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Full text of "An American dictionary of the English language: intended to exhibit, I. The origin, affinities and primary signification of English words, as far as they have been ascertained. II. The genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage, or to just principles of analogy. III. Accurate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations. To which are prefixed, an introductory dissertation on the origin, history and connection of the languages of Western Asia and of Europe, and a concise grammar of the English language"

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1. The origin, affinities and primahy signification of English words, as far as thev have been ascertained. 

II. The genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage, or to just principles or ANALOOV. 

III. Accubate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations. 











He that wishes to be counted among the benefactoi-a of posterity, must add, by his own toil, to the acquisitions of his ancestors. — Rambler. 





\6on '^\^^.^^<^-^ 


y ^ 3e it REMEMBEReD, That Oil the fourteenth day of April, in the fifty-second year of the Independence of the United States of America. 
Rj» fS* Noah Webster, of the said District, hath deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims as Author, in the words 

following;, to wit : 
"An American Dictionary of the English Language ; intended to exhibit, I. The origin, affinities, and primary signification of English words, as far 
as they have been ascertained. II. The genuine orthography and pronunciation of words, according to general usage, or to just principles of analogy. 
III. Accurate and discriminating definitions, with numerous authorities and illustrations. To which are prefixed, an introductory dissertation on the ori- 
gin, history and connection of the languages of Western Asia and of Europe, and a concise Grammar of the English language. By Noah Webster, LL. D. 
In two volumes." 

In conformity to the act of Congress of the United States, entitled, " An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts 
and Books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein mentioned." — And also to the act, entitled, " An act supplementary to 
an act, entitled 'An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the authors and proprietors of such copieF 
during the times therein mentioned,' and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints." 

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, Clerk of the Distnet of Connecticut. 
A true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me, 

CHAS. A. INGERSOLL, aerk of the District of Connecticut 
April 14th, 1828. 





J A C 

J. This litter has been added to tlic En 
Klisli Alphabet in modern days ; the letter 
I being written formerly in words where 
J is now used. It seems to have had the 
sound of y, in many words, as it still has 
in the German. The English sound of 
this letter iriay be expressed by dih, or 
tdzh, a compound sound coinciding ex 
actly with that of ff, in genius ; the French 
j, Willi the articulation d jireceding it. It 
is the tenth letter of the Englisli Alpha 

JAB'BER, r. i. [D. gabbcren, or Fr. jaboter. 
Class Gb.] 

To talk rapidly or indistinctly; to chatter; 
to |)rate. Sicift 

JAB'IJER, n. Rapid talk with indistinct ut- 
terance of words. Sunft. 

JAB'BERER, ti. One that talks rapidly, 
indistinctly or unintelligibly. 

JABBERING, ppr. I'rating ; talking rap- 
idly and ct>nfusedly. 

JAB'BERMENT, n. Idle prate. Obs. 


JAB'IRU, n. An aquatic fowl of the crane 

The Jabiru is the .Mydfria Americana. It 
resembles the stork. Cuvier. 

JACAMAR, n. A kind of fowls arranged 
by Linne under the genus Alcedo ; but 
their toes are differently placed, and their 
food consists of insects. They arc about 
the size of a lark. Numerous species are 
described. Encyc. 

The Jacamars arc arranged in a separate 
genus, (lalbula, and along with the wood- 
peckers in the order of climbers. Cuvier. 

JA'CENT, a. [L. jacens, jaceo, to lie.] Lying 
at length. Jf'o'tlon. 

JA'CINTII, )i. [a different orthography of 

1. A genus of ])lants. [Sec Hyacinth.] 

2. A species of pellucid gems. [See Hya- 
cinth.] Rev. xxi. 

Vol. II. 

J A C 

JACK, n. [zekv, in Ethiopia, is the pronoun 

he, or she.] 

1. A nickname or diminutive of John, used 
as a general term of contem[)t for any 
saucy or |)altry tVllow. Johnson. 

9. The name of an instrument that supplies 
the place of a boy; an instrument to pull 
off boots. Halts. 

3. An engine to tiun a spit; as a kitchen 
jack; a smoke jact. 

4. A yoimg pike. Mortimer. 
3. A coat of mail. [Sp. zaco, xaquetn.] 

Hay ward. 
G. A |)itchcr of waxed lether. Vryden. 

A small bowl thrown out for a mark to 
the bowlers. 
8. I'art of a musical instrument called a vir- 
ginal. Bacon. 
f). The male of certain animals, as of the 
ass. [Arm. ozach, a husband.] 


10. A horse or wooden frame on which 
wood or timber is sawed. Ainsworth.l 

11. In sea-language, a flag, ensign or colors,! 
displayed from a staff on the end of a bo w-j 
sprit. " Mar. Did.' 

12. In Yorkshire, half a pint. Grose. A 
quarter of a pint. Pcggi. 

Jack at nil trades, a person who can turn 
his hand to any kind of business. 

Jack by the hedge, a plant of the genus Erjs- 
imum, that grows under hedges. 

Fam. of Plants. 

Jack in a box, a plant of the genus Heruan- 

2. A large wooden male screw, turning in a 
female one. Mar. Diet. 

Jack n-ith a hniltrn, an ignis fatuus, a me- 
teor that appears in low moist lands. 

Jack of the clock-house, a little man that 
strikes the quarters in a clock. 

JACK'ALENT, n. [Jack in lent, a poor 
starved fellow.] 

A simple sheepish fellow. Shak. 


J A C 

JACK'ANAPE.S »i. [jack and ape.] A 
monkey ; an ape. 

2. A coxcomb ; on impertinent fellow. 

A young upsUiilJackanapefi. Arbuthnot. 

JACK'ASS, Ji. The male of the ass. 

JACK -BLOCK, n. A block attached to 
the top-gallant-tie of a ship, to sway up 
or to strike the yard. Mar. Did. 

JACK'BOOTS, n. [See No. 5. supra.] 
Boots that serve as armor for the legs. 


JACK'D.\W, n. [jack axiA daw.] A fowl of 
the genus Corvus, thievisli and mischiev- 
ous to the farmer^ - Encyc. 

JACK'FLAG, n. A flag hoisted at the sprit- 
sail top-mast-head. Encyc. 

JACK PUDDING, n. [jack and pudding.] 
A merry Andrew ; a bufibou ; a zany. 


JACK'SSIITII, n. A smith who makes 
jacks for the chimney. 

JACKAL, n. [Sp. chacal ; Turk, chical.] 
An animal of the genus Canis, resembhng 
a dog and a fox ; a native of Asia and Af- 
rica. It preys on poultry and other small 
animals. It is the Cani* aiireia of Linne. 
Encyc. Cyc. 

JACK'ET, n. [Sp. xaqueta, a short loose 
coat; zaco, a short jacket; xaquetilla, a. 
jacket ; Fr. jaqudte ; Basque, jaraya.] A 
short close garment worn by males, ex- 
tending downwards to the hips ; a short 

JACK ETED, a. Wearing a jacket. 

JACOBIN, ". [So named from the place of 
meeting, which was the monastery of the 
monks calleil Jacobines.] 

iThe Jacobins, in France, during the late rev- 
olution, were a society of violent revolu- 
tionists, who held secret meetings in 
which measures were concerted to direct 
the proceedings of the National Assem- 
bly. Hence, a Jacobin is the member of a 
cliib, or other person, who opposes gov- 

J A D 

J A L 


ernment in a secret and unlawful manner, 
or by violent means; a turbulent dema- 

JAC'OBINE, n. A monk of the order of 

2. A pigeon with a high tuft. Ainsworth. 

.IA€OBIN'I€, ) Resembling the Jaco- 

JACOJUN'ICAL, S "' l>i'is of France ; tur- 
bulent ; discontented with government ; 
holding democratic principles. 

.lACOBINISM, n. Jacobinic principles; 
unreasonable or violent opposition to le- 
gitimate government; an attempt to over 
throw or change government by secret 
cabals or irregular means; popular turbu 

JA€'OBINIZE, V. t. To taint with Jacobin 
ism. Burke. 

JACOBITE, )!. [from Jncobits, James.] A 
j>artizan or adherent of James II. king of 
England, after he abdicated the throne, 
ancl of his descendants; of course, an op- 
poser of the revolution in 1(388, in favor of 
William and Mary. BoUngbrohe. 

2. One of a sect of christians in Syria and 
Mesopotamia, who hold tljat Jesus Christ 
had but one nature. Enajc. Cyc 

JA€'OBITE, a. Pertaining to the partizans 
of James II. 

JA€'OBITISM, n. The principles of the 
partizans of James II. Mason 

JACOB'S-LADDER, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus Polemonimii. Favi. of Plants. 

JACOB'S-ST'AFF, n. A pilgrim's staff 

2. A staff concealing a dagger. 

^. A cross staff; a kind of astrolabe. 


JACOBUS, n. [Jacohus, James.] A gold 
coin, value twenty-five shillings sterling, 
struck in the reign of James I. 


JA€ONET', n. A kind of coarse muslin. 

JAC'TANCY, n. [L. jactantia.] A boasting. 
[JVbt used.] 

JACTITATION, n. [L. j'/c/iVo, jndo. It 
ought rather to he jactation, h. jadatio.] 

1. A tossing of the body ; restlessness. 


2. A term in the canon law for a false pre- 
tension to marriage ; vain boasting. 


JA€'ULATE, V. t. [L. jaculor.] To dart 

JACULA TION, n. The action of darting, 

throwing orlanching, as missive weapons 

JA€'ULATOR, n. The shooting fish, a 

species of Cha^todon. 
JACULATORY, a. Darting or throwing 
out suddenly, or suddenly thrown out 
lUterefl in short sentences. [See Ejacu 
JADE, n. [of unknown origin. Qu. Sp.jad 

ear, to jiant.] 
I. A mean or poor horse; a tired horse ; a 
worthless nag. 

Tircil as a jade in overloajen cart. Sidney 

'i. A mean woman ; a word of contempt, 

noting sometimes age, but generally vice. 

She shines the first of battered jades. 

;f. A young woman ; in irony or slight con- 
tempt. Jhldison 
JADE, n. A mineral called also nephrite or 
nephritic stone, remarkable for its hard 

ness and tenacity, of a color tnore or lessj 
green, and of a resinous or oily asi)ect 
when polished. It is fusible into a glass 
or enamel. Cleaveland divides jade into 
three subsf>ccies, nephrite, saiissurite. and 
axestone. It is fimnd in detached masses 
or inhering in rocks. 

ff'erner. Jameson. Cleaveland. 
JADE, t'. <. To tire ; to fatigue ; to weary 
with hard service ; as, to jade a horse. 
To weary witli attention or study ; to 

The mind once jaded by an attempt above 
its power, is very hardly brought to e.xert its 
force again. Locke 

3. To harass ; to crush. Shak 

4. To tire or wear out in mean offices ; as a 
jaded groom. Shak. 

5. To ride ; to rule with tyranny 
I do not now fool myself, to let imagination 

jade me. Shak 

JADE, V. i. To become weary ; to lose 

spirit ; to sink. 

They arc promising in the beginning, but 

they fail and jade and tire in the prosecution. 

JA'DED, pp. Tired ; wearied ; fatigued ; 

JA'DERY, n. The tricks of a jade 

JA'DIIVG, ppr. Tiring ; wearying ; haras 


JA'DISH, 0. Villous; bad, like a jade. 
2. Unchaste. UEstrange. 

JAG, )(. [Sp. ^aga, a load, packed on the 

back part of a carriage. Qu.] A smal 

load. JVeiv-England 

JAGG, V. t. [perhaps G. zacken, a tooth, a 

prong, to indent ; Sw. iagg, a sharp 

To notch ; to cut into notches or teeth like 

those of a saw. 
JAGG, I A tooth of a saw ; a denticula- 
JAG, ^ tion. In botany, a cleft or divis 

ion. Martyn. 

JAG'GED, pp. Notched ; uneven. 
2. a. Having notches or teeth; cleft; divi 

ded ; laciniate ; as jagged leaves. 
JAG'GEDNESS, n. Tlie state of being den- 
ticulated ; unevenness. 
JAG'GING, ppr. Notchin; 

teeth ; dividing. 
JAG GY, a. Set with teeth 

JAGUAR', n. The American tiger, or once 

of Bra.sil, belonging to the genus Felis, 

JAH, )!. Jehovah. 
JAIL, n. [Fr. geole ; Arm. geol or jot ; Sp. 

jaula, a cage, a cell. Sometimes written 

very improperly gaol, and as improperly 

pronounced golc.] 
A prison ; a building or place for the con 

fmejiient of persons arrested for debt or 

for crime, and held in the custody of tlie 

JA'ILBIRD, ». A prisoner; one who has 

been confined in prison. 
JA'ILER, n. The keeper of a prison. 
JA'ILFEVER, n. A contagious and fatal 

fever generated in jails and other places 

crowded with peoiile. 
JAKES, n. [Ciu. L. jacio, to throw.] A 

house of office or back-house; a ])rivy 

JAL'AP, n. [Von. jalapa ; Fr. jalap : Sp 

xatapa ; so called from Xalapa, a province 
in Mexico, w hence it is imported.] 

The root of a plant, a species of Convol- 
viilus. It is brought in thin transverse 
slices, and also whole, of an oval shape, 
hard, solid and heavy. It has little or no 
taste or smell, but is much used in pow- 
der as a cathartic. Cyc. 

JAM, n. A conserve of fruits boiled with 

i sugar and water. 

2. A kind of frock for children. 

IJAM, It. t. [Russ. 

cutting into 


a press; jmu, to 

To press; to crowd ; to wedge in. 

2. In England, to tread hard or make firm 
by treading, as land by cattle. Grose. 

JAM, ? ^ Among the lead miners of Men- 

JAMB, \ ■ dip, a thick bed of stone which 
hinders them when pursuing the veins of 
o''e- Cyc. 

JAMB, n. jam. [Fr. jambe, a Xeg; jambes 
deforce, a corbel or pier; It. gamba, a leg; 
gambo, a stem or stalk.] 

In architecture, a. supporter ; the side-piece 
or post of a door ; the side-piece of a fire- 

JA3IBEE', 7!. A name formerly given to a 
fashionable cane. Tutler. 

JAM'BEUX, n. [supra.] Armor for the 
legs. Obs. Drydtn. 

JANE, n. A coin of Genoa. Spenser. 

2. A kind of fustian. 

JAN'GLE, V. i. [G. zanken.] To quarrel 
in words ; to altercate ; to bicker ; to 
wrangle. Shak. 

JAN'GLE^, ti. t. To cause to sound untuna- 
bly or discordantly. 

—E'er monkish rhymes 
Ha(] jangl'd their fantastic chimes. Prior. 

JAN'GLER, n. A wrangling, noisy fellow. 

JAN'GLING, /);»'. Wrangling; quarreling; 
soimdinu discordantly. 

JAN'GLING, n. A noisy dispute ; a wrang- 

JANTPOR, n. [L.] A door-keeper ; a por- 
ter. Warton. 

J.\NIZ.\'R1AN, ?i. Pertaining to the Janiza- 
ries, or tlii'ir government. Burke. 

JAN'IZARY, n. [T'ur\\\sh, yeniskeri ; yeni 
and askari, new troops. Eton.] 

A soldier of the Tmkish foot guards. Tlie 
Janizaries were a body of infantry, and 
reputed the Graml Seignor's guards. 
Tlicy became turbulent, and ri.-ing in arms 
against the Sultan, were attacked, defeat- 
ed and destroyed in Constantinople, in 
June 182(5. 

JAN'NOCK, n. Oat-brcad. [Local.] 

JAN'S ENISM, n. The doctrine of Jansen 
in regard to free will and grace. 

JAN'SENIST, »!. A follower of Jansen, 
bishop of Ypres, in Flanders. 

J'ANT, I', t. [In Fr. jnnte is the felly of a 
wheel, and the original root signified 
probably to extend or to run, to ramble.] 

To ramble here and there ; to make an e.\- 
cmsion. Shak. 

JWNT, II. An excursion; a ramble; a short 
jdiMiicy. .'\Iilton, 

J'ANTIl.Y, m/f. [from janty.] Briskly : air- 
ily ; p:iyly. 

|J"ANT1NESS, n. Airiness; flutter; brisk- 

I ness. 

IJ'ANTY, a. Airy; showy; fluttering; fin- 

I ical. Ilobbes. 


J A S 


JAN'UARY, n. [Ir. fponhhar or gionvar ; 
Rus3. f^eiivar ; Kr. jiinvkr ; It. f^ninaio ; 
S[). CHtro; Port. janei7-o ; LJaHuuriui. Il 
is eviileiit tioiii the Irisli arnl Russian 
words, that tlio first syllable ofjanuari/, is 
froni the root of L. gmo, to beget, Kng. 
to bef^n, Sax. aginnan. Var is said to 
bi;;iiity a revolution. Januari/ then signi- 
fies the beginning, or first niontli. Janua 
is probably tVoin the same root.] 

The first niotitli of the year, according to 
the present computation. At the founda- 
tion of Rome, March was considered the 
first mouth. January ami February were 
introduccMl by Numa I'ompilins. Unci/c. 

JAPAN', Jt. [from the country in Asia, so 

This name is given to work varnished and 
figured in the manner practiced by the 
natives of Japan. Encyc. Ci/c. 

JAPAN-KARTIl, n. Cateclm, a combina- 
tion of gummy and resinous matter, ob- 
tained from the juice of a species of palm 
tree. J\'icliotsoii. 

Japan-earth or catechu, is obtained by de- 
coction and c'vaporation from a species of 
Mitjiosa. It consists chiefly of tannin 
combined with a peculiar species of ex- 
tractive. Thomson. 

JAI'AN', V. I. To varnish in the manner of 
the Japanese. 

2. To black and gloss, as in blacking shoes 
or boots. Cm/. 

JAP.ANE'SR, a. Pertaining to Japan or its 

JAPANE'SE, n. A native of Japan ; or the 
language of the inhabitants. 

JAPAN'NED, pp. Varnished in a particular 

JAPAN'NER. n. One who varnishes in the 
maimer of the Japanese, or one skilled in 
the art. 

2. A shoe-blacker. Pope. 

JAPAN'.XIXG, ppr. Varnishing in the man- 
ner of the Japanese; giving a glossy 
black surface. 

JAPAN'NING, Ji. The art of varnishing 
and drawing figures on wood or other 
material, in the manner practiced by the 
Japanese. Enrijr. 

JAPE, V. i. [Ice. geipn.] To jest. Obn. 


JAPE, I'. ^ [Sax. jo-ea/>, deceitful.] To cheat. 
Oh.i. Chaucer. 

JAPE, )i. .\jest; a trick. Obs. Chaucer. 

JA'PER, JI. A jester. Oh.i. 

J,\P1IET'IC, a. Pertaining to Japheth, the 
eldest son of Noah ; as the Japhdic na- 
tions, wliidi people the North of Asia and 
all Europe; ja/j/ied'c languages. 

JAP'II, )i. A bird of Brasil that suspends its 

JWR. V. i. To strike together with a short 
rattle or tremulous sound ; to strike un- 
tunably or harshly ; to strike discordant- 
ly ; as a jarring sound. 

.\ string may jar in the best master's hand. 

2. To clash ; to interfere ; to act in opposi- 
tion ; to be inconsistent. 

For orders and degrees 
Jar not « illi lihertv, but well consist. 


3. To quarrel ; to dispute ; to clash in words. 


4. To vibrate regularly ; to repeat the "same 
sound. Shak. 

J"AR, V. I. To shake ; to cause to tremble ; to 
cause a short tremulous motion in a thing. 

JWR, n. A rattling vibration ol' sound ; a 
shake; as a trembling ^ar. Holder. 

2. .\ harsh sound ; discord. 

3. Clash of interest or opinions ; collision ; 
discord ; debate. 

And yet his peace is but continual jar. 


4. The state of a door half open, or ready 
to move and strike the post. Swijl. 

5. Repetition of the noise made by the pen- 
dulum of a clock. Shak. 

JAR, n. [S\y. jarra, jarro ; Port, id.; It. 
g^i a rro.] 

A vessel with a large belly and broad 

mouth, made of earth or glass ; as a jar 

of honey. Dn/aen. 

We say, anelectrical battery of ninejor*. 

2. .\ certain measure; as ajar of oil. 

JAR.\RA€A, n. A species of serpent in 
America, seldom exceeding 18 inches in 
length, having prominent veins on its head, 
and of a dusky brownish color, variegated 
with red and black spots. It is very poi- 
sonous. Ci/c, 

J-ARBLE, > ^ To bemire. [jVot in use.] 

JAV'EL, ^ ■ Spenser. 

JARDES, n. [Fr.] Callous tumors on the 
legs of a liorse, below the bend of the 
ham on the outside. Far. Diet. 

J'ARGJiE, V. i. To emit a harsh or shrill 
sound. [JVot in use.] lip. Hall. 

J'ARGON, n. [Fr. jargon; It. grrgo, ger- 
gone ; Sp. ler^a, jargon, and coarse frieze, 

1. Confused, unintelligible talk or language ;! 
gabble ; gibberish ; cant. 

All jargon of the schools. Prior. 

2. A mineral, usually of a gray or greonisli 
white color, iii small irregular grains, or 
crystalized in (luadrangnlur prisms sur 
mounted with pyramids, or in octahedrons 
consisting of double rpiadraiigular prisms. 
[See Zircon.] Kirwan. 

JARGONELLE, n. jargoncl'. A species of 

JAKGON'IC, a. Pertaining to the mineral 

J'ARREI), /)/). [frr>m jar.] Shaken. 

J'ARRING, /)/<r. Shaking; making a harsh 
sound ; discordant. 

T'ARRING, H. A shaking; discord; dis- 
pute; collision. Burnet. 

JAS'II.VWK, n. .\ young hawk. ^1insworlh.\ 

J.VS'MIN, } [Fr. jasmin ; Sp. jazmin ;' 

JASMINE, <"'lt. gelsomino. The Ar. is 

«.*»Lj. I' 's sometimes written in Eng-j 

lish jessamine.] 

\ plant r.f the genus Jasminum, bearing beau- 
tiful (lowers. There are several si)ecies. 
The common white jasmin is a climbing 
^shrub, rising on supports 1.'5 or 20 feet 
high. The name is also given to several, 
plants of different genera : as the .1rahian\ 
Jasmin, of the genus Nyctanthes ; the 
bastard Ja.'jmin, uf the genus Cestmm, 
ami also <.f the genus Lyciiim ; the Per- 
sian Jasmin, of the genus Syringa ; the 
red Jasmin, of the genus Plumeria ; thel 
scarlet and yitlow Jasmin, of the genus 
Biirnonia, &c. Encyc: 

JAS'PACHATE, ?i. A name anciently giv-' 
en to some varieties of agate jasper. 


JASPER, (1. [Fr. jaspc ; L. iaspis ; Gr. 

MKJrtij ; It. diaspro ; Ar. 4_jiii j ; Hcb. nSC.] 

A mineral of the siliceous kind, and of sev- 
eral varieties. It is less liard than flint or 
even liiaii common ipiart/., but gives fire 
with steel. It is entirely opake, or some- 
times feebly translucent at the edges, and 
it presents almost every variety of color. 
Its varieties arc common jasper, striped 
jasper, Egyptian jasper, &:c. It admits 
of an elegant polish, and is used for vases, 
seals, snufl'-bo.xes, &c. 

Clcaveland. Kirtcan. 

Jasper is a subspecies of rhomboidal quartz, 
of five kinds. Egyptian, striped, porcelain, 
common, and agate jasper. Jameson. 

JASPEK.VTEU. a. Mi.xed with ja.sper : 
containing particles of jasper; as jaspera- 
ted agate. Fourcroy. 

JASPIDE'.VN, a. Like jasper; consisting 
of jasper, or partaking of jasper. 


J'ASPONVX, n. The purest horn-colored 
onyx, witli beautiful green zones, compo- 
sed of genuine matter of the finest jas- 
pers. Encye. 

JAl NCE, t'. t. [Fr. jancer.] To bustle ; to 
jaunt. Obs. Shak. 

JAUNDICE, n.j'andis. [Pr. jaunisse, from 
jaune, yellow.] 

.•V disease which is characterized by a suf- 
fusion of bile over the coats of the eye 
and the whole surface of the body, by 
which they are tinged with a yellow color. 
Hence its name. 

JAUNDICED, a. j'a7idised. Aflected with 
ihe jaundice ; suffused with a yellow col- 
or ; as a jaundiced eye. 

2. Prejudiced ; seeing with discolored or- 

JAUNT. [See Jant.] 

JAV EL, V. t. To bemire ; aud as a noun, a 
wandering or dirty fellow. 06s. 


J.VV'ELIN, JI. [Vr. jai-eline ; h. giartlloUo ; 
Sp. jabalina, the female of the wild boar, 
and a javelin, fromjabati, a wild boar.] 

A sort of spear about five feet and a half 
long, the shaft of which was of wood, but 
pointed w ith steel ; used by horse or foot. 
Every Roman soWier carried seven jav- 

JAW, ;!. [Fr. joKf, the cheek. It coincides 
in origin with chaic, chew, .■\rm. joaga, to 
chew ; javed or gaved, a jaw. In old au- 
thors, jaw is written chaw. It belongs to 
Class Cg. See Chatc and Chew.] 

1. The bones of the mouth in which the 
teeth are fixed. They resemble a horse 
shoe. In most animals, tlie under jaw 
only is movable. 

2. The mouth. 

3. In viUgar Innguage, scolding, wrangling, 
abusive clamor. 

J.AW, r. I. To scold ; to clamor. [Vulgar.] 

JAW, I'. (. To abuse by scolding. [Vul- 

JAW ED, a. Denoting the appearance of 
the jaws. Skelton. 

J.\W'F.\LL, n. Ijaic and fall.] Depression 

ns" ' ". " . 

.V. Griffith. 


of the 


juratively, depression of 
.V. ~ 
Depressed in spirits; 

J E A 

J E H 

J E R 

JAWN, V. i. To yawn. [JVot in use. See 

JAW'Y, a. Relating to the jaws. Gayton. 

JAY, »i. [Fr. geai ; Sp. guyo.] A bird, the 
Corvus glaudarius. Encyc. 

JAYET. [See Jet.] 

JA'ZEL, n. A gem of an azure blue color. 
[Qu. S|). azul, corrupted.] 

.JEALOUS, a. jel'us. [Fr.jaloux ; ll. geloso. 
The Spanish use zeloso from zeto, zeal; 
but tlie Italian word seems to be of dis- 
tinct origin from zeal, and to belong to 
Class Gl.] 

1. Suspicious; a])prehensive of rivalship ; 
uneasy through fear that another has 
withdrawn or may withdraw from one 
the affections of a person he loves, or en- 
joy some good which he desires to obtain ; 
followed by of, and applied both to the ob- 
ject of love and to the rival. Wc say, a 
young man is jealous of the woman he 
loves, or jealous of his rival. A man is 
jealous of his wife, and the wife of her 


2. Suspicious that we do not enjoy the affec- 
tion or respect of others, or that another 
is more loved and respected than our- 

.^. Emulous; full of competition. Drydcn. 

4. Solicitous to defend tlie honor of; con- 
cerned for the character of 

I have been very Jealous (or the Lord God 
of hosts. 1 Kings xix. 

5. Suspiciously vigilant ; anxiously careful 
and concerned for. 

I am jealous over yoji with a godly jealousy. 
2 Cor. xi. 

6. Suspiciously fearful. 

'Tis doing wrong creates such doubts as 

Renders us jealous and destroys our peace. 


JEALOUSLY, adv. jel'usly. With jealousy 
or suspicion ; eniulously ; with suspicious 
fear, vigilance or caution. 

JEALOUSNESS, n. jel'usness. The state 
of being jealous ; suspicion ; suspicious 
vigilance. King Charles. 

JEALOUSY, Ji. jel'usy. [Vi. jalousie ; It. 

1. That passion or peculiar uneasiness which 
arises from the fear tliat a rival may rob us 
of the affection of one whom we love, or 
the suspicion that he has already done it 
or it is the uneasiness which arises from 
the fear that another does or will enjoy 
some advantage which we desire for om- 
.selves. A man's jea/oitsi/ is excited by the 
attentions of a rival to his favorite laily 
A woman's jealousy is roused by her bus 
band's attentions to another woman. Tlie 
candidate for office manifests a jealousy 
of others who seek tlie same office. The 
jealousy of a student is awakened by the 
apprehension that his fellow will bear 
away the palm of praise. In short, jecd- 
ousy is awakene<l by whatever may exalt 
others, or give them jjleasurcs and advan- 
tages which we desire for omsolves. Jeal- 
ousy is nearly allied to envy, for jealousy, 
before a good is lust by ourselves, is con- 
verted into envy, after it is obtained by 

Jealousy is the apprehension of superiority. 


Whoever had qualities to alarm our jealous;/ 
had excellence to deserve our fondness. 


2. Suspicious fear or apprehension. 


3. Suspicious caution or vigilance ; an earn 
est concern or solicitude for the welfare 
or honor of others. Such was Paul's god- 
ly jealousy for the Corinthians 

4. Indignation. God's jealousy signifies his 
concern for his own character and gov- 
ernment, with a holy indignation against 
those who violate his laws, and offend 
against his majesty. Ps. Ixxix 

JEARS, J!. In sea-language, an assemblage 
of tackles by which the lower yards of a 
ship are hoisted or lowered. Hoisting is 
called swaying, and lowering is called 
striking. This word is sometimes writ- 
ten geers or gears. [See Gear.] Mar. Diet 

JEAT, 71. A fossil of a tine black color. [See 

JEER, V. i. [G. scheren, to rail at, to jeer, 
to shear, to shave, D. schceren, Dan. 
skierer, Sw. skara, Gr. xeipw, without 
prefix. These all seem to be of one family, 
Class Gr. The primary sense is probably 
to rub, or to cut by rubbing ; ami we use 
rub in a like sense; a dry rub, is a keen, 
cutting, sarcastic remark.] 

To utter severe, sarcastic reflections ; to 
scoff"; to deride ; to flout; to make a mock 
of; as, to jeer at one in sport. Herbert. 

JEER, I'. /. To treat with scoffs or derision. 


JEER, n. Railing language; scoff; taunt; 
biting jest; flout; jibe; mockery; deri- 
sion ; ridicule with scorn. 

Midas exposed to all their ;ef is. 

Had lost his art, and kept iiis ears. Swift. 

JEE'RED, pp. Railed at; derided. 

JEE'RER, )i. A scoffer; a railer ; a scorn- 
er ; a mocker. 

JEERING, ppr. Scoffing; mocking ; deri- 

JEERING, n. Derision. 

JEE'RL\GLY, adv. With raillery ; scorn- 
fully; contemptuously; in mockery. 


JEF'FERSONITE, n. A mineral occur 
ring in crystaline masses, of a dark olive 
green color passing into brown, found im- 
bedded in Franklinite and garnet, in New 
Jei-sey. Phillips.\ 

JEG'GET, n. A kind of sausage. [JVot in 
use.] Ainsworth. 

JEHO'VAH, n. The Scripture name of the 

JEJU'NE, a. [L. jejunus, empty, dry.] 

1. Wanting; empty; vacant. JBacon. 

2. Hungry ; not saturated. 

3. Dry ; barren ; wanting interesting mat- 
ter ; as a. jejune narrative. 

JEJU'NENESS, n. Poverty ; barrenness ; 
particularly, want of interesting matter ; 
a deficiency of matter that can engage the 
attention and gratify the mind ; as the 
jejuneness of style or narrative. [Jejunity 
is not used.] 

JEL'LIED, a. [SeeJe%and Gelly.] Brought 
to the consistence of jelly. 

JEL'LY, n. [Sp.jalea, from L. gelo, to con- 
geal. See Gelly.] 

1. The inspissated juice of fruit, boiled with 

2. Something viscous or glutinous ; some- 
thing of the consistency of jelly ; a trans- 
parent sizy substance, obtained from ani- 
mal substances by decoction ; portable 

JEL'LYBAG, n. A bag through which jel- 
ly is di-stilled. 

JENTTE, n. A diff'erent orthography of 
yenile, which see. 

JEN'NET, (I. A small Spanish horse, prop- 
erly genet. 

JEN'NETING, n. [said to be corrupted 
from juncting, an apple ripe in June, or at 
St. Jean.] A species of early apple. 


TEN'NY, n. A machine for spinning, moved 
by water or steam and used in manufac- 

JENT'LING, n. A fish, the blue chub, 
found in the Danube. 

JEOFAIL, n.jeffail. [Fr. j'ai/ai«i, I have 

An oversight in pleading or other proceed- 
ing at law ; or the acknowledgment of a 
mistake. Blackstone. 

JEOPARD, r. t. jep'ard. [See Jeopardy.] 
To hazard ; to put in danger ; to expose 
to loss or injury. 

Zebulon and Naphlali were a people that 
jeoparded their lives (o the death in the high 
places of the field. Judges v. 

JEOPARDEU, n. jep'arder. One who puts 
to hazaril. 

JEOPARDIZE, V. t. jep'ardize. To expose 
to loss or injury ; to jeopard. [This is a 
modern word, used by respectable writers 
in America, but synonymous with jeopard 
and therefore useless.] 

JEOPARDOUS, a. jep'ardous. Exposed to 
danger; perilous; hazardous. 

Supreme Being, Heb. ninv If, as is sup- jeOPARDOUSLY, adv. jep'ardously. With 

posed, this name is from the Hebrew sub 
stantive verb, the word denotes the Per-! 
MANF.NT Being, as the primary .sense of 
the substantive verb in all languages, is 
to be fixed, to stand, to remain or abide. 
This is a name peculiarly appropriate to 
the eternal Sjnrit, the unchangeable God, 
who describes himself thus, I am that I 
AM. Ex. iii. 
JEHO'VIST, n. Among critics, one who 
maintains that the vowel-|)oints annexed 
to the word Jeliovali in Hebrew, arc the 
proi)iU- vowels of the word and ex|)ress 
the true pronunciation. The Jrhovists are 
opposed to the Monisis, who hold that 
the points annexed to the word Jehovah, 
are the vowels of the word Adonai. 


risk or dajiger. 

JEOPARDY, n. jep'ardy. [The origin of 
this word is not settled. Some authors 
suppose it to be Fr. j'ai perdu, I have 
lost, or jeu perdu, a lost game. Tyrwhitt 
supposes it to be jeu ptirti, an even game, 
or game in which the chances are even. 
"Si nous Ics voyons a jeu parti." If we 
see them at an even game. Froissarl, vol. 
i. c. 234. But jeopardy may be corrupted 
from the G. gefahr, danger, hazard ; gt- 
/rt/irrffji, to hazard, to jeopard. See Fare.] 

Exposure to <leath, loss or iiijtn'y ; hazard ; 
danger ; ])(;ril. 

Tliey were filled with water and were in 
jeiijiardii. Luke viii. 

JERBOA, Ji. A quadruped having very 
short fore legs. 

J E S 


J 1 B 

JERK, V. t. [This is probably the Ch. Ileb. 
pT, to reach, to spit, that is, to throw ont 
with a sudden effort. Sax. hra;can,herca. 
If not, I know not its origin or affinities. 
It seems to be a different ortliography of 

1. To thrust out; to thrust witli a sudden 
effort ; to give a sudden pull, twitch, thrust 
or ]>ush ; as, to jerk one under the ribs; to 
jerk one with llic elbow. 

2. To throw with a quick, smart motion ; 
as, to jerk a stone. VVe apjily this word to 
express the mode of throwing to a httle 
distance by drawing the arm back of tlie 
body, and thrusting it forward against the 
side or hip, which stops the arm suddenly. 

JERK, V. I. To accost eagerly. [M'ot in 
use.} Dryden 

JERK, n. A short sudden thrust, push oi 
twitch ; a striking against something with 
a short quick motion ; as a jerk of the el 

His jade gave him a jerk. B. Jonson. 

2. A sudden spring. 

Lobsters swim by jerks. Grew. 

JERK'IN, n. A jacket; a short coat; a 
close waistcoat. Shak. South. 

2. A kind of liawk. Ainsworlh. 

JER'SEY, n. [from the ieland so called.] 

1. Fine yarn of wool. Johnson.' 

2. The finest of wool separated from the 
rest ; combed wool. Bailey. Encyc. 

a species of Helianthus or Sunflower. 

JESS, n. Short straps of lether tied round 
the legs of a hawk, by which she is held 
on the fist. Hanmer. 

2. A ribin that hangs down from a garland 
or crown in falconry. Encyc. 

JES'SAMIN,n. A genus of plants and their 
flowers. [See Jasmin.] 

JES'SE, n. A large brass candlestick 
branched into many sconces, hanging 
down in the middle of a church or choir. 


JESS'ED, a. Having jesses on; a term in 

JEST, 71. [Sp. and Port. cAi«fe, a witty say- 
ing, a jest or joke ; chistoso, gay, face- 
tious ; allied perhaps to L. gestio.] 

1. A joke ; something ludicrous uttered and 
meant only to excite laughter. Rehgion 
should never be the subject oijesl. 

2. The object of laughter or sport ; a laugh- 
ing stock. 

Then let me be your jest, I deserve it. ! 

In jest, for mere sport or diversion; not 
in truth and reality ; not in earnest. 

— And given in earnest what I begged in jest. \ 


3. A mask. 

4. A deed ; an action. Obs. 

JEST, V. i. To divert or make merry by 
words or actions ; to joke. 

Jest not with a rude man, lest thy ancestors 
be disgraced. Ecclus. 

2. To utter in sport'; to say what is not true, 
merely for diversion. 

3. To play a part in a mask. Shak. 
JESTER, n. A person given to jesting. 

sportive talk and rnerry pranks. 

— He rambled up and down 
With shaUov; jesters. Shak. 

2. One given to sarcasm. 

Now, as a. jester, I accost you. Swift. 

3. A buffoon ; a merry-andrew, a person 
formerly retained by princes to make sport 
for them. 

JEST'ING, ppr. Joking; talking for diver- 
sion or merriment. 

JEST'ING, n. A joking ; concise wit ; wit 
that consists in a trope or verbal figure, in 
a metaphorical sense of words, or in a 
double sense of the same word, or in 
siiuilitude of sound in different words. 


JEST'INGLY, adv. In a jocose manner; 
not in earnest. Herbert. 

JESTTNG-STOCK, n. A laughing stock ; 
a butt of ridicule. Googe. 

JES'UIT, n. s as :. One of the society of 
Jesus, so called, founded by Ignatius Loy-j 
ola ; a society remarkable for their cun- 
ning in propagating their princi|ilcs. 

JES'UITED, a. Conforming to the princi- 
ples of the Jesuits. H'hite. 

JES'UITESS, n. A female Jesuit in princi- 
ple. £p. Hall. 

JESUIT'I€, I Pfertaining to the Jesuits 

JESUIT'ICAL, I "■ or their principles and 

2. Designing; cunning; deceitful; prevari- 

JESUIT'I€ALLY, adi: Craftily. 

JES'UITISM, 71. The art.s i)rinci|ilcs and 
practices of the Jesuits. 

2. Cimning ; deceit; hypocrisy; prevarica- 
tion ; deceptive practices to effect a pur- 

JES'UITS'BARK, 77. Peruvian bark ; the 
bark of the Cinchona, a tree of Peru. 

JET, n. [D. git; Fr. jayd ; L. gagatcs. 
A solid, dry, black, inflannuable fossil sub- 
stance, harder than asphalt, susceptible of 
a good polish, and glossy in its fracture, 
which is conchoidal or undulating. It is 
fotuid not in strata or continued masses 
but in unconnected heaps. It is wrought 
into toys, buttons, mourning jewels. Sic. 
JVicholson. Encyc. 
Jet is regarded as a variety of lignite, or 
coal originating in wood. 

Haily. Cleaveland. 

JET, 7!. [Fr. jet, It. gctto, n cast; probably 
from L. jactus, whence Fi'. jetter. It. get- 
tare, to throw.] 

1. A spout, spouting or shooting of water ; 
a jet rf' eau. 

2. A yard. Thisser. Drift; scope. [JVot in use 
or local.] 

|JET, V. i. [See the Noun.] To shoot for 
ward ; to shoot out ; to project ; to jul ; to 
intrude. Shak 

2. To strut ; to throw or toss the body in 
haughtiness. Shak 

3. To jerk ; to jolt ; to be shaken. 


[This orthography is rarely used. See 

JETTEAU, n. jet'to. [Fr. jet d'eati.] A 

throw or spout of water. .'hldison. 

JET'SAM, i [Fr. jetter, to throw.] In 
JET'SON, > 71. law and commerce, proper- 
JET'TISON, ) ly, the throwing of goods' 

overboard in order to lighten a ship in a' 

tempest for her preservation. The word 

may however be used for the goods thus; 

thrown away, or adverbially. 

Jetsam is where goods are cast into the sea, 

and there sink and remain under water; //of- 

sum, is where they continue swimming ; ligan 
is where they are sunk in the sea, but tied to a 
cork or buoy. Park. Blackstone. 

JET'TEE, 71. A projection in a building. 

JET'TY, v.i. To jut. 

JET'TY, n. A small pier or projection into 
a river for narrowing it and raising the 
water above that place. Cyc. 

JET'TY, a. Made of jet, or black as jet. 

Prior. Pope. 

JET'TYHEAD, n. The projecting part of 
a wharf; tlie front of a wharf whose side 
forms one of the cheeks of a dock. 

Mar. Did. 

JEW, 77. [a contraction of Judas or Judah.] 
A Hebrew or Israelite. 

JEVV'EL, n. [It. g-ioi'(j, joy, mirth, a jewel; 
gioiello, a. jewel ; Vr.joyau; Sp. joya,juy- 
el ; a. juwel ; D. juweel. It is from the 
root otjoy. Low L. jocale. Class Cg.] 

1. An ornament worn by ladies, usually con- 
sisting of a precious stone, or set with one 
or more ; a pendant worn in the ear. 

2. A precious stone. Shak. 
J. A name expressive of fondness. A moth- 
er calls her child, her jewel. 

JEWEL, V. t. To dress or adorn with jew- 
els. B. Jonson. 

JEWEL-HOUSE, > The place where 

JEWEL-OFFICE, ^ "the royal ornaments 
arc reposited. Shak. 

JEWEL-LIKE, a. Brilliant as a jewel. 


JEWELED, pp. Adorned with jewels. 

JEW'ELER, n. One who makes or deals 
in jewels and other ornaments. 

JEW'ELING, ppr. Adorning with jewels. 

JEWELRY, n. Jewels in general. 

JEW'ESS, 77. A Hebrew woman. Acts 

JEW'ISII, a. Pertaining to the Jews or He- 
brews. Tit. i. 

JEWISIILY, adv. In the manner of the 
Jews. Donne. 

JEWISHNESS, n. The rites of the Jews. 


JEWRY, 71. Judea ; also, a district inhab- 
ited by Jews, whence the name of a street 
in London. Chaucer. 

JEWS-EAR, 77. The name of a species of 
Fungus, the Pcziza auricula, bearing some 
resemblance to the human ear. 

Johnson. Lee. 

JEWS-FRANKINCENSE, 71. A plant, a 
species of Styrax. 

JEWS-HARP, n. [Jew and haip.] An in- 
strument of music shaped like a harp, 
which, placed between the teeth and by 
means of a spring struck by the finger, 
gives a sound which is modulated by "the 
breath into soft melody. It is called also 

JEWS-MALLOW, n. A plant, a species of 

JEWS-PITCH, 77. Asphaltum, which see. 

JEWS-STONE, 77. Theclavatedspineofa 
very large egg-shaped sea urchin petrified. 
It is a regular figure, oblong and rounded, 
about three quarters of an mch in length, 
and half an inch in diameter. Its color is 
a pale dusky gray, with a tinge of dusky 
red. Hill. 

JEZ'EBEL, 7!. An impudent, daring, vi- 
tious woman. Spectator. 

JIB, n. The foremost sail of a ship, being a 
large stay-sail extended from the outer 


J O C 

J O I 

eiiil of the jib-boom towards the fui n-top- 
inast-lieail.' In sloops, it is on the bow- 
sprit, and extends towards the lower mast- 
head. Mar. Did 

JIB-BOOM, n. A spar which is run out 
from the extremity of the bowsprit, anil 
whicli serves as a oontiniiation of it. Be- 
yond this is sometimes extended the Jti/ing- 

JIBOY'A, n. An American serpent of the 
largest kind. 

JIG, n. [It.^>a; Fr. gigue. . See Gig'.] A 
kind of li<;lit dance, or a tune or air. 

2. A balladr B. Jonson. 

JIG, !'. r. To dance a ji<;. 

JIG'GER, n. In sea-language, a machine 
consisting of a rope about live feet long, 
with a block at one end and a sheave at 
the other, used to hold on the cable when 
it is heaved into the ship, by the revolution 
of the windlass. Mar. Did. 

JIG'GISH, a. Suitable to a jig. 

JIG'MAKER, n. One who makes or plays 
jitry. Shak. 

2. A ballad maker. Dekkcr. 

JIGPIN, n. A pin used by miners to hold 
the turn-beams, and prevent them from 
turning. Cyc 

JILL, »i. A young woman ; in contempt 
[See GUI.] 

JILL-FLIRT, n. A light wanton woman. 


JILT, n. [of uncertain etymology.] A wo 
man who gives her lover hopes and capri- 
ciously disappoints him ; a woman who 
trifles with her lover. Otway. 

2. A name of contempt for a woman. 


JILT, V. t. To encourage a lover and then 
frustrate his hopes; to trick in love; to 
give hopes to a lover and then reject him. 


JILT, V. i. To play the jilt; to practice de- 
ception in love and discard lovers. 


JIM'MERS, n. Jointed hinges. Bailey. 

JINGLE, V. i. [au. Ch. anc" 

little bell ; or Persian 
tie brass ball or bell. 

Syr. Jl, xjt 
^ j • zank, a lit- 

It may be allied to 
To sound with a fine sharp rattle ; to clink ; 

asjingting chains or bells. 
JIN'GLE, !!. t. To cause to give a sharp 
sound, as a little bell or as pieces of me- 

The bells she j'mgled, and the whistle blew. 

JIN'GLE, 11. A rattling or clinking sound, 
as of little bells or pieces of metal. 

2. Alitile bell or rattle. 

3. Correspondence of sound in rhymes. 


JIN'GLING, ppr. Giving a sharp fine rat 
tling sound, as a little bell or as pieces of 

JIP'PO, n. {Vr. jupe.l A waistcoat or kin<l 
of stays for females. 

JOB, n. [of unknown origin, but perhaps 
allied to chop, primarily to strike or drive.] 

1. A pieci! of work; any thing to be done, 
whether of more or less im|)ortance. The 
carpenter or niason undertakes to build a 
house by thejoi. The erection of West- 
ofinster bridge was a heavy job ; and it 

was a great job to erect Central wharf, in 
Boston. The mechanic has many small 
jobs on hand. 
A lucrative business ; an undertaking! 
with a view to profit. 1 

No cheek is known to blush nor heart to' 

Save when they lose a question or a job. 


■i. A sudden stab with a pointed instrument. 
[This seems to be nearly the original 

To do the job for one, to kill him. 

lOB, V. I. To strike or stab with a sharp in- 
strument. UEstrange. 

2. To drive in a sharp pointed instrument. 


JOB, V. I. To deal in the public stocks ; to 
buy and sell as a broker. 

The juJge shall /oi), the bishop bite the town, 
And mighty dukes pack cards for hall" a crown. 


JOB'BER, n. One who does small jobs. 
|2. A dealer in the public stocks or funds ; 
usually called a stock-jobber. Swift. 

3. One who engages in a low, lucrative af- 

JOB'BERNOWL, «. [said to be from Flem- 
ish jo65e, dull, and Sa.v. knol, head or top.] 

A loggerhead ; a blockhead. [A low word.] 


JOB'S-TEARS, n. A plant of the genus 

JOCK'EY, n. [said to be from Jockey, a di- 
minutive of Jack, John ; primarily, a boy 
that rides horses.] 

1. A man that ridos horses in a race. 


A dealer in horses ; one who makes it his 
business to buy and sell horses for gain. 

3. A cheat ; one who deceives or takes un- 
due advantage in trade. 

JOCK'EY, V. t. To cheat ; to trick ; to de- 
ceive in trade. 

2. To jostle bv riding against one. Johnson. 
JOCK'EYSIIIP, n. The art or practice of 

riding horses. Cowper. 

JOCO'SE, a. [L. jocosiis, fromjoci(.5, aJoAc] 
I. Given to jokes and jesting; merry; wag- 
gish ; iised of persons. 
Containing a joke ; sportive ; merry ; as 

JOCUND, a. [L. jocundus, from jocus, a 
joke.] Merry ; gay ; airy ; lively ; sport- 

Rural sports uni jocund strains. Prior. 

JOCUND' IT Y, I ^ State of being merry ; 

lOC'UNDNESS, S"-gayety. 

JOCUNDLY, adv. Merrily"; gayly. 

JOG, V. t. [Qu. W. gogi, to shake, or D. 
sc?ioWe?i, to jolt or shake, which seems to 
be the Fr. choquer, Eng. .ihock, shake.] 

To push or shake with the elbow or hand ; 
to give notice or excite attention by a 
slight i)ush. 

Sudden I jogged Ulysses. Pope. 

JOG, v.i. To move by jogs or small shocks, 
like those of a slow trot. 

So huu^ his destiny, never to rot, 
Wliile he might still jo^ on, and keep his trot. 


2. To walk or travel idly, heavily or slowly. 
Thus they jog- on, still tricking, never thriving. 


JOG, n. A push ; a slight shake; a shake or 
push intended to give notice or awaken at- 
tention. AVhen your friend falls asleep at 
church, give him a. jog. 
A ruh ; a small stop ; obstruction. 


JOG'GER, n. One who walks or moves 
heavily and slowly. 

2. One who gives a sudden push. 

JOGGING, ppr. Pushing slightly. 

.fOG'GING, ?!. A slight push or shake. 

JOG'GLE, I'. «. [from jog.] To shake shght- 
Iv ; to give a sudden but slight push. 

JO'G'GLED, pp. Slightlv shaken. 

JOG'GUNG. ppr. Shaking slightlv. 

JOHANNES, n. [John, latinized."] A Por- 
tuguese gold coin of the value of eight 
dollars ; contracted often into joe; as ajoe, 
or half-Joe. It is named from the figure 
of king John, which it bears. 

JOHN'APPLE, n. A sort of apple, good for 
spring use, when other fruit is spent. 


JOIN, V. t. [Fr.joindre ; It. giugnere ; from 
h. jungo, jtingere ; jungo for jugo ; Sp. 
and PovLJuntar, to join; h.jngum; Eng. 
yoke : Gr. ^1705 and ffuyo^, a yoke, and a 
pair ; fvyou, to yoke ; Jfi^tv.ui, to join ; Ch. 

sport or 
The quality of being 
merriment. [Jocosity is 


jocose or comical airs. 
JOCO'SELY, adv. In jest ; for 

game ; waggishly. 

jocose ; waggery ; 

not used.] 
JOCO-SE'RIOUS, a. Partaking of mirti 

and seriousness. Green. 

JOCULAR, a. [L. jocularis, from jocu. 


1. Jocose ; waggish ; merry ; given to jest- 
ing ; used of persons. 

2. Containing jokes ; sportive ; not serious ; 
as FLJocular expression or style. 

JOCULAR'ITY, n. Merriment ; jesting. 

JOCULARLY, ff(/i'. In ; for sport 01 
mirth. Bp. Lavington 

JO€'ULARY, n. Jocular. [jVot in use.] 

Ash. Bncon. 
JOCULATOR, Ji. [L.] A jester ; a dri 

a minstrel. Strutt. 

JOCULATORY, a. Droll : merrily saii' 

iv; Syr. 

^01 zug; .\r. ,lj to join, 

to couple, to marry, to pair; Etli. H(D1 
zog, a pair, as in Arabic. It signifies also 
in Syriac, to rage, to cry out ; showing that 
the primary sense is to strain, to stretch, 
to e.vtend, precisely as in span.] 
I. To .set or bring one thing in contiguity 
with another. 

Woe to thorn that join house to house, that 
lay ticid to field. Is. "v. 

To couple; to connect ; to combine; as, 
to join ideas. Locke. 

To unite in league or marriage. 

Now Jehoshapbat bail rielie* and honor in 
abundance, andjomfiiallinily with Aliab. 2 Ch. 

Wlial Cod h.\th joined together, lei not man 
put asunder. Matt. xi\. 
To associate. 

Go near and join thysell" to thi-* clruiot. .Acts 
To imile in any act. 

I'by lunetul voice with numbers join. 



J O 1 

J O K 


B. To unite in concord. 

But that ye be \>ii{ucl\y joined together in the 
same mind, and in the same judgment. 1 Cor. i 

The phrase, to join battle, is probably ellip 
tical, for join in battle ; or it is borrow- 
ed frotn tlie Latin, committere pralium, to 
send together tlie battle. 

In general, join signifies to unite two entire 
tilings without breach or intermixture, by 
contact or contiguity, either temporary or 
permanent. It ditters from connect, which 
signifies properly, to unite by an interme- 
diate substance. But join, unite, and con- 
ned are often used synonymously. 

JOIN, V. i. To grow to ; to adhere. Tlie 
place where two bones of the body Join, 
is called a joint or articulation. 

2. To be contiguous, close or in contact ; as 
when two houses join. 

3. To unite with in marriage, league, con- 
federacy, partnership or society. Russia 
and Austria j'oinerf in oppcsition to Buona- 
parte's anibitiiuis views. Men join in 
great undertukmgs, and in companies for 
trade or manufacture. They j'oin in en- 
tertainments and amusements. They j'oin 
in benevolent associations. It is often fol 
lowed by iDilh. 

Any otiier njay join with liim that is injured, 
and assist him in recovering satisfaction. 


Should we again break thy commandments 

and join in affiniiy with the people of these 

abominations ? Kzia ix. 

JOIN'DER, n. A joining; as a. joinder in 
demurrer. Blackstone. 

JOIN'ED, pp. Added; united; set or fas 
tened together; associated; confederated. 

JOIN'ER, n. One whose occupation is to 
construct things hy joining pieces of wood 
but appropriately aud usually, a raechan 
ic who does the wood-work in the cover 
ing and finishing of buildings. This is 
the true and original tense of the word in 
Great Britain and in New England. This 
person is called in New York, a carpenter. 
[See Carpenter.] 

JOIN'ERY, n. The art of fitting and join 
ing pieces of timber in the construction of 
utensils or parts of a building, so as to 
form one entire piece. 

.fOIN'HAND, n. Writing in which letters 
are joined in words ; as distinguished 
from writing in single letters. .iddison. 

JOIN'ING, ppr. Adding; making contigu- 
ous ; miiting ; confederating. 

JOINT, n. [Fr. joint; Sp. junta, juntura: ll 
giuntura ; h.junctura. See Join.] 

1. The joining of two or more things. 

2. In nnatomy, the joining of two or more 
bones ; an articulation ; as the elbow, the 
knee, or the knuckle. 

3. .\ knot ; the union of two parts of a ])lant ; 
or the space between two joints; an in- 
tcrnode ; as the joint of a cane, or of a 
stalk of maiz. 

4. A hinge ; a juncture of parts which ad- 
mits of motion. 

5. The place where two pieces of timber are 

6. In joineiy, straight lines are called a joint, 
when two jiieces of wood are planed. 


7. One of the limbs of an animal cut up by 
the butcher. 

Out of joint, luxated ; dislocated ; as when 
the head of a bone is displaced from 
its socket. Hence figuratively, confused; 
disordered ; misplaced. 

JOINT, a. Sliared by two or more : as joint 

2. United in ihe same profession ; having 
an interest in the same thing ; as a joint- 
lieir or heiress. 

3. United; combined; acting in concert ; as 
a joint force ; joint efibrts ; joint vigor. 

JOINT, V. t. To form with joints or articu- 
lations; usedmostly in the participle ; as the! 
fingers are jointed ; a cane has a jointed 

2. To form many parts into one ; as jointed 
wood. Dryden. 

3. To cut or divide into joints or quarters. 


JOINT'ED, pp. Formed with articulations, 
as the stem of a plant. 

2. Separated into joints or cpiarters. 

JOINT'ER, n. A long plane, a joiner's 

JOINT'-HEIR, n. [joint and heir.] An heir 
having a joint interest with another. Rom. 

JOINT'LY, adv. Together ; unitedly ; in 
concert ; with cooperation. 

2. With union of interest ; as, to be jointly 
concerned in a voyage. 

JOINT'RESS, n. A woman who has a joint- 
ure. Blackstone. 

JOINT'STOOL, n. A stool consisting of 
l»arts inserted in each oilier. South. 

JOINT-TEN' ANCY, n. [j'oin/ and tenant.] 
A tenure of estate by unity of interest, ti 
lie, time and possession. Blackstone. 

JOINT-TEN'ANT, n. [joint and tenant.] 
One who holds an estate by joint-tenancy. 

JOINT'URE, n. [Fr.] An estate in lands or 
tenements, settled on a woman in consid- 
eration of marriage, and which she is to 
enjoy after her husband's decease. 


JOINT'URE, V. t. To settle a jointure upon. 


JOINT'URED, pp. Endowed with a joint 

JOIST, n. [Scot, g'eist or gest. Q.u.Tr. gesir, 
to lie.] 

A small piece of timber, such as is framed 
into the gilders and summers of a build- 
ing to support a floor. Encyc. 

JOIST, V. t. To fit in joists; to lay joists. 

JOKE, n. [L.j'ocui ; Dan. g'ieA, a joke ; g'ifA 
ker, to joke ; Sw. ghcka, to ridicule ; G. 

1. A jest; something said for the sake of ex- 
citing a laugh ; something witty or sport 
ive ; raillery. A jealous person will rarely 
bear a joke. 

2. An illusion; something not real, or to no 

Inclose whole downs in walls, "tis all a joke.' 

In joke, in jest ; for the sake of raising a 

laugh ; not in earnest. 
JOKE, V. i. [h.jocor.] To jest ; to be merry 

in words or actions. 
JOKE, V. t. To rally; to cast jokes at ; to 

make merry with. 
JO'KER, n. A jester ; a merry fellow. 

JO'KING, ppr. Jesting : making merry with. 

JOLE, n. [sometimes written jV,u7; Sax. 
j rto/e, the jaw or cheek; Ir. gial. (iu. Arm. 
j chagell, contracted.] 

1. The cheek ; used in the phrase, cheek by 
\ jole, that is, with the cheeks together, 

close, tite a tete. Dryden. 

2. The head of a fish. Pope. 
JOLE, V. t. To strike the head against 

anything: to clash with violence. [Act 

used.] Slmk. 

JOL'LILY, adv. [See Jolly.] With noisy 

mirth ; with a disposition to noisy mirth. 


JOLLIMENT, n. lAIirtli ; merriment. Obs. 

JOL LINESS, ? jj [froinjoHi/.] Noisy mirth ; 
JOL'LITY, 5"'gayety; merriment ; fes- 

All w as now turned to jollity and game. 

2. Elevation of spirit; gayety. 

He with a proud jollity commanded him to 
leave that quarrel for him who was only wor- 
thy to enter into it. Sidney. 

[This word in America is not now applied to 
respectable company.] 

JOLLY, a. [, pretty ; It. giulivo, joy- 
ful, merry. Qu. Sax. geola, gehol, a feast, 
the yule, or feast of the nativity.] 

1. Merry; gay ; lively ; full of life and mirth ; 
jovial. It expresses more life and noise 
than cheerful ; as a jolly troop of hunts- 
men. Shak. 

[It is seldom applied in colloquial usage 
to respectable comjiany. We rarely say 
of respectable persons, they are jolly. It 
is applied to the young and the vulgar.] 

2. Expressing mirth or inspiring it. 
And with his jo//y pipe delights the groves. 

The coachman is swelled into jolly dimen- 
sions by frequent potations of malt liquors. 

Exciting mirth and gayety; as jolly May. 

j Dryden. 

\4. Like one in high health ; pretty. South. 

JOLLY-BOAT, n. A small boat belonging 

j to a ship. [Sw. jutle, a yawl.] 

jJOLT, I', i. To shake with short abrupt ris- 
ings and fallings ; as a carriage inoving on 

I rough ground. The carriage j"o/t«. 

iJOLT, 1'. t. To shake with sudden jerk.s, as 
in a carriage on rough ground, or on a high 

j trotting horse; as the horse or carriage 
jolts the rider. 

iJOLT, n. A shock or shake by a sudden 
jerk, as in a carriage. Swijl. 

JOI.TER, n. He or that which jolts. 

jJOLTHEAD, n. A greathead ; a dunce ; a 

I blockhead. Shak. 

JOLTING, ppr. Giving sudden jerks or 

JON UUIL,n. [Fr. jonquille; ll. giunchiglia ; 
giunco, L.jiuicus, a rush, and It. giglio, a 
lily. It is sometimes called the rush leafed 

|A plant of the genus Narcissus or daffodil, 
bearing beautiful flowers, of various col- 
ors, yellow and white. Encyc 

JOR'DEN, n. A vessel for chamber uses. 


JO'SO, n. A small fish of the gudgeon kind. 

JOSTLE, r.t.jos'l. [Fr. jouter, forjouster ; 
It. giostrare ; Sp. justar. Written also j'us- 
tle.] To run against ; to push. 

J o u 


J U B 

JOS'TLED,p;). Run against ; pushed. We 
say, a thing isj'osWeiiout of its place. 

JOSTLING, ppr. Running against ; push- 

JOS'TLING, n. A running against ; a crowd 

JOT, n. [Gr. mta, Cli. Heb. yod, Syr. yudh 
tlie name of the letter ' or J.] 

An iota; a point; a tittle; the least quan- 
tity assiguahlo. 

Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tit- 
tle shall in no wise pass from the law till al 
shall be fulfilled. Matt. v. 

A man may read much, and acquire not dtjot 
of knowledge, or be a jot the wiser. 


JOT, V. f. To set down ; to make a memo- 
randum of. 

JOTTING, n. A memorandum. Todd. 

JdU IS'SANCE, n. [Fr.] Jollity ; merriment. 
[.Vot in use.] Spenser. 

JOURNAL, n. jur'nal. [Fr. journal ; It. 
^i'orH«/e, from giorno, a day ; Corn, jurna ; 
W. dim-nod ; lu. diurnum. This was orig- 
inally an adjective, signifying daily, as in 
Spenser and Shakspeare ; but the adject- 
ive is obsolete.] 

1. A diary; an account of daily transactions 
and events ; or the book containing such 

2. Among merchants, a book in which every 
particular article or charge is fairly enter- 
ed from the waste hook or blotter. 

3. In navigation, a daily register of the ship's 
course and distance, the winds, weather, 
and other occurrences. 

4. A paper published daily, or other news- 
paper; also, the title of a book or pamph- 
let published at stated times, containing an 
account of inventions, discoveries and im- 
provements in arts and sciences ; as the 
Journal de Savans; the Journal of Sci- 

30VRNAL1ST, n.jur'nalist. The writer of 
a journal or diarv. 

JOURNALIZE, i'. t. jur'nalize. To enter in 
a journal. 

JOURNEY, n.jur'mi. \¥r.journie, a day or 
day's work ; It. giornata, a day; Sp.Jor- 
nada, a journey, or travel of a day ; It. 
giorno, a day, from L. diurmis, dies.] 

1. The travel of a d.ay. Obs. Milton. 

9. Travel by land to any distance and for 
any time, indefinitely ; as a journey from 
London to Paris, or to Rome ; a journey to 
visit a brother; a week's /o»nie_i/,- we 
made two journeys to Philadelpliia. 

3. Passage from one place to another ; as a 
long Joumei/ from the upper regions. 


4. It may sometimes include a passing by 

JOURNEY, V. i. jur'ny. To travel fronj 
place to place ; to pass from home to a dis- 

Abrarn journeyed, going on still towards the 
south. Gen. xii. 

JOURNEYING, ppr. Traveling ; passing 
from place to place. 

JOUR'NEYING, n. A traveling or passing 
from one ]ihice to another ; as the jour- 
neijings of the children of Israel. 

JOU'R'NEYMAN, n. [journey and man.] 
Strictly, a man hired to work by the day. 
but in fact, any mechanic who is hired to 
work for another in liis employment. 

whether by the month, year or other term. 
It is applied only to mechanics in their 
own occupations. 
JOUR'NEY-WoRK,n. Work done for hire 
by a mechanic in his proper occupation 
[Tliis word is never applied to farming.] 
JOUST. [See Just.] 

JOVE, n. [L. Jouii, gen. oi Jupiter, Gr. ?£V5.] 
1. The name of the Supreme Deity among 

the Romans. 
2 The planet Jupiter. 

Or a.-ik of yonder argent fields above 
Why Jove's satellites are less than Jove.' 


3. The air or atmosphere, or the god of the 

And Jove descends in showers of kindly rain 

Dry den 

JO'VIAL, a. [from Jove, supra.] Under the 
influence of Jupiter, the planet. 
— The fixed stars astrologic.illy differenced by 
the planets, and esteemed Martial or Jovial ac- 
cording to tlie colors whereby they answer these 
planets. Brown 

JO'VIAL, o. [Fr. and Sp. jU ; It. gioviale ; 
probably from the root of giovane, young, 
or from that of joy. If it is from Jove, it 
must be from the sense of airy or fresh.] 

1. Gay; merry; airy; joyous; jolly; as a 
jovial youth ; a. jovial throng. 

2. Expressive of mirth and hilarity. 
His odes are some of them panegyrical, oth- 
ers moral, the rest ate jovial or bacchanalian. 


JO'VIALIST, n. One who lives a jovial life. 

JO'VIALLY, adv. Merrily; gayly ; with 

noisy mirth. 
JO'VIALNESS, n. Noisy mirth ; gaycty. 
lOWL, n. The cheek. [See Jole.] 
JOWL'ER, n. The name of a hunting dog. 
beagle or other dog. Dryden. 

TOW'TER, »i. A fish driver. C'arew. 

JOY, n. [Fr. Jote; It. gioia ; Arm. joa, con- 
tracted; G.Jattc/i:e)!, to shout ; D.juichen, 
to rejoice ; Sp.gozo; Port. id. This word 
belongs to the Class Cg, and its radical 
sense is probably, to shout, or to leap, or 
to play or sport, and allied perhaps to joke 
and juggle.] 
1. The passion or emotion excited by the ac- 
quisition or expectation of good ; that ex- 
citement of ]deasurable feelings which is 
caused by success, good fortune, the grat- 
ification of desire or some good possessed, 
or by a rational prospect of |.ossessing 
what we love or desire ; gladness; exult- 
ation ; exhilaration of spirits. 

Joy is a delight of the mind, from the con- 
sideration of the present or assured approaching 
possession of a good. Locke. 

— Peace, 
Bring heavenly balm to heal my countiy'? 

Joy to my soul and liansporl to my lay. 

v. Humphrey. 

3. Gayety; mirth; festivity. 

The roofs with ;'<)!/ resound. Dryden. 

3. Happiness; felicity. 

Her heavenly form beheld, all wished lior 
joy. Dryden. 

4. A glorious and trimii])hant stale. 

— Who for the joy that w as set before him, en- 
dured the cross. Heb. \n. 

,->. The cause of joy or happiness. 

For ye are our glory andjo^i/. 1 Tlicss. ii. 

0. A term of fondness; the cause of joy. 
JOY, r. i. To rejoice ; to be glad ; to exult. 

I will joy in the God of my salvation. Hah. 
JOY, V. t. To give joy to ; to congratulate : 
to entertain kindly. 

2. To gladden ; to exhilarate. 

My sold was joyed in vain. Pope. 

3. [Fr._;o!H>.] To enjoy; to have or possess 
with pleasure, or to have plea.sure in the 
possession of [Little used. See Enjoy.] 

Milton. Druden. 
JOY'ANCE, n. [Old Fr. joiant.] Gayety : 
festivity. Obs. Spenser. 

JOyEJ), pp. Gladdened; enjoyed. 
JOY'FUL, a. Full of joy; very glad; ex- 

My .soul shall he joyful in my God. Is. Ixi. 
Rarely, it has of before the cause of joy. _ 
Sad for their loss, hut joyful o/our life". 

JOY'FULLY, adv. With joy; gladly. 
Never did men more joyfully obey. 

JOY'FULNESS, n. Great gladness; jo)^ 

Dent, xxviii. 
JOY'LESS, o. Destitute of joy; wanting 

With downcast eyes the joyless victor sat. 

Rarely followed by of; as joyless of the 
grove. Dryden. 

2. Giving no joy or pleasure. 

A joyless, dismal, black and sorrowful issue. 

JOY'LESSLY, adv. Without joy. Milton. 
JOY'LESSNESS, n. State of'being joyless. 

JOY'OUS, a. [Fr. joycur.] Glad; gay: 
merry ; joyful. 
Joyous the birds ; fresh gales and gentle airs 
Whispered it. Milton. 

2. Giving joy. 

They, all as glad as birds o[juyous prime — 

It has of, before the cause of joy. 

Am] joyous of our conquest early won. 

JOY'OUSLY, adv. With joy or gladness. 
JOY'OUSNESS, n. The state of being joy- 
JUB, n. A bottle or vessel. Obs. Chaucer. 
JUBILANT, a. [\..jubilans. See Jubilee.] 
Uttering songs of triumph ; rejoicing ; 
shouting with joy. 

While the bright pomp ascended jubilant. 

JUBILATION, n. [Fr. from L. jubilatio. 
See Jubilee.] The act of declaring tri- 
JUBILEE, n. [Fr.jubile; h.jubilum, from 
jubilo, to shout for joy; Sp. juhileo ; It. 
giubbileo ; lleh. Ss' or Ssv, the blast of a 
trumpet, coinciding with Eiig. bawl, peal, 

1. Among the Jews, every fiftieth year, be- 
ing the year following the revolution of 
seven weeks of years, at wliicli time all 
the slaves were libcMiitcd, and all lands 
which had been nlicn.-ited during the 
whole period, reverted to their former 
ownirs. This was a time of great rejoic- 
ing. Hence, 

2. A season of great public joy and festivity. 


3. .\ church siilemnity or ceremony celebra- 
ted at Rome, in which the jjope grunts 
]ilenary indulgence to sinners, or to as 
many as visit thechurchcsof St. Peter and 
St. Paul at Rome. Encyc. 

J U D 

J U D 

J U D 

JUeUND'ITY, n. [L.jucunrfttaa, fromju- 

cundus, sweet, pleasant.] 
Pleasantness ; agreeableness. [Little used.] 

Pertaining to the Jews. 


adv. After tlie Jewish 





JU'DAISM, n. [Fr. judaismc, from Judah, 
whence Jew.] 

1. The rehgious doctrines and rites of the 
Jews, as enjoined in the laws of Moses, 
Judaism was a temporary dispensation. 

2. Conformity to the Jewish rites and cere- 
monies. Encyc. 

idU'DAIZE, V. i. [Fr.judaiser, from Judah.] 
To conform to the rehgious doctrines and 
rites of the Jews. 

They — prevailed on the Galatians to jiidaize 
so far as to observe the rites of Moses in vari- 
ous instances. Jifibier. 

JU'D.\IZER, n. One who conforms to the 
religion of the Jews. Macknight. 

JU'DAIZING, ppr. Conforming to the doc 
trines and rites of the Jews. 

JU'DAS-TREE, n. A plant of the genus 

JUD'DOCK, Ji. A small snipe, called also 

JUDGE, n. [Fr. juge; Sp.juez; Port, juiz 
It. giudice ; h. judex, supposed to lie com 
pounded of jus, law or right, an(l dico, to 
pronounce. " Ilinc juder, quod jus dicat 
accepta potestate." f'arro.] 

1. A civil officer who is invested with au- 
thority to hear and determine causes, 
civil or criminal, between parties, accord 
ing to his commission ; as the judges of 
the king's bench, or of the common pleas ; 
judges of the supi-eme court, of district 
courts, or of a county court. Tiie judge 
of a court of equity is called a chancellor. 

2. The Supreme Being. 

Shall not the judge of all the earth do right 
Geu. xviii. 

3. One who presides in a court of judica- 

4. One who has skill to decide on the merits 
of a question, or on the value of any thing: 
one who can discern truth and propriety. 

A man who is no judge of law, may be a good 
judge of poetrv or eloquence, or of the merits 
of a painting. " Dryden 

In the history of Israel, a chief magistrate 
with civil and military powers. The Is- 
raelites were governed by judges more 
than three hundred years, and the history 
of their transactions is called the book of 

, A juryman or juror. In criminal suits, 
the jurors are judges of the law as well as 
of the fact. 

JUDGE, V. i. [Fr. juger ; L. judico ; It. 
giudicare ; Sp.juzgar.] 

). To compare facts or ideas, and perceive 
their agreement or disagreement, and thus 
to distinguish truth from falsehood. 

Judge not according to the appearance. John 

3. To form an opinion ; to bring to issue the 
reasoning or deliberations of the inind 

If I did not know the originals, I should not 
be able to judge, by the copies, which was Vir- 
gil and which Ovid. Dryden 

3. To hear and determine, as in causes on 
trial ; to pass sentence. He was present 

Vol. II. 



on the bench, but could not judge in the 

The Lord judge between tliee and me. Gen. 

4. To discern ; to distinguish ; to consider 
accurately for the purpose of forming an 
oj)inion or conclusion. 

Judge in yourselves ; is it comely that a wo- 
man pray unto God uncovered ? 1 Cor. xi. 
JUDGE, I', t. To hear and determine a case ; 
to examine and decide. 

Chaos shaM judge the strife. Milton 

2. To try ; to examine and pass sentence on 
Take yc him and judge him according to 

your law. John xviii. 

God shall judge the righteous and the wick 
ed. Eccles. iii. 

3. Rightly to understand and discern. 
He drat is spiritual, judncth all things. 1 

Cor. ii. 

To censure rashly ; to jiass severe sen- 

Judge not, that ye be not judged. Matt.vii. 

5. To esteem ; to think ; to reckon. 
If ye have judged me to be faithful to the 

Lord — Acts xvi. 

6. To rule or govern. 
The Lord shall /ui/ge his people. Heb. x. 

7. To doom to punishment ; to punish. 
I will judge thee according to thy ways. 

Ezck. vii. 
JUDG'ED, pp. Heard and determined ; tried 
judicially ; sentenced ; censured ; doomed 
JUDG'ER, n. One who judges or passes 


JUDGESHIP, 71. judj'ship. The office of a 

JUD(>'ING, ppr. Hearing and determining 
forming an opinion ; dooming. 

JUDG'MENT, n. [Fr.jugement.] The act 
of judging ; the act or process of the 
mind in comparing its ideas, to find their 
agreement or disagreement, and to ascer- 
tain truth ; or the process of examining 
facts and arguments, to ascertain propriety 
and justice ; or the process of examining 
the relations between one proposition and 
another. Locke. Encyc. Johnson. 

2. The facidty of the mind by which man is 
enabled to compare ideas and ascertain 
the relations of terms and propositions ; 
as a man of clear_;■l«/g•Hi^n<orsoundJl«/g■- 
?nc)l/. The judgment may be biased by 
prejudice. Judgment supplies the want of 
certain knowledge. 

The determination of the mind, formed 
from comparing the relations of ideas, or 
the comparison of facts and arguments 
In the formation of our judgments, we 
should be careful to weigh and compare 
all the facts connected with the subject. 

4. In /aif, the sentence or doompronoimced 
in any cause, civil or criminal, by the judge 
or court by which it is tried. Judgment 
may be rendered on demurrer, on a ver- 
dict, on a confession or default, or on a 
non-suit. Judgment, though pronounced 
by the judge or court, is properly the de- 
termination or sentence of the law. A 
pardon may be pleaded in arrest ot judg- 

5. The right or power of passing sentence. 


6. Determination ; decision. 
Let reason govern us in the formation of our 

judgment of things proposed to our inquiry 

7. Opinion ; notion. 


She, in my judgment, was as fair as you. 


8. In Scripture, the spirit of wisdom and pru- 
dence, enabling a person to discern right 
and wrong, good and evil. 

Give the king thy judgments, God. Fs. 

9. A remarkable punishment ; an extraor- 
dinary calamity inflicted by God on sin- 

Judgments are prepared for scorners. Prov. 
xix. Is. xxvi. 

10. The spiritual government of the world. 
The Father haUi conmiitted a.\\ judgtnent to 

tlie .Son. John v. 

11. The righteous statutes and command- 
ments of God are called his judgments. 
Ps. cxix. 

12. The docti-ines of the gospel, or God's 
word. Matt. xii. 

13. Justice and equity. Luke xi. Is. i. 

14. The decrees and purposes of God con- 
cerning nations. Rom. xi. 

15. A court or tribunal. Matt. v. 
1(J. Controversies, or decisions of controver- 
sies. 1 Cor. vi. 

17. The gospel, or kingdom of grace. Matt, 

18. The final trial of the human race, when 
God will decide the fate of every individ- 
ual, and award sentence according to jus- 

For God shall bring every work into judg- 
ment, with every secret tiling, whether it be 
good, or whether it be evil. Eccles. xii. 

Judgment of God. Formerly this term was 
applied to extraordinary trials [of secret 
crimes, as by arms and single combat, by 
ordeal, or hot plowshares, &c.; it being 
imagined that God would work miracles 
to vindicate innocence. 

JUDGMENT-DAY, n. The last day, or day 
when final judgment will be pronounced 
on the subjects of God's moral govern- 

JUDti'MENT-HALL, n. The hall where 
courts are held. 

JUDg'MENT-SEAT, n. The seat or bench 
on which judges sit in court. 

2. A court ; a tribunal. 

We shall all stand before the judgment-seat 
of Christ. Rom. xiv. 

JU'DICVTIVE, a. Having power to judge. 


JUDICATORY, a. Dispensing justice. 

JU'Dl€.\TORY, 7!. [L. judicalorium.] A 
court of justice : a tribunal. Atterbury. 

2. Distribution of justice. Clarendon. 

JUDICATURE, n. [Fr.] The power of 

I distributing justice by legal trial and deter- 
mination. .\ court o[ judicature is a court 
invested with powers to administer justice 
between man and man. 

l2. A court of justice ; a judicatory. South. 

JUDI'CIAL, a. Pertaining to courts of jus- 
tice ; as judicial power. 

2. Practiced in the distribution of jtistice ; as 
judicial proceedings. 

3. Proceeding from a court of justice ; as a 
judicial determination. 

4. Issued by a court under its seal ; as a ju- 
dicial writ. 

5. Inflicted, as a pen.ilty or in judgment; as 
judicial hardness of heart ; a judicial pun- 

JUDI'CIALLY, adv. In the forms of legal 
justice ; as a sentence JitdtctaHy declared. 



J U N 

2. By way of penalty or judgment; as, to be 

judicially punished. 
JUDI"CIARY, n. [Vt. judiciaire ; h.jiidicia 


1. Passing judgment or sentence. Boyle. 

2. Pertaining to the courts of judicature or 
legal tribunals. 

JUDI"CIARY, n. That branch of govern- 
ment which is concerned in the trial and 
determination of controversies between 
parties, and of criminal prosecutions; the 
system of courts of justice in a govern- 
ment. An independent judiciary is tlie 
lirmest bulwark of freedom. 

United States. 

JUDI"CIOUS, a. [Fr. judicicux ; It. giudi- 

1. According to sound judgment : wise ; 
prudent; rational; adapted to obtain a 
good end by the best means ; used of things. 
Nothing is more important to success in 
the world than a judicious application of 
time, unless it may be n judicious expend- 
iture of money. 

9. Acting according to sound judgment; 
possessing sound judgment ; wise ; direct- 
ed by reason and wisdom; used of per- 
sons ; as a judiciotts magistrate ; a judi- 
cious historian. 

JUDr'CIOUSLY, adv. With good judg- 
ment ; with discretion or wisdom ; skill- 

Longinus has judiciously preferred the sub- 
lime genius that sometimes ens, to (he mid- 
dling or indifl'erent one, which makes few faults, 
but seldom rises to excellence. Dryden 

JUDr'CIOUSNESS, n. The quality of act- 
ing or being according to sound judg- 

.TUG, n. [Junius mentions the Danish jugge 
an urn or water-pot, and the Sax. has ceac, 
Low L. caucus. Qu.] 

A vessel, usually earthen, with a swelling 
belly and narrow mouth, used for holdii 
and conveying liquors. Swift. 

.TUG'GLE, V. i. [D. guichelen or goochelen ; 
G. gaukeln ; It. giocolare ; Dan. gogler, 
to juggle ; giekker, to joke ; Sw. g&ck, a 
jestc r ; ghcka, to mock, to make sjiort ; L. 
jocular, to jest, from Jocus, a joke ; jocor, to 
joke, which coincides with the Sp. and 
Port, jugar, to play, to sport ; Fr. jouer, 
contracted. It is certain that joke and 
jocular, and probable that jot/, are from the 
same root as juggle ; perhaps Ch. IHI 
hukk, or chuk, to laugh, to play, to sport. 
Class Gk. No. 18.] 

1. To play tricks by slight of hand ; to amuse 
and make sport by tricks, which make a 
false show of extraordinary powers. 

3. To practice artifice or imposture. 

Be these juggling fiends no more bcUcveil. 


.TUG'GLE, V. t. To deceive by trick or arti- 
Is't possible the spells of France shoyMjuggle 
Men into such strange mockeries ? Shak 

.TUG'GLE, n. A trick by legerdemain. 

2. An imposture ; a deception. Tillolson. 
.TUG'(jL1''R, ". [ii\t. juglar ; Fr. jongleur; 

It. g'wcfitalore ; U. guickehrr.] 
1. One who practices or exhibits tricks by 
•slight of hand; oni' who makes sport by 
tricks of cxtraorilinary (hvtcrily, by wliicji 
the sjicctatur is deceived. Jugglers are 
jmnishable by law. 

2. A cheat; a deceiver; a trickish fellow. 


JUG'GLING, ppr. Playing tricks by slight 
of hand ; deceiving. 

JUG'GLING, 71. The act or practice of ex- 
hibiting tricks of legerdemain. 

JUG'GLINGLY, adv. In a deceptive man- 

JU'GULAR, a. [I., jugulum, the neck, either 
from jugum, a yoke, or from its radical 
sense, to extend, to join. See Join.] 

Pertaining to the ueck or throat ; as the Ju- 
gular vein. 

JU'GULAR, )i. A large vein of the neck. 

JUICE,? . [D.ju>/«;Fr.jW. Thereg- 

JUSE, I "■ J"*<^- ular orthography isjuse.] 

The sap of vegetables ; the fluid part of ani- 
mal substances. Encyc. 

JUICE, V. t. To moisten. 

JUICELESS, a. ju'seless. Destitute of 
juice ; dry ; without moisture. More. 

JUICINESS, n. ju'stJiess. The state of 
abounding with juice; succulence in 

JUICY, a. ju'sy. Abounding with juice; 
moist ; succulent. Bacon. 

JUISE, ?!. [L.jws.] Judgment ; justice. Obs. 


JU'JUB, j 

"• [L. zizyphum; Pers, 


The name of a ]ilant and of its fruit, whicl 
is pulpy and resembles a small plum. The 
plant is arranged under the genus Rham- 
nus. The fruit was formerly used in pec- 
toral decoctions, but it is now in little repu- 
tation. Encyc. Miller. 

iVKF,,v.i. [Fr.jucher.] To perch. [.Yot 

c - J 
JU'LEP, n. [Ar. ^,^^ julabon ; Pers. id.; 

Fr. julep; It. giulebbo.] 

In pharmacy, a medicine composed of some 
proper liquor and a sirup of sugar, of ex 
temporaneous preparation, serving as a 
vehicle to other forms of medicine. 

Encyc. (^uincy. 

JU'LIAN, a. Noting the old account of the 
year, as regulated by Julius Cesar, which 
continued to be used till 1752, when the 
Gregorian year, or new style, was adopted. 

Julian Jllps, called also Carnian, between 
Venetia and Noricum. U'Anville. 

JU'LIS, n. A small fish with a green back. 

JU'LUS, )!. [Gr. toti^os, a handful or bundle.] 

1. In botany, a catkin or ament, a species 
of caly.x or inflorescence, consisting of 
chaffy scales arranged along a stalk, as in 
hazle, birch, willow, &c. Martyn. 

A genus of multiped insects, of the order 
of Apters, of a semi-cylindrical fiuni, with 
moniliforni antennre, and two articulatec 
palpi. Encyc. 

JULY', n. The seventh month of the year, 
during which the sun enters the sign Leo. 
It is so called from Julius, the surname ol 
Caius Cesar, who was born in this month. 
Before that time, this niotith was called 
({uintilis, or the fifth month, according to 
the old Roman calendar, in which March 
was the first month of the year. 

JULY-FLOWER, n. The name of certain 
species of plants. The clove Julyfiower is 
of the genus Dianthus; the queen's July- 

Jioxcer of the genus Hesperis ; and the 

stock July-fower of (he genus Cheiranthus. 

[See Cillyftower.] Lee. 

JU'31ART, 7!. [Fr.] The offspring of a bull 

and a mare. Locke. 

JUM'BLE, I'. /. [Chaucer, j'omire.] To mix 

in a confused mass ; to put or throw to- 
gether without order. It is often followed 

by together. 

One may observe how apt that is to jumble 

together passages of Scripture. Locke. 

JUM'BLE, II. i. To meet, mix or unite in a 
onfused manner. Su-ift. 

JUM'BLE,?!. Confused mixture, mass or col- 

ectiou without order. Swift. 

JVM' BLED, pp. Mixed or collected in aeon-' 

fused mass. 
JUM'BLEMENT, n. Confused mixture. 

[JVot in use.] 
JUM'BLER, a. One who mixes things in 

JUM'BLING, ppr. Putting or mixing in a 

confused mass. 
JU'MENT, n. [Fr. from L. jumentum, a 


.K beast of burden. [J^ot used.] Brown. 

JUMP, ti. !. [Qu. the root of It. zamptWare, 

to spring.] 

1. To leap ; to skip ; to spring. Applied to 
men, it signifies to spring upwards or for- 
wards with both feet, in distinction from 
hop, which signifies to spring with one 
foot. A n^Ci)t jumps over a ditch ; a beast 
jumps over a fence. A man jumps upon a. 
horse ; a goat jumps from rock to rock. 

2. To spring over any thing ; to pass to at 
a leap. 

Here, upon this bank and shelve of time, 
We'd jump the life to come. Shak. 

We see a liulc, presume a great deal, and so 
jump to the conclusion. Spectator. 

3. To bound ; to pass from object to object; 
to jolt. 

The noise of the rattling of the wheels, and 
of the prancing horses, and of the jumping 
chariots. Nahum iii. 

4. To agree ; totally; to coincide. 
In some sort it^'uin^s with my humor. 

[This use of the word is now vulgar, and 
in America, I think, is confined to the sin- 
gle phrase, to jump in judgment.] 

JUMP, )'. t. To jiass by a leaji ; to pass over 
eagerly or hastily ; as, to jump a stream. 
[But over is understood.] 

JUMP, n. The act of jumping; a leap; a 
sjiring; a bound. 

2. A lucky chance. Shak. 

JUMP, n. [Fr. jupe; It. giubba.] .\ kind of 
loose or limber stays or waistcoat, worn 
bv females. 

JUMP, «rfi'. Exactly; nicely. Obs. 


TUMP'ER, «. One who jumps. 

TUMP'JNG, ppr. Leaping; springing; 

JU.\C'ATE, >i. [It. o-iimca/a, cream cheese; 
Fr. jonchie de crane, a kind of cream 
<rheese servctl in a fr.-iil of given rushes, 
and for that reason so called, or 
made in a frail or basket of rushes; L. 
junnis, a rush.] 

1. A cheese-cake; a kind of sweetmeat of 
curds and sugar. John.toi;. 

2. .\nv kind cd" <lf licate food. .Milton. 

'■i. A furtive or private entertaiiimenu [It 
is now written juntc/.] 

J U N 

J U R 


.lUNe'OUS, o. [L.junceits or juncoaus, from 

juncus, a rush.] 
Full of biilruslies. [Lillle used.] 
JUNCTION, n. [Fr. from L. jurtdio, from 

jungo, to join.] 

1. The act or operation of joining; as the 
junction of two armies or detachments. 

2. Union ; coalition ; combination. 

3. The place or |X)int of union. 
JUNCTURE, n. [L.junctura ; Sp.juntura; 

ll. giunhira ; from L. jitrigo, to join.] 

1. A joining; union; amity; as the juncture 
of hearts. [Little used.] King Charles. 

2. A union of two bodies ; a seam ; particu- 
larly, a joint or articulation. Encyr. 

3. The line or point at which two bodies 
are joined. Boyle. 

4. A point of time ; particularly, a point 
rendered critical or important by a con- 
currence of circumstances. Addison. 

JUNE, n. [L Junius ; Fr. juin ; It. giugno 
Sp. junio.] 

The sixth month of the year, when the sun 
enters the sign Cancer. 

JUN'GLE, )i. [Hindoo.] In Hiudoostan, a 
thick wood of small trees or shrubs. 

Asiat. Res. 

JUN'GLY, a. Consisting of jungles ; a- 
bounding with jungles. Ibm. 

JU'NIOR, a. [L. irom juvenis, young ; quasi, 

Younger; not as old as another; as a ju- 
nior partner in a company. It is applied 
to distinguish the younger of two persons 
bearing the same name in one family or 
town, and opposed to elder ; as John Doe 

JU'NIOR, n. A person younger than an- 

The fools, my juniors by a year — Swift 

JUNIOR'ITY, n. The state of being junior. 


JU'NIPER, n. [L. juniperus ; It. ginepro ; 
Fr. gcnei're ; Sp. enebro.] 

A tree or shrub bearing berries of a bluish 
color, of a warm, pungent, sweet taste, 
yielding when fresh, by expression, a 
rich, sweet, aromatic juice. They are 
useful carminatives and stomachics. The 
wood of the tree is of a reddish color, hard 
and durable, and is used in c.ibinet work 
and veneering. The oil of juniper mixed 
with that of nuts makes an excellent var- 
nish ; and the resin powdered is used un 
der the name of pounce. Encyc. 

JUNK, J!. [L. juncus, It. giunco, Sp. junco 
Fr. jonc, a bulrush, of which ropes were 
made in early ages.] 

1. Pieces of old cable or old cordage, used 
for making points, gaskets, mats, &:c., and 
when untwisted and picked to pieces, it 
forms oakum forfilhngthe seams of ships. 

Mar. Diet. 

2. A small ship used in China ; a Chinese 
vessel. [An eastern ivord.] 

JUNK'ET, 71. [See Juncate.] A sweetmeat. 

2. A stolen entertainment. 
JUNK'ET, V. i. To feast in secret ; to make 
an entertainment by stealth. Swijl. 

2. To feast. 

Job's children ^unAeJeii and feasted together 
often. South. 

JUN'TO, n. [Sp. junta, a meeting or coun 
j-il, frora L. junctus, joined ; It. giunto.] 

I. Primarily, a select council or assembly, 
which deliberates in secret on any affair 
of government. In a good sense, it is not 
used in English ; but hence, 

[2. A cabal ; a meeting or collection of men 
condjined for secret deliberation and in- 
trigue for party pm-poses ; a faction ; as a 
junto of ministers. Gulliver. 

JU'PITER, n. [L. the air or heavens: 
Join's paler.] 

1. The supreme deity among the Greeks 
and Romans. 

2. One of the superior planets, remarkable 
for its brightness. Its diameter is about 
eighty-nine thousand miles ; its distance 
from the sun, four hundred and ninety 
millions of miles, and its revolution round 
the sun a little less than twelve years. 

JUPPON, n. [Fr.jupon ; ll. giubbone.] A 
short close coat. Dryden. 

JU'RAT, 71. [Fr. from L. juratus, sworn, 
from juro, to swear.] 

In England, a magistrate in some corpora- 
tions ; an alderman, or an assistant to a 
bailiff. Encyc. 

JU'RATORY, n. [Fr. juraloire, from L. 
juro, to swear.] 

Comprising an oath ; as juratory caution. 
[Little used.] Ayliffe. 

JURID'l€AL, a. [h. juridicus ; jus, juris, 
law, and dico, to pronounce.] 

1. Acting in the distribution of justice ; per- 
taining to a judge. 

2. Used in courts of law or tribunals of jus- 
tice. Hale. 

JURID'ICALLY, adv. According to forms 
of law, or proceedings in tribunals of jus 
tice ; with legal authority. 

JURISeON'SULT, n. [h. juris consuUus ; 
jus and consultus, consulo, to consult.] 

Among the Romans, a man learned in the 
law ; a counselor at law ; a master of Ro- 
man jurisprudence, who was consulted on 
the interpretation of the laws. Encyc 

JURISDICTION, n. [Fr. from h.jurisdic- 
tio ; jus, juris, law, and dictio, from dico, 
to pronounce ; It. giuridizione ; Sp. juris- 
diccione ; Von. jurisdifam.] 

1. The legal power or authority of doing 
justice in cases of complaint; the power 
of executing the laws and distributing jus- 
tice. Thus we speak of certain suits or 
actions, or the cognizance of certain 
crimes being within the jurisdiction of a 
court, that is, within the limits of their 
authority or commission. Inferior courts 
have jurisdiction of debt and trespass, or 
of smaller offenses; the supreme courts 
have jurisdiction of treason, murder, and 
other high crimes. Jurisdiction is secular 
or ecclesiastical. 

2. Power of governing or legislating. The 
legislature of one state can e.xercise no 
jurisdiction in another. 

3. The power or right of exercising author- 
ity. Nations claim exclusive jurisdiction 
on the sea, to the extent of a marine 
league from the main land or shore. 

4. The limit within which power may be 

Jurisdiction, in its most general sense, is the 
power to make, declare or apply the law ; 
when confined to the judiciary depart 
ment, it is what we denominate the judi 
cial power, the right of administering jus- 

tice through the laws, by the means 
which the laws have provided for that 
pin-pose. Jurisdiction, is limited (o place 
or territory, to persons, or to particular 
sid)jects. Du Ponceau. 

JURISDICTIONAL, a. Pertaining to ju- 
risdiction ; us jurisdictional rights. 

JURISDICTIVE, a. Having jurisdiction. 


JURISPR.U'DENCE, n. [Fr. from L. juris- 
prudentia ; jus, law, and prudentia, sci- 

The science of law; the knowiedge of the 
laws, customs and rights of men in a 
state or community, necessary for the due 
administration of justice. 'V\w study of 
jurisprudence, next to that nl' theology, is 
the most important and useful to men. 

JURISPRUDENT, a. Understanding law. 


JURISPRUDENTIAL, a. Pertaining to ju- 
risprudence. Ward. 

JU'RIST, n. [Fr.,/un's/t; It. glurista ; S\7. 
jurista; frotn h. jus, juris, law.] 

1. A man who professes the science of law : 
one versed in the law, or more particu- 
larly, in the civil law ; a civilian. Bacon. 

2. One versed in the law of nations, or who 
writes on the subject. 

JUROR, n. [L. jurafor ; or rather juro, to 

One that serves on a jury ; one sworn to 
deliver the truth on the evidence given 
him concerning any matter in question or 
on trial. 

JU'RY, n. [Fr. jure, sworn, L. juro, to 

A number of freeholders, selected in the 
tiianner prescribed by law,empanneled and 
sworn to inquire into and try any matter 
of fact, and to declare the truth on the 
evidence given them in the case. Grand 
juries consist usually of twenty four free- 
holders at least, and are summoned to try 
matters alledged in indictments. Petty 
juries, consisting usually of twelve men, 
attend courts to try matters of fact in civil 
causes, and to decide both the law and 
the fact in criminal prosecutions. The 
decision of a petty jury is called a ver- 

JU'RYMAN, n. One who is empanneled on 
a jury, or who serves as a juror. 

JU'RYM'AST, n. A mast erected in a ship 
to supply the place of one carried away 
in a tempest or an engagement, &c. Tho 
most probable origin of the word ji'ry, in 
this compound, is that pro])Osed by Thom- 
son, viz. from the Fr. jour, day, quasi, 
jourc, temporary, or from L. juvare, to 

JUST, a. [Fr. juste ; Sp. justo ; It. giusto ; 
L. Justus. The primary sense is probably 
straight or close, from the sense of set- 
ting, erecting, or extending.] 

1. Regular; orderly; due; suitable. 

When all 
The war shall stand ranged in its jus/ array. 


2. Exactly proportioned ; proper. 
Pleascth your lordship 

To meet his grace, just disbince 'tween our 
armies ? Shak. 

3. Full ; complete to the common standard. 

He was a comely personage, a little above 
just sti'.ture. £acon. 




4. Full ; true ; a sense allied to the preced- 
ing, or the same. 

^So thai once the skirinisli was like to have 
come to a just battle. Kiwlles 

5. In a morcii sense, upright ; honest; having 
principles of rectitude ; or conforming ex- 
actly to the laws, and to principles of rec- 
titude in social conduct ; equitahle in the 
distribution of justice ; as a jusl judge. 

C. In an evangelical sense, righteous ; reli- 
gious ; influenced by a regard to the laws 
of God ; or living in e.xact conformity to 
the divine will. 

There is not a just man on earth, that doeth 
good, and sinneth not. Eccles. vii. 

7. Conformed to rules of justice ; doing equal 

Jusl balances, /i(s< weights, a just ephahand 
a just hin shall ye have. Lev. xi.x. 

8. Conformed to truth ; exact ; proper ; ac- 
curate ; as just thoughts ; just e.xpressions ; 
just images or representations; a just 
description; a. just inference. 

9. True ; founded in truth and fact ; as a. jusl 
charge or accusation. 

10. Innocent; blameless; without guilt. 

How should man be /»s( with God? Job ix. 

11. Equitable; due; merited; as a just rec- 
ompense or reward. 

— WTiose damnation is just. Rom. iii. 

12. True to promises; faithful; as jusl to 
one's word or engagements. 

13. Impartial ; allowing what is due ; giving 
fair representation of character, merit or 

.lUST, ade. Close or closely ; near or near- 
ly, in place. He stood just by the speak- 
er, and heard what he said. He stood 
just at the entrance of the city. 

9. Near or nearly in time; almost. Just at 
that moment he arose and fled. 

3. Exactly ; nicely ; accurately. They re- 
main jusl of the same opinion. 

"Tis with our judgments as our watches ; 

Go just alike, yet each believes his own. 


4. Merely ; barely ; exactly. 

— And having just enough, not covet more. 


5. Narrowly. He just escaped without in- 

.TUST, )i. [Fr. jouste, now joule ; Sp.jusla; 
Port. id. ; It. giostra ; probably from the 
root of jostle or justle. The primary sense 
is to thrust, to drive, to push.] 

A mock encounter on horseback ; a combat 
for sport or for exercise, in which the 
combatants pushed with lances and 
swords, man to man, in mock fight ; a 
tilt ; one of the exercises at tournaments. 


JUST, V. i. [Fr. jouter ; Sp. and Port, jiis- 
iar ; It. giostrarc.] 

1. To engage in mock fight on horseback. 

2. To push; to drive; to justle. 
JUriT'lCE, n. [Fr. ; ^p. justicia; \t. gius- 

tizia ; from 1,. jastitia, from ji«s(m.9, just.] 
2. The virtue which consists in giving to 
every one what is his due ; practical con 
formity to tlie laws and to principles of 
rectitude in the dealings of men with 
each other; honesty; integrity in com- 
merce or mutual intercourse. Justice is 
dist;-' or commutative. Dislnbulive 
justice belongs to magistrates or rulers, 


and consists in distributing to every man 
that right or equity which the laws and 
the principles of equity require; or in de- 
ciding controversies according to the laws 
and to principles of equity. Commutative 
justice consists in fair dealing in trade 
and mutual intercourse between man and 

2. Impartiality ; equal distribution of right 
in expressing opinions ; fair representa- 
tion of facts respecting merit or demerit. 
In criticisms, narrations, history or dis- 
course, it is a duty to do justice to every 

I man, whether friend or foe. 

3. Equity ; agreeableness to right ; as, he 
proved the justice of his claim. This 
should, in strictness, be just7iess. 

4. Vindictive retribution ; merited punish 
ment. Sooner or later, justice overtakes 
the criminal. 

Right; application of equity. His artn 
will do h'lm justice. 

[Low L. jusliciarius.] A person commis- 
sioned to hold courts, or to try and decide 
controversies and administer justice to 
individuals ; as the Chief Justice of the 
king's bench, or of the common pleas, 
in England ; the Chief Justice of the su- 
preme court in the United States, &c. 
and justices of the peace. 

JUST'ICE, V. t. To administer justice. 
[Little vsed.] Bacon. 

JUST'ICEABLE, a. Liable to account in a 
court of justice. [Little used.] Hayward. 

JUST'ICER, n. An administrator of justice. 
[Litlle used.] Bp. Hall. 

JUST'ICESHIP, n. The office or dignity 
of a justice. Swift. 

JUSTF'CIARY, } [L. jusliciarius.] An 

JUSTI"CIAR, S administrator of just- 
ice. Burke. 

2. A chief justice. Blackslone. 

3. One that boasts of the justice of his own 
act. [N'ol used.] Dering. 

JUSTIFIABLE, a. [from justify.] That 
may be proved to be just ; that may be 
vindicated on principles of law, reason, 
rectitude or propriety ; defensible ; vindi- 
cable. No breach of law or moral obli- 
gation is justifable. The execution of a 
malefactor in pursuance of a sentence of 
court, is justifable homicide. 

JUST'IFIABLENESS, n. The quality of 
being justifiable ; rectitude; possibility of 
being defended or vindicated. 

King Charles. 

JUSTIFIABLY, adv. In a manner that 
admits of vindication or justification ; 

JUSTIFICA'TION, n. [Fr. from justifer, 
to justify.] 

1. The act of justifying; a showing to be 
just or conformable to law, rectitude or 
propriety ; vindication ; defense. The 
court listened to the evidence and argu- 
ments in justif cation of the prisoner's con- 
duct. Our disobedience to God's com- 
mands admits no justification. 

2. Absolution. 
1 hope, lor my lnot]wt's justification, he wrote 

this but as an essay of my virtue. Shak. 

In law, the showing of a sufficient reason 


la _ 

in comt why a defendant diil what he is 
called to answer. Pleas in If cation 
nnist set forth some special matter. 
4. In theology, remission of sin anil absolu- 

tion from guilt and punishment ; or an 
act of free grace by which God pardons 
the sinner and accepts him as righteous, 
on account of the atonement of Christ. 

JUSTIF'ICATIVE, a. Justifying; that has 
power to justify. 

JUSTIFl€A'TOR, n. One who justifies. 
[Little used.] 

JUST'IFiER, n. One who justifies; one 
who vindicates, supports or defends. 

2. He who pardons and absolves from guilt 
and punishment. 

That he might be just, and the justifier of 
him who believeth in Jesus. Rom iii 

JUST'IFY, v.t. [Fr. justifer; Sp. justif car; 
It. giustif care ; L. Justus, just, and facia, 
to make.] 

1 To prove or show to be just, or conform- 
able to law, right, justice, propriety or 
duty; to defend or maintain; to vindi- 
cate as right. We cannot justify disobe- 
dience or ingratitude to our Maker. We 
cannot justify insult or incivility to our 
fellow men. Intemperance, lewdness, pro- 
faneness and dueling are in no case to be 

2. In theology, to pardon and clear from 
guilt ; to absolve or acquit from guilt and 
merited punishment, and to accept as 
righteous on account of the merits of the 
Savior, or by the application of Christ's 
atonement to the ofl^ender. St. Paul. 

3. To cause another to ap|)ear comparatively 
righteous, or less guilty than one's self. 
Ezek. .xvi. 

4. To judge rightly of 
Wisdom is ju.'itified by her children. Matt. 


5. To accept as just and treat witfal favor. 
James ii. 

JUST'IFY, V. i. In printing, to agree ; to 
suit ; to conform exactly ; to form an even 
surface or true line with something else. 
Types of different sizes will not justify 
with each other. 

JUS'TLE, V. i. jus'l. [See JosUe and Just.] 
To run against; to encounter; to strike 
against ; to clasli. 

The chariots shall rage in the streets ; they 
shall ju^^tle one against anolher in the broad 
ways. Nah. ii. 

JUS'TLE, v. t. jus'l. To push ; to drive ; to 
force by rushing against ; counnonly fol- 
lowed by off or out; as, to justle a thing 
off the table, or out of its place. 

JUST'LY, adv. [from ju.'it.] In conformily 
to law, justice or propriety ; by right. The 
offender is justly condemned. The hero 
is justly rewarded, applauded or hon- 

2. According to truth and facts. His char- 
acter \s justly described. 

3. Honestly ; fairly ; with integrity ; as, to 
do justly. Mir. vi. 

4. Properly ; accurately ; exactly. 
Their feet assi>t their hands, and justly beat 

the ground. Drydcn. 

JUST'NESS, n. Accuracy ; exactness ; as 
the Ji(.!U!f.?s of proportions. 

2. Conformity to truth ; as the justness of a 
description or rcpn'senlaliDn. 

3. Justice; reasonableness; c(piity; as the 
justness of a cause or of a demand. [Just- 
ness is properly applied to things, and 
justice to persons; but the distinction is 
not always observed.] 

JUT, t;. i. [a dillercnt spelling of je/.] To 

K A L 

K E C 

K E E 

shoot forward ; to project beyond the 
main hody ; as the jutting part of a build- 
in!,'. A point of land >/« into the sea. 

JUT, n. A shooting forward ; a projection. 

JUT'TING, o;>r. Shooting out; projectnig. 

JUT'TY, V. t. To jut. [yVot used.] Shak. 

JUT'TY, n. A projection in a building ; also, 
a pier or mole. 

JUT-WINDOW, n. A window that projects 
from the lino of a building. 

JUVENILE, a. [L. juvenilis, tiom juvenis, 
young.] _ 

1. Young ; youthful ; as juvenile years or 
age. I 

2. Pertaining or suited to youth; as juvenile 

JUVENILITY, n. Youthfulness; youthful 
age. Glanvilte. 

2. Light and careless manner ; the manners 
or customs of youth. Gtanville 

JUXTAPOS'ITED, a. [L.jwria, near, and 
posited.] Placed near ; adjacent or con- 
tiguous. .Macquer. 

JUXTAPOSITION, n. [L. juxta, near, 
and position.] 

A placing or being placed in nearness or 
contiguity ; as the parts of a substance or 
of a composition. The connection of 
words is sometimes to be ascertained by 


K, the eleventh letter of the English Al- 
phabet, is borrowed from the Greeks, be- 
ing the same character as the Greek 
kappa, answering to the oriental kaph. 
It represents a close articulation, formed 
by pressing the root of the tongue against 
the upper part of the mouth, with a de- 
pression of the lower jaw and opening of 
the tooth. It is usually denominated a 
guttural, but is nuire properly a palatal 
Bcfoix- all the vowels, it has one invariable 
aouud, corresponding with that of c, be 
fore a, o and «, as in keel, ken. In mono- 
syllables, it is used after c, as in crack, 
check, deck, being necessary to exhibit a 
correct pronunciation In the derivatives, 
cracked, checked, decked, cracking, for with 
out it, c, before the vowels e and i, would 
be sounded like «. 

Formerly, k was added to c, in certain 
words of Latin origin, as In mnsick, pub- 
lick, 7-epublick. But in modern i)ractice. A- 
is very properly omitted, being entirely 
superfluous, and the more properly, as it 
is never written in the derivatives, music- 
al, publication, republican. It is retained 
in traffick, as In monosyllables, on account 
of the prommciatiou of the derivatives, 
trafficked, trafficking. 

K is silent before n, as in know, knife, knee. 

As a numeral, K stands for 250 ; and with 
a stroke over it, thus, K, for 250,000. 

This character was not used by the ancient 
Romans, and rarely in the later ages of 
their empire. In the place of A:, they used 
c, as In clino, for the Greek x'f.uu. In the 
Teutonic dialects, this Greek letter is 
sometimes represented by h. [See H.] 

KAALING, n. A bird, a species of starling, 
found in China. 

KAB'BOS,jj. A fish of a biovvn color, with- 
out scales. 

KALE, ?i. [h. caulis ; 'W . cawl.] Sea-cale, 
an esculent plant of the genus Crambe. 

KAL'ENDAR, n. [See Calendar.] 

KA'LI, n. [Ar. t?Xj» the ashes of the 

Salicornia, from ^i,, kalai, to fry.] 

A plant, a species of Salsola, or glass-wort, 
the ashes of which are used in making 
glass. Hence alkali, which see. 

KA'LIF, n. [See Calif.] 

KAL'MIA, n. The name of a genus of ever- 
green shrubs, natives of N. America, call- 
ed laurel, ivy-bush, cahco-bush, &c. 
KAM, a. [W. cam.] Crooked. [JVot used.] 

KAN, i In Persia, an officer answering 
KAUN, > n. to a governor in Europe or 
KHAN, ) America. Among the Tartars, 

a chief or prince. [See Khan.] 
IKANGAROO', n. A singular animal found 
! In New Holland, resembling In some res 
pects the oi>ossum. It belongs to the ge- 
nus Didelphis. It has a small head, neck 
and shoulders, the body Increasing In 
thickness to the rump. The fore legs are 
very short, useless In walking, but used 
for diggitig or bringing food to the mouth. 
The hind legs, which are long, are used in 
moving, particularly in leaping. Encyc. 
KA'OLIN, )!. A species of earth or variety 
of clay, used as one of the two ingredients 
in the oriental porcelain. The other in- 
gredient Is called in China petunse. Its 
color is white, with a shade of gray, yel 
low or red. Encyc. Cleaveland. 

KAR'AGANE, n. A species of gray fox 
found in the Russian empire. Tooke. 

KARPH'OLITE, n. [Gr. xo^^oj, straw, and 

>.i9o5, a stone.] 
A mineral recently discovered. It has a 
fibrous structure and a yellow color. 

ff'emer. Cleaveland. 

KA'TA, n. In Syria, a fowl of the grous 

KAW, V. i. [from the sound.] To cry as a 

raven, crow or rook. Locke. 

KAW, n. The cry of the raven, crow or 

ook. Dryden. 

KAWN, n. In Turkey, a public inn. 

KAYLE, n. [Fr. qnille, a nine-pin, a keel.] 

1. A nine-pin, a kettle-pin ; sometimes writ- 
ten keel. Sidney. Careiv. 

2. A kind of play in Scotland, In which nine 
holes ranged In threes, are made in the 
ground, and an iron ball rolled in among 
them. Johnson. 

KECK, I'. J. [G. kiiken.] To heave the stom- 
ach ; to reach, as In an eftbrt to vomit. 
[Little used.] Bacon. Stoifl. 

KECK, (I. A reaching or heaving of the 
stomach. Cheyne. 

KECK'LE, V. t. [Qu. G. kugeln, to roll.]! 
To wind old rope round a cable to pre-[ 
serve its surface from being fretted, or tol 
wind iron chains round a cable to defend 

It from the friction of a rocky bottom, or 
from the ice. Mar. Diet. 

KECK'SY, n. [Qu. Fr. cigue, L. cicuta. It 
is said to be commonly pronounced kex.] 

Hemlock ; a hollow.jointed plant. [.\"ot tised 
in America.] Sliak. 

KECK'Y, a. Resembling a kex. 

2. An Indian scepter. Grew. 

KEDtiE, n. [allied probably to cag and keg.] 
A small anchor, used to keep a ship steady 
when riding in a harbor or river, and par- 
ticularly at the turn of the tide, to keep her 
clear of iier bower anchor, also to remove 
her from one part of a harbor to another, 
being carried out In a boat and let go, as 
in warping or kedglng. [Sometimes writ- 
ten kedger.] Mar. Did. 

KEDGE, V. t. To warp, as a ship ; to move 
by means of a kedge, as in a river. 

KED'LACK, n. X weed that grows among 
wheat and rye ; charlock. [/ believe not 
used in America.] Tnsser. Johnson. 

KEE, pbi. of coio. [Local in England and 
not used in America.] Gay. 

KEECH, n. A mass or lump. [JVb< in ««.] 


KEEL, n. [Sax.cffi/e; G. and D. Ke / ; Dan. 
kiil,kiol ; Russ. Ai7 ; Sw. khl ; Fr. quitte; 
Sp. quilla ; Port, quilha. The word. In dif- 
ferent languages, signifies a keel, a pin, 
kayle, and a quilt ; probably from extend- 


1. The principal timber in a ship, extending 
from stem to stern at the bottom, and sup- 
porting the whole frame. Mar. Diet. 

2. A low flat-bottomed vessel, used in the 
river Tyno, to convey coals from Newcas- 
tle for loading the colliers. 

3. In botany, the lower petal of a papiliona- 
ceous corol, inclosing the stamens and 
pistil. Martyn. 

False keel, a strong thick piece of timber, 
bolted to the bottom of the keel, to pre- 
serve It from injury. 

On an even keel, in a level or horizontal po- 

KEEL, i". /. [Sax. calan.] To cool. Ohs. 


KEEL, V. t. To plow with a keel ; to navi- 
gate. J. Barlow. 

2. To turn up the keel ; to show the bottom. 


To keel the pot, in Ireland, to scum it. 


KEE'LAgE, n. Duty paid for a sliip enter- 
ing Hartlepool, Eng. 

K E E 

K E E 

K E E 

KEE'LED, a. In botany, caiinated ; having 
a longitudinal ])roniini'nce on tlie back 
as a keeled leaf, ca lyx or nectary. Martyn. 

KEE'LFAT, n. [Sax. calan, to cool, and 
fat, vat.] 

A cooler; a vessel in wliicli liquor is set for 
cooling. [jVut used.] 

KEE'LIIAUL, V. t. [D. kielhaalen ; keel and 

To haul under the keel of a ship. Keel- 
hauling is a punishment inflicted in the 
Dutch navy for certain offenses. The of- 
fender is suspended by a rope from one 
yard arm, with weights on his legs, and a 
rope fastened to him, leading under the 
ship's bottom to the opposite yard arm 
and being let fall into the water, he is 
drawn under the ship's bottom and raised 
on the other side. Mar. Diet. 

KEE'LING, n. A kind of small cod, of 
which stock fish is made. 

KEELSON, n. kel'son. A piece of timber in 
a ship, laid on the middle of the floor tim 
liers over the keel, fastened with long 
bolts and clinched, and thus binding the 
floor timbers to the keel. Mar. Diet. 

KEEN, a. [Sax. cene ; G. kiihn ; D. koen ; 
properly, bold, stout, eager, daring, from 
shooting forward. Class Gn.] 

1. Eager ; vehement ; as hungry curs too 
keen at the sport. Toiler. 

The sheep were so keen on the acorns — 


2. Eager ; sharp ; as a keen ajjpetite. 

3. Sharp ; having a very fine edge ; as a 
keen razor, or a razor with a keeti edge. 
We say a keen edge, but a sharp point. 

4. Piercing ; penetrating ; severe ; apjjlied 
■ to cold or to wind ; as a keen wind ; the 

cold is very keen. 

5. Bitter ; piercing ; acrimonious ; as keen 
satire or sarcasm. 

Good father cardinal, cry thou amen. 
To my k^en curses. Shak. 

KEEN, V. t. To sharpen. [Unusual] 

KEE'NLY, adv. Eagerly; vehemently. 
2. Sharply ; severely ; bitterly. 
KEE'NNESS, n. Eagerness; vehemence; 
as the keenness of hunger. 

2. Sharpness ; fineness of edge ; as the keen- 
ness of a razor. 

3. The quality of piercing; rigor; sharp- 
ness ; as the keenness of the air or of cold. 

4. Asperity; acrimony ; bitterness ; as the 
keenness of satire, invective or sarcasm. 

5. Acuteness ; sharpness ; as the keenness of 

KEEP, V. t. pret. and pp. kept. [Sax. cepan, 
Syr. |.^3 kaba, Eth. O + fl akab, to 
keep. Class Gb. No. 68. 85. The word 
coincides in elements with have, L. haheo, 
and capio, but I think the radical sense to 
be dirtt^rcnt.] 

1. To hold ; to retain in one's power or pos 
.session ; not to lose or part with ; as, to 
keep a house or a farm ; to keep any thing 
in the memory, mind or heart. 

2. To have in custody for security or pres- 

Tlie crown of Stephanus, first king of Hun- 
gary, was always kept in the castle of Vice- 
grade. Knolles 

3. To preserve ; to retain. 

The Lord God, merciful and gracious, keep- 
ing mercy for thousands — Ex. sxxiv. 

To preserve from falling or from danger ; 
to protect; to guard or sustain. 

And behold, I am with thee, and will keep 
thee. Gen. xxviii. Luke iv. 
To hold or restrain from departme ; to 

— That I may know what keeps me here with 
you. Dryden. 

C. To tend ; to have the care of. 

And the Lord God took the man and put him 
in the garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it. 
Gen. ii. 

To tend ; to feed ; to pasture ; as, to keep 
a flock of sheep or a herd of cattle in a 
yard or in a field. He keeps his horses on 
oats or on hay. 

To preserve in any tenor or state. Keep 
a stiff" rain. 

Jieep the constitution sound. Addison 

9. To regard ; to attend to. 

While the stars and course of heaven I keep — 

Dryden . 

10. To hold in any state ; as, to keep in or- 

IL To continue any state, course or action ; 
as, to keep silence ; to keep the same road 
or the same pace ; to keep reading or talk- 
ing ; to keep a given distance. 

12. To practice ; to do or perform ; to obey; 
to observe in practice ; not to neglect or 
violate ; as, to keep the laws, statutes or 
commandments of God. Scripture 

13. To fulfill ; to perform ; as, to keep one's 
word, protnise or covenant. 

14. To practice ; to use habitually ; as, to 
keep bad hours. Pope 

15. To copy carefully. 
Her servant's eyes were fix'd upon her face. 
And as she moved or turned, her motions 

Her measures kejit, and step by step pursued. 

IG. To observe or solemnize. 

Ye shall keep it a feast to the Lord. Ex. xii. 

17. To board ; to maintain ; to supply with 
necessaries of life. The men are kepi at a 
moderate price per week. 

18. To have in the house ; to entertain ; as, 
to keep lodgers. 

10. To maintain ; not to intermit ; as,tokeep 
watch or guard. 

20. To hold in one's own bosom ; to confine 
to one's own knowledge ; not to disclose 
or communicate to others ; not to betray ; 
as, to keep a secret ; to keep one's own 

21. To have in pay; as, to keep a servant. 
To keep back, to reserve ; to withhold ; not to 

disclose or commmiicate. 

I will keep nothing fiac/r from you. Jer. xlii. 

2. To restrain ; to prevent from advancing. 
Keep back thy servant also from presumptu- 
ous sins. Ps. .\ix. 

3. To reserve ; to withhold ; not to deliver. 
Acts V. 

To keep company with, to frequent the soci 
ety of; to associate with. Let youth keep 
company iinth the wise and good. 

2. To accompany ; to go with ; as, to keep 
company with one on a journey or voyage 

To keep down, to prevent from rising ; not to 

lift or suflfer to be raised. 
To keep in, to prevent from escape ; to hold 

in confinement. 

3. To conceal ; not to tell or disclose. 
3. To restrain ; to curb. Locke. 
To keep off, to hinder from approadi or at 

tack : as, to keep off an enemy or an evil. 

To keep under, to restrain ; to hold in sub- 
jection ; as, to keep under an antagonist or 
a conquered country ; to keep under the 
appetites and passions. 

To keep up, to maintain ; to prevent from 
falling or diminution ; as, to keep up the 
price of goods ; to keep up one's credit. 

2. To maintain ; to continue ; to hinder from 

In joy, that which keeps up the action is the 
desire to continue it. Locke. 

To keep out, to hinder from entering or tak- 
ing possession. 

To keep bed, to remain in bed without rising : 
to be confined to one's bed. 

To keep house, to maintain a family state. 
His income enables him to keep house. 

2. To remain in the house ; to be confined. 
His feeble health obliges him to keep 

To keep from, to restrain ; to prevent ap- 

To keep a school, to maintain or support it : 
as, the town or its inhabitants keep ten 
ichoots ; more properly, to govern and in- 
struct or teach a school, as a preceptor. 

KEEP, V. i. To remain in any state; as, 
to keep at a distance ; to keep aloft ; to keep 
near ; to keep in the house ; to keep before 
or behind ; to keep in favor ; to keep out of 
company, or out of reach. 

2. To last ; to endure ; not to perish or be 
impaireil. Seek for winter's use apples 
that will keep. 

If the malt is not thoroughly dried, the ale it 
makes will not keep. Mortimer. 

3. To lodge ; to dwell ; to reside for a time. 
Knock at the study, where, they say, he keeps. 


To keep to, to adhere strictly; not to neglect 
or deviate from ; as, to keep to old cus- 
toms ; to keep to a rule ; to keep to one's word 
or promise. 

To keep on, to go forward ; to proceed ; to 
continue to advance. Dryden. 

To keep up, to remain unsubdued ; or not to 
be confined to one's bed. 

In popular language, this word signifies to 
continue ; to repeat continually ; not to 

KEEP,)!. Custody; guard. [Little used.] 


2. Colloquially, case ; condition ; as in good 
keep. English. 

3. Guardianship; restraint. [Little used.] 


4. A place of confinement ; in old castles, 
the dungeon. 

KEEPER, >!. One who keeps; one that 
holds or has possession of any thing. 

2. One who retains in custody ; one who has 
the care of a prison and the custody of 

3. One who has the care of a park or other 
inclosure, or the custody of beasts ; as the 
keeper of a |)ark, a pound, or of sheep. 

4. One who has the care, custody or super- 
intendence of any thing. 

In Great Rritain, the keeper of the great seal, 
is a lord by his ofllce, and one of the privy 
council. All royal grants, conmiissions and 
charters pass through his hands. He is 
constituted lord-keeper by the delivery of 
the great seal. The keeper of the privy 
seal is also a lord by his office, and a mem- 
ber of the privy council. 


K E R 

K E V 

KEE'PERSHIP, n. The office of a keei)er. 
[Little used.] Carew. 

KEE'PING, ppr. Holding ; restraining ; 
preserving ; guarding ; protecting ; per- 

KEE'PING, n. A holding ; restraint ; cus- 
tody ; guard ; preservation. 

2. Feed ; fodder. The cattle have good 

3. In painting, a representation of objects in 
the manner they appear to the eye at dif- 
ferent distances from it. 

KEE'PSAKE,n. Any thing kept, or given to 
be kept for the sake of the giver ; a token 
of friendship. 

KEF'FEKIL, n. A stone, white or yellow, 
which hardens in the fire, and of which 
Turkey pipes are made. JSi'icholson. 

KEG, ji. [Fr. caque.] A small cask or bar- 
rel ; written more correctly cag. 

KELL, n. A sort of pottage. [jVot used in 
Jlmerica.] ./linsworth. 

KELL, n. The caul or omentum. [See 
Caul, the usual orthography of the word.] 


2. The chrysalis of the caterpillar. B. Jonson. 

KELP, n. [Ar. and Pers.] The calcined ash- 
es of sea weed, used in the manufactu 
of glass. This is a dark colored alkaline 
substance, which, in a furnace, vitrifies and 
becomes transparent. Encyc. 

KELP'Y, n. An imaginary spirit of the wa 
ters, in the form of a hoise. [Local and 

KEL'SON. [See Keelson.] 

KELT'ER, n. [Dan. kilter, to gird, to truss 
up ; kitte, a folding.] 

The (jhrase, he is not in kelter, signifies, he is 
not in a proper dress or equipage, or not 
in readiness. 

KEMB, V. t. [Sax. cemban, to comb] To 
comb, which see. Kemb is an obsolete or- 
thography. B. Jonson. Dri/dcn. 

KERI'ELIN, n. [Qu.Gr. xftjw);7.ioi', furniture.] 
A tub ; a brewer's vessel. [JVot in use.] 


KEN, V. t. [W. ceniaw, to see; ctiniaw, to 
take a view, to perceive ; which Owen de- 
duces from can, coin, clear, bright, fair, 
white, and sii;ht, brightness, and this coin- 
cides with L. canus, white, caneo, to be 
white, and this with L. cano, to sing, canto 
Eng. to cant, to chant. These coincide in 
elements with G. kennen, to know, erken- 
ntn, to see, know, discern ; D. kennen. 
Sw. kunna, Dan. kiender, to know, to be 
able ; Sa.\. connan, cunnan, Goth, kunnan, 
to know. In Sa.x. cennan is to bear, L. 
gigno, Gr. ytmau. The radical sense is to 
strain, extend, reach. In Sans, kanna is 
an eye. See Can.] 

1. To see at a distance ; to descry. 

Wc ken them fioni alUr. Jlddison. 

3. To know ; to understand. Obs. Shak. Gay. 

[This verb is used chiejly in poetry.] 
KEN, V. i. To look round. Burton. 

KEN, n. View; reach of sight. 

Coasting they kciit the land within tlieir AeH. 


KEN'DAL-GREEN, n. A species of green 

cloth made of kriulal. Shak. 

KEN'NEL, n. [Vr.chenil ; h.canile ; from 

L. canis, a dog.] 

1. A house or cot fur dogs, or for a pack of 

2. A pack of hounds or their cry. Encyc. 

3. The hole of a fox or other beast ; a haunt. 
KEN'NEL, n. [U.canale; Fr. canal ; Eng. 

1. The water-coinse of a street ; a little ca- 
nal or channel. 

2. A |)uddle. 
KEN'NEL, I', t. To lodge ; to lie ; to dwell ; 

as a dog or a fox. 

The (log kenneled in a hollow tree. 


To keep or confine in a 


View ; sight. Bacon. 

[VV. cant, a hundred ; L, 

V. I. 

, n. 




In commerce, a hundred pounds in weight; 
as a kentk of fish. [It is written and pro 
nounced also quintal.] 

KENT'LEDtiE, ?!. In seamen's language, 
pigs of iron for ballast laid on the floor of 
a ship. Mar. Diet. 

KEPT, pret. and pp. of keep. 


KERCHIEF, n. [contracted from cover- 
chief; E'r. coMiviV, to cover, and chef, the 
head. Chaitcer.] 

1. A head dress ; a cloth to cover the head. 

A cloth used in dress. Hayward. 

The word is now seldom used, except in its 
compound, handkerchief, and sometimes 

KER'CHIEFED, > Dressed ; hooded ; 

KER'CHIEFT, (,"■ covered. MUton 

KERF, ?!. [Sax. cyrf; ceorfan, cearfan, to 
cut, Eng. to carve ; D. kerf, a notch ; ker- 
vcn,to cut; G. kerb,kerben, Ir. cearb.] 

The cut of an ax, a saw, or other instru- 
ment ; the notch or slit made in wood by 

KERM'ES, n. [Ar. 

kiriniran, coc- 

cus baphica. Castelt.] 

In zoology, an insect produced in the ex- 
crescences of a species of small oak, or the 
body of an insect transformed into a grain, 
berry, or husk. This body is full of red 
dish juice, which is used in dyeing red. 
Hence the word cri'mTO/i. Enci/c. 

KERM'ES-MINERAL, n. A mineral siih 
stance, so called from its color. It is a 
precipitate of antimony, obtained by fu- 
sion with a fixed alkali and subsequent so 
luticn in boiling water, or by simple ebul- 
lition. JVicholson. Encyc. 

KERN, n. An Irish footman or foot-soldier. 


2. In English laws, an idle person or vaga 
bond. Encyc. 

iKERN, n. A hand-mill consisting of two 

I stones, one of which is turned by the hand ; 

I usually written gwfrn, which see. 

2. A churn. Obs. 

iKERN, r. i. [G. and D. kern, a kernel ; G. 

I kei-ticn, to ciudle.] 

11. To harden, as corn in ripening. Carew. 

2. To take the form of corns ; to granulate. 

I Crete. 

KERN'-BABY, n. [corn-baby.] An image 

I dressed with corn, and carried before 

I reapers to their liarvest-home. 

KP^RN'EL, n. [Sax. cyrnel, a little corn 
grain or nut ; G. and D. kern ; Fr. cer- 
neau ; W. ciraren, a gland, a kernel.] 

i. The edible substance contained in the 
shell of a nut. .Wore. 

2. Any thing included in a shell, husk or in- 
tegument ; a grain or corn ; as a kernel of 
wheat or oats. 

3. The seed of pulpy fruit ; as the kernel of 
an apple. Bacon. 

The central part of any thing; a small 
mass around which other matter is con 
creted ; a nucleus. Jlrbuthnot. 

5. A hard concretion in the flesh. 

KERNEL, t'. i. To harden or ripen into 
kernels ; as the seeds of plauts. 

KERN'ELLY, a. Full of kernels ; resem- 
bling kernels. 

KERSEY, n. [\i. kerzaai; Fr.carisct; Sp. 

A species of coarse woolen clolh; a coarse 
stuff made chiefly in Kent and Devon- 
shire in England. Encyc. 

KERVE, r. t. To carve. [Xot used.] 

jKERV'ER, n. A carver. IA'o( used.] 

KE'SAR, n. [from Cesar!] .^n emperor. 
Obs. Spenser. 

KESTREL, n. A fowl of the genus Falco, 
or hawk kind ; called also stannel and 
iirindhover. It builds in hollow oaks, and 
feeds on quails and other small birds. 


KETCH, 71. [Fr. quaiche ; G. and D. kits.] 
A vessel with two masts, a main and miz- 
cii-mast, usually from JOO to 250 tons bur- 
den. Ketches are generally used as yachts 
or as bomb-vessels. The latter are called 
bomb-ketches. Mar. Did. 

KETCHUP, n. A sauce. [See Catchup.] 

KET'TLE, n. [Sax. cell, cetel or cylel; G. 
kessel ; D. kefel ; Dan. kedel ; S\v. kitttl ; 
Russ. kotel.] 

A vessel of iron or other metal, with a wide 
mouth, usually without a cover, used for 
heating and boiling water or other liquor. 

Among the Tartars, a kettle represents a 
family, or as many as feed from one ket- 

Among Me Dtitch, a battery of mortars simk 
in the earth, is called a kettle. Encyc. 

KET'TLE-DRLM, n. An instrument of 
martial music, composed of two basins of 
copper or brass, rounded at the bottoni 
and covered with vellum or goat-skin. 


KET'TLE-DRUMMER, n. The man who 
beats the kettle-drum. 

KET"rLE-PINS, ;i. Ninepins; skittles. 
iKEV 'EL, ?!. In ships, a i)iece of timber 
serving to belay the slieets or great ropes 
by which the bottoms of the fore-sail and 
main-sail are extended. Mar. Dirt. 

|KEX, n. Hemlock; the stem of the teasel; 
a dry stalk. [See Kecksy.] 

KEY, n. ke. [Sa.\. ca-g.] In a general sense, 
a fastener; that which fastens; as apiece 
of wood in the frame of a builditig, or in a 
chain, &c. 

2. An instrun/cnt for shutting or opening a 
lock, by pushing the bolt one way or the 
other. Keys are of various forms, and 
fitted to the wards of the locks to wliicb 
they belong. 

3. -An instrument by which something is 
screwed or turned ; as the key of a watch 
or other chronometer. 

4. The stone which hinds an arch. [See 

K I C 

K I D 

K I L 

5. In an organ or harpsichord, the key, or fin 
ger key is a little lever or piece in the fore 
jiart by which the instrument is played on 
by the fingers. 

0. In music, the key, or key note, is the fun- 
damental note or tone, to which the whole 
piece is accommodated, and with which it 
usually begins and always ends. There 
are two keys, one of the major, and one of 
the minor mode. Key sometimes signifie; 
a scale or system of intervals. Rousseau. 

7. An index, or that which serves to explain 
a cypher. Hence, 

8. That which serves to explain any thing 
difficult to be understood. 

9. In the Romish church, ecclesiastical juris 
diction, or the ])Ower of the pope ; or the 
power of excommunicating or absolving. 


10. A ledge or lay of rocks near the surtace 
of the water. 

11. The husk containing the seed of an ash. 


KEY, n. [Jr. ceigh; D. kaai ; G. kai ; Fr. 
quai ; Arm. qae. The word is probably 
contracted from the root of the preceding 
word, signifying, to hold, make fast, re- 
strain. Class Cg.] 

A bank or wharf built on the side of a river 
or harbor, for the convenience of loading 
and unloading ships, and securing them in 
their stations. Hence keys are furnished 
with posts, rings, cranes, capstans, &c. 
It is sometimes written quay. Encyc. 

KE'YAgE, n. Money paid for the use of a 
key or quay. 

KE'Y-eOLD, a. Lifeless. [ATotinvse.] 

KE'YED, a. Furnished with keys ; as a 
keyed insU'ument. 

2. Set to a key, as a tune. 

KE'YIIOLE, 71. A hole or aperture in a 
door or lock, for receiving a key. 

KE'YSTONE, n. The stone on the top or 
middle of an arch or vaidt, which being 
wider at the top than at the bottom, enters 
like a wedge and binds the work; proper- 
ly, the fastening-stone. 

KHAN, n. kaun. In Wsi'a, a governor; a 
king ; a prince ; a chief. In Persia, the 
word denotes the governor of a province; 
among the Tartars, it is equivalent to 
king or prince. Eton. 

2. An inn. 

KHANATE, n. kaun'ate. The dominion or 
jurisdiction of a khan. Tooke. 

KIBE, n. [This word has the elements of 
chajp, gap, gape. Class Gb. No. 7. Per- 

haps it is of Persian origin, • .v^i ^^ 

kafidan, to crack, to split. Qu. Dan. kiebe. 

the chops.] 
A chap or crack in the flesh occasioned by 

cold ; an ulcerated chilblain ; as in the 

KI'BED, a. Chapped ; cracked with cold 

affected with chilblains ; as kibed heels. 

KI'BY, a. Affected with kibes. 
KICK, V. t. [W. ciciaw, from etc, the foot. 

Owen. Pers. 


a kicking.] 

To strike with the foot ; as, a horse kicks a 
servant ; a man kicks a dog. 

KICK, V. i. To practice striking with the foot 

or feet ; as a horse accustomed to kick. 
2. To thrust out the foot or feet with vio- 
lence, either in wantonness, resistance, 
anger or contempt ; to manifest opposition. 

Wherefore kick ye at my sacrifice ? 1 Sam. 

Jeshurun waxed fat anJ kicked. Deut. xxxii. 

It is hai'd for thee to kick against the goads. 
Acts ix. 

KICK, n. A blow with the foot or feet ; a 

striking or thrust of the foot. 
KICK'ED, pp. Struck with the foot or feet. 
KICK'ER, n. One that kicks. 
KICK'ING, ppr. Striking with the foot; 

thrusting out the foot with violence. 
KICK'ING, n. The act of striking with the 

foot, or of yerking the foot with violence. 

What cannot be effected by kicking, may 

sometimes be done by coaxing. 
KICK'SHAW, n. [corrupted from Fr. gweZ- 

que chose, something.] 

1. Something fantastical or uncommon, or 
something that has no particular name. 

2. A dish so changed by cooking, that it can 
scarcely be known. Johyiso7i. 

KICK'SilOE, »!. A dancer, in contempt ; a 

caperer ; a buffoon. [A word used only 

by Milton.] 
KID, n. [Dan. kid ; Sw. kid,kidling ; W. cidus, 

a goat, cidysen, a young goat ; L. hadus ; 

vulgar Gr. yiSa; Sans, ada ; Turk. getsi; 

Heb. Ch. nj ; Syr. i*,.^v ''• '^i*^' i Russ. 
kidayu, to throw, to bring forth young.] 

1. A young goat. 

2. A faggot; a bundle of heath and furze. 


KID, V. t. or i. To bring forth a young goat. 

2. To make into a bundle, as faggots. Eng. 

KID, V. t. [Sax. cythan.] To show, discover 
or make known. Obs. Gower. 

KID'DER, n. [Sw. kyta, to truck.] An en- 
grosser of corn, or one who carries corn, 
provisions and merchandize about the 
country for sale. Eiig. 

KID'DLE, ti. A kind of wear in a river for 

catching fish ; corruptly pronounced kitlle. 

Mag. Chartn. 

KID'DOW, n. A web-footed fowl, called al- 
so guillemot, sea-hen, or skout. 


KID'LING, n. [Sw.] A young kid. 


KID'NAP, V. t. [G. kinderdieh ; D. kinder- 
dief, child-thief Kid is usually supposed 
to be contracted frotn kind, a child, in 
which case, nap may be the oriental 33J, 
to steal. See Knab.] 

To steal a human being, man, woman or 
child ; or to seize and forcibly carry away 
any person whatever from his own coun- 
try or state into another. Encyc. 

Kip'NAPPED, pp. Stolen or forcibly car- 
ried away ; as a human being. 

KID'NAPPER, n. One who steals or forci 
bly carries away a human being ; a man 

KID'NAPPING, ppr. Stealing or forcibly 
carrying away human beings. 

KID'NAPPING, n. The act of stealing, or 
forcible abduction of a human being fron 
his own country or state. This crime was 
capital by the Jewish law, and in modern 
times is highly penal. 

KIDNEY, n. [I have not found this word 
in any other language.] 

1. The kidneys are two oblong flattened 
bodies, extending from the eleventh and 
twelfth ribs to the fourth lumbar verte- 
bra, behind the intestines. Their use is to 
separate the urine from the blood. 

Parr. Quincy. 

2. Sort; kind. [Jl ludicroits use of the word.] 
^ , Shak. 

3. A cant term for a waiting servant. 


KIDNEY-BEAN, n. A sort of bean so na- 
med from its resemblance to the kidney. 
It is of the genus Phaseolus. 

KIDNEY-FORM , } „ Having the form 

KID'NE Y-SHAPED, ] "• or shape of a kid- 
^^y- Kirwan. 

KIDNEY-VETCH, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus Anthyllis. 

KIDNEY- WORT, ji. A plant of the genus 

KIF'FEKILL, > „ A mineral, the meer- 

KEF'FEKILL, S schaum, which see. 

KIL, n. A Dutch word, signifying a channel 
or bed of a river, and hence a stream. 

KIL'DERKIN, n. [Qu. D. kinderkin.] A 
small barrel ; a liquid measure containing 
two firkins, or 16 or 18 gallons. Encyc. 

KILL, I', t. [The Dutch has keel, the throat, 
and keelen, to cut the throat, to kill. In 
Russ. kolyu is to stab. But this word 
seems to be allied to Sax. cwell<in, to kill, 
to quell, that is, to beat down, to lay ; and 
if so, it may be connected witJi D. kwellen, 
G. qualen, Sw. qualia, Dan. quceler, to tor- 
ment, but in Danish to .stifle, choke or 
quell. This affinity is rendered probable 
by the seamen's phrase, to kill the wind, 
that is, to allay or destroy it.] 

1. To deprive of life, animal or vegetable, in 
any manner or by atiy means. To kill an 
animal or a plant, is to put an end to the 
vital functions, either by destroying or es- 
sentially injuring the organs necessary to 
life, or by causing them to cease from ac- 
tion. An animal may be killed by the 
sword or by poison, by disease or by suf- 
focation. A strong solution of salt will 
kill plants. 

2. To butcher : to slaughter for food ; as, to 
kill an ox. 

3. To quell ; to appease ; to calm ; to still ; 
as, in seamen's language, a shower of 
rain kills the wind. 

KIL'LAS, n. An argillaceous stone of a 
pale gray or greenish gray, of a lamellar 
or coarsely granular texture, found in 
Cornwall, England. JVicholson. 

KILL'DEE, n. A small bird in America, sp 
called from its voice or note ; a species of 

KILL'ED, pp. Deprived of life ; quelled ; 

KILLER, n. One who deprives of life; he 
or that which kills. 

KILL'ING, ppr. Depriving of life ; quell- 

KIL'LINITE, n. A mineral, a variety of 
spodumene, found at Killeney, in Ireland. 


KIL'LOW, n. An earth of a blackish or 
deep blue color. Jl'oodirard. 

KILN, Jl. kil. ISux. cyln, from n//fHc, a fur- 
nace or kitchen ; t. culina ; W. cyt and 


K I N 

K 1 N 

1. A large stove or oven ; a fabric of brick 
or stone which may be heated for the pur- 
pose of liardening, burning or drying any 
tiling ; as a kiln for baking or hardening 
earthen vessels ; a kiln for drying grain 
or nictil. 

2. A pile of l)rick constructed for burning or 
hanleninf; ; called also a brick-kiln. 

KIL'N-DRIEU, pp. Dried in a kiln. 

KlL'N-DRy, i'. t. kil-dnj. To dry in a kiln ; 
as, to kiln-dru meal or grain. 

KlL'N-DR'ilNfi, ppr. Drying in a kiln. 

KIL'OGRAM, V. [V<: kilogramme ; Gr.l 
;^i>.iot, a thousand, and ypau^ia. See Gram.] 

In the new system of French weights and 
measures, a thousand grams. According! 
to Lunier, the kilogram is equal in weight, 
to a cubic decimeter of water, or two 
pounds, five drams and a half. 

KIL'OLITER, »i. [Vr. kilolitre ; Gr. a:AK>c,' 
a thousand, and xirpa, u Greek measure. 
See Liter.] 

In the new French nioasuies, a thojisand li- 
ters; or 2CJ tiailoiis and 44,231 cubic in- 
ches. Aeconliiig to Lunier, it is nearly 
equal to a tun of wine of Bourdoaiix. 

KILOM'KTKli, n. [Fr. kilometre ; Gr. 
ZO.1.01., a lllou^und, aud /ufrpoi', u meter.] 

In the French system of measures, a thou- 
sand meters ; the meter being the unit of 
bnear measure. The kilometer is nearly 
equal to a quarter of a French league. 


KIT.T, n. A kind of short petticoat worn by| 
the highlauders of Scotland. 

KILT, pp. Killed. Ohs. 

KIM'IJO, I [probablv from the Celtic 

KIM'BOW, ^ "• cam, crooked. Tlie Italian 
sghembo, crooked, awry, is from the same 

Crooked ; arched ; bent ; as a kimbo handle. 


To set the arms a kimhn, is to set the hands 
on the hips, with the elbows projecting! 
outward. j 

KIN, n. [Sax. n/», rynn, or ciitd, gerynd,\ 
kind, geiuis, race, relation ; Ir. cine ; G.i 
Atnrf, a child ; D. kind ; W. cenal, ccnaut ; 
L.genvs; Gr. •yf^05 ; connected with L. 

figno, geno, Gr. yiro/toi. Class Gn. No. 
9. See Begin.] 

1. Relation, properly by consanguinity or 
blood, but perhaps sometimes used for re- 
lation by affinity or marriage. 

This nitin is of kin to me. 

Bacon. Drydin. 

2. Relatives ; kindred ; persons of the same 

— The father, mother and the kin beside. 


3. A relation ; a relative. Davies. 

4. The same generical class ; a thing rela- 

And the car-deafening voice of th' oracle. 
Kin to Jove's thunder. Shak. 

5. As a termination, kin is used as a dimin- 
utive, denoting small, from the sense of 
cWW; as in manikin, a little man ; Tom- 
kin, Jf'ilkin, Pipkin. 

KIN, a. Of the same nature ; kindred ; con- 
gpma]. Chaucer.', 

KIN'ATE, ». .\ salt formed by the union of 
kinic acid with a base. " Jjre.\ 

KIND, n. [Sax. cyn, or cynn. See Kin.] 

1. Race ; genus ; generic class ; as in mon-| 

Vol. II. 

kind or humantinrf. In technical lan- 
guage, kind answers to genits. 

2. Sort, in a sense more loose than gciuis; 
as, there are several kinds of eloquence 
and of style, many kinds of music, many 
kinds of govermnent, various kinds of ar- 
chitecliue or of painting, various kinds of 
soil, &c 

■3. Particular nature ; as laws most perfect 
in their kind. Baker. 

4. Natural state; produce or commodity, as 
distinguished from money ; as taxes paid 
in kind. 

5. Nature; natural propensity or determina- 

Some of you, on pure instinct of nature 
Arc led by kind I' admire your fellow creature. 


6. Manner ; way. [Lillle vsed.] Bacon. 

7. Sort. He spoke with a kind of scorn or 

KIND, a. [W. and Arm. c«n, kind, favora- 
ble, attractive. In Ir. ceann, is aflection. 
This word would seem to be connected 
with the preceding, but in sense it coin- 
cides best with the Teutonic gunstig, fa- 
vorable, kind, from G. gonnen, to be glad 
or pleased, to love to see, to favor, D. 
gunnen, to grant or vouchsafe.] 

1. Disposed to do good to others, and to 

make them happy by granting their re- 
quests, supplying their wauls or assist 
ing them in distress; having tenderness 
or goodness of nature ; benevolent ; be 

God is kind to the unthankful, and to the 
evil. Luke vi. 

Be ye kind one to another, tender-hearted 
Eph. iv. 

Proceeding from tenderness or goodness 

of heart ; benc\oleut; as a Aiwrf act ; a 

kind return of fa\or.s. 
KIND'ED, a. Begotten. Obs. [See AVii.] 

KIN'DLE, V. /. [VV. cynneu; h. accendo ; 

from the root oi candeo, caneo, to be light 

or white, to shine.] 

1. To set on fire ; to cause to burn willi 
flame ; to light ; as, to kindle a fire. 

2. To inflame, as the passions; to e.xasper- 
ate ; to rouse ; to provoke ; to excite to ac- 
tion; to heat; to lire ; to animate; as, to 
kindle anger or wrath ; to kindle resent- 
ment ; to kindle the flame of love, or love 
into a flame. 

So is a contentious woman to kindle strife 
Prov. sxvi. 

To bring forth. [Sax. cennan.] [jVotused.] 

KIN'DLE, V. i. To take fire ; to begin to! 

biirn vyith flame. Fuel and lire well laid 

will kindle without a bellows. 
2. To begin to rage, or be violently excited ; 

to be roused or exasperated. 

It shall kindle in the thickets of the forest 
Is. ix. 

KINDLED, pp. Set on fire ; inflamed ; ex- 
cited into action. 

KIN'DLER, n. He or that which kindles or 
.sets on fire. 

KiNDLESS, a. Destitute of kindness; un- 
iiaU'ral. Shak. 

KINDLINESS, n. Aflection; affectionate 
disposition ; benignity. 

2. Natural disposition. Milfoil. 


KIN'DLING, p/jr. Setting on fire; causing 
to burn with llame ; exciting into action. 

KINDLY, o. [See Aznrf, the noun.] Ilomo- 
gcneal; congenial; kindred; of the same 
nature. This Johnson supposes to be the 
original sense ; hut it is also used as a de- 
rivative of the adjective, in the sense of 

2. Mild ; bland ; softening ; as kiyidly show- 
<"••«■ Prior. 

KINDLY, adv. With good will ; with a dis- 
position to make others haiijiv or to oblige ; 
benevolently ; favorably. Let the poor°be 
treated kindly. 

Ke kindly affectioned one to another, with 
brotherly love — Rom. xii. 

And he comforted ihcni, and spake kindlu 
unto tliem. Gen. 1. 

KINDNESS, n. [from kind, the adjective.] 

1. Good will : benevolence ; that temper or 
disposition which delights in contributing 
to the hapjiiness of others, which is exer- 
cised cheerfully in gratilying their wishes, 
supplying their wants oi" alleviatiufr their 
distresses; benignity of nature. Kindness 
ever accompanies love. 

There is no man whose kindness we may not 
sometime want, or by whose malice we may 
not sometime suffer. Rambler. 

Act of good will ; beneficence; any act of 
benevolence which promotes the "happi- 
ness or welfare of others. Charity, hos- 
pitahty, attentions to the wants of others, 
&c., are deemed acts of kindness, or kind- 
nesses. Acts xxviii. 

KIK'DRED, n. [from kin, kind; Sax. 
cynren ; \V. cenal, cenedyl.] 

I. Relation by birth ; cnnsanguinity. 

Like her, of equal kindred to the throne. 

Relation by marriage; affinity. 
Relatives by blood or marriage, more 
properly the" former. 

1 hou shalt njo unto my country and to my 
kindred. Gen. xxiv. 

4. Relation ; suit ; connection in kind. 


KIN'DRED, a. Related; congenial; of the 
like nature or properties ; as kindred souls ; 
kindred skies. Dryden. 

KINE, plu. of cow ; D. koeyen. But coics, 
the regular iilural, is now iii general use. 

KING, n. [Sax. cyng, cynig, or cyning ; G. 
kcimg; D. koning; iiw. koniing, kiing ; 
Dan. kongc; W. cihi, achief, a leader, one 
that attracts or draws. If the Welsh word 
is the same or of the same family, it proves 
that the primary sense is a leader, a guide, 
or one who goes before, for the radical 
sense of the verb must be to draic. It 
coincides in elements with the Ir. cean, 
head, and with the oriental khan, or kaun. 
The primary seuse is probably a head, a 

1. The chief or sovereign of a nation; a 
man invested with supreme authority over 
a nation, tribe or country ; a monarch. 
Kings are absolute monarchs, when they 
possess the powers of government with- 
out control, or the entire sovereignty over 
a nation ; they arc limited monarchs^ when 
their power is restrained by fixed laws; 
and they are absolute, when they possess 
the whole legislative, judicial, and execu- 
tive power, or when tlie legislative or ju- 
dicial powers, or both, are vested in other 
bodies of men. Kings are hereditary sove- 
reigns, when they hold the powers of gov- 

K I N 

K I S 

K N A 

Pi-ninenl by right of birth or inheritance, 
and elective, when raised to the throne by 

Kin^s will be tyrants from policy, when sub- 
jects are rebels from principle. Burke. 

2. A sovereign ; a prince ; a ruler. Christ 
is called the king of liis church. Ps. iu 

3. A card having the picture of a king ; as 
the king of diamonds. 

4. Tlie cliief piece in thegaine of chess. 
King at arms, an officer in England of great 

antiquity, and formerly of great authority, 
wliose business is to direct the heralds, 
preside at their cha])ters, and have the 
jurisdiction of armory. There are three 
kings at arms, viz. garter, clarencieux, 
i\nd norroy. The latter [northroy] offi- 
ciates north of the Trent. Encyc. 

KING, V. t. In ludicrous language, to supply 
with a king, or to make royal ; to raise to 
royalty. Shak. 

KING'APPLE, 71. A kind of apple, so 

KING'S BENCH, n. A high court or tribu- 
nal in England; so called because the king 
used to si^ there in person. It is the su- 
preme court of common law, consisting of 
a chief justice and three other justices. 


KINGBIRD, n. A fowl of the genus Para- 
disea ; also, a species of the genus Musci- 
capa, so called from its courage in attack- 
ing larger fowls. 

KING'€R>AFT, n. The craft of kings; the 
act of governing ; iisitally in a bad sense. 

KING'€UP, n. A flower, crowfoot. Gay. 

KING'S-EVIL, n. A disease of the scrofu- 
lous kind. 

K'ING FISHER, w. A fowl of the genus 

KING'S-SPEAR, ?i. A plant of the genus 

KING'STONE, n. A fish. Ainsworth. 

KING'DOM, H. [king and dom, jurisdic- 

I. The territory or country subject to a king ; 
an undivided territory under the domin- 
ion of a king or monarch. The foreign 
possessions of a king are not usually inclu- 
ded in the term kingdom. Thus we speak 
of the kingdom of England, of France or 
of Spain, without including the East or 
West Indies. 

3. The inhabitants or population subject to 
a king. The whole kingdom was alarmed. 

3.- In natural history, a division ; as the ani- 
mal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. 

4. A region ; a tract ; the place where any 
thing prevails and holds sway ; as the 
watery kingdom. Shak. 

5. In Scripture, the government or universal 
dominion of God. 1 Chron. x.xix. Ps. 

6. The power of supreme administration. 
1 Sam. xviii. 

7. A princely nation or state. 

Ve shall be unto me a kingdom of priests. 
Ex. xix. 

8. Heaven. Matt. xxvi. 

9. State of glory in heaven. Matt. r. 

10. The reign of the Messiah. Matt. iii. 

II. Government; rule: supreme adminis 

KING'DOMED, a. Proud of royalty. 


KING'IIOOD, ji. State of being a king. 

Obs. Gower. 

KING'LESS, a. Having no king. Byron. 
KING'LIKE, a. Likeakiiig. 
KING'LING, n. A httle king. 
KING'LY, a. Belonging to a king; suitable 

to a king ; as a kingly couch. Shak. 

2. Royal ; sovereign ; niouarcbical ; as a 
kingly government. 

3. Noble ; august ; splendid j becoming a 
king ; as kingly magnificence. 

KING'LY, adv. With an air of royalty ; with 
a superior dignity. 
Low bow'd the rest ; he, kingly, did but nod. 


KING'SHIP, n. Royalty; the state, office 
or dignity of a king. King Charles. 

KIN'I€, a. Pertaining to cinchona; as 
the kinic acid. Ure. 

KINK, n. [Svv. kink, D. kink, a bend or 
turn. Qu. L. cingo.] 

The twist of a rope or thread, occasioned by 
a spontaneous winding of the rope or 
thread when doubled, that is, by an effort 
of hard twisted ropes or threads to un- 
twist, they wind about each other. 

KINK, V. i. To wind into a kink; to twist 

KINK'HAUST, n. The chincough. [JVot 

KI'NO, )!. An astringent resin obtained 
from an African tree. Hooper. 

&'iHa consists of tannin and extractive. 


KINS'FOLK, ». [kin and folk.] Relations 
kindred ; persons of the same family 

KINS'MAN, n. [kin and man.] A man of 
the same race or family ; one related by 
blood. Dryden. 

KINS'WoMAN, Ji. A female relation. 


KI1"PER, n. A term applied to a salmon, 
when unfit to be taken, and to the time 
when they are so considered. Eng. 

KIRK, n. kurk. [Sax. cyrc or ciric ; Gr. 
xiiptaxj;, from xvptoj, lord.] 

In Scotland, a church. This is the same 
word as church, differently written and 
pronounced. [See Church.] 

KIRK'MAN, n. One of the church of Scot- 

KIR'TLE,;Ji. ker'tl. [Sa.x.cyrtel ;Sw. kiortel] 

1. An upper garment ; a gown ; a petticoat ; 
a short jacket ; a mantle. 

Johnson. Encyc. 

2. A rpiantity of flax, about a hundred 
pounds. Encyc. 

[I know not that this word is used in 

KIR'TLED, a. Wearing a kirtle. 
KISS, V. t. [Sax. cyssan; G. kilsstn; D. 

kuschen ; Sw. kyssa ; Uan. kysser.] 

1. To salute with the lips. 

2. To treat with fondness ; to caress. 
The hearts of princes kiss obedience. 


3. To touch gently. 

When the sweet wind did gently kiss the 
trees. Sliak. 

KISS, 71. A salute given with the lips; a com- 
mon token of aflection. 
KISS'ED, pp. Saluted with a kiss. 
KISS'ER, 71. One that kisses. 
KISS'ING, p2""- Saluting with the lips. 

KISS'ING-€C»MFIT, n. Perfumed sugar- 
plums to sweeten the breath. Shak^ 

KISS'ING-€RUST, n. In cookery, the crust 
of a loaf that touches another. 

iKIST, n. A chest. [JVbi used.] 

•KIT, n. [D. kit.] A large bottle. Skinner. 

i2. A small fiddle. Grew. 

3. A kind of fish- tub, and a milk-pail. 

[I know not that this word is used in 

KIT'-CAT, n. A term applied to a club in 
London, to which Addison and Steele be- 
longed ; so called from Christopher Cat, a 
pastry cook, who served the club with 
mutton pies ; applied also to a portrait 
three fourths less than a half length, pla- 
ced in the club-room. Todd. 

KITCH'EN. 71. [Sax. cycene ; G. kiiche ; D. 
keuken ; Sw. kok; Dan. kokke ; W. cegin; 
It. cucina ; L. coquina ; Sp. cocina ; from 
the root of L. coquo, to cook.] 

1. A cook-room ; the room of a house ap- 
propriated to cookery. 

A fat kitchen makes a lean will. Franklin ■ 

2. In ships, the galley or caboose. 

3. A utensil for roasting meat ; as a tin 

KITCH'EN-GARDEN, n. "A garden or 
piece of ground appropriated to the rais- 
ing of vegetables for the table. 

KITCHEN-MAID, n. A female servant 
whose business is to clean the kitchen and 
utensils of cookery, or in general, to do the 
work of a kitchen. 

KITCHEN-STUFF, n. Fat collected from 
pots and dripping pans. Donne. 

KITCHEN-WENCH, 77. The woman who 
cleans the kitchen and utensils of cookery. 

KITCH'EN- WORK, 7!. Work done in the 
kitchen ; as cookery, washing, &.c. 

KITE, 71. [Sax. cyta.] A rapacious fowl of 
the genus Falco or hawk, remarkable fo? 
gliding through the air without frequently 
moving its wings ; hence called glide. 

2. A name of reproach, denoting rapacity. 


3. A light frame of wood and paper con- 
structed for flying in the air for the amuse- 
ment of boys. 

KITE, 71. In the north of England, the belly. 
KI'TEFQOT, 71. A sort of tobacco, so called. 
KI'TESFOOT, 71. A plant. Ainsworth. 

KITH, 71. [Sax. cyththe.] Acquaintance. 06*. 

KIT'LING, 71. [h.calulus.] A whelp; the 

vonnw of a beast. B. Jonson. 

KiT'TEN, 71. kifn. [D. katje.] A young 

cat, or the young of the cat. 
KIT'TEN, r."i. kit'n. To bring forth young, 

as a cat. 
KIT'TIWAKE, 71. A fowl of the genus 

Larus, or gull kind. 
KIT'TLE, V. t. [Sax. citelan.] To tickle. 

LYot used.] Sherwood. 

KLICK, V. i. [a different orthography or 

diminutive of clack.] 

1. To make a .<malJ, sharp sound by striking 
two things together. 

2. In Scotland, to jjilfer, by taking with a 

KLICK, 71. A stroke or blow. [A word in 

vulgar tisc] 

KNAB, V. t. nab. [D. knapptn ; G. id.] To 

bite ; to gnaw ; to nibble. [This word! 

K N A 

K N E 

K N I 

may belong to tlic root of nibble, and it 
properly signifies to catch or seize sud- 
denly with the teeth.] UEstrange.^ 
KNAB'BLE, v. u To bite or nibble. [.Voij 
used.] Brown. 
KNACK, n. nak. A little machine ; a petty 
contrivance; a toy. 

A knack, a toy, a trick, a baby's cap. 


2. A readiness; habitual facility of perform- 
ance ; dexterity ; adroitness. 

My author has a great knack at remarks. 

The Dean was famous in his time. 
And had a kind of knack at rliyme. Swift. 

3. A nice trick. 

For how 'should equal colors do the knack 7 
Cameleons who can paint in wliite and black ? 

KNACK, V. i. nak. [G. knacken ; Dan. 


To crack ; to make a sharp abrupt noise 

[LUlleuscd.] Johnwn. 

KNACK'ER, n. nak'er. A maker of knacks, 

toys or small work. Mortimer. 

2. A rope-maker, or collar-maker, [j^ot in 

use.] ^ilinsworth. Entick. 

KN.\G, n. nag. [Dan. knag, Sw. knagg, a 

knot in wood, Ir. cnag, \V. cnicc.] 

1. A knot in wood, or a protuberant knot ; a 

2. A peg for hanging things on. 

3. The shoot of a deer's horns. 
KXAG'GY, n. nag'gy. Knotty; full of 

knots; rough with knots; hence, rough in 

KNAP, n. nap. [Sax.cnwp, W. cnop, abut- 

ton, a knob, D. knop.] 
A protuberance ; a swelling. [Little used. 

See Knob.] Bacon 

KNAP, V. t. nap. [D. knappen. See Knab.] 

1. To bite; to bite off; to break short. [Lit- 
tle used.] More. 

2. To strike with a sharp noise. [Little 
used.] Bacon. 

KNAP, V. i. nap. To make a short, sharp 

sound. jriseman. 

KNAP'BOTTLE, n. nap'bottle. A plant. 
KNAP'PISH, a. nap'pish. Snappish. [See 

KNAP'PLE, V. i. nap' pie. To break off with 

an abrupt .sharp noise. 
KNAP'SACK, n. nap' sack. [G. knappsack ; 

D. knapzak, from knappen, to eat.] 
A soldier's bag, carried on his back, and con 

taining necessaries of food and clothing. 

It may be of lether or coarse cloth. 
KNAP'WEED, n. nap' weed. A plant of the 

genus Centaurea, so called probably from 

knap, a button. Fam. of Plants. 

KN'AR, n. n'ar. [G. knor or knorren : D. 

knor.] A knot in wood. Dryden. 

KN'ARLED, a. Knotted. [See Gnarled.] 
KN'ARRY, a. Knotty. Chaucer. 

ICN.WE, n. nave. [Sax. cnapa or cnafa, a 

boy ; G. knabe ; D. knaap ; Dan. knab ; 

originally, a boy or young man, then 

servant, and lastly a rogue.] 

1. A boy ; a man-child. 06s. 

2. A servant. 04s. Dryden. 

3. A false deceitful fellow; a dishonest man 
or boy. 

In defiance of demonstration, knaves will con- 
tinue to proselyte fools. .iines 

4. A card with a soldier painted on it. 


KNA'VERY, n. na'vety. Dishonesty ; de- 
ception in traffick ; trick ; petty villainy ; 
fraud. Shak. Dryden. 

2. Mischievous tricks or ])ractices. 

KNAVISH, a. na'vish. Dishonest; 
lent ; as a knainsh fellow, or a 
trick or transaction. 

2. Waggish ; mischievous. 
Cupid is a knavish lad. 
Thus to make poor females mad. 

fraud u- 


KNA'VISIILY, 7iavishly. Dishonestly; 

2. Waggishly ; mischievously. 
KNA'VISHNESS, n. na'vishness. The 

quality or habit of knavery ; dishonesty. 

KNAW'EL, n. naw'el. A species of plant. 

KNEAD, r.t. nead. [Sax. cnmdan ; G. kne- 
tcn ; D. kneeden ; Dan. kneder ; Sw. knS.- 

To work and press ingredients into a mass, 
usually with the hands ; particularly, to 
work into a well mixed mass the materi- 
als of bread, cake or paste ; as, to knead 

The cake she kneaded was the savory meat. 


KNE'ADED, pp. ne'aded. Worked and 
pressed together. 

KNE'ADING, ppr. ne'ading. Working and 
mixing into a well mixed mass. 

KNEADING-TROUGH, n. ne'ading-trauf. 
A trough or tray in which dough is work 
ed and mixed. 

IKNEB'ELITE, n. neb'elite. [from Von 

A mineral of a gray color, spotted with dirty 
white, brownish green, or green. 


KNEE, n. nee. [Sax. cneotv ; G. knie; D. 
knie ; Sw. kna ; Dan. Ana: ; Fr. g-e?!ou ; It 
ginocchio ; L. genu ; Gr. yon ; Sans, janu 
As the same word in Saxon signifies gen- 
eration, it appears to belong to the family 
of ywofuu, geno, and to signify a shoot or 

1. In anatomy, the articulation of the thigh 
and leg bones. 

3. In ship-building, a piece of timber some- 
what in the shape of the human knee 
when bent, having two branches or arms, 
and used to connect the beams of a ship 
with her sides or timbers. Mar. Diet. 

KNEE, v.t. nee. To supplicate by kneeling. 

[^rot used.] Shak. 

KNEE-eRQOKING, o. nee'crooking. Ob 

sequious. Shcik. 

KNEED, a. need. Having knees; as j?i 

kneed, out-kneed. 

2. In botany, geniculated ; forming an ob- 
tuse angle at the joints, like the knee 
when a little bent ; as knecd-grass. 

KNEE-DEEP, a. nee'-deep. Rising to the 

knees ; as water or snow knee-deep. 
2. Sunk to the knees ; as wading in water 

nr mire knee-deep. 
KNEE-lIIGH,a. nee-hi. Rising to the knees; 

as water knee-high. 
KNEE'llOLLY, n. nee'holly. A plant of| 

the genus Ruscus. 
KNEE'HOLM, n. nee'home. Kneeholly. 
KNEE'PAN, n. nee'pan. The round bone 

on the fore part of the knee. 
KNEEL, r. i. neel. [D. knielen ; Dan. knce- 

ler; Fr. ageuouiller, from genouil, the 


To bend the knee ; to fall on the knees : 
sometimes with down. 

.■Vs soon as you are dressed, kneel doten and 
say the Lord's prayer. Taylor. 

KNEE LER, n. nee'ler. One who kneels or 
worships by kneeling. 

KNEE'LING, ppr. nee'ling. Falling on the 

KNEE'TRIBUTE, n. nee'tribule. Tribute 
paid by kneeling ; worship or obeisance 
by genuflection. Milton. 

KNELL, n. nell. [Sax. cnyll ; cnyllan, to 
beat or knock ; W. cnul, a passing bell; 
G. knalleyi, to clap or crack; Sw.knalla ; 
Dan. gneller, to bawl.] 

Properly, the stroke of a bell ; hence, the 
sound caused by striking a bell ; appro- 
priately and perhaps exclusively, the 
sound of a bell rung at a funeral ; a toll- 

KNEW, pret. of know. 

KNIFE, n. nife; plu. knives; nives. [Sax. 
cnif; Dan. kniv ; Sw. knif; Fr. ganif or 
canif. This' word seems to have a con- 
nection with the D. knippen, Sw. knipa, to 
clip or pinch, to nip ; Dan. kniber, G. 
kneifen, AY. cneiriaw, to clip, to shear. Its 
primary sense then is an instrument that 
nips off, or cuts off with a stroke.] 

1, A cutting instrument with a sharp edge. 
Knives are of various shapes and sizes, 
adapted to tlieir respective uses ; as table 
knives; carving k7iives or carvers; pen- 
knivcs, &c. 

2. A sword or dagger. Spenser. 
KNIGHT, n. nite. [Sax. cniht, cneohi, a 

boy, a servant, Ir. cniocbt, G. knecht, D. 
knegt, Sw. knecht, Dan. knegt.] 

1. Originally, a knight was a youth, and 
jouug men being employed as servants, 
hence it came to signify a servant. But 
among our warlike ancestors, the word 
was particularly applied to a young man 
after he was admitted to the privilege of 
bearing arms. The admission to this 
privilege was a ceremony of great impor- 
tance, and was the origin of the institu- 
tion of knighthood. Hence, in feudal 
times, a knight was a man admitted to 
military rank by a certain ceremony. 
This privilege was conferred on youths of 
family and fortune, and hence sprung the 
honorable title of knight, in modern usage. 
A knight has the title of Sir. 

Encyc. Johnson. 

2. A pupil or follower. * Shak. 

3. A champion. Drayton. 
Knight of the post, a knight dubbed at the 

whipping post or pillory ; a hireling wit- 
ness. Johnson. 

Knight of the shire, in England, one of the 
representatives of a county in parliament, 
originally a knight, but now any gentle- 
man having an estate in land of six hun- 
dred pounds a year is qualified. Johnson. 

KNIGHT, I', t. nite. To dub or create a 
knight, which is done by the king who 
gives the person kneeling a blow with a 
sword, and says, rise, Sir. Johnson. 

KNIGHT-ERRANT, n. [knight and L. 
errans, erro, to wander.] 

.\ wandering knight ; a knight who traveled 
in search of adventures, for the purpose 
of exhibiting mihtary skill, prowess and 

K N O 

K N O 

K N O 

KNIGIIT-ER RANTRY, ;i. Tlio practice 
of wamlerijig iii qriesi of adventures; the 
manners of wandering knights. 

KNIGHT-HEADS, n. In ships, bollard tim- 
bers, two pieces of timber rising just with- 
in the stem, one on each side of the bow- 
sprit to secure its inner end ; also, two 
strong frames of timber which inclose and 
support the ends of the windlass. 

Mar. Diet. 

KNIGHTHOOD, n. The character or dig- 
nity of a knight. 

9. A military order, honor, or degree of an 
cient nobility, conferred as a reward of 
valor or merit. It is of four kinds, mili- 
tary, regular, honorary, and social. 


KNIGHTLLVESS, n. Duties of a knight 


KNIGHTLY, a. Pertaining to a knight 
becoming a knight ; as a knighHy combat 


KNIGHT-M'ARSHAL, n. An officer in 
the household of the British king, who 
has cognizance of transgressions within 
the king's household and verge, and of 
contracts made there. Encyc 

KNIGHT-SERVICE, n. In English feudal 
law, a tenure of lands held by knights on 
condition of performing military service, 
every possessor of a knight's fee, or estate 
originally of twenty pounds annual value, 
being obliged to attend the king in his 

KNIT, V. t. nit. pret. and pp. knit or knit 
led. [Sax. cnijUan ; Sw. knyta ; Dan. knyt 
ter; probably L. nodo, whence nodus, Eng. 

! . To unite, as threads by needles ; to con- 
nect in a kind of net-work ; as, to knit a 

2. To imitc closely ; as, let our hearts be 
knit together in love. 

3. To join or cause to grow together. 

Nature cannot kriit the bones, while t)ie 
parts aie under a discliarge. Wiseman 

4. To tie ; to fasten. 

And he saw heaven openc.l, and a certain 
vessel descendina; to him, as it were a great 
sheet knit at the lour corners. Acts x. 

5. To draw together; to contract; as, to 
knit the brows. 

KNIT, V. i. nit. To unite or interweave by 

2. To unite closely ; to grow together. Bio 
ken bones will in time knit and become 

KNIT, n. nit. Union by knitting ; texture. 
[Little userf.] 

KNIT'TABLE, a. nit'table. That may be 

KNIT'TER, 71. nit'ler. One that knits. 

KNIT'TING, ppr. nil'ting. Uniting by nee- 
dles ; forming texture; uniting in growth. 

KNIT'TING, n. Junction. IVotton. 

KNIT'TING-NEEDLE, n. nit' ting-needle. 
A long needle usually made of wire, used 
for knitting threads into stockings, gar- 
ters, &c. 

KNIT'TLE, n. nil' I. [from knit.] A string 
that gathers or draws together a purse. 

3. A small line used in ships to sling ham- 
mocs. Mar. Diet. 

KNOB, n. nob. [Sax. cncep ; G. knopf; D. 
kiwop ; Sw. knopp ; Dan. knop,knub, knap ; 

VV. cnwh, cnwpa. The word signifies a 

button, a top, a bunch.] 
A hard i)rotnberance ; a hard swelling or 

rising ; a bunch ; as a knob in the flesh or 

on a bone. Ray. 

KNOB'BED, a. nob'bed- Containing knobs; 

full of knobs. 
KNOB'BINESS, n. nob'biness. [from knob 

The qiuility of having knobs, or of being full 

of protuberances. 
KNOB'BY, a. nob'by. Full of knobs or hard 

protuberances ; hard. 
KNOCK, v.i. nok. [Sax. cnueian ; W. cno- 

eiaw ; Sw. knaeka?] 

1. To strike or beat with something thick 
or heavy ; as, to knock with a club or with 
the fist ; to knock at the door. We never 
use this word to express beating with a 
■small stick or whip. 

2. To drive or be driven against; to strike 
against ; to clash ; as when one heavy' 
body knocks against another. 

To knock under, to yield; to submit; to ac-l 
knowledge to be conquered ; an expres- 
sion borrowed from the practice of A:;iocA:- 
ing under the table, when conquered. 


KNOCK, V. f. nok. To strike ; to drive 
against ; as, to knock the head against a 

2. To strike a door for admittance ; to rap. 

To knock down, to strike down ; to fell ; to 
prostrate by a blow or by blows; as, to 
knock down an ox. 

To knock oat, to force out by a blow or by 
blows ; as, to knock out the brains. 

To knock up, to arouse by knocking. In 
popular use, to beat out ; to fatigue till 
unable to do more. 

To knock off, to force off by beating. At 
auctions, to assign to a bidder by a blow 
on the counter. 

To knock on the head, to kill by a blow or by 

KNOCK, n. nok. A blow ; a stroke with 
something thick or heavy. 

2. A stroke on a door, intended as a re- 
quest for admittance ; a rap. 

KNOCK'ER, n. nok'cr. One that knocks. 

2. An instrument or kind of hammer, fas- 
tened to a door to be used in seeking for 

KNOCK'ING, /)/?)•. nok'ing. Beating; stri- 

KNOCK'ING, n. nok'ing. A beating ; a 

KNOLL, V. t. noil. [Sax. cnyllan, to beat or 
strike. See Knell.] 

To ring a bell, usually for a funeral. Shak. 

KNOLL, V. i. noil. To sound, as a bell. 


[This word, I believe, is not used in Amer- 

KNOLL, n. noil. [Sax. enoll; Sw. kyiyl, 
knot; W. cnoL] 

The top or crown of a hill; but more gen- 
erally, a little round hill or mount; a small 
elevation of earth. 

KNOI', n. nop. [a different spelling of knap 
or 710&.] 

A knob ; a tufled top ; a bud ; a bunch ; a 

KNOP'I'ED, a. nop'ped. Having knops or 
knobs; fastened as wilit buttons. 

KNOT, n. not. [Sax. enotta; G. knolen; D. 
kTtot ; Hw. knota ; Dan. knude : L. nodus; 
probably connected with knit, but perhaps 
from swelling or gathering.] 

1. The complication of threads made by 
knitting ; a tie ; union of cords by inter- 
weaving ; as a knot dilricult to be untied. 

Any figure, the lines of which frequently 
intersect each other; as a knot in garden- 

In beds and curious knots. JHUton. 

A bond of association or union ; as the 
nuptial knot. 

4. The part of a tree where a branch shoots. 

5. The protuberant joint of a plant. 


A cluster ; a collection ; a group ; as a 
knot of ladies ; a knot of figures in paint- 

7. Difficulty ; intricacy ; something not eas- 
sily solved. South. 

8. Any intrigue or diflicult perjilexity of af- 
fairs. Dryden. 

9. A bird of the genus Triuga. 

10. An epaulet. 

11. In seamen's language, a division of the 
logline, which answers to half a minute, as 
a mile does to an hour, or it is the hun- 
dred and twentieth part of a mile. Hence, 
when a ship goes eight miles an hour, she 
is said to go eight knots. Mar. Diet. 

KNOT, V. t. not. To complicate or tie in a 
knot or knots ; to form a knot. 

2. To entangle ; to perplex. 
.3. To unite closely. Bacon. 
KNOT, V. i. not. To form knots or joints, 

as in plants. 

2. To knit knots for fringe. 

KNOT15ERRY, n. nofberry. A plant of 
the gciiiis Rubus. 

KNOT'GRASS, n. nol'grass. The name of 
several species of plants, so denominated 
from the joints of the stem. The common 
knotgrass is the Polygonum aviculare. 

KNOT'LESS, a. not'less. Free from knots; 
without knots. Martyn. 

KNOT'TED, a. noVted. Full of knots ; ha- 
ving knots ; as the knotted oak. Dryden. 

2. Having intersecting figures. Shak. 

KNOT'TINESS, n. not'tiness. [from knot- 


Fullness ot knots; the quality of having 
many knots or swellings. 
Ditficulty of solution ; Uitricacv. 
KNOT'TY, a. not'ty. Full of knots; having 
many knots ; as knotty timber. 

2. Hani; rugged; as a foioHiy head. JRoice. 

3. Diflicult ; intric.ite ; perplexed ; as a knot- 
ty question or point. 

KNOUT, ji. nout. .\ punishment in Russia, 
inflicted with a whip. 

KNOW, V. t. no. pret. knew; pp. known. 
[Sax. cnawan ; Russ. znnyu, with a pre- 
fix. This is probably from the same ori- 
ginal !is the L. nosco, co<(nosco, Gr. jivaaxa, 
although much variect in orthography. 
.Vosfo makes novi, which, with />• or c pre- 
fi.xed, gnovi or cnori, would coincide with 
knoiD, knew. So L. cresco, crcvi, coincides 
with grow, grew. The radical sense of 
knowing is generally to take, receive, or 

1. To perceive with certainty ; to under- 
stand clearly ; to have a clear and certain 
perception of truth, fact, or any thing that 
actually exists. To ^iioio a thing pre- 

K N O 

K O i\ 

K Y A 

eludes all doiilit or uncertainty of its e.\-| 
istence. We know what we see with our] 
eyes, or perceive Ijy other senses. We 
know that fire and water are different sub- 
stances. We know that truth and false- 
hood ex])ressj ideas incompatible with 
each other. We knoiv that a circle is 
not a square. We do not know the truth 
of reports, nor can we always knoiu what 
to believe. 

2. To be informed of; to be taught. It is 
not unusual for us to say we know things 
from information, when we rely on the 
veracity of the informer. 

3. To distinguish ; as, to know one man 
from another. We know a fixed star from 
aplanet by its twinkling. 

4. To recognize by recollection, remem- 
brance, representation or description. We 
do not always know a person after a long 
absence. We sometimes know a man by 
having seen liis portrait, or having heard 
him described. 

5. To be no stranger to ; to be familiar. 
This man is well known to us. 

6. In Scripture, to have sexual commerce 
with. Gen. iv. 

7. To approve. 

The Lord knoweth the way of the rigliteous 
Ps. i. 

8. To learn. Prov. i. 

9. To acknowledge with due respect. 1 
Thess. v. 

10. To choose ; to favor or take an interest 
in. Amos iii. 

11. To commit ; to have. 

He hath made him to be .sin lor us, who 
knew no sin. 2 Cor. 

12. To have full assurance of; to have sat- 
isfactory evidence of any thing, though 
short of certainty. 

KNOW, IV J. 710. To have clear and certain 
perception ; not to be doubtful ; some- 
times with of. 

If any man will do his will, he shall know of 
the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether! 
speak of myself. John vii. 

2. To be informed. 

Sir John must not know of it. Shak. 

3. To take cognizance of; to examine. 

Kiiow of your vouth — examine well your 
blood. ■ Shak 

KNOWABLE, a. no'able. That may be 
known; tliat may be discovered, under- 
stood or ascertained. Locke. Bentley. 

KNOWER, !i. no'ei: One who knows. 

KNOWING, ppr. no'ing. Having clear and 
certain perception of. 

2. a. Skillful ; well informed ; well instruct- 
ed ; as a knowing man. 

The knowing and intelligent part of the 
world. South. 

3. Conscious; intelligent. 

A knowing prudent cause. Blaekmore. 

KNOWING, 71. 7io'{?i^. Knowledge. Shak. 
KNOWINGLY, adv. no'ingly. With knowl- 
edge. He would not knou<ing!ij offend. 

KNOWL'ED6E, n. nol'lej. [Chaucer. 
knowleching, from knowleche, to acluiowl- 
edge. Ciu. the sense oi' lech.} 

1. A clear and certain perception of that 
which exists, or of truth and fact ; the 
perception of the coiuiection and agree- 
ment, or disagreement and i-epugnancy of 
our ideas. Encyc. Locke. 

We can have no knowledge of that 
which does not exist. God has a perfect 
knowledge of all his works. Human 
knowledge is very limited, and is mostly 
gained by observation and experience. 

2. Learning ; illumination of mind. 

Ignorance is the curse of God, 
Knowledge the wing wherewith we Hy to 
heaven. Shak 

3. Skill ; as a knowledge of seamanship. 

4. Acquaintance with any fact or person. 1 
have no knowledge of the man or thing. 

5. Cognizance ; notice. Iluth ii. 
t!. Information ; jiowtu- of knowing. Sidney 
7. Sexual intercourse. But it is usual to 

prefix carnal; as carnal knowledge. 

KNOWLEDGE, for acknowledge or avow. 
is not used. Bacon. 

KNUB, ) ,, , nub, I To beat ; to 

KNUli'BLE,^^-'- nub'ble. I strike with 
the knuckle. [jYot used.] 

KNUCK'LE, n. nuk'l. [Sa.x. cnucl ; G. knO- 
chel ; D. kneukel ; W. cmtc, a joint or junc- 
tion ; cnuciaw, to join, to couple.] 

1. The joint of a finger, particularly when 
protuberant by the closing of the fingers. 

i. The knee joint of a calf; as a knuckle of| 

3. The joint of a plant. [jVb< used.] 


KNUCK'LE, V. i. nuk'l. To yield ; to sub- 
mit in contest to an antagonist. 

KNUCK'LED, a. Jointed. Bacon. 

KNUFF, 7!. nuff. A lout ; a clown. [jVol 

KNUR, ) nur, ([G. knoiren, a knot, 

KNURLE, 5 "• nurle. J a knag, a guar.] 

A knot ; a hard sidjstance. Woodward. 

KNURL'ED, a. nurl'ed. Full of knots. 

KNUR'LY, a. nur'ly. [from knur.] Full 
of knots ; hard. This seems to be the 
same as gnarly. 

KNUR'RY, a. nur'ry. Full of knots. 

KOB.\, 71. An antelope, with horns close at 
the base. 

KO'KOB, 71. A venomous serpent of Amer- 

KOL'LYRITE, 7!. [Gr. xoXKvptof.] A variety 
of clay whose color is pure white, or witii 
a shade of gray, red or yellow. 


KOM'MANIC, 71. The crested lark of Ger- 

KON'ILITE, 71. [Gr. xovos, dust, and %.i9os, 
a stone.] 

\ mineral in the form of a loose powder, 
consisting chiefly of silex, and remarkably 
fusible. Phillips. 

KONITE. [See Cotiitc] 

KO'PECK, n. A Russian coin, about tlic 

value of a cent. 
KO'RAN, 7!. pronounced by oriental schol- 

ars korawn. [Ar. • \ ^'i from \ 'j to 
read, to call, to teach.] 

The Mohammedan book of faith ; the alko- 

KO'RET, 71. A delicious fish of the East 

KO'RIN, 71. An antelope with slender smooth 

KOUPH OLITE, 71. [Gr. xoi^oj, light, and 
^eos, stone.] 

A mineral, regarded as a variety of prehn- 
ite. It occurs in minute rhonihDidal 
plates, of a greenish or yellowish white, 
translucid, glistening and pearly. It is 
found in the Pyrenees. Cteaveiund. 

KRAAL, 71. In the southern part of Aiiica. 

I among the Hottentots, a village; a collec- 
tion (5f huts. 

JKRAG, 71. A species of argillaceous earth. 

jKR-iVKEN, n. A supjiosed enormous sea 

I animal. Guthrie. 

jKRU'KA, n. A bird of Russia and Sweden, 

I resembling a hedge sparrow. Pennant. 

jKU'Fl€, a. The Kufic letters were the an- 
cient letters of the .Vrahic, so called from 
Kufa, on the Euphrates. 

KU'MISS, 71. A liquor or <lrink made from 
mare's milk fermented and distilled ; milk- 
spirit, used hy the Tartars. Tooke. 

KU'RIL, 71. A bird, the black petrel. 


KURIL'IAN, a. The Kurilian isles are a 
chain in the Pacific, extending from the 
southern extremiiy of Kamschatka to 

KY, 71. Kine. [JVbt in use] 

KY'ANITE, n. [G. %a7ii7, Werner ; from 
the Gr. xiuio;, sky-colored. It is written 
also cyanite, hut most iniprnjierl}-, if pro- 
nounced kyanite. Kyanite is doubtless the 
preferable orthography.] 

A mineral found both massive and in regu- 
lar crystals. It is frequently in broad or 
compressed six-sided prisms, with bases a 
little inclined ; or this crystal may be 
viewed as a four-sided prisiii, truncated on 
two of its lateral edges, diagonally oppo- 
site. Its prevailing color is blue, whence 
its name, but varying from a fine Prussian 
blue to sky-blue, or bluish white. It oc- 
curs also of various shades of green, and 
even gray, or white and reddish. It is in- 
fusible by the common blowpipe. Thi.^i 
mineral is called by Haiiy and Brongniart, 
disthcnc, and by Saussure, sappare. 


KYAN'OfiEN, 71. [Gr. xi«iw, blue, and 
ysiioo, to beget.] 

Carbureted azote ; the compound base of 
prussic acid, called also prxissine. 




li, the twelfth lettei- of the EngUsh Alpha- 
bet, is usually denominated a semi-vowel, 
or a liquid. It represents an imperfect 
articulation, formed by placing the tip of* 
the tongue against the gum that incloses 
the roots of the upper teeth ; but the sides 
of the tongue not being in close contact 
with the roof of the mouth, the breath of 
course not being entirely intercepted, this 
articulation is attended with an imfjerfect 
sound. The shape of the letter is evi- 
dently borrowed from that of the oriental 
lamed, or loinad, nearly coinciding with 

the Samaritan Z. 

L has only one sound in English, as in like, 
canal. At the end of monosyllables, it is 
often doubled, as in fall, full, tell, bell ; but 
not after diphthongs and digraphs ; foul, 
fool, prowl, ^rowl, foal, &c. being written 
with a single I. 

With some nations, I and r are commutable ; 
as in Greek, Xi^iiov, L. lilium ; It. scoria, an 
escort, Sp. Port, escolta. Indeed, l and r 
are letters of the same organ. 

By some nations of Celtic origin, I, at the 
beginning of words, is aspirated and 
doubled in writing, as in the W. lied, L 
lahis ; Han, a lawn ; llawr, a foor ; Sp. 
llamar, L. clamo. 

In some words, I is mute, as in half, calf, 
walk, talk, chalk. 

In our mother tongue, the Anglo-Saxon, I is 
sometimes preceded by h, and aspirated, 
as in hlaf loaf; hladan, to lade or load ; 
kiot, lot ; hlinian, lUeonian, to lean, Gr. 
xxivu, L. clino. In the latter word, the 
Saxon h represents the Greek x and Latin 
f, as it does in many other words. 

In English words, the terminating syllable 
le is unaccented, the e is silent, and 7 has a 
feeble sound ; as in able, eagle, pronoun- 
ced abl, eagl. 

As a numeral, L denotes 50, and with a 
dash, Li 50,000. As an abbreviation, in 
Latin, it stands for Lucius ; and L.L.S. 
for a sesterce, or two libree and a half. 


LA, eiclam. [perhaps corrupted from look, 
but this is doubtful.] 

Look ; see ; behold. Shak. 

LA, in music, the syllabic by which Guido 
denotes the last sound of each hexachord. 


LAB, n. A great talker ; a blabber. Obs. 


LAB'ADIST, ji. The Labadists were follow- 
ers of Jean de Labadie, who lived in the 
17th century. They held that God can 
and docs deceive men, that the observance 
of the sabbath is a matter of indifference, 
and other peculiar or heretical opinions. 


LABDANUM. [See Ladanum.] 

LABEFACTION, n. [L. labefactio, from 

labefacio ; labo, to totter, and facio, to 

A weakening or loosening ; a failing ; de 

cay ; downfall ; ruin. 
LAB'EFY, V. t. To weaken or impair. [JVo< 

used.'l Did. 

LA'BEL, n. [W. llah, a strip ; labcd, a label.] 

1. A narrow slip of silk, paper or parch- 
ment, containing a name or title, and af- 
fi.xed to any thing, denoting its contents. 
Such are the labels afSxed to the vessels 
of an apothecary. Labels also are affixed 
to deeds or writings to hold the appended 
seal. Harris. 

2. Any paper annexed to a will by way of 
addition ; as a codicil. Encyc. 

•3. In heraldry, a fillet usually placed in the 
middle, along the chief of the coat, with- 
out touching its extremities. It is adorned 
with pendants, and used on the arms of 
the eldest son, to distinguish him from the 
younger sons, while the father is living. 


4. A long thin brass rule, with a small sight 
at one end, and a center-hole at the other, 
commonly used with a tangent line on the 
edge of a circumferentor, to take altitudes, 
&c. Encyc. 

LA'BEL, V. t. To affix a label to. 

LA'BELED, pp. Furnished with a label 

h.\'BELlNG,ppr. Distinguishing by a label. 

LA'BENT, a. [L. labcns.] Sliding ; gliding 


L.\'BIAL, a. [Fr. from L. labium, a lip. See 

Pertaining to the lips ; formed by the lips ; 
as a labial articulation. Thus b, p, and m 
are labial articulations, and oo, Fr. ou, It. 
u, is a labial vowel. 

LA'BIAL, n. A letter or character repre- 
senting an articulation of the lips; as b,f, 
m, p, V. 

LA'BIATE, ) [from L. labium, lip. 

LA'BIATED, ^ "' In botany, a labiate co 
rol is irregular, nionopetalous, with two 
lips, or nionopetalous, consisting of a nar- 
row tube with a wide mouth, divided into 
two or more segments arranged in two 
opposite divisions or lips. A labiate flow- 
er has a labiate corol. Martyn. Encyc. 

LA'BILE, a. [Low L. tahilis.] Liable to err, 
full or apostatize. [jVot used.] Cheyne. 

LABIODENT'AL, a. [labium, a lip, and 
dens, a tooth.] 

Formed or pronoiuiced by the cooperation of 
the lips and teeth; as^and v. Holder. 

LA'BOR, n. [L. labor, from labo, to fail.] 
Exertion of muscular strength, or bodily 
exertion which occasions weariness; par- 
ticularly, the exertion of the limbs in oc- 
cupations by wliicli subsistence is obtain- 
eil, as in agriculture and manufactures, in 
distinction from exertions of strength in 

play or amusements, which are denomi- 
nated exercise, rather than labor. Toil- 
some work; pains; travail; any bodily 
exertion which is attended with fatigue. 
After the labors of the day, the farmer re- 
tires, and rest is sweet. Moderate labor 
contributes to health. 

What is obtained by labor, vpill of right be the 
property of him by whose labor it is gained. 

Intellectual exertion ; appHcation of the 
mind which occasions weariness; as the 
labor of compiling and writing a history. 
Exertion of mental powers, united with 
bodily employment ; as the labors of the 
apostles in propagating Christianity. 

4. AVork done, or to be done ; that which re- 
quires wearisome exertion. 

Being a labor of so great difficulty, the exact 
performance thereof we may rather wish than 
look for. Hooker. 

o. Heroic achievment; as the taior* of Her- 

G. Travail ; the pangs and efforts of child- 

7. The evils of life; trials; persecution, &c. 
They rest from their labors — Rev. xiv. 

LA'BOR, V. i. [L. laboro.] To exert muscu- 
lar strength ; to act or move with painful 
effort, |)articularly in servile occupations; 
to work ; to toil. 

Six days shall thou labor, and do all tlij 
work — Ex. XX. 

2. To exert one's powers of body or mind, 
or both, in the prosecution of any design ; 
to strive ; to take pains. 

Labor not for the meat which perisheth. 
John VI. 

5. To toil ; to be burdened. 
Come unto me all ye that labor, and are 

heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Matt. xi. 

4. To move with difficulty. 
The stone that tabors up the hill. 


5. To move irregularly with little progress ; 
to pitch and roll heavily ; as a ship in a 
turbulent sea. Mar. Diet. 

G. To be in distress ; to be pressed. 

— As sounding cymbals aid the laborino; 
moon. Dryden. 

7. To bo in travail; to suffer the pangs of 

8. To journey or march. 
Make not all the people to labor thiUicr. 

Josh. vii. 

9. To perform the duties of the pastoral of- 
fice. 1 Tim. v. 

10. To perform christian offices. 
To labor under, to be alllicted with; to be 

biu(kiic<l or distressed with; as, to labor 
undir a disease or an allliclion. 
L.'V'BOK, V. I. To work at ; to till ; to culti- 

Tlio most excellent Kinds are lying fallow, or 
only labored liy cliildren. " Tooke. 

2. To prosecute with dfort ; to urge ; as, to 
labor a. point or argument. 




S. To form or fabricate with exertion ; as, to 
labor arms for Troy. Dnjden 

4. To beat; to belabor. [The latter ivord is 
generally used.] Dryden. 

5. To form with toil and care ; as a labored 

LA'BORANT, n. A chimist. [Not used.] 

LAB'ORATORY, n. [Fr. laboratoire, from 

1. A iiouse or place where operations and 
experiments in chimistry, pharmacy, pyro- 
techny, &c., are performed. 

2. A place where arms are manufactured or 
repaired, or fire-works prepared ; as the 
laboratory in Springfield, in Massachu- 

3. A place where work is performed, or any 
thing is prepared for use. Hence the 
stomach is called the grand laboratory of 
the human body ; the liver, the laboratory 
of the bile. 

LA'BORED,p;). Tilled; cultivated; formed 
with labor. 

LA'lJORER, n. One who labors in a toil- 
some occupation ; a man who does work 
that requires little skill, as distinguished 
from an artisan. 

LA'BORING, ppr. Exerting muscular 
strength or intellectual ])ower; toiling; 
moving with [laiu or with difficulty ; cul- 

2. A laboring inan, or laborer, is often used 
for a man who performs work that re- 
quires no apprenticeship or professional 
skill, in distinction from an artisan ; but 
this restricted sense is not always observ- 
ed. A hard laboring man, is one accus- 
tomed to hard labor. 

LABO'RIOUS, a. [h. laboriosus ; Fr. labo- 

1. Using exertion ; employing labor; dili- 
gent in work or service ; assiduous; used 
of persons ; as a laborious husbandman or 
mechanic ; a laborious minister or pastor. 

2. Requiring labor ; toilsome ; tiresome ; not 
easy ; as laborious duties or services. 

3. Requiring labor, exertion, perseverance 
or sacrifices. 

Dost tliou love watchings, abstinence or toil, 
laborious virtues all ? Learn tliese from 
Cato. Addison. 

LABO'RIOUSLY, adv. With labor, toil or 
difficultv. Pope. 

LABO'RIOUSNESS, n. The quality of be- 
ing laborious, or attended with toil ; toil- 
someness ; difficulty. 
2. Diligence ; assiduity. 
LA'BORLESS, a. Not laborious. 


LA'BORSOME, a. Made with great labor 

and diligence. [JVot in use.] Sandys, 

LABURN'UM, n. A tree of the genus Cy- 

LAB'YRINTU, n. [L. labyrintlms ; Gr. 

1. Among the ancients, an edifice or place 
full of intricacies, or formed with winding 
passages, which rendered it difficult to find 
the way from the interior to the entrance. 
The most remarkable of these edifices' 
mentioned, are the Egyptian and the Cre-j 
tan labyrinths. Encyc. Ltmpriere. 

2. A maze ; an inexplicable difficulty. 

3. Formerly, an ornamental maze or wilder- 
ness in gardens. Spmser.\ 

4. A cavity in the ear. Quincy. 

LABYRINTH'IAN, a. Winding; intricate 
perplexed. Bp. Hall. 

LA€, n. [Sp. laca ; G. lack ; Dan. D. lak ; 
said to be from the Arabic] 

Gum-lac, so called, but improperly, not be- 
ing a gum, but a resin. It is deposited on 
difl'erent s|)ecies of trees in the East In 
dies, by an insect called Chermes lacca. 
Stick lac is the substance in its natural 
state, encrusting small twigs. When 
broken oflf and boiled in water, it loses 
its red color, and is called seed lac. When 
melted and reduced to a thin crust, it is 
called shell lac. United with ivory black 
or vermilion, it forms black and red seal- 
ing iva.i: A solution with borax, colored 
by lampblack, constitutes Indian ink. Lac 
dissolved in alcohol or other menstrua, by 
difl^erent methods of preparation, consti- 
tutes various kinds of varnishes and lack- 
ers. Thomson. 

LAC'CIC, a. Pertaining to lac, or produced 
from it ; as laccic acid. 

LACE, n. [Sp. lazo, a tie or knot, Fr. lacet, 
It. laccio, L. laqueus.] 

1. A work composed of threads interwoven in- 
to a net, and worked on a pillow w ith spin- 
dles or pins. Fine laces are manufactured 
in France, Italy and England. 

2. A string ; a cord. Spenser. 

3. A snare ; a gin. Fairfax. 

4. A plaited string with which females fas- 
ten their clothes. 

Doll ne'er was called to cut her lace. Swift. 
LACE, V. i. To fasten with a string through 
eyelet holes. 

When Jenny's stays are newly laced — 

2. To adorn with lace ; as cloth laced with 
silver. Shak. 

3., To embellish with variegations or stripes. 
Look, love, what envious streaks 
Do lace the severing clouds in yonder east. 

4. To beat; to lash ; [probably to make 
stripes on.] 

I'll lace your coat for ye. V Estrange. 

LA'CE-BARK, n. A shrub in the W. in- 
dies, the Daphne lagetto, so called from 
the texture of its inner bark. 
LA'CED, pp. Fastened with lace or a string ; 

also, tricked oflf with lace. 
Laced coffee, coflTee with spirits in it. 


LA'CEMAN, n. A man who deals in lace. 

LA'CEWoMAN, n. A woman who makes 

or sells lace. 
LAC'EIRABLE, a. [See Lacerate.] That 
may be torn. Harvey. 

LACERATE, v. t. [L. lacero, to tear.] To 
tear; to lend ; to separate a substance by 
violence or tearing ; as, to lacerate the 
flesh. It is applied chiefly to the flesh, or 
figuratively to the heart. But sometimes 
it is applied to the political or civil divi- 
sions in a state. 

2. In botany, having the edge variously cut 
into irregular segments ; as a lacerated leaf. 


IjLACERA'TION, n. The act of tearing or 
1 rending; the breach made by rending. 
;[ Arkuthnot. 

. or a. Rent ; torn. 

LAC ERATIVE, a. Tearing ; having the 
I power to tear; as /aceroiiVe humors. 
I Harvey. 

LACERTINE, a. [L. lacertus.] Like a liz- 
I ard. Joum. of Science. 

LACER TL'S, n. The girroc, a fish of the 

gar-fish kind ; also, the lizard-fish. 
I Did. JVat. Hist. Cyc. 

LACIIE, ) [Norm. Fr. lachesse, from 
jLACH'ES, 5 ' lache; L. laxus, lax, slow.] 
I In laiv, neglect ; negligence. 
LACII'RYMABLE, a. Lamentable. 
I Morley. 

jLA€H'RYMAL, a. [Fr. from L. lachryma, 
I a tear.] 

1. Generating or secreting tears ; as the 
I lachrymal gland. 

2. Pertaining to tears ; conveying tears. 
LACII'RYMARY, a. Containing tears. 


LACIIRYMA'TION, n. The act of shed- 
ding tears. 

LAell'RYMATORY, n. [Fr.lachrymatoire.] 
A vessel found in sepulchers of the an- 
cients, in which it has been supposed the 
tears of a deceased person's friends were 
collected and preserved with the ashes 
and itrn. It was a small glass or bottle 
like a phial. Encyc. 

L.A'CING, ppr. Fastening with a string ; 
adorned or trimmed with lace. 

LACIN'IATE, I [L. lacinia, a hem.] 

LACIN'IATED, I "' Adorned with fringes. 

,2. In botany, jagged. Martyn. 

LACK, V. t. [D. keg, em[)ty ; lecgen, to emp- 
ty ; Dan. lak, a fault ;/aAA:er, to decline or 
wear away ; Goth, nfligan, to lack or fail ; 
L. deliquium, which seems to be connect- 
ed with linquo, to leave, to faint, and w ith 
liquo, to melt, liquid, &c.] 

1. To want; to be destitute of; not to have 
or possess. 

If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask it of 
God — James i. 

2. To blame. [.Yot in use.] Chaucer. 
LACK, V. i. To be in want. 

The young lions do tack and sulfer hunger. 

I Ps. xxxiv. 

2. To be wanting. 

Perhaps there shall lack five of the fifty right- 
eous. Gen. xviii. 

LACK, n. Want ; destitution ; need ; fail- 

Ho that gathered little, had no lack. Ex. 

Lack of rupees is one hundred thousand ru- 
pees, which at 55 cents each, amount to 
fifty five thousand dollars, or at 2s. (jd. 
sterling, to £12,500. 

LACK-A-DA Y, txclam. of sorrow or regret ; 

LACK'BRAIN, n. One that wants brains, 
or is deficient in understandinff. Shak. 

LACK'ER, } [Fr. laque.] A kind of 

LACQUER, \ "• varnish. The basis of 
lackers is a solution of the substance call- 
ed seed-lac or shell-lac, in spirit of wine or 
alcohol. Varnishes applied to metals im- 
prove their color and preserve them from 
tarnishing. Encyc. Cyc. 

Lackers consist of different resins in a state 
of solution, of which the most common 
are mastick, sandarach, lac, benzoin, co- 
pal, amber, and asphalt. The uiei.strua 
are either expressed or essential oils, or 
spirit of wme. .VwioZjou- 




LACK'ER, V. t. To varnish; to smear over 
with lacker, for tlie purpose of improving 
color or preserving from tarnishing and 

LACK'ERED, pp. Covered with lacker; 

L.'\CK'EY, n. [Fr. laquais ; Sp. lacayo ; 

Port, lacaio; U. laccM ; Eth. AATl lak, 

to send, whence OA^ lake, a servant ; 
L. lego, to send. From this root is the 
Shemitic "[xSd, a messenger.] 
An attending servant ; a footboy or foot- 
man. AddisDn. 
LACK'EY, V. t. To attend servilely. 

LACK'EY, V. i. To act as foothoy ; to pay 
servile attendance. 

Oft have I servants seen on horses riJe, 
The free and noble lackey by their side. 


LACK'LL\EN, a. Wanting shirts. [Little 

used.] Shak. 

LACK'LUSTER, a. NVanting luster or 

briglitness. Shak. 

LACON'le, } [Fr. Inconique ; L. lacon- 

LA€ON'l€AL, I "' icus ; from Laconia or 

Lacones, the Spartans.] 

1, Short; hrief; pithy; sententious; ex- 
pressing much in few words, after the 
maimer of the Spartans ; as a laconic 
phrase. Pope. 

2. Pertaining to Sparta or Lacedemonia. 

Trans, of Pausanias. D'Anvilk 
L.\CON'leALLY, adv. Briefly; concisely; 

as a sentiment laconically expressed. 
LA€ON'ICS, n. A hook of Pausanias, 

which treats of Lacedemonia. 
LA'CONISM, I [L. ;a<-o?usm««.] A con- 
LACON'ICISM, \ "-cise style. 
2. A hiief sententious [ilirasc or expression 
LAC'TAOE, n. The produce of animals 

yielding milk. Shuckford. 

LACTANT, a. [L. lactans, from lacto^ to 

give suck ; lac, milk.] Suckhng ; giving 

suck. [Little Mscrf.] 
LA€'TARY, a. [L. laciarius, from lacto ; 

lac, milk.] 
Milky; full of white juice like milk. [Litlh 

used.] Broum. 

LAC'TARY, n. [L. lactarius.] A dairy- 
LACTATE, n. In ehimislry, a salt formed 

by the lactic acid, or acid of milk, with a 

base. Fourcroy. 

LACTA'TION, n. [L. laclo, to give suck.] 

The act of giving suck ; or tlie time of 

suckling. Johnson. Encyc. 

LACTEAL, a. Pertaining to milk. 
2. Conveying chyle ; as a lacteal vessel. 
LACTEAL, n. A vessel or slender tube of 

animal bodies, for conveying chyle from 

the intestines to the common reservatory. 

LACTEOUS, a. [L. Jarfcu*, from /ac, mi Ik. ^ 
L Milky ; resemblmg milk. Brown. 

2. LactenI ; conveying chyle; as a. lacleous 

vessel. Bentley. 

LACTES'CENCE, n. [L. laclescens, lacte's 

CO, from lacto ; lac, milk.] 

1. Tendency to milk ; milkiness or milky 
color. Boyle. 

2. In botany, milkiness ; the liquor whic' 
flows abunilantly from a plant, when 
wounded ; commonly white, but some- 
limes yellow or red. .Martyn. 

LA€TES'CENT, a. Producing milk or 
white juice. Arbuthnot. 

2. Abounding with a thick colored juice. 


LA€'TIC, 0. Pertaining to milk, or procu- 
red from sour milk or whey ; as the lactic 
acid. Fourcroy. 

LA€TIF'EROUS, a. [L. ?ac, milk, and/f?-o, 
to bear.] 

1. Bearing or conveying milk or white juice ; 
as a lactiferous duct. Boyle. 

2. Producing a thick colored juice ; as a 
plant. Encyc 

LA€'UNAR, n. [L.] An arched roof or 

LA€U'NOUS, \ [L. lacunosus, from lacu 
LA€UNO'SE, \ "• na, a ditch or hollow.] 
Furrowed or pitted. A lacunose leaf has 
the disk depressed between the veins. 

LAD, n. [W. llawd, a lad ; and Sax. Icod, G. 
leutc, Russ. lead, people, are probably from 
the same root ; Ir. lath, a youth, D. loot, 
a shoot ; lleb. Ch. Syr. Sam. nV, to pro 
create or bear young; Eth. (DArh Ar. 

JsJ , 

walada, id. Class Ld. No 29.] A 

young man or boy ; a stripling. Locke. 

LAD'ANUM, n. [said to bo Arabic] The 
resiuous juice which exsudes from the 
leaves of the Cistus ladanifera, a shrub 
which grows in Arabia, Candia,and other 
parts of the Archipelago. It is collected 
with a kind of rake, with lether thongs 
attached to it, with which the shrubs are 
brushed. Tlie best sort is in dark-color- 
ed black masses, of the consistence of a 
soft plaster. The other sort is in long rolls 
coiled up, harder than the tbrmer, and of 
a paler color. It is chiefly used in exter- 
nal apjilications. Encyc. Parr. 

LAD'DER, n. [Sax. Madder ; D. ladder or 
ledcr ; G. leiler, a ladder, a leader, a guide ; 
leiten, to lead.] 

1. A frame of wood, consisting of two side- 
jiieces, connected by rounds inserted in 
them at suitable distances, aud thus form- 
ing steps, by which persons may ascend 
a building, &c. 

2. That by which a jjcrson ascends or rises ; 
means of ascending ; as a ladder made of 
cords. Shak. 

Lowliness is young ambition's ladder. 


3. Gradual rise ; elevation. 

Mounting fast towards (he (op of (lie ladder 
ecclesiastical. Swift 

LADE, V. t. jiret. laded ; pp. laded, laden. 
[Sax. ladan and hladan ; G. laden ; D. 
laaden ; Sw. ladda ; Dan. ladder; Russ 
Mad, a load or cargo ; kladu, to put, to 
lay, to make, build or foimd, to lay egg; 
to give, to suppose, &c. Here we observe 
that to load or lade is to throw, that is, to 
jiut on or in, for to send, thrust, throw, is 
the sense of laying eggs. Now this is pre- 
cisely the radical signification of the words 
loud, lad, W. llawd, clod, L. plaudo. Sec] 

L To load ; to put on or in, as a burden or 
freight. We /«(/e a ship with cotton. W( 
lade a horse or other beast with corn. 

And they laded their asses with (he corn and 
depar(ed thence. (Jen. xlii. 

2. To dip ; to throw in or out, as a fluid, 

with a ladle or dipper ; as, to lade water 
out of a tub or into a cistern. 

.3. To draw water. [J^Tot in use.] 

LADE, n. Tlie mouth of a river. Obs. 


LA'DED, } Loaded ; charged with a 

LA'DEN, I PP- burden or freight. 

2. a. Oppressed ; burdened. 

LA'DING, ppr. Loading ; charging with a 
burden or freight; throwing or dipping 

LA'DING, n. That which constitutes a load 
or cargo ; freight ; burden ; as the lading 
of a ship. Acts xxvii. 

LAD'KIN, n. A little lad ; a youth. [Lit- 
tle used.] 

LA'DLE, n. [Sax. hlwdle, from hladan, su- 

1. An utensil somewhat like a dish, with a 
long handle, used for throwing or dipping 
out liquor from a vessel. 

2. The receptacle of a mill wheel, which re- 
ceives the water which moves it. 

3. In gunnery, an instrument for drawing the 
charge of a cannon. Mar. Did. 

LA'DLE-FUL, n. The quantity contained in 
a ladle. Stcifl. 

LA'DY, n. [Sax. hlafdig, hlcefdiga, Idcefd'ia. 
The first syllable of this word occurs in 
hlaford, lord, and this is supposed to be 
hlnf a loaf, and the words to signify bread- 
givers. But this is doubtful ; the meaning 
(if the last syllable not being ascertained in 
either word.] 

1. A woman of distinction. Originally, the 
title of lady was given to the daughters of 
earls and others in high rank, but by cus- 
tom, the title belongs to any woman of 
genteel education. 

2. A word of complaisance ; used of women. 


3. Mistress ; the female who presides or has 
authority over a manor or a family. 

r" 4 DY-BIK?' 1 ^ *"'^" ^'^^ vaginopen- 
I A/nv r-nw i-n.nous or sheath-winged 

la'Ey:fl^T'J '"-'^'- """'J- 

A coleopterous insect of the genus Coc- 
cinella. Linne. 

LADY'S RED-STRAW, n. A plant of the 
genus Galium. 

LADY'S BOWSER, ?i. .\ plant of the genus 

LADY'S €OMB, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S CUSHION, n. A plant of the ge- 
nus SaxifraL'a. 

LADY'S FINGER, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S MANTLE, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S SE.'VL, n. A jilant of the genus 

LADY'S SLIPPER, n. A jilant of the ge- 
nus Cv|)ripcdimn. 

LADY'S SMOCK, n. A plant of the genus 

LADY'S TRACES, n. A plant of the genus 

LA'DY-DAY, n. The day of (he annuncia- 
tion of the holy virgin, March 25th. 

LA'DY-LIKE, a. Like a lady in manners ; 
genteel ; well bicd. 

2. Soft; tender; delicate. Dryden. 

LA'DYSHIP, H. The tide of a lady. 

Shak. Dryden. 

L A K 



LAG, a, [This word belongs to the root ofl 
slack, slow, slvggish,laiiginsh, lovg; Goth. 
laggs ; W. llag, llac ; Gr. ra/yyivu, Xoyyojui 
Class Lg. See the Verb.] 

1. Coming after or behind ; slow ; sluggish ; 
tai-dy. Shak. 

% Last ; long delayed ; as the lug end. Shak. 

[This adjective is not now in use.] 
LAG, n. The lowest class ; the rump ; the 
fag end. 

2. He that comes behind. Wot in useJ] 


LAG, t'. i. [VV. llag, llac, slack, loose : Goth. 
laggs, long; Eng. to Jlag, and Jlacceo, la7i- 
gueo, to languish, &c. The sense is to 
extend or draw out, or to become lax or 
loose. Class Lg.] 

To walk or move slowly ; to loiter ; to stay 

I shall not lag behind. Milton 

LAG'GARD, n. Slow ; sluggish ; backward 
{Not used.l Collins. 

LAG'GER, a. A loiterer; an idler; one 
who moves slowly and falls behind. 

LAG'GING, ppr. Loitering ; moving slow- 
ly and falling behind. 

Tlie Duise went lagging after with the child 


LAGOON,' ) [It. Sp. laguna, from the root 

LAGU'NE, \ "■ of /«*c.] A fen, moor, marsh, 
shallow pond or lake ; as the lagunes of 
Venice. Roy. Smollct. 

LA'IC, } [Il.laico,laicale,l''T.laique,Sp. 

LA'ICAL, \ ' laycal, D. kek, L. laicus, from 
Gr. %aixos, from tjio;, people. The Greek 
>.aos is probably a contracted word.] 

Belonging to the laity or people, in distinc- 
tion from the clergy. 

LA'lC, n. A layman. Bp. Morton. 

LAID, pret. and pp. of lay ; so written for lay 

LAIN, pp. of lie. Lien would be a more 
regular orthography, but lain is generally 

LAIR, «. [G. lager, from the root of lay, L- 

1. A place of rest; the bed or conch of a 
boar or wild beast. Milton. Dryden 

2. Pasture ; the ground. Spenser. 
LAIRD, n. [contracted from Sax. hlaford, 

In the Scots dialect, a lord ; the proprietor 

of a manor. Cteaveland. 

LA'ITY, n. [Gr. tMo^, jieople. See Laic] 

1. The people, as distinguished from the 
clergy ; the body of the people not in or- 
ders. Swi/1. 

2. The state of a layman, or of not being in 
orders. \JVot used.] .lyliffe. 

LAKE, V. I. [Sw. leka ; Dan. leger ; Goth 

To play ; to sport. J\'orth of England. This 
is play. Sax. plegan, without a prefix. 

1,AKE, n. [G. lache, a puddle ; Fr. lac ; L 
lacus; Sp. It. lago ; Sax. luh ; Scot, loch ; 
Ir. longh ; Ice. lavgh. A lake is a stanti 
of water, from tlie root of lay. Hence L. 
lagena, Eng. Jlagon, and Sp. laguna, la- 

1. A large and extensive collection of water 
contained in a cavity or hollow of the 
earth. It differs from a pond in size, tlic 
latter being a collection of small extent 
but sometimes n cnllection of water i.« call- 
ed a pond or a lake indifferently. North 
America contains some of the lai'gest lakes 

Vol. 11. 

on the globe, particularly the takes On- 
tario, Erie, Huron, Michigan and Superior. 

2. A middle color between ullraniarine and 
vermilion, made of cochineal. Dryden. 

LA'KY, a. Pertaining to a lake or lakes. 


LAMA, n. The sovereign jjontiff, or rather 
the god of the Asiatic Tartars. Encyc. 

2. A small species of camel, the Camelus 
lama of South America. 

LAM'ANTIN, } A species of the walrus 

LAM'ENTIN, ^ "' or sea-cow, the Triche 
cliusmanatLis. Encyc. 

LAMB, n lam. [Goth, and Sax. lamb ; D 
Dau. lam ; G.lamm; Hw.lamh. The let- 
ter b is casual and useless. I suspect the 
word to signify a shoot, as in other cases 
of the young of animals, from a root which 
is retained in the Welsh llamu, to bound, 
to skip.] 

1. The young of the sheep kind. 

2. The Lamb of God, in Scripture, the Sav- 
ior .Tesus Christ, who was typified by the 
paschal lamb. 

liehold llie lamb of God, who taketh away 

the sill of the world. John i. 
LAMB, r. t. To bring forth young, as sheep. 
LAM'BATIVE, a. [L. lambo, to lick ; W. 

Ilaib, lleibiau; to la]).] 
Taken by licking. [Little used.] Brown. 

LAM'BATIVE, >i. a medicine taken l)y 

licking with the tongue. ff'iseman. 

LAM'BENT, a. [L. lambens, lambo, to lick.] 

Playing about ; loucliing lightly ; gliding 

over ; as a lambent flame. Dryden. 

LAMBKIN, n. lam'kin. A small lamb. 

LAMBLIKE, a. lam'like. Like a lamb 

gentle ; humble ; meek ; as a lamblike tern 

LAMDOID'AL, a. [Gr. xaf<Sa, the name of 

the letter A, and stSoj, form.] 
In the form of the Greek A, the English L; 

as the lamdoidal suture. Sharp 

LAME, o. [Sax. lame nv Inma ; G. lahm ; D. 

Dan. lam ; Sw. lahm. It is probably alli- 
ed to limp.] 

1. Cripplecl or disabled in a limb, or other- 
wise injured so as to be unsound and im- 
])air<'d in strength ; as a lame arm or leg 
or a person lame in one leg. 

2. Imperfect ; not satisfactory ; as a lame 
excuse. Swift 

3. Hobbling ; not smooth ; as numbers in 
verse. Dryden 

LAME, D. <. To make lame; to cripple or 

disable ; to render imperfect and unsound ; 

as, to lame an arm or a leg. Dryden 

LAM'EL, «. [L.lamella; W. Ilavyn. See 

Lamin.] A thin plate or scale of any thing. 
LAM'ELLAR, a. [from lamel.] Disposed 

in thin plates or scales. 
LAM'ELLARLY, adv. In thin plates or 


LAM'ELLATE, > Formed in thin 
LAM'ELLATED, ^ "" plates or scales, or 

covered with them. 
LAMELLIF EROIS, a. [L. lamella and 

fero, to ])roduce.] 
Producing plates; an epithet of polypiers 

presenting lamellar stars, or waved fur- 
rows garnished with plates. 

Diet. A'al. fl?>/. 
LAM'ELLIFOR3I, a. [L. lamella, a plate, 

and form.] Having the furni of a |)late. 
Journ. of Science 

LA'MELY, adv. [See Lame.] Like a cripple ; 
with impaired strength ; in a halting 
manner ; as, to walk lamely. 

2. Imperfectly; without a complete exhibi- 
tion of parts ; as a figure lamely drawn : 
a scene lamely described. 

3. Weakly; poorly; unsteadily ; feebly. 
LA'MENESS, n. An imjiaired state of the 

body or limbs; loss of natural soundness 
and strength by a wound or by disease ; 
particularly applied to the limlis, and im- 
plying a total or partial inability ; as the 
to))ie»ic.?sof the leg or arm. 
2. Imperfection ; weakness ; as the lameness 

of an argument or of a description. 
LAMENT', V. i. [L. lamentor.] To mourn ; 
to grieve ; to weep or wail ; to express sor- 
Jererniah lamented for Josiah. 2 Chron. xxxv. 
2. To regret deeply; to feel sorrow. 
LAMENT', V. t. To bewail; to mourn for; 
to bemoan ; to deplore. 

One laughed at follies, one lamented crimes. 

Dryden . 
LAMENT',?!, [h. lamentum.] Grief orsor- 
row expressed in ronii>laints or cries; la- 
mentation; a weeiting. 
Torment, and loud lament, and furious rage. 

[This noun is ttsed chiefly or solely in 
LAM'ENTABLE, a. [Fr. from L. lumentub- 

1. To be lamented ; deserving sorrow; as a 
lamentable declension of morals. 

2. Mournful ; adapted to awaken grief; as a 
lamentable tune. 

3. Expressing sorrow ; as latnentable cries. 

4. Miserable; pitiful; low; poor; in a sense 
rather ludicrous. [Little used.] 


LAM'ENTABLY, adv. Mournfully; with 

expressions or tokens of sorrow. Sidney. 

2. So as to cause sorrow. Shak. 

3. Pitifully ; despicably. 

LAMENTA'TION, n. [l..lamentalio.] Ex- 
pression of sorrow; cries of grief; the act 
of bewailing. 

In Rama was there a \oice heard, lainenta- 
lion and weeping. Matt. ii. 

2. In the plural, a book of Scripture, contain- 
i ing the lamentations of Jeremiah. 
!LAMENT'ED,;j/>. Bewailed; mourned for. 
jLAMENT'ER, n. One who mourns, or cries 

out with sorrow. 
JLAMENTIN. [See La^nantin.] 

LAMENT'ING,/(pr. Bewailing; mourning; 
j weeping. 

iLAMENT'lNG, n. A mourning; lamenta- 
I tion. 

LAMIA, n. [L.] A hag; a witch ; a de- 
1 mon. 

LAMIN, ) [L.latnina; W. Ilavyn, from 
;LAM'INA, S extending, W. Ilav.] 

1. A thin plate or scale ; a layer or coat lying 
over another ; applied to the plates of 
minerals, bones, &c. Encyc. 

2. A bone, or part of a bone, resembling a 
thin plate, such as the cribriform plate of 
the ethmoid bone. Parr. 

3. The lap of the ear. Parr. 

4. The border, or the upper, broad or spread- 
ing part of the petal, in a polvj>etalous 
corol. " Marlyn. 

LAM'INABLE, a. Capable of being formed 
into thin plates. Kirwan. 




LAM'INAR, a. In plates; consisting of thin 

plates or layers. 
LAM'INATE, ) Plated; consisting of 
LAM'INATED, J "' plates, scales or layers, 

one over another. 
LAMM, V. t. To beat. [JVot in vse.] 

LAM'MAS, n. [Sax. hlammwsse, from 

hlafinivsse, loaf-mass, bread-feast, or feast 

of first fruits. Lye.] 
The first day of August. Bacon 

LAMP, n. [Fr. lampe ; L. lampas; Gr. 

Aa^rtaj, from y.ttjurtu, to shine ; Heb. and 

Ch.TS'?. Qu.] 

1. A vessel for containing oil to be burned 
by means of a wick; or a light, a burning 
wick inserted in a vessel of oil. Hence, 

2. Figuratively, a light of any kind. The 
inoon is called the lamp of heaven. 

Thy gentle eyes send forth a quickening spirit, 
To feed the dying lamp of life within me. 


Lamp of safety, or safety lamp, a lamp for 
lighting coal mines, without exposing 
workmen to the explosion of inflammable 
air. Davy. 

LAM'PAS, 71. [Fr.] A lump of flesh oftlie 
size of a nut, in the roof of a horse's mouth, 
and rising above the teeth. Far. Diet. 

LAMP'BLACK, n. [lamp and black ; bcin^ 
originally made by means of a lamp or 

A fine soot formed by the condensation of 
the smoke of burning pitch or resinous 
substances, in a chimney terminating in a 
cone of cloth. Fourcroy. 

LAMP'IATE, »!. A compound salt, compo- 
sed of lampic acid and a base. lire. 

LAMP'IC, a. The lampic acid is obtained 
by the combustion of ether by means of a 
latnp. Ure. 

LAMP'ING, a. [It. lampante.] Shining; 
sparkling. [JVot used.] Spenser. 

LAMPOON', n. [Qu. Old Fr. tamper.] 
A personal satire in writing ; abuse; cen- 
sure written to reproach and vex rather 
than to reform. 

Johnson. Dryden. Pope. 

LAMPOON', t'. t. To abuse with personal 
censure ; to reproach iu written satire. 

LAMPOON'ER, n. One who abuses with 

personal satire ; the writer of a lampoon. 

The squibs arc those who arc called libelers, 

lampooners^ and pamphleteers. Tatter. 

LAMPOON'ING, ppr. Abusing with per- 
sonal satire. 

LAMPOON'RY, n. Abuse. 

LAM'PREY, 71. [Fr. lamproic ; Sax. lamp- 
neda ; G. lamprele ; D. lamprei : Dan. 
lampret ; Sp. and Port, laiiiprta; It. lam- 
preda ; W. Ueiproi; ; Arm. lamprt-enn 
In Ann. lamprn signifies to slip or glide. 
In ^Velsh lleipiau', is to lick or lap, and 
Iteipran; U> make flabby. If m is casual, 
which is probable, the Armnric lampra for 
lapra, coinciiles with L. labor, to slip, and 
most probably the animal is named from 
.tlippiiijr. If however, the sense is token 
from lirkinfr ihc, nu-ks, as Camden suppn 
.ses, it accords with the sense of the tech- 
nical name of the gcnns ^e(ro)iii/:on, the 
A genus of anguilliform fishes, resembling the 
eel, and niiiviiig in water by winding, like 
the serpent on land. Tliia fish has .seven 
spiracles ou each side of the neck, and a 

fistula or a|ierture on the top of the head 
but no pectoral or ventral fins. The ma- 
rine or sea lamprey is sometimes found so 
large as to weigh four or five pound.s. 

Lamprei and lampron. [See Lamprey.] 
LA'NATE, } [L. lanatus, from lana, 
LAN'ATED, \ "■ wool.] Wooly. In bot- 
any, covered with a substance like curled 
hairs; as a lanaled leaf or stem. 
LANCE, 71. fans. [L. lancea ; Fr. lance ; 
Sp. lanza ; It. lancia ; G. lanze ; D. Sw 
lans; Dan. lantse ; Slav, lanzha ; Gr 
^oyxrj. This word probably belongs to 
Class Lg, and is named from shooting, 
A sjiear, an oflfensive weapon in form of 
a half pike, used by the ancients and 
thrown by the hand. It consisted of the 
shaft or handle, the wings and the dart. 

LANCE, V. t. [Arm. lancza, to shoot, to 

i. To pierce with a lance or with a sharp 
pointed instrument. 
— Seized die due victim, and with fury lanc'd 
Her back. Dryden 

2. To pierce or cut ; to open with a lancet 

as, to lance a veiii or an abscess. 
LANCELY, a. I'ansly. Suitable to a lance. 


In botany, tapering to- 

^s. Res. 


wards each end. 

Shaped like a lance 

oblong and gradual 
ly tapering towanl each extremity ; spear- 
shaped ; as a lanceolate leaf. Martyn 

LANCEPESA'DE, ii. [It. lancia-spezzata 
a ilemi-lance-iiian, a light horseman.] An 
officer under the cor])oral. J. Hall. 

L'ANCER, 71. One who lances; one who 
carries a lance. 

L*ANCET, 71. [Fi:luncetle,rrom lance.] A 
surgical instrument, sharp-pointed and 
two-edged ; used in venesection, and in 
opening tumors, abscesses, &c. Encyc. 

2. A pointed window. H'arton. 

L'ANCH, I', t. [from lance, Fr. lancer.] To 
throw, as a lance ; to dart; to let fly. 
See whose arm can lanch the surer bolt. 

Dryden. Lee. 

2. To move, or cause to slide from the land 
into the water ; as, to latich a ship. 

L>x\NCH, t'. i'. To dart or fly off; to push 
oft"; as, to lunch into the wide workl ; to 
lanch into a wide field of discussion. 

L"AN('H, n. The. sliding or movement of a 
ship liom the land into the water, on ways 
prepared for the |)inpose. 

2. A kind nf boat, longer, lower, and more 
flat-bottomed than a long boat. 

Mar. Did. 

LAND, 71. [Gnth. Sax. G. D. Dan. Sw. laiid. 
I suppose this to be the W. llan, a clear 
place or area, and the same as laivn ; 
Cantabrian, Innda, a plain or field. It. 
Sp. landn. The final d is probably ad 
ventilious. The primary sense is a lay or 
spread. Class Ln.] 
1. Earth, or the solid matter which consti 
tutcs the fixed ]iart of the surface of the 
globe, in distimtion from the sea or other 
waters, which constitute the fluid or mova- 
ble poit. Uciice we say, the globe is ter 

raqueous, consisting of land and water. 
The seaman in a long voyage longs to see 

2. Any portion of the sohd, superficial part 
of the globe, whether a kingdom or coun- 
try, or a particular region. The United 
States is denominated the land of freedom. 

Go, view the land, even Jericho. Josh. ii. 

3. Any small portion of the superficial part 
of the earth or ground. We speak of the 
quantity oftand in a manor. Five hun- 
dred acres of land is a large farm. 

4. Ground ; soil, or the superficial part of the 
earth in respect to its nature or quality ; 
as good land; poor land; moist or dry 

5. Real estate. A traitor forfeits all his lands 
and tenements. 

6. The inhabitants of a country or region ; 
a nation or people. 

These answers in the silent night received. 
The king himself divulged, the layid believed. 


7. The ground left unplowed between fur- 
rows, is by some of our farmers called a 

To make the land, ) In seaman's language, 

To make land, ^ is to discover land from 
sea, as the ship ajiproaches it. 

To shut in the land, to lose sight of the land 
left, by the intervention of a point or prom- 

To set the land, to see by the compass how 
it bears from the ship. 

LAND, 71. [Sax. hland or htond.] Urine ; 
whence the old expression, land dam, to 
kill. Obs. Shak. 

LAND, V. t. To set on shore; to disembark; 
to debark ; as, to land troops from a ship 
or boat ; to land goods. 

LAND, I', i. To go on shore from a ship or 
boat ; to disembark. 

LAN'DAU, n. A kind of coach or carriage 
whose top may be opened and thrown 
back ; so called from a town in Germany. 

LAND'-BREEZE, n. [land and breeze.] A 
current of air setting from the land to- 
wards the sea. 

LAND'ED, pp. Disembarked ; set on shore 
from a shi]) or boat. 

2. a. Having an estate in land; as a landed 

The house of commons must consist, for the 
most part, o( landed men. Mdison. 

3. Consisting in real estate or land ; as 
landed security ; landed property. The 
landed interest of a nation is the interest 
consisting in land ; but the word is used 
also for the owners of that interest, the 
])roprietors of land. 

LAND'FALL, n. [land and fall.] A sud- 
den translation f>f property in land by the 
death of a rich man. Johnson. 

In seamen's langnage, the first land dis- 
covered after a voyage. Mar. Did. 

LAND' ■ (land und food.] An 
overflowing of land by water; an inun- 
dati(Ui. Properly, a flood from the land 
from the swelling of rivers ; but I am not 
sure that il is always used in this sense. 

LAND'-FORCE,»i. [land uiu\ force] A mil- 
itary force, army or troops srr\ ing on land, 
as distinguished from a naval force. 

LAND'GRAVE, 71. [G. /(ni4-m/; h. land- 
raaf. Graf or graaf is au call or count. 




Sax. gerffa, a companion or count. It is 
contracted into reeve, as in sheriff, or shire- 
In Cennany, a count or earl ; or an officer 
nearly corresjionding to the earl of Eng- 
land, and the count of France. It is now 
a title of certain princes who possess es- 
tates or territories called landgrnviates 


LANDGRA'VIATE, n. The territory held 
by a landgrave, or his office, jurisdiction 
or authority. Encyc. 

LAND'HOLDER, u. A holder, owner or 
proprietor of land. 

LAND'ING, ppr. Setting on shore ; coming 
on shore. 

LAND'ING, I A place on the 

LAND'ING-PLACE, I "• shore of the sea 
or of a lake, or on the bank of a river, 
where persons land or come on shore, or 
where goods are .set on shore. 

LAND'JOBBER, 71. A man who makes a 
business ol' buying Ijiiid on speculation, or 
of buying and selling for the profit of bar- 
gains, or who buys and sells for others. 

LAND'LADY, n. [See Landlord.] A wo- 
man who has tenants holding from her. 


2. The mistress of an inn. Sicijl. 

LAND'LE.SS, a. Destitute of land ; having 
no property in land. Shak. 

LAND'LOCk, V. t. [land and lock.] To in 
close or encompass by laml. 

LAND'LOCKED, pp. Encompassed by 
land, so that no point of the compass is 
open to the sea. Encyc. 

LAND'LOPER, n. [See Leop and /nter/o- 

A landman ; literally, a land runner ; a term 
of reproach among seamen to designate a 
man who passes his life on land. 

LAND'LORD, n. [Sax. land-hlnford, lord of 
the land. Tint in German lehen-herr, D. 
leen-herr, is lord of the loan or fief Per- 
haps the Sa.xon is so written by mistake, 
or the word may have been corrupted.] 

1. The lord of a manor or of land ; the own- 
er of land who has tenants under him. 


2. The master of an inn or tavern. 


LAND'IMAN, n. A man who serves on land ; 
opposed to seaman. 

LAND'MARK, n. [land and mark.] A 
mark to desig-nate the boimdary of land ; 
any mark or fixed object ; as a marked 
tree, a stone, a ditch, or a heap of stones, 
by which the limits of a farm, a town or 
other portion of territory may be known 
and preserved. 

Thou shalt not remove thy neighbor's land- 
mark. Deut. xix. 

2. In navigation, any elevated object on 
land that serves as a guide to seamen. 

LAND'-OFFICE, n In Me United States, an 
office m which the sales of new land are 
registered, and warrants issued for the lo- 
cation of land, and other business respect- 
ing unsettled land is transacted. 

LAND'SCAPE, n. [D. landschup : G. land 
schafl; Dan. landskab ; Sw. landskap 
land and skape.] 

1. A portion of land or territory which the 
eye can comprehend in a single view, in- 
cluding mountains, rivers, lakes, and what- 
ever the land contains. 

— Wliilst the lanilscape round it meaiiureg, I 

Russet lawns and fallows gray, 

Where the nibbling flocks do stray. Jl/i//OH. 

2. A picture, exhibiting the form of a district 
of country, as far as the eye can reach, orl 
a particular extent of land and the objects: 
it contains, or its various scciiery. 

Mdison. Pope.] 

3. The view or prospect of a district of 

LAND'SLIP,?!. Aportion of ahillormoun- 
tain, which slips or slides down ; or the 
sliding down of a considerable tract of 
land from a mountain. Landslips are not 
unfrerpient in Swisserland. Goldsmith^ 

LAND'SMAN, n. In seaman's language, a, 
sailor on board a ship, who has not before 
been at sea. 

LAND'STREIGHT, n. A narrow slip of 
land. [jYot used.] Mountague. 

LAND'-TAX, n. A tax assessed on land 
and bnildiiigs. 

LAND'-TURN, n. A land breeze. Encyc. 

LAND- WAITER, n. An officer of the cus- 
toms, whose duty is to wait or attend on 
the landing of goods, and to examine,! 
weigh or measure, and take an account of 
them. Encyc.: 

LANDWARD, adv. Toward the land. | 


LAND'-WIND, n. A wind blowing from the! 
land. I 

LAND'- WORKER, n. One who tills the 
ground. Pownall., 

LANE, n. [D. laan, a lane, a walk. Class 
Ln.] I 

1. A narrow way or passage, or a privatCj 
passage, as distinguished from a public! 
road or highway. A lane may be open to! 
all passengers, or it may be inclosed and 
appropriated to a man's private use. In! 
the U. States, the word is used chiefly in] 
the country, and answers in a degree, to 
an alley in a city. It has sometimes been 
used for alley. In London, the word lane 
is added to the names of streets ; as chan- 
cery lane. 

2. A passage between lines of men, or peo- 
ple standing on each side. Bacon. 

LAN'GRAgE, } Langrel shot or langrage} 
LAN'GREL, J ' is a particular kind of 

shot used at sea for tearing sails and rig-! 

ging, and thus disabling an enemy's ship.' 

It consists of bolts, nails and other pieces! 

of iron fastened together. Mar. Diet. 

LANGTERALOO', n. A game at cards. 


LAN'GUAtiE, 7^ [Fr. langage: &p. lengua} 
lenguage ; Port, linguagem ; It. linguag-\ 
gio : .Arm. langaich ; from L. lingua, the! 
tongue, and speech. It seems to be con- 
nected with lingo, to lick ; the n is evi-l 
dently casual, for ligula, in Latin, is a little 
tongue, and this signifies also a strap or 
lace, as if the primary sense were to ex- 

I. Human speech ; the expression of ideas 
by words or significant articulate sounds,! 
for the comnumication of thoughts. Lan-\ 
guage consists in the oral utterance of 
sounds, which usage has made the repre- 
sentatives of ideas. When two or morej 
persons customarily anne.x the same 
sounds to the same ideas, the expression! 
of these sounds by one person communi- 
cates bis ideas to another. This is the pri-' 

mary sense of language, the use of which 
is to comnumicate the thoughts of one 
per.son to another through the organs of 
hearing. Articulate simnds are repre- 
sented by letters, marks or characters 
which form words. Hence language con- 
sists also in 

2. Words duly arranged in sentences, writ- 
ten, printed or engraved, and exhibited to 
the eye. 

3. The speech or expression of ideas pecul- 
iar to a particular nation. Men had orig- 
inally one and the same language, but 
the tribes or families of men, since their 
dispersion, have distinct languages. 

Style; tuanner of expression. 
Others (oT language all their care express. 

The inarticulate sounds by which irra- 
tional animals express their feelings and 
wants. Each species of animals has pe- 
culiar sounds, which are uttered instinct- 
ively, and are understood by its own spe- 
cies, and its own species only. 

6. Any manner of expressing tlioughts. 
Thus we speak of the language of the eye, 
alanguage very expressive and intelligible. 

7. A nation, as distinguished by their speech. 
Dan. iii. 

LAN'GUAgED, a. Having a language ; as 

many-languaged nations. Pope. 

LAN'GUAGE-MASTER, 71. One whose 

profession is to teach languages. 

LAN'GUET, n. [Fr. hnguette.] Any thing 

in the shape of the tongue. [jYot English.] 

LAN'GUID, a. [L. languidus, from langueo, 

to droop or flag. See Languish.] 

1. Flagging; drooping; hence, feeble; weak; 
heavy ; dull ; indisposed to exertion. The 
body is languid after excessive action, 
which exhausts its powers. 

2. Slow ; as languid motion. 

3. Dull ; heartless ; without animation. 
And fire their languid soul with Cato's virtue. 


LANGUIDLY, adv. Weakly ; feebly ; 
slowly. Boyle. 

LAN'GUIDNESS, 7!. Weakness from ex- 
haustion of strength ; feebleness ; dull- 
ness ; languor. 

2. Slowness. 
LAN'GUISH, V. i. [Fr. languir, languis- 

sant ; Arm. languigza ; It. languire ; L. 
langueo, lachinisso ; Gr. Tjv/yivu, to flag, 
to lag. This word is of the family of W. 
llac, slack, loose ; tlaciaw, to slacken, to 
relax. L. laxo, larus, flacceo, and Goth. 
laggs, long, may be of the same family.] 
1. To lose strength or animation ; to be or 
become dull, feeble or spiritless; to pine; 
to be or to grow heavy. We larigiiish 
under disease or after excessive exertion. 
She that hath borne seven languisheth. Jer. 


To wither; to fade ; to lose the vegeta- 
ting power. 
For the fields of Heshbon languish. Is. svi. 

3. To grow dull ; to be no longer active and 
vigorous. The war languished for want 
of supphes. Commerce, agriculture, man- 
ufactures languish, not for want of inonev, 
but for want of good markets. 




4. To pine or sink under sorrow or any con- 
tinued passion ; as, a woman languishes 
for the loss of lier lover. 

Therefore shall the land mourn, and every 
one that dwelleth therein shall languish. Ho- 
sea iv. 

5. To look with softness or tenderness, as 
with the head reclined and a pecidiar cast 
of the eye. Dryden. 

LAN'GUISH, V. t. To cause to drooj) or 

pine. [Little used.] Shak. 

LAN'GUISH, n. Act of pining; also, a soft 

and tender look or appearance. 

And the blue languish of soft Allia's eye. 

LAN'GUISIIER, n. One who languishes 

or pines. 
LAN'GUISIIING, ppr. Becoming or beinj 

feeble ; losing strength ; pining ; wither 

ing ; fading. 
2. a. Having a languid appearance ; as a 

tanguishins; eye. 
LAN'GUISHINGLY, adv. Weakly ; feebly ; 

dully ; slowly. 
2. With tender softness. 
LAN'GUISHMENT, n. The state of pin-' 

ing. Spenser.'. 

2. Softness of look or mien, with the head' 

reclined. Dryden.] 

LAN'GUOR, »i. [L. languor; Ft. langueur.]\ 

1. Feebleness ; dullness ; heaviness ; lassi- 
tude of body ; that state of the body 
which is induced by exhaustion of 
strength, as by disease, by e.xtraordinary 
exertion, by fhe relaxing effect of heat, or 
by weakness from any cause. 

2. Dullness of the intellectual faculty; list- 
lessness. IFatts. 

3. Softness; laxity. 

To isles of fragrance, lily-silvered vales, 
Diffusing languor in the parting gales. 


LAN'GUOROUS, a. Tedious ; melancholy, 

Obs. Spenser. 

LAN'GURE, V. I. To languish. [JVot in 

vse.] Chaucer. 

LANIARD, J!, lan'yard. [Fr. laniere, a 

A short piece of rope or line, used for fasten 
ing something in ships, as the laniards of 
the gun-ports, of the buoy, of the cathook, 
&c., but especially used to extend the 
shrouds and stays of the masts, by their 
conwnunication with the dead eyes, &c. 

Mar. Diet. 
LA'NIATE, I'. /. [L. lanio.] To tear in 

pieces. [Little used.] 
LANIA'TION, n. A tearing in pieces. [Lit- 

LAMF'EROUS, a. [L.lamfer; /ana, wool, 
and /f CO, to produce.] Bearing or produ- 
cing wool. 

LAN'H-'ICE, n. [L. lanijicium ; lana, wool, 
aiid/uao, to make.] 

Manufacture of wool. [Little used.] 


LANIG'EROUS, a. [L. laniger; lana, wool,' 
and gero, to bear.] Bearing or producing 

LANK, n. [Sax. hlnnca ; Gr. Xayapo; ; prob- 
ably alli('(l lofhink, and W. Uac, slack, lax ;: 
llaciaw, to slacken ; (J. schlank.] 

1. Loose or lax and easily yielding to ]>res- 
surc ; not distended ; not siilT or firm by 
distension ; not plump ; as a lank bladder 
or purse. 

The clergy's bags 
Are lank and lean with thy extortions. 


2. Thin ; slender ; meager ; not full and 
firm ; as a lank body. 

3. Languid ; drooping. [See Languish.] 


LANK'LY, adv. Thinly ; loosely ; laxly. 

LANK'NESS, n. Laxity ; flabbiness ; lean- 
ness ; slenderness. 

LANK'Y, n. Lank. [Vulgar.] 

LAN'NER, I [fr.lanier; 'L.laniarius 

LAN'NERET, l"-lanius, a butcher.] A 
species of hawk. 

LANS'QUENET, n. [lance and knecht, a 
boy, a knight.] 

1. A common foot soldier. 

2. A game at cards. Johnson. Encyc. 
LAN'TERN, n. [Fr. lanterne ; L. laterna ; 

G. lateme ; D. lantaarn ; Sp. lintema.] 
1. A case or vessel made of tin perforated 
with many holes, or of some transpai'cnt 
substance, as glass, horn, or oiled paper ; 
used for carrying a candle or other light 
in the open air, or into stables, &c. 

A dark lantern is one with a single open 
ing, which may be closed so as to conceal 
the light. 

3. A light-house or light to direct the course 
of ships. Addison. 

3. In architecture, a little dome raised over 
the roof of a building to give light, and 
to serve as a crowning to the fabric. 


4. A square cage of carpentry placed over 
the ridge of a corridor or gallery, between 
two rows of shops, to illuminate them. 

Magic lantern, an optical machine by which 

])ainted images are re))resented so much 

magnified as to appear like the effect of 

LAN'TERN-FLV, ii. An insect of the ge 

uus Kulgora. Encyc, 

LAN'TERN-JAWS, n. A thin visage. 

LANU'(jINOUS, a. [L. lanuginosus, from 

lanugo, down, from lana, wool.] 
Downy ; covered with down, or fine soft 

LAODICE'AN, a. Like the christians of 

Laodicea; lukewarm in religion. 
LAODICE'ANISM, n. Lukewarmncss in 

religion. E. Stiles. 

LAP, n. [Sax. loeppc ; G. lappen ; D. Dan. 

lap ; Sw. lapj). This word seems to be a 

different orthography of Jlap.] 

1. The loose part of a coat ; the lower part 
of a garment that plays loosely. Swift 

2. The part of clothes that lies on the knees 
when a person sits down ; hence, the 
knees in this position. 

Men expect that happiness should drop into 
their laps. Tillotson 

LAP, V. t. To fold ; to bend and lay over or 
on ; as, to lap a piece of cloth. 

To lap boards, is to lay one partly over 

2. To wrap or twist round. 
I lapped a slender thread about the paper. 


3. To infold ; to involve. 
Her garment spreads, and laps hhn in the 

folda. Dryden. 

LAP, V. i. To be spread or laid ; to be turn- 
ed over. 

The upper wings are opacous ; at their hind- 
er ends where they lap over, transparent like the 
wing of a fly. Grew. 

LAP, V. i. [Sax. lappian ; D. labben ; Arm. 
lappa; Fr. taper; Dan. laber ; W.llepiato, 
lleibiaw ; Gr. Xa«ru. If ?n is casual in L. 
lambo, as it probably is, this is the same 
word. Class Lb. No. 22.] 

To take up hquor or food with the tongue ; 
to feed or drink by licking. 

The dogs by the liver Nilus' side being 
thirsty, lap hastily as they run along the shore. 

And the number of them that lapped were 
three hundred men. Judg. vii. 

LAP, V. t. To take into the mouth with the 
tongue ; to lick up ; as, a cat laps milk. 


LAP'DOG, n. A small dog fondled in the 
"a p. Dryden. 

LAP'FULL, n. As much as the lap can 
contain. 2 Kings iv. 

LAP'ICIDE, n. A stone-cutter. [M'ot used.] 


LAPIDA'RIOUS, a. [L. lapidarius, from 
lapis, a stone.] Stony ; consisting of 

LAP'IDARY, n. [Fr. lapidaire ; L. lapida- 
rius, lapis, a stone.] 

1. An artificer who cuts precious stones. 

2. A dealer in precious stones. 

3. A virtuoso skilled in the nature and 
kinds of gems or precious stones. Encyc. 

LAP'IDARY, a. Pertaining to the art of 
cutting stones. The lapidary style de- 
notes that which is proper for monumental 
and other inscriptions. Encyc. 

LAPIDATE, V. t. [L. lapido.] To stone. 
[Xot used.] 

LAPIDA'TION, n. The act of stoning a 
person to death. Hcdl. 

LAPID'EOUS, a. [L. lapideus.] Stony; of 
the nature of stone ; as lapideous matter. 
[Little used.] Ray. 

LAPIDES'CENCE, n. [h. lapidesco, from 
lapis, a stone.] 

1. The processor becoming stone; a hard- 
ening into a stony substance. 

2. A stony concretion. Brown. 
LAPIDES'CENT, a. Growing or turning 

to stone ; that has the quality of petrify- 
ing bodies. Encyc. 

LAPIDES'CENT, n. Any substance which 
has the qualitj' of petrifying a body, or 
converting it to stone. 

LAPIDIF'IC, a. [L. tapis, a stone, and Ja- 
cio, to make.] Forming or converting in- 
to stone. 

LAPIDIFIeA'TION, n. The operation of 
forming or converting into a stony sub- 
stance, by means of a liquid charged with 
earthy particles in solution, which crys- 
talize in the interstices, and end in form- 
ing free stone, pudding stone, &c. 

Diet. J\'at. HisK 

LAPID'IFY^, r. t. [L. lapis, a stone, and 
facin, to form.] To form into stone. 

LAPID'IF'?, V. i. To turn into stone; tc 
become stone. 

L.VP'IDIST, n. A dealer in precious stones^ 
[See Lapidary.] 

LAPIS, in Latin, a stone. Hence, 

Lapis Bonnniensis, the Bolognian stone. 

Lapis Hepaticus, liver stone. 


L A R 

L A R 

Lapis Laztdi, azure stone, an aluminous|,LAPS'ING, ;)pr. Gliding; flowing j fuiling;, I 

mineral, of a rich blue color, resembling 
the blue carbonate of copper. [See La- 

Lapis Li/dius, touch-stone ; basanite ; a va- 
riety of siliceous slate. 

LAP'PEl), pp. [See Lap.] Turned or fold- 
ed over. 

LAP PER, n. One that laps; one that 
wraps or folds. 

2. One that lakes up with his tongue. 

LAP'PET, n. [dim. of lap.] A part of a 
sarnient or dress that hangs loose, 


LAP'PING, ppr. Wrapping ; folding ; lay 
ing on. 

2. Licking ; taking into the mouth with the 

LAPSE, n. laps. [L. lapsus, from labor, to 
slide, to fall. Class Lb.] 


course ; as the lapse of a stream ; the 
lapse of time. 

2. A falling or passing. 

The lapse to indolence is soft and imperccp 
tiblc, but the return to diligence is difficult. 


3. A slip ; an error ; a fault ; a failing in 
duty ; a slight deviation from truth or rec- 

This Scripture may be usefully applied as a 
caution to guard against those lapses and fail 
ings to which our infirmities daily expose us. 


So we say, a lapse in style or propriety. 

4. In eccksia-Hical law, the slip or omission of 
a patron to present a clerk to a benefice, 
within six months after it becomes void. 
In this case, the benefice is said to be laps- 
ed, or in lapse. Encyc. 

5. In theology, the fall or apostasy of Adam. 
LAPSE, V. I. laps. To glide ; to pass slowly, 

silently or by degrees. 

This disposition to shorten our words by re- 
trenching the vowels, is nothing else but a ten- 
dency to lapse into the barbarity of fliose north- 
ern nations from which we descended. Swift. 
'2. To slide or slip in moral conduct ; to fail 
in duty ; to deviate from rectitude ; to 
commit a fault. 

To lapse in fullness 

Is sorer than to lie for need. Shak. 

3. To slip or commit a fault by inadvertency 
or mistake. 

Homer, in his characters of Vulcan and 
Thersites, has lapsed into the burlesque char- 
acter, .iddison. 

4. To fall or pass from one proprietor to an- 
other, by the omission or negligence of 
the patron. 

If the archbishop shall not fill it up within six 

months ensuing, it lapses to the king, -iyliffe 

5. To fall from a state of innocence, or from 
truth, faith or perfection. 

Once more I will renew 
His lapsed powers. Mdton. 

LAPS'ED, pp. Fallen ; passed from one 
proprietor to another by the negligence of 
the patron ; as a lapsed benefice. A laps 
td legacy is one which falls to the heirs 
through the failure of the legatee, as when 
the legatee dies before the testator 
LAP'SIDED, a. [lap 3.ui side.] Having one 
side heavier than the other, as a ship. 

Mar. Diet 

falling to one person through the omission 
of another. 
LAP'WING, n. A bird of the genus Trin 

ga ; the tewit. 

LAP'WORK, ?i. Work in which one part ^ 
laps over another. Grew. 

L'Ail, n. plu. lares. [L.] A household deity. 


L'ARBOARD, n. [Board, hard, is a side ; 

but I know not the meaning o\'lar. The 

[ Dutch use hakboord, and the Germans 


The left hand side of a ship, when a person 
stands with liis face to the head ; opposed 
to starboard. 

L'ARBOARD, a. Pertaining to the left hand 
side of a ship ; as the larboard quarter. 

L'ARCENV, n. [Fr. larciii; Norm, larciin; 
Arm. laeroncy, or laxroncy, contracted from 
L. latrocinium, from the Celtic; W. lladyr, 
theft ; lladron, thieves ; Sp. ladron ; It. 
ladro, ladrone.] 

Theft; the act of taking and carrying away 
the goods or property of another feloni 
ously. Larceny is of two kinds ; simple 
larceny, or theft, not accompanied with 
any atrocions circumstance ; and mixed or 
compound larceny, which includes in it the 
aggravation of taking from one's house or 
person, as in burglary or robbery. The 
stealing of any thing below the value of 
twelve pence, is called petty larceny ; above 
that value, it is called grand larceny. 


L*.\RCH, Ji. [X^.larix ; Sp.alerce; It.larice; 
G. Icrchenbaum ; D. lorkenboom.] 

The common name of a division of the ge 
nus Pinus, species of which are natives 
of America, as well as of Europe. 

LWRD, n. [Fr. lard ; L. lardum, laridum ; 
It. and Sp. lardo ; Arm. lardl. Qu. W. 
liar, that spreads or drops, soft.] 

1. The fat of swine, after being melted and 
separated from the flesh. 

!2. Bacon; the flesh of swine. Dryden. 

LARD, I'. ^ [Fr. /nrrfer; Arm. ?arrfa.J To 
stuft' with bacon or pork. 

Tlie larded thighs on loaded altars laid. 

To fatten : to enrich. 

Now Falstaff sweats to death, 
And lards the lean earth. Shak. 

To mix with sometliing by way of im- 

— Let no alien interpose. 
To lard with wit thy hungry Epsom prose. 


L'.\RD, r. {. To grow fat. Drayton. 

L.ARDA'CEOUS, a. Of the nature of lard 
consisting of lard. Coxe 

L'ARDED, pp. Stuffed with bacon ; fat- 
tened ; mi.\ed. 

L'ARDER, n. A room where meat is kept 
or salted. Bacon. 

L'ARDRY, n. A larder. [JVot tised.] 

L'.'VRgE, a. larj. [Fr. large; Sp. Port. It 
largo ; Arm. larg ; L. largus. The prima- 
ry sense is to spread, stretch or distend, 
to diffuse, hence to loosen, to relax ; Sp. 
largar, to loosen, to slacken, as a rope 
Class Lr. It seems to be connected will, 
Gr. ^ovpo;, wide, copious, and perhaps 
with floor, W. llawr, and with llaicer. 
much, many. In Ba.sque, larria, is gross, 
and larritu, to grow.] 

Big ; of great size ; bulky ; as a large 
body ; a large horse or ox ; a large moun- 
tain ; a large tree ; a large ship. 

2. Wide ; extensive ; as a large field or 
plain; a large extent of territory. 
Extensive or populous ; containing many 
iidiabitants ; as a large city or town. 

4. Abundant ; plentiful ; ample ; as a large 
supply of provisions. 

a. Copious ; diffusive. 

I might he very large on the importance and 
advantages of education. Felton. 

G. In seamen''s language, the wind is large 
when it crosses the line of a ship's course 
in a favorable direction, particularly on 
the beam or quarter. Encyc. 

7. Wide; consisting of much water; as a 
large river. 

8. Liberal ; of a great amount ; as a large 

M large, without restraint or confinement ; 

' as, to go at large ; to be left at large. 

2. Diffusely; fully; in the full extent; as, 

to discourse on a subject at large. 
L'ARGE, 71. Formerly, a musical note equal 

to four breves. Busby. 


of heart; liberahty. [JYot iised.] 
\ Bp. Reyitolds. 

LARGELY, adv. Widely; extensively. 

2. Copiously ; diffu-sely ; amply. The sub- 
I ject was largely discussed. 

3. Liberally; bountifully. 

— How he lives and eats ; 
How largely gives. Dryden. 

4. Abundantly. 
They their fill of love and love's disport 
Took largely. .Milton. 

L'ARGENESS, n. Bigness; bulk; magni- 
tude ; as the largeness of an animal. 
2. Greatness ; comprehension ; as the large- 
1 ness of mind or of capacity. 
i.3. Extent ; extensiveness ; as largeness of 
I views. 

4. Extension; amplitude; liberahty; as the 
i largeness of a.n ofkr ; largeness of heart. 
j Hooker, fl'aller. 

5. Widcness; extent; as the largeness of a 
I river. 

L'ARgESS, ?!. [Fr. largesse; L. largitio ; 
\ from largus, large.] 

\.\. present ; a gift or donation ; a bounty be- 
] stowed. Bacon. Dryden. 

L'ARgISH, a. Somewhat large. [Unusual.] 
I Cavallo. 

ILARGO,^ } [It.] Musical terms, di- 

L.\RGHET TO, ^ reeling to slow inove- 
I menl. Largo is one degree quicker than 
I grave, and two degrees quicker than ada- 
I gio. Did. 

L'.ARK, 71. [Sax. lafere, lauerce ; Scot, la- 

rerok, lauerok ; G. lerche ; D. leeuwrik ; 

Dan. lerke ; Sw. larka ; Id. lava, toova. 
As the Latin alauda coincides with laudo, 
Eng. loud, so the first sjllable of lark, laf, 
lau, lave, may coincide with the Dan. lover, 
to praise, to sing or cry out. But I know 
not the sense of the word.] 

A bird of the genus Alauda, distinguished 
for its singing. 

LARKER,^n. A catcher of larks. Did. 

L'ARKLIKE, a. Resembling a lark in 

L ARK'S-HEEL, n. .\ QoTifec^aa^d Indian 




4. To pine or sink under sorrow or any con- 
tinued passion ; as, a woman languishes 
lor the loss of lier lover. 

Therefore shall tlie land mourn, and every 
one that dwelleth therein shall languish. Ho- 
sea iv. 

5. To look with softness or tenderness, as 
with the head reclined and a peculiar cast 
of the eye. Dryden. 

LAN'GUISH, t'. /. To cause to droop or 
pine. [Little wsfd.] Shak. 

LAN'GUISH, n. Act of pining; also, a soft 
and tender look or appearance. 

And the blue languish of soft AUia's eye. 

LAN'GUISHER, n. One who languishes 

or pines. 
LAN'GUISIIING, ppr. Becoming or being 

feeble ; losing strength ; pining ; wither 

ing ; fading. 
2. a. Having a languid appearance ; as a 

tans:uishiiig eye. 
LAN'GUISIIINGLY, adv. Weakly ; feebly ; 

dully ; slowly. 
2. With tender softness. 
LAN'GUISHMENT, n. The state of pin 

ing. Spenser. 

2. Softness of look or mien, with the head 

reclined. Dryden. 

LAN'GUOR, n. [h. languor; Fr.langueur.] 

1. Feebleness ; dullness ; heaviness ; lassi- 
tude of body ; that state of the body 
wliich is induced by exhaustion of 
strength, as by disease, by extraordinary 
exertion, by fhe relaxing effect of lieat, or 
by weakness from any cause. 

2. Dullness of the intellectual faculty, list- 
lessness. IFalts. 

3. Softness ; laxity. 

To isles of fragrance, lily-silvered vales, 
Diffusing languor in the parting gales. 


LAN'GUOROUS, a. Tedious ; melancholy. 

06s. Spenser. 

LAN'GURE, V. (. To languish. [jVot in 

itse.] Chaucer. 

LANIARD, n. lan'yard. [Fr. laniere, a 

A short piece of rope or line, used for fasten 
ing something in ships, as the laniards of 
the gun-ports, of the buoy, of the cathook, 
&c., but especially used to extend the 
shrouds and stays of the masts, by their 
connnunication with the dead eyes, &c. 

Mar. Did. 
LA'NIATE, V. t. [L. lanio.] To tear in 

pieces. [Little iised.] 
LANIA'TION, n. A tearing in pieces. [Lit- 
tle used.] 
LANIF'EROUS, a. [L.lanifer; iana, wool, 
and fero, to produce.] Bearing or produ- 
cing wool. 
LAN'H''ICE, n. [h. lanijicium ; lana, wool, 

and/ario, to make.] 
Manufacture of wool. [Little used.] 

LANI(i'EROUS, a. [L. laniger ; lana, wool, 
and gero, to bear.] Bearing or producing 
LANK, o. [Sax. hlnnca ; Gr. 'Kayapo; \ prob- 
ably allied U) flank, and W. Itac, slack, lax ; 
llaciaw, to sla'ckcn ; G. scldnnk.] 
1. Loose or lax and easily yielding to ])res- 
sure ; not distended ; not stiff or firm by 
distension ; not plump ; as a lank bladder 
or purse. 

The clergy *3 bags 
Are lank and lean with thy extortions. 


2. Thin ; slender ; meager ; not full and 
firm ; as a lank body. 

3. Languid ; drooping. [See Languish.] 


LANK'LY, adv. Thinly ; loosely ; laxly. 

LANK'NESS, n. Laxity ; flabbiness ; lean- 
ness ; slenderness. 

LANK'Y, «. Lank. [Vulgar.] 

LAN'NER, ) [Fr.lanier; 'L.laniarius, 

LAN'NERET, l"-lanius, a butcher.] A 
species of hawk. 

LANS'QUENET, n. [lance and kneckt, a 
boy, a knight.] 

1. A common foot soldier. 

2. A game at cards. Johnson. Encyc. 
LAN'TERN, n. [Fr. lanterne ; L. laterna ; 

G. lalerne ; D. lantaarn ; Sp. linterna.] 

1. A case or vessel made of tin perforated 
with many holes, or of some transparent 
substance, as glass, horn, or oiled paper ; 
used for carrying a candle or other light 
in the open air, or into stables, Sec- 

A dark lantern is one with a single open- 
ing, which may be closed so as to conceal 
the light. 

2. A light-house or light to direct the course 
of sliijis. Addison. 

3. In architecture, a little dome raised over 
the roof of a building to give light, and 
to serve as a crowning to the fabric. 


4. A square cage of carpentry placed over 
the ridge of a corridor or gallery, between 
two rows of shops, to illuminate them. 

Magic lantern, an optical machine by wliich 

painted images are represented so much 

magnified as to appear like the effect of 

LAN'TERN-FLY, n. An insect of the ge- 
nus Fulgora. Encyc, 
LAN'TERN-JAWS, )i. A thin visage. 

LANU'GlNOUS, a. [L. lanuginosus, from 

lanugo, down, from lana, wool.] 
Downy; covered with down, or fine soft 

LAODICE'AN, a. Like the christians of] 

Laodicea ; lukewarm in religion. 
LAODICE'ANISIVI, n. LiUiewarmness m 

religion. E. Stiles. 

L.\P, n. [Sax. l(eppe ; G. lappen ; D. Dan. 

lap ; Sw. lapp. This woril seems to be a 

different orthography of Jlap.] 
L The loose part of a coat; the lower part 

of a garment that plays loosely. Swi/l. 
2. The part of clothes that lies on the knees 

when a person sits down ; hence, the 

knees in this position. 

Men expect that happiness should drop into 
their laps. Tillolson 

LAP, V. t. To fold ; to bend and lay over or 
on ; as, to lap a piece of cloth. 

To lap boards, is to lay one partly over 

2. To wrap or twist round. 
I lapped a slender thread about the paper. 


3. To infold ; to involve. 
Her garment spreads, and laps him in llic 

folds. Dryden 

LAP, V. i. To be spread or laid ; to be turn- 
ed over. 

The upper wings are opacous ; at their hind- 
er ends where they lap over, transparent like the 
wing of a ily. Grew. 

LAP, V. i. [Sax. lappian ; D. labben ; Arm. 
lappa; Fr. taper; Oaii. laber ; W.llepiaw, 
lleibiaw ; Gr. Tjiittu. If m is casual in L. 
lanho, as it probably is, this is the same 
word. Class Lb. No. 22.] 
To take up liquor or food with the tongue ; 
to feed or drink by licking. 

The dogs by the river Nilus' side being 
tliirsty, lap hastily as they run along the shore. 

And the number of them that lapped were 
three hundred men. Judg. vii. 

LAP, V. t. To take into the mouth with the 

tongue ; to lick up ; as, a cat laps milk. 

LAP'DOG, n. A small dog fondled in the 

lap. Dryden. 

LAP'FULL, n. As much as the lap can 

contain. 2 Kings iv. 
LAP'ICIDE, n. A stone-cutter. [M'otused.] 

LAPIDA'RIOUS, a. [L. lapidanus, from 

lapis, a stone.] Stony ; consisting of 

LAP'IDARY, n. [Fr. lapidaire ; L. lapidor- 

rius, lapis, a stone.] 
\. An artificer who cuts precious stones. 

2. A dealer in precious stones. 

3. A virtuoso skilled in the nature and 
kinds of gems or precious stones. Encyc. 

LAP'IDARY, a. Pertaining to the art of 
cutting stones. The lapidary style de- 
notes that which is proper for monumental 
and other inscriptions. Encyc. 

LAPIDATE, V. t. [L. lapido.] To stone. 
JSTot uspu I 

L.^PIDA'TION, )!. The act of stoning a 
person to death. Hall. 

LAPID'EOUS, a. [L. lapideus.] Stony ; of 
the nature of stone ; as lapideous matter. 
[Eittle used.] Ray. 

LAPIDES'CENCE, n. [h. lapidesco, from 
lapis, a stone.] 

1. The process of becoming stone; a hard- 
ening into a stony substance. 

2. A stony concretion. Brown. 
LAPIDES'CENT, a. Growing or turning 

to stone ; that has the quality of petrify- 
inc bodies. Encyc. 

LAPIDES'CENT, n. Any substance which 
has the quality of petrifying a body, or 
converting it to stone. 

LAPIDIF'IC, a. [L. lapis, a stone, and fa- 
cia, to make.] Forming or converting in- 
to stone. 

LAPIDIFl€A'TION, n. The operation of 
forming or converting into a stony sub- 
stance, by means of a liquid charged with 
earthy particles in solution, which crys- 
talize in the interstices, and end in form- 
ing free stone, pudding stone, &c. 

Did. JVat. Hist. 

LAPID'IFY, !'. /. [L. lapis, a stone, and 
focln, to form.] To form into stone. 

LAPID'IFY, v. i. To turn into stone; to. 
become stone. 

L.\P'ID1ST, n. A dealer in precious stones.^ 
[Si'C Lapidary.] 

LAPIS, in Latin, a stone. Hence, 

Lapis Bononiensis, the Bolognian stone^ 

Lapis HepaticuSj liver stone. 


L A R 

L A R 

Lapis Lazuli, azuro stone, an aluminous 
mineral, of a rich blue color, resembling 
the bhic carbonate of copper. [See La- 

Lapis Liidius, touch-stone ; basanite ; a va- 
riety of siliceous slate. 

LAI"!' ED, pp. [See Lap.] Turned or fold- 
ed over. 

LAP'PER, n. One that laps; one that 
wraps or folds. 

2. One that takes up with his tongue. 

LAP'PET, n. [dim. of lap.] A part of a 
garment or dress that hangs loose. 


LAP'PING, ppr. Wrapping ; folding ; lay- 
ing on. 

2. Licking ; taking into the mouth with the 

LAPSE, n. laps. [L. lapsus, from labor, to 
slide, to fall. Class Lb.] 

1. A sliding, gliding or flowing ; a sm( 
course ; as the lapse of a stream ; the 
lapse of time. 

2. A falling or passing. 

The lapse la indolence is soft and impercep- 
tible, but the return to diligence is difficult. 


3. A slip ; an error ; a fault ; a failing in 
duty ; a slight deviation from truth or rec 

This Scripture may be usefully applied as a 
caution to guard against those lapses and fail- 
ings to which our infiimities daily expose us. 


So wo say, a lapse in style or propriety. 

4. In ecclesiastical laic, the slip or omission of 
a patron to present a clerk to a benefice, 
within six months after it becomes void. 
In this case, the benefice is said to be laps- 
ed, or in lapse. Encyc. 

5. In theology, the fall or apostasy of Adam. 
LAPSE, v.i. laps. To glide; to pass slowly, 

sdently or by degrees. 

This disposition to shorten our words by re- 
trenching the vowels, is nothing else but a ten- 
dency to lapse into the barbarity of fliose north 
em nations from which we descended. Swift 

2. To slide or slip in moral conduct ; to fail 
in duty ; to deviate from rectitude ; to 
commit a fault. 

To lapse in fullness 
Is sorer than to lie for need. Shak. 

3. To slip or commit a fault by inadvertency 
or mistake. 

Homer, in his characters of Vulcan and 
Thersites, has lapsed into the burlesque char 
actor. Mdison. 

4. To fall or pass from one proprietor to an 
other, by the omission or negligence of 
the patron. 

If the arclibishop shall not iiU it up within six 
monlbs ensuing, it lapses to the king. Ayliffe 

5. To fall from a state of innocence, or from 
truth, faith or perfection. 

Once more I will renew 
His lapsed powers. Arjton. 

LAPS'ED, pp. Fallen; passed from one 
proprietor to another by the negligence of 
the patron ; as a lapsed benefice. A laps 
ed legacy is one which falls to the heirs 
through the failure of the legatee, as when 
the legatee dies before the testator. 

LAP'SIDED, a. [lap and side.] Having one 
side heavier than the other, as a ship. 

.Vor. Diet. 

LAPS'ING, ppr. Gliding ; flowing ; failing; 
falling to one person through the omission 
of another. 

LAP'WiNG, n. A bird of the genus Trin- 
ga; the tewit. 

LAP'WORK, n. Work in which one pari 
laps over another. Grew. 

L'AR, n. plu. lares. [L.] A household deity. 


L'ARBOARD, n. [Board, bord, is a side ; 
but I know not the meaning ol'lar. The 
Dutch use bakboord, and the Germans 

The left hand side of a ship, when a person 
stands with liis face to the head ; opposed 
to starboard. 

L'ARBOARD, a. Pertaining to the left hand 
side of a ship ; as the larboard quarter. 

L'ARCENY, n. [Fr.larcin; Norm, larcim 
Arm. laeroncij, or lazroncy, contracted from 
L. latrocinium, from the Celtic ; W. lladyr, 
theft; lladron, thieves; Sp. ladron; It. 
ladro, ladrone.] 

Theft; the act of taking and carrying away 
the goods or property of another feloni 
ously. Larceny is of two kinds; simple 
larceny, or theit, not accompanied witli 
any atrocioas circumstance ; and mixed or 
compound larceny, which includes in it the 
aggravation of taking from one's house or 
person, as in burglary or robbery. The 
stealing of any thing below the value of 
twelve pence, is called petty larceny ; above 
that value, it is called grand larceny. 

ARCH, »i. [h.larix ; Sp. a/ecce; \l.larice; 
G. lerchenhaum ; D. lorkenboom.] 

The common name of a division of the ge- 
nus Pinus, species of which are natives 
of America, as well as of Europe. 

L*ARD, n. [Fr. lard ; L. lardum, laridum ; 
It. and Sp. lardo ; Arm. lardl. Qu. W. 
lldr, that spreads or drops, soft.] 

1. The fat of swine, after being melted and 
separated from the flesh. 

2. Bacon ; the flesh of swine. Dryden 
L'ARD, v. /. [?r. larder; Arm. larda.\ To 

stufl'with bacon or pork. 

The larded thiglis on loaded altars laid. 


2. To latten : to enrich. 

Now Falstaff sweats to death, 
And lards the lean earth. Shak 

3. To mix with sometliing by way of im- 

— Let no alien interpose, 
To lard with wit thy hungry Epsom prose. 


L'ARD, V. i. To grow fat. Drayton. 

LARDA'CEOUS, a. Of the nature of lard ; 
consisting of lard. Coxe. 

L'ARDED, pp. Stuffed with bacon ; fat 
tened ; mixed. 

L'ARDER, n. A room where tneat is kept 
or salted. Bacon. 

L'ARDRY, n. A larder. [Xol used.] 

L'AR6E, a. larj. [Fr. large ; Sp. Port. It. 
largo ; Arm. larg ; L. largus. The jirinia- 
ry sense is to spread, stretch or distend, 
to difliiise, hence to loosen, to relax ; Sp. 
largar, to loosen, to slacken, as a rope 
Class Lr. It seems to be connected will 
Gr. ^avpos, wide, copious, and perhaps 
with Jloor, W. llaivr, and with llawer 
much, many. In Basque, larria, is gross, 
and lairitu, to grow.] 

1. Big; of great size; bulky; as a large 
bofly ; a large horse or ox ; a large moun- 
tain ; a large tree ; a large ship. 

2. Wide ; extensive ; as a large field or 
plain ; a large extent of territory. 

.3. Extensive or populous ; containing many 
inhabitants; as u. large city or town. 

4. Abundant ; plentiful ; ample ; as a large 
supply of provisions. 

5. Copious ; diffusive. 
I might be very large on tlie importance and 

advantages of education. Felton. 

6. In seamen's language, the wind is large 
when it crosses the line of a ship's course 
in a favorable direction, particularly on 
the beam or quarter. Encyc. 

7. Wide ; consisting of much water ; as a 
large river. 

8. Liberal ; of a great amount ; as a large 

At large, without restraint or confinement ; 

as, to go at large ; to be left at large. 
2. Difflisely ; fully; in the full extent; as, 
! to discourse on a subject at large. 
L'ARgE, 71. Formerly, a musical note equal 
! to four breves. Busby. 

,LAR6EHE'ARTEDNESS, n. Largeness 

of heart; liberahty. [j^ol used.] 

Bp. Reynolds. 
LARGELY, adv. Widely; extensively. 

2. Copiously ; diflfusely ; amply. The sub- 
ject was largely discussed. 

3. Liberally; bountifully. 
— How he lives and eats ; 

How largely gives. Dryden. 

4. Abundantly. 
They their fill of love and love's disport 
Took largely. '.Milton. 

L'ARtiENESS, n. Bigness ; bulk ; magni- 
tude ; as the largeness of an animal. 

2. Greatness ; comprehension ; as the large- 
ness of mind or of capacity. 

3. Extent ; extensiveness ; as largeness of 

4. Extension ; amplitude ; liberahty ; as the 
largeness of an offer; largeness of heart. 

Hooker. Il'allcr. 

5. Wideness ; extent ; as the largeness of a 

L'ARgESS, n. [Fr. largesse ; L. largitio ; 
from largus, large.] 

A present ; a gift or donation ; a bounty be- 
stowed. Bacon. Dryden. 

L^ARgISH, a. Somewhat large. [Unusual.] 


L'ARGO, I [It.] xMusical terms, di- 

LARGHET'TO, S reeling to slow move- 
ment. Largo is one degree quicker than 
grave, and two degrees quicker than ada- 
gio. Did. 

L'ARK, n. [Sax. la/ere, lauerce; Scot, la- 
verok, lauerok ; G. lerche ; D. leeuwrik ; 
Dan. lerke ; Sw. larka ; Icl. lava, loova. 
As the Latin alauda coincides with laudo, 
Eng. loud, so the first syllable of lark, laf, 
lau, lave, may coincide with the Dan. lover, 
to praise, to sing or cry out. But I know 
not the sense of the word.] 

A bird of the genus Alauda, distinguished 
for its singing. 

L'ARKER, n. A catcher of larks. Did. 

L'ARKLIKE, a. Resembling a lark in 

L'ARK'S-HEEL, n. A floweriaUed Indian 


L ARKSPUR, n. A plant of the genus Del- 
LARMIER, n. [Fr. from larme, a tear or 

The °ffai jutting part of a cornice ; literally, 

the dropper ; the eave or drip of a house 

LAR'UM, n. [G. lam, bustle, noise ; Dan 

id] - _ fa 

Alarm ; a noise giving notice of danger, [bee 

Mann, which is generally used.] 

L'ARVA, ? [L- larva, a mask ; tew. larj ; 

L'ARVE, S"' Dan.G. to-ue.] 

An insect in the caterpillar state ; eruca ; tlxe 

state of an insect when the animal is 

masked, and before it has attained its 

winged or perfect state ; the first stage in 

the metamorphoses of insects, preceding 

the chrysalis and perfect insect. Linne. 

LARVATED, a. Masked ; clothed as with 

a mask. 
LARYN'GEAN, a. [See Larynx.] Pertain- 
ing to the larynx. 
LARYNGOT'OMY, n. [larynx and Or 

ttuvu, to cut.] . 

The operation of cutting the larynx or wind 
pipe ; the making of an incision into the 
larynx for assisting respiration when ob- 
structed, or removing foreign bodies;] 
bronchotomy ; tracheotomy. 

Coxe. Quincy. 

LAR'YNX, n. [Gr. >.apiiyt] In anatomy, the 

upper part of the windpipe or trachea, a 

cartilaginous cavity, which modulates the 

voice in speaking and singing. Quincy. 

LAS'CAR, n. In the East Indies, a native 

seaman, or a gunner. 
ed. See the next words.] 
LASCIVIOUS, a. [Fr. tascif; It. Sp. las- 
civo; from L. lascivus, from laius, laxo, to 
relax, to loosen. Class Lg.] 

1. Loose; wanton; lewd; lustful; astasciv- 
ious men ; lascivious desires ; lascivious 
eyes. Milton. 

2. Soft; wanton; luxurious. 

He capers nimbly In a lady's chamber, 
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute. Shak 
LASCIVIOUSLY, adv. Loosely ; wanton- 
ly ; lewdly. 
LASCIV'IOUSNESS, n. Looseness; irreg- 
ular indulgence of animal desires ; wan- 
tonness : 

Who, being past feeling, have given them 
selves over to lasciviousness. Eph. iv. 
2. Tendency to excite lust, and promote ir 
regular indulgences. 

The reason pretended by Augustus was, the 
lasciviousness of his Elegies and his Art of 
Love. Dryden. 

LASH, n. [This may be the same word as 
leash, Fr. laisse, or it may be allied to tlie 
G. lasche, a slap, laschen, to lash or slap, 
and both may be from one root.] 
The thong or braided cord of a whip, 
I observed that your whip wanted a lash to it. 


A leash or string. 

A stroke with a whip, or any thing pliant 
and tough. The culprit was whipped 
thirty nine lashes. 
4. A stroke of satire; a sarcasm; an expres- 
sion or retort that cuts or gives pain. 

The moral is a task at the vanity of arrogating 
that to ourselves which succeeds well. 


LASH, V. t. To strike with a lash or any 

thing pliant ; to whip or scourge. 


We lash the pupil and defraud the ward. i 


To throw up with a sudden jerk. | 

He falls ; and lashing up his heels, his rider 

throws. Dryden. 

.3. To beat, as with something loose ; to dash 




And big waves lash the frighted shores- 

4. To tie or bind with a rope or cord ; to se- 
cure or fasten by a string ; as, to lash any 
thing to a mast or to a yard ; to lash a 
trunk on a coach. 

5. To satirize ; to censure with severity ; as, 
to lash vice. 

LASH, V. i. To ply the whip ; to strike at. 
To laugh at follies, or to lash at vice. 

" Dryden. 

To lash out, is to be extravagant or unruly. 

LASH'ED, pp. Struck with a lash; whip- 
ped ; tied ; made fast by a rope. 
2. Ill botany, ciliate ; fringed. Lee. 

LASHER, n. One that whips or lashes. 
LASH'ER, I A piece of rope for binding 
LASH'ING, S "'or making fast one thing to| 
another. -Mar, Diet. 

LASH'ING, n. Extravagance ; unruhness. 

LASS, n. [Qu. from laddess, as Hickes sug- 
gests.] Tjt-;- 
A young woman ; a girl. Philips. 
LAS'SITUDE, n. [Fr. from L. lassitudo, 
from lassus, and this from laius, laxo, to 

Weakness; dullness; heaviness; wean 
ness ; languor of body or mind, proceed- 
ing from exhaustion of strength by exces- 
sive labor or action, or other means. 
Among physicians, lassitude is a morbid 
sensation or languor which often precedes 
disease, in which case it proceeds from an 
impaired or diseased action of the organs. 
L'ASSLORN, a. Forsaken by his lass or 
mistress. Shak. 

L'AST, a. [contracted from latest; Sax.last, 
from latost ; G. letzt ; D. laatst, from Inat, 
late. Qu. is the Gr. Tioiofloj from the same 
root ? See Late and Let.] 

1. That comes after all the others ; the lat 
est ; applied to time ; as the last hour of the 
day ; the last day of the year. 

2. That follows all the others ; that is be- 
hind all the others in place; hindmost; as, 
this was the last man that entered the 

3. Beyond which there is no more. 
Here, last of Britons, let your names be read. 


4. Next before the present ; as the last week ; 
the last year. 


Their last endeavors bend. 





T' outshine each other. 
It is an object of the las 

6. Lowest ; meanest. 
Takes the last prize. Pope 

At last, at the last, at the end ; in the conclu 

but he 


Gad, a troop shall overcome him 
shall overcome at the last. Gen. xlix. 
To the last, to the end ; till the conclusion. 
And blunder on in business to the last. 



In the phrases, "you are the last man I 
should consult," " this is the last place in 
which I should expect to find you," the 
wordlast implies improbability ; this is the 
most improbable place, and therefore I 
should resort to it last. 
L'AST, adv. The last time ; the time before 
the present. I saw him last at New York. 
2. In conclusion ; finally. 

Pleased with his idol, he commends, ad- 
Adores; and last, the thing adored desires. 

L^AST, V. i. [Sax. lastan, Icestan. This verb 
seems to be from the adjective last, the 
primary seuse of which is continued, 
drawn out. See Let.] 
1. To continue in time ; to endure ; to re- 
main in existence. Our government can- 
not last long unless administered by hon- 
est men. 
J. To continue unimpaired; not to decay or 
perish. Select for winter the best apples 
to last. This color will last. 
3. To hold' out ; to continue unconsumed. 
The captain knew he had not water on 
board to last a week. 
L>AST, n. [Sax. hlmste; G. Sw. D. Dan. 
last ; Russ. laste ; Fr. lest ; Arm. lastr ; 
\V. llwylh. See Load.] 
A load ; hence, a certain weight or measure. 
A last of codfish, white herrings, meal, and 
ashes, is twelve barrels ; a last of corn is 
ten quarters or eighty bushels ; of gun- 
powder, twenty four barrels ; of red her- 
rings, twenty cades ; of hides, twelve doz- 
en ; of lether, twenty dickers ; of pitch and 
tar, fourteen barrels ; of wool, twelve 
sacks ; of flax or fethers, 1700 lbs. 

L'AST, n. [Sax. laste, Iceste ; G. leisten ; D. 

leest ; Dan. last ; Sw. liist.] 
A mold or form of the human foot, made of 
wood, on which shoes are formed. 
The cobler is not to go beyond his last. 


L'ASTA6E, n. [Fr. lestage. See Last, a 

1. A duty paid for freight or transportation. 
[jVot used in the U. States.] 

2. Ballast. [JVot used.] 

3. The lading of a ship. [.Vol used.] 
L'ASTERY, n. A red color. [Xot in use.] 

L'ASTING, ppr. Continuing in time ; en- 
during ; remaining. 
2. a. Durable ; of long continuance ; that 
may continue or endure ; as a tasting good 
or evil ; a lasting color. 
LASTINGLY, adv. Durably ; with contin- 
LASTINGNESS, n. Durability ; the qual- 
ity or state of long continuance. 


LASTLY, adv. In the last place. 

2. In the conclusion ; at last ; finally. 

LATCH, n. [Fr. loquet ; Ann. licqed or 

clicqed, coinciding with L. ligula, from 

ligo, to tie, and with English lock. Sax. 

lacan, to catch. The G. klinke, D. klink, 

coincide with Fr. cknche, which, if n is 

casual, are the Ann. clicqed, clinch. 

The same word in W. is elided, a latch, 

and the It. larcio, a snare, L. laqueus, 

from which we have lace, may belong to 

the same root. The primary sense of the 

L A 1' 

L A T 

L A T 

root is to catcli, to close, stop or make 

1. A small piece of iron or wood used to fas- 
ten a door. Gay. 

2. A small line like a loop, used to lace the 
bonnets to the courses, or the drabblers to 
the boiuets. Diet. 

LATCH, V. t. To fasten with a latch ; to 
fasten. Locke. 

2. [Fr. kcher.] To smear. [Ab< used.] 


LATCH'ET, n. [from latch, Fr. lacet.] The 
string that fastens a shoe. Mark i. 

LATE, a. [Sax. Uct, lat ; Goth, lata ; D. 
laat ; Sw. lat ; Dan. lad, idle, lazy ; Goth. 
latyan. Sax. lalian, to delay or retard. 
This word is from the root of let, the sense 
of which is to draw out, extend or pro- 
long, hence to be slow or late. See 
Let. This adjective has regular termina- 
tions of the comparative and superlative 
degrees, later, latest, hut it has also latter, 
and latest is often contracted into last.] 

1. Coming after the usual time; slow; tar- 
dy ; long delayed ; as a late spring ; a late 
summer. The crops or harvest will be 

'■I. Far advanced towards the end or close ; 
as a laic hour <if the day. He began at a 
lale period of his life. 

3. Last, or recently in any place, office or 
character; as the late ministry; the late 

4. Existing not long ago, but now decayed 
or departed ; as the late bishop of Lon- 

5. Not long past ; happening not long ago 
recent ; as the late rains. We have receiv- 
ed late intelligence. 

LATE, adv. After the usual time, or the 
time appointed; after delay; as, he arriv 
e<l lale. 

2. After the proper or usual season. This 
year the fruits ripen late. 

3. Not long ago ; lately. 

And round tlicm throng 

With leaps and bounds the late imprisou'd 

young. Pope. 

4. Far in the night, day, week, or other par 
ticular period; as, to lie a-bed late; to sit 
up late at night. 

Of late, lately, in time not long past, or near 
the present. Tiie practice is of late un- 

Too late, after the proper time ; not in due 
time. We arrived too late to see the pro 

LA'TED, a. Belated ; being too lale. [jYot 
used.] Shak. 

LAT'EEN, a. A lateen sail is a triangular 
sail, extended by a lateen yard, which is 
slung about one quarter the distance from 
the lower end, which is brought down at 
the tack, while the other end is elevated 
at an angle of about 45 degrees; used in 
xebecs, polacres and setees, in the Medi- 
terranean. Mar. Diet 

LA'TEEY, adv. Not long ago; recently. 
We called on a gentleman who has lately 
arrived from Italv. 

LA'TENCY, n. [See Latent.] The state of 
being concealed ; abstruseness. Paley. 

LA'TENESS, ?i. The state of being tardy, 
or of coming after the usual time; as the 
lateness of spring or of harvest. 

2. Time far advanced in any particular pe- 

riod ; as lateness of the day or night ; late- 
ness in the season ; lateness in hfe. 

3. The state of being out of time, or after 
the appointed time ; as the lateness of one's 

LA'TENT, a. [L. Mens, laleo ; Gr. ?.>j«c.<, 
xa^9al■w,• Heb. OkS, to cover, or rather Ch. 
NdS, to hide or be hid. Class Ld. No. 1 

Hid ; concealed ; secret ; not seen ; not vis- 
ible or apparent. We speak ol' latent mo 
tivcs; latent reasons; 2a(en< springs of ac 

Latent heat, is heat in combination, in dis 
tinction from sensible heat ; the portion of 
heat which disappears, when abody chang 
es its form from the solid to the fluid, or 
from the fluid to the aeriform state. 


LA'TER, a. [comp. deg. of late.] Posterior ; 

LAT'ERAL, a. [Fr. from L. lateralis, from 
latus, a side, and broad, Gr. n'/^atvi; coin- 
ciding with W. lied, tlyd, breadth, and 
probably with Hug. fat, W. plad or llez, or 
both. The primary sense of these words 
is to extend, as in late, let.] 

1. Pertaining to the side; as the /aieroZ view 
of an object. 

2. Proceeding from the side ; as the lateral 
branches of a tree ; lateral shoots. 

LATERAL'ITY, n. The quality of having 
distinct sides. [J\i~ot used.] Brown 

LAT'ERALLY, adv. By the side; side- 
ways. Holder. 

2. Li the direction of the side. 

LAT'ERAN, n. One of the churches at 
Rome. The name is said to have been 
derived from that of a man. Kncyc 

A latere, [L.] A legate a latere, is a pope's le- 
gate or envoy, so called because sent from 
his side, from among his favorites and 

LA'TERED, a. Delayed. 06s. Chaucer. 

LATERIFO'LIOUS, a. [L. latus, side, and 
; folium, leaf] 

In botany, growing on the side of a leaf at 
I the base ; as a laterifolious flower. 
I Lee. .Martyn. 

jLATERP'TIOUS, a. [L. lateiitius, from 
I later, a brick.] Like bricks ; of the color 
I of bricks. Med. Repos. 

\Lateritious sediment, a sediment in urine re- 
I senibling brick dust, observed after the 
1 crises of fevers, and at the termination of 
I gouty paroxysms. Parr. 

L'ATII, n. [W. claivd, a thin board, or lluth, 

a rod ; Fr. latle ; Sp. latas, plu.; G. lalte ; 

D. Int.] 

1. A thin, narrow board or slip of wood 
nailed to the rafters of a building to sup- 
port the tiles or covering. 

2. A thin narrow slip of wood nailed to the 
studs, to support the plastering. 

L'ATH, V. t. To cover or line with laths. 


LV\TH, n. [Sax. leth. The signification of 
this word is not clearly ascertained. It 
may be from Sax. lathian, to call together, 
and signify primarily, a meeting or assem- 
bly. See H'apenktae.] 

In some parts of England, a part or division 
of a county. Spenser, Spelman and 
Blackstone do not agree in their accounts 
of the lath; but according to the laws of 

Edward the Confessor, the lath, in some 
counties, answered to the Irithing or third 
part of a county in others. IVilkins. 

LATHE, 71. [Qu. lath, supra, or W. lalhrv. 
to make smooth.] 

:\n engine by which instruments of wood, 
ivory, metals and other materials, are turn- 
ed and cut into a smooth round form. 

LATH'ER, V. i. [Sax. tethrian, to lather, to 
anoint. Qu. W. llathru, to make smooth, 
or llithraiv, to glide ; Uilhrig, slippery, or 
llyth, soft ; llyzu,tr> spread.] 

iTo tbrni a foam with watc'r and soap ; to 
become froth, or frothy matter. 

LATH'ER, V. t. To spread over with the 
loam of soap. * 

LATH'ER, n. Foam or froth made by soap 
moistened with water. 

2. Foam or froth from profuse sweat, as of 
a horse. 

L^ATIIY, a. Tbiu as a lath ; long and slen- 
der. Todd. 

L'ATHY, a. [W. Uelh, llyth.] Flabby; 
weak. .Vtw England. 

LATIB'L'LIZE, v. i. [L. latibidum, a hiding 

To retire into a den, burrow or cavity, and 
tie dormant in winter; to retreat and liehitl. 
The tortoise latibulizes in October. 

iS'Aato's Zool. 

LAT'IeLAVE, »!. [L. laticlavium ; latus, 
broad, and clavus, a stud.] 

An ornament of dress worn by Roman sena- 
tors. It is supposed lo have been abroad 
stripe of purple on the fore part of the tu- 
nic, set with knobs or studs. Kncyc. 

LAT'IN, a. Pertaining to the Latins, a peo- 
ple of Latium, in Italy; Roman; as the 
Latin language, 

Latin church, the western church ; the 
christian church in Italy, France, Spain 
and other countries where the Latin lan- 
guage was introduced, as distinct from 
the Greek or eastern church. Encyc. 

LAT'IN, n. The language of the ancient 

2. An exercise in schools, consisting in turn- 
ing English into Latin. Ascham. 

LAT'INISM, If. A Latin idiom ; a mode of 
speech peculiar to the Latins. Addison. 

LAT'INIST, »i. One skilled in Latin. 

LATIN'ITY, ?i. Purity of the Latin style or 
idiom : the Latin tongue. 

LAT'INiZE, I', t. To give to foreign words 
Latin terminations and make thcni Latin. 


LAT'INIZE, V. i. To use words or phrases 
borrowed from the Latin. Dryden. 

LATIROS TROUS, a. [L. latus, broad, and 
rostrum, beak.] Having a broad beak, as 
a fowl. Brown. 

LA'TISH, a. [from late.] Somewhat late. 

LAT'lTANCV, n. [L. lalitan.^, lalilo, to lie 
hid, from lateo. See Latent.] 

The state of lying concealed ; the srate of 
lurking. lirown. 

LAT'ITANT, a. Lurking ; lying hid ; con- 
cealed. Boyle. 
[These words are rarely used. See 

LAT' IT AT, ji. [L. he lurks.] A writ by 
which a person is sunmioncd into the 
king's bench to answer, as supposing he 
lies concealed. Blackstone. 

LAT'lTUDE, n. [Fr. from L. latitudo, 
breadth ; latus, broad ; W. llyd, breadth.] 

L A T 

L A U 

L A U 

1. Breadth ; width ; extent from side to side. 


2. Room ; space. Locke. 

[In the foregoing sc7ises, little used.] 

3. In astronomy, the distance of a star north 
or south of the echptic. 

4. In geography, tlie distance of any place 
on the globe, north or south of the equa- 
tor. Boston is situated in the forty third 
degree of north latitude. 

5. Extent of meaning or construction ; in- 
definite acceptation. The words will not 
bear tliis latitude of construction. 

0. Extent of deviation from a settled point ; 
freedom from rules or limits ; laxity. 

In human actions, there are no degrees and 
precise natural limits described, but a latitude 
is indulged. Faylor 

7. Extent. 

1 pretend not to treat of them in their full 
latitude. Locke. 

LATITU'DINAL, a. Pertaining to latitude ; 
in the direction of latitude. Gregory. 

LATITUDINA'RIAN, a. [Fr. latituditiaire.] 
Not restrained ; not confined by precise 
limits; free; thinking or acting at large ; 
as lalflndinarian opinions or doctrines. 

LATITUDINA'RIAN, n. One who is mod- 
erate in his notions, or not restrained by 
precise settlerl linjits in opinion ; one who 
indulges freedom in thinking. 

2. In theology, one who departs in opinion 
from the strict principles of orthodoxy ; or 
one who indulges a latitude of thinking 
and interpretation ; a moderate man. 

liberality of opinion, particularly in theol- 
ogy. Ch. Obs. 

2. Indifference to religion. ff. Jones. 

LA'TRANT, a. [L. latro, to hark.] Bark- 
ing. Ticketl. 

LA'TRATE, v. i. To bark as a dog. [JVot 

LATRA'TION, n. A barking. [ATot used.] 

LA'TRIA, n. [L. from Gr. J^rpaa.] The 
highest kind of worship, or that paid to 
God; distinguished by the catholics from 
didia, or the inferior worship paid to 
saints. Encyc. 

LATRO'BITE, n. [from Latrobe.] A newly 
described mineral of a pale pink red color, 
massive or crystalized, from an isle near 
the Labrador coast. Phillips. 

LAT'ROCINY, n. [L. latrocinium.] Theft ; 
larceny. [JVbf in use.] 

LAT'TEN, n. [Fr. leton or lailon; D. 
latoen ; Arm. laton.] Iron plate covered 
with tin. Encyc. 

LAT'TEN-BRASS, n. Plates of milled 
brass reduced to different thicknesse.'--, ac- 
cording to the uses they are intendeil for. 


LAT'TER, o. [an irregular comparative of 

1. Coming or happening after something 
else ; opposed to former ; as the former 
and latter rain ; former or tatter harvest. 

2. Mentioned the last of two. 

The difr*Mcncc between reason and revela- 
tion — and in what sense the latter is superior. 


3. Modern ; lately done or past; as in these 
latter ages. 

LAT'TERLY, adv. Of late ; in time not 
Jong past; lately. Richardson. 

LAT'TERMATH, n. The latter mowing ; 

that which is mowed after a former mow- 
LAT'TICE, n. [Fr. latlis, a covering ofl 

laths, from latte, a lath ; W. cledrwy, from 

cledyr, aboard, shingle or rail.] 
Any work of wood or iron, made by crossing 

laths, rods or bars, and forming open 

squares like net-work; as the lattice of a 


The mother of .Sisera looked out at a window, 

and cried through the lattice. Judg. v. 
LAT'TICE, a. Consisting of cross pieces ; 

as lattice work. 
2. Furnished with lattice work ; as a lattice 

LAT'TICE, V. t. To form with cross bars, 

and open work. 
2. To furnish with a lattice. 
LAT'TICED, pp. Furnished with a lattice. 
LAUD, )!. [L. laus, laitdis ; W.clod; Ir. 

cloth ; allied to Gr. x%hu, xi-to^. This is 

from the same root as Eng. loud, G. laut, 

and the primary sense is to strain, to utter 

soimd, to cry out. See Loud.] 
1. Praise ; commendation ; an extolhng in 

words ; honorable mention. [Little used.] 

2. That part of divine worship which con- 
sists in praise. Bacon. 

•3. Music or singing in honor of any one. 

LAUD, V. t. [L. laudo.] To praise in words 
alone, or with words and singing ; to cele- 
brate. Bentley 

LAUD'ABLE, a. [L. laudabilis.] Praise- 
worthy ; commendable ; as laudable mo- 
tives ; laudable actions. 

9 Healthy ; salubrious ; as laudable juices 
of the body. Arbuthnot. 

.3. Healthy ; well digested ; as laudable pus 

LAUD'ABLENESS, n. The quality of de- 
serving praise ; praiseworthiness ; as the 
laudableness of designs, purposes, motives 
or actions. [Laudability, in a like sense- 
has been used, but rarely.] 

L.\l'D'ABLY, adv. In a manner deserving 

LAUD'ANUM, n. [from L. laudo, to praise.] 
Opium dissolved in spirit or wine ; tincture 
of opium. Coxe. 

LAUD'ATIVE, n. [L. laudativus.] A paneg- 
yric ; an eulogy. [Little used.] Bacon. 

LAUD'ATORY, a. Containing praise ; tend- 
ing to praise. 

LAUD'ATORY, ?i. That which contains 
praise. Milton. 

LAUD'ER, n. One who praises. 

LAUGH, V. i. I'aff. [Sax. hlihan; Goth. 
hlahyan ; G. lachen ; D. lachgen ; Sw. le 
Dan. leer; Heb. and Ch. Ji?S, laag. Class 
Lg. No. 17.] 

1. To make the noise and exhibit the fea- 
tures which are characteristic of mirth in 
the human species. Violent laughter is 
accompanied with a shaking of the sides, 
and all laughter expels breath from the 
lungs. Bacon. 

2. In poetry, to be gay ; to appear gay, cheer- 
ful, pleasant, lively or brilliant. 

Tlien laughs the childish year with flow'rets 
crown'd. Dryden 

And o'er tho foaming bowl, the laughing 
wine. Pope. 

To laugh at, to ridicule ; to treat with some 
degree of contempt. 

No fool to laugh at, which he valued more. 

To laugh to scorn, to deride ; to treat with 

mockery, contempt and scorn. Neh. ii, 
LAUGH, n. taff. An expression of mirth 
pecuhar to the human species. 
But feigns a laugh, to see me search around. 
And by that laugh the willing fair is found. 


LAUGHABLE, a. Vaffable. That may justly 

excite laughter ; as a laughable story ; a 

laughable scene. 

LAUGHER, n. Vaffer. One who laughs, 

or is fond of merriment. 

The laughers are a majority. Pope. 

LAUGHING, ppr. laffing. Expressing 

mirth in a particular manner. 
LAUGHINGLY, adv. laffingly. In a merry 
way ; with laughter. 

LAUGHING-STOCK, n. An object of ridi- 
cule; a butt of sport. Spenser. Shak. 

LAUGHTER, n. I'affter. Convulsive merri- 
ment ; an expression of mirth peculiar to 
man, consisting in a peculiar noise and 
configuration of features, with a shaking 
of the sides and expulsion of breath. 
I said odavghter, it is mad. Eccles. ii. 

LAUGH-WORTHY, a. Deserving to be 
laughed at. B. Jonson. 

LAU'MONITE, n. Efflorescent zeolite ; so 
called from Laumont, its discoverer. It is 
found in laminated masses, in groups of 
prismatic crystals or prismatic distinct con- 
cretions. Exposed to the air, it disinte- 
grates. Cltaveland. 

LAUNCH. [See Lanch, the more correct 

LAUND, n. A lawn. [Ml used.] 


LAUNDER, n. I'ander. [from L. lavo, to 

A washer-woman ; also, a long and hollow 
trough, used by miners to receive the 
powdered ore from tlie box where it is 
beaten. Encyc. 

LAUNDER, V. t. Vander. To wash ; to wet. 


LAIJNDERER, n. I'anderer. A man who 
follows the business of washing clothes. 


LAUNDRESS, n. Vandress. [Fr. lavandiere : 
Sp. lavandera ; It. lavandaia ; from L. lavo, 
Sp. lavar, to wash.] 

A washer-woman ; a female whose employ- 
ment is to wash clothes. 

LAUNDRESS, v. i. Vandress. [supra.] To 
practice washing. Blount. 

LAUNDRY, n. iandry. [Sp. lavadero.] 

1. A washing. Bacon. 

The place or room where clothes are 

LAU'REATE, a. [L. laitreaius, from laurea, 
a laurel.] 

Decked or invested with laurel; as laureate 
hearse. Milton. 

Soft on hcr lap licr laureate son reclines. 


Poet laureate, in Great Britain, an officer of 
the king's hou.sehold, whose business is to 
compose an ode annually for the king's 
birtli day, and for the new year. It is 
said this title was first given him in the 
time of Edward IV, Encyc. 




LAU'REATE, v. t. To honor with a degree; 
in ihe university, and a present of a wreath 
of laurel. Warton. 

LAU'REATED,/)p. Honored wiih a degree 
and a laurel wreath. 

LAUREA'TION, n. The act of conferring 
a degree in tlie university, together with 
a wreath of laurel ; an honor bestowed 
on those who excelled in writing verse 
This was an ancient practice at Oxford, 
from which probably originated the de- 
nomination of poet laureate. It'arton 

LAU'REL, M. [L. laurus ; It. lauro ; Fr 
laurier; Sp. laurel; Port, launiro ; W. 
llonvyz, llonvi/zen, laurel wood, from the 
root of llatvr, a floor, llor, that spreads ; 
Dan. laur-b(tr-tree ; GJorbeer, the laurel or 
bay-berry. Laur coincides in elements 

The bay-tree or Lauru.s, a genus of jilants 
of several species. Encyc. 

LAU'RELED, a. Crowned or decorated 
with laurel, or with a laurel wreath ; lau- 

LAURIF'EROUS, a. [L. laurus and /era, 
to hear.] Producing or bringing laurel. 

LAU'Rl'STIN, n. [L. laurusllmi.s.] A plant 
of the genus Viburniui), an evergreen 
shrub or tree, whose flowers are said to 
continue through the winter. 

LAUS'KRAIT, n. [G. lausekraut, louse- 
plant.] A i)lant of the genus Delphinium. 

LAU'TU, n. A baud of cotton, twisted and 
worn on the iicad of the Incaof Peru, as a 
badge of royalty. J. Barlow. 

L'AVA, ?!. [probably from flowing, and 
from the root of L. fluo, or lavo ; It. laua 
a stream, now lava^ 

1. A mass or stream of melted minerals or 
stony m.itter which bursts or is thrown 
from the mouth or sides of a volcano, and 
is sometimes ejected in such quantities as 
to overwhelm cities. Catana, at the foot 
of Etna, has often been destroyed by it, 
and in 178-3, a vast tract of land in Iceland 
was overspread by an eruption of lava 
from mount Ilecla. 

2. The same matter when cool and har- 

LAVA'TION, )!. [L. /ai'a/to, from/«ro.] A 
washing or cleansing. Hakeicill. 

LAVATORY, n. [See Lave.] A place for 

2. A wash or lotion for a diseased part. 

3. A place where gold is obtained by wash 
ing. Encyc. 

LAVE, V. t. [Fr. laver; S]).lavar; It. lavare; 

L. laro ; Gr. ^oiu ; Sans, allava ; proba- 
bly contracted from logo or laugo.] 
To wash ; to bathe ; a word tised chiejly 

in poetry or rhetoric. Milton. Dryden. 

LAVE, V. i. To bathe ; to wash one's self. 

LAVE, t'. t. [Fr. lever.] To throw up or 

out ; to lade out. [Kol in use.] 

B. Jonson. 
LA'VE-EARED, a. Having large pendant 

ears. [JVot in use.] " Bp. Halt. 

LAVEE'R, V. <. [Fr. louvoyer or louvier ; D. 

laveercn.] In seamen's language, to tack; 

to sail back and forth. [I believe this 

■word is not in common use.] 
LAVENDER, n. [L. lavendula.] A plant,' 

or a genus of aromatic plants, Lavandula.! 
LA'VER, Ji. [Fr. Invoir, from laver, to lave.]| 

A vessel for washine ; a larce bason : inl 

Vol. II. 

scripture history, a bason i)laccd in the 

court of the Jew ish tabernacle, where the 

officiating priests washed their hands and 

feet and the entrails of victims. Encyc. 

LAVEROCK. [See Lark.] 

LA'VING, ppr. '\Vashing ; bathing. 

LAVISH, a. [I know not fioni wliat source 

we have received this word. It coincides 

in elements with L. liber, free, liberal, and 

L. laro, to wash.] 

1. Prodigal ; expending or bestowing with 
profusion ; profuse, lie was lavish of ex- 
pense ; lavish of praise ; lavish of encomi- 
ums ; tavi.ih of censure ; lavish of blood 
and trea.sure. 

2. AV^isteful ; expending without necessity; 
liberal to a fault. Dryden. 

3. Wild ; unrestrained. 

Curbing his lavish sijiiit. Shak. 

LAVISH, V. t. To expend or bestow with 
profusion ; as, to lavish praise or encomi- 

2. To waste ; to expend without necessity 
or use; to squander; as, to lavish money 
on vices and amusements. 

LAVISHED, pp. Expended profusely ; 

LAV'ISHER,?!. A prodigal; a profuse per- 

LAVISHING, ppr. Expending or laying 
out with ])rofusion ; wasting. 

LAVISHLV, adv. With profuse expense; 
prodigally ; wastefuUy. Dryden. Pope. 

LAVISHNESS, n. Profusion ; protUgality. 


LAVOL'TA, n. [It. la voltn, the turn.] An| 
old dance in which was much turning and 
capering. Shak. 

LAVV, n. [Sax. laga, lage, lag, or lah; Sw. 
tag; Dan. lov ; It. legge ; Sp. ley ; Fr. loi 
L. lex ; from the root of lay. Sax. lecgan 
Goth, lagyan. See Lay. A law is that 
xvhich is laid, set or fixed, like statute, con- 
stitution, from L. statuo.] 

1. A rule, particularly an established or per- 
manent rule, prescribed by the supreme 
power of a state to its subjects, Tor regulat 
ing their actions, particularly their social 
actions. Laws are imperative or manda 
tory, commanding what shall be done ; 
prohibitory, restraining from what is to be 
forborn ; or permissive, declaring what 
may be done without incurring a penally. 
The laics which enjoin the duties of piety 
and tiiorality, are prescribed by God and 
found in the Scriptures. 

Law is beneficence acting by rule. Burke 

2. Municipal law, is a rule of civil conduct 
prescribed by the supreme power of a 
state, commanding what its subjects are to 
do, and prohibiting what they are to for- 
bear ; a statute. 

Municipal or civil laws are estabhshed 
by the decrees, edicts or ordinances of 
absolute princes, as emperors and kings, 
or by the formal acts of the legislatures of 
free states. Law therefore is sometimes 
equivalent to decree, edict, or ordinance. 

3. Laiv of nature, is a rule of conduct arising 
out of the natural relations of human be- 
ings established by the Creator, and exist- 
ing prior to any positive precept. Thus it 
is a laui of nature, that one man should 
not injure another, and murder and fraud 
would be crimes, independent of any pro- 
hibition from a supreme power. 


4. Laws qf animal nature, the inherent prin- 
ciples by which the economy and func- 
tions of animal bodies are performed, 
such as respiration, the circulation of the 
blood, digestion, nutrition, various secre- 
tions, &c. 

5. Laws of vegetation, the principles by 
which plants' arc produced, and their 
growth carried on till they arrive to per- 

G. Physical laivs, 01 laws of nature. The inva- 
riable tendency or determination of any 
species of matter to a particular form with 
definite properties, and the determination 
of a body to certain motions, changes, 
and relations, which uniformly take place 
in the same circumstances, is called a 
physical law. These tendencies or deter- 
minations, whether oallcd laws or afiec- 
tions of matter, have been established by 
the Creator, and are, with a peculiar feli- 
city of expression, denominated in Scrip- 
ture, ordinances of heaven. 

7. Laws of nations, the rules tliat regulate 
the mutual intercourse of nations or states. 
These riUes depend on natural law, or the 
principles of justice W'hich spring from 
the social state ; or they are founded on 
customs, compacts, treaties, leagues and 
agreements between independent commu- 

By tlie taw of nations, we are to under- 
stand that code of public instruction, which 
defines the ri^lits and prescribes the duties of 
nations, in their intercourse with each other. 


8. Moral law, a law which prescribes to men 
their religious and social duties, in other 
words, their duties to God and to each 
other. The moral law is summarily con- 
tained in the decalogue or ten command- 
ments, written by the finger of God on 
two tables of stone, and dehvered to Moses 
on mount Sinai. Ex. xx. 

'9. Ecclesiastical law, a rule of action pre- 
scribed for the government of a church ; 
otherwise called canon law. 

10. JVritten law, a law or rule of action pre- 
scribed or enacted by a sovereign, and 
promulgated and recorded in writing; a 
written statute, ordinance, edict or de- 

11. Umvritten. or common law, a rule of ac- 
tion which derives its authority from long 
usage, or established custom, which has 
been immcmorially received and recogni- 
zed by judicial tribunals. As this law can 
be traced to no positive statutes, its rules 
or principles are to be found only in the 
records of courts, and in the reports of 
judicial decisions. 

12. By-law, a law of a city, town or private 
corporation. [See By.] 

13. Mosaic laiv, the institutions of Moses, or 
the code of laws prescribed to the Jews, 
as distinguished from the gospel. 

14. Ceremonial law, the Mosaic institutions 
which prescribe the external rites and 
ceremonies to be observed by the Jews, 
as distinct from the moral precepts, which 
are of perpetual obligation. 

15. A rule of direction; a directory; as rea- 
son and natural conscience. 

Tliese, having not the taw, are a law to 
themselves. Rom. ii. 




IG. That which governs or has a tendency 
to rule ; that wliich has tlic power of con- 

But I see another law in my members war 
ring against the law of my mind, and bringing 
me into captivity to the law of sin which is in 
my members. Rom. 7. 

17. The word of God ; tlie doctrines and 
precepts of God, or his revealed will. 

But his delight is in the law of the Lord, and 
in his law doth he meditate day and night. 
Ps. i. 

18. The Old Testament. 

Is it not written in your law, I said, ye are 
gods .' John X. 

19. The institutions of Moses, as distinct 
from the other parts of the Old Testament ; 
as the laio and the prophets. 

20. A rule or axiom of science or art; set- 
tled principle ; as the laws of versification 
or poetry. 

21. Law martial, or martiallaw, the rules or- 
dained for the government of an army or 
military force. 

22. Maii'iie laivs, rules for the regulation of 
navigation, and the commercial inter- 
course of nations. 

23. Commercial law, latv-merchant, the sys- 
tem of rules by which trade and commer- 
cial intercourse are regulated between 

24. Judicial process; prosecution of right 
in courts of law. 

Tom Touchy is a fellow famous for taking 
the law of every body. Spectator. 

Hence the phrase, to go to law, to pros- 
ecute ; to seek redress in a legal tribunal. 

25. Jurisprudence ; as in the title, Doctor of 

26. In general, law is a rule of action pre- 
scribed for the government of rational 
beings or moral agents, to which rule they 
are bound to yield obedience, in default of] 
which they are exposed to punishment ; 
or law is a settled mode or course of ac- 
tion or operation in irrational beings and 
in inanimate bodies. 

Civil law, criminal laiv. [See Civil and Crim- 
Laws of honor. [See Honor.] 
Law language, the language used in legal 
writings and forms, particularly the Nor- 
inan dialect or Old French, which was 
used in judicial proceedings from the days 
of William the conqueror to the 36th year 
of Edward III. 
Wager of law, a species of trial formerly used 
in England, in which the defendant gave 
security that he would, on a certain day, 
make his law, that is, he would make oath 
that he owed nothing to the plaintiff", and 
would produce eleven of his neighbors as 
compurgators, who shotdd swear that 
they believed in their consciences that he 
had sworn the truth. Blackslone. 

LAW'-BREAKER, n. One who violates 
the law. Milton, 

LAW-DAY, n. A day of open court. 

2. A leet or sheriff's tourn. 
LAW'FUL, a. Agrec.-ihle to law ; conform- 
able to law ; allowed by law ; legal ; legit 
imate. That is deemed laiiful which no 
law forbids, but nmny things arc lairftil 
which arc ngt expedient. 

2. Constituted by law ; rightful ; as the law 

fill owner of lands. 
LAWFULLY, adv. Legally ; in accordance 

with law ; without violating law. We 

may lawfully do what the- laws do not 

LAWFULNESS, n. The quality of being 

conformable to law ; legality. The law 

fulness of an action does not always prove 

its propriety or expedience. 
LAWGIVER, 71. [law and give.] One who 

makes or enacts a law ; a legislator. 

LAWGIVING, a. Making or enacting 

laws ; legislative. frailer. 

LA WING, n. Expeditation ; the act of cut 

ting off the claws and balls of the fore feet 

of mastiffs to prevent them from running 

after deer. Blackslone. 

LAW'LESS, a. Not subject to law ; unre 

strained by law ; as a laioless tyrant ; law 

less men. 

2. Contrary to law; illegal; unauthorized; 
as a laivlcss claim. 

He needs no indirect nor lawless course. 


3. Not subject to the ordinary laws of na 
ture ; uncontrolled. 

He, meteor-like, flames lawless through the 

void. Pope. 

LAWLESSLY, adv. In a manner coitrary 

to law. Shak. 

LAWLESSNESS, n. The quality or state 

of being unrestrained by law ; disorder. 

LAW'-MAKER, n. One who enacts or or- 
dains laws ; a legislator ; a lawgiver 
Lawmakers shoidd not be law-breakers, 

LAW-MONGER, ?;. A low dealer in law 
a pettifogger. Milton. 

L.\WN, 71. [W. llan, an open, clear place. 
It is the same woi-d as land, with an ap- 
propriate signification, and coincides with 
plain, planus, Ir. cluain.] 
An open space between woods, or a plain 
in a park or adjoining a noble seat. 
Betwixt them lawns or level downs, and 

Grazing the tender herbs, were interspers'd. 

LAWN, n. [Fr. linon, from lin, flax, L. 

A sort of fine linen. Its use in the sleeves 
of bishops, explains the following line. 

A saint in crape is twice a saint in lawn. 


LAWN, a. Jlade of lawn. 

LAWN'Y, a. Level, as a plain ; like a lawn. 

2. Made of lawn. Bp. Hall. 

LAWSCIT, Ji. [See Suit.] A suit in law 
for the recovery of a supposed right ; a 
process in law instituted by a party to 
com]>el another to do him justice. 

LAW'YER, n. [that is, lawei; contracted 
from law-wcr, law-man.] 

One versed in the laws, or a practitioner of 
law ; one whose profession is to institute 
suits in courts of law, and to prosecute or 
defend the cause of clients. This is a 
general term, comprehending attorneys 
coimselors, solicitors, barristers, Serjeants 
and advocates. 

LAW YER-LIKE. a. Like a real lawyer 

LAW'Yl'RI.V, a. Judicial. MiUon. 

LAX, a. [L. laxus ; Sp. laso ; It. lasso ; Fr. 
lache, for lasche.] 

1. Loose; flabby; soft; not tense, firm or 
rigid ; as lax flesh ; a lax fiber. 

2. Slack ; not tight or tense ; as a lax cord. 

3. Not firmly united ; of loose texture ; as 
gravel and the like laxer matter. 


4. Not rigidly exact ; as a lax moral dis- 
course. . Baker. 

5. Not strict ; as lax morals. 

6. Loose in the bowels ; having too frequent 

LAX, JI. A looseness; diarrhoea. 

2. A species of fish or salmon. [Sax. Icex.] 

[JVot in use.] 
LAXA'TION, n. [L. laxalio.] The act of 

loosening or slackening; or the state of 

being loose or slackened. 
LAX'ATIVE, a. [Fr. laxatif, from L. laxo.] 

Having the power or quality of loosening 

or opening the bowels, and relieving from 

LAX'ATIVE, n. A medicine that relaxes 

the bowels and relieves from costiveness ; 

a gentle purgative. Coxe. 

LAX'ATIVENESS, n. The quality of re- 

LAX'ITY, n. [L. laxitas.] Looseness ; 
slackness; the opposite of tenseness or 

2. Looseness of texture. Bentley. 

3. Want of exactness or precision ; as laxity 
of expression. 

4. Looseness; defect of exactness; as laxity 
of morals. 

5. Looseness, as of the bowels ; the oppo- 
site of costiveness. 

(i. Openness ; not closeness. 

LAX'LY, adv. Loosely ; without exactness. 


LAX'NESS, n. Looseness; softness; flab- 
biness ; as the laxness of flesh or of mus- 

2. Laxity; the opposite of /ensi'o)!. 

3. Looseness, as of morals or discipline. 

4. Loosenes.s, as of the bowels. 

5. Slackness, as of a cord. 

LAY, pret. of lie. The estate lay in the 
county of Hartford. 

When Ahab heard these words, lie rent his 
clothes, and put sackcloth upon his head, and 
fasted and lay in sackcloth. 1 Kings xxi. 

LAY, V. t pret. and pp. laid. [Sax. lecgan, 
legan ; D. leggen ; G. legeji ; Sw. l&gga ; 
Dan. Ugger ; Russ. loju ; L. loco, whence 
locus, W. lie, place, Eng. ley or lea ; W. 
lleau, to lay. Hence Fi-. lieu. Arm. lech, a 
place ; Ir. legadli. Arm. lacqaal, to lay. 
The primary sense is to send or throw ; 
hence this word is the L. lego, legare, dif- 
ferently np])lied ; Gr. Xcynuai., to lie down ; 

Eth. AATl lak, to send, whence lackey. 
Class Lg. No I. and 21. It coincides with 
lodge and with lie.] 
1. Literally, to throw down ; hence, to put 
or place ; applied to things broad or long, 
and in this respect diflering from set. 
We lay a book on the table, \vhen we 
place it on its side, but we set it on the 
end. We lay the foundation of a house, 
but we set a building on its fjundatioii. 

He hiiil his robe fir ni him. Jonah iii. 

Soft on the flowery herb 1 found nie laid. 





A stone was brought and laid on the mouth of 
the den. Dan. vi. 

2. To beat down ; to prostrate. Violent 
winds witli raiii lay corn and grass. 

3. To settle ; to fix and keep from rising. A 
shower lays tlie dust. 

4. To place in order ; to dispose with regu- 
larity in building ; as, to lay bricks or 
stones in constructing walls. 

5. To spread on a surface ; as, to lay plas- 
ter or paint. 

6. To spread or set ; as, to lay snares. 

7. To calm ; to appease ; to still ; to allay. 

After a tempest, when the winds are laid. 


8. To quiet ; to still ; to restrain from walk- 
ing ; as, to lay the rievil. L'Estiange. 

9. To spread and set in order ; to prepare 
as, to lay a table for dinner. 

10. To place in the eartli for growth. 

The cliief time of laying gilliflowers, is in 
July. Mortimer. 

11. To place at hazard ; to wage ; to stake ; 
as, to lay a crown or an eagle ; to lay a 

12. To bring forth ; to exclude ; as, to lay 

13. To add ; to join. 

Wo to them that join house to house, that 
lay field to ticld. Is. v. 

14. To put ; to apply. 

She layeth her hand to the spindle. Prov. 

15. To assess ; to charge ; to impose ; as, to 
lay a tax on land ; to lay a duty on salt. 

16. To charge ; to impute ; as, to lay blame 
on one ; to lay want of prudence to one's 

17. To impose, as evil, burden, or punish 

The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us 
all. Is. liii. 

18. To enjoin as a duty ; as, to lay com 
mands on one. 

19. To e.vhibit ; to present or offer ; as, to 
lay an indictment in a particular county. 

90. To prostrate ; to slay. 

The leaders first 
He laid along. DryJen. 

21. To depress and lose sight of, by sailing 
or departing from ; as, to lay the land ; a 
seamaii's phrase. 

22. To station ; to set ; as, to lay an am 

23. To contrive ; to scheme ; to plan. 

To lay a cable, to twist or unite the strands. 
To lay apart, to put away ; to reject. 

Lay apart all filthiness. James i. 
To lay aside, to put off or away ; not to re- 

Let us lay aside every weight, and the sin 
that dotli so easily beset us. Meb. xii. 
2. To discontinue ; as, to lay aside the use 

of any thing. 
To lay away, to reposit in store ; to put aside 

for preservation. 
To lay before, to exhibit; to show; to pre- 
sent to view. The papers are laid before 
To lay by, to reserve for future use. 

Let every one of you lay by him in store, as 
God hatli prospered him. 1 Cor. x\i. 
2. To put away ; to dismiss. 

Let brave spirits not be laid by, as persons 

unnecessary for the time. Bacoji 

■3. To put off. 

And she arose and went aw:\j , and laid by 
her veil. Gen. xxxviii. 

To lay down, to deposit, as a pledge, equiva 
lent or satistiiction ; to resign. I 

I lay down my hfe fur the sheep. John x. 
To give up ; to resign ; to quit or relin- 
quish ; as, to lay down an ollice or com- 

3. To quit ; to surrender the use of; as, tO| 
lay down one's arms. 

4. To offer or advance ; as, to lay down a 
proposition or principle. Addison.] 

To lay one's self down, to commit to repose. 

I will both lay me down in peace and sleep — 

Ps. iv. 

To lay hold of, to seize ; to catch. To lay 
hold on, is used in a like sense. Locke 

To lay in, to store ; to treasure ; to provide 
previously. Addison. 

To lay on, to apply with force ; to inflict ; 
as, to lay on blows. 

To lay open, to open ; to make bare ; to un- 
cover ; also, to show ; to e.xpose ; to re- 
veal ; as, to lay open the designs of an en- 

To lay over, to spread over ; to incrust ; to 
cover the surface ; as, to lay over with 
gold or silver. 

To lay out, to expend ; as, to lay out money, 
or sums of money. 

2. To display ; to discover. 
He takes occasion to lay out bigotry and 

false confidence in all its colors. Atterbury. 

3. To plan ; to dispose in order the several 
parts ; as, to lay out a garden. 

4. To dress in grave clothes and place in a 
decent posture ; as, to lay out a corpse. 
Shakspeare uses to lay forth, 

5. To exert ; as, to lay out all one's strength. 
So with the recii)rocal pronoun, to lay 
one's self out, is to e.xert strength. 

To lay to, to charge upon ; to impute. 

'2. To apply with vigor. 7\isser. 

3. To attack or harass. Obs. Knolles. 

4. To check the motion of a ship, and cause 
her to be stationary. 

To lay together, to collect ; to bring to one 
place ; also, to bring into one view. 

To lay to heart, to permit to affect greatly. 

To lay under, to subject to ; as, to lay one 
under restraint or obligation. 

To lay up, to store ; to treasure ; to reposit 
for future use. 

Lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven. 
Matt. vi. 

2. To confine to the bed or chamber. He is 
laid up with the gout. 

To lay siege, to besiege ; to encompass with 
an army. 

To lay wait, to station for private attack ; to 
lay in ambush for. 

To lay the course, in sailing, is to sail to- 
wards the port intended, without gibing. 

To lay waste, to destroy; to desolate ; to de- 
prive of inhabitants, improvements and 

To lay the land, in seamen's language, is to 
cause the land ajiparently to sink or ap- 
pear lower, by sailing from it ; the dis- 
tance diminishing the elevation. 

LAY, I', i. To bring or produce eggs. 

Hens will greedily eat the herb that will 
make them lay tlie better. Mortimer. 

2. To contrive; to forma scheme. [Unu- 

To lay about, to strike or throw the arms on 
all sides; to act with vigor. 

Spenser. South. 

To lay at, to strike or to endeavor to strike. 

The sword of him that layeth at him cannot 
hold. Job xli. 

To lay in for, to make overtures for ; to en- 
gage or secure the possession of. 

I have laid in for these. Drydeu. 

To lay on, to strike ; to beat ; to deal blows 

incessantly and with vehemence. 
2. To act with vehemence; used of expenses. 

To lay out, to purpose ; to intend. He lays 

out to make a journey. 
2. To take measures. 

I made strict inquiry wherever I came, and 
laid out for intelligence of all places. 

To lay upon, to importune. Obs. 
LAY, n. That which lies or is laid ; a row ; 
a stratutli ; a layer ; one rank in a series 
reckoned upward ; as a lay of wood. 

A viol should have a lay of wire-strings be- 
low. Bacon. 

2. A bet ; a wager. [Little used.] Graunl. 

3. Station ; rank. [.Vol used.] 

LAY, n. [Sax. leag, leah, lege ; W. lie ; Russ. 
lug ; L. locus ; Fr. lieu. See Lay, the 
verb. The words which signify ^facf, are 
from verbs which express seltitig or lay- 
ing. It is written also ley, and lea, but less 

A meadow ; a plain or plat of grass land. 
A tuft of daisies on a flowery lay. Vrydcn. 
The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea. 


LAY, n. [Sax. legh or ley; Gr. >.t;xiu, to 
sound. It might also be deduced from 
G. lied, a song ; D. id. ; Sax. leoih ; Scot. 
leid, lede, or luid ; Ir. lyidh ; Gael, laoidh ; 
from the root of loud, L. laudo, plaudo, 
Sax. hlydan.] 

A song ; as a loud or soft lay ; immortal 
lays. Sfienser. .Milton. 

[It is used chiefly in poetry.] 

LAY, a. [Fr. lai, L. laicus. It. laico, Sp. 
lego, a layman ; Gr. ^atxoj, from ^oj, 

Pertaining to the laity or people, as distinct 
from the clergy ; not clerical ; as a lay 
person ; a lay preacher; a lay brother. 

LAY-CLERK, n. A vocal officiate in a ca- 
thedral. Busby. 

LA'YER, n. la'er. [from lay, the verb.] A 
stratum ; a bed ; a body spread over an- 
other ; as a te^cr of clay or of sand. 

2. A shoot or twig of a plant, not detached 
from the stock, laid under ground for 
growth or propagation. Encye. 

3. A hen that lays eggs. Mortimer. 
LA'YING, ppr. Putting; placing ; applying; 

ini|>uting : wagering. 
LA' YLAND, n. Land lying untilled ; fallow 
ground. [Local.] 

L.\'YM.\N, n. la'man. [lay and man.] A 
man who is not a clergyman ; one of the 
laity or people, distinct from the clergy. 

Dryden. Sicifl. 

3. An image used by painters in contriving 
attitudes. Dryden. 

3. A lay -clerk. 




LA'YSTALL, n. [Imj and stall.] A heap of 
dung, or a place where dung is laid. 


LA'ZAR, n. [from Lazarus; Sp. kaaro.] 
A person infected with nauseous and pes- 
tilential disease. Sliak. Drijdtn. 

LAZARET', \ [Sp. lazarelo ; It. laz- 

LAZARETTO, I "' zeretto;Fi: lazaret; from 

A public building, hospital or pest-house for 
the reception of diseased persons, particu 
larly for those affected with contagious 

LA'ZAR-HOUSE, n. A lazaretto ; also, a 
hospital for quarantine. 

LA'ZAR-LIKE, ) Full of sores ; lep- 

LA'ZARLY, ^ "• rous. Bp. Hall. 

LA'ZARWoRT, i Laserpitiuni,a genus of 

LA'SERWORT, ^"'plants of several spe- 
cies, natives of Germany, Italy, France, 

LAZE, V. i. To live in idleness. [ Vulgar.] 

LAZE, V. t. To waste in sloth. [ Vulgar.] 

LA'ZILY, adv. [from lazy.] In a heavy, 
sluggish manner ; sluggishl}'. 

Whether he lazily and fistlcssly dreams away 
his time. Locke. 

LA'ZINESS, 71. [from lazy.] The state or 
quality of being lazy ; indisposition to ac- 
tion or exertion ; indolence ; sluggishness ; 
heaviness in motion ; habitual sloth. La- 
ziness differs from idleness ; the latter be- 
ing a mere defect or cessation of action, 
but laziness is sloth, with natural or ha- 
bitual disinclination to action. 

Laziness travels so slowly, that poverty soon 
overtakes liim. Franklin. 

2. Slowness ; tardiness. 

LA'ZING, a. Spending time in sluggish in- 
action. UEslrange. 
[This is an ill-formed, ijielcganl ivord.] 

LAZ'ULI. Lapis Lazuli is a mineral of a 
fine, azure blue color, usually amorphous, 
or in rounded masses of a moderate size. 
It is often marked by yellow spots or veins 
of sulphuret of iron, and is much valued 
for ornamental work. It is distinguislied 
from lazulite, by the intenseness of its co- 
lor. [Qu. Ar. azul.] Cleaveland. 

LAZ'ULITE, n. A mineral of a light, indi- 
go blue color, occurring in small masses, 
or crystalized in oblique four-sided prisms 


LA'ZY, a. [G. lass,lassig; W.llesg. The 
Fr. Idche is from L. la.cus, and it is doubtful 
whether this is of the same family.] 

\. Disinclined to action or exertion; natu 
rally or habitually slothful; sluggish; in- 
dolent ; averse to labor ; heavy in motion 
Wicked meu will ever live like rogiies, and 
not fall to work, but be lazy and spend victuals 


2. Slow ; moving slowly or apparently with 

labor; as a lazy stream. 

The nii^lit-owi's /azy flight. SImk. 

LD, stands for lord. 

LEA, I [See Lay.] A meadow or plain. 
LEY, S ' The Welsh write He, but as thij 

word is from the root of lay, the latter is 

the Miorc correct orthography. 
LEACH, V. I. [Sw. laka, to fail in drops, to 

distill ; laka, to leak ; Dan. lekker, to drop, 

to leak. See Leak. Pcihaps L. li.r may 

be from the same root.] 
To wash, as ashes, by percolation, or caus 

ing water to pass through tliem, and thus 

to separate from them the alkali. The 
water thus charged with alkali, is called 
lye. ^ j 

LEACH, ji. A quantity of wood ashes, 
through which water passes, and thus im- 
bibes the alkali. 

LE'ACH-TUI5, n. A wooden vessel or tub 
in which ashes are leached. It is some- 
times written leteh-tub. 

LEAD, n. led. [Sax. Iwd ; G.loth; B.lood; 
Dan. Sw. lod ; Russ. lot, probably a mass, 
like clod.] 

A metal of a dull white color, with a cast of 
blue. It is the least elastic and sonorous 
of all the metals, and at the same time it is 
soft and easily fusible. It is found na- 
tive in small masses, but generally mine 
ralized by sulphur, and sometimes by oth 
er substances. Lead fused in a strong 
heat, throws off vapors which are un 

2. A plummet or mass of lead, used in sound- 
ing at sea. 

•J. Leads, a flat roof covered with lead. 

Shak. Bacon. 

Ifliite lead, the oxyd of lead, ground with one 
third part of chalk. Fourcroy. 

LEAD, V. t. led. To cover with lead ; to fit 
with lead. 

LEAD, V. t. pret. and pp. led. [Sax. la;dan ; 
G. leilen ; D. leiden ; Sw. leda ; Dan. leder ; 
probably to draw, to strain, or extend.] 

1. To guide by the hand ; as, to lead a child. 
It often includes the sense of drawing as 
well as of directing. 

2. To guide or conduct hy showing the way 
to direct ; as, the Israelites were led by a 
pillar of a cloud by day, and by a pillar of 
fire by night. 

3. To conduct to any place. 
He leadeth me beside the still waters. Ps 


4. To conduct, as a chief or commander, im- 
plying authority ; to direct and govern ; as, 
a general leads his troo|)S to battle and to 

Christ took not on him flesh and blood, that 
he might conquer and rule nations, lead armies — 


5. To precede ; to introduce by going first. 
As Hesperus thit leads the sua his way. 


G. To guide ; to show the method of attain 
ing an object. Self-examination may lead 
us to a knowledge of ourselves. 

7. To draw ; to entice ; to allure. The love 
of pleasure leads men into vires which de- 
grade and impoverish them. 

8. To induce ; to prevail on; to influence. 
He was (biven by the necessities of the times 

more than led by bis own disposition to any 
ligor of actions. JC. Charles. 

9. To pass ; to spend, that is, to draw out ; 
as, to lead a life of gayety, or a solitary 

That we may lead a quiet and peaceable life 
in all godliness and honesty. 1 Titn. ii. 

To lead astray, to guide in a wrong way or 
into error ; to seduce from truth or recti- 

To lead captive, to carry into captivity. 

LE.\D, i\ i. To go before and show the way. 
I will lead on softly. (J.-n. xxxiii. 

2. To conduct, as a chief or connnander. 
Let the troo^is follow, w here their general 

3. To draw ; to have a tendency to. Ga- 
ming leads to other vices. 

4. To exercise dominion. Spenser. 
To lead off or out, to go first ; to begin. 

LEAD, n. Precedence ; a going before ; 

guidance. Let the general take the lead. 

[A colloquial word in reputable use.] 
LEADEN, a. led'n. [from lead.] Blade of 

lead ; as a leaden ball. 

2. Heavy ; indisposed to action. Shak. 

3. Heavy ; dull. Shak. 
LEADEN-HEARTED, a. Stupid ; desti- 
tute of feeling. Thomson. 

LEADEN-HEELED, a. Moving slowly. 

LEADEN-STEPPING, a. Moving slowly. 

LE'ADER, n. One that leads or conducts; 
a guide ; a conductor. 

2. A chief; a commander ; a captain. 

3. One who goes first. 

4. The chief of a party or faction ; as the 
leader of the whigs or of the tories ; a lead- 
er of the Jacobins. 

5. A performer who leads a band or choir in 

LE,'AT)ING, ppr. Guiding ; conducting ; pre- 
ceding ; drawing; alluring; passing life. 

2. a. Chief; principal ; capital ; most influ- 
ential ; as a leading motive ; a leading man 
in a Jiart)'. 

3. Showing the way by going first. 

He left his mother a countess by patent, 
which was a new leading example — Wotton. 

LE'ADING, n. Guidance ; the act of con- 
ducting ; direction. Shak. Spenser. 

LEADING-STRINGS, n. Strings by which 
children are supported when beginning to 
walk. Dryden. 

To be in leading strings, to be in a state of 
infancy or dependence, or in pupilage un- 
der the guidance of others. 

LE'ADMAN, n. One who begins or leads a 
dance. Obs. B. Jonson. 

LEADWORT, n. led'wort. Plumbago, a 
genus of plants. 

LEADY, (/. led'dy. Of the color of lead. 

LEAF, r). ]>hi. leaves. [Sax. leafe ; D. loof; 
G.laub; i~\\. lof; Dan. liiv : Goth, lau/.] 

1. In botany, leaves are organs of fierspira- 
tion and inhalation in |>lants. They us- 
ually shoot from the sides of the stems and 
branches, but sometimes from the root ; 
sometimes they are sessile ; more generally 
supported by petioles. They are of vari- 
ous forms, flat, extended, hiiear, cylindric, 

2. The thin, extended part of a flower; a 

3. A part of a book containing two pages. 

4. The side of a double door. 1 Kings vi. 

.5. Something resembling a leaf in thinness 
and extension ; a very thin plate ; as gold 

6. The movable side of a table. 

LE.\F, V. i. To shoot out leaves ; to pro- 
duce leaves. The Uixslcafin May. 

LE'AFAGE, n. Abundance of leaves. 

LE'AFED, pp. Having leaves. 

LE'AI'^LESS, a. Destitute of leaves; as a 
leafless tree. Pope. 

LE'AKLET, n. A little leaf 

2. In botany, one of the divisions of a com- 
pound leaf; a foliole. 




LE'AF-STALK, n. The petiole or stalki 

whicli supports a leal". Martyn.l 

LE'AFY, a. Full of leaves ; as the leafy 

forest. Dryden. 

LEAGUE, n. ke^. [Fr. ligue ; It. lega ; Sp. 

ligii ; from L. tigo, to hind.] 
All alliance or confederacy between princes 
or states for their mutual aid or defense ; 
a national contract or compact. A league 
may be offensive or defensive, or both, 
is offensive, when the contracting parties 
agree to unite in attacking a connnon en 
emy ; defensive, when the parties agree to 
act in concert in defending each other 
against an enemy. 
2. A combination or union of two or more 
parties for the purpose of maintaining 
friendship and promoting their mutual in- 
terest, or for executing any design in con- 

AnJ let there be 
'Twixl us and them no league, nor amity. 

LEAGUE, V. i. leeg. To unite, as princes or 
states in a contract of amity for mutual 
aid or defense ; to confederate. Russia 
and Austria leagued to oppose the ambi- 
tion of Buona|>arte. 
2. To unite or confederate, as private per- 
sons for mutual aid. 
LEAGUE, ji. keg. [of Celtic origin. W. 
llec, a flat stone, whence Low L. kuca, Sp. 
legua, It. kga, Fr. lieue, Ir. kux;. It ap 
pears from the Welsh, that this word is 
from the root of /ai/.] 
\. Originally, a stone erected on the public 
roads, at certain distances, in the manner 
of the modern mile-stones. Hence, 
2. The distance between two stones. WitI 
the English and Americans, a league is the 
length of three miles ; but this measure is 
used chiefly at sea. The league on the 
continent of Europe, is very different 
among different nations. The Dutch and 
Gerniau league contaius four geographical 
miles. Encyc. 

LE'AGUED, pp. lee'ged. United in mutual 

compact ; confederated. 
LEAGUER, )!. ke'ger. One who unites in 
a league ; a confederate. Ena/c. 

LE'AGUER, n. [D. beleggeren. See Be- 
Siege ; investment of a town or fort by an 
army. [Litlle used.] Shak. 

LEAK, n. [D. lek, a leak, and leaky ; kkken, 
to leak, to drop, to sleek or make smooth ; 
Jcftter, dainty, delicate, nice, delicious; G 
leek, a leak, and leaky ; kcken, to leak, to 
drop out, to jump, to tick ; kcker, dainty, 
delicious, lickerish ; Sw. laka, to distill or 
drop, and laka, to leak ; Dan. kk, leaky ; 
lekke, a leak ; lekkefad, a dripping pan 
lekker, to leak, to drop ; tekker, dainty, del- 
icate, nice, lickerish ; Sax. hlece, leaky. If 
the noun is the primary word, it may be 
the Gr. >.axif, a fissure or crevice, from 
>.)jxfu, Dor. xaxiu, to crack, to sound, or to 
burst with sound, coinciding with L. lacero 
and loquor, and perhaps Eng. clack. It 
seems that lickerish is from the root of| 
leak, and signifies properly watery.] 

1. A crack, crevice, fissure or hole in a ves- 
sel, that admits water, or permits a fluid 
to escape. 

2. The oozing or passing of water or other 
fluid or liquor through a crack, fissure or 

aperture in a vessel, either into it, as into 
a ship, or out of it, as out of a cask. 

To spring a leak, is to open or crack so as to 
let in water ; to begin to let in water. 

LEAK, a. Leaky. [JVot in use.] Spenser. 

LEAK, V. i. To let water or other liquor in 
to or out of a vessel, through a hole or 
crevice in the vessel. A ship leaks, when 
she admits water through her scams or an 
aperture in her bottom or sides, into the 
hull. A pail or a cask leaks, when it ad- 
mits liquor to pass out through a hole or 

To leak out, to find vent ; to escape privately 
from confinement or secresy ; as a fact or 

i report. 

LE'AKAUE, n. A leaking; or the quantity 

1 of a liquor that enters or issues by leak 

! ing- 

2. An allowance, in commerce, of a certain 
j rate per cent, for the leaking of casks, or 
! the waste of liquors by leaking. 
LEAKY, a. That admits water or other 
I liquor to pass in or out ; as a leaky ves 

sel ; a leaky ship or barrel. 
2. Apt to disclose secrets ; tattling ; not close. 

LE'AMER, n. A dog ; a kind of hound. 
LEAN, V. i. [Sax. hlinian, hteoman, to lean ; 
Union, to recline ; G. lelincn ; 1). leunen ; 
Dan. Icener : Sw. tana sig ; Ir. ctaonaim ; 
Russ. klonyu ; Gr. xxinn ; L. clino. Class 
Ln. No. 3.] 

1. To deviate or move from a straight or 
perpendicular line ; or to be in a position 
thus deviating. We say, a column leans 
to the north or to the cast ; it leans to the 
right or left. 

2. To incline or propend ; to tend toward. 
They delight rather to lea7i to their old cus- 
toms — Spenser. 

Trust in the Lord with all thine heart, and 
lea?i not to thine own understanding. Prov. iii 

3. To bend or incline so as to rest on some 
thing; as, to lean against a wall or a pil 
lar ; to lean on the arm of another. 

^. To bend ; to be in a bending posture. 
LEAN, v.t. To incline; to cause to lean. 

2. To conceal. [Ice. luna.] [jVot in use. 


LEAN, a. [Sax. tene or hlcene; D. Dan. G. 

klein, small, lean ; Sw. klen ; allied perhaps 

to L. lenis, and Eng. slender.] 

1. Wanting flesh ; meager ; not fat ; as a 
I lean body ; a lean inan or animal. 

2. Not rich ; destitute of good qualities 
! bare ; barren ; as lean earth. 

3. Low ; poor ; in opposition to rich or 
I great; as a /ea)! action. [Unusual.] 

4. Barren of thought ; destitute of that 
which improves or entertains ; jejune ; as 
a lean discourse or dissertation. 

LEAN, »!. That part of flesh which consists 

of muscle without the fat. Farquhar. 

LE'ANLY, adv. Meagerly ; without fat or 

LE'ANNESS, n. Destitution of fat ; want 

of flesh ; thinness of body ; meagernsss ; 

applied to animals. 
2. Want of matter ; poverty; emptiness; as 

the /fairness of a purse. Shak. 

■i. In Scripture, want of grace and spiritual 


He sent leanness into their soul. Pg. cvi. 

LE'ANY, a. Alert; brisk; active. [Ao< j/i 
use.] Spenser. 

LEAP, V. i. [Sax. hleapan, Goth. Maupan, 
to leap ; G. laufen ; I), loopen, Sw. lopa, 
Dan. /oier, to run, to pass rapidly, to flow, 
slip or glide ; W. tluf, a. leap. From these 
significations, it may be inferred that this 
word belongs to the family of L. Mor, 
pcriiaps lleb. Cli. Svr. Sam. Eth. cibn. 
Class Lb. No. 30. Qu. L. lupus, a wolf, 
the leaper.] 

1. To spring or rise from the ground with 
both feet, as man, or with all the feet, as 
other animals ; to junq) ; to vault ; as, a 
man leaps over a fence, or leaps upon a 

.\ man leapetli better with weights in his 
hands than without. Bacon. 

2. To spring or move suddenly ; as, to leap 
from a horse. 

To rush with violence. 

And the man in whom the evil spirit was, 
leaped on them and overcame them — Acts 

4. To spring ; to bound ; to skip ; as, to leap 
for joy. 

5. To fly ; to start. Job xli. 

He parted frowning from me, as if ruin 
Leaped from his eyes. Shak. 

[Our common people retain the Saxon 
aspirate of this word in the phrase, to clip 
it, to run fast.] 

LEAP, V. t. To pass over by leaping ; to 
spring or boimd tiom one side to the oth- 
er ; as, to leap a wall, a gate or a gulf; to 
leap a stream. [But the phrase is ellipti- 
cal, and over is understood.] 

2. To compress ; as the male of certain 
beasts. Dryden. 

LEAP, n. A jump; aspriug; abound; act 
of leaping. 

2. Space passed by leaping. 

3. A sudden transition or passing. Suri/l. 

4. The space that may be jj.assed at a hound. 
'Tis the coBveuieut leap I mean to try. 


5. Einbrace of animals. Dryden. 
C. Hazard, or effect of leaping. Shak. 
7. A basket ; a weel for fish. [JVot in use.] 

Wickliffe. Sherwood. 

LE'APER, n. One that leaps. A horse is 
called a good leaper. 

LEAP-FROG, n. A play of children, in 
which they imitate the leap of frogs. 


LE'APING, ppr. Jumping ; springing ; 
bounding ; skij)i)ing. 

LE'APINGLY, adv. By leaps. 

LE'AP-Y'EAR, 71. Bissextile, a year con- 
taiinng 36(J days ; every fourth year, which 
leaps over a day more than a common 
year. Thus in common years, if the first 
day of March is on Monday, the present 
year, it will, the next year, fall on Tues- 
day, but in leap-year it will leap to Wed- 
nesday ; for leap-year contains a day more 
than a connnon year, a day being added 
to the month of February. Brown. 

LE.\RN, !•. /. lern. [Sax. kornian ; G. krn- 
en ; D. leeren ; Dan. licrer ; Sw. lira. 
The latter coincides with tlie Sax. laran, 
to teach, the same word having both sig- 
nifica^^ons, to teach and to learn. In pop- 
ular use, learn still has both senses.] 




1. To gain knowledge of; to acquire knowl- 
edge or ideas of something before un- 
known. We learn the use of letters, the 
meaning of words and the principles of 
science. We learn things by instruction, 
by study, and by experience and observa 
tion. It is much easier to learn what is 
right, than to unlearn what is wrong. 

Now learn a. parable of the fig-tree. Matt. 


9. To acquire skill in any thing ; to gain by 
practice a faculty of performing ; as, to 
learn to play on a flute or an organ. 

The chief art of learning is to attempt but 
little at a time. Locke. 

3. To teach ; to communicate the knowl- 
edge of something before unknown. 
Hast thou not learned me how 
To make perfumes .' Shak. 

[This use of learn is found in respecta- 
ble writers, but is now deemed inelegant 
as well as improper.] 
LEARN, V. i. lern. To gain or receive 
knowledge ; to receive instruction ; to 
take pattern ; with of. 

Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me ; 
for I am meek and lowly — . Matt. xi. 

2. To receive information or intelligence. 
LE.\RNED, / lern'ed, } Obtained as 
LEARNT, S ^^' lernt. S knowledge or 

LEARNED, a. lern'ed. Versed in literature 
and science ; as a learned man. 

2. Skillful ; well acquainted with arts ; 
knowing; with i/t ; as learned in martial 

3. Containing learning ; as a learned treatise 
or publication. Coxe. 

4. Versed in scholastic, as distinct from other 

Men of much reading are greatly learned, but 
may be little knowing. Locke 

The learned, learned men ; men of erudition ; 

LEARNEDLY, adv. lern'edl;/. With learn 
ing or erudition ; with skill ; as, to discuss 
a question learnedly. 

Every co.'scomb swears as learnedly as they 


LEARNER, n. lern'er. A person who is 
gaining knowledge from instruction, from 
reading or study, or by other means ; one 
who is in the rudiments of any science or 

LEARNING, ;);)r. lern'ing. Gaining knowl- 
edge by instruction or reading, by study, 
by experience or observation ; acquiriu 
skill by practice. 

LE.'VRNING, n. lern'ing. The knowledge 
of principles or facts received by instruc 
tion or study ; acquired knowledge or 
ideas in any branch of science or litera 
ture ; erudition ; literature ; science. The 
Scaligers were men of great learning. 
[This is the proper sense of the word.] 

2. Knowledge acquired by experience, ex- 
periment or observation. 

3. Skill in any thing good or bad. Hooker. 
LE'ASABLE, «. Tliat may be leased. 

LEASE, 11. [Fr. laisser. See the Verb.] 
1. A demise or letting of lands, tenements 
or hereditaments to another for life, for a 
term of years, or at will, fur a rent or com- 
pensation reserved ; also, the contract for 
such lotting. Kncyc. 

2. Any tenure by grant or permission. 
Our high placed Macbeth 

Shall live the lease of nature. Shak. 

LEASE, v.t. [Fr. laisser; a different orthog- 
raphy of Eng. let. See Let.] 

To let ; to demise ; to grant the temporary 
possession of lands, tenements or heredit- 
aments to another for a rent reserved. 
A leased to B his land in Dale for the an- 
nual rent of a pepper corn. 

LEASE, V. i. leez. [Sax. lesan, to collect, al- 
so to free, to liberate, to redeem ; D. lee- 
zen ; G. lesen, to gather, to cull, to sift, al- 
so to read, like L. lego; Dan. User, Sw. 
lasa, to read.] 

To glean ; to gather what harvest men have 
left. Obs. Dryden. 

LE'ASED, pp. Demised or let, as lands or 

LE'ASEHOLD,a. Held by lease; &s a lease- 
hold tenement. Swift. 

LE'ASER, n. A gleaner ; a gatherer after 

LEASH, n. [Fr. laisse, lesse ; D. letse. Qu. 
It. laccio, L. laqueus.] 

1. A thong of lether, or long line by which a 
falconer holds his hawk, or a courser his 
dog. Shak. 

Among sportsmen, a brace and a half 
tierce; three; three creatures of any kind 
especially greyhounds, foxes, bucks and 
hares. Shak. Dennis. 

3. A band wherewith to tie any thing. 


LEASH, r. t. To bind ; to hold by a string. 


LE'ASING, Ji. s as :. [Sax. leasunge, from 
lease, leasa, false.] 

Falsehood; lies. [Obsolete or nearly so.] 

LE'ASOW, n. [Sax. Iwswe.] A pasture. 
Obs. Wickliffe. 

LEAST, a. [superl. of Sax. Ices, less, con- 
tracted from lasest. It cannot be regu- 
larly formed from little.] 

Smallest; little beyond others, either in size 
or degree ; as the least insect ; the least 

Least is often used without the noun to 
which it refers. "I am the least of the 
apostles," that is, the least apostle of all 
the apostles. 1 Cor. xv. 

LEAST, adv. In the smallest or lowest de- 
gree ; in a degree below all others ; as, to 
reward those who least deserve it. 

Jit least, } to say no more ; not to de- 

.flt the least, ^ mand or affirm more than is 

barely sufficient ; at the lowest degree. 

If he has not incurred a penalty, he at 

least deserves censure. 

He who tempts, though vain, at least asperses 

The tempted with dishonor. Milton. 

3. To say no more. Let useful observations 
be at least a part of your conversation. 

The least, in the smallest degree. His fac 
ulties are not in the least impaired. 

At leastwise, in the sense of at least, is obso 

LE'ASY, a. s as z. Thin ; flimsy. It is usu 
ally pronounced sleazy. Ascham. 

LEAT, n. [Sax. Icet, dtixit.] A trench to con 
duct water to or from a mill. 

[Sax. lether; G. T). leder 
Sw. llider ; Dan. liether ; 
Arm. lezr ; It. leather. The most correct 
orthography is lether.] 



1. The skin of an animal dressed and pre- 
pared for use. 

2. Dressed hides in general. 

3. Skin ; in an ironical sense. 
LEATH'ER, } Lethern ; consisting of 
LETH'ER, i "• lether ; as a ic<;.er glove. 
LEATH'ER-€OAT, n. An apple with a 

tough coat or rind. Shak. 

LEATHER-DRESSER, n. One who dress- 
es lether ; one who prepares hides for use. 

LEATH'ER-JACKET, n. A fish of the Pa- 
cific ocean. Cook. 

By leather-mouthed fish, I mean such as 
have their teeth in their throat, as the chub. 

LEATH'ERN, \ Made of lether ; consist- 
LETH'ERN, J "• ingof lether; asa WAerre 
purse ; a lethern girdle. 

LEATHER-SELLER, } A seller or deal- 

LETH'ER-SELLER, \ "" er in lether. 

LEATHER-WINGED, } „ Having wings 

like lether. 


LEATHERY, \ „ Resembhng lether; 

LETH'ERY, \ °- tough. Grew. 

LEAVE, n. [Sax. leaf, lefe, from leafan, le- 
fan, lyfan, to permit, to grant, to trust, to 
believe ; G. erlaub, D. oorlof verlof leave, 
furlow ; Sax. leofan, to live, and to leave.] 

1. Permission ; allowance ; license ; liberty 
granted by which restraint or illegality is 

No friend has leave to bear away the dead. 

David earnestly asked leave of me. 1 Sam. 


2. Farewell ; adieu ; ceremony of departure ; 
a formal parting offrien<ls; used chiefly 
in the phrase to take leave. Acts xviii. 

LEAVE, V. I. pret. and pp. left. [Sax. Icefan, 
to leave ; lefan, to permit, to believe ; lefe, 
leave ; lefan, to live; leofan, to leave, to 
live ; kofa, leave, permission, licence ; ly- 
fan, to permit, also to live. But live is al- 
so written liban, liblimi, with b, which 
leave is not. Belifan, to remain or be left; 
alyfan, to permit ; gc-lafan, to leave, to per- 
mit, to believe : ge-leaf leave, license, as- 
sent, consent, faith or belief; ge-/f /an, to be- 
lieve, to think or suppose, to permit, to live ; 
ge-leofan, id. ; gc-lyfan, to believe, to trust ; 
ge-lyj'ed, permitted or allowed, believed, 
lawlul. also alive, having life ; leaf loved ; 
lufa, love, also belief; leofic, faithful ; 
lujlic, willingly, lubentcr ; lufic, lovely. 
The German has /face in urlaub, a furlow, 
and helitf in glaube ; live in leben ; and 
love in Hebe, lieben, the Latin libet, lubet. 
Gr. >.Eirtu. Dan. lever, Sw. lefva, to live. 
These are a sntall part of the affinities 
of this word. The Germans and Dutch 
express the sense of leave, by lassen, 
teu/e?!, which is our let, Fr. laisser; and 
let in English has the sense both of permit 
and of hinder. The most prominent sig- 
nifications nt' leave, are to stop or forbear, 
and to withdraw.] 

1. To withdraw or depart from ; to quit for 
a longer or shorter time indefinitely, or 
t'nr perprtnity. We left Cowes on oin- re- 
turn to the (Jnitcd States, May 10, 1825. 
We leave home for a day or a year. The 


L E C 


fever leaves the patient daily at a certain 
hour. The secretary has left the business 
of his office witli his first clerk. 

A man shall have his father and his mother, 
and cleave to his wife. Gen. ii. 

2. To forsake ; to desert ; to abandon ; to 

We have left all and followed thee. Mark X. 

3. To suffer to remain ; not to take or re- 

Let no man leave of it till (he morning. Ex 

4. To have remaining at death ; as, to leave 
a good name. 

5. To commit or trust to, as a deposit ; or to 
suffer to remain. I lejl the papers in the 
care of the consul. 

C. To bequeath ; to give by will. The de- 
ceased has lejl liis lands to his sons, but 
he has lejl a legacy to his only daughter 

7. To permit without interposition. Of this, 
he leaves the reader to judge. 

8. To cease to do ; to desist from ; to for- 

Let us return, lest my fothcr leave caring for 
the asses and take thought for us. 1 Sam. \x. 

9. To refer ; to commit for decision. 

To be left to one''s self, to he deserted or for 
saken ; to bo permitted to follow one's 
own opinions or desires. 

To leave off, to desist frotn; to forbear; as, 
to leave off work at six o'clock. 

To leave off, to cease wearing ; as, to leave off 
a garment. 

2. To forsake ; as, to leave off an old ac- 
quaintance. Arhuihnot. 

To leave out, to omit ; as, to leave out a word 
or name in writing. 

LEAVE, V. i. To cease ; to desist. 

He began" at the eldest and left at the 
youngest. Gen. xliv. 

7\) leave off, to cease ; to desist ; to stop. 

But when you find that vigorous heat abate, 
Leave off, and for another .summons wait. 


LEAVE, V. t. [Fr. lever.] To raise. [JVot 

used.] Spenser. 

LE'AVED, a. [from leaf; but ?eff/crf would 

be preferable.] 

1. Furnished with foliage or leaves. 

2. Having a leaf, or made with leaves or 
folds ; as a two-lcared gate. 

LEAVEN, n. lev'n. [Fr. levain, domlcver, to 
raise, L. levo, Eng. to lifl.] 

1. A mass of sour dough, which, mixed with 
a larger quantity of dough or paste, pro- 
duces fermentation in it and renders it 
light. During the seven days of the pass- 
over, no leaven was permitted to be in the 
houses of the Jews. Ex. xii. 

2. Any thing which makes a general change 
in the mass. It generally means some- 
thing which corrupts or depraves that 
with which it is mixed. 

Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and of 
the Sadducees. Matt. x\\. 

LEAVEN, V. t. Icv'n. To excite ferinenta 

tion in ; to raise and make light, as dough 

or paste. 

A little leaven leaveneth the whole lump. 1 

Cor. v. 
2. To taint ; to imbue. Prior. 

LEAVENED, pp. lev'ened. Raisedand made 

light by fermentation. 
LEAVENING,;);))-, kv'ening. Making light 

by fermentation. 

LEAVENING, n. lev'ening. That wliicl 
leavens or makes light. Bacon. 

LEAVENOUS, a. lev'enous. Containing 
leaven ; tainted. Milton. 

LE'AVER, )i. [from leave.] One who leaves 
or relinquishes ; one who forsakes. 


LEAVES, ?!. /)/u. of leaf 

LE'AVING, jTpr. Quitting; withdrawing 
from ; relinquishing ; suflering to remain ; 
ceasing ; desisting from. 

LE'AVINGS, n.plu. Things left ; remnant ; 

The leavings of Pharsalia. Addison 

2. Refuse; oftal. Sunfl. 

LE'AVV, a. [from leaf] Full of leaves 
covered with leaves. [An improper Word ; 
it ought to be leafy.] Sidney. Shak 

LECH, for liek. Obs. [See Lick.] 

LECH'ER, n. [It. leceo, gluttony, lechery ; 
leccare, to lick ; leceardo, greedy ; G. lecken ; 
D. likker. See lick, leak and lickerish. But 
in Saxon leger-scipe is lewdness, from Ic- 
ger, a layer, or a lying down ; Ucgan, to 
lay ; ligan, to lie. See Lubricity.] 

A man given to lewdness ; one addicted, in 
an exorbitant degree, to the indulgence of 
the animal apjietite, and an illicit com- 
merce vvitii females. 

LE("H'ER, v.i. To practice lewdness; to 
indulge lust. B. Jonson 

LECH'EROUS, a. Addicted to lewdness; 
prone to indulge lust; lustful ; lewd. 


2. Provoking lust. Chaucer. 

LECH'EROUSLY, adv. Lustfully; lewdly. 

LECH'EROUSNESS, n. Lust, or strong 
propensity to indulge the sexual appe- 

LECII'ERY, n. Lewdness; free indulgence 
of lust ; practice of indulging the animal 
appetite. Shak. 

LECTION, ?i. [L. lectio, from lego, to read, 
Ir. teighim, leagham, Gr. ^.tyu, Fr. lire.] 

1. A reading. 

2. A difference or variety in copies of a man- 
uscript or book. Walls. 

3. A lesson or portion of Scripture read in 
divine service. 

LEC'TIONARY, n. The Romish service- 
book, containing portions of Scripture. 

LECTURE, n. [Fr. lecture, from L. lectura, 
from lego, to road.] 

1. A discourse read or pronounced on any 
subject ; usually, a formal or methodical 
discourse, intended for instruction ; as a 
lecture on morals, philosophy, rhetoric, or 

2. A reading ; the act or practice of reading ; 
as in the lecture of Holy Scripture. [Liltle 
used.] Brown. 

3. A magisterial reprimand ; a formal re- 
proof. Addison. 

4. A recitation ; rehearsal of a lesson. 

Eng. Univ. 

LECTURE, r. i. To read or deliver a form- 
al discourse. 

2. To practice reading lectures for instruc- 
tion. We say, the professor lectures on 
geometry, or on chiniistry. 

LECTURE, v. t. To instruct by discourses. 

2. To instruct dogmatically or authorita- 
tively ; to rejirove ; as, to lecture one for 
his faults. 

LECTURER, n. One who reads or pro- 
nounces lectures; a professor or an in- 
structor who delivers formal discourses 
for the instruction of others. 

2. A preacher in a church, hired by the par- 
ish to assist the rector, vicar or curate. 


LE€'TURESHIP, n. The office of a lec- 
turer. Swift. 

LECTURING, ppr. Reading or delivering 
a discourse ; reproving. 

LE€'TURN, )!. A reading desk. [jVol in 
iise.] Chaucer. 

LED, pret. and pp. of lead. 

LED'EN, n. [Sax. lyden.] Language ; true 
meaning. Obs. Chaucer. Spenser. 

LEDGE, n. [Sax. le^er, a layer; D. leggen, 
to lay. Sax. lecgan.] 

1. A stratum, layer or row. 
The lowest ledge or row should be merely of 

stone. IVotlon. 

2. A ridge ; a prominent row ; as a ledge of 

3. A prominent part; a regular part rising 
or projecting beyond the rest. Sivift. 

4. A small molding. 

5. A small piece of timber placed athwart 
ships, under the deck between the beams. 

a. A long ridge of rocks near the surface of 
the sea. .Mar. Did. 

LEDci'ER, n. The principal book of ac- 
counts among merchants; the book into 
which the accounts of the journal are car- 
ried in a summary form. [See Leger.] 

LEE, )i. ])hi. Ices. [Vr. lie.] Dregs; sedi- 
ment. [See Lees.] 

LEE, n. [Sw. te; Dan. te. In Sax. hleo. 
Meow, is a bower or shelter ; Scot, le, 
calm, sheltered ; Ice. We, D. ly, lee, and 
luw, sheltered from the wind ; W. clyd, 
sheltering, warm ; Sp. lua, lee.] 

Literally, a calm or sheltered place, a place 
defended from the wind ; hence, that part 
of the hemisphere towards which the 
wind blows, as opposed to that from 
which it proceeds. 

Under the lee, denotes properly, in the part 
defended from the wind. 

Under the lee of the land, is properly, near the 
shore which breaks the force of the wind. 

Under the lee of a ship, on the side opposite 
to that on w hich the wind blows. 

LEE, V. !. To lie. [.\"ot used. See Lie.] 


LEE'-BOARD, n. A frame of plank affixed 
to the side of a flat-bottomed vessel, to 
prevent it from falling to leeward when 

LEE'-GAgE, n. A greater distance from 
the point whence the wind blows, than 
another vessel has. 

LEE'-LURCH, n. A sudden and violent roll 
of a ship to leeward in a high sea. 

LEE'-SHORE, n. The .«hore under the lee 
of a ship, or that towards which the wind 

LEE'-SIDE, )!. The side of a ship or boat 
farthest from the point whence llie wind 
blows ; opposed to the weather-side. 

LEE'-TIDE, n. A tide running in the same 
direction that the wiinl blows. A tide un- 
der the lee, is a stream in an opposite di- 
rection to the wind. 

LEE'WARD, a. Pertaining to the part to- 
wards whicli tiie wind blows ; as a ice- 
uiard ship. 




LEE'WARD, adv. Towards the lee, or that 
part towards which the wind blows ; op- 
posed to vnndumrd ; as fall to leeward. 

LEE'VVAY, n. The lateral movement of a 
ship to the leeward of her course, or the 
angle which the line of her way makes 
with her keel, when she is close-hauled. 

Mar. Diet 

LEECH, n. [Goth, leikeis, Sax. tec, a host or 
innkeeper, a physician ; Dan. liege ; la- 
ger, to heal ; Sw. lUcia, to heal ; lakiare, a 
physician ; Ir. liagh ; Riiss. liakar.] 

A physician ; a professor of the art of heal- 
ing. Spenser. Dryden. Gay. 
[This word, in the United States, is near- 
ly or wholly obsolete. Even coio leech is not 

2. [Sax. keccan, to seize.] A blood-sucker : 
an animal of the genus Hirudo, a species 
of aquatic worm, whicli is u.sed in the 
medical art for topical bleeding. One 
large species of this animal is called horse- 

3. In seamen''s language, the border or edge 
of a sail, whicli is sloping or perpendicular ; 
as the fore-kech, the after-leech, &c. 

LEE'CII-€RAFT, n. The art of healing 

'• Obs. Davies 

LEE'CII-LINE, n. Leech-lines are ropes 
fastened to the middle of the leeches of 
the nia ill-sail and fore-sail, serving to truss 
them up to the yards. 

LEE'CH-ROl'E, n. That part of the bolt- 
rope to which the skirt or border of a sail 
is sewed. Mar. Diet. 

LEEF, a. Kind ; fond ; ])leasing ; willing. 
Obs. [See Lief.] Spenser. 

LEEK, n. [Sax. leac ; G. lanch ; D. look ; 
Sw. li}k ; Dan. log.] 

A plant of the genus Alliun;, with a bulbous 
root. Numb. xi. 

LEE'LITE, 71. A mineral, so called from 
Dr. Lee, of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
It is described as a siliceous stone, and 
by some mineralogists considered to be a 
hydrate of silica. Phillips. 

LEER, V. i. [D. gluurcn, begluuren.] To 
look obliquely ; to turn the eye and cast a 
look from a corner, either in contempt 
defiance or frowning, or for a sly look. 


2. To look with a forced countenance. 


LEER, V. t. To allure with smiles. Dryden. 

LEER, ?i. [Sax. hleare, hleor, the cheek.] 

1. The cheek. Obs. 

2. Corai)lexion ; hue ; face. Obs. Shak. 

3. An oblique view. 

— With jealous leer malign 
Eyed them askance. MiUon. 

4. An affected cast of countenance. 

Damn with faint praise, concede with civil 

leer. Pope 

LEER, a. [Sax. gelar.] Empty ; also 

trifling ; frivolous. Obs. B. Jonson 

LEE'RING, ppr. Looking obliquely; cast- 
ing a look askance. 
LEE'RINGLY, adr. With an arch oblique 

look or smile. 
LEES, n. [Fr. He ; Arm. ly ; probably a 

contracted word. It is used in the plural 

The grosser parts of any liquor which have 

settled on the bottom of a vessel ; dregs 

sediment ; as the lees of wine. 

LEESE, V. i. To lose. Obs. [See Lose.] 

B. Jonson 

LEESE, V. t. [L. la:sus.] To hurt. Obs. 


LEET, n. In Great Britain, a court. The 
coxirl-leel or view of frankpledge, is a 
court of record held once a year and not 
oftener, within a particular hundred, lord 
ship or manor, before the steward of the 
leet. Its original intent was to view the 
frankpledges or freemen within the liber 
ty, to preserve the peace, and punish cer- 
tain minute offenses. All freeholders with 
in the precinct are obliged to attend this 
court. Blackstone. 

The court-leet is for the most part super 
seded by the county court. 

LEET-ALE, n. A feast or merry making in 
the time of leet. Enff. 

LEFT, pret. and pp. of leave. 

LEFT, a. [L. lo:vus ; Gr. xoioj, Hesych. 
xa^oj ; probably from the root of leave 
Gr. ■Kiirtio, and properly weak, deficient. 
Applied to the hand or arm, it denotes the 
weak arm, as opposed to the right, the 
strong or dextrous. Hence the ancient 
idea of sinister, unfortunate, attached to 
the left arm or side.] 

1. Denoting the part opposed to the right of 
the body ; as the left hand, arm or side 
Hence, the noun being omitted, we say, 
on the left, that is, on the left side or 
wing, as of an army. 

3. The left bank of a river, is that which is 
on the left hand of a person whose face is 
towards the mouth of the river. 

LEFT-HAND'ED, a. Having the left hand 
or arm more strong and dextrous thai 
the right ; using the left hand and arm 
with more dexterity than the right. 

2. Unlucky ; inauspicious ; unseasonable. 
Obs. B. Jonson 

LEFT-HAND'EDNESS, n. Habitual use 
of the left hand, or rather the ability to 
use the left hand with more ease and 
strength than the right. 

LEFT-HAND'INESS, n. Awkwardness. 


LEG, n. [Dan. lag; It. lacca.] The limb 
of an animal, used in supporting the body 
and ill walking and running ; properly, 
that part of the limb from the knee to the 
foot, but in a more general sense, the 
whole limb, including the thigh, the leg 
and the foot. 

2. The long or slender support of any thin 
as the leg of a table. 

To make a hg, to bow ; a phrase introduced 
probably by the practice of drawing the 
right leg backward. [Little used.] 

Locke. Swift.. 

To stand on one's oion legs, to support one's 
self; to trust to one's own strength or ef 
forts without aid. 

LEG'ACY, n [Sp. legado ; Fr. legs ; L. le 
gatiim, from lego, to send, to bequeath; 

.- ^ £ 
Eth. A ATI lak, Ar. ^'^\ alaka, to 

send. Class Lg. No. 1.] 
A bequest ; a ])articular thing, or certaii 
sum of money given by last will or testa 

Good oovmsel is the best legacy a father can 
leave to his child. L. Estrange. 

LEG'ACY-IIUNTER, n. One who flatters 

and courts for legacies. 
LE'GAL, a. [Fr. from L. legalis, from lex, 

legis, law.] 

1. According to law ; in conformity with 
law ; as a legal standard or test ; a legal 

2. Lawful; permitted by law; as a legal 
trade. Any thing is legal which the laws 
do not forbid. 

3. According to the law of works, as distin- 
guished from free grace ; or resting on 
works for salvation. Scott. Milton. 

4. Pertaining to law ; created by law. 

The exception must be confined to legal 
crimes. Paley. 

So we use the phrase, criminal law. 

LEGAL'ITY, n. Lawt'ulness ; conformity 
to law. 

2. In theology, a reliance on works for salva- 
tion. Scott. 

LEGALIZE, ji.<. To make lawful: to ren- 
der conformable to law ; to authorize. 
What can legalize revenge? 

2. To sanction ; to give the authority of law 
to that which is done without law or au- 
thority. Irregular proceedings may be 
legalized by a subsequent act of the legis- 

LE'GALLY, adv. Lawfully; according to 
to law; in a manner permitted by law. 

LEG'ATARY, n. [Fr. legataire ; L. legata- 
rius, from lego, to bequeath.] 

A legatee ; one to whom a legacy is be- 

[But legatee is generally used.] 

LEG'ATE, n. [Fr. legal ; L. legatus, from 
lego, to send. See Lackey.] An embas- 
sador ; but especially, 

2. The pope's embassador to a foreign 
prince or state ; a cardinal or bishop sent 
as the pope's representative or commiss- 
ioner to a sovereign prince. Legates are 
of three kinds ; legates a latere, or counsel- 
ors and assistants of his holiness, legates 
de latere, who are not cardinals, and legates 
b;/ ojice. Encyc. 

LEGATEE', n. [L. lego, to send.] One 
to whom a legacy is bequeathed. 


LEG'ATESHIP, n. The office of a legate. 

LEG'ATINE, a. Pertaicing to a legate ; as 
legaline power. Shak. 

2. ]\tade by or proceeding from a legate ; as 
a legaline constitution. Ayliffe. 

LEGA'TION, n. [L. legatio, from lego, to 
send.] An embassy ; a deputation ; prop- 
erly a sending, but generally, the person 
or persons sent as envoys or embassadors 
to a foreign court. Bacon. 

LEGATOR, n. [L.] A testator ; one who be- 
queaths a legacy. [Little nsed.] Dryden. 

LEGE, V. t. To allege ; to lighten. [JVot 
in tise.] Chaiccer. 

LEg'END, )!. [It. Icggenda ; L. legenda, 
from lego, to read ; originally, in the 
Romish church, a book of service or les- 
sons to be read in worship.] 

1. A chronicle or register of the lives of 
saints, foriiicrly read at matins and at the 
refectories of religious houses. Hence, 

2. An idle or ridiculous story told respecting 
saints. Encyc. 

3. Any memorial or relation. Johnson. 
I. An incredible, unauthentic narrative. 



L. E G 

L E M 

5. An inscription, particularly on medals 
and on coins. Addison. 

LEg'END, v. t. To tell or narrate, as a le- 
gend. Hall. 

LEg'ENDARY, a. Consisting of legends ; 
fabulous ; strange. 

LE6'ENDARY, n. A book of legends ; a 
relator of legends. Sheldon. 

LEG'ER, n. [0. Irggtn, to lie. Sax. hcgan.] 
Any tiling that lies in a place ; that which 
rests or remains ; sometimes used as 
noun, but more frequently as an adjective, 
as a leger ambassador, that is, resident 
but the word is now obsolete, except in 
particular phrases. 

A kger-litie, in niMsic, a line added to the 
staff of live lines, when more lines than 
five are wanted, for designating notes as- 
cending or descending. 

A leger-hook, or /fg-er, a book that lies in the 
counting house, the book into which 
merchants carry a summary of the ac 
counts of the journal ; usually written 

LE6'EIIDEMAIN, m. [Fr. leger, It. leg 
giero, light, slight, and Fr. de main, of] 
hand. See I/ight.] 

Slight of hand ; a deceptive performance 
which depends on dexterity of hand ; a 
trick performed with such art and adroit- 
ness, that the manner or art eludes obser- 
vation. The word is sometimes used ad- 
jectively ; as a legerdemain trick. 

LEgER'ITY, n. [Fr. legerete.] Lightness ; 
nimbleness. [JVot in use.] Shak 

LEG'GED, a. [from leg.] Having legs ; 
used in composition ; as a two-legged ani- 

LEG'GIN, n. [from leg.] A cover for the 
leg ; a garment that incloses the leg. 


LEGIBIL'ITY, ji. Legibleness ; thequahty 
or state of being legible. 

LE6'IBLE, a. [L. legibilis, from lego, to 

1. That may be read ; consisting of letters or 
figures that may be distinguished by the 
eye ; as a fair, legible manuscript. 

2. That may be discovered or understood by 
apparent marks or indications. The 
thoughts of men are often legible in their 

LEG'IBLENESS, n. The quality or state of 

being legible. 
LEg'IBLY, adv. In such a manner as may 

be read ; as a manuscript legibly written. 
LE'GION, n. [L. legio, from lego, to collect.] 

1. In Roman antiquity, a body of infantry 
consisting of dirtbrent numbers of men at 
different periods, from three to five thou- 
sand. Each legion was divided into ten 
cohorts, each cohort into ten companies, 
and each company into two centuries. 


2. A military force ; military bands. Shak. 

3. A great number. 

Wieie one sin has entered, legions will force 

their way tlitough the same breach. Rogers. 

My name is legion, for we are many. Mark v. 

LE'filONARY, a. Relating to a legion or 

to legions. 
3. Consisting of a legion or of legions; as a 

legionary ibrce. 
3. Contaiiiing a great number ; as a legion- 
ari) body of errors. Broivn 

Vol. II. 

LEGIONARY, n. One of a legion. 


LEG'ISLATE, v. i. [L. lex, legis, law, and 
firo, latum, to give, ])uss or enact.] 

To make or enact a law or laws. It is a 
question whether it is expedient to legis 
tale at present on the subject. Let us not 
legislate, when we have no power to en 
force our laws. 

LEGISLATION, n. [Fr.] The act of pas.s- 

ing a law or laws; the enacting of laws. 

Pythagoras JoincJ legislation to his phlloso 

phv- Littleton. 

LE6'ISLATiyE, a. [Fv. tegislatif.] Giv- 
ing or enacting law.s ; as a legislative body. 

2. Capable of enacting laws ; as legislative 

Pertaining to the enacting of laws ; suita- 
ble to laws ; as the legislative style. 
Done by enacting ; as a legislative act. 

[JVote. In this word, and in legislator, 
legislatri.T, legislature, the accent is nearly 
equal on the first and third .syllables, anil 
rt, in the third, has its first or long sound.] 

LEgISLA'TOR, n. [L.] A lawgiver; one 
who makes laws for a state or community. 
This word is limited in its use to a su- 
preme lawgiver, the lawgiver of a sove 
reign state or kingdom, and is not applied 
to men that make the by-laws of a subor- 
dinate corporation. 

LEgISLA'TORSHIP, n. The ofiice of a le- 
slator. [JVot in use.] Halifax. 

LEtilSLA'TRESS, ? , A female who 

LEGISLA'TRIX, J "■ makes laws 


LEGISLATURE, n. [Sp.legislatura.-\ The 
body of men in a state or kingdom, invest- 
ed with power to make and repeal laws ; 
the supreme power of a state. The legis- 
lature of Great Britain consists of the house 
of lords and the house of commons with 
the king, whose sanction is necessary to 
every bill before it becomes a law. The 
legislatures of most of the states in Ameri- 
ca, consist of two houses or branches, but 
the sanction of the governor is required 
to give their acts the force of law, or a 
concurrence of two thirds of the two 
houses, after he has declined and assigned 
his objections. 

LE'tJIST, n. One skilled in the laws. 


LEgIT'IMACY, ji. [from legitimate.] Law- 
fulness of birth ; opposed to bastardy. 


2. Genuinoiess ; opposed to spmiousness. 
The tegilimaey of his conclusions is not to 
be questioned. 

LEGITIMATE, a. [Fr. legiH^e ; L. legiti- 

I 7IIUS ; from ler, law.] 

]1. Lawfully begotten or born ; born in wed- 
lock; as legitimate heirs or children. 

2. Genuine ; real ; proceeding from a pure 
source ; not false or spurious ; as legiti 
male arguments or inferences. 

LEGITIMATE, v. t. [Fr. legit imer ; Sp 
legilimar; It. legillimare.] 

1. To make lawful. 

2. To render legitimate ; to ronununicate 
the rights of a legitimate child to one that 
is illegitimate ; to invest with the rights of 

a lawful heir. 

cording to law. 
2. Genuinely ; not falsely. 



Lawfully ; ac- 

LE(iIT'IMATENESS, n. Legality; law- 
fulness ; genuineness. 

LEGITIMATION,?;. [Fr.] The act of ren- 
dering legitimate, or of investing an ille- 
gitimate child with the rights of one born 
in wedlock. 

2. Lawful birth. [Unusual.] Sliak. 

LEG'UME, } [L. legumen ; Fr. legume ; 

LEGU'MEN, \ "• probably from L. lego, to 
collect, and t^ignifying that which collects, 
or holds, or a collection.] 

In botany, a pericarp or seed-vessel, of two 
valves, in which the seeds arc fixed to one 
suture only. In the latter circumstance it 
differs from a siliqua, in which the seed.s 
are attached to both sutures. In popular 
use, a legume is called a pod, or a cod ; as 
a pea-pod, or peas-cod. Marlyn. 

2. In the plural, pulse, peas, beans, &c. 

LEGU'MINOUS, a. Pertaining to pulse; 
consisting of pulse. Leguminous plants 
are such as have a legume for a pericarp, 
as peas and beans. 

LEIS'URABLE, a. s as :. [See Leisure.] 
Vacant of employment ; not occupied ; as 
leisuraUe hours. [Lillle used.] Brown. 

LEIS'URABLY, adv. At leisure ; without 
hurry. [Little used.] Hooker. 

LEISURE, 71. lezh'ur or lee'xhiu: [Ft.loisir. 
This is doubtless from the same root as 
Sw. and Dan. Wig-, void, empty, vacant, 
free, eased ; Sw. ledighet, Dan. ledighed, 

1. Freedom from occupation or business ; 
vacant time ; time free from einployment. 

The desire of leisure is much more natural 
tlian of business and care. Temple. 

i shall leave with iiim that rebuke to be con- 
sidered at his leisure. Locke. 

2. Convenience of time. 

He sigh'd,and had no leisure more to say. 
lA'ot used.'] Dryden. 

LEIS'URELY, a. Done at leisure ; not 
hasty ; deliberate ; slow ; as a leisurely 
walk or march ; a leisurely survey of life. 
LEIS'URELY, adv. Not in haste or hurry; 
slowly ; at leisure ; deliberately. 

We descended very leisurely, my fiiend being 
careful to count the steps. ..iddison. 

LE'MAN, n. [probably contracted from lif- 
man, leveman ; Sax. leaf, loved, and man. 
See Love and Lief.] 

\ sweetheart ; a gallant, or a mistress. Ohs. 
Chaucer. Spenser. Sliak. 

LEME, n. [Sax. leoma.] A ray of light. 
[.\"ot in use/] Chaucer. 

LEME, II. J. To shine. Obs. 

LEM'MA, n. [Gr. ^i.ujia, from TjinSavo, to 

In mathematics, a previous proposition prov- 
ed, or a proposition demonstrated for the 
purpose of being used in the demonstra- 
tion of some other proposition. It is there- 
lore a received truth. Day. 

LEM'MING, ) A species of animal be- 

LE'MING, J "■ longing to the genus Mus ; 
a kind of rat, in the north of Europe, which 
sometimes migrates from north to south in 
immense numbers. Encyc. 

Lemnian earth, or sphragide, from the isle of 
Lemnos, in the Egean sea, a kind of as- 
tringent medicinal earth, of a fatty con- 
sistence and reddish color, used "in the 
same cases as bole. It has the external 
appearance of clay, with a smooth sur- 
face resembling agate, especially in recent 

L E N 

L E N 

L E N 

fractures. It removes impurities like 
soap. Encyc. JVicholson 

LEM'NISCATE, ?i. [L. leviniscus, a ribin 
lemtmcahis, adorned with ribins.] A curve 
in the form of the figure 8. 

LEIM'ON, n. [Fr. Sp. Hmon; It. limone. 
This word is found in the Arabic of Avi- 
cenna, and in the Amharic dialect of Ethio- 
pia, we find lime or lome, the same word.] 

1. The fruit of a tree belonging to the genus 
Citrus, which grows in warm climates. 
This fruit furnishes a cooling acid juice, 
which forms an ingredient in some of oiu- 
most delicious liquors. 

2. Lemon or lemon tree, the tree tliat produces 

LEMONA'DE, n. [Fr. limonade ; Sp. Hmon 
ada ; from Hmon.] 

A liquor consisting of lemon juice mixed 
with water and sweetened. 

LE'MUR, n. [L.] A genus of quadrupeds, 
the Makis, natives of Africa and the East 

LE'MURES, n. [L.] Hobgoblins; evil spir- 
its. [JVot English.] 

LEND, V. t. pret. and pp. lent. [Sax. leenan ; 
Sw. lana ; Dan. laaner ; G. leihen ; D. 
leenen. Lend is a corrupt orthography of 
leri, or loan, or derived from it. See Loan.] 

1. To grant to another for temporary use, 
on the express or implied condition that 
the thing shall be returned ; as, to lend a 
book ; or 

2. To grant a thing to be used, on the con- 
dition that its equivalent in kind shall be 
returned ; as, to lend a sum of money, or a 
loaf of bread. 

3. To afford; to grant; to furnish, in gen- 
eral ; as, to lend assistance ; to lend an ear 
to a discourse. 

Cato, lend me for a while thy patience. 


4. To grant for temporary use, on condition 
of receiving a compensation at certain pe- 
riods for the use of the thing, and an ulti- 
m.ate return of the thing, or its full value. 
Thus money is lent on condition of receiv- 
ing interest for the use, and of having the 
principal sum returned at the stipulated 
titne. Lend is correlative to borrow. 

5. To permit to use for another's benefit. A 
lent bis name to obtain money from the 

fi. To let for hire or compensation ; as, to 
lend a horse or gig. [This sense is used 
by Paley, and probably may be common in 
England. But in the United States, I be- 
lieve, the word is never thus used, except 
in reference to money. We lend money 
upon interest, but never lend a coach or 
horse for a compensation. We use let.] 
LEND'ABLE, a. That tnay be lent. 

LENDER, n. One who lends. 

The borrower is servant to the lender. Piov. 


2. One who makes a trade of putting money 

to interest. Bacon. Dnjden. 

LEND'ING, ppr. Granting for temporary 

use. [See Lend.] 
LEND'ING, n. The act of loaning. 
2. That which is lent or furnished. Shak. 
LENDS, n. [Sax.] Loins. [JVot in use.] 


LENGTH, n. [Sax. lenglhe, from leng, long ; 

D. lengte.] 

1. The extent of any thing material from end 
to end ; the longest line which can be 
drawn through a body, parallel to its 
sides; as the length of a church or of a 
ship ; the length of a rope or line. 

2. Extent ; extension. 
StretcliM at his length he spurns the swarthy 

ground. Dryden. 

3. A certain extent ; a portion of space ; 
with a plural. 

Large lengths of seas and shores — Shak 

4. Space of time ; duration, indefinitely ; as 
a great length of time. What length of 
time will this enterprise require for its ac- 
complishment ? 

5. Long duration. 
May lieaven, great monarch, still augment 

your bliss. 
With length of days, and every day like tliis. 


6. Reach or extent ; as, to pursue a subject 
to a great length. 

7. Extent ; as the length of a discourse, es- 
say, or argument. 

8. Distance. 
He had marched to the length of Exeter. 

[ fiiHsiiaZ and inelegant.] Clarendon. 

At length, at or in the full extent. Let the 
name be inserted at length. 

2. At last; at the end or conclusion. 


LENGTH, V. t. To extend. [jVot used.] 
LENGTH'EN, v. t. length'n. To extend in 

length; to njake longer; to elongate; as, 

to lengthen a line. 

3. To draw out or extend in time ; to pro- 
tract ; to continue in duration ; as, to 
lengthen life. The days lengthen from De- 
cember to June. 

3. To extend ; as, to lengthen a discourse or 
a dissertation. 

4. To draw out in pronunciation ; as, to 
lengthen a sound or a syllable. This verb 
is often followed by out, which may be 
sometimes en)i)hatical, but in general is 

What if I please to lengthen out liis date .' 

LENGTH'EN, v. i. To grow longer ; to 
extend in length. A hempen rope con- 
tracts when wet, and lengthens when 
LENGTH'ENED, pp. Made longer ; drawn 

out in length ; continued in duration. 
LENGTH'ENING, ppr. Making longer; 

extending in length or in duration. 
LENGTH'ENING, n. Continuation ; pro 

traction. Dan. iv. 
LENGTHFUL, a. Of great length in 
measure. Pope 

LENGTH'WISE, adv. In the direction of 

the length ; in a longitudinal direction 
LENGTH'Y, a. Being long or moderately 
long; not short; not brief ; applied mostly 
to moral subjects, as to discourses, writings, 
arguments, proceedings, &c. ; as alengthy 
sermon ; a lengthy dissertation ; a lengthy 

Lengthy periods. 

H'ashingloti's Letter to Plater. 
No ministerial act in France, in matters of 
judicial cot^nizancc, is done without a procefi 
verbal, in which the facts are stated amidst a 
great deal of lengthy formality, with a degree 
of mimitenrss, highly profitable to the verbali- 
zing otlicers and to the revenue. 

.1m. Keoicw, .1p. Oct. 1811. 

P. S. Murray has sent or will send a doabfe 
copy of the Bride and Giaour; in the last one, 
some lengthy additions ; pray accept them, ac- 
cording to old customs — 

Lord Byron's Letter to Dr. Clarke. 
Dec. 13, 1813. 
Chalmers' Political Annals, in treating of South 
Carolina — is by no means as lengthy as Mr. 
Hewitt's History. 

Zhrayton's View of South Carolina. 
LE'NIENT, o. [L. leniens, from lenio, lenis, 

soft, mild ; Ai. ^y laina, to be soft, or 

smooth. Class Ln. No 4. The primary 
sense probably is smooth, or to make 
smooth, and blandus may be of the same 

1. Softening; mitigating; assuasive. 
Time, that on all things lays his lenient hand. 
Yet tames not this. Pope. 
Sometimes with of; as lenient of grief 


2. Laxative ; emollient. 

Oils relax the fibers, are /enien(, balsamic — 


LE'NIENT, n. That which soflens or as- 
suages; an emollient. Wiseman. 

LEN'IFY, It. t. To assuage ; to soften ; to 
mitigate. [Little icsed.] 

Bacon. Dryden. 

LEN'IMENT, n. An assuasive. [Mot 

LEN'ITIVE, a. [h.knitivo;Fr.lenitif ; from 
L. letiio, to soften.] 

Having the quality of softening or mitiga- 
ting, as pain or acrimony ; assuasive ; 
emollient. Bacon. Arhuthnol. 

LEN'ITIVE, n. A medicine or application 
that has the quality of easing pain ; that 
which softens or mitigates. 

2. A palliative ; that which abates passion. 


LENITY, n. [L. lenitas, from lenis, mild, 

Mildness of temper ; softness ; tenderness ; 
mercy. Young offenders may be treated 
witli lenity. It is ojjposed to severity and 

LENS, n. plu. lenses. [L lens, a lentil.] A 
transparent substance, usually glass, so 
formed that rays of light passing through 
it are made to change their direction, and 
to magnify or diminish objects at a cer- 
tain distance. Lenses are double-convex, 
or convex on both sides; double-concave, 
or concave on both sides ; plano-convex, 
or plano-concave, that is, with one side 
plane, and the other convex or concave ; 
or convex on one side and concave on the 
other : the latter is called a 7neniscus. 


LENT, pp. of lend. 

LENT, ?!. [Sax. lencten, spring, lent, from 
leng, long ; lenegan, to lengthen ; so call- 
ed from the lengthening of the days.] 

The quadragesimal fast, or fast of forty days, 
observed by the christian church before 
Easter, the festival of our Savior's resur- 
rection. It begins at Ash- Wednesday, and 
continues till Easter. 

LENT'EN, a. Pertaining to lent ; used in 

lent; sparing; as nlenten entertainment; 

a lenten sallad. Shak. 

LENTICULAR, a. [L. lenlicularis, froiu 

lens, supra.] 
1. Resembling a lentil. 

L E P 

L E S 

L E S 

2. Having the form of a lens ; lenliform 

LENTIC'ULARLY, adv. In the majiner of 
a lens ; with a curve. 

LENTIC'ULITE, n. A petrified shell. 

LENT'IFORM, a. [L. lens and forma, 
form.] Of the form of a lens. 

LENTIci'INOUS, a. [L. lentigo, a freckle, 
from L. lens.] Freckly; scurfy; furfura- 

LENTI'GO, n. A freckly eruption on the skin 

LENTIL, n. [Fr. lentille, from L. lens.] 
A plant of the genus Ervum. It is an an 
nual jilant, rising with weak stalks ahout 
18 inches. The seeds, which are contain 
ed in a pod, are round, flat, and a little 
convex in the middle. It is cultivated for 
fodder, and for its seeds. Encyc. 

LEN'TISK, I [Fr. lentisque ; It. lentis- 

LENTIS'CUS, S "■ chio; Sp. lentisco ; L. 

A tree of the genus Pistacia, the mastich- 
tree, a native of Arabia, Persia, Syria, and 
the south of Europe. The wood is of a 
pale brown, resinous and fragrant. [See 

LENT'ITUDE, n. [h.lenlus, slow.] Slow- 
ness. UVol used.] Diet. 

LENT'NER, «. A kind of hawk. ff'alton. 

LENT'OR, n. [L. from lentiis, slow, tough, 
clammy ; Fr. lerUeur.] 

1. Tenacity; viscousuess. Bacon. 

2. Slowness ; delay ; sluggishness. 


3. Siziness ; thickness of fluids; viscidity; a 
term vsed in the humoral pathology. 

Coie. Quincy. 

LENT'OUS, a. [L. lentus, slow, thick".] 
Viscid ; viscous ; tenacious. Brown 

LEN'ZINITE, n. [from Lenzius, a German 

A mineral of two kinds, the opaline and ar 
gillaceous ; a variety of clay, occurring 
usually in small masses of the size of a 
nut. Cleaveland. Phillips 

LEO, n. [L.] The Lion, the fifth sign of 
the zodiac. 

LE'ONINE, a. [L. leoninus, from leo, lion.] 
Belonging to a lion ; resembhng a lion, or 
partaking of his qualities ; as leonine 
fierceness or rapacity. 

lieonine verses, so named from Leo, the in 
ventor, are those, the end of which rhymes 
with the middle ; as, 

Gloria factorum temcre conceditur horum 


LE'ONINELY, adv. In the manner of r; 
lion. Harris. 

LEOPARD, n. lep'ard. [L. leo, lion, and 
pardus, pard, Gr. «ap5o5, from Ileb. Tis 
to separate, that is, spotted, broken into 

A rapacious quadruped of the genus Felis. 
It difters from the panther and the once 
in the beauty of its color, which is of a 
lively yellow, with smaller spots than 
those of the two latter, and disposed in 
groups. It is larger than the once andj 
less than the panther. This animal is 
found in Africa and Asia, and so rapacious 
as to spare neither man nor beast. Encyc. 

LEOP'ARD'S-BANE, n. A plant of the 
genus Doronieuni. The German Ltopard's- 
hane is of the genus Arnica. Lee. 

LEP'ER, n. [L. lepra, leprosy, Fr. lepre, 
Ir. lohhar, Gr. Unfa.] A person affected 
with leprosy. 

LEP'ID, a. [L. lepidus.] Pleasant ; jocose. 
[Little \Lsed.] 

LEP'IDOLITE, n. [Gr. !ifrtt;, a scale.] A 
mineral found in scaly masses, ordinarily 
of a violet or lilac color; allied to mica. 


Lepidolite is of a peach-blossom red color, 
sometimes gray ; massive and in small 
concretions. On account of its beautiful 
color, it has been cut into snuff-boxes. It 
is sometimes called lilatitc. 

Jameson, lire 

LEP'IDOPTER, I [Gr. ?.(;ti;, a scale 

LEPIDOP'TERA, \ "and rtrtpo.-, a wing. 
The Lepidopters are an order of insects 
having four wings covered with fine 
scales, like powder, as the butterfly. 

LEPIDOP'TERAL, a. Belonging to the 
order of Lepidopters. 

LEP'ORINE, a. [h.leporinus, from lepus, a 
hare. Qu. the Teutonic leap, to run.] 

Pertaining to a hare ; having the nature or 
qualities of the hare. Johnson. 

LEPROS'ITY, n. Squamousness. [Little 
used.] Bacon. 

LEP'ROSY, »i. [See Leper.] A foul cutane 
ous disease, appearing in dry, white, thin 
scurfy scabs, attended with violent itch- 
ing. It sometimes covers the whole body, 
rarely the face. One species of it is call- 
ed elephantiasis. Encyc. 

The term leprosy is applied to two very dis- 
tinct diseases, the scaly and the tubercu- 
lated, or the proper leprosy and the ele- 
phantiasis. The former is characterized 
by smooth laminated scales, sometimes 
livid, but usually whitish ; in the latter, the 
skin is thickened, livid and tuberculated. 
It is called the black leprosy, but this term 
is also applied to the livid variety of the 
scaly leprosy. Good. 

LEP'ROUS, ft. [Fr. lepreux. See Leper.] 

Infected with leprosy ; covered with white 

His hand was leprous as snow. Ex. W. 

LEP'ROUSLY, arfr. In an infectious degree 

LERE, )i. Learning ; lesson ; lore. dbs. 


LERE, t'. t. To learn ; to teach. 06*. 

n. le'zhun. [L. Icesio, from Icedo, 


to hurt. 
A hurtinsr 

hurt ; wound ; injury. Rush. 

LESS, for unless. [JVot in tise.] 

LESS, a terminating syllable of many 
nouns and some adjectives, is the Sax. 
leas, Goth, laus, belonging to the verb 
lysan, lausyan, to loose, free, separate. 
Hence it is a privative word, denoting 
destitution ; as a uilless man, a man desti 
tute of wit ; childless, without children 
fatherless ; faithless ; pennyless ; lawless, &c. 

LESS, a. [Sax. Ices ; perhaps allied to Dan. 
User, to abate, to lessen, to relieve, to ease 
Less has the sense of the comparative de- 
gree of Utile.] 

Smaller ; not so large or great ; as a less 
quantity or number; ahorse of less size 
or value. We are all destined to suffer 
affliction in a greater or less degree. 

LESS, adv. Not so much ; in a smaller or 
lower degree ; as less bright or loud ; less 
beautiful ; less obliging ; less careful. Th( 
less a man praises himself, the more dis 
posed are others to praise him. 

LESS, «. Not so much. 

They gathered some more, some less. Ex. 
2. An inferior. 

The less is blessed by the better. Heb. vii. 
LESS, V. t. To make less. [AoJ in use.] 

II-,-, Gower 

LESSEE', n. [from lease.] The person to 
whom a lease is given, or who takes an 
estate by lease. Blackslone. 

LESS'EN, V. t. les'n. [from less.] To make 
less; to diminish: to reduce in bulk, size, 
quantity, number or amount; to make 
smaller; as, to lessen a kingdom or its 

2. To diminish in degree, state orcpialiiy; 
as, awkward manners tond to lessen our 
respect for men of merit. 

3. To degrade ; to reduce in dignity. 

St. Paul chose to magnify his ollicc, when ill 
men conspired to lessen it. Jllterburi/. 

LESS'EN, V. i. les'71. To become less ; to 
shrink ; to contract in bulk, quantity, 
number or amount ; to be diminished. 
The apparent magnitude of objects lessens 
as we recede from them. 

2. To become less in degree, quahty or in- 
tensity ; to decrease. The strength of the 
body, and the vivacity of the temper usu- 
ally lessen as we advance in age. 

LESS'ENED, pp. Made smaller; diminish- 

LESSENING, ppr. Reducing in bulk, 
amount or degree ; degrading. 

LESSER, a. [Sa.x. Iccssa, lasse, from Ices. 
This word is a corruption ; but too well 
established to he discarded.] 

Less ; smaller. Authors always write the 
Lesser Asia. 

By the same reason, may a man in a slate 

of nature, punish the lesser breaches of that 

law. Locke. 

God made the lesser light to rule the night. 

Gen. i. 

LES'SON, n. les'n. [This word we proba- 
bly have received from the Fr. lecon, L. 
lectio, from lego, to read, Fr. lire, 'lisant ; 
Sp. leccion ; It. lezione ; Sw. lexa ; anil 
not from the D. leezen, G. lesen, to read.] 

1. Any thing read or recited to a teacher by 
a pupil or learner for improvement ; or 
such a portion of a book as a pupil learns 
and repeats at one time. The instructor 
is pleased when his pupils recite their 
lessons with accuracy and promptness. 

2. A portion of Scripture read in divine 
service. Thus endeth the first lesson. 

3. A portion of a book or manuscript as- 
signed by a preceptor to a pupil to be 
learnt, or for an exercise ; something to 
he learnt. Give him his lesson. 

4. Precept ; doctrine or notion inculcated. 

Be not jealous over the wife of thy bosom, 
and teach her not an evil lesson against thy- 
''clf- Ecclus. 

5. Severe lecture ; reproof; rebuke. 

She would give her a lesson for walking so 
late. Sidney. 

G. Tune written for an instrument. Davies. 
7. Instruction or truth, taught by experience. 
The lessons which sickness imparts, she 
leaves to be practiced when health is es- 

LES'SON, V. t. les'n. To teach ; to instruct. 
Children should be lessoned into a contempt 
and detestation of this rice. V Estrange. 

LES'SONED, pp. Taught; instructed." 
LES'SONING, ppr. Teaching. 





LESSOR, n. [from lease.] One who leases; 
tlie person who lets to farm, or gives a 
lease. Blackstone. 

LEST, con. [from the Sax. leas, Goth, laus, 
loose, separate. In Saxon it was prece- 
ded by the, the leas, that less, tliat not, ne 
forte. Hence it denotes a loosing or sepa 
ration, and hence it comes to express pre 
vention.] That not ; for fear that. 

Ye shall not cat of it, neither shall ye touch 
it, lest ye die. Gen. iii. 

The phrase may be thus explained. Ye 
sliall not touch it ; that separated or dis- 
missed, ye die. That here refers to the 
preceding command or sentence ; that 
being removed or not observed, the fact 
being not so, ye will die. 

Sin no more, lest a worse thing come to 
thee. John v. 

Sin no more; that fact not taking place, a 
worse thing will happen to thee. 

LET, V. I. pret. and pp. let. Letted is obso 
lete. [Sax. Ionian, letan, Goth, letan, to 
permit, to hinder, to dismiss or send 
away, to let go, to leave, to admit, to 
think or suppose, to dissemble, to retard, 
to be late or slow, to dally or trifle, to 
lease or let out ; letan aweg, to let away, 
to throw; W. ??»:, hinderance ; lluziaw, to 
hinder ; D. laaten, to permit, to suffer, to 
give, to leave, to loose, to put, to stow ; 
G. lassen, to let, to permit, grant, allow, 
suffer ; verlassen, to forsake ; unleiiassen, 
to cease, to forbear ; Sw. llda, to permit ; 
Dan. lader, to let, permit, allow, grant, 
suffer, give leave. I5ut in the four latter 
dialects, there is another verb, which cor- 
responds with let in some of its significa- 
tions ; D. b/dai, G. leiden, Sw. lida, Dan. 
lidei; to suffer, endure, undergo, to per- 
mit. With this verb corresponds the En- 
glish late, D. laat, Sw. lat, Dan. lad, sloth- 
ful, lazy ; and the G. lass, feeble, lazy, co- 
incides with lassen, supra, and this may be 
the Eng. lazy. To /(( oitt, like L. elocarc, is 
to lease, Fr. laisser. Let is the Fr. laisser, 
in a different dialect. By the German 
and Welsh it appears that the last radi- 
cal may have originally been th, Is or tz, 
or other compound. See Class Ld. No. 
2. 15. 19. 2.3. 32. and Class Ls.No. 30.] 

1. To permit; to allow; to suffer; to give 
leave or power by a positive act, or neg- 
atively, to withhold restraint ; not to pre- 
vent. A leaky ship lets water enter into 
the hold. Let is followed by the infinitive 
without the sign to. 

Pharaoh said, I vpill let you go. Ex. viii. 

When the ship was caught and could not 
bear up into the wind, we let her drive. Acts 

2. To lease ; to grant possession and use for 
a compensation ; as, to let to farm ; to let 
an estate for a year ; to let a room to lod 
gers ; often followed by out, as, to let out 
a farm; but the use of out is unnecessary. 

3. To suffer ; to permit ; with the usual 
sign of the infinitive. 

There's a letter for you. Sir, if your name he 
Horatio, as I am let to know it is. [JVoi used,"] 


4. Ill the imperative mode, let has the follow- 
ing uses. Followed by the first and third 
persons, it expresses desire or wish ; 
hence it is used in prayer and entreaty to 
superiors, and to those who have us in 

their power; as, let me not wander from 
thy commandments. Ps. cxix 

Followed by the first person plural, let 
expresses exhortation or entreaty ; as, 
rise, let tis go. 

Followed by the third person, it implies 
permission or command addressed to an 
inferior. Let him go, let them remain, are 
commands addressed to the second per- 
son. Let thou, or let ye, that is, do thou 
or you permit him to go 

Sometimes let is used to express a com- 
mand or injunction to a third person 
When the signal is given to engage, let 
every man do his duty. 

When applied to things not rational, it 
implies allowance or concession. 

O'er golden sands let rich Pactolus flow. 

5. To retard ; to hinder ; to impede ; to in- 
terpose obstructions. 2 Thess. 2. 

[This sense is now obsolete, or nearly 
To Ift alone, to leave ; to suffer to remain 
without intermeddling ; as, let alone this 
idle project ; let me alone. 
To let doicn, to permit to sink or fall ; to 

She let them down by a cord through the 
window. Josh. ii. 

To let loose, to free from restraint; to per- 
mit to wander at large. 

To let in or into, to permit or suffer to en- 
ter ; to admit. Open the door, /e< in my 
friend. We are not let into the secrets of 
the cabinet. 

To let blood, to open a vein and suffer the 
blood to flow out. 

To let out, to suffer to escape : also, to lease 
or let to hire. 

To let off, to discharge, to let fly, as an ar- 
row ; or cause te explode, as a gun. 

LET, ('. i. To forbeur. Obs. Bacon. 

LET, n. A retarding ; hinderance ; obsta- 
cle ; impediment; delay. [Obsolete, un- 
less in some lechnleal phrases.] 

LET, a termination of diminutives ; as ham- 
let, a little house; rivulet, a small stream. 
[Sax. lyt, small, less, lew. See Little.] 

LE'THAL, a. [L. lethalis, mortal, from Gr. 
^.i^ej;, oblivion.] Deadly; mortal; fatal. 


LETHAL'ITY, n. Mortality. Mins. 

LETHAR'(iI€, ) [h. lethargicus ; Fr. 

LETHAR (ilCAL, ^ lethargi<iue.] Pre- 
ternaturally inclined 
dull ; he.ivy. 


LETHAR'GlCALNESS, ? Prcternatiir 

LETHAR'GleNESS, S a' "r morbid 
sleepiness or drowsiness. More. Herbert. 

LETH'ARgIED, pp. or a. Laid asleep ; en- 
tranced. Shak. 

LETH'ARtiY, n. [L. lethargia ; Gr. %r;6af,- 
yiu,; ?i);0i7, oblivion, and apyoi, idle.] 

L Preternatural sleepiness; morbid drow- 
siness ; continued or profound sleep, from 
which a person can scarcely be awaked, 
and if awaked, remains stupid. 

2. Dullness ; inaction ; inattention. 

Europe lay then under a deep lethargy. 


LETH'ARgY, v. t. To make lethargic or 
dull. Churchill. 



sleep; drowsy 
Li a morbid 

LE'THE, n. le'thee. [Gr. jljjSi;, forgetfulnesi : 
^rfiu, L. lateo, to be hid.] Oblivion; a 
draught of oblivion. Milton. 

LETHE'AN, a. Inducing forgetfulness or 
oblivion. Lempriere. As. Res. 

LETHIF'EROUS, a.[ L. lethum, death, and 
fero, to bring.] 

Deadly ; mortal ; bringing death or destruc- 
tion. Robinson. 

LET'TER, n. [from let.] One who permits. 

2. One who retards or hinders. 

3. One who gives vent ; as a blood-/cHer. 
LET'TER, n. [Fr. lettre ; It. lettera; L. 

litera ; W. llythyr.] 

1. A mark or character, written, printed, 
engraved or painted ; used as the repre- 
sentative of a sound, or of anjarticulation 
of the human organs of speech. By 
sounds, and articulations or closures of the 
organs, are formed syllables and words. 
Hence a letter is the first element of 
written language, as a simple sound is the 
first element of spoken language or speech. 
As sounds are audible and communicate 
ideas to others by the ear, so letters are 
visible representatives of sounds, and com- 
municate the thoughts of others by means 
of the eye. 

2. A written or printed message ; an epistle ; 
a communication made by visible charac- 
ters fiom one person to another at a dis- 

The style of letters ought to be free, easy 
and natural. Walsh. 

3. The verbal expression ; the literal mean- 

W e must observe the letter of the law, with- 
out doing violence to the reason of the law, 
and the intentions of the lawgiver. Taylor. 

4. Type ; a character formed of metal or 
wood, usually of metal, and used in 
printing books. 

5. Letters, in the plural, learning ; erudi- 
tion ; as a man of letters. 

Dead letter, a writing or precept, which is 
without authority or force. The best law 
may become a dead letter. 

Letter of attorney, a writing by which one 
person authorizes another to act in his 

Letter of marque, a private ship commission- 
ed or authorized by a government to 
make reprisals on the ships of another 
state. [See Manjue.] 

Letters pateiit, or overt, open, a writing exe- 
cuted and scaled, by which power and 
authority are granted to a person to do 
some act, or enjoy some right ; as letters 
patent under the seal of England. 

LET'TER, 1'./. To impress or form letters 
on ; as, to Utter a book ; a book gilt and 

LET'TER-€ASE, n. A case or book to put 
letters in. 

LET'TERED, jip. Stamped with letters. 

LET'TERED, a. Literate ; educated ; vers- 
ed in literature or science. Collier. 

2. Belonging to learning; suiting letters. 

LET'TER-FOUXDER, n. One who casts 
letters : a type-founder. 

LET'TERING, ppr. Impressing or form- 
ing letters on ; as lettering a book Oii the 

LETTERLESS, a. Illiterate ; unlettered ; 
not learned. Jf'aterland. 




LET'TER-PRESS, n. [leller anJ press.] 
Print ; iottcis anil words impressed on 
paper or other material by types. 

LETTUCE, n. Id'lis. [Vr.laitue; It. lattu- 
gn ; Sp. kchtiga ; Ann. laciuzen ; O. lat- 
lich ; J), latum ; from L. lactuca, according 
to Varro, from lac, milk.] 

A genus of plants, the Lactuca, of many 
species, some of which are used as sal- 

LEU'CIN, \ [Gr. Uvxoq, white.] A pe- 

LEU'CINE, ^ culiar white pulverulent 
substance obtained from beef-fibers, treat- 
ed with sulphuric acid, and afterwards 
with alcohol. 

Braconnet. JVebster's Manual. 

LEU'CITE, n. [Gr. ^tvxo{, white.] A stony 
substance, so called from its whiteness, 
found among volcanic productions in Ita- 
ly, in crystals, or in irregular masses ; for- 
merly called crystals of white shorl, or 
white granite or granilite. 

Did. JVat. Hist. 
HaOy calls this mineral, amphigene. li 
is called by some writers leucolite, and by 
others, dodecahedral zeolite. 

LEUeO-ETlIIOP'lC, a. [Gr. 7^x05, white, 
and aiQio^, black.] 

White and black ; designating a white ani- 
mal of a black species, or the albino. 


LEUeOPIILEG'MACY, n. [Gr. J^fvxoj,' 
white, anil ^^.ty^a, phlegm.] 

A dropsical habit of body, or the commence-j 
ment of anasarca ; paleness, with viscidi 
juices and cold sweats. 

Coze. Parr. Arhuthnot 

LEU€OPHLEGMAT I€, a. Having a drop- 
sical habit of body with a white bloated 

LEU€0'THIOP, n. [See Leuco-ethiopic] 
An albino ; a white man of a black race. 

LEUTHRITE, ». [from Lcuthra, in Sax- 

A substance that appears to be a recomposed 
rock, of a loose texture, gritty and harsh 
to the touch. Its color is a grayish white,! 
tinged here and there with an ocherous 
brown. It includes small fragments ofj 
mica. Phillips. 

LE'VANT, a. [Fr. levant, rising, from lever, 
L. levo.] 

Eastern; ilenoting the part of the hemis- 
phere where the sun rises. 

Forth rush the levant and the ponent winds. 


LEVANT', n. [It. levante, the East, supra.] 
Properly, a country to the eastward ; but' 
appropriately, the countries of Turkey, 
Syria, Asia 3Iinor, Greece, Egypt, «St'c.' 
which are washed by the Mediterranean! 
and its contiguous waters. 

LEVANTINE, a. Pertaining to the Levant. 


2. Designating a particular kind of silk 

LEVANTINE, ;;. A particular kind of silk 

LEVA'TOR, n. [L. from levo, to raise.] In 
anatomy, a muscle that serves to raise some 
part, as the lip or the eyehd. 

2. A surgical instrument used to raise a de 
pressed part of the skull. Wiseman. 

LEVE, for believe. Obs. Gower 

LEVEE, »!. [Fr. from lever, to raise, L. 

1. The time of rising. 

2. The concourse of persons who visit a' 
prince or great personage in the morning. 


3. A bank or causey, particularly along a 
river to prevent inundation ; as the levees 
along the Mississippi. 

LEV'EL, a. [Sax. Icefe, id. ; W. llyvn, smooth, 
even, level, sleek, slippery ; llyvelu, to level, 
to render uniform, to devise, inveut, guess ; 
llyvnu, to make smooth. This seems to 
be connected with Uyvu, to lick. So like. 
D. gclyk, G. gleich, is smooth, even, level, 
equal, coinciding with Eng. sleek. The 
L. libella, libra, belong to this root ; It 

1. Horizontal ; coinciding with the plane of 
the horizon. To be perfectly level is to be 
exactly horizontal. 

2. Even ; flat ; not having one part higher 
than another; not ascending or descend 
ing ; as a level plain or field ; level ground 
a level floor or pavement. In common 
usage, level is often applied to surfaces 
that arc not perfectly horizontal, but 
which have no inequalities of magnitude, 

Even with any thing else ; of the same 
highth ; on the same line or plane. 

4. Equal in rank or degree ; having no de 
gree of superiority. 

Be level in preferments, and yon will soon be 
as level in your learning. Bentley 

LEV'EL, V. t. To make horizontal. 
2. To make even ; to reduce or remove in- 
equalities of surface in any thing; as, to 
level a road or walk. 

To reduce or bring to the same highth 
with something else. 

And tlieir proud structures level with the 
ground. Sandys 

4. To lay flat ; to reduce to an even surface 
or plain. 

He levels mountains, and he raises plains. 

To reduce to equality of condition, state 
or degree ; as, to level all ranks and deJ 
grees of men. I 

To point, in taking aim ; to elevate or de-' 
press so as to direct a missile weapon to 
an object ; to aim ; as, to /feci a cannon or 
. To aim ; to direct ; as severe remarks 
leveled at the vices and follies of the age. 

8. To suit ; to proportion ; as, to level obser- 
vations to the capacity of children. 

LEV'EL, V. i. To accord ; to agree ; to suit.l 
[Little used.] Shak: 

2. To aim at ; to point a gun or an arrow to' 
the mark. 

3. To aim at ; to direct the view or purpose.' 
The ^"lory ot' tjod and the ^ood of his church 

ought to be the mark at which we level. 


To be aimed ; to be in the same direction 
with the mark. 

He raised it till he IcveI'd right. Butler. 

5. To aim ; to make attempts. 
Ambitious York did level at thy crown. 


6. To conjecture ; to attempt to guess. [JVot 
tised.] Shak. 

LEV'EL, n. A horizontal line, or a plane ; 
a surface without inequalities.* Hale. 


Rate ; standard : usual elevation ; cus^ 
tomary highth ; as the ordinary level of the 

Equal elevation with something else ; a 
state of equality. 

Hroridencc, for the most part, sets us on a 
level. Spectator. 

The line of direction in which a missile 
weapon is aimeil. 

Au instrument in mechanics by which to 
find or draw a horizontal line, as in set- 
ting buildings, or in making canals and 
drains. The instruments for these pur- 
poses are various; as the air levd, the car- 
IKjnter's level, the mason's level, and the 
guimer's level. 
C>. Rule ; plan ; scheme : bon-owed from the 
mechanic's level. 

Be tlie fair level of thy actions laid — Prior. 
LEVELED, pp. Reduced to a plane; made 

2. Reduced to an equal state, condition or 

.3. Reduced to an equality with something 

4. Elevated or depressed to a right line to- 
wards something; pointed to an object; 
directed to a mark. 

5. Suited ; proportioned. 
LEVELER, 71. One that levels or makes 


2. One that destroys or attempts to destroy 
distinctions, and reduce to equalitv. 

LEVELING, ppr. Making level or"cven. 

2. Reducing to an equality of condition. 

LEVELING, n. The art or practice of 
finding a horizontal line, or of ascertain- 
ing the different elevations of objects 011 
the surface of the earth : in other words, 
the difference in the distance of objects 
from the center of the earth. Encyc. 

LEV'ELNESS, n. Evenness; equality of 

2. Equalitv with something else. 

LEVEN. "[See Uaven.] 

LEVEN, n. [Sax. hlijian.] Lightning. 
Obs. Chaucer, 

LEVER, n. [Fr. levier; It. leva; from k- 
ver, levare, L. levo, to raise.] 

In tnechanics, a bar of metal, wood, or other 
substance, turning on a support called the 
fulcrum or prop. Its arms are equal, as 
in the balance ; or unequal, as in steelyards. 
It is one of the mechanical powers, and i.s 
of three kinds, viz. 1. When the ful- 
crum is between the weight and the pow- 
er, as in the handspike, crowbar, itc. 2. 
When the weight is between the jiower 
and the fulcrum, as in rowing a boat. 3. 
When the power is between the weight 
and the fulcrum, as in raising a ladder from 
the ground, by applying the hands to one 
of the lower rounds. The bones of ani- 
mals are levers of the third kind. 

LEV'ERET, n. [Fr. lievret, from lievre, a 
hare.] A hare in the first vear of her age. 

LEVEROCK, n. A bird," a lark. [See 
Lark.] Johnson. 

LEV'ET, n. [Qu. Fr. lever, to raise.] A 
blast of a trumpet ; probably that by which 
soldiers are called in the morning. [.\'ot 
used.] Hudibras. 

LEVIABLE, a. [from levy.] That may be 
levied ; that may be assessed and collect- 
ed ; as suras leviable by course of law. 




L I B 

LEVIATHAN, n. [Heb. [n*)'?.] An aquat- 
ic animal, described in tlie book of Job, 
cb. xli, and ntentioned in otber passages 
of Scripture. In Isaiali, it is called 
the crooked serpent. It is not agreed 
what animal is intended by the writers, 
whether the crocodile, the whale, or a 
species of serpent. 
2. The whale, or a great whale. Milton 

LEVIGATE, V. t. [L. Iwvigo, from iavis, 
smooth, Gr. ^.tioj.] 

1. In pharmacy and chimistry, to rub or grind 
to a fine impalpable powder ; to make 
fine, soft and smooth. 

2. To plane ; to polish. Bairoiv. 

LEV'IGATE, a. Made smooth. 

LEVIGATED, pp. Reduced to a fine im 
palpable powder. 

LEVIGATING, ppr. Rendering very fine, 
soft and smooth, by grinding or rubbing. 

LEVIGA'TION, n. The act or operation 
of grinding or rubbing a solid substance 
to a fine impalpable powder. Encyc. 

LEVITA'TION, n. [L. kvis, levitas.] Light 
ness ; buoyancy; act of making light. 

LE'VITE, n. [from Z.eiii, one of the sons of 

One of the tribe or family of Levi ; a de- 
scendant of Levi; more particularly, an 
officer in the Jewish church, who was 
employed in manual service, as in bring 
ing wood and other necessaries for the 
sacrifices. The Levites also sung and 
played on instruments of music. They 
were subordinate to tlie priests, the de 
scendants of Aaron, who was also of the 
family of Levi. Ena/c. 

LEVIT'ICAL, a. Belonging to the Levites, 
or descendants of Levi ; as the tevitical 
law, the law given by 3Ioses, which pre 
scribed the duties and rights of the priests 
and Levites, and regulated the civil and 
religious concerns of the Jews. 

2. Priestly. Milton. 

LEVlT'IeALLY, adv. After the manner 
of the Levites. 

LEVIT'ICUS, n. [from Levi, Levite.] A 
canonical book of the Old Testament, 
containing the laws and regulations which 
relate to the priests and Levites among 
the Jews, or the body of the ceremonial 

LEV'ITY, n. [L. levitas, from levis, light ; 
connected perhaps with Eng. K/7.] 

1. Lightness; the want of weight in a body, 
compared with another that is heavier. 
The ascent of a balloon in the air is owing 
to its levity, as the gas that fills it is light- 
er than conniion air. 

2. Lightness of temper or conduct ; incon- 
stancy ; changeableness ; unsteadiness ; 
as the /ci'i7^ of youth. Hooker. 

3. Want of due consideration ; vanity ; freak. 
He never employed his omnipotence out 
o{ levity or ostentation. 

4. Gayety of mind ; want of seriousness ; 
disposition to trifle. Tlie spirit of religion 
and seriousness was succeeded by levity. 

LEVY, V. 1. [Vr.lever ; It. levare ; Sp. levar ; 

l^.levo; Eng. to lift.] 
1. To raise ; to collect. To levy troops, is to 

enlist or to order men into public service. 

To levy au army, is to collect troops and 

form an army by enrollment, conscription 
or other means. 

2. To raise ; to collect by assessment ; as, 
to levy taxes, toll, tribute, or contributions.' 

To levy war, is to raise or begin war ; to take 
arms for attack ; to attack. Blackstone.' 

To levy a fine, to commence and carry on a 
suit for assuring the title to lands or tene-] 
ments. Blackstone.\ 

LEV'Y, n. The act of collecting men for 
military, or other public service, as by en- 
listment, enrollment or other means. 1 
Kings ix. 

2. Troops collected ; an army raised. 1 
Kings V. 

3. The act of collecting money for public 
use by tax or other imposition. 

War raised. [JVo( in M«e.] Shak. 

LEW, a. [D. laauw.] Tepid ; lukewarm ; 
pale ; wan. Ohs. 

LEWD, a. [W. llodig, having a craving ; 
llodi, to reach out, to crave ; llodineb, lewd- 
ness ; llawd, that shoots out or is growing, 
a lad; G. luder, lewdness; Heb. Ch. Syr. 
Sam. nV to beget, to bring forth ; Ar. 

J.Ij, Eth. ®Aje id.] 

1. Given to the unlawful indulgence of lust ; 
addicted to fornication or adultery ; dis 
solute ; lustful ; libidinous. Ezek. xxiii. 

2. Proceeding from unlawful lust ; as lewd 

3. Wicked ; vile ; profligate ; hcentious. 
Acts xvii. 

LEWD, a. [Sax. la:wed, leiud. This seems 
to be a contracted word, and either from 
the root of laical, lay, or from the Sax. 
lead, G. leute, people, which seems to be 
from the same root as the foregoing word, 
like L. §•£/!«, from g'cno.] Lay; laical ;not 
clerical. Obs. Davies. 

LEWD'LY, adv. With the unlawful indul- 
gence of lust ; lustfully. 

2. AVickedly ; wantonly. 

LEWD'NESS, n. The unlawful indulgence 
of lust ; fornication, or adultery. 

2. In Scripture, it generally denotes idola- 

3. Licentiousness ; shamelessness. Spenser. 

LEWD'STER, n. One given to the crimi- 
nal indulgence of lust ; a lecher. [Mot 
used.] Shak 

LEXI€OG'RAPHER, n. [See Lexicogra- 
phy.] The author of a lexicon or diction- 

LEXleOGRAPH I€, a. Pertaining to the 
writing or compilation of a dictionary. 


LEXICOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. Xf|i;eo., a dic- 
tionary, and vpatij, to write.] 

1. The act of writing a lexicon or dictiona- 
ry, or the art of composing dictionaries. 

2. The composition or corai)ilation of a dic- 

LEXICOLOGY, n. [Gr. Xt^ixop, a diction- 
ary, and y-oyof, discourse.] 

The science of words; that branch of learn- 
ing which treats of the proper significa- 
tion and just application of words. 

Med. Repos 

LEX'ICON, n. [Gr. Xtlixor, a dictionary, 
from >.f|i5, %iyu, to speak.] 

A dictionary ; a vocabulary or book con 
taining an alphabetical arrangement of the 

words in a language, with the definition of 
each, or an explanation of its meaning. 

LEX'ICONIST, n. A writer of a lexicon. 
[Little used.] Orient. Col. 

LEX'IGRAPHY, n. [Gr. Xtlts, a word, and 
ypo4)o, to write.] The art or practice of 
defining words. Med. Repos. 

LEY, a different orthography of lay and lea, 
a meadow or field. 

LHER'ZOLITE, n. [from Lherz, in the 

A mineral, a variety of pyroxene. When 
crystalized, its crystals are brilliant, trans- 
lucid, very small, and of an emerald green. 


LI'ABLE, a. [Fr. tier, to bind, L. ligo ; 
Norm, lige, a bond. See Liege.] 

1. Bound; obliged in law or equity; res- 
ponsible ; answerable. The surety is li- 
able for the debt of his principal. The 
parent is not liable for debts contracted by 
a son who is a minor, except for necessa- 

This use oC liable is now common among 
lawyers. The phrase is abridged. The 
surety is liable, that is, bound to pay the 
debt of his principal. 

2. Subject; obnoxious; exposed. 

Proudly secure, yet liable to fall. MUton. 
Liable, in this sense, is always applied 
to evils. We never say, a man is liaile to 
happiness or prosperity, but he is liable to 
disease, calamities, censure ; he is liable to 
err, to sin, to fall. 

LI'ABLENESS, ^ The state of being 

LIABILITY, S "■ "Jound or obliged in 
law or justice ; responsibihty. The offi- 
cer wishes to discharge himself from his 

2. Exposedness ; tendency ; a state of be- 
ing subject ; as the liableness of a man to 
contract disease in an infected room; a 
liability to accidents. 

LIA'R, »i. [from lie.] A person who know- 
ingly utters falsehood ; one who declares 
to another as a fact what he knows to be 
not true, and with an intention to deceive 
him. The uttering of falsehood by mis- 
take, and without an intention to deceive, 
does not constitute one a liar. 

2. One who denies Christ. 1 John ii. 

LI'ARD, a. Gray. Obs. Chaucer. 

LI'AS, n. A species of limestone, occurring 
in flat, horizontal strata, and supposed to 
be of recent formation. Encyc. 

LIB, I', t. [D. lubben.] To castrate. [jYot'in 
use.] Chapman. 

LIBATION, n. [L. libatio, from libo, to 
pour out, to taste.] 

1. The act of pouring a liquor, usually wine, 
either on the ground, or on a victim in 
sacrifice, in honor of some deity. The 
Hebrews, Greeks and Romans practiced 
libation. This was a solenm act and ac- 
companied with prayer. Encyc. 

2. The wine or other liquor poured out in 
honorof a deity. Siillingfieet. Dryden. 

LIBBARD, an obsolete spelling of leopard. 

Speiiser. Milton. 

LIB'BARD'S-BANE, n. A poisonous plant. 

B. Jonson. 
LI'BEL, )!. [L. libellus, a little book, from 
liber, a book, from the sense of bark, and 
this from stripping, separating. Hence 
liber, a book, and liber, free, are the same 
word. CiassLb.No. 24. 27. 30.31.] 

L 1 B 

L 1 B 

L I B 

1. A defamatory %vriling, L. iibellusfamosus. 
Hence, the epithet being omitted, libel ex- 
presses the same tiling. Any book, pamph- 
let, writing or picture, containing repre- 
sentations, maliciously made or published, 
tending to bring a person into contempt, 
or expose him to public hatred and deris- 
ion. The communication of such defam 
atory writing to a single person, is consid 
ered in law a pubUcation. It is immate- 
rial with respect to the essence of a libel, 
whether the matter of it is true or false, 
since the provocation and not the falsity is 
the thing to be punished criminatty. But 
in a civil action, a libel must appear to be 
false, as well as scandalous. , Blaeksione. 

In a more extensive sense, any blasphe- 
mous, treasonable or immoral writing or 
picture made public, is a libel, and punish- 
able by law. 

2. In the civil law, and in courts of admiralli/, 
a declaration or charge in writing exhiliit- 
ed in court, particularly against a ship or 
goods, for violating the laws of trade or of 

LI'BEL, V. t. To defame or expose to pub 
lie hatred and contempt by a writing or 
picture; to lampoon. 

Some wicked wits have libeled all the fair. 


2. To exhibit a charge against any thing in 
court, particularly against a ship or goods, 
for a violation of the laws of trade or rev 

LI'BEL, V. i. To spread defamation, writ- 
ten or i)rinted ; with against. He libels 
against the peers of the realm. [jYot now 
in «se.] 

LI'BELANT, n. One who libels ; one who 
brings a libel or institutes a suit in an ad 
miralty court. 

The counsel for tho libelant, contended they 
had a right to read the instructions — 

Ciatich, Rep. 

LI'BELED, pp. Defamed by a writing or 
picture made public. 

2. Charged or declared against in an admi- 
ralty court. 

LI'BELER, )i. One who libels or defames 
by writing or pictures; a lampooner. 

It is ignorance of ourselves which makes us 
the libelers of others. Buckminster 

LI'BELING, ppr. Defaming by a publish- 
ed writing or picture. 

2. Exhibiting charges against in court. 

LI'BELOUS, a. Defamatory ; containing 
that which exposes a person to public ha- 
tred, contempt and ridicule ; as a libelous 
pamphlet or jjicturc. 

LIB'ERAL, o. [Fr. from L. liberalis, from 
liber, free. See Libel.] 

1 . Of a free heart ; free to give or bestow ; 
not close or contracted ; munificent ; 
bountiful ; generous ; giving largely ; as 
a liberal donor ; the liberal founders of a 
college or hospital. It expresses less than 
profuse or extravagant. 

2. Generous ; ample ; large ; as a liberal do- 
nation ; a liberal allowance. 

3. Not selfish, narrow or contracted; catho- 
lic ; enlarged ; embracing other interests 
than one's own ; as liberal sentiments or 
views ; a liberal mind ; liberal policy. 

4. General ; extensive ; embracing litera- 
ture and the sciences generally ; as a libe 
red education. This phrase is often but 

not necessarily synonymous with collegi- 
ate ; as a collegiate education. 

5. Free ; open ; candid ; as a liberal commu- 
nication of thoughts. 

G. Large ; profuse ; as a liberal discharge of 
matter by secretions or excretions. 

7. Free ; not literal or strict ; as a liberal 
construction of law. 

8. Not mean ; not low in birth or mind. 

9. Licentious ; free to excess. Shak. 
Liberal arts, as distinguished from mechanical 

arts, are such as depend more on the ex 
ertion of the mind than on the labor of 
the hands, and regard amusement, curios- 
ity or intellectual improvement, rather 
than the necessity of subsistence, or man- 
ual skill. Such are grammar, rhetoric, 
painting, sculpture, architecture, music, 

Liberal has o/" before the thing bestowed, and 
to before the person or object on which 
any thing is bestowed ; as, to be liberal of 
praise or censure ; liberal to the poor. 

LIBERAL'ITY, n. [L. liberalitas ; Fr. libe- 
rality. See Liberal.] 
Munificence ; bounty. 
That liberality is but cast away, 
Which makes us borrow what we cannot pay. 


2. A particular act of generosity ; a dona- 
tion ; a gratiiit}'. In this sense, it has the 
plural number. A prudent man is not im- 
poverished by his liberalities. 

3. Largeness of mind ; Catholicism ; that 
comprehensiveness of mind which in 
eludes other interests beside its own, and 
duly estimates in its decisions the value or 
importance of each. It is evidence of a 
noble mind to judge of men and things 
with liberality. 

Many treat the gospel with indifference under 
the name o( libcralily. J. M. Mason. 

4. Candor ; impartiality. 
LIBERALIZE, v. t. To render liberal or 

catholic ; to enlarge ; to free from narrow 

views or prejudices; as, to liberalize the 

mind. Burke, ff'alsh. 

LIB'ERALiZED, pp. Freed from narrow 

views and prejudices; made liberal. 
LIB'ERALIZING, ppr. Rendering liberal ; 

divesting of narrow views and prejudices. 
LIB'ERALLY, adv. Bountifully; freely; 

largely ; with munificence. 

If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of 

God, who giveth to all men liberally, and up 

braideth not. James i. 

With generous and impartial regard to 
other interests than our own ; with en 
larged views ; without selfishness or 
meanness ; as, to think or judge liberally 
of men and their actions. 

3. Freely ; not strictly ; not literally. 

LIB'ERATE, v. t.[L.libero, from liber, free ; 
Fr. liberer ; It. liberare.] 

1. To free ; to release from restraint or 
bondage ; to set at liberty ; as, to liberate 
one from duress or imprisonment; to lib- 
erate the mind from the shackles of preju- 

2. To manumit ; as, to liberate a slave. 
LIBERATED, pp. Freed; released from 

confinement, restraint or slavery; manu- 
LIBERATING, ppr. Delivering from re- 
straint or slavery. 

LIBERATION, n. [L. liberatio.] The act of 
delivering from restraint, confinement or 

LIB'ERATOR, n. One who liberates or de- 

LIBERTA'RIAN, a. [L. liber, free ; libertas, 

Pertaining to liberty, or to the doctrine of 
free will, as opposed to the doctrine of ne- 

Remove from their mind libertariari preju- 
dice. Eneyc. 

LIB'ERTINAtiE, n. Libertinism, which is 
most used. 

LIB'ERTINE, n. [L. Ubertinus, from liber, 

1. Among the Romans, a freedman ; a per- 
son manumitted or set free from legal ser- 

2. One unconfined ; one free from restraint. 


3. A man who lives without re.straint of the 
animal passion ; one who indulges his lust 
without restraint ; one who leads a disso- 
lute, licentious life ; a rake ; a debauchee. 

LIB'ERTINE, a. Licentious; dissolute; not 
under the restraiut of law or religion ; as 
libertine principles; a libertine life. 

LIB'ERTINISM, n. State of a freedman. 
[Little used.] Hammond. 

2. Licentiousness of opinion and practice; 
an unrestrained indulgence of lust ; de- 
bauchery ; lewdness. Jltterbury. 

LIBERTY, n. [L. libertas, from liber, tree; 
Vr.liberU; It. libertii ; Sp. /i6cr(a(/. Class 
Lb. No. 24. 27. 30. 31.] 

1. Freedom from restraint, in a general 
sense, and a])plicablo to the body, or to the 
will or mind. The body is at liberty, when 
not confined ; the will or mind is at liberty, 
when not checked or controlled. A man 
enjoys liberty, when no physical force op- 
erates to restrain his actions or volitions. 

2. J^atural liberty, consists in the power of 
acting as one thinks fit, without any re- 
straint or control, except from the laws of 
nature. It is a state of exemption from 
tlie control of others, and fron) positive 
laws and the institutions of social life. This 
liberty is abridged by the establishment of 

3. Civil liberty, is the liberty of men in a 
state of society, or natural liberty, so far 
oidy abridged and restrained, as is neces- 
sary and expedient for the safety and in- 
terest of the society, state or nation. A 
restraint of natural liberty, not necessary 
or expedient for the public, is tyranny or 
oppression. Civil liberty is an exemption 
from the arbitrary will of others, which 
exemption is secured by established laws, 
which restrain every man from injuring 
or controlling another. Hence the re- 
straints of law are essential to civil liberty. 

The liberty of one depends not so mucli on 
the removal of all restraint from him, as on the 
due restraint upon the liberty of others. 

In this sentence, the latter word liberty 
denotes natural liberty. 

4. Political liberty, is sometimes used as sy- 
nonymous with ci['i7 liberty. But it more 
properly designates the liberty of a nation, 
the freedom of a nation or state from all 
unjust abridgment of its rights and inde- 
pendence by another nation. Hence we 




often speak of the political liberties of Eu- 
rope, or the nations of Europe. 

5. Religious liberty, is the free right of adopt- 
ing and enjoying opinions on rehgious sub- 
jects, and of worshiping the Supreme Be- 
ing according to the dictates of conscience, 
without external controh 

(j. Libert)/, in metaphysics, as opposed to Jie- 
cessily, is the power of an agent to do or 
forbear any particular action, according 
to the determination or thought of the 
mind, by which eitlier is preferred to the 
other. Locke. 

Freedom of the will ; exemption from 
compulsion or restraint in willing or voli 

7. Privilege: exemption ; immunity enjoyed 
by prescription or by grant ; with a plu- 
ral. Thus we speak of tlje liberties of the 
conmierciul cities of Europe. 

8. Leave ; permission granted. The wit- 
ness obtained liberty to leave the court. 

0. A space in which one is permitted to pass 
without restraint, and beyond which he 
may not lawfully pass ; with a plural ; as 
the liberties of a prison. 

10. Freedom of action or speech beyond the 
ordinary bounds of civility or decorum. 
Females should rejjel all improper liber- 

To take the liberty to do or say any tiling, to 
use freedom not specially granted. 

To set at liberty, to deliver from confine- 
ment ; to release from restraint. 

To be at liberty, to be free from restraint. 

Liberty of the press, is freedom from any 
restriction on the power to publish books 
the free power of publishing what one 
pleases, subject only to punishment for 
abusing the privilege, or publishing what 
is mischievous to the public or injurious to 
individuals. Blackslone. 

IJB'IDINIST, n. One given to lewdness. 


LIBID'INOUS, a. [L. libidinosus, from lib- 
ido, lubido, lust, from libeo, libel, lubet, to, it pleaseth ; G. Hebe, love ; lieben, to 
love ; Eng. love, which see. The root is 
lib or lub.] 

Lustful ; lewd ; having an eager appetite for 
venereal pleasure. Bentley. 

LIBID'INOUSLY, a. Lustfully ; with lewd 

LIBID'INOUSNESS, n. The state or qual- 
ity of being lustful ; inordinate appetite for 
venereal pleasure. 

LI'BRA, n. [L.] The balance ; the seventh 
sign in tlie zodiac, which the sun enters at 
the autumnal equinox, in September. 

LIBRA'RIAN, 7i. [L./i5mn»«,with a differ- 
ent signification, from/i6er, bark, a book.] 

1. The keeper or one who has the care of a 
library or collection of books. 

2. One who transcribes or copies books. 
[JVot noiv used.] Broome. 

LI'BRARY, n. [L. librarium, libraria, from 
liber, a book.] 

1. A collection of books belonging to a pri- 
vate person, or to a pubhc institution or 
a company. 

2. An edifice or an apartment for Tiolding a 
collection of books. 

LI'BRATE, r. i. [L. libra, from libra, a bal- 
ance, a level ; allied iierhaps to Eng. 

To poise; to balance; to hold in equipoise. 
LI'BRATE, V. i. To move, as a balance ; to 

be poised. 

Their parts all librate on too nice a beam. 

LIBRA'TION, n. The act of balancing or 

state of being balanced ; a state of equi 

poise, with equal weights on both sides of I 

a center. 
3. In astronomy, an apparent irregularity of 

the moon's motions, by vA'hich it seems to 

librate about its axis. ilncyc. 

Libratioii is the balancing motion or trepida- 
tion in the firmament, whereby the declination 

oi' the sun and the latitii<le o!" the stars change 

from time to time. Diet. Trei'. 

3. A balancing or equipoise between e.\- 

tremes. Darwin. 

Ll'BRATORY, a. Balancing ; moving hke 

a balance, as it tends to an ccpiipoise or 

LICE, plu. of louse. 
LICE-BANE, 71. A plant. 
LI'CENSE, n. [Fr. from L. licentia, from 

liceo, to be permitted, Ir. leighim, ligim, to 

allow or permit.] 

1. Leave; permission ; authority or liberty 
given to do or forbear any act. A license 
may be verbal or written ; when ivritten, 
the paper containing the authority is call 
ed a license. A man is not permitted to 
retail spirituous liquors till he has obtain 
ed a license. 

2. Excess of liberty ; exorbitant freedom 
freedom abused, or used in contempt of 
law or decorum. 

License tliey mean, when they cry liberty. 


LI'CENSE, V. t. To permit by grant of au- 
thority ; to remove legal restraint by a 
grant of permission ; as, to license a man 
to keep an inn. 

2. To authorize to act in a particular char- 
acter ; as, to license a physician or a law- 

3. To dismiss. [A'ot in use.] fl'olton. 

LI'CENSER, n. One who grants permiss- 
ion ; a person authorized to grant per- 
mission to others ; as a licenser of the 

LICEN'TIATE, n. [from L. licentia.] One 
who has a license ; as a licentiate in physic 
or jnedicine. 

In Spain, one who has a degree ; as a li- 
centiate in law ordivinitj'. The officers of 
justice are mostly distinguished by this ti- 
tle. Encyc. 

LICEN'TIATE, r. t. To give license or 
permission. VEstrange. 

LICEN'TIOUS, a. [L. liwntiosus.] Using 
license ; indulging freedom to excess; un 
restrained by law or morality ; loose ; dis- 
solute ; as a licentious man. 

2. Exceeding the limits of law or propriety; 
wanton ; unrestrained ; as licentious de- 
sires. Licentious thoughts precede licen- 
tious conduct. 

LICEN'TIOUSLY, adv. With excess of]; 
hberty ; in contempt of law and morality. 

LICEN'TIOUSNESS, n. Excessive indul- 
gence of liberty ; contempt ofthe just re- 
straints of law, morality and decorum. 
The lirentiousntss of authors is justly con- 
dctnned ; the licenfiousjiess of the press is 
punishable by law. 

Law is die god of wise men ; licentioustiess 
IS the god ol fools. Plato. 

LICH, a. [Sas.lic. See Like.] Like; even; 
equal. Obs. Gower. 

LICH, 71. [Sax. lie or lice, a. body, the 
flesh, a dead body or corpse ; lichama, a 
living body; hence lichwake, watching 
with the dead ; Lichfield, the field of dead 
bodies ; Goth, leik, the flesh, a body ; lei- 
kan, to please. Sax. licean ; Goth, leiks, 
like ; G. gleich, D. lyk ami gelyk, like ; G. 
leiche, a dead body, D.lyk; Heb. pSn cha- 

lak, smooth ; Ar."^ ^'Xs. chalaka, to 

shave, to make smooth ; iJiX- 

to measure, to form, to create, to make 
smooth and equable, to be beautiful ; de- 
rivatives, creature, man, people. We see 
the radical sense is smooth, or rather to 
make even, equal, smooth ; hence like, 
likeness, and a body. We have here an 
instance of the radical sense of man and 
body, almost exactly analogous to that of 
Adam, from riDT to make equal, to be like.] 

Ll€H'EN, n. [L. from Gr. y.iixv:] In bota- 
ny, the name lor an extensive division of 
cryptogamian plants, constituting a genus 
in the order of Algaj, in the Linuean sys- 
tem, but now forming a distinct natural 
order. They ajipear in the form of thin 
flat crusts, covering rocks and the bark of 
trees, or in foliaceous expansions, or 
branched like a shrub in miniature, or 
sometimes only as a gelatinous mass, or a 
powdery substance. They are called rock 
moss and tree moss, and some of the liv- 
erworts are of this order. They also in- 
clude the Iceland moss and the reindeer 
moss ; but they are entirely distinct from 
the true mosses (Musci.) Ed. Encyc. 

2. In surgei-y, a species of impetigo, appear- 
ing in the form of a red, dry, rough, and 
somewhat prurient spot, that gives oflT 
small furfuraceous scales. Hooper 

LI€IIENOGRAPH'l€, > Pertaining 

LlellENOGRAPH'IeAL, I "■ to licheu- 

LICIIENOG'RAPHIST, n. One who de- 
scribes the lichens. 

Ll€HENOG'RAPHY, n. [lichen and ypat«, 
to write.] 

A description of the vegetables called li- 
chens ; the science which illustrates the 
natural history ofthe lichens. .icharius 

LICIT, a. [L. licitus.] Lawful. 

LIC'ITLY, adv. Lawfully. 

LIC'ITNESS, n. Lawfulness. 

LICK, V. t. [Sax. liccian ; Goth, laigwan ; G. 
lecken, schlecken ; D. likken ; Dan. likker, 
slikker ; Sw. slekia, slikia ; Fr. lecher ; It! 
leccare; Ir. leagaim, lighim; Russ. lokayu, 
liju ; L. lingo ; Gr. 7.nxu. Class Lg. No. 
12. 18. See Like and Sleek.] 

1. To pass or draw the tongue over the sur- 
face ; as, a dog licks a wound. Temple. 

2. To lap ; to take in by the tongue ; as, a 
log or cat licks milk. 1 Kings xxi. 

To lick up, to devour ; to consume entirely. 
Now sliall this company lick up all tliat are 
round about us, as an o,\ lickelh up the grass of 
tlie field. Numb. xxii. 

To lick tlie dust, to be slain ; to perish in bat- 

His enemies shall lick Hie dttst. Ps. iKxii, 

L I D 



LICK, n. In America, a place where beasts 
of the forest hck for sah, at salt springs. 

LICK, J(. [W. Hag, a lick, a slap, a ray, a 
blade ; llapiaio, to lick, to shoot out, to 
throw or lay about, to cudgel. Qu. the 
root oi flog and slay, to strike. See Ar. 

^J lakka, to strike. Class Lg. No. 14.] 

1. A blow ; a stroke. [A'bi an elegant ivord.] 

2. A wash ; something rubbed on. [M}i in 

LICK, V. I. To strike repeatedly for punish 
ment ; to flog ; to chastise with blows. 
[Not an elegant word ; butprobably/og, L 
jligo, is from the root of this word.] 

LICK'ER, n. One that licks. 

LICK'ERISH, a. [D. Dan. IMter, G. kcktr, 
Sw. Ihcker, nice, dainty, delicate. This 
seems to be connected with D. lekken, G 
kcken, Dan. kkker, Sw. llicka, to leak, for 
in D. the verb signifies also to make sleek 
or smooth, and in G. to lick, which unites 
the word with lick, and perhaps with like 
In Sax. liccera is a glutton, and this is the 
It. lecco, a glutton, a lecher ; leccardo, 
greedy ; leccare, to lick. The Arm. has 
lickez, lickerish. The phrase, the mouth 
waters for a thing, may throw light on this 
word, and if the first syllable of delight, de- 
licious and delicate, is a prefix, these are of 
the same family, as may be the Gr.y7.vxv5, 
sweet. The senses of watery, smooth, sweet, 
are allied ; likeness is often connected with 
smoothness, in radical sense, and sleek is 
probably from the root of lick, like.] 

1. Nice in the choice of food; dainty; as a 
lickerish palate. UEstrange. 

2. Eager ; greedy to swallow ; eager to taste 
or enjoy ; having a keen relish. 

Sidney. Dry den. Locke. 

3. Dainty ; tempting the appetite ; as licker- 
ish baits. Milton. 

LICK'ERISHLY, adv. Daintily. 

LICK'ERISHNESS, n. Niceness of palate ; 

LI€'ORICE, n. [It. liquirizia; L. glycyr- 
rhiza ; Gr. yJ.vxvpp^Ja ; ykvxvi, sweet, and 
pi?a, root.] 

A plant of the genus Glycyrrhiza. The root 
of this plant abounds with a sweet balsam- 
ic juice, much used in pectoral composi- 
tions. Encyc. 

Ll€OROUS, LICOROUSNESS, for licker- 
ish, &c. not used. 

LI€'T0R, 71. [L. Qu. lick, to strike.] An of- 
ficer among the Romans, who bore an ax 
and fasces or rods, as ensigns of his ofiice. 
The duty of a hctor was to attend the chief 
magistrates when they appeared in public, 
to clear the way and cause due respect to 
be paid to them. A dictator was attended 
by twenty four lictors, a consul by twelve, 
and a master of the horse by six. It was 
also the duty of lictors to apprehend and 
punish criminals. Encyc. Johnson. 

LID, n. [Sax. hlid, a cover ; hlidan, to cov- 
er; ge-hlid, a roof; D. Dan. lid; L. 
daudo, cludo; Gr. x%nu, contracted from 

xXttSou; Ileb. ath or BlS to cover, Ar. Ja': 

latta. Class Ld. No. J. 8. K.] 
A cover ; that which shuts the opening of a 
vessel or box ; as the lid of a chest or 

Vol. II. 

trunk ; also, the cover of the eye, the 
membrane which is drawn over the eye- 
ball of an animal at pleasure, and which 
is intended for its protection ; the eyelid. 

LIE, water impregnated with alkaline salt, 
is written lye, to distinguish it from lie, a 

LIE, n. [Sax. lig or lyge ; Sw. logn ; Dan. 
logn ; D. leugen ; G. Ing, liige ; Russ. Icj. 
The verb is probably the primary word.] 

1. A criminal falsehood ; a falsehood utter- 
ed for the purpose of deception; an inten- 
tional violation of truth. Fiction, or a 
false statement or representation, not in- 
tended to deceive, mislead or injure, as in 
fables, parables and the like, is not a he. 

It is willful deceit that makes a tie. A man 
may act a lie, as by pointing his finger in a 
wrong direction, when a traveler inquires ot 
Iiira his road. Paley. 

2. A fiction ; in a ludicrous sense. Dryden. 

3. False doctrine. I John ii. 

An idolatrous picture of God, or a false 

god. Rom. i. 
5. That which deceives and disappoints 

confidence. Micah i. 
To giic the lie, to charge with falsehood. 

A man's actions may give the lie to his 

LIE, V. i. [Sax. ligan, leogan; Dan. lyver 

Sw. Hugo ; G. liigen ; D. leugenen ; Russ. 


1. To utter falsehood with an intention to 
deceive, or with an immoral design. 

Thou hast not lied to men, but to God. 
Acts v. 

2. To exhibit a false representation ; to say 
or do that which deceives another, when 
he has a right to know the truth, or when 
morality requires a just representation 

LIE, V. i. pret. lay ; pp. lain, [lien, ohs. 
[Sax. ligan or licgan ; Goth, ligan ; Sw. 
liggia ; Dan. ligger ; D. liggen ; G. liegen ; 
Russ. leju ; Gr. ■Kiyo^ai. The Gr. word 
usually signifies to speak, which is to utter 
or throw out sounds. Hence to lie down 
is to throw one's self down, and probably 
lie and lay are of one family, as are Jaa'o 
and jaceo, in Latin.] 

1. To be in a horizontal position, or nearly 
so, and to rest on any thing lengthwise 
and not on the end. Thus a person lies 
on a bed, and a fallen tree on the ground 
A cask stands on its end, but lies on its 

To rest in an inclining posture; to lean; 
as, to lie on or against a colunuj. 

3. To rest ; to press on. 

4. To be reposited in the grave. 

All the kings of the earth, even all of them 
lie in glory. Is. xiv. 

5. To rest on a bed or couch ; to be pros- 
trate ; as, to lie sick. 

My little daughter lielh at the point of death 
Mark v. 

G. To be situated. New Haven lies in the 
forty second degree of north latitude. 
Ireland lies west of England. 

Envy lies between beings equal in nature 
though unequal in circumstances. Collier. 

7. To be ; to rest ; to abide ; to remain 
often followed by some word denoting a 
particular condition ; as, to />e waste ; toj 
lie fallow ; to lie open ; to lie hid ; to lie] 
pining or grieving ; to lie under one's dis 

pleasure ; to lie at the mercy of a creditor, 
or at the mercy of the waves. 

8. To consist. 
He tliat thinks that diversion may not lie in 

hard labor, forgets the early rising of the hunts- 
man. Locke. 

9. To be sustainable in law ; to be capable 
of being maintained. An action lits 
against the tenant fir waste. 

An appeal lies iu this case. Ch. J. Parsons. 
To lie at, to teaze or importune. [Little 

To lie at the heart, to be fixed as an object 
of affection or anxious desire. 

The Spaniards have but one temptalion to 
quarrel with us, the recovering of Jamaica, for 
that has ever lain at their hearts. Temple. 

To lie by, to be reposited, or remaining with. 
He has the manuscript lying by him. 

2. To rest ; to intermit labor. We lay by 
during the heat of the day. 

To lie in the way, to be an obstacle or im- 
pediment. Remove the objections that 
lie in the way of an amicable adjustment. 

To lie hard or heavy, to press ; to oppress ; to 

To lie on hand, to be or remain in possess- 
ion ; to remain unsold or undisposed of 
Great (juantities of wine lie on hand, or 
have lain long on hand. 

To lie on the hands, to remain unoccupied 
or unemployed ; to be tedious. Men are 
sometimes at a loss to know how to em- 
ploy the time that lies on their hands. 

To lie on the head, to be imputed. 

What he gets more of her than sharp words, 
let it lie on my head. Shak. 

To lie in tcait, to wait for in concealment ; 
to lie in ambush ; to watch for an oppor- 
tunity to attack or seize. 

To lie in one, to be in the power of; to be- 
long to. 

As much as lieth in you, live peaceably with 
all men. Rom. xii. 

To lie down, to lay the body on the groimd 
or other level place ; also, to go to rest. 

To lie in, to be in childbed ; to bring forth 

To lie under, to be subject to ; to suffer ; to 
be oppressed by. 

To lie on or upon, to be a n)aiter of obliga- 
tion or duty. It lies on the plaintiff to 
maintain his action. 

To lie with, to lodge or sleep with; also, to 
have carnal knowledge of. 

2. To belong to. It lies tvith you to make 

To lie over, to remain unpaid, after the time 
when payment is due; as a note in bank. 

To lie to, to be stationary, as a ship. 

LIEF, a. [Sax. leof, loved, D. lief, G. lieb. 
See Love.] Dear ; beloved. Obs. 

Spenser. Shak. 

LIEF, adv. [supra. This word coincides 
with love, L. lubet, libel, and the primary 
sense is to be free, prompt, ready.] 

Gladly ; wilhngly ; freely ; used in famil- 
iar speech, in the phrase, I had as lief go 
as not. It has been supposed that had in 
this phrase is a corruption of would. At 
any rate it is anomalous. 

LIEuE, a. [It. ligio; Fr. lige ; from L. ligo, 
to bind ; Gr. Xvyca, to bind, to bend ; Xvyoj, 
a withe.] 

Bound by a feudal tenure ; obliged to be 
faithful and loyal to a superior, as a vas- 

L I F 

L I F 

L I F" 

sal to liis lord ; subject ; faithful ; as a 
liege man. By liege homage, a vassal was 
bound to serve his lord against all, with- 
out excepting his sovereign ; or against 
all, excepting a former lord to whom he 
owed like service. Encyc. 

2. Sovereign ; as a liege lord. [See the 

LIEgE, n. [supra.] A vassal holding a fee 
by which he is bound to perform certain 
services and duties to his lord. 

2. A lord or superior ; a sovereign. 

[Note. This is a false application of the word, 
arising probably from transferring the word from 
the vassal to the lord ; the lord of liege men, 
being called liege lord. Johnson.l 

LIE'GE-MAN, ji. A vassal; a subject. Obs. 
Spenser. Shak. 

LIEN, the obsolete participle of lie. [See 

LIEN, n. [supra.] A legal claim ; as a lien 
upon land. 

LIENTER'le, a. [from lientcry.] Pertain- 
ing to a lientery. Grew. 

Ll'ENTERY, n. [Fr. lieyiterie ; L. It. lien- 
teria; Gr. ^fior, smooth, and irtc^ov, an 

A flux of the bowels, in which the aliments 
are discharged undigested, and with little 
alteration either in color or substance. 


LIER, n. [from lie.] One who lies down ; 
one who rests or remains ; as a Her in 
wait or in ambush. Josh. viii. 

LIEU, n. [Fr. from the root of L. locus, 
Eng. ley or lea. See Ley.] 

Place ; room ; stead. It is used only with 
in. Let me have gold in lien of silver. 
In lieu of fashionable honor, let justice be 

LIEUTENANCY, n. luten'ancy. [See 

1. The oflice or commission of a lieutenant 


2. The body of lieutenants. Felton. 

LIEUTENANT, n. lulen'ant. [Fr.; compo- 
sed of lieu, place, and tenant, L. tenens. 

1. An officer who supplies the place of a 
superior in his absence. Officers of this 
kind are civil, as the \ord-lieutenant of a 
kingdom or county ; or military, as a lieu- 
tenant general, a lieutenant colonel. 

2. In military affairs, the second comniiss 
ioned officer in a company of infantry 
cavalry or artillery. 

.3. In ships of war, the officer next in rank to 

the captain. 
LIEUTENANTSHIP. [See lAeutenancy.] 
LIEVE, for lief, is vulgar. [See Lief] 
LIE'VRITE, n. A mineral, called also t/oi- 

ite, which see. 
LIFE, n.Yiln. lives. [Sax. lif, lyf; Sw.lif; 
Dan. liv ; G. teben ; D. leeven. See Live.] 
1. \n a general scn^f, that state of animals 
and plants, or of an organized being, in 
whicli its natural functions and motions 
are performed, or in which its organs are 
capable of performing their functions. A 
tree is not destitute of life in winter, when 
the functions of its organs are suspended; 
nor man during a swoon or syncope ; nor 
strictly birds, ([uadrnpeds or ser|>cnts dur- 
ing their torpitude in winter. They arc 

not strictly dead, till the functions of their 
organs are incapable of being renewed. 

2. In animals, animation ; vitality ; and in 
7na7i, that state of being in which the soul 
and body are united. 

He entreated me not to take his life. 


3. In plants, the state in whicli they grow 
or are capable of growth, by means of the 
circulation of the sap. The life of an oak 
may be two, three, or four hundred years. 

4. The present state of existence ; the time 
from birth to death. Tlie life of man sel 
dom exceeds seventy years. 

If in tliis life only we have hope in Christ, we 
are of all men most miserable. 1 Cor. ,"iv. 
.5. Manner of living ; conduct ; deportment, 
in regard to morals. 

I will teach my family to lead good lives. 

Mrs. Barker 

6. Condition ; course of living, in regard to 
happiness and misery. We say, a man't 
life has been a series of prosperity, or mis- 

Blood, the supposed vehicle of animation 

And the warm life came issuing through tlie 

wound. Pope. 

Animals in general ; animal being. 

Full nature swarms with life. Thomson. 

9. System of animal nature. 
Lives through all life. Pope. 

10. Spirit; animation; briskness; vivacity; 

They have no notion of life and fire in fancy 
and w'ords. Felton 

11. The living form ; real person or state; in 
opposition to a copy ; as, a picture is taken 
from tlie life ; a description from the life 

12. Exact resemblance ; with to, before life. 
His portrait is drawn to the life. 

13. General state of man, or of social man 
ners ; as the studies and arts that polish 

14. Condition ; rank in society ; as high lift 
and low life. 

15. Common occurrences; course of things: 
human affairs. 

But to know 
That which before us Hes in daily life. 
Is the prime wisdom. .Milton 

16. A person ; a living being ; usually or 
always, a human being. How many lives 
were sacrificed during the revolution ! 

17. Narrative of a past life ; history of the 
events of life ; biographical narration. 
Johnson wrote the life of Milton, and the 
lives of other poets. 

18. In Scripticre, nourishment ; support of 

For the tree of the field is man's life. Deut 


J9. The stomach or appetite. 

His life abhoncth bread. Job xxxiii. 

20. The enjoyments or blessings of the pres- 
ent life. 

Having the promise of the life that now is 
and of that which is to conic. 1 Tim. iv. 

21. Supreme felicity. 
To be spiritually mtnded is life and peace 

RoMi. viii. 

22. Eternal happiness in heaven. Rom. v. 

23. Restoration to life. Rom. v. 

24. The author and giver of supreme fell 

I am the way, the truth, and Uie life. John 

25. A quickening, animating and strength- 
ening principle, in a moral sense. John 

LI'FE-BLOOD, ?!. The blood necessary to 
life ; vital blood. Dryden. 

2. That which constitutes or gives strength 
and energy. 

Money, the life-blood of the nation. Swift. 

LI'FE-BLQQD, a. Necessary as blood to 
life ; essential. Milton. 

LIFE-ESTA'TE, n. An estate that contin- 
ues during the life of the possessor. 

LIFE-EVERLASTING, n. A plant of the 

genus Gnaphalium. 
LI'FE-GIVING, a. Having power to give 

life ; inspiriting ; invigorating. 

Spenser. Milton. 
LI'FEGUARD, n. A guard of the life or 

person ; a guard that attends the person 

of a prince, or other person. 
LIFELESS, a. Dead; deprived of life; as 

a lifeless body. 

2. Destitute of life ; unanimated ; as lifeless 

3. Destitute of power, force, vigor or spirit : 
dull ; heavy ; inactive. 

4. Void of spirit ; vapid; as liquor. 

5. Torpid. 

6. Wanting physical energy. 
LI'FELESSLY, adv. Without vigor ; dully : 

frigidly ; heavily. 

LI'FELESSNESS, n. Destitution of life, 
vigor and spirit ; inactivity. 

LI'FELIKE, a. Like a living person. 


LI'FERENT, n. The rent of an estate that 
continues for life. 

LI'FESTRING, n. A nerve or string that is 
imagined to be essential to life. 

LIFETIME, n. The time that hfe contin- 
ues ; duration of life. Addison. 

LI'FEWEARY, a. Tired of life ; weary of 
living. Shak. 

LIFT, V. t. [Sw. lyfla, Dan. lofier, to lift ; 
Goth, hlifan, to steal ; Sax. hlifan, to be 
high or conspicuous; Goth. hlijtus, a thief. 
We retain this sense in shoplifter. L. levo, 
elevo, It. levare, to lift ; Sj). levar, to carry or 
transport ; Fr. lever ; perhajis L. levis, 

1. To raise ; to elevate; as, lo lijl the foot 
or the hand ; to lift the head. 

2. To raise ; to elevate mentally. 
To thee, O Lord, do I liJX up my soul. Ps. 


3. To raise in fortune. 

The eye of the Lord li/ied up his head from 
misery. Ecclus. 

4. To raise in estimation, dignity or rank. 
His fortune has lifted him into notice, or 
into ofiice. 

The Roman virtues lift up mortal man. 


5. To elate; to cause to swell, as with pride. 

Up is often used after lift, as a qualify- 
ing word ; sometimes w ith effect or em- 
phasis ; very often, however, it is useless. 

6. To hear ; to support. Spenser. 

7. To steal, that is, to take and carry away. 
Hence we retain the use of shoplifter, al- 
though the verb in this sense is obsolete. 

8. In Scripture, to crucify. 

Wben ye liave lifted up the Son of man. 
John \iii. 
.To lift up the eyes, to look ; to fix the eyes 

L I G 

L I G 

L I G 

Lot lifted up his eyes and beheld Jordan. 
Gen. xiii. 

2. To direct the desires to Goil in prayer, 
Vs. cxxi. 

To lift up the head, to raise from a low con- 
dition ; to exalt. Gen. xl. 

2. To rejoice. Luke xxi. 

To lift up the hand, to swear, or to confirm 
by oath. Gen. xiv. 

2. To raise the hands in prayer. Ps. xxvni. 

3. To rise in opposition to ; to rebel ; to as- 
sault. 2 Sam. xviii. 

4. To injure or oppress. Job xxxi. 

5. To shake off sloth and engage in duty. 
Ileb. xii. 

To lift up the face, to look to with confi 
dence, cheerfulness and comfort. Job 

To lift up the heel against, to treat with in- 
solence and contempt. 

To lift up the horn, to behave arrogantly or 
scornfully. Ps. Ixxv. 

To lift up the feet, to come speedily to one's 
relief. Ps. Ixxiv. 

To lift up the voice, to cry aloud ; to call out, 
either in grief or joy. Gen. xxi. Is. xxiv. 

LIFT, V. i. To try to raise ; to exert the 
strength for the purpose of raising or bear- 

The body strained by lifting at a weight too 
heavy — Locke. 

2. To practice theft. Obs. Spenser. 

LIFT, II. The act of raising ; a lifting; as 
the lift of the feet in walking or running. 

The goat gives the fox a li/l. L'Estran^e 

2. An effort to raise; as, give us a lift. 
[Popular use.] 

3. That which is to be raised. 

4. A dead lift, an ineffectual effort to raise ; 
or the thing which the strength is not suf- 
ficient to raise. 

5. Any thing to be done which exceeds the 
strength ; or a state of inability ; as, to help 
one at a dead lift. Butler. Swift. 

G. A rise ; a degree of elevation ; as the lift 
of a lock in canals. Galtatin.\ 

7. In Scottish, the sky ; the atmosphere ;[ 
the firmament. [Sax. lijft, air, Sw. lufl.] 

8. In seamcn^s language, a rope descending 
from the cap and mast-head to the ex- 
tremity of a yard. Its use is to support 
the yard, keep it in equilibrio, and raise 
the end, when tjccasion requires. 

Mar. Diet 

LIFT'ED, pp. Raised ; elevated ; swelled 
with pride. 

LIFT'ER, n. One that lifts or raises. 

LIFT'ING, ppr. Raising; swelling witl 

LIFT'ING, n. The act of lifting ; assist- 

LIG, V. i. To lie. [See Lie.] Obs. 


LIG'AMENT, n. [L. ligamentum, from ligo, 
to bind, that is, to strain.] 

1. Any thing that ties or unites one thing or 
part to another. 

Interwoven is the love of liberty with ever}' 
ligament of your hearts. JVashington 

2. In anatomy, a strong, compact substance, 
serving to bind one bone to another. It is 
a white, solid, inelastic, tendinous sub 
stance, softer than cartilage, but harder 
than membrane. 

Enci/c. Qiu'ccy. Coxe. 

3. Bond i chain ; that which binds or re- 
strains. Addison. 
IGAMENT'AL, \ Composing a liga- 

LIGAMENT'OUS, ^ ment; of the nature 
of a ligament ; binding ; as a strong liga- 
mentous membrane. IViseman. 

LIGA'TION, n. [L. ligalio.] The act of] 
binding, or state of being bound. 


LIG'ATURE, n. [Fr. from L. ligatura.] 

1. Any thing that binds; a band or bandage. 


2. The act of binding ; as, by a strict ligature 
of the parts. Arbuthnol. 

3. Impotence induced by magic. 

Coxe. Encyc. 

4. In music, a band or line connecting notes 

Among printers, a double character, or a 
type consisting of two letters or characters 
united; as/,/, in English. The old 
editions of Greek authors abound with 
fl. The state of being bound. Mortimer. 

7. In ificrficine, stiffness of a joint. Core. 

8. In surgery, a cord or string for tying the 
blood vessels, particularly the arteries, to 
prevent hemorrhage. 

LIGHT, n. lite. [Sax. leoht, liht ; D.G.licht; 
L. lux, light, and luceo, to shine ; Port. Sp. 
luz, light ; W. llug, tending to break out or 
open, or to shoot, to gleam, and as a noun, 
a breaking out in blotches, a gleam, indis- 
tinct light ; llu'g, that is apt to break out, 
that is bright, a tumor, an eruption ; llygu, 
to make bright, to clear, to break out, to 
appear in spots ; Hue, a darting, sudden 
throw, glance, flash ; tlupaw, to throw, to 
fling, to pelt ; Ihiced, a gleam, lightning. 
This word furnishes a full and distinct ex- 
planation of the original sense of light, to 
throw, dart, shoot, or break forth ; and it 
accords with Eng. luck, both in elements 
and radical sense. Class Lg. No. (5. 7. 23. 
1. That ethereal agent or matter which 
makes objects perceptible to the sense of 
seeing, but the particles of which are sepa 
rately invisible. It is now generally be- 
lieved that light is a fluid, or real matter, 
existing independent of other substances, 
with properties peculiar to itself Its ve- 
locity is astonishing, as it passes through 
a space of nearly twelve millions of miles 
in a minute. Light, when decomposed, is 
found to consist of rays differently color- 
ed ; as re<l, orange, yellow, green, blue 
indigo, and violet. The sun is the princi- 
pal source of light in the solar system 
but light is also emitted from bodies igni- 
ted, or in combustion, and is reflected 
from enlightened bodies, as the moon. 
Light is also emitted from certain putre- 
fying substances. It is usually united with 
heat, but it exists also independent of it. 
Hooper. JVicholson. Encyc. 
That flood of luminous rays which flows 
from the sun, and constitutes day. 

God called the light day, and tlie darkness he 
called night. Gen. i. 
.3. Day ; the dawn of day. 

The murderer rising with the light, killeth 
the poor and needy. Job. xxiv. 
4. Life. 

0, spring to light, auspicious babe, be born 


5. Any thing that gives light ; a3 a lamp, 
candle, taper, lighted tower, star, &c. 

Then he called for a light, and sprang in — 
Acts xvi. 

I have set thee to be a light to the Gentiles. 
Acts xiii. 

And God made two great lights. Gen. i. 

The illuminated part of a picture ; the 
part which lies open to the luminary by 
which the piece is supposed to be enlight- 
ened, and is painted in vivid colors ; oppo- 
sed to shade. 

Illumination of mind ; instruction ; knowl- 

I opened Ariosto in Italian, and the very fir^t 
two lines gave me light to all I could desire. 

Dry den. 
Light, understanding and wisdom — was louud 
in him. Dan. v. 
, 3Ieans of knowing. By using such ?ig-A(« 
as we have, we may arrive at probability, 
if not at certainty. 

9. Open view ; a visible state ; a state of be- 
ing seen by the eye, or perceived, under- 
stood or known. Further researches will 
doubtless bring to light many isles yet un- 
discovered ; further experiments will bring 
to light properties of matter yet uuknowu. 

10. Public view or notice. 
^\'hy am I ask'd what next shall see the light ? 


11. Explanation; illustration; means of un- 
derstanding. One part of Scripture throws 
light on another. 

12. Point of view; situation to be seen or 
viewed ; a use of the word taken from paint- 
ing. It is useful to exhibit a subject in a 
variety of lights. Let every thought be 
presented in a strong light. In whatever 
light we view this event, it must be consid- 
ered an evil. 

13. A window ; a place that admits ligiit to 
enter. 1 Kings vii. 

14. A pane of glass; as a window witli 
twelve lights. 

15. In Scripture, God, the source of knowl- 

God is light. 1 John i. 

16. Christ. 
That was the true light, that lighteth every 

man that cometh into the world. John i. 

17. Joy; comfort; felicity. 
Light is sown for the righteous. Ps. xcvii. 

18. Saving knowledge. 
It is because there is no light in them. Is. 

10. Prosperity; happiness. 

Tlien shall thy light break forth as the morn- 
ing. Is. Iviii. 

20. Support ; comfort ; deUverancc. Mic. 

21. The gospel. Matt, i v. 

22. The understanding or judgment. Matt, 

23. The gifts and graces of christians. 
Matt. y. 

24. A moral instructor, as John the Bap- 
tist. John V. 

25. A true christian, a person enlightened. 
Eph. V. 

26. A good king, the guide of his people. 
Sam. xxi. 

The light of the countenance, favor ; smiles. 

Ps. iv. 
To stand in one's oum light, to be the means 

of preventing good, or frustrating one's 

own purposes. 

L I G 

L I G 

L I G 

To come to light, to be detected ; to be dis 
covered or fouud. 

LIGHT, a. lite. Bright ; clear ; not dn.rk or 
obscure: as, tlie morning ia light; tiie 
apartment is light. 

2. In colors, white or whitish ; as a light 
color: a light brown ; a light complexion. 

LIGHT, a. lite. [Sax. liht, leoht ; D. li^ ; G. 
leicht ; Fr. leger ; It. leggiero ; Port, iigeiro ; 
Sp. ligero ; Russ. legkei ; Sans. leka. Tlie 
Sw. Idtt, Dan. let, may be contractions of 
the same word. The Slavonic also has 
tehek and legok. Qu. L. alacer. Tliis word 
accords with light, the fluid, in orthogra- 
phy, and may be from the same radix.] 

1. Having little weight ; not tending to the 
center of gravity with force ; not heavy. 
A fether is light, compared with lead or 
silver ; but a thing is light only compara- 
tively. That which is light to a man, may 
be heavy to a child. A light burden for a 
camel, may be insupportable to a horse. 

2. Not burdensome ; easy to be lifted, borne 
or carried by physical strength ; as a light 
burden, weight or load. I 

3. Not oppressive ; easy to be suflfered or en- 
dured ; as a light affliction. 2 Cor. iv. j 

4. Easy to be performed ; not difficult ; not; 
requiring great strength or exertion. Thej 
task is light ; the work is light. 

5. Easy to be digested ; not oppressive to; 
the stomach ; as light food. It may sig-j 
nify also, containing little nutriment. | 

6. Not heavily armed, or armed with light^ 
weapons ; as light troops ; a troop of light 
horse. j 

7. Active; swift; nimble. | 

Asahel was as light of foot as a wild roe. 2; 
Sam. ii. 

8. Not encumbered ; unembarrassed; clear 
of impediments. 

Unmarried men are best masters, but not best 
subjects ; for they are light to run away. 


9. Not laden ; not deeply laden ; not suffi-' 
ciently ballasted. The ship returned light: 

10. Slight ; trifling ; not important ; as a 
light error. Boyle\ 

11. Not dense ; not gross; as Kg-W vapors ; 
light fumes. Dryden.\ 

12. Small; inconsiderable; not copious or 
vehement ; as a light rain ; a light snow. 

1-3. Not strong ; not violent ; moderate ; as 
a light wind. 

14. Easy to admit influence ; inconsiderate ; 
easily influenced by trifling considerations; 
unsteady ; unsettled ; volatile ; as a light, 
vain person ; a light mind. 

There is no greater argument of a light and 
inconsiderate person, than profanely to scoff at 
religion. Tillotson. 

15. Gay ; airy ; indidging levity ; wanting 
dignity or sohdity ; trifling. I 

Seneca cannot be too heavy, nor Plautus tooj 
light. Shak.\ 

We may neither be light in prayer, nor wrath- 
ful in debate. J. M. Masoni 

16. Wanton ; unchaste ; as a woman o( light 

A light wife doth make a heavy husband. 


17. Not of legal weight ; clipped ; diminish- 
ed ; as light coin. 

To set light by, to undervalue ; to slight ; to 
treat as of no importance ; to despise. 

To make light of, to treat as of little conse- 
quence ; to slight ; to disregard. 

LIGHT, v.t. lite. To kindle; to inflame; 
to set fire to ; as, to light a candle or lamp 
sometimes with up ; as, to light up an in 
extinguishable flame. We often hear lit 
used for lighted, as, he lit a candle ; but 
this is inelegant. 

2. To give light to. 

Ah hopeless, lasting flames ! like those that 


To light the dead — Pope 

.3. To illuminate ; to fill or spread over with 

light ; as, to light a room ; to light the 

streets of a city. 

4. To lighten ; to ease of a burden. [jVoi 

in use. See Lighten.] Spenser. 

LIGHT, V. i. lite. [Sax. Uhlan, alihtan, 

gelihtan, to light'or kindle, to lighten or al 

leviate, and to alight ; hlihtan, to alight ; 

D. lichteti, to shine ; ligien, to heave or 

hft ; G. lichten, to weigh, to lighten.] 

1. To fall ou ; to come to by chance ; to 
happen to find ; with on. 

A weaker man may sometimes light on no- 
tions which had escaped a wiser. Watts 

2. To fall on ; to strike. 
They shall hunger no more, neither thirst 

any more; neither shall the sun light on them, 
nor any heat. Rev. vii. 

3. To descend, as from a horse or carriage ; 
with down, off, or from. 

He lighted doimi from his chariot. 2 Kings v. 
She lighted off the camel. Gen. xxiv. 

4. To settle ; to rest ; to stoop from flight. 
The bee lights on this flower and that. 

LI'GHT-ARMED, a. Armed with light 
I'GHT-BEARER, n. A torch-bearer. 

B. Jonson 

LI'GHT-BRAIN, n. An empty headed per 
son. Martin. 

LIGHTED, pp. li'ted. Kindled ; set on fire ; 
caused to burn. [Lit, for lighted, is inele- 

LIGHTEN, t'. i. li'tn. [from light, the fluid ; 
Sax. lihtan.] 

1. To flash ; to burst forth or dart, as light 
ning; to shine with an instantaneous illu 

This dreadful night 
That thunders, lightens, opens graves, and roars 
As doth the lion Shak 

2. To shine like lightning. S/iaA. 

3. To fall ; to light. Obs. 
LIGHTEN, J), t. li'tn. To dissipate dark 

ness ; to fill with light ; to spread over 

with light ; to illuminate ; to enlighten; 

as, to lighten an apartment with lamps or 

gas : to lighten tlie streets. 

A key of fire ran all along the shore. 
And lightened all the river with a blaze. 


2. To illuminate with knowledge ; in a 
moral sense. 

A light to lighten the Gentiles. Luke ii. 

3. To free from trouble and fill with joy. 

They looked to him and were lightened. Ps. 

LIGHTEN, V. t. Win. [ttomlight, notheavy ; 
Sax. lihtan.] 

1. To make lighter; to reduce in weight; 
to make less heavy ; as, to lighten a ship 
by unloading; to lighten a load or burden. 

3. To alleviate ; to make less burdensome 
or afflictive ; as, to lighten the cares of 
life ; to lighten the burden of grief. 

3. To cheer ; to exhilarate. 

He lightens my humor with his merry jest. 


LIGHTER, n. h'ter. One that lights ; as a 
liglder of lamps. 

2. A large open flat-bottomed boat, used in 
loading and unloading ships. 

LIGHTERMAN, n. li'terman. A man who 
manages a hghter : a boatman. 

LIGHTFINGERED, a. Ii' tefingered. Dex- 
trous in taking and conveying away ; 
thievish ; addicted to petty thefts. 

LIGHTFQOT, > li'tefool, ) Nimble 

LIGHTFQOTED, \ "■ li'tefooted. I in run- 
nmg or dancing ; active. [Liltle used.] 


LI'GIITHEADED,a. [See Head.] Thought- 
less; heedless; weak; volatile ; unsteady. 


2. Disordered in the bead ; dizzy; delirious. 

LI'GHTHEADEDNESS, n. Disorder of the 
head ; dizziness ; deliriousness. 

LI'GHTHE'ARTED, a. Free from grief or 
anxiety; gay; cheerful; merry. 

LI'GHT-HORSE, n. Light armed cavalry. 

LI'GHT-HOUSE, 71. A pharos ; a tower or 
building erected on a rock or point of 
land, or on an isle in the sea, with a Hght 
or number of lamps on the top, intended 
to direct seamen in navigating ships at 

LI'GHTLEGGED, o. Nimble; swift of 
foot. Sidney. 

LIGHTLESS, a. li'leless. Destitute of light : 

LIGHTLY, adv. li'tely. With Uttle weight ; 
as, to tread lightly ; to press lightly. 

2. Without deep impression. 
The soft ideas of the cheerful note. 
Lightly received, were easily forgot. Prior. 

3. Easily; readily; without difficulty; of 

Without reason, or for reasons of little 

Flatter not the rich, neither do thou willingly 
or lightly appear before great personages. 

Without dejection ; cheerfully. 
Bid that welcome 
Wliich comes to punish us, and we punish it. 
Seeming to bear it lightly. Shak. 

6. Not chastely ; wantonly. Sivijt. 

7. Nimbly ; with agility ; not heavily or 

He led me lightly o'er the stream. 

8. Gayly; airily; with levity; without heed 
or care. 

LIGHTMINDED, a. Unsettled; unsteady; 

volatile ; not considerate. 

He that is hasty to give credit, is lightmind- 

ed. Ecclus. 

LIGHTNESS, ?i. li'teness. Want of weight ; 

levity; the contrary to heaviness; as the 

lightness of air, compared with water. 

2. Inconstancy ; unsteadiness; the quality of 
mind which disposes it to be influenced by 
trifling considerations. 

— Such is the lightness of you common men. 


3. Levity; wantonness; lewdness; unchas- 
tity. Shak. Sidney. 

4. Agility; nimbleness. 
LIGHTNfING, n. li'tening. [that is, lighten- 
ing, the participle ])resent of lighten.] 

1. A sudden discharge of electricity from a 
cloud to the earth, or from the earth to a 
cloud, or from one cloud to another, that 

L I G 

is, from a body positively charged to one 
negatively charged, producing a vivid flash 
of light, and usually a loud report, called 
thunder. Sometimes lishliiing is a mere 
instantaneous flash of light without thun- 
der, as heal-tigMniug, lightning seen by 
reflection, the flash being beyond the hm- 
its of our horizon. 
2. [from%A<«>i, to diminish weight.] Abate- 
ment ; alleviation ; mitigation. Spectator. 
LI'GHTROOM, n. In a ship of war, a small 
apartment, having double glass windows 
towards the magazine, and containing 
liehts by which the gunner fills cartridges. 
'' Mar. Diet. 

LIGHTS, n. lites. plu. [so called from their 

The lungs; the organs of breathing in ani- 
mals. These organs in man we call lungs 
in other animals, lights. 
LIGHTSOME, a. li'tesome. Luminous ; not 
dark ; not obscure. 

White walls make rooms more lightsome than 

black. [Little useii.] Baeon. 

The lightsome realms of love. Dryden 

[Inthe latter passage, the word is elegant.] 

2. Gay; airy; cheering; exhilarating. 

That lightsome aflfection of joy. Hooker. 

LI'GHTS6MENESS, ji. Lnminousness; 

the quahty of being light ; opposed to 

darkness or darksomeness. Cheyne. 

2. Cheerfulness; merriment; levity. 

[This tvord is little tised.] 
LIGN-AL'OES, n. [L. lignum, wood, and 

aloes.] Aloes-wood. Num. xxiv. 
LIG'NEOUS, a. [L. lignexts.] Wooden; 
consisting of wood ; re 
The harder part of ; 

L I K 

LIG'URITE, n. [from Liguria.] A mineralj 
occurring in oblique rhombic prisms, of an 
apple green color, occasionally speckled. 


LIKE, a. [Sax. lie, gelic, Goth, leiks, D. 
lijkjgelyk, G. gleich, Sw. lik, Dan. lig, 
Itge, hke, plain, even, equal, smooth. The 
sense of like, similar, is even, smooth, 
equal, but this sense may be from laying, 
pressing, and hence this word may be al- 
lied to the Eth. AY\0 lakeo, to starnp. 
seal, impress, whence its derivative, an im- 
age ; or the sense be taken from rubbing 
or shaving. We observe that like has 
also the sense of please ; to like is to 
be pleased. Now, if p in L. plaeeo, is a 
prefix, the latter may be formed on the 
root of like. And if de is a prefix, in de 
light, delecto, delicious, delicate, these may 
be of the same family. Like is evidently' 
from the same root as the Ch. and Heb. 

made of wood ; 
sembling wood, 
plant is ligneous. 
LIGNIFl€A'TION, n. The process of be- 
coming or of converting into wood, or the 
hard substance of a vegetable. Good. 

LIG'NIFORM, a. [L. lignum, wood, and 
form.] Like wood; resembhng wood. 

LIG'NIFY, V. t. [L.%7tu7?!, wood,and/ocio, 

to make.] To convert into wood. 
LIG'NIFY, V. i. To become wood. 
LIG'NITE, n. [L. lignum.] Fossil or bitu- 
minous wood, a mineral combustible sub- 
stance. Did. jVat. Hist 
LIG'NOUS, a. Ligneous. [Little used.] 

LIGNUM-VIT^, n. [L.] Guaiacum or 
pockwood, a genus of plants, natives of 
warm climates. The common Lignum- 
vitte is a native of the warm latitudes of 
America. It becomes a large tree, hav 
ing a hard, brownish, brittle bark, and its 
wood firm, solid, ponderous, very resin 
ous, of a blackish yellow color in the mid 
die, and of a hot aromatic taste. It is of 
considerable use in medicine and the me 
chanical arts, being wrought into utensils, 
wheels, cogs, and various articles of 
turnery. Enctjc. 

LIG'ULATE, \ [L. ligula, a strap.] 
LIG'ULATED, \"- Like a bandage orl 
strap; as a ligulate flower, a species of 
compound flower, the florets of wliici 
have their coroUets flat, spreading out 
towards the end, with tlie base only tubu- 
lar. This is the semi-floscular flower of 
Tournefort. Botany. 

LIG'URE,n. A kind of precious stone. Ex 

pSn, Ar. iJiX^ chalaka, to be or make 

smooth. Qu. Gr. »;>.txo;, rjUxia. See Lick 
and Lickerish.] 

1. Equal in quantity, quality or degree; as 
a territory of like extent with another 
men of like excellence. 

More clergymen were impoverished by the 
late war, than ever in the like space before. 


2. Similar; resembling; having resemblance 
Elias was a man subject to like passions as 

we are. James v. 

Why might not other planets have been ere 
ated for like uses with the earth, each for its 
own inhabitants ? Bentley 

Like is usually followed by to or unto, 
but it is often omitted. 

Wliat city is like unto this great city .' Rev 

1 saw tlirec unclean spirits like frogs. Rev 

Amoni> them all was found none like Daniel 
Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah. Dan. i. 

3. Probable ; likely, that is, having the re- 
semblance or appearance of an event 
giving reason to expect or believe. 

He is like to die of hunger in the place where 
he is, tor there is no more bread, jer. xxxvili 

Many were not easy to be governed, nor like 
to conform themselves to strict rules. 


LIKE, n. [elliptically, for like thing, like 
event, like persoii.] 

1. Some person or thing resembling anoth- 
er ; an equal. The like may never happen 

He was a man, take hiio for all and all, 

I sliall not look upon his like again. Shak. 

2. Had like, in the phrase, " he had like to 
be defeated," seems to be a corruption ; 
but perhaps like here is used for resem- 
blance or probability, and has the charac- 
ter of a nomi. At any rate, as a phrase, it 
is authorized by good usage. 

LIKE, adv. In the same manner. 

— Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed 
like one of these. Matt. vi. Luke xii. 

Like as a father pitieth liis children, so the 
Lord pitieth them that fear him. Ps. ciii. 

2. In a manner becoming. 
Be strong, and quit yourselves like men. 1 

Sam. iv. 

3. Likelv ; probably ; as like enough it will 



LIKE, V. t. [Sax. licean, lician ; Goth, leik- 
an ; probably L. plaeeo and delecto, with 

1. To be pleased with in a moderate degree; 
to approve. It expresses less than love and 
delight. We like a plan or design, when 
we approve of it as correct or beneficial. 
We like tlie character or conduct of a man 
when it comports with our view of recti- 
tude. We like food that the taste relishes. 
We like whatever gives us pleasure. 

He proceeded from looking to liking, and 
from liking to loving. Hidney. 

To please ; to be agreeable to. 

Tliis desire being recommended to her maj- 
esty, it liked her to include the same within 
one entire lease. Obs. Bacon. 

To liken. 06^. Shak. 

LIKE, V. i. To be pleased ; to choose. 

He may go or stay, as he likes. Locke. 

2. To like of, to be pleased. Ohs. KnoUes. 

LI'KELIHQOD, «• [likely aaA hood.] Prob- 
ability ; verisimihtude; appearance of truth 
or reality. There is little likelihood that 
an habitual drunkard will beconie tcm- 
[jerate. There is little likelihood that an 
old offender will be reformed. Prudence 
directs us not to undertake a design, when 
there is little or no likelilwod of success. 

Appearance; show; resemblance. 06*. 

LI'KELINESS, n. [from likely.] Proba- 
2. The qualities that please. [See Likely.] 
LI'KELY, a. [that is, like-like.] Proba- 
ble; that may be rationally thought or be- 
lieved to have taken place in time past, or 
to be true now or hereafter ; such as is 
more reasonable than the contrary. A 
likely story, is one which evidence, or the 
circumstances of the case render proba- 
ble, and therefore credible. 
Such as may be hked ; pleasing; as a 
likely man or woman. 

[This use of likely is not obsolete, as 
Johnson affirms, nor is it vulgar. But tlio 
Enghsh and their descendants in America 
differ in the application. The English ap- 
ply the word to external appearance, and 
with them, likely is equivalent to handsome, 
well formed ; as a likely man, a likely horse. 
In America, the word is usually applied to 
the endowments of the mind, or to pleas- 
ing accomplishments. With us, a likely 
man, is a man of good character and tal- 
ents, or of good dispositions or accom- 
plishments, that render him pleasing or 
LI'KELY, adv. Probably. 

While man was innocent, he was likely igno- 
rant of nothing important for him to know. 


LIKE-MINDED, n. Having a like dispo- 
sition or purpose. Rom. xv. 

LIKEN, II. t. h'kn. [Sw. likna ; Dan. Ugner.] 
To compare ; to represent as resembling 
or similar. 

Whosoever heareth these sayings of mine, 
and doeth them, I will liken him unto a wise 
man, that built his house on a rock. Matt. vi. 

LI'KENED, pp. Compared. 

LI'KENESS, n. Resemblance in form ; si- 
militude. The picture is a good likeness 
of the original. 

2. Resemblance ; form ; external appear- 
ance. Guard against an enemy in the 
likeness of a friend. 

L I 31 

L I M 

L I M 

3. One that resembles another ; a copy ; a 

1 took you for your likeness, Chloe. Prior. 

1. An image, picture or statue, resembling a 
person or thing. Ex. xx. 

LI KENING, ppr. Comparing; representing 

as similar. 
LI'KEWISE, adv. [like and idse.] In like 

manner; also; moreover; too. 

For he seeth that wise men die, likewise the 

fool and the brutish person perish, and leave 

their wealth to others. Ps. xhx. 
LI'KING, ppr. of like. Approving ; being 

pleased with. 

2. a. Plump; lull ; of a good appearance. 
Dan. i. Obs. 

LIKING, 71. A good state of body; health- 
ful appearance ; plumpness. 

Their young ones are in good liking— Job 

2. State of trial. [Ml used.] Dryden. 

3. Inclination ; pleasure ; as, this is an amuse- 
ment to your liking. Spenser. 

4. Delight in; pleasure in; with <o. 

He wlio has no liking to the whole, ought not 
to censure the parts. Dryden. 

LI'LAC, n. [Fr. Was; Sp. lilac] A plant oi- 
shrub of the genus Syringa, a native of| 
Persia. The common lilac is cultivated 
for its flowers, which are purple or white. 

LIL'ALITE, n. A species of earth of the 
argillaceous kind ; called also lepidolite, 
which see. Kirivan. 

LILIA'CEOUS, a. [L. liliaceus, from lilium, 

Pertaining to lilies ; lily-like. A liliaceous 
corol is one that has six regular petals. 


LIL'IED, a. Embellished witli lilies. 

By sandy Ladon's lilied banks. .Milton. 

LILL, v.t. [See Loll. But lill is used in 
New England.] Spenser. 

LILT, V. i. To do any thing with dexterity 
or quickness. [Local.] Pegge. 

2. To sing or play on the bagpipe. 

LIL'Y, n. [I., lilium ; Gr. 7.f ipioi- ; Sp. Kn'o.] 
A genus of plants of tnany species, which 
are all bulbous-rooted, herbaceous peren- 
nials, producing bell-shaped, hexapetalous 
flowers of great beauty and variety of col 

• ors. Entyc. 

Lily of the valley, a plant of the genus Con 
valiaria, with a monopetalous, bell-shaped 
corol, divided at the top into six segments. 


LILY-DAFFODIL, n. A plant and flower. 

LILY-HANDED, a. Having white deli- 
cate hands. Spenser. 

LIL'Y-HYACINTII, n. A plant. Miller. 

LILY-LIVERED, a. White-livered; cow- 
ardly. [Not used.] Shak. 

LIMA'TION, n. [L. limo, to file.] The act 
nf filing or polishing. 

Ll'MATIIRE, n. [L. limo, to file.] A filing. 

2. Filings ; particles rubbed oflfby filing 


LIMB, n. Urn. [Sax. Km ; Dan. Sw. lem ; 
L. limhus, edge or border, extremity 
limes, limit, coinciding perhaps with VV. 
Hem, llym, sharp, or llamu, to leap. The 
sense of limb is from shooting or extend 

1. Edge or border. This is the proper sig 
nification of the word; but in this sense it 
is limited chiefly to technical use, and ap 

plied to the sun, moon, or a star, to a leaf, 
to a quadrant, &c. We say, the sun or 
moon is eclipsed on its northern limb. But 
we never say, the limb of a board, of a tract 
of land or water, &c. 
In anatomy, and in common use, an extrem- 
ity of the human body ; a member ; a pro- 
jecting part; as the arm or leg; that is, a 

The branch of a tree ; applied only to a 
branch of some size, and not to a small 

In botany, the border or upper spreading 
part of a monopetalous corol. Martyn. 

LIMB, V. I. lim. To supply with limbs. 


2. To dismember ; to tearoff the limbs 

LIM'BAT, n. A cooling periodical wind in 

the isle of Cyprus, blowing from the north 

west from eight o'clock, A. M. to the mid- 


die of the day or later. 

LIM'BEC, n. [contracted from alembic.] 
A still ; a word not now used. 

LIM'BE€, V. I. To strain or pass through a 
still. 06s. Sandys. 

LIMB'ED, a. In composition, formed with 
regard to limbs; as weW-limbed ; large 
limbed; short-limbed. Pope. 

LIMBER, a. [perhaps from the W. llib, 
llibin ; for m and b are convertible, and m 
before b, is often casual.] 

Easily bent ; flexible ; pliant ; yielding. Ii 
America, it is applied to material things ; 
as a limber rod ; a limber joint. 

LIM'BER, n. In a ship, a square hole cut 
through the floor timbers, as a passage for 
water to the pump-well. Mar. Did. 

LIM'BERNESS, ?(. The quahty of being 
easily bent ; flexibleness; pliancy. 

LIM'BERS, n. A two-wheeled carriage, 
having boxes for annnunition. 

2. Thills; shafts of a carriage. [Local. 

LIM'BILITE, n. A mineral from Limbourg, 
in Swabia, of a honey yellow color, and 
coiTipact texture. Saussure. 

LIMB'LESS, a. Destitute of limbs. 


LIMB'-MEAL, a. Piece-meal. Shak. 

LIM'BO, ) [L. limbus.] A region border- 

LIM'BUS, S "'ing on hell, or hell itself. 

Among catholics, a place where the 
souls of persons are lodged after death. 

2. A place of restraint. Dryden. 

LIME, n. [Sax. lim, lime, whence geliman, 
to glue ; Sw. Dan. lim, D. lym, G. leim and 
lehem, loam ; L. limus ; It. Sp. limo ; prob- 
ably Gr. ^ifir;, y%riiiiri, and allied to clammy. 
On this word is formed slime.] 

1. A viscous substance, sometimes laid on 
twigs for catching birds. Dryden. 

2. Calcarious earth, oxyd of calcium, pro- 
cured from chalk and certain stones and 
shells, by expelling from them the carbon- 
ic acid, by means of a strong heat in a fur- 
nace. The best lime for mortar or ce- 
ment is obtained from limestone, or car- 
bonate of lime, of which marble is a fine 
species. Hooper. Nicholson. 

3. The linden tree. 

4. [Fr. lime. See Lemon.] A species of 
acid fruit, smaller than the lemon. 

LIME, V. I. [Sax. geliman.] To smear with 

a viscous substance. UEstrange. 

2. To entangle ; to ensnare. Shak 

3. To manure with lime. 
Land may be improved by draining, marhng 

and liming. Child. 

4. To cement. Shak. 
LrME-BURNER,n. One who burns stones 

to hme. 

LI'MED, pp. Smeared with lime; entang- 
led ; manured with lime. 

LIAIEHOUND, n. A dog used in hunting 
the wild boar ; a limer. Spenser. 

LIMEKILN, n. li'mekil. A kiln or ftirnace 
in which stones or shells are exposed to a 
strong heat and reduced to lime. 

LI MESTONE, n. Stone of which lime is 
made by the expulsion of its carbonic 
acid, or fixed air. It is called carbonate of 
lime. Of this there are several species. 

LI'METWIG, n. A twig smeared with lime. 

i Milton. 

LI'METVVIGGED, a. Smeared with lime. 


LI'MEWATER, n. Water impregnated 
with lime. 

LI'MING, ppr. Daubing with viscous mat- 
ter ; entangling; manuring with lime. 

LIM'IT, ?!. [L. limes ; Fr. limites. See 

1. Bound; border; utmost extent; the part 
that terminates a thing ; as the limit of a. 
town, city or empire ; the limits of human 

2. The thing which bounds; restraint. 

3. Limits, plu., the extent of the liberties of 
a prison. 

LIM'IT, V. t. To bound ; to set bounds to. 

2. To confine within certain bounds; to cir- 
cumscribe ; to restrain. The government 
of England is a limited monarchy. 

They tempted God and limited the Holy One 
of Israel. Ps. Ixxviii. 

3. To restrain from a lax or general signifi- 
cation. /rorW sometimes signifies the uni- 
verse, and sometimes its signification is 
limited to this earth. 

LIM'ITABLE, a. That may be limited, 
circumscribed, bounded or restrained. 


LIM'ITANEOUS, a. Pertaining to bounds. 


LIMITA'RIAN, a. That limits or circum- 

LIMITA'RIAN, n. One that limits; one 
who holds the doctrine that a part of 
the human race only are to be saved ; op- 
posed to universalist. Huntington. 

LIM'ITARY, a. Placed at the limit, as a 

— Proud limitary cherub. .Milton. 

LIMITATION, n. [L. limitatio.] The act 
of bounding or circumscribing. 
Restriction ; restraint ; circumscription. 
The king consented to a limitation of his 
l)rerogatives. Government by the limita- 
tion of natural rights secures civil liberty. 
Restriction ; confinement from a lax inde- 
terminate import. Words of general im- 
port are often to be understood with limit- 

4. .\ certain precinct within which friars 

were allowed to beg or exercise their 

functions. Gilping. 

LIM'ITED, pp. Bounded ; circumscribed ; 

2. a. Narrow; circumscribed. Our views 

of nature are very limited. 
LIM'ITEDLY, adv. With limitation. 

L I N 

LIM'ITEDNESS, n. State of being limit-l 
ed. Parker. 

LIM'ITER, n. He or that wliicli limits or 

2. A friar licenced to beg withni certain 
bounds, or wliose duty was limited to a 
certain district. 

LIMITLESS, a. Having no limits; im- 
bounded. ^«|""' 

LIM'MER, n. A limehound ; a mongrel. 


2 A dog engendered between a hound and 

■ a mastifi-. Bailey. 

3. A thill or shaft. [Local. See Limber.] 

4. A thill-horse. \Local.] 
LIMN, V. t. lim. [Pr. enlwniner ; L. lumino.] 

To draw or paint ; or to paint in water 
colors. Eiicyc 

LIM'NED, pp. lim'med. Painted. 

LIM'NER, n. [Fr. enlumineur jL. illumina- 
tor, in the middle ages, alluminor.] 

1. One that colors or paints on paper oi 
parchment ; one who decorates books witli 
initial pictures. Encyc. 

2. A portrait painter. 

LIMN'ING, ppr. Drawing ; painting ; paint- 
ing in water colors. 

LIM'NING, ?i. The act or art of drawing 

li I N 

or painting in water colors. 


LI'MbUS, a. [L. limosus, froin/imi(S,sliine. 
Muddy ; slimy ; thick. Brotim 

LIMP, V. i. [Sax. lemp-healt, lame ; gelimp 
an, to happen, that is, to fall ; allied per 
haps to tame.] To hall ; to walk lamely. 


LIMP, 11. A halt ; act of limping. 

LIMP, a. Vapid ; weak. [.Vo( used.] 


LIMP'ER, n. One that limps. 

LIM'PET, n. [L.lepas ; Gr.^(!tas,fvom^inu, 
to ])eel or strip off bark.] 

A univalve shell of the genus Patella, ad- 
hering to rocks. 

LIM'PID, a. [L. limpidris.] Pure ; clear ; 
transparent ; us a limpid stream. 

LIM'PIDNESS, n. Clearness; purity. 

LIM'PING, ppr. Halting ; walking lamely. 

LIM'PINGLY, adv. Lamely ; in a halting 

LIM'SY, a. [W. llymsi.] Weak ; flexible. 

.V. England. 

LI'MY, a. [See Lime.] Viscous; glutinous; 
as limy snares. 

2. Containing lime ; as a limy soil. 

3. Resembling lime ; having the qualities of 

LIN, V. i. [Ice. linna.] To yield. Obs, 
LIN, n. [Celtic] A pool or mere. [M)t 


LINCH'PIN, n. [Sax. lynis, an axis, D. 

A pin used to prevent the wheel of a cai- 
ritige from sliding off the axle-tree. 

LINC'TURE, n. [L. lirigo, linclus.] Medi- 
cine taken by licking. Burton. 

LIN'DEN, n. [Sax. Sw. Dan. lind ; D. linde 
or linde-boom ; G. linde, liiidenbaum.^ 

The lime-tree, or teil-trec, of the genus 
Tilia. Drydcn. 

LINE, n. [L. linea ; Fr. ligne, from L. L 
num ; Gr. J-iioi/, flax ; G. leine ; D. lyn ; 
Sw. Una ; Dan. line.] 

1. In geometry, a quantity extended in lengtli, 
without breadth or thickness ; or a limit 
terminating a surface. Encyc. 

2. A slender string ; a small cord or rope.l 
The angler uses a line and hook. The 
seaman uses a hand line, a hauling itne, 
spilling lines, &c. 
'.i. A thread, string or cord extended to di- 
rect any operation. 

We as by line upon the ocean go. Dryden. 
|4. Lineament ; a mark in the liand or face. 
He tipples palmistry, and dines 
On all lier forlune-telliug lines. Cleaveland. 

5. Delineation ; sketch ; as the lines of a 
building. Temple. 

6. Contour ; outline ; exterior limit of n 

Free as thy stroke, yet faultless as thy line. 


7. In writing, printing and engraving, the 
words and letters which stand on a level 
in one row, between one rnargin and an 
other; as a page of thirty lines. 

8. In poetry, a verse, or the words which 
form a certain number of feet, according 

I to the measure. 

9. A short letter ; a note. I received a line 
from my friend by tlu; last mail. 

10. A rank or row of soldiers, or the dispo- 
sition of an army drawn up with an ex- 
tended front ; or the like disposition of a 
fleet prepared for engagement. 

11. A trench or rampart ; an extended work 
in fortification. 

Unite thy forces and attack their lines. 


12. Method; disposition; as Kne of order. 


13. Extension ; limit ; border. 
Eden stretched her line 

From Auran eastward to the royal towers 
Of great Seleucia. Milton. 

14. Equator; equinoctial circle. 
When the sun below the line descends — 


15. A series or succession of progeny or re- 
lations, descending from a common pro- 
genitor. We speak of the ascending or 
descending line ; the line of descent ; the 
male line ; a line of kings. 

IG. The twelfth part of an inch. 

17. A straight extended mark. 

18. A straight or parallel direction. The' 
houses must all stand in a line. Every 
new building must be set in a tine with 
others on the same street. 

19. Occupation ; employment ; department 
or course of business. We speak of men 
in the same tine of business. 


20. Course ; direction. ! 
What general line of conduct oup;ht to be pur-j 

sued ? Washington.. 

21. Lint or flax. [Seldom used.] Spenser.] 

22. In heraldry, lines are the figures used inl 
armories to divide the shield into different 
parts, and to compose different figures. 


23. In Scripture, line signifies a cord lor 
measuring ; also, instruction, doctrine. Ps. 
xix. Is. xxviii. 

Jl right line, a straight or direct line ; the 
shortest line that can be drawn between 


cle which the sun seems to describe, ili 

March and September, when the days and 

nights are of equal length. 
Meridian tine, an imaginary circle drawn 

through the two poles of the earth, and 

any part of its surface. 
Astiip of the line, a ship of war large enough 

to have a place in the line of battle. All 
i ships carrying seventy four or more large 
j guns, are ships of the line. Smaller shijis 
I may sometimes be so called. 
LINE, t'. (. [supposed to be from L. linum, 

flax, whence linen, which is often used for 


1. To cover on the inside ; as a garment 
lined v,'i{\t linen, fur or silk; a. hox lined 
with pa])er or tin. 

2. To put in the inside. 
— What if 1 do line one of their hands ? 


3. To place along by the side of any thing 
for guarding ; as, to line a hedge with ri- 
flemen ; to line works with soldiers. 

To strengthen by additional works or 

Line and new repair your towns of war 
With men of courage. Shali. 

5. To cover ; to add a covering ; as, to line 
a crutch. Shak. 

[G. To strengthen with any thing added. 

Who lined himself witli hope. Shak. 

7. To impregnate; applied to irrational ani- 
mals. Creech. 

LIN'EAgE, ». [Fr. lignage, from ligne, 

Race ; progeny ; descendants in a line from 
a common progenitor. 

LIN'EAL, a. [L. linealis, from linea, line.] 

1. Composed of lines; delineated ; as lineal 
designs. Motion. 

2. In a direct line from an ancestor ; as lin- 
eal descent ; lineal succession. Locke. 

3. Hereditary ; derived from ancestors. 


Allied by direct descent. 

For only you are liiieal to tlie throne. 

In the direction of a Hue ; as lineal meas- 

two points. 

Horizontal line, a line drawn parallel to the 

Equinoctial line, in geography, a great circlei 
on the earth's surface, at 90 degrees dis- 
tance from each pole, and bisecting the 
earth at that part. lu astronomy, the cir- 

Lineal measure, the measure of length. 

LINEAL'ITY, n. The state of being in the 
form of a line. Am. Revieic. 

LIN'EALLV, adv. In a direct line; as, the 
prince is lineally descended from the con- 

LIN'EAMENT, n. [Fr. from L. lineamtn- 

F'cature ; form; make ; the onllinc or exte- 
rior of a body or figure, particularly of the 

Man he seems 
In all his lineament.^. Milton. 

— The lineaments of the body. Locke. 

— Lineaments of a character. Swift. 

LINEAR, a. [L. linearis.] Pertaining to a 
line ; consisting of lines ; in a straight di- 

2. In botany, like a line ; slender ; of the 
same breadth throughout, except at the 
extremities; as a H;icar leaf 

Linear numbers, in mathematics, such as 
have relation to length only ; such is a 
number which represents one side of a 
plane figure. If the plane figure is a 
square, the linear figure is called a root. 




L I P 

Linear problem, that wliich may be solved 
geometiirally by the intersection of two 
right hnes. Encyc. 

LIN'EATE, a. In botany, marked longitudi- 
nally with depressed parallel hnes ; as a 
lineate leaf. 

LINEA'TION, n. Draught ; delineation, 
which see. Woodward. 

LI'NED, pp. Covered on the inside. 

LIN'EN, n. [L. linum, flax, Gr. xww, W. 
llin, Ir. Un, Kuss. len, G. kin. The sense 
is probably long, extended or smooth. In 
the latter sense, it would accord with L. 
linio, lenio.] 

1. Cloth made of flax or hemp. 

2. An under garment. 

LIN'EN, a. [L. Imeus.] Made of flax or 
hemp ; as line7i cloth ; a linen stocking. 

2. Resembling linen cloth ; white ; pale. 


Fossil-linen, a kind of amianth, with soft, 
parallel, flexible fibers. Encyc. 

LIN' EN-DRAPER, n. A person who deals 
in linens. 

lAnener and linen-man, in a hke sense, are 

LING, n. [D. leng; Ir. long; probably Sax. 
leng, long.] 

A fish of the genus Gadus, or cod kind, 
which grows to the length of four feet or 
more, is very slender, with a flat head. 
This fish abounds on the coasts of Scot- 
land and Ireland, and forms a considera- 
ble article of commerce. Encyc. 

LING, n. [Ice. ling, from leng, long.] A spe- 
cies of long grass ; heath. 

Jamieson . Cyc. 

lAng, a Saxon termination, as in darling, 
firstling, denotes primarily state, condi- 
tion, or subject. In some words, it de- 
notes the young of an animal, or a small 

LINGER, V. i. [from the root of long, Sax. 

1. To delay; to loiter; to remam or wait 
long ; to be slow. 

Nor cast one longing, lingering look behind. 

Whose judgment now of a long time linger- 
eth not. 2 Pet. ii. 

2. To hesitate ; to be slow in deciding ; to be 
in suspense. 

Perhaps thou lingerest, in deep thought de- 
tained. Milton. 

3. To remain long in any state. The patient 
lingers on a bed of sickness. 

LIN'GER, V. t. To protract. Shak. 

LINGERER, n. One who lingers. 
LIN'GERING, p;)r. Delaying; loitering. 
2. a. Drawing out in time ; remaining long; 
protracted ; as a lingering disease. 

To die is the fate of man ; but to die with 
lingering anguish is generally his foUy. 

LIN'GERING, n. A delaying; a remaining 
long; tardiness; protraction. 

The Hngerings of holyday customs. 

LIN'GERINGLY, adv. With delay ; slow- 
ly; tediously. Hale. 
LIN'GET, n. [Fr. lingot, from languette, a 

a tongue.] 
A small muss of metal. Camden 

LIN'GLE, n. [Fr. tigneul, fvom ligne.] Shoe- 
maker's thread. [JVot in use or local.] 


LIN'GO, 71. [L. lingua.] Language ; speech. 
[ Vidgar.] 

LINGUADENT'AL, a. [L. hngua, tongue, 
and dens, a tooth.] 

Formed or uttered by the joint use of the 
tongue and teeth ; as the letters d and t. 


LINGUADENT'AL, n. An articulation 
formed by the tongue and teeth. 

LIN'GUAFORM, a. [lingua and form.] Hav- 
ing the form or shape of the tongue. 


LIN'GUAL, a. [L. Ih^ua, the tongue.] Per- 
taining to the tongue ; as the lingual 
nerves, the ninth pair, which go to the 
tongue ; the lingtial nniscle, or muscle of 
the tongue. 

LIN'GUIST, n. [L. lingua, tongue.] A per- 
son skilled in languages ; usually applied 
to a person well versed in the languages 
taught in colleges, Greek, Latin, and He- 
brew. Milton. 

LIN'GULATE, a. [L. lingulatus, from lin- 
gua, tongue.] 

Shaped like the tongue or a strap. [But 
ligulate is more generally used.] 


LINGWORT, n. An herb. 

LIN'IMENT, n. [Fr. from L. linimentum, 
from linio, lino, to anoint.] 

A species of soft ointment ; a composition of 
a consistence somewhat thinner than an 
unguent, but thicker than oil. Encyc. 

Ll'NlJ^G, ppr. [See lAne.] Covering on the 
inside, as a garment. 

LI'NING, n. The inner covering of any 
thing, as of a garment or a box. The 
pleura is called the lining of the thorax. 
That which is within. Shak. 

LINK, n. [G. gelenk, a joint, a ring, a swivel, 
a link, and as an adjective, flexible, lim- 
ber, from lenken, to bend ; Dan. lenke, a 

1. A single ring or division of a chain. 
Any thing doubled and closed like a link ; 
as a link of horse hair. Mortimer. 

3. A chain ; any thing connecting. 

— And love, the common link, the new crea- 
tion crowned. Dryden. 

Any single constituent part of a connected 

series. This argtunent is a link in the 

chain of reasoning. 
5. A series; a chain. 
LINK, n. [Gr. i.vxi'os, L. lychnus, a lamp or 

candle, coinciding in elements with light.] 
A torch made of tow or hards, &c., and 

pitch. Shak. Dryden. 

LINK, V. t. To complicate. Johnson. 

2. To unite or connect by something inter- 
vening or in other manner. 

— Link towns to towns by avenues of oak. 

— And creature link'd to creature, man to man 


LINK, V. i. To be connected. Burke. 

LINK'BOY, > A boy or man that carries 
LINK'MAN, I "■ a link or torch to light pas- 
sengers. More. Gay. 
LINK'ED, pp. United ; connected. 
LINK'ING, ;>;)r. Uniting; connecting. 
LIN'NET, n. [Fr. linot ; W. llinos, from lUn, 
flax, and called also in W. adern y llin 
flax-bird ; Sax. linelwege. So in h.cardu 
elis, from carduus, a thistle.] 
A small singing bird of the genus Fringilla. 
LINSEED. [See Liiitseed.] I 

LIN'SEY-WOQLSEY, a. Made of linen 
and wool ; lience, vile ; mean ; of differ- 
ent and unsuitable parts. Johnson. 

LIN'STOCK, ji. [lint and stock.] A pointed 
staff" with a crotch or fork at one end, to 
hold a lighted match ; used in firing can- 
non. It may be stuck in the ground or in 
the deck of a ship. Encyc. 

LINT, n. [Sax. linet, L. linteum,linteus, from 
linum, flax.] 

Flax ; but more generally, hnen scraped into 
a soft substance, and used for dressing 
wounds and sores. 

LINT'EL, n. [Fr. linteau ; Sp. lintel or din- 

The head-piece of a door-frame or window- 
frame ; the part of the frame that lies on 
the side-pieces. Ex. xii. 

LINT'SEED, n. [lint. Sax, and seed ; Sax. 
littsced.] Flaxseed. 

LI'ON, n. [Fr. from L. leo, leonis, Gr. >jov. 
Arm. leon, W. Hew, a lion ; llewa, to swal- 
low, to devour.] 

1. A quadru|)ed of the genus Felis, very 
strong, fierce and rapacious. The largest 
lions are eight or nine feet in length. The 
male has a thick head, beset with long 
bushy hair of a yellowish color. The lion 
is a native of Africa and the warm cli- 
mates of Asia. His aspect is noble, his 
gait stately, and his roar tremendous. 

2. A sign in the zodiac. 

LI'ONESS, n. The female of the lion kind. 
LI'ONLIKE, a. Like a lion ; fierce. 

LI'ON-METTLED, a. Having the courage 

and spirit of a lion. Hitlhouse. 

LION'S FOOT, n. A plant of the genu^ 

LION'S LEAF, n. A plant of the genus 

LION'S TAIL, n. A plant of the genus 

LIP, n. [Sax. lippa, lippe ; D. lip ; G. Dan. 

lippe ; Sw. llipp ; L. labium, labrum ; 

It. labbro ; Sp. labio ; Fr. lei^e ; Ir. dab or 

liobhar; Pers. ,_^ J. It may be connected 

with W. llavaru, Ir. labhraim, to speak, 
that is, to thrust out. The sense is prob- 
ably a border.] 

1. The edge or border of the mouth. The 
lips are two fleshy or muscular parts, com- 
posing the exterior of the mouth in man 
and many other animals. In man, the 
lips, whicli may be opened or closed at 
pleasure, form the covering of the teeth, 
and are organs of speech essential to cer- 
tain articulations. Hence the lips, by a 
figure, denote the mouth, or all the organs 
of speech, and sometimes speech itself. 
Job ii. 

2. The edge of any thing ; as the Iw of a 
vessel. Burnet. 

3. In botany, one of the two opposite divis- 
ions of a labiate corol. The upper is call- 
ed the helmet, and the lower the beard. 
Also, an appendage to the flowers of the 
orchises, considered by Liime as a nec- 
tary. Martyn. Smith. 

To make a lip, to drop the under lip in sul- 
lenness or contempt. Shak. 

LIP, r. t. To kiss. Shak. 

LIP-DEVO'TION, n. Prayers uttered by 
the lips without the desires of the heart. 

L I a 



LIP'-GQOD) a. Good in profession only. 

B. Jonson 
LIP'-LABOR, n. Labor or action of the lips 

witbout concurrence of the mind ; words 

witliout sentiments. 
LIP'OGRAM, n. [Gr. XfiJtw, to leave, and 

ypa^ufia, a letter.] 
A writing in which a single letter is wholly 

LIPOGRAJVI'MATIST, n. One who writes 

any thing, dropping a single letter. 

LIPOTH'YMOUS, a. [See Lipothymy. 

Swooning ; fainting. 
LIPOTH'YMY, n. [Gr. J^tirtoBviiM ; ■KuHu, to 

fail, and dv/ws, soul.] 
A fainting ; a swoon. Core. Tai/lor 

LIP'PED, a. Having bps. 
2. In botany, labiate. 
LIP'PITUDE, ji. [L. lippitudo, from lippus, 

Soreness of eyes; blearedness. Bacon. 

LIP'-WISDOM, n. Wisdom in talk witbout 

practice ; wisdom in words not su])ported 

by experience. Sidney. 

LIQ'UABLE, a. [See Liquate.] That may 

be melted. 
lilQUA'TION, ji. [L. liqualio. See Liquate.] 

1. The act or operation of melting. 

2. The capacity of being melted ; as a sub- 
stance congealed beyond liquation. 


LI'QUATE, V. i. [L. liquo.] To melt ; to li- 
quefy ; to be dissolved. [LilUe used.] 


LmiJEFAC'TION, n. [L. liquefaclio, from 

The act or operation of melting or dissolv- 
ing; the conversion of a sobd into a liquid 
by the .sole agency of heat or caloric. 
Liquefadion, in common usage, signifies 
the melting of any substance, but by some 
authors it is applied to the melting of sub- 
stances, which pass through intermediate 
states of softness before they become flu- 
id, as tallow, wax, resin, &c. 

Coxe's Dispensatory. 

2. The state of being melted. 

LIQ'UEFIABLE, a. That may be melted 
or changed from a solid to a liquid state. 


LIQ'UEFIER, n. That which melts any 
solid substance. 

LIQ'UEFY, V. t. [Fr. liquefier, from L. lique 
facio. See Liquid.] 

To melt; to dissolve ; to convert from a fix 
ed or solid form to that of a liquid, and 
technically, to melt by the sole agency of 
heat or caloric. 

LIQ'UEFY, V. i. To be melted ; to become 
liquid. Addison 

LIQ'UEFyING, jo;>r. 3Ielting ; becoming 

LIQUES'CENCY, n. [L. liquescentia.] Apt 
ness to melt. Johnson. 

LIQUES'CENT, a. Melting ; becoming fluid. 

LIQUEUR, n. [Fr.] A spirituous cordial. 

LIQ'UID, a. [L. liquidus, from liqno, to 
melt, Ir. leagham ; probably from flow- 
ing, and coinciding with Sax. loge, water, 
L. lix, and lug, in Lugdunum, Lcyden, Ly 

Fluid; flowing or capable of flowing; not 
fixed or solid. But liquid is not precisely 
synonymous v:\thjluid. Mercury and air 
inejluid, but not liquid. 

Vol. II 

2. Soft; clear; flowing; smooth; as liquid^ 
melody. Crashaw. 

3. Pronounced without any jar ; smooth ; as' 
a liquid letter. | 

4. Dissolved ; not obtainable by law ; as a' 
liquid debt. Obs. -Hyliff^-^ 

LIQ'UID, n. A fluid or flowing substance ; 
a substance whose parts change their rel- 
ative position on the slightest pressure, 
and which flows on an inclined plane ; as 
water, wine, milk, &c. 
2. In grammar, a letter vvbicli has a smooth 
flowing sound, or which flows smoothly 
after a mute ; as / and r, in Ua, bra. M 
and n are also called liquids. 
LIQ'UIDATE, v.t. [Fi: liquider; L. liqui- 
do.] To clear from all obscurity. 

Time only tan liquidate the meaning of all 
parts of a compound system. Jianiilton 

2. To settle ; to adjust ; to ascertain or re- 
duce to precision in amount. 

Which method of liquidating die amerce 
ment to a precise sum, was usually performed 
in the superior courts. Blackstone. 

The clerk of the commons' house of assembly 
in 1774, gave certificates to the public creditors 
that their demands were liquidated, anil should 
be provided for in the next tax-bill. Jiamsay.'i 
The domestic debt may be subdivided into 
liquidated and unliquidated. Hamilton. 

.3. To pay; to settle, adjust and satisfy; as 
a debt. IVheaton} 

Kyburgh was ceded to Zuric by Sigisinond, 
to liquidate a debt of a thousand florins. 

Coxe's Switz 

LIQ'UIDATED, pp. Settled ; adjusted ; re- 
duced to certainty ; paid. 

LIQUIDATING, ppr. Adjusting; ascer 
taining ; paying. 

LIQUIDA'TION, n. The act of settling and 
adjusting debts, or ascertaining their 
amount or balance due. 

LIQ'UIDATOR, n. He or that which liqui- 
dates or settles. E. Everett. 

LIQUID'ITY, n. [Fr. iiquidite.] The quality 
of being fluid or liquid. 

2. Thinness. Glanville. 

LIQ'UIDNESS, n. The quality of being 
liquid ; fluency. Boyle 

LIQ'UOR, 71. lik'or. [Sax. loge ; Tr. liqueur , 
L. liquor.] 

A liquid or fluid substance. [See Liquid.] 
Liquor is a word of general signification, 
extending to water, milk, blood, sap, juice, 
&c. ; but its most common application is 
to spirituous fluids, whether distdled or fer- 
mented, to decoctions, solutions, tinctures, 


LIQ'UOR, V. t. To moisten ; to drench, 
[Little used.] Bacon. 

LIQUORICE. [See Licorice.] 

LIS'BON, n. A species of wine exported 
from Lisbon, in Portugal. 

LISNE, n. A cavity or hollow. [JVot in 
use.] Hale. 

LISP, V. i. [G. lispeln, D. lispen, to lisp ; 
Sax. vlisp or vbps, a lisping ; Sw. Ihspa 
Russ. lepelzu, to lisp.] 

To speak with a particular articulation of 
the tongue and teeth, nearly as in pro- 
nouncing th. Lisping is particularly no 
ticed in uttering th for s, as yeth for yes. 
It is most common in children. 

I lisped in numbers, for the numbers came. 



LISP, I', t. To pronounce with a lisp ; as, 

she lisped a few words. 

LISP, ji. The act of lisping, as in uttering an 
aspirated th for *. 

LISI'ER, n. One that lisps. 

LISP'ING, ppr. Uttering with a lisp. 

LJSl'liNULY, adv. ^Vith a lisp. Holder. 

LIST, n. [Sax. Sw. list ; It. Sp. lista ; 
Fr. Dan. lisle; D. lyst ; G. lilze. If 
list, a roll or catalogue, and list, a border 
or strip of cloth, are from the same root, 
we find the original orthography in the 
Arm. Itz, and Sp. liza, and perhaps the L. 
licium, Fr. lice. Rut in some languages 
the words are distinguished ; Fr. lisle, a 
roll, and lisicre, a list or selvage of cloth.] 

1. In commerce, the border, edge or selvage 
of cloth ; a strip of cloth forming the bor- 
der, particularly of broadcloth, and serv- 
ing to strengthen it. 

2. A line incloshig or forming the extremity 
of a piece of ground, or field of combat ; 
hence, the ground or field inclosed for a 
race or combat. Hence, to enter the lists, 
is to accept a challenge or engage in con- 
test. Hence, 

3. A limit or boundary ; a border. 

4. In architecture, a little square molding; 
a fillet ; called also a lislel. 

a. A roll or catalogue, that is, a row or line ; 
as a list of names ; a list of books ; a list 
of articles ; a list of ratable estate. 

G. A strij) of cloth ; a fillet. SwiJ^. 

Civil list, in Great Britain and the United 
States, the civil ofliccrs of government, as 
judges, embassadors, secretaries, &c. 
Hence it is used for the revenues or ap- 
propriations of public money for the sup- 
port of the civil ofiicers. 

LIST, V. t. [from list, a roll.] To enroll ; to 
register in a list or catalogue ; to enlist. 
The latter is the more elegant word. 

2. To engage in the iiublic service, as sol- 

They in my name are listed. Dryden. 

3. To inclose for combat ; as, to list a field. 


4. To sew together, as strips of cloth ; or to 
form a border. tVolton. 

5. To cover with a list, or with strips of 
cloth ; as, to list a door. 

6. To hearken ; to attend ; a contraction of 
listen, which see. 

LIST, V. i. To engage in public service by 
enrolling one's name ; to enlist. [The 
latter is the more elegant word. See 

LIST, V. i. [Sax. lystan ; G. lUslen ; D. /lis- 
ten; Sw.lysta; Dan. lyster. See Ltist. 
The primarj' sense seems to be to lean, 
incline, advance or stretch toward. [See 
the Noun.] 

Properly, to lean or incline ; to be prepense ; 
hence, to desire or choose. 

Let otlier men tliink of your devices as they 

list. IVhitgifte. 

The wind bloweth where it listeth. John iii. 

LIST, n. In the language of seamen, an 
inclination to one side. The ship has a 
lilt to port. Mar. Diet. 

LIST'ED, pp. Striped ; particolored in 

2. Covered with list. 

3. Inclosed for combat. 

4. Engaged in pubhc service ; enrolled. 

L I T 



LIST'EL, n. A list in architecture ; a fillet. 

LIST'EN, V. i. lis'n. [Sax. lystan or hlystan ; 

D. luisteren. Qu. G. lauschen ; Scot. 


1. To hearken ; to give ear ; to attend 
closely with a view to hear. 

On the green bank 1 sat, and listened long. 

Dry den . 

2. To obey ; to yield to advice ; to follow 

LIS'TEN, V. t. lis'n. To hear ; to attend. 


IJST'ENER, n. One who listens; a heark- 

LIST'ER, n. One who makes a list or roll 

LIST'FUL, a. Attentive. Obs. Spenser. 

LIST'ING, pnr. Inclosing for combat ; cov 
ering with list ; enlisting. 

LIST'LESS, a. Not listening ; not attend 
ing ; indifferent to what is passing; heed 
less ; inattentive ; thoughtless ; careless ; 
as a listless hearer or spectator. 

LIST'LESSLY, adv. Without attention 

LIST'LESSNESS, n. Inattention; heed- 
lessness ; indifference to what is passing 
and may be interesting. 

LIT, pref. of light. The bird lit on a tree 
before me. 

I lit my pipe with the paper. .Addison 

[This word, though used by some good 
writers, is very inelegant.] 

LIT' ANY, n. [Fr. litanie. Or. UtavtM. 
supplication, from ^itoffvu, XiTojuai, Xioao 
Hai, to pray.] 

A solemn form of supplication, used in pub 
lie worship. 

Supplications for the appeasing of God's 
wrath, were by the Greek church termed lita- 
nies, by the Latin, rogations. Hooker. 

LITE, a. Little. [JSTot in use.] 

liiTER, n. [Fr. litre, from Gr. ntpa.] A 
French measure of capacity, being a cubic 
decimeter, containing, according to Lu 
nier, about a pint and a Iialf old French 
measure. The liter is equal to 60,02800 
cubic inches, or nearly 2J wine pints. 


LIT'ERAL, a. [Fr. from L. litera, a letter.] 

L According to the letter ; primitive; real 
not figurative or metaphorical ; as the 
literal meaning of a phrase. 

2. Following the letter or exact words ; not 
free ; as a literal translation. 

3. Consisting of letters. 

The literal notation of numbers was known 
to Europeans before the ciphers. Johnson. 

LIT'ERAL, n. Literal meaning. [JVot 
used.] Brown. 

LIT'ERALISM, n. That which accords 
with the letter. Milton. 

LITERAL'ITY, ji. Original or literal mean- 
iijcT. Broimi. 

LIT'^ERALLY, adv. According to the pri- 
mary and natural import of words; not 
figuratively. A man and his wife cannot 
be literally one flesh. 

2. With close adherence to words ; word 
by word. 

So wild and ungovernable a poet cannot be 
translated literalli/. JJrydeii. 

LIT'ERARY, a. [L. literarius.] Pertaining 
to letters or literature ; respecting learn- 
ing or learned men ; as a literary history ; 
literary conversation. 

2. Derived from erudition ; as literary fame. 

3. Furnished with erudition ; versed in let- 
ters ; as a literary man. 

4. Consisting in letters, or written or printed 
compositions; as literaiy property. 

LIT'ERATE, a. [L. literatus.] Learned; 
lettered; instructed in learning and sci- 
ence. Johnson. 
LITERA'TI, n. plu. [L. literatus.] The 
learned; men of erudition. Spectator. 
LIT'ERATOR, n. [L.] A petty school- 
master. Burke. 
LIT'ERATURE, n. [L. literatitra.] Learn- 
ing ; acquaintance with letters or books. 
L/iteralure comprehends a knowledge of 
the ancient languages, denominated clas 
sical, history, grammar, rhetoric, logic, 
geography, &c. as well as of the sciences. 
A knowledge of the world and good 
breeding give luster to literature. 
LITH, n. [Sax.] A joint or limb. Ohs. 

LITHAN'THRAX, n. [Gr. >.i9os, a stone 

and ot9pa|, a coal.] 
Stone-coal, a black, compact, brittle, inflam- 
mable substance, of laminated texture, 
more or less shining. JVicholson. 

LITH'ARgE, n. [Fr. fi-om L. lithargyros. 
Gr. /iiSopyDpo;, the spume or scum of 
A semi-vitreous oxyd of lead, produced in 
refining silver by cupellation with lead. 
It appears in the form of soft flakes, or 
senn-transparent shining plates. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. Encyc. JVicholson. 
LITHE, a. [Sax. lilh, lithe ; W.Uyth.] That 
may be ea&ily bent; pliant; flexible; lim- 
ber ; as the elephant's lithe proboscis. 

LITHE, i>. t. To smooth ; to soften ; to pal 
Hate. Obs. Chaucer. 

2. To listen. Obs. [See Listen.^ 
LI'THENESS, n. Flexibility; linibemess. 
LI'THER, a. Soft ; l)liant. Obs. Shak. 

2. [Sax. lythr.] Bad ; corrupt. Obs. 

LI'THERLY, arft). Slowly; lazily. Obs. 

LI'THERNESS, n. Idleness ; laziness. Obs. 

LITH'IA, 11. A new alkali, found in a min- 
eral called petalite, of which the basis is a 
metal called lithium. Davy. lire. 

LITH'IATE, n. [Gr. mSoj, a stone.] A salt 
or compound formed by the lithic acid 
combined with a base. Hooper. 

LITH'le, a. [supra.] Pertaininrj to the 
stone in the bladder. The lilhic acid is 
obtained from a calculus in the bladder. 
LITHOBIBLION. [See Lithophyl.] 
LITH'OCARP, n. [Gr. ?.iSo5, a stone, and 
xaprtos, fruit.] Fossil fruit ; fruit petrified 
Did. jVut. Hist. 
LITH'OeOLLA, )i. [Gr. uBot, a stone, and 
xowa, glue.] A cement that unites stones. 


LITIIODEN'DRON, n. [Gr. xiOa, stone, 

and iffitiov, /tree.] Coral ; so called fron 

its resembling a petrified branch. Parr 

LITHOgEN'ESY, n. [Gr. uBo;, stone, and 

yiviatf, generation.] 
The doctrine or science of the origin of min 
erals composing the globe, and of the 
causes which have produced their forn 
and disposition. Diet. JVal. Hist. 

LITHOGLYPH'ITE, n. [Gr. ueo;, stone, 
and yXvfu, to engrave.] 

A fossil that presents the appearance of ba- 
ng engraved or shaped by art. Lunier. 

LITHOG'RAPHER, n. [See Lithography.] 
One who practices lithography. 

LITHOGRAPH'Ie, ) Pertaining to 

LITHOGRAPH'IeAL, I "' lithography. 

LITHOGRAPHICALLY, adv. By the lith- 
ograi)hic art. 

LITHOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. XiSo;, stone, and 
ypa^ui, to engrave or write.] 

The art of engraving, or of tracing letters, 
figures or other designs on stone, and of 
transferring them to paper by impression ; 
an art recently invented by Mr. Senne- 
felder of Munich, in Bavaria. 

Joum. of Science. 

LITHOLOG'l€, ? ra t -.i i ^ 

LITHOLO(J'l€AL, \ "• 1^*=^ Lithology.] 

Pertaining to the science of stones. 

LITHOL'OgIST, n. A person skilled in 

the science of stones. 
LITHOL'OgY, n. [Gr. J-iSoj, stone, and \o. 

yo;, discourse.] 

1. The science or natural history of stones. 


2. A treatise on stones found in the body. 


LITH'OMANCY, n. [Gr. uOos, stone, and 

fiantita, divination.] 
Divination or prediction of events by means 
of stones. Broicn. 

LITHOMAR'GA, } [Gr. JiiSof, stone, and 
LITH'OMARgE, S L- marga, marl.] 
An earth of two species, friable and indura- 
ted, more siliceous than aluminous, dis- 
tinguished by its great fineness and its 
fusibihty into a soft slag. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. Kirwan. lire. 
LITHONTRIP'TIC,«. [Gr. TiiSot, stone, and 

■fptSu, to wear or break.] 
Having the quality of dissolving the stone 

in the bladder or kidneys. 
LlTHONTRIP'TIe, n. A medicine which 
has the power of dissolving the stone in 
the bladder or kidneys ; a solvent of stone 
in the human urinary passages. Coxe. 
LITH'ONTRIPTOR, ) An instrument for 
LITH'OTRITOR, ^ '' triturating the 
stone in the bla(lder, so that it may be ex- 
tracted without cutting ; recently invent- 
ed by Dr. Civiale. 
LITH'ONTRIPTY, { The operation of 
LITH'OTRITY, \ "'triturating the stone 
in the bladder, by means of an instrument 
called lithotritor. 
LITHOPH'AGOUS, a. [Gr. Mdos, stone, 

and ijioyu, to eat.] 
Eating or swallowing stones or gravel, as 

the ostrich. 
LITH'OPllOSPHOR, n. [Gr. udo;, stone, 

and $uiff$opo!.] 
A stone that becomes phosphoric by heat. 

Diet. JVal. Hist. 

LITHOPHOSPHOR'IC, a. Pertaining to 

lithophosphor; becoming phosphoric by 


LITHOPHYL, n. [Gr. ^i9oj, stone, and 

fvJAov, a leaf.] 
Bibliolitc or lithobihlion, fossil leaves, or the 

figures of leaves on fussils. 
LITH'OPHYTE, n. [Gr. 7.i9o5, stone, and 

fvrov, a plant ; literally, stone-plant.] 
Istonc-coral ; a name given to those species 


L I T 

L I V 

of polypiers, whose substance is stony. 

The older naturalists classed them with 

vegetables. Cuvier. Ray. 

LITHOPIIYT'IC, a. Pertaining to litho- 

LITH'OPHYTOUS, a. Pertaining to or 

consisting of lithophytes. 
LITH'OTOME, n. [Gr. ueos, stone, and 

ieHvu, to cut.] 

A stone so formed naturally as to appear as 
if cut artificially. Diet. Nal. Hist. 

LITHOTOM'I€, a. Pertaining to or per- 
formed by lithotomy. 

LITIIOT'OMIST, 71. [See Lithotomy.] One 
who performs the operation of cutting for 
the stone in the bladder ; or one who is 
skilled in the operation. 

LITHOT'OMY, n. [Gr. >.i9o;, stone, and 

■ff/UKO, to cut.] 

The operation, art or practice of cutting for 
the stone in the bladder. 

LITHOX'YLE, n. [Gr. XiSoj, stone, and 
t\iKov, wood.] 

Petrified wood. It difjers from lignite, be- 
ing really changed into stone ; such as 
silicified "woods, which are changed into 
varieties of silex, &c. Diet. JVat. Hist. 

LITH'Y, a. [See Lithe.] Easily bent ; plia- 
ble. [This is probably the word which, 
in our popular use, is pronounced lathy.] 

LIT'IGANT, a. [See Litigate.] Contend- 
ing in law ; engaged in a lawsuit ; as the 
parties litigant Ayliffe. 

LIT'IGANT, 71. A person engaged in a law- 
suit. L'E.itrange. 

LIT'IGATE, V. t. [L. litigo, from lis, litis, a 

contest or debate ; Ar. Jvl ladda, to dis 

pute. Class Ld. No. 2. Lis, litis, coin 

cides with the Sax. Jlit, contention ; flitan, 

to contend.] 
To contest in law ; to prosecute or defend 

by pleadings, exhibition of evidence, and 

judicial debate ; as, to litigate a cause or a 

LIT'IGATE, v.i. To dispute in law; to 

carry on a suit by judicial process. 
LIT'IGATED, pp. Contested judicially. 
LIT'IGATING, ppr. Contesting in law. 
LITIGA'TION, 71. The act or process of 

carrying on a suit in a court of law or 

equity for the recovery of a right orclaira; 

a judioial contest. 
LITIG'IOUS, a. [Fr. litigieux ; L. litigio- 


1. Inclined to judicial contest ; given to the 
practice of contending in law ; quarrel- 
some ; contentious ; applied to persons. A 
litigious man is a bad neighbor and a bad 

2. Disputable ; controvertible ; subject to 
contention ; as litigious right. 

No fences, parted fields, nor marks nor 

DisUnguish'd acres of litigious grounds. 

Dry den 
LITIG'IOUSLY, adv. In a contentious 


I.ITIG'IOUSNESS, 71. A disposition to en- 
gage in or to carry on lawsuits ; inclina- 
tion to judicial contests. 
LIT'ML'S, ) A blue pigment, formed 
LAC'MUS, S from aroliil, a species of 

lichen. [See .Irchit.] It is prepared by 

bruising the arcliil, and adding quick lirae|2. A small space, 

and putrefied urine, or spirit of urine dis- 
tillecl from lime. The mixture, after cool- 
ing and the evaporation of the fluid, be- 
comes a mass of the consistence of paste, 
which is laid on a board to dry in square 
lumps. Encyc. 

LIT'ORN, 7!. A bird, a species of thrush, 
in size and shape resembling the hen- 
blackbird. Diet. ,Vat. Hist. 

LIT'OTE, 71. [Gr. Jiirof, slender.] Diminu- 
tion ; extenuation. Pope. 

LIT'TER, 71. [Fr. litiere, from «i< ; contract- 
ed from L. lectus, from the root of lfgo,\ 
Eng. lay; It. I ettiea or lettiga; Sp. litera ;\ 
Port, liteira ; Arm. leter.] j 

1. A vehicle formed with shafts supporting 
a bed between them, in which a person 
may be borne by men or by a horse. If 
by the latter, it is called a horse-litter. A: 
similar vehicle in India is called a palan-'; 
quin. ' 

2. Straw, hay or other soft substance, used 
as a bed for horses and for other pur-j 
poses. j 

3. \\ce.lider, generation, from the root of 
lad, leod.] A brood of young pigs, kittens,| 
puppies, or other quadrupeds. The word 
is applied only to certain quadrupeds of 
the smaller kinds. [Qu. the root of lad.] \ 

4. A birth of pigs or other small animals. 
.5. Waste matter.s, shreds, fragments and 

the like, scattered on a floor or other 
clean place. 
LIT'TER, t'. t. To bring forth young, as 
swine and other small quadrupeds. It is 
sometimes applied to human beings in 
contempt. Shak. 

2. To scatter over carelessly with shreds,! 
fragments and the like ; as, to litter a 
room or a carpet. Smjl. 

3. To cover with straw or hay ; as, to litter 
a stable. Dryden. 

4. To supply with litter ; as, to litter cattle. 
LIT'TERED, pp. Furnished with straw. 
2. a. Covered or overspread with litter, 

pieces, shreds, &c. 
LIT'TLE, a. comp. less, lesser ; sup. least. 
[Sax. lytel, lytle ; Scot, lite, lyte, adv. lyt ; 
Goth, leitil ; Sw. liten ; Dan. liden ; D. 
luttel ; probably from the sense of dimin- 
ishing. Class Ld. No. 15. 22. 31.] 

1. Small in size or extent ; not great or 
large ; as a little body ; a little animal ; a 
little piece of groimd ; a little table ; a little 
book ; a little hill ; a little distance ; a little 

2. Short in duration ; as a little time or sea- 
son ; a little sleep. 

3. Small in quantity or amount; as a little 
hay or grass; a little food ; a little sum; a 
little light ; a little air or water. 

Of small dignity, power or importance. 

When thou wast little in thy own sight, wast 
thou not made the head of the tribes ? 1 Sam. 


5. Of small force or efi(?ct; slight; inconsid- 
erable ; as little attention or exertions ; 
little effort ; little care or diligence ; little 

LIT'TLE, 71. A small quantity or amount. 
He demanded much and obtained little 
He had little of his father's liberality. 

Much was in little writ — Drydett . 

3. Any thing small, slight, or of inconsidera- 
ble importance. 

I view with anger and disdain. 

How little gives thee joy and pain. Prior. 

4. Not much. 
These they are fitted for, and little else. 

LIT'TLE, adv. In a small degree ; slightly ; 
as, he is little changed. It is a little dis- 

2. Not much ; in a small quantity or space 
of time. He sleeps /j'We. 

3. In some degree ; slightly ; sometimes pre- 
ceded by a. The liquor is a little sour or 

LIT'TLENESS, ti. Smallness of size or 
bulk ; as the littleness of the body or of an 

3. Cleanness ; want of grandeur ; as little- 
ness of conception. 

3. Want of dignity. Contemplations on the 
majesty of God displayed in his works, 
may awaken in us a sense of our own 

4. Meanness; penuriousness. 
LIT'TORAL, a. [L. littoralis, from littus, 

shore.] Belonging to a shore. [Little 

LIT LITE, ;;. A fossil shell. 

LITL'R'GICAL, a. [See Liturgy.] Pertain- 
ing to a liturgv. 

LlT'URtiY', 71. " [Fr. liturgie; Sp. It. lUur- 
gia ; Gr. xiitovpyui ; Xfi-roj, public, and 
[f>yov, work.] 

In a general sense, all public ceremonies 
that belong to divine service; hence, in a 
restricted sense, among the Romanists, 
the mass ; and among protestants, the 
common prayer, or the formulary of pub- 
lic prayers. Johnson. Encyc. 

LIVE, V. i. liv. [Sax. liban, leofan, lifian ; 
Goth, liban ; Sw. lefwa ; Dan. lever ; G. 
leben : D. lieven. It coincides with leave. 
The primary sense probably is to rest, re- 
main, abide. If so, the root may be Ar. 

^^J labha, to be, to abide. Class Lb. 
No. 1.] 

1. To abide; to dwell ; to have settled resi- 
dence in any place. Where do you live ? 
I live in London. He lives in Philadel- 
phia. He lives in a large house in Second 
street. The Swiss live on mountains. The 
Bedouin Arabs live in the desert. 

2. To continue ; to be permanent ; not to 

Men's evil manners live in brass ; their virtues 
We write in water. Shak. 

3. To he animated ; to have the vital princi- 
ple ; to have the bodily functions in ope- 
ration, or in a capacity to operate, as res- 
piration, circulation of blood, secretions, 
&c.; applied to animals. 

I am Joseph ; doth my father yet live ? Gen. 

4. To have the principles of vegetable life ; 
to be in a state in which the organs do or 
may perform their functions in the circu- 
lation of sap and in growth ; applied ta 
plants. This tree will not live, unless wat- 
ered ; it will not live through the winter. 

To pass life or time in a particular man- 
ner, with regard to habits or condition. 
In what manner does your son live ) Does 

L I V 

L r V 

L I V 

he live in ease and affluence ? Does he live 
according to tliedlctates of reason and the 
precepts of religion ? 

If we act by several broken views, we shall 

live and die in misery. Spectator. 

0. To continue in life. The way to live long 

is to be temperate. 
7. To live, emphatically ; to enjoy Ufe; to 
be in a state of happiness. 
What greater curse could envious fortune give, 
Than just to die, when I began to live ? 

Dry den 
B. To feed ; to subsist ; to be nourished and 
supported in life ; as, horses live on grass 
or grain ; fowls live on seeds or insects ; 
some kinds of fish live on others ; carniv- 
orous animals live on flesh. 

9. To subsist ; to be maintained in life ; to 
be supported. Many of the clergy are 
obliged to live on small salaries. All men 
in health may livehy industry with econo- 
my, yet some men live by robbery. 

10. To remain undestroyed ; to float; not to 
sink or founder. It must be a good ship 
that lives at sea in a hurricane. 

Nor can our shaken vessels live at sea. 

Dry den. 

11. To exist; to have being. 

As I live, saith the Lord — Ezek. xviii. 

12. In Scripture, to be exempt from death, 
temporal or spiritual. 

Ve shall therefore keep my statutes and judg- 
ments, which if a man do, he shall live in them 
Lev. sviii. 
1-3. To recover from sickness ; to have hfe 

Thy son liveth. John iv. 

14. To be inwardly quickened, nourished 
and actuated by divine influence or faith. 
Gal. ii. 

15. To be greatly refreshed, comforted and 

For now we live, if ye stand fast in the Lord 
1 Thess. iii. 

16. To appear as in life or reahty ; to be 
manifest in real character. 

And all the writer lives in every line. Pope. 
To live ivith, to dwell or to be a lodger with. 
9. To cohabit; to have intercourse, as male 

and female. Shak. 

LIVE, V. t. liv. To continue in constantly or 

habitually; as, to live a life of ease. 
2. To act habitually in conformity to. 

It is not enough to say prayers, unless they 

live them too. Parker. 

LIVE, a. Having life ; having res|)iration 

and other organic functions in operation, 

or in a capacity to operate ; not dead ; as 

a live ox. 

2. Having vegetable life ; as a live plant. 

3. Containing fire ; ignited; not extinct; as 
a live coal. 

4. Vivid, as color. Thomson. 
LIVELESS, not used. [See Lifeless.] 
LI'VELHIOOD, 71. [lively and hood, or life- 
lode, from lead. I find in Saxon lif-lade 
lead or course of life, vita: iter.] 

Means of living; support of life; main- 
tenance. Trade furnishes many people 
with an honest livelihood. Men of enter 
prise seek a livelihood where they can 
find it. 

LI'VELINESS, n. [from lively.] The qual- 
ity or .state of being lively or animated ;' ; vivacity ; animation ; spirit ; 
as the liveliness of youth, contrasted with 
the gravity of age. 

2. An appearance of life, animation or spirit ; 
as the liveliness of the eye or countenance 
in a portrait. 

3. Briskness ; activity ; effervescence, as of 

LIVELODE, for livelihood, not used. 

Hubherd's Tale. 
LIVELONG, a. liv'long. [live and long.] 

1. Long in passing. 

How could she sit the livelong day. 

Yet never ask us once to play ? Surift 

2. Lasting ; durable ; as a livelong monu- 
ment. [A/ot used.] Millon. 

3. A plant of the genus Sedum. 
LI'VELY, a. Brisk; vigorous; vivacious; 

active ; as a lively youth. 

2. Gay ; airy. 

From grave to gay, from lively to severe. 


3. Representing life ; as a lively imitation of 

4. Animated ; spirited ; as a lively strain of 
eloquence ; a lively description. 

.5. Strong ; energetic ; as a lively faith or 

hope ; a lively persuasion. 
Lively stones, in Scripture. Saints are called 
lively stones, as being quickened by the 
Spirit and active in holiness. Brown. 

LI'VELY, adv. Briskly; vigorously. [Lit- 
tle used.] Hayward. 
2. With strong resemblance of life. 

That part of poetry must needs be best, which 
describes most lively our actions and passions, 
[Little used.] Dryden 

LIV'ER, n. One who lives. 

And try if life be worth the liver's care. 


It is often used with a word of qualifi- 
cation ; as a high liver ; a loose liver, &c. 

LIV'ER, n. [Sax. lifer, lifre ; D. leever ; G 
leber ; Sw. lefver ; Dan. lever ; Russ. liber. 
The Saxon word is rendered also libra 
mentum, and this viscus may be named 
from its iveight.~ 

A viscus or intestine of considerable size 
and of a reddish color, convex on the an- 
terior and superior side, and of an unequa 
surface on the inferior and posterior side. 
It is situated under the false ribs, in the 
right hypochondriuni. It consists of two 
lobes, of a glandular substance, and des 
lined for the secretion of the bile. 


LIV'EReoLOR, a. Dark red ; of the color 
of the liver. Woodward. 

LIV'ERED, a. Having a liver; as while-fo- 
ered. Sherwood. 

LIV'ERGROWN, a. Having a large liver. 


LIV'ERSTOxNE, 11. [G.lcber-slcin.] A stone 
or siKicies of earth of the liarytic genus, of 
a gray or brown color, wliieh, when rub 
bed or heated to redness, emits the sniel 
of liver of sulphur, or alkaline sulphuret. 


LIVERWORT, )!. The name of many spe- 
cies of plants. Several of the lichens are 
so called. The liverworts (Hepaticaj are 
a natural order of cryptogamian plants, 
whose herbage is generally frondose, and 
resembling the leafy lichens, but whose 
seeds are contained in a distinct cajisule. 
The noble liverwort is the Anemone hepa- 
tica. Smith. Lee 

LIVERY, n. [Inform, from Fr. livrcr, to 

1. The act of delivering possession of landa- 
or tenements; a term of English law. 
It is usual to say, livery of seisin, which is 
a feudal investiture, made by the delivery 
of a turf, of a rod or twig, from the feoffor 
to the feoffee. In America, no such cere- 
mony is necessary to a conveyance of real 
estate, the delivery of a deed being sufii- 

I cient. 

l2. Release from wardship ; deliverance. 

I King Charles. 

3. The writ by which possession is obtained. 


4. The state of being kept at a certain rate ; 
as, to keep horses at livery. Spenser. 

o. A form of dress by which noblemen and 
gentlemen distinguish their servants. The 
Romish church has also liveries for con- 
fessors, virgins, apostles, martyrs, peni- 
tents, &c. Hence, 

6. A particular dress or garb, appropriate or 
peculiar to particular times or things ; as 
the livery of May ; the livery of autumn. 
Now came still evening on, and twilight gray 
Had in her sober livery all things clad. 


j7. The whole body of liverymen in London. 

ILIVERY, v. t. To clothe in livery. Shak. 

LIV'ERYMAN, n. One who wears a livery ; 
as a servant. 

2. In London, a freeman of the city, of some 
distinction. The liverymen are chosen 
from among the freemen of each compa- 
ny, and from their number are elected the 
common council, sheriff and other superior 
officers of the city. They alone have the 
right of voting for members of parhament. 

LIVERY-STABLE, n. A stable where 

horses are kept for hire. 
LIVES, n. plu. oflife. 
LI'VESTOCK, 71. [live and stock.] Horses, 

cattle and smaller domestic animals ; a 

term applied in America to such animals 

as may be exported ahve for foreign 

LIVID, a. [Fr. livide; li.livido; L.lividus ; 

from liveo, to be black and blue.] 
Black and blue ; of a lead color ; discolored, 
j as flesh by contusion. 

I Upon my livid lips bestow a kiss. Dryden. 

LIVID'ITY, I A dark color, like' that 
LiyiDNESS, S of bruised flesh. [Ld.v- 

idness is the preferable word.] 
LlV'llSG, ppr. [from live.] Dwelling ; re- 
t siding ; existing ; subsisting ; having life 
1 or the vital functions in operation ; not 
I dead. 

2. a. Issuing continually from the earth ; 
I running; flowing; as a /njjig- spring or 

fountain ; opposed to stagnant. 

3. a. Producing action, animation and vig- 
I or; quickening; as a Hfmg- principle ; a 
1 living faith. 

LIVING, n. He or those who are alive ; 
usually with a plural signification ; as in 
the land of the living. 

The living will lay it to his heart. Eccles 
LIV'ING, Ji. Means of subsistence ; estate. 
He divided to them his living. Luke xv. 
She of her want, did ca^t in all that she had, 
even all hor living. Mark sii. 
2. Power of continuing life. There is nc 
living with a scold. 

There is no /irm^ without trustinp some body 
or otlier in some cases. L'Estranee 

L O A 

L O A 

L O A 

'J. Livelihood. He riiude a living by his oc- 
cupation. Tlie woman spins lor a living. 

4. The benefice of a clergyman. He lost his 
living by non-conformity. 

LIV'INGLY, adv. In a living state. 


Livonica terra, a species of fine bole found in, 
Livonia, brought to market in little cakes.' 

LI'VRE, 71. [Fr.; L. libra.] A French money; 
of account, etiual to 20 sous, or ten pence 

LIXIV'IAL, I [L. liiivius, from lix, 

LLXIV'IOUS, I "• lye.] 

1. Obtained by li.xiviatiou ; impregnated 
with alkaline salt extracted from wood 
ashes. lAxivial salts are those which are 
obtained by passing water through ashes, 
or by pouring it on them. 

2. Containing salt extracted from the ashes 
of wood. 

3. Of the color of lye ; resembling lye. 

4. Having the qualities of alkaline salts from 
wood aslies. 

LIXIVIATE, ? Pertaining to lye or 

LIXIVIATED, I"- lixivium; of the qual-i 
ity of alkaline salts. 

2. Impregnated with salts from wood aslies.i 

LIXIV'IATE, V. t. [h. lixivia, li.rivium,\yi:.] 
To form lye ; to impregnate witli salts 
from wood ashes. Water is lixiviated by 
passing through ashes. 

LIXIVIA'TION, 71. The operation or pro- 
cess of extracting alkaline salts from aslies 
by pouring water on them, tlie water 
passing through them imbibing the salts. 

LIXIV'ILfM, )i. [L. from lix, Ije, Sp. lexia,\ 
Fr. lessive.] ! 

Lye ; water impregnated with alkaline salts 
imbibed from wood ashes. It is some-i 
times applied to other extracts. Boyle: 

LIZ'AHD, n. [Fr. lezarde ; L. laceHus ;l 
Sp. trigarto ; It. luccrta, lucerlola ; Arm.' 
glasiird. If lizard is the L. laccrta, there 
has been a change of c into ; or s, which 
may be the fact. In Ethioi)ic, laisekat is| 
lizard. Gebelin deduces the word from 
an oriental word Uxa, to hide. But this is 

In zoolog;/, a genus of amphibious animals,! 
called Lacerta, and comprehending the! 
crocodile, alligator, chan;elion, salaman- 
der, &c. l$ut the name, in common lifej 
is applied to the smaller species of this 
genus, and of these there is a great va-i 
riety. These animals are ranked in the 
order of reptiles. The body is naked, 
with four feet and a tail. The body is' 
thicker and more tapering than that of the 
serpent. Encyc.' 

LIZ'ARD-TAIL, n. A plant of the genusj 

Saururus, and another of the genus Piper.l 

Fain, of Plants. 

LL. D. letters standing for Doctor of Laws, 
the title of an honorary degree. 

hO, cxclam. [Sax. la. Whether this is a con- 
tracted word or not, does not appear.] 

Look ; see ; behold ; observe. This word 
is used to excite particular attention in a' 
hearer to some object of sight, or subjcctj 
of discourse. 

Lo, here is Christ. Matt, x-xiv. 

Lo, we turn to the Gentiles. Acts xiii. 

LOACH, ? jj [Fr. loche.] A small fish ofj 

LOCHE, \ ' the genus Cobitis, inhabiting 
small clear streatns, and esteemed dainty J 
food. }yaUoxi.\ 

LOAD, n. [Sax. Mad or lade ; W. Ihiyth. See 

Jjode.] I 

1. A burden; that which is laid on or put in 
any thing for conveyance. Thus we lay 
a load on a beast or on a man's shoulders,; 
or on a cart or wagon ; and we say, a lightj 
load, a heavy load. A load then is indefi-[ 
nitein quantity or weight. But by usage, 
in some cases, the word has a more defi- 
nite signification, and expresses a certain 
quantity or weight, or as much as is usu- 
ally carried, or as can be well sustained. 
Load is never used for the cargo of a ship ; 
this is called loading, lading, freight, or 

Any heavy burden ; a large quantity borne 
or sustained. A tree may be said to have 
a /oa(/ of fruit upon it. 

.3. That which is borne with pain or diffi- 
culty ; a grievous weight ; encumbrance 
in a literal sense. 

Jove lightened of its load 
Th' enormous mass — Pope. 

In a figurative sense, we say, a load of 
care or grief; a load of guilt or crimes. 

4. Weight or violence of blows. Milton 

5. A quantity of food or drink that op|)ress- 
es, or as much as can be borne. Dryden. 

(). Among miners, the quantity of nine dishes 
of ore, each dish being about half a hmi- 
dred weight. Encyc. Cyc. 

LOAD, I', t. pret. and pp. loaded, [loaden, 
formerly used, is obsolete, and laden be- 
longs to lade. Load, from the noun, is a 
regular verb.] 

L To lay on a burden ; to put on or in some- 
thing to be carried, or as much as can be 
carried ; as, to load acamel or a horse ; to 
toad a cart or wagon. To load a gun, is to 
charge, or to put in a sufficient quantity of 
powder, or powder and ball or shot. ! 

Q. To encumber ; to lay on or put in that 
which is borne with pain or difiiculty ; in 
a literal sense, as to load the stomach with 
meat ; or in a figurative sense, as to load 
the mind or memory. 

3. To make heavy by something added or 

Tliy Jreadful von-, loaden with death — 

~1ddisoti . 
So in a literal sense, to load a whip. 

4. To bestow or confer on in great abun- 
dance ; as, to load one with honors ; to loadi 
with reproaches. 

LOADED, pp. Charged with a load or car- 
go ; having a burden ; freighted, as a ship; 
having a charge of powder, or powder and 
shot, as a gun. 

2. Burdened with any thing ojipressive ; as 
loaded with cares, with guilt or shame. 

LOADER, n. One who puts on a load. 
LOADING, ppr. Charging with a load 

burdening; encumbering; charging, as a 

LOADIXG, 71. A cargo : a burden ; also, any 

thing that makes part of a load. 
LOADilMANAtiE, n. Pilotage; skill of a pi- 
lot. [J\'ot used.] 
LO.VDSMAN, n. [load and man.] A pilot. 

LOADSTAR, ) [lead and star.] The star 
LODESTAR, ^ that leads ; the polestar ; 

the cynosure. Obs. Shak. 

LOADSTONE, n. [from the verb lead andl 

stone. The old orthography, todestone, is 

most correct, as this word has no connec- 
tion with the verb to load.] 

The native magnet, an ore of iron in the 
lowest state of oxydation, which has the 
power of attracting metallic iron, as iron 
filings, and of communicating to of 
iron the same property of attraction, form- 
in-^ artificial magntis. [See Lodestone.] 

LO.\F, 71. plu. loaves. [Sax. Idaf or laf; 
Goth, hlaibs ; G. leib ; Polish, clUieb ; Bo- 
hemian, chleb ; Russ. ctdih or chleb ; Croa- 
tian, hlib ; Finnish, leipa or leipam ; Lap- 
ponic, laibe. The German Icib is rendered 
a loaf, and body, waist, bollv; hiblich, 
which in English, would !)e loaf-like, sig- 
nifies corporeal, bodily. Z/oa/ then signi- 
fies a lump or mass, from some root that 
signifies to set, or to collect, or to form.] 

\. A mass of bread when baked. It is larger 
than a cake. The size and price of a loaf, 
in large cities, are regulated by law. 

2. A mass or lump, as of sugar. 

3. Any thick mass. 

LOAF-SlJGAR, ?i. Sugar refined and form- 
ed into a conical mass. 

LOAM, 71. [Sax. lam ; D. letm ; G. Mm ; L. 
limus ; Sw. lim; Dan. liin, liiyn ; so named 
probably from smoothness or softness; W. 

A natural mixture of sand and clay with 
oxyd of iron ; a species of earth or soil of 
different colors, whitish, brown or yellow, 
readily diffusible in water. 

Cleaveland. Encyc. 

LO.\M, V. i. To cover with loam. Moxon. 

LOASIV, a. Consisting of loam : partaking 
of the nature of loam, or resembling it. 

LO.VN, ?!. [Sax. Ian, Man ; Sw. Ian ; Dan. 
laan ; D.leen; G. lehen. ^c.c Lend.] 

1. The act of lending; a lending. 

2. That which is lent; any thing furnished 
for temporary use to a person at his re- 
quest, on the express or implied condition 
that the specific tiling shall be returned, 
or its equivalent in kind, but without com- 
pensation for the use ; as a loan of a book 
or of bread. 

3. Something furnished for temporary use, 
on the condition that it shall be returned 
or its equivalent, but with a compensa- 
tion for the use. In this sense, loan is 
generally applied to money. [See Lend.} 

4. A furnishing ; permission to use ; grant 
of the use ; as a loan of credit. Kent. 

LOAN, I', t. [Sax. latnan ; G. lehntn ; D. 
lecnen; Sw. liina ; Dan./aa»ier.] 

To lend ; to deliver to another for temporary 
use, on condition that the thing shall be 
returned, as a book : or to deliver for use, 
on condition that an equivalent in kind 
shall be returned, as bread ; or to deliver 
for temporary use, on condition that an 
equivalent in kind shall he returned, with 
a compensation for the use, as in the case 
of money at interest. Bills of credit were 
issued, to be loaned on interest. 

Ramsay. Kent. Laws of the U. States. 
Stat, of Conn, and of .Yew York. 

LO'AN-OFFICE, »!. In .imerica, a jiublic 
office in which loans of money are nego- 
tiated for the public, or in which the ac- 
counts of loans are kept and the interest 
paid to the lender.a. 

LO'AN-OFFICER, 71. A public officer em- 
powered to superintend and transact the 
business of a loan-office. 


L O C 


LOATH, / [Sax. leUh, hateful; lathian, to 

LOTH, I "' lothe ; Sw. ledas, to lothe or 
nauseate ; Dan. leede, lothesoine ; he, aver- 
sion. In America, the primitive pronim- 
ciation of lath, that is, lawth, is retained 
in the adjective, which is written loth. 
The verb would be better written lolhe, in 
analogy with cloth, clothe. See Loth.] 

Disliking ; unwilling ; reluctant. He was 
loth to leave the company. [See Loth.] 

LOATHE, ) . To hate ; to look on with 

LOTHE, l^' ' hatred or abhorrence ; par- 
ticularly, to feel disgust at food or drink, 
either from natural antipathy, or a sickly 
appetite, or from satiety, or from its ill 
taste. [See Lotht.] 

LOATHER, n. One that lothes. 

LOATHFUL, a. Hating ; abhorring through 
disgust. HubheriTs Tale. 

2. Abhorred ; hated. Spenser. 

LOATHING, ;ii;*r. Hating from disgust ; ab- 

L0.\TH1NGLY, adv. In a fastidious man- 

LOATHLY, a. Hateful ; exciting hatred. 
Obs. Spenser. 

LOATHLY, adv. Unwillingly; reluctantly. 
[See Lothly.] 

LOATHNESS, n. Unwillingness; reluct- 
ance. [See Lothness.] 

LOATHSOME, a. Disgusting; exciting dis- 

2. Hateful ; abhorred ; detestable. 

3. Causing fastidiousness. [See Lothesome.] 
LOATHSOMENESS, n. The quality which 

excites disgust, hatred or abhorrence. 

LOAVES, plu. of loaf. 
LOB, n. [VV. Hob, allied to lubber, looby, 

club, &c. Qu. G. laff.] 

1. A dull, heavy, sluggish person. 

2. Something thick and heavy ; as in ^6- 
worm. Ifalton. 

LOB, II. t. To let fall heavily or lazily. 
And their poor jades 
Lob down their heads. Shak. 

LO'BATE, ) ^ [from lobe.] Consisting of 

LO'BED, ^ lobes. In botany, divided to 

the middle into parts distant from eacli 

other, with convex margins. Martyii.' 

LOB' BY, n. [Qu. G. laube, an arbor or 


1. An opening before a room, or an en- 
trance into a principal apartment, where 
there is a considerable space between that 
and the poi'tico or vestibule. Encyc. 

2. A small hall or waiting room. Encyc. 

3. A small apartment taken from a hall or 

4. In a ship, an apartment close before the 
captain's cabin. Cyc 

5. In agriculture, a confined place for cattle, 
formed by hedges, trees or other fencing, 
near the farm-yard. Ci 

LOBE, 71. [Fr. lobe; Sp. Port, lobo ; L 
bus ; Gr. J.oSo;.] 

1. Apart or division of the lungs, liver, &c. 

2. The lower soft part of the ear. 

3. A division of a simple leaf 

4. The cotyledon or placenta of a seed. 
LO'BED, a. Lobate, which see. 
LOBSl'OUND, n. A prison. Hudibras. 
LOB'STER, n. [Sax. loppestre or lopystre. 

The first syllable coincides with Sax. 
lobbe, a spider, and with loppe, a flea ; 


probably all named from their shape or 
legs. The last syllable coincides with ster, 
in spinster, minister.] 

A crustaceous fish of the genus Cancer. 
Lobsters have large claws and fangs, and 
four pair of legs. They are said to change 
their crust annually, and to be frightened 
at thunder or other loud report. They 
constitute an article of food. 

LOB'ULE, n. [Sp. lobulo.] A small lobe. 

LO'CAL, a. [Fr. Sp. local ; It. locale ; L. 
localis ; from locus, place. Sans, log ; from 
the root of fai/, L. /oco. ^ee Lay.] 

1. Pertaining to a place, or to a fi.xed or lim 
ited portion of space. We say, the local 
situation of the house is pleasant. We 
are often influenced in our opinions by lo 
cal circinustances. 

2. Limited or confined to a spot, place, or 
definite district ; as a loccd custom. The 
yellow fever is local'm its origin, and often 
continues for a time, to be a local disease. 

In law, local actions are such as must be 
brought in a particular county, where the 
cause arises ; distinguished from transito- 
ry actions. Blackstone. 
LO€AL'ITY, n. Existence in a place, or in 
a certain portion of space. 

It is thought that the soul and angels are de- 
void of quantity and dimension, and that they 
have nothing to do with grosser locality. 


2. Limitation to a county, district or place ; 
as locality of trial. Blackstone 

.3. Position ; situation ; place ; particularly, 

geographical place or situation, as of a 

mineral or plant. 
LO'eALLY, adv. With respect to place 

in place ; as, to be locally separated or dis 

LO'€ATE, V. t. [L. loco, locatus ; It. locare.] 

1. To i)lace ; to set in a particular spot or 
To select, survey and settle the bounds of 

a particular tract of land ; or to designate 
a portion of land by limits ; as, to locale a 
tract of a hundred acres in a particular 
township. U. States. 

3. To designate and determine the place of; 
as, a committee was appointed to locate 
a church or a court house. »V. England. 

LO'€ATED, pp. Placed; situated; fixed in 

LO'€ATING, ppr. Placing ; designating 

the place of 
LO€A'TION, n. The act of placing, or of 

designating the place of. 

2. Situation with respect to place. The lo 
cation of the city on a large river is favor 
able for commerce. 

.3. That which is located; a tract of land de 
signaled in place. U. States. 

4. In the civil law, a leasing on rent. 
LOCH, n. [Gaelic] A lake; a bay or arm 

of the sea; used in Scotland. 

LOCH, n. Loch or lohoch, is an Arabian 
name for the forms of medicines called 
eclegmas, lambatives, lincturcs, and the 
like. Quinri/. 

LOGH'AGE, n. [Gr. %oxouyo(; >.o;tof, a botly 
of soldiers, and ayu, to lead.] 

In Greece, an oflicer who commanded a lo- 
chus or cohort, the number of men in 
which is not certainly known. Mitford. 

LOCIIE. [iaae Loach.] 

LO'CHIA, n. [Gr. 7.oxt:M.] Evacuations 
which follow childbirth. 

LO'CHIAL, a. Pertaining to evacuations 
from the womb after childbirth. 

LOCK, n. [Sax. loc or loce, an inclosed place, 
the fastening of a door, a tuft or curl of 
hair. In the latter sense, it is the G. locke, 
D. lok, h.Jloccus, Eng. lock; Ir. loc, a stop, 
hinderance ; W. Hoc, a mound, an inclosed 
place; Russ. /oAon, a lock of hair; Sax. 
lucan, Goth, lukan, to lock ; Dan. lukke, a 
hedge, fence or bar ; lukker, to shut, to in- 
close, to fasten, to lock ; Fr. loquet, a latch ; 
Arm. ticqued, or clicqed, W. elided. Lock 
and Jlock may be of one family. The pri- 
mary sense is to shut, to close, to press, 
strain or drive, which may be the radical 
sense of Jlock, Gr. tOjxu, rCoxof, L. plico, as 
well as of lock. But see Class Lg. No. 48. 
and 13. 14. 16.] 

1. Lock, in its primary sense, is any thing 
that fastens ; but we now appropriate the 
word tc an instrument composed of a 
spring, wards, and a bolt of iron or steel, 
used to fasten doors, chests- and the like. 
The bolt is moved by a key. 
The part of a musket or fowling-piece or 
other fire-arm, which contains the pan, 
trigger, &c. 

Tlie barrier or works of a canal, which 
confine the water, consisting of a dam, 
banks or walls, with two gates or pairs of 
gates, which may be opened or shut at 
A grapple in wrestling. Milton. 

5. Any inclosure. Dryden. 

6. A tuft of hair; a plexus of wool, hay or 
other hke substance ; a flock ; a ringlet of 

A lock of hair will draw more than a cable 
rope. Grew. 

Lock of water, is the measure equal to the 
contents of the chamber of the locks by 
which the consumption of water on a ca- 
nal is estimated. 

LOCK'-KEEPER, n. One who attends 
the locks of a canal. 

LOCK'-PADDLE, n. A small sluse that 
serves to fill and empty a lock. 

LOCK'-SIL, n. An angular piece of timber 
at the bottom of a lock, against which the 
gates shut. 

LOCK'-WEIR, n. A paddle-weir, in canals, 
an over-fall behind the upper gates, by 
which the waste water of the upper pound 
is let down through the paddle-holes into 
the chamber of the lock. Cyc 

LOCK, V. t. To fasten with a particular in- 
strument ; as, to lock a door ; to lock a 

9. To shut up or confine, as with a lock ; 
as, to be locked in a prison. Lock the se- 
cret in your breast. 

To close fast. Tlie frost locks up our riv- 

4. To embrace closely ; as, to lock one in 
the arms. 
To furnish with locks, as a canal. 

t). To confine ; to restrain. Our shipping 
was locked up by the embargo. 

7. In fencing, to seize the sword-arm of an 
antagonist, by turning the left arm around 
it, after closing the parade, shell to shell, 
in order to disarm him. Cyc. 

LOCK, V. i. To become fast. The door 
locks close. 

L O D 

2. To unite closely by mutual insertion ; as, 
they lock into each other. Boyle. 

LOCK'AGE, n. Materials for locks in a ca 
„^]_ Gallatin. 

2. Works which form a lock on a canal. 

Joum. of Scunce. 

3. Toll paid for passing the locks of a ca- 
nal. , , i- 

LOCK'ED, pp. Made fast by a lock ; tur- 
nished with a lock or locks ; closely em- 

LOCK'ER, n. A close place, as a drawer 
or an apartment in a ship, that may be 
closed with a lock. 

A shot-locker is a strong frame of plank near 
the pump-well in the hold, where shot 
are deposited. Mar. Diet. 

L O D 

erty of taking a direction to the north and 
south, a property of inestimable utility in 
navigation and surveying. 

2. A name given by Cornish miners to a 
species of stones, called also tin-stones; a 
compound of stones and sand, of different 
kinds and colors. JVicholson. 

LODG'ABLE, a. Capable of affording a 
temporary abode. [JVot used.] 

LODGE, V. t. [Fr.loger, to lodge; It.log^a 
a lodge ; alloggiare, to lodge ; Sp. alojar 
Arm. logea ; Uan. logerer. The sense is 
to set or throw down. In Sax. logian 

also to 
It is 

LOCK'ET, n. [Fr.loquet.] A small lock; u 
catch or spring to fasten a necklace or 
other ornament. Johnson. 

LOCK'RAM, n. A sort of coarse linen. 

LOCK'SMITH, n. An artificer whose oc 

cupation is to make locks. 
LOCK'Y, o. Having locks or tufts. 


LOCOMO'TION, n. [L. locus, place, and 
motio, motion.] 

1. The act of moving from place to place 


2. The power of moving from place to place. 
Most animals possess locomotion ; plants 
have life, but not locomotion. 

LO€OMO'TIVE, a. Moving from place to 
place ; changing place, or able to change 
place ; as a locomotive animal. Most ani- 
mals are distinguished from plants by their 
locomotive faculty. 

Locomotive engine, a steam engine employed 
in land carriage ; chiefly on railways. 

LOCOMOTIV'ITY,ji. The power of chang- 
ing place. Bryant 

LOC'ULAMENT, n. [L. loculamenlum,ivom 
locus, loculus.] I 

Jn botany, the cell of a pericarp in which the 
seed is lodged. A pericarp is unilocular, 
bilocular, &c. Martyn. 

LO'€UST, n. [L. lociista.] An insect of the 
genus Gryllus. These insects are at times 
so numerous ill Africa and the S. of Asia, 
as to devour every green thing, and when 
they migrate, they fly in an immense 

LO'€UST, II. A name of several plants and 
trees ; as a species of Melianthus, and of 

LO'€UST-TREE, n. A tree of the genus 
Hymena;a, and another of the genus Ro- 
binia. The Honey- Locust-tree, is of the 
genus Gleditsia. 

LODE, n. [from Sax. ladan, to lead. 

1. Among miners, a metallic vein, or any 
regular vein or course, Avhether metallic 
or not, but commonly a metallic vein. 

Encyc. Cyc. 

2. A cut or reach of water. Cyc. 
LO'DE-STONE, n. [from the verb to lead. 

and stone.] 
1. A magnet, an ore of iron; a stone found 
in iron mines, of a dark or black lead co 
lor, and of considerable hardness and 
weight. It attracts iron filings, and com- 
municates to iron tlie same property of at 
traction. But its peculiar value consists 
in its communicating to a needle the prop- 


Wits take lodgings in the sound of Bow 



to compose, to deposit or lay uii, 
repair; Russ. loju, to lay, to put 
probably allied to lay.] 

1. To set, lay or deposit for keeping or pres 
ervation, for a longer or shorter time. The 
men lodged their arms in the arsenal. 

2. To place ; to plant ; to infix. 
He lodged an anow in a tender breast. 

To fix ; to settle in the heart, mind or 

1 can give no reason 
More than a lodged hate — Sliak. 

4. To furnish with a temporary habitation, 
or with an accommodation for a night. 
He lodged the prince a month, a week, or 
a night. [The imrd ttsuaily denotes a 
short residence, but for no definite time.] 

5. To harbor ; to cover. 
The deer is lodged. Addison 

To aftbrd place to ; to contain for keep- 

The memory can lodge a greater store of iin 
ages, than the senses can present at one lime. 


7. To throw in or on ; as, to lodge a ball or a 
bomb in a fort. 

8. To throw down ; to lay flat. 
Our sighs, and they shall lodge the summer 

corn. Shalt. 

LODGE, I', i. To reside; to dwell; to rest 
in a place. 

And lodge such daring souls in little men. 

To rest or dweU for a time, as for a night, 
a week, a month. We lodged a night at 
the Golden Ball. We lodged a week at 
the City Hotel. Soldiers lodge in tents in 
summer, and in huts in winter. Fowls 
lodge on trees or rocks. 
3. To fall flat, as grain. Wheat and oats on 

strong land are apt to lodge. 
LODGE, n. A small house in a park or for- 
est, for a temporary place of rest at night ; 
a temporary habitation ; a hut. 

Sidney. Shak. 

2. A small house or tenement appended to 
a larger ; as a porter's lodge. 

3. A den ; a cave ; any place where a wild 
beast dwells. 

LODG'ED, pp. Placed at rest ; deposited ; 
infixed ; furnished with accommodations 
for a night or other short time ; laid flat. 

LODG'ER, n. One who lives at board, or in 
a hired room, or who has a bed in anoti 
cr's house for a night. 

2. One that resides in any place for a time. 


LODG' ING, ppr. Placing at rest ; deposit- 
ing ; furnishing lodgings. 

2. Resting for a night ; residing for a time. 

LODG'ING, n. A place of rest for a night, 
or of residence for a time; temporary hab- 
itation ; apartment. 

2. Place of residence. 
Fair bosom — the lodging of delight. 

3. Harbor; cover; place of rest. 
Convenience for repose at night. 


LODG'MENT, 11. [Fr. logement.] The act 
of lodging, or the state of being lodged; a 
being placed or deposited at rest for keep- 
ing for a time or for ]iermaiience. 
Accumulation or collection of something 
deposited or remaining at rest. 
In military affairs, an encampment made 
by an army. 

A work cast up by besiegers, during their 
approaches, in some dangerous post which 
they have gained, and where it is necessa- 
ry to secure themselves against the ene- 
my's fire. Cyc. 

LOFFE, v. i. To laugh. [Xot used.] 


LOFT, )i. (Dan. loft, Sax. hfle, the air, 
an arch, vault or ceiling ; |>robably allied 
to lift, Dan. lifter. Qu. Gr. yjxpo;.] 

1. Properly, an elevation ; lience, in a build- 
ing, the elevation of one story or floor 
above another ; hence, a floor above 
another ; as the second loft ; third lofl ; 
fourth lofl. Spenser seems to have used the 
word for the highest floor or top, and this 
may have been its original signification. 

2. A high room or place. Pope. 
LOFT'ILY, adi: [from lofty.] On high ; in 

an elevated place. 

2. Proudly ; haughtily. 
They are corrupt and speak wickedly con- 
cerning oppression ; they speak loflily. Ps. 

3. With elevation of language, diction or 
sentiment ; sublimely. 

My lowly veise may loftily aiise. Spe7iser. 

4. In an elevated attitude. A horse carries 
his head loftily. 

LOFT'INESS, II. Highth ; elevation in jilaco 
or position ; altitude; as the loftiness of a 
Pride; haughtiness. 

Augustus and Tiberius had lojiiness enough 
in their tempers — Collier. 

3. Elevation of attitude or mien ; aslofliness 
of carriage. 

Sublimity ; elevation of diction or senti- 

Three poets in three distant ages bom : 
The first in loftiness of thought surpass'd ; 
The next in majesty ; in both the last. 

Dryden . 
LOFT'Y, a. Elevated in place ; high ; as a 
lofty tower ; a lofty mountain. [But it ex- 
presses more than high, or at least is more 
emphatical, poetical and elegant.] 

See lofty Lebanon his head advance. 

Elevated in condition or character. 

Thus saith the high and lofty One, that in- 
habilelh eternity, whose name is Holy — Is. 

3. Proud ; haughty ; as lofly looks. Is. ii. 

4. Elevated in sentiment or diction ; sub- 
lime ; as lofly strains ; lofly rhyme. 


5. Stately : dignified ; as lofly steps. 
LOG, u. [This word is probably allied to D. 

log, logge, heavy, dull, sluggish ; a sense 


vetained in water-logged ; and to lug, lug- 
ccagi; perhaps to clog.] 
I.'A bulky piece or stick of timber unhew- 
ed. Pine logs are floated down rivers in 
America, and stopped at saw -mills. A 
piece of timber when hewed or squared, 
is not called a log, unless perhaps in con- 
structing log-huts. 

2. In navigation, a machine for measuring 
the rate of a ship's velocity through the 
water. The common log is a piece of 
board, forming the quadrant of a circle of 
about six inches radius, balanced by a 
small plate of lead nailed on the circular 
part, so as to swim perpendicular. 

Mar. Diet 

3. [lleb. jS.] a Hebrew measure of liquids, 
containing, according to some authors, 
three quarters of a pint ; according to oth 
ers, five sixths of a pint. According to Ar- 
buthnot, it was the seventy second part 
of the bath or ephah, and the twelfth part 
of a bin. Johnson. Encyc. 

LOG, V. i. To move to and fro. {M'ot used 


LOG'-BOARD, n. In navigation, two boards, 
shutting like a book, and divided into col- 
umns, containing the hours of the day and 
night, direction of the wind, course of the 
ship, &c., from wliicli is formed the log- 
book. Mar. Diet. 

LOG'-BOQK, n. A book into which are trans- 
cribed the contents of the log-board. 

Mar. Did. 

A house or hut whose 



walls are composed of 


logs laid on each other. 
LOG'-LINE, n. A line or cord about a hun- 
dred and fifty fathoms in length, fastened 
to the log by means of two legs. This is 
wound on a reel, called the log-reel. 

Encyc. Mar. Diet 
LOG'-REEL, n. A reel in the gallery of a 
ship, on which the log-line is wound. 

Encyc. Mar. Diet. 

LOG'ARITHM, n. [Fr. logarithme ; Gr. 

Xoyo?, ratio, and apiOftoj, number.] 
Logarithms are the exponents of a series of 
powers and roots. Day. 

The logarithm of a number is that exponent 
of some other number, which renders the 
power of the latter, denoted by the expo- 
nent,- equal to the former. Cyc 
When the logarithms form a series in arith- 
metical progression, the corresponding 
natural numbers form a series in geomet- 
rical progression. Thus, 
I^ogarithms 12 3 4 5 
Natural numbers, 1 ID 100 1000 10000 100000 
The addition and subtraction of logarithms 
answer to the multiplication and division 
of their natural numbers. In like manner 
involution is performed by multiplying the 
logarithm of any number by the number 
denoting the required power ; and evolu- 
tion, by dividing the logarithm by the 
number denoting the required root. 
Logarithms arc the invention of Baron 
Napier, lord of Marchiston in Scotland ; 
but the kind now in use, were invented by 
Henry Briggs, professor of geometry in 
Gresham college, at Oxford. They are 
extremely useful in abridging the labor of 
trigonometrical calculations 

LOGARITHMET'ie, } Pertaining to 

LOGARITHMET'leAL, } a. logarithms ; 

LOGARITHMIC, ) consistin^of 

logarithms. Encyc. Lavoisier. 

LOG'GATS, n. The name of a play or 
game, the same as is now called kittle-pins. 
It was prohibited by Stat. 33, Henry VIII. 
[J^ol in use.] Hanmer. 

LOG'GERHEAD, n. [log and head.] A 
blockhead ; a dunce ; a dolt ; a thick-skull. 


2. A spherical mass of iron, with a long ban 
die ; used to heat tar. Mar. Diet. 

To fall to loggerheads, ) to come to blows; 

To go to loggerheads, S 1° ''^" '° f'ght'Dg 
without weapons. L'Estrange. 

LOG'GERHEADED, a. Dull ; stupid ; dolt- 
ish. *''a*- 

L0G'I€, n. [Fr. logique ; It. logica ; L. id. ; 
from the Gr. Xoyixij, from ^oyoj, reason, 
"Kiyu, to speak.] 

The art of thinking and reasoning justly. 

Logic is tlie art of using reason well in our 
inquiries after truth, and the communication of 
it to others. Watts. 

Logic may be defined, the science or history 
of the human mind, as it traces the pro 
gress of our knowledge from our first con 
ceptions through their different combina- 
tions, and the numerous deductions that 
result from comparing them with one an- 
other. Encyc. 

Correct reasoning implies correct thinking 
and legitimate inferences from premises, 
which are principles assumed or admitted 
to be just. Logic then includes the art of 
thinking, as well as the art of reasoning. 

L O L 

Contention in words merely, or rather a 
contention about words ; a war of words. 


LOGOMET'RI€, a. [Gr. >.oyo;, ratio, and 

1 jusrpfo, to measure.] 

iA logometric scale is intended to measure or 
ascertain chimical equivalents. 

j fVollaston. 

LOG'WQOD, n. A species of tree and wood, 
called also Campeachy-wood, from the 
bay of Campeachy in Spanish America, 
of the genus Hsematoxylon, of which 
there is one species only. This tree has a 
crooked, deformed stem, growing to the 
highth of 20 or 24 feet, with crooked ir- 
regular branches, armed with strong 
thorns. The wood is of a firm texture 
and a red color. It is much used in dye- 
ing. Encyc. 
LO'HO€H, I [Ar.] A medicine of a mid- 

The purpose ot logic is to direct the intellect- 
ual powers in the investigation of truth, and in 
the communication of it to others. Hedge. 

LOgT€AL, a. Pertaining to logic ; used in 
logic ; as logical subtilties. Hooker. 

According to the rules of logic ; as a log- 
ical argument or inference. This reason 
ing is strictly logical. 

Skilled in logic ; versed in the art of think- 
ing and reasoning ; discriminating ; as a 
logical head. Spectator. 

LOg'ICALLY, adv. According to the rules 

of logic ; as, to argue logically. 
LOgI"CIAN, n. A person skilled in logic, or 
the art of reasoning. 

Each fierce logician still expelling Locke. 

LOgIS'TIC, a. Relating to sexagesimal 
fractious. Cyc. 

LOG'MAN, )i. A inau who carries logs. 

2. One whose occupation is to cut and con- 
vey logs to a mill. [Local.] U. States. 
LOGOGRAPH'IC, ) Pertaining to lo- 
LOGOGRAPH'ICAL, <, ' gography. 
LOGOG'RAPHY,n. [Gr. ^oyoj, a word, and 

ypofu, to write.] 
A method of printing, in which a type rep- 
resents a word, instead of forming a letter. 


LOG'OGRIPHE, n. [Gr. >.oyo; and ypi^oj.] 

A sort of riddle. Obs. B. Jonson. 

LOGOM'ACHIST, n. One who contends 

about words. E. T. Fitch. 

LOGOM'A€lIV, n. [Gr. Xoyoj, word, and 

nax^i, contest, altercation.] 

LO'HOCK, ^"'dle consistence between a 
soft electuary and a syrup. [See Loch.] 

LOIN, n. [Sax. lend; G. D. lende ; Sw. Ihnd ; 
Dan. Icend ; W. dun ; Arm. lanenn or 
loinch ; Ir. luan or hleun ; L. dunis.] 
The loins are the space on each side of the 
vertebrse, between the lowest of the false 
ribs and the upper portion of the os ilium 
or haunch bone, or the lateral portions of 
the lumbar region ; called also the reins. 
LOITER, V. i. [D. leuteren; Russ. leilayu 
or letayu. Qu. its alliance to late and let.] 
To linger ; to be slow in moving ; to delay ; 
to be dilatory ; to spend time idly. 

If we have loitered, let us quicken our pace. 

LOIT'ERER, n. A lingerer ; one that de- 
lays or is slow iu motion ; an idler; one 
that is sluggish or dilatory. 
Ever listless loiterers, that attend 
No cause, no trust, no duty and no friend. 

LOIT'ERING, ppr. Lingering; delaying; 

moving slowly. 
LOKE, n. [Qu. Ir. loch, dark; Gr. %vyt;, 

1. In the Scandinavian mythology, the evil 
deity, the author of all calamities ; answer- 
ing to the Ariinanes of the Persians. 

Mallet. Edda. 

2. A close narrow lane. [Local.] 

LOLL, V. i. [Eth. f^A® A(D alolo, to 
thrust out the tongue. The sense of this 
word is to throw, to send. Hence it co- 
incides with the Gr. ^aX(u, W. lloliaw, to 
speak, to prate, Dan. laller, G. lallen. It 
coincides also with lull, to appease, that is, 
to throw down.] 

1. To recline ; to lean ; properly, to throw 
one's self down ; hence, to lie at ease. 

Void of care he lolls supine in state. 


2. To suffer the tongue to hang extended 
from the mouth, as an ox or a dog when 
heated with labor or exertion. 

The triple porter of the Stj-gian seat, 
With lolling tongue lay fawning at his feet. 

Dry den. 

LOLL, V. t. To thrust out, as the tongue. 

Fierce tigers couched around, and lolled 

their tongues. Dryden. 

LOLL'ARD, n. [Qu. G.lalkn,lollen, to prate 

or to sing.] 
The Lollards were a sect of early reformers 

L O N 

L O N 

L O N 

in Germany and England, the followers of 

LOLL'ARDY, ii. The doctrines of the Loll- 

LOLL'ING, ppr. Throwingdown or out ; re- 
clining iit ease ; thrusting out the tongue. 

LOMBARD'Ie, a. Pertaining to the Lom- 
bards; an epithet ajjplied to one of the an- 
cient alphabets derived from the Roman, 
and relating to the manuscripts of Italy. 

LO'MENT, n. [L. lomentum.] An elongated 
pericarp, which never bursts. It consists, 
like the legume, of two valves, with the 
seeds attached to the under suture, but is 
divided iuto small cells, each containing a 
single seed. Ed. Encyc. 

LOMENTA'CEOUS, a. [L. lomentum, bean 
meal, a color.] 

Furnished with a loment. The tomenlaceiv 
are a natural order of plants, many of 
which fninish beautiful tinctures or dye.s, 
and whoso seeds are contained in a loment 
or legume. Linne. 

LOM'ONITE, «. Laumonite, or di-prismat- 
ic zeolite. Ure. 

LOMP, >i. A kind of roundish fish. 


LON'DONISM, n. A mode of speaking pe- 
cidiar to London. Pegge. 

LONE, a. [Dan. Ion, a corner, nook, a lurk 
ing place, secrecy ; liinlig, Svv. ISnnlig, pri 
vate, close, clandestine. The radical sense 
is probably to separate, or rather to with- 
draw or retire, and the word may be allied 
to Fr. loin. If alone is composed of all 
and one, which the Teutonic dialects indi 
cate, it has no connection with tone.] 

1. Solitary; retired; unfrequented; having 
no company. 

And leave you in tune woods or empty walls 


2. Single ; standing by itself; not having 
others in the neighborhood ; as a torn 
house. Pope 

3. Single ; unmarried, or in widowhood. 

LONE, n. A lane. [Local] 
LO'NELINESS, n. Solitude; retirement: 
seclusion from company. He was weary 
of the loneliness of his habitation. 
2. Love of retirement ; disposition to soli- 

I see 
Tl\e mystery of your loneliness. Shak 

LO'NELY, a. Solitary; retired; sequester- 
ed from company or neighbors ; as a lonely 
situation ; a lonely cell. Dryden 

2. Solitary; as the io?!c/2/ traveler. 

3. Addicted to solitude or seclusion from 
company. Roive. 

LO'NENESS, n. Solitude; seclusion. 

LO'NESOME, a. Solitary; secluded from 


How horrid will these lonesome seMs appear ! 

LO'NESOMENESS, n. The state of being 

solitary; solitude. 
LONG, a. [Sax. long, lang and leng; G 

lange; D. Dan. lang; Sw. lang; Goth. 

laggs ; L. longua ; It. lungo ; Fr. long. 

The Gothic word seems to connect this 

word with lag, in the .sense of drawing out 

whence delaying.] 
1. Extended ; drawn out in a line, or in the 

Vol. II. 

direction of length ; opposed to short, and! 
contradistinguished from broad or wide.i 
Long is a relative term ; fiir a thing mayj 
be long in respect to one thing, and short 
with respect to another. We ajjply long 
to things greatly extended, and to things 
which exceed the common measure. We 
say, a long way, a long distance, a /o»!g- 
line, and long hair, long arms. By the lat 
ter terms, we mean hair and arms exceed 
ing the usual length. 

2. Drawn out or extended in time ; as along\ 
time; a Zong perioil of time ; ii long wh\\e : 
a long series of events; a long sickness 
or confinement ; a long session ; along de- 

3. Extended to any certain measure ex- 
pressed ; as a span long; a y mil long ; a 
mile long, th&t is, extended to the nieasurej 
of a mile, &c. 

4. Dilatory ; continuing for an extended 

Death will not be long in coming. Ecclus. 

5. Tedious ; continued to a great length. 
A tale should never be too lojig. Prior. 

G. Continued in a series to a great extent ; 
as a long succession of princes; ti long line 
of ancestors. 
7. Continued in sound ; protracted ; as a 
long note ; a long syllable. 
Contimied ; lingc'ringor longing. 

Praying tor liiin, and casting a long look that 
way, he saw the galley leave the pursuit. 

Extensive ; extending far in prospect or 
into futurity. 

The perennial existence of bodies corporate 
and their fortunes, arc things particularly suited 
to a man who has long views. Burke.' 

Long home, the grave or death. Eccles. xii. j 

LONG, n. Formerly, a musical note equal tO| 
two breves. Obs. j 

LONG, adv. To a great extent in space ; asj 

a long extended line. 
2. To a great extent in time ; as, they that 
tarry long at the wine. Prov. xxiii. 
When the trumpet soimdcth long. Ex. xix. 
So in composition we say, fong'-expect- 
ed, Zong-forgot. 
.3. At a point of duration far distant, either 
prior or posterior ; as not /oiig' before ; not 
long after : long before the foundation of 
Rome ; long after the conquest of Gaiil by 
Julius Cesar. 
4. Through the whole extent or duration of 
The God who fed me all my life long to this 
day. Gen. xlviii. 

The bird of dawtung singeth all night long. 

LONG, adv. [Sax. gelang, cause or fault. 

Qu. belonging to, as the cause.] 
By means of; by the fault of; owing to. Obs. 
Mistress, all this evil is Imig of you. Shak 
LONG, V. t. To belong. [J\'ot used.] 


LONG, V. i. [Sax. langian, with erfier. We 
now say, to /o»ig after, or to long for. The 
sense is to reach or stretch toward.] 

1. To desire earnestly or eagerly. 

I long to see you. Rom. i. 

I have longed alter thy precepts. Ps. cxix. 

I have longed for thy salvation. Ps. cxix. 

2. To have a preternatm-al craving appe 
tite ; as a longing woman. 

3. To have an eager appetite ; as, to long for 

LONGANIM'ITl^ n. [L. longanimitas ; 
longus, long, and animus, mind/] 

Forbearance ; patience ; disposition to en- 
dure long under offenses. 

Broien. Howell. 

LONG 'BOAT, n. The largest and strongest 
boat belonging to a ship. Mar. Did. 

LONGER, (1. [conip. of long.] More long; 
of greriter length : as a longer course. 

LON^GER, adv. For a greater duration. 
This evil can be endured no longer. 

LON'GEST, a. Of the greatest extent ; as 
the longcstWue. 

LON'GEST, adv. For the greatest contin- 
uance of time. Tliey who live longest, are 
most convinced of the vanity of life. 

LONgE'VAL, a. [L. longus and wvum.] 
Long lived. Pope. 

LON(5i:V'ITy, ji. [L.longavUas; longus, 
long, and (cvum, age.] 

Length or duratiiui of life ; more generally, 
great length of life. 

The inst3Dces of longctily are chiefly among 
the abstemious. Arbuthnot. 

LONgE'VOUS, a. [L. longavus, supra.] 
Living a long time; of great age. 

LONG'-IIEADED, a. Having a great extent 
of thought. 

LONgIJM'ANOUS, a. [L. longus, long, and 
mamis, hand.] Having long hands. 


LONgIM'ETRY, n. [L. longus, long, and 
Gr. fifTjior, measure.] 

The art or practice of measuring distances 
or lengths, whether accessible or inaccess- 
ible. Encyc. 

LONG'ING, ppr. Earnestly desiring ; hav- 
ing a craving or preternatural appetite. 

LONG'ING, n. An eager desire; a craving 
or preternatural appetite. 

LONG'INGLY, adv. With eager wishes or 

LONgIN'QUITY, 71. [L. longinquilas.] 
Great distance. Barrow. 

LONG'ISH, a. Somewhat long; moder- 
ately long. 

LON GlTUDE, n. [L. longiludo, from lon- 
gus, long.] 

1. Properly, length ; as the longitude of a 
room ; lint in this sen.'^e not now used. Aji- 
propriately, in geography, 

2. The di.Nt.ince of any |)lacc on the globe 
from another place, eastward or west- 
ward ; or the distance of any place 
from a given inerirlian. Boston, in Mas- 
sachusetts, is situated in the 71st degree 
o{ longitude west from Greenwich. To 
be able to ascertain precisely the longi- 
tude of a ship at sea, is a great desidera- 
tum in navigation. 

3. The longitude of a star, is its distance 
from the equinoctial points, or the begin- 
ning of Aries or Libra. Bailey. 

LONGITUDINAL, a. Pertaining to longi- 
tude or length ; as longitudinal distance. 

2. Extending in length ; ruiuung length- 
wise, as distinguished from transverse or 
across ; as the longitudinal diameter of a 
body. The longitudinal suture of the 
head runs between the coronal and lam- 
doidal sutures. Baileu. 

LONGITUDINALLY, adv. In the direc- 
tion of length. 

Some of the fibers of the human body are 
placed longitudinally, others transversely. 





LONG'LEGGED, a. Having long legs. 

LONG'LIVED, a. Having a long life or ex 
istence; living long; lasting long. 

VONG'LY, arfi). With longing desire. [Kot 
wsedJ] Shak. 

LONG-MEASURE, n. Lineal measure; 
the measure of length. 

LONG'NESS, n. Length. [Little used.] 

LONG-PRIM'ER, n. A printing type of a 
particular size, between small pica and 

LONG'SHANKED, a. Having long legs. 


LONG-SIGHT, n. Long-sightedness. Good. 

LONG-SIGHTED, a. Able to see at a great 
distance ; used literally of the eyes, and 
figuratively of the mind or intellect. 

LONG-SIGHTEDNESS, n. The faculty of 
seeing objects at a great distance. 

1. In medicine, presbyopy ; that defect of 
sight by which objects near at hand are 
seen confusedly, but at remoter distances 
distinctly. Hooper 

LONG'SOME, a. Extended in length ; tire- 
some ; tedious; as a longsome plain. Obs. 


LONG'SPUN, a. Spun or extended to a 
great length. Addison. 

LONG-SUF'FERANCE, n. Forbearance to 
punish ; clemency ; patience. 

Com. Prayer. 

LONG-SUF'FERING, a. Bearing injuries 
or provocation for a long time ; patient ; 
not easily provoked. 

The Lord God, merciful and gracious, long- 
suffering and abundant in goodness. Ex. 

LONG-SUFFERING, n. Long endurance ; 
patience of offense. 

Despisest tliou the riches of his goodness, and 
foibearancc, and long-suffering? Rom. ii. 

LONG-TONGUED, a. Rating ; babbling. 


LONGWAYS, a mistake for longmse. 

LONG-WIND'ED, a. Long breathed ; tedi- 
ous in speaking, argument or narration ; 
as a long-ioinded advocate. 

LONG'-WISE, adv. In tlie direction of 
length ; lengthwise. [Little used.] 


LO'NISH. a. Somewhat solitary. [M'ot 
used and inelegant.] 

LOO, n. A game at cards. Pope. 

LOOB'ILY, adv. [See Looby.] Like a 
looby ; in an awkward, clumsy manner. 


I.OOB'Y, Ji. [W. llabi, a tall lank person, a 
looby, a lubber, a clumsy fellow ; Hob, a 
blockhead, an unwieldy lump.] An awk- 
ward, clumsy fellow ; a lubber. 

Who coidd i;ive the looby such airs .' Swift. 

LOOF, )i. The after part of a ship's bow, or 
the part where the planks begin to be iri- 
curvated, as they approach the stem. 

Mar. Diet. 

LOOF. [See Luff, which is the word used.] 

LOOF'ED, a. [See Aloof.] Gone to a dis- 
tance. [JVot used.] Shak. 

LOOK, i>. j'. [Sax. locian ; G. lugen ; Sans. 
lokhan. It is perliaps allied to AV. lygu, to 
appear, to shine. See Light. The pri 
mary sense is to stretch, to extend, to 
.shoot, hence to direct tlie eye. We ob 
serve its |)rimary sense is nearly the same 
as that of seek. Hence, to look for is to 

1. To direct the eye towards an object, with 
the intention of seeing it. 

When the object is within sight, look is 
usually followed by on or at. We look on 
or at a picture ; we look on or at the moon ; 
we cannot ?oo4 onorat the unclouded sun 
withoiU pain. 

At, after look, is not used in our version 
of the Scriptures. In common usage, at 
or on is now used indifferently in many 
cases, and yet in other cases, usage has 
estabhshed a preference. In general, on 
is used in the more solemn forms of ex- 
pression. Moses was afraid to look on 
God. The Lord look on you and judge 
In these and similar phrases, the useof a( 
would be condemned, as expressing too 
little solemnity. 

In some cases, at seems to be more 
properly used before very distant objects ; 
but the cases can hardly be defined. 

The particular direction of the eye is 
expressed by various modifying words ; as. 
to look down, to look up, to look back, to 
look forward, to look from, to took round, to 
look out, to look under. When the object 
is not in sight, look is followed by after, or 
for. Hence, to look after, or look for, is 
e(|uivalent to seek or search, or to expect. 

2. To see ; to have the sight or view of. 
Fate sees thy life lodged in a brittle glass. 
And looks it through, but to it cannot pass. 

Dry den. 

3. To direct the intellectual eye ; to apply 
the mind or luiderstanding ; to consider; 
to examine. Look at the conduct of this 
man ; view it in all its aspects. Let every 
man look into the state of his own heart. 
Let us look beyond the received notions of 
men on this subject. 

4. To expect. 
He must look to fight another battle, before 

he coiUd reach Oxford. \_LitHe Jtserf.] 


5. To take care ; to watch. 
Look that ye bind them fast. Shak. 

6. To be directed. 
Let thine eyes look right on. Prov. iv. 

7. To seem ; to appear ; to have a particular 
appearance. The patient looks better than 
he did. The clouds /ooA' rainy. 

I am al'raid it would look more like vanity 
than gratitude, Addison 

Observe how such a practice looks in anothei 
person. Watts. 

So we say, to look stout or big ; to look 
peevish ; to look pleasant or graceful. 

8. To have a particular direction or situa- 
tion ; to face ; to front. 

The gate that looketh toward the nortti. 
Ezek. viii. 

The east gate of the Lord 's Iiouse , that looketh 
eastward. Ezek. xi. 
To look about, to look on all sides, or in dif- 
ferent directions. 
jTo look about one, to be on the watch ; to be 
vigilant; to be circumspect or guarded. 

To look after, to attend ; to take care of; as, 
to look after children. 

2. To expect ; to be in a state of expecta- 

Men's hearts failing them for fear, and for 
looking after those things which are coming ou 
the earth. Luke xxi. 

3. To seek ; to search. 

My subject does not oblige me to look after 

the water, or point forth the place whereunto it 

has now retreated. Woodward 

To look for, to expect ; as, to look for news by 

the arrival of a ship. 

Look now for no enchanting voice. 

2. To seek ; to search ; as, to look for lost 

money, or lost cattle. 
To look into, to inspect closely ; to observe 
narrowly ; to examine ; as, to look into the 
works of nature ; to look into the conduct 
of another ; to look into one's affairs. 

Which things the angels desire to look into. 
I Pet. i. 
To look on, to regard ; to esteem. 

Her friends would look on her the worse. 


2. To consider ; to view ; to conceive of; to 

I looked ore Virgil as a succinct, majestic wri- 
ter. Ih-yden. 

3. To be a mere spectator. 

I'll be a candle-holder and look on. Shak. 

To look over, to examine one by one ; as, to 

look over a catalogue of books ; to look 

over accounts. 

To overlook, has a different sense, to pass 

over without seeing. 
To took out, to be on the watch. The sea- 
man looks out for breakers. 
To look to, or i(»((o, to watch ; to take care of. 

Look well to thy herds. Prov. xxvii. 
2. To resort to with confidence or expecta- 
tion of receiving something ; to e.xpect to 
receive from. The creditor may look to 
the surety for payment. 

Look to me and be ye saved, all the ends of 
the earth. Is. xlv. 
To look through, to penetrate witli the eye, 
or with the understanding; to see or un- 
derstand perfectly. 
LQQK, v. t. To seek ; to search for. 

Looking my love, I go from place to place. 
Obs. Speriser. 

2. To influence by looks or presence; as, to 
look down opposition. 

A spirit fit to start into an empire. 
And look the world to law. Dryden. 

To look out, to search for and discover. Look 

out associates of good reputation. 
To look one another in the face, to meet for 

combat. 2 Kings xiv. 
LOOK, in the imperative, is used to excite 
attention or notice. Look ye, look you ; 
that is, see, behold, observe, take notice. 
LOOK, n. Cast of countenance; air of the 
face; aspect; as, a high /ooA: is an inde.\ 
of pride ; a downcast look indicates mod- 
esty, bashfulness, or depression of mind. 

Pain, disgrace and poverty have frightful 
looks. Locke. 

2. The act of looking or seeing. Every look 
filled him with anguish. 

3. View; watch. Swinburne. 
LQOK'ER, n. One who looks. 

(\ looker on, a mere spectator; one tbat/ooA'S 
o?i, but has no agency or interest in the 

LOOK'ING-GLASS, n. A glass which re- 
flects the form of the person \vho looks on 
it; a mirror. 

There is none so homely but loves a looking- 
glass. South. 

LOOK'-OUT, n. A careful looking or watch- 
ing for any object or event. Mar. Diet. 

LO()L, n. In mclallurgij, a vessel used to re- 
ceive tire washings of ores of metals.. JE?!C!,r-. 




LOOM, n. [Sax. loma, geloma, utensils.] In 
composition, heir-loom, in law, is a person- 
al chattel that hy special custom descends 
to an heir with the inheritance, being 
such a thing as cannot be separated from 
the estate, without injury to it ; sucli as 
jewels of the crown, charters, deeds, and 
the like. Blackstone. 

2. A frame or machine of wood or other ma- 
terial, in which a weaver works threads 
into cloth. 

Hector, when he sees Andromache over- 
whelmed with terror, sends her for consolation 
to the loom and the distaff. Rambler 

3. [Dan. loin or loom,, G. lohme.] A fowl of 
the size of a goose. 

4. That part of an oar which is within 
board. Mar. Did. 

LOOM, V. i. [Q,u. Sax. homan, to shine, 
from leoma, a beam of light. This does 
not give the exact sense of the word as 
now used.] 

To appear above the surface either of sea 
or land, or to appear larger than the real 
dimensions and indistinctly ; as a distant 
object, a ship at sea, or a mountain. The 
ship looms large, or the land looms high. 

Mar. Diet. 

LOOM'-GALE, n. A gentle gale of wind. 


LOOM'ING, ppr. Appearing above the sur- 
face, or indistinctly, at a distance. 

LOON, n. [Scot, loun or loon. Qu. Sax 
lun, needy, or Ir. liun, sluggish.] 

1. A sorry fellow; a rogue ; a rascal. 

Dryden. Shak. 

2. A sea-fowl of the genus Colymbus. [Ice. 

LOOP, n. [Ir. lubam, to bend or fold ; lub, 
tuba, a thong, a loop.] 

1. A folding or doubling of a string or a 
noose, through which a lace or cord may 
be run for fastening. 

That the probation bear no hinge, nor hop 
To hang a doubt on. Shak 

2. In iron-works, the part of a row or block 
of cast iron, melted ofl" for the forge or 

LOOP'ED,o. Full of holes. Shak. 

LOOP'HOLE, 71. A small aperture in the 
bulk-head and other parts of a merchant 
ship, tliroiigh which small arms are fired 
at an enemy. Mar. Diet. 

2. A hole or aperture that gives a passage. 

3. A passage for escape ; means of escape. 


LOOP'HOLED, a. Fidl of holes or open- 
ings for escape. Hudibras. 

LOOP'ING, n. In metallurgy, the running 
together of the matter of an ore into a 
mass, when the ore is only heated for cal- 
cination. [D. loopen, to run.] Encyc. 

LOORD, n. [D. tor, a clown ; Fr. lotird, 
Sp. lerdo, heavy, dull, gross.] 

A dull stupid fellow ; a drone. [JVot in use.] 


LOOSE, ii.<. loos. [Sa.x.lysan,alysan,leosan 
Sw. losa ; D. lossen, loozen ; G. lOsen ; Dan. 
loser ; Goth, lausyan ; Gr. >.vu, contracted 
from the same root. The W. llaesu, sig 
nifies to relax, but may be from the root of 
tax. These words coincide with the Ch. 
Syr. Ar. Heb. I'Sn. Class Ls. No. 30.] 

1. To untie or unbind; to free from any 

Canst thou loose the bands of Orion ? Job 

Ye shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her ; 
loose them, and bring them to me. Matt. xxi. 

2. To relax. 
The joints of his loins were loosed. Dan. v. 

3. To release from imprisonment ; to liber- 
ate ; to set at liberty. 

The captive exile hasteneth that he may be 
loosed. Is. li. 

4. To free from obligation. 
Art thou loosed from a wife ? seek not a wife 

1 Cor. vii. 

5. To free from any thing that binds or 
shackles ; as a man loosed from lust and 
pelf. Dryden. 

6. To relieve ; to free from any thing bur- 
densome or afflictive. 

Woman, thou art loosed from tliine infirmity 
Luke xiii. 

7. To disengage ; to detach ; as, to loose 
one's hold. 

8. To put off. 
Loose thy shoe from off thy foot- Josh. v. 

9. To open. 

Who is worthy to open the book, and to loose 
the seals thereof ? Rev. v. 

10. To remit; to absolve. 

Whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, shall be 

loosed in heaven. Matt. xvi. 
LOOSE, V. i. To set sail ; to leave a port or 


Now when Paul and his company loosed from 

Paphos, they came to Perga, in Pamphylia 

Acts xiii. 
LOOSE, a. [Goth, hius ; D. los, losse ; G 

los ; Dan. Ivs ; Sw. los. Qu. VV. llws 

loose, lax.] 

I. Unbound; untied; unsewed; not fasten- 
ed or confined ; as the loose sheets of a 

3. Not tight or close ; as a loose garment. 

3. Not crowded ; not close or compact. 
With horse and chariots rank'd in loose array 


4. Not dense, close or compact ; as a cloth 
or fossil of loose textui'e. 

o. Not close ; not concise ; lax ; as a loose 
and diffuse style. 

(). Not precise or exact ; vague ; indeterm- 
inate ; as a loose way of reasoning. 

7. Not strict or rigid ; as a loose observance 
of rites. 

8. Unconnected ; rambling ; as a loose indi 
gested play. 

Vario spends whole mornings in running over 
loose and unconnected pages. JVatts 

9. Of lax bowels. Locke 

10. Unengaged; not attached or enslaved. 

Their prevailing principle is, to sit as loose 
from pleasures, and be as moderate in the use of 
them as they can. Atterbury 

II. Disengaged; free from obligation ; with 
from or of. 

Now I stand 

Loose of my vow ; but who knows Cato's 

thought ; [Little used-l Addison 

12. Wanton ; unrestrained in behavior ; dis- 
solute : uncha.ste ; as a loose man or wo- 

13. Containing unchaste language ; as a 
loose epistle. Dryden. 

To break loose, to escape from confinement ; 
to gain liberty by violence. Dryden. 

To let loose, to free from restraint or confine- 
ment ; to set at liberty. Locke. 

LOOSE, n. Freedom from restraint ; lib- 

Come, give thy soul a loose. Dryden. 

Vent all its griefs, and give a loose to sorrow. 

We use this word only in the phrase, give a 
loose. The following use of it, " he runs 
with an unbounded loose," is obsolete. 

LOOS'ED, pp. Untied ; unbound ; freed 

from restraint. 
LOOSELY, adv. loos'ly. Not fast ; not firmly ; 
that may be easily disengaged ; as things 
loosely tied or connected. 
2. Without confinement. 

Her golden locks for baste were loosely shed 
About her ears. Speitser. 

Without union or connection. 

Part loosely wing the region. Milton. 

Irregularly ; not with the usual restraints. 

.\ bishop living loosely, was charged that his 

conversation was not according to the aposde's 

lives. Camden. 

5. Negligently ; carelessly ; heedlessly ; as a 
mind loosely employed. Locke. 

6. Meanly ; slightly. 
A prince should not be so loosely studied, as 

to remember so weak a composition. Shak. 

7. Wantonly ; dissolutely ; unchastely. 

LOOS'EN, V. t. loos'n. [from loose, or it is 
the Saxon infinitive retained.] 

1. To free from tightness, tension, firmness 
or fixedness ; as, to loosen a string when 
tied, or a knot ; to loosen a joint ; to loosen 
a rock in the earth. 

2. To render less dense or compact ; as, to 
loosen the earth about the roots of a tree. 

3. To free from restraint. 

It loosens his hands and assists his under- 
standing. Dryden. 

4. To remove costiveness from ; to facilitate 
or increase alvine discharges. 

Fear looseneth the belly. Bacon. 

LOOS'EN, v.i. To become loose; to be- 
come less tight, firm or compact. 

LOOS'ENED, pp. Freed from tightness or 
fixedness ; rendered loose. 

LOOSENESS, n. loos'ness. The state of 
being loose or relaxed ; a state opposite to 
that of being tight, fast, fixed or compact ; 
as the looseness of a cord ; the looseness of 
a robe ; the looseness of the skin ; the 
looseness of earth, or of the texture of 

2. The state opposite to rigor or rigidne?s ; 
laxity ; levity ; as looseness of morals or 
of principles. 

3. Ii-regularity ; habitual deviation from 
strict rules; as looseness of life. 


4. Habitual lewdness; imchastity. Spenser. 

5. Flux from the bowels ; diarrhfea. Bacon. 
LOOS'ENING,;>;)r. Freeing from tightness, 

tension or fixedness; rendering less com- 

LOOSESTRIFE,)!, loos strife. In botany,ihe 
name of several species of plants, of the 
genera Lysimachia, Epilobiura, Lytbrum, 
and Gaura. Lee. 

jLOOS'ING, ppr. Setting free from confine- 

LOP, V. t. [I know not the affinities of this 
word, unless it is lob, or the W. llab, a 
stroke ; llabiaw, to slap or strike, or the 
Eng. flap, or Ir. lubam, to bend. The 
primary sense is evidently to fall or fell, 


or to strike down, aud I think it connect- 
ed v/ahjlap.] 

1. To cut off, as the top or extreme part 
of any thing ; to shorten by cutting oft 
the extremities ; as, to lop a tree or its 

With branches lopped in wood, or mountain 
fgli'd, Milton. 

3. To cut off, as exuberances ; to separate, 
as superfhious parts. 

Expunge the whole, or lop the excrescent 
parts. Pope- 

3. To cut partly off and bend down ; as, to 
lop the trees or saphngs of a hedge. 

4. To let fall ; to flap ; as, a horse lops his 

LOP, n. That which is cut from trees. 

Else both body and lop will be of little value. 


LOP, n. [Sax. loppe.] A flea. [Local.] 
LOPE, pret. of leap. [Sw. I'opa ; D. loopen.] 

Obs. Spenser. 

LOPE, n. [Sw. lopa, D. loopen, to run. See 

A leap ; a long step. [A ivord xn popular 

use in America.] 
LOPE, V. i. To leap ; to move or run with 

a long step, as a dog. 
LO'PING, ppr. Leaping ; moving or run- 
ning with a long step. 
LOP'PED, pp. Cut off; shortened by cut 

ting off the top or end ; bent down. 
LOP'PER, ?i. One that lops. 
LOP'PING, ppr. Cutting off; shortening 

by cutting off the extremity ; letting fa 
LOP'PING, n. That which is cut off. 
LOUUA'CIOUS, a. [L. loquax, from loquor, 

to speak. Qu. Eng. to clack.] Talkative ; 

given to continual talking. 

Loquaciuxts, brawling, ever in the wrong. 


2. Speaking ; noisy. 

Blind British bards, with volant touch, 
Traverse loquacious strings. Philips. 

3. Apt to blab and disclose secrets. 
LOQUA'CIOUSNESS, ) [L. loquacitas.] 
LOQUACITY, S Talkativeness; 

the habit or practice of talking continually 
or excessively. 

Too great loquacity and too great taciturnity 

Ijy fits. ' Arbutluiot. 

LORD, n. [Sax. hlaford. This has been 

supposed to be compounded of hlaf, loaf, 

and ford, afford, to give ; and hence a 

lord is interpreted, a hread-giver. But lady, .-> p,.Qyj . ], 
in Saxon, is in like manner written Wo/-l — ' 

da:g; and da-g can hardly signify a giver. 
The word occurs in none of the Teutonic 
dialects, except the Saxon ; and it is not 
easy to ascertain the original signification 
of the word. I question the correctness 
of the common interpretation.] 

1. A master; a person possessing supreme 
power and authority ; a ruler ; a gov- 

Man over man 
He made not lord. Milton 

But now I was the lord 
Of this fair mansion. Shah 

2. A tyrant ; an oppressive ruler. Dryden. 

3. A husband. 

I oft in bitterness of soul deplored 

My absent daughter, and my dearer lord. 

My lord also being old. Gen. xviii. 

4. A baron ; the proprietor of a manor ; as 
the lord of the manor. 


5. A nobleman ; a title of honor in Great, 
Britain given to those who are noble by 
birth or creation ; a peer of the realm, in-: 
eluding dukes, marcjuises, earls, viscounts 
and barons. Archbishops and bishops 
also, as members of the bouse of lords, 
are lords of parhament. Thus we say, 
lords temporal and spiritual. By courtesy 
also the title is given to the sons of dukes] 
and marquises, and to the eldest sons ofl 
earls. Encyt] 

6. An honorary title bestowed on certain 
official cbaracters; as lord advocate, lord', 
chamberlain, lord chancellor, lord chief 
justice, &c. 

' In Scnplure, ihe Supreme Being ; Jeho 
vah. When Lord, in the Old Testament, \» 
printed in capitals, it is the translation of 
Jehovah, and so might, with more propri 
ety, be rendered. The word is applied to 
Clinst, Ps. ex. Col. iii. and to the Holy 
Spirit, 3 Thess. iii. As a title of respect, it 
is applied to kings. Gen. xl. 2 Sam. xix. 
to princes and nobles. Gen. xlii. Dan. iv. 


to a husband, Gen. xviii. to a prophet, 1 

Kings xviii. 2 Kings ii. and to a respect 
able person. Gen. xxiv. Christ is called 
the Lord of glory, 1 Cor. ii. and Lord of 
lords. Rev. xix. 
LORD, V. t. To invest with the dignity and 
privileges of a lord. Shak. 

LORD, V. i. To domineer; to rule with ar- 
bitrary or despotic sway; sometimes fol- 
lowed by over, and sometimes by it, in the 
manner of a transitive verb. 

Tlie whiles she lordeth in licentious bliss. 

I see them lording it in London streets. 

They lorded over them whom now Ihcy 
serve. Milton 

LORD'ING, n. A little lord ; a lord, in con- 
tempt or ridicule. [Lillle tiscd.] Swift. 
LORD'LIKE, a. Becoming a lord. 
2. Haughty ; proud ; insolent. Dryden. 

LORD'LliMESS, n. [from lordly-] Digiiity ; 
j high station. Shak. 

12. Pride; haughtiness. More. 

LORD'LING, )!. A little or diminutive lord. 

LORD'LY, a. [lord ami like.] Becoming a 
lord : pertaining to a lord. 

Lordly sins require lordly estates to suppoi ( 
them. South. 

auglity ; imperious ; insolent. 
Every rich and lordly swain. 
With pride would drag about her chain. 


LORD'LY, adv. Proudly ; imperiously ;; 

A famished lion, issuing from the wood. 
Roars lordly fierce. Dryden. 

LORD'SHIP, n. The state or quality of be- 
ing a lord; hence, a title of honor given 
to noblemen, except to dukes, who have 
the title of g-rnce. 
2. A titulary compellation of judges and 
certain other persons in authority and 
oflice. Johnson. 

Dominion; power; authority. 

They who are accounted to rule over the 

Gcnliles, exercise lordship over them. Mark x. 

4. Seigniory ; domain ; the territory of a 

lord over which he holds jurisdiction ; a 


What lands and lordships for their owner 

My quondam barber. Dryden . 

LORE, n. [Sax. lar, from the root of teran, 
to learn ; D. leer ; G. lehre ; Dan. tere ; Sw. 
lara.] Learning ; doctrine ; lesson ; in- 

The law of nations, or the lore of war. 

Lo ! Rome herself, proud mistress now no 

Of arts, but thundering against heathen lore. 


LOR'EL, n. [Sax. leoran, to wander.] An 
abandoned scoundrel ; a vagrant. Obs. 


LO'RESMAN, n. [lore and man.] An in- 
structor. Obs. Gower. 

LOR'IeATE, V. t. [L. lorico, loricatus, from 
lorica, a coat of mail.] 

1. To plate over ; to spread over, as a plate 
for defense. 

Nature hath loricated the sides of the tympa- 
num in animals with ear-wax. Jiay. 

2. To cover with a crust, as a chimical ves- 
sel, for resisting fire. 

LOR'ICATED,;>p. Covered or plated over : 

LOR'ICATING, ppr. Covering over with a 
plate or crust. 

LORIeA'TION, n. The act or operation 
of covering any thing with a plate or 
crust for defense ; as the loricalion of a 
chimical vessel, to enable it to resist the 
action of fire, and sustain a high degree 
of heat. 

LOR'IMER, n. [L. iomm, a thong ; Ft.lar- 

A bridle-maker ; one that makes bits for 

bridles, &c. [N'ol tised.] 
LO'RING, n. Instructive discourse. Obs. 

LO'RIOT, n. [Fr.] A bird called witwal ; 

the oriole. 
LO'RIS, 11. A small quadruped of Ceylon. 
LORN, a. [Sax. Dan. forloren, lost. See 
Forlorn.] Lost ; forsaken ; lonely. 

LO'RY, n. A subordinate genus of fowls of 
the parrot kind, forming the link between 
the parrot and parroquet. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 

LoSABLE, a. That may be lost. [Little 

u.sed.] Boyle. 

Lose, v. t looz. pret. and pp^ lost. [Sax. 

" verliexen ; 
part, to separate, and from the root of 

1. To mislay; to part or be separated 
from a thing, so as to have no knowledge 
of the place where it is ; as, to lose a book 
or a i)aper ; to lose a record ; to lose a dol- 
lar or a ducat. 

2. To forfeit by unsuccessful contest ; as, to 
lose money in gaming. 

.3. Not to gain or win ; as, to lose a battle, 
that is, to be defeated. 

4. To be deprived of; as, to lose men in bat- 
tle ; to lose an arm or a leg by a shot or 
by amputation ; to lose one's life or honor. 

5. i'o forfeit, as a penalty. Our first pa- 
rents lost the favor of God by their apos- 


6. To suffer diminution or waste of. 

losian, forlosian, forhjsan; D. verliezei 
Goth, husaii. The sense is probably 


If the salt hath lost its savor, wherewith shall 
it be salted ? Matt. v. 

7. To ruin ; to destroy. 

The woman that deUberates is lost. 


8. To wander froin ; to miss, so as not to be 
able to find ; as, to lose the way. 

9. To bewilder. 

Lost in Uje maze of words. Pope. 

10. To possess no longer; to be deprived of; 
contrary to keep; as, to lose a valuable 

11. Not to employ or enjoy ; to waste, li- 
tus sighed to lose a day. 

Th' unhappy have but hours, and these they 
lose. Dryden. 

12. To waste ; to squander ; to throw away ; 
as, to lose a. fortune by gaming, or by dis- 



L O T 

5. Waste by leakage or escape ; us a loss otii turn or position of wliicli, an event is by 

liquors in transportation. 1 previous agreement determined. 

To bear a loss, lo make good; also, to sus- 7b rfrau; /o<», to determine an event by draw 

13. To suffer to vanish from view or percep- 
tion. We lost sight of the land at noon. 
I lost my companion in the crowd. 

Like following life in creatures we dissect 
We lose it in the moment we detect. Pope. 

14. To ruin; to destroy by shipwreck, &c. 
The Albion was lost on the coast of li-e 
land, April 23, 1823. The admiral tost 
three ships in a tempest. 

15. To cause to perish ; as, to be lost at sea. 
IG. To employ iueffectually ; to throw away 

to waste. Instruction is often lost on the 
dull; admonition is /osi on the profligate 
It is often the fate of projectors to lose 
their labor. 

17. To be freed from. 

His scaly back the bunch has got 

Which Kdw in lost before. Parnell. 

18. To fail to obtain. 
He shall in no wise lose his reward. Matt, x. 

To lose one's self, to be bewildered ; also, 
to slumber; to have tlie memory and rea 
son suspended. 
Lose, v. i. looz. To forfeit any thing ii 
contest; not to win. 

We'll talk with them too. 
Who loses and who wins ; who's in, who': 
out. Shah 

2. To decline ; to fail. 

Wisdom in discourse with her 
Loses discountenanced, and like folly shows 

LOS'EL, ?i. s as :. [from the root of Joosc 
A wasteful fellow, one who loses by sloth 
or neglect; a worthless person. Oba. 

LOS'ENGER, n. [Sax. has, false; leas- 
unge, falsity.] A deceiver. Obs. 

L6SER, n. looz'er. One that loses, or that 
is deprived of any thing by defeat, forfeit- 
ure or the like ; the contrary to winner or 
gainer. A loser by trade may be honest 
and moral ; this cannot be said of a loser 
by gaming. 
Losing, ppr. looz'ing. Parting from ; miss 
ing ; forfeiting ; wasting ; employing to no 
good purpose. 
LOSS, n. Privation; as the ?05S of property ; 
loss of money by gaming ; loss of health 
or reputation. Every loss is not a detri- 
ment. We cannot regret the loss of bad 
company or of evil habits. 

2. Destruction ; ruin ; as the loss of a ship 
at sea ; the loss of an army. 

3. Defeat ; as the loss of a battle. 

4. Waste ; useless application : as a loss of 
time or labor. 

tain a loss without sinking under it. 

To be at a loss, to be puzzled ; to be unable! 
to determine ; to be in a state of uncer- 

LOSS'FUL, a. Detrimental. [M>t used.] 

Bp. Hall. 

LOSS'LESS, a. Free from loss. [M>t used.] 


LOST, pp. [from lose.] Mislaid or left in a 
place unknown or forgotten ; that cannot 
be found ; as a lost book. 
Ruined ; destroyed ; wasted or squander 
ed ; employed to no good purpose ; as lost 
money ; lost time. 

3. Forfeited ; as a lost estate. 

4. Not able to find the right way, or the 
place intended. A stranger is lost in Lon- 
don or Paris. 

Bewildered ; perplexed ; being in a maze 
as, a speaker may be lost in his argument 

Alienated ; insensible ; hardened beyond 
sensibility or recovery ; as a profligate lost 
to shame ; lost to all sense of honor. 

7. Not perceptible to the senses ; not visible ; 
as an isle tost in fog; a person lost in a 

8. Shipwrecked or foundered ; sunk or des 
troyed ; as a ship lost at sea, or on the 

LOT, n. [Sax. blot, hlodd, Mel, kbit ; Goth. 
hlauts; D. Fr. /o( ; Sw. hit; Dan. Arm. 
lod ; G. los ; It. lotto ; Sp. loteria, a lot- 
tery. The primary sense is that which 
comes, falls or happens, or a part, a 
division or share. The French, from 
lot, have lotir, to divide ; Arm. loda, id. 
whence lodccq, a co-heir.] 

1. That which, in human speech, is called 
chance, hazard, fortune ; but in strictness 
of language, is the deterinination of Prov- 
idence ; as, the land shall be divided by 
lot. Num. xxvi. 

J. That by which the fate or portion of one 
is determined ; that by which an event is 
connnitted to chance, that is, to the de- 
termination of Providence ; as, to cast 
lots ; to draw lots. 

The lot is cast into the lap, but tlie whole 
disposint; thereof is of the Lord. Prov. xvi. 

3. The part, division or fate which falls to 
one by chance, that is, by divine deter- 

The second lot came forth to Simeon. Josh, 

He was but born to try 
The lot of man, to sutTer and to die. Pope 

4. A distinct portion or parcel ; as a lot of 
goods ; a lot of boards. 

5. Proportion or share of taxes ; as, to pay 
scot and lot. 

6. In the U. States, a piece or division of] 
land ; perhaps originally assigned by 
drawing lots, but now any portion, piece 
or division. So we say, a man has a lot 
of land in Broadway, or in the meadow ; 
he has a lot in the plain, or on the moun- 
tain ; he has a home-lot, a house-^*, a 

The defendants leased a house and lot m the 
city of New York. 

Kent. Franklin, Law of Penn 

To cast lots, is to use or throw a die, or 
some other instrument, by the unforeseen 

ngone thing from a number whose marks 
are concealed from the drawer, and thus 
determining an event. 

LOT, V. t. To allot ; to assign ; to distrib- 
ute ; to sort ; to catalogue ; to portion. 


LOTE, 71. [L. lotus, lotos.] A plant of the 
genus Celtis, the lote-tree, of several spe- 
cies. The wood of one species is very 
durable, and is used for timber. In Italy, 
flutes and other wind-instruments arc 
made of 'it, and in England it is used for 
the frames of coaches, &c. Encyc. 

A little fish. 

LOTH, a. [Sax. lath, Sw. led, Dan. leede, 
odious, hated. The common orthography 
is loath, i)ronounced with o long, but both 
the orthography and pronunciation are 
corrupt. This word follows the analogy 
of cloth, Sax. clath. I have folio w(xl Wil- 
ton, Dryden, Waller, Spenser and Shak- 
speare in the orthograjihy of the adjec- 
tive, and Cruden in that of the verb. The 
primary sense is to thrust, to turn or drive 
away. See the verb, and Class Ld. No. 
9. 15.1 
Literally, bating, detesting ; hence, 

2. Unwilling ; disliking ; not inclined ; re- 

Long dotli he stay, as loth to leave the land. 

To pardon willing, and to punish loth. 


LOTHE, V. t. [Sax. lathian, to h.itc, to de- 
test, to call, to invite ; gelathiun, to call ; 
Goth, lathon, to call; Sw. Itdus, to lothe; 
G. einlaelen, to invite, to lade or load, from 
laden, to lade, to invite, to cite or sum- 
mon. See Lade,] 

1. To feel disgust at any thing; properly, to 
have an extreme a^ersion of the appetite 
to food or drink. 

Our soul lutheth this light bread. Num. 

Lathing the honey'd cakes, I long'd for bread. 


2. To hate ; to dislike greatly ; to abhor. 
Ye shall lothe yourselves in your own sight 

for all your evils — Ezek. xx. 

Not to reveal the secret which I lothe. 

LOTHE, f. 1. To create disgust. Obs. 

LO'THED, pp. Hated ; abhorred ; turned 

from with disgust. 
LO'THER, 7i. One that lothes or abhors. 
LO'THFUL, a. Hating; abhorring. 

Wliicii he did with lothful eyes behold. 


2. Disgusting; hated ; exciting abhorrence. 
Above the reach of hthful sinful lust. 


LO'THING, ppr. Feeling disgust at; hav- 

ng extreme aversion to; as lothing food. 

3. Hating ; abhorring ; as lothing sin. 
LO'TIHNG, n. Extreme disgust; abhor- 
rence. Ezek. xvi. 

LO'THINGLY, adv. With extreme disgust 

or abhorrence ; in a fastidious manner. 
LOTH'LY, adv. Unwillingly ; reluctantly. 
This shows that you from nature lothly stray. 

LOTH'NESS, n. Unwillingness ; reluct- 





or to strike down, aud I think it connect- 
ed v/ithjlap.] 
I. To cut oft; as the top or extreme part 
of any thing ; to shorten by cutting off 
the extremities ; as, to top a tree or its 

With branches lopped in wood, or mountain 
fell'd. Milton. 

9. To cut off, as exuberances ; to separate, 
as superfluous parts. 

Expunge the whole, or lop the excrescent 
parts. Pope- 

3. To cut partly off and bend down ; as, to 
lop the trees or saphngs of a hedge. 

4. To let fall ; to flap ; as, a horse lops his 

LOP, n. That which is cut from trees. 

Else both body and lopwiWbe of little value 


LOP, 11. [Sax. loppe.] A flea. [Local] 

LOPE, pret. of leap. [Sw. Ibpa ; D. loopen.] 
Obs. Spenser. 

LOPE, n. [Sw. lopa, D. loopen, to run. See 

A leap ; a lon^ step. [A word in popular 
use in America.] 

LOPE, V. i. To leap ; to move or run with 
a long step, as a dog. 

LO'PING, ppr. Leaping ; moving or run- 
ning with a long step. 

LOP'PED, pp. Cut off; shortened by cut- 
ting off the top or end; bent down 

LOP'PER, 71. One that lops. 

LOP'PING, ppr. Cutting off; shortening 
by cutting off the extremity ; letting fall. 

LOP'PING, n. That which is cut off. 

LOaUA'CIOUS, a. [L. loquax, from loquor, 
to speak. Qu. Eng. to claclc] Talkative ; 
given to continual talking. 

Loquacious, brawling, ever in the wrong. 

Dry den. 

2. Speaking; noisy. 

Blind British bards, with volant touch, 
Traverse loquacious strings. Philips. 

3. Apt to blab and disclose secrets. 
LOQUA'CIOUSNESS, ) [L. loquacitas.] 
LOQIJ.\C'ITY, S Talkativeness; 

the habit or practice of talking continually 
or excessively. 

Too great loquacity and too great taciturnity 
bv fits." Arhulhnot 

LORD, 7! . [Sax. hlaford. This has been 
supposed to be compounded of hlaf, loaf, 
and ford, afford, to give ; and hence a 
lord is interpreted, a bread-giver. But ladi/,\ 
in Saxon, is in lilie manner written hloff- 
dag; and dwg can hardly signify a giver. 
The word occurs in none of the Teutonic 
dialects, except the Saxon ; and it is not 
easy to ascertain the original signification 
of the word. I question the correctness 
of the common interpretation.] 

1. A master; a person possessing supreme 
power and authority ; a ruler ; 

Man over man 
He made not lord. 

But now I was the lord 
Of this fair mansion. 

2. A tyrant ; an oppressive ruler. 

3. A husband. 

I oft in liitterness of soul deplored 

My absent daughter, and my dearer lord. 

My lord also being old. Gen. xviii. 

4. A baron ; the proprietor of a manor ; as 
the lord of the manor. 

a gov 



5. A nobleman ; a title of honor in Great, 
Uiitain given to those who are noble by 
birth or creation ; a peer of the realm, in-^ 
eluding dukes, marquises, earls, viscounts 
and barons. Archbishops and bishopsi 
also, as members of the house of lortlsj 
are lords of parhament. Thus we say, 
lords tein])oral and spiritual. By courtesy! 
also the title is given to the sons of dukes] 
and marquises, and to the eldest sons oil 
earls. Encyc.i 

An honorary title bestowed on certain 
official characters ; as lord advocate, lord 
chamberlain, lord chancellor, lord chief 
justice, &c. 
7.' In Scripture, ihe Supreme Being ; Jeho 
vah. Wlien Lord, in the Old Testament, \t 
printed in capitals, it is the translation of 
Jehovah, and so might, with more propri- 
ety, be rendered. The word is applied to 
Christ, Ps. ex. Col. iii. and to the Holy 
Spirit, 2 Thess. iii. As a title of respect, it 
is applied to kings. Gen. xl. 2 Sam. xix. 
to ])rinces and nobles. Gen. xlii. Dan. iv 
to a husband. Gen. xviii. to a prophet, 1 
Kings xviii. 2 Kings ii. and to a respect- 
able person. Gen. xxiv. Christ is called 
the Lord of glory, 1 Cor. ii. and Lord of 
lords, Rev. xix. 
LORD, V. t. To invest with the dignity and 
privileges of a lord. Shak. 

LORD, V. i. To domineer; to rule with ar- 
bitrary or despotic sway; sometimes fol 
lowed by over, and sometimes by it, iu the 
manner of a transitive verb. 

The whiles she lorJeth m licentious bliss. 

I see them lording: it in London streets. 

They lorded over thcra whom now Ihey 
serve. Mdton 

LORD'ING, Ji. A little lord ; a lord, in con- 
tempt or ridicule. [LitUe used.] Swift. 
LORD'LIKE, a. Becoming a lord. 
2. Haughty ; proud ; insolent. Dryden 

LORD'LINESS, 7i. [from lordly-] Dignity; 
1 hish .station. Shak. 

2. Pride; haughtiness. More. 

LORD'LING' 11. A little or diminutive lord. 
j Swifl. 

jLORD'LY, a. [lord and like.] Becoming a 
lord : pertaining to a lord. 

Lordly sins require lordly estates to support 
them. South. 

Proud; haughty; imperious; insolent. 
Every rich and lordly swain. 
With pride would drag about her chain. 


LORD'LY, adv. Proudly; imperiously; 

A famished lion, issuing from the wood, 
Roars loi'dly tierce. Dryden. 

LORD'SHIP, n. The state or quality of be- 
ing a lord ; hence, a title of honor given 
to noblemen, except to dukes, who have 
the title of grace. 
2. A titulary compellation of judges and 
certain other persons in authority and 
office. Johnson. 

Dominion; power; authority. 

They who are accounted to rule over the 

Gentiles, exercise lordship over them. Mark x 

4. Seigniory ; domain ; the territory of a 

lord over which he holds jurisdiction ; a 

II manor. 

What lands and lordships for their owner 

My quondam barber. Dryden. 

LORE, n. [Sax. lar, from the root of Iwran, 
to learn ; D. leer ; G. lehre ; Dan. Icere ; Sw. 
lara.] Learning ; doctrine ; lesson ; in- 

The law of nations, or the lore of war. 

Lo ! Rome herself, proud mistress now no 

Of arts, but thundering against heathen lore- 

LOR'EL, n. [Sax. leoran, to wander.] An 
abandoned scoundrel ; a vagrant. Obs. 

LO'RESMAN, n. [lore and man.] An in- 
structor. Obs. Gower. 
LOR'ICATE, V. t. [L. lorico, loricatus, from 

torica, a coat of mail.] 
1. To plate over ; to spread over, as a plate 
for defense. 

Nature hath loricated the sides of the tympa- 
num in animals with ear-wax. ^iciy- 
To cover with a crust, as a chimical ves- 
sel, for resisting fire. 
LOR'ICATED, pp. Covered or plated over ; 

LOR'ICATING, ppr. Covering over with a 

plate or crust. 
LORl€.\'TION, 11. The act or operation 
of covering any thing with a i>late or 
crust for defense ; as the lorication of a 
chimical vessel, to enable it to resist the 
action of fire, and sustain a high degree 
of heat. 
LORIMER, 71. [L. ioru?n, a thong ; Fr. ior- 

.\ bridle-maker; one that makes bits for 

bridles, &c. [.Not used.] 
LO'RING, 71. Instructive discourse. Obs. 

LO'RIOT, 71. [Fr.] A bird called witwal ; 

the oriole. 
LO'RIS, 71. A small quadruped of Ceylon. 
LOF?N, a. [Sax. Dan. forloren, lost. See 
Forlorn.] Lost ; forsaken ; lonely. 

LO'RY, 71. A subordinate genus of fowls of 
the parrot kind, forming the link between 
the parrot and parroquet. 

Did. Nat. Hist. 

LOSABLE, a. That may be lost. [Little 

used.] Boyle. 

LOSE, V. t. looz. pret. and pp. lost. [Sax. 

losian, forlosian, forlysan; D. verliezen; 

Goth, liusan. The sense is probably to 
part, to separate, and from the root of 

1. To mislay; to part or be separated 
from a thing, so as to have no knowledge 
of the place where it is ; as, to lose a book 
or a iinper ; to lose a record ; to lose a dol- 
lar or a ducat. 

2. To forfeit by unsuccessful contest ; as, to 
lose money in gaming. 

3. Not to gain or win ; as, to lost a battle, 
that is, to be defeated. 

4. To be deprived of; as, to lose men in bat- 
tle ; to lose an arm or a leg by a shot or 
by amputation ; to lose one's life or honor. 

5. To forfeit, as a penaltv- Our firet pa- 
rents lost the favor of God by their apos- 

6. To suffer diminution or waste of. 



L O T 

If the salt hath lost its savor, wherewith shall 
it be salted ? Matt. v. 

7. To ruin ; to destroy. 

The woman that deliberates is lost. 


8. To wander from ; to miss, so as not to be 
able to find ; as, to lose the way. 

9. To bewilder. 

Lost in Uie maze of words. Pope. 

10. To possess no longer; to be deprived of; 
contrary to keep; as, to lose a valuable 

11. Not to employ or enjoy ; to waste. Ti- 
tus sighed to lose a day. 

Th' unhappy have but houre, and these they 
lose. Dryden. 

13. To waste ; to squander ; to throw away 
as, to lose a fortune by gaining, or by dis 

13. To suffer to vanish from view or percep- 
tion. We lost sight of tlie land at noon, 
I lost my companion in the crowd. 

Like following life in creatures we dissect, 
We lose it in the moment we detect. Pope 

14. To ruin; to destroy by shipwreck, &c 
The Albion was lost on the coast of Ire- 
land, April 23, 1832. The admiral lost 
three ships in a tempest. 

15. To cause to perish ; a?, to be lost at sea. 

16. To employ ineffectually ; to throw away ; 
to waste. Instruction is otlen lost on the 
dull; atlnionitioii is /os< ou the profligate. 
It is often the fate of projectors to lose 
their labor. 

17. To be freed from. 

His scaly back the bunch has got 
Which Edwin lost before. Parnell. 

18. To fail to obtain. 
He shall in no wise lose his reward. Matt. s. 

To lose one'* self, to be bewildered ; also 
to slumber; to have the memory and rea- 
son suspended. 
Lose, !>. i. looz. To forfeit any thing ni 
contest; not to win. 

We'll talk with them too. 
Who loses and who nins ; wlio's in, who's 
out. Siliak. 

2. To decline ; to fail. 

Wisdom in discourse with her 
Loses discouatenanccd, and like folly shows. 

LOS'EL, n. s as ;. [from the root of ioose.] 
A wastefid fellow, one who loses by sloth 
or neglect ; a worthless person. 04s. 

LOS'ENGER, n. [Sa.x. leas, false ; has 
unge, falsity.] A deceiver. Obs. 

L6SER, n. looz'er. One that lose.s, or tliat 
is deprived of any thing by defeat, forfeit- 
ure or the like ; the contrary to wintier or 
gainer. A loser by trade may be honest 
and moral ; this cannot be said of a loser 
by gaming. 
Losing, ppr. looz'ing. Parting from ; miss- 
ing; forfeiting ; wasting ; employing to no 
good purpose. 
LOSS, n. Privation ; as the loss of property ; 
loss of money by gaming; loss of health 
or reputation. Every loss is not a detri 
ment. We cannot regret the loss of bad 
company or of evil habits. 

2. Destruction ; ruin ; as the loss of a ship 
at sea ; the loss of an army. 

3. Defeat ; as the loss of a battle. 

4. Waste ; useless application : as a loss of 
time or labor. 

5. Waste by leakage or escape ; as u loss ol 
liquors in transportation. 

To bear a loss, to make good ; also, to sus- 
tain a loss without sinking under it. 

To be at a loss, to be puzzled ; to be unable 
to determine ; to be in a state of uncer- 

LOSS'FUL, a. Detrimental. [JVotused.] 

Bp. Hall. 

LOSS'LESS, a. Free from loss. [Mil med.] 


LOST, pp. [from lose.] Mislaid or left in a 
place unknown or forgotten ; that cannot 
be found ; as a lost book. 

2. Ruined ; destroyed ; wasted or squander- 
ed ; employed to no good purpose ; as lost 
money ; lost time. 

3. F'orfeited ; as a lost estate. 

4. Not able to find the right way, or the 
place intended. A stranger is lost in Lon- 
don or Paris. 

5. Bewildered ; perplexed ; being in a maze ; 
as, a speaker may be lost in his argument 

6. Alienated ; insensible ; hardened beyond 
sensibility or recovery ; as a profligate lost 
to shame ; lost to all sense of honor. 

7. Not perceptible to the senses ; not visible; 
as an isle lost in fog; a person lost in a 

8. Shipwrecked or foundered ; sunk or des- 
troj'ed ; as a ship tost at sen, or on the 

LOT, n. [Sax. litot, hlodd, hkl, hlyl; Goth, 
hlauts ; D. Fr. lot; Sw. loll; Dan. Arm 
lod ; G. los ; It. lolto ; Sp. loteria, a lot- 
tery. The primary sense is that which 
comes, falls or happens, or a part, a 
division or share. The French, from 
lol, have lolir, to divide ; Arm. loda, id. 
whence lodccij, a co-heir.] : 

1. That which, in human speech, is called 
chance, hazard, fortune ; but in strictness 
of language, is the determination of Prov-j 
idence; as, the land shall be divided by 
lot. Num. xxvi. 

2. That by which the fate or portion of one' 
is determined ; that by which an event is 
connnitted to chance, that is, to the de- 
termination of Providence ; as, to cast 
lots ; to draw lots. 

Tlie lot is cast into the lap, but tlie whole 
disposiiii: thereof is of the Lord. Prov. xvi. 

3. The part, division or fate w liich falls to 
one by chance, that is, by divine deter- 

The second lot came forth to Simeon. Josh, 

He was but born to try 
The lot of man, to suffer and to die. Pope. 

4. A distinct portion or parcel ; as a lot of 
goods ; a lot of boards. 

5. Proportion or share of taxes ; as, to pay 
scot and lot. 

6. In the U. Slates, a piece or division of 
land ; perhaps originally assigned byi 
drawing lots, but now any portion, piece 
or division. So we say, a man has a lot 
of land in Broadway, or in the meadow ; 
he has a lot in the plain, or on the moun- 
tain ; he has a hom^-lot, a house-W, a 

The defendants leased a house and lot in the 

turn or position of which, an event is by 
previous agreement delerniiiicd. 

To draw lots, to determine an event by draw- 
ing one thing from a number whose marks 
are concealed from the drawer, and thus 
determining an event. 

LOT, V. t. To allot ; to assign ; to distrib- 
ute ; to sort ; to catalogue ; to portion. 


LOTE, n. [\^.lolus,lotos.] A plant of the 
genus Celtis, the lote-trce, of several spe- 
cies. The wood of one .'-■pecies is very 
durable, and is used for timber. In Italy, 
flutes and other winil-instruments arc 
made of 'it, and iu England it is used for 
the frames of coaches, &c. Eneye. 

2. A little fish. 

city of New York. 

Franklin, Law of Pain 
To cast lots, is to use or throw a die, or 
some other instrument, by the unforeseen 

ILOTH, a. [Sax. lath, Sw. led, Dan. leede, 
odious, hated. The common orthography 
is loath, pronounced with o long, but both 
the orthography and pronunciation are 
corrupt. This word follows the analogy 
oi' cloth, Sax.clath. I have followed Mil- 
ton, Dryden, Waller, Spen.ser and Sliak- 
speare in the ortliograjdiy of the adjec- 
tive, and Cruden in that of the verb. The 
primary sense is to thrust, to turn or drive 
away. See the verb, and Class Ld. No. 
9. 15.1 

1. Literally, hating, detesting ; hence, 

2. Unwilling ; disliking ; not inclined ; re- 

Long doth he stay, as loth to leave the land. 

To pardon willing, and to punish loth. 

LOTHE, V. t. [Sax. lalhian, to hate, to de- 
test, to call, to invite ; gelathinii, to call ; 
Goth, tiilhon, to call ; Sw. Itdas, lolothe; 
G. einladen, to invite, to lade or load, from 
laden, to lade, to invite, to cite or sum- 
mon. See Lade.'l 

1. To feel tlisgust at any thing; properly, to 
have an extreme a\ersion of the appetite 
to food or drink. 

Our soul lotheih this light bread. Num. 

Lathing the honey'd cakes, I long'd for bread. 

To hate ; to dislike greatly ; to abhor. 

Ye shall lothe yourselves in your own sight 
for all your evils — Ezck. xx. 

Not to reveal the secret which 1 lothe. 

LOTHE, V. i. To create disgust. Obs. 

LO'THED, pp. Hated ; abhorred ; turned 

from with disgust. 
LO'THER, n. One that lothes or abhors. 
LO'THFUL, a. Hating; abhorring. 

A\'hich he did with lothful eyes behold. 

I lubber d. 

2. Disgusting ; hated ; exciting abhorrence. 
Above the reach of lolhfiU sinful lust. 

LO'THING, ppr. Feeling disgust at; hav- 
ing extreme aversion to ; as lathing food. 

3. Hating ; abhorring ; as lathing sin. 
LO'THING, 71. Extreme disgust; abhor- 
rence. Ezek. xvi. 

LO'THINGLY, adv. With extreme disgust 

or abhorrence ; in a fastidious m.auner. 
LOTH'LY, adv. Unwillingly ; reluctantly. 
This shows that you from nature lothly stray. 

LOTH'NESS, n. Unwillingness; reluct- 



or to strike down, and I tliink it connect- 
ed with Jlap.] 
1. To cut oft; as tlie top or extreme part 
of any thing ; to shorten by cutting oft" 
the extremities ; as, to lop a tree or its 

With branches lopped in wood, or mountain 
fgli'd. Milton. 

9. To cut off; as exuberances ; to separate, 
as superfluous parts. 

Expunge the whole, or U>p the excrescent 
parts. Pope- 

3. To cut partly off" and bend down ; as, to 
lop the trees or saplings of a hedge. 

4. To let fall ; to Jlap ; as, a horse lops his 

LOP, n. That which is cut from trees. 

Else both body and lop will be of little value. 

LOP, n. [Sax. loppe.] A flea. [Local] 
LOPE, pret. of leap. [Sw. lopa ; D. loopen.] 

Obs. Spenser. 

LOPE, n. [Sw. llipa, D. loopen, to run. See 

A leap ; a long step. [A word m popular 

use in Jlmerica.] 
LOPE, V. i. To leap ; to move or run with 

a long step, as a dog. 
LO'PING, ppr. Leaping ; moving or run- 
ning with a long step. 
LOP'PED, pp. Cut oflf; shortened by cut 

ting oft" the top or end ; bent down. 
LOP'PER, ?i. One that lops. 
LOP'PING, ppr. Cutting oft"; shortening 

by cutting oft" the extremity ; letting fall. 
LOP'PING, n. That which is cut off". 
LOUUA'CIOUS, a. [L. loquax, from loquor, 

to speak. Qu. Eng. to clack.] Talkative 

given to coutinual talking. 

Loquacious, brawling, ever in the wrong. 


2. Speaking; noisy. 

Blind British bards, with volant touch. 
Traverse loquacious strings. Philips. 

3. Apt to blab and disclose secrets. 
LOQUA'CIOUSNESS, } [L. loquacitas.] 
LOQUACITY, S Talkativeness; 

the habit or practice of talking continually 
or excessively. 

Too "real loquacity and too great taciturnity 
bv fits." Arbuthnot. 

LORD, J! . [Sax. Maford. This has been 
supposed to be compounded of hlaf, loaf, 
and ford, afford, to give ; and hence a 
lord is interpreted, a hread-giver. But ladi) 
in Saxon, is in like manner written hlttf- 
dag; and da:g can hardly signify a giver. 
The word occurs in none of the Teutonic 
dialects, except the Saxon ; and it is not 
easy to ascertain the original signification 
of the word. I question the correctness 
of the common interpretation.] 
\. A master; a person possessing 
power and authority ; a ruler 

Man over man 
He made not lord. 

But now I was the lord 
Of this fair mansion. 

2. A tyrant ; an oppressive ruler. 

3. A husband. 

I oft in bitterness of soul deplored 

My absent daughter, and my dearer lord. 

My lord also being old. Gen. xviii. 
Aharon; the proprietor of a manor; as 
the lord of the manor. 


5. A nobleman ; a title of honor in Great 
Britain given to those who are noble by 
birth or creation ; a peer of the realm, in- 
cluding dukes, martiuises, earls, viscounts 
and barons. Archbishops and bishops 
also, as members of the house of lords, 
are lords of parliament. Thus we say 
lords temjioral and spiritual. By courtesy 
also the title is given to the sons of dukesl 
and marquises, and to the eldest sons of 
earls. Encyc. 

An honorary title bestowed on certain 


; a gov 



official characters ; as lord advocate, lord 
chamberlain, lord cliancellor, lord chief 
justice, &c. 
7. In Scripture, the Supreme Being ; Jeho 
I vah. AVhen Lord, in the Old Testament, i«] 
printed in capitals, it is the translation of 
[ Jehovah, and so might, with more propri 
! ety, be rendered. The word is applied to 
Christ, Ps. ex. Col. iii. and to the Holy 
Spirit, 2 Thess. iii. As a title of respect, it 
is applied to kings, Gen. xl. 2 Sam. xix. 
to princes and nobles. Gen. xlii. Dan. iv. 
to a husband, Gen. xviii. to a prophet, 1 
Kings xviii. 2 Kings ii. and to a respect- 
able person, Gen. xxiv. Christ is called 
the Lord of glory, 1 Cor. ii. and Lord of 
lords, Rev. xix. 
LORD, V. I. To invest with the dignity and 
privileges of a lord. Shak. 

LORD, V. i. To domineer ; to rule with ar 
bitrary or despotic sway; sometimes fol 
lowed by over, and sometimes by it, in the 
manner of a transitive verb. 

The whiles she lordeth in licentious bliss. 

I see them lording- it in Londou streets. 

They lorded over them whom now they 
serve. Milton 

LORD'ING, >!. A little lord ; a lord, in con- 
j tempt or ridicule. [Little xised.] Sieifl. 
ILORD'LIKE, a. Becoming a lord. 
2. Haughty ; proud ; insolent. Dryden 

LORD'LINESS, n. [from lordly-] Dignity; 
I high station. Shak. 

,2. Pride; haughtiness. More. 

LORD'LING' n. A little or diminutive lord. 
1 Swift. 

JlORD'LY, a. [lord and like.] Becoming a 
I lord : pertaining to a lord. 

Lordly sins require lordly estates to suppoi 
I them. "" "' 

Proud; haughty; imperious 
Every rich and lordly swahi. 
With pride would drag about her chain. 


LORD'LY, adv. Proudly; imperiously; 

A famished lion, issuing from the wood, 
Roars lordly tierce. Dryden. 

LORD'SHIP, n. The state or quality of be- 
ing a lord ; hence, a title of honor given 
to noblemen, except to dukes, who have 
the title of g-race. 

2. A titulary compellation of judges and 
certain other persons in authority and 
office. Johnson. 

3. Dominion; power; authority. 
They who are accounted to rule over the 

Gentiles, exercise Inrdship over them. Mark x. 

4. Seigniory ; domain ; the territory of a 
lord over which he holds jurisdiction ; a 



What lands and lordships for their owner 

My quondam barber. Dryden. 

LORE, n. [Sax. lar, from the root of Iwran, 
to learn ; D. leer ; G. lehrt ; Dan. Iccre ; Sw. 
lara.] Learning ; doctrine ; lesson ; in- 

The law of nations, or the lore of war. 

Lo ! Rome herself, proud mistress now no 

Of arts, but thundering against heathen lore. 


LOR'EL, 71. [Sax. horan, to wander.] An 
abandoned scoundrel ; a vagrant. Obs. 


LO'RESMAN, n. [lore and man.] An in- 
structor. Obs. Gower. 

LOR'leATE, V. I. [L. lorico, loricatus, from 
lorica, a coat of mail.] 

1. To plute over ; to spread over, as a plate 
for defense. 

Nature hath loricated the sides of the tympa- 
num in animals with ear-wax. Ray. 

2. To cover with a crust, as a chimical ves- 
sel, for resisting fire. 

LOR'IGATED, pp. Covered or plated over ; 

LOR'ICATING, ppr. Covering over with a 

])late or crust. 
LORIeA'TION, n. The act or operation 

of covering any tiling with a filate or 

crust for defense ; as the loricatio7i of a 

chimical vessel, to enable it to resist the 

action of fire, and sustain a high degree 

of heat. 
LOR'IMER, Ji. [L. tontm, a thong ; Fr. to- 

.\ bridle-maker; one that makes bits for 

bridles, &c. [M)t itsed.] 
LO'RING, n. Instructive discourse. Obs. 

LO'RIOT, n. [Ft.] A bird called witwal ; 

the oriole. 
LO'RIS, )!. A small quadruped of Ceylon. 
LORN, a. [Sax. Dan. forloren, lost. See 

Forlorn.] Lost ; forsaken ; lonely. 

LO'RY, n. A subordinate genus of fowls of 

the parrot kind, forming the link between 

the parrot and parroquet. 

Diet. J^at. Hist. 
LOSABLE, a. That may be lost. [Little 

used.] Boyle. 

LOSE, V. t. looz. pret. and pp. lost. [Sax. 

losian, forlosian, forhjsan; D. verliezen; 

Goth, husan. The sense is probably to 

part, to separate, and from the root of 


1. To mislay ; to part or be separated 
from a thing, so as to have no knowledge 
of the place where it is ; as, to lose a book 
or a paper ; to lose a record ; to lose a dol- 
lar or a ducat. 

2. To forfeit by unsuccessful contest ; as, to 
lose money in gaining. 

3. Not to gain or win ; as, to lose a battle, 
that is, to be defeated. 

4. To be deprived of; as, to lose men in bat- 
tle ; to lose an arm or a leg by a shot or 
by amputation ; to lose one's life or honor. 

5. To forfeit, as a penalty. Our firet pa- 
rents losl the favor of God by their apos- 

6. To suffer diminution or waste of. 


If the salt hath lost its savor, wherewith shall 
it be salted ! Matt. v. 

7. To ruin ; to destroy. 

The woman that deliberates Is lost. 


8. To wander from ; to miss, so as not to be 
able to find ; as, to lose the way. 

9. To bewilder. 

Lost in tlie maze of words. Pope 

10. To possess no longer ; to be deprived of; 
contrary to keep; as, to lose a. valuable 

11. Not to employ or enjoy ; to waste. Ti- 
tus sighed to lose a day. 

Th' unhappy have but houi-s, and these they 
lose. Dryden. 

12. To waste ; to squander ; to throw away ; 
as, to lose u fortune by gaming, or by dis- 

13. To suffer to vanish from view or percep- 
tion. We lost sight of the land at noon 
I lost my companion in the crowd. 

Like following life in creatures we dissect, 
We lose it in the moment we detect. Pope. 

14. To ruin ; to destroy by sliipwreck, &c. 
The Albion was lost on the coast of Ire- 
land, April 22, 1822. The admiral lost 
three ships in a tempest. 

15. To cause to perish ; a?, to be lost at sea. 

16. To employ iuetiectually ; to throw away 
to waste. Instruction is otlen lost on the] 
dull; admonition is /os( on the profiigate.' 
It is often the fate of projectors to lose 
their labor. 

17. To be freed from. 

His scaly back the bunch has got 
Which Kdwiii lost before. Parnell. 

18. To fail to obtain. 
He shall in no wise lose his reward. Matt. x. 

To lose one's self, to be bewildered ; also, 
to slumber; to have the memory and rea- 
son suspended. 
L6SE, V. i. looz. To forfeit any thing in 
contest ; not to win. 

We'll talk with tliem too. 
Who loses and who wins ; who's in, who's 
out. aliak. 

2. To decline ; to fail. 

Wisdom ill discourse with her 
Loses discountenanced, and like folly shows 

LOS'EL, n. s as :. [from the root of Joose.] 
A wasteful fellow, one who loses by sloth 
or neglect ; a worthless person. Obs. 

LOS'ENGER, ?i. [Sax. has, false; leas- 
unge, falsity.] A deceiver. Obs. 

L6SER, n. looz'er. One that loses, or that 
is deprived of any thing by defeat, forfeit 
ure or the like ; the contrary to ivinner or 
gainer. A loser by trade may be honest 
and moral ; this cannot be said of a loser 
by gaining. 
Losing, ppr. looz'ing. Parting from ; miss- 
ing; forfeiting ; wasting ; employing to no 
good purpose. 
LOSS, 71. Privation ; as the loss of property 
loss of money by gaming; loss of health 
or reputation. Every loss is not a detri 
ment. We cannot regret the loss of bad 
company or of evil habits. 

2. Destruction ; ruin ; as the loss of a ship 
at sea ; the loss of an army. 

3. Defeat ; as the loss of a battle. 

4. Waste ; useless application ; as a loss of 
time or labor. 


5. Waste by leakage or escape ; as a loss ot 
liquors in transportation. 

To bear a loss, to make good ; also, to sus- 
tain a loss without sinking under it. 

To be at a loss, to be puzzled; to be unable 
to determine ; to be in a state of uncer- 

LOSS'FUL, a. Detrimental. [ATot used.] 

Bp. Hall. 

LOSS'LESS, a. Free from loss. [Mt used.] 


LOST, pp. [from lose.] Mislaid or left in a 
place unknown or forgotten ; that cannot 
be found ; as a lost book. 

9. Ruined ; destroyed ; wasted or squander- 
ed ; employed to no good purpose ; as lost 
money ; lost time. 

3. Forfeited ; as a lost estate. 

4. Not able to find the right way, or the 
place intended. A stranger is lost in Lon- 
don or Paris. 

5. Bewildered ; perplexed ; being in a maze ; 
I as, a speaker may be lost in liis argument 

6. Alienated ; insensible ; hardened beyond 
sensibility or recovery ; as a profligate lost 
to shame ; lost to all sense of honor. 

7. Not perceptible to the senses ; not visible ; 
' as an isle lost in fog; a person lost in a 
I crowd. 

8. Shipwrecked or foundered ; sunk or des 
I troyed ; as a ship lost at sea, or on the 

LOT, n. [Sax. Idol, hlodd, hid, hh/t ; Goth 
hlaiUs ; D. Fr. lot ; Sw. loll; Dan. Arm. 
lod ; G. los ; It. lotto ; Sp. loteriu, a lot- 
tery. The primary sense is that which 
comes, falls or hapjiens, or a part, a 
division or share. The Froncli, from 
lot, have lotir, to divide ; Arm. loda, id. I 
whence lodecq, a co-heir.] 1 

I. That which, in human speech, is called 
chance, hazard, fortune ; but in strictness! 
of language, is the determination of Prov- 
idence ; as, the land shall be divided by 
lot. Num. x-wi. 

That by which the fate or portion of one 
is determined ; that by which an event is 
committed to chance, that is, to the de- 
tcriiiiiiation of Providence ; as, to cast 
lots ; to draw lots. 

The lot is cast into the lap, but tlie whole 
disposiiis; thereof is of the Lord. Prov. xvi. 
The part, division or fate which tails to 
one by chance, that is, by divine deter 

The second lot came forth to Simeon. Josh, 

He was but born to try 
The lot of man, to suffer and to die. Pope 
4. A distinct portion or parcel ; as a lot of 
goods ; a lot of boards. 
Proportion or share of taxes ; as, to pay 
scot and lot. 
,6. In the U. States, a piece or division of 
land ; perhaps originally assigned byi 
drawing lots, but now any portion, piece 
or division. So we say, a man has a lot 
of land ill Broadway, or in the meadow ; 
he has a lot in the plain, or on the moun 
tain ; he has a home-lot, a house-/o*, a 

The defendants leased a house and lot in the 
city of New York. 

ICent. Fiankiin, Law of Pain. 

\To cast lots, is to use or throw a die, or 
some other instrument, by the unforeseen 

L o r 

turn or pobilion of w liicb, an event is by 
previous agreement determined. 

To draw lots, to determine an event by draw- 
ing one thing from a number whose marks 
are concealed from the drawer, and thus 
determining an event. 

LOT, V. t. To allot ; to assign ; to distrib- 
ute ; to sort ; to catalogue ; to portion. 


LOTE, »i. [L. htus, lotos.] A plant of the 
genus Celtis, the lote-trec, of several spe- 
cies. The wood of one species is very 
durable, and is used for timber. In Italy, 
flutes and other wind-instruments arc 
made of lit, and in England it is used for 
the frames of coaches, &c. Enryc. 

A little fish. 


LOTH, a. [Sax. lath, Sw. led, Dan. leede, 
odious, hated. The conitnon orthography 
is loath, pronounced with o long, but both 
the orthography and pronunciation are 
corrupt. This word follows the analogy 
of cloth. Sax. clath. 1 have fi)liow(jil Mil- 
ton, Dryileii, Waller, Spenser and Shak- 
speare in the orthography of the adjec- 
tive, and Cruden in that of the verb. The 
primary sense is to thrust, to turn or drive 
away. See the verb, and Class Ld. No. 
9. 15.1 

1. Literally, hating, detesting ; hence, 

2. Unwilling ; disliking ; not inclined ; re- 

Long doth he stay, as loth to leave the land. 

To pardon willing, and to punish loth. 

LOTHE, V. t. [Sax. lalhian, to hate, to de- 
test, to call, to invite ; gelathian, to call ; 
Goth, liithon, to call; Sw. Itdus, to iothe; 
G. einUulen, to invite, to lade or load, from 
laden, to lude, to invite, to cite or sum- 
mon. See Lade.] 

1. To feel disgust at any thing; properly, to 
have an extreme aversion of the appetite 
to food or drink. 

Our soul lotheth this light bread. Num. 

Lathing the lioney'd cakes, I long'd for bread. 


2. To hate ; to dislike greatly ; to abhor. 
Ye shall Iothe yourselves in your own sight 

for all your evils — Ezck. xx. 

Not to reveal the secret which 1 Iothe. 

LOTHE, V. i. To create disgust. Obs. 

LO'THED, pp. Hated ; abhorred ; turned 

from with disgust. 
LO'THER, ;i. One that lothes or abhors. 
LO'THFUL, a. Hating; abhorring. 

AVTiich he did with lothful eyes Iicliold. 

2. Disgusting ; hated ; exciting abhorrence. 
Above the reach of lothful sinful lust. 

LO'THING, ppr. Feeling disgust at; hav- 
ing extreme aversion to ; as lothing food. 
2. Hating ; abhorring ; as lothing sin. 
LO'THING, 71. Extreme disgust ; abhor- 
rence. Ezek. xvi. 
LO'THINGLY, adv. With esueme disgust 

or abhorrence ; in a fastidious manner. 
LOTH'LY, adv. Unwillingly ; reluctantly. 
This shows that you from nature lothly stray. 

LOTH'NESS, 71. Unwillingness ; reluct- 


L O V 

L O V 

There grew among tliein a general silence; 

and lothness to speak. Bacon. 

LO'THSOME, a. [Sw. ledesam.] Causing 

an extreme aversion of appetite ; exciting 

fastidiousness. Num. xi. 

2. Exciting extreme disgust ; offensive ; as 
a tothsome disease. Vs. xxxviii. 

3. Odious; exciting liatred or abhorrence; 
detestable ; as lothsome sloth. Spenser. 

LO'THSOMENESS, n. The quality of ex- 
citing extreme disgust or abhorrence. 

LO'TION, 71. [L. lotio, from lavo, to wash.] 

1. A washing ; particularly, a washing of 
the skin for the purpose of rendering it 
fair. Encyc. 

2. A liquid preparation for washing some 
part of the body, to cleanse it of fouhiess 
or deformity. Encyc. 

3. In pharmacy, a preparation of medicines, 
by washing them in some hquid, to re- 
move foreign substances, impurities, &.c. 

LOT'TERY, n. [Fr. loterie ; Sp. loteria. 
See Lot.] 

1. A scheme for the distribution of prizes by 
chance, or the distribution itself Lotte- 
ries are often authorized by law, but ma- 
ny good men deem theni immoral in prin- 
ciple, and almost all men concur in the 
opinion that their efttjcts are pernicious. 

2. Allotment. [Not ttsed.] 

LOUD, a. [Sax. hlud or hid; G. laut ; D. 
Hud ; Dan. lyd ; L. laudo, to praise, and 
with a prefix, plaiido ; W. clod, praise, 
formeil from Hod, which signifies what is 
forcibly uttered ; Uodi,\o reach out; llawd, 
that shoots out, that is productive, also a 
lad. This is the Ch. Syr. Heb. Sam. nV, 

Eth. Q)(\^ walad, Ar. j^!, walada, to 

bring forth. The primafy sense is obvi- 
ous. Qu. its connection with the Ir. 
blaodh and glaodh, a calling, and Sax. laih- 
ian, to caU. See Class Ld. No. 8. 29.] 

1. Having a great sound ; high sounding ; 
noisy ; striking the ear with great force ; 
as a loud voice ; a loud cry ; loud thunder. 

2. Uttering or making a great noise ; as loud 
instruments. 2 Chron. xxx. 

3. Clamorous ; noisy. 

She is loud and stubborn. Prov. vii. 

4. Emphatical ; impressive ; as a loud call to 
avoid danger. 

LOUD'LY, adv. With great sound or noise; 

Who long and loudly in the schools declaim- 
ed. Denliam. 

2. Clamorously ; with vehement complaints 

or importunity. He loudly complained of 

LOUD'NESS, n. Great sound or noise; as 

the loudness of a voice or of thunder. 
2. Clamor ; clamoi'ousness ; turbulence ; up 

LOUGH, n. lok. [Ir. and HcoUoch.] A lake; 

a different orthography ot'loch and lake. 

LOUIS D'OR,«. [a Lewis of gold.] A gold 

coin of France, first struck in 1G40, in the 

reign of Louis XMI., value, twenty shi 

lines sterling, eiiual to $4.4444. 
LOUNftE, II. I. [Fr. lonf^is, a lingerer, from 

lon^.] To live in idliiicss ; to .«pend time 


LOUNg'ER, ji. An idler; one who loiters 
away his time in indolence. 

LOUR. [See Loiter.] 

LOUSE, 71. lous. plu. lice. [Sax. lus, plu. 
lys ; D. luis ; G. lau^ ; Sw. Dan. lus.] 

A small insect of the genus Pediculus. It 
has six feet, two eyes, with long feelers' 
and a sting in the mouth. It infests the! 
bodies of men and other animals; but dif- 
ferent animals are infested with different: 
species. Encyc) 

LOUSE, v.l. louz. To clean from lice. 


LOUSE-WORT, n. lous'-wort. A plant of 
the genus Pedicularis. The yellow louse- 
wort is of the genus Rhinanthus. 

Fain, of Plants. 

LOUS'ILY, adv. s as i. [from lousy.] In a 
mean, paltry manner ; scurvily. 

LOUS'INESS, n. s as z. The state of 
abounding with hce. 

LOUS'Y, a. s as z. [from louse.] Swarming 
with lice ; infested with lice. Dryden.\ 

2. Mean ; low ; contemptible ; as a lousy\ 
knave. Shak.\ 

LOUT, n. [Qu. Sax. leod, G. leiite, people. ]| 
A mean awkward fellow ; a bumpkin ; a 
clown. Shak. Gay. 

LOUT, V. i. [Sax. hlutan.] To bend ; to 
bow ; to stoop. [Obsolete or local.] 

Spenser. B. Jonson. 

LOUT'ISH, a. Clownish; rude; awkward. 


LOUT'ISHLY, adv. Like a clown; in a 
rude, clumsy, awkward manner. 

LOUVER, 71. loo'ver. [Fr. Vouvcrt.] An 
opening in the roof of a cottage for the 
smoke to escape. Spe7iser. 

LOVABLE, a. Worthy of love ; amiable. 


LOV'AgE, n. A plant of the genus Ligus- 
ticum. Fam. of Plants. 

LOVE, V. t. luv. [Sax. lufian, luvian ; D. 
lieven : G. lichen ; Russ. liobhju ; L. libeo, 
lubeo ; Sans, loab, love, desire. See Lief. 
The sense is probably to be prompt, free, 
willing, from leaning, advancing, or draw- 
ing forward.] 

1. In a general sense to be pleased with ; to 
regard with affection, on account of some! 
quahties which excite pleasing sensa- 
tions or desire of gratification. We love a' 
friend, on account of some qualities which 
give us pleasure in his society. We love a 
man who has done us a favor ; in which 
case, gratitude enters into the composi- 
tion of our affection. We love our parents 
and our children, on account of their con 
nection with us, and on account of many 
qualities which please us. We love to re- 
tire to a cool shade in summer. We love 
a warm room in winter. We love to hear 
an eloquent advocate. The christian /oi'es 
his Bible. In short, we love whatever gives 
us pleasure and delight, whether animal or 
intellectual ; and if our hearts are right 
we love God above all things, as the sun 
of all excellence and all the attributes 
which can communicate happiness to in 
telligent beings. In other words, the chris 
tian loves God with the love of compla- 
cency in his attributes, the love of benev- 
olence towards the interests of his king 
dom, and the love of gratitude for favors 

Thou shall love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with allthy 
mind — 

Tliou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. 
Matt. xxii. 
2. To have benevolence or good will for. 

John iii. 
LOVE, 71. An affection of the mind excited 
by beauty and worth of any kind, or by 
the qualities of an object which communi- 
cate pleasure, sensual or intellectual. It 
is opposed to hatred. Love between the 
sexes, is a compound affection, consisting 
of esteem, benevolence, and animal desire. 
Love is excited by pleasing qualities of 
any kind, as by kindness, benevolence, 
charity, and by the quahties whieh render 
social intercourse agreeable. In the lat- 
ter case, love is ardent friendship, or a 
strong attachment springing from good 
will and esteem, and the pleasure derived 
from the company, civilities and kindness- 
es of others. 

Between certain natural relatives, love 
seems to be in some cases instinctive. 
Such is the love of a mother for her child, 
which manifests itself toward an infant, 
bofiare any particular qualities in the child 
are unfolded. This affection is apparent- 
ly as strong in irrational animals as in hu- 
man beings. 

We speak of the love of amusements, the 
love of books, the love of money, and the 
love of whatever contributes to our pleas- 
ure or supposed profit. 

The love of God is the first duty of man, 
and this springs from just views of his at- 
tributes or excellencies of character, which 
afford the highest delight to the sanctified 
heart. Esteem and reverence constitute 
ingredients in this afl'ection, and a fear of 
offending him is its inseparable eflfect. 

2. Courtship ; chiefly in the phrase, to 7nake 
love, that is, to court ; to woo ; to solicit 
union in marriage. 

3. Patriotism ; the attachment one has to 
his native land ; as the love of country. 

4. Benevolence; good will. 

God is love. 1 John iv. 

5. The object beloved. 
The lover and the love of hiunan kind. 


6. A word of endearment. 
Trust me, love. Dryden. 

7. Picturesque representation of love. 

Such was his form as painters, when thej- 

Their utmost art, on naked loves bestow. 


8. Lewdness. 
He is not lolling on a lewd love-hei. Shak. 

9. A thin silk stufl". Obs. Boyle. 
Love in idleness, a kind of violet. Shak. 
Free of love, a plant of thegeinis Cercis. 

Fam. of Plants. 
LOVE-APPLE, n. A plant of the genus 

LOVE-BROKER, n. A third person wlio 
acts as agent between lovers. Shak. 

LOVED, pp. Having the affection of any 

LOVE-DARTING, a. Darting love. 


LOVE-DAY, )!. A day formerly appointed 

for an amicable adjustment of diftisrences. 


L O V 



LoVE-FAVOR, n. Something given to be 
worn in token of love. Bp. Hall. 

LOVE-KNOT, n. luv'-not. A knot so call- 
ed, used as a token of love or representing 
mutual affection. 
LOVE-LABORED, a. Labored by love. 

LOVE-LASS, n. A sweetheart. 
LOVELESS, a. Void of love; void of ten- 
derness or kindness. Millon. Shetton. 
LOVE-LETTER, 71. A letter professing 

love ; a letter of courtship. 
LOVELILY, adv. luv'lily. [from lovely.] 
Amiably ; in a manner to excite love. 

LOVELINESS, n. luv'liness. [from lovel;}.] 
Amiableness; qualities of body or mind 
that may excite love. 

It there is such a native loveliness in the sex 
as to make them victorious wlien in tlie wrong, 
how resistless tlieir power wlicu they are ou the 
side of truth. Spectator. 

LOVE-LOCK, Ji. A curl or lock of hair so 
called ; worn by men of fashion in the 
reigns of Elizabeth and James I. 


LOVE-LORN, a. [love and loni.] Forsaken 

by one's love ; as the love-lorn nightingale. 

LOVELY, a. luv'ly. Amiuble; that may ex- 
cite love; possessing qualities which may 
invite affection. 

Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant 

in their lives — 2 Sam. i. 

LOVE-MONGER, n. [love and monger.] 

One who deals in affairs of love. [jYot 

used.] Shak. 

LOVE-PINED, a. Wasted by love. 

LOVER, n. One who loves ; one who has 
a tender affection, particularly for a fe 

Love is bUnd, and lovers cannot see — 

'i. A friend ; 0110 who regards with kind- 

Your brother and his lover have embraced. 

;l. One who likes or is pleased with any 
thing ; as a lover of books or of science 
a lover of wine ; a lover of religion. 
Lover and hover. [See Louver.] 
LOVE-SE€RET, n. A secret between lov- 
ers. Dryden. 
LOVE-SHAFT, n. Cupid's arrow. Shak. 
LOVE-SICK, a. Sick or languishing with 
love or amorous desire ; as a lovesick 

To the dear mistress of my love-sick mind. 

Dryden . 
2. Dictated by a languishing lover, or ex- 
pressive of languishing love. 

Where nightingales their lovesick ditty sing. 

LOVESOME, a. Lovely. [Xol used.] 

LOVE-SONG, n. A song expressing love. 

LOVE-SUIT, n. Courtship; solicitation of] 
union in marriage. Shak. 

LOVE-TALE, n. A narrative of love. 
Cato's a proper person to enti-ust 
A love-tale wUh. Aldison 

LOVE-THOUGHT, n. Amorous fancy. 

[JVotused.] 'Shak. 

LOVE-TOKEN, ii. A present in token of 

love. Shak. 

LOVE-TOY, n. A small present from a lov- 
er. Jirhulhnot. 

LOVE-TRICK, n. Art or artifice expressive 
of love. 

Other love-tricks than glancing with the eyes. 

LOVING, ppr. Entertaining a strong af- 
fection for ; having tender regard for. 
a. a. Fond; affectionate; as a/oDtHjg friend, 
3. Expressing love or kindness ; as loving 

LOVING-KINDNESS, n. Tender regard ; 
mercy; favor; a scriptural word. 

My loving-kindness will I not utterly take 
from him. Ps. Ix.xxi.'i. 

LOVINGLY, adv. With love ; with affec- 
tion ; affectionately. 

It is no great matter to live lovingly with 
meek persons. Taylor. 

LOVINGNESS, n. Affection ; kind regard. 

The only two bauds of good will, loveliness 

and lovingness. Sidney 

LOW, a. [D. laag, G. leg, Sw. lUg, low; 
Sax. loh, a pit or gulf; Russ. log, a low 
place, a hollow ; Dan. lag, a bed or layer, 
a row ; from the root ot lay.) 

1. Not high or elevated ; depressed below 
any given surface or |)lace. Low ground or 
laud, is land below the common lovel 
Loie is opijosed to high, and both are rela- 
tive terms. Tliat which i.s low with res- 
pect to one thing, may be high with respect 
to another. A /ojc house would bea Aig-A 
fence. A loio flight for an eagle, would be 
a high flight for a partridge. 

2. Not rising to the usual highth ; as a man 
otlow stature. 

3. Declining near the horizon. The sun is 
low at four o'clock in winter, and at si.x 
in sunmier. 

4. Deep ; descending far below the adjacent 
ground ; as a low valley. 

The lowest bottom shook of Erebus. 


5. Sunk to the natural level of the ocean by 
the retiring of the tide ; as loiv water. 

6. Below the usual rate or amount, or below 
the ordinary value ; as a low price of corn ; 
low wages. 

7. Not high or loud ; as a low voice. 

8. Grave ; depressed in the scale of sounds; 
as a low noie. 

9. Near or not very distant from the equa- 
tor ; as a loic latitude. We say, the loio 
southern latitudes; l\ie high northern lati- 

10. Late in time ; modern ; as the lotver em- 

11. Dejected; depressed in vigor; wanting 
strength or animation ; as low spirits ; lotv 
in spirits. His courage is low. 

12. Depressed iu condition ; in a humble 

Why but to keep you low and ignorant .' 


13. Humble in rajik ; in a mean condition ; 
as men of high and loiv . condition ; the 
ioufr walks of life ; a /ow class of people. 

14. Mean ; abject ; groveling ; base ; as a 
person ofloiv mind. 

15. Dishonorable ; njean ; as a low trick or 

10. Not elevated or sublime ; not exalted in 
thought or diction ; as a low comparison ; 
a low metaphor ; low language. 

In comparison of these divine writers, (lie 

noblest wits of the heathen wodd are low and 

_dull. Felton. 

17. Vulgar; common ; as a low education. 

18. Submissive ; humble ; reverent. 

And pay tlicir fcally 
With low subjection. Millon. 

But first low reverence done. Ibni. 

ID. Weak ; exhausted of vital energy. His 
disease has brought him very low. 

20. Feeble ; weak ; without force ; as a low 

21. Moderate; not inflammatory ; as a low 

22. Moderate ; not intense ; as a low heat ; 
a low temperature. 

23. Impoverished ; in reduced circumstan- 
ces. The rich are often reduced to a low 

24. Moderate ; as a loic calculation or esti- 

25. I'lain ; simple ; not rich, high seasoned 
or nourishing ; as a low diet. 

LOW, adv. Not aloft ; not on high ; often in 
composition ; as /oip-brow'd rocks. 

.Milton. Pope. 

2. Under the usual price ; at a moderate 
price. He sold his wheat low. 

3. Near the ground ; as, the bird flies very 

4. In a mean condition ; i» composition ; as 
a /ozf-born fellow; a /oio-horn la»s. Shak. 

In time ajijiroaching our own. 

In the part of the world wliicli was first inhab- 
ited, even as low down as Al)raham*s tijne,they 
wandered with their floclis and herds. Locke. 

G. With a dejiressed voice ; not loudly ; as, 
speak low. 

7. In a state of subjection, poverty or dis- 
grace ; as, to be brought low by opjiression, 
by want or by vice. 

LOW, V. t. To sink ; to depress. [.\'ot used.] 


LOW, r.i. [Sax. hkoican; D. laijen. It is 
probably a contracted word, coinciding 
with L. lugeo, to weep, the sense of which 
is, to cry out.] 

To bellow, as an ox or cow. 

The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea. 


LOWBELL, n. [Sw. lage, flame; l&ga, 
to flame ; Sax. lag, leg, lig, id. ; Scot. 
lowe ; G. lokc.] 

A kind of fowling in the night, in which the 
birds are wakened by a bell, and blinded 
by light, so as to be easily taken. Cowel. 

LOWBELL, V. I. To scare, as with a low- 
bell. Hammond. 

LOW, } a termination of names, as in 

LOWE, S Bed-Zoio. [Sax. hlaw, a hill, heap 
or barrow, Goth, hlaiw.] 

LOW-BORN, a. Born in low hfe. 

LOW-BRED, a. Bred in a low condition or 
manner ; vulgar. 

LOWER, f. t. [from low.] To cause to des- 
cend ; to let down ; to take or bring down ; 
as, to lower the main-sail of a sloop. 

2. To sutler to sink downwards. 


3. To bring down ; to reduce or humble ; as, 
to lower the pride of man. 

4. To lessen ; to diminish : to reduce, as val- 
ue or amount ; as, to lower the price or 
value of goods, or the rate of interest. 

LOWER, V. i. To fall ; to sink ; to ^low 
less. Shak. 


L O Z 

L U B 

LOWER, V. i. To appear dark or gloomy ; 
to be clouded ; to threaten a storm. 

And all the clovids that lowered upon yonr 
house. Shak. 

The lowering spring. Dryden. 

2. To frown ; to look sullen. 

But sullen discontent sat lowering on her face. 

LOWER, n. Cloudiness ; gloominess. 
2. A frowning; suUenness. Sidney. 

LOWER, a. [coinp. of lotv.] Less high or 

gIg VfltCQ. 

LOW'ERINGLY, adv. With cloudiness or 
threatening gloom. 

LOWERMOST, a. [from low.] Lowest. 

LOWERY, a. Cloudy ; gloomy. 

LOWEST, a. [supcrl. of low.] Most low : 
deepest ; most depressed or degraded, &c. 

LOWING, pjir. Bellowing, as an ox. 

LOWING, n. The bellowing or cry of cat- 

LOWLAND, n. Land which is low with re- 
si>eet to the neighboring country ; a low 
or level country. Thus the Belgic states 
are called Lowlands. The word is some- 
times opposed to a mountainous country ; 
as the Lowlands of Scotland. Sometimes 
it denotes a marsh. Dryden. 

LOWLIHOQD, n. A humble state. Obs. 


LOWLINESS, 71. [from loivly.] Freedom 
from pride ; humility ; humbleness of mind. 

Walk — with all lowliiiess and meekness. 
Eph. iv. Phil. ii. 

2. Meanness; want of dignity ; abject state. 
[In this sense little ttsed.] 

Spenser. Dryden. 

LOWLY, a. [low and like.] Having a low es- 
teem of one's own worth ; humble ; meek ; 
free from pride. 

Take iny yoke upon you and learn of me, for 
I am meek and Ivwiy in heart. Matt. xi. 

He scomelh the scorners ; but he giveth grace 
to the lowly. Prov. iii. 

2. Mean ; low ; wanting dignity or rank. 

One common right the great an<l lowly claim. 


3. Not lofty or sublime ; humble. 

These rural poems, and their lowly strain. 


4. Not high ; not elevated hi place. 


LOWLY, adv. Humbly ; meekly ; modestly. 

Be /otc/y wise. " .'Hilton. 

2. Meanly ; in a low condition ; without 

grandeur or dignity. 

I will show "myself highly fed and luwly 
taught. 'Clinic. 

LOWN, n. [See Loon.] A low fellow ; a 
scoundrel. Sltak. 

LOWNESS, n. The state of being low or 
depressed; the state of being less elevated 
than something else; as the lowness of the 
ground, or of the water after the ebb-tide 

2. Meanness of condition. Men are not to 
be des|)ised or oppressed on account of 
the lowness of their birth or condition. 

3. Meanness of mind or character ; want of 
dignity. Haughtiness usually springs from 
loivness of mind ; real dignity is distill 
guisliod by modesty. 

4. Want of sublimity in style or sentiment 
the contrary to loftiness. Dryden. 

5. Submissiveness; as the lowness of obedi- 
ence. Bacon 

6. Depression of mind ; want of courage or 
fortitude ; dejection; as lowness of spirits. 

7. Depression in fortune ; a state of poverty ; 
as the loivness of circumstances. 

8. Depression in strength or intensity ; as 
the lotimess of heat or temperature ; low- 
7iess of zeal. 

9. Depression in price or worth ; as the low- 
ness of price or value ; the lowness of the 
funds or of the markets. 

10. Graveness of sound ; as the lowness of 

11. Softness of sound ; as the lowness of the 

LOW-SPIR'ITED, a. Not having animation 
and courage ; dejected ; depressed ; not 
lively or sprightly. of property of- 
ten render men low-spirited. Excessive se- 
verity breaks the mind, and renders the 
child or pupil low-spirited. 

LOW-SPIRITEDNESS, n. Dejection of 
mind or courage ; a state of low spirits. 


LOW-THOUGHT'ED, a. Having the 
thoughts employed on low subjects; not 
having sublime and elevated thoughts or 
contemplations ; mean of sentiment ; as 
loic-thovghted care. Milton. Pope. 

LOW-WINES, n. [loiv and wine.] The 
liquor produced by the first distillation of 
melasses, or fermented liquors : the first 
run of the still. Edwards, W. Ind. 

iLOXODROM'IC, a. [Gr. >.o|o{, obUque, and 

I Jpo/ioj, a course.] 

Pertaining to oblique sailing by the rhomb ; 
as loxodromic tables. 

LOXODROM'l€S, n. The art of oblique 
sailing by the rhomb, which always makes 
an equal angle with every meridian ; that 
is, when a ship sails neither directly under 
the equator, nor under the same meridian, 
but obliquely. Harris. Bailey. 

LOY'AL, a. [¥\: loyal; It. leak ; Sp. leal 
from L. lex, law.] 

Faithful to a prince or superior; true to 
plighted faith, duty or love; not treacher- 
ous ; used of sidijects to their prince, and 
of husband, wife and lovers ; as a loyal 
subject ; a loyal wife. 

There Laodamia with Evadne moves. 
Unhappy hoth ! but loyal in their loves. 


LOY'ALIST, n. A person who adheres to 
his sovereign ; particularly, one who main- 
tains his allegiance to his prinee, and de 
fends his cause in times of revolt or revo 

LOY'ALLY, adv. With fidelity to a prince 
or sovereign, or to a husband or lover. 

LOY'ALTY, n. Fidelity to a prince orsove 
reign, or to a husband or lover. 

He had such loyalty to the king as the law 
requires. Clarendon. 

LOZ'ENGE, n. [Fr. losange ; Gr. ?io|o{, ob- 
lique, and yujita, a corner.] 

1. Originally, a figure with four equal sides, 
having two acute and two obtuse angles ; 
a rhomb. 

2. In heraldry, a four-cornered figure, re- 
sembling a pane of glass in old casements. 

Among jewelers, lozenges are common to 
brilliants and rose diamonds. In bril- 
liants, they are formed by the meeting of 
the skill and the star facets on the bezil ; 

in the latter, by the meeting of the facets 
in the horizontal ribs of the crown. 

A form of medicine in small pieces, to be 
chewed or held in the mouth till melted. 

In confectionary, a sinall cake of preserv- 
ed fruit, or of sugar, &c. 

LOZ'ENgED, a. Made into the shape of 

LOZ'ENOY, a. In heraldry, having the field 
or charge covered with lozenges. 

Lp, a contraction of lordship. 

LU. [See Loo.] 

LUBBARD. [JVot used. See Lubber.] 

LUB'BER, 71. [W. llabi, a tall lank fellow, a 
clumsy man, a stripling, a lubber, a looby ; 
Hub, a flag or thin strip, a stripe or stroke ; 
llabiaw, to slap ; Hob, an unwieldy lump, a 
dull fellow. From the significations of 
llabi, it appears that the primary sense is 
tall and lank, like a stri[)ling who gains his 
highth before he does his full strength, and 
hence is clumsy. But looby seems rather 
to be from Hob.] 

A heavy, clumsy fellow ; a sturdy drone ; a 

And lingering lubbers lose many a penny. 


LUB'BERLY, a. Properly, tall and lank 
without activity; hence, bulky and heavy ; 
clumsy ; lazy; as a lubberly fellow or boy. 

LUB'BERLY, adv. Clumsily; awkwardly. 


LU'BRIC, a. [L. lubricus, slippery.] Having 
a smooth surface ; slippery ; as a lubric 
throat. Crashaw. 

2. Wavering ; unsteady ; as the lubric waves 
of state. Wotton. 

3. Lascivious ; wanton ; lewd. 

This lubric M\<\ adulterate age. Dryden. 

[This word is now little used.] 

LU'BRICANT, n. [See Lubricate.] That 
which lubricates. 

LU'BRI€ATE, v. t. [L. lubrico, from lubri- 
cus, slippery ; allied to labor, to slip or 

To iriake smooth or slippery. Mucilaginous 
and saponaceous medicines lubricate the 
parts to which they are applied. 

LU'BRI€ATED,;);j. 3Iade smooth and slip- 

LU'BRI€ATING, ppr. Rendering smooth 
and slippery. 

LUBRICATOR, n. That which lubricates. 

LUBRICITY, n. [Fr. lubricity] Smooth- 
ness of surface; slipperiness. 

2. Smoothness ; aptness to glide over any 
thing, or to facilitate the motion of bodies 
in contact by diminishing friction. May. 

3. Slipperiness ; instability ; as the lubricity 
of fortune. L'Estrange. 

4. Lasciviousness; propensity to lewdness; 
lewdness; lechery; incontinency. 


LU'BRICOUS, a. [L. lubricus.] Smooth; 
slippery. Woodicard. 

2. Wavering ; unstable ; as lubricous opin- 
ions. Glanville. 

LUBRIFAC'TION, n. [infra.] The act 
of lubricating or making smooth. 


LUBRIFICA'TION, n. [L. lubricus and fa- 

\ do, to make.] 


L U D 


The act or operation of making smooth and 

slippery. Ray. 

LUCE, n. A pike full grown. 

Johnson. Shak 
LU'CENT, a. [h. lucens, from iuceo, to shine. 

See Light.] 
Shining ; bright ; resplendent ; as the sun's 

lucent orb. Milton. 

LU'CERN, n. [Qu. W. llysau, plants ; lli/s- 

lein/n, a plant ; Corn, luzuan; or from l^u 

cerne, in Switzerland.] 
A plant of the genus Medicago, cultivated 

tor fodder. 
LU'CID, a. [L. lucidus, from luceo, to shine. 

See lAght.] 

1. Shining; bright; resplendent; as the fu 
cid orbs of heaven. 

2. Clear; transparent; pellucid; as a lucid 
stream. Milton. 

3. Bright with the radiance of intellect; not 
darkened or confused by delirium or mad 
ness ; marked by the regular operations of 
reason ; as the lucid intervals of aderai 
cd man. 

4. Clear ; distinct ; presenting a clear view ; 
easily understood ; as a lucid order or ar 

LUCID'ITY, n. Brightness. [Mt used.] 
LU'CIDNESS, n. Brightness; clearness. 
LU'CIFER, n. [L. Zuj-, /j/cis, light, and /ero, 
to bring.] 

1. The planet Venus, so called from its 

2. Satan. 

Ami vvlioii he falls, he I'iills like l/udfer. 
Never to hope again. Shalt, 

LUCIFE'KIAN, a. Pertaining to Lucifer, 
or to the Luciferians. 

LUCIFE'RIANS, n. A sect that followed 
Lucifer, bishop of Cagliari, in the fourtl 
century. They held to the carnal nature 
of the soul, and that there is no place for 
repentance for such as fall. 

LUCIF'EROUS, a. [L. liuifci; supra.] Giv- 
ing light ; affording light or means of dis-] 
covery. Borjie. 

LUCIF'IC, a. [L. lui; light, and facio, 
to make.] 

Producing light. Grew. 

LU'CIFORM, a. [L. lux, light, and forma 

Having the form of light ; resembling hght. 
The water prepares lis, ami purities our Ivci- 
form spirit to receive the divinity. 

Paus. T^iuis 

LUCK, n. [D. luk, gcluk ; G. gliick ; Svv 
lycka ; Dan. lykke ; Sans, takki. The sense 
is that which comes, falls, happens. W. 
Uuf, a dart or throw ; thiriaw, to throw. 


Qu. Gr. -fjiyxo^tu ; .^r. Lil Class 

No. 21.] 
That which happens to a person ; an event, 
good or ill, affecting a man's interest or 
hapi)iness, and which is deemed casual ; 
fortune. Luck respects persons and their' 
proceedings. We never say, in a literal 
sense, that a plant has the luck to grow in 
a particular place ; or a fossil has the luck 
to be of a particular form. We say, a 
person has the good luck to escape from! 
danger ; or the ill luck to be ensnared or to] 
suffer loss. He has had good luck, or badi 
luck in gaming, fishing or hunting. Luck,\ 
or what w£ call chance, accident, fortune, 
is an event which takes place without be-l 

Vol. II. 

ing intended or foreseen, or from some 
cause not under human control ; that 
which cannot be jneviously known or de 
termined with certainty by human skill or 

Consider the gift of tecA: as below the care of 
a wise man. Ramblar. 

LUCK'ILY, adv. [from lucky.] Fortunately; 
by good fortune ; with a favorable issue ; 
in a good sense. Lxickily, we escaped in- 

LUCK'INESS, n. The state of being fortu- 
nate ; as the luckiness of a man or of an 
2. Good fortune ; a favorable issue or event. 

[In this sense, luck is generally used.] 
LUCK'LESS,o. Unfortunate; meeting with 
ill success; as a luckless gamester; a luck- 
less maid. 
i. Unfortunate ; producing ill or no good. 
Prayers made and granted in a lueklesn hour 

LUCK' Y, a. Fortunate ; meeting with good 

success ; as a lucky adventurer. 
2. Fortunate ; iiroducing good by chance 
favorable ; as a lucky adventure ; a lucky 
time ; a lucky cast. 
LU'€RAT1VE, a. [Fr. Ivcratif; L. lucratims, 

from tucror, to gain profit.] 
Gainliil ; profitable ; making increase of mon- 
ey or goods ; as a lucrative trade ; lucra- 
tive business or office. 
LU'CRE, n. lu'ker. [L. lucrum ; Fr. lucre.] 
Gain in money or gooils; profit; usually 
in an ill sense, or with the sense of some- 
thing base or unworthy. 

Tlie lust of /ucre, and the dread of death. 


A hishop must be blameless — not given to 

filthy lucre. Tit. i. 

LUeRIF'EROUS, a. [L. lucrum, gain, and 

fero, to ])roduce.] Gainful ; profitable 

[Little used.] Boyle. 

LU€RIF'I€, a. [L. lucrum, gain, am\ facio, 

to make.] Producing profit; gainful 

[JVot used.] 

LUCTA'TION, n. [L. ludatio, from luctor, 

to wrestle or strive.] 
Struggle; contest; effort to overcome in 

contest. [Little used.] 
LUC'TUAL, a. [L. luctus, grief.] Produ 
cing grief [Xot used.] Buck. 

LU'€UBRATE, v. i. [L. lucubro,to study by 
candle-light, from lucubrum, from lujc, 
To study by candle-light or a lamp ; to stud; 

by night. 
LUCUBRA'TION, n. Study by a lamp or by 

candle-light ; nocturnal study. 
2. That which is composed by night ; that 
which is produced by meditation in retire 
ment. Tatler. 

LU'€UBRATOR\', a. Composed by candle- 
light or by night. Pope, 
LU'€ULENT, a. [L. luculentus, from btceo, 

to shine.] 
L Lucid; clear; transparent; as luculent 
rivers. Thomson. 

2. Clear ; evident ; luminous. 

The most luculent testimonies that the 
christian religion hatli. Hooker. 

LU'€ULL1TE, m. A subspecies of carbon- 
ate of lime, of three kinds. 

Ure. Jameson. 

LUDIB'RIOUS, a. [L. ludibriosus, from ludo, 

to sport.] Sportive ; wanton. J- Barlow. 


LUDICROUS, a. [L. ludicer, from ludo, to 

Sportive ; burlesque ; adapted to raise laugh- 
ter, without scorn or contempt. Ludi- 
crous dilfers from ridiculous ; the latter im- 
plying contempt or derision. 

Plutarch quotes this instance of Homer's 
judgment, in closing a ludicrous scene with de- 
cency and instrucdon. Broome. 

LU'Dl€ROUSLY, adv. Sportively ; in bur- 
lesque ; in a manner to raise laughter with- 
out contempt. 

LU'DICROUSNESS, n. Sportiveness ; the 
quality of exciting laughter without con- 
temju ; merry cast. 

LUDIFltA'TION, n. [L. ludificor.] The 
act of deriding. 

LUDIF'l€ATORY,n. Making sport; tend- 
ing to excite derision. Barrow. 

LUFF, n. [GoXh.tifa; Scot. /oo/; \r. lav, 
lamh ; W. law.] The palm of the hand. 

LUFF, Ji. [Fr. lof; G. loof; D. loef; Arm. 


Weather-gage, or part towards the wind ; or 
the sailing of a ship close to the wind. 

LUFF, V. i. [D. loeven ; Arm. loji.] To turn 
the head of a ship towards the wind ; to 
sail nearer the wind. Hence, in the im- 
perative, luff, is an order to put the tiller 
on the lee-side, in order to make the ship 
sail nearer the wind. Luff round, or luff 
a-lee, is the extreme of this movement, in- 
tended to throw the ship's head into the 
wind. A ship is said to spring her luff, 
when she yields to the helm by sailing 
nearer the wind. Encyc. 

LUFF'-TACKLE, n. A large tackle not 
destined for any particular place in the 
ship, but movable at pleasure. 

Mar. Did. 

LUG, V. t. [Sax. lyccan, aluccan, geluggian, 
to pull, to pluck, Ir. luighim. See Pluck.] 

1. To haul ; to drag ; to pull with force, as 
something heavy and moved with diffi- 

Jowlcr lugs him slill 
Through hedges. Dryden. 

2. To carry or convey with labor. 
Tliey must divide the image among them, 

and so lug o(f every one liis share. Collier. 

To lug out, to draw a sword, in burlesque. 

LUG, V. i. To drag : to move heavily. [Qu.] 

LUG, n. A small fish. Careic. 

2. Li Scotland, an ear. Obs. Johnson. 

3. A pole or perch, a land-measure. Obs. 


4. Something heavy to be drawn or carried. 

LUG'GAtiE, )i. [from lug.] Any thing 
cumbersome and heavy to be carried ; 
traveling baggage. 

I am gathering up my luggage and preparing 
for my journey. Su^ifl. 

2. Something of more weight than value. 
What do you mean 
To dote on such luggage 7 Shak. 

LUGGER, n. [D. toger.] A vessel carry- 
ing three masts with a running bowsprit 
and lug-sails. Mar. Did. 

LUGGS, n. An insect like an earth-worm, 
but having legs. 

LUG'-S.\IL, n. A square sail bent upon a 
yard that hangs obhquely to the mast at 
one third of its length. Mar. Did. 

L U M 

L U M 

L U N 

LUGU'BRIOUS, a. [L.lugubris,(iomlugeo, 

to weep.] 
Mournful ; indicating sorrow ; as a lugubri 

ous look. Decay of Piety. 

LU'KEWARM, a. [Sax. vlaco, tepid, mod 

erately warm ; vlacian, to warm ; D. laauiv, 

laauwen ; G. lau ; Dan. lunken, lukewarm ; 

lunker, to make tepid ; allied to flag, lag, 

or to lay, allay, or to slack.] 

1. Moderately warm ; tepid ; as lukewarm 
water ; lukewarm heat. 

fViseman. J^ewton. 

2. Not ardent ; not zealous ; cool ; indifter 
ent ; as lukeivarm obedience ; lukewarm 
patriots. Rev. iii. Dryden. Addison. 

LU'KEWARMLY, adv. With moderate 

2. With indifference ; coolly. 
LU'KEWARMNESS, n. A mild or moder- 
ate heat. 
2. Indifference; want of zeal or ardor ; cold 

The defect of zeal is lukewarmness, or cold- 
ness in religion. Sprat 
LULL, V. t. [Dan. luller; G.D.lullen ; L. 
lallo. Qu. Russ. kleyu, to dandle or fon 
die. The sense is to throw down, to still 
to appease. Seamen say, the wind lulls, 
wlien it subsides.] 
To quiet ; to compose ; to cause to rest. 
The nation may be lulled into security. 
—To lull him soft asleep. Spe/iser. 
Such sweet compulsion doth in music lie. 
To lull the daughters of necessity. Milton. 
LULL, V. i. To subside ; to cease ; to be- 
come calm ; as, the wind lulls. 
LULL, n. Powerorquality of soothing. 

LULL'ABy, n. [lull and by, Russ. bayu. 

See Brj.] 
A song to quiet babes ; that which quiets. 

Shak. Locke. 
LVLh'ED, pp. Quieted; appeased ; compo- 
sed to rest. 
LULL'ER, n. One that lulls; one that fon- 
LULL'ING, ppr. Stilling ; composing to 

LUM, n. [Qu. Sax. leoma.] The chimney 
of a cottage. Todd. 

LUM'ACHEL, } A calcarious stone 
LUMACHEL'LA, S composed of shells 
and coral conglutinated,but so far retain 
ing their organization as to exhibit differ 
ent colors, and so hard as to admit of 
polish. JVicholson. Fourcroy. 

LUMBAG'INOUS, a. Pertaining to lurn 
bago. Cheyne. 

LUMBA'GO, n. [L. lumbus, loins.] A pain 
in the loins and small of the back, such 
as precedes certain fevers. Quincy. 

A rheuuiatic affection of the muscles about 
the loins. Hooper. 

LUM'BAU, a. [h. lumbus, loins.] Pertain- 
ing to the loins. The lumbar region is tin 
posterior portion of the body between the 
false ribs and the upper edge of the 
haunch bone. Parr. 

LUM'BEH, n. [allied to Sax. leoma, uten- 
sils, or to lump, clump, a mass, or Dan. 
lumpe, a rag ; lumperie, trifles ; Sw. linitpor, 
rags, old cloths; i). lamp ; G. lumpen; Fr. 
lambeau. In French, lambourde is a joist.] 
]. Any thing useless and cumbersome, or 
things bulky and thrown aside as of no 

The very bed was violated — 

And thrown among the common lumber. 


2. In America, timber sawed or split for 
use ; as beams, joists, boards, planks, 
staves, hoops and the like. 

3. Harm ; mischief. [Local.] Pegge. 
LUM'BER, j;. /. To heap together in disor- 
der. Rymer. 

2. To fill with lumber; as, to lumber z. room. 

LUMBER-ROOM, n. A place for the re- 
ception of lumber or useless things. 

LUM'BRI€, 11. [L. lumbricus, a worm.] A 
worm. Med. Repos. 

LUM'BRI€AL, a. [L. lumbricus, a worm.] 
Resembling a worm; as the lumbrical 

LUM'BRI€AL, a. Pertaining to the loins. 

LUM'BRI€AL, n. A muscle of the fingers 
and toes, so named from its resembling a 
worm. Of these muscles, there are four of 
the fingers and as many of the toes. 

LUMBRICTFORM, a. [L. lumbricus, a 
worm, and/on/).] Resembling a worm in 

LU MINARY, n. [L. luminare, from lumen, 
light. Lumen is the Saxon Icoina, a ray, 
or from luceo, by contraction, for lucmen, 

1. Any body that gives light, but chiefly one 
of the celestial orbs. The sun is the prin- 
cipal luminary in our system. The stars 
are inferior luminaries. 

"2. One that illustrates any subject, or en- 
lightens mankind ; as. Bacon and Newton 
were distinguished luminaries. 

LUBIINATION. [See Illumination.] 

LU'MINE, V. t. To enlighten. [J\iot used. 
See Illumine.] 

LUMINIF'EROUS, a. [L. lumen, light, and 
fero, to produce.] Producing light. 


LU'MINOUS, a. [h. luminosus ; Fr. lumin- 

1. Shining; emitting light. The sun is a 
most luminous body. 

2. Light ; illuminated. The moon is ren- 
dered luminous hy the rays of the sun. 

3. Bright; shining; as a luminous color. 

4. Clear ; as a luminous essay or argument. 
LU'MINOUSLY, adv. With brightness or 

LU'MINOUSNESS, n. The quality of being 

bright or shining ; brightness ; as the lu- 

miyiotisness of the sea. Encyc. 

2. Clearness ; perspicuity ; as the luminous- 

ness of ideas, arguments or method. 

LUMP, n. [G. Dan. and Sw. klump ; D. 

klomp; W. clamp and clap. If ?/i is nut 

radical, this belongs to Class Lb. Lump 

is clump, without the prefix-.] 

1. A small mass of matter of no definite 
shape ; as a tump of earth ; a lump of but 
ter ; a lump of sugar. 

2. A mass of things blended or thrown to 
gether without order or distinction ; as 
copper, iron, gold, silver, lead, tin, promis 
cuously in one lump. 

3. A cluster; as a lump of figs. 2 Kings xx. 
In the lump, the whole together; in gross. 

They may liuy my papers in the lump. 


LUMP, V. i. To throw into a mass ; to unite 
in a body or sum without distinction of 

The expenses ought to be lumped. Ayliffe. 

2. To take in the gross. 

LUMP' EN, n. A long fish of a greenish 
color, and marked with lines. 

LUMP'FISH, ?i. A thick fish of the genus 
Cyclopterus. The back is sharp and ele- 
vated ; the belly flat, and of a crimson 
color. Along the body run five rows of 
sharp bony tubercles. It swims edgewise ; 
called also a sea-owl. Encyc. 

LUMPTNG, ppr. Throwing into a mass or 
a. Bidky ; heavy. [A low word.] 


LUMP'ISH, a. Like a lump; heavy; gross; 
hulky. Raleigh. Dryden. 

2. Didl; inactive. Shak. 

LUMP'ISHLY, adv. Heavily; with dull- 
ness or stupidity. 

LUaiPISHNESS, n. Heaviness; dullness; 

LUMP'Y, a. Full of lumps or small com- 
pact masses. Mortimer. 

Luna cornea, muriate of silver. Ure. 

LU'NACY, 71. [from h. luna, the moon; W. 
llun, form, figure, iujage, the moon.] 

1. A species of insanity or madness, suppo- 
sed to be influenced by the moon, or peri- 
odical in the month. 

2. Madness in general. 

LU'NAR, ) [h. lunaris.] Pertaining to 
LU'NARY, J ■ the moon ; as lunar obser- 

2. Measured by the revolutions of the moon ; 
as lunar days or years. 

3. Resembling the moon ; orbed. Dryden. 

4. Under the influence of the moon. Obs. 


Lunar caustic, nitrate of silver, fused in a low 
heat. JVicholson. 

LUNA'RIAN, n. An inhabitant of the 

LU'NARY, n. Moonwort, a plant of the ge- 
nus Lunaria. 

LU'NATED, a. Formed like a half-moon. 

LU'NATIe, a. Affected by a species of mad- 
ness, supposed to be influenced by the 

LU'NATI€, n. A person affected by insan- 
ity, supposed to be influeuced or produced 
by the moon, or by its position in its orbit ; 
a madman. Swijt. 

LUNA'TION, n. [L. lunatio.] A revolu- 
tion of the moon. 

H;NCH, I [W. llwnc, a gulp, a 

LUNCH'EON, I "• svyallow, the gidlet ; 
Arm. louncqa, longein, to swallow greed- 


Literally, a swallow ; but in usage, a por- 
tion of food taken at any time, except at a 
regidar meal. It is not unusual to take a 
luncheon before dinner. The passengers 
in the line-shijjs regularly have their 

1 sliced the luncheon from the barley loaf. 


LUNE, )i. [h. luna, the moon.] Anything 
in the shape of a half-moon. [Little used/] 


2. A fit of lunacy or madness, or a freak. 
[.Wot used.] Shak. 

.3. A leash ; as the lune of a hawk. 

LU'NET, I [Fr. /i(7ie«e, from ?i(ne, the 

LUNETTE, (, "■ moon.] 

1. In fortif cation, an enveloped counter- 
guard, or elevation of earth made beyond 

L U R 

L U R 

L U S 

the second ditch, opposite to the places of 
arms ; or a covered place before the cour- 
tine, consisting of two faces that form an 
angle inward. It is commonly raised in 
ditches full of water, to serve instead of 
fausse brays, to dispute the enemy's pass- 
age of the ditch. Encyc. Trtvoux. 

9. In tht manege, a half horse-shoe, which 
wants the spunge, or that part of the 
bi-anch which runs towards the quarters 
of the foot. Encyc. 

3. A piece of felt to cover the eye of a vicious 
borse. Encyc. 

LU'NET, n. A little moon. Bp. Hall. 

LUNG, n. [Sax. lungen ; D. long; G. Dan. 
lunge ; Sw. htnga.] 

1. The lungs are the organs of respiration in 
man and many other animals. There are 
two of these organs, each of which occu- 
pies its cavity in the thorax. They alter- 
nately inhale and expel the air, by means 
of which the necessary function of respira- 
tion is carried on. 

Each btn^ fills completely the cavity in 
which it is placed. Wistar. 

2. Formerly, a person having a strong voice, 
and a sort of servant. B. Jonson. 

LUNtJE, n. [See ^llhnge.] A sudden push 
or thrust. 

LUNGED, a. Having lungs, or the nature 
or rcsomblance of lungs; drawing in and 
expelling air. Dryden. 

LUNG'-GROWN, a. Having lungs that ad- 
here to the pleura. Harvey 

LUN'tilS, n. [Fr. longis, from long.] A lin- 
gerer; a dull, drowsy fellow. 

LUNG'WORT, n. A plant of the genus Pul 

LU'NIFORM, a. [L. tuna, the moon, and 
form.] Resembling the moon. 

LUNISO'LAR, a. [L. ^una, moon, and Sola- 
ris, sol, sun.] 

Compounded of the revolutions of the sun 
and moon. Johnson 

The lunisolar year consists of 532 common 
years ; found by multiplying the cycle of 
the sun by that of the moon. Encyc. 

LU'NISTICE, n. [L. liina, the moon, and 
sto, steti, or sisto, to stand.] 

The farthest point of the moon's northing 
and southing, in its monthly revolution. 


LUNT, n. [D. lont, Dan. Itinte, a match.] 
The match-cord used for firing cannon. 


LU'NULAR, a. [from L. luna, the moon.] 
In botany, like the new moon; shaped like 
a small crescent. 

LU'NULATE, a. [from L. luna, the moon. 
In botany, resembling a small crescent. 

LU'PERCAL, a. Pertaining to the Luper- 
calia, or feasts of the Romans in honor of 
Pan ; as a noun, the feast itself. 

LU'PINE, n. [Fr. lupin; L. Iupi7ius.] A 
kind of pulse. The genus Lupinus con- 
tains several species, mostly annual plants 
bearing digitate leaves, and papilionaceous 
flowers. The seeds of the white lupine 
have a leguminous taste, accompanied 
with a disagreeable bitterness, and are said 
to be anthelmintic. Encyc. 

LU'PULIN, 71. [L. lupulus, hops.] The fine 
yellow powder of hops. A. }V. Ives. 

LURCH, n. [W. Here, a frisk, or frisking 
about, a loitering or lurking; llercian, to 
loiter about, to lurk. This is the same 

word radically as lurk. The primary 
sense is to run, start, leap or frisk about, 
as a man or beast that flies from one tree 
or other object to another to conceal him- 
self. Hence we see the peculiar applica- 
bility of this word in seamen's language.] 

In seamen's language, a sudden roll of a 
ship. A lee-lurch is a sudden roll to the 
leeward, as when a heavy sea strikes the 
ship on the weather side. Cyc 

To leave in the lurch, to leave in a difficult 
situation, or in embarrassment ; to leave 
in a forlorn state or without help. 


LURCH, I), i. To roll or pass suddenly to 
one side, as a ship in a heavy sea. 

2. To withdraw to one side, or to a private 
place ; to lie in ambush or in secret ; to lie 
close. [For this, lurk is now used.] 


3. To shift; to play tricks. 
I am fain to shuffle, to hedge and to lurch. 


LURCH, D. t. To defeat ; to disappoint, that 
is, to evade ; as, to lurch the expectation. 
[Ldttle used.] South. 

2. To steal; to filch ; to pilfer. [Littleused. 


LURCH, r.<. [L. furco, a glutton.] Toswal 

low or eat greedily ; to devour. [JVot 

used.] Bacon. 

LURCH'ER, n. One that lies in wait or 

lurks ; one that watches to pilfer, or to 

betray or entrap ; a poacher. 

Swift from the play the scudding lurcher flies. 


2. A dog that watches for his game. 


3. [L. lurco, a glutton.] A glutton ; a gor- 

LUR'DAN, a. Blockish. [JVot used.] 

LUR'DAN, n. A clown ; a blockhead. [JVot 

LURE, n. ]Fi: leuire.] Something held out 

to call a hawk ; hence, 
2. Any enticement ; that which invites by 
the prospect of advantage or pleasure ; 
as the lures of beauty or of gain. 
LURE, V. i. To call hawks. 

Standing by one tliat lured loud and slirill. 

LURE, I'. /. To entice ; to attract ; to invite 
by any thing that promises pleasure or 

Lured on by the pleasure of the bait. 

And various science lures the learned eye. 

LU'RED, pp. Enticed ; attraeted ; invited 

by the hope of pleasure or advantage. 
LU'RID, a. [L. luridus ; W. llur, livid, a 
gloom. Qu. the root of foieer.] Gloomy; 
dismal. Thomson. 

LU'RING,/)pr. Enticing; calling. 
LURK, V. i. [W. llercian, to frisk or loiter 
about, to lurk; G. lauern; D. loeren ; Sw. 
lura ; Dan. lurer. See Lurch.] 

1. To lie hid ; to lie in wait. 

Let us lay wait for blood ; let us lurk privily 
for the innocent. Prov. i. 

2. To lie concealed or unperceived. See 
that no selfish motive lurks in the heart. 

The lurking gold upon the fatal tree. 


3. To retire from public observation; to 
keep out of sight. 

The defendant lurks and wanders about in 
Berks. Blackstone. 

LURK'ER, n. One that lurks or keeps out 
of sight. 

LURK'ING, ppr. Lying concealed ; keep- 
ing out of sight. 

LURK'ING-PLACE, n. A place in which 
one lies concealed ; a secret place ; a hi- 
ding place ; a den. 1 Sam. xxiii. 

LUS'CIOUS, a. [I know not the origin 
and affinities of this word. The Dutch 
express it by zoetluslig, sweet-lusty. Qu. 
the root of luxury.] 

1. Sweet or rich so as to cloy or nauseate; 
sweet to excess ; as luscious food. 

2. Very sweet ; delicious ; grateful to the 

And raisins keep their luscious native taste. 


3. Pleasing; delightful. 
He will bait liim in with flie luscious propo- 
sal of some gainful purchase. South. 

4. Fullsome ; as luscioiis flattery. 

5. Smutty; obscene. [Unusual.] Steele. 
LUS'CIOUSLY, adv. With sweetness or 

richness that cloys or nauseates. 

2. Obscenely. Steele. 

LUS'CIOUSNESS, n. Immoderate rich- 
ness or sweetness that cloys or offends. 


LU'SERN, n. .\ lynx. Johnson. 

LUSH, a. Of a dark, deep, full color. 

How lush and lusty the grass looks ; how 
green ! Obs. Shak. 

LUSK, a. [Fr. lasche.] Lazy ; slothful. [JVot 
in use.] 

LUSK, n. A lazy fellow ; a lubber. [.Vol 
in use.] 

LUSK'ISH, a. Inclined to be lazy. 


LUSK'ISHLY, adv. Lazily. 

LUSK'ISHNESS, n. Disposition to indo- 
lence ; laziness. Obs. Spenser. 

LUSO'RIOUS, a. [L. lusorius, from ludo, 
lusi, to sport.] 

Used in play ; sportive. [Little used.] 


LU'SORY, a. [L. lusorius, as above.] Used 
in play ; playful ; as lusory methods of in- 
structing children. Halls. 

LUST, n. [Sax. G. D. Sw. ?u,?(; Dan. lyst ; 
Ir. lasadh, lust, and a burning. The pri- 
mary sense is to extend, reach, expand, 
to stretch forward. It is the same as 

1. Longing desire ; eagerness to possess or 
enjoy ; as the lust of gain. 

My lust shall be satisfied upon them. Ex. 


2. Concupiscence; carnal appetite ; unlaw- 
ful desire of carnal pleasure. Rom. i. 2 
Pet. ii. 

3. Evil propensity ; depraved afTections and 
desires. James i. Ps. lx.xxi. 

4. Vigor ; active power. [JVot used.] 


LUST, t'. i. [Sax. luslan ; G. lusten ; D. 

lusten ; Sw. lysta ; Dan. lyster.] 
1. To desire eagerly ; to long ; with qfler. 
Thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, 

whatsoever thy soul lusteth after. Dcut. xii. 

L U S 

2. To have carnal desire ; to desire eagerly 
the gratification of carnal appetite. 

Lust not after her beauty in thy heart. Prov. 

Whosoever looketh on a woman to lust after 
her, hath committed adultery with her aheady 
in his lieart. Matt. v. 

3. To have irregular or inordinate desires. 

Tiie spirit that dweUeth in us lusteth to envy. 
James iv. 

Lust not after evil things as they also lusted. 
1 Cor. X. 

4. To list ; to like. 
LUST'FUL, a. Having lust, or eager desire 

of carnal gratification ; libidinous ; as an 
intemperate and lustful man. 
2. Provoking to sensuality ; inciting to lust 
or exciting carnal desire. Tillotson. 

Thence liis lustful orgies he enlarged. 

,'3. Vigorous ; robust ; stout. SackviUe. 

^^UST'FyLLY, adv. With concupiscence 

or carnal desire. 
"lUSTFULNESS, n. The state of having 
' carnal desires ; libidinousness. 
LUST'IHPOD, li. [lusty and hood.] Vigor 
of body. Obs. Spenser. 

LUST'ILY, adv. With vigor of body; 
stoutly ; with vigorous exertion. 

I determine to fight lustily for him. Shak 
LUSTINESS, n. Vigor of body; stoutness; 
strength ; robustness ; sturdiness. 

Cappadocian slaves were famous for their 
lustiness. Dryden 

LUST'ING, ppr. Having eager desire ; hav- 
ing carnal appetite. 
LUST'ING, n. Eager desire; inordinate 

desire; desire of carnal gratification. 
LUST'LESS, a. Listless; not willing. Obs. 

[L. histralis, from lustro, to 

L U T 

2. Not vigorous 
LUS'TR.\L, a. 

1. Used in purification ; as lustral water 
lustral waves. 

2. Pertaining to purification ; aslustral days. 

LUS'TRATE, v. t. [L. luslro, to cleanse. 
See Luster.] 

1. To make clear or pure; to purify. [See 

2. To view ; to survey. 
LUSTRATION, n. The act or operation 

of making clear or pure; a cleansing or 

purifying by water. 

And holy water for lustration bring. 

2. In antiquity, the sacrifices or ceremonies 

by wliicli cities, fields, armies or people 

defiled by crimes, were purified. Encyc. 
LUS'TER, rt. [Fr. lustre; L. lustrum; It. 

lustro ; from L. luslro, to purify ; Dan. lys. 

light ; lyser, to sliine ; Sw. lysa ; D. luister, 

splendor ; Ir. lasadh, lasaim, leosain, to give 

light. In burn; leos, light.] 

1. 15ri;4hlness ; splendor ; gloss; astheluster 
of the sun or stars ; the luster of silk. 

The sun's mild luster warms the vital air, 


2. The splendor of birth, of deeds or of 
fame ; renown ; distinction. 

Hi^^ ancestors continued about fonr hundred 
years, rather without obscmity than witJi any 
great share of luster. IVotton. 

3. A sconce with lights ; a branched candle-l 
stick of glass. Pope. Encyc.\ 

4. The space of five years. [L. lustrum.] 


LUS'TRICAL, a. Pertaining to purification. 

LUS'TRING, n. A species of glossy silk 
cloth. [Corruptly written and pronounced 
LUSTROUS, a. Bright ; shining ; lumin- 

Good sparks and lustrous. Shak. 

LUS'TRUM, n. In ancient Rome, the space 

of five years. 
LUST'-STAINED, a. Defiled by lust. 

LUST' WORT, )!. [lust and tvort.] A plant 

of the genus Drosera. 
LUST' Y, a. [from lust ; J), luslig.] Stout; 

vigorous; robust ; healthful ; able of body. 

This is the correct sense of the word 

comprehending full health and strength ; 

as a lusty youth. But it is now used in 

the sense of, 

2. Bulky; large; of great size. This sense 
does not always include that of vigor. 

3. Handsome ; pleasant ; saucy. Obs. 
Gower. Spenser. Shak. 

4. Copious ; plentiful ; as a lusty draught. 


5. Pregnant; a colloquial tise. 
LU'TANIST, n. [from lute.] A person that 

plays on the lute. 

A celebrated lutanist was playing to a large 
company. Msiat. Res. 

LUTA'RIOUS, a. [L. lutarius, from lutum, 

1. Pertaining to mud ; living in mud. 

Of the color of mud. Grew. 

LUTA'TION, n. [See Lute.] The act or 
method of luting vessels. 

LUTE, n. [Vr. luth ; It. liuto ; Sp. laud: 
D. tuil ; G. laute ; Sw. luta ; Dan. tut ; 
Russ. liotnia. Qu. loud, L. laudo.] 

An instrument of music with strings. It 
consists of four parts, viz ; the table, the 
body or belly which has nine or ten sides, 
the neck, which has nine or ten stops or 
divisions marked with strings, and the head 
or cross. In the middle of the table there 
is a passage for the sound. There is also 
abridge to which the strings are fastened. 
The strings are struck with the right 
hand, and with the left the stops are press- 
ed. Encyc. 

LUTE, ? [L. lutum, mud, clay.; 

LU'TING, I "' Among chimists, a com- 
position of clay or other tenacious sub- 
stance u.sed for stoppiias the juncture of 
vessels so closely as lo» prevent the es- 
cape or entrance of air. 

LUTE, V. I. To close or coat with lute. 


LU'TE-eASE, n. A case for a lute. Shak. 

LU'TED, pp. Closed with lute. 

LU'TENIST, n. A performer on the lute. 


1 II'T'F'R ) 

1 ii'TisT ( "• '^"^ ^^''° p'"y^ °" * '"'®- 

LUTE-STRING, n. The string of a lute. 

LUTHERAN, a. Pertaining to Luther, the 
reformer ; as the Lutlieran church. 


LU'THERAN, n. A disciple or follower of 
Luther ; one who adheres to the doctrines 
of Luther. 
LU'THERANISM, n. The doctrines of re- 
ligion as taught by Luther. 

LU'THERN, n. In architecture, a kind of 
window over the cornice, in the roof of a 
building, to admit light into the upper 
story. Encyc. 

LU'TING, ppr. Closing with lute. 

LU'TULENT, «. [L. lutulentus, from Mum, 
mud.] Muddy ; turbid ; thick. 

LUX' ATE, V. t. [L. luxo, Fr. luxer, to loos- 
en ; probably from the same root as lax, L. 
laxo, laius.] 

To displace, or remove from its proper place, 
as a joint ; to put out of joint ; to dislo- 
cate. Lux, in a like sense, is, I beheve, 
not now used. Encyc. 

LUX'ATED, pp. Put out of joint ; disloca- 

LUX'ATING, ppr. Removing or forcing 
out of its place, as a joint; dislocating. 

LUXA'TION, n. The act of moving or for- 
cing a joint from its proper place or artic- 
ulation ; or the state of being thus put out 
of joint. 

2. A dislocation ; that which is dislocated. 

LUXE, n. Luxury. [J^tol used.] 

LUXU'RL\NCE, \ [L. luxurians, luxurio, 

LUXU'RIANCY, ^ "' to grow ranlc, or to 

1. Rank growth ; strong, vigorous growth ; 

Flowers grow up in the garden with the great- 
est luxuriancy and profusion. Spectator. 

Excessive or superfluous growth. 

A fungus prevents healing only by its luxuri- 

ancy. JViseman. 

LUXU'RIANT, a. Exuberant in growth ; 

abundant; as ix luxuriant growth of grass- 

2. Exuberant in plenty ; superfluous in 

Prune the luxuriant, the uncouth refine. 


3. A luxuriant flower multiplies the covers 
of the fructification so as to destroy the 
essential parts. Martyn. 

LUXURIANTLY, adv. With exuberant 

LUXURIATE, ['. i. To grow exuberantly, 
or to grow to superfluous abundance. 

LUXURI A'TION, n. The process of grow- 
ing exuberantly, or beyond the natural 
growth. Lee. 

LUXU'RIOUS, n. [Pr. luxurieux ; L. htxu- 
riosus, from luxo, to loosen ; luxor, to 

1. Voluptuous; indulging freely or excess- 
ively in the jileasurcs of the table, the 
gratification of appt^tite, or in rich and ex- 
liensive dress anil equipage ; as a luxuri- 
ous life ; luxurious cities. 

2. Administering to luxury ; contributing to 
free or extravagant indulgence in diet, 
dress and equipage; as luxurious wealth. 


3. Furnished with luxuries ; as a lujcurious 

4. Soilening by pleasure, or free indulgence 
in luxiny ; as lu.rurious ease. 

5. Lustful ; libidinous ; given to the gratifi- 
cation of lust ; as a lu.vurious bed. Shak^ 

G. Luxuriant; exuberant. 




The work under our labor grows 

Luxurious 'ly restraint. [JVot used.] Milton. 

LUXU'RIOUHLY, adv. In almndancc of 

rich diet, dress or equipage ; deliciously ' 

voluptuously. Dryden 

LUX'URIST, n. One given to luxury. 


LUX'URY, n. [L. iuxuria, from luxo, to 

1. A free or extravagant indulgence in the 
pleasures of the table, as in rich and ex- 
pensive diet, or delicious food and liquors ; 
voluptuousness in the gratification of ap- 
petite ; or the free indulgence in costly 
dress and equipage. 

Siches expose a man to pride and luxury. 


2. That which gratifies a nice and fastidious 
appetite ; a dainty; any delicious food or 
drink. The canvas-back duck is a luxury 
for an epicure. 

3. Any thing dcliglitful to the senses. 

He cut the side of a rock for a garden, and 
by laying on it earth, furnished a kind u( luxury 
for a hermit. Jlfldi.'ion. 

4. Lust ; lewd desire. [Mtt now zised.] 


5. Luxuriance; exuberance of growth. [JVol 
now used.] Bacon. 

LY, a termination of adjectives, is a con- 
traction of Sax. lie, G. Hell, I), lyk, Dan 
lige, Sw. lih, Eng. like; as in lovely, manly, 
that is, love-like, man-like. As the termi- 
nation of names, ty signifies field or plain, 
Sax. hag, Eng. lay, lea or ley, L. locus. 

LY'AM, n. A leash for holding a hound. 


LY€AN'THROPY, n. [Gr. ^vxavSpiorfM ; 
%vxoi, a wolf, and o.v9funoi, man.] A kind 
of erratic melancholy. Coxe. 

LY'eOS'TOM, n. A Baltic fish resembling 
a herring. 

LVD'IAN, a. [from Lydia.] Noting a kind 
of .soft slow music anciently in vogue. 


Li/dian stone, flinty slate. Ure 

LYE, n. [Sax. leah ; G. lauge ; D. loog; 
Arm. ligeou or lichou ; Sp. le.via ; Fr. les- 
sive ; L. Hi, whence lixivium. It coin- 
cides with Sax. loge, water ; Ant. L. lixa, 
whence Lugdunum, Leyden, Lyons, that is, 

Water impregnated with alkaline salt itn- 
bibed from the ashes of wood. 

LYE, n. A falsehood. [See Lie.] 

LYING, ppr. of lie. Being prostrate. [See 

LY'ING, ppr. of lie. Telling falsehood. 

Lying in, being in childbirth. 

2. n. The act of bearing a child. 

LYM'NITE, n. A kind of freshwater snail, 
found fossil. 

LYiMPII, n. [l^.lympha.] Water, or a col- 
orless fluid in animal bodies, separated 
from the blood and contained in certain 
vessels calleil lymphatics. Encyc, 

LYMPH'ATE, ) Frightened into mad- 

LYMPH'ATED, J "' ness ; raving. 

LYMPIIAT'IC, a. Pertaining to lymph. 

2. Enthu-siastic. [JVot used.] Shafl.'ibury.l 

LYMPHAT'Ie, n. A vessel of animal bod-, 
ies which contains or conveys lymph. 

The lymphatics seem to perform the whole 
husiness of absorption. Eiicyc. 

•2. A mad enthusiast ; a lunatic. [jYat used.] 


LYMPH'EDU€T, ii. [L. lympha, lymph, 
and ducttis, a duct.] 

A vessel of animal bodies which conveys 
the lymph. 

LYMPHOGRAPHY, n. [h. lympha,]y mph 

and Gr. ypa/pu, to describe.] 
A description of the lymphatic vessels, their 
origin and uses. Encyc. 

LYNX, n. [L. lynx; Gr. ^oy| ; J), lochs; G. 
luchs ; It. lince.] 

\ quadruped of the genus Felife, resembling 
the common cat, but his cars are longer 
and his tail shorter. His hair is streaked 
with yellow, white and black colors. His 
air i.s sprightly ; he howls like the wolf, 
and walks and leaps like a cat. This an- 
imal is celebrated for the sharpness of 
his sight. Encyc. 

LY'RATE, ? [from tyre.] In botany, 

LY'RATED, \ "■ divided transversely into 
several jags, the lower ones smaller and 
more remote from each other than the 
upper ones ; as a tyrate leaf. Marlyn. 

LY'RE, n. [Fr. lyre ; L. bjra ; Gr. Xvpa. ; It. 
and Sp. hra ; D. Her; d. leier.'] 

A stringed instrument of music, a kind of 
harp much used by the ancients. 

LYR'le, I [L. lyricus; Fr. lyrigue.] 

LYR'lCAL, <i "' Pertaining to a lyre or 
harp. Lyric poetry is such as is sung to , 
the harp or lyre. This was much cultiva- 
ted by the ancients, among whom Anac- 
reon, Alcseus, Stesichorus, Sappho anjl 
Horace are distinguished as lyric poets. 

LYR'IC, )i. A composer of l3'ric poems. 


LYR'ICISM, )i. A lyric composition. 


LY'RIST, n. A musician who plays on the 
harp or lyre. Pope. 

LYS, 71. A Chinese measure of length, 
equal to .533 yards. Grositr. 

LYTE'RIAN, a. [Gr. Xnrjfpios, from>, to 

In medical science, terminating a disease; 
indicating the solution of a disease. 


LYTH'RODE, it. A mineral found in Nor- 
way ; its color, an aurora-red, passing into 
brownish red or bi-own. It appears to be 
allied to elaohte, or fettsteiu. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 
Lythrode is probably a variety of fettstein. 






]V1 is the thirteenth letter of the English 
Alphabet, and a labial articulation, form- 
ed by a compression of the lips. It is 
called a semi-vowel, as the articulation or 
compression of the lips is accompanied 
with a humming sound through the nose, 
which constitutes a difference between 
this letter and 5. Its sound is uniform ; 
as in mail, time, rim. 

M is a numeral letter, and among the an 
cients stood for a thousand ; a use which 
is retained by the moderns. With a dash 
or stroke over it, M, it stands for a thou- 
sand times a thousand, or a million. 

As an abbreviation, M stands for Marcus 
Martins, ManUus or Mutius. 

A. M. or ]\I. A. stands for artium magisler, 
master of arts ; M. D. for medicimt: doc- 
tor, doctor of medicine; A. M. for anno 

mundi, the year of the world ; MS. for 
manxiscript ; MSS. for manuscripts. 

In astronomical tables, M stands for merid- 
ian, meridional, or mid-day. 

In medical prescriptions, M stands for man- 
iple, or handful, or misce, mix, or mixtura, 
a mixture. Encyc. 

In the late British Pharmacopssias it signi- 
fies mensurd, by measure. Pan: 

In law, M is a brand or stigma impressed on 
one convicted of manslaughter, and ad- 
mitted to the benefit of clergy. 

MAB, n. [W. malt, a child.] In northern 
mythology, the queen of the imaginary 
beings called fairies. 

■2. A slattern. Ray. 

MAB, I', i. To dress negligently. Ray. 

MAC, in names of Scotch and Irish origin 
signifies son. [See Maid.] 

MACARONI, Ji. [It. macckeroni, a sort of 
paste; Fr. macaroni; Gr. fiaxof, happy.] 

J. A kind of biscuit made of flour, eggs, su- 
gar and almonds, and dressed with but- 
ter and spices. B.Jonson. 

a. A sort of droll or fool, and hence, a fop ; 
a fribble ; a finical fellow. 

MAC.'^RON le, a. Pertaining to or like a 
macaroni ; empty ; trifling; vaiu;afiect- 

2. Consisting of a mixture or jumble of ill 
formed or ill connected words. 

MACARON'IC, n. A kind of burlesque 
poetrj", in which native words are made 
to end in Latin terminations, or Latin 
words are modernized. Jones. Encyc. 

MACAROON, the same as macaroni. 

MACAU'CO, n. A name of several species 
of quadrupeds of the genus Lemur. 




M A D 

MACAW, ? „ The name of a race of beaii- 

;a\V',?„ t 

MACA'O, i tiful fowls of the parrot kind, 
under the genus Psittacus. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 
MA€AW'-TREE, n. A species of pahn tree. 

MAC'CABEES, n. The name of two apoc- 
ryphal books in the Bible. 
MAC'COBOV, n. A kind of snuff. 
MACE, n. [It. mazza, Sp. maza, Port, maca, 

Fr. masse, a club.] 
An ensign of authority borne before magis- 
trates. Originally, the mace was a chib 
or instrument of war, made of iron and 
much used by cavalry. It was in the 
shape of a coffee mill. Being no longer 
a weapon of war, its form is changed ; 
it is made of silver or copper gilt, and or- 
namented with a crown, globe and cross. 

A leaden tnace. Shak. 

A he.-ivy iron mace. Knolles. 

MACE, n. [L. macis.] A spice ; the second 
coat which covers the nutmeg, a thin and 
membranaceous substance of an oleagi- 
nous nature and yellowish color, being in 
flakes divided into many ramifications ; it 
is extremely fragrant and aromatic. 

MA'CE-ALE, n. Ale spiced with mace. 

MA'CE-BEARER,n. A person who carries 
a mace before men in authority. 

MACERATE, v. t. [L. macero, from macer, 
thin, lean ; maeeo, to be thin or lean ; Fr. 
maigre ; Eng. meager ; It. macro ; Sp. ma- 
gro ; probably allied to Eng. jneek, Ch. 
INn mak. Class Mg. No. 2. and 9.] 

1. To make lean ; to wear away. Harvey 

2. To mortify ; to harass with corporeal 
hardships ; to cause to pine or waste 

Out of excessive zeal they macerate their 
hodies ami impair their health. Flddes 

3. To steep almost to solution ; to soften 
and separate the parts of a substance by 
steeping it in a fluid, or by the digestive 
process. So we say, Ibod is macerated in 
the stomach. 

MACERATED, pp. Made thin or lean ; 

steeped almost to solution. 
MACERATING, ppr. Making lean : steep- 
ing almost to solution ; softening. 
MACERA'TION, n. The act or the process 
of making thin or lean by wearing away 
or by mortification. 
2. The act, process or operatioji of soft 
ening and almost dissolving by steeping in 
a fluid. 

The saliva serves for the viaceration and dis- 
solution of the meat into chyle. Ray 
MACE-REED, orREED-MACE,n. A plant 

of the genus Typha. 
MACHIAVE'LIAN, a. [from Machiavel, 
an Italian writer, secretary and histori- 
ographer to the republic of Florence.] 
Pertaining to Maehiavel, or denoting his 
principles ; politically cunning ; crafty 
cunning in political management. 
MACHIAVE'LIAN, n. One who adopts the 

principles of Maehiavel. 
MACII'IAVELISM, n. The principles of 
Maehiavel. or practice in conformity to 
them; political i-uiming and artifice, in- 
tended to favor arbitrary power. Cyc. 

MACHieOLA'TION, n. [Fr. meche, a match, 
and couler, to flow.] 

In old castles, the pouring of hot substances 
through apertures in the upper part of the 
gate upon assailants ; or the apertures 
themselves. Cyc. 

MACIITNAL, o. [See Machine.] Pertain- 
ing to machines. Diet. 

MACH'INATE, v. t. [L. machinor, from Gr. 
ixaxata or /xrixo-'ri.] To plan ; to contrive ; 
to form a scheme. Sandys. 

MACH'INATED, ;);?. Planned; contrived. 

MA€H'INATING,;)pr. Contriving; schem- 

MACHINA'TION, «. [Fr. See Machine.] 
The act of planning or contriving a 
scheme for executing some purpose, par- 
ticularly an evil purpose ; an artful design 
formed with deliberation. Shak. 

MACIITNATOR, n. One that forms a 
scheme, or who plots with evil designs. 


MACHi'NE, n. [Fr. from L. machina.] An 
artificial work, simple or complicated, that 
serves to apply or regulate moving power, 
or to produce motion, so as to save time 
or force. The simple machines are the 
six mechanical powers, viz. ; the lever, 
the pulley, the axis and wheel, the wedge, 
the screw, and the inclined plane. Com- 
plicated machines are such as combine 
two or more of these powers for the pro- 
duction of motion or force. Encyc. 
An engine ; an instrument of force. 

With inward arms the dire machine they load. 

Supernatural agency in a poem, or a su- 
perhuman being introduced into a jjoem 
to perforin some exploit. Pope. 

MACHINERY, n. A complicated work, 
or combination of mechanical powers in a 
work, designed to increase, regulate or 
apply motion and force ; as the machinery 
of a watch or other chronomoter. 

2. Machines in general. The machinery of 
a cotton-mill is often moved by a single 

.3. In epic and dramatic poetry, superhuman 
beings introduced by the poet to solve 
difficulty, or perform some exploit whicl 
exceeds human power ; or the word may 
signify the agency of such beings, as sup- 
posed deities, angels, demons and the like. 
Nee Deus intersit, nisi dignus vindice nodus 
Incidit. Horace. 

A deity is not to be introduced, unless a 
difficulty occurs that requires the inter- 
vention of a god. 

The ?nac/ij?!er^ of Milton's Paradise Lost, 
consists of numerous superhuman person- 
ages. Pope's Rape of the Lock is render 
ed very interesting by the machinery of 

MACHINING, a. Denoting the machinery 
of a poem. [JVot used.] Dryden. 

JIACH'INIST, »i. [Fr. machanisle.] A con 
structor of machines and engines, or one 
well versed in the principles of machines. 

MACIGNO, n. [It.] A species of stone of 
two varieties, one of a grayish yellow 
color, the other of a bluish gray color. 


MAC'ILENCY, n. [See Macilent.] Lean- 

MAC'ILENT. a. [h.macUenlus, from macer, 
lean, thin. See Macerate.] Lean ; thin : 
having little flesh. 

MACK'EREL, n. [D. mackreel ; G. mack- 
rele ; Fr. maquereau ; Ir. mackreil ; W. 
macrell ; from the root of L. macula, a 
spot; the spotted fish. So in British, it is 
called brithilh. Arm. hresell, for the like 

A species of fish of the genus Scomber, an 
excellent table fish. 

MACK'EREL, n. [Old Fr. maquerel.] A 
pander or pimp. 

Mackerel-gale, in Dryden, may mean a 
a gate that ripples the surface of the sea, 
or one which is suitable for catching mack- 
erel, as this fish is caught with the bait in 

MACKEREL-SKY, n. A sky streaked or 
inarked like a mackerel. Hooke. 

MA€'LE, n. A name given to chiastolite or 
hollow spar. Cyc. 

MACLU'RITE, n. A mineral of a brilliant 
pale green color, so called in honor of 
Maclure, the mineralogist. Nutlall. 

MACROCOSM, n. [Gr. ftaxpof, great, and 
xoa/jo;, world.] 

The great world ; the universe, or the visi- 
ble system of worlds ; opposed to micro- 
cosm, or the world of man. Encyc. 

MACROL'OGY, n. [Gr. iiaxf,oi, great, and 
'Koyoi, discourse.] 

Long and tedious talk ; prolonged discourse 
without matter; superfluity of words. 


MACTA'TION, n. [L. macto, to kill.] The 
act of killing a victim for sacrifice. 


MACULA, n. [L.] A spot, as on the skin, 
or on the surface of the sun or other lu- 
minous orb. 

MACULATE, v.t. [L. maculo.] To spot; 
to stain. Elyot. 

MACULATE, > « „ j 

MACULATED, \ "" ^P°"«^- 

MACULA'TION, n. The act of spotting ; a 
spot ; a stain. Shak. 

M.ACULE, n. A spot, [supra.] [lAttle used.] 

MAD, a. [Sax. gemaad ; Ir. atnad ; It. tnatto, 
mad, foolish ; mattone, a brick, and an ar- 
rant fool ; matteria and mattezza, foolish- 
ness ; ammattire, to become ilistracted.] 

1. Disordered in intellect ; distracted ; furi- 

We must bind our passions in chains, lest like 
7nad folks, they break their locks and bolts. 


2. Proceeding from disordered intellect or 
expressing it ; as a mad demeanor. 

.3. Enraged ; furious ; as a mad bull. 

And being e.xceediugly mod against them, I 
persecuted them, even to strange cities. Acts 
4. Inflamed to excess with desire ; excited 
with violent and unreasonable passion or 
appetite ; infatuated ; followed properly 
by after. 

'I lie world is running mad after farce, the 
extremity of bad poetry. Dryden. 

'' Mad upon their idols," would be bet- 
ter renikrcd, " .Mad after their idols." 
Jer. 1. 
o. Distriicted with anxiety or trouble ; ex- 
tremely perplexed. 


Thou shalt be mad for the sight of thine eyes— 
Deut. xxviii. 

6. Infatuated with folly. 

The spiritual man is mad. Hos. ix. _ 

7. Inflamed with anger; very angry. [Ths 
is a common and perhaps the most general 
sense of the word in America. It is thus 
used by .Muthnot, and is perfectly projic 

8. IVoceuding from folly or infatuation. 

^/arf wars destroy iu one year the works of 

many years of peace. Franklin 

MAD, V. t. To make mad, furious or angry, 

MAD, V. i. To be mad, furious or wild. 

tVickliffe. Spenser 

MAD, 5 [Sax. Goth. matha/\ An earth- 

MADE, J "■ worm. [But this is the Eng. 

moth.] Kay- 

MAD'AM, n. [Fr. ma, my, and dame.] An 

appellation or complimentary title given 

to married and elderly ladies, or chiefly to 


MAD'APPLE, n. A plant of the genus So 

MAD'BRAIN, ? Disordered in mind 
MAD'BRAINED, $ hot-headed ; rash. 

MAD'€AP, a. [mad-caput or cap.] A vio- 
lent, rash, hot-headed person ; a madman. 
MAD'DEN, V. t. mad'n. To make mad. 

MAD'DEN, V. i. To become mad ; to act 
as if mad. 

They rave, recite and madden round the land. 


.MADDENED, pp. Rendered mad. 
MAD'DENING, ppr. Making mad or an- 
MAD'DER, n. [Sax. moeddere.] A plant of 
the genus Rubia, one species of which i; 
much used in dyeing red. The root is 
used in medicine as an aperient and de- 
tergent, and is in great reputation as an 
ennnenagogue. It is cultivated in France 
and Holland. Encyc. Hill. 

MAD'DING, ppr. of mad. Raging ; furious. 
Milton. Dryden 
MADE, pret. and pp. of make. 
MADEFA€'TION, n. [L. madefacio.] The 

act of making wet. 
MAD'EFIED, ;)/>. Made wet. Bacon. 

MAD'EFV, V. t. [L. madefo.] To make wet 

or moist ; to moisten. [jYot much used.] 
MAD'EFVING, ppr. Making moist or wet. 
MADEIRA, n. A rich wine made on the 

isle of Madeira. 
MADEMOISELLE, n. [Fr. ma, my, and 

demoiselle, damsel. See Damsel.] 
A young woman, or the title given to one ; 
miss ; also, the puppet sent from the Frenc' 
metropolis to exhibit the prevailing fash 
ions. Spectator. 

MAD'HEADED, n. Hot brained; rash. 

MADHOUSE, n. A house where insane 
persons are confined for cure or for re- 
MAD'ID, a. [L. madidus.] Wet ; moist. 

[JVbl j« use.] 
MAD'LY, adv. [from mud.] Without rea- 
son or understanding ; rashly ; wildly. 
2. With extreme folly or infatuated zeal or 


MAD'MAN, n. A man raving or furious 
with disordered intellect ; a distracted 


2. A man without understanding. 

3. One inflamed with extravagant passion, 
and acting contrary to reason. 

MAD'NESS, n. [from mad.] Distraction; 
a state of disordered reason or intellect, 
in which the patient raves or is furious. 
There are degrees o( tyiadness as of folly. 


2. Extreme folly ; headstrong passion and 
rashness that act in opposition to reason ; 
as the madness of a mob. 

3. Wildness of passion ; fury ; rage ; as the 
madyiess of despair. 

MADO'NA, ) [Sp. madona, It. madon- 

MADON'NA, I "• na, my lady.] A term 
of compellation equivalent to madam. It 
is given to the virgin Mary. 

MADREPORE, n. [Fr. madre, spotted, and 

A submarine substance of a stony hardness, 
resembling coral. It consists of carbonate 
of lime with some animal matter. It is of 
a white color, wrinkled on the surface, and 
full of cavities or cells, inhabited by a 
small animal. From a liquor discharged 
by this animal, the substance is said to be 
formed. Madrepores constitute a genus 
of polyi)iers, of variable forms, always 
garnished with radiated plates. 

Encyc. Diet. jXat. Hist 

MAD'REPORITE, n. A name given to 
certain petrified bones found in Normandy 
in France, belonging to a cetaceous fish 
or to a species of crocodile. These bones 
contain many little brown lines in zigzag 
resembling entangled threads. They have 
none of the properties of madrepore. 

Diet. JVat. Hist 

MAD REPORITE, n. A variety of lime- 
stone, so called on account of its occurring 
in radiated prismatic concretions resem- 
bling the stars of madrepores. When 
rubbed, it emits the smell of sulphureted 
hydrogen gas. 

2. Fossil madrepore. 

MADRIE'R, )!. [Fr.] A thick plank armed 
with iron plates, with a cavitj- to receive 
the mouth of a petard, with w hich it is ap- 
])licd to any thing intended to be broken 
down ; also, a plank used for supporting 
the carlh in mines. Chambers. Bailey. 

MADRIGAL, »!. [Sp. Port. Fr. id.; It. 
madrigale. Its origin is not ascertained. 

1. A little amorous poem, sometimes called 
a pastoral poem, containing a certain 
number of free unequal verses, not confi 
ned to the scrupulous regularity of a son- 
net or the subtilty of the epigram, but con 
taining some tender and delicate, though 
simple thought, suitably expressed. Cyc. 
An elaborate vocal composition in five or 
six parts. Busby. 

MAD'WORT, n. A plant of tlic genus 

MjESTO'SO, an Italian word signifying 
majestic, a direction in music to play the 
part with grandeur and strength. 

MAF'FLE, V. i. To stammer. [J^tot in use.] 


MAGAZINE, )!. [Fr.magazin; It. magaz- 
zino ; Sp. magacen and almacen ; Port 

almazem or armaztm ; from Ar. 


gazana, to deposit or lay up for preserva- 

M A G 

tion. This word is formed with the Sbe- 
mitic prefix m.] 

1. A store of arms, ammunition or provis- 
ions ; or the building in which sucli store 
is deposited. It is usually a public store 
or storehouse. 

2. In ships of war, a close room in the hold, 
where the gunpowder is kept. Large 
ships have usually two magazines. 

Mar. Diet. 

3. A pamphlet periodically published, con- 
taining miscellaneous papers or composi- 
tions. The first publication of this kind 
in England, was the Gentleman's Mag- 
azine, which first apjiearcd in 1731, under 
the name of .Syfa)iw.s LVtuJi, by Edward 
Cave, and which is still continued. 

MAGAZlNER, ji. One who writes for a 
magazine. [Little used.] 


MAoE, 71. A magician. [.Vol used.] 


Magellanic clouds, whitish clouds, or appear- 
ances like clouds near the south pole, 
which revoh e like the stars ; so called 
from Magellan, the navigator. They are 
three in number. Cyc. 

MAG'GOT, n. [W. macai, plu. muceiod, 
magiod, a maggot or grub, from magu, to 

1. A worm or grub ; particularly, the fly- 
worm, from the egg of the large blue or 
green fly. This maggot changes into a 

2. A whim ; an odd fancy. 
MAGGOTY, a. Full of maggots. 
MAGGOTY-HEADED, a. Having ahead 

full of whims. L. of Hood. 

JIA'Gl, n. phi. [L.] Wise men or philoso- 
phers of the East. Fotherby. 

MA'dlAN, a. [L. magus ; Gr. iuoyoj.] Per- 
taining to the Magi, a sect of jihilos- 
ophers in Persia. 

MAOIAN, n. One of the sect of the Per- 
sian Magi, who hold that there are two 
principles, one the cause of good, the oth- 
er of evil. The knowledge of these phi- 
losophers was deemed by the vulgar to be 
supernatural. Encyc. 

MA lilANISM, »i. The philosophy or doc- 
trines of the Magi. 

5L\(iTC, n. [L. magia; Gr. jxaytia, from 
fioyof, a philosopher among the Persians.] 

1. The art or science of putting into action 
the power of spirits ; or the science of 
producing wonderful effects by the aid of 
superhuman beings, or of departed spirits ; 
sorcery ; enchantment. [This art or sci- 
ence is now discarded.] 

2. The secret operations of natural causes. 


J^atural magic, the application of natural 
causes to passive subjects, by which sur- 
prising eflfects arc produced. Encyc. 

Celestial magic, attributes to spirits a kind 
of dominion over the planets, and to the 
planets an influence over men. 

Superstitious or geotic magic, consists in the 
invocation of devils or demons, and sup- 
poses some tacit or express agreement be- 
tween them and human beings. Encyc. 

Magic square, a square figure, formed by a 
series of numbers in mathematical propor- 
tion, so disposed in parallel and equal 




ranks, as tbat the sums of each row or hue 
taken perpendicularly, horizontally, or 
diagonally, are equal. Encyc. 

Magic lantern, a dioptric machine invented 
by Kircher, which, by means of a lamp in 
a dark room, exhibits images of objects in 
their distinct colors and proportions, with 
the appearance of life itself Encyc. 

MAG'l€, ) Pertaining to magic ; used 

MAG'leAL, I "" in magic ; as a magic wand ; 
magic art. 

2. Performed by magic, the agency of spirits, 
or by the invisible powers of nature ; as 
magical effects. 

MAG'I€ALLY, adv. By the arts of magic 
according to the rules or rites of magic ; 
by enchantment. Camden. 

MAgP'CIAN, ?i. One skilled in magic ; one 
that practices the black art ; an enchant 
er ; a necromancer ; a sorcerer or sorcer 
ess. Locke. Jf'aller. 

MAGISTE'RIAL, a. [See Magistrate.] Per 
taining to a master; such as suits a mas 
ter ; authoritative. Dnjdcn. 

2. Proud ; lofty ; arrogant ; imperious ; dom 

Pretenses go a great way with men that take 
fair words and magisterial looks for current 
payment. L'Estrange 

3. In chimislry, pertaining to niagistery 
which see. 

MAGlSTE'RIALLY, adv. With the air of 
a master ; arrogantly ; authoritatively 

Bacon. South. 

MAGISTE'RIALNESS, n. The air and 
manner of a master ; hauglitiness ; impe- 
riousness ; peremptoriness. JVelson. 

MAG'ISTERY,?!. [l,.7nagist€rium.] Among 
chimists, a precipitate ; a fine substance 
deposited by precipitation ; usually appli- 
ed to particular kinds of precipitate, as 
that of bismuth, coal, crab's eyes, sulphur, 
&c. Obs. Encyc. 

MAGISTRACY, n. [See Magistrate.-] The 
office or dignity of a magistrate. 

Duelling; is not only an usurjiation of the di 
vine prerogative, but it is an insult upon magis- 
tracy. Clarissa 

2. The body of magistrates. 

MAG'ISTRAL, a. Suiting a magistrate ; 
authoritative. Obs. 

MAG'ISTRAL, n. A sovereign medicine or 
remedy. Obs. 

MAgISTRAL'ITY, n. Despotic authority 
in opinion. Obs. Bacon. 

MAG'ISTRALLY, adv. Authoritatively; 
witli imperiousness. Obs. Bramhall. 

MAGISTRATE, n. [L. magistralus, from 
magister, master ; magis, major, and ster, 
Teutonic steora, a director; steoran, to 
steer ; tlie principal director.] 

A public civil officer, invested with the ex- 
ecutive government or .some branch of it. 
In this sense, a king is the highest or first 
magistrate, as is the President of the Uni- 
ted States. But the word is more par- 
ticularly applied to subordinate officers 
as governors, intendants, prefects, nniyors, 
justices of the peace, and the like. 

Tlic ma^ititratc must have liis reverence; 
the laws (licir authority. Burke. 

MAGlSTRAT'Ie, a. Having tlie authority 
of a niaiiistrate. Taylor. 

MAcVlSTKATURE, n. [Fr.] Magistracy. 
[Little used.] 

MAGNA €HARTA, n. [L .great charter.] 

1. The great charter, so called, obtained by 
the English barons from king John, A. D. 
1215. This name is also given to the char- 
ter granted to the people of England in 
the ninth year of Henry III. and confirmed 
by Edward I. 

2. A fundamental constitution which guar- 
antees rights and privileges. 

MAGNANIM'ITY, n. [L. magnanimitas ; 
magnus, great, and animus, mind.] 

Greatness of mind ; that elevation or digni- 
ty of soul, which encounters danger and 
trouble with tranquillity and firmness, 
which raises the possessor above revenge, 
and makes him delight in acts of benevo- 
lence, which makes him disdain injustice 
and meanness, and prompts him to sacri- 
fice personal ease, interest and safety for 
the accomplishment of useful and noble 

MAGNAN'IMOUS, a. [L. magnani7nus.] 

1. Great of mind; elevated in soul or in sen- 
timent ; brave ; disinterested ; as a mag- 
nanimous prince or general. 

2. Dictated by magnanimity ; exhibiting no 
bleness of soul ; hberal and honorable ; 
not selfish. 

There is an indissoluble union between 
magnanimous policy and the solid rewards oi 
public prosperity and felicity. Washington 

MAGNAN'IMOUSLY, adv. With greatness 
of mind ; bravely ; with dignity and eleva 
tion of sentiment. Mi/ton. 

BIAGNE'SIA, n. s as z. [Fr. magnesic. Qu. 
from Magnesia, the place where first 
found. Lunier says, from Gr. M»y'''!5, the 
lodestone ; but the reason he does not 

A primitive earth, having for its base a me- 
tallic substance, called magnesium. It ' 
generally found in combination with other 
substances. It is absorbent and antacid, 
and moderately cathartic. f/re 

MAGNE'SIAN, a. Pertaining to magnesia 
or partaking of its qualities. 

MAG'NESITE, n. Carbonated magnesia, 
or magnesia combined with sile.x. It oc 
curs in amorphous masses, or in massei 
tuberous and spungifonn ; its color is yel 
lowish gray, or white with spots, and den- 
dritic delineations of blackish brown. 

Haiiy. Cyc. 

MAGNE'SIUM, ?!. The undecomposable 
base of magnesia. 

MAG'NET, n. [L. from Gr. tuvyvy^, from 
Magnesia, in Asia Minor.] 

The lodestone ; an ore of iron which has 
the peculiar properties of attracting metal- 
lic iron, of pointing to the poles, and of 
dipping or inclining downwards. These 
properties it communicates to iron by con- 
tact. A bar of iron to which these prop- 
erties are imparted, is called an artifcial 
magnet. Encyc. 

MAGNET'I€, ? Pertaining to the 

MAGNET'ICAL, \ "' magnet; possess- 
ing the properties of the magnet, or cor- 
responding ])roperties ; as a magnetic bar 
of iron, or a magnetic needle. 

2. Attractive. 

She that had all magnetic force alone — 


MAGNETICALLY, adv. I5y means of 
magnetism; by the power of attraction 


MAGNET'I€ALNESS, n. The quality of 
being magnetic. 

MAGNETICS, n. The science or princi- 
ples of magnetism. 

MAGNETIF'EROUS, a. Producing or con- 
ducting magnetism. Journ. of Science. 

MAG'NETISM, n. That branch of science 
which treats of the properties of the mag- 
net, the power of the lodestone, &c. 
Power of attraction; as the magnetism of 
interest. Glanville. 

Animal magnetism, a sympathy supposed to 
exist between the magnet and the human 
body, by means of which the magnet is 
said to be able to cure diseases ; or a fluid 
supposed to exist throughout nature, and 
to be the medium of influence between 
celestial bodies, and the earth and human 

MAGNETIZE, v. t. To communicate mag- 
netic properties to any thing ; as, to mag- 
netize a needle. 

Seven of Deslon's patients were magnetized 
at Dr. Franklin's house. Encyc. 

MAG'NETIZE, v. i. To acquire magnetic 
properties ; to become magnetic. A bar 
of iron standing some time in an inclined 
position, will magnetize. 

MAG'NETIZED,;)p. Made magnetic. 

MAG'NETIZING,;)pr. Imparting magnet- 
ism to. 

MAG'NIFIABLE, o. [Bee Magnify.] That 
may l)e magnified; worthy of being mag- 
nified or extolled. Brown. 

MAGNIF'I€, I ,, .. -. 

MAGN!F'I€AL, $ "• t^' ''^ognificus.] 

Grand ; splendid; illustrious. Milton. 

MAGNIF'I€ATE, v. t. To magnify or ex- 
tol. [JVot used.] Marsion. 

MAGNIF'ICEN€E, n. [L. magnificentia.] 
Grandeur of appearance ; greatness and 
splendor of show or state; as the magnifi- 
cence of a palace or of a procession ; the 
magnificence of a Roman triumph. 

MAGNIF'ICENT, a. Grand in appearance ; 
splendid ; pompous. 

Man he made, and for him built 
.Magnificent this world. Milton. 

2. Exhibiting grandeur. Sidney. 

MAGNIF'ICENTLY, adv. With splendor 
of appearance, or pomj) of show. The 
minister was magnificently entertained at 

With exalted sentiments. We can never 
conceive too magnificently of the Creator 
and his works. 

MAGNIF'ICO, )(. A grandee of Venice. 


MAG'NIFIER, n. [from magnify.] One 
who magnifies ; one who extols or exalts 
in praises. 

'3 .\ glass that magnifies; a convex lens 
which increases the apparent magnitude 
of bodies. 

MAGNIFY, V. t. [L. magnifico ; 
great, imAfacio, to make.] 

1. To make great or greater ; to increase the 
apparent dimensions of a body. A con- 
vex lens magnifies the bulk of a body to 
the eye. 

2. To make great in representation ; to ex- 
tol; to exalt in description or praise. The 
embassador magnified the king and queen. 

3. To extol ; to exalt ; to elevate ; to raise 
in estimation. 




Thee that day 
Thy thunders maf^nified. 
The Lord magnified Solomon <.-.\tci.-uiiigij..| 
1 Chron xxix. 
To magmfy one's self, to raise in pride and 

He shall magnify himself in his heart. Dan. 
MAG'NIFVING, ppr. Enlarging apparent 

bulk or dimensions; extolling; exaltni 
MAGNIL'OQIIENCE, n. [L. m«g-nM«, great, 

and loquens, spealiing.] 
A lolly manner of spealiing ; tumid, pomp- 
ons" words or style. Bentley. 
MAG'NITUDE, n. [L. magniludo.] Extent 
of dimensions or parts; bulk; size; ap- 
plied to things that have length, breadth or 

2. Greatness; grandeur. 

With plain heroic magnitude of mind. 


3. Greatness, in reference to influence or ef- 
fect; importance. In affairs of magni 
tude, disdain not to take counsel. 

MAGNO'LIA, )?. The laurel-leafed tulip 
tree, of several s|)ecies. 

MAG'PIE, »!. [W.piog, h. pica, whh mag.] 
A chattering bird of the genus Corvus. 

IMAG'UEY, n. A species of aloe in Mexico, 
which furnished the natives with timber 
for their buildings. Its leaves were used 
for covering the roofs of their houses, and 
for paper, clothing and cordage. Enqjc. 

The maguey is a species of the genus Agave, 
and is now cultivated in Mexico, for the 
purjjose of preparing from its leaves a 
spirituous liquor called pulque 


MA HOG' ANY, n. A tree of the genus 
Swietenia, growing in the tropical cli- 
mates of America. The wood is of a red- 
dish or brown color, very hard, and sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish. Of this are made 
our most beautiful and durable pieces of 
cabinet furniture. 

MAHOM'ETAN, > This word and the 

MOHAM'MEDAN. I name of the Ara- 
bian prophet, so called, are written in 
many difierent ways. The best authori- 
zed anti most correct orthography seems 
to be Mohammed, Mohammedan. [See 
Mohamtnedan .] 

MA'HOUND, n. Formerly a contemptuous 
name for Mohammed and the devil, &c 


MAID, n. A species of skate fish. 

MAID, ? [Sax. ma-gth, from ma-g, a 

MA'IDEN, I " general name of relation, 
man, boy, or woman; Goth, magalh ; D. 
maagd ; G. magd ; Ir. mog'/i, a man ; Sp. 
muzo, a man-servant, a bachelor ; moza, a 
maid ; Port, macho, a male ; Russ. muj. 
It coincides in elements with Sax. magan, 
to be able, Eng. may.] 

1. An unmarried woman, or a young un- 
married woman ; a virgin. 

2. A female servant. Dryden. 

3. It is used in comjiosition, to e.xpress the 
feminine gender, as in maid-servant. I 

MA'IDEN, n. A maid ; also, an instrument 
for beheading criminals, and another for 
washing linen. 

MA'IDEN, a. Pertaining to a young woman 
or virgin ; as maiden charms. 

2. Consisting of young women or virgins. 
Amid the maiden throng. Addison. 

Vol. II. 


M A I 

3. Fresh; new; unused. IMA'ILED, p;). Covered with a mailorwitii 

He fleshed his maiden sword. Sliak^i armor; inclosed and directed, as letters in 

MA'IDEN, V. i. To speak and act demurelyl „ " '^"'""f ; , , , , „. ^,„ . 

n. „,n,lestlv ' Bn. Hail. 2; °;„^I"'''^-'l ? speckled. Sherwood. 

MA'1LI.\U, ppr. Investing with a ccat ot 

Bp. Hall. 
the genus 

7!. A plant of 
li. [Sax. meegdenhad 

or modestly. 


1. The state of being a maid or virgin ; vir- 

Tlie modest lore of maidenhood. MiUon 

2. Newness ; freshness ; uncontaminated 
state. Shak 

MA'IDENLIKE, a. Like a inaid ; modest. 


MA'IDENLINESS, n. The behavior that 
becomes a maid ; modesty ; gentleness. 


MA'IDENLIP, n. A plant. Ainsworth. 

MA'IDENLY, a. Like a maid; gentle 
modest ; reserved. Shak. 

MA'IDENLY', adv. In a maidenlike man- 
ner. Skelton 

MA'IDHOOD, II. Virginitv. Shak. 

MAIDMAR'IAN, n. A dance; so called 
from a bufToon dressed like a man. Obs. 


MA'IDPALE, a. Pale, like a sick girl. 


MA'ID-SERVANT, n. A female servant. 


MAIL, )!. [Fr. maille, a stitch in knitting, a 
mail ; Sp. malla, a mesh, net-work, a coat 
of mail; Port. id. and a spot; It. maglia 
ani\ camaglio ; Arm. mailh; D.maal; W. 
magyl, a knot, a mesh : maglu, to knit, to 
etitangle, to entrap, to form meshes. The 
sense of spot, which occurs in the French 
and Portuguese, indicates this word to be 
from the root of L. macula, and the Welsh 
words prove it to be contracted from 

L A coat of steel net-work, formerly worn 
for defending the body against swords, 
poniards, &c. The mail was of two sorts, 
chain and plate mail ; the former consist- 
ing of iron rings, each having four others 
inserted into it ; the latter consisting of a 
number of small lamins of metal, laid over 
one another like the scales of a fish, and 
sewed down to a strong linen or lethern 
jacket. Cyc. 

2. Armor; that which defends the body. 

We strip the lobster of his scarlet mail. 


We read also of shirts of mail, and gloves 

of mail. 

3. In ships, a square machine composed of 
rings interwoven, like net-work, used for 
rubbing oft' the loose hemp on lines and 
white cordage. 

4. A rent. [Sax. mal.] Also, a spot. Obs. 
MAIL, n. [Fr. malette ; Ir. mala ; Fr. malle ; 

Arm. mal.\ 

A bag for the conveyance of letters and pa- 
pers, particularly letters conveyed from 
one post office "to another, under public 

MAIL, !■. t. To put on a coat of mail or ar- 
mor ; to arm defensively. Shak. 

2. To inclose in a wrapper and direct to a 
post office. We say, letters were mailed 
for Philadelphia. 

MA'IL-COACH, )!. A coach that conveys 
the public mails. 


mail ; inclosing in a wrajijier and direct- 
ing to a|.ost office. 
MAIM, v.t. [OldFr. mahemer or mahaigntr ■, 
Arm. mahaigna, mahagncin.] 

1. To deprive of the use of a limb, so as to 
render a person less able to defend himself 
in fighting, or to annoy his adversary. 


2. To deprive of a necessary pan; to crip- 
ple ; to disable. 

You maim'd the jurisdiction of all bishops. 

MAIM, n. [written in law-language, may- 

1. The privation of the useof a limb or mem- 
ber of the body, so as to render the suflTcr- 
er less able to defend himself or to annoy 
his adversary. 

2. The privation of any necessary part; a 

Surely there is more cause to fear lest the 
want thereof be a maim, than the use of it a 
blemish. Hooker. 

3. Injury ; mischief. Shak. 

4. Essential defect. 

j A noble author esteems it to he a maim in 

history. {^A'tit used.'] Hayward. 

IMA'IMED,^7>. Criiipled; disabled in limbs; 

IMA'IMING, ppr. Disabling by depriving of 
the use of a limb ; crippling : rendering 

I lame or defective. 

MA'IMEDNESS, n. A state of being 
maimed. Bolton. 

MAIN, a. [Sax. mccgn, strength, force, pow- 
er, from magan, to be able or strong, that 
is, to strain or stretch, Eng. tnay, might 
If g is radical in the L. magyius, this m.iy 
be of the same family ; Goth, mickets ; 
Eng. 7mich.] 

L Principal ; chief; that which has most 
power in producing an effect, or which is 
mostly regarded in jirospect ; as the main 
branch or tributary stream of a river; the 
niain timbers of an edifice ; a main de- 
sign ; a main object. 

Our main interest is to be as happy as wc can. 
and as long as possible. Tillotson. 

2. Mighty ; vast ; as the main abyss. 

Important; powerful. 

This young prince, with a train of young no- 
blemen and gentlemen, not with any main army, 
came over to take possession of his patrimony. 


M.\IN, n. Strength ; force ; violent effort ; 
as in the phrase, " with might and main." 


2. The gross ; the bulk; the greater part. 

The 7nain of them may be reduced to lan- 
guage and an improvement in wisdom — 


3. The ocean ; the great sea, as distinguish- 
ed from rivers, bays, sounds and the like. 

He fell, and struggling in the mai7i — 

The continent, as di-stingiiished from an 
isle. We arrived at Nantucket on Satur- 
day, but did not reach the main till Mon- 
day. In this use of the word, land is omit- 
ted ; main for main land. 
A hamper. Ainsworth. 



M A J 

6. A course; a duct. Act of PaHiamtnU 

For the main, in the main, for the most part ; 
in the greatest part. 

MAIN, n. [L. manus, hand ; Fr. main.'] A 

hand at dice. We throw a merry main. 

And lucky mains make people wise. \_JVot 

used.'] Prior. 

2. A match at cock fighting. 

M A'IN-LAND, n. The continent ; the princi 
pal land, as opposed to an isle. Dryden. 

MA'INLY, adv. Chiefly; principally. He 
is mainly occupied with domestic con 

2. Greatly ; to a great degree ; mightily. 


MA'IN-MAST, n. The principal mast in a 
ship or other vessel. 

MA'IN-KEEL, n. The principal keel, as 
distinguished from the false keel. 

MA'INOR, ?i. [Old Fr. manoevre, meinour, 
L. a majiu, from the hand, or in the work.' 

The old law phrase, to be taken as a thitfwith 
the mainor, signifies, to be taken in the very 
art of killing venison or stealing wood, or 
in preparing so to do ; or it denotes the 
being taken with the thing stolen upon 
him. Blackstone. 

MAINPERNABLE, a. That may be ad 
niitted to give surety by mainpernors ; that 
maybe mainprized. 

MAINPERNOR, 7i. [Old Fr. main, the 
hand, and prendre, to take ; pernon, pernez, 
for prenon, prenez.] 

In lata, a surety for a prisoner's appearance 
in court at a day. Mainpernors differ from 
bail, in that a man's bail may imprison or 
surrender him before the stipulated day of 
appearance ; mainpernors can do neitlier 
they are bound to produce him to answer 
all charges whatsoever. Blackstone 

MA'INPRIZE, n. [Fr. main, hand, and 
prendre, pris, to take.] 

1. Ill law, a writ directed to the sherifl^, com- 
manding him to take sureties for tlie pris 
oner's appearance, and to let him go at 
large. These sureties are called main- 
pernors. Blackstone 

2. Deliverance of a prisoner on security for 
his appearance at a dav. 

MA'INPRIZE, ii. /. To suffer a prisoner to 
go at large, on his finding sureties, main 
pernors, for his appearance at a day. 

MA'IN-SAIL, n. The principal sail in a ship 
The main-sail of a ship or brig is extended 
by a yard attached to the main-mast, and 
that of a sloop, by the boom. 

MATN-SHEET, ji. The sheet that extends 
and fastens the main-sail. 

MA'INSVVEAK, v. i. [Sax. mansweriani 
man, evil, and swerian, to swear.] 

To swear falsely ; to perjure one's self. 


MAINTA'IN, V. I. [Fr. maintenir ; main. 
hand, and tenir, to hold ; L. mamis and 

i. To hold, preserve or keep in any particu- 
lar state or condition; to support; to sus- 
tain ; not to suffer to fail or decline ; as. 
to maintain a certain degree of heat i'.\ ii 
furnace ; to maintain the digestive process 
or pcivvcrs of the stomach ; to maintain the 
fertility of soil; to maintain present char 
actcr or rc])utution. 

2. To hold ; to keep ; not to lose or surren 
der ; as, to jnaintain a place or post. 

3. To continue ; not to suffer to cease ; as,] 
to maintain a conversation. 
To keep up; to uphold; to support the 
expense of; as, to maintain state or equip- 

What maintains one vice would bring up two 
children. Franklin. 

5. To support with food, clothing and other 
conveniences ; as, to maintain a family by 
trade or labor. 

To support by intellectual powers, or by 
force of reason ; as, to maintain an argu- 

To support ; to defend ; to vindicate ; to 
justify ; to prove to be just; as, to main- 
tain one's right or cause. 

8. To support by assertion or argument ; to 

In tragedy and satire, I jnaintain that this 
age and the last liave excelled the ancients. 


MAINTAINABLE, a. That may be main- 
tained, supported, preserved or sustained. 

2. That may be defended or kept by force 
or resistance ; as, a military post is not 

3. That may be defended by argument or 
just claim ; vindicable ; defensible. 

.^lAINTA'INED, pp. Kept in any state; 
preserved ; upheld ; supported ; defended ; 

MAINTA'INER, n. One who sui)ports, pre- 
serves, sustains or vindicates. 

MAINTAINING, ppr. Supporting; pre- 
serving ; upholding ; defending ; vindica- 

MA'INTENANCE, n. Sustenance; susten 
talion ; support by means of supplies of 
food, clothing and other conveniences 
as, his labor contributed little to the main- 
tenance of his family. 

2. Means of support ; that which supplies 

Those of better fortune not making learning 
their maintenance. Swift 

.3. Support; protection; defense; vindica- 
tion ; as the maintenance of right or just 

4. Continuance ; security from failure or 

Whatever is granted to the church for God's 
honor and the maintenance of his service, i; 
granted to God. South 

5. In law, an officious intermeddling in ;! 
suit in which the person has no interest 
by assisting cither party with money or 

■ means to ])rosecute or defend it. This is 
a punishable offense. But to assist a poor 
kinsman from compassion, is not mainte- 
nance. Encyc 

MA'IN-TOP, )i. The top of the main-mast of 
a ship or brig. 

MA'IN-YARD, n. The yard on which the 
main-sail is extended, supported by the 

MAISTER, for master, is obsolete. 


iMAISTRESS, for mistress, is obsolete. 


MAIZ, n. A plant of the genus Zca, the na- 

, tive corn of America, called Indian corn. 
[In the Lettish and Livonic languages, in 
the north of Europe, ?)ia7/sc is bread. Tookc. 
In Ir. maise is food ; perhaps a diflTerenl 
orthography of meai.] 

MA'JA, n. A bird ofCuba, of a beautiful yel- 
low color, whose flesh is accounted a deli- 
cacy. Diet. J\!'at. Hist. 
MAJES'TIC, a. [from majesty.] August ; 
having dignity of person or appearance; 
grand ; princely. The prince was majes- 
tic in person and appearance. 
I n his face 
Sat meekness, hightened with majestic grace. 

2. Splendid ; grand. 

Get the start of this majestic world. Shak. 
Elevated ; lofty. 

The least portions must be of the epic kind ; 
all must be grave, majestic and sublime. 

4. Stately ; becoming majesty ; as a majestic 

air or walk. 

MAJES'TICAL, a. Majestic. [Little used.] 

MAJES'TICALLY, adv. With dignity ; with 

grandeur ; with a lofty air or appearance. 

MAJ'ESTY, n. [L. majestas, from the root 

of magis, major, more, greater.] 

1. Greatness of appearance; dignity; gran- 
deur; dignity of aspect or manner; the 
quality or state of a person or thing which 
inspires awe or reverence in the beholder ; 
applied with peculiar propriety to God and 
his works. 

Jehovah reigneth ; he is clothed with majesty. 
Ps. xciii. 

The voice of Jehovah is full of majesty. Ps. 

It is applied to the dignity, pomp and 
splendor of earthly princes. 

When he showed the riches of his glorious 
kingdom — the honor of his excellent tnajesty 
many days — Esth. i. 

2. Dignity; elevation of manner. 
The first in loftiness of thought surpass'd. 
The next in majesty — Dryden. 

3. A title of emperors, kings and queens ; 
as most royal majesty ; may it please your 
majesty. In this sense, it admits of the 
plural ; as, their majesties attended the 

MA'JOR, a. [L.] Greater in number, quan- 
tity or extent ; as the major part of the as- 
sembly ; the major part of the revenue ; 
the major part of the territory. 

2. Greater in dignity. 
My major vow lies here. Shak. 

3. In music, an epithet applied to the modes 
in which the third is four semitones above 
the tonic or key-note, and to intervals con- 
sisting of fom- semitones. Busby. 

Major and minor, in music, are applied to 
concords which differ from each other by 
a semitone. 

Major lone, the difference between the fifth 
and fourth, and major semitone is the dif- 
ference between the major tbiirth and the 
third. The major tone surpasses the mi- 
nor by a connna. Encyc. 

MA'JOU, n. In military affairs, an officer 
next in raidv above a captain, and below 
a lieutenant colonel ; the lowest field offi- 

2. The mayor of a town. [See JV/ni/or.] 

.lid-major, an otHcer appointed to act as ma- 
jor on certain occasions. 

Brigade-major. [See Brigade.] 

Drum-major, the first drummer in a regi- 
ment, who has authority over the other 

Fife-major, the first or chief fifer. 

M A K 

M A K 

M A K 

Sergeant-major, a non-commissioned officer, 
siiborilinate to the adjutant. 

MA'JOR, n. Ill law, a person of full age to 
manage his own concerns. 

MAJOR, n. In logic, the first proposition of 
a regular syllogism, containing ihe priiici- 
Jial term ; as, no unholy person is qualified 
for happiness in heaven, [the major.] 
Every man in liis natural state is unholy, 
[minor.] Theretbre, no man in his natu- 
ral state, is qualified for happiness in hea- 
ven, [conclusion or inference.] 

MAJORA'TION,n. Increase; enlargement. 
[Mat used.] Bacon. 

MAJOR-DOMO, J!, [major and domus, 

A man who holds the place of master of the 
house; a steward ; also, a chief minister. 


MA'JOR-GENERAL, n. A military officer 
who commands a division or a number of 
regiments ; the next in rank hclow a 
lieutenant general. 

MAJOR'ITY, n. [Fr. majoriU ; from major.] 

1. The greater number; more than half; as 
a majority of mankind; a majority of votes 
in Congress. A measure may bo carried 
by a large or small majority. 

2. Full age ; the ago at which the laws of a 
country permit a young person to manage 
Ids own affairs. Henry III. had no soon- 
er come to his majority, than the barons 
raised war against iiiin. 

3. The office, rank or commission of a ma 

4. The state of being greater. 

It is not a pluralily of parts, without majority 
of parts. [Little used .'\ Grew 

5. [h. majorcs.] Ancestors; ancestry. [,Yot 
used.] Brown. 

C. Chief rank. [,Vot vsed.] Shak. 

MAKE, r. t. prct. and pp. made. [Sax. mac- 
ian ; G. machen ; D. maaken : Dan. ma- 
ger, to contrive ; mager paa, to make, to 
form, to mold, to contrive, to practice. 
The primary sense is to cause to act or 
do, to press, drive, strain or compel, as in 
the phrases, mate your servant work, make 
him go.] 

1. To compel : to constrain. 

They should be made to rise at an early hour. 


2. To form of materials ; to fashion ; to mold 
into shape ; to cause to exist in a different 
form, or as a distinct thing. 

He fashioned it with a graving tool, after lie 
had 7nade it a molten calf. Ex. xsxii. 

God not only made, but created ; not only 
made the work, but the materials. 

Divight, Theol 

3. To create ; to cause to exist ; to form 
from nothing. God made the materials of 
the earth and of all worlds. 

4. To compose ; to constitute as parts, ma- 
terials or ingredients united in a whole. 
These several sums make the whole 

The heaven, the air, the earth, and boundless 

Make but one temple lor the deity. 


5. To form by art. 

And art with her contending, doth aspire 
T' excel the natural with made delights. 


G. To produce or effect, as the agent. 

Call for Sampson, that he may make us sport. 
Judges xvi. 

7. To produce, as the cause ; to procure ; to 
obtain. Good tillage is necessary to make 
good crops. 

Wealth maketh many friends. Prov. xix. 

8. To do ; to perform ; to execute ; as, to 
make a journey ; to make a long voyage. 

9. To cause to have any quality, as by change 
or alteration. Wealth may viake a man 
proud ; beauty may make a woman vain ; 
a duo sense of human weakness should 
make us humble. 

10. To bring into any state or condition ; to 

See 1 have made thee a god to Pliaraoh. 
Ex. vii. 

Who made thee a prince and a judge over us .' 
Ex. ii. 

11. To contract ; to establish; as, to make 
friendship. Rowe. 

12. To keep ; as, to make abode. Dryden. 

13. To raise to good fortune ; to secure in 
riches or happiness ; as when it is said, he 
is made for this world. 

Who makes or ruins with a smile or frown. 


14. To suffer. 

He accuses Neptune unjustly, who makes 
shipwreck a second time. Bacon 

15. To incur ; as, to make a loss. [Improper. 

IG. To commit ; to do. 

I will neither plead my age nor sickness in 
excuse of the fatUts which I made. [Little 
used.] Dryden. 

17. To intend or to do ; to purpose to do. 

Gomez, what mak'st tliou here, with a whole 
brotlierhood of citj' baililfs ? [^Vui used.] 

We now say, what doest thou here ? 

18. To raise, as profit ; to gain ; to collect ; 
as, to make money in trade or by hus- 
bandry ; to make an estate by steady in- 

19. To discover; to arrive in sight of; a 
seaman''s phrase. They made the land at 
nine o'clock on the larboard bow, distant 
five leagues. 

20. To reach ; to arrive at ; as, to make a 
port or harbor ; a seaman^s phrase. 

21. To gain by advance ; as, to nwke little 
way with a head wind ; we made our way 
to the next village. This phrase often im- 
plies difficulty. 

22. To provide ; as, to mxike a dinner or en 

23. To put or place ; as, to make a difference 
between strict right and expedience. 

24. To turn ; to convert, as to use. 
Whate'er they catch, 

Their fury makes an instrument of war. 


25. To represent. He is not the fool you 
make him, that is, as your representation 
exhibits him. 

26. To constitute ; to form. It is melan 
choly to think that sensual pleasure makes 
the happiness of a great part of mankind. 

27. To induce; to cause. Self-confidence 
makes a man rely too much on his own 
strength and resources. 

28. To put into a suitable or regular form 
for use ; as, to make a bed. 

29. To fabricate : to forge. He matle the 
story himself 

30. To compose ; to form and write ; as, to 
make verses or an oration. 

31. To cure ; to dry and prepare for preser- 
vation ; as, to make hay. 

To make amends, to make good ; to give ad- 
equate compensation ; to replace the value 
or amount of loss. 
To make account of, to esteem ; to regard. 

To make away, to kill ; to destroy. 

Sidney. Addison. 
2. To alienate ; to transfer. H'aller. 

We now usually say, to make over prop- 
To make free icilh, to treat with freedom ; to 
treat without ceremony. Pope. 

To make good, to inuintain ; to defend. 

I'll cither die, or I'll make good the place. 


2. To fulfill ; to accomplish ; as, to make 
good one's word, promise or engagement. 

3. To make compensation for ; to supply an 
equivalent ; as, to make good a loss or dam- 

To make light of, to consider as of no conse- 
quence ; to treat with indifference or con- 

They made light of it, and went their way. 
Matt. xxii. 

To make love, \ to court; to attempt to gain 

To make suit, ^ the favor or affection. 

To make merry, to feast ; to be joyful or 
jovial. Bacon. 

To make much of, to treat with fondness or 
esteem ; to consider as of great value, or 
as giving great pleasure. 

To make of to understand. He knows not 
what to tnake of the news, that is, ho does 
not well understand it ; he knows not how 
to consider or view it. 

2. To produce from ; to effect. 

I am astonished that those who have appear- 
ed against this paper, have made so very Utile of 
it. Addison. 

3. To consider ; to account ; to esteem. 

Makes she no more of me than of a slave ? 


To make over, to transfer the title of; to con- 
vey ; to alienate. He TOdrfc ortr his estate 
in trust or in fee. 

To make out, to learn ; to discover ; to ob- 
tain a clear understanding of. I cannot 
make out the meaning or sense of this dif- 
ficult passage. Antiquaries are not able 
to make out the inscription on this medal. 

2. To prove ; to evince ; to establish by evi- 
dence or argument. The plaintiff, not be- 
ing able to Tnake out his case, withdrew 
the suit. 

In the passages from divines, most of the rea- 
sonings which nujke out both my propositions 
are already suggested. Atierbury. 

3. To furnish; to find or supply. He prom- 
ised to pay, hut was not able to make out 
the money or the whole sum. 

To make sure of, to consider as certain. 

2. To secure to one's possession; as, to make 

sure of the game. 
To make up, to collect into a sum or mass; 

as, to make iip the amount of rent ; to maki 

up a bundle or package. 

2. To reconcile ; to compose ; as, to make up 
a difference or quarrel. 

3. To repair ; as, to make up a hedge. Ezek, 

M A K 

M A L 

M A L 

4. To supply what is wanting. A dollar is 
wanted to make upthe stipulated sum. 

5. To compose, as ingredients or parts. 

Oil, he was all made vp of love and charms ! 

The parties among us are made up of mode- 
rate vvhigs and presbyterians. Suri/I. 

6. To shape; as, to make up a mass into 

7. To assume a particular form of features ; 
as, to make up a face ; whence, to viake up 
a lip, is to pout. 

8. To compensate ; to make good ; as, to 
make up a loss. 

9. To settle ; to adjust, or to arrange for 
settlement ; as, to make up accounts. 

10. To determine ; to bring to a definite con- 
clusion ; as, to make up one's mind. 

Ill seamen^s language, to make sail, to in- 
crease the quantity of sail already ex- 
To make sternway, to move with the stern 

To make water, to leak. 
To make words, to multiply words. 
iMAKE, V. i. To tend ; to proceed ; to move. 
He made towards home. The tiger made 
at the sportsman. Formerly authors used 
to make way, to tnake on, to make forth, to 
make about ; but these phrases are obso- 
lete. We now say, to make at, to jnoAe to 
•2. To contribute ; to have effect. This ar 
gument makes nothing in his favor. He 
believes wrong to be right, and right to 
be wrong, when it makes for his advant 
3. To rise ; to flow toward land ; as, the tide 

makes fast. 
To make as if, to sliow ; to appear ; to carry 

Joshua and all Israel 7tiade as if they were 
beaten before them, and fled. Josh. viii. 
To make away with, to kill; to destroy. 
To make for, to move towards ; to direct a 
course towards ; as, we apprehended ; 
tempest approaching, and made for a bar 
2. To tend to advantage ; to favor. A war 
between commercial nations makes for the 
interest of neutrals. 
To make against, to tend to injury. This ar- 
gument makes against his cause. 
To make out, to succeed ; to have success at 
last. He made out to reconcile the con- 1 
tending parties. | 

To make up, to approach. He jtiade up to; 

us with boldness. 
To viake vpfor, to compensate ; to supply by I 
an equivalent. \ 

Have you a supply of friends to make up for 
those who are gone .' Swift. 

To make up tvitli, to settle differences ; to be- 
come friends. 
To make uith, to concur. Hooker. 

MAKE, ?i. Structure; texture; constitution 
of parts in a body. It may sometimes be 
synonymous with shape or form, but more 
properly, the word signifies the manner in 
which the parts of a body are united ; as a 
man of slender make, or feeble make. 
Is our perfection of so frail a make 
As every plot can undermine and shake ? 

MAKE, n. [Sax. maea, gemaca ; Dan. mage ; 
Eng. match. It .seems allied to inake, as 
peer, L. par, to Ilcb. xi2.] 

A companion ; a mate. Obs. 11 

Spenser. B. Jonson.'} 
M.-VKEBATE, n. [make and Sax. bate, con- 1 

One who excites contention and quarrels. 

MA'KELESS, a. Matchless ; without "a 

mate. Obs. 
MA'KER, n. The Creator. 

The universal Maker we may praise. 


2. One that makes, forms, shapes or molds ; 
a manufacturer ; as a maker of watches, or 
of jewelry; a moAer of cloth. 

.3. A poet. 

MA'KEPEACE, n. A peace-maker ; one 

that reconciles persons when at variance. 

MA'KEWEIGHT, n. That which is thrown 

into a scale to make weight. Philips 

MA'KI, n. An animal of the genus Lemur. 

The ring-tailed maki is of the size of a cat. 

The common name of a subdivision of the 

Linneun genus Lemur, including the iiia- 

cauco, the mongooz, and the vari. Cuvier 
MA'KING, ppr. Forming; causing ; com- 

lielling ; creating ; constituting. 
MA'KING, n. The act of forming, causing 

or constituting. 

3. Workmanship. This is cloth of your own 

3. Composition ; structure. 

as a prefi.x, in composi 
or evil, Fr. mat, L. malus. 

A poem. 

tion, denotes i 
[See Maladif.] 

MAL'AellltE, n. [Gr. /jaf.axt;, mallows, 
L. malva, from f<aj.axos, soft, so named 
from its resembling the color of the leaf 
of mallows.] 

An oxyd of copper, combined with carbonic 
acid, found in solid masses of a beautiful 
green color. It consists of layers, in the 
form of nipples or needles converging to- 
wards a common center. It takes a good 
polish and is often manufactured into 
toys. Fourcroy. Diet. JVot. Hist. 

MAL'ACOLITE, n. [Gr. fia-Kaxn, mnllows, 
from its color.] 

Another name for diopside, a variety of py- 
roxene. Cleaveland. Lunier. 

MALACOPTERYG'EOUS, a. [Gr. ^taaxo;, 
soft, and rcripvyioi/, a point or fether.] 

Having bony rays of fins, not sharp or point 
ed at the extremity ; as a fish. 

MALACOS'TOMOUS, a. [Gr. fiaAaxoj, 
soft, and crrofia, mouth.] 

Having soft jaws without teeth ; as 

I fish. 

and Jldminister.] 

Bad management of public aflairs; vicious 
or defective conduct in administration, or 
the performance of official duties, particu- 
larly of executive and ministfrial duties, 
jjrescribed by law ; as the maladministra- 
tion of a king, or of any chief magistrate. 

MAL'ADY, n. [Fr. maladie ; It. malalHa. 
from the W. mall, softness, debility, an 
evil, a malady ; L. malum ; W. mallu, to 
make soft or flaccid, to deprive of energy 
to tnake insipid, to make evil, to become 
evil. This coincides in origin with Eng 
mellow, L. mollis, Gr. /uoaaxoj. In oppo 

sition to this, virtue, value and health, are 
from the sense of strength, vigor.] 
Any sickness or disease of the human 
body ; any distemper, disorder or indispo- 
sition, proceeduig from impaired, defect- 
ive or morbid organic functions ; more 
particularly, a lingering or deep seated 
disorder or indisposition. It may be ap- 
plied to any animal body, but is, I believe, 
rarely or never applied to plants. 

The maladies of the body may prove medi- 
cines to the mind. Suckminster. 
Defect or corruption of the heart ; de- 
pravity ; moral disorder or corruption of 
moral principles. Depravity ofheartisa 
moral malady. 

3. Disorder of the understanding or mind. 

MAL'AGA, n. A species of wine imported 
from Malaga, in Spain. 

MALAN'DERS, n. [from mal, ill, and It. 
andare, to go.] 

A dry scab on the pastern of a horse. 


MAL'APERT, a. [mal and pert.] Saucy ; 
quick, with impudence ; sprightly, without 
respect or decency; bold; forward. 

Are you growing malapeii ? Drydat. 

MAL'APERTLY, adv. Saucily; with im- 
pudence. Skelton. 

MAL'APERTNESS, n. Sauciness; impii- 
dent pertness or forwardness ; sprightli- 
ness of reply without decency. 

MALAPROPOS, adv. malap'ropo. [Fr. mal, 
evil, and apropos, to the purpose.] Unsuit- 
ably. Dryden. 

MA'LAR, a. [L. mala, the cheek.] Pertain- 
ing to the cheek. 

M.\L'ATE, n. [L. malum, an apple.] A salt 
formed by the malic acid, the acid of ap- 
ples, combined with a base. Chimistry. 

M.\L'AXATE, V. t. [Gr. /uaiaaau.] To sof- 
ten ; to knead to softness. [jVot used.] 

MALAX A'TION, n. The act of moistening 
and softening; or the forming of ingredi- 
ents into a mass for pills or plasters. 
[Little used.] Bailey. 

MALCONFORMA'TION, n. Ill form ; dis- 
proportion of parts. Tally. 

MAL'€ONTENT, n. [mal aniX content] A 
discontented subject of government ; one 
who murnmrs at the laws and adminis- 
tration, or who manifests his uneasiness 
by overt acts, as in sedition or insurrec- 

MAL'CONTENT, ? Discontenied 

MALCONTENT'ED, \ with the laws 
or the administration of government ; un- 
easy ; dissatisfied with the government. 
The famous malcontent earl of Leicester. 


MAL€ONTENT'EDLY, adv. With dis- 

MALCONTENT'EDNESS, n. Discontent- 
edness with the government; dissatisfac- 
tion ; want of attachment to the govern- 
ment, manifested by overt acts. 


MALE, a. [Fr. male, for masle, from L. 
mascutus, from mas, maris.] 

L Pertaining to the sex that procreates 
young, and applied to animals of all kinds ; 
as a m<ite child ; a male beast, fish or fowl- 
Denoting the SOX of a plant which produ- 
ces the fecundating dust, or a flower or 
])lant that bears the stamens only, with- 
out pistils. 

M A L. 

M A L 

M A L 

3. Denoting the screw whose threads euter, 
the grooves or channels of the corres- 
ponding or female fccrew. 

MALE, n. Among animals, one of the sex 
whose oflice is to beget young; a he-ani- 

a. In botany, a plant or flower which produ- 
ces stamens only, withont pistils. 

3. In mechanics, the screw whose threads 
enter the grooves or channels of the cor- 
responding part or female screw. 

MALEDIC'ENCY, n. [L. matedicentia : 
male and dico.] 

Evil speaking ; reproachful language ; pronc- 
ness to reproach. [Little used.] 


MAL'EDICENTj a. Speaking reproach- 
fully ; slanderous. [lAtlle used.] Sandys. 

MALEDICTION, n. [L. maledidio ; male, 
evil, and dico, to speak.] 

Evil speaking; denunciation of evil; a curs- 
ing ; curse or execration. Hooker. 

MALEFA€'TION, n. [L. male, evil, and 
fado, to do.] 

A criminal deed ; a crime ; an offense 
against the laws. [Little used.] Shak. 

MALEFACTOR, n. [supra.] One who 
commits a crime ; one guilty of violating 
the laws, in such a manner us to snhjcct 
him to public prosecution and punishment,' 
particularly to capital punishment ; a 
criminal. Dri)den.\ 

MAL'EFIUE, n. [Fr. See Malefaction) An! 
evil deed ; artifice ; enchantment. [JVot' 
in use.] Chaucer. 

MALEFI"CIATE, v. t. To bewitch. [^Yot 
in use.] Burton. 

aiALEFICIA'TION, n. A bewitching. 
[J^ot in use.] 

MALEFI"CIENCE, v. [L. maleficientia.] 
The doing of evil, harm or mischief 

MALEFI"CIENT, a. Doing evil, harm or 
mischief Burke. 

MALEN'tilNE, n. [Fr. malengin.] Guile; 
deceit. [JVot in use.] Spenser. 

MAL'ET, n. [Fr. maletle. See Mail.] A 
little bag or budget ; a portmanteau. [JVot 
used.] Shtlton. 

MALEVOLENCE, ?i. [L. malevolentia ; 
malum, evil, and volcns, volo, to will.] 

Ill will ; personal hatred ; evil disposition 
towards another ; enmity of heart; incli- 
nation to injure others. It expresses less 
than mnlignitii. Shak. 

MALEVOLENT, a. Having an evil dispo- 
sition towards another or others ; wishing 
evil to others ; ill disposed, or disposed to 
injure others. A malevolent heart rejoices 
in the misfortunes of others. 

2. Unfavorable ; unpropitious ; bringing ca- 

MALEVOLENTLY, adv. With ill will or 
enmitv ; with the wish or design to injure. 

MALEV'OLOUS, a. Malevolent. [JVot in 
use.] Warhurion. 

MALFE'ASANCE, n. [Fr.] Evil doing : 
wrong ; illegal deed. 

MALFORM.VTION, n. [mal anA forma- 

Ill or wrong formation ; irregular or anoma- 
lous formation or structure of parts. 


MA'LIC, a. [L. malum, an apple.] Pertain- 
ing to apples : drawn from the juice of 
apples ; as malic acid. Chimistry. 

MAL'ICE, n. [Fr. It. malizia; Sp. malicia;\ 
L. malitia, from tnalus, evil ; W. rnaW. See! 
Malady.] \ 

Extreme enmity of heart, or malevolence ; a 
disposition to injure others without cause,! 
from mere personal gratification or from 
a spirit of revenge; unprovoked maligni- 
ty or spite. 

— Nor set down auglit in malice. Shak. 

MAL'ICE, V. t. To regard with extreme ill 
will. [JVot used.] Spenser. 

MALI"CIOUS, a. Harboring ill will or en- 
mity without provocation ; malevolent in 
the extreme ; malignant in heart. 
I grant hioi bloody, 
Sudden, rnaliciotix, smacking of every sin 
That has a name. Shak. 

2. Proceeding from extreme hatred or ill 
will ; dictated by malice ; as a malicious 

MALI"CIOUSLY, adv. With malice ; with 
extreme enmity or ill will ; with deliber- 
ate intention to injure. Swift. 

MALP'CIOUSNES'S, n. The (piality of be-; 
ing malicious; extreme enmity or dispo- 
sition to injure ; malignity. Herbert.' 

MALIGN, a. mali'ne. [Fr. matigne ; L.i 
malignus, from mains, evil. See Malady.]- 

1. Having a very evil disposition towards' 
others; harboring violent hatred or enmi- 
tv ; malicious; us malign spirits. Milton.' 

2. Unfavorable; ])ernicious; tending to in- 
jure ; as a malign aspect of |)lanets. 


3. Malignant ; pernicious ; as a malign ulcer. 


M.\LIGN, V. t. To regard with envy or 
malice ; to treat with extreme enmity ; to 
injure maliciously. 

Tlie people practice mischief against pri\ate 
men, whom they malign by stealing thci: 
ftoods and murdering them. Spenser. 

2. To traduce ; to defame. 

MALIGN, V. i. To entertain malice. 


MALIG'NANCY, n. [See Malignant.] Ex- 
treme malevolence ; bitter enmity ; mal- 
ice: as malignancy of heart. 

2. Unfavorableness ; unpropitiousness ; as 

the malignancy of the aspect of planets. 

The malignancy of my fate might distemper 

yours. Sliuk. 

3." Virulence : tendency to mortification or to 
a fatal issue ; as the malignancy of an ul- 
cer or of a fever. 

MALIG'NANT, a. [L. malignus, maligno, 
from mains, evil.] 

L Malicious; having extreme malevolence 
or emnity ; as a malignant heart. 

2. Unpropitious; exerting pernicious influ- 
ence ; as malignant stars. Shak. 

3. Virulent; as a malignant ulcer. 

4. Dangerous to life ; as a malignant fever. 

5. Extremely hainous ; as the malignant 
nature of sin. 

MALIG'NANT, n. A man of extreme en- 
mity or evil intentions. [JVut used.] 


MALIG'NANTLY, adv. Maliciously ; with 
extreme malevolence. 

2. With pernicious influence. 

MALIGNER, n. One who regards or treats 
another with enmity ; a traducer ; a defa- 
mer. Swifl. 

MALIG'NITY, n. [L. malignitas.] Ex- 
treme enmity, or evil dispositions of heart 

towards another; malice without provo- 
cation, or malevolence with baseness of 
heart ; deep rootetl sjiite. 

2. VJrul(;nce ; destructive tendency ; as the 
malignity of an ulcer or disease. 

3. FiXtrcmc evilncss of nature; as the ma- 
lignity of fraud. 

4. Extreme sinfulness ; enormity or haiii- 
ousness; as the md/iguiV^ of sin. 

MALIGNLY, adv. With extreme ill will. 
2. Unpropitiouslv ; |)eriiirionslv. 
MAL'ISON, n. "Malediction. "[.Vo< in use.] 

MALKIN, n. maxo'kin. A mop ; also, a low 

maid-servant. Stiak. 

MA1<L, n. maul. [Fr. mail; Sp. mallo ; Port. 

mallto ; from L. malleus.] 

1. A large heavy wooden beetle; an instru- 
ment for driving any thing with force. 

2. A blow. Obs. Spenser. 
MALL, J!, mat. [Arm. inailh. Qu. (iom a 

play with mall and ball, or a beaten 

A public walk ; a level shaded walk. Alice 

d''arbres battue et bordie. 

Gregoire's Ann. Did. 
MALL, J', t. maid. To beat with a mall; to 

beat with something heavy ; to bruise. 
MAL'L.\RD, n. A species of duck of the 

iicmis Anas. Pennant. 

MALLEABILITY, n. [from malleable.] 

That quality of bodies wliich renders them 

susceptible of extension by beating. It is 

opposeil to friability or britlteness. Locke. 
MAL'LEABLE, n. [Fr. from L. malleus. 

See Mall.] 
That may be drawn out and extended by 

beating; capable of extension by the ham- 
mer ; a quality of metals, particularly of 

gold. JVeielon. 

MAL'LEABLENESS, n. Blalleabilily, 

which see. 
MAL'LEATE, v. t. To hammer; to draw 

into a plate or leaf bv beating. 
MALLEA'TION, 7i. The act of beating into 

a plate or leaf, as a metal ; extension by 

MAL'LET, n. [Fr. mailkt ; Russ. molut; 

Slav, mlat; L. malkus.] 
A wooden hammer or instnnnent for beat- 
ing, or for driving pins; particularly used 

in carpentry, for driving the chisel. 
MALLOW, } [?iaK. matu, mealwe,maltce; 
MALLOWS, i"- Fr. mauve; L. Sp. It. 

mnlva ; Gv. ^laf-axr;, from iiaXoucoj, soft, Eng. 

mellow, W. mall. See Malady.] 
A plant of the geinis Malva ; so called from 

its emollient qualities. 
Marsli-mallows, a plant of the genus Alth.-ea. 
MALM'SEY, n. [Fr. malvoisit; Jt.malvosio; 

Sp. murvisia, from Malvasia,in Greece ; L. 

vinum arvisium.] 
The name of a species of grape, and also of 

a kind of wine. 
MALPRA€'TICE, n. [mal and practice.] 

Evil practice ; illegal or immoral conduct ; 

practice contrary to established rules. 
M.\LT, Ji. [Sax. mcalt ; D. mout ; G. mah ; 

Sw. Dan. malt. Qn. W. mall, soft.] 
Barley steeped in water, fermented and dried 

in a kiln, and thus prepared for brewing 

into ale or beer. 
MaLT, v. t. To make into malt ; as, to malt 

Malt, v. i. To become malt. 


31 A N 


To liouse it green will make it malt worse. 

MaLT'-DRINK, ? A liquor prepared for 
MALT -LIQUOR, ^ drink by an infusion 

of malt; as beer, ale, porter, &c. 
MaLT'-DUST, n. The grains or remains of 

Mall-dust is an enricher of barren land. 


JlALT'-FLOOR,re. A floor for drying inalt. 

MALT'-HORSE, n. A horse employed in 
grinding malt; hence, a dull fellow. 

jMaLTMAN, \ A man whose occupation 
MALTSTER, \ "'is to make malt. Swift. 
MaLTWORM, n. [malt and worm.] A tip- 
Icr. Shak. 

MAL'TALENT, n. [Old Fr.] Ill humor. 
[JV«< in use.] Chaucer 

MAL'THA, n. A variety of bitumen, vis- 
cid and tenacious, like pitch ; unctuous to 
the touch and exhaling a bituminous odor. 


MALTRE'AT, v. I. [mal and treal.] To 

treat ill ; to abuse ; to ti'eat roughly, rude 

ly, or with unkindncss. 

MALTRE'ATED, pp. Ill treated ; abused. 

MALTRE'ATING, yjjjr. Abusing; treating 

MALTREATMENT, n. Ill treatment ; ill 

usage ; abuse. 
MALVA'CEOUS, a. [L. malvaceus, from 
malva, inallows.] Pertaining to mallows. 
MALVERSA'TION, n. [L. male, ill, and 

versor, to behave.] 
Evil conduct ; improper or wicked behavior; 
mean artifices, or fraudulent tricks. 


MAM, < [L. mamnia, the breast or 

MAMMA, I "■ pap, and mother; W. mam; 

Arm. mamm ; Jr. muiine, a nurse ; Antiq. 

Gr. na^fit;.] 

A familiar word for mother, used by young 

MAM'ALUKE, ) The military force of 
JIAM'ELUKE, I "• Egypt consisted of 
soldiers called Mamelukes, who were ori 
ginally mercenaries, but afterwards mas- 
ters of the country. Their power has 
been recently annihilated by the present 
Pashaw of Egypt. 
MAM'MAL, 71. [L. mamma, the breast.] In 
zoologt/, an animal that suckles its yotmg. 
[See .Maynmifer.] Good. 

MAMMA'LIAN, a. Pertaining to the mam- 
MAMMAL'OgIST, n. One who treats of] 

mammiferous animals. 
MAMMAL'OC Y, )i. [L. mamma, breast, and 

?.oyo5, discourse.] 
Tiic science or doctrine of mammiferous an 

inials. [See j\Iammifer.] 

MAM'MARY, a. [See .Wamma.] Pertaining 

to the breasts or paps ; as the mammary 

arteries and vcin.s. 

MAMMEE', n. A tree of the genus Mam- 

mca, of two species, both large evergreens 

produced in hot climates. Enci/c. 

MAM'MRT, n. A ptippet ; a finure dressed. 

MAM'MIFER, n. [L. mamma', the breast, 

and /"cro, to bear.] 
An aniuial whic'h has breasts for noinishing 
its young. The iiiaiMinit'ers have a double 
system of circulation, red and warm blood 
the fetus is nourished in the niulrix by 

means of one or more placentas, and the! 
young by milk secreted by the breasts. 

■ Diet. jVat. Hist. 

MAMMIF'EROIIS, a. [supra.] Having 
breasts and nourishing the young by the 
milk secreted by them. 

MAM'MIFORM, a. [L. mamma and form.] 
Having the shape or form of paps. 

MAM'MILLARY, a. [h.mamilla.] Pertain- 
ing to the paps; resembling a pap; an 
epithet applied to two small protuberan- 
ces, like nipples, found under the fore ven 
tricles of the brain, and to a process of the 
temporal bone. 

2. In mineralogy, applied to minerals compo- 
sed of convex concretions. 

MAM'MILLATED, a. Having small nip 
pies, or little globes like nipples. Say. 

MAM'MOe, n. A shapeless piece. [JVot 
used.] " Herbert. 

MAM'MOC, V. t. To tear in pieces. [J\tot 
used.] Milton. 

MAM'MODIS, )i. Coarse, plain India mus 

MAM'MON, n. [Syr.] Riches ; wealth ; or 
the god of riches. 

Ye cannot serve God and mammon. Matt. 

MAM'MONIST, ?i. A person devoted to 
the acquisition of wealth ; one whose af- 
fections are ])laced supremely on riches; 
a worldling. Hammond. 

MAM'MOTil, ?i. [Russ. mamffni, the skel- 
eton of a huge animal, now extinct.] 

This name has been given to a huge quad- 
ruped, now extinct, whose bones are 
found on both continents. 

MAN, n. plu. men. [Sax. »/iaii, mann and 
mon, mankind, man, a woman, a vassal, 
also one, any one, like the Fr. on ; Goth. 
manna ; Sans, inan ; D. man, a man, a' 
husband ; mensch, a human being, man, 
woman, person ; G. id. ; Dan. man, men-] 
neske; Sw. man, meniskia ; Sax. mennesc,] 
human ; Ice. mann, a man, a husband ;! 
W. mynxv, a person, a body, from mion, 
that which rises up or stretches out. The 
primary sense is, form, image, whence 
species, coinciding probably with the Fr. 
mine, Eng. mien. Arm. man or min, look, 
aspect, countenance ; Ch. and Heb. ]'0 
species, kind ; Heb. nJlDH image, simili- 
tude ; Syr. liA:» 1 progeny. It is re- 
markable that in the Icelandic, this word 
a little varied, is used in Gen. i. 2G, 27. 
" Og Gud sagde, ver vilium gera mannenn 
epter mind og liking vorre." And God 
said, let us make man after our image and 
likeness. " Og Gud skapade mannenn 
epter sinnc mixid, epter Guds mind skapade 
hann hann, og ban skapade than karlman 
og kvinnu." Literally, and God shaped 
man after his image, after God's image 
shaped he them, and he shaped them male 
and female -jkarlman, male, [See Carle and 
Churl,] and kvinnu, female, that is queen. 
woman. Icelandic Bible. Man in its rad- 
ical sense, agrees almost precisely with 
Mam, in the Shemitic languages.] 
I. Mankind ; the human race ; the whole 
species of human beings ; beings distin- 
guished from all other animals by the 
powers of reason and speech, as well a« 
by their shape and dignified aspect. " O.' 
homini sublime dedit." 

And God said, Let us make man in our im- 
age, after our likeness, and let them have do- 
minion — Gen. i. 

Man that is bom of a woman, is of few 
days and full of trouble. Job siv. 

iVIy spirit shall not always strive with man. 
Gen. vi. 

I will destroy man whom I have created. 
Gen. vi. 

There hath no temptation taken you, but 
such as is common to man. 1 Cor. x. 

It is written, man shall not live by bread 
alone. Malt. iv. 

There must be somewhere such a rank as 
man. Pope. 

Respecting man, whatever wrong we call — 


But vindicate the ways of God to man. 


The proper study of mankind is 7nan. 


In the System of Nature, tnan is ranked as a 
distinct genus. Encyc. 

When opposed to woman, man some- 
times denotes the male sex in general. 

Woman has, in general, much stronger pro- 
pensity than man to the discharge of parental 
duties. Cowper. 

2. A male individual of the human race, of 
adult growth or years. 

The king is but a man as I am. Shak. 

And the man dreams but what the boy 

believed. Dryden . 

3. A male of the human race ; used often in 
compound words, or in the nature of an 
adjective ; as a mrt»i-child ; »ncn-cooks ; 

4. A servant, or an attendant of the male 

I and my man will presently go ride. 


A word of familiar address. 

We speak no treason, man. SItak. 

6. It sometimes bears the sense of a male 
adult of some uncommon qualifications ; 
particularly, the sense of strength, vigor, 
bravery, virile powers, or magnanimity, as 
distinguished from the weakness, timidity 
or im|)0tence of a boy, or from the nar- 
row mindedness of low bred men. 

I dare do all that may become a man. 

Will reckons he should not have been the 
man he is, had he not broke windows — 


So in popular language, it is said, he is 
no man. Play your ]>art like a man. He 
has not the spirit of a man. 

Thou art but a youth, and he a man of war 
from his youth. 1 Sam. xvii. 

7. An individual of the human species. 

In matters of equity between man and man — 


Under this |>hraseology, females may be 
comprehended. So a law restraining man, 
or every man from a particular act, coin- 
prebends women and children, if of com- 
petent age to be the subjects of law. 

8. Man is sometimes opposed to boy or child, 
and sometiines to beast. 

9. One who is master of his mental powers, 
or who conducts himself with his usual 
judgment. When a person has lost his 
senses, or acts without his usual judg- 
ment, we say, he is not his own man. 


10. It is sometimes used indefinitely, with- 
out reference to a particular individual; 

M A N 

any person ; one. This is as much as a 
man can desire. 

A 7iwn, in an instant, may discover the as- 
sertion to be impossible. More. 

This word however is always used in 
the singidar nuniher, referring to an indi- 
vifUial. In this respect it does not answer 
to the French on, nor to the use of ina?! l)y 
our Su.von ancestors. In Saxon, inun of- 
sloh, signilies, Ihey slew ; man aetic vt, Ihey 
set or ftted out. So in German, man sagt 
may be rendered, one says, it is said, they 
say, or people say. So in Danish, man 
siger, one says, it is said, tttey say. 

11. In popular usage, a liusband. 

Every wile ought to answer for lier man. 


12. A movable piece at chess or draughts. 

13. Infeiidal law, a vassal, a liege subjector 

The vassal or tenant, kncclinji;, ungirt, un- 
covered and holding up his hands between 
those of his lord, professed that he did become 
his »i«;i, from that day forth, of life, limb, and 
earthly honor. Blackstone 

Man of war, a ship of war ; an armed ship. 

MAN-MIDWIFE, n. A man who practi- 
ces obstetrics. 

MAN, V. t. To furnish with men ; as 
man the lines of a fort or fortress ; to man 
a ship or a boat ; to man the yards ; to man 
the capstan ; to man a prize. It is, how- 
ever, generally understood to signify, to 
supply with the full complement or with 
asufhcient number of men. 

2. To guard with men. Shak 

3. To strengthen ; to fortify. 

Theodosius having ?nunned his soul will 
proper reflections — Addison 

4. To tame a hawk. [Little used.] Shak. 

5. To furnish with atlendants or servants 
[Little used.] Shak. B. Jonson. 

Q. To point ; to aim. 

Man but a rush against Othello's breast. 
And he retires. \_J\'ot used.'\ .Shnk 

MAN'AeLE, n. [Fr. tnanicUs ; It.manellc ; 
Sp. maniola ; L. manica ; from manus, the 
hand ; W. 7)iaji.] 

An instrument of iron for fastening the 
hands; hand-cuffs; shackles. It is gen- 
erally used in the plural, manacles. 


MAN'ACLE, V. t. To put on hand-cufis or 
other fastening for confining the hands. 

2. To shackle; to confine; to restrain the 
use of the limbs or natural powers. 

Is it thus you use this monarch, to manaclt 
him hand and foot ? Arbuthnot 

M.AN'A€LED, jo;). Haiid-cufled ; shackled 

MAN'ACLING, ppr. Confining the hands ; 

MAN'AGE, v. t. [Fr. menager ; 7nenage, 
house, household, housekeeping; It. ma 
neggiare ; Sp. Port, manejar. The prima 
ry sense seems to be to lead.] 

1. To conduct ; to carry on; to direct the 
concerns of; as, to manage a farm ; to 
manage the affairs of a family. 

What wars 1 manage, and what wreaths I 
s;ain. Prior. 

2. To train or govern, as a horse. 

They vault from hunters to the managed 
steed. i'uang. 

3. To govern; to control ; to make tame or 
tractable ; as, the bufl'alo is too refracto- 
ry to be managed. 


4. To wield ; to move or use in the manner 
desired ; to have under command. 

Long tubes are cumbersome, and scarce to be 
easily managed. JVeteton. 

To make subservient. 
Antony managed him to his own views. 


a. To husband ; to treat with caution or 

The less he had to lose, the less he ear'd 
To manage lothesome life, when love was 
the reward. Dryden 

7. To treat with caution or judgment; to 
govern with address. 

It was much his interest to manage his pro- 
teslant subjects. Addison. 

MAN'AgE, v. i. To direct or conduct af- 
fairs; to carry on concerns or business. 
Leave them to manage for thee. Dryden. 

MAN'AtiE, n. Conduct ; administration ; 
as the manage of the state or kingdom. 
Ohs. Shak 

2. Government ; control, as of a horse, or 
the exercise of riding him. 

3. Discipline ; governance ; direction. 

U Estrange. 

4. Use ; application or treatment. 
Quicksilver will not endure the manage of 

the fire. Bacon. 

[This word is nearly obsolete in all its 
applications, unless in reference to horses. 
We now use inanagement.] 

MAN'AGEABLE, a. Easy to be used or di 
reeted to its proper purpose ; not difficult 
to be moved or wielded. Heavy cannon 
are not very manageable. 
Governable; tractable; that may be con 
trolled ; as a manageable horse. 

3. That may be made subservient to one's 
views or dcsiirns. 

MAN'AgEABLENESS, )i. The quality of 
being easily used, or directed to its proper 
purpose; as the manageableness of an in- 
strument. Boyle. 

2. Tractableness ; the quality of being sus- 
ceptible of government and control ; easi- 
ness to be governed. 

MAN'AGED, pp. Conducted ; carried on ; 
trained by discipline ; governed; controll- 
ed ; wielded. 

MAN'AGEMENT, n. Conduct ; adminis- 
tration ; manner of treating, directing or 
carrying on ; as tlie management of a fam- 
ily or of a farm ; the management of state 

2. Cimning practice ; conduct directed by 
art, design or prudence ; contrivance. 

Mark with what management their tribes di- 
vide. Dryden.\ 

3. Practice ; transaction ; dealing. 
He had i;roat 7;m;frru;fHiCH/ with ecclesiastics, 

in the view to be advanced to the pontificate. 


Modulation ; variation. 

All directions as to the management of the 
voice, must be regarded as subsidiaiy to the ex- 
pression of feeling. Porter's Analysis. 
MAN'AtiER, n. One who has the conduct 

the manager of a lottery, of 

of a theater 
a hall, &c. 

A skilful manager of the rabble. 

An artful manager, that crept between — 


. A person who conducts business with 

economy and frugality ; a good husband. 

M A N 

\ prince of great aspiring thoughts ; in the 
main, a managei- of his treasure. Temple. 

MAN'AGERY, n. [from manage.] Conduct; 
direction ; administration. Clarendon. 

2. Husbandry ; economy ; frugality. 

Decay of Piety. 

3. Manner of using. Ibm. 

[Little used or obsolete in all its applica- 
MAN'AGING, p/)r. Conducting; regulating; 

directing; governing; wielding. 
MAN'AKIN, )i. The name of a beautiful 
race of birds found in warm climates. 

Did. Xat. Hist. 
MAN.\'TI, \ The sea-cow, or fish-tailed 
MANA'TUS, ^"•walrus, an animal of the 
genus Tricheclius, w hich grows to an en- 
ormous size ; sometimes it is said, to the 
length of twenty three feet. Of this ani- 
mal there are two varieties, the australis, 
or lamentin, and borealis, or whale-tailc(l 
manati. It has fore feet pahiialed, and 
furnisheil with claws, but the hinil part 
ends in a tail like that of a fish. The skin 
is of a dark color, tlie eyes small, and in- 
stead of teeth, themoutli is furnished with 
hard bones, extending the whole length of 
the jaws. [There are eight grinders on 
each side in each jaw. Cuvier.] It never 
leaves the water, but frequents the mouths 
of rivers, feeding on grass tjiat grows in 
the water. Encyc. Diet. .\'at. Hist. 

MANA'TION, n. [L. manatio, from mono, 

to flow.] 
The act of issuing or flowing out. [Little 

MAN'CHET, n. A small loaf of fine brcrul. 
[J^ot used.] Bacon. 

MANCHINEE'L, n. [L. mancayiilla.] A 
tree of the genus Hippomanc, growing in 
the West Indies to the size of a large oak. 
It abounds in an acrid, milky juice of a 
poisonous quality. It bears a fruit of the 
size of a pipjiin, which, when eaten, caus- 
es inflanmiation in the mouth and throat, 
pains in the stomach, &.c. The wood is 
valuable for cabinet work. Encyc. 

MAN'CIPATE, V. t. [L. mancxpo, from 
manceps, mancipium ; manu capio, to take 
with the hand. J 
To enslave ; to bind ; to restrict. [lAille 
used.] Hale. 

MANCIPA'TION, n. Slavery; invohmtary 
servitude. [Little used.] Johnson. 

iMAN'CIPLE, ?i. [L. manceps; manu capio, 

.\ steward ; an undertaker; a purveyor, par- 
ticularly of a college. Johnson. 
M.\NDA'iML'S, n. [L. mnnrfo, to coinmnnd ; 
mandatnus, we connnand. The primary 
sense is to send.] 
In law, a commauil or writ, issuing from the 
king's bench in England, and in America, 
from some of the higher court?, directed 
to any person, corporation, or inferior 
court, requiring ihcin to dosome act tlierc- 
in specified, which appertains to their 
ofl^ce and duty ; as to admit or restore a 
lierson to an office or franchise, or to an 
academical degree, or to deliver papers, 
arniex a seal to a paper, Sec. Blackstone. 
MAND.ARiN, n. In China, a magistrate or 
governor of a jnovince ; also, the court 
language of China. 




MAN'DATARY, ) [Fr. mandalairc, from 
MANDATORY, ^ L. mando, to com 

1. A person to whom tlie pope has by his 
prerogative given a mandate or order for 
his benefice. -iylifff- 

2. One to whom a command or charge is 

MAN'DATE, ?;. [L. mando, to command.] 

1. A command ; an order, precept or injunc- 
tion ; a commission. 

This dream all powerful Juno sends ; I bear 
Her mighty mandates, and her words you 
hear. Dryilen. 

2. In canon law, a rescript of the pope, com- 
manding an ordinary collator to put the 
penson therein named in possession of the 
first vacant benefice in his collation. 


MANDA'TOR, n. [L.] A director. 


MAN'DATORY, a. Containing a command ; 
preceptive ; directory. 

MAN'DIBLE, ?!. [L. mando, to chew ; W. 
mant, a jaw, that which shuts.] 

The jaw, tlie instrument of chewing ; appli- 
ed ■particularly to fowls. 

MANDIB'ULAR, a. Belonging to the jaw. 


MAN'DIL, )i. [Fr.?nfl7»/i'Wf, from the root of 
mantle ; W. mant.] A sort of mantle. 
[JVut in use.] Herbert. 

MANDIL'ION, n. [supra.] A soldier's coat; 
a loose garment. Ainsworth. 

MAN'DLESTONE, n. [G. mandetstein, al- 

Kernel-stone ; almond-stone, called also 
amygdaloid ; a name given to stones or 
rocks which have kernels enveloped in 
paste. Diet. JVat. Hist. 

MANDMENT, for commandment, is not in 

MAN'DOLIN, n. [It. mandola.] A cithern 
or harp. [JVot in use.] 

MAN'DRAKE, n. [L. mandragoras ; It. 
mandragola ; Fr. mandragorc.] 

A plant of the genus Atropa, growing natu- 
rally in Spain, Italy and the Levant. It 
is a narcotic, and its fresh roots are a vio- 
lent cathartic. Its effect in rendering 
barren women prolific is supposed to be 
imaginary. Encyc. 

MAN'DREL, n. An instrument for confi- 
ning in the lathe the substance to be turn- 
ed. Moxon. 

MAN'DRILL, »i. A species of monkey. 

Diet. J\'at.. Hist. 

MAN'DU€ABLE, «. That can be chewed; 
fit to be eaten. Herbert. 

MAN'DUCATE, v. t. [L. mando, whence 
Fr. manger.] To chew. 

MAN'DUCATED, pp. Chewed. 

MAN'DUCATING, ppr. Chewing ; grind- 
ing with the teeth. 

MANDUCA'TION, n. The act of chewing 
or eating. 

MAN'E, n. [D. maan, mane, and moon ; G. 
mahne ; Sw. man or mahn ; Dan. man 
probably from extending, like 7nan.] 

The hair growing on the upper side of the 
neck of a horse or other animal, usually 
hanging down on one side. 

MAN'EATER, n. A human being that fced.s 
on human fiesh ; a cannibal ; an anthro- 

MA'NED, a. Having a mane. 

MAN'EgE, n. [Fr.] A school for teaching 
horsemanship, and for training horses. 

MANERIAL. [See Manorial.] 

MA'NES, n. plu. [L.] The ghost, shade or 
soul of a deceased person ; and among the 
ancient pagans, the infernal deities. 

2. The remains of the dead. 

Hail, O ye holy manes ! Dryden, 

MANEUVER, n. \Vr.mana.uvre ; main,\j. 
manus, the hand, and ceuvre, work, L. ope- 

1. Management ; dextrous movement, par- 
ticularly in an army or navy ; any evolu- 
tion, movement or change of position 
among companies, battalions, regiments, 
ships, &,c. for the purpose of distributing 
the forces in the best manner to meet the 

2. 3Ianagement with address or artful de- 

MANEU'VER, v. i. To move or change po- 
sitions among troops or ships, for the pur- 
pose of advantageous attack or defeiise; 
or in military exercise, for the purpose of 

2. To manage with address or art. 

MANEU'VER,)'. t. To change the positions 
of troops or ships. 

MANEUVERED, pp. Moved in position. 

MANEU'VERING, ppr. Changing the po- 
sition or order for advantageous attack or 

MAN'FUL, a. [man and full.] Having the 
spirit of a man ; bold ; brave ; courag- 

2. Noble ; honoralile. 

MAN'FULLY, adv. Boldly ; courageously ; 

MAN'FULNESS, 71. Boldness; courageous- 

MAN'GABY, n. A monkey with naked eye- 
lids ; the white-eyed monkey. 

Diet. J^at. Hist. 

MAN'GANESE, n. A metal of a dusky 
white, or whitish gray color, very hard and 
difticult to fuse. It never occurs as a nat- 
ural product in a metallic state. The sub- 
stance usually so called is an oxyd of man- 
ganese, but not pure. Cyc. Henry. 

MANGANE'SIAN, a. Pertaining to man- 
ganese; consisting of it or partaking of its 
qualities. Seybert. 

MANGANE'SIATE, n. A compound of 
manganesic acid, with a base. 

MANGANE'SIe, a. Obtained from manga- 
nese ; as the manganesic acid. Henry. 
[Manganic is ill formed.] 

MANGANE'SIOUS, a. Manganesious acid 
is an acid with a minimum of oxygen. 


MANG'€ORN, ?i. [Sax. meji^a;i, to mix, and 

A mixture of wheat and rye, or other spc-| 
cics of grain. [N'ot used in Jlmcrica.] 

MaNgE, 71. [Fr. mangeaison.] The scab] 
or itch in cattle, dogs and other beasts. 

MANGEL-WURZEL, n. [G. mangel, want, 
and wurzel, root.] 

The root of scarcity, a plant of the beet 

MaNgER, 71. [Fr. mangeoire, from manger,\ 
to eat, L. mando.] ! 

1. A trough or box in which fodder is laid 

for cattle, or the place in which horses 

and cattle are fed. 
2. In ships of tear, a space across the deck. 

within the hawse-holes, separated from 

the after part of the deck, to prevent the 

water which enters the hawse-holes from 

running over the deck. 
MANgER-BOARD, 71. The bulk-head on a 

ship's deck that separates the manger from 

the other part of the deck. Mar. Diet. 

MANtilNESS, 71. [from mangy.] Scabbiness : 

infection of the mange. 
MAN'GLE, I', t. [D. mangelen, G. mangeln, 

to want. Qu.] 

1. To cut with a dull instrument and tear, 
or to tear in cutting ; to cut in a bungling 
manner ; applied chief y to the cutting of 


And seized with fear, forgot his mangled 
meat. Dryden. 

2. To curtail ; to take by piece-meal. 
MAN'GLE, 71. [Dan. mangle ; G. mange ; 

D. mangel ; from L. mango.] 

1. A rolling press or calender for smoothing 

2. A name of the mangrove, which see. 
MAN'GLE, V. t. To smooth cloth with a 

mangle ; to calender. 

MAN'GLED,/)p. Torn in cutting ; smoothed 
with a mangle. 

MAN'GLER, n. One who tears in cutting ; 
one who uses a mangle. 

MAN'GLING,p;jr. Lacerating in the act of 
cutting ; tearing. 

2. Smoothing with a mangle. 

MAN'GO, n. The fruit of the mango tree, a 
native of the East Indies, of the genus 
Mangifera. It is brought to us only when 
pickled. Hence mango is the green fruit 
of the tree pickle<l. Encyc. 

2. A green nniskmelon pickled. 

MAN'GONEL, 7). [Fr. mangoneau.] An en- 
gine formerly used for throwing stones 
and battering walls. 

MAN'GONISM, n. The art of setting oft" to 
advantage. Ohs. 

MAN'GONiZE, r. t. To polish for setting 
oft' to advantage. Ohs. B.Jonson. 

MAN'GOSTAN, } A tree of the East 

MANGOSTEE'N, \ "• Indies, of the genus 
Garcinia. so called from Dr. Garcin, who 
described it. The tree grows to the liighth 
of 18 feet, and hears fruit of the size of a 
crab apple, the pulp of which is very deli- 
cious food. Encyc. 

MAN'GROVE, 77. A tree of the East and 
West Indies, otherwise called mangle, and 
of the genus Rhizophora. One species, 
the black mangle, grows in waters on the 
sides of rivers. The red mangrove does 
not grow in water. Its wood is of a deep 
red color, compact and heavy. The soft 
part of the bark of the white mangrove is 
formed into ropes. Encyc. 

2. The name of a fish. Pennant. 

M.\NgY, a. [from mange.] Scabby ; infect- 
ed with the mange. Shak. 

MAN'IIATER, n. [man a.m\hale.] One who 
hates mankind ; a misanthrope. 

MAN'HQQD, n. [man and hood.] The state of 
one who is a man, of an adult male, or one 
who is advanced beyond puberty, boy- 
hood or childhood ; virility. 

2. Virility ; as opposed to womanhood. 



3. Human nature ; as the manAoorf of Christ. 

4. The qualities of a man ; courage ; brave- 
ry ; resolution. [Little iised.] Sidney. 

MA'NIA, n. [L. and Gr.] Madness. 

MAN'IABLE, a. Manageable; tractable 
[JVo< in uje.l Bacon 

MA'NIAC, a. [L. Tnaniacus.] 3Iad ; raving 
with madness ; raging with disordered in- 
tellect. Cr""- 

MA'N1A€, n. A madman; one raving with 
madness. Shenstone. 

MANI'ACAL, a. Affected with madness 

MANlellE'AN, a. Pertaining to the Mani-' 

MANieHE'AN, ) One of a sect in Persia, 

MANI€HEE', ^ who maintained that 
there are two supreme principles, the one 
good, the other evil, which produce all the 
happiness and calamities of the world. 
The first principle, or light, they held to 
be the author of all good ; the second, or 
darkness, the author of all evil. The found- 
er of the sect was Manes. Encyc. 

MAN'ICHEISM, n. [supra.] The doctrines 
taught, or system of principles maintain- 
ed by the Manichees. Encyc. Milner 

MAN'icIlORD, I [Fr. manichordion.'] 

MANICORD'0^f, S"' A musical instru- 
ment in the form of a spinnet, whose strings 
like those of the clarichord, are covered 
with little pieces of cloth to deaden and 
soften their sounds ; whence it is called the 
dumb spinnet. Encyc. 

MAN'l€ON, n. A species of nightshade. 

MAN'IFEST, a. [L. manifestus, Ir. meanan. 
plain, clear ; minighim, to make smooth, to 
polish, to explain. Clearness maybe from 
polishing, or from opening, expanding, ex 

1. Plain ; open ; clearly visible to the eye or 
obvious to the understanding ; apparent ; 
not obscure or difficult to be seen or im- 
derstood. From the testimony, the truth 
we conceive to be manifest. 

Thus manifest to sight the god appeared. 

That which may be known of God is mani- 
fest in them. Rom. i. 

2. Detected ; with of. 

Calistho there stood manifest of shame. 
[Unumial.] Dryden. 

MAN'IFEST, n. An invoice of a cargo of 
goods, imported or laden for export, to be 
exhibited at the custom-house by the mas- 
ter of the vessel, or the owner or shipper. 
MAN'IFEST, I [It. manifesto ; L.mani 
MANIFEST'O, ^ "• - " ~ 


festtts, manifest 
A public declaration, usually of a prince or 
sovereign, showing his intentions, or pro- 
claiming his ojiinions and motives ; as a 
manifesto declaring the purpose of a prince 
to begin war, and explaining his motives. 
[Manifesto onlv is now used.] Addison. 
MAN'IEEST, i. t. [L. manifesto.] To re- 
veal; to make to appear; to show plain 
ly ; to make public ; to disclose to the eye 
or to the understanding. 

Nothing is hid, whicli sliall not be manifested. 
Mark iv. 

He that lovcth me, shall be loved of my 
Father, and I will love him, and will manifest 
myself to him. John iv. 

Thy life did manifest thou lov'dst me not. 

9. To display ; to exhibit more clearly to the 
view. The wisdom of God is manifested 
in the order and harmony of creation. 

Vol. II. 

MANIFESTA'TION.n. The act of disclos 
ingwhat is secret, unseen or obscure; dis- 
covery to the eye or to the understanding 
the exhibition of any thing by clear evi 
dence ; display ; as the manifestation of 
God's power in creation, or of his benev- 
olence in redemption. 

The secret manner in which acts of mercy 
ought to be performed, requires this public man- 
ifestation of them at the great day. 


MAN'IFESTED, pp. Made clear ; disclos- 
ed ; made apparent, obvious or evident. 

MANIFEST'IBLE, a. That may be made 
evident. Broivn 

MAN'IFESTING, ppr. Showing clearly; 
making evident ; disclosing ; displaying. 


MAN'IFESTLY, adv. Clearly; evidently; 
plainly ; in a manner to be clearly seen or 

MAN'IFESTNESS, n. Clearness to the 
sight or mind ; obviousness. 

MANIFESTO. [See Manifest.] 

MAN'IFOLD, a. [tnany am] fold.] Of divers 
kinds ; many in number ; nunieious ; mul- 

Lord, how man fold are thy works! Ps. 

1 know yourniam/oW transgressions. Aniosv 

Exhibited or appearing at diver.? times or 
in various ways ; applied to tvords in the 
singidar number ; as the manifold wisdom 
of God, or his manifold grace. Eph. iii 
1 Pet. iv. 

MAN'IFOLDED, a. Having many doublings 
or complications ; as a manifolded shield. 
[ivb< used.] Spenser. 

MAN'IFOLDLY, adv. In a manifold man- 
ner ; in many ways. Sidney. 

MAN'IFOLDNESS, Ji. Multiplicity. 


MANIG'LIONS, n. In gunnery, two han- 
dles on the back of a piece of ordnance, 
after the German way of casting. Bailey. 

MAN'IKIN, n. A little man. Shak. 

MAN'IL, ) [Sp. manilla, a bracelet, 

MANIL'LA, I "■ from L. manus, Sp. mano, 
the hand.] 

A ring or bracelet worn by persons in Africa. 


MA'NIO€, i A plant of the genus Ja- 

MA'NIHOC, > n. tropha, or Cassada plant. 

MA'NIHOT, ) It has palmated leaves, 
with entire lobes. Encyc. 

Manioc is an acrid plant, but from its 
root is extracted a pleasant nourishing 
substance, called cassava. This is obtain- 
ed by giating the root, and pressing out 
the juice, which is an acrid and noxious 
poison. The substance is then dried 
and baked, or roasted on a plate of hot 
iron. Fourcroy. 

MAN'IPLE, n. [L. manipulus, a handful. 
Qu. L. manus and the Teutonic/H?/.] 

1. A handful. 

2. A small band of soldiers; a word applied 
only to Roman troops. 

3. A fanon, or kind of ornament worn about 
the arm of a mass priest ; or a garment 
worn by the Romish priests when they 
officiate. Sp. Diet. 

MANIP'ULAR, a. Pertaining to the mani- 



MANIPULA'TION, »i. [Fr. id. ; It. manip- 
olaxione, from manipolare, to work with 
the hand, from L. manipulus, supra.] 
In general, work by hand ; manual opera- 
tion ; as in mining, the manner of digging 
ore ; in chimistry, tlie operation of prepar- 
ing substances for experiments ; in phar- 
macy, the preparation of drugs. 
MAN'KILLER.n. [man and kUl.] One who 

slays a man. 
MAN'KILLING, a. Used to kill men. 

MANKIND, n. [man and kind. This word 
admits the accent either on the first or 
second syllable; the distinction of accent 
being inconsiderable.] 
The race or species of human beings. 
The proper study of mankind is man. 

A male, or the males of the lunnan race. 

Thou shall not lie with mankind as w illi wo- 
mankind. Lev. xviii. 
MANKIND, u. Resembling man in form, not 
woman. Frobisher. 

MAN' LESS, a. [»««« and less.] Destitute of 
men ; not manned ; as a boat. [LAtUe 
zised.] Bacon. 

MAN'LIKE, a. Having the proper qualities 
of a man. Sidney. 

2. Of man's nature. Milton. 

MAN'LINESS, n. [from manly.] The quali- 
ties of a nian ; dignity ; bravery ; bold- 
ness. Locke. 
MAN'LING, n. A Uttle man. B. Jonson. 
MAN'LY, a. [man and like.] Manlike ; be- 
coming a man ; firm ; brave ; undaunted. 
Serene and manly, hardened to sustain 
The load of life— Dryden. 

2. Dignified ; noble ; stately- 
He moves with man/y grace. Dryden. 

3. Pertaining to the adult age of man ; as a 
manly voice. 

4. Not boyish or womanish ; as a manly 
stride. Shak. 

MAN'LY, adv. With courage like a man. 

MAN'NA,7i. [Ar. • L-« mauna, to provide 
necessaries for one's household, to sustain, 

s - J 

to feed them ; n'j^^ munahon, provis- 
ions for a journey. This seems to be the 
true original of the word. In Irish, (nann 
is wheat, bread or food. Class Mn. No. 3.] 
1. A substance miraculously furnished as 
food for the Israelites in their journey 
through the wilderness of Arabia. Ex. 

Josephus, Ant. B. iii. 1. considers the 
Hebrew word [n man, to signify u-hal. In 
conformity with this idea, the seventy 
translate the passage, Ex. xvi. L5. ti rirt 
rorro? what is this ? which rendering 
.seems to accord with the following words, 
for they knew not wluit it was. And in 
the Encyclopedia, the translators are 
charged with making Moses fall into a 
plain contradiction. Art. Manna. But 
Christ and his apostles confirm the com- 
mon version : " Not as your fathers ate 
manna, and are dead." John vi. 58. Ileb. ix. 
4. And we have other evidence, that the 
present version is correct ; for in the same 
chapter, Moses directed Aaron to " take a 
pot and put a homer full of manna there- 
in." Now it would be strange language 




to say, put an homer full of what, or ivhal 
is it. So also verse 35. " The children of 
Israel ate manna forty years, &c." In 
both verses, the Hebrew word is the same 
as in verse 15. 

9. In the materia medico, the juice of a cer- 
tain tree of the ash-kind, the Fraxinus or- 
iius, or flowering ash, a native of Sicily, 
Calabria, and other parts of the south ol 
Europe. It is either naturally concreted, 
or e-xsiccated and purified by art. The best 
manna is in oblong pieces or flakes of a 
whitish or pale yellow color, light, friable, 
and somewhat transparent. It is a mild 
la.xative. Encyc. Hooper. 

MAN'NER, n. [Fr. maniere ; It. maniera ; 
Sp. manera ; Artn. manyell ; D. G. manier ; 
Dan. maneer; Sw. maner. This word 
seems to be allied to Fr. manier, Arm. 
manea, to handle, from Fr. maiti, Sp. It. 
mano, Port. 7nam, L. manus, the hand.] 

I . Form ; method ; way of performing or 

Find thou the manner, and the means pre- 
pare. Dryden. 

3. Custom ; habitual practice. 

Show them the manner of the king that 
shall reign over them. This will be the manner 
of the king. 1 Sara. viii. 

Paul, as his manner was — Acts xvii. 
;t. Sort ; kind. 

Ve tithe mint and rae, and all manner of 
herbs. Luke xi. 

They shall say all manner of evil against you 
falsely — Matt. v. 

In this application, manner has the sense 
of a plural word ; all sorts or kinds. 

4. Certain degree or measure. It is in a 
manner done already. 

The bread is in a manner common. 1 Sam. 

This use may also be sometimes defined 
by sort or fashion ; as we say, a thing is 
done after a sort or fashion, that is, not 
well, fully or perfectly. 

Augustinus does in a manner confess the 
charge. Baker. 

5. Mien; cast of look; mode. 

Air and manner are more expressive than 
words. Clarissa. 

C. Peculiar way or carriage ; distinct mode. 
It can hardly be imagined how great a differ- 
ence was in the humor, disposition and manner 
of the army under Essex and that under Waller. 

A man's company may be known by his man- 
ner oi expressing h\m?eV. Swifl 

7. AVay ; mode ; of things. 

The temptations of prosperity insinuate them- 
selves after a gentle, but very powerful manner. 


8. Way of service or worship. 

The nations vfhich thou hast removed and 
placed in the cities of Samaria, know not the 
manner of the god of the land — 2 Kings vii. 
0. In painting, the particular habit of a paint- 
er ill managing colors, lights and shades. 

MAN'NER, V. I. To instruct in manners. 

MAN'NERISM, n. Adherence to the same 
manner; uniformity of manner. 

Edin. Rev. 
MAN'NERIST, n. An artist who performs 
his work in one unvaried manner. 


MAN'NERLINESS,n. The quality ofbeingj 
civil and respectful in behavior ; civility; 
complaisance. Hale., 

MAN'NERLY, a. Decent in external de- 
portment ; civil; respectful ; complaisant; 
not rude or vidgar. 

What thou think'st meet and is most maii- 
nerly. Shak. 

MAN'NERLY, adv. With civility ; respect- 
fully ; without rudeness. Shak. 
MAN'NERS, n. plu. Deportment ; carriage ; 
behavior; conduct; course of life ; in a 
moral sense. 

Evil communications corrupt good manners. 
1 Cor. XV. 

Ceremonious behavior ; civility ; decent 
and respectful deportment. 

Shall we, in our applications to the great God, 
take that to be religion, which the common 
reason of mankind wiU not allow to be manners ? 

A bow or courtesy ; as, make your man- 
ners ; a popular use of the ivord. 
MAN'NISH, a. [from man.] Having the ap- 
pearance of a man ; bold ; niascidine ; as 
a maniiish countenance. 

A woman impudent and mannish grown. 

MANOM'ETER, n. [Gr. ^0.05, rare, and 

lief pop, measure.] 
An instrument to measure or show the al- 
terations in the rarity or density of the air. 

MANOMET'RI€AL, a. Pertaining to the 

manometer ; made by the manometer. 
MAN'OR, 71. [Fr. manoir, Arm. maner, a 
country house, or gentleman's seat ; W.i 
maenan or maenawr, a manor, a district! 
hounded by stones, from maen, a stone. 
The word in French and Armoric signifies] 
a house, a habitation, as well as a manor ;[ 
and in this sense, the word would be nat- 
urally deducible from L. maneo, to abide. 
But the etymology in Welsh is not im- 
probably the true one.] 
The land belonging to a lord or nobleman, 
or so much land as a lord or great person- 
age formerly kept in his own hands for the 
use and subsistence of his family. In these 
days, a manor rather signifies the jurisdic- 
tion and royalty incorporeal, than the land 
or site; for a man may have a manor in 
gross, as the law terms it, that is, the right 
and interest of a court-baron, with the per 
quisites thereto belonging. Cowet. 

MAN'OR-HOUSE, ) The house belong- 
MAN'OR-SEAT, ^ "• ing to a manor, 

They have no civil liberty ; their children be 
long not to them, but to their manorial lord. 


MAN'PLEASER, ?i. [man and pleaser. 

One who pleases men, or one who takes 

uncommon pains to gain the favor of men. 

MAN'QUELLER, n. [man and qitell.] A 

mankiller; amanslayer; a murderer. [JVol 

Kserf.] Carew. 

MANSE, 71. mans. [L. jnansio, from maneo 

to abide.] 
\. A house or habitation ; particularly, a 

parsonage house. A capital manse is the 

manor-house or lord's court. 
3. A farm. 
JIAN'SERVANT, n. A male servant. 

MAN'SION, n. [L. mansio, from maneo, to 

Any place of residence ; a house ; a hab- 

Thy mansion wants thee, Adam, rise. 

In my Father's house are many mansions. 
John xiv. 

The house of the lord of a manor. 
Residence ; abode. 
These poets near our princes sleep, 
And in one grave their mansions keep. 


MAN'SION, V. i. To dwell ; to reside. 


MAN'SIONARY, a. Resident; resident- 
iary ; as mansionary canons. Encyc. 

MAN'SION-HOUSE, n. The house in 
which one resides; an inhabited house. 


MAN'SIONRY, n. A place of residence. 
[M>t used.] Shak. 

MANSLAUGHTER, ?i. [man and slaugh- 
ter. See Slay.] 

In a general sense, the killing of a man or 
of men ; destruction of the human spe- 
cies ; murder. Ascham. 
In laiv, the unlawful killing of a man with- 
out malice, express or implied. This may 
be voluntary, upon a sudden heat or e.x- 
citemeut of anger ; or involuntary, but in 
the commission of some unlawful act. 
Manslaughter differs from murder in not 
proceeding from malice prepense or de- 
liberate, which is essential to oonstitute 
murder. It differs from homicide excusa- 
ble, being done in consequence of some 
unlawful act, whereas e.\cusable homicide 
happens in consequence of misadventiu'e. 


MAN'SLAYER, n. One that has slain a 
human being. The IsraeUtes had cities 
of refuge for 7nanslayers. 

MAN'STEALER, n. One who steals and 
sells men. 

MAN'STEALING,n. The act of steaHng a 
human being. 

MAN'SUETE, a. [L. riwnsuetus.] Tame; 
gentle ; not wild or ferocious. [lAttle 
used.] Rcy- 

MAN'SUETUDE, n. [L. 7nansueludo.] 
Tameness; mildness ; gentleness. Herbert. 

MAN'TA, n. [Sp. inanta, a blanket.] A flat 
fish that is very trotiblesome to pearl- 

Pertaining to a inanor. 


of mantle.] A 

cloke worn by 



MANTEL. [See Mantle.] 

MAN'TELET, ) [dim. 

MANT'LET, < "' small 

2. In fortif cation, a kind of movable parapet 
or penthouse, made of planks, nailed one 
over another to the higlith of almost six 
feet, cased with tin and set on wheels. 
In a siege, this is driven before pioneers, 
to protect them from the enemy's small 
shot. Harris. 

MANT'IGER, rather mantichor, or manti- 
cor, n. [L. manticora, mantichora, Gr. fiavti- 

A large monkey or baboon. Arhuthnot. 

MAN'TLE, ?i. [Sux. mantel, mentcl ; It. Sp. 
■manto ; G. D. mantel ; W. mantcll. Qu. 
Gr. ftavSvi, fiai'Si'ttj, a cloke, from the Per- 
sic. In W. mant is that which shuts.] 

L A kind of cloke or loose garment to be 
worn over other garments. 




The herald and children are clothed with 
mantles of satin. Bacon. 

2. A cover. 

Well covered with the night's black mantle. 


3. A cover; that which conceals; as the 
mantle of charity. 

MAN'TLE, V. t. To cloke ; to cover ; to 

So the rising senses 
Begin to chase th' ignorant fumes, that manf/e 
Their clearer reason. Shak. 

MAN'TLE, V. i. To expand ; to spread. 
The swan with arched neck 
Between her white wings mantling, rows 
Her state with oary feet. Milton 

2. To joy; to revel. Johnson 

My frail fancy, fed with full delights. 
Doth bathe in bliss, and mantleth most at 
ease. Spenser 

[Qu. is not the sense to be covered or 
wrapped, to rest collected and secure .•'] 

3. To be expanded ; to be spread or ex- 

He gave the mantling vine to grow, 

A trophy to his love. Fenton 

4. To gather over and form a cover ; to col- 
lect on the surlUce, as a covering. 

There is a sort of men, whose visages 
Do cream and mantle like a standing pond. 

And the brain dances to the mantling bowl. 


5. To rush to the face and cover it with a 
crimson color. 

When mantling blood 
Flow'd in his lovely cheeks. Smith 

[Fermentation cannot be deduced from 
mantling, otherwise than as a secondary 

MAN'TLE, \ „ The piece of tim- 

MAN'TLE-TREE, \ her or stone in front 

of a chimney, over the fire-place, restin 

on the jambs. Encyc. 

[This word, according to Johnson, sig 

nihes the work over the fire-place, which 

we call a mantle-piece.] 
MANTLE-PIECE, I Tlie work over a 
MAN'TLE-SHELF, \ "' fire-place, in front 

of the chimney. 
MANT'LING, n. In heraldry, the repre 

seutation of a mantle, or the drapery of a 

coat of arms. 
MAN'TO,n. [It.] A robe ; a cloke. Ricaut. 
MANTOL'OgY, n. [Gr. fioirem, divination, 

and >.oyo5, discourse.] 
The act or art of divination or prophesying 

[Little used.] 
MAN'TUA, n. [Fr. manteau. See Mantle. 

A lady's gown. Pope. 

MAN'TUA-MAKER, n. One who makes 

gowns for ladies. Mdison 

iMAN'U.'VL, a. [L. manualis, from manus, 

the hand, W. man.] 

1. Performed by the hand ; as manual labor 
or operation. 

9. Used or made by the hand ; as a deed un- 
der the king's sign manual. 

MAN'UAL, n. A small book, such as may 
be carried in the hand, or conveniently 
handled; as a i/iajiuaJ of laws. Hale. 

2. Tlie service book of the Romish church. 


Mamtal exercise, in the military art, the e.\- 
ercise by which soldiers are taught the use 
of their muskets and other arms. 

MAN'UARY, a. Done by the hand. [Ao/ 
used.] Folhcrby. 

MANU'BIAL, o. [L. manubialis, from manu- 

bia, spoils.] 
Belonging to spoils ; taken in war. [Little 

MANUDUC'TION, »i. [L. manus, hand, and 

rfitdi'o, a leading.] Guidance by the hand. 
Glanvitlc. South. 
MANUDU€'TOR, n. [L. mamis, hand, and 

ductor, a leader.] 
An officer in the ancient church, who gave 

the signal for tlie choir to sing, who beat 

time and regulated tlie music. Enajc. 

MANUFACTORY, n. [See Manufacture.] 

A house or place where goods are tnanii- 

MANUFAC'TURAL, a. Pertaining or rela- 
ting to manufactures. 
MANUFACTURE, n. [Fr. from L. ?najius, 

hand, anAfacio, to make.] 

1. The operation of making cloth, wares, 
utensils, paper, books, and whatever is 
used by man ; 'the operation of reducing 
raw materials of any kind into a form 
suitable for use, by the hands, by art or 

2. Any thing made from raw materials I>y 
the hand, by machinery, or by art ; as 
cloths, iron utensils, shoes, cabinet work, 
sadleiy, and the like. 

MANUFACTURE, v. I. To make or fab- 
ricate from raw materials, by the hand, by 
art or machinery, and work into forms 
convenient for use ; as, to manufacture 
cloth, nails, or glass. 

2. To work raw materials into suitable forms 
for use ; as, to manufacture wool, cotton, 
silk or iron. 

MANUFA€'TURE, v.i. To be occupied in 
manufactures. Bosicelt. 

MANUFA€'TURED, pp. Made from raw 
materials into forms for use. 

MANUFACTURER, n. One who works 
raw materials into wares suitable for use. 

2. One who employs workmen for manu- 
facturing ; the owner of a manufactory. 

MANUFA€'TURING, ppr. Making goods 
and wares from raw materials. 

MANUMISE, for manumit, not used. 

MANUMIS'SION, a. [L. manumissio. See 

The act of liberating a slave from bondage, 
and giving him freedom. Arbuthnot. 

MAN'UMIT, V. t. [L. manumitto; manus, 
hand, and mitto, to send.] 

To release from slavery ; to liberate from 
personal bomlage or servitude ; to free, as 
a slave. Dryden. 

MANUMITTED, pp. Released from sla- 

MAN'UMITTING, ppr. Liberating from 
personal bondage. 

MANU'RABLE, a. [from manure.] That 
may be cultivated. This, though the ori- 
ginal sense, is rarely or never used. The 
jiresent sense of manure, would give the 
following signification. 

2. That may he manured, or enriched by 

MANU'RAuE, ji. Cultivation. [JVolused.] 


MANU'RANCE, n. Cultivation. [Ao< used. 


MANU'RE, r. t. [Fr. manxuvrer, but in a 
difTerent sense ; Norm, mainoverer, to ma- 
nure ; main, L. 7nanus, baud, and ouvrer, 
to work, L. operor.] 

1. To cultivate by manual labor; to till. 
[In this sense not now used.] Milton. 

2. To apply to land any fertilizing matter, 
as dung, compost, ashes, lime, fish, or any 
vegetable or animal substance. 

3. To fertilize; to enrich with nutritive sub- 

The corps of half her senate . 
Manure the fields of Thcssaly. JldJison. 

MANU'RE, 71. Any matter which fertilizes 
land, as the contents of stables and barn- 
yards, marl, ashes, lish, salt, and every 
kind of animal and vegetable substance 
applied to land, or capable of furnishing 
nutriment to plants. 

MANU'RED, pp. Dressed or overspread 
with a fertilizing substance. 

MANLT'REiMENT, n. Cultivation; improve- 
ment. [Little used,] H'arton, 

MANU'RER, n. One that manures lands. 

MANU'RING, ppr. Dressing or overspread- 
ing land with manure; fertilizing. 

.MANU'RING, n. K dressing or spread of 
manure on land. Mitford. 

M.-VN'USCRIPT, 71. [h.manu scriptum, writ- 
ten with the hand ; It. mamiscritlo ; Fr. 

A book or paper written with the hand or 

MANUSCRIPT, a. Written with the hand : 
not printed. 

MANUTEN'ENCY, 7i. Maintenance. [Ao< 
in use.] Sancrofl. 

MANY, a. men'ny, [Sax. mmneg, maneg, or 
menig ; D. menig ; G. mancher; Dan. 
mange ; Sw. m&nge ; Sax. menigeo, a mul- 
titude ; Goth, manags, many ; managei, a 
multitude ; Russ. mnogei, many ; mnoju, 
to multiply. It has no variation to ex- 
press degrees of comparison ; more and 
most, which are used for the comparative 
and superlative degrees, are from a differ- 
ent root.] 

1. Numerous ; comprising a great number 
of individuals. 

Thou shall be a father of many nations. Gen. 

Not many wise men after the flesh, not many 
mighty, noi many noble, are called. 1 Cor. i. 

Many are the alflictions of the righteous. Ps. 

It is often preceded by as or so, and fol- 
lowed by so, indicating an equal number. 
As many books as you take, so many shall 
be charged to yonr account. 

.So many laws argue so many sins. Millon. 

It is also followed by as. 

As many as were willing-hearted brought 
bracelets. Ex. x.vxiv. 

It precedes an or a, before a noun in the 
singular number. 

Full many a gem of purest ray serene. 


2. In low language, preceded by too, it de- 
notes powerful or much ; as, they are too 
many for us. UEstrange, 

MANY, 71. men'ny. A multitude ; a great 
number of individuals; the people. 

thou fond many. Shak. 

The vulgar and the many are fit only to be 

led or driven. South. 

MANY, 71. men'ny. [Norm. Fr. meignee.] 
A retinue of servants; household. Obs. 


MANY'-CLEFT', a. Multifid ; having 
many fissures. Martyn. 




MANY-€5L'ORED, a. Having many col 
ors or hues. Pope. 

MANV-COR'NERED, a. Having many cor- 
ners, or more than twelve ; polygonal. 

IVIANV-FLOW'ERED, a. Having many 
flowers. Martyn. 

MANY-HEAD'ED, a. Having many heads; 
as a many-headed monster ; many-headed 
tyranny. Dryden. 

MANV-LAN'GUAgED, o. Having many 
languages. Pope. 

AIANY-LE'AVED, a. Polyphyllous ; hav- 
ing many leaves. Martyn. 
MANY-MASTERED, a. Having many 
masters. J. Barloiv. 
MANY-P-ARTED, a. Multipartite ; divided 
into several parts ; as a corol. Martyn. 
MANY-PE'OPLED, a. Having a numer- 
ous population. Sandys. 
MANY-PET'ALED, a. Having many pet- 
als. Martyn. 
MANY-TVVINK'LING, a. Variously twink- 
ling or gleaming. Gray. 
MANY-VALV'ED, a. Multivalvular; hav- 
ing many valves. Martyn. 
MAP, n. [Sp. mapa ; Port, mappa ; It 
mappamonda. Qu. L. mappa, a cloth or 
towel, a Punic word ; Rabbinic NSD. Maps 
may have been originally drawn on cloth.] 
A representation of the surface of the earth 
or of any part of it, drawn on paper or 
otlier material, exhibiting the lines of lat- 
itude and longitude, and the positions of 
countries, kingdoms, states, mountains, 
rivers, &c. A map of the earth, or of a 
large portion of it, comprehends a repre- 
sentation of land and water ; but a repre- 
sentation of a continent or any portion of 
land only, is properly a map, and a repre- 
sentation of the ocean only or any portion 
of it, is called a chart. We say, a map of 
England, of France, of Europe ; but a 
chart of the Atlantic, of the Pacific, &c. 
MAP, V. t. To draw or delineate, as the fig- 
ure of any portion of land. Shak. 
MA'PLE, I A tree of the genus 
MA'PLE-TREE, ^ "' Acer, of several spe- 
cies. Of the sap of the rock maple, sugar 
is made in America, in great quantities, by 
MAPLE-SU'GAR, n. Sugar obtained by 
evaporation from the juice of the rock 
MAP'PERY, n. [from map_ 

planning and designing maps. Shak. 

M'AR, V. t. [Sax. merran, mirran, myrran,' 
amyrran, to err, to deviate, to hinder, to 
lose, scatter or waste, to draw from or mis- 
lead, to corrujit or deprave ; Sp. marrar, 
to deviate from truth and justice; marro, 
want, defect; Ir. mearaighim ; Gr. aftop- 
ta-ju, [qii. Gr. ^apaivu, L. rnarceo ;] It. 
smarrire, to miss, to lose ; smarrimento, a 

1. To injure by cutting off a part, or by 
wounding and making defective ; as, to 
mar a tree by incision. 

I piay yon, mar no more trees by writing 
Ponc;s in their l>arlis. Shati. 

Neither shall tliou mar the corners of thy 
heard. Lev. xi\. 

2. To injure; to hurt; to impair tlie strength 
or purity of 

When brewers mar their malt with water. 


3. To injure ; to diminish ; to interrupt. 
But mirth is marred, and the good cheer is 

lost. Dryden 

4. To injure ; to deform ; to disfigure. 
Ire, envy and despair 

Marr'd all his borrow'd visage. Milton 

His visage was so marred more than any 
man. is, lii. 

Moral evil alone mars the intellectual works 

of God. Buclfminster. 

[This word is not obsolete in America.] 

MAR, in nightmar, [See JVightmar.] 

M'AR, n. An injury. Obs. 

2. A lake. [See Mere.] 
MAR'A€AN, n. A species of parrot in 


MAR'AeOCK, n. A plant of the genus 

MARANA'THA, n. [Syriac] The Lord 
comes or has come ; a word used by the 
apostle Paul in expressing a curse. This 
word was used in anathematizing persons 
for great crimes ; as much as to say, " may 
the Lord come quickly to take vengeance 
on thee for thy crimes." Calmet. 

MAR' ANON, n. The proper name of a 
river in South America, the largest in the 
world ; most absurdly called Amazon. 


MARAS'3IUS, n. [Gr. ;uapaa^o;, from /<a- 
pawu, to cause to pine or waste away.] 

Atrophy ; a wasting of flesh without fever or 

apparent disease; a kind of consumption. 

Coxe. Encyc. 

MARAUD', t). i. [Fr. maratirf, a rascal ; Eth. 

<^^,? marad, to hurry, to run. The 
Ileb. Tio to rebel, may be the same word 
differently applied. "Class Mr. No. 22. 
The Danish lias the word in maroder, a 
robber in war, a corsair. So corsair is 
from L. cursus, curro.] 

To rove in quest of plunder; to make an ex- 
cursion for booty ; to plunder. 

MARAUD'ER, n. A rover in quest of booty 
or plunder; a plunderer ; usually applied 
to smalt parties of soldiers. 

MARAUDTNG, ppr. Roving in search of 

MAR.\UD'ING, 71. A roving for plunder ; a 
plundering by invaders. 

MARAVE'DI, )i. A small copper coin of 

Spain, equal to three mills American 

money, less than a farthing sterling. 

The art of M'ARBLE, n. [Fr.marbre ; iip.marmol; It. 

marmo ; h. marmor ; Gr. f<apjuopo;, white.] 

1. The popular name of any species of cal- 
carious stone or mineral, of a compact 
texture, and of a beautiful appearance, sus- 
ceptible of a good polish. The varieties 
are numerous, and greatly diversified in 
color. Marble is limestone, or a stone 
which may be calcined to lime, a car- 
bonate of lime ; but limestone is a more 
general name, comprehending the calca- 
rious stones of an inferior texture, as well 
as those which admit a fine polish. Mar- 
ble is much used for statues, busts, pillars, 
chimney pieces, monuments, &c. 
A little ball of marble or other stone, used 
by children iu play. 

3. A stone remarkable for some inscription 
or sculpture. 

Arundel marbles, ? mai-ble pieces with a 

Jlnmddian marbles, \ chronicle of the city 

of Athens inscribed on them ; presented tol 

the university of Oxford, by Thomas, eari 
of Arundel. Encyc. 

MARBLE, a. Made of marble ; as a marble 

2. Variegated in color; stained or veined 
like marble ; as the marble cover of a 

3. Hard ; insensible ; as a marble heart. 
M'ARBLE, 1'. /. To variegate in color ; to 

cloud; to stain or vein like marble ; as, to 
marble the cover of a book. 

M'ARBLED, pp. Diversified in color ; vein- 
ed like marble. 

MARBLE-HEARTED, a. Having a heart 
like marble ; hard hearted ; cruel ; insen- 
sible ; incapable of being moved by pity, 
love or sympathy. Shak. 

M'ARBLING, ppr. Variegating in colors ; 
clouding or veining like marble. 

M^ARBLING, n. The art or practice of va- 
riegating in color, in imitation of marble. 

M'AR€ASITE,n. [It. marcassita ; Fr.mar- 

A name which has been given to all sorts of 
minerals, to ores, pyrites, and semi-met- 
als. It is now obsolete. 

JVicholson. Hill. Encyc. 

MAR€ASIT'IC, a. Pertaining to marca- 
site ; of the nature of marcasite. Encyc. 

MARCES'CENT, a. [L. inarcescens, mar- 
cesco.] Withering ; fading ; decaying. 

MARCES'SIBLE, a. That may wither; 
liable to decay. 

MARCH, n. [L. Mars, the god of vi'ar.] 
The third month of the year. 

M'ARCH, V. i. To border on; to be contig- 
uous to. Obs. Gower. 

M'ARCH, v.i. [Fr. inarcher; Sp. Port. 
marchar ; G. marschiren ; It. marciare, to 
march, to putrefy, L. marceo, Gr. juapaww ; 
Basque, mariatu, to rot. The senses of 
the Italian word unite in that of passing, 
departing. See Mar.] 

1. To move by steps and in order, as sol- 
diers ; to move in a military manner. We 
say, the army marched, or the troops 

2. To walk in a grave, deliberate or stately 

Like thee, great son of Jove, like thee, 

When clad in rising majesty. 

Thou marchest down o'er Delos' hills. 


M'ARCH, V. t. To cause to move, as au 

army. Buonaparte marched an immense 

army to Moscow, but he did not march 

thsni back to France. 

2. To cause to move in order or regular 

procession. Prior. 

M'AR€H, n. [Fr.marche; it. marzo; D. 

mark ; G. marsch.] 

1. The walk or movement of soldiers in or- 
der, whether infantry or cavalry. The 
troops were fatigued with a long march. 

2. A grave, deliberate or solemn walk. 

The long majestic march. Pope. 

3. A slow or laborious walk. Mdison. 

4. A signal to move ; a particular beat of 
the drum. Knolks. 

5. Movement ; progression ; advance ; as 
the marcAof reason ; i\\e march of mind. 

M'ARCHER, n. The lord or oflicer who 
defended the marches or borders of a terri- 
tory. Davies. 

aPARCHES, n. plu. [Sax. mearc; Goth. 
marka ; Fr. marches ; D. mark ; Basque, 


M A H 

M A R 

marra. It is radically the same word as 
mark and march.] 

Borders ; limits ; confines ; as lord of the 
marches. England. 

M'ARCHING, ppr. Moving or walking in 
order or in a stately manner. 

M'AKCHING, n. Military movement ; pass- 
age of troops. 

MARCHIONESS, n. The wife or widow 
of a marquis ; or a female having the rank 
and dignity of a marquis. Spclman. 

M'ARCHPANE, n. [Fr. massepain ; L. 
panis, bread.] 

A kind of sweet bread or biscuit. [J^ot used.] 


M'ARCID, a. [L. marcidus, from marceo, to 

Pining ; wasted away ; lean ; withered. 


M'AReOR, n. [L.] The state of withering 
or wasting ; leanness ; waste of flesh. 
[Little used.] Harvey. 

MARE, n. [Sax. myra ; G. mahre.] The fe 
male of the horse, or equine genus of 

2. [Sax. mara, D. merrie, the name of a 
spirit imagined by the nations of the north 
of Europe to torment persons in sleep.] 
A kind of torpor or stagnation which 
seems to press the stomach in sleep ; the 
incubus. [It is now used only in the com- 
pound, nightmare, which ought to be writ- 
ten nightmar.] 

MAR'ECA, n. A species of duck in South 

MARE'NA, n. A kind of fish somewhat 
like a pilchard. 

M'ARESCHAL, n.m'arshal. [Fr. marechal ; 
D. G. marschalk ; Dan. marskalk, composed 
of W. marc, a horse, and the Teutonic 
scalk or skalk, schalk, a servant. This word 
is now written marshal, which see.] The 
chief commander of an army. Prior. 

M^ARGARATE, n. [L. margarita, a pearl, 
from the Greek.] 

In chimistry, a compound of margaric acid 
with a base. 

MARGAR'le, a. [supra.] Pertaining to 
jiearl. The margaric acid is obtained b} 
digesting soap made of hog's lard and pot- 
ash, in water. It appears in the form ot 
pearly scales. Cyc.\ 

M'ARGARIN, } A peculiar pearl-like 

MARGARINE, ^ substance, extracted! 
from hog's lard ; called also margariteand 
margaric acid. SlUiman. 

M'ARGARITE, n. A pearl. Peacham. 

2. Margaric acid. 

3. A mineral of a grayish white color found 
in Tyrol. Phillips. 

M'ARGAY, n. An American animal of the 
cat kind. 

M'ARGIN, Ji. [formerly marge or margent. 
Fr. marge ; Arm. mart ; It. margine ; Sp. 
margen ; L. margo \ Dan. niarg-. It coin- 
cides in elements with marches.] 

1. A border ; edge ; brink ; verge ; as the 
margin of a river or lake. 

2. The edge of the leaf or page of a book, 
left blank or filled with notes. 

3. The edge of a wound. 

4. In botany, the edge of a leaf. Lee. 
M^ARGIN, v. t. To furnish with a margin : 

to border. 
2. To enter in the margin. 
M"AR(iINAL, a. Pertaining to a margin. 

2. Written or printed in the margin ; as a 
marginal note or gloss. 

.M'ARcilNALLY, adv. In the Diargia of a 

MARgINATED, a. Having a margin. 

M'ARGODE, JI. A bluish gray stone, re- 
sembling clay in external appearance, but 
so hard as to cut spars and zeolites. 


M ARGOT, n. A fish of the perch kind, 
found in the waters of Carolina. Pennant. 

M'ARGRAVE, ?i. [D. markgraff; G. mark- 
graf; Dan. margraeve ; compounded of 
mark, march, a border, and graff, graf or 
grave, an earl or count. See Reeve and] 
Sheriff.] Originally, a lord or keeper of 
the marches or borders ; now a title of no- 
bility in Germany, &c. 

MARGRA'VIATE, n. The territory or ju- 
risdiction of a margrave. 

MAR'IETS, n. A kind of violet, [violse 

MARlG'ENOUS, a. [L. mare, the sea, and 
gigno, to produce.] Produced in or by the 
sea. Kirwan 

MAR'IGOLD, n. [It iscalled in \yelshg-oW, 
which is said to be from gol, going round 
or covering. In D. it is called goudshloem, 
gold-flower ; in G. ringelblume, ring-flow- 
er; in Dan. guldblomst, gold-flower.] 

A plant of the genus Calendula, bearing a 
yellow flower. There are several plants 
of different genera bearing this name ; as 
the African marigold, of the genus Tagetes ; 
corw-marigold, of the genus Chrysanthe 
mum; (ig-marigold, of the genus Mesem 
bryanthemum ; inarsh-marigoW, of the 
genus Caltha. 

MAR'IKIN, n. Aspeciesof monkey having 
a mane. Diet. JVat. Hist. 

MAR'INATE, v. t. [Fr. mariner, from ma 

To salt or pickle fish, and then preserve them 
in oil or vinegar. [Little used.] Johnson. 

MARINE, a. [Fr. from L. marinus, from 
mare, the sea, W. mor. The seven lakes 
within the Delta Venetum were formerly 
called septem maria, and mare may signify 
a stand of water.] 

1. Pertaining to the sea ; as marine produc 
tions or bodies ; marine shells. 

2. Transacted at sea ; done on the ocean ; as 
a matine engagenent. 

3. Doing duty on the sea; as a marine offi- 
cer; marine forces. 

MARINE, n. A soldier that serves on board 
of a ship in naval engagements. In the 
plural, marines, a body of troops trained to 
do military service on board of ships. 
The whole navy of a kingdom or state. 


3. The whole economy of naval affairs, com- 
])rehending the building, rigging, equip- 
ping, navigating and management of ships 
of war in engagements. 

MAR'INER, n. [Fr. marinier, from L. m^ire, 
the sea.] 

A seaman or sailor ; one whose occupation 
is to assist in navigating ships. 

MAR'IPUT, n. The zoril, an animal of the 
skunk tribe. 

MAR'ISH, 7!. [Fr. marais ; Sax. mersc ; D. 
moeras ; G. morast ; from L. mare, W. mor, 
the sea.] 

Low ground, wet or covered with water and 

coarse grass ; a fen ; a bog ; a moor. It 
is now written marsh, which see. 

Sandys. Milton. 

MAR'ISH, a. Moory ; fenny ; boggy. 


MAR'ITAL, a. [Fr. from L. marittis, Fr. 
mari, a husband.] Pertaining to a hus- 
band. ^ Ayliffe. 

MAR'ITIME, a. [L. marilimus, from mare, 
the sea.] 

1. Relating or pertaining to the sea or 
ocean ; as maritime affairs. 

2. Performed on the sea ; naval ; as mari- 
time ser^'ice. 

3. Bordering on the sea ; as a maritime coast. 

4. Situated near the sea ; as maritime towns. 

5. Having a navy and commerce by sea ; as 
maritime powers. 

Maritimal is not now used. 
[Note. We never say, a maritime body, a 
maritime shell or production, a maritime offi- 
cer or engagement, a maritime league. See 

M'ARJORAM, n. [Fr. marjolaine; It. mar- 
gorana ; G. majoran ; D. mariolien ; Sp. 
mejorana ; Arm. marjol ; Port, mangerona.] 

A plant of the genus Origanum, of several 
species. The sweet marjoram is peculiar- 
ly aromatic and fragrant, and much used 
in cookery. The Spanish marjoram is of 
the genus Urtica. Fam. of Plants. 

M'ARK, 71. [Sax. 77iarc, 77iearc ; D.merk; G. 
viarke ; Dan. ma-rke ; Sw. mUrke ; ^V. marc ; 
Fr. marque ; -Arm. merc(/ ; Sp. Port. It. 
marca ; Sans, marcca. Tlie word coin- 
cides in elements with march, and with 
marches, borders, the utmost extent, and 
with market, and L. mercor, the primary 
sense of which is to go, to i)ass ; as we see 
by the Greek f^rtopcvofiai, from rtopfov^Mu, 
to pass, Eng. fair, and fare. Thus in 
Dutch, mark signifies a mark, a boundary, 
and a march. Class Mr. No. 7. Ar.] 

1. A visible line made by drawing one sub- 
stance on another; as a 7nar/i made by 
chalk or charcoal, or a pen. 

2. .\ line, groove or depression made by 
stamping or cutting; an incision ; a chan- 
nel or impression ; as the mark of a chis- 
el, of a stamp, of a rod or whip ; the mark 
of the finger or foot. 

3. Any note or sign of distinction. 

The Lord set a mark upon Cain. Gen. 4. 
Any visible effect of force or agency. 

There are scarce any marks left of a subter- 
raneous tire. .Addison. 
Any apparent or intelligible effect ; proof, 

The confusion of tongues was a TiiarA- of sepa- 
ration. Bacon. 
Notice taken. 

The laws 
Stand like the forfeits in a barber's shop, 
As much for mock as mark. Shak. 

Any thing to which a missile weapon may 
he directed. 

France was a fairer mark to shoot at than 
Ireland. Daries. 

8. Any object used as a guide, or to which 
the mind may be directed. The dome of 
the State house in Boston is a good mark 
for seamen. 

9. Any thing visible by which knowledge of 
something may be obtained; indication; 
as the marks of age in a horse. Civility is 
a mark of politeness or respect. Levity is 
a mark of wcaliness. 

M A 11 

M A R 

M A R 

10. A clim-acter made by a person vvlio can- 
not wiite his name, and intended as a 
substitute for it. 

11. [Fr. marc, Sp. marco.] A weight of cer- 
tain commodities, but particularly of gold 
and silver, used in several states of Eu- 
rope ; in Great Britain, a money of ac 
count, equal to thirteen shillings and four 
pence. In some countries, it is a coin. 

12. A license of reprisals. [See Marque.] 
MARK, t>. t. [Sax. mearcian; D. merkcn; 

G. marken ; Dan. marker ; Sw. marka , 
Fr. marquer ; Ann. mercqa ; Port, and Sp. 
marcar ; It. marcare ; VV. marciaa:] 

1. To draw or make a visible line or charac- 
ter with any substance ; as, to mark with 
chalk or with compasses. 

2. To stamp ; to imprci?s ; to make a visible 
impression, figure or indenture ; as, to 
mark a sheep with a brand. 

3. To make an incision ; to lop off a part ; 
to make any sign of distinction ; as, to 
mark sheep or cattle by cuts in their ears. 

4. To form a name or the initials of a name 
for distinction ; as, to mark cloth ; to mark 
a handkerchief. 

5. To notice ; to take particular observation 

jyfark them who cause divisions and offenses. 
Rom. xvi. 

Mark the perfect man, and behold the up- 
right, for the end of that man is peace. Ps. 

6. To heed ; to regard. Smith. 
To mark out, to notify, as by a mark ; to 

point out ; to designate. The ringleaders 
were marked out for seizure and punish- 
IVrARK, I'.?. To note; to observe critically; 
to take particular notice ; to remark. 

Mark, I pray you, and see how this man 
seeketh miscWef. 1 Kings xx. 

M'ARKABLE, a. Remarkable. [JVot in use.] 


M'ARKED, ;)/). Impressed with any note or 
figure of distinction ; noted ; distinguished 
by some character. 

M'ARKER, n. One who puts a mark on 
any tiling. 

2. One that notes or takes notice. 

MARKET, n. [D. G. markt ; Dan. mar- 
ked; Fr. marche ; Arm. marchad; It. mer- 
cato ; Sp. Port, mercado ; L. mercalus, from 
mercor, to buy ; W. marcnat ; Ir. margadh. 
See Mark.] 

1. A public place in a city or town, where 
provisions or cattle are exposed to sale ; 
an appointed place for selling and buying 
at private sale, as distinguished from an 

2. A public building in which provisions are 
exposed to sale ; a market-house. 

3. Sale; the exchange ofjirovisions or goods 
for money ; purchase or rate of purchase 
and sale. The seller .says he comes to a 
bad market, when the buyer says he comes 
to a good market. We say, the markets 
are low or high ; by which we understand 
the price or rate of purchase. We say 
that commodities fin(i a quick or ready 
market ; markets are dull. We are not able 
to find a market for our goods or provis- 

4. Place of sale ; as the British market ; the 
American market. 

r<. The privilege of keeping a public market. 

MARKET, v.i. To deal in market ; to buy l 

or sell ; to make bargains for provisions or 

MARKET-BELL, 71. The bell that gives 

notice of the time or day of market. 
M ARKET-CROSS, n. A cross set up 

where a market is held. 
M'ARKET-DAV, n. The day of a public 

M'ARKET-FOLKS, n. People that come 

to the market. Shak. 

MARKET-HOUSE, n. A building for a 

public market. 
M'ARKET-MAID, n. A woman that brings 

things to market. 
M'ARKET-MAN, n. A man that brings 

things to market. 
M>ARKET-PLACE, n. The jdace where 

provisions or goods are exposed to sale 

MARKET-PRICE, ) The current price 

M'ARKET-RATE, S "■ of commodities at 

any given time. 
M>ARKET-TOWN, n. A town that has the 

privilege of a stated public market. 
MARKET- Woman, n. A woman that 

brings things to market or that attends a 

market for selling any thing. 
M'ARKETABLE, a. That may be sold ; 

salable. Shak. 

2. Current in market ; as viarkelaUe value. 

Locke. Edwards. 
M'ARKSMAN, n. [Mark and man.] One 

that is skillful to hit a mark ; he that shoots 

well. Shak. Drijden. 

2. One who, not able to write, makes his 

mark instead of his name. 
MARL, n. [W. marl; D. Sw. Dan. G. 

mergel; L. Sp. It. marga; Ir. marla; 

Arm. marg. It seems to be allied to Sax. 

merg, mearh ; D. merg, marrow, and to be 

named fi-om its softness; Eth. "^Z^*] 
clay, gypsum, or mortar. See Marroic] 

A species of calcarious earth, of different 
composition, being united with clay or 
fuller's earth. In a crude state, it effer- 
vesces with acids. It is foimd loose and 
friable, or more or less indurated. It pos- 
sesses fertilizing properties and is much 
used for manure. 

Marl is composed of carbonate of lime and 
clay in various proportions. Cleavetand. 

MARL, V. t. To overspread or manure with 

2. To fasten with marline. Ainsivorth. 

MARLA'CEOUS, a. Resembling marl; 
partaking of the qualities of marl. 

M'ARLINE, n. [Sp. merlin ; Port, merlim.] 

A small line composed of two strands little 
twi.sted, and either tarred or white ; used 
for winding round ropes and cables, to 
prevent their being fretted by the blocks, 
&c. Mar. Diet. 

M^ARLINE, V. t. To wind marline round 
a rope. 

M'ARLINE-SPIKE, n. A small iron like a 
large spike, used to open the bolt rope 
when the sail is to be sewed to it, &c. 


MARLING, n. The act of winding a sma ' 
line about a rope, to prevent its being gall 

M^ARLITE, n. A variety of marl. 


MARLIT'IC, a. Partaking of the fpialities 
of marlite. 

M'ARLPIT, n. A pit where marl is dug, 


M'ARLY, a. Consisting in or partaking of 

I marl. 

(2. Resembling marl. Mortimer. 

3. Abounding with marl. 

M'ARMALADE, n. [Fr. marmelade ; Sp. 
mermelada ; Port, marmelada, from mar- 
melo, a quince, L. melo, or Sp. melado, like 
honey, L. met.] 

The pulp of quinces boiled into a consist- 
ence with sugar, or a confection of plums, 
apricots, quinces, &c. boiled with sugar. 
In Scotland, it is made of Seville oranges 
and sugar only. Qumci/. Encyc. 

M>ARMAL1TE, n. [Gr. /xap^atpu, to shine.] 
A mineral of a pearly or metallic luster; a 
hydrate of magnesia. JVuttall. 

MARMORA'CEOUS, a. Pertaining to or 
like marble. [See Marmorean, the more 
legitimate word.] 

iMARMORATED, a. [L. mnrmor, marble.] 
Covered with marble. [Little used.] 

MARMORA'TION, n. A covering or in- 
crusting with marble. [Little uscrf.] 

MARMOREAN, a. [L. marmoreus.] Per- 
taining to marble. 

2. Made of marble. 
M>ARMOSE, n. An animal resembling the 

opossum, but less. Instead of a bag, this 

animal has two longitudinal folds near the 

thighs, which serve to inclose the young. 

Diet. JVat. Hist. 

M'ARMOSET, n. A small monkey. Shak. 

MARMOT, n. [It. marmotla.] A quadru- 
ped of the genus Arctomys, allied to the 
murine tribe. It is about the size of the 
rabbit, and inhabits the higher region of 
the Alps and Pyrenees. The name is also 
given to other species of the genus. The 
woodchiick of North America is called 
the Maryland marmot. Ed. Encyc. 

MAROON', n. A name given to free blacks 
living on the mountains in the West India 

BIAROON', V. t. To put a sailor ashore on 
a desolate isle, under pretence of his hav- 
ing committed some great crime. 


M^ARQUE, } ^j [Fr.] Letters of marque 

M'ARK, \ ' are letters of reprisal ; a 
license or extraordinary commission 
granted by a sovereign of one state to his 
subjects, to make reprisals at sea on the 
subjects of another, under pretense of 
indemnification for injuries received. 
Marque is said to be from the same root 
as inarches, limits, frontiers, and literally 
to denote a license to pass the limits of a 
jurisdiction on land, for the purpose of 
obtaining satisfaction for theft by seizing 
the property of the subjects of a foreign 
nation. I can give no better account of 
the origin of this word. Lunier. 

3. The ship commissioned for making re- 

M'ARUUETRY, n. [Fr. marqueterie, from 

marque, marqueter, to spot.] 
Inlaid work ; work inlaid with variegations 

of fine wood, shells, ivory and the like. 
.MARQUIS, n. [Fr. id.; Sp. marques ; It. 

mnrchese; from march, marches, limits. 

See Marclies.] 
A title of honor in Great Britain, next to 

that of duke. Originally, the marquis was 

an offu)er whose duty was to guard the 

M A R 

marches or frontiers of tlie kingdom- The 
office has ceased, and marquis is now a 
mere title conferred by patent. Encyc. 
MAIiaUIS, n. A marchioness. Obs. 

M ARQlJISATE,n. The seigniory, dignity, 

or lordship of a marquis. 
M'AIU;KR, )i. [from mar.] One that mars, 

hurts or impairs. Ascham. 

MAKKIABLE, for marriageable. [A'ot 

MAN'klAuE, n. [Fr. manage, from marier, 
to marry, from mari, a husband ; L. mas, 
maris; Sp. viaridage.] 

The act of uniting a man and woman for 
hfe ; wedlock ; the legal union of a man 
and woman for life. Marriage is a con 
tract both civil and religious, by which 
the parties engage to live together in mu 
tual affection and fidelity, till death shal 
separate them. Marriage was instituted 
by God himself for the purpose of pre- 
venting the promiscuous intercourse of] 
the sexes, for promoting domestic felicity 
and for securing the maintenance and ed- 
ucation of children. 

Mamage is honorable in all and the bed uii- 
defiled. Hth. xiii. 

2. A feast made on the occasion of a mar- 

The kingdom of heaven is like a certain kins 
who made a marriage for his son. Malt. xxii. 

3. In a scriptural sense, the union between 
Christ and his church by the covenant of 
grace. Rev. xix. 

MAR'RIAgEABLE, a. Of an age suitahh 
for marriage ; fit to be married. Young 
persons are marriageable at an earlier age 
in warm climates than in cold. 

2. Capable of union. Milton 

MARRIAGE-ARTICLES, ji. Contract or 
agreement on which a marriage is found 

MAR'RIED, pp. [from marr^.] United in 

2. a. Conjugal ; connubial ; as the married 

MAR'ROW, n. [Sax. merg, mearh ; D. merg 
G. tnark ; Dan. marv ; Sw. mlirg; Corn 
maru ; Ir. smir and smear; W. mfV, mar- 
row ; Ch. Nin mera, to make fat ; Ar. to 
be manly. See Marl.] 

1. A soft oleaginous substance contained in 
the cavities of animal bones. 

2. The essence ; the best part. 

3. In the Scottish dialect, a 
fellow ; associate ; match. 

MAR'ROW, V. t. To fill with maiTow or 
with fat ; to glut. 

MAR'ROW-BONE, n. A bone containing 
marrow, or boiled lor its marrow. 


2. The bone of the knee ; in ludicrous lan- 
guage. Drtjdcn 

MAR'ROWFAT, n. A kind of rich pea. 

3IAR'R0WISH, a. Of the nature of mar- 
row. Burton. 
MAR'ROWLESS, a. Destitute of marrow. 

MAR'ROWY, a. Full of marrow; pithy. 
MAR'RY, r. t. [Fr. marier, from mari, a 
husband ; L. mas, maris, a male ; Finnish 

£ - -- 
mari or mord, id. ; Ar. \ 

M A R 

manly, masculine, brave ; whence its de- 
rivatives, a man, L. vir, a husband, a 
lord or master. See also Ludolf, Eth. 
Lex. Col. 06.] 

1. To unite in wedlock or matrimony ; to 
join a man and woman for life, and con- 
stitute them man and wife according to 
the laws or customs of a nation. By the 
laws, ordained clergymen have a right to 
marry persons within certain limits pre 

Tell hini he shall marry the couple himself. 


2. To dispose of in wedlock. 
Mecsnas told Augustus he must eitlier mar- 
ry his daughter Julia to Agtippa, or take away 
his life. Sacon. 

[In this, it is properly applicable to 
females only.] 

3. To take for husband or wife. We say, a 
man marries a wonjan ; or a woman mar- 
ries a man. The first was the original 
sense, but both are now well authorized. 

4. In Scripture, to unite in covenant, or in 
the closest connection. 

Turn, O backsliding children, sailli Jcliovah, 
for I am married to you. Jer. iii. 
MAR'RY, !'. I. To enter into the conjugal 
state ; to unite as husband and wife ; to 
take a husband or a wife. 

If the case of the man be so with his wife, it 
is not good to marry. Matt. xix. 

I will therefore that the younger w 
marry. I Tim. v. 
MAR'RY, a term of asseveration, is said to 
have been derived from the practice ofl 
swearing by the virgin Mary. It is obso 

MARS, n. In mythology, the god of war 
in modem usage, a planet ; and in the oldl 
chimistry, a term tor iron. 

M'ARSH, It. [Sax. mersc ; Fr. marais ; D. 
moeras ; G.nwrast. It was formerly writ- 
ten marish, directly from the French. Wej 
have morass liom the Teutonic. See 

A tract of low land, usually or occasionally 
covered with water, or very wet and miry, 
and overgrown with coarse grass or with 
detached climips of sedge ; a fen. It dif- 
fers from swamp, which is merely moist 
or spungy land, but often |)roducing yal 
uable crojis of grass. Low land occasion 
ally overflowed by the tides, is called salt 

M'ARSH-EL'DER, n. The gelder rose, a 
species of Viburnum. Lee. 

M\\RSH-MAL'LOW, n. A plant of the ge 
nns Althoca. 

MARSH-BIAR'IGOLD, n. A plant of the 
genus Caltha. 

M ARSH-ROCK'ET, n. A species of water 
cresses. Johnson. 

M".\RSIIAL, n. [Fr. marcchal ; D. G. mar- 
schalk ; Dan. viarshnlk ; compounded of W. 
marc, a horse, and Teur. scealc, or schalk, 
or skalk, a servant. The latter word now 
signifies a rogue. In Celtic, seal or scale 
signified a man, boy, or .servant. In Fr. 
marechal, Sp. mariscal, siguify a marshal, 
and a farrier.] Originally, an officer who 
had the care of horses; a groom. In 
more modern usage, 

1. The chief oflieer of arms, whose duty it 
, is to reaulate combats in the lists, 
"•'•a. to be - Johnson. 



M A R 

2. One who regulates rank and order at a 
feast or any other assembly, directs the 
order of procession and the like. 

3. A harbinger; a pursuivant ; one who goes 
before a prince to declare his coming and 
j)rovide entertainment. Johnson. 

4. In France, the highest military officer. 
In other countries of Europe, a marshal is 
a military ofiicer of high rank, and called 


5. In Jtmerica, a civil officer, appointed by 
the President and Senate of the United 
States, in each judicial district, answering 
to the sheriff of a county. His duty is to 
execute all precepts directed to him, issu- 
ed under the authority of the United 

An officer of any private society, appoint- 
ed to regulate tiieir ceremonies and exe- 
cute their orders. 

Earl marshal of England, the eighth officer 
of state ; an honorary title, and personal, 
until ma<le hereditary by Charles II, in the 
family of Howard. During a vacancy in 
the office of high constable, the earl mar- 
shal has jurisdiction in the court of chiv- 
alry. Encyc. 
Earl marshal of Scotland. This officer for- 
merly had command of the cavalry, under 
the constable. This office was held by 
the family of Keith, but forfeited by re- 
bellion in 171.5. Encyc. 
Knight marshal, or marshal of the king's 
house, formerly an ofiicer who was to ex- 
ecute the commands of the lord steward, 
and have the custody of prisoners com- 
mitted by the court of verge ; hence, the 
name of a prison in Southwark. Encyc. 
Marshal of the king's bench, an officer who 
has the custody of the prison called the 
king's bench, in Southwark. He attends 
on the court and has the charge of the 
prisoners committed by them. Encyc. 
MA'RSHAL, V. t. To dispose in order ; to 
arrange in a suitable manner ; as, to mar- 
shal an army ; to marshal troops. Drydtn. 
o lead, as a harbinger. [.Vo< used.] 

3. To dispose in due order the several parts 
of an escutcheon, or the coats of arms of 
distinct families. Encyc. 

M'ARSH.ALED, pp. Arranged in due or- 
MARSHALER, n. One who disposes in 

due order. 
M'ARSHALING, ppr. .Arranging in <lue 

M>ARSHALSEA, n. In England, the pris- 
on in Southwark, belonging to the mar- 
shal of the king's household. Johnson. 
Court of marshalsea, a couit formerly held 
before the steward and marshal of the 
kina's house, to adminisler justice between 
the king's domestic servants. Blaekstont. 
M'ARSHALSHIP, n. The office of a mar- 
M'ARSHY, a. [from marsA.] Wet; boggy; 
fenny. Dnjden. 
i2. Produced in marshes ; as a marshy weed. 

M'.ART, n. [from market.] .\ place of sale 
or tralfick. It was formerly applied chief- 
ly to markets and fiiirsin cities and towns, 
but it has now a more extensive applica- 
tion. We say, the United States are a 

M A 11 


M A S 

principal mart for English goods; Eng- 
land and France are the marts of Ameri- 
can cotton. 

2. Bargain ; purchase and sale. [J^/ot used.] 

' Shak. 

M'ART, V. t. To buy and sell ; to traffick. 
[J\rot used.] Shak. 

MARTAGON, n. A kind of lily. Herbert. 

M^ARTEL, V. t. [Fr. marteler.] To strike. 
Obs. Obs. 

MARTEN. [See Martin.] 

M'ARTEN, n. [D.maiier; G. marder ;Fr. 
marte ; Arm. mart, martr ; Sp. marta ; It. 

An animal of the genus Miistela, or weasel 
kind, whose fur is used in making hats 
and muffs. 

M^'VRTIAL, a. [Fr. from h.martialis; Sp 
marcial ; It. marziale ; from L. Mars, the 
god of war.] 

1. Pertaining to war ; suited to war ; as 
martial equipage ; martial music ; a 7nar- 
tial appearance. 

2. Warlike; brave; given to war; as a mar 
tial nation or people. 

3. Suited to battle ; as a martial array. 

4. Belonging to war, or to an army and na- 
vy ; opposed to civil ; as martial law ; a 
court martial. 

5. Pertaining to Mars, or borrowing the prop- 
erties of that planet. 

The natures of the fixed stars are esteemed 
martial or jovial, according to the colors by 
which they answer to those planets. 06s. 


6. Having the properties of iron, called by 
the old chimists, Mars. 

M'ARTIALISM, )i. Bravery; martial e,x- 
ercises. [Not in use.] Prince. 

M'ARTIALIST, n. A warrior; a fighter, 
[Not used.] Howel. 

M'ARTIN, n. [Fr. martinet; Sp. martinete. 
The Germans call it mauer-schwalbe, wall 
swallow, and perhaps the word is formed 
from the root of L. inurus, W. mur, a] 

A bird of the genus Hirundo, which forms 
its nest in buildings. It was formerly! 
written by some authors martlet. Dryden.^ 

M'ARTINET, ) In military language, a: 

M'ARTLET, ^ "'strict disciplinarian ; so 
called from an oiScerof that name. 

M'ARTINETS, n. In ships, martinets are 
small lines fastened to the leech of a sail, 
to bring it close to the yard when the sail 
is furled. Bailey. 

M^ARTINGAL, 71. [Fr. martingale ; It. 
Sp. martingala. The Portuguese call it 

1. A strap or thong fastened to the girth un 
der a horse's belly, and at the other end 
to the muss-roll, passing between the fore 
legs. Encyc. 

2. In ships, a rope extending from the jib 
boom, to the end of a bumpkin under 
the cap of the bowsprit. Mar. Diet. 

M'ARTINMAS, n. [Martin and mass.] The 
feast of St. Martin, the eleventh of Novem 
ber. Johnson. 

M>ARTLET, n. [See Martini.] Martlets, ii 
heraldry, are little birds represented with- 
out feet, used as a mark of distinction for 
younger brothers of a family, who are 
thus admonished that they are to trust for 
promotion to the wings of merit. Encyc. 

M'ARTYR, n. [Gr. //opT'iip, a witness.] One 
who, by his death, bears witness to the 
truth of the gospel. Stephen was the first 
christian martyr. 

To be a martyr signifies only to witness the 
truth of Christ. ' South. 

2. One who suffers death in defense of any 
cause. We say, a man dies a martyr to his 
poHtical principles or to the cause of liber- 

M'ARTYR, V. t. To put to death for ad- 
hering to what one believes to be the 
truth ; to sacrifice one on account of his 
faith or profession. Pearson. 

2. To murder ; to destroy. Chaucer. 

M^ARTYRDOM, n. The death of a martyr ; 
the suffering of death on account of one's 
adherence to the faith of the gospel. 

He intends to crown their innocence with the 
glory of nia)<^rdom. Bacon. 

MARTYRIZE, v. t. To offer as a martyr, 
[Utile ttsed.] Spenser. 

MARTYROLOG'l€AL, a. Registering or 
registered in a catalogue of martyrs. 

MARTYROL'OOIST, n. A writer of mar 
tyrology, or an account of martyrs. 

MARTYROL'OgY, n. [Gr. ^prvp, a wit- 
ness, and Xoyoj, discourse.] 

A history or account of martyrs with their 
sufferings; or a register of martyrs. 


M'ARVEL, n. [Fr.merveiUe;\v.miorbhaille; 
It. maraviglia ; Sp. maravilla ; Port, mo- 
ravilha ; Arm. mart ; L. mirabilis, won 
derful, from miror, Ch. Syr. "im de 
mar, to wonder, L. demiror. We have the 
primary sense in the Armoric miret, to 
stop, hold, keep, guard, hinder ; for to 
wonder, admire or be astonished, is to 
stop, to hold, to be fixed, which exactly 
expresses the fact. The Russian zamira- 
yu, to he astonished, is the same word with 
a prefix, and from miryu, to pacify or ap- 
pease, that is, to stop, to allay. From the 
same root or family, probably, we have 
moor, to moor a ship, Sp. Port, amar- 
rar, Fr. amarrer, to moor, and demeurer, to 
dwell or abide. So also L. mora, delay, 
and perhaps morior, W. maru, to die, mu- 
ms, a wall, Eng. demur, &c. Class Mr. 
No. 32.] 

1. A wonder ; that which arrests the atten- 
tion and causes a person to stand or gaze 
or to pause. [This word is nearly obso- 
lete, or at least little used in elegant wri- 

2. Wonder ; admiration. 

Marvel of Peru, a plant of the genus Mirabi- 

M'ARVEL, V. i. To wonder. It expresses 
less than astonish or amaze. [Nearly obso 

M'ARVELING, ppr. Wondering. 

M'ARVELOUS, a. [Fr. merveilleux ; It. 

1. Wonderful; strange; exciting wonder or 
some degree of surprise. 

This is the Lord's doing ; it is marvelous in 
our eyes. Ps. cxviii. 

2. Surpassing credit; incredible. Pope. 

3. The marvelous, in writings, is that which 
exceeds natural power, or is preternatural ; 
opposed to probable. Johnson 

4. Formerly used adverbially for wovderful 
ly, exceedingly. 

M'ARVELOUSLY, adv. Wonderfully ; 
strangely ; in a manner to excite wonder 
or surprise. Clarendon. 

M'ARVELOUSNESS, n. Wonderfulness ; 

MA'RY-BUD, n. The marigold. Shak. 

M^ASCLE, n. m''asl. In heraldry, a lozenge, 
as it were perforated. Todd. 

M"AS€UL1NE, a. [Fr. masculin; L. mas- 
culinus, from masculus, mas, or the Ir. 
modh, Polish maz, Bohemian muz, Slavon- 
ic, mosch.'] 

1. Having the quahties of a man; strong ; 
robust ; as a masculine body. 

2. Resembling man ; coarse ; opposed to 
delicate or soft ; as masculine features. 

3. Bold ; brave ; as a masculine spirit or 

4. In grammar, the »na.scuKne gender of words 
is that which expresses a male, or some- 
thing analagous to it ; or it is the gender 
appropriated to males, though not always 
expressing the male sex. 

Encyc. Johnson. 

M^ASeULINELY, adv. Like a man. 

B. Jonson. 

M>AS€ULINENESS, n. The quaUty or 
state of being manly ; resemblance of man 
in qualities ; as in coarseness of features, 
strength of body, boldness, &c. 

MASH, n. [G. meischen, to mis, to mash ; 
Sp. mascar, to chew, Fr. macher, for mMS- 
cher, L. mastico.] 

1. A mixture or mass of ingredients, beaten 
or blended together in a promiscuous man- 

2. A mixture for a horse. Far. Did. 

3. A mesh. [See Mesh, the more common 

MASH, V. t. To beat into a confused mass. 

2. To bruise ; to crush by beating or press- 
ure ; as, to 7nash apples in a mill. 

3. To mix malt and water together in brew- 

MASH'ED, pp. Beat into a mass; bruised ; 
crushed ; mixed into a mash. 

MASH'ING, ppr. Beating into a mass; 
bruising ; crushing. 

MASH'ING-TUB, n. A tub for containing 
the mash in breweries. 

MASH'Y, a. Produced by crushing or bruis- 
ing. Thomson. 

M'ASK, n. [Fr. masque; It. maschera; Sp. 
Port, mascara ; Arm. masel ; D. masker ; 
G. maske.] 

1. A cover for the face ; that which conceals 
the face, especially a cover with apertures 
for the eyes and mouth ; a visor. A mask 
is designed to conceal the face from be- 
holders, or to preserve the complexion 
from injury by exposure to the weather 
and the rays of the sun. Encyc. 

2. That which disguises; any pretense or 
suhterfiige. Prior. 

3. A festive entertainment of dancing or 
other diversions, in which the company all 
wear masks ; a masquerade. Shak. 

4. A revel ; a hustle ; a piece of mummery. 
This thought might lead through this world's 

vain mask. Milton. 

5. A dramatic performance written in a trag- 
ic style, without attention to rules or 
probability. Peacham. 

0. In architecture, a piece of sculpture repre- 
senting some grotesque form, to fill and 



M A S 

adorn vacant places, as in friezes, pannels 
of doors, keys of arches, &c. Encyc. 

M^ASK, V. t. To cover the face for conceal- 
ment or defense against injury ; to conceal 
with a mask or visor. Mdison. 

2. To disguise ; to cover ; to hide. 

Masking the business from the common eye. 


MASK, v.L To revel; to play the fool in 

2. To he disguised in any way. Shak. 

MASKED, pp- Having the face covered ; 
concealed ; disguised. 

2. a. In iotoiy, personate. 

M'ASKER, n. One that wears a mask ; one 
that plays the fool at a masquerade. 

M'ASKERY, n. The dress or disguise of a 
masker. Marston. 

M'ASK-HOUSE, n. A place for masquer- 
ades. Bp. Halt. 

M'ASKING, ppr. Covering with a mask; 

MASLIN. [See Mcslin.] 

MA'SON, n. ma'sn. [Fr. magon ; Arm. mac 
zonn ; 1). mdselaar. In Sp. mazoneria is 
masonry, as if from mazo, a mallet, maza 
a club, a mace. It is prohably from the 
root of mix or mash, or more probably of 
mass, and denotes one that works in mor- 
tar. See JWas*.] 

1. A man whose occupation is to lay bricks 
and stones, or to construct the walls of 
buildings, chimneys and the like, whic 
consist of bricks or stones. 

2. A member of the fraternity of free masons. 
MASON'IC, a. Pertaining to the craft or 

mysteries of free masons. 
MA'SONRY, n. [Fr. mafonnerie; Sp. ma 

1. The art or occupation of a mason. 

2. The work or performance of a mason ; as 
when we say, the wall is good masonry. 

3. The craft of free masons. 
MAS'ORA, n. [Heb.] A Hebrew work on 

the bible, by several Rabbins. 

MASORET' iC, a. [Heb. non, to deliver, 
whence masora, tradition, whence the 
Masontes, the adherents to the tradition- 
ary readings of the Scriptures.] 

Relating to the Masorites, who interpreted 
the Scriptures by tradition, and invented 
the Hebrew points to fix the true reading 
and pronunciation. Whence the vowel- 
points are denominated masoretic. 

MAS'ORITE, n. One of the writers of the 

MASQUERA'DE, n. [It. mascherata. See 

1. A nocturnal assembly of persons wearing 
masks, and amusing themselves with 
dancing, conversation and other diver- 

In courtly balls and midnight masquerades. 


2. Disguise. 

I came to visit thee in masquerade. Dryden. 

3. A Spanish diversion on horseback. 

MASQUERA'DE, v. i. To go in disguise. 
2. To assemble in masks. Smfl. 

MASQUERA'DE, v.t. To put in disguise. 


MASQUERA'DER, n. A person wearing a 

mask ; one disguised. Li Estrange. 

MASQUERA'DING, ppr. Assembhng in 

masks for diversion. 

Vol. II. 

M'ASS, n. [Fr. masse, a mass, a heap, a 
7nace, or club ; Port, maga, dough, and a 
mace ; Sp. masa, dough, mortar, a mass, 
and maza, a club, a jnace ; mazo, a mallet ; 
It. 7nassa, a heap, and mazza, a mace; G. 
masst ; L. massa, a mass. These words 
seem to belong to the root of the Greek 
(noTou, to heat or pound, the root of which 
is ^ay; hence the connection between 
mass, and mace, a club. If any of these 
words are of a different origin, they may 
belong to the root of mtx.] 

1. A lump ; a body of matter concreted, col- 
lected or formed into a lump ; applied to 
any solid body ; as a mass of iron or lead 
a mass of flesh ; a mass of ice ; a mass of 

2. A collective body of fluid matter. The 
ocean is a mass of water. 

3. A heap ; as a mass of earth. 

4. A great quantity collected ; as a mass of 

5. Bulk ; magnitude. 

This army of such 7nass and charge. Shak 

C. An assemblage ; a collection of particu- 
lars blended, confused or indistinct ; as a 
TOUOT of colors. Mdison. 

They lose their forms, and make a mass 
Confused and black, if brought too near. 


7. Gross body of things considered collec- 
tively ; the body ; the bulk ; as the jnass of 
people in a nation. A small portion of 
morbid matter may infect the whole mass 
of fluids in the body. 

Comets have power over the 7nass of things. 


M^ASS, 71. [Sax. 7na:sa, 7na:sse ; Fr. 7nes3e ; 
It. messa ; Sp. misa ; D. jnisse ; G. Dan. 
7nesse ; Sw. messa ; Low L. 7nissa. The 
word signifies primarily leisure, cessation 
from labor, from the L. missus, re7nissus, 
like the L./eriff ; hence a feast or holiday. 
Laws of Alfred, 39. " Be masse dsege fre- 
olse." De festivitate diei festi. See also 
Laws of Cnute, Lib. 1. U. and 2. 42. 
Hence Sax. hlafmasse, lemmas, bread 
feast, and Martin-mas, Michael-mas, ca7i- 
dle7nas, christmns.] 

The service of the Romish church ; the of- 
fice or prayers used at the celebration of 
the eucharist ; the consecration of the 
bread and wine. Lye. Encyc. Wilkins. 

M"ASS, v.i. To celebrate mass. [Xotused.'] 


M'ASS, v.t. To fill; tostuflT; to strengthen 
[J^ot used.] Hayward. 

MAS'SA€ER, ? [Fr. 7nassacre ; Arm. 

MAS'SACRE, I "■ 7naczaer; It. 7iiazzicare 
to beat, from 7nazza, a club, a 7nace. So 
smite in English signifies to kill, as well as 
to beat.] 

. The murder of an individual, or the 
slaughter of numbers of human beings, 
with circumstances of cruelty ; the indis- 
criminate killing of human beings, without 
authority or necessity, and without forms 
civil or military. It differs from assassi- 
nation, which is a private killing. It dif 
fers from carnage, which is rather the ef- 
fect of slaughter than slaughter itself, and 
is applied to the authorized destruction of 
men in battle. Massacre is sometimes 
called iu/cAen/, from its resemblance to the 
killing of cattle. If a soldier kills a man in 
battle in his own defense, it is a lawful 


2. Murder. 
MAS'.SA€ER, } „ 

ces of cruelty ; 


act ; it is kiUing, and it is slaughter, but it 
is not a massacre. Whereas, if a soldier 
kills an enemy after he has surrendered, it 
it is massacre, a. killing without nec(Jssity, 
often without authority, contrary to the 
usages of nations, and of course with cru- 
elty. The jjractice of killing jirisoners, 
even when authorized by the commander, 
is properly massacre ; as the authority 
given proceeds from cruelty. We have 
all heard of the massacre of the protestaiits 
in France, in the reign of Charles IX. and 
frequent instances of barbarous 7nassacrc 
occur in the war between the Turks and 

To murder human be- 
ings with circuinstaii- 
to kill men with indis- 
criminate violence, without authority or 
necessity, and contrary to the usages of 
nations ; to butcher human beings. 
MAS'SA€RER, n. One who massacres. 
[A very bad tvord.] Burke. 

M'ASSER, n. A priest who celebrates mass. 
MAS'SETER, n. [Gr. from fiawaoiiai, to 
chew.] A muscle which raises the un- 
der jaw. 
MAS'SICOT, \ [Fr. massicot.] Calcined 
MAS'TICOT, S "■ white lead ; yellow oxyd 
' of lead. Lead exposed to the air while 
melting, is covered with a gray, dusky pel- 
licle. This pellicle carefully taken off, is 
reduced by agitation to a greenish gray 
powder, inclining to yellow. This oxyd, 
separated from the grains of lead by sifting, 
and exposed to a more intense heat, suffi- 
cient to make it red hot, assumes a deej) 
yellow color. In this state it is called mas- 
sicot. Massicot, slowly heated by a mode- 
rate fire, takes a beautiful red color, and 
obtains the name of minium. ' Fourcroy. 
Massicot is sometimes used by painters, and 
it is used as a drier in the composition of 
ointments and plasters. Encyc. 

M>ASSINESS, > [See Massy, Mass- 
M'ASSIVENESS, S "' ivc] The state of be- 
ing massy ; great weight or weight with 
bulk ; ponderousness. 
MASSIVE, } [Fr. massif, from 7nass.] 
MASSY, i "■ Heavy ; weighty ; ponder- 
ous ; bulky and heavy ; as a massy shield ; 
a 7nassy rock. 

The yawning rocks in 7nassy fragments fly. 


JPASSIVE, a. In mineralogy, in mass ; 
having a crystaline structure, but not a 
regular form. We say, a mineral occurs 

;M-AST, Ji. [Sax. 7}iaist ; D. G. Sw. Dan. 
7nast ; Fr. 7ndt, for mast ; Port, masto or 
7nastro ; Sp. mastiles, masts ; masteleros, 
top-masts ; 7nasto, a trunk, a stock in which 
any cion is ingrafted.] 

A long, round |iiece of timber, elevated or 
designed to he raised perpendicularly or 
nearly so, on the keel of a ship or other 
vessel, to which the yards, sails and rig- 
ging are attached, and by which they are 
supported. A mast is a single stick, form- 
ed from the trunk of a tree, or it consists of 
many pieces of timber united by iron 
bands. Masts are of several kinds, as the 
main-mast, fore-mast, mizzen-mast, toji- 
mast, top-gallant-mast, &c. 


M A S 

M A S 

M'AST, n. [Sax. nuEste, acorns, food ; Goth. 
mals, food, meat ; Ir. mais, vieas, an 
acorn ; maise, food ; W. mes, acorns, a por 
tion, a meal ; mesen. an acorn. This may 
be the American 7naiz, and signify food in 
general, from eating, chewing, mastica 
ting, or primarily a nut kernel, or acorn, 
the food of the primitive tribes of men. It 
seems to be radically the same word as 

The fruit of the oak and beech, or other for 
est trees ; nuts ; acorns. [It has no plural.] 

M'ASTED, a. Furnished with a mast or 

MASTER, 71. [Fr. 7naitre, for rnaister; 
Russ. jnas/er ; U.meester; G.vieister; Sw. 
mhstare ; Dan. mester ; Arm. meastr ; It. 
Sp. maestro ; L. magisler, compounded of 
the root of magis, major, greater, and the 
Teutonic ster, Sax. steoran, to steer. See 
Steer. The word then signifies a chief di 
rector. See Minister.] 

1. A man who rules, governs or directs ei- 
ther men or business. A man who owns 
slaves is their master ; he who has servants 
is their master ; he who has apprentices is 
their master, as he has the government 
and direction of them. The man who 
.>iuperintends and directs any business, is 
master, or master workman. 

O thou ray friend, ray genius, come along, 
Thou master of the poet and the song. 

Nations that want protectors, will have mas- 
ters. Ames. 

2. A director, head, or chief manager ; as the 
master of a feast. 

3. The owner ; proprietor ; with the idea of 
governing. The master of a house may be 
the owner, or the occupant, who has a 
temporary right of governing it. 

It would be believed that he rather took the 
horse for his subject, than his master. Dryden 

4. A lord; a ruler; one who has supreme 

Cesar, the world's great master and his own 


5. A chief; a principal ; as the master root 
of a plant. Mortimer. 

One master passion swallows up the rest. 

fi. One who has [wssession, and the ])Ower 
of controlling or using at pleasure. 

When I have made myself mii:>ter of a hun 
dred thousand dr.ichmas — Addison. 

7. The commander of a merchant ship. 

8. In ships of war, an ofKccr who takes rank 
immediately after the heutenants, and 
navigates the ship under the direction of 
the captain. 

I». The director of a school; a teacher; an 
instructor. In this sense the word is giv- 
ing place to the more a]>propriate words 
teacher, instructor and preceptor; at 
least it is so iu the United States. 

10. One uncontrolled. 

Let every man be master of his lime. Shalt 

11. An appellation of respect. 

Master doctor, yoii have brought those drugs 


12. An appellation given to yonng men. 

Where there are little masters and misses in 
a house— Swift. 

13. A man eminently or perfectly skilled in 
any occujiation, art or science. We say, 
a man is master of his business; a great 

master of music, of the flute or violin ; a 
master of his subject, &c. 

14. A title of dignity in colleges and univer- 
sities ; as Master of Arts. 

15. The chief of a society ; as the Grand 
Master of Malta, of free-masons, &c. 

16. The director of ceremonies at public pla- 
ces, or on public occasions. 

17. The president of a college. England. 
Master in chancery, an assistant of the lord 

chancellor, chosen from among the barris- 
ters to sit in chancery, or at the rolls. 


Master of the rolls, an officer who has charge' 
of the rolls and patents that pass the great 
seal, and of the records of the chancery. 

To be master of one^s self, to have the com 

mand or control of one's own passions. 
The word )«as/fr has numerous applications, 
in all of which it has the sense of director, 
chief or superintendent. 
As a title of respect given to adult persons, 
it is pronounced mister; a pronunciation 
which seems to have been derived from 
some of the northern dialects, [supra.] 
M" ASTER, v.t. To conquer; to overpower 
to subdue ; to bring under control. 

Obstinacy and willful neglect must be master 

ed, even though it costs blows. Locke} 

Evil customs must be mastered by degrees. 

2. To execute witli skill. 

I will not otter that which 1 cannot mas- 
ter. Bacon. 
.3. To rule ; to govern. 

— And rather father thee than master thee 
[JVot used.'] Shak 

M'ASTER, V. i. To be skillful ; to excel.l 
Obs. Spenser.' 

M'ASTERDOM, ii. Dominion; rule. [Not 
used.] Sliak.l 

M'ASTERFUL, a. Having the skill of aj 
master ; also, imperious ; arhitrary. Obs. 
M'ASTER-HAND, )i. The hand of a manj 
eminently skillful. Pope: 

M'ASTER-JEST, n. Principal jest. 


M'ASTER-KEY, n. The key that oi)ens 
many locks, the suhoidinate keys of which 
open only one each. Dryden. 

M'ASTERLESS, a. Destitute of a master 
or owner. Spenser. 

2. Ungovcrned ; unsubdued. 
M ASTER-LODE, n. In mining, the prin- 
cipal vein of ore. Encye. 
MASTERLY, a. Formed or executed witli 
superior skill; .'iuitahlc to a master; most 
excellent ; skillful ; as a masterly design ; a 
masterly performance ; a maslirty stroke of 
policy. I 
2. Imperious. 

M>ASTERLY, adv. With the skill of a mas-; 

Thou dost speak masterly. Shak.' 

"I think it very masterly written," in 
Swift, is improper or unusual. | 

M'ASTER-PIECE, n. A caiiital perform- 
ance ; any thing done or made vith su- 
l)erior or extraordinary skill. 
This wondrous master-piece I fain would see.j 

2. Chief excellence or talent. 

Dissimulation was his master-piece. 

M^ASTERSIIIP, n. Dominion; rule ; su- 
preme power. 

2. Superiority ; preeminence. 
Where noble youths for mastership should 

, ^, . „ strive. Dryden. 

3. Chief work ; master-piece. [JVot used.] 


4. Superior skill. Shak. 

5. Title of respect ; in irony. 
How now, signior Launce, what new with 

your mastership. Shak. 

G. The office of president of a college, or 
other institution. 

MASTER-SINEW, n. A large sinew that 
surrounds the hough of a horse, and di- 
vides it from the bone hy a hollow place, 
where the wind-galls are usually seated. 

Far. Diet 

MASTER-STRING, n. Principal string. 

.^ . ^ Rowe. 

M'ASTER-STROKE, n. Capital perform- 
ance. Blaekmorc. 

M'ASTER-TOOTH, n. A prineipal tooth. 

M'ASTER-TOUCH, n. Principal perfomi- 
ance. Taller 

M- ASTER-WORK, n. Principal perform- 
ance. Thomson. 

M> ASTER- Wort, n. A plant of the genus 

M'ASTERY, n. Dominion; power of gov- 
erning or commanding. 

If divided by mountains, they will fight for 

the mastery of the passages of the tops 

Raleigh . 

2. Superiority in competition ; preeminence. 
Every man that striveth for the mastery, is 

temperate in all things. 1 Cor. ix. 

3. Victory in war. 
It is not the voice of them that shout ior mas- 
tery. Ex. xxxii. 

4. Eminent skill ; superior dexterity. 
He could attain to a mastery in all languages. 


5. Attainment of eminent skill or power. 

The learning and mastery of a tongue bein"- 

unpleasant in itself, should not be cumbered 

with other difficulties. Locke. 

M^ASTFUL, a. [from mast.] Abounding with 

mast, or fruit of oak, beech and other for- 

almecega ; Ir. maisteog ; L. mastiche ; Gr. 

1. A resin exsiuling from the mastic-tree, a 
species of Pistacia, and obtained by incis- 
ion. It is in white farinaceous tears, of a 
faint smell, and is used as an astringent 
and an aromatic. It is used also as an in- 
gredient in drying varnishes. 

Foureroy. Encyc. 

2. A kind of mortar or cement. Addison. 
MAS'TICATE, v. t. [L. mastiro. Qu. W. 

mesigaw, from mes, mast, acorn.s, food.] 

To chew ; to grind with the teeth and pre- 
pare for swallowing and digestion ; as, to 
masticate food. 

MASTICATED,;);?. Chewed. 

MASTICATING, p;)r. Cheunng; breaking 
into small pieces with the teetli. 

MASTICATION, n. The act or operation 
of chewing solid food, breaking it into 
smalt pieces, and mixing it witli saliva ; 
thus preparing it for deglutition, and more 
easy digestion in tlie stomach. 

.Mastication is a necessary preparation of solid, 
aliment, without which there be no good 
digestion*. Arbuthnol. 



MAS'TICATORY, a. Chewing ; adapted to 
perform the office of chewing food. 

Lawrence's Led. 

MAS'TICATORY, n. A substance to be 
chewed to increase the saUva. Coxe 

M'ASTIFF, n. pKi. mastiffs. Maslives is ir- 
regular. [Sp. mastin ; It. mastino ; Vr. 
matin ; Arm. mastin ; Low L. mastivus.] 

A large species of dog, remarkable tor 
strength and courage. Strabo informs us 
that the mastiffs of Britain were trained 
for war, and used by the Gauls in battle, 


M'ASTLESS, a. Having HO mast ; as a ves- 

2. Bearing no mast ; as a mastless oak or 
beech. Dryden 

MASTLIN. [See Meslin.] 

MAS'TODON, n. [Gr. fiayoj, mamilla, and 
oSouj, a tooth.] 

A genus of mammiferous animals resem 
bling the elephant, now extinct, and known 
only by their fossil remains. It includes 
the N. American mammoth. 

MAS'TOID, a. [Gr. fuxatoi, the nipple or 
breast, and 51805, form.] 

Resembling the nipple or breast ; as the mas 
laid muscle ; the mastoid process. 

MASTRESS, for mistress, is not used. 


M'ASTY, a. Full of mast; abounding with 
acorns, &c. 

MAT, n. [VV. mat ; Sax. meatta ; D. mat ; G. 
matle ; L. matta ; Sp. mata : Ir. jnalfa 
Russ. mat ; W. math, that is spread. The 
sense is probably a lay or spread, from 
falling, throwing, or stretching. Class Md. 
No. 6. 8. 9.] 

1. A texture of sedge, rushes, flags, husks, 
straw, or other material, to be laid on a 
floor for cleaning the boots and shoes of 
those who enter a house, and for other 
purposes. Carew 

2. A web of rope-yarn, used in ships to se- 
cure the standing rigging from the friction 
of the yards, &c. 

MAT, V. t. To cover or lay with mats. 


2. To twist together ; to interweave like a 
mat ; to entangle. 

And o'er his eyebrows hung his malted hair. 

Dryden . 

3. To press together ; to lay flat ; as matted 

M.\T'A€HIN, n. [Sp. a buffoon, a gro- 
tesque dance.] 

An old dance. Sidney. 

MAT'ADORE, n. [Sp. matador, a murderer, 
and a card, from matar, to kill.] 

One of the three principal cards in the game 
of omber and quadrille, which are always 
two black aces and the deuce in spades 
and clubs, and the seven iu hearts and di 
amends. Johnson. Pope. 

MATCH, n. [Fr. meclie ; It. miccia ; Sp 
Port, mecha ; Arm. mechenn, mech.] 

1. Some very combustible substance used 
for catching fire from a spark, as hemp, 
flax, cotton, tow dipped in sulphur, or i 
species of dry wood, called vulgarly touch 

2. A rope or cord made of hempen tow, 
composed of three strands slightly twist 
ed, and again covered with tow and boiled 
in the lees of old wine. This when light- 

ed at one end, retains fire and burns slow- 
ly till consumed. It is used in firing artil- 
lery, &c. Encyc. 
MATCH, n. [Sax. maca and f^emaca, an 
equal, fellow, companion, D. makker, Dan. 
maga, Sw. make.] 

A person who is equal to another in 
strength or other quality ; one able to cope 
with another. 

Government — makes an innocent man of the 
lowest ranks a match for the mightiest of his 
fellow subjects. Addison 

2. One that suits or tallies with another ; or 
any thing that equals another. 
Union by marriage. 

Love doth seldom suffer itself to be confined 
by other matches than those of its own raaking 


In popular language, it is applied to the 

engagement of lovers before marriage 

One to be married. 

She inherited a fair fortune of her own — and 
was looked upon as the richest match in the 
west. Clarendon 

MATCH, n. [Gr. fiaxi, a battle, a fight ; but 
])robably of the same family as the prece 
A contest ; competition for victory ; or a un- 
ion of parties for contest ; as in games or 
A solemn match was made ; he lost the prize. 

MATCH, V. t. To equal. 

No settled senses of the world can match 
The pleasure of tliat madness. Shak. 

2. To show an equal. 

No historj- or antiquity can match his policies 
and his conduct. South 

To oppose as equal ; to set against as 
equal in contest. 

Eternal might 
To match witli their inventions they pre- 
So easy, and of his thunder made a scorn. 


4. To suit ; to make equal ; to proportion 

Let poets match their subject to their 

strength — Soscommon 

— To match patterns and colors. Swift 

To marry ; to give in marriage. 

.\ senator of Rome, while Rome survived. 
Would not have matched his daughter with a 
king. Addison. 

To purify vessels by burning a match in 
MATCH, V. i. To be united in marriage. 
I hold it a sin to match in my kindred. 


Let tigers match witli hinds, and wolves with 

sheep. Dryden 

To suit; to correspond; to be of equal 

size, figure or quality ; to tally. We say 

of a piece of cloth, it does not match witli 

MATCH'ABLE, a. Equal ; suitable ; fit to 

be joined. , Spenser. 

2. Correspondent. [Little used.] 

MATCH'ED, pp. Equaled; suited; placed 

in opposition ; married. 
MATCH'ING, /)^r. Equaling; suiting ; set 

ting in opposition ; uniting in marriage. 
MATCH'LESS, a. Having no equal; as 

matchless impudence ; a matchless queen ; 

matchless love or charms. 
MATCH'LESSLY, adv. In a manner or de 

gree not to be equaled. 


M.'VTCH'LESSNESS.n. The state or qual- 
ity of being without an equal. 

MATCH'LOCK, n. Formerly, the lock of a 
musket which was fired by a match. 

M.VrCH'MAKER, n. One who makes 
matches for burning. 

2. One who contrives or eflecte a union by 

MATE, n. 

matau, to 



[D. maat ; Ar. tk- 

associate. Class Md. No. 11.] 
A companion ; an associate ; one \vlio 
customarily associates with another. 
Young persons nearly of an age, and 
frequently associating, are called mates or 
A husband or wife. 

The male or female of animals which as- 
sociate for propagation and the care of 
their young. Milton. 

One that eats at the same table. 
One that attends th^ same school ; a 

An officer in a merchant ship or ship of 
war, whose duty is to assist the master or 
commander. In a merchant ship, the 
mate, in the absence of the master, takes 
command of the ship. Large ships have 
a first, second, and third mate. 

In general, male, in compound words, denotes 
an assistant, and ranks next in subordina- 
tion to the principal; as master's inole ; 
surgeon's mate, &c. 

MATE, n. [Sp. Port, mate ; Fr. mat ; from 
Sp. matar, to kill.] 

In chess, the state of the king so situated 
that he cannot escape. 

MATE, V. t. To match ; to marry. 

Spenser. Shak. 

2. To equal ; to be equal to. 
For thus the mastful chesnut mates the skies. 


3. To oppose ; to equal. 

— I i' til' way of loyalty and truth. 
Dare mate a sounder man than Surrey can 
be. Shak. 

MATE, I', t. [Fr. mater, to mate in chess; 
Sw. matta, to weaken, to enervate ; Sp. 
malar, to kill.] 
To enervate ; to subdue ; to crush. 

Audacity doth almost bind and mate the weak- 
er sort of minds. [.Yot used.] Bacon. 

MA'TELESS, a. Having no mate or com- 
panion. Peacham. 

Materia Medico, a general name for every 
substance used in medicine. Encyc. 

2. An au.xiliary branch of the science of 
medicine, which treats of the nature and 
properties of all the substances that are 
employed for the cure of diseases. 

Ed. Encyc. 

MATE'RI.VL, a. [It. mnteriale ; Fr. maU- 
riel ; Sp. material ; from L. materia, mat- 

1. Consisting of matter; not spiritual; as 
material substance ; material bodies. 

2. Important; momentous; more or less ne- 
cessary ; having influence or effect. 

Hold them for catholics or heretics, it is not a 
thing very material in this question. 


In the account of simple ideas, I shall set 
down only such as are most material to our 
present purpose. Locke. 

So we say, a material point ; a materia! 


M A S 


iVrAST, n. [Sax. maste, aeorns, food ; Goth. 
mats, food, meat ; Ir. jnais, 7neas, an 
acorn ; maise, food ; W. mes, acorns, a por 
tion, a meal ; mesen, an acorn. Tliis may 
be the American viaiz, and signify food in 
general, from eating, chewing, mastica 
ting, or primarily a nut kernel, or acorn, 
the food of the primitive tribes of men. It 
seems to be radically the same word as 

The fruit of the oak and beech, or other for- 
est trees ; nuts ; acorns. [It has no plural.] 

M'ASTED, a. Furnished with a mast or 

M" ASTER, n. [Fr. maitre, for jiiaister; 
Rues, master ; V.meester; G.meister; Sw 
mhstare ; Dan. mester ; Arm. meastr ; It 
Sp. maestro ; L. magieler, compounded of 
the root of magis, major, greater, and the 
Teutonic ster, Sa.x. steoran, to steer. See 
Steer. The word then signifies a chief di- 
rector. See Minister.] 

I. A man who rules, governs or directs ei 
ther men or business. A man who owns 
slaves is their master; he who has servants 
is their master ; he who has apprentices i; 
their master, as he has tlie government 
and liirection of them. The man who 
superintends and directs any business, is 
master, or master workman. 

O thou my friend, my genius, come along, 
Thou master of the poet and the song. 

Nations that want protectors, will have mas- 
ters. Ames. 
ii. A director, head, or chief manager ; as the 

master of a feast. 
0. The owner ; proprietor ; with the idea of 
jTOverning. The master of a house may be 
the owner, or the occupant, who has a 
temporary right of governing it. 

It would be believed that he rather took the 
horse for his subject, than his master. Dryden 

4. A lord; a ruler; one who has supreme 

Cesar, the world's great master and his own 


5. A chief; a principal ; as the master root 
of a plant. Mortimer. 

One master passion swallows up the rest. 

(). One who has jiossession, and the power 
of controlling or using at pleasure. 

When I have made myself master of a hun 
dred thousand drachmas — Addison. 

7. The commander of a merchant ship. 

8. In sMps of war, an oflicer who takes rank 
immediately after the lieutenants, and 
navigates the ship under the direction of 
the captain. 

'.). The director of a school ; a teacher ; an 
instructor. In this sense the word is giv 
uig place to the more appropriate words 
teacher, instructor and preceptor; at 
least it is so in the United States. 
10. One uncontrolled. 

Let every man be master of his time. Shalt. 

II. An appellation of resjrect. 

Master doctor, you have brought those drugs 


12. An appellation given to young men. 

Where there are little /nasters and misses in 
a hduse— Swift 

13. A man eminently <ir perfectly skilled in 
any occupation, art or science. We say 
a man is master of his business : a great 

master of music, of the flute or viohn ; a 
master of his subject, &c. 

14. A title of dignity in colleges and univer 
sities; as jMa«/er of Arts. 

15. The chief of a society ; as the Grand 
Master of Malta, of free-masons, &c. 

IG. The director of ceremonies at public pla- 
ces, or on public occasions. 

17. The president of a college. England. 

Master in chancery, an assistant of the lord 
chancellor, chosen from among the barris 
ters to sit in chancery, or at the rolls. 


Master of the rolls, an officer who has charge 
of the rolls and patents that pass the great 
seal, and of the records of the chancery, 


To be master of one^s self, to have the com 
mand or control of one's own passions. 

The word jnasffr has numerous applications, 
in all of which it has the sense of director, 
chief or superintendent. 

As a title of respect given to adult persons, 
it is pronounced mister ; a pronunciation 
which seems to have been derived from 
some of the northern dialects, [supra.] 

M'ASTER, V. t. To conquer; to overpower ; 
to subdue ; to bring under control. 

Obstinacy and willful neglect must be master- 
ed, even though it costs blows. LockeJ. 
Evil customs must be mastered by degrees. 

To execute with skill. 

I will not offtr that which 1 cannot mas- 
ter. Bacon 

•3. To rule ; to govern. 

— And rather father thee than master thee 
[jVot used.] Shak 

M-ASTER, V. i. To be skillful ; to excel.! 
Obs. Spenser.- 

jrASTERDOM, 11. Dominion ; rule. [ATot, 
used.] Shak.l 

M'ASTERFUL, a. Having the skill of a| 
master ; also, imperious ; arbitrary. Obs. 

MASTER-HAND, )i. The hand of a manj 
eminently skillful. Pope:. 

M' ASTER-JEST, n. Principal jest. 


M>ASTER-KEY, n. The key that opens 
many locks, the subordinate keys of which 
open only one each. Dryden. 

M'ASTERLESS, a. Destitute of a master 
or owner. Spenser. 

2. Ungovcrned ; unsubdued. 

MASTER-LODE, n. In mining, the prin- 
cipal vein of ore. Encyc. 

M'ASTERLY, a. Formed or executed with 
superior skill; suitable to a master; most 
excellent ; skillful ; as a masterly design ; a 
masterly performance ; a masttrly stroke of 

2. Itiiperious. 

M>ASTERLY, adv. With the skill of a mas- 

Thou dost speak masterly. Shak. 

"I think it very masterly written," in 
Swift, is improper or unusual. 

M>ASTER-PIECE, n. A capital perform- 
ance ; any thing done or made with su- 
perior or extraordinary skill. 
This wondrous master-piece I fain woidd sec. 


2. Chief excellence or talent. 

Dissimulation was his mastei'-piece. 


MASTERSHIP, n. Dominion; rule ; sit 
lircme power. 

2. Superiority ; preeminence. 

Where noble youths for mastership should 
, ■ , . „ s«"7«- Ih-yden. 

3. Chief work ; master-piece. [.Vo< used.'] 


4. Superior skill. gj^i;^ 

5. Title of respect ; in irony. 

How now, signior Launce, what new with 
your mastership. Shak. 

6. The office of president of a college, or 
other institution. 

MASTER-SINEW, n. A large sinew that 
surrounds the hough of a horse, and di- 
vides it from the bone by a hollow place, 
where the wind-galls are usually seated. 

Far. Diet. 

MASTER-STRING, n. Principal string. 

M' ASTER-STROKE, n. Capital perfornt 
^"ce. Blackmorc. 

MASTER-TOOTH, n. A principal tooth. 


MASTER-TOUCH, n. Principal perform- 
ance. Taller 

MASTER-WORK, n. Principal perform- 
ance. Thomson. 

M' ASTER- WORT, n. A plant of the genus 

M'ASTERV, n. Dominion ; power of gov- 
erning or commanding. 

If divided by mountains, they will fight for 
the mastery of the passages of the tops — 

Raleigh . 

2. Superiority in competition ; preeminence. 
Every man that striveth for the mastery, is 

temperate in all things. 1 Cor. ix. 

3. Victory in war. 
It is not the voice of them that shout for mas- 

tery. Ex. xxxii. 

4. Eminent skill ; superior dexterity. 
He could attain to a mastery in all languages. 


5. Attainment of eminent skill or power. 

The learning and mastery of a tongue bein"- 
unpleasant in itself, should not be cmnbere.! 
with other difficulties. Locke 

M'ASTFUL, a. [from mast.] Abounding with 
mast, or fruit of oak, beech and other for- 
est trees ; as the mastful chesnut. Dryden 

MAS'TIC, f [Fr. mastic ; It. mastice ; D. 

M AS'TIell, S mastik ; Sp. almaciga ; Port. 
almecega ; Ir. maisteog ; L. mastiche ; Gr. 

1. A resin exsuding from the mastic-tree, a 
species of Pistacia, and obtained by incis- 
ion. It is in white farinaceous tears, of a 
faint smell, and is used as an astringent 
and an aromatic. It is used also as an in- 
gredient in drying varnishes. 

Fovrcroy. Encyc. 

2. A kind of mortar or cement. Addison. 
MAS'TICATE, r. t. [L. mastico. Qu. W. 

mesigaw, from mes, mast, acorns, food.] 

To chew ; to grind with the teeth and pre- 
pare for swallowing and digestion; as, to 
masticate food. 

MASTICATED,;);?. Chewed. 

MAS'TICATING,ppr. Chewing; breaking 
into small pieces with the teeth. 

MASTICATION, n. The act or operation 
of chewing solid food, breaking it into 
smalt pieces, and mixing it with saliva ; 
thus preparing it for deglutition, and more 
easy digestion in the stomach. 

.Mastication is a necessary preparation of solid 
aliment, without which there can be no good 
digestiou'. Arbuthnot. 


MAS'TICATORY, a. Chewing ; adapted to 
perform the office of chewing food. 

Lawrence's Led. 

MAS'TICATORY, n. A substance to be 
chewed to increase the saUva. Coxc 

arASTIFF, n. pKi. mastiffs. Mastives is ir- 
regular. [Sp. mastin ; It. mastino ; Fr. 
matin ; Arm. mastin ; Low L. mastivus.] 

A large species of dog, remarkable for 
strength and courage. Strabo informs us 
that the mastiffs of Britain were trained 
for war, and used by the Gauls in battle. 


RrASTLESS, a. Having no mast ; as a ves- 

2. Bearing no mast ; as a mastless oak or 
beech. Dryden 

MASTLIN. [See Meslin.] 

MAS'TODON, n. [Gr. /wafoj, mamilla, and 
oiovs, a tooth.] 

A genus of mammiferous animals resem- 
bling the elephant, now extinct, and known 
only by their fossil remains. It includes 
the N. American mammoth. 

MAS'TOID, a. [Gr. ^aros, the nipple or 
breast, and £i6o{, form.] 

Resembling the nipple or breast ; as the mas 
laid muscle ; the mastoid process. 

MASTRESS, for mistress, is not used. 


M'ASTY, a. Full of mast; abounding with 
acorns, &c. 

MAT, n. [VV. mat ; Sax. mealta ; D. mat ; G. 
matle ; L. matta ; Sp. mata : Ir. matia 
Russ. mat ; W. inath, that is spread. The 
sense is probably a lay or spread, from 
falling, throwing, or stretching. Class Md. 
No. 6. 8. 9.] 

1. A texture of sedge, rushes, flags, husks, 
straw, or other material, to be laid on a 
floor for cleaning the boots and shoes of 
those who enter a house, and for other 
purposes. Carew. 

2. A web of rope-yarn, used in ships to se- 
cure the standing rigging from the friction 
of the yards, &c. 

MAT, V. t. To cover or lay with mats. 


2. To twist together ; to interweave like a 
mat ; to entangle. 

And o'er his eyebrows hung his matted hair. 


3. To press together; to lay flat ; as matted 

MAT'ACHIN, n. [Sp. a buflfoon, a gro- 
tesque dance.] 

An old dance. Sidney. 

MAT'ADORE, n. [Sp. matador, a murderer, 
and a card, from matar, to kill.] 

One of the three principal cards in the game 
of omber and quadrille, which are always 
two black aces and the deuce in spades 
and clubs, and the seven in hearts and di- 
amonds. Johnson. Pope. 

MATCH, n. [Fr. meche ; It. miccia ; Sp. 
Port, mecha ; Arm. mechenn, mf eft.] 

1. Some very combustible substance used 
for catching fire from a spark, as hemp, 
flax, cotton, tow dipped in sulphur, or a 
species of dry wood, called vulgarly touch- 

2. A rope or cord made of hempen tow, 
composed of three strands slightly twist- 
ed, and again covered with low and boiled 
in the lees of old wine. This when light- 

M A T 

MATE, n. 

ed at one end, retains fire and burns slow- 
ly till consumed. It is used in firing artil- 
lery, &c. Encyc. 
MATCH, n. [Sax. maca and f^emaca, an 
equal, fellow, companion, D. makker, Dan. 
maga, Sw. make.] 

A person who is equal to another in 
strength or other quality ; one able to cope 
with another. 

Government — makes an innocent man of tlie 
lowest ranks a match for the mightiest of his 
fellow subjects. Addison 

2. One that suits or tallies with another ; or 
any thing that equals another. 

3. Union by marriage. 
Love doth seldom suffer itself to be confined 

by other matches than those of its own making 

In popular language, it is applied to the 
engagement of lovers before marriage 

4. One to be married. 
She inherited a fair fortune of her own — and 

was looked upon as the richest match in the 
west. Clarendon. 

MATCH, n. [Gr. ftax>i, » hattle, a fight ; but 
])robably of the same family as the prece- 
A contest ; competition for victory ; or a un- 
ion of parties for contest ; as in games or 
A solemn match was made ; he lost the prize. 

MATCH, V. t. To equal. 

No settled senses of the worid can match 
The pleasure of that madness. Shalt. 

2. To show an equal. 
No history or antiquity can match his policies 

and his conduct. South 

3. To oppose as equal ; to set against as 
equal in contest. 

Eternal might 
To match wiUi their inventions they pre- 
So easy, and of his thunder made a scorn. 


4. To suit ; to make equal ; to proportion. 
Let poets match their subject to their 

strength — Hoscommon 

— To match patterns and colors. Su-ift 

To marry ; to give in marriage. 

A senator of Rome, while Rome survived, 
Would not have matched his daughter with :i 
king. Addison. 

(>. To purify vessels by burning a matcli in 

MATCH, I', i. To be united in marriage. 
I hold it a sin to match in my kindred. 


Let tigers match wiUi hinds, and wolves with 

sheep. Dryden 

2. To suit ; to correspond ; to be of equal 
size, figure or quality ; to tally. We say 
of a piece of cloth, it does not match with 

MATCH'ABLE, a. Equal ; suitable ; fit to 
be joined. , Spenser. 

2. Correspondent. [Little used.] 


MATCH'ED, pp. Equaled; suited; placed 
in opposition ; married. 

MATCH'ING, ppr. Equaling ; suiting ; set- 
ting in opposition ; uniting in marriage 

MATCH'LESS, a. Having no equal; as 
matchless impudence ; a matchless queen ; 
matchless love or charms. 

MATCH'LESSLY, adv. In a manner or de- 
gree not to be equaled. 


MATCH'LESSNESS.n. The state or qual- 
ity of being without an equal. 

MATCU'LOCK, n. Formerly, the lock of a 
musket which was fired by a match. 

MATCH' MAKER, n. One who makes 
matches for burning. 

2. One who contrives or eflfects a union by 

matau, lu 

one who 


age, and 

[D. maat ; Ar. \,]a^ 

associate. Class Md. No. 11.] 

1. A companion ; an associate ; 
customarily associates with 
Yoimg persons nearly of an 
frequently associating, are called mates or 

2. A husband or wife. 

3. The male or female of animals which as- 
sociate for propagation and the care of 
their young. .Milton. 

4. One that eats at the same table. 
One tliat attends th^ same school ; a 

An officer in a merchant ship or ship of 
war, whose duty is to assist the master or 
commander. In a merchant ship, the 
mate, in the absence of the master, takes 
command of the ship. Large ships have 
a first, second, and third mate. 

In general, male, in compound words, denotes 
an assistant, and ranks next in subordina- 
tion to the principal; as master's mole ; 
surgeon's mate, &,c. 

MATE, n. [Sp. Port, mate ; Fr. mut ; from 
Sp. matar, to kill.] 

In chess, the state of the king so situated 
that he cannot escape. 

MATE, V. t. To match ; to marry. 

Speyiser. Shak. 

2. To equal ; to be equal to. 
For thus the mastful chesnut mates the skies. 


3. To oppo.^e ; to equal. 
— I i' th' way of loyalty and truth. 
Dare tnate a sounder man than Surrey can 

be. Shak. 

IMATE, V. t. [Fr. mater, to mate in chess; 
Sw. matta, to weaken, to enervate ; Sp. 
inatar, to kill.] 

To enervate ; to subdue ; to crush. 

Audacity doth almost bind and mate the weak- 
er sort of minds. lA'ot used.] Bacon. 

MA'TELESS, a. Having no mate or com- 
panion. Peacham. 

Materia Medica, a general name for every 
substance used in medicine. Encyc. 

2. An auxiliary branch of the science of 
medicine, which treats of the nature and 
properties of all the substances that are 
employed for the cure of diseases. 

Ed. Encyc. 

MATE'RI.-VL, a. [It. mnteriale ; Fr. mate- 
riel ; Sp. material ; from L. materia, mat- 

1. Consisting of matter; not spiritual; as 
material substance ; material bodies. 

2. Important; momentous; more or less ne- 
cessary ; having influence or effect. 

Hold tliem for catholics or heretics, it is not a 
tiling very material in this question. 


In the account of simple ideas, I shall set 
down only such as are most material to our 
present purpose. Locke. 

So we say, a material point ; a material 



M A T 

fault or error ; a material fact or consider- 

3. Not formal ; substantial. 

4. Furnishing materials ; as material men. 

JiTieaton, Rep. 
IWATE'RIAL, 71. Tlie substance or matter 
of which any tiling is made ; as, wool is 
the wiaimai of cloth ; rags are the materi- 
al of paper. 
MATE'RIALISM, n. The doctrine of ma- 
terialists ; the opinion of those who main- 
tain that the soul of man is not a spiritual 
substance distinct from matter, but that 
it is the result or effect of the organization 
of matter in the body. 

The irregular fears of a future state had been 
supplanted by the materialism of Epicurus. 


MATE'RIALIST, n. One who denies the 
existence of spiritual substances, and 
maintains that the soul of man is the re- 
sult of a particular organization of matter 
in the body. 

iMATERIAL'ITY, n. Material existence ; 
corporeity ; not spirituality. Digby. 

2. Importance ; as the materialiti/ of facts. 

judge Chase. 

iMATE'RIALIZE, v. t. To reduce to a state 
of matter ; also, to regard as matter. 


MATE'RIALLY, adv. In the state of mat- 
ter. Boyle. 

2. Not formally; substantially. 

An ill intention may spoil an act materially 
good. South. 

3. In an important manner or degree ; es- 
sentially. It materially concerns us to 
know the real motives of our actions. 

M.ATE'RIALNESS, n. The state of being 
material ; importance. 

MATE'RIATE, { [L. materiatus.] Con- 

IMATE'RIATED, \ "' sisting of matter. [Ut- 
ile used.'\ Bacon. 

MATERIA'TION, n. The act of forming 
matter. \J^ot used.} Brown. 

iMATERN'AL, a. [L. maternus, from mater, 

iVIotherly ; pertaining to a mother ; becoming 
a mother ; as maternal love ; maternal ten- 

MATERN'ITY, n. [Fr. maiernite.] The 
character or relation of a mother. 

MAT'FELON, n. [Sp. Port, malar, D. mat- 
sen, to kill, ami felon.] 

A plant of tlic genus Centaurea, knap-weed. 

iMATH, n. [Sax. math.] A mowing; as in 

MATHEMAT'I€, ) [L. mathematicus.] 

MATHEMAT'ICAL, S "' Pertaining to 
mathematics; as mathetnatical knowledge ; 
mathematical instruments. 

i. According to the principles of mathemat- 
ics ; as mathematical exactness. 

MATHEMAT'I€ALLY, adv. According to 
the laws or principles of mathematical sci 

2. With mathematical certainty ; demon 
strably. Bentley. 

MATHEMATICIAN, n. [Fr. mathcmati 
cien.] One versed in mathematics. 

MATHEMAT'IeSyn- [h. mathematica, from 
Gr. na3rijui.rixri, friun ixavtiavu, to learn ; the 
V is probably casual, and the root belongs 
to Class M.I. No. 10] 

The science of quantity ; the science whicl 

treats of magnitude and number, or of 
whatever can be measured or numbered. 
This science is divided into pure or specu 
lative, which considers quantity abstractly, 
without relation to matter ; and mixed. 
which treats of magnitude as subsisting in 
material bodies, and is consequently inter 
woven with physical considerations. It 
is the peculiar excellence of mathematics, 
that its principles are demonstrable. 
Arithmetic, geometry, algebra, trigonom- 
etry, and conic sections, are branches of 

MATH'EMEG, n. A fish of the cod kind 
inhabiting Hudson's bay. Pennant 

MATH'ES, n. An herb. Ainsworth. 

MATH'ESIS, n. [Gr. fmS^jstf.] The doc- 
trine of mathematics. Pope 

MAT'IN, a. [Fr. matin, morning ; G. metie, 
matins; L. matutinus.] 

Pertaining to the morning ; used in the morn- 
ing ; as a matin trumpet. 

MAT'IN, n. Morning. [N'ot used.] Shak. 

MAT'INS, n. Morning worship or service; 
morning prayers or songs. 

The vigils are celebrated before them, and the 

Docturn and matins, for the saints whose the 

relics are. Stillingfleet. 

The winged choristers began 

To chirp their matins. Cleaveland. 

2. Time of morning service; the first canon- 
ical hour in the Romish church. 

MAT'RASS, n. [Fr. matras ; D. id. In 
French, the word signifies an arrow ; 
Arm. matara, to throw a dart. This verb 
coincides with L. mitto. It seems then to 
be so called from its long neck.] 

A cucurbit ; a chiniical vessel in the shape 
of an egg, or with a tapering neck, open at 
the top, serving the purposes of digestion, 
evaporation, &c. APicholson. Quinci/. 

MAT'RESS, n. [W. matras; D. id.; It. 
materasso ; G. matratze ; Fr. matelas ; Arm. 
matelacz, from mat.] 

A quilted bed ; abed stuffed with hair, moss 
or other soft material, and quilted. 

MA'TRICE, I [L. matrir, from mater. 

MA'TRIX,; S"' mother.] 

1. The womb ; the cavity in which the fetus 
of an animal is formed and nourished till 
its birth. Encyc. 

2. A mold ; the cavity in which any thing is 
formed, and which gives it shape ; as the 
matrix of a type. 

3. The place where any thing is formed or 
produced ; as the matrix of metals ; gang. 

4. In dyeing, the five simple colors. Clack, 
white, blue, red and yellow, of which all 
the rest are composed. Encyc. 

MAT'RICiDAL, a. Pertaining to matri- 

MAT'RICIDE, )i. [L. matricidium ; mater, 
mother, and ceedo, to slay.] 

1. The killing or nuirder of a mother. 


2. The killer or murderer of his mother. 
MATRICULATE, v. t. [L.matricula, a roW 

or register, from matrix.] 
To enter or admit to membership in a body 
or society, particularly in a college or uni- 
versity, by enrolling the name in a register. 


MATRICULATE, n. One enrolled in a reg- 
ister, and thus admitted to membership 
in a society. Arbuthnot. 

MATRIeULA'TlON, n. The act of regis- 
tering a name and admitting to member- 
ship. Ayliffe. 

^LATRIMO'NIAL, a. [It. matrimoniale. See 

1. Pertaining to marriage ; connubial; nup- 
tial ; hymeneal ; as matrimonial rights or 

2. Derived from marriage, 
if he relied on that title, he could be but a 

king at curtesy, and have rather a matrimonial, 
than a regal power. Bacon. 

MATRIMO'NIALLY, adv. According to 
the manner or laws of marriage. Ayliffe. 

MATRIMO'NIOUS, a. Matrimonial. [Ut- 
ile used.] Milton. 

MAT'RIMONY, n. [L. matrimonium, from 
muter, mother.] 

Marriage ; wedlock ; the union of man and 
woman for life ; the nuptial state. 

If any man know cause why this couple 
should not be joined in holy matrimony, they 
are to declare it. Cotn. Prayer. 

MATRIX. [See Matrice.] 

MAT'RON, n. [Fr. matrone ; L. matrona ; 
from mater, mother.] 

An elderly married woman, or an elderly la- 
dy. Johnson. Encyc. 

MAT'RONAL, a. [L. matronalis.] Pertain- 
ing to a matron ; suitable to an elderly la- 
dy or to a married woman ; grave ; moth- 
erly. Bacon. 

MAT'RONIZE, v. t. To render matronhke. 


MAT'RONLIKE, a. Having the manners 
of an elderly woman; grave; sedate; be- 
coming a matron. 

iMAT'RONLY, a. Elderly ; advanced in 
years. L'Estrange. 

MATROSS', n. [D. matroos ; Sw. Dan. 
Russ. matros, a sailor ; D. maat, a mate ; 
maats, fellows, sailors ; Fr. matelot. In 
Arm. martelot is a colleague. The word 
seems to be from mate.] 

Matrosses are soldiers in a train of artillery, 
who are ne.xt to the gunners and assist 
them in loading, firing and spunging the 
guns. They carry fire-locks, and march 
with the store waggons as guards and as- 
sistants. Bailey. Encyc. 

MAT'TAMORE, n. In the east, a subter- 
ranean repository for wheat. 

Parkhurst. Shaw. 

MAT'TER, n. [L. Sp. It. materia ; Fr. ma- 
tiere; Ann.matery; W. merger, what is pro- 
duced, occasion, affair, matter ; madrez, 
pus, matter; madru, to putrefy or dissolve. 
Owen deduces mater from mad, what pro- 
ceeds or advances, a gouii ; madu, to cause 
to proceed, to render productive ; mad, 
good, beneficial, that is, advancing, pro- 
gressive. Here we have a clear idea of the 
radical sense of good, which is proceeding, 
advancing. .\ good is that which advan- 
ces or promotes; and hence we see the 
connection between this word miid, and 
matter, pus, both from progressiveness. 

The original verb is in the Ar. j^^ mad- 
da, to extend, to reach or stretch, to be tall, 
to thrust out, to excrete, to produce pus, 
to yawn ; derivatives, pus, sanies, matter. 
This verb in Heb. and Ch. signilies to 
measure, and is the same as the L. metior, 
Gr. futTpia. In Syriac, it signifies to es- 

M A T 

M A T 

M A U 

1. Substance excreted from living animal 
bodies; that which is thrown out orilis- 
charged In a tumor, boil or abscess; pus; 
purulent substance collected in an abscess, 
the eftect of suppuration more or less per- 
fect ; as digested matter ; sanious viatter. 

2. Body ; substance extended ; that which is 
visible or tangible ; as earth, wood, stone, 
air, vapor, water. 

3. la a itwre general and philosophic sense, 
the substance of which all bodies are coni- 
posed ; the substratum of sensible quali- 
ties, though the parts composing the sub- 
stratum may not be visible or tangible. 

Matter is usually divided by philosophi- 
cal writers into four kinds or classes ; .50- 
lid, liijuid, aeriform, and imponderable. 
Solid substances are those whose parts 
firmly cohere and resist impression, as 
wood or stone ; liquids have free motion 
among their parts, and easily yield to im- 
pression, as water and wine. Aeriform 
substances are elastic fluids, called vapors 
and gases, as air and oxygen gas. The 
imponderable substances are destitute of 
•weight, as light, caloric, electricity, and 

4. Subject; thing treated ; tliat about which 
we write or speak ; that which employs 
thought or excites emotion ; asj'lhisis mat 
ier of praise, of gratitude, or of astonish- 

Son of God, Savior of men, thy name 
Shall be the copious matter of my song. 


5. The very thing supposed or intended. 

He grants the deluge to have come so very 
near the matter, that few escaped. Tillotson. 
(). Affair ; business ; event ; thing ; course 
ofthings. Matters have succeeded we ' 
thus far; observe how maHera stand ; thus 
the matter rests at present ; thus the mat- 
ter ended. 

To help the inatter, the alchimists call in ma- 
ny vanities from astrology. Bacon 
Some yoimg ieinale seems to have carried 
matters so far, that she is ripe for asking ad- 
vice. Spectator 

7. Cause of any event, as of any disturbance, 
of a disease, or of a difficulty. When a 
moving machine stops suddenly, we ask, 
what is the matter'? When a person is ill, 
we ask, what is the matter ? When a tu- 
mult or quarrel takes place, we ask, what 
is the matter ? 

8. Subject of complaint ; suit; demand. 

If ihc matter should be tried by duel betneen 
two champions — Bacon. 

Every great matter they shall bring to thee, 
but every small matter they shall judge — Ex. 

9. Import ; consequence ; importance ; mo- 

A prophet some, and some a poet cry. 
No matter which, so neither of them lie. 


10. Space of time; a portion of distance. 

1 have thoughts to tarry a small matter. 

Away ho goes, a matter of seven miles — 

[In these last senses, the use of matter 
is now vulgar.] 
Upon the matter, considering the whole ; ta- 
king all things into view. This phrase is 
now obsolete ; but in Ucu of it, we some 
times use, upon the u'hole matter. 

Waller, with Sir William Balfour, exceeded 
in horse, but were, ujion the whole matter, 
equal in foot. Clarendon. 

Matter of record, that which is recorded, or 

which may be proved by record. 
MAT'TER, V. i. To be of importance ; to 
import ; used with it, this, that, or what. 
This matters not ; that matters not ; chiefly 
used in negative phrases; as, what matters 

n matters not how they are called, so we 
know who ihey arc. Locke. 

To maturate ; to form pus ; to collect, as 
matter in an abscess. 

Each slight sore mattereth. [Little used.] 


[We now use maturate.] 

M,\T'TER, V. I. To regard. [ATol used.] 

MAT'TERLESS, a. Void of matter. 

B. Jonson. 

MAT'TERY, a. Ptuulent ; generating pus 
as a mattery cough. Harvey. 

MAT'TOCK, n. [Sax. matluc ; W. matog.' 
A tool to grub up weeds or roots ; a grub- 
bing hoe. Bailey. 

IVIATTRESS. [See Matress, a more correct 

M.\T'URANT, n. [L. nio/uro, from maiurus, 
mature, ripe.] 

In pharmacy, a medicine or application to a 
tutnor, which promotes suppuration. 


MAT'URATE, V. t. [L. matnro, to hasten, 
from mafurus, ripe.] 

To ripen ; to hasten or promote suppura- 

M.\T' URATE, v.i. To become ripe; to 
suppurate, as a tumor, and form pus. 

MAT(JR.\'TION, n. The process of ripen- 



ing orcommg to maturity 

2. The process of suppurating ; suppuration 
the forming of pus in tumors. Qtdncy. 

MAT'URATIVE, o. Ripening; conducin 
to ripeness. 

3. Conducing to suppuration, or the forma- 
tion of matter in a tumor or abscess. 

MATU'RE, a. [L. maturus ; Dan. moed. 
moeden. In W. m«V, is complete, perfect, 
mature ; and medi signifies to reap, L. meto. 
So I'ipc, in English, seems to be connect 
ed with reap. In Ch. ND!3 signifies to 
come to. to reach, to be mature. See 

1. Ripe ; jicrfected by time or natural 
growth ; as a man of mature age. We 
apply it to a young man who has arrived 
to the age when he is supposed to be com 
petcnt to manage his own concerns; to a 
young woman who is fit to be married 
and to olilorly men who have much expe 

Their prince is a man of learning and virtue, 
mature in years — .Addison. 

Mature the virgin was, of Egypt's race. 


How sball I meet or how accost the sage. 

Unskilled in speech, nor yet mature of age. 


Brought to perfection ; used of plants: 
The wheat is mature. 
Completed ; prepared ; ready. The plan 
or scheme was mature. 

This lies glowing, and is mature for the vio- 
lent breaking out. Shale. 
Ripe ; come to suppuration ; as, the tu- 
mor is mature. 

MATU'RE, v.t. [L. maiuro.] To ripen; to 
hasten to a i)erfect state ; to promote 

Prick an apple with a pin full of holes, not 
deep, and smear it with sack, to sec if the vir- 
tual heat of the wine will not mature it. 

2. To advance towards perfection. 
Love indulged my labors past. 
Matures my present, and shall bound my last. 

MATU'RE, V. i. To advance toward ripe- 
ness ; to become ripe or perfect. Wine 
matures by age, or by iigitaiion in a long 
voyage. The judgment matures by age 
and experience. 
M.\TU'RED, pp. Ripened ; advanced to 

perfection ; prepared. 
MATU'RELY, adv. With ripeness; com- 

2. With full deliberation. A prince enter- 
ing on war, ought maturely to consider 
the state of his finances. 

3. Early ; soon. [A Latinism, little used.] 


MATU'RING, ppr. Ripening ; being in or 
coming to a complete state. 

M.4TU'RITY, ) Ripeness; a state of 

MATU'RENESS, I "" perfection or com- 
pleteness ; as the maturity of age or of 
judgment ; the maturity of corn or of grass; 
the maturitt) of a plan or scheme. 

MAT'UTINAL, ) [L. matutinus.] Pertain- 

MAT'UTINE, p- ing to the morning. 


MAT'WEED, 71. A plant of the genus Ly- 

M.'XUD'LIN, a. [corrupted from Magdelen, 
who is drawn by painters with eyes swell- 
ed and red with weeping.] 

Drunk; fuddled ; approaching to intoxica- 
tion ; stupid. 

And the kind jnaudlin crowd melts in her 
praise. Soutliern. 

MAUD'LIN, 7!. A plant of the genus Achil- 

MAU'GER, adv. [Fr. malgr^, ill will; mat 

and gre.] 
In spite of; in opposition to ; notwithstand- 
ing ; used only tn burlesque. 

TJiis, mauger all the world, will I keep safe. 

MAUKIN. [See .Malkin.] 
M.\UL, 71. [L. malleus. SeeJVfalL] A heavy 

wooden haninier ; written also mall. 
MAUL, V. t. Ti) beat and bruise with a heavy 
stick or cudgel ; to wound in a coarse 

Meek modem faith to murder, hack and 
maul. Pope. 

MAUNCH, 71. [Fr. ?;ia7!cAc.] A loose sleeve. 
[JVbt used.] Herbert. 

MAUND, 71. [Sax. and D. mand.] A hand- 
basket; au'ordusedin Scotland. 



. To mutter; to mur- 

'mur ; to grumble; 


to beg. Obs. 

MAUND'ER, Ji. A beggar. Obs. 

MAUND'ERER, ?i. A grumbler. Obs. 

MAUNDERING, ti. Complaint. Obs. 

MAUNDY-THURSDAY, 71. [supposed to be 
from Sax. inand, a basket ; because on that 
day, princes used to give alms to the poor 
from their baskets ; or from dies mandati, 
the day of command, on which day our 
Savior gave his great mandate, that we 
should love one another. Lye. Johnson.] 


M A Y 

M E 

Tlie Tlmrsday in passion week, or next be- 
fore Good Friday. 

MAUSOLE'AN, a. Pertaining to a mauso- 
leum; monumental. Burton. 

MAUSOLE'UM, ji. [h.;'Pr. mausolie; from 
Mausolus, liing of Caria, to whom Artemis- 
ia, liis widow, erected a stately monu- 

A magnificent tomb, or stately sepulchral 

MAU'THER, Ji. A foolish young girl. [JVot 
used.] B. Jonson. 

MA'VIS, n. [Fr. mauvis.] A bird, a species 

MAW, n. [Sax. maga ; Sw. mage sD.maag; 
G. magen.] 

1. The stomach of brutes ; applied to the 
stomach of human beings in contempt on- 


2. The craw of fowls. Arbiclhnol. 
MAWK, Ji. A maggot; a slattern. [N'otin 

MAWK'INGLY, adv. Slatternly; sluttish- 

ly. Bp. Taylor. 

MAWK'ISH, a. Apt to cause satiety or 


.So sweetly mawkish, and so smoothly dull. 

MAWK'ISHNESS, n. Aptness to cause 

JIAWK'Y, a. Maggoty. [Local.] Grose. 
MAVV'MET, n. [from Mahomet.] A puppet; 

anciently, an idol. Obs. Wickliffe. 

MAW'METRY, n. The religion of Moham- 
med ; also, idolatry. Obs. Chaucer. 
MAW'MISH, o. [from maw, or mawmel.] 

Foolish; silly; idle ; nauseous. 

MAW'W5RM, n. A worm that infests the 

stomach. Harvey. 

MAX'ILLAR, } [L. maxillaris, from 
MAX'ILLARY, ^ "• maxilla, the jaw-bone ; 

probably from the root of mash.] 
Pertaining to the jaw ; as the maxillary 

bones or glands. 
MAX'IM, n. [Fr. maxime, It. massima, L< 

maximum, literally the greatest.] 

1. An established principle or proposition ; a 
principle generally received or admitted as 
true. It is nearly the same in popular 
usage, as axiom in philosophy and mathe 

It is a maxim of .state, that countries newly 
acquired and not settled, are matters of burden 
rather than of strength. Bacon. 

It is their maxim, love is love's reward. 


2. In music, the longest note formerly used 
equal to two longs, or four breves. 

MAX'IM-MONGER, n. One who deals 

much in maxims. Chesterfield. 

MAX'IMUM, n. [L.] In mathematics, the 

greatest number or quantity attainable in 

any given case ; opposed to minimum. 
MAY, n. [h.Maius ;Fr. Mai; It. Maggio; 


1. The fifth month of the year, beginning 
with January, hut the third, beginning with 
March, lis was the ancient practice of the 

2. [Goth. mawi. See Maid.] A young wo 
ni:ui. Ohs. 

3. Tiic early p;>rt of Hfe. 

Hii .Uri// of youth and bloom of luslihood. 


MAY, 11. i. To gather flowers in May-morn- 
ing. Sidney. 

MAY, verb aux. ; pret. viight. [Sax. magan, to 
be strong or able, to avail ; D. ineijen or 
moogen ; G. miigen ; Russ. mogu. The 
old pret. mought is obsolete, but not whol- 
ly extinct among our common people. 
The sense is to strain or press.] 

1. To be possible. We say, a thing may be, 
or may not be ; an event may happen ; a 
thing ma?/ be done, if means are not want- 

2. To have physical power ; to be able. 
Make the most of life you may. Bourne. 

3. To have moral power ; to have liberty, 
leave, license or permission ; to be per- 
mitted ; to be allowed. A man may do 
what the laws permit. He may do what 
is not against decency, propriety or good 
manners. We may not violate the laws, 
or the rules of good breeding. I told the 
servant he might be absent. 

Thou mayest he no longer steward. Luke 

4. It is used in prayer and petitions to ex 
press desire. O may we never experi- 
ence the evils we dread. So also in ex- 
pressions of good will. May you live hap- 
pily, and be a blessing to your country 
It was formerly used for can, and its rad- 
ical sense is the same. 

May be, it may be, are expressions equivalent 
10 perhaps, by chance, peradventurc, that is, 
it is possible to be. 

MA'Y-APPLE, n. A plant of the genus 

MA'Y-BLOOM. n. The hawthorn. 

MA'Y-BUG, H. .\ charter. Ainsivorlh 

MA'Y-BUSII, n. A plant of the genus Cra- 

MA'Y-DAY, n. The first day of May. 

MA'Y-DEW, 11. The dew of May, which is 
said to whiten linen, and to afford by re 
peated distillations, a red and odoriferous 
spirit. It has been supposed that from 
the preparation of this dew, the Rosicru- 
cians took their name. Encyc. 

MA'Y-DUKE, 11. A variety of the common 

MA'Y-FLOWER, n. A plant ; a flower that 
appears in May. Bacon. 

M.\' Y-FLY, n. An insect or fly that appears 
in May. Walton. 

MA'Y-GAME, n. Sport or diversion ; play, 
such as is used on the first of May. 


MA'YING, n. The gathering of flowers on 

MA'Y-LADY, n. The queen or lady of May, 
in old May-games. Dryden. 

MA'Y-LILY, w.The lily of the valley, o'f the 
genus Convallaria. 

MA'Y-MORN, n. Freshness ; vigor. 


MA'Y-POLE, n. A pole to dance round in 
May ; a long ])ole erected. 

MA'Y-WEED, n. A plant of the genus -An 

MAYHEM. [See Maim.] 
MA'YOR, n. [Fr. maire ; Norm, maeur, 
mair, meyre ; Arm. mear ; W. inner, one 
stationed, one that looks after or tends, 
one that keeps or guards, a provost, a 
mayor, a bailiff'; maer y biswal, a land 
steward, the keeper of a cow-hire ; tnaer- 
drcv, a dairy hamlet ; maerdy, a dairy- 

farm ; matron, a male-keeper or dairy- 
farmer ; maeres, a female who looks after, 
a dairy-woman ; maeroni, the office of a 
keeper, siiperintendency, mayoralty ; Arm. 
miret, to kee|), slop, hold, coinciding with 
Fr. mirer, h. miror, the primary sense of 
which is precisely the same as in the Ar- 
moric. See Admirable and Miracle. A 
mayor, then, was originally an overseer, 
and among country gentlemen, a steward, 
a kind of domestic bailiff; rendered in the 
writings of the middle ages, viUicus. See 
Spelman ad vac. The derivation of the 
word from L. major, is undoubtedly an 

The chief magistrate of a city, who, in Lon- 
don and York, is called lord mayor. The 
mayor of a city, in America, is the chief 
judge of the city court, and is assisted, in 
some cases at least, by two or more alder- 
men. To the lord mayor of London be- 
long several courts of judicature, as the 
hustings, court of requests, and court of 
common council. 

ftlA'YORALTY, n. The ofiice of a mayor. 


MA'YORESS, n. The wife of a mayor. 

MAZ'AGAN, n. A variety of the common 
bean, [viciafaba.] 

MAZ'ARIJ, n. [probably from the root of 
marsh ; I'r. machoire.] 

1. The jaw. [JVot used.] 

Shak. Hudibras. 

2. A kind of cherry. 

MAZ'ARD, V. I. To knock on the head. 
[M'ot in use.] B. Jonson. 

MAZARINE, n. A deep blue color. 

2. A particular way of dressing fowls. 

2. A little dish set in a larger one. Ash. 

MAZE, n. [Sax. mase, a whirlpool ; Arm. 
mez, confusion or shame. The origin and 
affinities of this word are not ascertained.] 

1. A winding and turning ; perple.xed state of 
things; intricacy ; a state that embarrass- 

The ways of heaven are dark and intricate, 
Puzzled with mazes, and perplexed with er- 
ror. Addison. 

2. Confusion of thought; perplexity; uncer- 

3. A labyrinth. 

MAZE, v. t. To bewilder ; to confound with 
intricacy ; to amaze. Spenser. 

MAZE, V. i. To be bewildered. Obs. 


MA'ZEDNESS, n. Confusion; astonish- 
ment. Obs. Chaucer. 

MA'ZER, n. A maple cup. Obs. Spenser. 

MAZ0L06'I€AL, a. Pertaining to mazol- 


MAZOL'OgIST, )i. One versed in mazol- 

MAZOL'OtiY, ?i. [Gr. /mjo, a breast, and 
Tioyoj, discourse.] 

The doctrine or history of mammiferous 

MAZY, a. Winchng ; perplexed with turns 
and windings ; intricate ; as mazy error. 

To run the ring and trace the mazy round. 


M. D. Medicinw Doctor, doctor of medicine. 

ME, pron. pcrs.; the objective case of/, an- 
swering to the olilicpiecasesof f^o, in Lat- 
in. [Sax. me ; Goth, mik ; G. j«icA ; P'r. moi; 
L. mihi; Sp. mi; It. ;ni or me ; Arm. me; 

M E A 

M E A 

M E A 

Port, mini ; D. my ; Galic, mo ; Hindoo, 
viejko; Sans. me. The Hindoos use me in 
the nominative, as in Celtic and French, 
vii, moi.] 
Follow [me ; give to me ; go with me. The 
phrase " I followed me close," is not m 
use. Before think, as in methinks, me is 
properly in the dative case, and the verb 
is impersonal ; the construction is, it ap 
pears to me. 
ME'A€OCK, n. [Qu. meek and cock.] An 
uxorious, efleminate man. [M)t used.] 

ftlE'ACOCK, a. Lame; timorous: coward- 
ly. [Mit used.] Shak 
MEAD, n. [Sax. medo, medu, mead or wine ; 
D. meede ; G. meth ; Dan. miod ; W. mez ; 
Ir. miodh or meadh ; Arm. mez. In Gr. 
ftidv is wine, as is madja in Sanscrit, and 
medo in Zend. In Russ. med or meda is 
honey. If the word signifies primarily 
liquor in general, it may be allied to Gr. 
fiv&au, L. madeo, to be wet. But it may 
have liad its name from honey.] 
A fermented liquor consisting of honey and 
water, sometimes enriched with spices. 

MEAD, ) meed, ) [Sax. mccde, mit- 

MEADOW, \ "■ med'o. \ dewe ; G. matte, 
a mat, and a meadow ; Ir. madh. Tht 
sense is extended or flat depressed land. 
It is supposed that this word enters into 
the name Mediolanum, now Milan, in 
Italy ; that is, mead-land.] 
A tract of low land. In America, tlie word 
is applied particularly to the low ground 
on the banks of rivers, consisting of a 
rich mold or an alluvial soil, whether 
grass land, pasture, tillage or w^ood land ; 
as the meadows on the banks of the Con- 
necticut. The word with us does not ne- 
cessarily imply wet land. Tliis species of 
land is called, in the western states, bot- 
toms, or bottom land. The word is also 
used for other low or flat lauds, iiarticu- 
larly lands appropriated to tlie culture of 

The word is said to be applied iu Great 
Britain to land somewhat watery, but 
covered with grass. Johnson. 

Meadow means pasture or grass land, 
annually mown for hay ; but more partic- 
ularly, land too moist for cattle to graze 
on iu winter, without spoiling the sward. 
Encyc. Cyc. 
[Mead is used chiefly in poetry.] 
MEAD'OW-ORE, n. In mineralogy, cnu- 
choidal bog iron ore. Ure. 

MEAD'OW-RUE, n. A plant of the genus 

MEAD'OW-SAFFRON, ». A plant of the 

genus Colchicum. 
MEADOW-SAXIFRAGE, n. A plant of 

the genus Peucedanum. 
MEAD'OW-SWEET, n. A plant of the 

genus Si)ir!ea. 
MEAD'OW-WORT, n. A plant. Drayton 
MEAD'OWY, a. Containing meadow. 

J. Darlou\ 
ME'AGER, a. [Fr. mnigre ; Sp. It. ma 
gro ; L. macer ; D. G. Dan. Sw. ma 
f^er ; Gr. jutxxoj, juixpof, small ; allied to 
Eng. meek; Ch. IXD, to be thin, to be ile 
pressed, to subdue; Hob. "IlOid. Class Mg. 
No. 2. 9. and 10. 13.1 

1. Thin ; lean ; destitute of flesh or having 
little flesh ; applied to animals. 

Afeager were his look?. 
Sharp misery had worn him to the bones. 


2. Poor ; barren ; destitute of richness, fer- 
tility, or any thing valuable ; as a meager 
soil ; meager limestone. 

Journ. of Science 

3. Barren ; poor ; wanting strength of dic- 
tion, or richness of ideas or imagery ; as a 
meager style or composition ; meager an- 

ME'AGER, V. I. To make lean. [JVo< used.] 

ME'AGERLY, adv. Poorly ; thinly. 
iME'AGERNESS, n. Leanness ; want of| 

2. Poorness ; barrenness ; want of fertility 
or richness. 

3. Scantiness ; barrenness ; as the meager- 
ness of service. Bacon 

MEAK, n. A hook with a long handle. 

MEAL, n. [Sax. ma:l, a part or portion ; D. 

maal; G.mahl; probably from breaking. 

See the next word.] 

1. A portion of food taken at one time ; a 
repast. It is customary in tlie U. States 
to eat three meals in a day. The principal 
meal of our ancestors was dinner, at noon 

2. Apart; a fragment; in the word piece- 

MEAL, n. [Sax. mea?C!«e, melewe ; G.mehl; 
Sw. mibl ; Dan. D. 7neel ; G. mehlicht, 
mealy, mellow ; VV. mdl, bruised, ground, 
smooti). This word seems to be allied to 
mill, L. mola, and to L. mollis, Eng. mellow. 
The radical sense is probably to break, 
comminute, or grind to fine particles, and 
hence the sense of softness ; or the sense 
of softness may be from yielding or smooth- 
ness, and the verb may be from the noun.] 

1. The substance of edible grain ground to 
fine particles, and not bolted or sifted. 
Meal ])rimarily includes the bran as well 
as the flour. Since bolting has been gen- 
erally practiced, the word meal is not gen- 
erally applied to the finer part, or flour, at 
least in tiic United States, though I believe 
it is sometimes so used. In New Eng- 
land, meal is now usually applied to ground 
maiz, whether bolted or unbolted, called 
Indian meal, or corn-meal. The words 
wheat-meal and rye-meal are rarely used, 
though not wholly extinct ; and meat oc 
curs also in oatmeal. 

2. Flour ; the finer part of pulverized grain. 
[This sense is now uncommon.] 

MEAL, 1'. t. To sprinkle with meal 
or to mix meal w ith. [lAtlle itscd.] 

ME'ALINESS, n. The quality of being 
mealy ; softness or smoothness to the 

MEA'L-MAN, v. A man that deals in meal. 

ME'AL-TIME, n. The usual time of eatin 

ME'ALY, o. Having the qualities of meal; 
soft ; smooth to the feel. 

2. Like meal ; farinaceous ; .soft, dry and 
friable ; as a mealy potatoe ; a mff(/^ap])le. 

.3. Overspread with something that resem- 
bles meal ; as the mealy wings of an in 
sect. Thomson. 

ME'ALY-MOUTHED, a. Literally, iiavin 
a soft mouth ; hence, unwilling to tell the 

truth in plain language ; inclined to si)eak 
of any thing in softer tenns than the truth 
will warrant. VEstrange. 

MEALY-MOUTH'EDNESS, n. Inchnation 
to express the truth iu soft words, or to 
disguise the plain fact ; reluctance to tell 
the plain truth. 
MEAN, a. [Sax. mane, gemane ; the latter 
word signifies common, L. fommunt*. 
Mean coincides in eh^tients with Sax. 
mmneg, many, anil the pririiary sense may 
be a crowd, like vulgar, from L. valgus. If 
the primary siMLse is small, it coincides 
with Ir. j(iio)i, \V. man or main, Fr. me- 
nu. It. meno, L. minor and minuo, to di- 
minish ; but I think the word belongs to 
the root of common. See Class Mn. No. 
2 and 5.] 
1. Wanting dignity; low in rank or birth; 
as a man of mean parentage, mean birth 
I or origin. 

i2. Wanting dignity of mind ; low minded ; 
base ; destitute of honor ; spiritless. 
Can you imagine 1 so mean could prove, 
To save my lilc by changing of my love ? 

Contemptible ; despicable. 
The Roman legions ajid great Cesar found 
Our fathers no mean foes. Philip.i. 

4. Of little value ; low in worth or estima- 
tion ; worthy of little or no regard. 

We, not to please men, nor to promote 

any mean worldly interest. SmalrUlge. 

'p. Of little value ; humble ; poor ; as a 

I menn abode ; a mean dress. 

MEAN, a. [Fr. moyen ; Sp. Port, mediano ; 

L. medium, medius ; Ir. meadhan. See 


1. Middle ; at an equal distance from the ex- 
tremes ; as the mean distance ; the mean 
proportion between quantities ; the mean 

According to the fittest style of lofty, mean, 
or lowly. Milton. 

2. Intervening ; intermediate ; coming be- 
tween ; as in the mean time or while. 

MEAN, n. The middle point or place ; the 
middle rate or degree; mediocrity ; me- 
dium. Observe the golden mean. 

There is a mean in all things. Dryden. 

liut no authority of gods or men 
Allow of any mean in poesy. Roscommon. 
Intervening time ; interval of time ; inte- 
rim ; meantime. 

And in the mean, vouchsafe her honorable 
tomb. Spenser. 

Here is an omission oCtime or while. 

3. Measure ; regulation. [JVot in use.] 


4. Instrument ; that which is used to effect 
an object ; the medium through which 
something is done. 

The virtuous conversation of christians \va-" a 
mean to work the conversion of the heathen to 
Christ. Hunker. 

In this sense, means, iu the plural, is 
generally used, and often with a definitive 
and verb in the singular. 

By Mi's means he had tliim more at vantajc. 


A good chai-actcr, when established, should 
not be rested on as an end, but employed as a 
means of doing good. Atterbury. 

Means, m the jiluial, income, revenue, re- 
sources, substance or estate, considered 
as the instrument of elTecting any purpose. 
He would have built a housCi but he want- 
ed fflctijij. 

M E A 

M E A 

M E A 

\oi\r means are slender. Shak: 

a. Iiistrunient of action or performance. 
By all means, without fail. Go, by all 

By no means, not at all ; certainly not ; not 

in any degree. 

The wine on this side of the lake is by no 

means so good as that on the other. Mdison 
By no manner of means, by no means ; not 

tbe least. Burke. 

By any means, possibly ; at all. 

II 6^ any means I might attain to the resur- 
rection of the dead. Phil. iii. 

Meantime, ? in the intervening time. [In 

Meanwhile, ^ this use of these words there 
is an omission o{in or in the ; inthe mean 

MEAN, V. t. pret. and pp. meant ; pronounc- 
ed ment. [Sax. mcenan, menan, to mean, 
to intend, also to relate, to recite or te 
also to moan, to lament ; G. meinen ; D. 
nieenen ; Sw. mena ; Dan. meener, mener ; 
Russ. nmya, to think or believe ; Ir. smu- 
ainim. It coincides in origin with L. 
mens, Eng. mind. The primary sense is 
to set or to thrust forward, to reach, 
stretch or extend. So in L. intendo, to 
stretch onw ard or towards, and ^Jropono, to 
propose, to set or put forward.] 

1. To'liave in the mind, view or contempla- 
tion ; to intend. 

What mean you by this service ? Ex. xii 

2. To intend ; to purpose ; to design, with 
reference to a future act. 

Ye thought evil against me, but God meant it 
for good. Gen.l. 

3. To signify ; to indicate 

\Vhat tnean these seven ewe lambs ? Gen. 

^Vhat meaneth the noise of this great shout 
in the camp of theHebrews ? 1 Sam. iv. 

Go ye, and learn what that meaneth — Matt, 


MEAN, V. i. To have thought or ideas ; or 

to have meaning. Pope. 

MEAN'DER, n. [the name of a winding 

river in Phrygia.] 

1. A winding course ; a winding or turning 
in a passage ; as the meanders of the veins 
and arteries. Hale. 

While lingering rivers in meanders glide. 


2. A maze ; a labyrinth ; perplexity; as the 
meanders of the law. Arbuthnot. 

MEAN'DER, v. t. To wind, turn or flow 
round ; to make flexuous. Drayton. 

MEAN'DER, v. i. To wind or turn in a 
course or passage ; to be intricate. 


IMEAN'DERING, ppr. or a. Winding in a 
course, passage or current 

MEAN'DRIAN, a " ' ' 
ny turns. 

ME'ANING, ppr. Having in mind ; intend 
ing ; signifying. 

ME'ANING, n. That which exists in the 
niinil, view or contenii)lation as a settled 
aim or purpose, though not directly ex 
pressed. We say, this or that is not his 

2. Iiitcnliun ; pm-posc ; aim; with reference 
to a future act. 

1 am no honest man, if there be any 2;ood 
meanvnt; towards you. Shak 

3. Signification. What is the menniii^ of all 
this parade ? The meaning of a hiero- 
glypliii- is not alwa\s obvious 

4. The sense of words or expressions ; that 
which is to be understood ; signification ; 
that which the writer or speaker intends 
to express or communicate. Words have 
a literal meaning, or a metaphorical tiiean- 
ing, and it is not always easy to ascertain 
the real meaning. 

5. Sense ; power of thinking. [LAttle used.] 
ME'ANLY, adt). [See Mean.] Moderately; 

not in a great degree. 

In the reign of Uomitian, poetry was meanly 
cultivated. [JVbt used.] Dryden. 

2. Without dignity or rank ; in a low condi- 
tion ; as meanly born. 

3. Poorly ; as meanly dressed. 

4. Without greatness or elevation of mind ; 
without honor ; with a low mind or nar 
row views. He meanly declines to fulfill 
his promise. 

Would you meanly thus rely 

On power, you know, 1 must obey ? Prior. 

5. Without respect ; disrespectfully. We 
cannot bear to hear others speak meanly 
of our kindred. 

ME'ANNESS, n. Want of dignity or rank 
low state ; as meanness of birth or condi 
tion. Poverty is not always meanness ; it 
may be connected with it, but men of dig- 
nified minds and manners are often poor 

2. Want of excellence of any kind ; poor- 
ness ; rudeness. 

This figure is of a later date, by the mean- 
ness of the workmanship. Addison. 

3. Lowness of mind ; want of dignity and 
elevation ; want of honor. Meanness in 
men incurs contempt. All dishonesty is 

4. Sordidness; niggardliness; opposed to 
liberality or charitableness. Meanness is 
very different from frugality. 

5. Want of richness; poorness; as the 
meanness of dress or equipage. 

MEANT, pret. attdpp. oi' mean. 

MEAR. [SeeJlfere.] 

ME'ASE, n. [from the root of measure.] 
The quantity of 500 ; as a mease of her- 
rings. [JVbt used in America.] 

MEASLE, n. mee'd. A leper. [iN'ot in use.] 


MEASLED, a. mee'zled. [See Measles.] 
Infected or spotted with measles. 

MEASLES, ?i. mee'zles ; with a plural ter- 
mination. [G. ma«er, a spot ; masrg-, nieas- 
led ; D. mazelen ; from sprinkling or from 
mixing. Class Ms. No. 14. 15.] 

). A contagious disease of the human body, 
usually characterized by an eruption of 
small red points or spots, from which it 
has its name. 

2. A disease of swine. B. Jonson. 

3. A disease of trees. Mortimer. 
MEASLY, a. mee'zly. Infected with measles 

or eruptions. Swift. 

MEASUIIABLE, a. mezh'urable. [See 

1. That may be measured; susceptible of 
mensuration or computation. Bentley. 

2. Moderate ; in small quantity or extent. 
MEASURABLENESS, ?i. mezh'urableness. 

The quality of admitting nieusuration. 
MEASURABLY, adv. mezh'urably. Mod- 

eratelv ; in a funitcd degree. 
MEASURE, n. mezh'ur. [Kr. mesxire ; It. 

misura ; S|). medida ; Ann. or mu- 

sul ; Ir. meas ; W. meidyr and mesur ; G. 

mass, measure, and mcssai, to nicasuru ; 

D. maat ; Sw. matt ; Dan. mcuide, meas- 
ure, and mode ; L. mensura, from mensvs, 
with a casual n, the participle of metior, to 
measure, Eng. to mete ; Gr. fit rpor, /itTptw. 
Witli these correspond the Eng. meet, fit, 
proper, and meet, the verb; Sax. gemet, 
meet, fit ; metan and gemettan, to meet or 
meet with, to find, to mete or measure, 
and to paint. Tiie sense is to come to, to 
fall, to happen, and this sense is connected 
with that of stretching, extending, that is. 
reaching to ; the latter gives the sense of 
measure. We find in Heb. HD measure ; 
mo, to mete, to measure. This word in Ar. 

A^ madda, signifies to stretch or extend, 

to draw out in length or time ; as do other 
verbs with the same elements, under one 
of which we find the meta of the Latins. 
The Ch. t«3D signifies to come to, to ar- 
rive, to reach, to be mature, and NXD, in 
Heb. Ch. and Eth. signifies to find, to 
come to. Now the Saxon verb unites in 
itself the significations of all three of the 
oriental verbs.] 

1. The whole extent or dimensions of a 
thing, including length, breadth and thick- 

The measure thereof is longer than the earth 
and broader than the sea. Job xi. 

It is applied also to length or to breadth 

2. That by which extent or dimension is as- 
certained, either length, breadth, thick- 
ness, capacity, or amount ; as, a rod or 
pole is a measure of five yards and a half; 
an inch, a foot, a yard, are measures of 
length ; a gallon is a measure of capacity. 
Weights and measures should be uniform. 
Silver and gold are the common measure 
of value. 

3. A limited or definite quantity ; as a meas- 
ure of wine or beer. 

4. Determined extent or length ; limit. 
Lord, make me to know rny end, and the 

7neasure of my days. Ps. xxxix. 

5. A rule by which any thing is adjusted or 

God's goodness is the measure of his provi- 
dence. .More. 

6. Proportion ; quantity settled. 
I enter not into the particulars of the law of 

nature, or its measures of punishment ; yet 
there is such a law. Locke. 

7. Full or sufficient quantity. 
I'll never pause again, 

Till either death halh clos'd these eyes of mine, 
Orfortune given nie measure of revenge. 


8. Extent of power or office. 
We will not boast of things without our 

measure. 2 Cor. x. 

9. Portion allotted ; extent of abiUty. 
If else thou seekest 

Aught not surpassing human measure, say. 


10. Degree ; quantity indefinite. 

I have laid down, in some measure, tlie des- 
cription of the old world. Mbot. 

A ^reMi measure of discretion is to be used in 
the performance of confession. Taylor. 

11. In mi(.9i>, that division by which the mo- 
tion of music is regulated ; or the interval 
or space of time between the rising and 
fulling of the hand or foot of him who beats 
time. This measure regulates the time of 

M E A 

M E C 

M E C 


dwelling on each note. The ordinary orljMEASURING, ppr. mezh'uring. Corapu-I 

ting or ascertaining lengtli, dimensions, 
[ capacity or amount. j 

2. a. A measuring cast, a throw or cast that; 
requires to he measured, or not to be dis-i 
tiiiguishcd liom another but by ineasur 
ing. ff'aller. 

MEAT, n. [Sax. male, mete ; Got\i. mats ; 
Sw. mat ; Dan. mad ; Hindoo, jiias. In W 
maethu signifies to feed, to nourish, Corn. 
methia. In the language of the Moliegans, 
in America, meetseh signifies, eat thou ; 
meetsoo, he eats. Qu. maiz and must.] 

1. Food in general; any thing eaten for 
nourishment, either by man or beast. 

And (iod .said, Behold, I have given you 
every herb — to you it shall lie for meat. Gen. i 

Every moving thing that liveth, shall be 
meat for you. Gen. ix. 

Thy carcase shall be meat to all fowls of the 
air. Deut. xxviii. 

2. The flesh of animals used as food. This 
is iiotv the more usual sense of the u-ord. 
The meal of carnivorous animals is tough, 
coarse and ill flavored. The mca/of herb 
ivorous animals is generally palatable. 

In Scripture, spiritual food ; that which 
sustains and noiuishes spiritual life or 

My flesh is meat indeed. John vl 

4. Spiritual comfort ; that which delights 
the soul. 

My men! is to do the will of him that sent 
nie. Jolin iv. 

5. Products of the earth proper for food. 
Hab. iii. 

6. The more abstruse doctrines of the gos- 
))el, or mysteries of religion. Heh. v. 

7. Ceremonial ordinances. Ileh. xiii. 
To sit at meat, to sit or recline at the table. 


ME'ATED, a. Fed ; flittencd. [ATot used.]\ 


MEATIIE, Ji. [\V. jHf:. Hoe Mead.] Liquor 
or drink. LYot used.] Milton 

ME'AT-OFFERINC;, n. An oflering con- 
sisting of meat or food. 

ME'ATY, a. Fleshy, but not fat. [Local.] 


MEAWL. [See MewL] 

ME'AZLING, ppr. Falling in small drops ; 
properly mi;;/i/i_ff, or rather mistliiig, fron 
mist. Arlmlhnol. 

ME€HAN'I€, \ [L. mechaninis ; Fr. 

MECHAN'IGAL, ^ mechanique; Gr. 
;fai'txo5, from ftrixavr,, a machine.] 

1. Pertaining to machines, or to the art of 
constructing machines ; pertaining to the 
art of making wares, goods, instruments, 
furniture, &c. We say, a man is employ- 
ed in mechanical labor ; he lives by me- 
chanical occupation. 

2. Constructed or performed by the rules or 
laws of mechanics. The work is not mc 

3. Skilled in the art of making machines; 
bred to manual labor. Johnson. 

4. Pertaining to artisans or mechanics; vul- 

To make a god, a hero or a king. 
Descend to a mechanic dialect. 


5. Pertaining to the principles of mechanics, 
in philosophy ; as mechanical powers or 
forces; a mechanical principle. 

6. Acting by physical power ; as mechanical 


common measure is one second. Encyc. 

12. In potlry, the measure or meter is the 
manner of ordering and combining the 
quantities, or the long and short syllables. 
Thus hexameter, pentameter, Iambic, 
Sapphic verses, &c. consist of different 
measures. Encyc. 

13. In dancing, the interval between steps, 
corresponding to the interval between 
notes in the music. 

My legs can keep no 7neasure in delight. 


14. In geometry, any quantity assumed as 
one or unity, to which the ratio of other 
homogeneous or similar quantities is ex- 
pressed. Encyc. 

15. Means to an end ; an act, step or pro- 
ceeding towards the accomplishment of an 
object ; an extensive signification of the 
word, applicable to almost even/ act prepara- 
tory to a final end, and by which it is to be 
attained. Thus we speak of legislative 
measures, political measures, public meas 
ures, prudent measures, a rash measure, ef- 
fectual measures, ineflicicnt measures. 

In measure, with moderation ; witliout ex 

Jfithout measure, without limits ; very largely 
or co])iously. 

To liavc hard measure, to be harshly or Oj: 
pressively treated. 

Lineal or long measure, measure of length ; 
the njcasure of lines or distances. 

Liquid measure, t\\e measure of liquors. 

MEASURE, r. t. mezli'ur. To compute or 
ascertain extent, quantity, dimensions or 
cajiacity by a certain rule ; as, to measure 
land ; to measure distance ; to measure the 
altitude of a mountain ; to measure the ca- 
|)acity of a ship or of a cask. 

2. To ascertain the degree of any thing ; as, 
to measure the degrees of heat, or of moist- 

3. To pass through or over. 

We must measure twenty miles to day. 

The vessel plows the sea. 
And tneasures back with speed her former 
way. Dry den. 

4. To judge of distance, extent or quantity : 
as, to measure any thing by the eye. 

Great are thy woiks, Jehovah, infinite 
Tliy power ; what thought can measure thee : 


5. To adjiist ; to proportion. 

To secure a contented spirit, measure youi 
desires by your fortunes, not your fortunes by 
your desires. Taylor. 

To allot or distribute by measure. 

With what measure ye mete, it shall be 

measured to you again. Matt, vii 

MEASURED, pp. mezh'ured. Computed or 

ascertained by a rule ; adjusted; propor 

tioncd ; passed over. 

a. a. Equal ; uniform ; steady. He walked 

with measured steps. 
MEASURELESS, o. mezh'urless. Without 
measure; milimited; immeasurable. 

MEASUREMENT, n. mezh'urment. tIic 
act of measuring ; mensuration. Burke 

MEASURER, n. mezh'urer. One who meas- 
ures ; one whose occupation or duty is to 
measure commodities in market- 

Vol. II 

xr. fir,. 

The terms mechanical and chimical, are thus 
distinguished : those changes which bod- 
ies undergo without altering their con- 
stitution, that is, losing their identity, such 
as changes of place, of figure, &,c. arc 
mechanical ; those which alter the consti- 
tution of bodies, making them different 
substances, as w hen flour^ yeast and water 
unite to form bread, are chimical. In the 
one case, the changes relate to masses of 
matter, as the motions of the heavenly 
bodies, or the action of the wind on a ship 
under sail; in the other case, the changes 
occin- between the particles of matter, as 
the action of heat in niching lead, or the 
union of sand and lime forming mortar. 
Most of what are usually called the me- 
chanic arts, are partly mechanical, and 
partly chimical. 

ME€HAN'IC, n. A person whose occupa- 
tion is to construct machines, or goods, 
wares, instnnnents, furniture, and the like. 

2. One skilled in a mechanical occupation 
or art. 

MECHANICALLY, adv. According to the 
laws of mechanism, or good workman- 

2. By physical force or power. 

3. By the laws of motion, without intelli- 
gence or design, or by the force of habit. 
We say, a man arrives to such perfection 
in playing on an instrument, that his fin- 
gers move mechanically. 

Mechanically turned or inclined, naturally or 
habitually disposed to use mechanical 
arts. Sivin. 

MEGHAN' IGALNESS, n. The state of 
being mechanical, or governed by mechan- 
MEGHANI'CIAN, n. One skilled in me- 
MECHAN'IGS, n. That science which 
treats of the doctrines of motion. It in- 
vestigates the forces by which bodies arc 
kept either in equilibrium or in motion, 
and is accordingly divided into statics and 

A mathematical science which sliows the ef- 
fects of powers or moving forces, so far 
as they are applied to engines, and demon- 
strates the laws of motion. Harris. 
It is a well known tnith in mechanics, thai 
Uie actual and theoretical powers of a machine 
will never coincide. J. Jlppleton 

MECHANISM, n. The construction of a 
machine, engine or instrument, intended 
to apply power to a useful purpose ; the 
structure of parts, or manner in which the 
l)arts of a machine are united to answer 
its design. 

2. Action of a machine, according to the 
laws of mechanics. 

MEGH'ANIST, n. The maker of machines, 
or one skilled in mechanics. 

ME€H LIN, n. A species of lace, made at 

MEGHO'AGAN, n. White jalap, the root of 
an American species of Convolvulus, from 
Mechoacan, in Mexico ; a purgative of 
slow operation, but safe. Encyc. 

MEGO'NIATE, n. A salt consisting of me- 
conic acid and a base. 

ME€ON'I€, a. Meconic acid is an acid con- 
tained in opium. 

MEG'ONITE, 71. A small sandstone ; am- 
mite. Coxe. De Cosla. 




MECONIUM, n. [Gr. /i^xunov, from f»>?xwr, 

1. Tlie juice of tlie white poppy, which has 
the virtues of opium. Core. Encyc. 

2. The first foBces of infants. Coxe. 
MED'AL, n. [Fr. medaille ; It. medaglia ; 

Sp. medatla ; Arm. melallinn ; from L. 

metallum, metal. Qu. Ar. 

Jkla^ matala, 
Class Md 


to beat or e.xtend by beating. 
No. 45.] 
An ancient coin, or a piece of metal in the 
form of a coin, stamped with some figure 
or device to preserve the portrait of some 
distinguished person, or the memory of an 
illustrious action or event. 
MEDAL'LIC, a. Pertaining to a medal or 
to medals. Addison. 

MEDAL' LION, n. [Fr.; from medal.] A 

large antique stamp or medal. 
2. The representation of a medallion. 
MED'ALLIST, >!. A person that is skilled 
or curious in medals. Johnson. 

MED'DLE, V. i. [D. middehn, to mediate ; 
G. miitler, middle, and mediator; Sw. 
medlare ; Dan. midUr, a incdiator. Qu. 
Sw. meddela, Dan. meddder, to communi- 
cate or participate; nitd, with, and rfe/a, 
dteUr, to deal. Meddle seems to be con- 
nected with medley, a mixture. Chaucer 
and Spenser use medle, to mix, and the G. 
mittler is evidently from mitte, mittel, mid- 
dle, which seems to be connected with 
mil, with. In W. mid signifies an inclo- 
sure. Perhaps all these words may be- 
long to one family.] 
1. To have to do ; to take part ; to interpose 
and act in the concerns of others, or in af- 
fairs in which one's interposition is not ne- 
cessary ; often with the sense of intrusion 
or officiousness. 

I have thus far been an upright judge, not 
meddling witli the design nor disposition. 

Dry den. 
What hast tl)Ou to do to meddle with the af- 
fairs of my family > Jirbuthnot. 
Why should'st thou meddle to thy hurt .' 2 
Kings xiv. 
3. To have to do; to touch; to handle. 
Meddle not with edge-tools, is an admoni- 
tion to children. When the object is spe- 
cified, meddle is properly followed by with 
or in; usually by the former. 

The ci\ il lawyers — have meddled in a matter 
that belongs not to them. Locke 

MED'DLE,' I'. I. To mix ; to mingle. 

He meddled his talk with many a tear. 06s. 

MEDDLER, n. One that meddles ; one that 
interferes or busies himself with things in 
which he has no concern ; an oflicious per- 
son : a busy bodv. Bacon.' 
MED'DLESOME," a. Given to meddling 
apt to interpose in the aflairs of others; 
ofliciouslv intrusive. 
MED'DLESOMENESS, n. Officious inter- 
position in the affairs of others. Barrow. 
MED'DLING, ppr. Having to do ; touch- 
ing; handling; officiously interposing in 
other men's concerns. 
2. a. Officious; busy in other men's affairs; 

as a ?nc(ii/it/ig neighbor. 
ME'DIAL, a. [L. medius, middle.] Mean 

noting a mean or average. 
Medird altif^alion, is a metliod of finding the 
mean rate or value of a mixture coiisistin 

of two or more ingredients of different 
quantities and values. In this case, the 
quantity and value of each ingredient are 
ME'DIANT, n. In music, an appellation 
given to the third above the key-note, be- 
cause it divides the interval between the 
tonic and dominant into two thirds. 

Rousseau. Busby. 
ME'DIATE, a. [Fr medial; It. mediato ; 
from L. medius, middle.] Middle ; being 
between the two extremes. 

Anxious we hover in a mediate state. Prior. 
Interposed; intervening; being between 
two objects. 

Soon the mediate clouds shall be dispelled. 

Acting by means, or by an intervening 
cause or instrument. Thus we speak of 
mediate and immediate causes. The wind 
that propels a ship is the immediate cause 
of its motion ; the oar with which a man 
rows a boat is the immediate cause of its 
motion ; but the rower is the mediate 
cause, acting by means of the oar. 
ME'DIATE, V. i. To interpose between 
parties, as the equal friend of each ; to act 
indifferently between contending parties, 
with a view to reconciliation ; to inter- 
cede. The prince that mediates between 
nations and prevents a war, is the bene- 
factor of both parties. 
a. To be between two. [Litlle used.] Digby. 
ME'DIATE, t'. t. To effect by mediation or 
interposition between parties ; as, to medi- 
ate a peace. Clarendon. 
I. To limit by something in the middle. [A'b( 
tised.] Holder. 
ME'DIATELY, adv. By means or by a 
secondary cause, acting between the first 
cause and the efi'ect. 

God worketh all things amongst us mediately 
by secondary means. Raleigh 

The king grants a manor to A, and A grants 
a portion of it to B. In this case, B holds his 
lands immediately of A, but mediately of the 
kino-. " Blackstone. 

MEDIATION, n. [Fr. from L. medius, 

Interposition; intervention; agency be- 
tween parties at variance, with a view to 
reconcile them. The contentions of indi- 
viduals and fiimilies are often terminated 
by the mediation of friends. The contro- 
versies of nations are sometimes adjusted 
by mediation. Tlie reconciliation of sin 
ners to God by the mediation of Christ, is 
a glorious display of divine benevolence. 
Agency interposed ; intervenient power 
The soul, dining its residence in the body, 
docs all things by (he mediation of the passions 

Intercession ; entreaty for another. 

MEDIA'TORSHIP, n. The office of a me- 

MEDIA'TRESS, \ A female mediator. 

MEDIA'TRIX, S Ainsioorlh. 

MED'IC, n. A plant of the genus Medicago. 
The sea-medic is of the same genus ; the 
medic vetch is of the genus Hedysarum. 

Fam. of Plants. 

MED'leABLE, a. [See Medical] That 
may be cured or healed. 

MED'I€AL, a. [L.medicus, from mcrfeor, to 
heal ; Gr. nrjiixoi, ^njiofMi ; fujSoj, cure.] 

1. Pertaining to the art of heahng diseases : 



MEDIA'TOR, ?i. [Fr. mediateur.] One that 
interposes between parties at variance for' 
the purpose of reconciling them. 

I. Byway of eminence, Christ is the medi- 
ator, the divine intercessor through 
whom sinners may be reconciled to an of- 
fended God. Tiiii. 3. 

Christ is a mediator by nature, as partaking 
of both natures divine and human; and media- 
tor by office, as transacting matters betwetn 
God and man. VVaterland. 

MEDIATO'RIAL, n. Belonging to a medi- 
ator ; as mediatorial office or character. 
[Mediatory is not used.] 

as the medical profession ; medical services. 
"2. Medicinal ; containing that which heals ; 
tending to cure; as the jnerficai properties 
of a plant. 
MEDICALLY, adv. In the manner of 
medicine ; according to the rules of the 
healing art, or for the purpose of healing ; 
as a simple or mineral medically used or 

Ill relation to the healing art ; as a plant 
medically considered. 
MED'ICAMENT, n. [Fr. from L. medica- 

Any thing used for healing diseases or 
wounds ; a medicine ; a healing applica- 
tion. Coxe. 
MEDICAMENT'AL, a. Relating to healing 
applications ; having the qualities of med- 
MEDICAMENTALLY, adv. After tlie 

manner of healing applications. 
MED'ICASTER. n. A quack. Whitlock. 
MED'ICATE, V. t. [L. medico.] To tinc- 
ture or impregnate with healing sub- 
stances, or with any thing medicinal. 

MED'ICATED, pp. Prepared or furnished 

with any thing medicinal. 

MED'ICATING, ppr. Impregnating with 

medical substances ; preparing with any 

thing medicinal. 

MEDICATION, n. The act or process of 

impregnating with medicinal substances; 

the infusion of medicinal virtues. Bacon. 

2. TJie use of medicine. Brown. 

MEDIC'INABLE, a. Having the properties 

of medicine ; medicinal. [The latter is the 

word now ttsed.] Bacon. IVotlon. 

MEDICINAL, a. [L. medicinalis.] Having 

the property of healing or of mitigating 

disease ; adapted to the cure or alleviation 

of bodily disorders; as medicinal plants; 

medicinal virtues of minerals; medicinal 

springs. The waters of Saratoga and 

Ballston are remarkably medicinal.] 

2. Pertaining to medicine ; as medieino/ days 

or hours. Quincy. 

MEDICINALLY, adv. In the manner of 

medicine ; with medicinal qualities. 
2. AVith a view to healing ; as, to use a 

iiiiiioral medicinally. 
MED'ICINE, n. [L. medicina, from medeor, 
to cure; vulgarly and improperly pro- 
nounced med'sn.] 
1. Any substance, liquid or solid, that has 
the property of curing or mitigating dis- 
ease in animals, or that is used for that 
purpose. Simples, jilants and tninerals 
furnish most of our medicines. Even poi- 
sons used with judgment and in modera- 
tion, are safe and eflic.acions medicine.i. 
Medicines are internal or exia-nai, simpk 
or compound. 



M E E 

2. The art of preventing, curing or allevi- 
ating the diseases of the human body. 
Hence we say, tlie study of medicine, or a 
student of medicine. . 

3. In the French sense, a physician. [Mt in 
use.] ''*'"'*■ 

MED'ICINE, V. t. To affect or operate on 

as medicine. [M'ot used.] Skak. 

MEDI'ETY, n. [Fr. medieU; L. medietas; 

from L. medius, middle.] 
Tlie middle state or part; half; moiety. 

[lAlUe used.] Brown. 

ME'DIN, n. A small coin. 
MEDIO'CRAL, a. [L. mediocris.] Being 

of a middle quality ; indifferent ; ordinary ; 

as mediocral intellect. [Rare.] Addison. 
ME'DIOCRIST, n. A person of middling 

abilities. [M'ot used.] Smft. 

MEDIOe'RITY, n. [L. mediocritas, from 

mediocris, middling ; medius, middle.] 

1. A middle state ordegree ; a moderate de 
gree or rate. A mediocrity of condition is 
most favorable to morals and happiness. 
A mediocrity of talents well employed will 
generally ensui-e respectability. 

Men of age seldom drive business home to 
the full period, but content themselves nith a 
tnedioc/'ity of success. Bacon, 

2. Moderation ; temperance. 

We owe obedience to the law of reason, 
■which teacheth mediocrity in meats and drinks. 

MED'ITATE, t'. i. [L. meditor; Sp. medi- 
tar ; Fr. ynediter.] 

1. To dwell on any thing in thought ; to 
contemplate ; to study ; to turn or revolve 
any subject in the mind ; appropriately 
but not exclusively used of pious contem- 
plation, or a consideration of the great 
truths of religion. 

His delight is in the law of the Lord, and in 
his law doth he7neditate day and night. Ps. i 

2. To intend ; to have in contemplation. 

I meditate to pass the remainder of life in a 
state of undisturbed repose. Washington. 

MED'ITATE, v. t. To plan by revolving in 
the mind ; to contrive ; to intend. 
Some affirmed that I meditated a war. 

King Charles. 
2. To think on ; to revolve in the mind. 

Blessed is tlie man that doth meditate good 
tilings. Ecclus. 

MEDITATED, pp. Planned ; contrived. 
MEDITATING, ppr. Revolving in the 

mind ; contemplating ; contriving. 
MEDITA'TION, n. [L. meditatio.] Close 
or continued thought ; the turning or re- 
volving of a subject in the mind ; serious 

Let the words of my moutli and the medita 
tions of my heart be acceptable in thy sight, O 
Lord, my strength and my Redeemer. Ps. xix. 
MED'ITATIVE, a. Addicted to medita- 
tion. Ainsivorth 
2. Expressing meditation or design. 

MEDITERRA'NE, > [L. medius. 

MEDITERRANEAN, S a. middle, and 
MEDITERRA'NEOUS,S terra, land.] 

1. Inclosed or nearly inclosed with land 
as the Mediterranean sea, between Eu- 
rope and Africa. [Mediterrane is not used.] 

2. Inland ; remote from the ocean or sea ; 
as mediierraneous mountains. Burnet. 

ME'DIUJM, J!, plu. mediums ; media not be- 
ing generally, though sometimes used. 
JL.] In philosophy, the space or sub- 

stance through which a body moves or| 
passes to any point. Thus ether is sup-i 
posed to be the medium through which 
the planets move ; air is the medium 
through which bodies move near thej 
earth ; water the medium in which fishes 
live and move; glass a medium through 
which light passes ; and we speak of a re- 
sisting medium, a refracting medium, &c. 

2. In logic, the mean or middle term of a 
syllogism, or the middle term in an argu- 
ment, being the reason why a thing is af- 
firmed or denied. 

Nothing can be honorable that violates 
moral principle. 

Dueling violates moral principle. 

Therefore dueling is not honorable. 

Here the second term is the medium 
mean, or middle term. 

3. Arithmetical medium, that which is equally 
distant from each extreme, or which ex- 
ceeds the lesser extreme as much as it is 
exceeded by the greater, in respect of; 
quantity, not of proportion. Thus, i) is a 
medium between 6 and 12. 

4. Geometrical medium, is that wherein the 
same ratio is preserved between the first 
and second terms, as between the second 
and third. Thus, G is a geometrical medi- 
um between 4 and 9. Encyc 

In the three last senses or applications, 
mean is more generally used for medium. 

5. The means or instrument bj' which any 
thing is accomplished, conveyed or car-| 
ried on. Thus money is the medium of 
commerce ; coin is the common mediumi 
of trade among all civilized nations, but 
wampum is the medium of trade among 
the Indian tribes, and bills of credit or 
bank notes are often used as mediums of 
tratle in the place of gold and silver. In- 
telligence is communicated through the 
medium of the press. 

6. The middle place or degree; the mean. 
The just medium of this case lies between 

pride and abjection. V Estrange. 

7. A kind of printing paper of middle size. 
MED'LAR, n. [L. mespilus.] A tree and 

a genus of trees, called Mespilus; also, 
the fruit of the tree. The German or 
common medlar is cultivated in gardens 
for its fruit. Encyc. 

MED'LE, V. I. To mix ; not used, butl 

MED'LEY, n. A mixture; a mingled and 
confused mass of ingredients ; used often 
or commonly with some degree of con- 

This medley of philosophy and war. Addison. 
Love is a medley of endearments, jars, suspi- 
cious, reconcilements, wars — then peace again. 


MED'LEY, a. Mingled; confused. [Little 
used.] Dryden. 

MEDUL'LAR, > [L. medullaris, from 

MED'ULLARY, S "' medulla, marrow; W. 
madruz; allied to matter, that is, soft.] 

Pertaining to marrow ; consisting of mar- 
row ; resembling marrow ; as medullary 

MEDUL'LIN, n. [L. medulla.] The pith 
of the sunflower, which has neither taste 
nor smell. It is insoluble in water, ether, 
alcohol and oils, but soluble in nitric acid, 
and instead of yielding suberic acid, if 
yields tlic oxalic. Cyc. 

MEED, n. [Sax. med, Gr. /tmSoj, G. miethe, 
hire ; Sans, medha, a gift.] 

1. Reward ; recompense ; that which is be- 
stowed or rendered in consideration of 

Thanks to men 
Of noble minds is honorable meed. Shak 

2. A gift or present. [.Vol used.] Shak. 
MEEK, a. [Sw. miuk, soft, tender; Dnn. 

myg ; Sp. mego ; Port, meigo ; G. gemach. 
The primary sense is flowing, litpiid, or 
thin, attenuated, and allied to muck, L. 
mucus, Eng. mucilage, Heb. Ch. JID, to 
melt. Class Mg. No. 8. See also No. 10. 
and No. 2. !). 1.3.] 

1. Mild of temper; .soft; gentle; not easily 
provoked or irritated ; yielding ; given to 
forbearance under injuries. 

Now tlie man Moses was very meek, above 
all men. Num. xii. 

2. Appropriately, humble, in an evangelical 
sense ; submissive to the divine will ; not 
proud, self-sufficient or refractory ; not 
peevish and apt to complain of divine dis- 
pensations. Christ says, "Learn of me, for 
I am meek and lowly in heart, and ye shall 
find rest to your souls." JIatt. xi. 

Blessed are the meek, for they shall inherit 
the earth. Matt. v. 

MEE'KEN, I', t. mee'kn. To make meek ; 
to soften ; to render mild. Thomson. 

MEE'KLY, adv. Mildly; gently; submis- 
sively ; humbly ; not proudly or roughly. 
And this mis-seeming discord meekly lay 
aside. Spenser. 

MEE'KNESS, n. Softness of temjier ; 
mildness ; gentleness ; forbearance under 
injuries and provocations. 

2. In an evangelical seyise, humility ; resigna- 
tion ; submission to the divine will, with- 
out murmuring or peevishness ; opposed 
to pride, arrogance and refractoriness. 
Gal. v. 

I beseech you by the meekness of Christ. 1 
Cor. X. 

Meekness'is a grace which Jesus alone incul- 
cated, and which no ancient philosopher seems 
to have understood or recommended. 


MEER, «. Simple; unmixed; usually writ- 
ten mere. 

MEER, n. A lake; a boundary. [See 

MEE'RED, a. Relating to a boundary. [See 
Mere.] Shak. 

MEERSCHAUM, n. [G. sea-foam.] A 
hydrate of magnesia combined with silex. 
It occurs in beds in Natolia, and when 
first taken out, is soft, and makes lather 
like soap. It is manufactured into tobac- 
co pipes, which are boiled in oil or wax, 
and baked. Cyc. 

MEET, a. [Sax. gemet, with a prefix, from 
the root of metan, gemetan, to meet, to find, 
that is, to come to, to come together. So 
the equivalent word convenient, is from L. 

Fit; suitable; proper; qualified; conveni- 
ent ; adapted, as to a use or purpose. 

Ye shall pass over armed before your breth- 
ren, the children of Israel, all that are meet for 
the war. Deut. iii. 

It was meet that we should make merry — 
Luke XV. 
Bring forth fruits meet for repentance. Matt. iii. 

MEET, V. t. pret. and pp. met. [Sax. metan, 
nicKfan, gemelan, to meet, to find, to raeas- 

M E E 



lire, to mete ; Gotli. motyan ; D. oiitmoeten, 
gemoetan, to meet, and gemoel, a meeting ; 
Sw. mbta, to meet, to fall, come or hap- 
pen ; mote, a meeting ; mot, toward, 
against ; Dan. moder, to meet ; mode, a 
meeting ; 77iorf, contrary, against, towards. 
The sense is to come to, to fall to or hap 
pen, to reach to ; Gr. /tffa, with ; G. mit, 
D. met, niede, Sw. and Dan. 7ned, with or 
by ; VV. med, to ; Ch. Syr. NBD non, to come 
to, to arrive, to happen ; Heb. Ch. Eth. 
XSD. Qu.W. ommorf, a covenant; commod. 

1. To come together, approaching in oppo- 
site or different directions ; to come face 
to face ; as, to meet a man in the road. 

His daughter came out to meet him with 
timbrels and with dances. Judges xi. 

2. To come together in any place ; as, we 
met many strangers at the levee. 

3. To come together in hostihty ; toencoun 
ter. Tlie armies met on the plains of Phar 

4. To encounter unexpectedly. Milton. 

5. To come together in extension ; to come 
in contact; to join. The line A meets the 
line B and forms an angle. 

C. To come to ; to find ; to light on ; to re 
ceive. The good man meets his reward 
the criminal in due time meets the punish- 
ment he deserves. 

Of vice or virtue, whether blest or curst. 
Which meets contempt, or which compassion 
first. Pope 

MEET, r. i. To come together or to ap- 
proach near, or into company with. How 
pleasant it is for friends to meet on the 
road; still more pleasant to meet in a for 
eign country. 

2. To come together in hostility ; to encoun- 
ter. The armies met at Waterloo, and de 
cided the fate of Buonaparte. 

3. To assemble ; to congregate. The coun- 
cil met at 10 o'clock. The legislature will 
oneet on the first Wednesday in the month. 

4. To come togetlier by being extended ; to 
come in contact ; to join. Two converg- 
ing lines will meet in a point. 

To meet with, to light on ; to find ; to come 
to ; often with the sense of an unexpected 

We me( tcdth many things worthy of observa- 
tion. Bacon. 

2. To join; to unite in company. 

Falstafl'at that oali shall meet with us. 

•3. To suffer imexpectedly ; as, to tneet with 

a fall ; to meet loith a loss. 

4. To encounter ; to engage in opposition. 

Royal mistress, 

Prepare (o meet with more than brutal fury 

From the fierce prince. Rowe. 

3. To obviate ; a Latinism. [jVot used.] 


To meet halfway, to approach from an equal 
distance and meet ; metaphorically, to 
make mutual and equal concessions, each 
party renoimcing some pretensions. 

MEE'TER, )i. One that meets another ; one 
that accosts another. Shak. 

MEE'TING, ;)/))•. Coming together; en- 
countering; joining; assembling. 

MEE'TING, II. A coming together ; an in- 
terview; as a happy meeting of friends. 

9. An assembly ; a congregation ; a collec- 
tion of people ; a convention. The meet- 

ing was numerous ; the meeting was clam- 
orous; the meeting was dissolved at sun- 

3. A conflux, as of rivers; a joining, as of 

MEE'TING-HOUSE, n. A place of wor- 
ship; a church. 

MEE'TLY, arfr. [from jneei.] Fitly; suita- 
bly ; properly. 

MEE'TNESS, n. [from meet.] Fitness; 
suitableness; propriety. Bp. Hall. 

MEG'A€OSM, n. [Gr. /ifynj, great, and 
xoaiioi, world.] The great world. 

Bp. Croft. 

MEGALON'YX, n. [Gr. f<fya'^'7, great, and 
orul, a nail.] 

An animal now extinct, whose bones have 
been found in Virginia. Cuvier. 

MEGALOP'OLIS, n. [Gr. /ifyoJ.^, great, 
and rtoXis, city.] 

A chief city; a metropolis. [J^ot in use.] 


MEGATHERIUM,? [Gr. ixsya,, great, 

MEGATH'ERY, S and ^ipo^ a wild 

A quadruped now extinct, but whose re- 
mains have been found in South America. 
It was larger tlian the megalonyx. Cy> 

ME'GRIM, n. [Fr. m?g-m?')ie, corrupted from 
L. and G. hemicrania, half the head.] 

Properly, a pain in the side of the head; 
hence, a disorder of the head ; vertigo. 


MEINE, r. t. [Sax. mengan.] To mingle 
Obs. Chaucer. 

MEINE, ? [See Menial.] A retinue or 

ME'NV, ^ "■ family of servants ; domes- 
tics. Obs. Shak. 

MEIONITE, n. [Gi: ftftm, \ess ; from its 
low pyramids.] 

Prismato-pyramidical feldspar, of a grayish 
white color. It occurs massive and crys- 
talized. Ure. 

MEIO'SIS, ji. [Gr. /ifiuisis.] Diminution; 
a rhetorical figure, a species of hyperbole, 
representing a thing less than it is. 


MEL'AMPODE, n. [Gr. ftf?.a,irto5iof, black- 
foot.] The black hellebore. Spenser. 

MELANAGOGUE, n. melan'agog. [Gr. 
jwf Aa;, fj.f'Kami, black, and oyo, to drive.] 

A medicine supposed to expel black bile or 
choler. [Old.] 

MEL'ANClIOLle, a. [See Melancholy.^ 

1. Depressed in spirits ; affected with gloom ; 
dejected ; hypochondriac. Grief indul 
ged to excess, has a tendency to render a 
person tnelancholic. 

2. Produced by melancholy; e.xpressive of 
melancholy ; mournful ; as melancholic 

Just as the melancholic eye. 

Sees fleets and armies in the sky. Prior. 

3. Unhappy ; unfortunate ; causing sorrow 
as accidents and melancholic p<rp!exities. 


MEL'AN€HOLIC, n. One affected with a 
glooiny state of mind. [.Melancholian, inj 
a like sense, is not used.] Spe/iser.' 

2. A gloomy state of mind. Clarendon.\ 

MEL'ANellOLILY, adv. With melancholy. 


MEL'AN€IIOLlNESS, n. State of being 
melancholy ; disposition to indulge gloom- 
iness of mind. Jluhrey. 

MELANCHO'LIOUS, a. Gloomy. [.Vol i,> 

"««•] Goioer. 

MEL'ANCHOLIST, n. One affected with 

melancholy. Glanville. 

MEL'ANCHOLIZE, v. i. To become gloomy 

in mind. Burton. 

MEL'ANCHOLIZE, v. I. To make melan- 

clioly- . . Moi-e. 

[This verb is rarely or never used.] 
MEL'ANCHOLY, n. [Gr. f^s-Kav, black, and 

j;oX?j, bile; L. melancholia.] 

1. A gloomy state ..f mind, often a gloomy 
state that is of some continuance, or habit- 
ual ; depression of spirits induced by grief: 
dejection of spirits. This was formerly 
supposed to proceed from a redundance of 
black bile. Melancholy, when extreme 
and of long continuance, is a disease, 
sometimes accompanied with partial in- 
sanity. CuUen defines it, partial insanity 
without dyspepsy. 

In nosology, mental alienation restrained to 
a single object or train of ideas, in distinc- 
tion ti-om mania, in which the alienation 
is general. Qood. 

Moon-struck madness, moping melancholy. 


MEL'ANCHOLY, a. Gloomy: depressed 
in spirits; dejected; applied to persons. 
Overwhelming grief has made me melan- 

2. Dismal; gloomy; habitually dejected; as 
a melancholy temper. 

3. Calamitous ; afllictive ; that may or does 
produce great evil and grief; as a melan- 
choly event. The melancholy fate of the 
Albion ! The melancholy destruction of 
Scio and of Missolonghi ! 

MELANGE, n. melanj'. [Fr.] A mixture. 
[Mt English.] Drummond. 

MEL'ANITE,n. [Gr. ^fXaj, black.] A min- 
eral, a variety of garnet, of a velvet black 
or grayish black, occurring always in crys- 
tals of a dodecahedral form. 

Cleaveland. Ure. 

Melanite is perfectly opake. It is found 
among volcanic substances. 

Did. .Vat. Hist. 

MELANIT'le, a. Pertaining to melanite. 

MEL'ANTERI, n. [Gr. fiAa,; black.] Salt 
of iron, or iron in a saline state, mixed 
with inflammable matter. Fourcroy. 

.MEL'ANURE, )^ A small fish of the 

MELANU'RUS, ^ "• Mediterranean. 

Diet. jYat. Hist. 

MEL'ASSES, n. sing. [It. vielassa ; Sp. 
melaza ; Fr. melasse ; from Gr. ni\a{ black, 
or from /xiu, honey ; Sans. mali. black.] 

The sirup which drains from Muscovado 
sugar when cooling ; treacle. 

jYtcholson. Edwards. 

MEL'ILOT, J!. [Fr.] A plant of the genus 

ME'LIORATE, v. I. [Fr. ameliorer ; Sp. 
mejorar ; It. migliorarc ; from L. melior, bet- 
ter; W. ma//, gain, profit ; Ir. jnea//, good.] 

To make better ; to improve ; as, to melio- 
rate fruit by grafting, or soil by cultiva- 
tion. Civilization has done much, but 
Christianity more, to meliorate the condi- 
tion of men in society. 

Nature by art we nobly meliorale. 


ME'LIORATE, r. i. To grow better. 

MELIORATED, pp. Made better; im- 

M E 1. 


M E M 

MELIORATING, ppr. Improving; advan 
cingin good qualities. 

The pure and benign light of revelation has 
had a meliorating influence on manltind. 


MELIORA'TION, n. The act or operation 
of inalving better ; improvement. 

MELIOR'ITY, n. The state of being bet- 
ter. [.Vo< in use.] Bacon. 

MELL, V. i. f Fr. meler.] To mix ; to med- 
dle. [JVb/ in use.] Spenser. 

MELL, n. [L. mel.] Honey. [JVol English.] 

MEL'LATE, n. [L. mel, Iioney, Gr. /ifU. 
W. mel.] 

A combination of the mellitic acid with a 

MELLIF'EROUS, a. [L. mel, honey, and 
Jero, to produce.] Producing lioney. 

MELLIFICA'TION, n. [L. mellijko.] The 
making or production of honey. 

MELLIF'LUENCE, n. [L. mel, honey, ami 
Jluo, to flow.] 

A flow of sweetness, or a sweet smooth flow. 


MELLIF'LUENT, ? Flowing with lion 

MELUF'LLOUS, ^ "" ey;. smooth; sweet 
ly flowing; as a mellifluous voice. 

MEL'LIT, n. In farriery, a dry scab on the 
heel of a horse's fore foot, cured by 
mi.xture of honey and vinegar. 

MEL'LITE, n. [L. mel.] Honey stone ; 
mineral of a honey color, found only m 
very minute regular crystals. Cleaveland. 

MELLIT'lC, a. Pertaining to honey stone 

MEL' LOW, a. [Qax. melewc ; G. melil, D. 
Dan. meet, meal ; G. mehlig, inMichl, mel 
low, mealy ; Dan. meelagtig, mellow; L 
mollis, Vi: mot, molle, soft, Gr. ^aXaxo; ; VV. 
•iiiall, soft, melting, insipid, evil, and as a 
noun, a malady. The Welsh unites the 
word with L. mains. These words are ev 
idently allied to mild and melt, and meal 
would seem to be connected with mill. 1 
am not certain which is the primary word 
See Class Ml. No. 2. 4. 9. 12.] 

1. Soft with ripeness; easily yielding to 
pressure ; as a mellow jjeach or apple : 
mellow fruit. 

2. Soft to the ear ; as a mellow sound ; a mel- 
low pipe. 

3. Soft; well pulverized ; not indurated or 
compact ; as mellow ground or earth. 

4. Soft and smooth to the taste ; as mellow 

5. Soft with liquor ; intoxicated ; merry 


6. Soft or easy to the eye. 

Tlie tender flush whose mel'Mw st.iin imbues 
Heaven willi all freaks of light. Perciwil. 
MEL'LOW, V. t. To ripen; to bring to ma- 
turity ; to soften by ripeness or age. 
On foreign mountains may the .^un refine 
The grape's soft juice and mellow it to wine 


2. To soften ; to pulverize. Earth is mel 
lowed by frost. 

3. To mature ; to bring to perfection. 

This episode— mf77oii'e(/ into that reputation 
which time has given it. Dryden 

MEL'LOW, !). i. To become soft ; to be ri- 
pened, matured or brought to perfection. 
Fruit, when taken from the tree, soon mel 
lows. Wine mellows with age. 

MEL'LOWNESS, n. Softness; the quality^ 2. To dissolve; to reduce to first principlee. 


3. To soften to love or tenderness. 
For pity melln tlie mind to love. Dryden. 

4. To waste away ; to di.ssipate. 
In general riot melted down thy youth. 


5. To dishearten. Josh. xiv. 
MELT, V. i. To become liquid ; to di.ssolve ; 

to be changed from a fi.\ed or solid to a 
flowing state. 

And whiter snow in minutes melts away. 

2. To be softened to love, pity, tenderness 
or sympathy ; to become tender, mild or 

Melting with tenderness and mild compas- 
sion. Shak. 
■i. To be dissolved ; to lose substance. 
— And what sccm'd corporal. 
Melted as breath into the wind. Shak. 
4. To be subdued by affliction ; to sink into 

of yielding easily to pressure; ripeness, as 
of fruit. 

2. Maturity ; softness or smoothness from 
age, as of wine. 

MEL'LOWY, a. Soft; imctuous. Drayton. 

MELOeOTO'NE, n. [Sp. melocolo7i, a 
peach-tree grafted into a quince-tree, or 
the fruit of the tree ; It. melocnlogno 
quince-tree ; L. malum cotoneum, ([uinco- 
apple. Cotoneum is probably our cotton, 
and the fruit so named from its pubes- 
cence " 

A quince. But the name is sometimes given 
to a large kind of peach. 

MELO'DIOUS, a. [See Melody.] Contain 
ing melody ; musical ; agreeable to the 
car by a sweet succession of sounds ; as a 
melodious voice ; melodious strains. 

And music more melodious than the spheres. 


MELO'DIOUSLY, adv. In a melodious 
manner ; musically. 

MELO'DIOUSNESS, n. The quality of 
being agreeable to the ear by a sweet suc- 
cession of sounds; 

MKL'ODIZE, V. t. To make melodious, 

MEL'ODRAME, n. [Gr. nfKot, a song, and 

A dramatic performance in which songs are 
ititermixed. Todd. 

MEL'ODY, n. [Gr. jurtuSta; ni7.oi, a, Wmh. 
or a song, and u5);, an ode ; L. melos.] 

An agreeable succession of sounds; a suc- 
cession of sounds so regulated and modu- 
lated as to please the ear. To constitute 
melody, the sounds must be arranged ac- 
cording to the laws of rythmus, measure, 
or the due proportion of the movements to 
each other. Melody differs from harmony. 
as it consists in the agreeable succession 
and modulation of sounds by a single 
voice ; whereas harmony consists in the 
accordance of diff"erent voices or sounds 
Melody is vocal or instrumental. Hooker. 

To make melody in the heart, to praise God 
with a joyful and thankful disposition, as- 
cribing to him tlie honor due to his name 
Eph. V. 

MEL'ON, n. [Fr. from L. melo ; Sp. melon: 
It. mellone, a melon ; Gr. jiujXoi', an apple 
D. me/of)i ; G. milone; Dan. Sw. melon ; 
Slav. mlun. This word has the elements 
of mellow, L. mollis, W. mall.] 

The name of certain plants and their fruit, 
as the water- nje/oH, the musk-«if7o?!. 

MEL'ON-THISTLE, n. A plant of the ge 
nus Cactii.':. 


smelten ; 

n. [mel and rose.] Honey of 

t. [Sax. melian ; Gr. ntt.Sa : D.' 
G. schmelzen ; Sw. smulta ; Dan. 
whence Eng. smell, smalt. We 

have in these words decisive evidence that 
.V, in smelten, &c. is a prefix. Melt, in Eng- 
lish, is regular, forming melted for its past 
tense and passive participle. The old par- 
ticiple molten, is used only as an adjective.' 
This verb belongs to a numerous class of 
words in M!, denoting soft or softness. 
See Class Ml. No. 10. 18. 19.] 
1. To dissolve ; to make liquid,; to liquefy; 
to reduce from a solid to a liquid or flow- 
ing state by heat ; as, to melt wax, tallow 
or lead ; to melt ice or snow. 

My soul melteth for heaviness — strcngflien 
thou me. Ps. cxix. 

5. To faint ; to be discouraged or disheart- 

Aa soon as we heard these things, our heart 
melted. Josh. ii. 

MELT'ED, pp. Dissolved ; made liquid ; 
softened; discouraged. 

MELT'ER, n. One that melts any thing. 


MELT'ING, ppr. Dissolving; liquefying; 
softening ; discouraging. 

2. a. Tending to soften ; softening into ten- 
derness ; as melting eloquence. 

MELT'ING, n. The act of softening ; the 
act of rendering tender. South. 

MELT'INGLY, adv. In a manner to melt 
or soften. 

2. Like something melting. Sidney. 

MELT'INGNESS, n. The power of mel't- 
ing or softening. 

MEL'WEL, n. A fish. 

MEM'RER, n. [Fr. mtmlre ; h. memhru)n.] 

1. A limb of aninial bodies, as a leg, an arm, 
an ear, a finger, that is, a subordinate part 
of the main body. 

2. A part of a discourse, or of a period or 
sentence ; a clause ; a part of a verse. 
Harinony in poetry is produced by a pro- 
portion between the members of the same 
verse, or between the members of diflerenl 

3. In architecture, a subordinate part of a 
building, as a frieze or cornice ; sometimes 
a molding. 

4. An individual of a community or socictj'. 
Every citizen is a meniher of the state or 
body i)olitic. So the individuals of a club, 
a corporation or confederacy, are called 
its members. Students of an academy or 
college are its members. Professed chris- 
tians are called members of the church. 

5. The appetites and passions, considered as 
temptiiiff to sin. Rom. vii. Col. iii. 

MEM'BERED, a. Having limbs. 

MEM'BERSHIP, n. The state of being a 

2. Communitv; society. Beaum. 

MEM'BRANE, n. [Fr. from L. mcmbrana ; 
In meambrutn. The last component part 
of this word is found in the Ethiopic and 

Amharic, Etli. -{14'/ T bereana. parch- 
ment, vellum, from (\iU barah, to shine 

M E M 



or be clear. Ludolf, Col. 231. 2. The sub- 
.stance then is named from its clearness or 

In anatomy, a thin, white, flexible skin, form- 
ed b}' fibers interwoven like net-work, 
and serving to cover Bome part of the 
body. Encyc. 

The term is applied to the thin expanded 
parts, of various texture, both in animals 
and vegetables. 

MEMBRA'NEOUS, i Belonging to a 

MEM'BRANOUS, } a. membrane;con- 

MEMBRANA'CEOUS, ) sisting of mem- 
branes ; as a nembraneons covering. 

Birds of prey have membranacecms stomachs, 
not muscular. Arbuthnot. 

2. In botany, a membranaceous leaf has no 
distinguishable pulp between the two sur- 
faces. In general, it denotes flatted or 
resembling parchment. Martyn. 

MEMBRA'NIFORM, a. Having the form 
of a membrane or of parchment. 

MEMENT'O, n. [L. from memini. See 

A hint, suggestion, notice or memorial to 
awaken memory ; that which reminds. 

He is but a man, and seasonable mementos 
may be useful. Bacon 

MEM'OIR, n. [Fr. memoire, memory.] A 
species of history written by a person who 
had some share in the transactions relat 
ed. Persons often write their own me 

2. A history of transactions in which some 
person had a principal share, is called his 
memoirs, though compiled or written by 
a different hand. 

3. The history of a society, or the journals 
and proceedings of a society ; as memoirs 
of the Royal Society. 

4. A written account ; register of facts. 

MEM'ORABLE, a. [Fr. from L. memoraU 

lis. See Memory.'] 
Worthy to be remembered; illustrious; eel 
ebrated ; distinguished. 

By tombs, by books, by memorable deeds. 

MEM'ORABLY, adv. In a manner worthy 

to be remembered. 
MEMORAND'UM, n. phi. memorandums ov 
memoranda. [L.] A note to help the mem- 

1 entered a memorandum in my pocket- 
hook. Guardian 
MEM'ORATIVE, a. Adapted or tending to 
preserve the memory of any thing. 

MEMO'RIAL, a. [Fr. from L. memorialis. 
See Memory.] 

1. Preservative of memory. 

There high in air memorial of my name. 
Fix the smooth oar, and bid me live to fame. 


2. Contained in memory; as memorial pos- 
session. Walts. 

MEMO'RIAL, n. That which preserves the 
memory of something ; any thing that 
serves to keep in memory. A monument 
is a memorial of a deceased person, or of an 
event. The Lord's supper is a memorial 
of the death and sufferings of Christ. 

Churches have names ; gome as memorials 
of peace, some of wisdom, some of the Trinity. 

2. Any note or hint to assist the memory. 

Memorials written with king Edward's hand 
shall be the ground of this history. 

3. A written representation of facts, made to 
a legislative or other body as the ground 
of a petition, or a representation of facts 
accompanied with a petition. 
MEMORIALIST, n. One who writes a 
memorial. Spectator. 

2. One who presents a memorial to a le- 
gislative or any other body, or to a person. 

U. States. 
MEMORIALIZE, t>. /. To present a me- 
morial to ; to petition by memorial. 

U. States. 
MEM'ORIST, n. One who causes to be re- 
membered. [JVot used.] Brown. 
MEM'ORIZE, V. t. To record; to commit 
to memory by writing. 

They neglect to memoiize their conquest of 
the Indians. Spenser. 

2. To cause to he remembered. 

They meant to memorize another Golgotha. 

MEM'ORY, n. [L. memoria; Fr. memoire ; 
Svv. 7ninne ; Ir. meamhair or meahhair. 
meanma. This word is from memini, 
which is probably corrupted from the 
Greek fiiaoftat, to remember, from lUtfOj 
mind, or the same root. See Mind.] 
1. The faculty of the mind by which it re- 
tains the knowledge of past events, or 
ideas which are past. A distinction is 
made between memory and recollection 
Memory retains past ideas without any, or 
with little effort ; recollection implies an 
effort to recall ideas that are past. 

Beaitie. Reid. Stewart. 
Memory is the purveyor of reason. 

A retaining of past ideas in the mind; re- 
membrance. Events that excite little at- 
tention are apt to escape from memory. 

3. Exemption from oblivion. 
That ever-living man of memory, 
Henry the fifth'. Shak 

4. The time within which past events can 
be remembered or recollected, or the time 
within which a person may have knowl- 
edge of what is past. The revolution ii 
England was before my memon/ ; the rev- 
olution in America was within the au- 
thor's memory. 

5. Memorial ; monumental record ; that which 
calls to remembrance. A monument in 
London was erected in memory of the con- 
flagration in 1<j66. 

JG. Reflection ; attention. Shak. 

MEM'ORY, V. t. To lay up in the mind or 
memory. [M)t used.] Chaucer. 

iMEMPH'IAN, a. [from Memphis, the ancient 
metropolis of Egypt, said to be altered 
from Menu/, Memf. Ludolf.] 

Pertaining to Memphis ; very dark : a sense 
borrowed from the darkness of Egypt in 
the time of Moses. 
MEN, plu. of man. Two or more males, in- 
dividuals of the human race. 

2. Males of bravery. We will live in honor, 
or die like men. 

3. Persons ; people ; mankind ; in an indef- 
inite sense. Men are a])t to forget the 
benefactor, while they riot on the benefit. 

MEN'ACE, 11. /. [Fr. menacer ; It. minac 
dare; Up. amenazar ; h. miliar. The pri- 
mary sense is to rush, throw or push tor 

ward. The sense is more clearly express- 
ed by emineo and promineo, to jut forward, 
from the same root. See Mind, which is 
of the same family.] 

1. To threaten ; to express or show a dispo- 
sition or determination to inflict punish- 
ment or other evil. The combined pow- 
ers menaced France with war on every 

2. To show or manifest the probability of 
future evil or danger to. The spirit of in- 
subordination menaced Spain with the hor- 
rors of civil war. 

3. To exhibit the appearance of any catas- 
trophe to come ; as, a hanging rock me- 
naces a fall, or menaces the plain or the in- 
habitants below. 

MEN'ACE, n. A threat or threatening ; the 
declaration or show of a disposition or de- 
termination to inflict an evil; used of per- 

2. The show of a probable evil or catastro- 
phe to come. 

MENACED, pp. Threatened. 

MEN' ACER, n. One that threatens. 

MEN'A€HANITE, )!. An oxyd of titanium, 
or mineral of a grayish or iron black col- 
or, occurring in very small rounded grains, 
imperfectly lamellar, and of a glistening 
luster; found near Menachan, in Corn- 
wall, Eng. Ure. Phillips. Cleaveland. 

MENA€HANIT'I€, a. Pertaining to men- 

MEN'ACING,;)pr. Threatening; de'-iaring 
a disposition or determination to inflict 

2. a. Exhibiting the danger or probability of 
an evil or catastrophe to come ; as a me- 
nacing attitude. 

MEN' Age, )t. [Fr. a family. See Manage.] 
A collection of brute animals. Addison. 

MEN'AliERY, n. [Yr. menagerie; \t.mena- 

A yard or place in which wild animals are 
kept, or a collection of wild animals. 

MENAGOGUE, n. men'agog. [Gr. ^)?^f5, 
menstrua, and a^u, to drive.] 

A medicine that promotes the menstrual 
flux. Qiiincy. 

MEND, V. t. [L. emendo ; Fr. amender ; It. 
mendare ; from L. menda, a fault, spot or 
blemish. Mend is contracted from emendo, 
amend, for the L. negative e for ex, is ne- 
cessary to express the removal of a fault.] 

1. To repair, as a breach ; to supply a part 
broken or defective : as, to mend a gar- 
ment, a road, a mill-dam, a fence, &c. 

2. To correct ; to set right ; to alter for the 
better ; as, to mend the life or manners. 

3. To repair ; to restore to a sound state ; 
as, to mend a feeble or broken constitu- 
tion. Locke. 

1. To help ; to advance ; to make better. 
This plausible apology does not mend the 

Though in some lands the grass is but short, 
yet it mends garden herbs and fruit. 

5. To improve ; to hasten. 

He saw the monster mend liis pace. 


MEND, v.. i. To grow better; to advance 

to a better state ; to improve. We say, a 

feeble constitution mends daily ; a sick 

man mends, or is convalescent. 


M E N 

M E R 

MEND' ABLE, a. Capable of being mended. 
MENDA'CIOUS, a. [L. mendax.] Lying; 

false. [Little used.] 
MENDACITY, n. [L. mendux, false, lying. 
See Class Mn. No. 4.] Falsehood. 


[The proper signification of this word 

would be a disposition to lie, or habitual 


MEND'ED, pp. Repaired; made better; 

MEND'ER, n. One who mends or repairs. 
MEND'ICANCY, a. [L. mendicans.] Beg 

gary ; a state of begging. 
MEND'ICANT, a. [L. mendicans, from men 
dico, to beg, Kr. mendier ; allied to L. man- 
do, to command, demand.] 
L Begging ; poor to a state of beggary ; as 

reduced to a mendicant state. 

2. Practicing beggary ; as a mendicant friar. 

MEND'ICANT, n. A beggar; one that 

makes it his business to beg alms ; one of 

the begging frateraity of the Romish 


MEND'ICATE, v. t. To beg, or practice 

begging. fJVbi used.] 
MENDIC'ITY, n. [L. mendicitas.] The state 

of begging; the life of a beggar. 
MENDMENT, for amendment. [JVot in use.] 
MENDS, for amends, not used. Shak. 

MENHA'DEN, n. A species offish. 
ME'NIAL, a. [Norm, meignal, ynet/nal, from 
meignee or meiny, a family. The Norm, 
has also mesnie and mesnce, a family, 
household or company, and ?nf'jne:, many. 
Qu. the root of maison, messuage, or of 
1. Pertaining to servants, or domestic ser 
vants ; low ; mean. 

Tlie women attendants perform only tlie most 
menial offices. Swift 

[Johnson observes on this passage, that 
Swift seems not to have known the mean- 
ing of this word. But this is the only 
sense in which it is now u.sed.] 
'2. Belonging to the retinue or train of ser 
vants. Johnson. 

Two menial dogs before their master pressed 

Dryden . 
[If this definition of Johnson is correct, 
it indicates that mon'a/ is from meinez, ma- 
ny, rather than from mesnie, family. But 
the sense may be house-dogs.] 
ME'NIAL, n. A domestic servant. 
MEN'ILITE, n. A uiineral substance found 
at Menil Montant near Paris, of the nature 
of silex, of a brown liver color on the in- 
terior, and ordinarily of a clear blue on the 
surface. It is found in the shape of the 
kidneys, of the size of the hand or larger ; 
sometimes in globules of the size of a nut. 
Did. Xat. Hist. 
MENIS'€US,»i. plu. meniscuses. [Gr./ijjixdxo;, 

a little moon.] 
A lens convex on one side, and concave on 
the other. Encyc. 

MENISPERM'ATE, n. A compound of 

raenispermic acid and a salifiable base. 
aiENISPERM'IC, a. The menispermic acid 
is obtained from the seeds of the meni- 
spermuni cocculus. Ure. 

MEN'IVER, Ji. A small white animal in 
Russia, or its fur which is very fine. 


MEN0L'06Y, n. [Gr. fiiji , ii"?vo,-, month, and 
jioyos, discourse.] 

1. A register of months. Stillin^eet. 

3. In the Greek chtirch, martyrology, or a 
brief calendar of the lives of the saints, 
for each day in the year, or a simple re- 
membrance of those whose lives are not 
written. Lunier. 

iMEN'OVV, n. [Fr. menu, small. Qu.] A small 
fresh water fish, the minnow. Bailey. 

MEN'PLEASER, n. One who is solicitous 
to please men, rather than to please God, 
by obedience to his commands. 

MEN'SAL, a. [L. mensalis, from mensa, a 

Belonging to the table ; transacted at table. 
[Little used.] Clarissa. 

MEN'STRUAL, a. [Fr. from L. menslrualis, 
from mensis, month.] 

1. Monthly ; hapi>ening once a month ; as 
the menstrual flux. 

2. Lasting a month ; as the menstrual orbit 
of the moon. Bentley 

3. Pertaining to a menstruum. Bacon. 
•MEN'STRUANT, a. Subject to monthly 

flowings. Brown. 

MEN'STRUOUS, a. [L. menstruus, from 
mensis, a month.] 

1. Having the monthly flow or discharge ; as 
a female. Sandys. 

■2. Pertaining to the monthly flow of females 


MEN'STRUUM, n. i)Iu. mcnslruums. [fron, 
L. mensis, month. The use of this word 
is supposed to have originated in some no 
tion of the old chimists, about the influ- 
ence of the moon in tlie preparation of 
dissolvents. Johnson.] 

A dissolvent or solvent ; any fluid or subtil- 
ized substance which dissolves a solid 

All liquors arc called menstntums which are 
used as dissolvents, or to extract the virtues of 
ingredients by infusion or decoction. Quincy. 
Inquire what is the proper menstruum to dis- 
solve a metal. Bacon. 

MENSURABIL'ITY', n. [from mensurable.] 
Capacity of being measured. 

MEN'SURABLE, o. [L. mensura, measure. 
The n is probably casual, and the word is 
the same as measurable.] 

Measurtfble ; capable of being measured. 


MEN'Sl'RAL, a. Pertaining to measure. 

MEN'SURATE, w. t. [L. meiusura, measure.] 
To measure. [Little used.] 

MENSIJRA'TION, ?i. The act, process or 
art of measuring, or taking the dimensions 
of any thing. 

[2. Measure ; the result of measuring. 

I Arbuthnot. 

MENTAL, a. [It. mcntale ; Fr. mental ; 
from L. mens, mind.] 

Pertaining to the mind ; intellectual ; as 
HieniaZ faculties ; me/i^u; operations ; ment- 
al sight ; mental taste. Milton. Addison 

MEN'TALLY, adv. Intellectually ; in the 
mind ; in thought or meditation ; in idea. 


MEN'TION, n. [Fr. from L. menlio, from! 
Gr. fu'tia, irom ^louj, to put in mind ; It. 
menzione ; Sp. mencion ; Port, mengad ;! 
allied probably to L. moneo and mind. Men- 
tion is a throwing out.] 

A hint ; a suggestion ; a brief notice or re- 
mark expressed in words or writing ; used 
chiefly after make. 

Make no mention of other gods. Josh, xsiii. 
1 will make mention of tliy righteousness. 
Ps. Ixxi. 

Without ceasing I make mention of you al- 
ways in my prayers. Rom. i. 

MEN'TION, V. t. [Fr. mcntxonner ; It. nie»i- 

To speak ; to name ; to utter a brief re- 
mark ; to state a particular fact, or to ex- 
press it in writing. It is applied to some- 
thing thrown in or added incidentally in 
a <liscourse or writing, and thus diflers 
from the sense of relate, recite, and narrate. 
I mentioned to him a fact that fell under my 
own observation. In the course of con- 
versation, that circumstance was mention- 

I will mention the loving-kinduess of the 
Lord. Is. Ixiii. 

MENTIONED,;);;. Named; stated. 

MEN'TIONING, p;))-. Naming; uttering. 

MENTO'RIAL, a. [from Mentor, the friend 
and adviser of Ulysses.] 

Containing advice or admonition. 

MEPHIT I€, a. [L. mephili'!, an ill .smell.] 
Oflensive to the sukjII ; foul ; poisonous ; 
no.xious ; pestilential ; destructive to life. 

Mephilic acid is carbonic acid. 

MEPII'ITIS, \ Foul, oflTensivc or nox- 

MEPIMTISM, \ "• ious exhalations from 
dissolving substances, filth or other source ; 
also, carbonic acid gas. Med. Repos. 

MERCANTAN'TE, n. [It. mercatante.] A 
foreign trader. [jYot in use.] Sliak. 

MER'CANTILE, a. [It. and Fr. from L- 
merca7is, mercor, to buy ; Port. Sp. mercan- 

1. Trading ; commercial ; carrying on com- 
merce ; as jnercanhVe nations; the 7nercan- 
tile class of men. 

2. Pertaining or relating to commerce or 
trade ; as mercantile business. 

MER'CAT, n. [L. mercatws.] Market ; 

trade. [.Vo< in use.] Sprat. 

MERCENARILY, adv. In a mercenary 

manner. Spectator. 

MERCENARLNESS./i. [from mercenary.] 

Venality ; regard to hire or reward. 

MERCENARY, a. [Fr. mercenaire : L. 

mercenarius, from merces, reward, wages ; 

mercor, to buy.] 

1. Venal ; that may be hired ; actuated by 
the hope of reward ; moved by the love of 
money; as a mcrcc«a(T/ prince or judge. 

2. Hired ; purchased by money ; as merce- 
nary services ; merctnan/ soldiers. 

3. Sold for money ; as mercenary blood. 


4. Greedy of gain ; mean; selfish ; as a mer- 
cenary/ disposition. 

5. Contracted from motives of gain ; as a 
mercenan/ marriage. 

MERCENARY', ,1. One who is hired ; a 
soldier that is hired into foreign service ; 
a hireling. 

MERCER, n. [Fr. mercier ; It. merciaio ; 
from L. merx, wares, commodities.] 

One who deals in silk.s. Hoicel. 

MER CERSHIP, n. The business of a mer- 

MERCERY,)!. [Fr. mercfnV ; It. merceria.] 

M E R 

M E R 

M E R 

'I'iie commodities or goods in wliicli a mer- 
cer lieals ; trade of mercers. Graunt. 

MER'CHAND, v. i. [Fr. marchander.] To 
trade. [JVb« tised.] Bacon. 

MER'CHANDISE, ii. [Fr. from marchand, 
a merchant, or marchander, to cheapen.] 

1. The objects of commerce ; wares, goods, 
commodities, whatever is usually bought 
or sold in trade. But provisions dailj' sold 
in market, horses, cattle, and fuel are not 
usually included in the term, and real es- 
tate never. 

2. Trade ; traffick ; commerce. Shak. 
MER'CHANDISE, v. 1. To trade ; to carry 

on commerce. 
MER'CHANDRY, n. Trade ; commerce 

[JVot in use] Saunderson. 

MER'CIIANT, Ji. [Fr. marchand; It. mer 

cante ; Sp. merchantc ; Arm. marchadour ; 

from L. mercor, to buy.] 

1. A man who trafficks or carries on trade 
with foreign countries, or who exports 
and imports goods and sells them by 

2. In poptdar usage, any trader, or one who 
deals in the purchase and sale of goods. 

3. A ship in trade. [Al'ot xised.] 
MER'CHANT,!).?. To trade. [A''otinuse.] 
MER'CHANTABLE, a. Fit for market ; 

such as is usually sold in market, or such 
as will bring the ordinary price ; as mer- 
chantable wheat or timber. 
MER'CHANTLIKE, a. Like a merchant. 
MER'CHANTMAN, n. A ship or vessel 
employed in the transportation of goods 
as distinguished from a ship of war. 
MER'CIABLE, a. Merciful. [JVot in use.] 

MER'CIFUL, a. [from mercy.] Having or 
exercising mercy ; compassionate ; tender 
disposed to pity offenders and to forgive 
their offenses ; unwilling to punish for in- 
juries ; applied appropriately to the Supreme 

The Lord passed before him and proclaimed, 
the Lord, the Lord GoA, merciful and gracious, 
long-suffering and abundant in goodness and 
truth. Ex. xxxiv. 
3. Compassionate ; tender ; unwilling to give 
pain : not cruel. A merciful man will be 
merciful to his beast. 
MER'CIFULLY, adv. With compassion or 

pity ; tenderly ; mildly. 
MER'CIFULNESS, n. Tenderness towards 
offenders ; willingness to forbear punish- 
ment ; readiness to forgive. Hammond. 
MER'CIFY, V. t. To pity. [JVb< in use.] 

MER'CILESS, a. Destitute of mercy ; un- 
feeling ; pitiless ; hard-hearted ; cruel ; as 
a merciless tyrant. _ Dn/den 

il. Not sparing ; as the merciless waves or 

MER'CILESSLY, adv. In a manner void ofi 

mercy or pity ; cruelly. 
MER'CILESSNESS, n. Want of mercy or 


MERCU'RIAL, a. [from Mercury; L.mercu- 

1. Formed under the influence of Mercury ; 
active; sprightly; full of fire or vigor ; as 
a mercurial youth ; amercurial nation. 

Bacon. Swift 

2. Pertaining to quicksilver ; containing 
ijuicksilvfr, or consisting of mercuiy ; as 
mercurial preparations or medicines. 

MEReU'RIALIST, )i. One under the influ 
ence of Mercury, or one resembling Mer 
cury in variety of character. 
MER€U'RIATE, n. A combination of the 
oxyd of mercury with another substance. 
Mercuric acid, a saturated combination of] 

mercury and oxygen. 
MERCURIFICA'TION, n. In metallurgic 
chimistry, the process or operation of ob- 
taining tlie mercury from metallic mine- 
rals in its fluid form. Encyc 
2. The act of mixing with quicksilver. 

MER€U'RIFY, v. I. To obtain mercury 
from metallic minerals, which it is said 
may be done by a large lens, the intense 
heat of which expels the mercury in fumes, 
which are afterwards condensed. 

MER'eURY, n. [L. Mercurius. In my- 
thology. Mercury is the god of eloquence 
and of commerce, called by the Greeks 
Hermes, and his name is said to be forni- 
ed from merces, or mercor. But in antiqui 
ty, there were several persons or deities of 
this name.] 
I. Quicksilver, a metal remarkable for its 
fusibility, which is so great that to fix or 
congeal it, requires a degree of cold which 
is marked on Fahrenheit's scale at thirty 
nine degrees below zero. Its specific 
gravity is greater than that of any other 
metal, except platina, 'gold and tungsten 
Under a heat of 660 degrees, it rises in 
fumes and is gradually converted into a 
red oxyd. Mercury is used in barometers 
to ascertain the weight of the atmosphere, 
and in thermometers to determine the 
temperature of the air, for which purposes 
it is well adapted by its expansibility, and 
the extensive range between its freezing 
and boiling ])oints. Preparations of this 
metal are among the most powerful pois 
ons, and are extensively used as medi 
cines. The preparation called calomel, is 
a most efiicacious deobstruent. 
Heat of constitutional temperament 
spirit ; sprightly qualities. Pope. 

3. A genus of plants, the Mercnrialis, of sev- 
eral species. 

One of the planets nearest the sun. It is 
3224 miles in diameter, and revolves round 
the sun in about 88 days. Its mean dis- 
tance from the sun is thirty seven millions 
of miles. 
5. The name of a newspaper or periodical 
publication, and in some jilaces, the car- 
rier of a newspaper or pamphlet. 
MER'CURY, V. t. To wash with a prepara 
tion of mercury. B. Jonson. 

MER'CY, n. [Fr. merci ; Norm, merce, meer 
or mers ; supposed to be a contraction of 

L. misericordia. But qu. Eth. "^rh^ 
meher, to pity.] 
1. That benevolence, mildness or tenderness 
of heart which disposes a person to over- 
look injuries, or to treat an offender better 
than he deserves ; the disposition that 
tempers justice, and induces an injured 
person to forgive trespasses and injuries,! 
and to forbear punishment, or inflict less 
than law or justice will warrant. In this 
sense, there is perhaps no word in our lan- 
guage precisely synonymous with mercy. 
That which comes nearest to it is grace. 

It implies benevolence, tenderness, mild- 
ness, pity or compassion, and clemency, 
but exercised only towards offenders. 
Mercy is a distinguishing attribute of the 
Supreme Being. 

The Lord is long-suffering and of great mercy. 
forgiving iniquity and transgression, and by no 
means clearing the guilty. Num. xiv. 
An act or exercise of mercy or favor. It 
is a mercy that they escaped. 

1 am not worthy of the least of all thy mer- 
cies. Gen. xxxii. 

3. Pity ; compassion manifested towards a 
person in distress. 

And he said, he that showed mercy on liiiu. 
Luke X. 

4. Clemency and bounty. 
Mercy and truth preserve the king ; and his 

I throne is upheld by mercy. Prov. xsviii. 
Charity, or the duties of charity and be- 

I will have ?nercy and not sacrifice. Matt. 

Grace ; favor. 1 Cor. vii. Jude 2. 

7. Eternal life, the fruit of mercy. 2 Tim. i. 

8. Pardon. 
I cry thee mercy with all my heart. 


9. The act of sparing, or the forbearance of 
a violent act expected. The prisoner cri- 
ed for mercy. 

To he or to lie at the mercy of, to have no 
means of self-defense, but to be dependent 
for safety on the mercy or compassion of 
another, or in the power of that which is 
irresistible ; as, to be at the mercy of a foe, 
or of the waves. 
MER'CY-SEAT, n. The propitiatory ; the 
covering of the ark of the covenant among 
the Jews. This was of gold, and its ends 
were fixed to two cherubs, whose wings 
extended forward, an<l formed a kind of 
throne for the majesty of God, who is rep- 
resented in Scripture as sitting between 
the cherubs. It wns from this seat that 
God gave his oracles to Moses, or to the 
high priest who consulted him. Calmet. 
MERD, n. [Fr. 7nerde ; h. merda.] Ordure; 
dung. Burton. 

MERE, a. [L. merus ; It. mero.] This or that 
only ; distinct from any thing else. 

From mere success nothing can be concluded 
ni favor of a nation. Atterhury. 

What if the head, the eye or ear repin'd 
To serve mere engines to the ruling mind ? 

2. Absolute ; entire. Spenser. 

MERE, 71. [Sax. mcrre or mere, a pool, 
lake or the sea ; D. 7)i«iV ; L. mare. See 
A pooler lake. 
MERE, n. [Sax. mara, gemara ; Gr. ftftpw, 

to divide, orRuss. miryu, to measure.] 
,\ boundary ; used chiefly in the compound, 
7nere-stone. Bacon. 

MERE, I'. /. To divide, limit or bound. Obs. 

ME'RELY, adv. Purely ; only ; solely ; thus 
and no other way ; for this and no other 

Prize not your life for other ends 

Than merely to oblige your friends. Swijt, 

MERETRI'CIOUS, a. [L. meretricitis, from 
meretrii, a prostitute.] 

1. Pertaining to prostitutes; such as is prac- 
ticed by harlots ; as meretricious arts. 

M E R 

2. Alluring by false show ; worn for diS' 
guise ; having a gaudy but deceitful ap- 
pearance ; false ; as meretricious dress or 

JMERETRI'CIOUSLY.orfii. In the manner 
of prostitutes ; with deceitful enticements. 

MERETRI"CIOUSNESS, n. The arts of 
a prostitute ; deceitful enticements. 

MERGAN'SER, n. [Sp. mergansar, from 
L. mergo, to dive.] 

A water fowl of the genus Mergus ; called 
also goosander. 

IVIERgE, v. I. [L. mergo.] To immerse ; 
to cause to be swallowed up. 

The plaintiff became the purchaser and merg- 
ed his term in the fee. Kent. 

MERGE, V. i. To be sunk, swallowed or 
lost. Law Term. 

MERG'ER, n. [L. mergo, to merge.] In 
law, a merging or drowning of a less es- 
tate in a greater ; as when a reversion in 
fee simple descends to or is purchased by 
a tenant of the same estate for year.s, the 
term for years is merged, lost, annihilated 
in the inheritance or fee simple estate. 


MERID'IAN, n. [Fr.meridien; \\.. meridia- 
no ; L. meridies. Qu. Ir. mir, a part ; Gr. 
jufipu, to divide. Varro tcsitifies that this 
word was originally medidies [uiid-day,] 
and that he had seen it so written on a 

1. In astronomy and geography, a great cir- 
cle supposed to be drawn or to pass 
through the poles of the earth, and the 
zenith and nadir of any given place, inter- 
secting the equator at right angles, and 
dividing the hemisphere into eastern and 
western. Every place on the globe has 
its meridian, and when the sun arrives at 
this circle, it is mid-day or noon, whence 
the name. This circle may be consider- 
ed to be drawn on the surface of the 
earth, or it may be considered as a circle 
in the heavens coinciding with that on the 

2. Mid-day ; noon. 

3. The highest point ; asthe men'rftajiof life ; 
the jHen'rfian of power or of glory. 

4. The particular place or state, with regard 
to local circumstances or things that dis- 
tinguish it from others. We say, a book 
is adapted to the meridian of France or It- 
aly ; a measure is adapted to the meri- 
dian of London or Washington. 

Magnetic meridian, a great circle, parallel 

with the direction of the magnetic needle, 

and passing through its poles. 
MERID'IAN, a. Being on the meridian or at 


The sun sat high in his meridian tower. 

9. Pertaining to the meridian or to mid-day ; 

as the sun's meridian heat or splendor. 
3. Pertaining to the highest point ; as, the 

hero enjoyed his mendian glory. 

1. Pertaining to the magnetic meridian. 
MERIDIONAL, a. [Fr.] Pertaining to 

the meridian. 

2. Southern. Broum. 

3. Southerly ; having a southern aspect. 

Meridional distance is the departure from the 

meridian, or easting or westing. 
MERIDIONAL'ITY, n. The state of being 

in the meridian. 

Vol. II. 

M E R 

2. Position in the soBth ; aspect towards the, 
south. Johnson.' 

MERID'IONALLY, adv. In the direction; 
of the meridian. Brown: 

MER'IT, n. [L. meritum, from mereo, to! 
earn or deserve ; It. Sp. merilo ; Fr. mer-i 
ite.] 1 

1. Desert ; goodness or excellence which 
entitles one to honor or revvai-d ; worth ;< 
any performance or worth which claims! 
regard or compensation ; applied to morals,' 
to excellence in ivriling, or to valuable ser- 
vices of any kind. Thus we speak of the 
inability of men to obtain salvation by their 
own merits. We speak of the merits of 
an author ; the merits of a soldier, &c 
Value ; excellence ; applied to things ; as 
the merits of an essay or poem ; the merits 
of a painting ; the merits of a heroic 

3. Rewaid deserved ; that which is earned 
or merited. 

Those laurel groves, the merits of thy youth 


MER'IT, V. I. [Fr. meriter; L. merito.] To 
deser\ j ; to earn by active service, or by 
any valuable performance ; to have a right 
to claim reward in money, regard, honor 
or happiness. Watts, by his writings 
merited the gratitude of the whole chris- 
tian world. The faithful laborer merits his 

A man at best is incapable of meriting any 
thing from (Jod. South 

To deserve ; to have a just title to. Fidel- 
ity merits and usually obtains confidence 
To deserve, in an ill sense ; to have a just 
title to. Every violation of law merits 
punishment. Every sin merits God's dis- 

MER'ITABLE, a. Deserving of reward 
rJVo< ?■?! use.] B. Jonson. 

MER'ITED, pp. Earned ; deserved. 

MER'ITING, ppr. Earning ; deserving 

MERIT-MONGER, n. One who advocates 
the doctrine of human merit, as entitled to 
reward, or depends on merit for salvation. 


MERITO'RIOUS, a. [It. merilorio ; Fr. 
meritoire.] \ 

Deserving of reward or of notice, regard, 
fame or happiness, or of that which shall| 
be a suitable return for services or e.xcci 
lence of any kind. We applaud the merito 
rious services of the laborer, the soldiei 
and the seaman. We admire the merito-', 
rious labors of a Watts, a Doddridge, a Ca- 
rey and a Martyn. We rely for salvation 
on the meritorious obedience and sufferings 
of Christ. 

MERITORIOUSLY, adv. In such a man- 
ner as to deserve reward. ff'otton. 

MERITO RIOUSNESS, n. The state or 
quahty of deserving a reward or suitable 

MER'ITORY, a. Deserving of reward. 
[JVot used.] Gower 

MERLE, n. [L. menda.] A blackbird. 


MER'LIN, n. [Fr.] A species of hawk of 
the genus Falco. 

MERLON, Ji. [It. merlo; Fr. merlon.] In 
fortification, that part of a parapet which 
lies between two embrasures. Encyc. 

MERMAID, n. [Fr. mer, L. mare, the sea, 
and maid.] 


M E S 

A marine animal, eaid to resemble a woman 
in the upper parts of the body, and a fish 
in the lower part. The male is called the 

ME'ROPS, n. A genus of birds called bee- 

MER'RILY, adv. [from jncrri/.] With mirth ; 
with gayety and laughter ; jovially. [See 
Mirth and Merry.] 

Merrily sing and sport and play. Olanvillc. 

MER'RIMAKK, n. {merry and make.] A 
meeting for mirth ; a festival ; mirth. 


MER'RIMAKE, v. i. To be merry or jo- 
vial ; to feast. Gay. 

MER'RIMENT, n. Mirth ; gayety with 
laughter or noise ; noisy sports ; hilarity ; 
frolick. Milton. 

MER'RINESS, n. Mirth ; gayety with 
laughter. Shak. 


MER'RY, a. [Sax. mirige, myrig ; Ar. 

to be joyfid. Class Mr. No. 10.] 

1. Gay and noisy ; jovial ; exhilarated to 

Man is the merriest species of the creation. 

They ilrank and were merry with hini. Geu. 

2. Causing laughter or mirth ; as a merry 
jest. Shak. 

3. Brisk; as a merry gs.\e. [This is the pri- 
mary sense of the irarrf.] Dryden. 

4. Pleasant ; agreeable ; delightful. 


To make merry, to be jovial ; to indulge in 
hilarity ; to feast with mirth. Judges ix. 

MERRY-ANDREW, n. A buffoon ; a za- 
ny ; one whose business is to make sport 
for others. Speclalor. 

MER'RY-MAKING, a. Producing mirth. 
Mirth, music, merry-making melody 
Speed the light hours no more at Holyrood. 


MER'RY-MEETING, ?i. A festival ; a meet- 
ing for mirth. Bp. Taylor. 

MER'RY-THOl'GHT, n. The forked bone 
of a fowl's breast, which boys and girls 
break by pulling each one side ; the long- 
est part broken betokening priority of 
marriage. Echard. 

MER'SION, n. [L. mersio, from mergo, to 
dive or sink.] 

The act of siuking or plunging under wa- 
ter. But immersion is generally used. 

MESARA'IC, a. [Gr. ftfjopoioi ; /wboj, mid- 
dle, and opaia, intestines.] 

The same as mesenteric ; pertaining to the 

MESEE'MS, verb impersonal. [?;ie and seems.] 
It seems to me. It is used also in the [last 
tense, meseemed. Spenser. 

MESENTER'I€, a. [See Mesentery.] Per- 
taining to the mesentery ; as mesenteric 
elands or arteries. 

MiES'ENTERY, n. [Gr. fiiatptipiov ; /leaos, 
middle, and iptsfiot; intestine.] 

A fatty membrane placed in the middle of 
the intestines, and to which they are at- 
tached. This prevents them from becom- 
ing entangled with each other by convo- 
lutions. It is formed by a duplicature of 
the peritoneum. Encyc. Quiytcy. 

MESH, n. [W. masg, net-work, a mesh ; t). 
maas ; G. masche, a mesh or a stitch.] 

M E S 

M E T 


1 . Tlie opening or space between the threads 
of a net. 

2. Tlie grains or wash of a brewery. 
MESH, V. t. To catch in a net; to ensnare. 


MESH'Y, a. Formed like net-work ; retic- 
ulated. TViomson. 

IMES'LIN, n. [fromFr.mesler,meler,to mix, 
or L. miscdlaneus, from misceo, to mix.] 

A mixture of different sorts of grain ; in 
America, a mixture of wheat and rye. 

MESNE, a. meen. [Old Fr.] In Imv, mid 
die ; intervening ; as a mesne lord, that i.s, 
a lord who holds land of a superior, but 
grants a part of it to another person. In 
this case, he is a tenant to the superior, 
but lord or superior to the second grantee, 
and called the mesne lord. 

jyiesne process, that part of the proceedings 
in a suit which intervenes between the 
original process or writ and the final is- 
sue, and which issues, pending the suit, on 
some collateral matter ; and sometimes it 
is understood to be the whole process pre- 
ceding the execution. Blackstone. 

.Mesne profits, the profits of an estate which 
accrue to a tenant in possession, after the 
demise of the lessor. 

MES'OeOLON, n. [Gr. ^fooj, middle, and 

In anatomy, that part of the mesentery, 
which, having reached the extremity of the 
ileum, contracts and changes its name, or 
that i)art of the mesentery to which the 
colon is attached. Encyc. Hooper. 

MESOLEU'CYS, n. [Gr. fifBoj," middle, and 
Xftixo;, white.] 

A precious stone with a streak of white in 
the middle. Diet. 

MES'OLITE, n. A mineral of the zeolite 

MESOLOG'ARITHM, n. [Gr. ^jbos, mid- 
dle, and logarithm.] 

A logarithm of the co-sines and co-tangents. 
Kepler. Harris. 
The former is called by Napier an anti- 
logarithm, the latter a differential. 


MESOM'ELAS, ji. [Gr. ^ilaos, middle, and 
fttXa;, black.] 

A precious stone with a black vein parting 
every color in the midst. 

MES'OTYPE, n. [Gr. yufaoj, middle, and 
■fvrto;, form, type.] 

Prismatic zeolite ; a mineral divided into 
three subspecies, fibrous zeolite, natrolite, 
and mealy zeolite. This is said by some! 
writers to be so named from its property,' 
when transparent, of doubling images.] 
Others say it is a mean form between stil- 
bite and analcime. 

Did. Jameson. Phillips. 

MESPRISE, 71. Contempt ; a trench word. 
[JVol in use.] 

MESS, n. [Ill Fr. mets is a mess of meat, 
jierhaps meat. In Goth, mes is a dish, Ir. 
meis. In Sax. mese is a table, Sp. mesa, 
L. mensa. But mets, mess, is jtrobably a 
different word.] 

1. A dish or a quantity of food jirepared or 
set on a table at one time; as a mess of 
pottage; a mess of herbs; a. mess of broth. 

Milton. Pope. 

2. A medley; a mixed mass; a (juantity. 

3. As nuich provender or grain as is given to 
a beast at once. 

4. A number of persons who eat together; 

among seamen and soldiers. 
MESS, V. i. To eat ; to feed. 
2. To associate at the same table ; to eat in 

company, as seamen. 
MESS, V. I. To supply with a mess. 
MES'SAGE, n. [Fr. from L. missus, mitto, 

to send ; Sp. mensage.] 

1. Any notice, word or communication, writ- 
ten or verbal, sent from one person to an- 
other. We send a servant with a verbal 
or written message. 

The welcome message made, was soon re- 
ceived. Dryden. 

2. An official written communication of facts 
or opinions sent by a chief magistrate to 
the two houses of a legislature or other 
deliberative body. Congress receives a 
message from the President of the United 
States at the opening of the session. The 
Governors of some of the states commu- 
nicate to the legislature by 7nessage, oth- 
ers by address. 

•3. An official verbal communication from 

one branch of a legislature to the other. 
MES'SAtiEIl, ? [Vr. messager ; It. mes- 
JIES'SENgER, I "■ saggiere ; Sp. mensage- 
ro. The correct orthogra|)hy is messager.] 

1. One who bears a message or an errand : 
the bearer of a verbal or written cornmu 
nication, notice or invitation from one per- 
son to another, or to a public body ; one 
who conveys disjiatches from one prince 
or court to another. 

2. A harbinger; a forerunner; he or that 
which foieshows. 

^'on gray lines 
That fret the clouds, are messengers of day. 


MESSI'AH, n. [Ileb. n'WD, anointed.] 
Christ, the anointed ; the Savior of the 

1 know that when .Messiah coineth, who i.s 
called Christ, he will tell us all things. Jesus 
answered her, 1 that speak to thee am he. John 
MESSI'AHSHIP, n. The character, state 
or office of the Savior. 

Josephus — whose prejudices were against the 
Jilcssiahship and religion of Jesus. 


MES'SIEIjRS, n. [plu. of monsieur, my 

lord.] Sirs ; gentlemen. 
MESS'-MATE, 7!. An associate in eating ; 

one who eats ordinarily at the same ta 

MESS'UAgE, n. [from Old Fr. meson, mes 

onage, a house or house-room ; mesitenges, 

household. The French now write mai 

In law, a dwelling house and adjoining land, 

appropriated to the use of the household, 

iiK-luding the adjacent buildings. Encyc. 
MET, pret.ani\pp. i4' meet. 
METAR'ASIS, n. [Gr. from /ura, beyond, 

and i3aivu, to go.] 
In rhetoric, transition : a passing from one 

tiling to another. 
METAB'OLA, n. [Gr. naa, beyond, and 

fSoJi);, a casting.] 
In medicine, a change of air, time or disease. 

[Little used.] Diet. 

META€AR1"AL, a. [from metacarpus.] 

Belonging to the metacarpus. 
METACARP'US, n. [Gr. fitraxaprtiov; fttro, 

beyond, and xaprtoj, the wrist.] 

In anatomy, the part of the hand between the 
wrist and the fingers. 

META€H'R0NISM, «. [Gr ;ufT-o, beyond, 
and Afpwj, time.] 

An error in chronology, by placing an event 
after its real time. 

ME'TAGE, n. [from mete.] Measurement 
of coal; price of measuring. 

METAGRAM'MATISM, n. [Gr. ^tro, be- 
yond, and ypaftfia, a letter.] 

Anagrammatism, or metagrammatism, is a 
transposition of the letters of a name into 
such a connection as to express some per- 
fect sense applicable to the person named. 


METAL, n. mel'l. [Fr. from L. metallum ; 
Gr. fitraXXor ; Sw. G.metall; D. metaal ; 
id. ; Dan. metal ; Sp. id. ; It. metallo ; Ir. 
miotal ; W. mettd.] 

A simple, fixed, shining, opake body or sub- 
stance, insoluble in water, fusible by heat, 
a good conductor of heat and electricity, 
capable when in the state of an oxyd, of 
uniting with acids and forming with them 
metallic salts. Many of the metals are al- 
so malleable or extensible by the hammer, 
and some of them extremely ductile. Me- 
tals are mostly fossil, sometimes found na- 
tive or pure, but more generally combined 
with other matter. Some metals are more 
malleable than others, and this circum- 
stance gave rise to the distinction of met- 
als and semi-metals; a distinction little re- 
garded at the present day. Recent discov- 
eries have enlarged the list of the metals, 
and the whole number now recognized is 
thirty, exclusive of those which have been 
recently discovered, as the bases of the 
earths and alkalies. Twelve of these are 
malleable, viz. platina,gold, silver, mercu- 
ry, lead, cojjper, tin, iron, zink, palladium, 
nickel, and cadmium. The following six- 
teen are not sufficiently tenacious to bear 
extension by beating, viz. arsenic, antimo- 
ny, bismuth, cobalt, manganese, tellurium, 
titanium, columbium, molybden, tungsten, 
chrome, osmium, iridium, rhodium, ura- 
nium, and cerium. Encyc. JVieholson. 
Thomson. Phillips. Ure. 
To these may be added potassium, so- 
dium, barium, strontium, calcium, and 
lithium. Henry. 
The following have not been exhibited 
in a separate form ; magnesium, glucinum, 
yltrjiiiii, aluminum, thorinum, zirconium, 
and silicium. 

2. Courage ; spirit ; so written by mistake 
for mettle. 

METALEP'SI.*, n. [Gr. ;u«Tax,;rtoi5, partici- 
pation ; f-ita, beyond, and Xojuffaiu, to 

In rheto7-ic, the continuation of a trope in 
one word through a succession of signifi- 
cations, or the union of two or more trojies 
of a diflerent kind in one word, so that 
several gradations or intervening senses 
come between the word expressed and the 
thing intended by it : as " in one Cesar 
there are many Mariuses." Here 3Iari- 
us, by a syiioodoche or antonoinasy, is put 
for any ainbiti(!iis, turbulent man, and tills, 
by a metonymy of the cause, for the ill 
effects of such a temper to the public. 

Bailey. Encyc 

METALEP'TIC, a. Pertaining to a metsi- 
Icpsis or participation ; translative. 




2. Transverse ; as the vietaleplic niotion of a 
muscle. Bailey. 

METALEP'TICALLY, adv. By transposi- 
METAL'Lle, a. [L. melallicua.] Pertaining 
to a metal or metals; consisting of metal; 
partaking of the nature of metals ; like a 
metal ; as a metallic substance ; metallii 
ore ; melallic briglitness. 
METAl>LIF'EROUS, a. [L. metallnm, me 
tal, and fcro, to produce.] Producing 
metals. Kirwan 

METAL'LIFORM, a. Having the form of 
metals ; like motal. Kirwan. 

MET'ALLINE, a. Pertaining to a metal; 

consisting of metal. 
2. Impregnated with metal ; as metalline 
water. Bacon 

MET'ALLIST, n. A worker in metals, or 
one skilled in metals. Moxon. 

METALLIZATION, n. The act or pro 
cess of foriuing into a metal ; the opera 
tion which gives to a substance its proper 
metallic |)roperties. Enci/c. Dirt 

MET'ALLIZE, v. t. To form into metal 
to give to a substance its proper metallic 
properties. Diet. 

METALLOGRAPHY, v. [Gr. iiira-K%m; 
metal, and ytia^r;, description.] An ac 
count of metals, or a treatise on metallic 
substances. Diet. 

MET'ALLOID, n. [metal, and Gr. nSof,] 
A name sometimes applied to the metallic 
bases of the alkalies and earths. 
METALLOID'AL, a. Having the form or 

appearance of a metal. 
MET'ALLURtilC, a. [See Metallurgy.] 
Pertaining to metallurgy, or the art ol 
working metals. 
MET'ALLURgIST, )!. One whose occu- 
pation is to work metals, or to purify, re- 
fine and prepare metals for use. 
MET'ALLURtiV, n. [Gr. jutraTJ-or, metal, 

and (pyoi', work.] 
The art of working metals, comiirehending 
the whole process of separating them from 
other niaiters in the ore, smelting, retin 
ing and parting them. Gilding is also ; 
branch of nietallingy. Hut in a more 
limited and usual sense, metallm'gy is the 
operation of separating metals from their 
ores. Encyc 

The French include in metallurgy the art of 
drawing metals from the earth. Diet. 

MET'ALMAN, n. A worker in metals ; c 

coppersmith or tinman. 
METAMORPH'IC, ? [See Metamor- 
METAIMORPH'OSIC, <, "[ phase] Chang- 
ing the form ; transforniing. 
METAMOR PH'OSE, v. t. [Gr. ^.tra^optoco; 
ftsra, over, beyond, and lUocf?, form.] To 
change into a diflereiit form ; to trans 
form ; particularly, to change the form of 
insects, as from the larva to a winged 
animal. The ancients pretended that Ju- 
piter was metamorphosed into a bull, and 
Lycaon into a wolf. 

And eaitli was metamorphosed into man. 

METAMORPH'OSER, n. One that trans- 
forms or changes the shape. 
METAMORPH'OSlNG,/?pr. Changing the 

3IETAMORPH'OSIS, »i. Change of form 
or shape ; transformation ; particularly, a 
change in the furm of being ; as the meta- 

morphosis of an insect from the aurelia or 
chrysalis state into a winged animal. 

2. Any change of form or shape. 

METAMORPHOS'TI€AL, a. Pertaining 
to or effected by metamorphosis. Pope. 

MET'APHOR, n. [Gr. ^ufrotopa, from (iita.- 
I ^fpM, to transfer ; ^f ra, over, and $f pu, to 
I carry.] 

A short similitude ; a similitude reduced to a 
single word ; or a word expressing siinili- 
I tude without the signs of comparison 
I Thus "that man is a fox," is a metaphor; 
but " that man is like a fox," is a similitude 
or comparison. So when I say, " the sol- 
diers were lions in combat," I use a meta- 
phor ; but when I say, " the soldiers 
fought like lions," I use a similitude. In 
metaphor, the similitude is contained in the 
name; a man isa/o.r, means, a man is as 
crafty as a fo.x. So we say, a man bridle 
his anger, that is, restrains it as a bridl( 
restrains a horse. Beauty awakens love 
or tender passions ; oppositionyiires courage 

METAPHOR'IC, ) Pertaining to met- 

METAPHORICAL, \ "" aphor ; compris- 
ing a metaphor ; not literal ; as a miiaphori- 
cal use of words | a metaphorical express 
ion ; a metaphorical sense. 

METAPHORICALLY, adv. In a meta- 
jjhorical manner ; not literally. 

MET'APHORIST, n. One that makes 
metaphors. Pope. 

MET'APHRASE, n. [Gi-.^itfa^pajis; /ittra, 
over, according to or with, and tpaaej, 

A verbal translation ; a version or transla 
tion of one language into another, word 
for word. Dryden. 

MET'APHRAST, n. A person who trans 
lates from one language into another, word 
for word. Encyc. 

METAPHRAS'TIC, a. Close or literal in 

METAPHYS'IC, ) ^ . [See Meta- 

METAPHYS'ICAL, j "• *"*= '• physics.] 

1. Pertaining or relating to metaphysics. 

2. According to rules or principles of meta- 
physics ; as metaphysical reasoning. 

3. Preternatural or supernatural. [JVot 
Kserf.] Shak. 

METAPHYSICALLY, adv. In the man 
ner of metaphysical science. 

METAPHYSI'CIAN, n. s as z. One who 
is versed in the science of metaphysics. 

METAPHYSICS, n. s as z. [Gr. f^ira, af- 
ter, and ^vaixr;, physics. It is said that this 
name was given to the science by Aris 
totle or his followers, who considered the 
science of natural bodies, physics, as the 
first in the order of studies, and the sci- 
ence of mind or intelligence to be the 

The science of the principles and causes of 
all things existing ; hence, the science of 
mind or intelligence. This science com- 
prehends ontology, or the science which 
treats of the nature, essence, and quali- 
ties or attributes of being ; cosmology, the 
science of the world, which treats of the 
nature and laws of matter and of motion ; 
anthroposophy, which treats of the powers 
of man, and the motions by which life is 
produced ; psychology, which treats of the 
intellectual soul ; pneumatology, or the sci 
ence of sj)irits or angels, Sec. Metaphysic 
al theology, called by Leibnitz and others 

theodicy, treats of the existence of God, 
his essence and attributes. These divis- 
ions of the science of metaphysics, which 
prevailed in the ancient schools, are now 
not much regarded. The natural division 
of things tiiat exist is into body and 
mind, things material and immaterial. 
The Ibrriier belong to physics, and the lat- 
ter to tlie science of metaphysics. Encyc. 

MET'APLASM, n. [Gr. ^.'TanXai/io5, trans- 
formation ; jwf Ttt, over, and Tt/.a'rtij, to form.] 

In grammar,a. transmutation or change made 
in a word by transposing or retrenching a 
syllable or letter. 

METAS'TASIS, n. [Gr. ,<fTo(,ra,i;, muta- 
tion ; ftira, over, and inTrjfu, to place.] 

A translation or removal of a disease from 
one part to another, or such an alteration 
as is succeeded by a solution. 

Coxe. Enci/r. 

METATAR'SAL, a. [from metatarsus.] 
Belonging to the metatarsus. 

METATAR'SUS, n. [Gr.utra, beyond, and 
ropTOs, tarsus.] The middle of the foot, or 
part between the ankle and the toes. 


METATH'ESIS, n. [Gr. ixiTaScais; H-ita., 
over, and riStjfu, to set.] 

I. Transposition ; a figure by which the let- 
ters or syllables of a word are transposed ; 
aapistris t'lyr prislis. Eno/c. 

In medicine, a change or removal of a 
morbid cause, without expulsion. 

Coxe. Encyc. 

METE, V. t. [Sax. metan, ametan, gemetan ; 
D. meeten ; G. messen ; Sw. tnata ; Sp. 
medir ; L. metior ; Gr. nirpiu ; W. mei- 
draw ; Cli. and Heb. nn, to measure ; Ar. 

A^ madda, to extend. See Measure, 

and Class Md. No. 2.] 
To measure ; to ascertain quantity, dimen- 
sions or capacity by any rule or standard. 

METE, n. [Sax. mitta.] Measure ; limit ; 
boundary ; used chiefly in the plural, in 
the phrase, metes and bounds. 

METEMP'SYCHOSE, v. t. To translate 
from one body to another, as the soul. 

METEMPSYCHOSIS, n. [Gr. f^tnti-^vx^. 
eii ; ncra, beyond, and .^vxums, animation, 
life ; -Vvjjou), to animate.] 

Transmigration; the passing of the soul of 
a man after death into some other animal 
body. Pythagoras and his followers held 
that after death the souls of men pass in- 
to other bodies, and this doctrine still pre- 
vails in some parts of Asia, particularly in 
India and China. Encijc. 

METEMP'TOSIS, n. [Gr. M^fo, after, and 
rtirtru, to fall.] 

In chronology, the solar equation necessary 
to prevent the new moon from happening 
a day too late, or the suppression of the 
bissextile once in 134 years. The oppo- 
site to this is the proemptosis, or the addi- 
tion of a day every 300 years, and another 
every 2400 years. Encyc. 

ME'TEOR, n. [Gnfttfeupo;, sublime, lofty.] 

I. In a general sense, a body that flies or 
floats in the air, and in this sense it in- 
cludes rain, hail, snow, &c. But in