boiled for its marrow. 

2. The bone of the knee ; in ludicrous lan- 


Dry den 
A kind of rich pea. 

MAR'ROWISH, a. Of the nature of mar 
row. Burton 

MAR'ROWLESS, a. Destitute of marrow 

MAR'ROWY, a. Full of marrow; pithy. 

MAR'RY, V. t. [Fr. marier, from mari, t 
husband ; L. mas, maris, a male ; Finnish 


■ ; •^'"' 1 «.< mara, to be 

manly, mascuhne, brave ; whence its d 
rivatives, a man, L. vir, a husband, 
lord or master. See also Ludolf, Eth. 
Lex. Col. C8.] 
. To unite in wedlock or matrimony ; to 
join a man and woman for life, ami 
stilute them man and wife according to 
the laws or customs of a nation. By the 
laws, ordained clergymen have a right tc 
marry persons within certain limits pre- 

Tell him he shall mairy the couple himself. 
. To dispose of in wedlock. 

Mecaenas told Augustus he must eidier mar- 
ry his daughter Julia to Agrippa, or take away 
his life. Bacon 

[In this sense, it is properly applicable to 
females only.] 

. To take for husband or wife. We say, a 
man marries a woman ; or a woman mar- 
ries a man. The first was the original 
sense, but both are now well authorized. 

4. In Scripture, to unite in covenant, or 
the closest connection. 


MAR'RY, V. i. To enter into the conjugal 
state ; to unite as husband and wife ; to 
take a husband or a wife. 

If the case of the man be so with his wife, 
is not good to marry. Matt. six. 

I will therefore that the younger women 
marry. I Tim. v. 

MAR'RY, a term of asseveration, is said to 
have been derived from the practice of 
swearing by the virgin Mary. It ' 

M'ARS, n. In mythology, the god of war ; 
in modem usage, a planet ; and in the old 
chimistry, a term for iron. 

M'ARSH, «. [Sax. mersc ; Fr. marais ; D. 
moeras ; G.morast. It was formerly writ 
ten marish, directly from the French. We 
have morass from the Teutonic, 

A tract of low land, usually or occasionally 
covered with water, or very wet and miry, 
and overgrown with coarse grass or with 
detached clumps of sedge ; a fen. It dif- 
fers from swamp, which is merely moist 
or spungy land, but often producing va 
uable crops of grass. Low land occasion- 
ally overflowed by the tides, is called salt 

M>ARSH-EL'DER, n. The gelder rose, a 
species of Viburnum. Lee. 

M^ARSH-MAL'LOW, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus Althsea. 

M>ARSH-MAR'IGOLD, n. A plant of the 
genus Caltha. 

MARSH-ROCKET, n. A species of water 
cresses. Johnson. 

M'ARSHAL, n. [Fr. marcchal ; D. G. ,nar- 
schalk; Dan.inarshalk ; compounded of W. 
marc, a horse, and Tent, scealc, or schalk, 
or skalk, a servant. The latter word now 
signifies a rogue. In Celtic, seal or scale 
signified a man, boy, or servant. In Fr. 
marechal, Sp. mariscal, signify a marshal, 
and a farrier.] Originally, an oflicer who 
had the care of horses ; a groom. In 
more modern usage, 

L The chief oflicer of arms, whose duty it 
is to regulate combats in the lists. 


2. One who regulates rank and order at a 
feast or any other assembly, directs the 
order of procession and the like. 

3. A harbinger; a pursuivant ; one who goes 
before a prince to declare his coming and 
provide entertainment. Johnson. 

4. In France, the highest military oflicer. 
In other countries of Europe, a marshal is 
a military officer of high rank, and called 


5. In JImerica, a civil oflicer, appointed by 
the President and Senate of the United 
States, in each judicial district, answering 
to the sheriff'of a county. His duty is to 
execute all precepts directed to him, issu- 
ed under the authority of the United 

6. An oflicer of any private society, appoint- 
ed to regulate their ceremonies and exe- 
cute their orders. 

Earl marshal of England, the eighth oflicer 
of state ; an honorary title, and personal, 
until made hereditary by Charles II, in the 
family of Howard. During a vacancy in 
the office of high constable, the earl mar- 
shal has jurisdiction in the court of chiv- 
alry. E7icyc. 

Earl marshal of Scotland. This officer for- 
merly had command of the cavalry, under 
the constable. This office was held by 
the family of Keith, but forfeited by re- 
bellion in 1715. Encyc. 

Knight marshal, or marshal of the king's 
house, formerly an officer who was to ex- 
ecute the commands of the lord steward, 
and have the custody of prisoners com- 
mitted by the court of verge ; hence, the 
name of a prison in Southwark. Encyc. 

Marshal of the king's bench, an officer who 
has the custody of the prison called the 
king's bench, in Southwark. He attends 
on the court and has the charge of the 
prisoners committed by them. Encyc. 

MA'RSHAL, V. t. To dispose in order ; to 
arrange in a suitable manner ; as, to mar- 

shal an army ; to marshal troops. Dryden. 

~ terf.J 


2. To lead, 

3 a harbinger 

'ml troops. Vryde 
;r. [JVol used.] 

3. To dispose in due order the several parts 
of an escutcheon, or the coats of arms of 
distinct families. Encyc. 

M^ARSIL-^LED, pp. Arranged in due or- 

M^ARSHALER, n. One who disposes in 
due order. 

M'ARSHALING, jipr. Arranging in due 

M'ARSHALSEA, n. In England, the pris- 
on in Southwark, belonging to the mar- 
shal of the king's household. Johnson. 

Court of marshalsea, a coui-t formerly held 
before the steward and marshal of the 
king's house, to administerjustice between 
the king's domestic servants. Blackstone. 

M>ARSHALSHIP, n. The ofiice of a mar- 

M^ARSHY, a. [from marsh.] Wet; boggy; 
fenny. Dryden. 

2. Produced in marshes ; as a marshy weed. 

M'ART, 11. [from market.] A place of sale 
or traffick. It was formerly applied chief- 
ly to markets and fairs in cities and towns, 
but it has now a more extensive applica- 
tion. We sav, the United States are a 




principal mart for Euglish goods; Eng- 
land and France are the marts of Ameri- 
can cotton. 
2. Bargain ; purchase and sale. [J^ot used.' 

M'ART, V. i. To buy and sell ; to traffick 

Wot used.] Shak.\ 

M'ARTAGON, n. A kind of lily. Herbert} 
RrARTEL, V. t. [Fr. maHeler.] To strike. 

Obs. Obs 

MARTEN. [See Martin.] 
M>ARTEN, n. [D. marter ; G. marder ; Fr 

marte ; Arm. mart, martr ; Sp.marta; It 

An animal of the genus Mustela, or weasel 

kind, whose fur is used in making hats 

and muffs. 
M'ARTIAL, a. [Fr. from L. martialis ; Sp. 

marcial ; It. viarziale ; from L. Mars, the 

god of war.] 

1. Pertaining to war ; suited to war ; as 
martial equipage ; martial music ; a mar- 
tial appearance. 

2. Warlike ; brave ; given to war ; as a mar- 
tial nation or people. 

3. Suited to battle ; as a matiial array. 

4. Belonging to war, or to an army and na- 
vy ; opposed to civil ; as martial law ; a 
court maiiial. 

5. Pertaining to Mars, or borrowing the prop- 
erties of that planet. 

The natures of the fixed stars are esteemed 
martial or jovial, according to the colors by 
which they answer to those planets. Obs. 


6. Having the properties of iron, called by 
the old chimists. Mars. 

M'ARTIALISM, n. Bravery; martial ex- 
ercises. [JVot in Mse.] Prince. 

M'ARTIALIST, n. A warrior ; a fighter. 
[JVot used.] Hoivel. 

M'ARTIN, n. [Fr. martinet ; Sp. maHinete. 
The Germans call it mauer-schivalbe, wall 
swallow, and perhaps the word is formed 
from the root of L. viurus, W. mur, a 

A bird of the genus Hirundo, which forms 
its nest in buildings. It was formerly' 
written by some authors martlet. Dryden. 

M^ARTINET, ? In military language, a' 

M^ARTLET, J "• strict disciplinarian ; so 
called from an officer of that name. 

MARTINETS, n. In ships, martinets are! 
small lines fastened to the leech of a sail,! 
to bring it close to the yard when the saili 
is furled. Bailey. 

M'ARTINGAL, n. [Fr. martingale ; It. 
Sp. martingala. The Portuguese call it 

1. A strap or thong fastened to the girth 
der a horse's belly, and at the other end 
to the muss-roll, passing between the fore 
legs. Encyc. 

2. In ships, a rope extending from the jib- 
boom, to tlie end of a bumpkin under 
the cap of the bowsprit. Mar. Diet. 

M'ARTINMAS, n. [Martin and viass.] The 
feast of St. Martin, the eleventh of Novem- 
ber. Johnson. 

M'ARTLET, n. [See Martin.^ Martlets, in 
heraldry, are little birds represented with- 
out feet, used as a mark of distinction for 
younger brothers of a family, who are 
thus admonished that they are to trust for 
promotion to the wings of merit. Encyc. 

M^ARTYR, 7!. [Gr. ;uap?vp, a witness.] One 
who, by his death, bears witness to the 
truth of the gospel. Stephen was the first 
christian martyr. 

To be a martyr signifies only to witness the 
truth of Christ. South. 

2. One who suffers death in defense of any 
cause. We say, a man dies a martyr to his 
poUtical principles or to the cause of liber- 

M'ARTYR, t). t. To put to death for ad- 
hering to what one believes to be the 
truth ; to sacrifice one on account of his 
faith or profession. Pearson 

2. To murder ; to destroy. Chaucer. 

M^ARTYRDOM, n. The death of a martyr 
the suffering of death on account of one': 
adherence to the faith of the gospel. 

He intends to crown their innocence with the 
^\ory of martyrdom. Bacon. 

MARTYRIZE, V. t. To offer as a martyr. 
[Little used.] Spenser. 

MARTYR0L0g'I€AL, a. Registering or 
registered in a catalogue of martyrs. 

MARTYR0L'06IST, ,1. A writer of mar 
tyrologv, or an account of martyrs. 

MARTYROL'OGY, n. [Gr. imptvp, a wit 
ness, and ^os, discourse.] 

A history or account of martyrs with their 
sufferings ; or a register of martyrs. 


M'ARVEL, n. [Fr.merveUle ;Ir. miorbhaUle; 
It. maraviglia ; Sp. maraviUa ; Port, ma 
ravilha ; Arm. man. ; L. mirabilis, won 
derful, from miror, Ch. Syr. nm de 
mar, to wonder, L. demiror. We have the 
primary sense in the Armoric miret. 
stop, hold, keep, guard, hinder ; for to 
wonder, admire or be astonished, is to 
stop, to hold, to be fixed, which exactly 
expresses the fact. The Russian zamira- 
yu, to be astonished, is the same word with 
a prefix, and from miryu, to pacify or ap- 
pease, that is, to stop, to allay. From the 
same root or family, probably, we have 
moor, to moor a ship, Sp. Port, amar- 
rar, Fr. amairer, to moor, and demeurer, tc 
dwell or abide. So also L. mora, delay 
and perhaps morior, W. mani, to die, mu- 
ms, a wall, Eng. demur, &c. Class Mr. 
No. 33.] 

1. A wonder ; that which arrests the atten- 
tion and causes a person to stand or gaze 
or to pause. [This word is nearly obso- 
lete, or at least little used in elegant wri- 

2. Wonder ; admiration. 

Marvel of Peru, a plant of the genus Mirabi- 

M'ARVEL, V. i. To wonder. It expresses 
less than astonish or amaze. \.N'earlv obso- 
lete.] ^ •* 

M-ARVELING, ppr. Wondering. 

M>ARVELOUS, a. [Fr. merveilleux ; It 

1. Wonderful ; strange ; exciting wonder or 
some degree of surprise. 

This is the Lord's doing ; it is marvelous in 
our eyes. Ps. cxviii. 

2. Surpassing credit; incredible. Pope 

3. The marvelous, in writings, is that which 
exceeds natural power, or is preternatural ; 
opposed to probable. Johrison 

4. Formerly used adverbially for wonderful 
ly, exceedingly. 

M'ARVELOUSLY, adv. Wonderfully ; 
strangely ; in a manner to excite wonder 
or surprise. Clarendon. 

M'ARVELOUSNESS, n. Wonderfulness ; 

MA'RY-BUD, n. The marigold. Shak. 

M^ASCLE, n. m'asl. la heraldry, sl \oxenge, 
as it were perforated. Todd. 

M>AS€ULINE, a. [Fr. masculin; L. mas- 
culinus, from masculus, mas, or the Ir. 
modh, Polish maz, Bohemian mid, Slavon- 
ic, mosch.'] 
. Having the quahties of a man ; strong ; 
robust ; as a masctdine body. 

2. Resembling man ; coarse ; opposed to 
delicate or soft ; as masculine features. 
Bold ; brave ; as a masculine spirit or 

4. Ingrammar, the jnoscuiine genderof words 
is that which expresses a male, or some- 
thing analagous to it ; or it is the gender 
appropriated to males, though not always 
he male sex. 

Encyc. Johnson. 

M>ASCULINELY, adv. Like a man. 

B. Jonson. 

M'ASeULINENESS, n. The quality or 
state of being manly ; resemblance of man 
in qualities ; as in coarseness of features, 
strength of body, boldness, &c. 

MASH, n. [G. meischen, to mix, to mash ; 
Sp. mascar, to chew, Fr. macher, for nuis- 
cher, L. mastico.] 

1. A mixture or mass of ingredients, beaten 
or blended together in a promiscuous man- 

2. A mixture for a horse. Far. Diet. 

3. A mesh. [See Mesh, the more common 

MASH, V. t. To beat into a confused mass. 

2. To bruise ; to crush by beating or press- 
ure ; as, to jnash apples in a mill. 

3. To mix malt and water together in brew- 

MASH'ED, pp. Beat into a mass; bruised ; 
crushed ; mixed into a mash. 

MASH'ING, ppr. Beating into a mass; 
bruising ; crushing. 

MASH'ING-TUB, n. A tub for containing 
the mash in breweries. 

MASH'Y, a. Produced by crushing or bruis- 
ing. Thomson. 

M'ASK, n. [Fr. masque; It. maschera; Sp. 
Port, mascara ; Arm. masel ; D. masker ; 
G. maske.] 

1. A cover for the face; that which conceals 
the face, especially a cover with apertures 
for the eyes and mouth ; a visor. A mask 
is designed to conceal the face from be- 
holders, or to preserve the complexion 
from injury by exposure to the weather 
and the rays of the sun. Encyc. 

2. That which disguises; any pretense or 
subterfuge. Prior. 

3. A festive entertainment of dancing or 
other diversions, in which the company all 
wear masks ; a masquerade. Shak. 

4. A revel ; a bustle ; a piece of mummery. 

Tliis thought might lead through this world's 
vain mask. Milton. 

5. A dramatic performance written in a trag- 
ic style, without attention to rules or 
probability. Peacham. 

0. In architecture, a piece of sculpture repre- 
senting some grotesque form, to fill and 




adovn vacant places, as in friezes, pannels 
of doors, keys of arches, &c. Encyc. 

J>rASK, V. t. To cover the face for conceal- 
ment or defense against injury ; to conceal 
with a mask or visor. Addison. 

9. To disguise ; to cover ; to hide. 

Maskm^ the business from the common eye. 

UrASK, v.i. To revel; to play the fool in 

2. To be disguised in any way. Shak. 

M'ASKED, pp- Having the face covered ; 
concealed ; disguised. 

2. a. In botany, personate. 

M'ASKER, n. One that wears a mask ; one 
that plays the fool at a masquerade. 

M ASKERY, n. The dress or disguise of a 
masker. Marsfon. 

IVrASK-HOUSE, »!. A place for masquer- 
ades. Bp. Hall. 

RrASKING, ppr. Covering with a mask 

MASLIN. [See Mcslin.] 

MA'SON, n. ma'sn. [Fr. magon ; Arm. mag- 
zonn ; D. metselaar. In Sp. mazor"'- '~ 
masonry, as if from mazo, a mallet, maza, 
a club, a mace. It is probably from the 
root of mix or mash, or more probably of 
mass, and denotes one that works in 
tar. See Mass.^ 

1. A man whose occupation is to lay bricks 
and stones, or to construct the walls ot 
buildings, chimneys and the like, which 
consist of bricks or stones. 

2. A member of the fraternity of free masons. 
MASON'l€, a. Pertaining to the craft or 

mysteries of free masons. 
MA'SONRY, n. [Fr. maconnerie; Sp. ma- 

1. The art or occupation of a mason. 

2. The work or performance of a mason; as 
when we say, the wall is good masonry, 

3. The craft of free masons. 
MAS'ORA, n. [Heb.] A Hebrew work on 

the bible, by several Rabbins. 

MASORET'ie, a. [Heb. non, to dehver, 
whence masora, tradition, whence the 
Masontes, the adherents to the tradition- 
ary readings of the Scriptures.] 

Relating to the Masorites, who interpreted 
the Scriptures by tradition, and invented 
the Hebrew points to fix the true reading 
and pronunciation. Whence the vowel- 
points are denominated masoretic. 

MAS'ORITE, n. One of the writers of the 

MASQUERA'DE, n. [It. mascherata. See 

1. A nocturnal assembly of persons wearing 
masks, and amusing themselves with 
dancing, conversation and other diver- 

In courtly balls and midnight masquerades. 

2. Disguise. 

I came to visit thee in masquerade. Dryden. 

3. A Spanish diversion on horseback. 


MASQUERA'DE, v. i. To go in disguise. 

2. To assemble in masks. Swifl. 

MASQUERA'DE, v. t. To put in disguise. 


MASQUERA'DER, n. A person wearing a 

mask ; one disguised. L'Estranse. 

MASQUERA'DING, ppr. Assembling in 

masks for di 

Vol. II 

M'ASS, n. [Fr. masse, a mass, a heap, a 
mace, or club ; Port, maga, dough, and a 
mace ; Sp. masa, dough, mortar, a mass, 
and maza, a club, a mace; mazo, a mallet ; 
It. massa, a heap, and mazza, a mace ; G 
masse ; L. iiiassa, a mass. These words 
seem to belong to the root of the Greek 
fiaiau, to beat or pound, the root of which 
is fioy; hence the connection between 
mass, and mace, a club. If any of ^hese 
words are of a different origin, they may 
belong to the root of »mi.] 

1. A lump ; a body of matter concreted, col- 
lected or formed into a lump ; applied to 
any solid body ; as a mass of iron or lead ; 
a viass of flesh ; a 7nass of ice ; a mass of 

2. A collective body of fluid matter. The 
ocean is a mass of water. 

3. A heap ; as a mass of eartli. 

4. A great quantity collected ; as a mass of 

5. Bulk ; magnitude. 

This army of such mass and charge. Shak. 

6. An assemblage ; a collection of particu- 
lars blended, confused or indistinct ; as a 
mass of colors. Addison. 

Tliey lose their forms, and make a jnass 
Confused and black, if brought too near. 


7. Gross body of things considered collec- 
tively ; the body ; the bulk ; as the mass of 
people in a nation. A small portion of 
moibid matter may infect the vvliole masi 
of fluids in the body. 

Comets have power over the rnass of things 

M'ASS, n. [Sax. ma:sa, mtesse ; Fr. messe ; 
It. messa ; Sp. misa ; D. misse ; G. Dan. 
messe ; Sw. viessa ; Low L. missa. The 
word signifies primarily leisure, cessation 
from labor, from the L. missus, remissus, 
like the h./erice; hence a feast or holiday. 
Laws of Alfred, 39. " Be msesse dfege fre- 
olse." De festivifate diei festi. See also 
Laws of Cnute, Lib. L 14. and 2. 42. 
Hence Sax. hlafmasse, lemmas, bread- 
feast, and MaHin-mas, Michael-mas, can- 
dlemas, Christmas.] 

The service of the Romish church ; the of- 
fice or jirayers used at the celebration of 
the eucharist ; the consecration of the 
bread and wine. Lye. Encyc. IVilkins. 

M'ASS, V. i. To celebrate mass. [JVotused.] 

M'ASS, v.t. To fill; to stuff; to strengthen. 
[Js/ot Jised.] Hayward. 

MAS'SACER, ) [Fr. massacre; Arm. 

MAS'SACRE, I "■ maczaer; It. mazzicare, 
to beat, from mazza, a club, a mace. So 
smite in Englisli signifies to kill, as well as 
to beat.] 

1. The murder of an individual, or the 
slaughter of numbers of human beings, 
with circumstances of cruelty ; the indis- 
criminate killing of human beings, without 
authority or necessity, and without forms 
civil or military. It differs from assassi- 
nation, which is a private killing. It dif- 
fers from carnage, which is rather the ef- 
fect of slaughter than slaughter itself, and 
is applied to the authorized destruction of 
men in battle. Massacre is sometimes 
called butchery, from its resemblance to the 
killing of cattle. If a soldier kills a man in 
battle in his own defense, it is a lawful 


act ; it is kiUing, and it is slaughter, but it 
is not a massacre. Whereas, if a soldier 
kills an enemy after he has surrendered, it 
it is massacre, a killing without nec^sity, 
often without authority, contrary to the 
usages of nations, and of course with cru- 
elty. The practice of killing prisoners, 
even when authorized by the commander, 
is properly massacre ; as the authority 
given proceeds from cruelty. We have 
all heard of the massacre of the protestants 
in France, in the reign of Charles IX. and 
frequent instances of barbarous massacre 
occur in the war between the Turks and 
2. Murder. Shak. 

JMAS'SA€ER, ) , To murder human bc- 
'MAS'SACRE, ^ ings with circumstan- 
ces of cruelty ; to kill men with indis- 
criminate violence, without authority or 
necessity, and contrary to the usages of 
nations ; to butcher human beings. 
MAS'SACRER, . n. One who massacres. 
[A very bad xvord.] Burke. 

M'ASSER, n. A priest who celebrates mass. 
MAS'SETER, n. [Gr. from /xoLgaaoiiai., to 
chew.] A muscle which raises the un- 
der jaw. 
MAS'SICOT, I [Fr. massicot.] Calcined 
MAS'TIeOT, S "• white lead ; yellow oxyd 
of lead. Lead exposed to the air while 
melting, is covered with a gray, dusky pel- 
licle. This pellicle carefully taken off, is 
reduced by agitation to a greenish gray 
powder, inclining to yellow. This oxyd, 
separated from the grains of lead by siftiiig, 
and exposed to a more intense heat, suffi- 
cient to make it red hot, assumes a deep 
yellow color. In this state it is called iiias- 
sicot. Massicot, slowly heated by a mode- 
rate fire, takes a beautiful red color, and 
obtains the name of minium. ' Fourcroy. 
iMassicot is sometimes used by painters, and 
j it is used as a drier in the composition of 
i ointments and plasters. Encyc. 

M'ASSINESS, ^ [See Massy, Mass- 
M'ASSIVENESS, i "• ive.] The state of be- 
ing massy ; great weight or weight with 
bulk ; ponderousness. 
M'ASSIVE, > [Fr. massif, from mass.] 
M'ASSY, ^ ■ Heavy ; weighty ; ponder- 
ous ; bulky and heavy ; as a massy shield ; 
a massy rock. 

The yawning rocks in massi/ fragments fly. 

M'ASSIVE, a. In mineralogy, in mass; 
liaving a crystaline structure, but not a 
regular form. We say, a mineral occurs 
M'AST, n. [Sax. miBst; D. G. Sw. Dan. 
mast ; Fr. mat, for mast ; Port, masto or 
mastro ; Sp. mastiles, masts ; masteleros, 
top-masts ; masto, a trunk, a stock in which 
any cion is ingrafted.] 
A long, round piece of timber, elevated or 
designed to be raised perpendicularly or 
nearly so, on the keel of a ship or other 
vessel, to which the yards, sails and rig- 
ging are attached, and by which they are 
supported. A mast is a single stick, form- 
ed from the trunk of a tree, or it consists of 
many pieces of timber united by iron 
bantls. Masts are of several kinds, as the 
main-mast, fore-mast, mizzen-mast, top- 
mast, top-gallant-mast, &c. 




M'AST, n. [Sax. mffsJe, acorns, food ; Goth. 
mats, food, meat ; Ir. mais, meas, an 
acorn ; maise, food ; W. mes, acorns, a por- 
tion, a meal ; mesen. an acorn. This may 
be the American maiz, and signify food in 
general, from eating, chewing, mastica 
ting, or primarily a nut kernel, or acorn, 
the food of the primitive tribes of men. It 
seems to be radically the same word as 

The fruit of the oak and beech, or other for 
est trees; nuts; acorns. [It has no plural. 

iVrASTED, a. Furnished with a mast or 

M-ASTER, 71. [Fr. mailre, for viaister 
Russ. master ; D. meester ; G. meister ; Sw. 
mhstare ; Dan. mester ; Arm. meastr ; It 
Sp. maestro ; L. magister, compounded of 
the root of magis, major, greater, and the 
Teutonic ster, Sax. steoran, to steer. See 
Steer. The word then signifies a chief di 
rector. See Minister.] 

1. A man who rules, governs or directs ei 
ther men or business. A man who own; 
slaves is their master ; he who has servants 
is their master ; he who has apprentices is 
their master, as he has the government 
and direction of tliem. The man who 
superintends and directs any business, is 
master, or master workman. 

O thou my friend, my genius, come along, 
Thou master of the poet and the song. 

Nations that want protectors, will liave mas- 
ters. Ames. 

','. A director, head, or chief manager ; as the 
master of a feast. 

;i. The owner; proprietor; with the idea of 
governing. The master of a house may be 
the owner, or the occupant, who has 
temporary right of governing it. 

It would be believed that he rather took the 
horse for his subject, than liis master. Dryden 

I. A lord; a ruler; one who has supreme 

Cesar, tlie world's great master and his own 


.'). A chief; a princii)al ; as the master root 

of a plant. Moiiimer. 

One master passion swallows up the rest. 

Ci. One who has possession, and the power 
of controlling or using at pleasure. 

When I have made myself moiftv of a hi 
ilred thousand drachmas — Mdisi 

7. The commander of a merchant ship. 
-". In ships of war, an officer who takes rank 
immediately after the heutenants, and 
navigates the ship under the direction of 
the captain. 
'.). The director of a school; a teacher; an 
instructor. In this sense the word is giv 
ing place to the more appropriate words 
teacher, instructor and preceptor; al 
least it is so in the United States. 
10. One uncontrolled. 

Let every man be master of his lime. Shak 

II. An appellation of respect. 

Master doctor, you have brought those drugs 

12. An appellation given to young men. 

Where there are little masters and misses ir 
a house — Sicift 

13. A man eminently or perfectly skifled in 
any occupation, art or science. We say 
a roan is master of his business ; a great 

master of music, of the flute or violin ; £ 
master of his subject, &c. 

14. A title of dignity in colleges and univer- 
sities; as Master of Arts. 

15. The chief of a society ; as the Grand 
Master of Malta, of free-masons, &c. 

10. The director of ceremonies at public pla- 
ces, or on public occasions. 

17. The president of a college. England 

Master in chancery, an assistant of the lord 
chancellor, chosen from among the barris- 
ters to sit in chancery, or at the rolls. 


Master of the rolls, an officer who has charge 
of the rolls and patents that pass the great 
seal, and of the records of the chancery. 

To be master of one's self, to have the com- 
mand or control of one's own passions. 

The word Jtiasfer has numerous applications 
in all of whicli it has the sense of director, 
chief or superintendent. 

As a title of respect given to adult persons, 
it is pronounced mister; a pronunciation 
which seems to have been derived from 
some of the northern dialects, [supra.] 

M" ASTER, V. t. To conquer ; to overpower ; 
to subdue ; to bring under control. 

Obstinacy and willful neglect must be master- 
ed, even though it costs blows. Locke. 
Evil customs must be mastered by degrees. 

2. To execute witli skill. 
I will not offtr that which I cannot mas-\ 

r. Bacon. 

3. To rule ; to govern. j 

— And rather father thee than master thee. 
\_JVot used.] Shak} 

MASTER, V. i. To be skillfid ; to excel.j 
Obs. Spenser.t 

M>ASTERDOM, ji. Dominion ; rule. [JVot, 
:ed.] Shak.l 

M'ASTERFUL, a. Having the skill of a| 
master ; also, imperious ; arbitrary. Obs.' 

M> ASTER-HAND, 71. The hand of a manj 
eminently skillful. Pope.' 

M^ASTER-JEST, ?!. Principal jest 


M'ASTER-KEY, n. The key that opens 
many locks, the subordinate keys of which 
open only one each. Dryden.\ 

M'ASTERLESS, a. Destitute of a master| 
or owner. Spenser. 

2. Ungovcrned ; unsubdued. 

M> ASTER-LODE, n. In mining, the prin- 
cipal vein of ore. Encyc. 

M'ASTERLY, a. Formed or executed with 
superior skill; suitable to a master; most 
excellent ; skillful ; as a masterly design ; a 
masterly performance ; a masterly stroke ofi 

2. Imperious. 

M-ASTERLY, adv. With the skill of a 


Thou dost speak masterly. Shak 

" I think it very masterly written," iu 
Swift, is improper or unusual. 
M> ASTER-PIECE, ti. A capital perform- 
ance ; any thing done or made v/ith su- 
perior or extraordinary skill. 
This wondrous master-piece I fain would see 
2. Chief excellence or talent. 

Dissimulation was his master-piece. 

MASTERSHIP, n. Dominion ; rule ; su 
preme power. 

'here noble youths for mastership should 
strive. Dryden. 

3. Chief work ; master-piece. [J^ot used.] 

4. Superior skill. Shak. 

5. Title of respect; in irony. 
How now, signior Launce, what new with 

your mastership. Shak. 

6. The oflice of president of a college, or 
other institution. 

MASTER-SINEW, n. A large sinew that 
surrounds the hough of a horse, and di- 
vides it from the bone by a hollow place, 
where the wind-galls are usually seated. 
Far. Diet. 

MASTER-STRING, n. Principal string. 

M' ASTER-STROKE, ,1. Capital perfora- 

ance. Blackmore. 

M' ASTER-TOOTH, 71. A principal tooth. 

MASTER-TOUCH, 71. Principal perform- 
ance. Tatler. 

MASTER-WORK, n. Principal perform- 
ance. Thomson. 

M-ASTER- WORT, «. A plant of the genu^ 

M-ASTERY, 71. Dominion; power of gov- 
erning or commanding. 

If divided by mountains, they will fight foi 
the mastery of the passages of the tops — 


2. Superiority in competition ; preeminence. 
Every man that striveth for the mastery, is 

temperate in all things. I Cor. ix. 

3. Victory in war. 
It is not the voice of them that shout forTnas- 

tery. Ex. xxxii. 

4. Eminent skill ; superior dexterity. 
He could attain to a mastery in all languages. 


5. Attainment of eminent skill or power. 
The learning and mastery of a tongue bein»- 

unpleasant in itself, should not be cumbered 
with other difficulties. Locke. 

M-ASTFUL, a. [from mast.] Abounding with 
mast, or fruit of oak, beech and other for- 
est trees ; as the mastful chesnut. Dryden. 

MAS'Tle, I [Fr. mastic ; It. mastice ; D. 

MAS'TICH, S maslik ; Sp. almaciga ; Port. 
almecega ; Ir. maisteog ; L. mastiche ; Gr. 

I. A resin exsuding from the mastic-tree, a 
species of Pistacia, and obtained by incis- 
ion. It is in white farinaceous tears, of a 
faint smell, and is used as an astringent 
and an aromatic. It is used also as an in- 
gredient in drying varnishes. 

Fourcroy. Encyc. 

3. A kind of mortar or cement. Addison. 

MAS'TICATE, v. t. [L. mastico. Qu. W. 
mesigaw, from mes, mast, acorns, food.] 

To chew ; to grind with the teeth and pre- 
pare for swallowing and digestion ; as, to 
masticate food. 

MASTICATED, pp. Chewed. 

MAS'TI€ATING,;);jr. Che>ving; breaking 
into small pieces with the teeth. 

MASTICA'TION, n. The act or operation 
of chewing sohd food, breaking it into 
small pieces, and mixing it with saliva ; 
thus preparing it for deglutition, and more 
easy digestion in the stomach. 

Mastication is a necessary preparation of solid, 
aliment, without which there can be no good 
digestiosr. Arlmtnnot. 


MASTICATORY, a. Chewing ; adapted to 
perforin the office of chewing food. 

Lawrence's Led. 

MASTICATORY, ji. A substance to be 
chewed to increase the sahva. Coxe 

M^ASTIFF, n. plu. mastiffs. Mastives is ir- 
regular. [Sp. mastin; It. maslino ; Fr. 
matin ; Arm. mastin ; Low L. mastivus.] 

A XsLfe species of dog, remarkable for 

strength and courage. Strabo informs us 

that the mastiffs of Britain were trained 

for war, and used by the Gauls in battle. 


M' ASTLESS, a. Having no mast ; as a ves- 

2. Bearing no mast ; as a maslless oak or 
beech. Drydt 

MASTLIN. [See Meslin.] 

MAS'TODON, ?!. [Gr. na;ns, mamilla, and 
oSous, a tooth.] 

A genus of tnammiferous animals reseni 
bhng the elephant, now extinct, and known 
only by their fossil remains. It includes 
the N. American inammoth. 

MAS'TOID, a. [Gr. fiaatoi, the nipple or 
breast, and siSos, form.] 

Resembling the nipple or breast ; as the 
toid muscle ; the mastoid process. 

BL-VSTRESS, for mistress, is not used. 


M~ASTY, a. Full of mast; abounding with 
acorns, &c. 

MAT, n. [VV. mat ; Sax. meatta ; D. mat ; G. 
matte ; L. vialla ; Sp. mata : Ir. matta 
Russ. mat ; W. math, that is spread. The 
sense is probably a lay or spread, from 
falling, throwing, or stretching. Class Md 
No. 6. 8. 9.] 

1. A texture of sedge, rushes, flags, husks, 
straw, or other material, tn be laid on a 
floor for cleaning the boots and shoes of 
those who enter a house, and for other 
purposes. Carew. 

2. A web of rope-yarn, used in ships to se- 
cure the standing rigging from the friction 
of the yards, &c. 

MAT, V. t. To cover or lay with mats. 


2. To twist together ; to interweave like a 
mat ; to entangle. 

And o'er his eyebrows hung his malted h; 

3. To press together ; to lay flat ; as matted 

MAT'ACHIN, ?!. [Sp. a buffoon, a gro- 
tesque dance.] 

An old dance. Sidney 

MAT'ADORE, n. [Sp. matador, a murderer 
and a card, from motor, to kill.] 

One of the three principal cards in the game 
of ombcr and quadrille, which are always 
two black aces and the deuce in spades 
and clubs, and the seven in hearts and di 
amends. Johnson. Pope. 

M.\TCH, n. [Ft. meche ; It. miccia ; Sj 
Port, mecha ; Arm. mechenn, mech.] 

1. Some very combustible substance used 
for catching fire from a spark, as hemp, 
flax, cotton, tow dipped in sulphur, or a 
species of dry wood, called vulgarlj' touch- 

2. A rope or cord made of hempen tow, 
composed of three strands slightly twist 
ed, and again covered with tow and boiled 
in the lees of old wine. This when light 

M A T 

ed at one end, retains fire and burns slow- 
ly till consumed. It is used in firing artil- 
lery, &.C. Encyc. 
MATCH, n. [Sax. maca and gemaca, an 
equal, fellow, companion, D. makker, Dan. 
maga, Sw. make.^ 

A person who is equal to another in 
strength or other quality ; one able to cope 
with another. 

Government — makes an innocent man of the 

lowest ranks a match for the mightiest of liis 

fellow subjects. Addison. 

2. One that suits or tallies with another ; or 

any thing that equals another. 
\ Union by marriage. 

Love doth seldom suffer itself to be confined 

by other matches tlian those of its own making. 


In popular language, it is applied to the 

engagement of lovers before marriage. 

4. One to be married. 

She inherited a fair fortune of her own — and 
was looked upon as the richest match in the 
west. Clarendon. 

MATCH, jt. [Gr. t^axn, a battle, a fight ; but 
probably of the same family as the prece- 
A contest ; competition for victory ; or a un- 
ion of parties for contest ; as in games or 
A solemn match was made ; he lost the prize. 
MATCH, V. t. To equal. 

No settled senses of the world can match 
The pleasure of that madness. Shak 

2. To sliow an equal. 
No history or antiquity can match his policies 

and his conduct. South 

•3. To oppose as equal ; to set against as 
equal in contest. 

Eternal might 
To match witli their inventions they pre 

So easy, and of his tlmnder made a scorn. 


4. To suit ; to make equal ; to proportion. 
Let poets match their subject to their 

strength — Roscommon 

— To match patterns and colors. Swift. 

5. To tnarry ; to give in marriage. 
.\ senator of Rome, while Rome survived, 
Would not have match'd his daughter with 

king. Addison. 

6. To purify vessels by burning a match 

MATCH, V. i. To be united in marriage. 
I hold it a sin to 7}iatch in my kindred. 

Let tigers match witli liinds, and wolves with 
sheep. Dryd. 

3. To suit ; to correspond ; to be of equal 
size, figure or quality ; to tally. We say 
of a piece of cloth, it does not match with 

MATCH'ABLE, a. Equal ; suitable ; fit to 
be joined. . Spense 

2. Correspondent. [Little used.] 


MATCH'ED, pp. Equaled ; suited ; placed 
in opposition ; married. 

MATCH'ING, ppr. Equaling ; suiting ; set- 
ting in opposition ; uniting in marriage. 

MATCHLESS, a. Having no equal; as 
matchless impudence ; a matchless queen 
matchless love or charms. 

MATCH'LESSLY, adv. In a manner or de 
gree not to be equaled. 


MATCU'LESSNESS,n. The state or qual- 
ity of being without an equal. 

MATCH'LOCK, »i. Formerly, the lock of a 
musket which was fired by a match. 

MATCH'MAKER, n. One who makes 
matches for burning. 

2. One who contrives or effects a union by 

MATE, n. [D. maat ; Ar. Itt^ n)atau, to 

associate. Class Md. No. 11.] 

1. A companion ; an associate ; one who 
customarily associates with another. 
Young persons nearly of au age, and 
frequently associating, are called mates or 

2. A husband or wife. 

3. The male or female of animals which as- 
sociate for propagation and the care of 
their young. Milton. 

4. One that eats at the same table. 

5. One that attends thQ same school ; u 

6. An oflicer in a merchant ship or ship of 
war, whose duty is to .tssist the master or 
commander. In a merchant ship, the 
mate, in the absence of the master, takes 
command of the ship. Large ships have 
a first, second, and third mate. 

In general, mate, in compound words, denotes 
an assistant, and ranks next in subordina- 
tion to the principal ; as master's mate ; 
surgeon's mate, &c. 

MATE, n. [Sp. Port. 7nate ; Fr. mat ; from 
Sp. malar, to kill.] 

In chess, the state of the king so situated 
that he cannot escape. 

MATE, V. t. To match ; to marry. 

Spenser. Shak. 

2. To equal ; to be equal to. 
For thus the mastful ehesnut mates the skies. 


3. To oppose ; to equal. 

— I i' th' way of loyally and truth. 
Dare mate a sounder man than Surrey can 
be. Shak. 

MATE, V. t. [Fr. mater, to mate in chess; 
Sw. matta, to weaken, to enervate ; Sp. 
malar, to kill.] 
To enervate ; to subdue ; to crush. 

Audacity doth almost bind and mate the weak- 
er sort of minds. [JVuf used.] Bacon. 
MA'TELESS, a. Having no mate or com- 
panion. Peacham. 
Materia Medico, a general name for every 
substance used in medicine. Encyc. 
2. An auxiliary branch of the science of 
medicine, which treats of the nature and 
properties of all the substances that are 
employed for the cure of diseases. 

Ed. Encyc. 
MATE'RL\L, a. [It. materiale ; Fr. mate- 
riel ; Sp. material ; from L. materia, mat- 

1. Consisting of matter; not spiritual; as 
material substance ; material bodies. 

2. Important ; momentous ; more or less ne- 
cessary ; having influence or effect. 

Hold them for catholics or heretics, it is not a 
thing very material in this question. 


In the account of simple ideas, I shall set 
down only such as are most material to our 
present purpose. Locke. 

So we say, a material point ; a Ttuzterial 


fault or error ; a material fact or consider- 

3. Not formal ; substantial. 

4. Furnishing materials ; as material men. 

HTieaton, Rep. 

MATE'RIAL, n. Tlie substance or matter 
of which any thing is made ; as, wool is 
the ma(enW of cloth; rags are the materi- 
al of paper. 

MATE'RIALISM, «. The doctrine of ma- 
terialists; the opinion of those who main- 
tain that the soul of man is not a spiritual 
substance distinct from matter, but that 
it is the result or effect of the organization 
of matter in the body. 

The irregular fears of a future state had been 
supplanted by the materialism of Epicurus. 


MATE'RIALIST, n. One who denies the 
existence of spiritual substances, and 
maintains that the soul of man is the re- 
sult of a particular organization of matter 
in the body. 

MATERIAL'ITY, n. Material existence ; 
corporeity ; not spirituaUty. Digby. 

2. Importance ; as the materialitii of facts. 
judge Chase 

MATE'RIALIZE, v. t. To reduce to a state 
of matter ; also, to regard as matter. 


MATE'RIALLY, adv. In the state of mat- 
ter. Boyle. 

2. Not formally; substantially. 

An ill intention may spoil an act materially 
good. South. 

3. In an important manner or degree ; es- 
sentially. It materially concerns us to 
know the real motives of our actions. 

M.\TE'RIALNESS, n. The state of being 

material ; importance. 
iVIATE'RIATE, ? [L. maleriatxis.] Con 
MATE'RIATED, S sisting of matter. [Lit 

tie used.] Bacon. 

MATERIA'TION, n. The act of forming 

matter. [JVot used.] Brown 

iMATERN'AL, a. [L. maternus, from 7nater, 

Motherly ; pertaining to a mother ; becoming 

a mother ; as maternal love ; maternal ten 

MATERN'ITY, n. [Fr. maternity.] The 

character or relation of a mother. 
MAT'FELON, n. [Sp. Port, viatar, D. 7nat- 

sen. to kill, and felon.] 
A plant of the genus Centaurea, knap-weed. 
MATH, n. [Sa.x. ma;(A.] A mowing ; as in 

MATHEMAT'I€, } [L. mathematicus.] 
MATHEMAT'I€AL, I "' Pertaining to 

mathematics; as mathematical knowledge; 

mathematical instruments. 
i. According to the principles of mathemat- 
ics ; as mathematical exactness. 
MATHElMAT'ICALLY, adv. According to 

the laws or principles of mathematical sci- 
2. With mathematical certainty ; demon- 
strably. Bentley. 
MATHEMATICIAN, n. [Fr. mathemaii- 

cien.] One ver.sed in mathematics. 
M.\THEMAT'ICS,n. [L. mathematica, from 
Gr. fmOruMTixri, from luwdma, to learn ; the 
* is probably casual, and the root belongs 
to Class Md. No. 10.] 
The science of quantity ; the science which 

M A T 

treats of magnitude and number, or of 
whatever can be measured or numbered. 
This science is divided into pure or specu- 
lative, which considers quantity abstractly, 
without relation to matter ; and mixed, 
which treats of magnitude as subsisting in 
material bodies, and is consequently inter- 
woven with physical considerations. It 
is the peculiar excellence of mathematics, 
that its principles are demonstrable. 
Arithmetic, geometry, algebra, trigonom- 
etry, and conic sections, are branches of 

MATH'EMEG, n. A fish of the cod kind, 
habiting Hudson's bay. Pennant 

MATH'ES, n. An herb. Ainstoorth 

MATH'ESIS, n. [Gr. fiaS^si;.] The doc- 
trine of mathematics. Pope. 

MAT'IN, a. [Fr. matin, morning ; G. mette, 
matins; L. matutinus.] 

Pertaining to the morning ; used in the morn 
■ ig ; as a matin trumpet. 

MAT'IN, n. Morning. [JVot tised.] Shak. 

MAT'INS, n. Morning worship or service 
morning prayers or songs. 

The vigils are celebrated before them, and the 

nocturn and matins, for the saints whose the 

relics are. Stiltiiigfleet 

The winged choristers began 

To chirp their matins. Cleaveland 

3. Time of morning service; the first canon- 
ical hour in the Romish church. 

MAT'RASS, n. [Fr. matras ; D. id. In 
French, the word signifies an arrow 
Arm. matara, to throw a dart. Tliis verb 
coincides with L. mitto. It seems then 
be so called from its long neck.] 

A cucurbit ; a chimieal vessel in the shape 
of an e^g, or with a tapering neck, open at 
the top, serving the purposes of digestion, 
evaporation, &c. Mcholson. Q^uincy. 

MAT'RESS, n. [W. matras; D. id.; It. 
materasso ; G. matratze ; Fr. matelas ; Arm. 
matelacz, from viat.] 

A quilted bed ; abed stuffed with hair, moss 
or other soft material, and quilted. 

MA'TRICE, \ [L. matrix, from mater, 

MA'TRIX,-; S"' mother.] 

1. The womb ; the cavity in which the fetus 
of an animal is formed and nourished till 
its birth. Encyc. 

2. A mold ; the cavity in which any thing is 
formed, and which gives it shape ; as the 
matrix of a type. 

3. The place where any thing is formed or 
produced ; as the matrix of metals ; gang. 

4. In dyeing, the five simple colors, black, 
white, blue, red and yellow, of which all 
the rest are composed. Encyc. 

MAT'RICIDAL, a. Pertaining to matri- 

MAT'RICIDE, n. [L. matricidium; mater, 
mother, and cado, to slay.] 

1. The killing or murder of a mother. 


2. The killer or murderer of his mother. 
MATRICULATE, v.t. [lu.matricula, avoW 

or register, from matrix. 

To enter or admit to mertibership in a body 
or society, particularly in a college or uni- 
versity, by enrolling the name in a register 

MATRICULATE, n. One enrolled in a reg 

ister, and thus admitted 
in a society. 


M A T 

MATRICULA'TION, n. The act of regis- 
tering a name and admitting to member- 
ship. Ayliffe. 

MATRIMO'NIAL, a. [It. matrimoniale. See 

1. Pertaining to marriage ; connubial ; nup- 
tial ; hymeneal ; as matrimonial rights or 

2. Derived from marriage. 

If he reUed on that title, he could be but a 
king at curtesy, and have rather a matrimonial, 
than a regal power. Bacon. 

MATRIMO'NIALLY, adv. According to 
the manner or laws of marriage. Ayliffe. 

MATRIMO'NIOUS, a. Matrimonial. [Ut- 
ile used.] Milton. 

MAT'RIMONY, n. [L. matrimonium, from 
mater, mother.] 

Marriage ; wedlock ; the union of man and 
woman for life ; the nuptial state. 

If any man know cause why this couple 
should not be joined in holy matrimony, they 
are to declare it. Com. Prayer. 

MATRIX. [See Matrice.] 

MAT'RON, n. [Fr. matrone ; L. matrona ; 
from mater, mother.] 

An elderly married woman, or an elderly la- 
dy. Johnson. Encyc. 

MAT'RONAL, a. [L. matronalis.] Pertain- 
ing to a matron ; suitable to an elderly la- 
dy or to a married woman ; grave ; moth- 
erly. Bacon. 

MAT'RONIZE, v.t. To render matronlike. 

MAT'RONLIKE, a. Having the manners 
of an elderly woman; grave; sedate; be- 
coming a matron. 

MAT'RONLY, a. Elderly ; advanced in 
years. UEstrange. 

MATROSS', n. [D. matroos ; Sw. Dan. 
Russ. malros, a sailor ; D. maat, a mate ; 
maats, fellows, sailors ; Fr. matelot. In 
Arm. marlelot is a colleague. The word 
seems to be from mate.] 

Matrosses are soldiers in a train of artillery, 
who are next to the gunners and assist 
them in loading, firing and spunging the 
guns. They carry fire-locks, and march 
with the store waggons as guards and as- 
sistants. Bailey. Encyc. 

MAT'TAMORE, n. In the east, a subter- 
ranean repository for wheat. 

Parkhurst. Shatc. 

MAT'TER, n. [L. Sp. It. materia ; Fr. ma- 
tiere; Ann. matery; W. nwi<er, what is pro- 
duced, occasion, affair, matter ; madrez, 
pus, matter ; madru, to putrefy or dissolve. 
Owen deduces mater from mad, what pro- 
ceeds or advances, a good ; madu, to cause 
to proceed, to render productive ; mad, 
good, beneficial, that is, advancing, pro- 
gressive. Here we have a clear idea of the 
radical sense of good, which is proceeding, 
advancing. A good is that which advan- 
ces or promotes ; and hence we see the 
connection between this word mad, and 
matter, pus, both from progressiveness. 

The original verb is in the Ar. Js^ mad- 
da, to extend, to reach or stretch, to be tall, 
to thrust out, to excrete, to produce pus, 
to yawn ; derivatives, pus, sanies, matter. 
This verb in Heb. and Ch. signifies to 
measure, and is the same as the L. melior, 
Gr. niffia. In Syriae, it signifies to es- 

M A T 

1. Substance excreted from living animal 
bodies; that wbich is thrown out or dis- 
cliargedin a tumor, boil or abscess ; pus; 
purulent substance collected in an abscess, 
the eftect of suppuration more or less per- 
fect ; as digested tjuUter ; sanious matter. 

2. Body ; substance extended ; that which is 
visible or tangible ; as earth, wood, stone, 
air, vapor, water. 

3. In a more general and philosophic sense, 
the substance of which all bodies are coni- 
posed ; the substratum of sensible quali- 
ties, though the parts composing the sub- 
stratum may not be visible or tangible. 

Matter is usually divided by philosophi- 
cal writers into four kinds or classes ; so- 
lid, liquid, aeriform, and imponderable. 
Solid substances are those whose parts 
firmly cohere and resist impression, as 
wood or stone ; liquids have free motion 
among their parts, and easily yield to im- 
pression, as water and wine. Aeriform 
substances are elastic fluids, called vapors 
and gases, as air and oxygen gas. The 
imponderable substances are destitute of 
weight, as light, caloric, electricity, and 

4. Subject; thing treated ; that about which 
we write or speak ; that which employs 
thought or excites emotion ; asj'this is mat- 
ter of praise, of gratitude, or of astonish- 

Son of God, Savior of men, thy naaie 
Shall be the copious mailer of my song. 


5. The very thing supposed or intended. 

He grants the deluge to have come so very 
near the matter, that lew escaped. Tillotson. 

6. Affair ; business ; event ; thing ; course 
of things. Matters have succeeded well 
thus far; observe how matters stand ; thus 
the matter rests at present ; thus the mat 
ter ended. 

To help the matter, the alchiraists call in ma 
ny vanities from astrology. Bacon 

Some young female seems to have carried 
matters so far, that she is ripe for asking ad- 
vice. Spectator. 

7. Cause of any event, as of any disturbance, 
of a disease, or of a difficulty. When a 
moving machine stops suddenly, we ask, 
what is the matter f When a person is ill, 
we ask, what is the matter ? When a tu 
mult or quarrel takes place, we ask, what 
is the matter ? 

3. Subject of complaint ; suit; demand. 

If the matter should be tried by duel betweer 

two champions — Bacon. 

Every great matter they shall bring to thee, 

but every small matter they shall judge — Ex 


9. Import ; consequence ; importance ; mo- 

A prophet some, and some a poet cry, 
No matter which, so neither of them lie. 

Dry den 

10. Space of time; a portion of distance. 

1 have thoughts to tarry a small matter. 

Away he goes, a matter of seven miles— 

[In these last senses, tlie use of matlei 
is now vulgar.] 
Upon the matter, considering the whole ; ta- 
king all things into view. This phrase it 
now obsolete ; but in lieu of it, we some- 
times use, upon the tvhok matter. 

M A T 

Waller, with Sir William Balfour, exceeded 
in horse, but were, ujwn the whole matter, 
equal in foot. Clarendon. 

Matter of record, that which is recorded, or 
which may be proved by record. 

MAT'TER, V. i. To be of importance ; to 
import ; used with it, this, that, or what. 
This matters not ; that matttrs not ; chiefly 
used in negative phrases ; as, ivhat matters 

R matters not how they are called, so we 
know who they are. Locke 

2. To maturate ; to form pus ; to collect, as 
matter in an abscess. 

Each slight sore mattereth. [Little used.] 

[We now use maturate.] 

MAT'TER, V. t. To regard. [Mt used.] 

MAT'TERLESS, a. Void of matter. 

B. Jo7ison 

MATTERY, a. Purulent ; generating pus 
as a mattery cough. Harvey 

MAT'TOCK, Ji. [Sax. mattuc ; W. ynatog.] 
A tool to grub up weeds or roots ; a grub- 
bing hoe. Bailey. 

MATTRESS. [See Matress, a more correct 

MAT'URANT, n. [L. mafit/o, from maturus, 
mature, ripe.] 

In pharmacy, a medicme or application to a 
tumor, which promotes suppuration. 


MATURATE, v. t. [L. matnro, to hasten, 
from maturus, ripe.] 

To ripen ; to hasten or promote suppura- 

M.\T' URATE, V. i. To become ripe ; to 
suppurate, as a tumor, and form pus. 

MATUR.\'TION, n. The process of ripen 

2. The process of suppurating ; suppuration : 
the forming of pus in tumors. Qiiincy. 

MAT'URATIVE, a. Ripening; conducing 
to ripeness. 

2. Conducing to suppuration, or the forma 
tion of matter in a tumor or abscess. 

MATU'RE, a. [L. maturus; Dan. moed, 
moeden. In W. med, is complete, perfect, 
mature ; and medi signifies to reap, L. meto..^ 
So ripe, in English, seems to be connect-, 
ed w^jtli reap. In Ch. NOD signifies to 
come to. to reach, to be mature. See 

1. Ripe ; perfected by time or natural 
growth ; as a man of mature age. We 
apply it to a young man who has arrived 
to the age when he is supposed to be com-j 
petent to manage his own concerns; to 
young woman who is fit to be married ; 
and to elderly men who have much expe- 

Their prince is a man of learning and virtue, 
mature in years — Addison. 

Mature the virgin was, of Egypt's race. 

How shall I meet or how accost the sage, 
Unskilled in speech, nor yet mature of age. 

2. Brought to perfection ; used of plants. 
The wheat is mature. 

3. Completed ; prepared ; ready. The plan 
or scheme was mature. 

This lies glowing, and is mature for the vio- 
lent breaking out. Shale. 

4. Ripe ; come to suppuration ; as, the tu- 
mor is mature. 

M A U 

MATU'RE, V. t. [L. maturo.] To ripen ; \.<. 
hasten to a perfect state ; to promote 

Prick an apple with a pin full of holes, not 
deep, and smear it with sack, to see if the vir- 
tual heat of the wine will not mature it. 

2. To advance towards perfection. 
Love indulged my labors past, 
Matures my present, and shall bound my last. 
MATU'RE, V. i. To advance toward ripe- 
ness ; to become ripe or perfect. Wine 
matures by age, or by agitation in a long 
voyage. The judgment matures by age 
and experience. 
MATU'RED, pp. Ripened; advanced to 

perfection ; prepared. 
MATU'RELY, adv. With ripeness ; com- 

2. With full deliberation. A prince enter- 
ing on war, ought maturely to consider 
the state of his finances. 

3. Early ; soon. [A Latinism, little used.] 


MATU'RING, ppr. Ripening ; being in or 
coming to a complete state. 

MATU'RITY, ) Ripeness; a state of 

MATU'RENESS, S "' perfection or com- 
pleteness ; as the maturity of age or of 
judgment ; the maturity of corn or of grass; 
the maturity of a plan or scheme. 

M.\T'UT1N.'\L, I [L. matutinus.] Pertain- 

MAT'UTINE, \ "• ing to the morning. 


MAT'WEED, n. A plant of the genus Ly- 

jNIAUD'LIN, a. [corrupted from Magdeleii, 
who is drawn by painters with eyes swell- 
ed and red with weeping.] 

Drunk ; fuddled ; approaching to intoxica- 
tion ; stupid. 

And the kind maudlin crowd melts in her 
praise. Southern. 

MAUD'LIN, n. A plant of the genus Achil- 

MAU'GER, adv. [Fr. malgre, ill will ; m(d 
and gre.] 

In spite of; in opposition to; notwithstand- 
ing ; used only in burlesque. 

Tliis, mauger all the world, will I keep safi-, 

MAUKIN. [See Malkin.] 

M.\UL, 71. [L. malleus. See Mall.] A heavy 
wooden hammer; written also mall. 

MAUL, V. I. To beat and bruise with a heavy 
stick or cudgel ; to wound in a coarse 

Meek modern faith to murder, hack and 
ynaul. Pope. 

MAUNCII, n. [Ft.manche.] A loose sleeve. 
[JVot used.] Herbert. 

MAUND, n. [Sax. and D. mand.] A hand- 
basket; a word used in Scotland. 

MAUND, I , , .,„ , . To mutter; to mur- 

MAUND'ER, S mur ; to grumble ; 

to beg. Obs. 

MAUND'ER, n. A beggar. Obs. 

iMAUND'ERER, n. A grumbler. Obs. 

MAUNDERING, n. Complaint. Obs. 

MAUNDY-THURSDAY, Ji. [supposed to he 
from Sax. mand, a basket ; because on that 
day, princes used to give alms to the poor 
from their baskets ; or from dies mandati, 
the day of command, on which day our 
Savior gave his great mandate, that we 
should love one another. Lye. Johnson.] 



M E 

Tlie Thursday in passion week, or next be- 
fore Good Friday. 

MAUSOLE'AN, a. Pertaining to a mauso- 
leum; monumental. Burton. 

MAUSOLE'UM, ?i. [L.;Fr. nmusoUe; from 
Mausolus, kingofCaria, to whom Artemis- 
ia, his widow, erected a stately monu- 

A magnificent tomb, or stately sepulchral 

MAU'THER, n. A foolish young girl. [JVot 
used.] B. Jonson. 

M.\'VIS, n. [Fr. mauvis.] A bird, a species 

MAW, n. [Sax.maga; Sw. mage ; D.maag ; 
G. magen.] 

1. The stomach of brutes ; applied to the 
stomach of human beings in contempt on- 

2. The craw of fowls. Arbuthnot. 
MAWK, n. A maggot ; a slattern. [A'o^ in 

3IAWK'INGLY, adv. Slatternly; sluttish- 

ly. Bp. Taylor. 

MAWK'ISH, a. Apt to cause satiety or 


So sweetly mawkish, and so smoothly dull. 
MAWK'ISHNESS, n. Aptness to cause 

MAWK'Y, a. Maggoty. [Local] Grose. 
MA W'MET, n. [from Mahomet.} A puppet ; 

anciently, an idol. Obs. Wickliffe. 

MAW'METRY, n. The religion of Moham 

med ; also, idolatry. Obs. Chaucer 

MAW'MISH, a. [from maw, or maimnel.] 

Foolish; silly; idle ; nauseous. 

MAW'W6RM, n. A worm that infests the 

stomach. Harvey. 

MAX'ILLAR, ? [L. maxiUaris, from 
MAX'ILLARY, ^ "• maxUla, the jaw-bone ; 

probably from the root of mash.] 
Pertaining to the jaw ; as the maxillary 

bones or glands. 
MAX'IM, n. [Fr. maiim,e, It. massima, L 

maximum, literally the greatest.] 

1. An established principle or proposition ; a 
I)rinciple generally received or admitted as 
true. It is nearly the same in popular 
usage, as axiom in philosophy and mathe 

It is a maxim of state, that countries newly 
acquired and not settled, are matters of burden, 
rather than of strength. Bacon. 

It is their marim, love is love's reward. 


2. In jnustc, the longest note formerly used, 
equal to two longs, or four breves. 

MAXIM-MONGER, n. One who deals 

much in maxims. Chesterfield. 

MAX'IMUM, n. [L.] In mathematics, the 

greatest number or quantity attainable in 

any given case ; opposed to minimum 
MAY, n. [L. Mains ; Fr. Mai ; It. Mai^ 

i. The fifth month of the year, beginning 

with January, but the third, beginning witli 

March, as was the ancient practice of the 


2. [Goth, viawi. See Maid.] A young wo- 
man. 06s. 

3. Theearly part of life. 

His .niay of youth and bloom of lustihood. 

MAY, V. i. To gather flowers in May-morn- 
ing. Sidney. 

MAY, verb aui. ; pret. might. [Sax. magan, to 
be strong or able, to avail ; D. meijen or 
moogen ; G. mbgen ; Russ. mogu. The 
old pret. mought is obsolete, but not whol- 
ly extinct among our common people. 
The sense is to strain or press.) 

1. To be possible. We say, a thing may be, 
or may not be ; an event may happen ; a 
thing viay be done, if means are not want- 

2. To have physical power ; to be able. 
Make the most of life you may. Bourne. 

3. To have moral power ; to have liberty, 
leave, license or permission ; to be per 
mitted ; to be allowed. A man may do 
what the laws permit. He may do what 
is not against decency, propriety or good 
manners. We inay not violate the laws, 
or the rules of good breeding. I told the 
servant he might be absent. 

Thou mayest be no longer steward. Luke 

4. It is used in prayer and petitions to ex- 
press desire. O may we never experi- 
ence the evils we dread. So also in ex- 
pressions of good will. May you live hap- 
pily, and be a blessing to your country, 
It was formerly used for can, and its rad- 
ical sense is the same. 

May be, it may be, are expressions equivalent 
to perhaps, by chance, peradvtnture, that 
it is possible to be. 

MA'Y-APPLE, n. A plant of the genus 

MA'Y-BLOOM. n. The hawthorn. 

MA'Y-BUG, H. A chaffer. Ainsivorth. 

MA'Y-BUSII, (!. A plant of the geims Cra 

3AY, n. The first day of May. 

MA'Y-DEW, n. The dew of May, which is 
said to whiten linen, and to afford by re 
peated distillations, a red and odoriferous 
spirit. It has been supposed that from 
the preparation of this dew, the Rosicru 
cians took their name. Encyc. 

MA'Y-DUKE, n. A variety of the common 

MAY-FLOWER, n. A plant ; a flowev that 
appears in May. Bacon 

A' Y-FLY, n. An insect or fly that appears 
in May. Walton 

MA'Y-GAME, n. Sport or diversion ; play 
such as is used on the first of May. 


MA'YING, n. The gathering of flowers or 

MA'Y-LADY, n. The queen or lady of May, 
in old May-games. Dryden. 

M A' Y-LILY, n. The lily of the valley, of the 
genus Convallaria. 

MA'Y-MORN, n. Freshness ; vigor. 


MA'Y-POLE, n. A pole to dance round in 
May ; a long pole erected. 

MA'Y-WEED, n. A plant of the genus An 

MAYHEM. [See Maim.] 

MA'YOR, n. [Fr. maire ; Norm, maeiir, 
mair, meyre ; Arm. mear ; W. 7naer, one 
stationed, one that looks after or tends, 
one that keeps or guards, a provost, 
mayor, a bailiff; maer y biswal, a land 
steward, the keeper of a cow-lare ; maer 
drev, a dairy hamlet ; maerdy, a dairy 

farm ; matron, a male-keeper or dairy- 
farmer ; maeres, a female who looks after, 
a dairy-woman ; maeroni, the office of a 
keeper, superintendency, mayoralty ; Arm. 
miret, to keep, stop, hold, coinciding with 
Fr. mirer, L. miror, the primary sense of 
which is precisely the same as in the Ar- 
moric. See Admirable and Miracle. A 
mayor, then, was originally an overseer, 
and among country gentlemen, a steward, 
a kind of domestic bailiff; rendered in the 
writings of the middle ages, villicus. See 
Spelman ad voc. The derivation of the 
word from L. major, is undoubtedly an 

The chief magistrate of a city, who, in Lon- 
don and York, is called lord mayor. The 
mayor of a city, in America, is the chief 
judge of the city court, and is assisted, in 
some cases at least, by two or more alder- 
men. To the lord mayor of London be- 
long several courts of judicature, as the 
hustings, court of requests, and court of 
common council. 

MA'YORALTY, n. The office of a mayor. 

MA'YORESS, n. The wife of a mayor"'^"" 
MAZ'AGAN, n. A variety of the common 

bean, [viciafaba.] 
MAZ'ARJJ. 71. [probably from the root of 

marsh ; Fr. machoire.] 

1. The jaw. [JSTot used.] 

Shak. Hudibras. 

2. A kind of cherry. 

MAZ'ARD, V. t. To knock on the head. 
[J\rot in use.] B. Jonson. 

iMAZARlNE, n. A deep blue color. 

2. A particular way of dressing fowls. 

2. A little dish set in a larger one. Ash. 

MAZE, n. [Sax. mase, a whirlpool; Arm. 
mez, confusion or shame. The origin and 
affinities of this word are not ascertained.] 

1. A winding and turning ; perplexed state of 
things; intricacy; a state that embarrass- 

The ways of heaven are dark and intricate. 
Puzzled with mazes, and perplexed with er- 
ror- Jiddison. 

2. Confusion of thought; perplexity; uncer- 

3. A labyrinth. 

MAZE, V. t. To bewilder ; to confound with 
intricacy ; to amaze. Spenser 

MAZE, V. i. To be bewildered. Obs. 


MA'ZEDNESS, n. Confusion; astonish- 
ment. Obs. Chaucer. 

MA'ZER, n. A maple cup. Obs. Spenser. 

MAZOLO(i'l€AL, a. Pertaining to mazol- 

MAZOL'OGIST, n. One versed in mazol- 

MAZOL'OgY, n. [Gr. /«x?a, a breast, and 
^yos, discourse.] 

The doctrine or history of mammiferous 

MAZY, a. Winding ; perplexed with turns 
and windings ; intricate ; as mazy error. 

To run tlie ring and trace the mazy round. 


M. D. Medicines Doctor, doctor of medicine. 

ME, ;>(on. pers.; the objective case of/, an- 
swering to the oblique cases of fg'o, in Lat- 
in. [Sax. me ; Goth, mik ; G. mick; Fr. mot; 
L. mihi; Sp. mi; It. mi or me ; Arm. me; 

M E A 

Port, mim ; D. my ; Galic, mo ; Hindoo, 
viejko ; Sans. me. The Hindoos use me ir 
the nominative, as in Celtic and French, 
mi, moi.] 

I'ollovv \vie ; give to jiie ; go with me. The 
phrase " I followed me close," is not in 
use. Before think, as in methinks, me is 
properly in the dative case, and the verb 
IS impersonal ; the construction is, it ap- 
pears to me. 

!\lE'ACOCK, n. [Qu. 7neek and cock.] An 
uxorious, effeminate man. [jYot used.] 


3IE'A€OCK, a. Lame ; timorous : coward- 
ly. [M>t used.] Shak. 

MEAD, n. [Sax. medo, medu, mead or wine ; 
D. meede ; G. meth ; Dan. 7niod ; W. mez ; 
Ir. miodh or meadh ; Arm. mez. In Or. 
fisei) is wine, as is madja in Sanscrit, and 
medo in Zend. In Russ. med or meda is 
honey. If the word signifies primarily 
liquor in general, it may be allied to Gr. 
Hii6au, L. madeo, to be wet. But it may 
have had its name from honey.] 

A fermented liquor consisting of honey and 
water, sometimes enriched with spices. 


MEAD, I meed, \ [Sax. jntcrfe, mw- 

31EAD0W, S med'o. S dewe ; G. matte, 
a mat, and a meadow ; Ir. madh. The 
sense is extended or flat depressed land. 
It is supposed that this word enters into 
the name Mediolanum, now Milan, in 
Italy ; that is, mead-land.] 

A tract of low land. In America, the word 
is applied particularly to the low ground 
on the banks of rivers, consisting of a 
rich mold or an alluvial soil, whether 
grass land, pasture, tillage or wood land ; 
as the meadoivs on the banks of the Con- 
necticut. The word with us does not ne- 
cessarily imply wet land. Tliis species of 
land is called, in the western states, bot- 
toms, or bottom land. The word is also 
used for other low or flat lands, particu- 
larly lands appropriated to the culture of 

The word is said to be applied in Great 
Britain to land somewhat watery, but 
covered with grass. Johnson. 

3Ieadow means pasture or grass land, 
annually mown for hay; but more partic- 
ularly, land too moist for cattle to graze 
on in winter, without spoiling the sward. 
Encyc. Cyc. 
[Mead is used chiefly in poetry.] 

MEAD'OW-ORE, n. In mineralogy, con 
choidal bog iron ore. " Ure 

MEAD'OW-RUE, >i. A plant of the genus 

IVIEAD'OW-SAFFRON, n. A plant of the 
genus Colchicum. 

MEAD'OW-SAXIFRAuE, n. A plant of 
the genus Peucedanum. 

MEAD'OW-SWEET, n. A plant of the 
genus Spiraea. 

MEAD'OW-WORT, n. A plant. Drayton 

MEAD'OWY, a. Containing meadow. 

J. Bartow 

ME'AGER, a. [Fr. mnigre ; Sp. It. ma- 
gro ; L. jnacer ; D. G. Dan. Sw. ma 
fSer ; Gr. ^ixxoj, fiixfof, small ; allied to 
Eng. meek ; Ch. ']S<a,to be thin, to be de- 
pressed, to subdue; Heb. llDid. Class Mg. 
No. 2. 9. and 10. 1-3.] ' 

M E A 

1. Thin ; lean ; destitute of flesli or having 
little flesh ; applied to animals. 

Meager were his look?, 
Sharp misery had worn him to the bones. 


2. Poor ; barren ; destitute of richness, fer 
tility, or any thing valuable ; as a meager 
soil ; meager limestone. 

Journ. of Science. 

3. Barren ; poor ; wanting strength of dic- 
tion, or richness of ideas or imagery; as a 
meager style or composition ; meager an- 

ME'AGER, V. t. To make lean. [JVot used.] 
I Knolles. 

ME'AGERLY, «rfw. Poorly; thinly. , 

ME'AGERNESS, n. Leanness ; want of 

2. Poorness ; barrenness ; want of fertility 
or richness. 

3. Scantiness ; barrenness ; as the meager- 
ness of service. Bacon. 

MEAK, n. A hook with a long handle. 


MEAL, n. [Sax. wcri, a part or portion ; D. 
maal ; G. mahl ; probably from breaking, 
See the next word.] 

L A portion of food taken at one time ; a 
repast. It is customary in the U. States 
to eat three meals in a day. The princii)al 
7neal of our ancestors was dinner, at noon, 

2. A part ; a fragment ; in the word piece- 

MEAL, n. [Sax. mca/cit^c, melewe ; G. mehl , 
Sw. mibl ; Dan. D. meet ; G. mehlicht 
mealy, mellow ; W. mo/, bruised, ground, 
smooth. This word seems to be allied to 
mill, L. mola, and to L. mollis, Eng. mei 
The radical sense is probably to break, 
comminute, or grind to fine particles, and 
hence the sense of softness ; or the sense 
of softness may be from yielding or smooth 
ness, and the verb may be from the noun.] 

i. The substance of edible grain ground to 
fine particles, and not bolted or sifted. 
Meal primarily includes the bran as well 
as the flour. Since bolting has been gen 
erally practiced, the word meal is not gen 
erally applied to the finer part, or flour, at 
least in the United States, though I believe 
it is sometimes so used. In New Eng 
land, meal is now usually applied to ground 
maiz, whether bolted or unbolted, called 
Indian meal, or corn-meal. The words 
wheat-meal and rye-meal are rarely used 
though not wholly extinct ; and meal oc- 
curs also in oatmeal. 

2. Flour ; the finer part of pulverized grain 
[This sense is note icncommon.] 

MEAT., V. t. To sprinkle with meal 
or to njix meal with. [Little Mscrf.] 

ME'ALINESS, n. The quality of being 
mealy ; softness or smoothness to the 

MEA'L-MAN, n. A man that deals in meal, 

ME'AL-TIME, n. The usual time of eating 

ME'ALY, a. Having the qualities of meal ; 
.soft ; smooth to the feel. 

2. Like meal ; farinaceous ; soft, dry and 
friable ; as a mealy potatoe ; a mealy a\y\)\e 

3. Overspread with something that resem 
bles meal ; as the mealy wings of an in 
sect. Thomson 

ME'ALY-MOUTHED, a. Literally, having 
a soft mouth : hence, imwilling to tell the 

M E A 

truth in plain language ; inclined to speak 
of any thing in softer terms than the truth 
will warrant. ^Estrange. 

MEALY-MOUTH'EDNESS, n. Inclination 
to express the truth in soft words, or to 
disguise the plain fact ; reluctance to tell 
the plain truth. 
MEAN, a. [Sax. mtene, gemane ; the latter 
word signifies common, L. communis. 
Mean coincides in elements with Sax. 
mceneg, many, and the primary sense may 
be a crowd, like vulgar, from L. vulgus. If 
the primary sense is small, it coincides 
with Ir. mion, W. man or main, Fr. me- 
nu. It. meno, L. minor and minuo, to di- 
minish ; but I think the word belongs to 
the root of common. See Class Mn. No. 
2 and 5.] 
1. Wanting dignity; low in rank or birth; 
as a man of mean parentage, mean birth 
or origin. 
12. Wanting dignity of mind ; low minded ; 
base ; destitute of honor ; spiritless. 
Can you imagine 1 so mean could prove, 
To siive my life by changing of my love ? 

Contemptible ; despicable. 
The Roman legions and great Cesar found 
Our fathers no mean foes. Philrp.i. 

Of little value ; low in worth or estima- 
tion ; worthy of little or no regard. 

We fast, not to please men, nor to promote 

any mean worldly interest. Smalridge. 

5. Of little value ; humble ; poor ; as a 

mean abode ; a mean dress. 
MEAN, o. [Fr. moyen ; Sp. Port, mediano ; 
L. medium, medius ; Ir. meadhan. See 

1. Middle ; at an equal distance from the ex- 
tremes ; as the mean distance ; the mean 
proportion between quantities ; the mean 

According to the fittest style of lofty, Hiean, 
or lowly. Milton. 

2. Intervening ; intermediate ; coming be- 
tween ; as in the mean time or while. 

MEAN,?!. The middle pointer place; tlie 
middle rate or degree; mediocrity ; me- 
dium. Observe the golden mean. 

There is a rnfan in all things. Dryden . 

But no authority of gods or men 

Allow of any mean in poesy. Roscommon. 

2. Intervening time ; interval of time ; intc- 
im ; meantime. 

And in the mean, vouchsafe her honorable 
tomb. Spenser. 

Here is an omission of ftme or while. 

3. Measure ; regulation. [JVot in use.] 


4. Instrument ; that which is used to effect 
an object ; the medium through which 
something is done. 

The virtuous conversation of christians was a 
mean to work the conversion of the heathen to 
Christ. Hooker. 

In this sense, means, in the plural, is 
generally used, and often with a definitive 
and verb in the singular. 

By this means he had tlifm more at vantajSie. 

A good character, when established, should 
not be rested on as an end, but employed as a 
means of doing good. Jliterburi/. 

5. Means, in the plural, hicome, revenue, re- 
.sources, substance or estate, considered 
as the instrument of effecting any purpose. 
He would have built a house, but he want- 
ed means. 

M E A 

M E A 

M E A 

Your means are slender. Shak. 

6. Instrument of action or performance. 
By all means, without fail. Go, by all 

By no means, not at all ; certainly not ; not 
in any degree. 

Tlie wine on this side of the lake is by no 
means so good as that on the other. Addison. 

By no manner of means, by no means ; not 
the least. Burke. 

By any meaiis, possibly ; at all. 

Uby any means I might attain to the resur- 
rection of the dead. Phil. iii. 

Meantime, ) in the intervening time. [In 

Meanwhile, i this use of these words there 
is an omission of in or in the ; inthe mean- 

MEAN, V. t. pret. and pp. meant ; pronounc- 
ed ment. [Sax. yncenan, menan, to mean, 
to intend, also to relate, to recite or tell, 
also to moan, to lament ; G. meinen ; D. 
ineenen ; Sw. mena ; Dan. meener, mener ; 
Russ. mnyu, to think or believe ; Ir. smu- 
ainim. It coincides in origin with L. 
mens, Eng. mind. The primary sense is 
to set or to thrust forward, to reach, 
stretch or extend. So in L. intendo, to 
stretch onward or towards, and propono, to 
propose, to set or put forward.] 

1. To'have in the mind, view or contempla- 
tion ; to intend. 

What mean you by this service .' Ex. xii. 

2. To intend ; to purpose ; to design, with 
reference to a future act. 

Ye thought evil against me, but God meant it 
for good. Gen. 1. 

3. To signify ; to indicate. 

What mean these seven ewe Iambs .' Gen. 

What meaneth the noise of this great shout 
in the camp of theHebrews ? 1 Sam. iv. 

Go ye, and learn what that meaneth — Matt 


MEAN, V. i. To have thought or ideas ; or 

to have meaning. Pope. 

MEAN'DER, n. [the name of a winding 

river in Phrygia.] 

1. A winding course ; a winding or turning 
in a passage ; as the meanders of the veins 
and arteries. Hale. 

While Ungering rivers in meanders glide. 


2. A maze ; a labyrinth ; perplexity ; as the 
meanders of the law. Arbuthnot. 

MEAN'DER, v. I. To wind, turn or flow 
round ; to make flexuous. Drayton. 

MEAN'DER, v. i. To wind or turn in a 
course or passage ; to be intricate. 


MEAN'DERING, ppr. or a. Winding in a 
course, passage or current. 

MEAN'DRIAN, a. Winding ; having ma- 
ny turns. 

ME'ANING, ppr. Having in tnind ; intend- 
ing ; signifying. 

ME'ANING, Ji. That which exists in the 
mind, view or contemplation as a settled 
aim or purpose, though not directly ex- 
pressed. We say, this or that is not his 

2. Intention; purpose; aim; with reference 
to a future act. 

I am no honest man, if there be any good 
meaning towards yo>i. Shah. 

3. Signification. What is the meaning- of all 
this parade ? The meaning of a liiero- 
glypliir is not ahva\s obvious. 

4. The sense of words or expressions ; that 
which is to be understood ; signification 
that which the writer or speaker intends 
to express or communicate. Words have 
a literal meaning, or a metaphorical mean 
ing, and it is not always easy to ascertain 
the real meaning. 

5. Sense ; power of thinking. [lAltle used. 
MEANLY, adv. [SeeJMean.] Moderately 

not in a great degree. 

In the veign of Domitian, poetry was meanly 
cultivated. [JVo( used.] Drydeti 

2. Without dignity or rank ; in a low condi- 
tion ; as meanly born. 

3. Poorly ; as meanly dressed. 

4. Without greatness or elevation of mind ; 
without honor ; with a low mind or 
row views. He meanly declines to fulfill 
his promise. 

Would you meanly thus rely 

On power, you know, I must obey ? Prior 

5. Without respect ; disrespectfully. We 
cannot bear to hear others speak meanly 
of our kindred. 

ME'ANNESS, n. Want of dignity or rank ; 
low state ; as meanness of birth or condi- 
tion. Poverty is not always meanness ; it 
may be connected with it, but men of dig- 
nified minds and manners are often poor. 

9. Want of excellence of any kind ; poor- 
ness ; rudeness. 

This figure is of a later date, by the mean- 
ness of the workmanship. Jlddison. 

3. Lowness of mind ; want of dignity and 
elevation ; want of honor. Meanness in 
men incurs contempt. All dishonesty is 

■ss ; 
liberality or charitableness, 
very different from frugality. 

5. Want of richness ; poorness ; as the 
meanness of dress or equipage. 

MEANT, pre(. and^;?. of mean. 

MEAR. [See3/ere.] 

ME'ASE, n. [from the root of measure.] 
The quantity of 500 ; as a mease of her- 
rings. [N'ot used in America.] 

MEASLE, n. mee'zl. A leper. [J^Tot in use.] 

MEASLED, a. mee'zled. [See Measles.] 
Infected or spotted with measles. 

MEASLES, n. mee'des ; with a plural ter- 
mination. [G. maser, a spot ; masig, meas- 
led ; D. mazelen ; from sprinkling or from 
mixing. Class Ms. No. 14. 15.] 

1. A contagious disease of the human body, 
usually characterized by an eruption of 
small red points or spots, from which it 
has its name. 

2. A disease of swine. B. Jonson. 

3. A disease of trees. Mortimer. 
MEASLY, a. mee'zly. Infected with measles 

or eruptions. Swift. 

MEASURABLE, a. mezh'urable. [See 

1. That may be measured; susceptible of 
mensuration or computation. Bentley. 

2. Moderate ; in small quantity or extent. 
MEASURABLENESS, n. mezh'urableness. 

The quality of admitting mensuration. 

MEASURABLY, adv. mezh'urably. Mod- 
erately ; in a hmited degree. 

MEASURE, n. mezh'ur. [Fr. mesure; It. 
misura ; Sp. medida ; Arm. musitr or mu- 
sul ; Ir. meas ; W. meidyr and me^itr ; G. 
mass, measure, and messen, to measure ; 

D. maat ; Sw. matt ; Dan. maade, meas- 
ure, and mode ; L. mensura, from mensus, 
with a casual n, the participle o{ metier, to 
measure, Eng. to mete ; Gr. nirfiov, lutftu. 
With these correspond the Eng. meet, fit, 
])roper, and meet, the verb; Sax. gemet, 
meet, fit ; metan and gemettan, to meet or 
meet with, to find, to mete or measure, 
and to paint. Tiie sense is to come to, to 
fall, to happen, and this sense is connected 
with that of stretching, extending, that is, 
reaching to ; the latter gives the sense of 
measure. We find in Heb. nn measure ; 
mn, to mete, to measure. This word in Ar. 

.X^ madda, signifies to stretch or extend, 
to draw out in length or time ; as do other 
verbs with the same elements, under one 
of which we find the meta of the Latins. 
The Ch. NBD signifies to come to, to ar- 
rive, to reach, to be mature, and NXD, in 
Heb. Ch. and Eth. signifies to find, to 
come to. Now the Saxon verb unites in 
itself the significations of all three of the 
oriental verbs.] 
1. The whole extent or dimensions of a 
thing, including length, breadth and thick- 

The measure thereof is longer than the earth 
and broader than the sea. Job xi. 

It is applied also to length or to breadth 

2. That by which extent or dimension is as- 
certained, either length, breadth, thick- 
ness, capacity, or amount ; as, a rod or 
pole is a measure of five yards and a half; 
an inch, a foot, a yard, are measures of 
length ; a gallon is a measure of capacity. 
AVeights and measures should be uniform. 
Silver and gold are the common measure 
of value. 

3. A limited or definite quantity ; as a meas- 
ure of wine or beer. 

4. Determined extent or length ; limit. 

Lord, make me to know my end, and the 
measure of my days. Ps. xxxix. 

5. A rule by which any thing is adjusted or 

God's goodness is the measure of his provi- 
dence. .More. 

6. Proportion ; quantity settled. 

I enter not into the particulars of the law of 
nature, or its measures of punishment ; yet 
there is such a law. Locke. 

Full or sufficient quantity. 

I'll never pause again, 
Till either death hath clos'd these eyes of mine, 
Orfortune given me measure of revenge. 

8. Extent of power or office. 

We will not boast of things without our 
measure. 2 Cor. x. 
Portion allotted ; extent of ability. 
If else thou seekest 
Aught not surpassing human measure, say. 

10. Degree ; quantity indefinite. 

I have laid down, in some measure, the des- 
cription of the old world. Abbot. 

A great mcfl5wrf of discretion is to be used in 
the performance of confession. Taylor. 

11. In mitstc,that division by which the mo- 
tion of music is regulated ; or the interval 
or space of time between the rising and 
falling of the hand or foot of him who beats 
time. This measure regulates the time of 

M E A 

dwelling on each note. The ordinary or 
common measure is one second. Encyc. 

12. In poetry, the measure or meter is the 
manner of ordering and combining the 
quantities, or the long and short syllables. 
Thus hexameter, pentameter, Iambic, 
Sapphic verses, &c. consist of different 
measures. Encyc. 

13. In dancing, the interval between steps, 
corresponding to the interval between 
notes in the music. 

14. In geometry, any quantity assumed as 
one or imily, to which the ratio of other 
homogeneous or similar quantities 
pressed. Encyc. 

15. Means to an end ; an act, step or pro- 
ceeding towards the accomplishment of an 
object ; an extensive signification of the 
word, applicable to almost evert) act prepara- 
tory to ajinal end, and by which it is to be 
attained. Thus we speak of legislative 
measures, political vieasures, public meas- 
ures, prudent measures, a i-asb measure, ef- 
fectual measures, inefficient measures. 

In measrtre, with moderation ; without ex 

Without measure, without limits : very largely 
or co))iously. 

To have hard measure, to be harshly or op- 
pressively treated. 

Lineal or long measure, measure of length 
the measure of lines or distances. 

Liquid measure, the measure of liquors. 

iMEASURE, V. t. mezh'ur. To compute or 
ascertain extent, quantity, dimeni ' 
capacity by a certain rule ; as, to measure 
land ; to measure distance ; to measure th« 
altitude of a mountain ; to measure the ca- 
pacity of a ship or of a cask. 

9. To ascertain the degree of any thing ; as 
to measure the degrees of heat, or of moist- 

3. To pass through or over. 

We must measure twentj- miles to day. 

The vessel plows the sea. 
And measures back with speed her formei 
way. Dryden 

i. To judge of distance, extent or quantity : 
as, to measure any thing by the eye. 
Great are thy worts, Jehovah, infinite 
Tliy power ; what thought can measure thee i 
5. To adjiist ; to proportion. 

To secure a contented spirit, measure your 
desires by your fortunes, not your fortunes by 
your desires. Taylor. 

ti. To allot or distribute by measure. 

With what measure ye mete, it shall be 
measured to you again. Matt. vii. 
MEASURED, pp. mezh'ured. Computed or 
ascertained by a rule ; adjusted ; prop 
tioned ; passed over. 
2. a. Equal ; uniform ; steady. He walked 

with measured steps. 
JMEASURELESS, a. mezh'urless. Without 
measure; unlimited; immeasurable. 

MEASUREMENT, n. mezh'urment. T^ie 
act of measuring ; mensuration. Burke 

MEASURER, n. mezh'urer. One who meas- 
ures ; one whose occupation or duty is to 
measure commodities in market. 

Vol. II. 

M E C 

MEASURING, ppr. mezh'uring. Compu- 
ting or ascertaining length, dimensions,: 
capacity or amount. 
2. a. A measuring cast, a throw or cast that 
requires to be measured, or not to be dis- 
tinguished from another but by measur- 
[Sax. meete, mete ; Goth, mats ; 


EAT, Ji. 

Sw. mat ; Dan. mad ; Hindoo, mas. 


maethu signifies to feed, to noiuish. Corn. 
melhia. In the language of the Moliegans, 
in America, meetseh signifies, eat thou 
meetsoo, he eats. Qu. mots and must.] 

1. Food in general; any thing eaten for 
nourishment, either by man or beast. 

And God said. Behold, I have given y 
every herb — to you it shall be for meat. Gen, 

Every moving thing that livetb, shall be 
meat for you. Gen. is. 

Thy carcase shall be meat to all fowls of tli 
air. Deut. xxviii. 

2. The flesh of animals used as food. This 
is now the more usual sense of the word. 
The meat of carnivorous animals is tough, 
coarse and ill flavored. The jneat of herb- 
ivorous animals is generally palatable. 

3. In Scripture, spiritual food ; that which 
sustains and nourishes spiritual life 

My flesh is 7Jicat indeed. John vi. 

4. Spiritual comfort ; that which delights 
the soul. 

My meat is to do the wiU of him tl 
me. John iv. 

5. Products of tlie earth proper for food. 
Hab. iii. 

,6. The more abstruse doctrines of the g 
pel, or mysteries of religion. Heb. v. 

7. Ceremonial ordinances. Heb. xiii. 

To sit at meat, to sit or recline at the table 


ME'ATED, a. Fed ; fattened. [Not used.y^ 

MEATIIE, n. [W. me:. See Mead.] Liquor 
or drink. [Not used.] Milton 

ME'AT-OFFERING, n. An offering con- 

I sisting of meat or food. 

ME'ATY, a. Fleshy, but not fat. [Local.] 

MEAWL. [See MetvL] 

ME'AZLING, ppr. Falling in small drops ; 
properly mizzling, or rather mistling, from 
mist. Arbulhnot. 

ME€HAN'I€, ? „ [L. mechanicus ; Fr. 

3IE€HAN'I€AL, I "■ mechanique ; Gr. /u,. 
XavLxos, from urixavr^, a machine.] 

1. Pertaining to machines, or to the art of 
constructing machines ; pertaining to the 
art of making wares, goods, instruments, 
furniture, &c. We say, a man is employ 
ed in mechanical labor ; he lives by me 
chanical occupation. 

2. Constructed or performed by the rules or 
laws of mechanics. The work is not me- 

3. Skilled in the art of making machines 
bred to manual labor. Johnson. 

4. Pertaining to artisans or mechanics ; vul- 

To make a god, a hero or a king. 
Descend to a mechanic dialect. 


5. Pertaining to the principles of mechanics, 
in philosophy ; as mechanical powers or 
forces; a mechanical principle. 

6. Acting by physical power ; as 'mechanical 


M E C 

The terms mechanical and chimical, are thus 
distinguished : those changes which bod- 
ies undergo without altering their con- 
stitution, that is, losing their identity, such 
as changes of place, of figure, &c. are 
mechanical; those which alter the consti- 
tution of bodies, making them different 
substances, as when flour, yeast and water 
unite to form bread, are chimical. In the 
one case, the changes relate to masses of 
matter, as the motions of the heavenly 
bodies, or tlie action of the wind on a ship 
under sail; in the other case, the changes 
occur between the paHicles of matter, as 
the action of heat in melting lead, or the 
union of sand and lime forming mortar. 
Most of what are usually called the me- 
chanic arts, are partly mechanical, and 
partly chimical. 

ME€HAN'I€, Ji. A person whose occtipa- 
tion is to construct machines, or goods, 
wares, instruments, furniture, and the like. 

2. One skilled in a mechanical occupation 
or art. 

ME€HAN'I€ALLY, adv. According to the 
laws of mechanism, or good workman- 

2. By physical force or power. 

3. By the laws of motion, without intelli- 
gence or design, or by the force of habit. 
We say, a man arrives to such perfection 
in playing on an instrument, that his fin- 
gers move mechanically. 

Mechanically turned or inclined, naturally or 
habitually disposed to use mechanical 
arts. Swift. 

ME€HAN I€ALNESS, n. The state of 
being mechanical, or governed by mechan- 

ME€HANI"CIAN, n. One skilled in me- 

ME€HAN'I€S, n. That science which 
treats of the doctrines of motion. It in- 
vestigates the forces by which bodies arc 
kept either in equilibrium or in motion, 
and is accordingly divided into statics and 

A mathematical science which shows the ef- 
fects of powers or moving forces, so far 
as they are applied to engines, and demon- 
strates the laws of motion. Harris. 
It is a well known truth in mechanics, that 
tlie actual and theoretical powers of a machine 
will never coincide. J. Jlppleton. 

ME€H'ANISM, n. The construction of a 
machine, engine or instrument, intended 
to apply power to a useful purpose ; the 
structure of parts, or manner in which the 
parts of a machine are united to answer 
its design. 

2. Action of a machine, according to the 
laws of mechanics. 

ME€H'ANIST, n. The maker of machines, 
or one skilled in mechanics. 

MECH'LIN, )!. A species of lace, made at 

ME€HO'ACAN, )i. White jalap, the root of 
an American species of Convolvulus, from 
Mechoacan, in Mexico ; a purgative of 
slow operation, but safe. Encyc. 

ME€0'NIATE, n. A salt consisting of me- 
conic acid and a base. 

ME€ON'l€, a. Meconic acid is an acid con- 
tained in opium. 

ME€'ONITE, «. A small sandstone; ani- 
inite. Coxe. De Costa. 


x^I E D 


MEeO'NIUM, n. [Gr. nrjxuviov, from fiijxwr, 

1. Tlie juice of the white poppy, which has 
the virtues of opium. Coxe. Encyc. 

2. The first faeces of infants. Coxt. 
MED'AL, n. [Fr. medaille ; It. medaglia ; 

Sp. medalla ; Arm. vielallinn ; from L. 

metallum, metal. Qu. Ar. ^ylaxi raatala, 
to beat or extend by beating. Class Md. 
No. 45.] 
An ancient coin, or a piece of metal in the 
form of a coin, stamped with some figure 
or device to preserve the portrait " 
distinguished person, or the memory of an 
illustrious action or event. 
MEDAL'LI€, a. Pertaining to a medal or 
to medals. Addison. 

MEDAL' LION, n. [Fr.; from medal.] A 

large antique stamp or medal. 
2. The representation of a medallion. 
MED'ALLIST, n. A person that is skilled 
or curious in medals. Johnson. 

MED'DLE, V. i. [D. middekn, to mediate ; 
G. mitlUr, middle, and mediator; Sw 
medlare; Dan. midkr, a mediator. Qu 
Sw. meddela, Dan. mtddtkr, to communi- 
cate or participate ; med, with, and dela, 
deeler, to deal. Meddk seems to be con 
nected with medky, a mixture. Chaucer 
and Spenser use medk, to mix, and the G 
mittkr is evidently from milk, milkl, mid- 
dle, which seems to be connected with 
mil, with. In W. mid signifies an inclo- 
sure. Perhaps all these words may be 
long to one family.] 
1. To have to do ; to take part ; to interpose 
and act in the concerns of others, or in 
fairs in which one's interposition is not 
cessary ; often with the sense of intrusion 
or officiousness. 

I have thus far been an upright judge, not 
meddling with the design nor disposition. 

What hast thou to do to meddle with the af- 
fairs of my family ? Jirbuthnot 
Why should'st thou meddle to thy hurt ? i 
Kings xiv. 
3. To have to do ; to touch ; to handle 
Meddk not with edge-tools, is an admoni- 
tion to children. When the object is spe- 
cified, meddk is properly followed by wUh 
or in; usually by the former. 

The civil lawyers — have meddled in a matter 
that belongs not to them. Locke. 

MED'DLE, V. t. To mix ; to mingle. 

He meddled his talk with many a tear. Obs. 
MED'DLER, n. One that meddles ; one that 
interferes or busies himself with things in 
which he has no concern ; an officious per- 
son ; a busy body. Bacon 
MED'DLESOME, a. Given to meddling 
apt to interpose in the affairs of others 
ofliciouslv intrusive. 
MEDDLESOMENESS, n. Officious inter 
position in the affairs of others. Barrow. 
MED'DLING, ppr. Having to do; touch- 
ing ; handhng ; ofliciously interposing ir 
other men's concerns. 
2. a. Officious; busy in other men's affairs 

as a mcrfi/Wng' neighbor. 
ME'DIAL, a. [L. medius, middle.] Mean 

noting a mean or average. 
Medi(d alligalion, is a method of finding the 
mean rate or value of a mixture consisting 

of two or more ingredients of different 
quantities and values. In this case, the 
quantity and value of each ingredient are 

ME'DIANT, ?i. In music, an appellation 
given to the third above the key-note, be- 
cause it divides the interval between the 
tonic and dominant into two thirds. 

Rousseau. Busby. 

ME'DIATE, a. [Fr medial; It. medialo ; 
from L. medius, middle.] Middle ; being 
between the two extremes. 

Anxious we hover in a tnediate state. P 

2. Interposed ; intervening ; being between 
two objects. 

Soon the mediak clouds shall be dispelled. 

3. Acting by means, or by an intervening 
cause or instrument. Thus we speak of 
mediale and immediate causes. The wind 
that propels a ship is the immediate cause 
of its motion ; the oar with which a man 
rows a boat is the immediate cause of it 
motion ; but the rower is the mediak 
cause, acting by means of the oar. 

ME'DIATE, V. i. To interpose between 
parties, as the equal friend of each ; to act 
indifferently between contending parties 
with a view to reconciliation ; to inter- 
cede. The prince that mediates between 
nations and prevents a war, is the bene- 
factor of both parties. 

2. To be between two. [lAllkused.] Digby. 

ME'DIATE, v. I. To effect by mediation or 
interposition between parties ; as, to mcrfj- 
ate a peace. Clarendon. 

i. To limit by something in the middle. [JVol 
used.] Holder. 

MEDIATELY, adv. By means or by a 
secondary cause, acting between the first 
cause and the effect. 

God worketh all tilings amongst us mediately, 
" ■ ■ ;A. 

by secondary means. Ralcig 

The kina; grants a manor to A, and A granti 
a portion of it to B. In this case, B holds hi: 
lands immediately of A, but mediately of the 
kino-. Btackstonc. 

MEdIA'TION, n. [Fr. from L. medius. 

1. Interposition; intervention; agency be- 
tween parties at variance, with a view tc 
reconcile them. The contentions of indi 
viduals and families are often terminated 
by the mediation of friends. The contro 
versies of nations are sometimes adjusted 
by medialion. Tiie reconciliation of sin- 
ners to God by the medialion of Christ, 
a glorious display of divine benevolence. 

2. Agency interposed ; intervenient power. 

The soul, during its residence in the body, 

does all things by the mediation of the passions. 


3. Intercession ; entreaty for another. 
MEDIA'TOR, n. [Fr.mediateur.] One that 

interposes between parties at variance for 
the purpose of reconciling them. 
2. Byway of eminence, Christ is the medi- 
ator, " the divine intercessor through 
whom sinners may be reconciled to an of 
fended God. Tim. 2. 

Christ is a mediator by nature, as partakint;' 
of both natures divine and human ; and media- 
tor by office, as transacting matters between 
God and man. Waterland. 

MEDIATO'RIAL, a. Belonging to a medi- 
ator ; as mediatorial oflice or character. 
[Mediatory is not used.] 

MEDIA'TORSHIP, n. The office of a me- 

MEDIA'TRESS, 1 „ A female mediator. 

MEDIA'TRIX, r Mnsioorth. 

MED'IC, n. A plant of the genus Medicago. 
The sea-medic is of the same genus ; the 
medic vetch is of the genus Hedysarum. 

Fam. of Plants. 

MED'I€ABLE, a. [See Medical.] That 
may be cured or healed. 

MED'ICAL, a. [L.medicus, from merfeor, to 
heal ; Gr. nij&ixos, fMjSo^i ; fMjSoj, cure.] 

1. Pertaining to the art of heahng diseases ; 
as the medical profession ; medical services, 

2. Medicinal; containing that which heals; 
tending to cure ; as the medical properties 
of a plant. 

MED'I€ALLY, adv. In the manner of 
medicine ; according to the rules of the 
healing art, or for the purpose of healing ; 
as a simple or mineral medically used or 
2. In relation to the heaUng art ; as a plant 

medically considered. 
MED'I€AMENT, n. [Fr. from L. medica- 

Any thing used for healing diseases or 
wounds ; a medicine ; a healing applica- 
tion. Coxe. 
MEDI€AMENT'AL, a. Relating to healing 
applications ; having the qualities of med- 
MEDI€AMENT'ALLY, adv. After the 

manner of healing applications. 
MED'I€ASTER. n. A quack. IVhitlocl:. 
MED'leATE, V. t. [L. medico.] To tinc- 
ture or impregnate with healing sub- 
stances, or with anything medicinal. 

MED'ICATED, pp. Prepared or furnished 

with any thing medicinal. 

MED'I€ATING, ppr. Impregnating with 

medical substances ; preparing with any 

thing medicinal. 

MEDI€A'TION, n. The act or process of 

impregnating with medicinal substances; 

the infusion of medicinal virtues. Bacon. 

2. Tiie use of medicine. Brown. 

MEDIC'INABLE, a. Having the properties 

of medicine; medicinal. [The latter is the 

iDord now tised.] Bacon. Jf'otton. 

MEDICINAL, a. [L. medicinalis.] Having 

the property of healing or of mitigating 

disease ; adapted to thecureor alleviation 

of bodily disorders; as medicinal plants; 

medicinal virtues of minerals; medicinal 

springs. The waters of Saratoga and 

Ballston are remarkably medicinal.^ 

2. Pertaining to medicine ; as medicinal days 

or hours. Quincy. 

MEDICINALLY, adv. In tlie manner of 

medicine ; with medicinal qualities. 
2. With a view to healing ; as, to use a 

mineral medicinally. 
MED'ICINE, n. [L. medicina, from medeor, 
to cure ; vulgarly and improperly pro- 
nounced med'sn.] 
1. Any substance, liquid or solid, that has 
the property of curing or mitigating dis- 
ease in animals, or that is used for that 
purpose. Simples, plants and minerals 
furnish most of our medicines. Even poi- 
sons used with judgment and in modera- 
tion, are safe and efficacious medicines. 
Medicines are internal or external, simpk 
or compound. 


3. The an of preventing, curing or allevi- 
ating the diseases of the luinian body. 

Hence we say, the study of medicine, or a 

student of medicine. 
3. In the French sense, a physician. [JVot in 

use.] Shak. 

MED'ICINE, V. I. To affect or operate on 

as medicine. [^J'ot used.] Shak. 

MEDI'ETY, n. [Fr. medieU; L. medietas; 

from L. medius, middle.] 
The middle state or part; half; moiety. 

[Little used.] Brown. 

ME'DIN, n. A small coin. 
MEDIO'€RAL, a. [L. mediocris.] Being 

of a middle quality ; indifferent ; ordinary ; 

as mediocral intellect. [Rare.] Addison. 
ME'DIOCRIST, n. A person of middling 

ahilities. [M)t used.] Swifi. 

MEDIO€'RITY, n. [L. mediocrilas, from 

mediocris, middling ; medius, middle.] 

1. A middle state ordegree ; a moderate de- 
gree or rate. A mediocrity of condition is 
most favorable to morals and happiness. 
A mediocrity of talents well employed will 
generally ensiu-e respectability. 

Men of age seldom drive business home to 
the full period, but content themselves with a 
mediocrity of success. Bacon. 

2. Moderation ; temperance. 

We owe obedience to the law of reason, 

MEDITATE, v. i. [L. meditor; Sp. medi- 
tar ; Fr. mediter.] 

1. To dwell on any thing in thought; to 
contemplate ; to study ; to turn or revolve 
any subject in the mind ; appropriately 
but not exclusively used of pious contem- 
plation, or a consideration of the great 
truths of religion. 

His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in 
his law doth he meditate day and night. Ps. i. 

2. To intend ; to have in contemplation. 

I meditate to pass the remainder of life in a 
state of undisturbed repose. Washington. 

MED'ITATE, v. t. To plan by revolving in 
the mind ; to contrive ; to intend. 
Some affirmed tliat I meditated a war. 

King Charles. 
2. To think on ; to revolve in the mind. 

Blessed is the man that doth meditate good 
things. Bcclus. 

MEDITATED, pp. Planned ; contrived. 
MED'ITATING, ppr. Revolving in the 

mind ; contemplating ; contriving. 
MEDITA'TION, n. [L. meditatio.] Close 
or continued thought ; the turning or re- 
volving of a subject in the mind ; serious 

Let the words of my moutli and the medita- 
tions of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, O 
Lord, my strength and my Redeemer. Fs. xix 
MED'ITATIVE, a. Addicted to medita- 
tion. AinswoHh. 
2. Expressing meditation or design. 

MEDITERRA'NE, > [L. medius, 

MEDITERRANEAN, } a. middle, and 
MEDITERRA'NEOUS,> terra, land.] 

1. Inclosed or nearly inclosed with land ; 
as the Mediterranean sea, between Eu- 
rope and Africa. [Mediterrane is not used.] 

2. Inland ; remote from the ocean or sea ; 
as mediierraneous mountains. Burnet. 

^lE'DIUM, n. plu. mediums ; media not be- 
ing generally, though sometimes used. 
FL.] In philosophy, the space or sub- 


stance through which a body luoves or 
passes to any point. Thus ether is sup- 
posed to be the medium through which 
the planets move ; air is the medium 
through which bodies move near the 
earth ; water the medium in which fishes 
live and move; glass a medium through 
which light passes; and we speak of a re- 
sisting medium, a refracting medium, &c. 

2. In logic, the mean or middle term of a 
syllogism, or the middle term in an argu- 
ment, being the reason why a thing is af- 
firmed or denied. 

Nothing can be honorable that violates 
moral principle. 

Dueling violates moral principle. 

Therefore dueling is not honorable. 

Here the second tertn is the medium, 
mean, or middle term. 

3. Arithmetical medium, that which is equally 
distant from each extreme, or which ex- 
ceeds the lesser extreme as much as it is 
exceeded by the greater, in respect of 
quantity, not of proportion. Thus, 9 is a 
medium between 6 and 12. 

4. Geometrical medium, is that wherein the 
same ratio is preserved between the first 
and second terms, as between the second 
and third. Thus, is a geometrical medi- 
um between 4 and 9. Encyc. 

In the three last senses or applications, 
mean is more generally used for medium. 

5. The means or instrument by which any 
thing is accotnplished, conveyed or car- 
ried on. Thus money is the medium ofj 
commerce ; coin is the common medium\ 
of trade among all civilized nations, but 
wampum is the medium of trade among| 
the Indian tribes, and bills of credit or| 
bank notes are often used as mediums of 
trade in the place of gold and silver. In- 
telligence is communicated through the 
medium of the press. 

C. The middle place or degree ; the mean. 
The just medium of this case Hes between 
pride and abjection. V Estrange. 

7. A kind of printing paper of middle size. 

MED'LAR, 7!. [L. mespilus.] A tree and 
a genus of trees, called Mespilus ; also, 
the fruit of the tree. The German or 
common medlar is cultivated in gardens 
for its fruit. Encyc. 

MED'LE, V. I. To mix ; not used, but 

MED'LEY, n. A mixture; a mingled and 
confused mass of ingredients ; used often 
or commonly with some degree of con- 

This medley of philosophy and war. Addison. 
Love is a medley of endearments, jars, suspi- 
cions, reconcilements, wars — then peace again. 

MED'LEY, a. Mingled; confused. [Little 
used.] Eh-yden 

MEDUL'LAR, ) [L. medullaris, from 

MED'ULLARY, 5"- medulla, mtirrow; W. 
madruz; allied to matter, that is, soft.] 

Pertaining to marrow ; consisting of mar- 
row ; resembling marrow ; as medullary 

MEDUL'LIN, n. [L. medulla.] The pith 
of the sunflower, which has neither taste 
nor smell. It is insoluble in water, ether, 
alcohol and oils, but soluble in nitric acid, 
and instead of yielding suberic acid, it 
yields the oxalic. iOyc. 

M E E 

MEED, n. [Sax. med, Gr. .uiaSof, G. mielhf, 
hire ; Sans, medha, a gift.] 

1. Reward; recompense; that which is be- 
stowed or rendered in consideration of 

Thanks to men 
Of noble minds is honorable meed. Shak. 

2. A gift or present, [^^ot xiscd.] Shak. 
MEEK, a. [Svv. miuk, soft, tender; Dan. 

™.'/S' )■ Sp. mego ; Port, mcigo ; G. gemach. 
The primary sense is flowing, liquid, or 
thin, attenuated, and allied to muck, L. 
mucus, Eng. mucilage, Heb. Ch. J1D, to 
melt. Class Mg. No. 8. See also No. 10. 
and No. 2. 9. 13.] 

1. Mild of temper; soft; gentle; not easily 
provoked or irritated ; yielding ; given to 
forbearance under injuries. 

Now the man Moses was very meek, above 
all men. Nimi. xii. 

2. Appropriately, humble, in an evangelical 
sense ; submissive to the divine will ; not 
proud, self-sufficient or refractory ; not 
peevish and apt to complain of divine dis- 
pensations. Christ says, " Learn of me, for 
I am meek and lowly in heart, and ye shall 
find rest to your souls." Matt. xi. 

Blessed are the tneek, for they shall inhcrif 
the earth. Matt. v. 
MEE'KEN, V. t. mee'kn. To make meek; 
to soften ; to render mild. Thomson. 

MEE'KLY, adv. Mildly; gently; submis- 
sively ; humbly ; not proudly or roughly. 
And this mis-seeming discord meekly lay 
aside. Spenser. 

MEE'KNESS, n. Softness of temper; 
mildness ; gentleness ; forbearance under 
injuries and provocations. 

3. In an evangelical sense, humility ; resigna- 
tion; submission to the divine will, with- 
out murmuring or peevishness ; opposed 
to pride, arrogance and refractoriness. 
Gal. V. 

I beseech you by the meekness of Christ. 1 
Cor. X. 

Meekness is a grace which Jesus alone incul- 
cated, and which no ancient philosopher seems 
to have understood or recommended. 


MEER, ft. Simjjle; unmixed; usually writ- 
ten mere. 

MEER, n. A lake; a boundary. [See 

MEE'RED, a. Relating to a boundary. [See 
Mere.] Shak. 

MEER'SCHAUM, n. [G. sea-foam.] A 
hydrate of magnesia combined with silex. 
It occurs in beds in Natolia, and when 
first taken out, is soft, and makes lather 
like soap. It is manufactured into tobac- 
co pipes, which are boiled in oil or wax, 
and baked. Cyc. 

MEET, a. [Sax. gemet, with a prefix, from 
the root ofmetayi, gemetan, to meet, to find, 
that is, to come to, to come together. So 
the equivalent word convenient, is from L. 

Fit ; suitable ; proper ; qualified ; conveni- 
ent; adapted, as to a use or purpose. 

Ye shall pass over armed before your bretli- 
ren, the children of Israel, all that are ineet for 
the war. Deut. iii. 

It was meet that we should make merry — 

Luke XV. 

Bring forth fruits meet for repentance. Matt.iii. 

MEET, V. t. pret. and pp. met. [Sax. metan, 

inxtan, gemetan, to meet, to find, to mens- 

M E E 

M E L 


ure, to mete ; Goth, motyan ; D. ontmoelen. 
gemoetan, to meet, anAgemoet, a meeting 
Sw. m'ota, to raeet, to fall, come or hap- 
pen ; mote, a meeting ; mot, toward, 
against ; Dan. moder, to meet ; mode, a 
meeting ; mod, contrary, against, towards. 
The sense is to come to, to fall to or hap- 
pen, to reach to ; Gr. (Uffa, with ; G. mit, 
D. met, mede, Sw. and Dan. med, with or 
by ; W. med, to ; Ch. Syr. NBD nOO, to come 
to, to arrive, to happen ; Heb. Ch. Eth. 
XVO. Qu.W. animorf, a covenant; commod. 

1. To come together, approaching in oppo- 
site or different directions ; to come face 
to face ; as, to meet a man in the road. 

His daughter came out to 7n€et him with 
timbrels and with dances. Judges si. 

2. To come together in any place ; as, we 
met many strangers at the levee. 

3. To come together in hostility ; to encoun- 
ter. The armies met on the plains of Phar- 

4. To encounter unexpectedly. Milton 

5. To come together in extension ; to come 
in contact; to join. The line A meets the 
line B and forms an angle. 

C. To come to ; to find ; to light on ; to re- 
ceive. The good man meets his reward ; 
the criminal in due time meets the punish- 
ment he deserves. 

Of vice or virtue, whether blest or curst, 
Which 7neets contempt, or wliich compassion 
first. Pope. 

MEET, V. I. To come together or to ap- 
proach near, or into company with. How 
pleasant it is for friends to meet on the 
road ; still more pleasant to meet in a for- 

ing was numerous ; the meeting was clam- 
orous ; the meeting was dissolved at sun- 

3. A conflux, as of rivers; a joining, as of 

A place of wor- 

2. To come together in hostility ; to 
ter. Tlie armies met at Waterloo, and de- 
cided the fate of Buonaparte. 

3. To assemble ; to congregate. The coun- 
cil met at 10 o'clock. The legislature will 
meet on the first Wednesday in themontli. 

4. To come together by being extended ; to 
come in contact ; to join. Two converg- 
ing lines will meet in a point. 

To meet ivith, to light on ; to find ; to come 
to ; often with the sense of an unexpected 

We met with many things worthy of observa- 
tion. Bacon. 
1. To join; to unite in company. 

Falstaffat that oak shall meet with us. 


3. To suffer unexpectedly ; as, to meei loith 
a fall ; to meet with a loss. 

4. To encounter; to engage in opposition. 

Royal mistress, 
Prepare to meet with more than brutal fury 
From the fierce prince. Rowe- 

5. To obviate ; a Latinism. [JVot used.] 

To meet halfway, to approach from an equal 

distance and meet ; metaphorically, to 

make mutual and equal concessions, each 

party renouncing some pretensions. 
MEE'TER, 71. One that meets another ; one 

that accosts another. Shak 

MEE'TING, ])pr. Coming together; en 

countering; joining; assembling. 
MEE'TING, n. A coming together ; an in 

terview; as a happy meeting of friends. 
2. An assembly ; a congregation ; a coUcc 

tion of people ; a convention. The mecl- 


ship; a chm-ch. 

MEE'TLY, arft). [from meet.] Fitly; suita- 
bly ; properly. 

MEE'TNESS, n. [from meet.] Fitness; 
suitableness ; propriety. Bp. Hall. 

MEG'AeOSM, n. [Gr. jueya;, great, and 
zo5/tos, world.] The great world. 

Bp. Croft. 

MEGALON'YX, n. [Gr. /xfyoxj;, great, and 

An animal now extinct, whose bones h; 
been found in Virginia. Cuvier. 

MEGALOPOLIS, n. [Gr. fiiyaxri, great, 
and TtoXis, city.] 

A chief city ; a metropolis. [M)t in itse. 


MEGATHERIUM,? , [Gr. /usyas, great 

MEGATH'ERY, S and S^po, a wild 

A quadruped now extinct, but whose re 
mains have been found in South America 
It was larger than tlie megalonyx. Cyc 

ME'GRIM, n. [Fr. migraine, corrupted from 
L. and G. hemicrania, half the head.] 

Properly, a pain in the side of the head ; 
hence, a disorder of the head ; vertigo. 


MEINE, r. /. [Sax. mengan.] To mingle. 
Obs. Chaucer. 

MEINE, I [See Menial.] A retiime oi 

ME'NY, ^ "■ family of servants; domes- 
tics. Obs. Shak. 

MEIONITE, n. [Gr. ;<««.-, less ; from its 
low pyramids.] 

Prismato-pyramidical feldspar, of a grayish 
white color. It occurs maissive and crys- 
talized. Ure. 

MEIO'SIS, n. [Gr. /ifiuBij.] Diminution; 
a rhetorical figure, a species of hyperbole, 
representing a thing less than it is. 


MEL'AMPODE, n. [Gr. fiAaf^noSiav, black- 
foot.] The black hellebore. Spenser. 

MELANAGOGUE, n. melan'agog. [Gr. 
HilMs, fiAavoi, black, and cr)'to, to drive.] 

A medicine supposed to expel black bile or 
choler. [Old.] 

MEL'ANCHOLIC, a. [See Melancholy.] 

1. Depressed in spirits ; affected with gloom ; 
dejected ; hypochondriac. Grief indul- 
ged to excess, has a tendency to render a 
person melancholic. 

2. Produced by melancholy; expressive of 
melancholy ; mournful ; as melancholic 

Just as tlie melancholic eye. 

Sees fleets and armies in the sky. Prior 

3. Unhappy ; unfortimate ; causing sorrow 
as accidents and melancholic perplexities 


MEL'ANCHOLIe, n. One affected with a 

gloomy state of mind. [Melancholian, in 

a like sense, is not used.] Spenser. 

2. A gloomy state of mind. Clarendon. 

MEL'ANellOLILY, adv. With melancholy. 


MEL'AN€HOLlNESS, n. State of being 

MELANCHO'LIOUS, a. Gloomy. [JVot i,i 
use.] Goioer. 

MEL'ANCHOLIST, n. One affected with 
melancholy. Glanville. 

MEL'AN€HOLIZE, v. i. To become gloomy 
in mind. Burton. 

MEL'ANCHOLIZE, v. t. To make melan- 
choly. More. 
[This verb is rarely or never used.] 

MEL'AN€HOLY, n. [Gr. juaor, black, and 
XO'>-''i, bile ; L. melancholia.] 
. A gloomy state of mind, often a gloomj 
state that is of some continuance, or habit- 
ual; depression of spirits induced by grief ; 
dejection of spirits. This was formerly 
supposed to proceed from a redundance of 
black bile. Melancholy, when extreme 
and of long continuance, is a disease, 
sometimes accompanied with partial in- 
sanity. Cullen defines it, partial insanitj 
without dyspepsy. 
n nosology, mental alienation restrained to 
a single object or train of ideas, in distinc- 
tion from mania, in wliich the alienation 
is general. Good. 

Moon-struck madness, moping melancholy. 


MEL'AN€HOLY, a. Gloomy: depressed 
in spirits; dejected; applied to persons. 
Overwhelming grief has made me melan- 

2. Dismal; gloomy; habitually dejected ; as 
a melancholy temper. 

3. Calamitous; afflictive; that may or does 
produce great evil and grief; as a melan- 
choly event. The melancholy fate of the 
Albion ! The melancholy destruction of 
Scio and of Jlissolonghi ! 

MELANGE, n. melanj'. [Fr.] A mixture. 
[JVot English.] Drummond. 

MEL'ANITE,n. [Gr. ftsjiaj, black.] A min- 
eral, a variety ol garnet, of a velvet black 
or grayish black, occurring always in crys- 
tals ofa dodecahedral form. 

Cleaveland. Ure. 

Melanite is perfectly opake. It is found 
among volcanic substances. 

Did. JVat. Hist. 

MELANIT'le, a. Pertaining to melanite. 

MEL'ANTERI, 71. [Gr. ^f^., black.] Salt 
of iron, or iron in a saline state, mixed 
with inflammable matter. Fourcroy. 

MEL'ANURE, {^ A small fish of thr 

MELANU'RUS, \ "" Blediterranean. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 

MEL'ASSES, n.sing. [It. melassa; Sp. 
melaza ; Fr. melasse ; from Gr. /xi%a.i black, 
or from ficXi, honey ; Sans. 7^0/7, black.] 

The sirup which drains from Muscovado 
sugar when cooling ; treacle. 

JVicholson. Edwards. 

MEL'ILOT, 71. [Fr.] A plant of the genus 

ME'LIORATE, v. I. [Fr. ameliorer ; Sp. 
mejorar ; It. migliorare ; from L. jnelior, bet- 
ter; W. maH, gain, profit ; Ir. TneaM, good.] 

To make better ; to improve ; as, to melio- 
rate fruit by grafting, or soil by cultiva- 
tion. Civilization has done much, but 
Christianity more, to meliorate the condi- 
tion of men in society. 

Nature by art we nobly meliorate. 


^ ME'LIORATE, v. i. To grow better, 
melancholy; disposition to indulge gloom-jlME'LIOllATED, pp. Made better; 
inessofmind. 7lubrey}\ proved. 

M E L 


iM E JM 

MELIORATING, ppr. Improving; advan 
cing in good qualities. 

The pure and benign light of revelation has 
had a meliorating influence on mankind. 


MELIORA'TION, n. The act or operation 
of making better ; improvement. 

MELIOR'ITY, n. Tiie state of being bet 
ter. [JVot in use.] Bacon 

MELL, ti. i. [ Fr. 7niler.] To mix ; to med 
die. [Mt m use.] Spenser. 

MELL, n. [L. mel.] Honey. [JVb< English.] 

MEL'LATE, n. [L. mel, honey, Gr. ftiXi, 
W. mel.] 

A combination of the raellitic acid with a 

MELLIF'EROUS, a. [L. mel, honey, and 
fero, to produce.] Producing honey. 

MELLIFleA'TION, n. [L. meltifico.] Tlie 
making or production of honey. 

MELLIF'LUENCE, n. [L. mel, honey, and 
Jluo, to flow.] 

A flow of sweetness, or a sweet smooth flow 

MELLIF'LUENT, ? Flowing with hon- 

MELUF'LUOUS, I"" ey; smooth; sweet 
ly flowing; as a mdlijluous voice. 

MEL'LIT, n. In farriery, a dry scab on the 
heel of a horse's fore foot, cured by a 
nii.xture of honey and vinegar. 

MEL'LITE, ji. [L. mel.] Honey stone ; a 
mineral of a honey color, found only in 
very minute regular crystals. Cleaveland. 

MELLIT'lC, a. Pertaining to honey stone 

MEL'LOW, a. [Sax.melewe; G. melil, D. 
Dan. meel, meal ; G. mehlig, meldicht, mel- 
low, mealy ; Dan. meelagtig, mellow; L. 
mollis, Fr. mol, molle, soft, Gr. fiaXaxo; ; W. 
mall, soft, melting, insipid, evil, and as a 
iioun, a malady. The Welsh unites tlie 
word with L. malus. These words 
idently allied to mild and melt, and meal 
would seem to be connected with mill. 
am not certain which is the primary word. 
See Class Ml. No. 2. 4. 9. 13.] 

1. Soft with ripeness; easily yielding t( 
pressure ; as a mellow peach or apple 
mellow fruit. 

3. Soft to the ear ; as a mellow sound ; a mel- 
low pipe. 

3. Soft ; well pulverized ; not indurated or 
compact ; as melloio ground or earth. 

4. Soft and smooth to the taste ; as mellow 

5. Soft with liquor ; intoxicated ; merry. 


6. Soft or easy to the eye. 

The tender flush whose tneUow stain imbues 
Heaven with all freaks of light. Percival. 
MEL'LOW, V. t. To ripen; to bring to ma- 
turity ; to soften by ripeness or age. 
On foreign mountains may the sun refine 
The grape's soft juice and mellow it to wine. 

2. To soften ; to pulverize. Earth is mel- 
lowed by frost. 

3. To mature ; to bring to perfection. 

This episode — mellowed into that reputation 
which time has given it. Dryden 

MEL'LOW, V. i. To become soft ; to be ri- 
pened, matured or brought to perfection 
Fruit, when taken from the tree, soon mel- 
lows. Wine mellows with age. 

MEL'LOWNESS, Ji. Softness; the quality 
of yielding easily to pressure; ripeness, as 
of fruit. 
2. Maturity; softness or smoothness from 

age, as of wine. 
MEL'LOWY, a. Soft; unctuous. Drayt: 
MELO€OTO'NE, n. [Sp. melocoton, 
peach-tree grafted into a quince-tree, or 
the fruit of the tree ; It. melocotogno 
quince-tree ; L. malum cotoneum, quince- 
apple. Cotoneum is probably our cotton, 
and the fruit so named from its pubes 
A quince. But the name is sometimes given 

to a large kind of peach. 
MELO'DIOUS, a. [See Melody.] Contain 
ing melody ; musical ; agreeable to the 
ear by a sweet succession of sounds ; as a 
melodious voice ; melodious strains. 

And music more melodious than the spheres. 


MELO'DIOUSLY, adv. In a melodious 

manner ; musically. 
MELO'DIOUSNESS, n. The quality of 
being agreeable to the ear by a sweet sue 
cession of sounds ; musicalness. 
MEL'ODIZE, V. t. To make melodious. 
MEL'ODRAME, n. [Gr. f»ao?, a song, and 

A dramatic performance in wliich songs are 
ntermixed. Todd. 

MEL'ODY, 71. [Gr. jurtuSm; fif?.o«, a limb, 

or a song, and uStj, an ode ; L. melos.] 
An agreeable succession of sounds ; a suc- 
cession of sounds so regulated and modu- 
lated as to please the ear. To constitute 
melody, the sounds must be arranged ac 
cording to the laws of rythmus, measure 
or the due proportion of the movements to 
each other. Melody differs from harmony, 
as it consists in the agreeable sii 
and modulation of sounds by a single 
voice ; whereas harmony consists in tlie 
accordance of different voices or sounds. 
Melody is vocal or instrumental. Hooker. 
To make melody in the heart, to praise God 
with a joyful and thankful disposition, as 
cribing to him the honor due to his name. 
Eph. V. 
MELON, n. [Fr. from L. melo ; Sp. inelon; 
It. mellone, a melon ; Gr. /xtj'Kot', an apple 
D. meloen ; G. melone; Dan. Sw. ?neto»i 
Slav. mlun. This word has the elements 
of mellow, L. mollis, W. mall.] 
The name of certain plants and their fruit, 

as the water-me/o>i, the musk-melon. 
MEL'ON-THISTLE, n. A plant of the 

nus Cactus. 
MEL'ROSE, n. [mel and rose.] Honey of 
roses. Fordyce. 

MELT, v.t. [Sax. »ne«an ; Gr. m!''?" = D. 
smellen ; G. schmehen ; Sw. smhlta ; Dan. 
smelter; whence Eng. smelt, smalt. We 
have in these words decisive evidence that 
s, in smellen, &c. is a prefix. Melt, in Eng- 
lish, is regular, forming melted for its past 
tense and passive participle. The old par- 
ticiple molten, is used only as an adjective. 
This verb belongs to a numerous class of 
words in Ml, denoting soft or softness. 
See Class Ml. No. 10. 18. 19.] 
To dissolve ; to make liquid,; to liquefy ; 
to reduce from a solid to a liquid or flow 
ing state by heat ; as, to melt wax, tallow 
or lead ; to melt ice or snow. 

2. To dissolve ; to reduce to first principles. 
S. To soften to love or tenderness. 

For pity tnelts the mind to love. Dryden. 

4. To waste away; to dissipate. 
In general riot melted down thy youth. 


5. To dishearten. Josh. xiv. 
MELT, V. i. To become liquid ; to dissolve ; 

to be changed from a fi.xed or solid to a 
flowing state. 

And whiter snow in minutes melts away. 


2. To be softened to love, pity, tenderness 
or sympathy ; to become tender, mild or 

Melting with tenderness and mild compas- 
sion. Shak. 

3. To be dissolved ; to lose substance. 
—And what seem'd corporal, 

Melted as breath into the wind. Shak. 

. To be subdued by affliction ; to sink into 

My soul melteth for heaviness — strengthen 
thou me. Ps. cxi.\. 
5. To faint ; to bo discouraged or disheart- 

As soon as we heard these things, our heart 
melted. Josh. ii. 
MELT'ED, pp. Dissolved ; made liquid ; 

ftened; discouraged. 
MELT'ER, n. One that melts any thing. 

MELT'ING, ppr. Dissolving ; liquefying ; 
softening ; discouraging. 
a. Tending to soften ;"softening into ten- 
derness ; as melting eloquence. 
MELT'ING, n. The act of softening ; the 
act of rendering tender. South. 

MELT'INGLY, adv. In a manner to melt 
or soften. 

2. Like something melting. 

...„ or softening. 
MEL'WEL, n. A fish. 
MEM'BER, 71. [Fr.membre; h. membritm.] 

1. A limb of aniuial bodies, as a leg, an arm, 
an ear, a finger, that is, a subordinate part 
of the main body. 

A part of a discourse, or of a period or 
sentence ; a clause ; a part of a verse. 
Harmony in poetry is produced by a pro- 
portion between the members of the same 
verse, or between the members of different 

3. In architecture, a subordinate part of a 
building, as a frieze or cornice ; sometimes 
a molding. 

4. An individual of a community or society. 
Every citizen is a member of the state or 
body politic. So the individuals of a club, 
a corporation or confederacy, are called 
its members. Students of an academy or 
college are its members. Professed chris- 
tians are called members of the church. 

a. The appetites and passions, considered as 
tempting to sin. Rom. vii. Col. iii. 

MEM'BERED, a. Having limbs. 

MEM'BERSHIP, n. The state of being a 

2. Community ; society. Beaum. 
MEM'BRANE, n. [Fr. from L. mcmbrana ; 

Ir. meambrum. The last component part 
of this word is found in the Ethiopic and 
Amharic, Eth. -fl^'/ 7 bereana. parch- 
ment, vellum, from {\i.\] barah, to shine 

power of melt- 

M E M 

or be clear. Ludolf, Col. 231. 2. The sub- 
stance then is named from its clearness or 

In anatomy, a thin, white, flexible skin, form- 
ed by fibers interwoven like net-work, 
and serving to cover some part of the 
body. Encyc. 

The term is applied to the thin expanded 
parts, of various texture, both in animals 
and vegetables. 

MEMBRANEOUS, ) Belonging to a 

MEMBRANOUS, S a. membrane; con- 

MEMBRANA'CEOUS, ^ sisting of mem- 
branes ; as a nembraneous covering. 

Birds of prey have membranaceous stomachs, 
not muscular. Arbuthnot. 

2. In botany, a membranaceous leaf has no 
distinguishable pulp between the two sur- 
faces. In general, it denotes flatted or 
resembling parchment. Marlyn. 

MEMBRA'NIFORM, a. Having the form 
of a membrane or of parchment. 

MEMENT'O, n. [L. from memini. See 

A hint, suggestion, notice or memorial to 
awaken memory ; that which reminds. 

He is but a man, and seasonaMe mementos 
may be useful. Bacon. 

MEM'OIR, n. [Fr. memoire, memory.] A 
species of history written by a person who 
had some share in the transactions relat 
ed. Persons often write their own me 

2. A history of transactions in which somi 
person had a principal share, is called his 
memoirs, though compiled or written by 
a different hand. 

3. The history of a society, or the journals 
and proceedings of a society ; as memoirs 
of the Royal Society. 

4. A written account ; register of facts. 

MEM'ORABLE, a. [Fr. from L. memorabi- 

lis. See Memory.] 
Worthy to be remembered ; illustrious ; cel- 
ebrated ; distinguished. 

By tombs, by books, by memorable deeds. 

MEMORABLY, adv. In a manner worthy 

to be remembered. 
MESIORAND'UM, 7!. plu. memorandums or 
memoranda. [L.] A note to help the mem- 

I entered a tnemorandum in my pocket- 
book. Guardian 

MEM'ORATIVE, a. Adapted or tending to 

preserve the memory of any thing 
[Fr. from L. memorialis. 


See Memoi-y. 

1. Preservative of memory. 

There hiffh in air memorial of my name. 
Fix the smooth oar, and bid me live to fame. 

2. Contained in memory; as memorial pos- 
session. Walts. 

MEMO'RIAL, n. That which preserves the 
memory of something ; any thing that 
serves to keep in memory. A monument 
is ^memorial of a deceased person,or of anlU 
event. The Lord's supper is a memorial 
of the death and sufferings of Christ. 

Churches have names ; some as memorials 

of peace, some of wisdom, some of the Trinity. 


2. Any note or hint to assist the memory. 


Memorials written with king Edward's hand 
all be the ground of tliis history. 

3. A written representation of facts, made to 
a legi.slative or other body as the ground 
of a petition, or a representation of facts 
accompanied with a petition. 
MEMORIALIST, n. One who writes a 
memorial. Spectator. 

2. One wlio presents a memorial to a le- 
ative or any other body, or to a person. 
U. States. 
MEMORIALIZE, v. t. To present a me- 
morial to ; to petition by memorial. 

U. States. 
MEM'ORIST, n. One who to be re- 
membered. [JVot used.] Brown. 
MEM'ORIZE, r. t. To record; to commit 
to memory by writing. 

They neglect to memorize their conquest of 
the Indians. Spenser 

2. To cause to be remembered. 

They meant to memorize another Golgotha. 
MEM'ORY, J!. [L. ntemoria; Fr. metnoire ; 
Sw. minne ; Ir. meamhair or 7neabhair, 
meanma. This word is from memini, 
which is probably corrupted from the 
Greek nvaoftac, to remember, from i*ivo{, 
mind, or the same root. See Mind. 

1. The faculty of the mind by which 
tains the knowledge of past events, or 
ideas which are past. A distinctioii is 
made between memory and recollection. 
Memory retains past ideas without any, or 
with little effort ; recollection impUes an 
effort to recall ideas that are past. 

Beattie. Reid. SUwart. 
Memory is the pm veyor of reason. 


2. A retaining of past ideas in the mind; re- 
membrance. Events that excite little at- 
tention are apt to escape from memory. 

3. Exemption from oblivion. 

That ever-living man of memory, 

Henry the fifth. Shak 

4. The time within vyhich past events car 
be remembered or recollected, or the time 
within which a person may have knowl 
edge of what is past. The revolution in 
England was before my memory ; the rev 
olution in America was within the au 
thor's memory. 

5. Memorial ; monumental record ; that which 
calls to remembrance. A monument in 
London was erected in memory of the con 
flagration in 1066. 

j6. Reflection ; attention. Shak 

JMEM'ORY, V. t. To lay up iu the mind oi 
memory. [JVot used.] Chaucer. 

i\IEMPH'IAN,flr. [from Jt/cm;?ftts, the ancient 
metropolis of Egypt, said to be altered 
from Menu/, Memf. Ludolf.] 

Pertaining to Memphis ; very dark ; 
borrowed from the darkness of Egypt in 
the time of Moses. 

MEN, plu. of man. Two or more males, in- 
dividuals of the human race. 

2. Males of bravery. We will live in honor, 

i or die like men. 

Persons ; people ; mankind ; in an indef- 
inite sense. Men are apt to forget tlie 
benefactor, while they riot on the benefit. 

MEN'ACE, V. I. [Fr. menacer ; It. minac 
ciare; Sp. amenazar ; L. minor. The pri 
mary sense is to rush, throw or push for 

M E N 

ward. The sense is more clearly express- 
ed by emineo and promineo, to jut forward, 
from the same root. See Mind, which ie 
of the same family.] 

1. To threaten ; to express or show a dispo- 
sition or determination to inflict punish- 
ment or other evil. The combined pow- 
ers menaced France with war on every 

2. To show or manifest the probability of 
future evil or danger to. The spirit of in- 
subordination menaced Spain with the hor- 
rors of civil war. 

3. To exhibit the appearance of any catas- 
trophe to come ; as, a hanging rock me- 
naces a fall, or menaces the plain or the in- 
habitants below. 

MEN'ACE, n. A threat or threatening ; the 
declaration or show of a disposition or de- 
termination to inflict an evil; used of per- 

2. The show of a probable evil or catastro- 
phe to come. 

MENACED, pp. Threatened. 

MEN' ACER, n. One that threatens. 

MEN'A€HANITE,)i. An oxyd of titanium, 
or mineral of a grayish or iron black col- 
or, occurring in very small rounded grains, 
imperfectly lamellar, and of a glistening 
luster ; found near Menachan, in Corn- 
wall, Eng. Ure. Phillips. Cleaveland. 

MENA€HANIT'I€, a. Pertaining to men- 

MEN'ACING,p;)r. Threatening; de'^iaring 
a disposition or determination to inflict 

2. a. Exhibiting the danger or probability of 
an evil or catastrophe to come ; as a me- 
nacing- attitude. 

MEN'AgE, J!. [Fr. a family. See Manage.] 
A collection of brute animals. Addison. 

MEN'A(iERY,n. [Fr. menagerie; li.mena- 

A yard or place in which wild animals are 
kept, or a collection of wild animals. 

MENAGOGUE, n. men'agog. [Gr. n^i;, 
menstrua, and (vyu, to drive.] 

A medicine that promotes the menstrual 
flux. Quincy. 

MEND, V. t. [L. emendo ; Fr.amender; It. 
mendare ; from L. menda, a fault, spot or 
blemish. Mend is contracted from emendo, 
amend, for the L. negative e for ex, is ne- 
cessary to express the removal of a fault.] 

1. To repair, as a breach ; to supply a part 
broken or defective ; as, to mend a gar- 
ment, a road, a mill-dam, a fence, &c. 

2. To correct ; to set right; to alter for the 
better ; as, to menrf the life or manners. 

3. To repair ; to restore to a sound state ; 
as, to mend a feeble or broken constitu- 
tion. Locke. 

jl. To help ; to advance ; to make better. 
This plausible apology does not mend the 

Though in some lands the grass is but short, 
yet it mends garden herbs and fruit. 

5. To improve ; to hasten. 

He saw the monster mend his pace. 


MEND, V. i. To grow better ; to advance 

to a better state ; to improve. We say, a 

feeble constitution mends daily ; a sick 

man mends, or is convalescent. 


M E N 

M E R 

MEND'ABLE, a. Capable of being mended 
MENDA'CIOUS, a. [L. mendax.] Lying ; 

false. [Little vsed.] 
MENDACITY, n. [h.meiidax, false, lying 
See Class Mn. No. 4.] Falsehood. 


[The proper signification of this %yord 

would be a disposition to lie, or habitual 

MEND'ED, pp. Repaired; made better 

MEND'ER. n. One who mends or repairs. 
MEND'leANCY, o. [L. viendicans.] Beg- 

fary ; a state of begging. 
IND'ICANT, a. [L. mendicctns, from men- 
dico, to beg, Fr. mtnditr ; allied to L. man- 
do, to command, demand.] 

1. Begging ; poor to a state of beggary ; as 
reduced to a mendicant state. 

2. Practicing beggary ; as a mendicant friar 
MEND'I€ANT, n. A beggar; one that 

makes it his business to beg alms ; one of 
the begging fraternity of the Romish 

MEND'ICATE, v. t. To beg, or practice 
begging. [JVot used.] 

MENDICITY, 71. [L. mendicitas.] The state 
of begging; the life of a beggar. 

MENDMENT, for amendment. [JVot in use.] 

MENDS, for amends, not used. Shak. 

MENHA'DEN, n. A species offish. 

ME'NIAL, a. [Norm, meignal, meynal, from 
meignee or meiny, a family. The Norm 
has also mesnie and mesjiee, a family 
household or company, and meinez, many 
Qu. the root of maison, messuage, or of 

1. Pertaining to servants, or domestic ser- 
vants ; low ; mean. 

The women attendants perform only the most 
menial offices. Swift. 

[Johnson observes on this passage, that 
Swift seems not to have known the mean- 
ing of this word. But this is the only 
sense in which it is now used.] 

■2. Belonging to the retinue or train of ser- 
vants. Johnson. 
Two menial dogs before their master pressed. 
[If this definition of Johnson is correct, 
it indicates that JHCnmi is from meinez, ma- 
ny, rather tlian from mesnie, family. But 
the sense may be house-dogs.] 

ME'NIAL, n. A domestic servant. 

MEN'ILITE, n. A mineral substance found 
at Menil Montant near Paris, of the nature 
of silex, of a brown liver color on the in- 
terior, and ordinarily of a clear blue on the 
surface. It is found in the shape of the 
kidneys, of the size of the hand or larger ; 
sometimes in globules of the size of a nut. 
Diet. JVat. Hist. 

M ENIS' €US, »!. plu. meniscuses. [Gr. /iijrKixo;, 
a little moon.] 

A lens convex on one side, and concave on 
the other. Encyc. 

MENISPERM'ATE, n. A compound of 
menispermic acid and a salifiable base. 

MENISPERM'Ie, a. The menispermic acid 
is obtained from the seeds of the meni- 
spermum cocculus. Un. 

MEN'IVER, n. A small white animal in 
Russia, or its fur which is very fine. 


MENOL'OgY, ji. [Gr. /i^. , f<.;ioj, month, and 
xoyos, discourse.] 

1. A register of months. Stillingjleet. 

2. In the Greek church, niartyrology, or a 
brief calendar of the lives of the saints, 
for each day in the year, or a simple re- 
membrance of those whose lives are not 
written. Lunier. 

MEN'OW, n. [Fr. menu, small. Qu.] A small 
fresh water fish, the minnow. Bailey. 

MEN'PLEASER, ji. One who is solicitous 
to please men, rather than to please God, 
by obedience to his commands. 

MEN'SAL, a. [L. mensalis, from mensa, a 

Belonging to the tabic ; transacted at table. 
[Little used.] Clarissa. 

MEN'STRUAL, a. [Fr. from L. mensirualis, 
from mensis, month.] 

1. Monthly ; happening once a month ; as 
the menstrual flux. 

2. Lasting a month ; as the menstrual orbit 
of the moon. Bentley. 

3. Pertaining to a menstruum. Bacon. 
MEN'STRUANT, a. Subject to monthly 

flowings. Brown. 

MEN'STRUOUS, a. [L. menstruus, from 
mensis, a month.] 

1. Having the monthly flow or discharge ; as 
a female. Sandys. 

2. Pertaining to the monthly flow of females. 


MEN'STRUUM, n. plu. mcnstruums. [from 
L. mensis, month. The use of this word 
is supposed to have originated in some no- 
tion of the old chimists, about the influ- 
ence of the moon in tlie preparation of 
dissolvents. Johnson.] 

A dissolvent or solvent ; any fluid or subtil- 
ized substance which dissolves a solid 

All liquors are called menstruums which are 
used as dissolvents, or to extract the virtues of 
ingredients by infusion or decoction. Quincy, 
Inquire what is the proper menstruum to dis- 
solve a metal. Bacon. 

MENSURABIL'ITY, n. [from mensurable.] 
Capacity of being measured. 

MEN'SURABLE, a. [L. mensura, measure. 
The n is probably casual, and the word is 
the same as measurable.] 

Measurable; capable of being measured. 


MEN'SURAL, a. Pertaining to measure. 

MEN'SURATE.i'. t. [L. mensura, measure.] 
To measure. [Little used.] 

MENSIJRA'TION, n. The act, process or 
art of measuring, or taking the dimensions 
of any thing. 

2. Measure ; the result of measuring. 


MEN'TAL, a. [It. mentale ; Fr. mental ; 

I from L. mens, mind.] 

Pertaining to the mind ; intellectual ; as 
mental t'acuhjes ; mental operatious ; ment- 
al sight ; mental taste. Milton. Addison- 

MEN'TALLY, adv. Intellectually ; in the 

mind ; in thought or meditation ; in idea. 


MEN'TION, n. [Fr. fiom L. mentio, from 
Gr. lUiiia, from fiiau, to put in mind; It. I 
menzione ; Sp. mencion ; Port, mengad ;| 
allied probably to L. /nojieo and m/nrf. Men-! 
tion is a throwing out.] | 

A hint ; a suggestion ; a brief notice or r« 
mark expressed in words or writing ; used 
chiefly after make. 

Make no mention of other gods. Josh, xxiii. 
I will make mention of tliy righteousness. 
Ps.lxxi. ■^ ^ 

Without ceasing 1 make mention of you al- 
ways in my prayers. Rom. i. 

MEN'TION, V. t. [Fr. mentioiincr ; It. vien- 

I zionare.] 

To speak ; to name ; to utter a brief re- 
mark ; to state a particular fact, or to ex- 
press it in writing. It is applied to some- 
thing thrown in or added incidentally in 
a discourse or writing, and thus differs 
from the sense of relate, recite, and narrate. 
I mentioned to him a fact that fell under my 
own observation. In the coui-se of con- 
versation, that circumstance was mention- 

I will mention the loviug-kinduess of the 
Lord. Is. Ixiii. 

MEN'TIONED,;);>. Named; stated. 

MEN'TIONING, /iip-. Naming; uttering. 

MENTO'RIAL, a. [from Mentor, the friend 
and adviser of Ulysses.] 

Containing advice or admonition. 

MEPHIT'I€, a. [L. mephitis, an ill smell.] 
Ofl'ensive to the smell ; foul ; poisonous ; 
noxious ; pestilential ; destructive to life. 

Mephitic acid is carbonic acid. 

MEPH'ITIS, > , Foul, oflfensive or nox- 

MEPH'ITISM, S ious exhalations from 
dissolving substances, filth or other source ; 
also, carbonic acid gas. Med. Repos. 

MER€ANTAN'TE, n. [It. mercalante.] A 
foreign trader. [JVot in use.] Shak. 

MER'€ANTILE, a. [It. and Fr. from L- 
mercans, mercor, to buy ; Port. Sp. mercan- 

1. Trading ; commercial ; canning on com- 
merce ; as mercantile naxxons; the mercan- 
tile class of men. 

2. Pertaining or relating to commerce or 
trade ; as mercantile business. 

MER'€AT, n. [L. mercatits.] JIarket ; 

trade. [.Wot in use.] Sprat. 

MERCENARILY, adv. In a mercenary 

manner. Spectator. 

MER'CENARINESS, n. [from mercenary.] 

Venality ; regard to hire or reward. 

MER'CENARY, a. [Fr. mercenaire : L. 

mercenarius, from merces, reward, wages ; 
j mercor, to buy.] 

1. Venal ; that may be liired ; actuated by 
the hope of reward ; moved by the love of 
money ; as a mercenary prince or judge. 

2. Hired ; purchased by money ; as merce- 
ry services ; mercenary soldiers. 

3. Sold for money ; as mercenary blood. 

4. Greedy of gain ; mean ; selfish ; as a mer- 
cenuJT/ disposition. 

5. Contracted from motives of gain ; as a 
mercenary marriage. 

MER'CENARY, !i. One who is hired ; a 
soldier that is hired into foreign service ; 
a hireling. 

MER'CER, n. [Fr. mercier ; It. merciaio ; 
from L. merx, wares, commodities.] 

One who deals in silks. Howel. 

MER'CERSHIP, n. The business of a mer- 

MER'CERY, «. [Fr. mer 

It. iiierceria.f 

M E R 

■I'iie commodities or goods in which a mer- 
cer deals ; trade of mercers. Graunt. 

MER'CHAND, v. !. [Fr. maichander.] To 
trade. [JVot tised.] Bacon. 

MER'CHANDiSE, n. [Fr. from marchand, 
a merchant, or marchander, to cheapen.] 

1. The objects of commerce ; wares, goods, 
commodities, whatever is usually bought 
or sold in trade. But provisions daily sold 
in market, horses, cattle, and fuel are not 
usually included in the term, and real es- 
tate never. 

2. Trade ; traffick ; commerce. Shak. 
MER'CHANDISE, v. i. To trade ; to carry 

on commerce. 
MER'CHANDRY, ?i. Trade ; commerce. 

[JVol in use.] Saunderson. 

MER'CHANT, n. [Fr. marchand; It. mcr- 

cante ; Sp. merchante ; Arm. marchadour ; 

from L. mercor, to buy.] 

1. A man who trafficks or carries on trade 
with foreign countries, or who exports 
and imports goods and sells them by 

2. In popidar usage, any trader, or one who 
deals in the purcha ' ' '" '" 

and sale of goods. 
3. A ship in trade. Wot itsed.] 
MER'CHANT, v. i. To trade. [J^Tot in use. 
MER'CHANTABLE, a. Fit for market 
such as is usually sold in market, or such 
as will bring the ordinary price ; as mei 
chantable wheat or timber. 
MER'CHANTLIKE, a. Like a merchant, 
MER'CHANTMAN, n. A ship or vessel 
employed in the transportation of goods, 
as distinguished from a ship of war. 
MER'CIABLE, a. Merciful. [JVot in use.] 
MER'CIFUL, a. [from mercy.] Having or 
exercising mercy ; compassionate ; tender ; 
disposed to pity offenders and to forgive 
their offenses ; unwiHing to punish for in- 
juries ; applied appropriately to the Supreme 

The Lord passed before him and proclaimed, 
the Lord, the Lord God, merciful and gracious, 
long-suffering and abundant in goodness and 
truth. Ex. xxxiv. 
2. Compassionate ; tender ; imwilling to give 
pain : not cruel. A merciful man will be 
mercijid to his beast, 
MER'CIFULLY, adv. With compassion or 

pity ; tenderly ; mildl 
MER'CIFULNESS, n. Tenderness towards 
offenders ; willingness to forbear punish 
ment ; readiness to forgive. Hammond. 
MER'CIFf , V. t. To pity. [JVot in use.] 


MER'CILESS, a. Destitute of mercy ; im 

feeling ; pitiless ; hard-hearted ; cruel ; as 

a merciless tyrant. Dn/dc- 

2. Not sparing ; as the merciless waves 

M E R 

MERCU'RIALIST, ii. One under the influ- 
ence of Mercury, or one resembling Mer- 
cury in variety of character. 

MER€U'R1ATE, n. A combination of the 
oxyd of mercury with another substance. 

J\1ercuric add, a saturated combination of 
mercury and oxygen, 

MEReURlFl€A'T10N, n. In metallurgic 
chimislry, the process or operation of ob- 
taining the mercury from metallic mine- 
rals in its fluid form. Encyc 

2. The act of mixing with quicksilver. 


MER€U'R1FY, v. t. To obtain mercury 
from metallic minerals, which it is said 
may be done by a large lens, the intense 
heat of which expels the mercury in fumes, 
which are afterwards condensed. 


MER'€URY, n. [L. J\Iercuriu3. In my- 
thology, JHercury is the god of eloquence 
and of commerce, called by the Greeks 
Hermes, and his name is said to be forni- 
ed from merces, or mercor. But in antiqui- 
ty, there were several persons or deities of 
this name.] 

1. Quicksilver, a metal remarkable for its 
fusibility, which is so great that to fix or 
congeal it, requires a degree of cold which 
is marked on Fahrenheit's scale at thirty 
nine degrees below zero. Its specific 
gravity is greater than that of any other 
metal, except platina, 'gold and tungsten 
Under a heat of 660 degrees, it rises in 
fumes and is gradually converted into a 
red oxyd. Mercury is used in barometers 
to ascertain the weight of the atmosphere, 
and in thermometers to determine the 
temperature of the air, for which purposes 
it is well adapted by its expansibility, and 
the extensive range between its freezing 
and boihng points. Preparations of this 
metal are among the most powerful pois 
ons, and are extensively used as medi 
cines. The preparation called calomel, is 
a most eflicacious deobstruent 
Heat of constitutional temperament 

M E R 

It implies benevolence, tenderness, mild 
uess, pity or compassion, and clemency, 
but exercised only towards offenders. 
jyiercy is a distinguishing attribute of the 
Supreme Being. 

The Lord is long-suffering and of great mercy, 
forgiving iniquity and transgression, and by no 
means clearing the guilty. Num. xiv. 

2. An actor exercise of mercy or favor. It 
a mercy that they escaped. 
1 am not worthy of the least of all thy mer- 
es. Gen. xxxii. 

3. Pity ; compassion manifested towards a 
person in distress. 

In a manner void of 
mercy or pity ; cruelly. 
MER'CILESSNESS, n. Want of mercy or 


MERCU'RIAL, a. [from JHercury ; h.mercu- 

1. Formed under the influence of Mercury : 
active; sprightly; full of fire or vigor ; a? 
a mercurial youth ; a mercurial nation. 

Bacon. Stvift 

2. Pertaining to quicksilver ; containing 
quicksilver, or consisting of mercuiy ; 
mercurial preparations or medicines. 

spirit ; sprightly qualities. Pope. 

3. A genus of plants, the Mercurialis, of sev- 
eral species. 

4. One of the planets nearest the sun. It ie 
3224 miles in diameter, and revolves round 
the sun in about 88 days. Its mean dis 
tance from the sun is thirty seven millions 
of miles. 

5. The name of a newspaper or periodical 
publication, and in some places, the car 
rier of a newspaper or pamphlet. 

MER'€URY, 11. t. To wash with aprepara 
of mercury. B. Jonson 

MER'CY, n. [Fr. merci ; Norm, merce, 
or mers; supposed to be a contraction of 
L. misericordia. But qu. Eth. '^(hi 
meher, to pity.] 

1. That benevolence, mildness or tenderness 
of heart which disposes a person 
look injuries, or to treat an offender better 
than he deserves ; the disposition that 
tempers justice, and induces an injured 
person to forgive trespasses and injuries 
and to forbear punishment, or inflict less 
than law or justice will warrant. In this 
sense, there is perhaps no word in our lan- 
guage precisely synonymous with mercy. 
That which comes nearest to it is grace. 

4. Clemency and bounty. 

Mercy and truth preserve the king ; and his 
throne is upheld by mercy. Prov. xxviii. 

5. Charity, or the duties of charity and be- 

I will have mercy and not sacrifice. Matt. 

6. Grace ; favor. 1 Cor. vii. Jude 2. 

7. Eternal life, the fruit ofmercy. 2 Tim. i. 

8. Pardon. 

I cry thee mercy with all my heart. 

Dry den. 

9. The act of sparing, or the forbearance of 
a violent act expected. The prisoner cri- 
ed for mercy. 

To he or to lie at the mercy of, to have no 
means of self-defense, but to be dependent 
for safety on the mercy or compassion of 
another, or in the power of that which is 
irresistible ; as, to be at the mercy of a foe, 
or of the waves. 
MER'CY-SEAT, n. The propitiatory ; the 
covering of the ark of the covenant among 
the Jews. This was of gold, and its ends 
were fixed to two cherubs, whose wings 
extended forward, and formed a kind of 
throne for the majesty of God, who is rep- 
resented in Scripture as sitting between 
the cheruhs. It was from this seat that 
God gave his oracles to Moses, or to the 
high priest who consulted him. Cabnet. 
MERD, n. [Fr. merde; h. merda.] Ordure; 
dung. Burton. 

MERE, a. [L. merits ; It. mero.] This or that 
only ; distinct from any thing else. 

From mere success nothing can be concluded 
in favor of a nation. Mierbury. 

What if the head, the eye or ear repin'd 
To serve mere engines to the rulmg mind ? 

2. Absolute ; entire. Spenser. 

MERE, n. [Sax. mare or mere, a pool, 
lake or the sea ; D. meir ; L. mare. See 
A pooler lake. 
MERE, 71. [Sax. ma:ra, gemtera ; Gr. /uitpu, 

to divide, or Russ. miryu, to measure.] 

A boundary ; used chiefly in the compound, 

mere-stone. Bacon. 

MERE, V. t. To divide, limit or bound. Obs. 


ME'RELY, adv. Purely ; only ; solely ; thus 

and no other way ; for this and no other 


Prize not your life for other ends 
Than merely to oblige your friends. Swi/l. 
MERETRI"CIOUS, a. [L. meretricius, from 
meretrix, a prostitute.] 
Pertaining to prostitutes ; such as is prac- 
ticed by harlots ; as meretricious arts. 

M E R 

2. Alluring by false show ; worn for dis- 
guise ; lia^nng a gaudy but deceitful ap- 
pearance ; false ; as meretricious dress or 

iMERETRI'CIOUSLY, orfr. In the manner 
of prostitutes ; with deceitful enticements. 

MERETRI"CIOUSNESS, n. The arts of 
a prostitute ; deceitful enticements 

MERGAN'SER, n. [Sp. mergansar, from 
L. mergo, to dive.] 

A water fowl of the genus Mergus ; called 
also goosander. 

IWERgE, v. f. [L. mergo.] To immerse; 
to cause to be swallowed up. 

The plaintiffbecame the purchaser and merg- 
ed his term in the fee. ^ent. 

MERGE, i;. i. To be sunk, swallowed or 
lost. Law Term 

MERG'ER, n. [L. 7nergo, to merge.] Ir 
law, a merging or drowning of aless es- 
tate in a greater ; as when a reversion in 
fee simple descends to or is purchased by 
a tenant of the same estate for years, the 
term for years is merged, lost, annihilated 
in the inheritance or fee simple estate. 


MERID'IAN, n. [Fr. meridien ; It. vieridia- 
no ; L. meridies. Qu. Ir. mir, a part ; Gr. 
^Etpu, to divide. Varro testifies that this 
word was originally medidies [mid-day,] 
and that he had seen it so written on a 

1. In astronomy and geography, a great cir- 
cle supposed to be drawn or to pass 
through the poles of the earth, and the 
zenith and nadir of any given place, inter- 
secting the equator at right angles, and 
dividing the hemisphere into eastern and 
western. Every place on the globe has 
its meridian, and when the sun arrives at 
this circle, it is mid-day or noon, whence 
the name. This circle may be consider- 
ed to be drawn on the surface of the 
earth, or it may be considered as a circle 
in the heavens coinciding with that on the 

2. Mid-day ; noon. 

3. The highest point ; as the meridian of life 
the 7neridiara of power or of glory. 

4. The particular place or state, with regard 
to local circumsta)ices or things that " 
tinguish it from others. We say, a book 
is adapted to the meridian of France or It- 
aly ; a measure is adapted to the vieri- 
dian of London or Washington. 

Magnetic meridian, a great circle, parallel 
with the direction of the magnetic needle, 
and passing through its poles. 
MERID'IAN, a. Being on the meridian or at 

The sun sat liigh in his meridian tower. 


2. Pertamjng to the meridian or to mid-day ; 
as the sun's meridian heat or splendor. 

3. Pertaining to the highest point ; as, the 
hero enjoyed liis meridian glory. 

1. Pertaining to the magnetic meridian. 
.MERIDIONAL, a. [Pr.] Pertaining to 

the meridian. 

2. Southern. Brown. 

3. Southerly ; having a southern aspect. 

Meridional distance is the departure frotn the 

meridian, or easting or westing. 
MERIDIONAL'ITY, n. The state of being 

in the meridian. 

Vol. II. 

M E R 

2. Position in the south ; aspect towards the) 

south. Johnson.] 

MERID'IONALLY, adv. In the direction 

of the meridian. Brown), 

MER'IT, n. [L. meritum, from mereo, to 

earn or deserve ; It. Sp. merito ; Fr. mer- 


1. Desert ; goodness or excellence which 
entitles one to honor or reward ; worth ; 
any performance or worth which claims 
regard or compensation ; applied to morals, 
to excellence in writing, or to valuable ser- 
vices of any kind. Thus we speak of the 
inabilit}' of men to obtain salvation by their 
own merits. We speak of the merits of 
an author ; the merits of a soldier, &c. 

2. Value ; excellence ; applied to things ; as 
the merits of an essay or poem ; the merits 
of a painting ; the merits of a heroic 

3. Rewaid deserved ; that which is earned 
or merited. 

Those laurel groves, the merits of thy youth 
MER'IT, V. i. [Fr. meriter; L. menVo.] To 
deser\ 2 ; to earn by active service, or by 
any valuable performance ; to have a right 
to claim reward in money, regard, honor 
or happiness. Watts, by his writings, 
merited the gratitude of the whole chris- 
tian world. The faithful laborer merits his 

A man at best is incapalile of meriting any 
tiling from God. South. 

2. To deserve ; to have a just title to. Fidel- 
ity merits and usually obtains confidence. 

3. To deserve, in an ill sense ; to have a just 
title to. Every violation of law merits 
punishment. Every sin merits God's dis- 

MER'ITABLE, a. Deserving of reward. 
U\tot in use.] B. Jonson. 

MER'ITED, pp. Earned ; deserved. 

MER'ITING, ppr. Earning ; deserving. 

MERIT-MONGER, n. One who advocates 

the doctrine of human merit, as entitled to 

reward, or depends on merit for salvation. 


MERITO'RIOUS, a. [It. meritorio ; Fr. 
merit aire.] 

Deserving of reward or of notice, regard,' 
fame or happiness, or of that which shallj 
be a suitable return for services or e.xcel-J 
lence of any kind. We applaud the merito-\ 
rious services of the laborer, the soldier! 
and the seaman. We admire the merito 

M E S 

A marine animal, eaid to resemble a woman 
in the upper parts of the body, and a fish 
in the lower part. The male is called the 

ME'ROPS, n. A genus of birds called bee- 

MER'RILY, adv. [from jiierry.] With mirth ; 
with gayety and laughter ; jovially. [See 
Mirth and Merry.] 

Merrily sing and sport and play. Olanmlle. 

MER'RIMAKE, n. [merry and make.] A 
meeting for mirth ; a festival; mirth. 


MER'RIMAKE, i-. i. To be merry or jo- 
ial ; to feast. Gaw. 

MER'RIMENT, n. Mirth; gayety with 
laughter or noise ; noisy sports ; hilarity ; 
frolick. Milton. 

MER'RINESS, n. Mirth ; gayety with 
laughter. Shak. 

MER'RY, a. [Sax. mirige,myrig ; Ar. ^ 

to be joyful. Class Mr. No. 10.] 
I. Gay and noisy ; jovial ; exhilarated to 

Man is the merriest species of the creation. 
They drank and were itierry with him. Gen. 
j2. Causing laughter or mirth ; as a meny 
\ jest. Shak. 

3. Brisk ; as a merry gale. [This is the pri- 
mary sense of the word.] Dryden. 
A. Pleasant ; agreeable ; delightful. 

To make merry, to be jovial; to indulge in 

hilarity ; to feast \vith mirth. Judges ix. 
MERRY-ANDREW, n. A buffoon ; a za- 
ny ; one whose business is to make sport 
for others. Spectator. 

MER'RY-MAKING, a. Producing mirth. 
Mirth, music, merry-making melody 
Speed the light hours no more at Hoiyrood. 
MERRY-MEETING, n. A festival ; a meet- 
ing for mirth. Bp. Taylor. 
MERRY-THOUGHT, n. The forked bone 
of a fowl's breast, which boys and girls 
break by pulling each one side ; the long- 
est part broken betokening priority of 
marriage. Echard. 
MER'SION, n. [L. mersio, from mergo, to 

dive or sink.] 
The act of sinking or plunging under wa- 
But immersion is generally used. 

mesenteric; pertaining to the 

n'oitslaborsofaWatts, aDofldridge,aCa-j:MESARA'I€, a. [Gr. fifsopmor ; fiiaos,'mJd- 

rey and a Martyn. We rely for salvation ; die, and apaia, intestines.l 

on the mer{<ono!(s obedience and sufFeringsliThe same as 

of Christ. j[ mesentery. 

MERITO'RIOUSLY, adv. In such RmeinpIESEE'MS,verbimpersonal.[mesind seems.] 
MFRlTA°Rmr«MR««''''- T. ""H It seems to me It is used also in the past 
MERITO'RIOLSNESS, n. The state or tense, meseemerf. Spenser. 

quality of deserving a reward or suitable MESENTER'I€, a. [See .Mesentery.] Per- 
MFp"iT^oDv T^ ■ .■ J taining to the mesenteiy; as mtienimc 

MER'llORY, a. Deserving of reward. glands or arteries. 

„[-^»/ «««''■] Gou-er. MES'ENTERY, n. [Gr. ^laivup.ov ; utao;, 

MERLE, n. [L. merMia.] A blackbird. I middle, and tr^fpor, intestine.] 

iiT7T>,TnvT rE' -1 A • Drayton.nA fatty membrane placed in the middle of 

lUtKLJN, ji. [hr.J A species of hawk ofi the intestines, and to which they are at- 
„i'n ?*^^»T^ ^'^'fi'- , ^ tached. This prevents them from beconi- 

3ILR'LON, n. [It. merlo; Fr. merlon.] In ing entangled with each other by convo- 
fortification, that part of a parapet which I lutions. It is formed by a duplicature of 

lies between two embrasures. Encyc.\\ the peritoneum. Eneuc. Quincv 

MER'M.'^ID, n. [Fr. mn, L. mare, the sea, MESH, n. [W. mosg-, net-work, a mesh ; fi! 

and maid.] \\ maas ; G. masche, a mesh or a stitch.1 


M E S 

1 . The opening or space between the threads 
of a net. 

2. The grains or wash of a brewery. 
MESH, V. t. To catch in a net ; to ensnare, 


MESH'Y, a. Formed like net-work; retic- 
ulated. Thomson. 

MES'LIN, 71. [from Fr. mesler, meler, to mix, 
or L. miscellanevs, from misceo, to mix.] 

A mixture of different sorts of grain ; in 
America, a mixture of wheat and rye. 

MESNE, a. meen. [Old Fr.] In law, mid- 
dle ; intervening ; as a viesne lord, that is, 
a lord who holds land of a superior, but 
grants a part of it to another person. In 
this case, he is a tenant to the superior, 
but lord or superior to the second grantee, 
and called the mesne lord. 

Mesne process, that part of the proceedings 
in a suit which intervenes between the 
original process or writ and the final is- 
sue, and which issues, pending the suit, on 
some collateral matter; and sometimes it 
is understood to be the whole process pre- 
ceding the execution. Blackstone. 

Mesne profits, the profits of an estate which 
accrue to a tenant in possession, after the 
demise of the lessor. 

MES'OCOLON, n. [Gr. ixceoi, middle, and 

In anatomy, that part of the mesentery, 
which, having reached the extremity of the! 
ileum, contracts and changes its name, or 
that part of the mesentery to which the 
colon is attached. Encyc. Hooper. 

MESOLEU'CYS, n. [Gr. ^sboj," middle, and 
Xfuxos, white.] 

A precious stone with a streak of white in 
the middle. Diet. 

MES'OLITE, n. A mineral of the zeolite 

MESOLOG'ARITHM, n. [Gr. ftieo;, mid- 
dle, and logarithm.] 

A logarithm of the co-sines and co-tangents. 
Kepler. Harris. 
The former is called by Napier an anti- 
logarithm, the latter a differential. 


MESOM'ELAS, ?i. [Gr. nimf, middle, and 
futas, black.] 

A precious stone with a black vein parting 
every color in the midst. 

MES'OTYPE, n. [Gr. jKfffoj, middle, and 
fiPrtos, form, type.] 

Prismatic zeolite ; a mineral divided into 
three subspecies, fibrous zeolite, natrolite, 
and mealy zeolite. This is said by some 
writers to be so named from its property, 
when tran.sparent, of doubling images. 
Others say it is a mean form between stil- 
bite and analcime. 

Diet. Jameson. Phillips. 

MESPRISE, n. Contempt; a French word. 
[JSTot in use.] 

MESS, n. [Ill Fr. mets is a mess of meat, 
perhaps meat. In Goth, mes is a dish, Ir. 
meis. In Sax. mese is a table, Sp. mesa, 
L. mensa. But mets, mess, is probably a 
different word.] 
I. A dish or a quantity of food prepared or 
set on a table at one time; as a mess of 
pottage; a mess of l>erbs; a mess of broth. 
Milton. Pope. 

9. A medley; a mixed mass; a quantity. 

3. As much iirovender or grain as is given to 
a beast at once. 

M E T 

4. A number of persons who eat together ; 

among seamen and soldiers. 
MESS, V. i. To eat ; to feed. 
2. To associate at the same table ; to eat in 

company, as seamen. 
3IESS, V. t. To supply with a mess. 
MES'SA6E, n. [Fr. from L. missus, mitto, 
to send ; Sp. mensage.] 
Any notice, word or communication, writ- 
ten or verbal, sent from one person to an- 
other. We send a servant with a verbal 
or written message. 

The welcome tnessage made, was soon re- 
ceived. Dryden. 

2. An ofiicial written communication of facts 
or opinions sent by a chief magistrate to 
the two houses of a legislature or other 
deliberative body. Congress receives a 
viessage from the President of the United 
States at the opening of the session. The 
Governors of some of the states commu- 
nicate to the legislature by message, oth- 
ers by address. 

3. An official verbal communication from 
one branch of a legislature to the other. 

MES'SAgER, } [Fr. messager ; It. mes- 
MES'SENUER, I "" saggiere ; Sp. mensage- 
. The correct orthography is messager.] 

1. One who bears a message or an errand : 
the bearer of a verbal or written commu- 
nication, notice or invitation from one per- 
son to anotlicr, or to a public bndy ; one 
who conveys dispatches from one prince 
or court to another. 

2. A harbinger; a forerunner; he or that 
hich foreshows. 

Yon gray lines 
That fret the clouds, are messengers of day. 

MESSI'AH, n. [Heb. n't?D, anointed.] 
Christ, the anointed ; the Savior of the 

I know that when Messiah cometh, who is 
called Christ, he will tell us all things. Jesus 
answered her, I that speak to thee am he. John 

MESSI'AHSHIP, n. The character, state 

or office of the Savior. 

Josephus — whose prejudices were against the 

Messiahship and religion of Jesus. 

MES'SIEURS, n. [j)bt. of monsieur, my 

lord.] Sirs ; gentlemen. 
MESS'-MATE, n. An associate in eating ; 

one who eats ordinarily at the same ta- 
MESS'UAgE, n. [from Old Fr. meson, ines- 

onage, a house or house-room ; mesuengts, 

household. The French now write mai- 

In laiv, a dwelling house and adjoining land, 

appropriated to the use of the household, 

including the adjacent buildings. Encyc. 
MET, pret. and pp. of meet. 
METAB'ASIS, ji. [Gr. from i^ita, beyond, 

and ffaivu, to go.] 
In rhetoric, transition : a passing from one 

thing to another. 
METAB'OLA, n. [Gr. /uffo, beyond, and 

lio7.fl, a casting.] 
Ill medicine, a change of air, time or disease. 

[Lillle used.] Did. 

METACARP'AL, a. [from metacarpus.] 

Belonging to the metacarpus. 
METACARP'US, n. [G\:iiitaxac,7ii.ov; nita, 

beyond, and xoprtoj, the wrist.] 


In anatomy, the part of the hand between th« 
wrist and the fingers. 

METACH'RONISM, n. [Gr /utro, beyond, 
and A;po>"'S) time.] 

An error in chronology, by placing an event 
after its real time. 

ME'TAgE, n. [from mete.] Measurement 
of coal; price of measuring. 

METAGRAM'MATISM, n. [Gr. titto,, be- 
yond, and ypa^iMi, a letter.] 

Anagrammatism, or metagrammatism, is a 
transposition of the letters of a name into 
such a connection as to express some per- 
fect sense apphcable to the person named. 

METAL, n. mefl. [Fr. from L.metallum; 
Gr. ^f roxxw ; Sw. G. metall ; D. metaal ; 
id.; Dan. metal; Sp. id. ; It. metallo ; Ir. 
miotat ; W. mettel.] 

A simple, fixed, shining, opake body or sub- 
stance, insoluble in water, fusible by heat, 
a good conductor of heat and electricity, 
capable when in the state of an oxyd, of 
uniting with acids and forming with them 
metallic salts. Many of the metals are al- 
so malleable or extensible by the hammer, 
and some of them extremely ductile. Me- 
tals are mostly fossil, sometimes found na- 
tive or pure, but more generally combined 
with other matter. Some metals are more 
malleable than others, and this circum- 
stance gave rise to the distinction of met- 
als and semi-metals ; a distinction httle re- 
garded at the present day. Recent discov- 
eries have enlarged the list of the metals, 
and the whole number now recognized is 
thirty, exclusive of those which have been 
recently discovered, as the bases of the 
earths and alkalies. Twelve of these are 
malleable, viz. platina,gold, silver, mercu- 
ry, lead, copper, tin, iron, zink, palladium, 
nickel, and cadmium. The fbllovviiig six- 
teen are not sufficiently tenacious to bear 
extension by beating, viz. arsenic, antimo- 
ny, bismuth, cobalt, manganese, tellurium, 
titanium, columbium, molybden, tungsten, 
chrome, osmium, iridium, rhodium, ura- 
nium, and cerium. Encyc. .f^icholson. 
Thomson. 'Phillips. Ure. 
To these may be added potassium, so- 
dium, barium, strontium, calcium, and 
lithium. Henry. 
The following have not been exhibited 
in a separate form ; magnesium, gluciiiuni, 
yttrium, aluminum, thorinum, zirconium, 
and silicium. 

2. Courage ; spirit ; so written by mistake 
for mettle. 

METALEP'SIS, n. [Gr. /<fraxj;rfni5, partici- 
pation ; ffTo, beyond, and "KanSaru, to 

In rhetoric, the continuation of a trope in 
one word through a succession of signifi- 
cations, or the union of two or more tropes 
of a diflferent kind in one word, so that 
several gradations or intervening senses 
come between the word expressed and the 
thing intended by it ; as " in one Cesar 
there are many Mariuses." Here Mari- 
us, by a synecdoche or antonomiisy, is put 
lor any ambitious, turbulent man, and this, 
by a metonymy of the cause, for the ill 
effects of such a temper to the public. 

Bailey. Encyc, 

METALEP'TIC, a. Pertaining to a metv, 
lepsis or participation ; translative. 




2. Transverse; as the vietaleptic motion of a 

muscle. BaUey. 

METALEP'TieALLY, adv. By transposi- 

3IETAL'LIC, a. [L. metallicus.] Pertaining 
to a metal or metals; consisting of metal; 
partaking of the nature of metals ; like a 
metal ; as a metallic substance ; metallic 
ore ; metallic brightness. 

METALLIF'EROUS, a. [L. metallum, me- 
tal, and fero, to produce.] Producing 
metals. Kirwan. 

METAL'LIFORM, a. Having the form of 
metals ; like metal. Kirwan. 

MET'ALLINE, a. Pertaining to a metal; 
consisting of metal. 

2. Impregnated with metal ; as metalline 
water. Bacon. 

MET'ALLIST, n. A worker in metals, or 
one skilled in metals. Moxon. 

METALLIZATION, n. The act or pro- 
cess of forming into a metal ; the opera- 
tion which gives to a substance its proper 
metallic properties. Encyc. Diet. 

MET'ALLIZE, v. t. To form into metal ; 
to give to a substance its proper metallic 
properties. Diet. 

METALLOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. fiiraxxoy, 
metal, and ypa^i;, description.] An ac- 
count of metals, or a treatise on metallic 
substances. Diet. 

MET'ALLOID, n. [metal, and Gr. ««os.] 
A name sometimes applied to the metallic 
bases of the alkalies and earths. 

METALLOID'AL, a. Having the form or 
appearance of a metal. 

MET'ALLURGIC, a. [See Metallurgy.] 
Pertaining to metallurgy, or the art ot 
working metals. 

MET'ALLURGIST, n. One whose occu- 
pation is to work metals, or to purify, re- 
tine and prepare metals for use. 

MET'ALLURgY, n. [Gr. i^^itaXKov, metal, 
and «pyo>', work.] 

The art of working metals, comprehending 
the whole process of separating them from 
other matters in the ore, smelting, refin 
ing and parting them. Gilding is also r 
branch of metallurgy. But in a more 
limited and usual sense, metallurgy is the 
operation of separating metals from their 
pres. Encyc. 

The French include in metallurgy the art'of 
drawing metals from the earth. Dirt 

MET'ALMAN, n. A worker in metals ; a 
coppersmith or tinman. 

METAMORPH'IC, > [See Metamor- 

METAMORPH'OSIC, ^ "• phase.] Chang 
ing the form ; transforming. 

METAMORPH'OSE, v.t. [Gr. fiitaixop^ou- 
ftfra, over, beyond, and ^opTuj, form.] Toi 
change into a different form ; to trans-l 
furm ; particularly, to change the form of 
insects, as from the larva to a winged 
animal. The ancients pretended that Ju- 
piter was metamorphosed into a bull, and 
Lycaon into a wolf. 

And earth was metamorphosed into man. 

Dry den. 

METAMORPH'OSER, n. One that trans- 
forms or changes the shape. 

METAMORPH'OSING, ppr. Changing the 

METAMORPH'OSIS, n. Change of form 
or shape ; transformation ; particularly, a 
change in the form of being ; as the meta- 

morphosis of an insect from the aurelia or 
chrysalis state into a winged animal. 

2. Any change of form or shape. 

to or effected by metamorphosis. Pope. 

MET'APHOR, n. [Gr. ^utratopa, from ficta.- 
(J>fpcj, to transfer; ii-cta, over, and $fpu, to 

A short similitude ; a similitude reduced to i 
single word ; or a word expressing simili 
tude without the signs of comparison 
Thus "that man is a fox," is a metaphor; 
but " that man is like a fox," is a similitude 
or comparison. So when I say, "the sol 
dicrs were lions in combat," I use a meta 
phor ; but when I say, " the soldiers 
fought like lions," I use a similitude. In 
metaphor, the similitude is contained in the 
name ; a man is a/o,r, means, a man i 
crafly as a fox. So we say, a man bridles 
his anger, that is, restrains it as a bridle 
restrains a horse. Beauty awakens love 
or tender passions ; opposition^^ce* courage. 

METAPHOR'I€, ) Pertaining to met 

METAPHORICAL, S "" aphor ; compris 
ing a metaphor ; not literal ; as a vietaphori 
cal use of words ] a metaphorical express 
ion ; a metaphorical sense. 

METAPHOR'ICALLY, adv. In a meta 
phorical manner ; not literally. 

MET'APHORIST, n. One that makes 
metaphors. Pope. 

MET'APHRASE, n. [Gr.jUEfo^poais; ^.tra, 
over, according to or with, and ijipaa 

A verbal translation ; a version or transl 
tion of one language into another, word 
for word. Dryden 

MET'APHRAST, n. A person who trans 
lates from one language into another, word 
for word. Encyc. 

METAPHRAS'TIe, a. Close or literal in 

METAPHYS'IC, ) __ [See Meta- 

METAPH YS'IeAL, ^ «• « as ... pf^^^-^^-^ 

1. Pertaining or relating to metaphysics. 

2. According to rules or principles of meta- 
physics ; as metaphysical reasoning. 

3. Preternatural or supernatural. [.Vot 
used.] Shak 

METAPHYSICALLY, adv. In the man 
ner of metaphysical science. 

METAPHYSI'CIAN, n. s as z. One who 
is versed in the science of metaphysics. 

METAPHYS'ICS, n. s as z. [Gr. i^ata, af- 
ter, and ^veixrj, physics. It is said that this 
name was given to the science by Aris- 
totle or his followers, who considered the 
science of natural bodies, physics, as the 
first in the order of studies, and the sci 
ence of mind or intelligence to be the 

The science of the principles and causes of 
all things existing ; hence, the science of 
mind or intelligence. This science com- 
prehends ontology, or the science which 
treats of the nature, essence, and qual' 
ties or attributes of being; cosmology, the 
science of the world, which treats of the 
nature and laws of matter and of motion 
anthroposophy, which treats of the powers 
of man, and the motions by which life is 
produced ; psychology, which treats of th 
intellectual soul ; pneumatology, or the sci 
ence of spirits or angels, &c. Metaphysic 
al theology, called by Leibnitz and others 

theodicy, treats of the existence of God, 
his essence and attributes. These divis- 
ions of the science of metaphysics, which 
prevailed in the ancient schools, are now 
not much regarded. The natural division 
of things that exist is into body and 
mind, things material and immaterial. 
The former belong to physics, and the lat- 
ter to the science of metaphysics. Encyc. 

MET'APLASM, n. [Gr. /usTan>,a<T/jo{, trans- 
formation ; fitta, over, and rtXaoTw, to form.] 

In g-ca?)ijnar, a transmutation or change made 
in a word by transposing or retrenching a 
syllable or letter. 

METAS'TASIS, n. [Gr. fiitaafaacs, muta- 
tion ; /<£ ra, over, and lartjfii, to place.] 

A translation or removal of a disease from 
one part to another, or such an alteration 
as is succeeded by a solution. 

Core. Enciir. 

METATAR'SAL, a. [from metatarsus.] 
Belonging to the metatarsus. 

METATAR'SUS, n. [Gr.u.ra, beyond, and 
fapooj, tarsus.] The middle of the fool, or 
part between the ankle and the toes. 


METATH'ESIS, n. [Gr. /.uraSiciis ; l^^ta, 
over, and nerj/u, to set.] 

1. Transposition ; a figure by which the let- 
ters or syllables of a word are transposed ; 
as pistris for pristis. Encyc. 

2. In medicine, a change or removal of a 
morbid cause, without expulsion. Encyc. 

METE, V. t. [Sax. metan, ametan, gemetan ; 

D. meeten; G. messen ; Sw. muta; Sp. 

medir; L. metior ; Gr. ustfiea ; W. mei- 

dratc ; Ch. and Ileb. ina, to measure ; Ar. 

Js^ madda, to extend. See Measure, 
and Class Md. No. 2.] 

To measure ; to ascertain quantity, dimen- 
sions or capacity by any rule or standard. 

METE, n. [Sax. mitfa.] Measure ; limit ; 
boundary ; used chiefly in the plural, in 
the phrase, metes and bounds. 

METEMP'SYCHOSE, v. t. To translate 
from one body to another, as the soul. 

METEMPSYCHOSIS, n. [Gr. f.,Ufi.^vx^- 
a^r, /ttra, beyond, and -^x^Oif, animation, 
life ; i^vj^ow, to animate.] 

Transmigration ; the passing of the soul of 
a man after death into some other animal 
body. Pythagoras and his followers held 
that after death the souls of men pass in- 
to other bodies, and this doctrine still pre- 
vails in some parts of Asia, particularly in 
India and China. Encyc. 

METEBIP'TOSIS, n. [Gr. fi^ta, after, and 
jtirtrvo, to fall.] 

In chronology, the solar equation necessary 
to prevent the new moon from happening 
a day too late, or the suppression of the 
bissextile once in 134 years. The oppo- 
site to this is the proemptosis, or the addi- 
tion of a day every 300 years, and another 
every 2400 years. Encyc. 

ME'TEOR, >i. [Gr.fortwpo;, sublime, lofty.] 

1. In a general sense, a body that flies or 
floats in the air, and in this sense it in- 
cludes rain, hail, snow, &c. But in a re- 
stricted sense, in which it is commonly 


3 A fiery or luminous body or appearance 
flying or floating in the atmosphere, or in 
a more elevated region. We give this 
name to the brilliant globes or masses of 
matter which are occasionally seen 
moving rapidly through our atmosphere, 
and which throw off, with loud explosions, 
fragments that reach the earth, and are 
called falling stones. We call by the 
same name those fire balls which are usu- 
ally denominated falling stars, supposed to 
be owing to gelatinous matter inflated by 
phosphureted hydrogen gas; also, the 
lights which appear over moist grounds 
and grave yards, called ignesfatui, which 
are ascribed to the same cause. 

And in£teor-\\ke flame lawless through the 


2. A French measure of length, equal 
39tVo English inches, the standard of 
linear measure, being the ten millionth part 
of the distance from the equator to the 
North Pole, as ascertained by actual meas- 
urement of an arc of the meridian. 

Lunier. D. Olmsted. 

ME'TEWaND, n. [mete and wand.] A 
staff or rod of a certain length, used as a 
measure. [Obs.] Ascham. 

ME'TEYARD, n. [Sax. metgeard.] A yard, 
staff or rod, used as a measure. Obs. 
[We now use yard.] 

METHEG'LIN, n. [W. mezi/g-Kn, according 
to Owen, from VV. mezyg, a physician 
and llyn, water; a medicinal hquor. Bui 
mez is mead, and mezu is to be strong or 

METEOR'IC, a. Pertaining to meteors 

consisting of meteors. 
2. Proceeding from a meteor ; as meteonc 

stones. . 

ME'TEORIZE, v. ». To ascend in vapor 

[JVotused.] Evelyn. 

MET'EOROLITE, } A meteoric stone 
MET'EROLITE, S ' a stone or solid 
compound of earthy and metallic matter 
which falls to the earth after the displo 
sioii of a luminous meteor or fire ball 
called also aerolite. Cleaveland. 

METEOROLOG'I€, ?„ Pertaining 
phere and its phenomena. A meteorologic- 
al table or register is an account of the 
state of the air and its temperature, 
weight, dryness or moisture, winds, &c. 
ascertained by the barometer, thermome- 
ter, hygrometer, anemometer and other 
meteorological instruments. 
METE0R0L'06IST. ) A person skilled 
METEROL'OGlST, i in meteors ; 
who studies the phenomena of meteors, or 
keeps a register of them. HoibcU. 

METEOROL'OgY, n. [Gr. ^utt^foi, lofty, 
and Jioyos, discourse.] The science which 
treats of the atmosphere and its phenome- 
na, particularly in its relation to heat and 
moisture. D. Olmsted. 

METEOROM'ANCY, ? [Or. fttfEupoi., a 
M ETEROM'ANC Y, S meteor, and ^a^- 

*tia, divination.] 
A species of divination by meteors, chiefly 
by thunder and lightning ; held in high es- 
timation by the Romans. Encye 
METEOROS'COPY, n. [Gr.ftfffupoj, lofty 

and oxojtfu, to view.] 
That partof astronomy which treats of sub- 
lime heavenly bodies, distance of stars, 
&c. Bailey. 

METE'OROUS, a. Having the nature of a 
meteor. Milton. 

ME'TER, n. [from mete.] One who meas- 
ures ; used in compounds, as in coal-meier, 
ME'TER, n. [Sax. meter; Fr. metre; L. 

melrum ; Gr. juffpor, from ixstpiu.] 
I. Measure; verse; arrangement of poetical 
feet, or of long and short syllables in verse. 
Hexameter is a ineter of six feet. This 
word is most improperly written metre. 
How very absurd to write the simple word 
in this manner, but in all its numerous 
compounds, meter, as in diameter, hexame- 
ter, thermometer, &c. 

A liquor made of honey and water boiled 

and fermented, often enriched with spices, 


METHINKS, V. impers. pp. methought 
[me and think.] It seems to me ; it ap- 
pears to me ; I think. Me is here in the 
dative. The word is not antiquated, but 
is not elegant. 

METH'OD, 71. [L. methodiis ; Gr. /itf9o6o{ 
fiiTa, with, and o5oj, way.] 
A suitable and convenient arrangement 
of things, proceedings or ideas; the natu 
lal or regular disposition of separate 
things or parts; convenient order for 
transacting business, or for comprehend 
ing any complicated subject. Without 
method, business of any kind will fall into 
confusion. To carry on farming to ad- 
vantage, to keej) accounts correctly, 
method is indispensable. 
Way ; manner. Let us know 

tureof the disease, and the method of cure. 
3. Classification ; arrangement of natural 
bodies according to their common charac- 
teristics; as the method of Theophrast ; 
the method of Ray ; the Linnean method. 
In natural arrangements a distinction 
sometimes made between method and 
system. System is an arrangement found 
ed, throughout all its parts, on some one 
principle. Method is an arrangement less 
fixed and determinate, and founded on 
more general relations. Thus we say, 
the natural method, and the artificial or 
sexual system of Linne, though the latter 
is not a perfect system. Ed. Encyc. 

METHODTC, ) Arranged in conven- 
METHOD'ICAL, S^'ient order; disposed 
in a just and natural manner, or in a man- 
ner to illustrate a subject, or to focilitate 
practical operations ; as n methodical ar- 
rangement of the parts of a discourse or 
of arguments ; a methodical treatise ; Jiie- 
thodical accounts. 
METHODICALLY, adv. In a methodical 
manner ; according to natural or conven- 
ient order. 
METH'ODISM, n. The doctrines and wor- 
j ship of the sect of Christians called Jl/etto- 

'METHODIST, n. One that observes 

2. One of a sect of christians, founded by 
Morgan, or rather by John Wesley, and 
so called from theexact regularity of their 
lives, and the strictness of their principles 
1 and rules. 


3. A physician who practices by method or 
theory. Boyle 

4. In the cant of irreligious men, a. person of 
strict piety ; one who lives in the exact ob- 
servance of religious duties. 

METHODIS'Tle, a. Resembling the Meth- 
odists; partaking of the strictness of 
Methodists. Ch. Obs. 

METH'ODIZE, v. t. Tfo^educe to method; 
to dispose in due order; to arrange in a 
convenient manner. 

One who brings with him any observations 
he has made in jeading the poets, will find his 
own reflections methodized and explained in 
the works of a good critic. Spectator. 

METHOUGHT, pret. ofmethinks. It seem- 
ed to me ; I thought. Milton. Dryden. 
ME'TIC, Ji. [Gr. ^ffoixoj; fiira and oixos, 

In ancient Greece, a sojourner ; a resident 
stranger in a Grecian city or place. 


METICULOUS, a. [h.Feticulosus.] Timid. 

[jVo< used.] Coles. 

METON'le CYCLE, ? the cyrile of the 

METON'Ie YEAR, S •"oon. or period 

of nineteen years, in which the lunations 

of the moon return to the same days of 

the month ; so called from its discoverer 

Meton the Athenian. Encyc. Baily. 

METONYM'IC, \ [See Metonymy.] 

METONYM'ICAL, \ "' Used by way of 

metonymy, by putting one word for 


METONYM'ICALLY, adv. By putting one 

word for another. 
MET'ONYMY, n. [Gr. nituvvixm; iiita, 

over, beyond, and ovo^ia, name.] 
In rhetoric, a trope in which one word is put 
for another; a change of names which 
have some relation to each other; as 
when we say, " a man keeps a good table," 
instead of good provisions. "We read 

Virscil," that is. 

•gil," tnat is, nis poeFs or writings. 
"They have Moses and the prophets," that 
is, their books or writings. A man has a 
clear head, that is, understanding, intel- 
lect ; a warm heart, that is, affections. 

METOPE, n. meVopy. [Gr. fnfoTttj ; utta, 
with, near or by, and ortjy, an aperture or 

In architecture, the space between the tri- 
glyphs of the Doric frieze, which among 
the ancients used to be painted or adorned 
with carved work. Encyc. 

METOPOS'COPIST, n. [infra.] One vers- 
ed in physiognomy. 

METOPOS'COPY, n. [Gr. ^iitunov, the 
forehead, and axorttu, to view.] 

The study of physiognomy ; the art of dis- 
covering 'the character or the dispositions 
of men by their features, or the lines of 
tlie face. Encyc. 

METRE. [See Meter.] 

MET'RICAL, a. [L. metncus ; Fr. in^trique.] 

1. Pertaining to measure, or due arrange- 
ment or combination of long and short 

2. Consisting of verses ; as metrical composi- 

METROL'OgY, )!. [Gr. juEfpor, measure^ 

and >.oyo5, discourse.] 
1. A discourse on measures or mensuration ; 

the description of measures. 

3. An account of measures, or the science of 
weights and measures. J. Q. Adams. 

M E W 


31 I C 

METROPOLIS, n. [L. from Gr. 
oUi ; lUjjrjjp, mother, and noUf, city, 
no plural.] 

Literally, tlie niother-ciiy, that is, the chief 
city or capital of a kingdom, state or coun- 
try, as Paris in France, Madrid in Spain, 
London in Great Britain. In the United 
States, Washington, in the District of Co 
lumbia, is the metropolis, as being the seat 
of government ; but in several of the states, 
the largest cities are not the seats of the 
respective governments. Yet New York 
city, in the state of that name, and Phila- 
delphia in Pennsylvania, are the chief cit- 
ies, and may be called each the metropolis 
of the state in which it is situated, thougli 
neither of them is the seat of government 
in the state. 

METROPOLITAN, a. Belonging to a me 
tropolis, or to the mother church ; residing 
in the chief city. 

METROPOLITAN, n. The bishop of the 
mother church ; an archbishop. 


METROP'OLITE, n. A metropolitan. [JVot 

METROPOL'ITIe, ) Pertaining to 

METROPOLIT'I€AL, ^ "' a metropolis; 
chief or principal of cities ; archiepisco- 
pal. Knolles. Milner. Selden. 

METTLE, n. met'l. [usually supposed to be 
corrupted from metal. But it may be from 
AV. mezwlor methwl, mind, connected with 
mezu, to be able, and coinciding with the 
root of the Eng. moody ; D. moed, courage, 
heart, spirit ; G. muth, mind, courage, 
mettle ; Sax. Sw. 7iiod ; Dan. mod or vwod ; 
Goth, mod, angry. The Sax. modig, L. 
animus, ayiimosus, furnish an analogy in 
point. The radical sense of mind, is to 
advance, to push forward, whence the 
sense of briskness, ardor.] 

Spirit ; constitutional ardor ; that tempera- 
ment which is susceptible of high excite- 
ment. It is not synonymous with cour- 
age, though it may be accompanied with 
it, and is sometimes used for it. 
The winged courser, like a generous horse. 
Shows most true mettle when you check his 
course. Pope. 

MET'TLED, a. High spirited ; ardent; full 
of fire. Pope. 

MET'TLES03IE, a. Full of spirit ; pos- 
sessing constitutional ardor ; brisk ; fiery ; 
as a mettlesome horse. Taller. 

MET'TLESOMENESS, n. The state of 
being high spirited. 

MEW, )!. [Sax. miEW ; Dan. maage; D. 
meeuw ; G. mewe ; Fr. mouette-l A sea- 
fowl of the genus Larus; a gull. 

MEW, n. [Fr. mue; Arm. miiz; W. mud, a 
mew and mute ; D. muite. See the verb to 
mew, to shed fethers.] 

A cage for birds ; an inelosure ; a place of 

MEW, t'.«. [from the noi-tn.] To shut up: 
to inclose ; to confine, as in a cage or other 
More pity that the eagle should be mew'd. 

Close mew'd in their sedans, for fear of air. 


MEW, V. t. [W. miiB, a shedding of fethers ; 
It. mudare, to mew ; Fr. muer; Arm. muza ; 
G. mausen; D. vmiten, to mew or molt,to| 
mutiny; Sp. muda, change, alteration, aj 

mule letter, time of molting or shedding 
fethers, roost of a hawk ; Port, mudar, to 
change, to mew or cast fethers or a slough ; 
muda, a dumb woman, the mewing or 
molting of birds. The W. mud, a mew, is 
also removal, a pass or move, a change of 
residence, and mute ; and the verb mudaw 
is to change, to remove, comprehending 
the L. muto and moto. We have then clear 
evidence that mew, a cage, merv, to molt 
and the L. muto, moto, and mutus, and 
Eng. mxdiny, are all from one root. Tli 
primary sense is to press or drive, whence 
to move, to change, and to shut up, that ' 
to press or drive close ; atid this is the 
sense of mute. Mutiny is from motion o: 
To shed or cast ; to change ; to molt. Th( 
hawk meived his fethers. 
Nine times the moon had mew'd her horns— 
MEW, t'. i. [W. mewian ; G. miauen ; coin 
ciding probably with L. mugio.] To cry 
as a cat. 
MEW, i;. t. To change ; to put on a new 

MEW'ING, ppr. Casting the fethers or skin 

MEWL, V. i. [Fr.miauler; It. miagolare 
Sp. mauUar or mayar ; coinciding in ele 
nients with L. mugio, to low ; G. mucken 
Dan. mukker, to mutter; Gr. fir^xao^ai, to 
bleat ; Ir. meigiollam ; W. migiaw.] To 
cry or squall, as a child. Sho 

MEWL'ER, n. One that squalls or mewls. 
MEZE'REON, n. A plant of the 'genus 

Daphne ; the spurge olive. Encyt 

MEZZO, in music, denotes middle, mean. 
MEZZORELIE'VO, n. [It. mezzonlievo.] 

Middle relief 
MEZZOTINT'O, n. [It. mezzo, middle, half, 

nd Unto, L.tinctus, painted.] 
A particular manner of engraving or repre 
sentation of figures on copper, in imitation 
of painting in Indian ink. To perform 
this the plate is scratched and furrowed 
in different directions ; the design is then 
drawn on the face, then the dents and fur- 
rows are erased from the parts where the 
lights of the piece are to be ; the parts 
which are to represent shades being left. 
MI'ASM, ) [Gr. from /..on«, to pollute.] 
MIAS'MA, I Infecting substances float- 
ing in the air; the effluvia or fine particles 
of any putrefying bodies, rising and float- 
ing in the atmosphere, and considered to 
be noxious to health. 
MIASMAT'IC, a. Pertaining to miasma ;, 
partaking of the qualities of noxious efflu- 
MI'€A, n. [L. mica, a grain or panicle ; mico, 

to shine.] 
A mineral of a foliated structure, consisting 
of thin flexible lamels or scales, having a 
shining surface. The scales are some 
times parallel, sometimes interwoven, 
sometimes wavy or undulated, sometimes 
representing filaments. It is called also 
ialck, glimmer, muscovy-glass, and glist. 

JVicholson. Encyc. 
Jameson subdivides mica into ten subspe- 
cies, viz. mica, pinite, lepidolite, chlorite, 
green earth, taick, nacrite, potstoiie. stea 
tite and figure stone. t>e.! 

Ml€A'CEOUS, a. Pertaining to mica ; re- 
sembling mica or partaking of its proper- 

MIe'AREL, ?!. A species of argillaceous 
earth ; a mineral of a brownish or black- 
ish red color, commonly crystalized in 
rhomboidal prisms, or in prisms of six 
sides. Did. 

MICE, plu. of mouse. 

MleHAELITE, n. A subvariety of silic- 
eous sinter, found in the isle of St. Mi- 
chael. J. W. Webster. 

3II€H'AELMAS, n. The feast of St. Mi- 
chael, a festival of the Romish church, 
celebrated Sept. 29; hence, 

2. In colloquial language, autunm. 
MICHE, V. i. [allied perhaps to Sw. maka, 

to withdraw ; Sax. smugan, to creep. 
Meeching or meaching, is still used by some 
of our common people in the sense of 
mean, cowardly, retiring.] 
1. To lie hid ; to skulk ; to retire or shrink 
from view. 

3. To pilfer. Ohs. Shak. 
MICH'ER, n. One who skulks, or creeps 

outof sight ; a thief Obs. 

Chaucer. Sidney. Shak. 
MICH'ER Y,ri. Theft: cheating. Obs. 

MICH'ING, ppr. Retiring ; skulking ; creep- 
ing from sight ; mean ; cowardly. [ P'lU- 

MICK'LE, a. [Sax. micel, mucel ; Scot. 
myche, mekyl, muckle ; Sw. mycken ; Sp. 
mucho ; Gr. fttyaj, fieya7.7j. See Miich.'i 

Much ; great. [Obsolete, but retained in the 
Scottish language.] 

MI'CO, n. A beautiful species of monkey. 

Ml€'RO€OSM, n. [Gr. fiizpoj, small, and 
xotj/iof, world.] 

Literally, the little world ; but used for man, 
supposed to be an epitome of the universe 
or great world. Siiiji. Encyc. 

Microcosmic salt, a triple salt of soda, ammo- 
nia and phosphoric acid, obtained from 
urine. Ure. 

MICRO€OS'Ml€AL, a. Pertaining to the 

Ml€ROCOUS'Tl€, n. [Gr. A">:|Mf, small, 
and axoiu, to hear.] 

An instrument to augment small sounds, and 
assist in hearing. 

MICROGRAPHY, n. [Gr. ^Jxpoj, small, 
d ypo^o, to describe.] 

The description of objects too small to be 

discerned without the aid of a microscope. 

Encyc. Grew. 

MIeROM'ETER, n. [Gr. ;uixpos, small, and 
juf-rppK, measure.] 

An instrument for measuring small objects 
or spaces, by the help of which, the appa- 
rent magnitude of objects viewed through 
the microscope or telescope, is measured 
with great exactness. Encyc. 

MICROPHONE, n. [Gr. m'-'P"!, small, and 
ifuvri, sound.] 

An instrument to augment small sounds; a 
microcoustic. Bailey. 

Ml€'ROS€OPE, n. [Gr. /u«po5, small, and 
ffxortfu, to view.] 

An optical instrument consisting of lenses 
or mirrors, which magnify objects, and 
thus render visible minute objects which 
cannot be seen by the naked eye, or en- 
large the apparent magnitude of small visi- 


blc bodies, so as to enable us to examine 

their texture or construction. 
MICROS€OP'l€, ? „ Made by the aid 
MleROSeOP'ICAL, $ "• of a microscope ; 

as microscopic observation. Arhuthnot. 

2. Assisted by a microscope. 

Evading even the microscopic eye. 


3. Resembling a microscope; capable of 
seeing small objects. 

Why has not man a microscopic eye ? Popi 

4. Very small ; visible only by the aid of a 
microscope; as a microscopic insect. 

Ml€ROSCOP'I€ALLY, adv. By the micro 
scope ; with minute inspection. Good. 

MlCTURl"TION, n. [L. micturio.] The 

act of making water, or passing the urine. 


MID, a. [Sax. midd, middc ; L. mtdius ; W, 
mid, an inclosure.] 

1. Middle ; at equal distance from extremes 
as the mid hour of night. Rowe. 

2. Intervening. 

No more the mounting larks, while Daphne 

Shall, lifting in mid air, suspend their wings. 


Ml'DA,n. [Gr.;i"Sa5.] A worm, or thebean- 

f)v. Chambers. 

MID'-AgE, li. The middle oflife, or persons 

of that age. Shak. 

MID-€OURSE, n. The middle of the course 

or way. Milton. 

MID'-DAY, a. Being at noon ; meridional 

as the mid-day sun, 


die-aged man is so called from the age ofl 
thirty five or forty to forty five or fifty. 
MID'DLE-EARTH, n. [Sax. middan-eard.]i 
The world. Obs. Shak. 

MID'DLEMOST, a. Being in the middle, or 
nearest the middle of a number of tliings| 
that are near the middle. If a thing is in 
the middle, it cannot be more so, and in 
this sense the word is improper. But 
when two or more things are near the 
middle, one may be nearer than another.' 

MID'DLING, a. [Sax. midlen.] Of middle! 
rank, state, size or quality; about equally 
distant from the extremes; moderate.] 
Thus we speak of jjcople of the middling 
class or sort, neither high nor low ; of a 
man of mirfdftng- capacity or understand-| 
ing ; a man of middling size ; fruit of a, 
middling quality. 

MIDgE, n. [Sax. myge, mygge.] A gnat or 
flea. [JSTot used.] 

MID'-HEAVEN, n. The middle of the sky 
or heaven. Milton.] 

MIDLAND, a. Being in the interior cou 
try ; distant from the coast or sea shor 

_ midland towns or inhabitants. 

Hojvell. Hale. 

2. Surrounded by the sea ; mediterranean. 

And on the midland sea the French had aw'd. 

Dry den. 

IMID'LEG, 11. Middle of the leg. Bacon. 

iMID'MOST, a. Middle ; as the midmost bat- 
tles. Dryden.l 
MID'NIGHT, n. The middle of the night; 
Mm^SttB^gin the middle of the 
- -- - . , ,^, „ ,,2.S:::?^ft;;-dark; ^S 
Among the mtddest crowd. [JVot used.] ]j ^^-^j^^ .rloom. 

" MID'RIFF, n. [Sax.midhrife; midandhrife. 

MIDDLE, a. mid'l. [Sax. D. middd ; G. 
millel; Dan. viiddel ; perhaps mid and 
deel ; Sans, medhi and madhyam ; L. mt- 
dius; Gr. ^foos; It. mezzo; Sp. medio; 
Port, mayo, mediano ; Ir. modham, muadh ; 
Fr. midi, moyen, [mitan, obs.;] Ch. ;rXD. 
This word has the elements of the Sax. 
mid, D. mede, Sw. and Dan. mede, G. mit,^ 
with, Gr. utra, which is from the root of 
the English meet, which see. Qu. has not 
the L. medius. in the phrase mediusfidius,\ 
the sense of ' with or by; by or with my 
faith. In W. mid signifies an inclosure, a 
hem or list round a place. In Russ. mejdu 
signifies among. See Class Ms.No. 21.27.] 

1. Equally distant from the extremes; as 
the middle point of a line or circle; the 
middle station oflife. The middle path or 
course is most safe. 

2. Intermediate; intervening. 

Will, seeking good, finds many miiidle end: 
Middle ages, the ages or period of time about 
equally distant from the decline of the Ro- 
man empire and the revival of letters in 
Europe, or from the eighth to the fifteenth 
century of the christian era. 
MID'DLE, n. The point or part equally di 
tant from the extremities. 

See, there come people down by the middle 
of the land. Judges i.\. 
2. The time that passes, or events that hap- 
pen between the beginning and the end. 
MID'DLE-AgED, a. Being about the 'mid 
die of the ordinary age of man. A mid 

M I G 

MIDST, adv. In the middle. 

On earth, join all ye creatures to extol 
Him first. Him last, Him midst, and without 
end. Milton. 

MID'STREAM, n. The middle of the 
stream. Dryden. 

MID'SUMMER, n. The middle of summer ; 
the summer solstice, about the 21st of 
June. Smijl. Gay. 

MID'WARD, adv. Midst. [M)tin use.] 
MID'WAY, n. The middle of the way or 
Paths indirect, or in the midway faint. 

MID'WAY, a. Being in the middle of the 
way or distance ; as the viidway air. 

MID'WAY, adv. In the middle of the way 
or distance ; half way. 

She met his glance inidway. Dryden. 

MID' WIFE, n. [supposed by Junius and 
Skinner to be meedwife, a woman that has 
a reward. This is probably a mistake. 
The word is a compound of mid, with, and 
wif, a woman ; in analogy with the L. ob- 
stetrix, from obsto, obstiti, to stand before. 
The Dutch use vroedvrouw, a wise or skill- 
ful woman. The Danish equivalent word is 
iordemoder, earth-mother ; the Swedish, 
iord-gumma. The Sjianish and Portu- 
guese word is comadre ; co for L. cum, with, 
and madre, mother, which is precisely 
analogous to midwife.] 
A woman that assists other women in child- 
MID' WIFE, V. i. To perform the oflBce of 

MID' WIFE, V. t. To assist in childbirth. 
MID'WIFERY, n. The art or practice of 
assisting women in childbirth; obstet- 

the belly ^ 
In anatomy, the diaphragm; the niuscle 
which divides the trunk into two cavities, 
the thorax and abdomen. Quincy. 

MID'SEA, n. The Mediten-anean sea. 

MID'SHIP, a. Being or belonging to the 

middle of a ship ; as a midship beam. 
MID'SHIPM.-^N, n. In ships of tear, a kind 
of naval cadet, whose business is to sec- 
ond the orders of the superior ofiicers and 
assist in the necessary business of the ship, 
particularly in managing the sails, that he 
may be trained to a knowledge of the ma- 
chinery, discipline and operations of ships 
of war, and qualified for naval service. 

Mar. Did. 
MID'SIIIPS, adv. In the middle of a ship 

properly amidships. 
MIDST, n. [contracted from middest, th 
superlative of »iuU] The middle. 

There is nothing said or done in the tnidst of 
the play, which might not have been placed in 
the beginning. Dryden. 

iThe phrase, in the midst, often signifies in- 
volved in, surrounded or overwhelmed by, 
or in the thickest part, or in the depths ol ; 
as in the midst of afHictions, troubles or 
cares ; in the midst of our contemplations ; 
in the midst of the battle ; in the midst of 
pagan darkness and error ; in the midst 
gospel light; in the midst of the ocean; 
the midst of civil dissensions. 
From the midst, from the middle, or from 
among. Deut. xviii. 

2. Assistance at childbirth. 

3. Help or cooperation in production. 

MID'-WINTER, n. The middle of winter, 
or the winter solstice, December 21. As 
the severity of winter in North America 
falls in January and February, the word 
ordinarily denotes this period, or some 
weeks after the winter solstice. 
MI'EMITE, n. Granular miemite is a sub- 
variety of magnesian limestone, first found 
at Miemo,in Tuscany. It occurs massive, 
or crystalized in flat, double, three-sided 
pyramids. Its color is light green or 
greenish white. Jameson. Cyc. 

MIEN, n. [Fr. mine ; Dan. Sw. id.; Arm. 
man ; Corn, mein, the face ; Ice. mind, im- 
age. See Man.] 
Look ; air ; manner ; external appearance ; 
carriage ; as a lofty mien ; a majestic 
mien. Waller. Pope. 

MIFF, n. A slight degree of resentment. 

MIF'FED, a. Slightly offended. [In Norman 
French, 7)ic/e< is offense or misdeed, and 
meffet, misdone ; mes and faire ; whence 
meffere, to do mischief But qu. whether 
this is the English miff.] 
MIGHT, n. prel. of may. Had power or lib- 
erty. He might go, or might have gone. 
2. It sometimes denotes was possible, imply- 
ing ignorance of the fact in the speaker. 
Orders might have been given for the pur- 
I pose. 

M I G 

M I L 


MFGHT, n. [Sax. viight, 7nehl ; G. maeht;\ 
D. Sw. Dan. magi ; from the root of may, 
Sax. magan, to be able ; Sans, mahat, 
strong. See May.] 

1. Strength; force; power; primarily and 
chiefly, bodily strength or physical povver ; 
as, to work or strive with all one's might. 

There shall be no might in thy hand. Deut. 

2. Political power or great achievments. 

The acts of David— with all his reign and his 
might. 1 Chron. xxix. 1 Kings xv. 

3. National strength ; physical power or 
military force. 

We have no tnight against this great compa- 
ny that cometh against us. 2 Chron. xx. 

4. Valor with bodily strength ; military prow- 
ess ; as men of might. 1 Chron. xii. 

5. Ability ; strength or application of means. 

I have prepared with all my might for the 
house of my God — 1 Chron. .xxix. 

6. Strength or force of purpose. 

Lllce him was no Ising that turned lo the Lord 
with all his might. 2 Kings xxiii. 

7. Strength of aflection. 

Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all' 
thine heart, and with all tliy soul, and with all, 
thy might. Deut. vi. I 

8. Strength of light ; splendor ; effulgence.! 

Let them that love him be as the suil when 
he goeth forth in his might. Judges v. 

Shakspeare applies the word to an oalli. 
"An oath of mickle might." This ajipli-: 
cation is obsolete. We now use strength 
or force; as the strength or force of an oath 
or covenant. ] 

It'ith might and main, with the utmost! 
strength or bodily exertion ; a tautological 
phrase, as both words are from the same' 
root, and mean the same thing. 

MI'GHTILY, adv. [from mighty.] With] 
great power, force or strength ; vigorous- 
ly ; as, to strive mightily. j 

2. Vehemently ; with great earnestness. j 

Ciy mightily to God. Jonah iii. | 

3. Powerfully ; with great energy. 

Whereto I also labor, striving according to his 
worliing, which worketh in me mightily. Col. i. 
A. With great strength of argument. 

He mightily convinced the Jews. AcU xviii. 
5. With great or irresistible force ; greatly ;! 

So mightily grew the word of God and pre- 
vailed. Acts'xix. 
C. With strong means of defense. 

Fortify thy power mightily. Nah. ii. 
7. Greatly ; to a great degree ; very much. 
I was mightily ple.xsed with a story applica- 
ble to this piece of philosophy. Spectator. 
[Admissible in colloquial and familiar lan^ 

3irGHTINESS, n. Power ; greatness 
highth of dignity. 

How soon this mightiness meets misery ! 

2. A title of dignity ; as their High Mighti- 
MI'GHTY, a. [Sax. mihiig.] Having great 
bodily strength or physical power; very 
strong or vigorous ; as a mighty arm. 

2. Very strong ; valiant ; bold ; as a mi} 
man of valor. Judges vi. 

3. Very powerful ; having great command, 


5. Very strong or great in corporeal power ; 
very able. 

Wo to them that are mighty to drink wine.l 


mighty thunder- 

C. Violent ; very loud ; 

ings. Ex. ix. Ps. Ixvii 
7. Vehement ; rushing with violence ; as aj 

mighty wind or tempest. Ex. x. Rev. vi. 

Very great ; vast ; as mighty waters. 

Neh. ix. 

9. Very great or strong ; as mighty power.' 
2 Chron. xxvi. | 

10. Very forcible ; efficacious ; as, great isj 
truth and mighty. Esdras.l 

11. Very great or eminent in intellect or ac-j 
quirements; as the mighty Scaliger and 
Selden. Echard. 

12. Great ; wonderful ; perforined with great 
power ; as mighty works. Matt. xi. 

13. Very severe and distressing; asamighty 
famine. Luke xv. 

14. Very great, large or populous ; as a 

mighty city. Rev. xviii. 
5. Impor 

15. Important ; momentous. 

I'll smg of heroes and of kings. 

In mighty numbers mighty things. 


MI'GHTY, adv. In a great degree ; very 

nighty wise 

MIGNIARD, a. [Fr. » 

dainty ; delicate ; pretty. 

Ighty tlioughtful. [Col- 
\gnard.] Soft ; 
B. Jonson. 

[Fr.] An annual flow-| 
er or plant of the ge- 
nus Reseda, having the scent of raspber- 
ries. Mason.l 
MI'GRATE, V. i. [L. migro.] To pass or re- 
move from one country or from one state 
to another, with a view to permanent res-| 
idcMcr, or residence of some continuance. 
The fir>t settlers of New England migrat-\ 
ed first to Holland, and afterwards to 
America. Some species of fowls migrate 
in autumn to a warmer climate for a tem- 
porary residence. To change residence 
in the same city or state is not to migrate. 
To pass or remove from one region or 
district to another for a temporary resi-! 
dence ; as, the Tartars mtgrafe for the sake 
of finding pasturage 
Ml'GRATlNG, ppr. Removing from one 
state to another for a permanent resi- 
dence. The people of the eastern states 
are continually migrating to the western 

MIGRA'TION, n. [L. migratio.] The act of 
removing from one kingdom or state to 
another, for the purpose of permanent res- 
idence, or a residence of some continu- 

2. Change of place ; removal ; as the migra- 
tion of the center of gravity. Woodward. 

IMI'GRATORY, a. Removing or accustom 

1 ed to remove irom one state or country to 

I another for permanent residence. 

2. Roving ; wandering; occasionally reinov- 
ing for pasturage ; as the migratory Tar- 

[3. Passing from one climate to another ; as 

MILCH, a. [Sax. melee. See Mlk.] Giving 
Ik ; as a milch cow. I ' 

now applied 
only to beasts. 

4. Very strong in numbers; as a mighty na- MILD, a. [Sax. mild; G. D. Sw. Dan. id.;\ 
tion. Gen. xviii. II Rugg, melayu, to pity. The primary sense! 

IS soft or smooth, L. mollis, Eng. mellow, 
W. mall : allied perhaps to melt. Class M). 
No. 9. 16. 18.] 

1. Soft; gently and pleasantly affecting the 
senses ; not violent ; as a niild air ; a nii7(/ 
sun ; a tnild temperature ; a mild light. 

The rosy mom resigns her light 
And milder glory to the noon. TValUr. 

And with a ?nilder gleam refreshed the sight. 

2. Not acrid, pungent, corrosive or drastic ; 
operating gently ; not acrimonious ; de- 
mulcent ; mollilying ; lenitive ; assuasive ; 
as a mild liquor ; a mild cataplasm ; a mild 
cathartic or emetic. 

3. Tender and gentle in temper or disposi- 
tion ; kind ; compassionate ; merciful ; 
clement ; indulgent ; not severe or cruel. 

It teaches us to adore him as a mild and mer- 
ciful Being. Rogers. 

4. Not fierce, rough or angry ; as mild 

5. Placid ; not fierce ; not stern ; not frown- 
ing ; as a mild look or aspect. 

6. Not sharp, tart, sour or bitter ; moderate- 
ly sweet or pleasant to the taste ; as mild 

7. Calm ; tranquil. When passion subsides 
the temper becomes mild. 

8. Moderate ; not violent or intense ; as a 
nnld heat. 

MIL'DEW, n. [Sax. mildeaw; L. melligo, 
from mel, honey ; G. mehlthau, as if from 
mehl, meal.] 

1. Honey dew ; a thick, clammy, sweet juice, 
found on theleavesof plants, which is said 
to injure the plants by corroding them, or 
otherwise preventing them from coming 
to ])erfection. Hill. Encyc. 

2. Spots on cloth or paper caused by mois- 

MIL'DEW, V. t. To taint with mildew. 


MIL'DEWED, /)/). Tainted or injured by 

MIL'DEWING,;;.;>r. Tainting with mildew. 

MH.DLY, adv. Softly ; gently ; tenderly ; 
not roughly or violently ; moderately ; as,, 
to speak mildly ; to burn 7nildly ; to oper- 
ate mildly. 

MILDNESS, n. Softness; gentleness; as 
the mild7iess of words or speech ; mildness 
of voice. 

2. Tenderness; mercy; clemency; us mild- 
ness of temper. 

3. Gentleness of operation; as the mildnes.'; 
of a medicine. 

4. Softness ; the quality that aflfects the 
senses jjleasautly ; as the mildness of fruit 
or of liquors. 

5. Temperateness; moderate state; as the 
mildness of weather. 

MILD-SPIR'ITED, a. Having a mild tem- 
per. Arhuthnot. 

MlLE, n. [h.millepassiis, a thousand paces; 
passus being dropped in cotnmon usage, 
the word became a noun ; Sax. Sw. mil ; 
Dan. mill; G.meile; D. myl ; Fr. milk; 
Sp. milla ; Port, ndlha ; It. miglio.] 

A measure of length or distance, containing 
eight furlongs, 320 rods, poles or perches, 
1760 yards, 5280 feet, or 80 chains. The 
Roman mile was a thousand paces, equal 
to 1600 yards English measure. 

Ml'LEAOE, n. Fees paid for travel by the 

M I L 

M I L 

M I L 

MI LESTONE, n. A stone set to mark the 

distance or space of a mile. 
MILFOIL, n. [L. millefolium, a thousand 

A plant of the genus Achillea ; yarrow. 
MIL'IARY, a. [Fr. miliaire, L. milium 


1. Resembling millet seeds ; as a miliary 
eruption ; miliary glands. The miliary 
glands are the sebaceous glands of the 
skin. Coxe. 

2. Accompanied with an eruption hke mil- 
let seeds ; as a miliary fever. 

MILICE, for militia, is not in use. 

MIL'IOLITE, n. Fossil remains of the 
Miliola, a genus of univalve shells. 

Ed. Encyc. 

MIL'ITANCY, n. Warfare. [Little used.] 

MIL'ITANT, a. [L. mililans, milito, to fight.] 

I. Fighting ; combating ; serving as a sol- 
dier. Spenser. 

9. The church militant, is the christian church 
on earth, which is supposed to be engaged 
in a constant warfare against its enemies ; 
thus distinguished from the church tri- 
umphant, or in heaven. Hooker. 

MILITARILY, adv. In a soldierly manner. 

MIL'ITARY, a. [Fr. militaire ; L. mililaiis, 
from miles, a soldier ; milito, to fight; Gr. 
afjuXKa, contest.] 

1. Pertaining to soldiers or to arms ; as a 
military parade or appearance ; military 

9. Engaged in the service of soldiers or 
arms ; as a military man. 

3. Warlike ; becoming a soldier ; as military 
virtue ; military bravery. 

4. Derived from the services or exploits of a 
soldier ; as military renown. 

5. Conformable to the customs or rules of 
armies or militia. The conduct of the of- 
ficer was not military. 

G. Performed or made by soldiers ; as a mil- 
itary election. Bacon. 

Military tenure, a tenure of land, on condi- 
tion of performing military service. 

MIL'ITARY, n. The whole body of sol- 
diers ; soldiery ; militia ; an army. 

U. States. MItford. 

MILITATE, V. i. [L. milito.] To militate 

against, is to oppose ; to be or to act in 

opposition. Smollet. 

Paley writes, to militate with ; but in 

America, against is generally used. 

MILL'TIA, n. [L. from miles, a soldier ; Ir. 
mal or mil ; W. milwr ; Gr. /au^o;, war : 
jiuj.£u>, to fight ; ofia^a, combat, contention, 
The primary sense of fighting is to strive, 
struggle, drive, or to strike, to beat, Eng, 
moil, L. molior, Heb. Ch. Syr. Sam. Ar, 
Sa;?, to labor or toil. So erercitiis, from 
cxcrceo, to exert, to strive. Class Ml. No, 

The body of soldiers in a state enrolled for 
discipline, but not engaged in actual ser 
vice except in emergencies ; as distin 
guished from regular troops, whose sole 
occupation is war or military service. The 
militia of a country are the able bodied 
men organized into companies, regiments 
and brigades, with oflicers of all grades, 
and required by law to attend military ex- 
ercises on certain days only, but at other 

times left to pursue their usual occupa- 

MILK, n. [Sax. melee ; G. milch ; D. melk ; 

! Sw. miilk ; Dan. malk ; Russ. mleko or 

I moloko ; Bohemian, inliko ; Ir. meilg. See 

1 the Verb.] 

1. A white fluid or liquor, secreted by cer- 
I tain glands in female animals, and drawn 

1 from the breasts for the nourishment of 
I their young. 

2. The white juice of certain plants. 

3. Emulsion made by bruising seeds. 

MILK, V. t. [Sax. melcan, meolcian ; G. D. 

melken; Sw. mi'olka; Ban. mailker ; Russ. 

melzyu ; L. mulgeo ; Gr. aftt^yu.] 
1. To draw or press milk from the breasts 
I by the hand ; as, to milk a cow. 
'2. To suck. [JVot used.] Shak. 

MILK'EN, a. Consisting of milk. [JVot 

used.] Temple. 

MILK'ER, n. One that milks. 
MILK'-FEVER, n. A fever which ace 

panics the first flowing of milk in females 

after childbirth. 
MILK'-HEDciE, n. A shrub growing on the 

Coromandel coast, containing a milky 

MILK'INESS, n. Qualities like those of 

milk ; softness. Dryden. 

MILK'-LIVERED, cf. Cowardly; timorous. 


MILK'MAID, n. A woman that milks or is 

employed in the dairy. 
MILK'MAN, n. A man that sells milk or 

carries milk to market. 
MILK'PAIL, n. A pail which receives the 

milk drawn from cows. 
MILK'PAN, n. A pan in which milk is set. 
MILK'PORRIDgE, I A species of food 
MILK'POTTAgE, S"' composed of milk 

or milk and water, boiled with meal or 

flour. Locke. 

MILK'S€0RE, n. An account of milk sold 

orpurchased in small quantities, scored or 

marked. Addison. 

MILK'SOP, )!. A soft, efteminate, feeble- 
minded man. Addison. Prior. 
MILK'-TIIISTLE, n. A plant of the genus 

MILK'TOOTH, n. The foretooth of a foal, 

which is cast within two or three years. 
Far. Did. 
MILK-TRE'FOIL, n. A plant, the cytisus. 

MILK'-VETCH, n. A plant of the genus 

MILK'-WORT, n. A plant of the genus Eu 

phorbia ; spurge. 
MILK'-WEED, n. A plant, the Asclepias 

MILK' WHITE, a. White as milk. Dryden. 
iMILK'WoMAN, n. A woman that sells 
milk. Arbuthnot. 

IMILK'Y, a. Made of milk. 

2. Resembling milk ; as milky sap or juice. 

1 Pope. 

3. Yielding milk ; as milky mothers. 


4. Soft ; mild ; gentle ; timorous ; as a milky 
heart. Shak. 

MILK'Y-WAY, n. The galaxy ; a broad 
luminous path or circle in the heavens, 
supposed to be the blended light of innu- 

merable fixed stars, which are not distin- 
guishable with ordinary telescopes. 


MILL, V. [L. mille, a thousand.] A money 
of account of the United States, value tl/e 
tenth of a cent, or the thousandth of a 

MILL, n. [Sax. miln ; W. melin ; Ir. meile 
or muilean ; Corn, melyn ; Arm. mell or 
melin ; Fr. moulin ; L. mola ; Gr. /nvXt;, 
f»/koi ; G. miihle ; D. molen ; Sw. mol ; 
Dan. molle ; Sp. molino ; It. mulino ; Russ. 
melnitsa ; Goth, malan, to grind, Ir. mei- 
lim, Fr. moudre, for mouldre, W. malu, 
Arm. mala or malein, Sp. moler, L. molo, 
G. mahlen, D. maalen, Sw. mula, Dan. 
maler. Port, motr, by contraction, Russ. 
melyu. It is not certain which is the ori- 
ginal word, the noun or the verb ; or 
whether both are from a prior radical 
sense. We observe that the elements of 
this word coincide with those of L. mel, 
honey, mollis, Eng. mellow, mild, mold, 
meal, W. mall, &c. all expressive of softness. 
Grinding is now breaking by friction or 
pressure, but not improbably grain was 
pulverized by breaking before the use of 
the quern. If so, mill may coincide in ori- 
gin with mallet. We observe that this 
word is in the languages of all the great 
European families, Celtic, Teutonic and 

1. A complicated engine or machine for 
grinding and reducing to fine particles, 
grain, fruit or other substance, or for per- 
forming other operations by means of 
wheels and a circular motion ; as a grist- 
mill for grain ; a cofke-mill ; a cider-mill ; 
a hsirk-mill. The original purpose of mills 
was to comminute grain for food, but the 
word mill is now extended to engines or 
machines moved by water, wind or steam, 
for carrying on many other operations. 
We have oil-mills, saw-mills, slitting-mills, 
hark-mills, fulling-mills, &c. 

2. The house or building that contains the 
machinery for grinding, &c. 

MILL, V. /._To grind ; to comminute ; to re- 
duce to fine particles or to small pieces. 

2. To beat up chocolate. Johnson. 

3. To stamp coin. 

4. To full, as cloth. 

MILL'COG, ?i. The cog of a mill wheel. 


MILL'DAM, n. A dam or mound to ob- 
struct a water course, and raise the water 
to an altitude sufficient to turn a mill 
wheel. Mortimer. 

MILL'HORSE, n. A horse that turns a mill. 

MILL'POND, 71. A pond or reservoir of 
water raised for driving a mill wheel. 

MILL'RACE, n. The current of water that 
drives a mill wheel, or the canal in which 
it is conveyed. /VajiAZin. 

MILL'-SIXPENCE, n. An old Enghsh coin 
first milled in 15()I. Douce. 

MILL'STONE, n. A stone used for grind- 
ing grain. 

MILL'-TOOTII, n. plu. mill-teeth. A grinder, 
dens molaris. Arhuthnot. 

MILLENA'RIAN, a. [Fr. millenaire. See 

Consisting of a thousand years ; pertaining 
to the milleniinn. Encyc 

MILLENA'RIAN, n. A chiliast ; one who 
believes in the millenium, and that Christ 

M I L 

will rcigii on earth with his saints a thou- 
sand years before tlie eud of the world. 
MIL'LENARY, a. [Fr. miUenaire.] Con- 
sistinjr of a thousand. Arbuthnot, 

iWILLEN'IAL, a. Pertaining to the millen- 
iuni, or to a thousand years ; as viilhnial 
])eriod ; mitlenial happiness. Burnet. 

MIL'LENIST, n. One who holds to the 
njilleninm. [JVot tised.] Johnson. 

MILLEN'IUM, n. [L. milk, a thousand, 

and annus, year.] 
\ thousand years ; a word used to denote 
the thousand years mentioned in Revela- 
tions XX. during which period Satan shall 
be bound and restrained from seducing 
men to sin, and Christ shall reign on earth 
with his saints. 
MIL'LEPRD, n. [L. f?u"«f, a thousand, and 

pes, foot.] 
The wood-louse, an insect having many feet, 

a species of Onisrus. 
MIL'LEPORE, n. [L. mille, a thousand, and 

porus, a pore.] 
A genus of lithopliytes or polypiers of vari- 
ous forms, which have the surface perfo- 
rated with little holes or pores, or even 
without any apparent perforation. Cuvier. 
MIL LEPORITE, n. Fossil millepores. 
MIL'LER, n. [from mill.] One whose o 

cupation is to attend a grist-mill. 
2. An insect whose wings appear as if co 
ered with white dust or powder, like 
miller's clothes. 
MIL'LER'S-THUlMB, ». A small fish found 

in small streams. 
MILLES'IMAL, a. [L. millesimus, from mil- 
le, a thousand.] 
Thousandth ; consisting of thousandth parts; 
as millesimal fractions. Watts 

MIL'LET, n. [Fr. millet or mil ; It. miglio ; 

Sp. 7nijo ; L. milium ; Sax. mil.] 
A plant of the genus Milium, of several spe 
cies, one of which is cultivated as an es- 
culent grain. Encyc. 
The Indian millet is of the genus llolcus. 

MIL'LIARY, a. [L. milliarium, a mile- 
Pertaining to a mile ; denoting a mile ; as a 
milliary column. D\<inville. 

MIL'LIGRAM, n. [L. mille, a thousand, 

and Gr. ypafijwa, a gram.] 
In the system of French weights and meas- 
ures, the thousandth part of a gram, equal 
to a cubic millimeter of water. Lunier. 
The milligram is equal to .0154 English 
S'"ains. Cyc. 

MIL'LILITER, n. [L. mille, a thousand, 

and liter.'] 
A French measure of capacity containing 
the thousandth part of a liter or cubic de- 
cimeter, equal to .06103 decimals of a cu- 
bic inch. Cw 
MILLIM'ETER, n. [L. mille, a thousand, 

and metrum, a measure.] 

A French lineal measure containing the 

thousandth part of a meter ; equal to 

.03937 decimals of an inch. It is the least 

measure of length. Lunier. Cyc. 

MIL'LINER, n. [John.son supposes this 

word to be Milaner, from Milan, in Italy.] 

V woman who makes and sells head-dresses, 

hats or bonnets. Sic. for females. 

Vol. II. 

M I M 

MILLINERY, n. The articles made or sold 

by milliners, as head-dresses, hats or bon 

nets, laces, ribins and the like. 
MILLION, n. mil'yun. [Fr. million ; It. mil 

ione ; Sp. millon ; Port, milham ; proba 

bly from li. mille, a thousand.] 

1. The number often hundred thousand, or 
a thousand thousand. It is used as a noun 
or an adjective,; as a million of men, or 
million men. As a noun, it has a regular 
plural, millions. 

2. In common usage, a very great number, 

There are millions of truths that men are nol 
concerned to know. Locke. 

MILL'IONARY, a. Pertaining to millions; 
consisting of millions ; as the millionary 
chronology of the Pundits. Pinkerton. 

MILL'IONED, a. Multiplied by millions. 
[JVot used.] Shah. 

MILL'IONTH, R. The ten hundred thou- 

MILLRE'A, I A coin of Portugal of the 

MILLREE'. S value of $1.24 cents. 

MILT, n. [Sax. Dan. D. milt ; G. milz ; Sw. 
micdte ; It. mika ; probably so named 
from its softness, and allied to mild, melloiv, 

1. In anatomy, the spleen, a viscus situated 
in the left hypoehondrium under the dia- 

2. The soft roe of fishes, or the spermatic 
part of the males. Encyc. 

MILT, i>. /. To impregnate the roe or spawn 
of the female fish. Johnson. 

MILT'ER. n. A n;ale fish. Walton. 

MILT'WORT, n. A]>hnn ofthegemssAs 

MIME, n. A buftbon. Obs. [See Mi7nic.] 

2. A kind of dramatic farce. Obs. 

MIME, V. i. To mimic, or play the buffoon 
Obs. [See Mimic] 

MI'MER, n. A mimic. Obs. [See Mimic/ 

MIME'SIS, n. [Gr.] In rhetoric, imitation 
of the voice or gestures of another. 


MIMET'Ie, a. [Gr. fii/jjitixos.] Apt to imi- 
tate ; given to aping or mimicry. 

MIM'I€, } ^ [L. mimus, mimicus ; Gr. 

JIIM'ICAL, J ■ Hifio;, fufuxoi ; ftt^fo^at, 
imitate ; allied probably to .uw/ioj.] 

1. Imitative ; inclined to imitate or to ape; 
having the practice or habit of imitating. 

Man is of all creatujes the most mimical 
gestures, speech, &c. Wotton. 

2. Consisting of imitation ; as mimic gestui 
Mimic implies often something droll or 

ludicrous, or less dignified than imitative. 
MIM'I€, n. One who imitates or mimics 
a buffoon who attempts to excite laughtei 
or derision by acting or speaking in the 
manner of another. Prior. 

2. A mean or servile imitator. 

Of France the tnimic, and of Spain the prey. 
MIM'ICK, V. t. To imitate or ape for sport : 
to attempt to excite laughter or derision 
by acting or speaking like another ; to 
ridicule by imitation. 
—-The walk, the words, the gesture, could sup- 
The habit mimiek, and the mien belie. 


MIM'I€RY, 71. Ludicrous imitation for sport 

or ridicule. Spectator. 

|MIMOG'RAPHER, n. [Gr.fiiiws and ypa$u ; 

A writer of farces. Herbert. 


M 1 N 

MI'NA, »i. [Gr. ju.a ; L. nmia. Ar. Class 
Mn. No. 5. 9. 7.] A weight or denomina- 
tion of money. The mina of the Old Tes- 
tament was valued at sixty shekels. The 
Greek or Attic mina, was valued at a hun- 
dred drachmas, about £2. J7.i. sterlinff, 
$10. 44 cents. 

MINA'CIOUS, a. [L. minax; from mitxor, to 

Threatening ; menacing. More. 

MINAC'ITY, n. [L. minax.] Di.^^ijosition 
to threaten. [Little tised.] 

MIN'ARET, n. [W. ,mvn, a spire. See 

A small spire or steeple, or spire-like orna- 
ment in Saracen architecture. Mason. 

MIN'ATORY, a. Threatening ; menacing. 

MINCE, V. t. mins. [Sax. minsian, from the 
root of L. 7ninuo, to diminish ; W. main, 
Arm. maon, Fr. 7nemi, 7nince, Ir. 7nin,mion, 
small, fine ; L. 7ninor, smaller ; minuo, 
to diminish ; Gr. ^imos, small, slender ; 
fiivvSu, to diminish ; L. nmiutus, minute; 

Sw. minska, to diminish ; Ar. ^ man- 
na, to weaken, to diminish. Class Mn. 
No. 5.] 

. To cut or chop into very small pieces ; 
as, to 7nince meat. Dryden. 

2. To diminish in speaking ; to retrench, cut 
off or omit a jiart for the purpose of sup- 
pressing the truth ; to extenuate in repre- 

I know no way to 7nince it in love, but to 
say directly, I love you. ahak. 

Siren, now mince the sin. 

And mollify damnation with a phrase — 


If, to tnincc his meaning, I had either omit- 
ted some part of what he said, or taken from the 
strength of his expression, I certainly had wrong- 
ed him. D7-yden. 

These — were forced to nmiee tlie matter. 


3. To speak with aflected softness ; to clip 
words ; not to utter the full sound. Shak. 

4. To walk with short or diminished steps. 
MINCE, V. i. To walk with short steps ; to 

walk with affected nicety; to affect deli- 
cacy in manner. 

I'll turn two tnincing steps 
Into a manly stride. Shak. 

Because the daughters of Zion are haughty — 
walking and mincing as they go. Is. iii. 

2. To speak softly, or with affected nicety. 

MIN'CED, pp. Cut or chopped into very 
small pieces. 

MINCE-PIE, \ A pie made with minc- 

MINCED-PIE, J "• ed meat and other in- 
gredients, baked in paste. Spectator. 

JIIN'CING, ppr. Cutting into small pieces ; 
speaking or walking afiectedly. 

MIN'CINGLY, adv. In small parts ; not 
fully. Hooker. 

MIND, n. [Sas. gemi7id, gemynde ; h: mein, 
7nia7i ; W. myn or jnentc, mind or will ; go- 
vyn, a demand ; Dan. 7ninde, mind, vote, 
consent ; 7ninder, to remind ; Sw. 7ninne, 
memory ; minnas, to remember, to call to 
mind, as L. re7niniscor ; L. mens ; Gr. 
livtia, memory, mention ; ^mo^at, to le- 
member ; fuvoq, mind, ardor of mind, ve- 
hemence ; H7>ini, anger ; Sans. 7nan, mana, 
mind, will, heart, thought ; Zend, mtiio. 

M I N 

M I N 

M I N 

Mind signifies properly intention, a reach- 
ing or inclining forward to an object, from 
the primary sense of extending, stretching 
or inclining, or advancing eagerly, pushing 
or setting forward, whence the Greek 
sense of the word, in analogy with the Teu- 
tonic mod, vioed, muth, mind, courage, spir- 
it, mettle. So L. animus, animosus. The 
Russ. has pominayu, to mention, to re- 
member ; pomin, remembrance, and umenie 
or umeime, understanding. Qu. Minos, 
Menu, Menes, Mentor. Class Mn. No. 1. 

1. Intention ; purpose ; design. 

The sacrifice of the wicked is abomination ; 
how much more, when he bringeth it with a 
wicked mind. Prov. xxi. 

3. Inclinatien ; will ; desire ; a sense much 
■used, but expressing less than settled pur- 
pose ; as in the common phrases, " I wish 
to know your mind ;" " let me know your 
mind ;" " he had a mind to go ;" " be has 
a partner to his mind." 

3. Opinion ; as, to express one's mind. We 
are of one mind. 

4. Memory ; remembrance ; as, to put one 
in mind ; to call to mind ; the fact is out 
of my midrf; time out of miKrf. From the 
operations of the intellect in man, this 
word came to signify, 

r>. The intellectual or intelligent power in 
man ; the understanding ; the power that 
conceives, judges or reasons. 

I fear I am not in my perfect mind. Shak. 
So we speak of a sound mind, a disor- 
dered mind, a weak mind, a strong mind, 
with reference to the active powers of the 
understanding ; and in a passive sense, it 
denotes capacity, as when we say, the 
mind cannot comprehend a subject. 
C. The heart or seat of affection. 

Wiich were a grief of mind to Isaac and Re- 
bekah. Gen. xxvi. 

7. The will and affection ; as readiness of 
mind. Acts xvii. 

8. The implanted principle of grace. R 

MIND, V. t. To attend to ; to fix the thoughts 
on ; to regard with attention. 

Cease to request me ; let us mind our way 


Mind not high things. Rom. xii. 

'i. To attend to or regard with submission ; 

to obey. His father told him to desist, 

but he would not mind him. 

3. To put in mind ; to remind. Obs. 


4. To intend ; to mean. Chapman. 
MIND, D. i. To be inclined or disposed to 


When one of them mindeth to go h 
lion. Obs. Spenser. 

MINDED, a. Disposed ; inclined. 

If meu were minded to live virtuously. 

vay privily. 

Minded is much used in composition 
as high-minded ; low-minded ; feeble-minrf- 
ed ; sober-minded ; douWe-minded. 
MINDEDNKSS, n. Disposition ; inclination 
towards anything; as heavenly minded- 
ness. Miiner. 

MINDFILLING, n. Filling the mind. 


MINDFUL, o. Attentive ; regarding with 
care ; bearing in mind ; heedful ; observ- 

1 promise to be mindful of your admonitions. 


What is man, that thou art mmd/u! of him? 

Ps. vii. 

MINDFULLY, adv. Attentively ; heedfully. 

MINDFULNESS, n. Attention ; regard ; 

MINDING, ppr. Regarding; heeding. 
MINDING, n. Regard. 
MINDLESS, o. Inattentive ; heedless ; for- 
getful ; negligent ; careless. 

Cursed Athens, mindless of thy worth. 


2. Not endued with mind or intellectual 
powers ; as mindless bodies. Davies. 

3. Stupid ; unthinking ; as a mindless slave. 

MIND-STRICKEN, a. Moved ; affected in 
mind. [M>t used.] Sidney. 

MINE, a. called sometimes a pronominal 
adj. [Sax. Sw. Dan. min ; Goth, meins ; Fr. 
mon ; D. myn ; G. mein, contracted from 
migen; for me, in Gothic is mik, Dan. mig, 
G. mich. The L. meus, and Russ. moi, 
are also contracted.] 

My ; belonging to me. It was formerly used 
before nouns beginning with vowels. " 1 
kept myself from mine iniquity." Ps. 
xviii. But this use is no longer retained. 
We now use my before a vowel as well as 
before an articulation ; as 7ny iniquity. In 
present usage, my always precedes the 
noun, and mine follows the noun, and usu- 
ally the verb ; as, this is my book ; this book 
is mine ; it is called my book ; the book is 
called mine : it is acknowledged to be 

ine sometimes supplies the place of a noun. 
Your sword and mine are different in con- 

MINE, Ji. [Fr. mine, a mine or ore, whence 
mineral ; It. mina, miniera ; Sp. mina, a 
mine, a conduit, a subterraneous canal, a 
spring or source of water ; Port. id. ; Ir. 
men, mianach ; Dan. G. 7nine ; Sw. mina ; 
D. myn ; W. mtvn, whence mwnai, money ; 
Arm. min. The radical signification 
not obvious.] 

1. A pit or excavation in the earth, fn 
which metallic ores, mineral substances 
and other fossil bodies are taken by dig- 
ging. The pits from which stones only 
are taken, are called quarries. 

2. In the military art, a subterraneous canal 
or passage dug under the wall or rampart 
of a fortification, where a quantity of 
powder may be lodged for blowing up the 

3. A rich source of wealth or other good. 
MINE, V. i. To dig a mine or pit in the 

earth. H'oodivard. 

'2. To form a subterraneous canal or hole 
by scratching ; to form a buiTOW or lodge 
in the earth, as animals; as the mining 
coney. Wotton. 

2. To practice secret means of injury. 

MINE, v.i. To sap; to undermine; to dig 
away or otherwise remove the substratum 
or foundation ; hence, to ruin or destroy 
by slow degrees or secret m^ans. 

Tliey mined the walls. Hayward. 

In a metaphorical sense, undermitie 
generally used. 

MINE-DIGGER, 7i. One that digs mines- 

MI'NER, n. One that digs for metals and 
other fossils. 

2. One who digs canals or passages under 
the walls of a fort, &c. Armies have sap- 
pers and miners. 

MIN'ERAL, n [Fr. Sp. mineral; Low 
L. mi7iera, a matrix or vein of metals, 
whence mineralia ; all from mine.] 

A body destitute of organization, and which 
naturally ex^ts within the earth or at its 
surface. Cleaveland. 

Minerals were formerly divided into salts, 
earths, inflammables and ores ; a divis- 
ion which serves for a general distribu- 
tion, but a more scientific arrangement 
into classes, orders, genera, species, subspe- 
cies and varieties, has been adopted to 
meet the more precise views of modern 

MIN'ERAL, a. Pertaining to minerals ; con- 
sisting of fossil substances; as the mineral 

2. Impregnated with minerals or fossil mat- 
ter ; as mineral waters ; a jnineral spring. 

MIN'ERALIST, n. One versed or employ- 
ed in minerals. 

MINERALIZA'TION, n. [See Mineralize.] 

1. The process of forming an ore by combi- 
nation with another substance; the natu- 
ral operation of uniting a metaUic sub- 
stance with another. 

2. The process of converting into a mineral, 
as a bone or a plant. 

3. The act of impregnating with a mineral, 

MIN'ERALIZE, v. t. [from mineral.] lu 
mineralogy, to combine with a metal in 
forming an ore or mineral. Sulphur min- 
eralizes many of the metals. 

2. To convert into a mineral. 

In these caverns, the bones are not minerali- 
zed. Buckland. 

3. To impregnate with a mineral substance ; 
as, to mineralize water. 

MIN'ERALIZED, pp. Deprived of its usual 
properties by being combined with anoth- 
er substance or formed into an ore ; as, 
metallic substances are mineralized. 

2. Converted into a mineral. 

3. Impregnated with a mineral. 
MIN'ERALIZER, n. A substance which 

mineralizes another or combines with it 
in an ore, and thus deprives it of its usual 
and peculiar properties. Sulphur is one 
of the most common mineralizers. 


MINERAL0g'I€AL, a. [See Mineralogy.] 
Pertaining to the science of minerals ; as 
a mineralogical table. 

MINERAL06'ICALLY, adv. In mineralo- 
gy. Phillips. 

MINERALOGIST, n. One who is versed 
in the science of minerals, or one who 
treats or discourses of the properties of 
mineral bodies. 

MINERAL'OgY, n. [mineroZ and Gr. Jioyof, 

The science which treats of the properties of 
mineral substances, and teaches us to 
characterize, distinguish and class them 
according to their properties. It compre- 
hends the stitdy or science of all inorganic 
substances in the earth or on its surface. 
fincyc. Cyc. 

M I N 

MIN'GLE, V. t. [Sax. mengan or mejicgan 
G. D. mengeii. This word seems to be a 
derivative t'rom G. menge, Sax. menigo, a 
multitude, or from the same root. Henc< 
among signifies mingled, or in the crowd. 

1. To mix; to blend; to unite in one body 
as, to mingle liquors of different kinds. 

2. To mix or blend without order or pro 

There was fire mingled n-ith hail. Ex. ix. 

3. To compound ; to unite in a mass, as solid 
substances ; as, to mingle flour, sugar 
eggs in cookery. 

4. To join in mutual intercourse or in s 

The holy seed have mingled themselves 
with the people of those lands. Ezra ix. Ps 

MIN'IOUS, 71. [from L. minium.] Of the 
color of red lead or Vermillion. Bn 

MIN'ISH, V. t. [L. minuo, to lessen.] To 
lessen ; to diminish. Obs. [See Dimin 

MINISTER, n. [L. ; probably from Ar. 

1^^^ to serve, wait, attend, Class Mb, 
No 2. and Sax. steore, helm, direction ; 
steoran, to steer.'] 
I. Propeily, a chief servant ; hence, an 
agent appointed to transact or manage 
business under the authority of another; 
in which sense, it is a word of very extensive 

Moses rose up and his minister Joshua. Ex. 

5. To contaminate; to render impure; to 
debase by mixture. 

The best of us appear contented with a 
mingled imperfect virtue. Rogers. 

C. To confuse. 

There mingle broils. Milton. 

MIN'GLE, V. i. To be mixed ; to be united 

She, when she saw her sister nymphs, sup- 
Her rising fears, and mingled with the rest. 
MIN'GLE, n. Mixture ; medley ; promis- 
cuous mass. [J\"d vsed.] Diyden. 
MINGLED, pp. Mixed; united promiscu- 
MIN'GLEDLY, adv. Confusedly. Barret. 
MIN'GLER, n. One that mingles. 
BIIN'GLING, /);)r. Mixing; uniting without 

MIN'IARD, a. [Fr. mignard.] Soft ; dainty. 

[Little used.] 
MIN'IAKDIZE, v.t. To render soft, deli- 
cate or dainty. Howell., 
3IIN'IATE, V. t. [It. miniare, from minio,\ 
L. minium, Vermillion.] To paint or tingej 
with Vermillion. Jt'arton.l 
MINIATURE, n. [It. Sp. miniatura, from' 
It. miniare, supra ; Fr. miniature.] 

1. A painting in water colors on vellum,! 
ivory or paper, with points or dots ; some 
times in oil colors. The term is usually| 
applied to portraits painted on a very 
small scale. 

2. A picture or representation in a small 
compass, or less than the reality. , . , , 

Eticyc. '{*■ ^ delegate ; an embassador ; the repre 

3. Red letter; rubric distinction. Hickes:] sentative of a sovereign at a foreign court 
MINIKIN, a. [Qu. W. main, small, and "sually such as is resident at a foreign 

kin.] Small ; diminutive ; used in sUghfi ^°"^^' ^^^ "°t restricted to such. 
contempt. " 5. One who serves at the altar ; one who 

performs sacerdotal duties; the pastor ofl 
a church, duly authorized or licensed to 
preach the gospel and administer the sa- 
craments. Eph. iii 
C. Christ is called a minister of the sanctua- 
ry. Heb. viii. 
7. An angel ; a messenger of God. 

Who maketh his angels spirits, his ministers 
a flaming fire. Ps. civ. 
MIN'ISTER, V. t. [L. ministro.] To give 
to afford ; to supply. 

He that ministereth seed to the sower — 2 
Cor. ix. 

That it may minister grace to the heare 
Eph ' 

""""" • " ' 'serve; to 

M I N 

3. a. Designatij)g the business of digging 

mines ; as the mining districts of Siberia. 


MIN'ION, a. [infra.] Fine ; trim ; dainty. 

[jYot used.] 
MINION, n. min'yon. [Fr. mignon ; It. 

mignonc, a darling; from W. main, Fr. 

menu, small ; W. mwyn, tender, gentle.] 
A favorite ; a darling ; particularly, the fa- 
j vorite of a prince, on whom he lavishes his 

favors ; one who gains favors by flattery 

or mean adulation. 

Edward sent an army into Ireland, not for 

conquest, but to guard the person of his tnin- 

ion. Piers Gavislon. Davits 

The drowsy tyrant by his minions led. 

MIN'ION, n. [W. main, Fr. menxi, small 

L. minor. See Mince.] A small kind of 

printing types. 
MIN'IONING, n. Kind treatment. 

MIN'IONLIKE, } , r?- ^ . • -1 
MIN'IONLY, \ "''"■ ^'"«ly ! damtdy. 
MlN'IO*NSIIIP, n. State of being a min- 

M I N 

I will sanctify also both Aaron and his sons, to 
minister to me in the priest's office. Ex. xxix. 
2. To afford supplies ; to give things need- 
ful; to supply the means of relief; to re- 

When saw we thee hungrj', or thirsty, or a 
stranger, or naked, or sick, or in prison, and did 
not minister unto tliee ? Matt. xxv. 
To give medicines. 

Canst thou not minister to a mind diseased r 
ve commonly use ad- 

pp. Served ; afforded ; 

3. One to whom a king or prince entrusts 
the direction of affairs of state; as minis- 
ter of state ; the prime minister. In mod- 
ern governments, the secretaries or heads j ■ 
of the several departments or branches o^J ""phL^T'"'" .' a 
government are The ministers of the chiel^' Princedoms and do, 

3. A magistrate ; an executive ofiicer. 

For he is the minister of God to thee for 

In this sense, 
i supplied. 

jMINISTE'RIAL, a. Attending for service; 
attendant ; acting at command. 

Enlight'ning spirrts and ministerial flames. 
I Prior. 

2. Acting under superior authority ; pertain- 
ing to a minister. 

For the ministerial offices in court, there 
must be an eye to them. Bacon. 

3. Pertaining to executive offices, as distinct 
from judicial. The oflJce and acts of a 
sheriff are ministerial. 

4. Sacerdotal; pertaining to ministers of the 
gospel; as ministerial garments; minis- 
terial duties. 

Genuine ministerial prudence keeps back no 
important truth, listens to no compromise with 
sin, connives at no fashionable vice, cringes 
before no lordly worldling. H. Humphrey. 

5. Pertaining to ministers of state ; as min- 
isterial circles ; ministerial benches. 

MINISTERIALLY, adv. In a ministerial 
manner or character. JVaterland. 

^MIN'ISTERING, ppr. Attending and serv- 
ing as a subordinate agent ; serving under 
superior authority. Heb. i. 

2. Affording aid or supplies ; administering 
things needful. 

MINISTERY. [See Ministry.] 

MIN'ISTRAL, <i. Pertaining to a minister. 
[Little used.] Johnson. 

MIN'ISTRANT, a. Performing service as 
a minister ; attendant on service ; acting 

MIN IKIN, n. A small sort of p 

2. A darling : a favorite. [See Minion.] 

MINIM, n. [W. main, small. See Mince.] 

1. A little man or being; a dwarf Milton. 

2. One of a certain reformed order of Fran- 
ciscans or Minimi. TVeever. 

•3. A note in music, equal to half a semi- 
breve or two crotchets. 

4. A short poetical encomium. Obs. 

. . „ , , Spenser. 

.>. A small fish. 

MIN'IMUM, n. [L.] The least quantity as- 
signable in a given case. Encyc' 

MIN'BIUS, n. [L.] A being of the small-' 

«f,xTf^?f^ ^. . ■S'lai.iMIN'ISTER, !>. r-. To attend and =crve i lu 

MINIIVG ppr Digging into the earth, asj perform service in any office, sacred or 
lor iossils and minerals; sapping. 1 secular. 

minaUons ministrant. 


MINISTRA'TION, n. [L. ministratio.] The 

! act of performing service as a subordinate 

\ agent ; agency ; intervention for aid or 


— Because their widows were neglected in 
I the daily ministrations. Acts \i. 
2. Office of a minister; service ; ecclesiasti- 
cal function. 
; As soon as the days of his ministration were 

ended. Luke i. 
MIN'ISTRESS, n. A female that ministers. 
MIN'ISTRY, n. [L. ministerium.] The of- 
fice, duties or functions of a subordinate 
agent of any kind. 
2. Agency ; service ; aid ; interposition ; in- 

He directs the affairs of tliis world by the or- 
dinary ministry of second causes. 

Ecclesiastical function ; agency or ser- 
vice of a minister of the gospel or clergy- 
man in the modern church, or of priest.", 
apostles and evangelists in the ancient. 
Acts i. Rom. xii. 2 Tim. iv. Num. iv. 
4. Time of ministration; duration of the 
office of a minister, civil or ecclesiastical. 

M I N 

M I N 

M I N 

The war with France was during the 
ministry of Pitt. 

5. Persons who compose the executive gov- 
ernment or the council of a supreme mag- 
istrate ; the bodv of ministers of state. 


C. Business; employment. 

He abhorred the wicked ministry of arms. 

Dry den. 

MINISTRYSHIP, for ministry, is httle 
used and hardly proper. Sivijl. 

MIN'IUM, n. [L.] The red oxyd of lead, 
produced by calcination. Lead exposed 
to air while melting is covered with a gray 
dusky pellicle. This taken off and agita- 
ted becomes a greenish gray powder, in- 
clining to yellow. This oxyd, separated 
by sifting from the grains of lead which it 
contains, and exposed to a more intense 
heat, takes a deep yellow color, and in 
this state it is called massicot. The latter, 
slowly heated, takes a beautiful red color, 
and is called minium. Fourcroy. 

MINK, n. An American quadruped of the 
genus Mustela, an amphibious animal that 
burrows in the earth on the side of a river 
or pond, whose fur is more valuable than 
that of the rauskrat. Belknap. 

MINNO€, used by Shakspeare, is supposed 
by Johnson to be the same as minx. Qu. 

MIN'NOVV, \ , fFr. menw, small.] A very 

MIN'OW, \ ""small fish, a species of Cy- 
prinus. Encyc. Walton. 

MI' NOR, a. [L. ; the comparative degree of 
a word not found in that language, but 
existing in the Celtic dialects, W. mom, 
Ann. moan, Ir. min, mion, the root of L. 
minuo, to diminish. See Mince.] 

1. Less ; smaller ; sometimes applied to the 
bulk or magnitude of a single object ; 
more generally to amount, degree or im- 
portance. We say, the minor divisions of 
a body, the minor |)art of a body ; opposed 
to the major part. We say, minor sums, 
minor faults, minor considerations, details 
or arguments. In the latter phrases, mi- 
nor is equivalent to small, petty, incon- 
siderable, not principal, important or 

2. In music, less or lower by a lesser semi- 
tone ; as a third minor. Encyc. 

Asia Minor, the Lesser Asia, that part of 
Asia which lies between the Euxine on 
the north, and the Mediterranean on the 

MINOR, n. A person of either sex under 
age ; one who is under the authority of 
his parents or guardians, or who is not 
permitted by law to make contracts and 
manage his own property. By the laws 
of Great Britain and of the United States, 
persons are minors till they are twenty one 
years of age. 

•?. In logic, the second proposition of a reg- 
ular syllogism, as in the following: 

Every act of injustice jwrtakes of mean- 

To take money from another by gaming, 
or reputation by seduction, are acts of in- 

Therefore the taking of money from an- 
other by gaming, or reputation by seduc- 
tion, partake of meanness. 
:?. A Minorite, a Francisctin friar. 

4. A beautiful bird of the East Indies. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 

MI'NORATE, 1'. /. To diminish. [A'b( 

MINORA'TION, n. A lessening ; diminu- 

MINORITE, n. A Franciscan friar. 

MINOR'ITY, n. [Fr. minority, from L. mi- 

1. The state of being under age. [See Mi- 

2. The smaller number ; as the minority ol' 
the senate or house of representatives ; 
opposed to majority. We say, the minori- 
ty was large or small ; AB was in the 
minority ; the minority must be ruled by 
the majority. 

MIN'OTAUR, n. [Fr. minotaure ; It. mino- 
tauro ; L. minotaurus ; from man, which 
must have been in early ages a Latin 
word, and taurus, a bull.] 

A fabled monster, half man and half bull. 

Ovid. Virgil. Shak. 

MIN'STER, n. [Sax. minstrc or mynster. 
See Monastery.] 

A monastery ; an ecclesiastical convent or 
fraternity ; but it is said originally to liave 
been the church of a monastery; a cathe- 
dral church. Encyc. 

MIN'STREL, n. [Fr. 7ncne(nec, for menes- 
trier; Sp. ministril, a minstrel, and a tip- 
staff, or petty officer of justice ; Port. 
menestral ; perhaps a derivative from men- 
ear, to move, stir, wag, wield. If so, the 
word originally signified a performer on a 
musical instrument, who accompanied his 
performances with gestures, like the his- 
trio and joculator.] 

A singer and musical performer on instru- 
ments. Minstrels were formerly poets as 
well as musicians, and held in high repute 
by our rude ancestors. Their attendance 
was sought and their performances lavish- 
ly rewarded by princes. It was in the 
character of a minstrel that king Alfred 
entered the camp of the Danes his ene- 
mies, and explored their situation. 

MIN'STRELSY, n. The arts and occupa- 
tions of minstrels ; instrumental music. 

2. A number of musicians. 

Tlie minstrelsy of heaven. Milton. 

MINT. 11. [Sax. mynet, money or stamped 
coin ; D. munt, mint, coin ; G. miinze ; Sw. 
mynt ; Dan. myndt, coin. This word is 
doubtless a derivative from mine, or L. 
moneta, from the same root.] 
The place where money is coined by pub- 
lic authority. In Great Britain, formerly, 
there was a mint m almost every county ; 
but the privilege of coining is now con- 
sidered as a royal prerogative in that 
country, and as the prerogative of the 
sovereign power in other countries. Th 
only mint now in Great Britain is in the 
Tower of London. The mint in the United 
States is in Philadelphia. 

2. A place of invention or fabrication; as a 
mint of phrases; a mint of calumny. 

Shak. Addison. 

'X A source of abundant supply. 

MINT, j;. t. [Sax. mynetian.] To coin ; to 

make and stamp money. Bacon. 

2. To invent ; to forge ; to fabricate. Bacon. 
MINT, n. [Sax. mint; Sw. mynta ; Dan, 

mynte; G. mimze; L. mentha ; It. Sp. 

menta; Fr. menle; D. kntismunl, cross- 

mint; Ir.miontas; Arm. mendl or mintys.'i 

A plant of the genus Mentha. 
MINT'A6E, n. That which is coined or 

stamped. Milton. 

2. The duty paid for coining. 
MINT'ER. n. A coiner ; also, an inventor. 
MINT'MAN, n. A coiner; one skilled in 

coining or in coins. 
MINT'lVrASTER, n. The master or super- 
intendent of a mint. Boyle. 
2. One who invents or fabricates. Locke. 
MIN'UEND, n. [L. minuendus, minuo, to 

In arithmetic, the number from which 

another number is to be subtracted. 
MIN'UET, n. [Sp. minueto ; Fr. menuet, 

from menu, small, W. main. See Mince.] 

1. A slow graceful dance, consisting of a 
coupee, a high step and a balance. 


2. A tune or air to regulate the movements 
in the dance so called ; a movement of 
three crotchets or three quavers in a bar. 

MIN'UM, n. [from W. main, Fr. menu, 
small. See Mince.] 

1. A small kind of printing types; now writ- 
ten minion. 

2. A note of slow time containing two 
crotchets ; now written minim, which see. 

MINU'TE, a. [L. minutus ; Fr. menu, W. 
main, small. See Mince.] 

1. Very small, little or slender; of very 
small bulk or size ; small in consequence ; 
as a minute grain of sand ; a minute fila- 
ment. The