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Full text of "The American ecclesiastical review"

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AMERICAN 
Ecclesiastical Review. 

A MONTHLY PUBLICATION FOR THE CLERGY. 

Vol. XI. 

VOL. I. OF NEW SERIES. 



" Ut Ecclesia aedificattonetn accipiat." 

I. Cor. xiv, 5. 




PHILADELPHIA, PA., 

AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW CO., 

I 894. 



WAV 6 1955 



American Ecclesiastical Review, 



CONTENTS— VOL. XI. 

VOL. I. OF NEW SERIES. 



JULY. 

PAGE. 

I. The Month of the Precious Blood and the 

Red Scapular, i 

II. De Graviditate Extrauterina, (Responsio ad Impu- 

gnationes Rmi. P. A. Eschbach,) 9 

The Rev. P. Aug. Lehmkuhl, S.J., Exaeten, Holland. 

III. Popular Names of the Inspired Books, 17 

The Rev. Joseph V. Tracy, St. Mary's Seminary, Balti- 
more, Md. 

IV. An Army Chaplain in the Civil War, (Part i.) 26 

L. W. Reilly, Hanoverville, Md. 

V. The Breviary — Gain and Loss, 34 

The Rev. Arthur Barry O'Neill, C.S.C., St. Joseph, 
N. B., Canada. 

AUGIJSX. 

I. Parish Missions by the Dominican Fathers, 81 

The Rev. C. H. McKenna, O.P., New York. 

II. Parish Missions — Their Fruits and Their Failures, 86 

By a Priest of the Congregation of the Mission, Niagara 
University. 

III. Missions to Catholic Congregations, 102 

The Rev. Walter Elliott, C.S.P., New York. 

IV. An Army Chaplain in the Civil War (Part II.). iii 

L. W. Reilly, Hanoverville, Md. 

V. LiBELLUs R. P. A. Eschbach, 123 

The Rev. P. Aug. Lehmkuhl, S.J., Exaeten, Holland. 
VI. Animadversiones in Controversiam De Ectopicis 

Conceptibus, 127 

The Rev. Aloys. Sabetti, S.J., Woodstock, Md. 

I. Parish Missions, 161 

The Rev. P. Victor, O.S.F., Los Angeles, Cal. 
II. The Good Effects of Parish Missions, 173 

The Rev. Jos. Wissel, C.SS.R., Mission House, N. Y. 

(0 



ii Contents. 

PAGB. 

III. Effective Mission Work in our Parishes, 196 

The Rev. Father Robert, C.P., Passionist Monastery, 
Hoboken, N.J. 

IV. The Work of Parish Missions, 208 

The Rev. Godfrey Schachter, C.PP.S., Carthagena, 
Ohio. 

V. Suggestions How to Preserve the Fruits of a 

Mission, 219 

The Very Rev. Pius R. Mayer, O.C.C , New Balti- 
more, Pa. 

VI. Protestant Zeal in Missionary Work, 220 

The Rev. J. R. Slattery, St. Joseph's Seminary for the 
Negro Mission, Baltimore, Md. 

VII. The Diocesan Clergy and Missions to Non-Cath- 
olics, 226 
The Rev Walter Elliott, C.S.P., Paulist Convent, New 
York. 

OCXOBHR. 

I. The Actual Site of the Terrestrial Paradise, 241 
The Rev J. A. Zahm, C.S.C., University of Notre Dame, 
Indiana. 

II. Daily Mass, 271 

The Rev. Arthur Barry O'Neill, C.S.C, St. Joseph, 
N. B. Canada. 

III. The Pauline Privilege in Our Faculties, (Form I, 

Art. II.) 279 

IV. The Priest in His Relations to Church and 

Society, 283 

The Rev. Thomas Jefferson Jenkins, St. Lawrence, Ky. 
V. Episcopal Gloves, 293 

P. Arminio. 

NOVEIUBHR. 

I. Nature and Aim of the Priests' Eucharistic 

League, 321 

The Very Rev. Wm. Cluse, VG. 

II. History and Present Status of the Eucharistic 

League in the United States, 329 

The Rt. Rev, Abbott Fintan, O.S.B. 

III. Statuta Associationis Sacerdotum Adoratorum. 332 

IV. The First Convention of the Eucharistic League 

in the United States. 338 



, Contents. iii 

PAGE. 

V. The Future Eucharistic Congress in the United 

States, 342 

The Rt. Rev. Catnillus P. Maes, D.D., Bishop of Coving- 
ton, Kentucky. 

VI. The Propagation of the League, 347 

The Rev. Edmund Didier. 

VII. Methods of Propagating the League, 349 

The Very Rev. E. Bush, V. G. 

VIII. The Establishment of a Eucharistic Monthly, 352 
The. Rev. H. Brinkmeyer, Rector of St. Gregory's Sem- 
uiary, Cincinnati. 

IX. Fruits of the Hour of Adoration, 355 

The Rt. Rev. P.J. Hurth, C.S.C, Bishop of Dacca, India. 

X. How TO Employ the Hour of Adoration, 361 

The Rev. J. Meckel. 
XI. Objections to the Hour of Adoration and the 

" LiBELLUM," 367 

The Rt. Rev. Joseph Rademacher, D.D., Bishop of Fort 
Wayne. 

XII. Seminarists and the Eucharistic League of the 

Clergy. 372 

DHCBMBCR. 

I. The Study of Ascetic Theology. — Its Sources, 401 

The Very Rev. J. Hogan, D.D , St. John's Ecclesiastical 
Seminary, Boston. » 

II. A Catholic Temperance League, 414 

The Rt. Rev. S. G. Messmer, D.D., D.C.L., Bishop of 
Green Bay, Wis, 

III. The Religious Union of the East and West, 427 

The Rev. Vincenzo Vanutelli, Rome, Italy. 

IV. An Important Work by Doctor Imbert-Gourbeyre, 435 

The Rev. F. P. Siegfried, Overbrook Seminary. 

V. Preaching and Rhetoric, 442 

The Rev. A. B. O'Neill, C.S.C, St. Joseph, N. B., Can. 

VI. Where the American Jesuit Trains, 449 

L. W. Reilly, Hanoverville, Md. 



INDEX. 

PAGE. 

A Catholic Temperance League 4i4 

An Army Chaplain in the Civil War 26,111 

An Exceptional Case 140 

An Important Work by Doctor Imbert-Gourbeyre 435 

Absolution, Confession and Holy Communion without — 379 

According to our Faculties, The " Missa Solitaria " — 386 

Action of the Eucharistic League in the U. S., Ap. Brief Commending . 302 

Actual Site of the Terrestrial Paradise, The 241 

Admittendis ad exercit. Ordin., ejurato schismate, De Presbyt. — . . . 309 

Adoration, The Archconfratemity of Perpetual — 46 

Adoration, Fruits of the Hour of— 355 

Adoration, How to Employ the Hour of— 3^^ 

Adoration and the " Libellum," Objections to the Hour ol — 367 

Adoratorum, Statuta Associationis Sacerdotum 332 

Aim of the Priests' Eucharistic League, Nature and — . .... 321 

Altar in an Unconsecrated Church, A Consecrated — 377 

American Jesuit, Where the — Trains 449 ^t) 

Animadversiones in Controversiam de Ectopicis Conceptibus 127 

Anticipated Jurisdiction in Matrimonial Dispensations 53 

Apostolic Benediction, The Verbal Privilege of the — ....•'... 142 
Apostolic Brief Commending the Action of the Euch. League in U. S. . 302 

Archbishop Zardetti on the S. Pallium 461 

Archconfratemity of Perpetual Adoration, The — 46 

Archiconfraternitas Operis Expiatorii 58 

Archiepiscopi Bucarest., De S. Pallio, Pastorale 466 

Armenian Schismatics in the U. S., The Baptismjof— 302 

Army Chaplain in the Civil War, An — 26, iii 

Ascetic Theology (Its Sources), The Study of— 401 

Ashes of a cremated Corpse, Requiem Mass over the — 139 

Associationis.a Sacra Familia Regulae, Piae — 306 

Associationis Sacerdotum Adoratorum, Statuta — 332 

Attitude of the Church toward Bullfights, The — 42 

Baptism of Armenian Schismatics in the U. S., The — 302 

Benediction, The Verbal Privilege of the Apostolic — 142 

Between Catholics and Greek Schismatics, Marriages — 50 

Blessed Sacrament, in behalf of the Souls in Purgatory, The Confrat. — . 376 

Blessed Sacrament Privately, Carrying the — 53 

Blessing ' Post Partum," The— 54 

Blood and the Red Scapular, The Month of the Precious — 1 

Books, Popular Names of the Inspired — 17 

Breviary — Gain and Loss, The — 34 

(iv) 



INDEX. V 

PAGE. 

Breviary, Prevented from saying the — 135 

Brief Commending the Action of the Euchar. Leaguein U.S., Apost. — . 302 

Brinkmeyer, The Rev. H 352 

BuUfightfl, The Attitude of the Church toward— 42 

Bush, V. G., The Very Rev. E.— 349 

Carrying the Blessed Sacrament Privately 53 

Case with a Difference, A Kindred — 385 

Catholic Congregations, Missions to— 102 

Cath. Education, A "Sanatio " in a Mixed Marriage, etc. — 383 

Catholic Indians, Statistics about — 298 

Catholic Officials and Workmen in Public Crematories 141 

Catholicos et Schismaticos, Matrimonia inter — 58 

Catholic Parents, Children of Latin and Greek — 51 

Catholics and Greek Schismatics, Marriagesibetween — 50 

Catholics in our Churches, "Orthodox" Greek — 305 

Catholics, The Diocesan Clergy and Missions to'Non — ........ 226 

Catholic Temperance League, A — 414 

Chaplain in the Civil War, An Army — 26,111 

Children of Latin and Greek Catholic Parents 51 

Children's Cath. Educat., " Sanatio" in a Mixed Marriage 383 

Church and Society, The Priest in his Relations to — 283 

Church, Consecration of an Altar in an Unconsecrated — 377 

Churches, " Orthodox " Greek Catholics in our 305 

Church toward Bullfights, The Attitude of the — 42 

Civil War, An Army Chaplain in the — 26, iii 

Clergy and Missions to Non-Catholics, The Diocesan — 226 

Clergy, Seminarists and the Eucharistic League of the — 372 

Cluse, V. G., The Very Rev— 321 

College, Woodstock — 449 

Commending the Action of Euchar. League, U. S., Apostol. Brief — • 302 

Communicatio in Sacris cum Schismaticis 137 

Communion without Absolution, Confession and Holy — 379 

Conceptibus, Animadversiones in Controversiam de Ectopicis — . . . 127 

Confession and Holy Communion without Absolution 379 

Confession in Private Houses . . . . 303 

Confraternity of Perpetual Adoration, the Arch — 46 

Confraternity of the Bl. S, in behalf of the Souls in Purgatory .... 376 

Congregation of the Mission, By a Priest of the — 86 

Congregations, Missions to Catholic — 102 

Congresses, Eucharistic — 37^ 

Congress in the U. S., The Future Eucharistic — 342 

Consecrated Altar in an Unconsecrated Church, A — 377 

Controversiam de Ectopicis Conceptibus, Animadversiones in — . . . .127 

Convalidatio'Stationum Viae Crucis 58 

Corpse, Requiem Mass over the Ashes of a Cremated — 139 

Correct Text of the Prayer " En Ego." The— 52 

Crematories, Catholic Officials and Workmen in Public — ....... 141 



VI INDEX. 

PAGE, 

Cross, The Sign of the — at the Conclusion of Mass 465 

Crofs, Taking down the Stations of the — 304 

Crucis," The Latest "Sanatio Viae— 49 

Daily Mass ■ . • 271 

De Graviditate Extrauterina (Resp ad Impugn. Rmi. P. A. Eschbach) 9 
De Presbyteris admitt ad Exercitium Ordinum, Ejurato Schismate . . 309 

De Sacro Pallio, Pastorale Rmi. Oth. Zardetti 466 

Didier, The Rev. Edmund— 347 

Difference, A Kindred Case with a— 385 

Diocesan Clergy and Missions to Non-Catholics, The — 226 

Diocese, Dispensation of Marriage Outside the — 382 

Dispensation by Telegraph, Matrimonial — 381 

Dispensationibus Matrimonialibus, Dubia De — 59 

Dispensation of Marriage Outside of the Diocese 382 

Dispensations, Anticipated Jurisdiction in Matrimonial — 53 

Dispensations, The " Squire " and Matrimonial — 381 

Distributing Holy Communion at Mass, Two Priests — 135 

Diversi Ritus, Filii Parentum — 60 

Doctor Imbert-Gourbeyre, An Important Work by — 435 

Dominican Fathers, Missions by the — t- . . 81 

Dubia de Dispensationibus Matrimonialibus 59 

East and West, The Religious Union of the — 427 

Ectopicis Conceptibus, Animadversiones in Controv. de — 127 

Effective Mission Work in Our Parishes 196 

Effects of Parish Missions, The Good — 173 

Elliott, C.S.P., The Rev. Walter— 102, 226 

Employ the Hour of Adoration, How to — 361 

Encyclicae Leonis XIII., Litterae — 143 

En Ego," The Correct Text of the Prayer"— 52 

Episcopal Gloves 293 

Eschbach, The Rev. A. — i, 123 

Eucharistic Congresses 376 

Eucharistic League m U. S., Apostol. Brief Commending — 302 

Eucharistic League in U. S., History and present Status of — 329 

Eucharistic League in U. S., The First Convention of the — 338 

Eucharistic League, Nature and Aim of the Priests' — 321 

Eucharistic League of Priests, The 300 

Eucharistic League of the Clergy, Seminarists and the — 372 

Eucharistic Monthly, The Establishment of a — 352 

Expiatorii, Archiconfraternitas Operis — 58 

Extrauterina (Resp. ad Impugn. R. P. A. Escbach), De Graviditate — . i 

Faculties, The •' Missa Solitaria" According to Our — 386 

Faculties, The Pauline Privilege in Our — 279 

Fruits and Failures, Parish Missions — Their — 86 

Familia, Regulae Piae Associationis a Sacra — 306 

Father Lehmkuhl and the Revue Rontaine 45 

Fathers, Parish Missions by the Dominicans 81 



INDEX. VU 

PAGE. 

Ferial, Commemoration of a Minor — 4^5 

Festo S. Vincenlii a Paulo, In — 390 

Fintan, O. S. B., The Rt. Rev. Abbot— 329 

Fire of Purgatory, The— . . 385 

First Marriage Valid ? Was the — 55 

Fruits and Failures, Parish Missions — Their — 9& 

Fruits of a Mission, Suggestions How to Preserve the — 219 

Fruits of the Hour of Adoration, The — 361 

Future Eucharistic Congress in U. S., The — 34* 

Gain and Loss, The Breviary — 34 

Gloves, Episcopal — 293^ 

Good Effects of Parish Missions, The — i73 

Gourbeyre, An Important Work by Doctor Imbert 435 

Graviditate Extrauterina (Resp. ad Impugn. Rmi. P. A. Eschbach) De — 9 

Greek Catholics in Our Churches, " Orthodox "— 305 

Greek Catholic Parents, Children of Latin and — 51 

Greek Schismatics, Marriages Between Catholics and — 5° 

Guarantee of the Children's Catholic Education 383- 

History and Present Status of the Eucharist Leagfue in U. S 342 

Hogan, D.D., The Very Rev. J.— 401 

Holy Comnunion at Mass, Two Priests Distributing — 135 

Holy Communion Without Absolution, Confession and — 379 

Houses, Confession in Private — 303 

Hour of Adoration and the " Libellum," Objections to the — 367 

Hour of Adoration, Fruits of the — 355 

Hour of Adoration, How to Employ the — 361 

How to Employ the Hour of Adoration .^61 

How to Preserve the Fruits of a Mission, Suggestions — 219 

Hurth, C.S.C, The Rt. Rev. P. J.— 355 

Hypnotism as a Therapeutic Agent, The Morality of— 461 

Imbert-Gourbeyre, An Important Work by Doctor — 435 

Impugnat. R. P. A. Eschbach, De Graviditate Extrauter, (Resp. ad— . 9 

Index, On the— 236 

Indians, Statistics About Catholic — 298 

Infirm Priest and the Votive Mass ' 378 

Inspired Books, Popular Names of the — ^7 

Inter Catholicos et Schimaticos, Matrimonia — ^<* 

Jenkins, The Rev. Thomas Jefferson — 283 

Jurisdiction in Matrimonial Dispensations, Anticipated — 53 

Kindred Case with a Difference, A — 385 

Lauds, Separating Matins and — '38 

Latest "Sanatio Viae Crucis," The— 49 

Latin and Greek Catholic Parents, Children of— 5i 

League, A Catholic Temperance — 4^4 

League in U.S., Apost. Brief Commending Action of Euch.— , . . . 302 

League in U.S., History and Present Status of the Euch.— 329 

League in U.S., The First Convention of the Euch.— 33* 



vm INDEX. 

PAGE. 

League, Methods of Propagating the — 349 

League, Nature and Aims of the Priests' Eucharistic — 321 

League of Priests, the Eucharistic — 300 

League of the Clergy, Seminarists and the Euch 372 

League, The Propagation of the — 347 

Lehmkuhl, S.J., The Rev. Aug.— 9, 45 

Leonis XIII, Litterae Encyclicae — 143 

Libellum," Objections to the Hour of Adoration, and the " — 367 

Libellum Rmi. P. A. Eschbach 123 

Liturgy, Wax and the — 458 

Loss, The Breviary — Gain and — 34 

Maes, D.D.,The Rt. Rev. Camillus P.— 342 

Marriage Outside of the Diocese, Dispensation of— 382 

Marriages between Catholics and Greek Schismatics 60 

Marriage Valid ? Was the First — • 55 

Marriage Without the Guarantee of Children's Cath., etc 383 

Mass, Daily — 271 

Mass, Infirm Priests and the Votive — 378 

Mass over the Ashes of a Cremated Corpse, Requiem — 139 

Mass, Two Priests distributing Holy Communion at — 135 

Matins from Lauds, Separating — 138 

Matrimonia inter Catholicos et Schismaticos 60 

Matrimonial Dispensation by Telegraph 136 

Matrimonial Dispensations, Anticipated Jurisdiction in — 53 

Matrimonial Dispensations, The "Squire" and — .381 

Matrimonaiibus, Dubia de Dispensationibus — 59 

Mayer, O.C.C, The Very Rev. Pius R.— 219 

McKenna, O.P., The Rev. C. H.— 8i 

Meckel, The Rev. J.— 361 

Messmer, D.D., D.C.L., The Rt. Rev. S. G.— 414 

Methods of Propagating the Eucharistic League — 349 

Minor Ferial, Commemoration of— 465 

Missa Solitaria " according to our Faculties, " The — 386 

Missionary Work, Protestant Zeal in — 220 

Missions by the Dominican Fathers, Parish — 81 

Missions, Parish — i6i 

Mission, Suggestions How to Preserve the Fruits of a — 219 

Missions, The Good Effects of Parish — 173 

Missions — Their Fruits and Failures, Parish — 86 

Missions, The Work of Parish — 208 

Missions to Catholic Congregations 102 

Missions to Non-Catholics, The Diocesan Clergy and — 226 

Mission Work in our Parishes, Effective — 196 

Mixed Marriages without the Guarantee of the Children's Cath. Educ. 383 

Monthly, Establishment of a Eucharistic — 352 

Month of the Precious Blood and the Red Scapular, The— i 

Names of the Inspired Books, Popular — 17 



INDEX. .IX 

PACK. 

Nature and Aim of the Priests' Eucharistic League — 321 

Non-Catholics, Diocesan Clergy and Missions to — 226 

•Objections to the Hour of Adoration and the ** Libellum " — 367 

Officials and Workmen in Public Crematories, Caiholic — 141 

O'Neill, C.S.C., The Rev. Arthur Barry— 34 

On the Index — 236 

-Operis Expiatorii, Arcbiconfratemitas — 58 

Pallium, Archbishop Zardetti on the S. — 461,466 

Paradise, The Actual Site of the Terrestrial — 241 

Parents, Children of Latin and Greek Catholic — 51 

Parentum Diversi Ritus, Filii — 60 

Paris ties. Effective Mission Work in Our — 196 

Parish Missions 161 

Parish Missions by the Dominican Fathers — 81 

Parish Missions, The Good Effects of— 173 

Parish Missions, Their Fruits and Failures 86 

Parish Missions, The Work of — 208 

Partum," The Blessing " Post— 54 

Pauline Privilege in Our Faculties, The — 279 

Paulo, In Festo S. Vincentii a — 390 

Perpetual Adoration, The Archconfraternity of— 46 

Piae Associationis a Sacra Familia Regulae 306 

Popular Names of the Inspired Books 17 

Post Partum," The Blessing, "— . 54 

Prayer, "En Ego," The Correct Text of the— 52 

Preaching and Rhetoric 442 

Preaching, The S. Congregation on — 4^3 

Precious Blood and the Red Scapular, The Month of the — i 

Presbyteris admittend. ad exercitium Ordinum,Ejurato Schismate, De — 309 
Present Status of the Eucharistic League in U. S. History and — . . . 329 

Preserve the Fruits of a Mission, Suggestions How to — 219 

Prevented from Saying the Breviary 135 

Priest in his relations to Church and Society, The — . . 283 

Priest of the Congregation of the Mission, By a — 86 

Priests and the Votive Mass, Infirm — 378 

Priests distributing Holy Communion at Mass, Two — i35 

Priests, The Eucharistic League of— 300 

Private Houses, Confession in — 3^3 

Privately, Carrying the Blessed Sacrament — 53 

Privilege in our Faculties, The Pauline — 279 

Privilege of the Apostolic Benediction, The Verbal — 142 

Propagating the League, Methods of — 349 

Propagation of the League, The — 347 

Protestant Zeal in Missionary Work 220 

Public Crematories, Catholic Officials and Workmen in — 141 

Purgatory, The Confrat. of the Bl. Sacrament in behalf of the Souls in— 376 
Purgatory, The Fire of— 385 



X INDEX. 

PAGE> 

Rademacher, D.D., The Rt. Rev. Joseph— 367 

Red Scapular, The Month of '.he Precious Blood and the — i 

Regulae, Piae Associationis a Sacra Familia — 30^ 

Reilly, L. W.— 26, iii, 449 

Relations to Church and Society, The Priest in his — 283 

Religious Union of the East and West, The — 427" 

Requiem Mass over the Ashes of a Cremated Corpse 139 

Revue Romaine Father Lehmkuhl and the — 45 

Rhetoric, Preaching and — 44* 

Ritus, Filii Parentum Diversi — 60 

Robert, C. p., The Rev. Father— 196 

Sabetti, S.J., The Rev. Aloysius 127 

Sacerdotum Adoratorum, Statuta Associationis — . 332 

Sacra Familia Regulae, Piae Associationis a — 306 

Sacrament in Behalf of the Souls in Purgatory, The Confrat. of the Bl — 376 

Sacrament Privately, Carrying the Blessed — 53 

Sacris cum Schismaticis, Communicatio in — 137 

Sacro, Decretum de Cantu — 387 

" Sanatio " in a Mixed Marriage without the Guarantee, etc 383 

Sanatio Viae Crucis," The Latest"— 49^ 

Saying the Breviary, Prevented from — 135 

Scapular, The Month of the Precious Blood and the Red — i 

Schachter, CPP.S., The Rev. Godfrey— 208 

Schisraate, De Presbyteris admittend. ad exercitium Ordinum, Ejurato — 309 

Schismaticis, Communicatio in Sacris cum — 137 

Schismaticos, Matrimonia inter Catholicos et — . . 60 

Schismatics in the United States, The Baptism of Armenian — .... 302 

Schismatics, Marriages between Catholics and Greek — 50 

Seminarists and Eucharistic League of the Clergy 372 

Separating Matins and Lauds 138 

Siegfried, The Rev. F. P.— 435 

Sign of the Cross at the Conclusion of Mass 463 

Site of the Terrestrial Paradise, The Actual — 241 

Slattery, The Rev. J. R — 220 

Sources), The Study of Ascetic Theology — (Its — 401 

Squire " and Matrimonial Dispensations, The *' — 381 

Stations of the Cross, Taking down the — 304 

Stationum Viae Crucis, Convalidatio — 58 

Statistics about Catholic Indians 298 

Statuta Associationis Sacerdotum Adoratorum 332 

Status of the Euch. League in United States, History and Present — . . 329 

Study of Ascetic Theology — (Its Sources), The — 401 

Suggestions How to Preserve the Fruits of a Mission 219 

S. Vincentii a Paulo, In Festo— 39° 

Taking Down the Stations of the Cross 3o4 

Telegraph, Matrimonial Dispensation by 136 

Temperance League, A Catholic — . 4^4 



INDEX. XI 

PAGE. 

Terrestrial Paradise, Tlie Actual Site of the — 241 

Text of the Prayer "En Ego," The Correct— 52 " 

Theology — (Its Sources), The Study of Ascetic — 401 

Tracy, The Rev. Joseph V 9 

Two Priests Distributing Holy Communion at Mass 135 

Unconeecrated Church, A Consecrated Altar in an — 377 

United States, The Baptism of Armenian Schismatics in — 302 

United States, The First Convention of the Eucharistic League in the — 338 
United States, Future Congress of the Euchar. League in the — .... 342 

Valid ? Was the First Marriage — 55 

Vanutelli, The Rev. Vincenzo— 427 

Verbal Privilege of the Apostolic Benediction, The — 142 

Viae Crucis, Convalidatio Stationum— 58 

Viae Crucis," The Latest " Sanatio — 49 

Victor, O.S.F., The Rev. P.— 161 

Vincentii a Paulo, In.Festo S. — . . . 390 

Votive Mass, Infirm Priests and the — 378 

War, An Army Chaplain in the Civil — 26,111 

Was the First Marriage Valid ? 55 

Wax and the Liturgy 458 

West, The Religious Union of the East and — 427 

Wissel, C.SS.R., The Rev. Jos 173 

Woodstock College 449 

Work by Doctor Imbert-Gourbeyre, An Important — 435 

Work in our Parishes, Effective Mission — 196 

Workmen in Public Crematories, Catholic Officials and — 141 

Work of Parish Missions, The — 208 

Work, Protestant Zeal in Missionary — 220 

Zahm, C.S.C, The Rev. J. A.— 241 

-Zardetti on the S. Pallium, Archbishop — 461 

^eal in Missionary Work, Protestant — 220 

BOOK REVIEW. 

Abel Ram : The Little Sisters of the Poor 70 

Account Book, Hennessy : Parish Priests' — 477 

A Convert Through Spiritualism, Clarke : — i55 

Allies : The Formation of Christendom 399 

-Alphonsus, Grimm; Letters of St. — 237 

Annalis Sexta Pontif. CoUeg. P. F. Columbi, O., Relatio— ...... 310 

Anthony Baldinucci, Goldie : The Life of the Bl.— i59 

Antiquorum Probabilittarum, Ter Haar ; De Systemate — 393 

Aquin. Doctrina De Unione Hypostatica, Terrien : S. Thomae — . . . 312 

A Retreat, Hedley :— 395 

Austin: The Life of Father Charles, C.P.— 76 

Bacchi-Macinai : Grammatica Greca 65 

-Becker : Organum ad Graduale 478 



XU INDEX. 

PAGE^ 

Bierbaum : Theologia Moralis 1ST 

Biblical Illustrator — St. James, Exell : — 67 

Blessed Anthony Baldinucci, Goldie : The Life of— 159^ 

Book, Faber : Pearls and May — 80- 

Bugg : Orchids 319* 

Capecelatro-Pope : Life of St. Philip Neri 74 

Casus de Ectopicis Conceptibus, Eschbach: — 15T 

Charles, C. P., Austin: Life of Father — 7^ 

Christendom, Allies ; The Formation of— 399 

Clarke : A Convert through Spiritualism 155 

Collegii, P.F. Col. O., Relatio Annalis SextaPontif.— 310 

Commentarius in S. Marcum,Knabenbauer : 63 

Conceptibus, Eschbach : Casus de Ectopicis — 157 

Convert through Spiritualism,{Clarke : A — IS5 

Cotel : Principles of the Religious Life 314 

Dierckx : L'homme singe en Face de la Science et de la Theologie . . 318- 

Distinguished Irishmen, Hogan: — 396 

Docirina de Unione Hypostatica, Terrien : S. Thomae Aquin 312- 

Dogmatica, Tanquerey : Theologia — 474 

Duhr-Pachtler : Mocumenta Paedagogica 469 

Ectopicis Conceptibus, Eschbach : Casus de — 157 

Eschbach : Casus de Ectopicis Conceptibus 157 

Esling : Melodies of Mood and Tense 398^ 

Etats Unis, Schrocder : La Question Scolaire aux — 72 

Exell : Biblical Illustrator— St. JameB 67 

Faber : Pearls and May-book 80 

Face de la Science et de la Theologie, Dierckx : Uhomme singe en — 318 

Father Charles, C. P., Austin: Life of — 76 

Formation of Christendom, Allies : The — 399 

Gihr-Moccand : Le S. Sacrifice de la Messe 316 

Goldie : The Life of the Bl. Anthony Baldinucci 159 

Graduale, Becker : Organum ad — 478- 

Grammatica-Greca, Maccinai-Bacchi : 65 

Grimm : Letters of St. Alphonsus 237 

Haar-Ter : De Systemate Antiquorum Probabilistarum 393. 

Hedley : A Retreat ... 395 

Hennessy : Parish Priest's Account-Book 477 

Hints on Preaching : O'Connor : — 392- 

Hogan : Distinguished Irishmen 396 

Holy Table, Lambert- Whitty : The— 71 

Hypostatica, Terrien : S. Thomae Aquin. De Unione — 312 

Illustrator — St. James, Exell : Biblical — 67 

Irishmen, Hogan : Distinguished — 396- 

James, Exell : Biblical Illustrator, St. — 67 

Jessing : Summarium Logicae 392 

Kant et la Science Moderne, Pesch-Lequien : 62 

Kiely : Lectures 476. 



INDEX. Xlll 

PAGE, 

Knabenbauer : Commentarius in S. Marcum 63 

Lambert-Whitty : The Holy Table 71 

Lataste, Thompson : Letters of Marie — 472 

Lequien-Pesch : Kant et la Science Moderne 62 

Letters of Marie Lataste, Thompson : — 472 

Letters of St. Alphonsus, Grimm : — 237 

Life, Cotel : Principles of the Religious — 314 

Life of Father Charles, C P-, Austin : — 76 

Life of St. Philip Neri, Capecelatro-Pope : — 74 

Life of the Blessed Anthony Baldinucci, Goldie : The — 159 

L'lliade (Canto I), Macinai: — 67 

Little Sisters of the Poor, Abel-Ram : The — 70 

Logicae, Jessing : Summarium — 390 

Lover of Souls, The — . . 239 

Macinai-Bacchi : Grammatica Greca 65 

Macinai : L'lliade (Canto I) 67 

Marcum, Knabenbauer : Commentarius in S. — 63 

Marie Lataste, Thompson : Letters of— 472 

May-book, Faber : — 80 

Melodies of Mood and Tense, Esling : 398 

Messe, Gihr-Moccand : Le S. Sacrifice de la — 316 

Miesions in the U. S., O'Connor: — 77 

Moccand-Gihr : Le S. Sacrifice de la Messe 316 

Moderne, Pesch-Lequien : Kant et la Science — 62 

Monumenta Paedagogica, Pachtler-Duhr : 469 

Mood and Tense, Ealing : Melodies of— 398 

Moralis, Bierbaum : Theologia — 157 

O'Connor : Hints on Preaching 392 

O'Connor : Jesuit Missions in the U. S 77 

Orchids, Bugg : — 319 

Organum ad Graduale, Becker : — 478 

Pachtler-Duhr : Monumenta Paedagogica 469 

Paedagogica Monumenta, Pachtler-Duhr : — . 469 

Parish Priest's Account-book, Hennessy : — 477 

Pearls, Faber . — 80 

Pesch-Lequien : Kant et la Science Moderne 62 

Pontificii CoUegii de P. F., Columbi, O., Relatio Annalis Sexta — . . . 310 

Poor, Abel-Ram : The Little Sisters of the— 70 

Pope-Capecelatro : Life of St. Philip Neri 74 

Preaching, O'Connor : Hints on — 392 

Principles of the Religious Life, Cotel : — 314 

Probabilistarum, Ter-Haar : De Systemate Antiquorum — 393 

Question Scolaire aux Etats-Unis, Schroeder : La — 72 

Ram- Abel : The Little Sisters of the Poor 70 

Relatio Annalis Sexta Pontif. Collegii de P. F. Columbi, 310 

Religious Life, Cotel : Principles of the — 314 

Sacrifice de la Messe, Gihr-Moccand : Le — 316 



XIV INDEX. 

PAGB. 

Schroeder : La Question Scolaire aux Etats-Unis 72 

Science Moderne, Pesch-Lequien : Kant et la — 62 

Scolaire aux Etats-Unis, Schroeder : La Question — 72 

Sisters of the Poor, Abel-Ram : The Little— 70 

Souls, The Lover of— 239 

Spiritualism, Clarke : A Convert through — 155 

Summarium Logicae, Jessing : — 392 

Systemate Antiquorum Probabilistarum, Ter Haar : — De — 392 

Table, Lambert- Whitty : The Holy— 71 

Tanquerey : Theologia Dogmatica 474 

Ter Haar : De Systemate Antiquorum Probabilistarum 393 

Theologia Moralis, Bierbaum : — 157 

Theologie, Dierckx : L'homme Singe en Face etc 318 

Thomae Aquin. Doctrina de Unione Hypostatica, Terrien : S. — . . .312 

Thompson : Letters of Marie Lataste 472 

Unione Hypostatica, Terrien : S. Thomae Aquio. Doctrina de — . . .312 

United States, O'Connor : Jesuit Missions in — 77 

Whitty- Lambert : The Holy Table 71 



ERRATA CORRIGE: 

Pag. 128, line 23 from above insert necesse before habet rationed. 

Pag. 138, line 15 from above, omit not. 

Pag. 138, line 18 from above, read affirmativo for negative. 



///J 



AMERICAN 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



New Series — Vol. I.^uly, 1894. — No. i. 



THE MONTH OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD AND THE RED SCAPULAR. 

I. 

WHEN Pius IX returned to the Holy City from his 
exile at Gaeta he issued a decree instituting a new 
feast of the Precious Blood on the first Sunday of July. 
*'The circumstances, under which this decree of a new 
feast of the Precious Blood was issued," says Father Faber 
in his admirable book on the subject, "stamp upon the 
feast the same character of thanksgiving which belongs to 
the feast of the Help of Christians. It is an historical 
monument of a vicissitude of the Holy See, a perpetual 
Te Deum for a deliverance of the Vicar of Christ." 

Under this aspect the peculiar fitness of devotion to the 
Most Precious Blood, as the Church understands it, appeals 
to Catholics of the present age no less than in the dark 
days of the pontificate of the gentle and saintly prede- 
cessor of lyCO XIII. 

Moreover, this devotion has, like all others which have 
their source in the Catholic Church, its special theological 
meaning, which determines its practical effect for the moral 
regeneration of society. One of the most popular heresies 
of the age consists in the substitution of altruism and 
philanthropy for the spirit of charity and self-sacrifice 
which is the very essence of the Christian religion. Now 
the characteristic feature of the devotion to the Most Pre- 
cious Blood is this that it reveals the true purpose of the 
Redemption and develops the principle of sacrifice, and in 
this respect it supplements and enforces the spirit of the 



2 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

devotion to the Sacred Heart. "Sacrifice is peculiarly the 
Christian element of holiness ; and it is precisely the ele- 
ment which corrupt nature dislikes and resists. There is 
no end to the delusions which our self-love is fertile enough 
to bring forth in order to evade the obligation of sacrifice, 
or to narrow its practical application. If it were enough 
to have correct views, or high feelings, or devout aspirations, 
it would be easy to be spiritual. The touchstone is morti- 
fication. Worldly amusements, domestic comforts, nice 
food, and a daily doing our own will in the lesser details 
of life, are all incompatible with sanctity, when they are 
habitual and form the ordinary current of our lives." * 

"It is another characteristic of the devotion to the 
Precious Blood," says the same authority from which we 
have thus far quoted, " that it does not usurp the place of 
other devotions, but by its own growth makes room for 
them. " Nay, it mingles, like varicolored rays of light com- 
bined by the sun, with devotion to our Lord's Passion, 
to our Blessed Lady's compassion and all the devotional 
emanations which have their luminous source and centre 
in Christ the Redeemer. 

It was for the purpose of fostering this view in a practical 
way that the Confraternity of the Most Precious Blood was 
first instituted under the approbation and patronage of 
Pius VII. Some twenty years later, the Red Scapular of 
the Passion became, through the instrumentality of a devout 
daughter of St. Vincent de Paul, the badge of that same 
devotion and has since then effected untold good, by awak- 
ing and keeping alive the spirit of self-sacrifice in number- 
less souls. 

We all know, though non-Catholics cannot often realize it, 
how the scapulars which we wear around our necks and 
which attach us to one particular devotion or another, serve 
to remind us, day by day as we recognize the token on our 
breast, of the pledge we have given to love and serve God 

I The Devotion to the Precious Blood, chapt. vi. We would recommend 
the reading of Father Faber's treatise to all those who desire to have and 
propagate an intelligent appreciation of this devotion among their flocks. 



THE MONTH OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD. ^ 

and to keep from sin. Each badge has to us its special mean- 
ing and in the meaning lies the lesson, the warning and the 
grace. Different dispositions are attracted to different devo- 
tions, which is to say, that they follow different ways to 
arrive at the same end. Many see in the brown or blue 
scapulars the images of every beautiful virtue that adorns 
our Blessed Mother, and they feel the assurance of her 
heavenly protection in the consciousness of their desire to 
honor and imitate the Virgin Mother of Christ. There are 
others to whom the scenes of Calvary have special attraction 
or at least a specially soothing power. Their sorrows lessen 
in the remembrance of the compassion borne the burdened 
and broken heart by Jesus and Mary. In the realization of 
this sympathy there lies a charm which gradually grows and 
tightens around our sensitive nature, and we become more 
and more like to the hearts we love, the Sacred Hearts of 
Jesus and Mary. To souls capable of estimating the value 
of suffering, that is, to every Christian soul realizing the 
" Via Crucis " of life, the necessity, absolute and stern, of 
taking up a daily cross and following the Master to Calvary, 
thence to ascend to the heavenly Jerusalem — to such souls 
the Red Scapular of the Passion will prove a daily comfort, 
a book of introduction in the mysteries of the Divine Heart, 
and a pillow whereby to temper the smarting pressure from 
the edge of their cross upon the shoulder. 

With this in view we publish a succinct account of 
the Red Scapular of the Passion, kindly prepared for the 
Review by a Priest of the Congregation of the Mission. 

11. 

THE RED SCAPULAR 
or 
The Scapular of the Passion of the Sacred Heart oj Our 
Lord fesus Christ.^ also of the most loving and compas- 
sionate heart of the Blessed and Immaculate Virgin 
Mary. 
Origin of the Scapular. — This scapular dates its origin 
from an apparition of our I^ord and Saviour to a Sister of 



4 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Charity, in Paris, on the octave-day of the Feast of St. 
Vincent de Paul, July 26, 1846. The sister relates the fact 
in these words : " I visited the chapel a little before Benedic- 
tion and there I seemed to behold our Lord. He held in 
His right hand a red scapular, the parts of which were joined 
together by two strings of the same color. On one part was 
pictured the scene of the Crucifixion and around the foot of 
the cross were the instruments of His dolorous Passion ; the 
scourges, the hammer, and the robe which covered His bleed- 
ing body. The words, "Sacred Passion of our Lord Jesus 
Christ save us " surrounded the figure of the Crucified. On 
the other part appeared the images of His Sacred Heart and 
that of His holy Mother ; a cross between them seemed to 
rise out of the Hearts and around the whole picture was the 
inscription : " Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary protect us." 

On another occasion our Lord said to the same Sister : 
"Thou must condole with Me in the sorrowsof my Passion." 
When on a Sunday evening she made the Way of the Cross, 
the Blessed Virgin appeared to speak to her as follows : " The 
world is perishing because men do not reflect upon the Pas- 
sion of Jesus Christ; do all you can to make them meditate 
upon it, and thus to procure their salvation." The appari- 
tion of our Lord holding in His hand the Scapular of the 
Passion occurred several times ; and on the Feast of the 
Exaltation of the Cross, September 14, 1846, our Saviour 
addressed to the Sister these consoling words : " All those 
who wear this scapular, will receive every Friday a great 
increase of Faith, Hope and Love." 

The superiors, to whom the Sister related all, hesitated 
because they thought that it would be difficult to induce the 
Ecclesiastical Authority to give the necessary sanction for 
introducing the new devotion. But she said : " our Divine 
Saviour wishes that this devotion of the scapular of His holy 
Passion be established and the time will come when all diffi- 
culties will be removed and the Church will enrich it with 
her treasurers." The Superior General of the Congregation 
of the Mission, established by St. Vincent de Paul, whilst on 
a visit to Rome in June 1847, related all to His Holiness 



THE MONTH OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD. 5 

Pope Pius IX. This venerable Pontiflf seemed to recognize 
in the appeal the voice of the Sacred Heart and approved 
the devotion of the Red Scapular, to which he attached some 
indulgences. 
The following is the Rescript : 

EX AUDIENTIA SANCTISSIMI. 

Die 25 Junii 1847. 

Sanctissimus D. N. Pius div. pro. P.P IX. Sororum a Charitate 
nuncupatarum piis votis obsecundare, et supplicationibus hac de re 
porrectis ab Superiore generali earumdem et Congregationis Mis- 
sionis indulgere volens, benigne annuit pro gratis, ut Sacerdotes 
dictae Congregationis Missionis pro tempore existentes sanctum 
Scapulare (rubrum Passionis D.N.J.C.) de quo in precibus, benedi- 
cere, et Christifidelibus imponere possint ; utque Christifideles illud 
gestantes, qu^vis feria VI, si vere poenitentes et confessi ac sanctcl 
communione refecti sacras precationes Pater, Ave, et Gloria quin- 
quies recitaverint, et interea temporis Passionem D.N.J.C. devote 
recoluerint, septem annos ac totidem quadragenas ; quocumque 
autem anni die, si saltern contriti piae hujusmodi Passionis medita- 
tioni'dimidii ad minus horiL vacaverint, tres annos ac totidum pariter 
quadragenas de vera indulgent!^ lucrari possint : denique ut omnes 
Christifideles, qui idem Scapulare contrite corde deosculati versicu- 
lum : Te ergo quaesumus, tuisfamulis subveni, quos pretioso san- 
guine redemisti, recitaverint, bis centum dies de vera item indulgen- 
tia consequantur. Non obstantibus in contrarium facientibus 
quibuscumque. 

Datum Romae, ex Secretari^ Brevium, die et anno qui supr^. 
A. Card. Lambruschini, d, Brevibus apost. 
^Locus sigilli. 

Another Rescript was issued the following year : 

EX AUDIENTIA SANCTISSIMI. 

Die 21 Martii 1848. 
Sanctissimus D. N. Papa Pius IX, ad fidelium pietatem et 
devotionem erga cruciatus D. N. Jesu Christ i vehementus excitan- 
dam, Superioris generalis Congregationis Missionis et Puellarum 
Charitatis precibus annuens, benigne concessit ut omnes et singuli 
utriusque sexus Christifideles, qui sanctum Scapulare (rubrum Pas- 
sionis D. N. J. C.) de quo in precibus, induunt, qu^vis feri^ sext^ per 
annum recurrente, si vere poenitentes et confessi ac sacr& com- 



6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

munione refecti Passionem Dominicam per aliquod temporis spatium 
devoto animo recolant, et item pro Christianorum Principum con- 
cordiil, haereseum extirpatione ac S. Matris Ecclesiae exaltatione 
pias ad Deum preces eftundant, plenariam omnium peccatorum 
suorum indulgentiam et remissionem consequi et lucrari possint et 
valeant. Non obstantibus in contrarium quibuscumque. Praesen- 
tibus perpetuis futuris temporibus valituris. 

Datum Romae, ex Secretari^ Brevium, die, mense et anno qui 
supr^. 

A. 'Card. Lambruschini, a Brevibus apost. 
t^Locus sigilli. 

According to a third Rescript, the faculty of investing 
persons with the Red Scapular, which was limited to the 
Priests of the Congregation of the Mission (Viucentians) can 
be delegated to other priests : 

EX AUDIENTIA SANCTISSIMI. 

Die 21 Martii 1848. 

Sanctissimus D. N. Papa Pius IX, attentis expositis, Superiori 
general! pro tempore Congregationis Missionis et Filiarum a Chari- 
tate S. Vincentii a Paulo nuncupatarum facultatem concedit alios 
presbyteros seculares vel cujusvis Ordinis, Congregationis et Instituti 
Regulares delegandi, ut sanctum Scapulare (rubrum Passionis 
D. N.J. C.) de quo in precibus, cum indulgentiarum eidem adnexa- 
rum applicatione benedicere, illudque omnibus utriusque sexus 
Christifidelibus qui id cupiunt, imponere possint et valeant. In con- 
trarium facientibus non obstantibus quibuscumque. Praesentibus 
perpetuis futuris temporibus valituris. 

Datum Romae, ex Secretari^ Brevium, die, mense et anno qui 
supr^. 

A. Card. Lambruschini, a Brevibus apostolicis. 
»i* Locus sigilli. 

Priests in the United States may apply for this faculty to 
the Very Rev. James McGill, Visitor of the Congregation of 
the Mission, St. Vincent's Seminary, Germantown, Phila- 
delphia, Pa.' 

Another indulgence for the hour of death has been granted 
by a fourth Rescript : 

I Pacultas gratis datnr. 



THE MONTH OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD. 7 

EX AUDIENTIA SANCTISSIMI. 

Sanctissimus D.N. Pius Papa IX, omnibus Christifidelibus rubrum 
Passionis D.N.J. C. Scapulare benedictum gestantibus indulgentias 
ut infra : Plenariam nempe, die prima praelaudati Scapularis recep- 
tionis, si vere poenitentes et confessi sanctissimum Eucharistiae 
sacramentum sumpserint, necnon aliquam Ecclesiam, seu publicum 
Oratorium visitaverint, ibique per aliquod temporis spatium, juxta 
mentem sanctitatis suae oraverint ; et similiter plenariam, in mortis 
articulo acquirendam, dummodo rite, ut supra, sint dispositi, vel 
saltern sanctissimum Jesu nomen, corde,.si ore nequiverint, devote 
invocent, benigne in perpetuum concessit. Praesenti valituro absque 
ull^ Brevis expeditione. 

Datum Romae, ex aedibus S. C. indulgentiarum, die 19 Julii, 1850. 
F. Card. AsQUiNius, Praef. 
A. Archiep. Prinzivalli, Substitutus. 
Visum et usui datum indioecesi nostra. Parisiis, 22 Octobris, 1850. 

»J< M. D. Augustus, Arch. Paris. 
Concordat cum originali in archive Congregationis Missionis 
deposito. 

Pemartin, 
Secretarius Cong. Missionis. 

Conditions : — The Scapular must be made of wool and the 
material must be woven (Dec. auth. no. 423 ad i et 2) and of 
a red color. The string must also be of red wool, ^o that 
if many scapulars, one of which is the red scapular, are 
joined to the same strings, these strings must be of red wool. 
The pieces of woolen cloth must have the representations of 
the Crucifixion and of the Sacred Hearts, respectively, as 
described above. As this scapular does not stand in place of 
a religious habit, but is a scapular of devotion, it must be 
made as shown in the apparition ; hence, when the pictures 
are effaced from wearing, a new scapular must be secured, 
although this need not be blessed anew. 

It is not necessary that the name of those invested be 
enrolled in a register. 

Indulgences: — I. Plenary: (i) On the day of reception, 
provided the usual conditions are fulfilled, viz.: Confession, 
Communion, visit to a church, and prayer according to the 
intention of the Pope. (2) At the hour of death, by invoking 



S AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the holy Name of Jesus, at least in the heart, when it cannot 
be done by the lips. (3) On all Fridays of the year, when 
those who wear the red scapular, after confession and Com- 
munion meditate for a while on the sufferings of Jesus, and 
pray according to the intention' of holy Church. This indul- 
gence can be gained on the Sunday following, as appears 
from the rescript : 

Nota. — Ex audientia diei 13 Septembris 1850, Sanctissi- 
mus D. N. Pius P. IX benign^ quoque concessit ut indulgentia 
plenaria, lucranda quavis feria sexta, extendatur ad eos qui 
moraliter impediti confessionem et communionem transferunt 
ad insequentem Dominicam. 

II. Partial Indulgences : (i) Seven years and seven quaran- 
tines on all Fridays when, after confession and Communion, 
the Our Father, Hail Mary, Glory to be the Father, etc., are 
recited five times, and in the meantime the sufferings of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ are called to mind. (2) Three years 
and three quarantines on any day in the year for all that 
devote half an hour to meditation upon the sacred Passion of 
Our Lord. (3) Two hundred days, as often as a person, 
moved by sincere contrition, kisses the scapular and recites 
the following versicle : Te ergo, quaesumus, tuis famulis 
subveni, quos pretioso sanguine redemisti. (We pray Thee, 
therefore, to assist Thy servants, whom Thou hast redeemed 
by Thy precious blood.) 

It is not stated in the documents that these indulgences can 
be applied to the poor souls in purgatory. 

Formula for investing persons with the Red Scapular : 

RITUS 

Benedicendi et impoyiendi Scapulare rubrum Passionis sacratis- 
simique Cordis Domini nostri Jesii Chrisii, necnoyi et Cordis 
Amantissimi ac compatieniis beatce Maria Virginis Immaculates. 
Genujlexo qui suscepturus est Scapulare, Sacerdos superpelliceo et 
stold rubrd indutus, capite detecto, dicat : 
s V. Adjutorium nostrum in nomine Domini. 
R. Qui fecit coelum et terram. 
V. Dominus vobiscum. 
R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 



DE GRAVIDITATE EXTRAUTERINA. 9 

OREMUS. 

Domine Jesu Christe, qui tegimen nostrae mortalitatis induere 
dignatus, temetipsum exinanivisti, formam servi accipiens, et factus 
obediens usque ad mortem Crucis, tuae largitatis clementiam 
humiliter imploramus, ut hoc genus vestimenti, quod in honorem 
et memoriam dolorosissimae Passionis tuae tuiquesacratissimi Cordis, 
necnon et Cordis amantissimi ac compatientis Immaculatse Matris 
tuae institutum fuit, atque ut illo induti haec myteria devotius 
recolant, benedicere f digneris, ut hie famulus tuus qui {vel haec 
famula tua quae) ipsum gestaverit, te quoque, per tua merita et 
intercessionem beatissimae Virginis Mariae induere mereatur : Qui 
vivis et regnas in secula seculorem. Amen. 

Hie Sacerdos S. Scapulare aqua bendictd aspergii, et illud imponii, 
dicens : 

Accipe, carissime frater(z/<?/carissima soror), hunc habitum bene- 
dictum, ut veterem hominem exutus {yel exuta) novumque indutus 
{vel induta) ipsum digne perferas, et ad vitam pervenias sempiter- 
nam : Per Christum Dominum nostrum. R. Amen. 

Deinde subjungit. 

Et ego, facultate mihi concess^, recipio te {yel vos) ad participa- 
tionem omnium bonorum spiritualium quae per Sancta Sedis 
Apostolicae privilegium huic sancto Scapulari, in gratiam Congre- 
gationis Missionis, concessa sunt. In nomine f Patris, et Filii, et 
Spiritus sancti. Amen. 

Denique dicatur trind vice versiculus sequens : 

Te ergo quaesumus, tuis famulis subveni, quos pretioso sanguine 
redemisti ! 



DE GRATIDITATE EXTRIUTERINA. 

RESPONSIO AD IMPUGNATIONES RMI. P. A. ESCHBACH. 

IN horum libellorum periodicorum fasciculis pro mense 
Novembri anni 1893 et pro mense Januario hujus anni 
sententiam meam dixi de graviditate extrauterina deque 
chirurgicis operationibus, quae necessariae evadere possunt, 
ut matris vita salvetur. 

Defenderam ut probabilem licitamque earn operationem 
chirurgicam, qua totus tumor cum foetu vivo excidatur, ut 
hoc modo servetur matris vita temporalis, aeterna vita foetui 



10 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

per baptismum conciliari possit, etsi ejus vita temporalis, de 
qua nihilominus conclamatuin sit, paullo citius exstinguatur. 
Nimirum haec operatic chirurgica videbatur mihi in iis cir- 
cumstautiis haberi posse pro occisioue seu mortis accelera- 
tione indirecta tantum, quum directe tendat ad salvandam 
matrem atque insuper offerat spem foetiis pro aeterna vita 
salvandi, aliter et pro aeterna et pro temporali vita perituri. 

Hanc meam expositionem Rmus. P. A. Eschbach, Gallici 
Seminarii in Urbe Rector, " necessarium duxit" impugnare, 
vir ceteroqui mihi amicus, in hac re acriter adversarius. 
Quapropter in libellis periodicis Romanis, quibus titulus est 
" Analecta ecclesiastica, Revue Romaine" complures statuit 
contra me theses, quibus meam opinionem ut a veritate 
omnino alienam confoderet. Quo successu hunc conatum 
fecerit, lectoris judicio debeo relinquere. 

Puto tamen, abs re non esse, etiam cum horum libellorum 
lectoribus et impugnationes clarissimi mei adversarii breviter 
communicare et rationem exponere, cur illae videantur mihi 
infirmae. Nam videri poterit commendatio aliqua opinionis 
a me expositae, quod tantus vir graviora magisque fundata 
contra earn non repererit. 

Quo melius lector nodum totius disputationis capiat, trans- 
scribam propositiones quattuor, quas contra me adversarius 
mens statuit : 

Propositio I. Non iis incumbit onus probandi, qui abortum 
universim illicitum censent, sed qui hoc (hunc ?) ex consulto 
aliquando induci licite posse contendunt. 

Propositio II. Sententia quae tenet, ex consulto abortum 
inducere, vel ut in praesenti vitae discrimine mater salvetur, 
vel ne in futurum tale discrimen injiciatur, licitum esse, 
totius catholicae scholae doctrinis contradicit. 

Propositio III. Seclusis jam argutiis ad cohonestandam 
craniotomiam olim productis, nulla etiam tenuiter probabili 
ratio ae evincitur, licitum esse unquam ex consulto procurare 
abortum 

Propositio IV. " Ex consulto abortum inducere in vitae 
matemae discrimine quod per solam foetus immaturi ejec- 
tionem averti posset" (Lehmkuhl, Theol. Mor. I n. 841), 



DE GRA V ID IT A TE EXTRA UTERINA. 1 1 

chirurgica operatic est directe occisiva foetus, quam ullo in 
casu esse licitam tuto amplius doceri nequit. 

Haec Rmus. P. Eschbach. 

Quum in mente non habeam, limites disputationis in hisce 
libellis inchoatae excedere, moneo denuo lectorem, agi de 
extrauterina graviditate, atque propterea sermonem esse de 
excisione ilia, quae in tali casu ad salvandam matrem neces- 
saria sit. 

Ultima adversarii mei Propositio ea est, ex qua reliqua 
omnia pendent. Quapropter ad hanc ejusque explicationem 
ab adversario meo factam responsurus sum primum. Quodsi 
illud responsum valuerit ad thesem infirmandam, tota res 
haberi potest pro confecta. Nihilominus, ne accusationes 
graves, quae in reliquis adversarii mei dictis continentur, 
plane transmittam, addam breve responsum ad alias Proposi- 
tiones, ex ordine resumendas. 

Argumentum Rmi. P. Eschbach ad evincendam Proposi- 
tionem IV est hoc : Operatione ilia chirurgica resecatur aut 
destruitur "placenta," quam vocant, qua foetus cum matre 
cohaeret. Sed " foetui est organum, (\\xo6. piacentam vocant 
et quo matri inhaeret, id, quod jam nato sunt pulmones et 
stomachus. Propterea placentam illi resecare aut destruere 
idem omnino dicit ac stomachum aut pulmones ferro huic 
transfigere, aut caput infantis conterere, prout craniotomia 
obtinet. ' ' 

Respondeo i° ad minorem propositionem hujus argumenti, 
videlicet ad ipsa verba mei adverserii : Placenta est foetui 
ita necessarium^ ut pulmones et stomachus, Transeat ; pla- 
centa est ita foetus organum, ita foetui proprium ut pulmones 
et stomachus, Nego. Ut autem probaretur, ex eo, quod pla- 
centa resecetur vel destruatur, actionem aliquam esse directam 
foetus occisionem, deberet saltem constare, placentam esse 
organum foetui ita proprium, ut sunt homini pulmones vel 
stomachus ; non sufl5.cit ostendisse, illam esse foetui ita 
necessariam. Necessaria ad vitam producendam sunt mihi 
etiam aer et cibus ; neque tamen illico in omni casu dicendus 
est homicidii reus, qui me privaverit cibo vel aere, sicut esset 
qui me privaret pulmonibus vel stomacho. Reipsa autem 



13 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

placenta est aliquid, quod aeque bene matris est, ac foettls, 
imo ex majore parte matris est. Ut enim ex textu etiam 
Embryologiae DD. Beaunis et Bouchard ab adversario meo 
laudato patet, ex tribus illis involucris, quae concurrant ad 
constituendam etiam placentam, exterius illud, quod reliquts 
crassius est, ad uterum (vel aliud organum) matris certe per- 
tinet. Ergo resecare placentam est resecare primo et per se 
aliquid quod matris est, et consequenter etiam est auferre id 
quod foetus est et quod illi necessarium est ad vitam produ- 
cendam. Male igitur concludit adversarius mens, banc 
chirurgicam operationem omnino non distingui a cranio- 
tomia, quae primo et per se caput infantis conterit. 

Respondeo 2**°. Neque ex iis, quae in hisce libellis defen- 
deram, sequitur, operationem illam chirurgicam debere fieri 
immediate in placenta. Resecatur totus tumor anormalis, 
i. e. pars organi materni, quae propter anormalem ejus condi- 
tionem matri creat vitae imminens periculum : banc materni 
corporis partem continere- foetum, per accidens est; atque 
resecando illam partem morbidam simul auferri foetum, eum- 
que vitam, ceteroquin sibi inutilem, diutius producere 
amplius non posse, permittitur sen indirecte intenditur. 

Imo in ipsa graviditate uterina, fac, uterum infectum esse 
atque, ne matris conditio ex eo fatalis evadat, resecandum. 
Verene illicitum erit, totum uterum resecare, etsi cum utero 
foetus extrahatur ? Quod equidem probatum ab adversario 
meo esse non video. Licebit igitur interim contrarium sen- 
tire, atque a fortiori concludere in graviditate extrauterina, 
si evaserit letalis, posse totam illam materni corporis partem, 
quae foetui pro utero est, simul cum foetu resecari. Quare 
iterum non bene concluditur, in omni casu haberi non indi- 
rectam tantum, sed directam occisionem sicuti in cranio- 
tomia. 

Ergo fundamentum totius disputationis contra me insti- 
tutae reperitur infirmum. Concusso autem fundamento, ea 
quae supers truuntur, corruant necesse est. Reliquas igitur 
adversarii mei Propositiones satis erit breviter perstringere. 

Propositionem I clarissimus vir R. P. Eschbach statuit 
contra me, quod scripseram, non probabili tantum ratione, 



DE GRA V ID IT A TE EXTRA UTERINA . 



13 



sed invicte probari debere ab aliis, opera tionem de qua dispu- 
taretur esse non indirectam tantum, sed directam occisionem. 
Contra quod contendit, iis qui defendant istius operationis 
liceitatem incumbere onus proband!, atque mea dicta esse 
" subversionem status quaestionis. " 

Ad quae respondeo : Si clar. vir contendere vult, iis, qui 
excisionem foetus in nostro casu licere censeant, incumbere 
onus afferendi probabiles rationes^ quibus suadeatur, earn esse 
indirectam tantum occisionem mortisve accelerationem, id 
concedo. Si autem contendere vult, id probari debere argu- 
mentis ita convincentibus, ut nulla amplius probabilis ratio 
contraria aflferri possit : hoc omnino nego. Si aflferatur ratio 
plane convincens, eo melius erit. Sufficit interim omnino, 
si adest probabilis ratio, ut in tanto discrimine matris et 
foetus utrique Succurrere liceat ; neque ei, qui ita agit 
timendum est, ne coram Deo peccet. Sane, ratio si probabilis 
tantum est, potest esse objective falsa ; sed quamdiu ejus fal- 
sitas non est perspecta, culpae non vertitur ei, qui ilia nixus 
alteri salvaverit vitam temporalem, aeternam alteri concilia- 
verit. 

Qui vero contra probabiles rationes allatas contendit, nihil- 
ominus operationem illam non licere, ille sane id invicte 
probare debet : nam ad statuendum peccatum non sufficit 
attulisse probabilem rationem, ratio vere probabilis autem 
sufficit, ut statuatur actionis liceitas. 

Ille erat status quaestionis, quando scribebam quae adver- 
sarius mens reprebendit. Quibus patet, quo jure dixerit, me 
subvertisse statum quaestionis. Nam rationes probabiles, cur 
videatur operatio chirurgica in nostra quaestione licita, statim 
ab initio totius disputation] s vel potius expositionis studui 
afferre. Quas impugnare quidem allatis rationibus con- 
trariis, cuilibet fas est ; at inde nondum sequitur, subversum 
esse statum quaestionis. 

Propositione II adversarius me arguit contradictionis contra 
totius catholicae scholae doctrinas. 

Cujus argumentum sumit ex Salmanticensibus, quos 
nomine omnium audiendos laudat. Hi enim in " Cursu 
Theologiae Moralis," tract. 13 cap. 2 n. 58, ita habent : 



M 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



"Restatnunc, ut de occisione innocentis quae per abortum 
fieri solet agamus. In hoc supponant omnes auctores, 
quod si foetus fuerit animatus, omnino illicitum est procurare 
abortum per media directe et per se ad expellendam vel occi- 
dendam creaturam ordinata, ut per potionem, dilacerationem, 
percussionem aut alia media quae per se at talem efFectum 
conducunt, sed esse peccatum homicidii proprie dicti sic 
abortum procurare, quia haec est occisio injusta per se et 
directe hominis innocentis, quae nullo modo licet ob peri- 
culum infamiae, mortis, vel alterius damni matris. Non enim 
facienda sunt mala, ut eveniant bona, et ut dixit S. Am- 
brosius, si alteri subveniri non potest, nisi alter laedatur, 
commodius est neutrum juvare." 

Quibus ut respondeam, sufEcit complere textum laudatum, 
quo appareat, quid valeat efFatum illud *' omnes auctores" 

vel " TOTA SCHOLA CATHOLICA." 

Nimirum ii ipsi Salmanticenses eodem loco pergunt : 
" Similiter est certum apud omnes, esse illicitum abortum 
procurare ante foetus animationem, et reduci ad peccatum 
homicidii. ' ' Nihilominus eodem loco n. 60 banc quaestionem 
abortus foetus nondam animati porro tractantes, quem non 
licere dixerunt "certum esse apud omnes," addunt: 
" Nunc ergo difficultas est, an liceat pharmacum praegnanti 
dare directe tendens ad faciendum abortum, quando id ad 
matris periclitantis curationem necessarium judicetur. Affir- 
mat prima sententia id esse licituvt^ etiam si tale remedium 
non aliter conducat ad matris vitam, nisi quatenus excutit 
foetum non animatum : sic Sanchez refer ens /j auctores etc^ 

Sisto hie ; nam rem neque Sanchezii neque Salmanti- 
censium volo defendere. 

In III Propositione adversarius meus ostendere conatur, 
operationem chirurgicam nostri casus nulla ratione vel tenu- 
iter probabili defendi posse, quia iisdem rationibus innitatur 
ejus defensio, quibus olim defensio craniotomiae. At pro- 
scripta craniotomia per S. Officium, etiam ilia argumenta sen 
causae proscripta sunt. "Ergo ex hujusmodi causis argu- 
mentari, quum de honestate sermo incidit chirurgicae opera- 
tionis, quae in detrimentum vitae foetus necessario tendit, 



DE GRAVIDITATE EXTRAVTERINA. 15 

amplius non licet." Nimirum, teste adversario meo, defen- 
sores craniotomiae utebantur praeter rationem injustae aggre- 
sionis etiam his : " Est pugna jurium inter matrem et foetus ; 
porro in tali pugna jus fortius, h, e. matris, praevalere debet. 
Qui habet jus ad vitam, illud cedere, si velit, potest ; atqui 
foetus suum jus matri cedere velle censendus est." 

Respondeo : Qui sint, qui ita argumentati sunt, non euro ; 
ego non sic argumentum instruxi. Concedo quidem omnino, 
me provocasse ad cessionem juris ex parte foetus ; sed prop- 
terea me reum esse violati decreti S. Officii, non intelligo. 

S. Officium proscripsit ^'' craniotomiam.'''' et ''^ quamcunque 
operationeni directe occisivam foetus vel matris gestantis. 
Operatio, de qua inter nos quaeritur, adversario meo quidem 
est operatio directe occisiva foetus ; sed S. Officium hoc non 
dixit ; ergo, cui non videtur esse operatio directe occisiva 
foetus, decreto S. Officiii non impeditur. Sed — ut opponit 
adversarius — ego simili ratione utor ut defensores cranio- 
tomiae ! Respondeo: Quid ad rem? S. Officium judicium 
nullum tulit de rationibus. Solum est, quod sequitur, S. 
Officium non probasse rationes ut satis probabiles ad dejen- 
dendam craniotomiam. Sed inde non sequitur, illas rationes 
nihil amplius valere ad probandum quidquam ; et, si quis 
velit contendere, eas nihil amplius valere ad probandam licei- 
tatem operationis quae ab ejus defensore habetur pro indirecte 
occisiva tantum^ conclusio latins patet quam praemissae. 
Ergo quod non obstante decretum S. Officii " nihilominus " 
in niea re utar simili ratione, nihil est, in quo peccem. 

Objicit autem adversarius mens in afferendis rationibus, 
quibus velim ostendere non adesse directam occisionem, me 
"versari in ignorantia elenchi," quod putem adversarios ex 
eo probare velle adesse directam occisionem, quod cum ilia 
excisione necessario conjungatur mortis fcetus acceleratio, 
quum revera alia ratio afferatur, scilicet non adesse alnim 
ej^ectum bonum aeque immediatum. — Ad quae respondeo : 
Quae ego dixi in hisce libellis, respiciebant, quae in contra- 
riam partem dicta erant in his libellis. Videat igitur benig- 
nus lector, quaeso, fasciculum mensis Decembris pag. 430 et 
judicet, num versatus sim in ignorantia elenchi ; caeterum, si 



l6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

ita res se habet, uf. cl. adversarius mens dicit, cur ipse in ipsa 
pagina anteriore (Anal, eccles. p. 127) characterem opera- 
tionis directe occisivae petit ex eo, "quod in detrimentum 
vitae foetus necessario tendat ? " Nam juxta ipsum prop- 
terea, quia S. Oflficium operationes o^zV^^r/^? ^^mzVaj rationesque 
qua his faventes proscripsit, non amplius licet iisdem rationi- 
bus uti " quum de honestate sermo incidit chirurgicae ope- 
rationis, quae in detrimentum vitae foetus necessario tendit." 
— Re vera ad utrumque momentum attendi debet, nimirum 
eflfectum malum non obstare et effectum bonum aeque imme- 
diate sequi ; sed ad utrumque momentum re ipsa attendi ; 
quo successu, hie non quaeritur. 

Sed repetit adversarius mens gravissimam accusationem, 
me in tota hac quaestione committere "petitionem prin- 
cipii," quum supponam semper, quod sit probandum ; et me 
vocare id "principium clarum," cujus "contrarium potius 
cuilibet, I/ehmkuhlio excepto, sit clarum." 

Respondeo ab ultimo incipiens. Quod vocaverim clarum 
principium, adversarius mens non videtur recte intellexisse. 
Refert ad meam Theologiam Moralem I n. 843. Principium 
clarum dixi generalem illam propositionem. Si de sola con- 
servanda vita aliena vel non amplius conservanda agatur, 
posse me cessare a conservanda vita aliena, si nequeam am- 
plius conservare sine dispendio vitae propriae. Advei sarins 
mens videtur id intellexisse de applicatione ad matrem ges- 
tantem. Sed me id nullo modo fecisse, ex 1. c. evidens est. 
Nam statim adjungo ; "At si hoc principium per se clarum 
in praesenti re {r. i. quando agitur de matre gestante) appli- 
care volumus, difficultas in eo reperitur, quod in ejectione 
foetus generatim aliquid amplius commilti videatur ;^'' ergo 
ipse moveo difl&cultatem, quod actio, de qua disputatur, non 
sit mere non amplius conservare ! 

Petitionem principii cl. adversarius mens in eo invenit, 
quod semper supponam, " extractionem foetiis non esse quid 
malum," quum hoc ipsum sit id, quod probare debeam. 

Respondeo : Suppono utique, extractionem foetiis non est 
aliquod intrinsecus malum morale, qui extractio sen translo- 
catio est ; sed si sit malum id ex eo repeti debere, quod causet 



POPULAR NAMES OF THE INSPIRED BOOKS. 



17 



ynortemfcBtus. Hoc est quod suppono. Num male ? Quod 
dein probare contendo est illud : hanc causalitatem mortis 
non obstare, quin malitia moralis possit aliquando abesse, 
nimirum quando ob gravissimas causas haec extractio fiat 
actione aliqua, quae causet aeque immediate eflfectum 
bonum eumque praeponderantem. Quam feliciter vel infe- 
liciter id ostenderim, hie iterum non quaeritur. Modum 
procedendi puto immunem esse a legibus logicae tam turpiter 
violatis. 

Leviora dictionis meae, in quibus adversarius offendit, 
omitto. 

Aug. Lehmkuhl, SJ. 
Exaeten^ Holland. 



POPULIR NAMES OF THE INSPIRED BOOKS. 

NO studies are more earnestly pursued at the present day 
than those concerning Holy Writ. Anything pertain- 
ing to it is deemed worthy of investigation. One of the most 
fruitful sources of important results in this work has been the 
study of words — particularly, maybe, of that class of words 
known as names. They have been found to be not merely 
so much breath expended in making known our meaning to 
each other, but abiding things ; at times souvenirs of impor- 
tant epochs in the history of the race ; at times throwing light 
upon developments of thought ; at times — most important of 
all — letting us into an inner knowledge of God's intercourse 
with men. What a wonderful revelation in the records of 
religion is epitomized in the name of "Jesus"! 

In a limited way, one or the other of these facts is illustrated 
in the appellations given to the Inspired Writings, and, 
therefore, it may be of interest to recall somewhat of the 
history of those which came to have a general signification. 

I. The earliest name was applied to the part of the Bible 
which was first written — namely, " The Law." This " Law," 
as approved and authorized by the Jewish Church, was con- 
tained in the books we designate as the Pentateuch : Genesis, 
Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. 

II. In the course of time a change in the primitive significa- 



l8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

tion of this term took place. By the rhetorical figure which 
uses the thing contained to denote what contains it, the word 
"Law" came to be applied to the five books themselves. 
While this change was being brought about the number of 
Holy Writings was increased, so that by the time of Eccles- 
iasticus (200 B. C.) these were spoken of as "the law, the 
prophets, and the rest of the books," or " the law, the pro- 
phets, and other books that were delivered to us from our 
fathers."' 

III. In what year the Second Book of Machabees was 
written we cannot tell ; but certainly a considerable time 
after the book of the Son of Sirach, and very probably be- 
tween the years 124 and 63 B. C. This book opens with two 
letters sent by the Jews of Judea to their brethren, the Jews 
throughout Egypt. In the second of these epistles occurs 
the following passage which bears upon the question we are 
dealing with in an interesting way : "And these same things 
were set down in the commentaries of Nehemias ; and now 
he made a library, and gathered together out of the countries 
the books both of the prophets, and of David, and the epis- 
tles of the kings concerning the holy gifts . . . And in like 
manner Judas also gathered together all such holy things as 
were lost by the war we had, and they are in our possession " 
(II Mach. II, 13, 14). We cannot be sure whether the 
"library" thus gathered together consisted only of the 
Sacred Writings, but it certainly included these ; and long 
afterwards the word, modified by the adjective Divine^ was 
applied to them alone. The text shows us, however, that at 
the time, of its writing certain of the Holy Books were known 
as "the prophets," certain as "of David," and others as "let- 
ters of kings about sacred gifts." What these last mentioned 
were is not plain to us — possibly, it has been surmised, 
" documents such as those excerpted in the Book of Esdras, 
respecting edicts issued by Persian kings in favor of the 
Temple."' 

1 Cf. The "Prologue " to Ecclesiasticus in the Vulgate. " Hagiographa " 
— was the usual designation of "the rest of the books." 

2 Driver's Introduction — p xxv. 



POPULAR NAMES OF THE INSPIRED BOOKS. 



19 



IV. Coming to New Testament times we find that our 
Lord used to denote the Old Testament, as we would naturally 
expect, some word or words in vogue among the Jews of His 
day. Hence in Matthew xsi, 42, He questions "the chief 
priests and ancients of the people — Have you never read in 
the Scriptures : The stone which the builders rejected the 
same is become the head of the corner?" Again to the 
Sadducees He says : " You err, not knowing the Scriptures " 
— Math.xxii, 29. He asks Peter when he had imprudently 
cut oflf the ear of the servant of the high-priest : " How then 
shall the Scriptures be fulfilled?" — Math, xxvi, 54. These 
are a few of many examples. The Apostles imitated their 
Master. Thus St. Paul writes to the Galatians : " And the 
Scripture foreseeing that God justifieth men by faith," etc. — 
Gal. iii, 8. And St. James dwelling upon the same doctrine 
under another aspect says : ' ' And the Scripture was fulfilled 
saying : Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him 
to justice. " — J as. ii, 23. St. Peter, too, is not remiss in speak- 
ing of " the Scriptures" which " must needs be fulfilled" — 
Acts i, 16 ; I Pet. ii, 6 ; II Pet. i, 20, &c. Needless to say 
the disciples of the Apostles, as Luke and Mark, held to the 
customary appellations. 

V. However, about the time of our Lord, there were 
many other names for the inspired volumes in common use 
among the Jews, some of which terms had the sanction of 
at least isolated mention in the Old Testament. One of these 
occurs in tile prophet Daniel, and being uncertainly defined, 
it was not mentioned hitherto: "The first year of his 
(Darius) reign I Daniel understood by books the number of 
years, concerning which the word of the Lord came to 
Jeremias, etc. , " — Dan. ix, 2. Prefixing the article removed 
the indefiniteness, and " The Books " was a common title 
among the Jews in the first Christian centuries. A second 
such term is found in the First Book of Machabees, mention 
of which has been omitted until now, at the cost of chrono- 
logical order, because it, too, was in frequent use at the 
opening of our era. In I Machabees xii, 9, it is written : 
" We, though we needed none of these things, having for our 



20 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

comfort the holy books that are in our hands, chose rather 
to send," etc. In the writings of the Jewish philosopher, 
Philo (B. C. 20 to A. D. 50,(?), and in those of the historian 
Josephus (A. D. 38-100), the appellations last mentioned and 
such as the one most used by our Saviour and others of 
kindred formation constantly appear . " Sacred Books," 
" Sacred Scriptures," Upa yfidiiimTa, etc. A passage from Philo 
worthy of attention, is quoted by Canon Westcott:^ "In 
each house of these ascetics " — the Therapeutae — " there is 
a temple which is called ... a monastery (a solitary 
cell), in which they perform the rites of a holy life, intro- 
ducing therein nothing . . . which is needed for the 
necessities of the body, but laws^ and oracles delivered by 
prophets^ and hymns^ and the other (books) by which knowl- 
edge and piety are mentally increased and perfected." Still 
more pertinent to our purpose is the description of Josephus : 
" For we have not an innumerable multitude of books 
among us, disagreeing from and contradicting one another 
(as the Greeks have), but only twenty-two books, which 
contain the records of all past times, which are justly 
believed to be divine. And of them five belong to Moses^ 
which contain his laws and the traditions of the origin of 
mankind till his death. This interval of time was little 
short of three thousand years ; but as to the time from the 
death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, 
who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets — who were after 
Moses, wrote down what was done in their times,^ in thirteen 
books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God^ 
and precepts for the conduct of human life. It is true that 
our history hath been written since Artaxerxes, very par- 
ticularly, but hath not been esteemed of the like authority 
with the former of our forefathers, because there had not 
been an exact succession of prophets since that time. . ." 
It is not within the scope of this paper to dwell longer 
upon this period, and for this reason Talmudic writings are 
not dealt with. 

I " The Bible in the Church," p. 33. 



POPULAR NAMES OF THE INSPIRED BOOKS. 2 1 

VI. The post-Apostolic writers and Fathers took up the 
previous usage. Ireuaeus calls all the books the divine 
Scriptures, which slightly diflfer from the ''ayiai ypdat" of 
Theophilus. Origen speaks of the Scriptures as " dyia Bc^Xia" 
*' Holy Books," and again simplifies this into " BciSXia," thus 
reminding us of the word of Clement of Rome in his second 
epistle to the Corinthians, "ra Bt,SXta," a reproduction of the 
then popular Jewish term. 

VII. This word quickly became by use the technical 
designation of the Old and New Testaments. The causes of 
this use are not far to seek. FirsL The orthodox writings 
in presence of the apocryphal works which so quickly and 
numerously came into existence in the early Christian age 
were very naturally ^/le books in the mind of every faithful 
soul. Secondly. Every church, every community, every 
monastery would want its copy or copies of Holy Writ; 
other books were of secondary consideration ; such copies 
would be emphatically the books of such church or Christian 
g-athering of any kind. Thirdly. The Sacred Volumes were 
the never-failing source of the readings, the substance of the 
prayers, and all else that make up church worship ; and the 
better this became organized and developed, the more 
prominently would these volumes stand out in the general 
estimation — an estimation naturally and simply voiced in 
the title ra. Bt^Xia. The Word thus firmly established in this 
ecclesiastical sense in the East came Westward — like many 
terms, v. g. episcopus, presbyter, diaconus, litania, liturgia, 
monachus, abbas, etc., with the same meaning. In the 
West, indeed, there was less chance of its being used in any 
but its higher meaning, for the Latin libri and libelli sufficed 
for every other purpose.^ 

VIII. For a while after its transfer into Latin, the Greek 
Biblia held its rights as a plural neuter noun. However, 
in the course of time a knowledge of Greek became a rare 
accomplishment in the West ; and so it happened that in 
the Middle Ages the word Biblia, having the appearance of 

I Smith's Bib. Diet. art. " Bible." 



23 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

a fenjinine noun, was treated as such ; indeed, men ceased to 
know its plural force, and it was declined Sacra Biblia^ 
Sacrae Bibliae, instead of Sacra Biblia, Sacrorum Bibliorum. 
"Si scires tolam Bibliam exterius," wrote Thomas 
a Kempis, "et omnium philosophorum dicta, quid totum pro- 
desset sine caritate et Dei gratia." It never crossed his 
mind that he should pen " tota Biblia." The mistake was 
not altogether an unhappy one, for it emphasized the truth 
that of the books that were or would be in the wide world, 
certainly the Inspired Writings constituted and would ever 
constitute the Book of them all.^ Nevertheless, the error 
occasioned serious misconceptions ; standards were applied, 
at least to parts of the Scriptures, which would never be 
used had it been studied as a Literature. Some of the best 
biblical work of our day is in no insignificant measure due 
to the fact that we have returned to the " library " notion of 
the books of revelation, and have taken up with the name 
given by that thorough scriptural scholar, St. Jerome — 
Bibliotheca Sacra^ a most scientific and enlightening term.^ 
IX. As to the word in our own language, it was brought 
to England by the Normans, though, remarkable to narrate, 
we have the more proper Bibleothece^ as including all Scrip- 
ture, in earlier Anglo-Saxon literature. Hence in the works 
written after the Invasion we find " Bible" already natural- 
ized. Thus Chaucer writes, in his description of the 
" Doctour of Phisik " (Canterbury Tales, prol. 429 ff.) : 

" Wei knewe he the olde Esculapius 
And Deyscorides, and sek Risus, 
Olde Ypocras, Haly and Galyn . . . 
His study was but litel on the Bible. " ^ 
The use of the word by the Protestant translators of Scrip- 
tures, or their predecessors, as Wycliffe, made it a fixture 

1 The Talmudists used a term equivalent to "The Book," cf. Trochon 
Introd. p. 35. 

2 A book recently issued, written by the Regius Professor of Hebrew in 
Cambridge University, is entitled: "The Divine Library of The Old 
Testament.'' 

3 An odd time Chaucer uses the word in the general sense of " book." 



POPULAR NAMES OF THE INSPIRED BOOKS. 23 

in the languages of the Western nations most aflfected by 
the religious revolutions of the sixteenth century. 

X. There is another designation of Holy Writ which 
demands notice: the "Old and New Testament." "Testa- 
ment " is used as the translation of the Greek la^^xiq. Now 
in Scripture this word most often expresses the Hebrew 
nna whose proper meaning is compact^ covenant. Professor 
Thayer in his Lexicon describes the use of this word. It is 
made to denote the close relationship God entered into with 
Noah (Gen. vi, 18; ix, 9 seq.), then with Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob and their posterity (Lev. xxvi, 42), but especially with 
Abraham (Gen. xv. and xvii), and afterwards through 
Moses with the children of Israel (Ex. xxiv ; Dent, v, 2, 
et al.). In these passages it is told on the one side what God 
will do in favor of Israel, and on the other what He expects 
from His children : they are to keep the commandments 
given through Moses ; and He promises the greatest earthly 
rewards to those who do so, and the direst punishments to 
those who do not. This is what is back of the word as 
generally current in the New Testament (Cf. Heb. ix, 4 ; 
Apoc. xi, 19 ; Acts vii, 8 ; Rom. ix; 4). 

However, this covenant included not only what was to 
happen before the Messiah, but also His coming. For this 
reason St. Paul writing to the Ephesians, who had been 
Gentiles, reminds them that when such, they were " without 
Christ, being aliens from the conversations of Israel, and 
strangers to the covenant, having no hope of the promise, and 
without God in this world " — Eph. ii, 12. In other passages 
it is insisted upon that Christian salvation is the fulfilment 
of the Divine promises annexed to former covenants, espe- 
cially to that made with Abraham ; thus in Luke i, 72 ff; 
Acts iii, 25 ; Rom. xi, 17 ; Gal. iii, 17. Now these coven- 
ants having been filled by the coming of the Messiah, a new 
and more perfect compact between God and His people 
would follow : " Behold the day shall come, saith the Lord," 
quotes the Epistle to the Hebrews from the prophet Jere- 
miah, " and I will perfect unto the house of Israel, and unto 
the house of Jacob, a new covenant. Now in saying a new, 



24 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW: 



He hath made the former old. And that which decayeth 
and groweth old is near its end " (Heb. viii, 8, 9). Again : 
"But now He hath obtained a better ministry, but how 
much also He is mediator of a better covenant, which is 
established on better promises" (Heb. viii, 6). In conse- 
quence of this we are not surprised to find two distinct 
covenants, the Mosaic and the Christian, treated of, as in 
the Epistle to the Galatians, where under the figure of 
Ishmael and Isaac the two covenants are described — Gal. iii, 
22 flf. This "new covenant,"^ as the older ones, has its 
conditions ; tbese are on the part of men faith in Christ with 
whatever this implies, and on the part of God grace and 
salvation in return. The compact is sealed — made good — 
by the death of Christ, as is expressed by the phrases — "the 
blood of the new covenant," "the blood of the covenant," 
" my blood of the covenant," i.e.^ my blood by the shedding 
of which the covenant is established. 

XI. Evidently all along the Greek dia^Tjxi) has signified 
compact — covenant — arrangement between God and man. 
Nevertheless, there is a very striking exception, one which 
is the basis of the present use of the word " Testament." 
In the Epistle to the Hebrews — ix, 16 — we read : " For where 
there is a covenant, the death of the testator must of necessity 
come in. For a testament is of force after men are dead : 
otherwise it is yet of no strength whilst the testator liveth." 
Here we see that into the word dia^xjj a new signification is 
infused, although the meaning which the word has else- 
where in the Epistle is not altogether excluded : * it means 
"covenant," but a covenant modified by the idea we attach 
to a last will or testament ; and, therefore, Christ is likened 
to a testator, not only because He bequeathed us a heavenly 
inheritance, but because through His death we obtain the 
means of fulfilling the covenant even as the Mosaic one 
should be consecrated by blood (Heb. ix, 15, 18 flf) .^ 

1 Math, xxvi, 28. 

2 " The sacred writer starts from the sense of a ' covenant ' and. glides into 
that of a 'testament.' " — I,ightfoot — Comm. on Gal. iii, 15. 

3 Thayer's Lexicon. 



POPULAR NAMES OF THE INSPIRED BOOKS. 25 

This new use of Scai'^rjxrj was a very natural one since ' ' in 
classical writers it almost always signifies 'a will, a testa- 
ment. ' On the other hand in the Septuagint the word is as 
universally used of a covenant (most frequently as a transla- 
tion of r\'^2), whether as a stipulation between two parties 
(«ruv»95jzi7, ' a covenant ' in the strict sense) or as an engage- 
ment on the part of one." Now the actual equivalent of 
the word, as current in the Bible, in Latin would be /oedus, 
or pactum; so that '/^ -dXam d'.anT,x-q should be translated 
Veins Foedus (or Pactum), and 'H ^a-i'^r^ dia^xrj^ Novum Foedus. 
This did not happen ; on the contrary Testamentum, became 
the accepted rendering, an interpretation due no doubt to 
the two-fold sense attributed to ^^a^xr^ in the passage quoted 
from the Epistle to the Hebrews, and to the fact that this 
is its meaning in classical Greek. Already in Tertullian's 
day this word's growing popularity had superseded a word 
frequently used by this writer — " instrumentum. " In this 
way it fell out that the Latin Vulgate renders dia'^rjxrj^ wher- 
ever it occurs in the Christian Revelation, testamentum. 
The natural result of this use was that in later Latin the term 
was stretched to cover the biblical ("covenant") as well as 
the classical C" will or testament ") sense of Sta^rjxrj^ and thus 
it came to pass that what was at first a mere arbitrary assump- 
tion — if not an incorrect translation — became a received 
dictionary translation of the word. 

Our short study of the popular names of Holy Writ has 
led us to touch briefly on its history, and incidentally has 
brought to mind problems so serious as that of the covenant- 
nature of the Jewish and Christian Dispensation, and the 
like. It has taught us, also, that Protestantism owes the 
appellation "Old and New Testament" to a source so dis- 
tinctly Catholic as the Vulgate, and that its most prized 
shibboleth — "Bible" — is a solecism in the Latin of the 
monks. Such is the irony of Fate ! 

It may be something of a satisfaction to recall that in so 
simple a matter as the popular names given to God's written 
Truth, neither Revelation itself, nor the laws of philology, 
had a chief part, but the use and authority of the Catholic 



26 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Church — the criterion without which in more serious matters, 
Revelation would be rendered unable to attain its proper end, 
and Human Science would be left stranded on the shoals of 
agnosticism. 

Joseph V. Tracy. 

Baltimore, Md. 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CITIL WAR. 

WHEREVER a Catholic priest is needed, he is sure to 
go. Dangers do not daunt him, hardships do not 
hinder him, pestilence cannot perturb him, nor the certainty 
of death drive him away. He is bound to go where there 
are souls for him to save, and should he lose his life, another 
priest will be prompt to fill his place and carry on his work. 

When the civil war summoned the men of the North and 
the South to conflict, legions of Catholic citizens swarmed to 
the defence of the Union. At the call of President Ivincoln 
for volunteers, they rallied around the starry flag and on 
every battle-field from Bull Run to Appomattox they did 
their full share in the grand achievement that carried it to 
final victory. 

With the Catholic battalions were priests who had left 
their peaceful homes to accompany the army in its cam- 
paigns, ministering to the spiritual needs of the troops, 
sharing their privations, confronting the same perils on the 
march, in bivouac and on the field of blood. Neither fatigue 
nor exposure, neither hunger nor thirst, neither heat nor 
cold, neither rain nor snow, neither camp fever nor swamp 
miasma, neither the carnage of engagements nor the risk of 
capture, could separate them from their men. Once, at the 
battle of Malvern Hill, one of them was out at the very front 
of the line, going about among the wounded, giving absolu- 
tion to those who wished it, while the cannons roared and 
the musket balls fell like hail. Coming to a soldier who was 
mortally hurt, the Father asked : 

" Are you a Catholic ? " 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



27 



"No," was the reply, "I'm not, but I'd like to be, for I 
want to die in the faith that gives you the courage to come 
out to such a fearful place as this." 

And there amid the din and the danger, the priest in- 
structed and baptized him and closed his eyes in death. 

Among these brave clergymen who were with the Federal 
forces in the days that tried men's souls from i860 to 1865, 
the Very Rev. William Corby, C.S.C. is conspicuous by 
reason of the length and the merit of his services. For 
three years he was with the famous Irish Brigade in the 
Army of the Potomac. He served under McClellan, Burn- 
side, Hooker, Meade and Grant, marching and counter- 
marching in Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, going 
with his regiment into the bloodiest battles of the war, and 
giving up his commission only when the surrender of Lee 
announced the downfall of the Confederacy. 

Some of his reminiscences of chaplain life in the army 
may entertain and edify the priests of a younger generation 
who have only the victories of peace to cultivate and who 
know of war only through the pages of history and the 
stories of the few surviving veterans of the Republic's fratri- 
cidal strife. 

Father Corby offered his services to the Government in the 
autumn of 1861 and shortly afterwards joined his regiment 
at Alexandria, Virginia. That fall and winter were spent in 
" Camp California, " near Washington, D. C, where the 
chaplain's work among the men was pretty much the same 
as the parish duties of a city pastor. 

On a miserable rainy day in the early spring of 1862, the 
army received orders to march. As this was Father Corby's 
first experience in campaigning, he had not yet the knack of 
taking care of himself on such an expedition. So when the 
command was given to start, he placed his missionary outfit, 
his tent and his blanket in one of the army wagons, hung a 
small sack of " hard tack " crackers on the pommel of his 
saddle, mounted his horse, and went forward with his regi- 
ment. All day long it rained and all day long the soldiers 
tramped in the mud, going toward Manassas: At night they 



a8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW- 

halted. The Irish Brigade came to a rest in a bleak and 
sodden cornfield. A raw March wind was blowing. And 
still the rain came down ! The gallant chaplain of the 
Eighty-eighth New York got off his charger, stiff and sore 
after his eighteen mile ride through the mire. He had no 
shelter to go to — for the wagons were stalled ten miles back, 
and his blanket was with his tent. He tried to eat his 
crackers, but they had got wet with the rain and had 
absorbed perspiration from the horse. They smelt horse, 
they tasted horse, and the stomach of his reverence revolted 
against them. Hunger was more endurable than such food. 
After a little, he sat on the roots of a tree and heard the con- 
fessions of some of the men ; then, for the rest of the night 
he stood beside a fire which the soldiers had started — having 
ridden all day and having no dinner, no supper and no sleep. 

The first battle that Father Corby was in, was at Fair 
Oaks, on June i. It had begun on the previous afternoon. 
When the Irish Brigade reached the front, they found the 
field strewn with corpses, dead horses, bursted cannon, broken 
muskets, smashed caissons, clothing, balls, blood, limbs and 
branches of trees — a gruesome sight, sickening to raw 
recruits. In sequestered places some of the wounded had 
been collected. From group to group went the chaplain, 
giving absolution, comforting the dying, praying for all. 
At daybreak the Confederates came rushing against the new 
array of their enemy, but the Irish boys stood the assault 
without flinching and gave as good as they got. The conflict 
raged with fury. Men fell by the score in every company. 
The dead were left where they lay. The wounded were 
borne toward the rear. In the shelter of a log-cabin, on the 
exposed side of which the bullets rained with a sound some- 
what like that of hail upon a tin roof. Father Corby went on 
with his ministry. The circumstances were exciting but 
somewhat too trying to the nerves to be comfortable. 

Later in the day the chaplain went to an improvised hos- 
pital where the surgeons were at work. In a huge pile were 
legs, arms, feet and hands, shattered by balls, now amputated 
and covered with blood, heaped up like meat in a slaughter- 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



29 



house — a spectacle to make the stoutest heart quail and to 
dim all the romantic glory of war. 

In the Seven Days' Fight the Union forces had to give 
battle by day and to march by night. As they swung round 
toward a new base of operation, the Confederates advanced. 
So when the darkness came down, putting an end to the day's 
encounter and offering opportunity for further retreat, the 
dead and the badly wounded fell into the hands of the men 
from the South. The dead were stripped of clothing and 
accoutrements. The living were made captives and sent 
back to prison-pens. A part of every night was devoted to 
burying the dead. Pits were dug, long and deep, and about 
six feet wide. Into these the bodies were lowered, side by 
side and on top of one another. Often many poor wretches, 
unconscious from pain and loss of blood, were thrown into 
these holes and buried alive. 

During every engagement cannons and caissons were 
dragged into position regardless of minor obstructions, such 
as the bodies of fallen soldiers, whether living or dead, and 
afterward army wagons and ambulances were similarly driven 
over the field, crushing the corpses and either further injuring 
or completely killing the wounded that lay in their way. 
The unfortunates were also trodden upon by the horses of 
orderlies and aids galloping from headquarters with orders 
from the General in command to his subordinate officers. 

All these horrors were witnessed by the new chaplain. 
They made him shudder. He had other griefs, too, for his 
brigade left seven hundred of its bravest officers and men on 
the bloody fields from White House Landing to Malvern Hill. 
By God's mercy nearly every one of them had received the 
sacraments shortly before, and even in their death throes a 
number of them had again been shriven. But they were 
sadly missed by their comrades, and that early loss depressed 
the spirit of the survivors. 

Some wonderful escapes from death, on the other hand, 
obtruded themselves on the notice of Father Corby, and 
made him wonder at the inscrutable ways of Providence. 

A soldier from Brooklyn, N. Y. , had received from his 



30 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

mother a prayer-book, which he placed in an inside pocket 
of his coat. During the battle of Malvern Hill a bullet 
struck the book in the centre, passed through one cover and 
some of the leaves, was deflected and glanced off without 
injuring the man in the least. But for his mother's gift he 
would have been killed. 

Another soldier, hailing from Philadelphia, wore a set of 
the five scapulars given to him by his sister. A shot struck 
them, but was diverted before it could penetrate the five 
thicknesses of woolen cloth, and his life was saved. 

A Colonel of the Sixty-first New York Infantry was hit in 
the stomach, and the bullet was cut out near the spine. To 
all appearance it had passed through the body, and as soon as 
the doctor saw it he pronounced it mortal. Later, however, 
indications showed that it had entered in front in an oblique 
direction, having probably struck a button, had passed around 
the body only under the skin, and had made a simple flesh 
wound. The Colonel was taken to Washington for treatment. 
There the physician who had attended him on the field met 
him on the street six weeks later, in remarkably good health. 

"Are you the Colonel of the Sixty-first New York In- 
fantry ? " he asked. 

*' I am, doctor," was the answer. 

"And you are not dead after having been oflScially pro- 
nounced mortally wounded ?" 

"No, sir." 

" Well, Colonel," said the wag of a doctor, " you ought to 
have died according to prediction, so as to save the honor of 
my profession." 

Some strange deaths also he beheld. As some men were 
spared when apparently doomed, so others lost their lives as 
if singled out and pursued by an edict of destruction. 

A Captain, who was only slightly wounded, slipped on a 
hill-side, his sword fell out of his hand, the hilt stuck in the 
ground, and the blade passed through his body. 

A soldier of the Irish Brigade was going out one night on 
picket duty. Asked if he was not afraid of sharpshooters, he 
answered : " No, I am not ; I have been through too many 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



31 



battles to be picked off now. " Just then his own gun went off 
accidentally, and the ball passed through his head. 

As the remnant of the brigade came out of action at 
Fredericksburg, Captain Sullivan and Father Corby met in 
a street of that town and congratulated each other on their 
escape. It had been a bloody day, and but few were left to 
tell its story. The two parted after exchanging a few words 
of mutual cheer. The Captain went to cross the street. He 
had not gone ten feet when a stray cannon ball struck him 
above the knee and laid him low. He died that night. 

On the march one day some soldiers started up a rabbit, 
and one of them raised his gun to fire at it. Just as the trigger 
was pulled a handsome drummer-boy ran into line with the 
missile, and was instantly killed. 

A young man, whose time of enlistment had expired, was 
about to start for home. He was bubbling over with joy at 
the prospect of seeing his own again. Before leaving, he 
ventured to the front to bid good-bye to a companion. As he 
reached the breastworks a sharpshooter on the other side put 
a bullet through his head. 

At Chancellorsville some surgeons had a soldier on a table 
to amputate a limb. When they were about to operate on 
him a cannon ball literally swept him off the boards and 
smashed his body to pieces. 

These are a few instances out of many that came under the 
chaplain's observation, in which a mysterious fate made sure 
of the death of some and took pains to let others live. 

At the Battle ofAntietam the Irish Brigade received orders 
to go in on the " double-quick. " When this command was 
given out Father Corby gave rein to his horse and dashed at 
full gallop to the head of the command. Then, passing along 
the line, he bade the men make an act of contrition, and 
forthwith gave a general absolution. Inside of half an hour 
506 of them lay on the field, either dangerously wounded or 
dead. As soon as they began'to fall the chaplain dismounted 
and went from one to another of them, giving absolution. 
Bullets whizzed on every side, cannon balls screamed through 
the air, hurra replied to yell, the din of battle came and went, 



32 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

but still he kept at work. The Union forces were at length 
victorious. After the engagement they proceeded to Harper's 
Ferry. But Father Corby remained for several days with 
the wounded. On the morning following the combat he 
celebrated Mass in the open air near the straw-stack that had 
answered for a hospital, and he gave Holy Communion to all 
who were prepared to receive it. In so doing he had to carry 
the Blessed Eucharist to the stricken where they lay, stepping 
over some, walking around others, guided by a comrade of 
theirs, or called by their cries or signs. It was a heart- 
rending but edifying scene. 

In camp one day about noon, Father Corby heard by a 
Providential chance that there was to be the execution of a 
deserter early in the afternoon. Rain was falling. Unmind- 
ful of the weather, the chaplain set out for division head- 
quarters. Before he got there he was drenched through and 
his feet were soaking in his broken boots. Taking no 
thought of his personal discomfort when a life was to be lost 
and a soul was at stake, he obtained permission from the 
general to see the condemned man. He hastened to the 
guard-house and was admitted to the presence of the prisoner. 
He found the latter to be a young man of German descent, 
born in this country, about nineteen years of age, very 
ignorant of religion, and unbaptized. A minister of his own 
denomination was attending him, but had gone off to dinner. 
While the priest was still conversing with the poor fellow, 
the preacher returned from table. Father Corby introduced 
himself to the other chaplain and explained that not know- 
ing that the doomed man had any religious ministrations he 
had come of his own accord to see if he could be of any use 
to him. The minister bowed, and turning to the young man 
inquired of him : 

"Adam, do you believe you will be saved ?" 

" Y-e-s," said Adam dubiously. 

"I hope you will, I do most sincerely hope you will." 
That was all— have faith, believe that you'll be saved and 
saved you are. 

Father Corby suggested that, as the time was short, the 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



33 



young man who had declared to the priest his belief in the 
principal articles of the creed and his desire to do anything 
possible to him to please God, should be baptized. 

" Well," returned the parson, " I do not know what your 
Church teaches but our Church holds that all that is neces- 
sary is faith in Christ as the Saviour and baptism in the Holy 
Ghost. I will go see the general and learn what time the 
execution is to take place." 

He came back presently reporting that the appointed hour 
was I o'clock. 

" Then," said Father Corby, " we have but half an hour 
to prepare the man for death. Now, if baptism will do him 
no good, as you think, surely it will do him no harm ; so if 
you have no objections, I shall baptize him. " 
• The minister gave his consent and at once the priest 
administered the sacrament. Immediately there was a nota- 
ble change in the prisoner's demeanor. The light of faith, 
bestowed on him by baptism, seemed to shine in his counte- 
nance. A burden had been lifted from his soul, and his 
heart, hitherto dark and apprehensive, was light and full of 
peace. Soon a squad of armed men came to escort him to 
the place of death. He went with them as coolly as if he 
had been called to dress parade. The chaplains walked 
beside him. Arrived at the place of execution, his eyes 
were bandaged, and he was placed in position opposite twelve 
men detailed to kill him. At a signal, the guns were dis- 
charged and the soul of Adam was before its Lord. 

When the command of the Army of the Potomac had been 
taken from General McClellan and turned over to General 
Burnside, the Irish Brigade was led to slaughter up the 
heights of Fredericksburg. For three weeks unmolested, 
the enemy had worked day and night to fortify the slope 
back of the city. When all their cannons were in place and 
when their breastworks were all high and wide, the Union 
troops were ordered to make the assault. It snowed on 
December 12, 1862. Toward evening the men were marched 
from their camp to the river by the town, so as to be ready 
at dawn to cross the pontoon bridge and storm the hill-tops. 



34 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

All night long they rested on their arms in the slush and the 
snow. Their chaplain was with them, spending the hours 
of darkness on a little heap of brush, to keep himself out of 
the mud. When the day broke, the soldiers crossed the 
Rappahannock and began to make the ascent. But they 
were mowed down like grass before a scythe. *' Never," 
wrote the war correspondent of the London Times' " never, 
at Fontenoy, Albuera or Waterloo was a more undaunted 
courage displayed by the sons of Erin than during those six 
frantic dashes which they directed against the almost impreg- 
nable position of the foe." 

The Irish Brigade was literally cut to pieces — swept off the 
"hillside by the sheltered fusilade of the enemy, without a 
chance to make any defence or to strike a single blow in 
return. 

After the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg^ the army 
-went into winter quarters, and General Meagher returned to 
New York to drum up recruits for his decimated brigade. 

L. W. Reilly. 



THE BREVIARY— GAIN AND LOSS. 

Divinum OfiScium imitatio est coelestis concentus. — ^5". Bonaventura. 

If they said the Office devoutly, priests themselves would not be always 
the same — always imperfect, prone to anger, greedy, attached to self-interest 
and to vanities. — " Selva.'^ 

The whole Church is the sanctuary, and the Divine Office is the ritual of 
the choir on earth uniting with the praises, thanksgivings, and doxologies 
which are the ritual of the choir in heaven. Every priest has his place in 
this choir, and he makes seven visits to the heavenly court day by day. — 
Card. Manning. 

T T is related of a zealous bishop of the seventeenth century 
^ that, having been appointed to the diocese of Potenza, in 
which the clergy were somewhat lax, he consulted St. Joseph 
of Copertino, as to the best measures to adopt in order to 
secure their amendment. "Let your Lordship," said the 
Saint, "see to it that your priests recite the divine OflSce with 
attention and celebrate the Holy Mass with devotion : the 



THE BREVIARY— GAIN AND LOSS. 



35 



worthy performance of these two exercises will effect an 
entire reformation in your clergy. " The soundness of the 
advice cannot be questioned, and two hundred years have 
detracted so little from its pertinency that these words of the 
saint might perhaps be addressed to many a bishop of the 
nineteenth century with fully as much appositeness as 
characterized cheir original deliverance to the Ordinary of 
Potenza in the seventeenth. In any case, most dioceses con- 
tain individual priests whose lives in some respect or other 
need reforming ; and it is scarcely too much to say that their 
reform would virtually be effected, were they once to acquire 
the habit of worthily acquitting themselves of those capital 
duties of the sacerdotal day; the Mass and the Office. 

Of the two exercises, the recitation of the Canonical Hours 
is clearly the more liable to be performed with precipitancy, 
carelessness, voluntary distractions, and an inattention so 
marked as often to vitiate the whole act, making a mockery 
of prayer and insulting the God whom the Office is meant to 
honor. In the celebration of Mass, the circumstance of 
place, the special dress, and the varying movements, rites, 
and ceremonies conspire to impress the priest with the tremen- 
dous significance of the adorable Sacrifice which he is offer- 
ing, while the awful reality of the presence of Jesus Christ 
in the consecrated host lying before him on the corporal, or 
taken up into his hands, is ordinarily sufficient to fix the 
attention of the average cleric, and superinduce the reverence 
demanded of him at the altar. The absence of such solemn 
adjuncts in the private recitation of the divine Office, and 
the latitude allowed to the reciter as to time, place, and 
posture, make concentrated attention a matter of greater diffi- 
culty, increase the danger of disrespect and indevotion, and 
less readily prevent the deplorable lapse into mere soulless 
routinism. 

By those who have contracted the obligation of reading it, 
the Breviary is variously considered a pleasure or a burden ; 
and it accordingly proves either an effective help or a genuine 
hindrance to their sanctification. The truly exemplary priest, 
the cleric who has become acclimated to the supernatural 



36 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



atmosphere in which of right the minister of God should 
habitually move, looks upon the recitation of the divine 
Office as an honorable service which he is signally privileged 
in being allowed to perform, and the performance of which 
brings to him a copious influx of spiritual peace and consola- 
tion, a notable accession of celestial sweetness and light. A 
veritable man of God, voicing the glories of his Lord and 
Master, is a spectacle which to his sight can never assume 
the ignoble guise of a laborious task. With the characteristic 
delight of the ardent lover, he rejoices in rehearsing the end- 
less catalogue of his Beloved's perfections, and never wearies 
of re-echoing in his heart the constantly recurring tributes of 
praise and worship and thanksgiving to which patriarchs, 
evangelists, and saints of every degree lend their voices in the 
magnificent chorus of the canonical hours. 

To such a priest the Breviary is a genuine Vade Mecum in 
whose treasured pages he finds not only congruous expression 
for all his varied sentiments, but balm-like words of healing 
for every bruise of his soul ; and the precious moments which 
from time to time during the day he devotes to the Office are 
merely renewals of the ineffable communion that glorified 
the morning hour when he reverently stood at the altar, and 
oflfered in sacrifice the spotless Lamb of God. Happy the 
ecclesiastic who thus clearly apprehends the true significance 
of his relations to the divine Office, and who daily verifies 
in practice this theory of the Breviary's use. He is indeed 
one who " seven times a day is in choir with the saints and 
before the face of God ;" and next to Holy Mass, he finds in 
the Hours his most efficient help to that sacerdotal perfection 
to which all priests are supposed to aspire. 

That all priests, however, do not regard the Office in this 
light of a welcome privilege of which it is a real pleasure to 
avail themselves, and from which they habitually derive 
abundant spiritual profit, is a truth which no one with even 
the most restricted clerical acquaintance will be inclined to 
gainsay. In the estimation of not a few ecclesiastics, the 
recitation of the Breviary is merely an irksome labor, a daily 
recurring drudgery which they perform in some perfunctory 



THE BREVIARY— GAIN AND LOSS. 



37 



fashion because of the gravity of the obligation laid upon 
them, but which they would willingly omit, did the omission 
involve no sin. Were the reading of the hours to be declared 
ad libitum or pro opportunitate sacerdoium^ it is tolerably safe 
to say that many a Breviary would be forthwith relegated to 
the top shelf of the bookcase in which are stored volumes 
used for occasional reference only. 

One need not, of course, accept as expressions of genuine 
belief all the inconsiderate remarks upon the Breviary so 
often heard in clerical circles, or take it for granted that the 
irreverent tongue is always the faithful interpreter of its 
owner's real sentiments ; but if any truth whatever may be 
attributed to the maxim " ex abundantia cordis os loquitur," 
then a considerable number of priests clearly look upon the 
recitation of the divine Office, not as an agreeable and a joy- 
giving service, but as an onerous and undesirable burden. 
It goes without saying that such men pervert the purpose of 
the Oflfice, and make of it a stumbling-block in the way of 
their spiritual advancement rather than a stepping-stone to 
their sanctification. The priest who habitually regards the 
recitation of his Breviary as an uncongenial task is so little 
likely to turn it to his profit that he may be considered for- 
tunate if the Office does not become for him the occasion of 
very serious spiritual loss. 

If the psalms, hymns, lessons, antiphons, versicles, res- 
ponses, and prayers that constitute the Canonical Hours are 
to prove of any positive benefit to him who reads them, they 
must unquestionably be recited "digne, attente ac devote" ; 
and it is difficult to understand how the cleric who views 
their recitation merely as so much unavoidable drudgery, can 
fulfill these conditions. Granting that he pays such atten- 
tion to the mere words as strictly suffices for the acquittance 
of the obligation, what prospect does his frame of mind 
offer for the presence of even incipient devotion? what 
likelihood is there that he will combine the interior recol- 
lection, the becoming posture, and the decorous general 
demeanor which should accompany the worthy recital of 
vocal prayer ? In practice, how lamentably often he fails, 



38 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

not only as to the " digne ac devote," but even as regards 
the minimum of attention requisite to the valid discharge of 
his daily debt ! 

It is characteristic of human nature that a want of thor- 
oughness usually distinguishes the performance of any task 
that is not congenial to our tastes. No work undertaken in 
a spirit of repugnance or half-heartedness is likely to be 
done well. Unless an ecclesiastic has learned to love and 
esteem his Breviary, he will scarcely derive from its recita- 
tion any of the inestimable advantages which accrue to 
really devout members of the Church's earthly choir ; and 
there is certainly danger of his incurring the guilt of num- 
berless faults, imperfections, and venial sins, even though 
he does perform all that is rigorously involved in the obliga- 
tion of the OflSce. One of the surprises that assuredly await 
the average cleric who is happily destined to reach Purga- 
tory, is the immense debt contracted through the Breviary, 
by so-called exemplary priests who never neglected to say 
their Office — and rarely said it really well. 

Perhaps the true explanation of the remissness of so many 
ecclesiastics in the accomplishment of this duty is their 
failure to understand, or at least to meditate frequently, the 
excellence of the Canonical Hours, and the motives by which 
the Church was actuated in constraining her ministers to 
their recital. In this respect, as in so many others, it is 
partly true that " with desolation is all the land made deso- 
late ; because there is none that considereth in the heart.'* 
How many priests of the reader's acquaintance read, even 
once a year, a treatise on the Divine Office, supposing that 
such a volume can be found among their books? How 
many are conversant with the beautiful symbolism of the 
different hours, or appreciate the significant collocation of 
the constituent parts of each ? How many possess any fur- 
ther knowledge of the history of the Breviary than a hazy 
notion that it is a compilation made by the slothful monks 
of other days, who had nothing else to do than recite inter- 
minable prayers, an occupation palpably ill-suited to their 
overworked successors in modern times. 



THE BREVIARY— GAIN AND LOSS. 



39 



This lack of information concerning the Office partially 
accounts for the slight importance attached to it by many 
priests, and for their grudging to its recitation anything 
beyond what is strictly exacted by the law. Let the 
preacher of an ecclesiastical retreat venture to discuss the 
Breviary in one of his conferences, and suggest that the 
recitation of the Office should mean something more than 
the merely mechanical utterance of the words composing 
the psalms and lessons ; and probably half his hearers will 
accuse him of talking " high spirituality," while a consider- 
able number of the other half will shake their heads and 
regret the fact that, ' ' The fellow is not practical. ' ' 

Practical ! What a colossal humbug this shibboleth is 
made to stand for in the vocabulary of the lukewarm, easy- 
going cleric. Speak to him of the eminent sanctity of the 
sacerdotal state, the sacred obligations incumbent upon the 
priest, the necessity of daily mental prayer, the exact obser- 
vance of the rubrics, the multiple dangers of wasted time, 
the reverential celebration of Holy Mass, the importance of 
careful preparation for preaching, — and how glibly he dis- 
poses of each such topic with the puerile rejoinder (to which 
he apparently attaches all the weight of an unanswerable 
argument) : " All very well in theory, my dear sir, but your 
discourse is not practical." And yet, unless in the ordering 
of his life he translates into actual practice much of what 
he professes to disregard as " beautiful theory, only," he will 
assuredly find it quite impossible to do the duty which God 
has set him, or work out his eternal salvation. 

The counsels which all the spiritual writers give to the priest 
as to the esteem in which he should hold the Divine Office, 
and the manner in which he should discharge the obligation 
of reciting it, certainly do not deserve to be called impracti- 
cable theories. On the contrary, they are easily reducible to 
actual performance by any cleric whose good-will is at all 
commensurate with his opportunities ; and the truly practical 
ecclesiastic is he who, recognizing the wisdom of such coun- 
sels, makes continuous efforts to follow them faithfully. No 
minimizing of his responsibilities on the part of a priest can 



40 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



do away with the fact that he is primarily a man of God, 
dedicated in a special manner to the highest possible life and 
bound by a thousand considerations to the worship and praise 
of the ever-blessed Trinity. Whether he fully realizes and 
accepts all the duties and requirements of his exalted position, 
or strives to underrate their number and restrict their power 
of binding, it is none the less incontestible that when he 
entered the sanctuary and became a "priest forfcver," he 
enrolled himself among the chosen band to whom, princi- 
pally, is entrusted the Church Militant's function of imitating 
the incessant service of adoration and thanksgiving offered 
to the Triune God by the Church Glorious and Triumphant. 

Not merely, then, as an individual wayfarer on earth, does 
the cleric pray when he recites the Canonical Hours, but as 
the special representative of the congregation of all the 
faithful, as their leader, spokesman and advocate — a consid- 
eration whi<5h may well accentuate the fervor of his petitions 
and his determination to make them potent. The divine 
Office is the prayer of the Church, and the priest, with 
Breviary in hand, is the Church's ambassador, dowered with 
her credentials and charged with the mission of proffering 
to God the homage of her worship and her gratitude. To 
him also, in this quality of ambassador, do all the members 
of the Church appeal, begging him to obtain for them from 
Heaven the graces of which they stand in need — perseverance 
for the just, repentance for the sinner, fortitude for the waver- 
ing, and additional faith and hope and love for all. To shut 
one's eyes to these truths and to their legitimate bearing on 
the manner of reciting the Office, is to be the very reverse of 
practical, is to ignore the patent significance and import of 
the priestly calling, and to outdo in folly the veriest vision- 
aries that ever mistook fantastic day-dreams for sustantial 
realities. 

Again, no member of the clergy will presumably deny that 
prayer is a duty from which he cannot safely dispense him- 
self. The necessity and importance of this exercise of the 
Christian life has been the theme of too many of his instruc- 
tions to his people to admit any doubt as to the ordinary 



THf: BREVIARY— GAIN AND LOSS , 41 

priest's thorough conviction that prayer is indispensable to 
the common faithful, and a fortiori to the clergy, from whom, 
since they have received much, "much will be required." 
This necessity once admitted, can any course of action be 
more genuinely practical than that of the cleric who makes 
of the obligatory recitation of the Breviary a real prayer, 
vivifying, by the emotions of the heart and the elevation of 
the soul to God, words that would otherwise be meaningless 
formulas, mechanically uttered and profiting nought. No 
petitions of his own composing are comparable in excellence 
with those scattered through the Canonical Hours. "A hundred 
private prayers," says St. Alphonsus Liguori, "are not of 
so much value as a single prayer of the Breviary." In truth, 
whether our object in praying be to acknowledge God's 
supreme dominion over us as over all creatures, to appease 
His anger aroused by our sins, to return Him thanks for the 
benefits constantly showered upon us, or to solicit from His 
infinite goodness the assistance we need in order that we may 
walk in the footsteps of our model Priest, Jesus, the divine 
Ofiice accomplishes each of those ends more excellently and 
eflicaciously than any other form of prayer that heart or lips 
can utter. 

It is evident, then, that the priest who persists in viewing 
the Breviary as a hardly tolerable burden, and who conse- 
quently recites it as the restless schoolboy recites his reading 
lesson, is oblivious of his true interests, and is wilfully 
damming up a copious stream of grace — a stream sadly 
needed, perhaps, for the irrigation of his drouth-stricken soul. 
Comparatively few, indeed, are the ecclesiastics whose method 
of saying their Office is not susceptible of judicious revision on 
the lines of becoming posture, distinct and unhurried utterance, 
attention to the meaning of psalms and lessons, frequent 
aspirations in unison with the passages recited, and habitual 
spiritual union with the heavenly choir of whose never- 
ending anthem our Canonical Hours form earth's most faithful 
echo. All such revision would be a manifest blessing, tend- 
ing, as it certainly would, to the greater glory of God, the 
Church's benefit, and the personal sanctification of the clergy. 

Arthur Barry O'Neill, C.S.C. 



42 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REyiEW. 



CONFERENCES. 
THE ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCH TOWARD BULL FIGHTS. 

A recent account of the tragic death of a Spanish matador^ 
to whom a priest administered the last sacraments in the 
presence of a multitude assembled at a bull fight, has 
caused much comment as to the attitude of the Church 
toward these cruel sports. 

The Canon Law in Spain, as elsewhere, ordains that those 
who engage in these fights and die therein be deprived of 
Christian burial. 

In 1567 Pius V, with a view of completely rooting out 
the practice, issued a decree by which not only those who 
took part in these spectacles, but the princes and governors 
(not excluding the King of Spain or any Catholic potentate 
of whatever country), would incur the major excommunica- 
tion by the very fact of permitting these practices within 
their territories. In order to destroy every tendency toward 
their revival, the Pontiff prohibited all similar games in 
which animals were to be killed or tortured, even though 
they were absolutely without danger to human life. The 
decree furthermore ordained that clerics and feudal lords 
who participated, favored or permitted them were to be 
deprived of their rank. 

"Considering,'^ says the Pontiff, "that these spectacles, 
wherein bulls and other wild animals are roused to fury, are 
wholly opposed to the spirit of Christian charity, and 
desirous to see these cruel and criminal sports which befit 
more the character of demons than of men, abolished — 
we forbid and interdict under pain of excommunication and 
anathema, each and every Christian prince, ecclesiastical or 
secular, imperial, royal, or of whatever other dignity pos- 
sessed — that they do not permit within their realms, cities, 
lands, towns, and places, any sports wherein bulls or other 
wild beasts are attacked and tortured. That they moreover 
prohibit their soldiers or any other person under their juris- 
diction to take part in such sports." 



CONFERENCES. 43 

But we gpive the original text to save further explanation. 

"Nosigitur considerantes haec spectacula, ubi Tauri, et Ferae 
in circ© vel foro agitantur, a pietate, et caritate Christiana aliena 
esse, ac volentes haec cruenta, turpiaque daemonum et non 
hominum spectacula aboleri, et animarum saluti, quantum cum 
Deo possumus, providere, omnibus et singulis principibus Christ- 
ianis quacumque, tam Ecclesiastica quam mundana, etiam 
Imperiali, Regia, vel quavis alia dignitate fulgentibus, quovis 
nomine nuncupentur, vel quibusvis communitatibus, et Rebus- 
publicis, hac perpetuo nostra Constitutione valitura, sub excom- 
municationis, et anathematis poenis ipso facto incurrendis, 
prohibemus, et interdicimus, ne in suis Provinciis, Civitatibus, 
Terris, Oppidis et locis, hujusmodi spectacula, ubi Taurorum, 
aliarumque ferarum bestiarum, agitationes exercentur, fieri per- 
mittant. Militibus quoque ceterisque aliis personis, ne cum Tauris, 
et aliis in praefatis spectaculis, ipsi tam pedestres quam equestres 
congredi audeant, interdicimus. 

Quod si quis eorum ibi mortuus fuerit, Ecclesiastica careat 
sepultura. 

Clericis quoque tam Regularibus, quam saecularibus beneficia 
Ecclesiastica obtinentibus, vel in sacris Ordinibus constitutis, sub 
excommunicationis poena ne eisdem spectaculis intersint, simliter 
prohibemus. 

Omnesque obligationes, juramenta, et vota, a quibusvis personis, 
Universitate vel Collegio de hujusmodi Taurorum agitatione, etiam 
ut ipsi falso arbitrantur, in honorem Sanctorum, seu quarumvis 
Ecclesiasticarum solemnitatum, etfestivitatum.quae divinis laudibus, 
spiritualibus gaudiis, piisque operibus, non hujusmodi ludis cele- 
brari, et honorari debent, Hactenus factas, et facta, seu in futurum 
fienda, quae et quas omnino prohibemus, cassamus, et annuUamus, 
ac pro cassis, nullis, et irritis haberi perpetuo decernimus, atque 
declaramus. 

Mandamus autem omnibus Principibus, Comitibus, et Baronibus 
S.R.E. feudatariis, sub poena privationis feudorum, quae ab ipsa 
Ecclesia Romana obtinent, reliquos vero Principes Christianos et 
Terrarum dominos praedictos hortamur in Domino, et in virtute 
sanctae obedientiae mandamus, ut pro divini nominis reverentia, 
et honore, praemissa omnia in suis Dominiis ac Terris hujusmodi 
exactissime servari faciant, uberrimam ab ipso Deo mercedem tam 
boni operis recepturi. 



44 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW- 



Ac universis venerabilibus fratribus Patriarchis, Primatibus, 
Archiepiscopis, et Episcopis, aliisque locorum Ordinariis, in virtute 
sanctae obedientiae, sub obtestatione divini judicii, et intermina- 
tione maledictionis aeternae, quatenus in Civitatibus, et Dioec. 
propriis praesentes nostras litteras sufficienter publicari faciant, et 
praemissa, etiam sub poenis, et censuris Ecclesiasticis observari 
procurent." (Ex Bullario, Tom, iv, pars ii. n. Ixix. pag. 402.) 

The penalty was deemed so severe that King Philip 
besought the next Pope, Gregory XIII, to soften the rigor 
of its tenor by removing the major excommunication and 
forfeiture of titles at least from games in which there 
was no risk of human lives and which might be considered 
like the chase or similar sports in which soldiers were accus- 
tomed to indulge. In consequence of this request Gregory 
limited the excommunication to such games in which human 
lives were endangered. This limitation plainly condemned 
the practice of bull fights as properly understood. As to 
clerics they were still under the old law of excommunica- 
tion. Moreover, no games were allowed to be carried on oh 
Sundays or holidays. 

The following are the terms of modification as published 
by Gregory. The decree is dated 25 August, 1575 : — 

" Nos ipsius Phillipi Regis, Nobis in hac parte humiliter porrectis 
supplicationibus inclinati, excommunicationis anathematis, et inter- 
dicti aliarumque Ecclesiasticarum sententiarum, et censurarum in 
ipsius Pii praedecessoris Constitutione contentas poenas, in eisdem 
Hispaniarum Regnis, quoad laicos^ et Fraitres mtlties tantum quarunoi- 
cumque Militiarum, etiam Praeceptorias, et beneficia ipsarum mil- 
itiarum pro tempore obtinentes, dummodo dicti fratres milites sacris 
Ordinibus iyiitiati non fuerini, et agiiationes Taurorum festis diebus 
non fiant, auctoritate Apostolica tenore praesentium tollimus, et 
amovemus ; praemissisque aliis in contrarium facientibus non ob- 
stantibus quibuscumque. Provisos tamen per eos, ad quos spectabit, 
ut exinde alicujus mors quoad fieri poterit, sequi non possit." 
(Bullarium, Tom. iv, p. iii, page 308.) 

Clement VIII reiterated the prohibition in this form, and 
as a result the national bullfights gradually abated until 
Charles IV finally abolished them. Soon afterwards Charles 



CONFERENCES. 4^ 

was deposed by Napoleon who placed Joseph Bonaparte, his 
brother, on the throne. The latter, to gain the favor of the 
populace, annulled the law against bullfights, and in a short 
time they became once more popular. The ecclesiastical 
authorities have not been able to exert any marked influence 
in discouraging the practice so long as it is encouraged by 
the Government, as a source of revenues to sustain public 
charities. 

A year ago the S. Congregation was asked whether a priest 
could be permitted to be present at the fight in order to admin- 
ister the last sacraments to those who might meet with death 
in the fight. The answer was positively, no. In order, however, 
that the dying man, if he repented of his wrong at the last, 
and called for a priest, might not be deprived of the last con- 
solations of religion, a priest could remain near the circus, 
provided that this action were not interpreted as an approba- 
tion, on the part of the ecclesiastical authority, of the barbar- 
ous custom. The decree is in form of an answer of the S. 
Congregation de Poenitentiaria as follows : — 

" I. Potestne praelatus consentire, quod sacerdos spectaculo 
assistat, secum habens sacrum oleum ? 

II. Posito quod indecens appareat, in loco adeo profano rem 
tarn sanctam haberi, possetne in alio loco proximo sacrum oleum, 
ad cautelam, asservari ? 

III. Potestne tolerari sacerdos, vi etiam consuetudinis, circo 
adsit ? 

Ad I. Negative. 

Ad II. Tolerari posse, ut in loco propinquo sacro vel saltem 
honesto et decenti sacrum oleum asservetur, cauto ne ex sacri olei 
praesentia ipse lusus approbari vel promoveri, videatur, neque ex 
condicto fiat. 

Ad III. Negative. 



FATHER LEHMKUHL AND THE "REVUE ROMAINE." 

In the last issue of the ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW we 
briefly stated that the learned Superior of the French Semi- 
nary in Rome, R. P. Eschbach, had impugned the position 



46 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

of R. P. Lehmkuhl on the subject of ectopic gestation dis- 
cussed in these pages by three of our most emiHent theolo- 
gians and a number of physiologists of acknowledged repute 
throughout the world. P. Eschbach himself stands high as 
an authority, not only by reason of his rank as Procurator 
General of the Society to which he belongs, as Consultor to 
the various Roman Congregations, such as the Index, etc., 
but especially in his capacity as one of the editors of the 
Revue Romaine^ who has made a special study of our subject, 
having published several valuable monographs on moral 
physiological topics. 

The arguments advanced by P. Eschbach against P. 
Lehmkuhl must stand on their merit. His statements were 
clear and direct as of one who has no doubt of the correctness 
of his facts. 

We have already given what we considered the main points 
of argument in his propositions, awaiting in the meantime 
the answer of P. Lehmkuhl. This we publish in the present 
number, and our readers who comprehend the importance of 
the subject can easily compare the relative strength of the 
opposing parts. The somewhat censorious criticism of R. 
P. Eshbach is met by the learned Jesuit with the discreet 
statement that his adversary has assumed a fact which needs 
first be proved, and that though it may be true that the 
placenta is as necessary to the infant before birth, as the lungs 
and stomach are to the same after birth, yet it does not follow 
that the vascular appendage is therefore an organ belonging to 
the child any more exclusively than to the mother, such as 
the respiratory or digesting organs. 

The personal charges of "begging the question," and of 
disregarding the known decree of the S. Congregation 
against the practice of craniotomy, are repudiated by R. 
Lehmkuhl with admirable temper. 

We learn that R. P. Eschbach proposes to publish a pam- 
phlet in which he sets forth his views on the subject at 
greater length. 

The Rev. A. Sabetti, S.J., will explain his own attitude 
toward the discussion in our next issue. 



CONFERENCES. 



THE AECHCONFRATERNITT OF PEBPETUAL ADORATION. 



47 



There has been in existence in Austria for several years a 
sodality whose special object is to promote perpetual adora- 
tion of the Most Blessed Sacrament in behalf of the suflfering 
souls of Purgatory. A year ago the Benedictine Fathers, 
under whose patronage the said Sodality was founded, 
requested the Holy See through the Rt. Rev. Zardetti (present 
Archbishop of Bucharest) to have a similar union formed in 
the United States, whose head centre should be in the abba- 
tial church of St. John, Collegeville, Minn., and which 
being canonically erected into an archconfraternity, might 
enjoy the same privileges as the Austrian confraternity with- 
out its being dependent on the latter. 

The Holy See granted the request and the Archconfra- 
ternity has since last year been in active operation to extend 
the devotion which its members make their special object. 

We gladly bring this worthy union to the notice of the 
Reverend Clergy by publishing the approved Statutes of the 
Archconfraternity, with the authentic of its erection in the 
United States of America. 

The Benedictine Fathers of St. John's Abbey, CollegevillCj 
Minn., publish a convenient Manual in English containing 
directions for establishing the Confraternity, together with 
suitable prayers and the privileges attached to membership. 

AUTHENTICUM ERECTIONIS. 
Ex Audientia Sanctissimi habita die 21 Maii i8^j. 
Stmus Dom. Noster Leo div. Pr. Pp. XIII, referente infra- 
scripto s. Congrnis de Prnda Fide Secrio, ad preces R. P. 
D. Episcopi s. Clodoaldi in Statibus foederatis Americae 
septentrionalis, confraternitati a Perpetua Adoratione SSmi 
Eucharistiae Sacramenti pro animabus Purgatorio detentis 
sublevandis in Abbatiali Ecclesia s. Joannis Baptistae apud 
Collegeville canonice erectae omnes ac singulas indulgentias, 
quibus Archiconfraternitas Lambacensis in Austria sub 
eodem titulo constituta gaudet, benigne tribuens, eamdem 
ad Archiconfraternitatis dignitatem provehere dignatus est 
cum potestate sibi aggregandi omnes eiusdem nominis con- 



48 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

fraternitates in America septentrionali in posterum erigendas, 
iisque singulas sibi tributas indulgentias ac privilegia com- 
municandi. Indulsit insuper Sanctitas Sua ut leiusdem 
Archiconfraternitatis Praeses per R. P. D. s. Clodoaldi 
Episcopum pro tempore eligendus sive per se sive per alios 
ecclesiasticos viros ab eo specialiter delegandos omnes et sin- 
gulos utriusque sexus Christifideles etiam in locis ubi 
eiusdem tituli confraternitas erigi nequit, adscribere memo- 
ratae Archiconfraternitati valeat, servatis de iure servandis. 
Datum Romae ex aedibus s. Congrnis de Pmda Fide, die 

et anno ut supra. 

Fr. Aug. Archiep. Larrissen. 
[l. s.] ProSecrius. 

STATDTA GENERALIA 
Archiconfraternitatis a perpetua adoratione SS. Sacramenti 
pro animabus in purgatorio sublevandis sub patrocinio 
S. P. N. Benedicti. 

1. Cultus praecipuus SS. Sacramenti et sufifragium ac 
levamen pro animabus purgatorii est finis piae hujus Associ- 
ationis. 

2. Omnes Christifideles in banc Associationem adscribi 
possunt, qui unam saltern horam continuam et determinatam 
per annum pro adoratione Sanctissimi impendere sibi pro- 
ponunt et animabus purgatorii succurrere parati sunt. 

3. Centrum Associationis est in Abbatia S. Joannis B., 
Collegeville, Minn., per Breve de die 21, Maji 1893, in cujus 
Ecclesia ad Altare SS. Sacramenti Archiconfratemitas cano- 
nice erecta est. 

4. Patronus Archiconfraternitatis est S. Benedictus Mona- 
chorum Patriarcha. Quapropter numisma benedictum S. 
Benedicti sodalibus est pro tessera. 

5. Festa principalia sunt : Festum SS. Cordis Jesu et 
dies Commemorationis omnium fidelium defunctorum. 

6. Moderator generalis facultate gaudet conficiendi Di- 
plomata aggregationis pro Confraternitatibus filialibus noviter 
erectis et pro locis ubi ejusdem tituli Confraternitas erigi 
nequit subdelegandi sacerdotes ad adscribendos fideles, ea 
lege, ut Adscriptorum nomina, Parochiam et adorationis 



CONFERENCES. 



49 



horam in Album Arcliiconfraternitatis vel alius huic aggre- 
gatae Confraternitatis transmittant. 

7. Confratemitates ejusdem tituli ejusdemque finis de 
consensu Ordinariorum in quovis loco Aniericae septentrio- 
nalis erigi possunt et pro Indulgentiis obtinendis aggregatio 
petitur a Praeside Generali in Ecclesia Abbatiali S. Joannis B. 
ut supra. In unaquaque Confraternitate tali modo aggre- 
gata Catalogus conficiatur in quo inscribentur nomina et cog- 
nomina Sodalium una cum eorum Parochia et adorationis 
hora. Desideratur, ut singulis annis Confratemitates aggre- 
gatae numerum v. g. 300, 500 etc. (non nomina) suorum 
Adscriptorum in Album Primariae transmittant. 

8. StatuaConfraternitatum (servatissubstantialibus, titulo 
scilicet et fine) pro variis circumstantiis variari possunt, 
modo ab Ordinariis locorum approbentur. Adscriptio fide- 
lium fit gratis. 

9. Directores Confraternitatum Primariae aggregatarum 
facultatem habent adscribendi fideles in Catalogo ut supra 
sub No. 7, ac omnia disponendi qua ipsis pro bono Confrater- 
netatum visum fuerit simul et substituendi sibi, si opus fuerit 
alium sacerdotem pro rebus Confraternitatis gerendis. 

10. Stipes a Sodalibus sponte pro negotiis oneribusque 
Confraternitatis impendentur et earum computus Ordinario- 
rum subsunt inspectioni. 

11. Curent Directores Confraternitatum aggregatarum, ut 
quantum fieri poterit, cujusvis hebdomadis feria secunda vel 
saltem semel per mensem una Missa ad altare Confraternita- 
tis celebretur pro animabus purgatorii et specialiter pro 
defunctis Sodalibus, et eodem modo feria quinta in honorem 
SS. Sacramenti pro expiatione injuriarum Ipsi illatarum et 
pro vivis Sodalibus. Curent insuper, ut : a) Festo SS. Cor- 
poris Christi et per sequentes dies usque ad Festum SS. 
Cordis Jesu solemnis devotio novenalis coram Sanctissimo 
celebretur ; b) die 2da Novembris et per septem dies sequen- 
tes mane vel vespere pium exercitium instituatur pro 
defunctis. 

12. Adscripti Sacerdotes rogantur, ut infra annum semel 
Missam celebrent, ceteri vero ut eam celebrari faciant pro 



50 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



animabus in purgatorio detentis et specialiter pro illis, quae 
huic piae Unioni nomen dederunt, quae nostro magis indi- 
gent succursu, vel a nemine memorantur aut miserrimae 
in purgatorii flammis existunt. Qui nequeunt tali modo 
erogare eleemosynam Missae, supplere velint per dignam 
Sacramentorum Poententiae et Eucharistiae receptionem, vel 
per assistentiam SS. Missae sacrificio, per pium exercitium 
Viae Crucis aut recitando tertiam partem SS. Rosarii. 

Observandum : Nihil ex his statutis obligat sub peccato. 
Conditiones tamen pro unaquaque indulgentia lucranda prae- 
scriptas implere debent Sodales, qui eas lucrari volunt. — 
Omnes Indulgentiae Associationi Nostrae concessae appli- 
cari possunt animabus purgatorii et ob finem huic Associa- 
tioni proprium Sodalibus consulitur, ut illas et alias multas 
dictis animabus frequentissime applicent. 



THE LITEST « SANATIO VIAE CRUCIS." 

We have had occasion at various times to call attention to 
the essential requirements for valid erection of the Stations 
of the Cross. These include among others a written permit 
from the diocesan Bishop for each erection. The neglect 
of this formality renders the establishment of a " Via 
Crucis " null and void, so far as the gaining of the 
Indulgences attached to it is concerned. As many of the 
clergy were for a time not aware of the importance of this 
condition, it[frequently happened that the " Stations " were 
erected in the manner prescribed by the rubrics, without 
previous recourse to the Ordinary, since it was deemed suffi- 
cient to have the privilege "Erigendi" mentioned in the 
usual Faculties granted to the clergy of missionary coun- 
tries. In some instances the bishops themselves explicitly 
sanctioned this view until the S. Congregation directed 
attention to the error by a special Instruction. 

In 1883 (July 31) Leo XIII declared that all previous 
erections of the " Via Crucis " which were void through 
some irregularity, should be considered as valid ; but that 
thenceforth the[due form was to be observed in every case, 



CONFERENCES. 5I 

under pain of nullity. Nevertheless there were numerous 
instances in which priests remained in ignorance of this 
conditio sine qua non of a valid erection, or else interpreted 
the decision of the Holy See as having no application to the 
secular clergy. We pointed out in a brief discussion with a 
Canadian canonist (see American Ecclesiastical Review^ Jan. 
1894), that this view was wholly unfounded and had indeed 
been explicitly contradicted by a decision of the S. Con- 
gregation. 

To-day those of our readers who may have had some 
doubt as to the validity of the " Stations " in which the 
required formality had possibly been neglected, will be glad 
to learn that a recent act of the Holy Father has once more 
revalidated all erections of the *'Via Crucis " hitherto 
defective. The document is dated April 7, 1894. (See 
Analecta of this number.) 



MARBUGES BETWEEN CATHOLICS ASD GREEK SCHISMATICS. 

The conditions under which the Catholic Church admits 
so-called mixed marriages, between Catholics and baptized 
non-Catholics, hold also good in the case of Latin or Greek 
Catholics who marry members of the Greek Schismatic 
Communion. Such is the decision of the S. Congregation 
of the Propaganda in answer to a recent quaesitum of the 
Rt. Rev. Rademacher, Bishop of Fort-Wayne. From the 
same source we receive the decision which follows. (See 
Analecta^ 

THE CHILDREN OF LATIN AND GREEK CATHOLIC PARENTS. 

Intermarriages frequently occur in the United States 
between Catholics of the Latin and of the various Oriental 
(Ruthenian, Armenian, etc.) rites. The general rule bids 
members of the different rites to follow the practices and 
precepts of thfir own rite, although they may permanently 
embrace the Latin rite if they so wish. Where the parents, 
one of whom worships in the Latin and the other in the 



52 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Greek Church, wish to adhere to their respective rites, a 
question arises as to the discipline to be observed regarding 
the children. Are they to be baptized in the Latin Church 
and has the Roman Catholic parish priest jurisdiction over 
them, or do they belong to the Greek Catholic fold ? 

The Holy See replies that the children ^ in such cases 
follow, as a rule^ the rite of the father., in whose Church they 
are accordingly to be baptized and also educated. Of course 
the father is free to leave the children to the religious care of 
his wife, having them baptized and raised in the practices of 
the Latin Church, but there is no obligation and in doubtful 
cases of jurisdiction the claim of the father prevails. (See 
Analecta.) 

THE CORRECT TEXT OF THE PRAYER " EN EGO." 

Owing to the different versions of this popular prayer 
which have found their way into numerous devotional books, 
a doubt has arisen as to the legitimate form to be used in 
order that the indulgence attached to the recital may be 
gained. It is well known that in the case of indulgenced 
prayers the literal text of the original must be retained, 
although translations in different words, provided they give 
back the exact sense of the original, are admitted. In the 
present case the changes are very slight and immaterial, but 
the S. Co ngregation insists that the exact text of the authen- 
tic Raccolta be consulted and followed. There the words in 
question are " in ore ponebat tuo." We give the Dubium 
in full. 

Dubium super Oratione: ''En ego bone " ad lucrandas Indulgentias, 
servetur textus authenticus. 
Redactor Ephemeridum cui titulus : " La Semaine Religieuse" 

I The Roman document reads : " Filiifamilias generatim loquendo bap- 
tizari et educari debent in ritu patris." We presume that the word "filii- 
familias" here stands for "children" as used by Quintilian and other 
classic writers, although its strict significance would refer it only to " sons." 
It is not unlikely too that, if the authorities had wished so to restrict the 
meaning of the word, they would have been more explicit by adding a 
clause regarding the " filiaefamilias. " 



CONFERENCES. 



53 



quae in civitate Tolosana typis mandatur exponit quod in oratione 
^'^ En ego bone et dulcissime Jesu, etc.," cui adnexa est quotidie 
plenaria Indulgentia ab his servanda, qui earn recitant post suscep- 
tam Communionem et ante imaginem Crucifixi in quibusdam libris 
circa finem ejusdem orationis nonnulla verba diversimode leguntur. 
In aliquibus enim legitur '^ quod jam in ore suo ponebatf^ in aliis 
vero, ut, in Collectione Orationum piorumque operum a RR. PP. 
Indulgentiis ditatorum edita Romae anno 1886 " in ore iuo " quae- 
ritur igitur ab hac S. Congregatione Indulgentiarum : 

I. — Utrum dicendum sit in oratione praefata " ore tuo " an vero 
"suo." 

II. — Utrum sit indifferens ad lucrandam Indulgentiam dicere 
"suo" vel " tuoV 

S. Congregatio relatis dubiis respondit ad 1°° standum omnino 
textui Collectionis Authenticae editae Romae anno 1886 ex decreto 
hujus S. Congregatione diei 24 Maii, 1886. 

Ad 2"" provisum in 1°. 

Datum Romae ex Secret, ejusd. S. Congregationis, die 29 Martii, 
1894. 

Fr. Ignatius Card. PpRSico Praef. ' 

iJ^Alex. Archiep. Nicopol. Secret. 



ANTICIPATED JURISDICTION IN MATRIMONIAL DISPENSATIONS. 

An interesting and practical case was recently brought 
before the S. Poenitentiaria for decision. According to 
Canon Law a bishop cannot assume jurisdiction in case of 
matrimonial dispensations granted by Apostolic Brief, until 
be Has actually received the original document bearing the 
dispensation, even though he may know its contents in 
advance from other sources. The question was whether 
information given by the minutante or the regularly 
accredited secretary, through whom the document is trans- 
mitted, could empower a bishop to act whilst the written 
instrument containing the dispensation is still on its way. 
The S. Congregation answered in the negative. To the 
further question, whether, in cases of urgency, where the dis- 
pensation had been anticipated and the marriage rite 
performed, the dispensation might be considered as applic- 
able, provided all parties had acted in good faith — the S. 



54 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Congregation replied that the dispensation became void and 
a new application would have to be made. 

Cf. Analecta of this number — " Dubia de Dispensationibus 
Matrimonial ibus." 



CARRYING THE BLESSED SACRAMENT PRIVATELY. 

Qu. Twice a month on Sundays, after having said an early 
Mass here, I attend a mission about eight miles distant. The people 
of the mission have frequently expressed a desire to have " Bene- 
diction " after Mass. This would necessitate my taking the Blessed 
Sacrament home with me, as I cannot remain until the following 
morning so as to consume the Sacred Particle at the next Mass. 
A similar difficulty prevents my giving "Benediction" before the 
Mass, for in that case I should have to bring the Blessed Sacrament 
from the parish church. Would it be lawful under such circum- 
stance to carry the Blessed Sacrament privately ? 

Resp. Although the practice of carrying the Blessed 
Sacrament privately from one place to another for the pur- 
porse of giving " Benediction," is by many considered lawful, 
it seems contrary to the established canons of discipline in 
the Church. Honorius III, in the chapter Sane^ De Cele- 
bratione Missae prohibits the practice of carrying the Blessed 
Sacrament privately, except in cases of necessity as * ' Viati- 
cum." Verricelli in his work on Apostolic Missions, cited 
by the compiler of the * ' Collectanea S. Congreg. de Propag. 
Fide " says: "Hodie universalis Ecclesiae consuetudine et 
plurimorum conciliorum decretis, prohibitum est deferre 
occulte SS. Eucharistiam in itinere nisi pro communicando 
infirmo^ ubi esset timor etpericulum infidelium." Although 
these expressions are principally intended to eliminate the 
custom of priests who in travelling carry the Blessed Sacra- 
ment with them because they are anxious, lest in case of 
accidents the faithful be deprived of the holy Viaticum, yet 
the rule applies equally to all conditions short of the neces- 
sity in which those are supposed to be who are actually sick. 

The privation of ''Benediction" in such circumstances 
may be regarded in the same light as the privation of Mass 
on alternate Sundays, or of other privileges connected with 
the parochial churches. 



CONFERENCES. 



55 



But the Ordinary of the Diocese would be the best judge 
as to the just causes permitting a temporary deviation 
from the general discipline of the Church which prohibits 
the private carriage of the Blessed Sacrament, except to the 
sick. 



THE BLESSING "POST PABTTJM." 

Qu. Recently a woman came to be " churched. ' ' I could not 
remember the child's baptism and asked her where it had taken 
place and when ? After some hesitation she told me that her hus- 
band had insisted upon having the ceremony perlormed by a close 
relative of his, a Protestant minister, and that there being, accord- 
ing to the testimony of the Catholic nurse who was present, no 
reason to doubt the validity of the act, she had, though reluctantly, 
acquiesced for the sake of domestic peace. As she seemed in good 
faith and anxious about the Catholic education of her child, to which 
her husband had agreed at the time of her marriage, I blessed her 
with the usual " Benedictio mulieris post partum " as the Ritual 
prescribes. Was there any objection in such a case ? 

Resp. No, — not as long as the child was ex legitimo mat- 
rimonio and the mother had made honest efforts to prevent 
her husband's taking it to a Protestant minister contrary to 
his solemn promise to have his children raised in the Catho- 
lic faith. 

" Non esse denegandam benedictionem post partum mulieri 
petenti, pro eo quod ejus proles ex legitimo matrimonio 
mixta baptizata fuerit apud haereticos, nisi constet ipsam 
consensisse aut pro viribus non obstitisse." (S. C. S. Officii, 
1 8 Junii 1873.) 



WAS THE FIRST MASBIAGE TALID2 

(We reprint the following casus from the last number of the American 
EcCLBSiASTiCAi, REVIEW in order to rectify a typographical error which, 
slight in itself, might seriously mislead if not corrected.) 

Qu. Paul, having for years neglected the sacraments of his 
Church and joined the Masonic Lodge, is married to Bertha, a 
Methodist, before the Methodist minister. At the time of a mission 
Bertha becomes a Catholic, and Paul also resolves to abandon the 
secret societies and to return to his religion. On the day on which 



56 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

they are both to be publicly reconciled to the Church and admitted 
to the sacraments, I learn : 

1. That Bertha had been married before to a man who afterwards 
abandoned her, fled to Mexico in order to escape civil charges of 
bigamy, and of whom, since her divorce from him several years 
ago, she had heard nothing. She does not know whether he was a 
baptized Christian or not. 

2. That Bertha in contracting her second marriage had acted in 
good faith, thinking that, since she had obtained a legal divorce 
from her first husband, she was free to marry again. The Metho- 
dist minister, before whom she contracted with Paul, confirmed her, 
she says, in this belief. Paul, too, thought his marriage with her 
perfectly valid. 

Considering that the first marriage might have been invalid 
because of the doubtful baptism of the fugitive husband, and finding 
moreover that it is practically impossible to ascertain anything posi- 
tive about his life or domicile, I conclude that the present marriage 
may be judged lawful and consequently admit the parties to the 
sacraments. 

Was this right ? 

Resp. The doubt as to whether the marriage between 
Paul and Bertha may be considered lawful and valid depends 
on the validity or invalidity of Bertha's first marriage with 
the fugitive to Mexico of whose present existence no clue 
can be obtained. 

A marriage is considered valid 

a. When neither of the two contracting parties is bap- 

tized ; 

b. When both of them are baptized ; 

c. When the baptism of one is doubtful^ and that of the 

other certain ; 

d. When the baptism of both is doubtful. 

In the matter of marriage, doubtful baptism (whether it 
regards the fact of having been administered, or. only the 
validity of its administration) is equivalent to certain baptism^ 
and, until disproved by positive evidence, renders the con- 
tract valid. ' ' Toties supponi debet baptisma, quoties posi- 
tivis aut ineluctabilibus probationibus non extenditur, illud 
nullatenus aut non rite fuisse collatum. Proinde in dubio 



CONFERENCES. 



57 



standum est pro valore ac legitimitate matrimonii." (Ball. 
Opus Mor. Vol. vi. Tr. x, n. 1075). 

Unless, therefore, Bertha can positively state she was not 
baptized when she contracted her first marriage — an item 
which is not mentioned in the case — her second marriagfe 
must be considered invalid until proof can be brought that 

a. Either her first husband had not been baptized at the 

time ; or 

b. That he is dead. 

The evidence of the death of the first husband must be 
supported by documents which establish a moral certitude of 
the fact ; that is to say, it excludes proofs consisting merely 
of a general rumor, suspicion or what is commonly called 
simple probability. 

Neither the doubt about the baptism, nor the fact that 
Bertha in her attempted second marriage acted in good faith, 
nor the uncertainty of her first husband's existence, establish 
a sufficiently safe title to pronounce a union as severed, which 
was contracted with full deliberation and no doubt in good 
faith. It is the office of the Church to protect the definite 
rights of either party against all uncertainty and doubts 
until they can be cleared away by some positive evidence. 

The conclusion, therefore, is that the second marriage, 
under the given conditions, is invalid. 

As to what a pastor should do in a case where the unex- 
pected separation of two persons, who have lived for years as 
legitimately married ; would cause public scandal and injury 
to their good name — theology provides the resources of pru- 
nent action. The " usus matrimonii" would, after proper 
explanation of the state of the case, have to be interdicted 
by the confessor. Outwardly such persons could dwell to- 
gether as husband and wife " nisi id ofierat proximum peri- 
culum peccati." The frequent and worthy use of the 
Sacrament of Penance and holy Communion would probably 
render such danger remote. In the mean time a certainty 
that Bertha or else her first husband was never baptized before 
they separated might be obtained, which would favor the 
second marriage. 



58 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



ANALECTA. 
CONVALIDATIO STATIONUM VIAE CRUCIS. 

convalidantur omnes stationes viae crucis hucusque 
invalide erectae. 

Beatissime Pater : 

Fr. Aloysius de Parma Minister generalis totius Ordinis Min- 
orum, ad pedes Sanctitatis Tuae prostratus sequentia humiliter 
exponit : 

In erectione Viae S. Crucis Stationem non semper et ubique 
omnia ea adamussim observata fuerunt quae a S. Sede pro valida 
erectione praescribuntur praesertim quoad consensum in scriptis 
ante erectione obtinendam, Quapropter, ne Fideles Indulgentiis 
pio exercitio Viae S. Crucis concessis frustrentur, humilis Orator 
Sanctitati Tuae enixe supplicat quatenus omnes ereciiones hucusque 
ob quoslibet defectus invalide factas, benigne sanare dignetur. 

Quam gratiam, etc. 

Vigore specialium facultatum a SSmo Dno N. Leone Papa XIII 
tributarum, Sacra Congregatio Indulgentiis Sacrisque Reliquiis 
praeposita defectus omnes de quibus in supplici libello benigne 
sanavit. Contrariis quibuscumque non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae ex Seer, ejusdem S. Cong, die 7 Aprilis 1894. 
L. ►{< S. Fr. Ignatius, Card. Persico, Praef. 

»i« Alexander, Archiep. Nicopol. Secret 



induloenhae pro archicoxfbatebnitate operis 
expiatorii. 

conceduntur indulgentiae in favorem sodalium operis 

expiatorii. 

Beatissime Pater : 

Episcopus Sagiensis ad pedes Sanctitatis Vestrae humiliter pro- 
volutus, expostulat ut Sanctitas Vestra sodalibus Archiconfrater- 
nitatis, quae inscribitur Opere Expiatorio, id est juvandi animabus 



ANALECTA. 



59 



igne Purgatorii detentis, et in capella sita in loco vulgo dicto 
Montligeon in sua diocesi ex brevi Apostolico erecta est, Indulgen- 
tias, uti infra, benigne concedere dign^tur, nempe : 

Plenariam: i. die ingressus in praedictam archisodalitatem ; a. 
die festo Sanctissimi Corporis Domini Nostri Jesu Christi ; 3. die 
festo Sancti Joseph, sponsi Beatae Mariae Virginis ; 4. die festo 
ejusdem Beatae Mariae Virginis in coeium Assumptae, si dictis 
diebus festis, vel saltern uno ex septem diebus eosdem festos dies 
immediate subsequenti, vere poenitentes, confessi ac Sacra Com- 
munione refecti, aliquam Ecclesiam, vel etiam publicum sacellum 
devote visitaverint, ibique ad mentem Sanctitatis Vestrae aliquan- 
diu pias ad Deum preces effuderint ; tandem 5. in mortis articulo, 
si uti supra dispositi, vel saltern corde contriti sanctissimum Jesu 
nomen ore, sin minus mente devote invocaverint. 

Partialem vero septem annoruvi iotidemque quadragenarum semel 
in die lucrandam, quo publicum aliquod coemeterium devote visit- 
averint, ibique aliquam precem effuderint in suffragium fidelium 
defunctorum. Tandem Sanctitatem Vestram humiliter etiam exorat 
ut sacerdotes hujus diocesis qui ad colligenda sodalium nomina 
subdelegantur, saltem pro tribus infra hebdomadam diebus, frui 
valeant privilegio altaris privilegiati. 

Et Deus. 

Sacra Congregatio Indulgentiis, Sacrisque Reliquiis praeposita 
utendo facultatibus a Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Leone Papa XIII 
sibi specialiter tributis, benigne annuit pro gratia in omnibus juxta 
preces. Praesenti in perpetuwn valituro absque uUa Brevis expe- 
ditione. Contrariis quibuscumque non obstantibus. 

Datum Romae ex Secretaria ejusdem Sacrae Congregationis die 
22 Novembris 1893. 

Fr. Ignatius, Card. Persico, Praefectus. 



DUBU DE DISPENSATIONIBUS MATRIMONIALIBUS. 

Nullitate laborai executio dispensationum matrimonialium si fiat 
antequam Curia exceperit Apostolicum Documentum. 
Eme et Rme Princeps : 

Notum est quod dispositione juris ( Cap. 12 De AppellationibuSy 
Cone. Trid. Sess. XXII Cap. V. de Ref^ Ordinarius Diocesanus 



6o AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

nullam habet jurisdictionem ut execution! mandet Brevia Apostolica 
super dispensationibus matrimonialibus, priusquam habuerit docu- 
mentum originale. His positis, Episcopus Nicoterien. et Tropien. 
humiliter E. V. Rmam deprecatur ut dignetur sequentia quaesita 
solvere. 

1°. Applicaturne haec canonica dispositio etiam iis dispensa- 
tionibus matrimonialibus, quas, vix ac conceduntur, Ordinario mani- 
festat Expeditionarius Apostolicus in Urbe commorans ? 

2". Quid faciendum si hodiernus Episcopus invenit quod nonuUa 
matrimonia, in urgentissimis casibus contracta fuerunt post moni- 
tionem Expeditionarii et antequam Curia recepisset Breve originale, 
dum partes in bona fide versantur. 

Sacra Poenitentiaria, mature perpensis expositis, respondet : 

Ad /"•. Affirmative. 

Ad 2'^. Opus esse nova dispensationutn executione. 

Datum Roma in S. Poenitentiaria die 15 Jan., 1894. 
N. AVERARDIUS, S.P., Reg. 
V. Can. Lucchetti, S.P., Secretarius. 



L MATBIMONIA INTEB CATHOLICOS ET SCHISMATICOS. 

II. FILn PABENTUM DIVERSI EITUS. 

S. Congregatio de Prop. Fide. 
Per gli affari di RUo Orientale. 
ProctocoUo n. 2018. 

ROMAE DIE II AprILIS, 1 894. 

Illustrissime et Rme Domine : 

Litteris tuis ad banc S. Congregationem quaedam proposuisti 
dubia quorum solutionem postulabas, nempe : 

1°. ' 'An matrimonia Catholicos inter et Schismaticos quae in hisce 
regionibus facile evenire possunt, quoad conditiones canonicas 
praemitti solitas, aequiparanda sint matrimoniis mixtis, i. e., Catho- 
licos inter et haereticos (baptizatos) contrahendis. 

2". " Utro in ritu baptizari et educari debeant filii filiaeque 
parentum Catholicorum quidem, sed ad diversos ritus pertinentium, 
veluti ad Romanum, Ruthenum, Armenum," etc. 

Porro omnibus mature perpensis respondendum censeo propo- 
sitis dubiis ut sequitur : 

Ad P". Affirmative. 



ANALECTA. 6 1 

Ad II™. Filiifamilias generatim loquendo baptizari et educari 
debent in riiu pairis. 

Post haec deum O. M. rogo ut Te diutissime sospitet. 
Amplitudinis Tuae, addictissimus servus. 

M. Card. Ledochowski, Praef. 
Aloisius Veccia, Secret. 
R. P. D. Jos. Rademacher, 
Episcopo Wayne- Castrensi. 



62 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



BOOK REVIEW. 

KANT ET LA SCIENCE MODERNE. Par R. P. 
Tilmann Pesch, S.J. Traduit de rallemand par M. 
Lequien. — Paris : P. Lcthielleux, Libraire — Editeurs. 

The philosophical system of Kant opened a new epoch in the 
traditional methods of intellectual speculation outside of the Cath- 
olic Church. Fichte, Schelling and Hegel followed with momen_ 
tary ^clat, but they have failed to satisfy the tendency of positivism 
inaugurated by the doctrine which seemed to repudiate its results, 
and a new movement back to the Kantian principles has begun in 
our day. It is vainly hoped that the '* critique of pure reason " 
will furnish us a complete justification of the latest conclusions of 
empiric skepticism ; for our agnostic scientists confidently affirm, 
that the theory of " synthetic judgments a priori,^ ^ whilst it aims to 
overthrow the skepticism of Hume, offers a satisfactory formula in 
support of their own skepticism. 

We ask what is the significance of the Kantian philosophy upon 
the ground of positive religion ? The answer is simple and must 
determine our attitude toward the system as part of the machinery 
of modern sophistry. Kant does not admit a divine revelation in 
the Christian sense. Religion is to him a manifestation of " the 
moral sense." The observances and laws of the Old and New 
Testament are simply devices of man to preserve the harmony 
between the moral sense and his rational instinct. The Church is 
an organized profession and legislative expression of the moral 
sense, which thus constructed, is in reality shaped and enlivened 
by the medium of " expediency." 

It must be evident at first sight to anyone who does not allow 
himself to be wholly engrossed with the speculative side of the 
Kantian theory, that the author of the " Religion of Pure Reason " 
neglects a very tangible and important factor in this matter of 
religion, and that is — the historical aspect of Christianity. His 
speculations concerning Christ as a sort of Platonic ideal read well, 
but they do not stand the test of facts for which we have as wit- 
ness the unbroken and universal testimony of two thousand years 



BOOK REVIEW. 63 

of history. The utilitarian notion to which Voltaire gave cynic 
expression, that if there were no God, rulers of states would have 
to invent one in order to govern the masses, is the condition, prac- 
tically upon which Kant's system of virtue and religion is built. 

That such a view is wholly incompatible with, nay in direct con- 
tradiction to, the CathoUc principle of causality and moral responsi- 
bility, needs no proving. Nevertheless attempts have been made, 
as our author shows, to naturalize Kant in Catholic science. " Ce 
ne sont pas seulement des savants non-Catholiques qui se mettent 
en frais d' admiration pour la critique de Kant ; il y a encore 
maint savant qui, Catholique de profession, s'est laiss6 entrainer 
par le vent du siecle." This tendency to burn incense before the 
idols of modern thought is not the least remarkable of the divided 
movements toward a dangerous liberalism in religion amongst us. 
Hence the utility of popularizing the views contained in this work 
of P. Pesch's, no less in America than in Germany and France. 

The author shows the tendency of modern science to be in 
harmony with the fundamental lines drawn out by the Kantian 
philosophy ; he points out the inevitable results of a complete 
secularization of science, the corruption of the intellect arising from 
the separation of the moral from the rational man, and by deft 
reasoning exposes the shallowness of the speculations which aim 
solely at justifying an error which their abettors love to entertain 
because it frees them for the time from the conscious sense of 
responsibility to an all-knowing and just God. 

The volume makes one of the handy series pubhshed under the 
title of Bibliotheque Philosophique by the firm of Lethielleux. 
The same house promises to issue the continuation of P. Pesch's 
philosophical critique of Kantian errors. 

COMMENTARIUS IN EVANGELIUM SECUNDUM 
MARCUM. (Cursus Scripturae Sacrae auctoribus R. 
Comely aliisque Soc. Jesu prespyteris) Auctore Josepho 
Knabenbauer, S.J. — Parisiis P. Lethielleux edit. 

The idea which Griesbach proclaimed in his Commentaiio of the 
last century, to wit, that the Gospel of St. Marc is nothing more 
than an excerpt or epitome made from the two Gospels of SS. 
Matthew and Luke, has been strenuously upheld by modern critics 
designated as the theological school of Baur. But the internal 
evidence is certainly against this view. It shows the author of St. 



64 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Marc's Gospel to have written not only independently of the aramaic 
text of St. Matthew which alone can be proved as having existed 
before St. Marc's, but it shows the traces, in every line, of the direct 
Petrine influence. Though much shorter than the Gospel of St. 
Matthew it contains several incidents not mentioned by the latter, 
(chap, iv, 26-29 ; vii, 32-37 ; vii, 22-26), and if St. Augustine calls 
the disciple of St. Peter " epitomator " nothing more can be inferred 
than that this second synoptic gospel is of a more condensed 
character than the preceding account. One of the strongest 
evidences vouching for the original authorship of the evangel is the 
vivid tone of the narrative, the almost constant use of the historic 
presence especially in reference to St. Peter. The impression which 
the reader receives is of one who has heard the things he tells from 
the lips of an eye witness, the prince of the Apostles. Add to this 
the constant use of diminutives, the frequent repetition of such 
expressions as Tjp^aro, eu'^'y?, TzdXiv, which are not only peculiar to 
the writer but indicate a certain temper of vivid realization of the 
facts described. All this is strongly brought out in the commentary 
before us. 

That St. Marc wrote for the immediate benefit of the Christians 
at Rome can hardly be denied, when we consider the care with 
which he avoids and translates the aramaic terminology which would 
represent the original words used by our Lord and the Apostles. 
But it cannot therefore be inferred, as Baronius and many others do, 
that it was first written in Latin. The MSS. notes of the Peschitto 
which are traced back to the sixth century, say indeed that St. 
Marc preached in Rome romane, but they do not testiiy that he 
wrote in Latin. The autograph copy kept in Venice must be con- 
sidered as a translation probably made in the seventh century, for 
both St. Jerome and St. Augustine are explicit in stating that this 
Gospel was written originally in Greek. 

The old difficulties in and about chap, xvi, 9-20, are lucidly 
explained, and if M. Renan could avail himself of the learned critique 
of our author, he might be induced to draw less boldly on his 
imagination in writing about St. Mary Magdalen. (Vie de Jesus, 
chap. 26, p. 440, ed. xvi.) The various assumptions of internal 
evidence by Weiss, Westcott, Hort, Zahn and others, are subjected 
to a test which renders them of little or no value and, in some in- 
stances, ridiculous from the scientific point of view. The extrinsic 
evidence, brought in the main from Eusebius to show that the chapter 
concluded originally with verse 8, is proved to be much weaker than 



BOOK REVIEW. 65 

has been made to appear heretofore. The practice of the Alexan- 
drian Church of not reading this portion accounts sufficiently for 
the omission in the codices to which Eusebius refers. Indeed the 
overwhelming majority of critics in our day, Protestants as well as 
Catholics, admit the genuine character of the concluding verses so 
long disputed. That the Council of Trent, in defining the Canon, 
had these verses (as well as St. Luke xxii, St. John viii) particularly 
in view has been demonstrated by the learned Theiner. Modern 
criticism therefore, in so far as it has proved exact, has invariably 
shown the correctness of the anticipated judgment of the Council. 

GRAMMATICA GRECA ad use dei ginnasi e licei, com- 
posta dai professori L. Macinai e Lf. Biacchi, Turin, 
Ermanno Loescher 1892-3. Vol.1, pp.294. — Vol. II, pp. 
130. 

This is decidedly the best Greek grammar we have met with. 
The distaste for the study of Greek which is frequently evinced by 
students in our day, may, we believe, be traced in no slight measure 
to the characteristics of the modern Greek grammar. In some 
cases our ordinary text-books are bewildering in philological 
details. In others, which purport to make Greek easy, we find it 
in reality made hard. There is usually an interlarding of the 
various tenses of the regular verb with exercises which gives the 
learner no bird's-eye view of the elements of the language. The 
Greek grammar of Professors Macinai and Biacchi has none of these 
defects. It is both systematic and exhaustive in essential detail. 

From cover to cover the most logical sequence is followed, not 
only in the main divisions, but also in the minutest subdivision of 
each treatise. For example, the student is led step by step from 
the original use of the article in the Homeric writings through all 
its various applications then and later. A thorough and lucid 
treatise is given on each case of nouns ; and the original manner in 
which the locative genitive in particular is handled, will at once be 
appreciated by those who are conversant with the peculiar difficulties 
of the language. 

By the introduction of certain novel features in the arrangement 
of cases, modes and tenses, the authors have supplied the defects in 
the grammars of Curtius, Inama and others. 

They have laid stress on the phonetic laws of the language by 
incorporating into their work what the latest research into the phil- 



66 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

ology of the Greek tongue solidly proves and what at the same 
time will contribute to an intelligent study of Greek by the youths 
in our colleges. 

The two great sources of sound-changes are assimilation and 
analogy. Assimilation is perfect when one sound exacts entire 
conformity from another, as in the case of v in aov when it becomes 
X in (TuXXiyu) ; imperfect assimilation occurs when a sound partially 
succeeds in conforming another sound to itself as in m of auix^dXXta 
where v is approximately converted into the /? of ^dXXiu. 

True analogy is had when after the pattern of one form others are 
regularly formed according to rule ; likewise when a form which of 
itself might swerve from the main rule is led back by the other 
forms: thus from tto/joc we have Ttopeuu) and nupiZtu ; feminine adject- 
ives in 009 should make their dative singular in w, but instead 
have rj- 

False analogy takes place when forms are made after the pattern 
of others, but irregularly, as in itoSiaai^ which should be -roaai (from 
Tzodai where 8 is assimilated to <t). 

As to terminology, the terms Jirst and second aorists are elim- 
inated, not only because these expressions are calculated to give 
beginners the impression that all verbs have both aorists, but also 
because this terminology is not in keeping with the genesis of these 
tenses. 

As a sample of the clear and masterly manner in which our 
authors teach the elements, we invite the reader to peruse their 
remarks on the middle voice. ' * By the middle voice is indicated 
an action which the agent does to himself, or for his own advantage : 
as Xouofiat, I wash myself, I bathe ; TopiZofiai -^pijixara, I procure 
money for myself. The middle voice is either direct or indirect: 
the direct is that which has the reflexive meaning ; it is the least 
used and is employed for the most to express those actions which 
are exercised on one's own body, as xoff/iela^ac, to adorn one's self. 

The direct middle indicates reciprocal action when there are sev- 
eral agents : da-rd^sffi^ai, to embrace one another. 

If the reflection of the action upon the agent is indirect, then the 
middle is called indirect: This occurs in the following cases: 
I. When the agent does an action himself and for himself: as 
xapnov xofiiaaa^^ai, to gather fruit for oneself. 2. When the object 
belongs to the agent, as : ^'ij^ov ^ ^v<w/xr/v f^iai^ac, to give one's vote 
(or) to give one's own opinion. 3. When the subject acts at his 
own expense, with all his might : vaunxov Tzapei^ovTo, they got ready 



BOOK REVIEW 67 

a fleet at their own expense ; axor^zia^^ai, to consider attentively; 
6piZ£(T^^ac, to define exactly. 4. When the subject gets others to 
do the action ; this might be called a causative middle, as d.Yopr]\> 3s 
xaUaaaro laov, he had the people called together. 

Wherever it has been deemed advisable, variations of the forms 
of words have been indicated in small type with dates adjoined. 
The advantage of this appears when one has to select the most 
preferable form ; for instance the student is warned to not prefer to 
'Oduffr^a, its variation 'OdoaT,, which is not found before the year 282 
B. C. Thus also the student is notified that the form (^aadr,^ for 
the nominative and vocative plural is exclusively used in the first 
half of the fourth century ; the other form, jSaffdeT?, became the 
ordinary form in the other half, being found even in inscriptions 

of 378- 

Whatever is peculiar to the various dialects is also printed in 
small type and may be studied by the pupil when he is sufficiently 
advanced. 

We hope that some enterprising publisher will have this excellent 
grammar done into English. 

D. J. D. 

THE BIBLICAL ILLUSTRATOR ; or anecdotes, similes, 
emblems, illustrations, expository, scientific, geographi- 
cal, historical, and homiletic, gathered from a wide range 
of home and foreign literature, on the Verses of the 
Bible.— St. James.— By the Rev. Joseph S. Exell, M. A. 
— New York : Anson D. F. Randolph & Company. 

This is a closely printed octavo of some 500 pages containing a 
minute and varied analysis of the scriptural text, together with in- 
teresting facts and sayings illustrating the different truths and senti- 
ments evolved in the consideration of the Epistle of St. James. 
Although written from a Protestant point of view and representing 
in its quotations and references almost exclusively the great authori- 
ties of the Protestant pulpit, the work may be profitably used by the 
preacher and catechist of Catholic truth, all the more as we have 
nothing equally suggestive written in English from a Catholic stand- 
point, which would of course be preferable. The book is, as far as 
a cursory examination of the usual crucial passages shows, wholly 
free from that offensive tone against the Catholic Church which is so 
often found in distinctly Protestant works. We notice the author 



68 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

uses the old King James version in preference to the New Revised 
which latter approaches the Vulgate more closely. In his exposi- 
tory notes, however, he makes amends by coming much nearer to 
the Catholic doctrine than most Protestants, we fancy, would be 
willing to allow as consistent with the teaching of the so-called 
Reformers of the sixteenth century. The text is faultless. 



L'lLIADE Con note Italiane del Prof. Ludovico Macinai. 
Canto I. Roma. Tipografia della R. Accademia dei 
Lrincei. 1894. PP- 77' 

In his preface to the first Canto of the Iliad, Prof. Macinai tells 
us that there are three Homers : the Homer of tradition, the Homer 
of critics, and Homer as he probably was. 

From tradition nothing certain can be gleaned concerning the 
age, birthplace and life of Homer. 

Some authors say that he assisted at the siege of Troy ; others 
that he was born 80, 100, 200, 400 years after its downfall. Theo- 
pompus says he lived in the days of Antilochus. Theagenes, 
Strasimbrotus, Antimachus of Colophon, Ephorus of Cumae, 
Zenodotus, Aristarchus and others disagree with the preceding 
authors and among themselves. The Oxford marbles place Homer 
prior to the Olympiads, 300 years after the Trojan war and 907 
years B.C. Herodotus asserts that he flourished 400 years before 
his own time. Cicero, Strabo and Plutarch make him a contem- 
porary of Lycurgus. 

Suida enumerates 19 cities which claimed the glory of having 
given him birth and some authors have gone so far as even to make 
Rome his birthplace. The parentage and youth of the great poet 
are Ukewise prolific subjects of fabulous theories. Some affirm that 
he was born blind. This others deny, and ascribe his affliction to 
preternatural causes. Others again strive to prove from his long 
voyages that he never was blind. 

Proclus thought that Homer was very rich ; another historian 
asserts that he was too poor to provide his daughter with a dowry. 

One tradition asserts that the author of the Iliad was the first in 
time among Grecian poets ; another that he stole from preceding 
bards. 

Modern criticism has denied that Homer the poet ever existed. 

The Alexandrians attributed the Iliad and Odyssey to different 



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69 



authors. Scaliger and Casaubon cast a doubt upon the unity of the 
Homeric compositions. Perrault, Lamotte and the Abb6 d'Aubig- 
nac held that the Iliad is a compilation of divers poems. Aubignac 
denied that Homer ever existed and asserted that his name was 
synonymous with singer or bard. Perizonius in 1684 gave the 
Homeric poems a popular origin and held that they were trans- 
mitted orally until the age of Pisistratus. 

Josephus had long ago insisted that originally the Homeric 
poems were not consigned to writing and in our time an English- 
man, Wood, undertook to prove that the art of writing was not 
even known to our poet. Vico contends that the rhaphsodies of 
divers bards were arranged by the Pisistratidae into the Iliad and 
Odyssey, that the Greek people itself was Homer and finally that 
perhaps the Trojan war never took place. 

That the poet Homer really did exist is proved from Xenophon 
who accused him of want of respect when he spoke of the gods. 
Simonides (560-470 B.C.) quoting from the IHad, said that the 
verses were by the man of Chios. From Homer to Herodotus was a 
shorter space of time than from Dante to Tennyson ; yet Herodotus 
addressing the Greeks spoke as full of assurance of Homer as we 
would of Dante. 

Whilst then conceding to tradition the existence of a poet named 
or surnamed Homer, we may concede to critics that not all poems 
attributed to him were his ; we may also grant that changes and 
interpolations have taken place in his compositions. 

With Vico and Wolf we may hold that in the beginning the 
Homeric poems were not written. When one considers the short, 
crude inscriptions chiselled in stone or brass and not antedating the 
age of Pisistratus, it is hard to believe that a hundred years pre- 
vious a thousand verses could have consecutively been consigned 
to writing, especially as then neither skins nor papyrus, although 
known to Greece, were there utilized as writing material. Even 
Lycurgus in days less remote from us, did not, we are informed, 
write his laws, nor was the legislation of Solon written down until 
seventy years after his death. 

Besides his remarks on Homer's age, birthplace, parentage 
and the authenticity of the Iliad, Prof. Macinai also speaks of the 
position of Troy and of the codices of the Iliad. His notes to the 
text are scholarly and judicious. The numerous illustrations of 
ancient Grecian weapons, utensils, etc., will assist the student in 
understanding the many allusions made to them by the poet. The 



70 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



whole volume is learnedly and tastefully gotten up and reflects credit 

on the college of Mondragone. 

D. J. D. 

THE LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR. By Mrs. Abel 
Ram, author of "The Most Beautiful" etc. — London: 
Longmans, Green & Co. — New York. 1894, 

Who in our large cities is not familiar with the small forms in 
black cloaks moving rapidly and modestly from door to door, and 
begging alms for those who are too feeble or too sensitive to beg 
for themselves. These silent, helpful little women are the truest 
heroes of earth though the world take little account of them. 
Hence many an honest reader will be glad to know of this book by 
one who tells the story and pictures the work of the "Little Sisters 
of the Poor" in such a charming style and with that genuine 
sympathy which is apt to beguile even the indifferent into grace- 
imparting reverence for the lofty motives and far reaching effects of 
Christian self-sacrifice. 

The aged men and women actually cared for by the Little Sisters 
at this moment pass considerably above the number of 33,000. 
The members of the Order distributed in difTerent countries are on 
toward 5,000. France, the birthplace of this charity, alone counts 
106 institutes ; Spain and Portugal 52 ; America 39 ; the British 
Isles 29 ; Italy (including Sicily) 17 ; Belgium 13 ; one in Turkey; 
three in Oceanica ; two in Asia ; four in Africa. 

Hitherto all those who felt an impulse toward this labor of love 
were sent to what might be called the cradle of the Institute, the 
novitiate at La Tour St. Joseph. Here they were to imbibe the 
spirit which actuated the saintly Jeanne Jugan to become the first 
quHeuse of the little family which within less than fifty years spread 
its influence over all the face of the earth. Jeanne Jugan was not 
the foundress nor the first Superior of the Order ; but she represented 
its active spirit, the motive power of self-sacrificing charity, from the 
beginning. 

Mrs. Abel Ram therefore sets her history in the frame-work of 
Jeanne's life, leaving the future panegyrist to write the lives of the 
venerable foundress and her director in the noble undertaking. 

A short time ago the Mother General of the congregation died 
in the fifty-first year of her religious profession. Since then changes 
have been made at the instance of the Holy See by the establish- 
ment of temporary novitiates in diflferent countries. This was 



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71 



deemed a necessity in view of the growing numbers and the increas- 
ing distances from the head centre. We trust that the spirit of 
La Tour will not suffer from this change, and that the touching love 
for these ' ' pauvres petits vieux et les petites bonnes femmes ' ' 
which strikes one so characteristically as a charity belonging to the 
hearts of the women of France will never grow cold in regions less 
congenial to such devotion. One feels doubly grateful to the author 
for her work on reading the concluding sentence : ' 'And now our 
labor of love is ended. That it may, by making the Little Sisters 
and their beautiful work better known, awaken wider sympathy 
and fresh love on their behalf, is the earnest wish of the unworthy 
writer." 

Of the worth of the writer the r£ader will form a better judgment 
by reading the book. 

LET US GO TO THE HOLY TABLE.— An appeal to 
Christians of every age and condition. By the Rev. 
Father J. M. Lambert, Congregation of the Most Blessed 
Sacrament. Translated from the French by the Rev. 
W. ^Vhitty, House of Missions, Enniscorthy. Browne 
& Nolan : Dublin, 1893. 

"The view of regarding the Holy Communion as a sort of 
recompense for having the soul in a purified state, instead of 
looking at it as a support to our weakness and a remedy for our 
human infirmities, is but too common." This is but a partial yet 
all-sufficient plea for making the little book, of which Father 
Whitty has given us a truly excellent translation, as popular as an 
enterprising book-trade allows. In many parishes the settled 
impression prevails that to go to Holy Communion during the 
Forty Hours' Prayer and at Easter is all that a good Catholic need 
be expected to do. This is an error which unfortunately closes a 
rich store-house of soul-food to multitudes who are continually on 
the brink of spiritual starvation. A better general knowledge of 
what frequent Communion does for the poor wanderer on earth 
would induce many to avail themselves of the heavenly Manna, 
especially if they could be made to feel that God desires it to be 
dispensed on most generous conditions. To impart such knowledge 
in brief form and convincing manner is the purpose of this truly 
valuable little treatise. An appendix of ' ' Practical Counsels for 
Holy Communion" forms the conclusion. 



72 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



UNE DERNIERE PHASE DE LA QUESTION SCOL- 
AIRE AUX ETATS-UNIS. Par Mgr. Jos. Schroeder, 
D.D. 1894. 

At the close of last year a number of European journals printed 
and largely commented upon a cable report to the effect that the 
House of Representatives of the United States proposed at an 
early date to consider the question of incorporating the denomi- 
national schools in the National system of public education. 
Although the "news" was afterwards discredited, on its being 
shown that the American House of Representatives had nothing 
whatever to do with the question of schools, which lies solely 
within the jurisdiction of the States separately, the discussion 
had brought out numerous erroneous conclusions and misconcep- 
tions, which Mgr. Schroeder, at the instigation of one of the lead- 
ing Belgian journals, undertook to dissipate by giving in clear 
terms a succinct history of the more recent facts in the Catholic 
school controversy of the United States. The present pamphlet 
is a reprint of these articles. 

It goes without saying that an account of this kind necessarily 
reflects the sentiments of its author on the much discussed subject 
of secular education as divorced from religion. Mgr. Schroeder 
takes this opportunity of emphasizing the Catholic view of the 
school question, which, whilst it leaves wholly intact the privilege 
of the State to enforce a certain measure of secular education calcu- 
lated to advance the temporal prosperity of a commonwealth, yet 
irisists that this cannot be justly done by a method which practi- 
cally interferes with the religious convictions and parental rights of 
the individual citizen. Our author points out how, far from being 
disposed to interfere with the public schools, the hierarchy of the 
United States are in almost unexceptional accord in yielding the 
otherwise equitable claim of having the parochial schools supported 
from the common fund, to which Catholic citizens not only con- 
tribute their quota, but which they moreover increase by lessening 
the expenses which would be required to keep public schools for 
the large proportion of children presently tutored in the Catholic 
schools. 

The second article is of historic moment. It demonstrates how 
the unfortunate school controversy would never have occurred but 
for the persistent attempts to render popular the compromise 
system known as the Faribault plan. Its public advocacy in the 



BOOK REVIEW. 



n 



popular press, as an expediency measure, which in fact stigma- 
tized the legislation of the Baltimore Council as improvident and 
defective, at once retarded the zeal to which our Catholic people 
had, under the direction of the hierarchy and clergy, just begun to 
warm up. Many parents, already disposed toward liberalism in 
religion, now understanding that they had no obligation in con- 
science to support the parochial schools withheld their children in 
order to send them to the less expensive public schools. The con- 
stant cry that we must Americanize our children roused an effective 
echo in the multitude of those who, having no creed of their own, 
were satisfied to see that of others eliminated by so choice a process 
as that of popular education. The American Episcopate, on the 
whole, recognized the danger. The Bishops had surely weighed 
the measures proposed by them in the last Plenary Council, with a 
view, as our author says, of establishing schools answering in every 
respect to the requirements of true modern progress. "C'est 
pour ces raisons que nos 6v€ques a la presqu 'unanimity ont pro- 
test^ contre le syst^me de Faribault." (p. i6.) All previous 
attempts, made with the aid of an accommodating press abroad as 
at home, to let it appear as if the voice of one or two bishops 
expressed the sense of the united Episcopate, were frustrated by the 
sagacity of Leo XIII, who requested that each bishop express his 
sentiment by a personal letter to the Holy See. The vaunted 
approbation of the Faribault system has since then lost its support 
by the failure of the people itself to accept it. 

Happily, the decrees of the Council of Baltimore, are once more 
being recognized as the fixed norm of educational progress among 
Catholics in America. Of course where necessity dictates a com- 
promise it is open, as it always has been, without remonstrance on 
the part of the Catholic bishops. 

In his third essay Mgr. Schroeder discusses the actual difficulties 
in the way of harmonious movement among Americans on the 
ground of common education. Whilst the Catholic must ever 
maintain the principle of religious education as essential to the per- 
fect development of the child in order that it may fulfill its dual 
mission of citizen of earth and heaven, the Catholic population, as 
a political factor, is bound to recognize the golden rule expressed 
by Montalembert, namely, that : *' In the political sphere only that 
is legitimate which is possible." Viewed in this light the agitation 
on one side or the other of the school question comes with bad 
grace from Catholics until they can feel assured that the religious 



74 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



education given in our schools has brought forth sufficient fruits to 
convince the majority of those who are at present indifferent to all 
religion, that the morals which save a posperous nation from ulti- 
mate social destruction cannot be perpetuated in any other way. 
Whether that time shall ever come is difficult to say, and very 
doubtful when we remember that the common school education 
directly tends to instill religious indifferentism — cause sufficient 
why every Catholic energy should be set at work in the promotion 
of parochial education. 

THE LIFE OF ST. PHILIP NERI, Apostle of Rome. By 
Alfonso, Cardinal Capecelatro. Translated by Thomas 
Alder Pope, M.A. Second Edition. Two volumes. — 
London : Burns and Oates — New York, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago : Benziger Bros., 1894. 

The writings of Cardinal Capecelatro have long been recognized 
as classics of modern Italian and religious literature. They give 
evidence, not only of the extensive knowledge and accurate research 
which distinguishes the august Vatican Librarian, or of the rich and 
melodious flow of the Tuscan tongue when it expresses Neapolitan 
fervor, but there is a refinement of tone and a depth of religious 
thought which reveal in combination the spirit of the Duke del 
Castello Pagano and of the Oratorian who has known how to apply, 
during years of spiritual direction, the maxims of the Saints and 
principles of theological science to the needs and for the benefit of 
souls. 

St. Philip's life has been written many times, and not a few of the 
biographies, such as Gallonio's and Bacci's, possess an interest and 
literary merit which can hardly be superseded. Yet they differ one 
from the other very materially, whilst the subject retains its unique 
charm and addresses each succeeding generation with a newness of 
meaning which is partly due to the changing audience. Goethe, 
whilst he lived in Rome, felt himself impelled to study the life of St. 
Philip, and he recognized the subdued yet strangely powerful 
beauty of that fascinating figure. But Goethe was incapable of dis- 
cerning the supernatural element, which was the secret of that 
beauty and animated the humbly joyous saint with an energy which, 
soft and lightsome, like the sun was creative of new life and 
imparted brightness and comeliness to the land upon which it shed 
its rays, far beyond the effects which any artificial light could pro- 
duce. 



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75 



To turn that light upon our present generation and to fructify the 
newly overthrown soil with a fresh bloom of healthy growth, was a 
good reason, as it was the primary one of Cardinal Capecelatro, for 
publishing his life of St. Philip. There is, in many respects, a 
resemblance between the spirit of the sixteenth century and our 
own. The protests of arrogant pride against superior authority 
come to us in different tones and with a different assignment of 
causes, but it is the same old spirit which made itself first known in 
the revolt of Lucifer against the ruling Creator. 

In our time the one hope of bringing society back into the path of good, 
and infusing into it a new life, is the reviving and strengthening in men's 
minds the Catholic faith and the Catholic law of morals. But we shall look 
in vain for this renewal of strength, unless we seek it from the centre and 
heart of Christendom, the Chair of Peter. Now St. Philip not only grasped 
this great truth ; he was its apostle. He came to Rome in early youth with- 
out any apparent motive and plan. From Rome he drew his surpassing 
virtue ; in Rome he lived, wrought miracles, effected reforms, under the 
shadow of the Papal chair. It would seem as if he had no thought or care 
for the rest of Christendom ; but, in truth, he saw all Christendom there in 
Rome, as the physician sees all lile in the heart. Amidst the darkness and 
the woe, light and healing — thought St. Philip — must come from Rome and 
the Pope. He never left Rome again, not even to gratify the eager desire of 
saints, his friends. He revered and loved the Papacy with an ardour of 
unusual vehemence In his yearning desire of reformation he fol- 
lowed the steps and extended the work of the reforming Popes of his day ; 
and if at any time he anticipated them, he did it with unrivalled reverence 

and humility In a word, the work of St. Philip, the place where he 

did it, his demeanor toward successive Popes, may, I think be remembered 
by us with advantage in the peculiar condition of the Church and of society 
in this our time. (Introduction, p. 25.) 

But the effort to review the image and impress of so admirable 
a model of loyalty to the Holy See must be seconded by an inter- 
pretation of its full meaning and application to the present. Herein 
hes what might be styled the merit of originality in Cardinal 
Capecelatro's work. In effect this originality flowed from the love 
of souls, which dictated the purpose of the work. None of the 
older biographers had, strangely enough, written with any other 
marked object than to delineate the features, soul and body, of St. 
Philip. He would preach by the simple beauty of his form and 
action. The style of the time and the more or less command of 
detailed resources are the distinguishing characteristics of the several 
valuable Lives. The present biography places the Saint in the midst 
of the circle of his activity, it puts him in active relation with the 



76 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

' age in which he lived, and by thus allowing us an insight into the 
quality and temper of the social elements upon which the Saint 
exercised his heaven-guided influence, enables us to measure the 
relation of cause and effect ever and infallibly applicable in their 
principle to human society. 

Whilst, then, the biography of St. Philip, as told by the illustrious 
Oratorian, gives us the story of that life in the interesting setting of 
contemporary history, it yields its lessons as the philosophy of a 
reform movement equally urgent and equally applicable to our own 
times. 

Next year terminates the third century since the death of the 
Saint. It will be a time of joyous and grateful remembrance for 
the people of Florence, his birth-place, and of Rome, the scene of 
his life-long activity. But not for these alone. English-speaking 
Catholics of the present generation owe the Saint a deep debt of 
gratitude, if it were for no other reason than that he gave us two 
such men as Father Faber and Cardinal Newman. Countless 
thousands have felt the spiritual influence exercised by the words of 
these two writers whom St. Philip had invested with something of 
his own beauty, and who in turn shed their light upon others. To 
trace the focus where these rays concentre cannot but be an edifying 
and delightful task, and for this reason the well made English 
translation in its present edition, by another son of St. Philip, 
deserves to be very popular. 



THE LIFE OF FATHER CHARLES of the Congregation 
of the M. H. Cross and Passion, D. N. J. C. By Rev. 
Father Austin, C.P. — Dublin : Sealey, Bryers & Walker, 
(Benziger Bros.) 1893. 

The interesting words of this holy man who revived at the 
present day in a degree the wondrous doings of the Apostolic 
saints, may do its measure of good by counteracting the sneers and 
jeers of unbelieving teachers who view the miracles of the 
Gospel as fables, and class the maxims of Christianity among the 
mistaken principles of material life. We are not to doubt that many 
incidents treasured as mementos of his sanctity by the brethren who 
were daily witnesses of his holiness might seem to the stranger bare 
exaggerations whose importance is overrated. Affection has a way 
of recalling the seemingly unimportant details of the speech and 



BOOK REVIEW. 77 

gait of the beloved parent or brother, yet, whatever the stranger 
may think of the trifles, they have their real meaning and import- 
ance, for of them the total is made up which gives us a view of the 
true spirit in which the more signal actions were performed. 

As we published in the Review a short time ago, a sketch of this 
remarkable Life, which presented a faithful image of the character 
and activity of the saintly subject, we limit ourselves here by 
simply directing attention to the volume before us which is well 
written and published in attractive form. 

THE JESUIT MISSIONS IN THE UNITED STATES. 
— Written for the Catholic Club of New York. By Rev. 
J. F. X. O'Connor, S.J. 

One of the prominently beneficial results of the late Catholic 
Columbus celebration has been the zeal and activity which it 
developed in bringing to light and grouping harmoniously the 
different sources and methods of Catholic activity. The value, 
from an educational and social point of view, of accurate historical 
records is only recognized in proportion as the facts therein con- 
tained are duly popularized. Formerly, when "knowledge" was 
the privilege of the classes, and public opinion was made by repre- 
sentative individuals, it was different — the people accepted upon the 
authority of the few that which was otherwise an unknown quantity 
to them. Since the era of popular suffrage and popular education, 
in the modern sense of the word, began, the masses claim and 
enforce the right of making public opinion. This is done not by a 
superior faculty of reasoning, but by the easy and wide diffusion of 
facts made known through the press, which is godfather to pulpit 
and platform. Thus truth and toleration are furthered by every 
effort on the part of Catholics to give their fellow-citizens a clear 
insight into the motives and facts of the Catholic Church. 

The present pamphlet, originally written for the Memorial Volume 
of the Catholic Club of New York, and constituting part of a series 
of papers which, besides the account of the Jesuit Missions, embody 
the history of the Dominican and Franciscan Orders in America, 
gives twofold evidence of the favorablelresults above mentioned. 

As for the Jesuits, we may say without fear of being contradicted 
by their most zealous opponents, that as educators they stand head 
and shoulders above any corporate body of religious or professional 
men. Within the Catholic Church |this is recognized by statistics 



78 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



which bear every sort of scrutiny. Outside of the Church the 
achievements of individual members of the Order are to a great 
extent lost, because the individual is merged in the body, and the 
body is pledged to victories without proclaiming them for mere 
renown's sake. Then there is the old-time, deep-rooted prejudice 
which, considering the "Jesuit" as an imposter by trade, will give 
him no credit for his labors. Despite these clouds they have been 
recognized as lights by many. Goethe, in his Italian Travels has 
given them the testimony of his admiration from this point of view. 
Hugo Grotius, a Protestant, and certainly one of the keenest states- 
men of his time, in his Annales et Historiae de Rebus Belgicis 
places them at the head of all societies that have successfully 
labored for the diffusion of any branch of science during the 
hundred years from their first establishment in Europe. Among 
the people this superiority makes itself quickly felt, especially 
where there are no narrow prejudices to bar their influence. Take 
an instance : The Jesuit College at Calcutta, has, according to 
recent account, 736 students. Of these only 189 are Catholics. 
The rest profess as members of the Protestant (124), Indian (294), 
Mahometan (71) and various native cultes. Yet in India, as else- 
where, the Jesuits are the champions of the Catholic faith in its 
unadulterated purity. Everywhere their theologians are the great 
authorities of appeal, their schools the nurseries of Catholic inde- 
pendence of thought without stain of liberal servility. 

The genius which animates and pervades their system of educa- 
tion is the genius which makes them successful missionaries under 
the most diverging conditions. The Jesuit first studies the people 
whom he wants to gain to Christ, and having discovered the lean- 
ing of the heart which gives the key to persuasion, he is prepared 
by every sacrifice of mind and body to gain the affection which he 
seeks to transfer unto God by an exchange of his own for souls. 
" The Fathers of the Society of Jesus, during the past two hundred 
and fifty years, have visited or established missions in nearly every 
State of the Union. In almost every one of these States the Jesuit 
Fathers were the pioneer missionaries, explorers or settlers," says 
the writer whom we have to thank for collating the facts contained in 
this essay on a subject of equal importance to the historian of Church 
and State. To criticize these facts, or to controvert their influence 
were a futile task, for they are well authenticated. The proper 
thing is to know them. 

But we have to thank the Catholic Club of New York for this 



BOOK REVIEW. yg 

publication and this fact is of considerable significance in itself. For, 
from whatever latent source emanates the industry of a body of 
Catholic men who have bound themselves by what appears at first 
sight to be merely a social tie of religious fellowship, it has not only 
a decidedly and highly educating effect, but it gives strength and 
consistency to the Catholic claim that the Church fosters true 
culture in every sphere of civil life. The Catholic Club of New 
York proves itself to be not merely a club of Catholic men suffi- 
ciently wealthy to maintain the habit and locality which enable them 
to meet in intercourse without risk of having their religion made the 
target of wit or the occasion of ostracism. They join with the 
further positive aim of fostering Catholic culture by giving the 
impulse to literary labors, artistic development, economic reform. 
It may be said that a Catholic Club is not a Literary Union, or a 
political centre, or a St. Vincent de Paul Society. Certainly not. 
Unions for such distinct purposes abound. The obejct of a Catholic 
Club, if we may borrow the definition of one to which New York 
offers an appropriate model, is, "primarily to afford Catholic gentle- 
men the advantage of union and organization in their eflTorts to 
maintain the integrity of their faith in relation to social, moral and 
intellectual culture y The integrity of the Catholic faith is for the 
social gentlemen maintained by " Musical Smokes, " "Evenings of 
Song, " occasional receptions and dinners. This is excellent, but it 
is a sort of negative aim on the part of men of culture. It means 
that integrity of faith is maintained by excluding non-Catholics from 
our social enjoyments. The positive aim would be, first, an inter- 
change of intellectual and moral culture, so that the intercourse or 
even the well meant friction of temperate and regulated discussion 
between different members effects a communication of superior 
knowledge in arts, 'letters, science, ethics, religion. A second 
positive aim , naturally flowing out of this sort of activity, is the 
inauguration and support of movements which directly tend to 
vindicate the Catholic faith in the domain of morals and intelligence, 
all of which would necessarily react in favor of the social advance- 
ment of the Catholic body. 

But we have been beguiled into a digression from the strict 
demands of a book review, in attempting to emphasize the double 
motive power which produces the literature of which this pamphlet 
of the "Jesuit Missions" is a good sample. 



8o AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

PEARLS FROM FABER.— Selected and arranged by 
Marian Brunowe, New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : 
Benziger Bros. 1894. 

FATHER FABER'S MAY-BOOK.— Compiled by an Oblate 
of Mary Immaculate. — London: Burns & Oates. (Ben- 
ziger Bros.) 

Father Faber's works are at all times delightful reading. They are 
solid too ; for he was the profound and practical theologian as well 
as the poet who beguiles the troubled soul into peace and confi- 
dence by the charming colors in which he paints God's mercy. 
Miss Brunowe has made her selection with excellent taste and 
judgment, and this miniature edition of the most popular English 
writer on spiritual subjects deserves a wide circulation. 

The May-book consists of selections touching the subject of our 
Blessed Lady, disposed for short readings of devotion during the 
month of May. The volume is tastefully gotten up. 



BOOKS REOBIVBD. 

REASONABLENESS OP CATHOLIC CEREMONIES AND 
PRACTICES. By Rev. J. J. Burke. Second, revised ed— New York, 
Cincinnati, Chicago : Benziger Bros. . 1894. Pr. 35c. 

"WIDOWS AND CHARITY. The work of the women of Calvary, and 
its foundress. By Abb6 Chaffanjon, Director at Lyons. Transl. from 
the French. — Benziger Bros. 1894. Pr. 50c. 

THE BELOVED DISCIPLE. By the Rev. Fr. Rawes, D.D. Third ed. 
— London : Burns & Oates. (Benziger Bros.) 

FATHER FADER'S MAY-BOOK. Compiled by an Oblate of Mary 
Immaculate. — London: Burns «& Oates. (Benziger Bros.) 

SI LE PAPE DOIT ETRE ITALIEN. Origine italienne des papes ; 
causes et consequences. Par Giovanni Berthelet. — Rome : Forzani et 
9ie. 1894. 

LIFE OP BL. ANTONY BALDINUCCI. By Francis Goldie, S.J.— 
London : Burns & Oates. (Benziger Bros.) Pr. $1.75. 

INDIANLAND AND "WONDERLAND. By Olin D. Wheeler. 
(Illustrated.) Published by Chas. S. Fee of the Northern Pacific R.R. 

PEARLS FROM FABER. Selected and arranged by Marian Brunowe. 
— New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : Benziger Bros., 1894. 



AMERICAN 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



New Series — Vol. I. — (XL) — August, 1894. — No. 2. 



PARISH "MISSIONS" BY THE DOMINICAN FATHERS. 

BEING the oldest of the present band of Dominican 
missionaries in the Eastern States, I have been asked 
to answer the questions relating to missions proposed by the 
Editor of the American Ecclesiastical Review. 

I believe that few priests, if any, will question the bene- 
fits accruing to a parish from a well-conducted mission. 
Apart from the careless Catholics found in every parish, 
whom a "Mission" arouses to a sense of their religious 
duties, the entire parish experiences a wonderful enlivening 
of faith and an increase of piety. This is assuredly consoling 
to every pastor, whose duties and responsibilities include not 
only the conversion of sinners, but the quickening of the 
spiritual life among the devout of his flock. 

Another important benefit derived from a mission, is the 
opportunity afforded to those whom ignorance, or shame, or 
even fear has led into sacrilegious confessions or marriages, 
of rectifying these abuses. Such persons are thereby enabled 
to enter again into the practices of their Faith. At the mission 
time the poor penitent is particularly well disposed to tell 
the whole truth, and to comply with the requirements of the 
Church. 

I strongly believe in the "graces of the Mission;" 
that is, we believe that God gives special and extraordinary 
graces to a parish during a mission. Whether it is be- 
cause of the generous indulgences of the Church, or because 
of a whole people turning to God, like the Ninivites of old, 
with their hearts bowed in sorrow and repentance ; or 

(81) 



82 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

whether it is owing, in a measure, to the intercession of the 
holy founders and saints of the Order of which the mission- 
aries are members, certain it is that great graces are given 
during the mission time. 

The conditions that call for a mission are general or 
exceptional. As our Bishops see the great benefits that 
annual retreats confer on their clergy, to whom the duties of 
their sublime state are forcibly presented during these hours 
of profound and special thought ; as founders of religious 
orders realized the usefulness and even necessity of retreats 
for their spiritual children, it cannot be doubted that the 
laity, who do not enjoy the rich advantages of the clerical or 
the religious state, should have, from time to time, the oppor- 
tunity of withdrawing from the engrossing cares of this 
world, and of dwelling more particularly on those of the 
world to come. 

In ordinary circumstances I believe that a mission should 
be given in a parish every second or third year. On this 
point, however, I refer to the utterances of the Fathers of 
the Second and Third Councils of Baltimore, and to the 
teaching of Benedict XIV. 

An exceptional case may arise when, on account of some 
local trouble or dissension, a mission may be found of much 
benefit within a shorter period than two years. 

Of the arduous and varied labors of the missions, the 
Dominican Fathers regard as of primary importance, the 
preparation and delivery of the mission sermons. We en- 
deavor to present the truths of Faith clearly, forcibly, and 
consecutively, and in such language that we shall reach the 
whole audience. It is related of Henry Clay that he received 
what he considered the greatest compliment of his life from a 
poor old slave in Kentucky. After one of his magnificent dis- 
courses in that State, the negro approached him, and said : 
" Massa Clay, you gives us a mighty big speech — best I eber 
heard ; and Massa Clay, I understood ebery word yo said." 

We also believe strongly in the following advice of the late 
illustrious Archbishop Kenrick, of Baltimore, who said one 
day to a number of his priests, assembled in conference : ' ' My 



PARISH MISSIONS BY THE DOMINICAN FATHERS. 



83 



sons, in your sermons do not insist too mucli on the judg- 
ments of God and the rigors of His justice. Leave to God 
to manifest His justice, and take delight in showing the 
wonders of His unbounded mercy — a subject best calculated 
to draw the hearts of His people to love and serve Him." 

Whilst mission discourses should, in our opinion, be 
delivered with great force and earnestness, it is not well to 
have them too long. The night sermons should not continue 
beyond an hour ; the regular morning instruction should not, 
as a rule, exceed forty minutes, and the five o'clock " talks '* 
should be as brief as five or eight minutes. This last-named 
limit enables the missionary to dismiss congregations in 
ample time for their morning labors. 

Mere controversial sermons are seldom delivered by our 
Fathers. We seek the lost sheep of the House of Israel 
whose faith lives, though their works do not accord. Never- 
theless we give from Scripture, the Fathers, the Councils, 
the reasons for the hope that is in us, feeling that an 
increase of light will encourage the repentant sinner in 
his efforts to lead a new life. Whilst we believe it neces- 
sary to denounce blasphemy, impurity and drunkenness 
with all energy, we seldom ask a whole congregation or 
audience to take a total abstinence pledge against drink. 
It seems to us preferable to leave to the confessional the 
disposition of each case as it is there presented. 
*********** 

It is our practice to spend from eight to ten hours daily 
in the confessional, and during that time we are able to 
hear a large number of penitents. Twenty years ago we 
published a pamphlet entitled " How to Make the Mission." 
This little book, sold cheaply in quantities by the publishers,, 
is available for the poor.^ It is our custom to request pastors 

I Eight years ago this work was revised and enlarged. It now contains, 
in epitome, the result of many years' experience. By a careful study of 
this pamphlet, on which we strongly insist, the penitent generally comes 
well prepared to make as clear and concise a statement bearing on the 
number and species of mortal sins, as can be expected or demanded. Thus 
confessions are more quickly and more easily made, and the labor of th& 
confessor is rendered comparatively light. 



84 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

to procure this booklet, " How to Make the Mission," several 
weeks before the opening of the mission, so that the people 
may study it in advance, as a preparation for the mission, 
and as a well-digested and arranged method of confession. 

Knowing that during a mission there is a tendency, on 
the part of many, to worry about past confessions, we seek 
to allay unnecessary anxiety, and, therefore, as a rule, we do 
not encourage general confessions. We take it for granted 
that the local clergy know and do their duty in the con- 
fessional, and that, therefore, there is usually no occasion 
for general confession. On this matter a few questions 
pointedly put satisfy us as to the necessity or advantage or 
undesirableness of a general confession in any given case. 

With St. Alphonsus we are taught to show great kind- 
ness, pity, compassion and even tenderness to our penitents, 
especially to the poof and the uneducated. Mindful of the 
gentleness of the Master to sinners at His feet, we endeavor 
to avoid harshness, " snappishness," or any other manner 
that would confuse penitents, or deter them from freely 
unveiling their souls. 

Realizing the advantages of a divided mission, we gene- 
rally give one week to the women and one to the men, when 
the congregation is sufficiently large to warrant a separation. 
There is, however, no essential diflference in the manner of 
conducting the services, further than the delivery of some 
special discourses adapted to the respective obligations of 
the two classes. At the beginning of the mission we 
announce a class for adults who have not made their First 
Communion, and one for "converts," but the latter we leave 
to be received into the Church at a later time, when the 
pastor may judge them sufficiently prepared. 

The following is the order of exercises as observed by the 
Dominican Fathers in giving missions : 5 A. M., first 
part of the Rosary, Mass and a "short talk;" 8 A. M., 
second part of the Rosary, Mass and an Instruction ; 7.30 
P. M." instruction on the Beads, third part of the Rosary, 
mission sermon and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. 
Thus we insure the recitation of the fifteen mysteries of 



PARISH MISSIONS BY THE DOMINICAN FA THERS 85 

the Rosary each day, and experience teaches us that the 
success of our work largely depends on the powerful inter- 
cession of our Lady, Queen of the Rosary. 

The religious societies which we find established in a 
parish we endeavor to strengthen and increase. Whenever 
we are requested by the pastor, and the law permits, we erect 
the Confraternity of the Rosary, or the Holy Name, or the 
Angelic Warfare. All these confraternities are Dominican^ 
and capable of effecting much good in a parish. In cases 
where we cannot formally establish these societies we affiliate 
those persons desiring to join one or more of them, to a 
branch elsewhere canonically formed. 

We gratefully accept every assistance from the local clergy 
who render valuable aid {a) by having their sodalities and 
societies, the school-children or even the whole congregation 
unite in prayer for weeks before the opening of the mis- 
sion ; ip) by frequently announcing the coming mission 
and earnestly asking their people to prepare for it ; {c) by 
distributing explanatory and exhortatory circulars in the 
church, drafts of which we furnish in advance. 

The resident clergy may further co-operate and zealously, 
with the missionaries, by visiting the " backsliders " and 
urging them to attend the exercises. Assistance by the local 
clergy in the confessional we deem of great advantage, par- 
ticularly when the numbers around the tribunal are greater 
than the missionaries can well hear. 

We close our "Missions" by suitable exhortations and 
reminders, offering to the people the established means of 
perseverance. In this connection we emphasize the import- 
ance of good reading, believing earnestly in the apostolate of 
the press. 

C. H. McKenna, O.P. 



86 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

PARISH MISSIONS. 

THEIR FRUITS AND THEIR FAILURES. 

{By a Priest of the Congregation of the Mission,') 

I. — BENEFITS OF MISSIONS. 

" He who causeth a sinner to be converted from the error of his way, shall 
save his soul from death, and shall cover a multitude of sins." — St. James 
V. 20. 

IF the conversion of one sinner covers a multitude of sins, 
great blessings will certainly attend the preservation, as 
well as the conversion of thousands. 

In the fifteenth volume of his ascetical works, St. Liguori 
says : — " It is certain that the conversion of sinners is the 
greatest benefit that God can bestow upon man ; but the con- 
version of sinners is precisely the end of the missions ; for, 
by the instructions and sermons of the missions, they are 
convinced of the malice of sin, of the importance of salva- 
tion and of the goodness of God, and thus their hearts are 
changed, the bonds of vicious habits are broken and they 
begin to live like Christians." 

Missions are intended also to preserve the good, to animate 
the faithful with greater fervor in regulating their lives 
according to the truths of our holy religion. 

Some, indeed, may claim that these desirable ends can be 
attained without missions ; hence, the question may arise : 
What is the advantage of missions since eloquent sermons 
are preached in the various churches every Sunday ? 

If the only advantage of missions consisted in what is 
generally understood by eloquent sermons, their utility 
might indeed be questioned, since pastors can give or pro- 
cure eloquent sermons at any time. 

It is true, the two-edged sword of the word of God preached 
at the night sermons in missions, has a powerful effect, 
especially when the eternal truths are forcibly and vividly 
brought before the minds of the people ; yet the night 
sermons form but one class of the many advantages of 
missions. 

Experience shows that still more lasting benefits result 



PARISH MISSIONS. 87 

from the course of instructions given at missions. The 
people carry home from these instructions something tangible, 
something calculated to guide their conduct in their daily 
actions. 

The pastor, or curate, might also give these instructions 
equally as well as a missionary, but his first diflSculty would 
consist in securing the attendance of those who stand most 
in need of these instructions. The extraordinary attendance 
itself, therefore, is no small advantage of missions. This 
attendance is not spasmodic ; it is sustained, and even in- 
creases up to the very end of the mission, and often under 
very trying circumstances, such as early rising, less of rest, 
self-denial, etc. Whatever may be the theory of this large 
attendance, we have to deal with the fact ; but it seems an 
evident result of the special graces attached to the special 
vocation of missionaries. 

In this matter of sermons and instructions, as well as in 
the reception of the Sacraments of Penance and Holy 
Eucharist, many abandoned souls can be reached in no other 
way except by missions. 

.It may be objected that missions are not beneficial because 
so many fall away after being reconciled to God. This is a 
senseless objection. We sometimes fall ourselves after con- 
fession, but we do not therefore conclude that our confession 
was useless or sacrilegious. The friendship of God is a 
priceless boon, even though it should last but one hour. 

It may be said that missionaries absolve relapsing sinners, 
who would require a long probation before they could be 
safely absolved. To this we answer, that length of time is 
not the only means of ascertaining the dispositions of a 
penitent. At a synod of the Bishops of Flanders, held at 
Brussels, the following decree was made : " the confessor, in 
the case of great sinners, even when they are backsliders, 
should not ask that they should perform works of penance for 
a notable time, but he should, with the Christian Fathers, be 
mindful that God, in the conversion of sinners, considers not 
the measure of time, but of sorrow." St. Cyprian says that 
charity is perfected, not so much by length of time, as by the 



88 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

eflScacy of grace. And St. Thomas says : *' God sometimes 
infuses so much compunction into theJhearts[^of sinners that 
they instantly acquire perfect sanctity." 

A confessor may indeed be displeased when his penitent 
dates his last confession from the last mission ; but the case 
would probably be worse if there had been no mission. By 
listening to the sermons and instructions of the mission the 
people acquire a more perfect knowledge of God, a clearer 
sense of the importance of salivation, and a greater horror for 
sin ; and if they relapse into sin,?their conscience urges them 
continually to rise again. 

St. lyiguori says : "I hold for certain that, if among all 
those who have attended the mission sermons, any one die 
within a year after tlie missions, he will scarcely be lost." 
During the missions, many sinners give up their evil habits, 
as, drunkenness, impurity, cursing, etc.; they remove the 
occasions of sin, restore ill-gotten goods, repair injuries, extir- 
pate all sentiments of hatred, and forgive their enemies from 
their hearts. In a word, an entirely different moral atmos- 
phere exists in a parish during a mission ; and if these desir- 
able results do not continue, it is usually the fault of the local 
priests in not adopting the proper means to preserve the fruits 
of the mission. 

The fact that many penitents date their last confession 
from the last mission is not a safe index of the good done 
even to relapsing sinners ; because, out of the great number 
of penitents that say they were at confession a short time 
ago, it is certain that many are leading good lives on account 
of the last mission ; and many who were at confession at the 
last mission, did not make the mission ; many of them did 
not hear even one sermon or instruction ; they did not put 
themselves to any inconvenience to be present at any of the 
public exercises, as Mass, Rosary and Benediction ; and there- 
fore they did not receive the grace of perseverance. 

Again we must not for a moment imagine that missions 
are intended merely for recidivi. Missions afford powerful 
motives and means of perseverance to those who are already 
doing well. Many of those who at present are serving God 



PARISH MISSIONS. 89 

faithfully, might be leading scandalous lives had they not 
attended a mission. Many noble aspirations to a life of 
higher sanctity, and many vocations to the religious state 
and to the holy priesthood may be attributed to the graces of 
missions. Many of those who have fallen away from their 
religion would in all probability be good Christians to-day if 
the blessing of a mission had been procured for them before 
their fall. 

In fact, few of us can look back upon the past without 
recalling some extraordinary grace received from missions. 

A very special advantage of missions consists in the encour- 
agement given, and the opportunity afforded, of repairing bad 
confessions. Some people, through gross ignorance, make 
fruitless confessions ; others, especially where there are few 
confessors, conceal their sins through shame. The enormity 
and extent of this evil cries to heaven for a remedy. God, 
who often draws good out of evil, took occasion from sacri- 
legious confessions, to inspire the design of establishing the 
Congregation of the Priests of the Mission. 

The beautiful and touching incident which follows, is 
found in Bedford's " Life of St. Vincent de Paul :" 

"In 1616, he accompanied the Countess of Joigny, Madam 
de Gondi, to the castle of Folleville, in the diocese of Amiens. 
Vincent was one day requested to go to the village of Gannes, 
to hear the confession of a peasant who was dangerously ill. 
While on his way, it occurred to him that it would be safer 
for the dying man to make a general confession, as, although 
he had always lived in good repute among his neighbors, it 
would be a still greater security for him. The result showed 
that this thought was a special inspiration of God, who 
designed to show mercy to a perishing soul, and to snatch it 
from the brink of a precipice ; for Vincent found that he 
who had live^ with such a fair reputation was in truth 
burdened with several mortal sins, which he had for years 
concealed through shame ; and so he had lived on, making 
sacrilegious confessions and Communions until the last, when 
God in His infinite mercy sent a stranger to confess him. 
The man made no secret of this, but openly avowed it in 



I 



90 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the presence of the Countess and of others. ' Ah, madam,' 
said he, ' I should have been damned had I not made 'a general 
confession ; for there were several gross sins which I had 
never before dared to confess.' 

' ' These awful words made a profound impression upon all 
present, and led the Countess to exclaim, turning to Vincent : 
' Ah, sir ! what is this that we hear? Doubtless this is the 
case with many other poor creatures. If this man, who had 
so fair a reputation, was in a state of damnation, what must be 
the state of those whose lives are much worse ? Oh, M. 
Vincent, how many souls destroy themselves ! and where is 
the remedy for this ? ' It was a hard question ; but difficult 
as it was, Vincent gave it a noble answer in the insti- 
tution which grew out of this day's experience, and 
which did for thousands what he had done for this poor 
peasant. 

"This event occurred in January, 1617 ; and, that the good 
work thus begun might go on and bear fruit, the Countess 
requested Vincent to preach in the church of Folleville, on 
the Feast of the Conversion of St Paul, upon this same 
subject of general confessions. The effect cannot be better 
told than in the modest language of the Saint himself. ' I 
set before them,' he says, ' the importance and usefulness 
of making a general confession, and explained the best way 
of making it ; and God gave His blessing to my discourse, 
and the good people were so moved by God, that they all 
came to make their general confessions. I continued to 
instruct and prepare them for the sacraments, and began to 
hear their confessions ; but the crowd was so great, that, 
even with the assistance of another priest who came to my 
aid, there was more than I could do, and so the Countess sent 
to beg the Jesuit Fathers at Amiens to come and help us. 
We afterwards went to the neighboring villages and con- 
tinued the same system.' " 

In substance, mission preaching has been employed in 
every age of the Church ; but systematic parish missions, as 
now understood, were commenced by St. Vincent de Paul. 
They are the outgrowth of his sermon to the peasants of 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



91 



Folleville, preached on the 25th of January, 1617, the Feast 
of the Conversion of 6?t. Paul. 

Priests and laity have everywhere been astonished at the 
proverbial success of the Vincentian missionaries. The 
explanation of the success of their unpretentious efforts lies 
in the simple fact that the missions are the first object of 
their vocation. 

The foregoing are some of the special advantages of 
missions. In general, missions increase the odor of faith 
and piety, and enable pastors to carry out any laudable 
design which they may have in view ; as, building churches, 
establishing schools, organizing societies, etc. After a 
mission the people are more docile and more generous, both 
in contributing to the maintenance of religion, and in their 
duty toward God. They see more clearly their dependence 
on God, and therefore they feel more grateful to Him both for 
His temporal and spiritual blessings. A mission is to the people 
what a retreat is to the clergy, or to religious cornmunities ; 
it is a time of serious thought, as well as of special graces. 
The Holy Ghost assures us that the want of serious thought 
causes many sins : ' ' With desolation is the whole land 
made desolate, because there is none that considereth in the 
heart." Jeremias xii, 2. 

THE FATHERS OF BALTIMORE. 

In the " Acta et Deere ta," of the Second Plenary 
Council of Baltimore, we find a whole chapter on parochial 
missions, showing their great utility, and exhorting pastors 
to have them at stated times. On page 237 the Fathers 
say : " Valde animarum saluti promovendae prodesset, si 
in unaquaque dioecesi Missionarii instituerentur, quorum 
vel unicum vel saltem praecipuum officium esset Missiones, 
vel exercitia spiritualia statis temporibus variis per dioecesim 
congregationibus dare .... Si vero unquam pastorem 
aliquem hac in re suo ofiicio deesse contigerit, ab Episcopo 
cogendus erit ad Missionarios accersendos ; quod si non 
fecerit, ipse Episcopus eos mittat." 



92 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REI^IEIV. 



In the Appendix of the same work, the Fathers quote five 
pages from the writings of Pope Benedict XIV, strongly 
insisting on parish missions. The following is one of the 
many beautiful expressions of this great Pope, relative to 
missions : " Bt profecto Viri Missionarii merito comparan- 
tur Joanni Apostolo, ejusque sociis, qui acciti fuerunt ex 
alia navi, ut operam suam praeberent Petro atque Andreae 
in mari laborantibus, ita ut non possent ob copiam incredi- 
bilem piscium retia deducere." 

Various other Popes have highly recommended missions, 
and have heartily approved communities established 
especially for this purpose, granting in their favor many 
indulgences, the privilege of the Papal benediction, etc. 

II. — CONDITIONS WHICH CALL FOR A MISSION. 

Missions are necessary — when even a moderate number of 
parishioners are neglecting their religion, and cannot be 
brought to a sense of duty in any other way. At missions, 
many approach the sacraments who had not passed for Catho- 
lics at all. 

Missions are useful ; {a) when piety in general is somewhat 
on the wane ; {b) when dissensions, or their eflfects, exist ; {c) 
when a new parish is to be organized ; {d) when a school is 
to be established ; (<?) before, or during any undertaking 
which requires generosity ; {/) when some particular vice 
begins to gain ground, 

HOW OFTEN SHOULD MISSIONS BE GIVEN? 

Missions should be given every three years in city parishes, 
and at least every five years in smaller places. This is the 
opinion of all bishops, missionaries, and pastors, who value 
the salvation of souls. St. Liguori says : " An interval of 
three years is quite sufficient ; for, ordinarily speaking, in 
that space of time many forget the sermons of the missions, 
many relapse into sin, and very many fall into tepidity. A 
new mission will renew the fervor of the tepid, and will 
restore God's grace to those who have relapsed." Three 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



93 



years added to the age of First Communion children, mark 
for them an important period ; and in three years more their 
characters are formed for life. The pastor who defers mis- 
sions beyond a reasonable time, is shouldering a fearful 
responsibility. " If, when I say to the wicked, thou shaU 
surely die, thou declare it not to him, that he may be con- 
verted from his wicked way, and live, the same wicked man 
shall die in his iniquity, but I will require his blood at thy 
hand." Ezech. iii, i8. 

Basis of calculation — enabling a pastor to ascertain 
how many missionaries are needed ; how long ; and whether 
a division is necessary, or useful. 

80X5 = 400 confessions per week, for each missionary. 

The number of families multiplied by 35^, approximates 
very closely to the whole number of communicants (all, 
married and single, who should make the mission). Divide 
this result by the seating capacity of the church. 

No pastor should be timid in asking for a mission merely 
because his people are poor, or ungenerous ; for, even in such 
matters, a mission makes a great change, on account of 
habits of economy, industry, family unity, and other special 
blessings from God through the mission. Experience proves 
that the people willingly contribute to pay the expenses of a 
mission, and afterwards respond more generously to the calls 
of their pastors. I think no community would refuse a mis- 
sion even where the oflfering would not cover traveling 
expenses. At least I can speak definitely for the children of 
St. Vincent de Paul. It is not their custom to say a word 
about money ; they are content with whatever offering the 
pastors think fit to give, or procure for them. The deficit in 
small places is made up in larger. If a surplus should remain 
after traveling expenses are paid, it is used to educate future 
missionaries. 

RELIGIOUS ARTICLES. 

The missionaries announce convenient hours for blessing 
and indulgencing objects of devotion, investing in the 
scapulars, explaining the indulgences, etc. 

A proper supply of these articles should be procured in 



94 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



time by the pastor. These objects help to promote faith and 
piety. The proceeds (usually upwards of a dollar net per 
family) help the pastor to defray the expenses of the 
mission. 

III. — SKETCH OF GROUND WORK TO BE DONE DURING A 

MISSION. 

1. Sermons. — As far as time will permit, sermons are 
usually preached on the following subjects, to be varied some- 
what according to circumstances : — Importance of salvation ; 
mortal sin ; death ; judgment ; hell ; heaven ; delay of 
repentance ; mercy of God ; sacrament of matrimony ; 
cursing ; drunkenness ; impurity. 

2. Character of the instructions. — The Sacrament of Pen- 
ance, explained in all its parts ; manner of making confes- 
sion, integrity, etc. ; some of the commandments of God and 
of the Church ; Holy Communion, preparation, thanksgiv- 
ing ; the Mass ; devotion to the Blessed Virgin ; prayer ; 
Extreme Unction ; sick calls ; the souls in Purgatory ; Masses 
and prayers for the dead ; duty of parents. Special instruc- 
tion for the children. 

(One of our present Archbishops suggests that, at every 
mission, a sermon should be preached on vocations, and that 
the parochial clergy should treat the same subject at least 
once or twice a year.) 

3. Converts. — Controversial sermons should not be 
preached at missions ; because the golden opportunity would 
be lost for giving practical instruction to our own people. 
Protestants are better converted by the practical exposition 
of Catholic doctrine, and by contact with well instructed 
Catholics. Converts should be referred to the pastor for a 
longer and more thorough course of instruction. Thus they 
will become acquainted with, and learn to confide in him 
who is to be their future guide. If the missionaries should 
receive them into the Church, they would afterwards be more 
liable to fall away, both on account of the briefness of in- 
struction, and because they would probably be deprived of 
the acquaintance and the permanent help of the local clergy. 

4. Confessions . — Confessions should not be heard until 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



95 



some of the sermons and instructions are given. They 
usually begin on Tuesday morning, after a Sunday opening ; 
and five days in the week are devoted to the work of the 
confessional. 

After learning from the instructions when general con- 
fessions are necessary, when useful, and when hurtful, peni- 
tents should be allowed ample, but not useless, time to make 
general confessions, not only when necessary, but even when 
merely useful. Many souls may attribute their eternal salva- 
tion to the grace of general confessions. The penitent 
should not be carelessly brushed aside simply because he 
is theologically fit to pass ; because it is the penitent and 
not the confessor, who wishes to bring peace and happiness 
to his soul. The mission should not thwart its own ends, 
one of which is to advance in perfection those who are 
already doing well. Christians are everywhere to be found 
who aim at, and have a right to, a life of closer union with 
God. 

It would be cruel to arouse fears in their minds by preach- 
ing higher aspirations, and then forget the office of father 
in the tribunal of penance. To hurry penitents on account 
of the large number, would be to imitate a husbandman 
who would fail to reap all his harvest because it was too 
abundant. 

A father who looks to the happiness of his children, will 
listen to their difficulties, even when he knows that their 
apprehensions are groundless. 

Neither the number of penitents, nor the shortness of 
time, nor the small number of confessors, should deprive 
the penitent of the privilege of making a general confes- 
sion ; but ample provision should be made to meet the 
wants of the people. 

Average Number Per Day. — Eighty confessions per day 
for each missionary have proved high enough average for 
thorough work. 

IV. — Failures. 

No missions are failures in the sense that no good is 
accomplished by them ; some may be considered failures ; 



(^6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

first, because the work is not thoroughly done ; secondly, 
because the parishioners do not make the mission ; thirdly, 
because the results are not permanent. 

Among communities that have a special vocation to give 
missions, no radical diflference exists in the methods em- 
ployed. Their missionaries are proverbially successful, and, 
when an occasional failure is reported, investigation will, in 
nearly every instance, show the cause to be a purely local one. 

Two Causes of Failure. — Where the people are allowed to 
attend promiscuously, the mission is not, and cannot be 
thorough ; because, in nearly every family, some one must 
stay home to look after the house and children. This one 
is usually a man ; the women want to go, and the men, 
being tired, and neither so devout nor curious, gladly volun- 
teer to mind the babies, and grown boys play hide and go 
seek in the mixed crowd. Whereas, when the women make 
the mission by themselves the first week, they act as mis- 
sionaries the second week, and urge the men to make the 
mission, not allowing them to stay home, and the boys 
cannot so easily escape. 

Necessity (mere want of church room) obliged the Vin- 
centians to resort to the division ; but experience soon 
proved that many other practical advantages resulted, which 
no theory can explain. The men invariably make the mis- 
sion better when they have the church and the confessionals 
entirely to themselves. Hence, where circumstances will 
at all justify, the division should be made for the night ser- 
mons. Having two services, a division is unnecessary for 
the morning instructions. 

Another cause of failure is insufficient time and inade- 
quate help. 

The pastor should obviate this by securing the proper 
number of missionaries, and for a sufficient time to do the 
work thoroughly. 

V. — CO-OPERATION OF THE LOCAL CLERGY. 

It would be unreasonable to expect a mission to be suc- 
cessful without the co-operation of the parochial clergy, both 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



97 



preparatory to, and during the mission. The people should 
be reminded of the mission every Sunday for four or five 
weeks previously, not merely that all may know of it, but 
that all may be animated with the desire of making it well. 
A mere announcement is not enough, the people should be 
reminded that it is a time of special grace, and that it would 
be detrimental to themselves and ungrateful to God to 
neglect it. Reasons leading up to self-sacrifice, and to 
faithful attendance, should be given, like in preparing for a 
fair, or any other important event. A great deal can be • 
done privately to contribute to the success, as gentle but 
persistent reminders to those who are likely to forget or 
neglect. These last will bring others whom the priest would 
hardly meet. So far from taking it badly, these poor men 
are pleased that the priest notices them, and they feel them- 
selves more or less bound in honor by the promise which 
they make him to attend the mission. 

This kind of work should be redoubled during the mis- 
sion. Besides the immediate good done in this way, priests 
are preparing the way for future good by becoming acquainted 
with those who scarcely passed for Catholics at all. 

No curate should ask for leave of absence during a mis- 
sion. To do this would be to imitate sons of toil who would 
ask their father for free time in harvest because extra laborers 
are coming to help to reap the grain. 

VI. — MEANS TO PRESERVE THE FRUITS OF MISSIONS. 

/, Practical Preaching ; -?, Instructions ; j, Societies ; ^, The 

Sacraments. 

So far from relaxing in zeal after a mission, a pastor should 
realize that he has only laid the foundation of his spiritual 
edifice. If he should sleep, the devil will sow tares amongst 
the good grain. 

If he wishes to build systematically on the groundwork 
laid during the mission, he should have some definite object 
in view before, during, and after the mission ; as, the extir- 
pation of certain vices, the increase of faith and piety, or the 



98 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

frequent and fruitful use of the Sacraments of Penance and 
Holy Eucharist. 

The frequentation of the sacraments is the best means to 
the attainment of every desirable end. Every other means 
should lead up to this. 

FIRST MEANS— PRACTICAL PREACHING. 

No thinking priest can for a moment doubt from his 
knowledge of what should be done in the pulpit, and what 
is done, that many souls will cry for all eternity for ven- 
geance against those who were appointed to speak to them 
in God's name. "I will require his blood at thy hand'' 
(Ezech. iii, i8). 

Can all say with St. Paul : " We preach not ourselves, 
but Jesus Christ our. Lord " (2 Cor. iv, 5). To be " ambas- 
sadors for Christ," is a fearful responsibility. 

The opportunities of speaking in God's name to the 
assembled people are few enough ; they should not be 
wasted either by unduly elaborated, or unprepared sermons. 

Cardinal Manning in his excellent work, "The Eternal 
Priesthood, " says : " Most men do preach themselves — that 
is, their natural mind — and the measure and kind of their 
gifts or acquisitions come out and color and limit their 
preaching. The eloquent preach eloquently, the learned 
preach learnedly, the pedantic pedantically, the vain-glorious 
vain-gloriously, the empty emptily, the contentious con- 
tentiously, the cold coldly, the indolent indolently. And 
how much of the Word of God is to be heard in such 
preaching ?" 

Sermons are usually beyond the grasp of the average man. 
Cardinal Pignatelli, Archbishop of Naples, recommended to 
the preachers of the lenten sermons, to address the people in 
a simple and popular style ; " for," says his Eminence, " the 
greater part of the people being illiterate, they derive no 
fruit from the sermons unless the language be accommodated 
to their capacity." He then added : '* Perhaps you will tell 
me that the prescription is already written. I then answer, 
Oh ! what a pity for the patients." 



PARISH MISSIONS. 99 

On this subject the Fathers of Trent say : "They shall 
feed the people committed to them with wholesome words, 
according to their capacity ; by teaching then; the things 
which it is necessary for all to know unto salvation, and by 
announcing to them, with briefness and plainness of dis- 
course, the vices which they must avoid, and the virtues 
which they must follow after." 

St. Francis de Sales said: "The preacher whose dis- 
courses abound in foliage, that is, curious thoughts and 
elegant expressions, is in danger of being cut down and 
consigned to the fire, like the unfruitful tree in the Gospel ; 
whilst our Lord said to His disciples and through them to 
all His priests, that He had chosen them to bring forth 
fruit, lasting fruit." 

Cornelius a Lapide, speaking of such orators, says that 
they sin mortally, both because they pervert the office of 
preaching to their own exaltation, and also, by preaching in 
a lofty and elegant style they oppose an obstacle to the sal- 
vation of so many souls that would be converted if they 
preached in an apostolic manner. 

St. Teresa says : ' ' The apostles, though few, have con- 
verted the world, because they preached with simplicity and 
with the true spirit of God ; and now so many preachers 
produce but little fruit, because they have too much of 
human wisdom and human respect, and therefore few only 
of their hearers give up the habit of vice." 

When the Word of God is preached with simplicity and 
earnest zeal, the efiect is astonishing, especially when much 
of the Sacred Scripture is used, because then the Holy 
Ghost speaks. " Are not my words as a fire, saith the Lord ; 
and as a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces? " ( Jer. 
xxiii, 29). 

When numerous Scripture texts are well interwoven in a 
sermon, " the Word of God is living and efiectual, and more 
piercing than any two-edged sword ; and reaching unto the 
division of the soul and the spirit, of the joints also and the 
marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the 
heart" (Heb. iv, 12). 



# 

100 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

St. Philip Neri used to say : " Give me tea priests with 
the true spirit of the apostles, and I will convert the whole 
world." 

Father John D'Avila says : "The best rule for preaching 
well is to love Jesus Christ fervently." 

SECOND MEANS— INSTRUCTIONS. 

The people's stock of religious knowledge is usually 
overestimated. Many of them have forgotten the simple 
truths of the little catechism ; some never learned them 
well. 

Many people from cathedral parishes, and other large 
parishes, change their abode to some humble suburban 
parish ; here it is astonishing to see the avidity with 
which they receive the explanation of the simplest catechet- 
ical truths. 

As men generally fail in any business which they do not 
well understand, so ignorance of religion is the cause of 
many spiritual failures. " Therefore is my people led 
away captive, because they had not knowledge^'' (Isaias. 

V, 13)- 

In every church a regular course of instruction should be 
given for nine or ten mouths every year. If a special time 
cannot be found for this, on Sunday nights, or at the early 
Masses, then the sermons should partake of the nature of an 
instruction. An example of how this may be done is given 
on the 19th page of the Catechism of the Council of Trent, 
under the heading : ' ' Application of the catechism to the 
gospel of the Sunday." 

" The little ones have asked for bread, and there was no 
one to break it unto them" (Lam. iv, 4). 

The people should be thoroughly instructed on Prayer — 
a great channel of grace, and a necessary condition of per- 
severance. 

THIRD MEANS— SOCIETIES. 

Every pastor should have a few well organized societies. 
They will be of great assistance in diffusing the J spirit of 



PARISH MISSIONS. lOl 

religion throughout the whole parish. If organizations 
prove beneficial in advancing temporal interests, they can, 
with similar energy, be made instrumental in promoting the 
cause of religion. 

Societies bring the members themselves to the frequent 
use of the sacraments ; and they are constant reminders, 
and salutary examples to the entire congregation. 

Societies afford opportunities of giving special instructions 
where they are particularly needed ; each class appropriates 
more of such instructions, both on account of the interest 
of the members in their society, and the practical nature of 
the instructions. 

Societies for the young people present fitting occasions 
for inculcating particular virtues, and for pointing out 
dangers. Societies of married people offer excellent and 
frequent opportunities for thoroughly instructing parents 
in their duty towards their children ; whereas, out of 
societies, they probably would not hear such instructions 
once in three years. All this would seem to imply extra 
work ; yet it would lighten obligations ; because the properly 
applied means would accomplish important ends. " The 
good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep." 

In the pastoral letter of the Fathers of the Third Plenary 
Council of Baltimore, under the title "Catholic Societies," 
we read : " This is pre-eminently an age of action, and what 
we need to-day is active virtue and energetic piety. Again 
and again has the voice of the Vicar of Christ been heard, 
giving approval and encouragement to many kinds of 
Catholic associations. . . . Hence in the spirit of our 
Holy Father Leo XIII, we exhort pastors to consider the 
formation and careful direction of such societies as one of 
their most important duties. ' ' 

FOURTH MEANS — THE SACRAMENTS. 

" Is there no balm in Galaad ? or is there no physician 
there ? Why then is not the wound of the daughter of my 
people closed?" (Jer. viii, 22). St. Jerome answers: 



I02 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

" Because there are not priests to apply the necessary 
remedy." 

Experience, as well as our religion, teaches that a salu- 
tary preventive, and a wholesome balm for the wounds of 
the soul, are found in the frequent use of the Safcraments of 
Penance and Holy Communion. It is the mind of the Church 
that the faithful approach these sacraments frequently ; 
therefore, a pastor is not free to omit urging his people to 
use often these means of grace. " I will require his blood 
at thy hand." "Because thou art lukewarm, and neither 
cold nor hot ; I will begin to vomit thee out of my mouth' ' 
(Apoc. iii, 1 6). 

Not only the nature, but the eflfects of these sacraments 
should be explained ; that they are to the soul what food is 
to the body ; means of spiritual strength ; union with God, 
etc. ; that those who, through their own fault, do not fre- 
quently use these means, will certainly fall into mortal sin, 
and even into habits of sin. St. Bernard says: "On the 
day of judgment those poor, ignorant persons will appear 
to arraign those preachers who have lived on their bounty, 
but have neglected to heal the diseases of their souls." 

The people instinctively feel the interest taken in them 
by their pastor, and gradually become molded according to 
his mind. The children especially should be trained, from 
the time of their first Communion, to approach the sacra- 
ments monthly. " Flamma pastoris lux gregis." — St. 
Bernard. 



MISSIONS TO CATHOLICS. 

FROM the opening service, when the people listen with 
holy joy to the loud call of warning, until the mis- 
sionary's loving farewell, when all leave the church, their 
cheeks wet with happy tears, a good mission is a splendid 
manifestation of Christian faith and love. The thronging 
masses of men and women, the pale faces of terrified sinners. 



MISSIONS TO CATHOLICS. 



103 



the ecstatic thanks of pardoned sinners and of their wives 
and children, the holy consolation of the long hours in the 
confessional, the torrents of living waters tossing the souls of 
both preacher and congregation at the sermons — what 
memories of the battles of war or of politics can compare 
with these, which fill the glorious years of a missionary's 
life? 

The timid are made courageous. If there be but a spark 
of faith left, the mission breathes upon it and it blazes into 
a living flame. It is the answer to the prophet's prayer ; the 
cowardly are given heart, and the weak knees are strength- 
ened. Weak before in the face of temptation, the soul now 
stands its ground bravely. The young, having been caught 
for a time by the intoxication of youthful liberty, are steadied, 
are compelled to think, to reckon with conscience and with 
God. The devout are emancipated from the tyranny of 
routine ; the lukewarm aroused from their lethargy. 

But the peculiar grace of the mission is the conversion of 
the sinner, the outright votary of lust or drink, the slave of 
money, or the victim of sloth. The repentance of hardened 
sinners and their permanent return to a life of virtue is the 
mission's special gift. The awakening of the religious 
sense in persons and classes addicted to vice is the main pur- 
pose of a mission. Eternity's endless ages, the Judge upon 
His throne, and death, the bailiflf of the Judge, standing at 
the door, the dark gulf, silent, vacant, unmeasurable, im- 
passible, between the joy of heaven and the torment of hell, 
these are the visions of the sinner's soul during a mission. 
They are ever accompanied by the pleading form of Jesus 
Christ, who wins His victory. Conscience, smothered with 
vice, breaks free and boldly storms the citadel of the sinner's 
heart, expelling the devil, the world and the flesh which had 
become masters there. 

Hence the supreme need of a mission is first-rate preaching. 
One may not be an orator, but he must be a powerful per- 
suader, a quality rather of the interior life than of outward 
training. To be a guide up the mountain side one should be 
a mountaineer. To bring men to think steadily of their 



104 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



eternal destiny one must have a heart full of eternal motives. 
The voice which charms a sinner to the practice of virtue is 
attuned to the heart's full-voiced love of God. To permeate 
men's lives with motives supernatural and divine is the 
privilege of only a *' godly" or a divine man. The great 
black mission cross, the lover's token, the soldier's standard, 
will point its gaunt, naked arm in contempt at a missionary 
who is but a half-hearted Christian, and will whisper in 
derision : " Thou whited wall ! " A missionary is a man of 
God, or he is misnamed and out of place, A powerful speaker 
he easily becomes if he is a lover of prayer, spiritual reading, 
devout conversation, bodily mortification, holy humility. 
Let him be a man of sense and a true Christian, and then a 
man of the word he can hardly help becoming, for his voca- 
tion demands it. The people and the parish clergy expect 
good preaching and have a right to it. It is a trick to call 
people to Church at five in the morning to listen to stuflf. 

It takes men indeed, and men of God, to be the Holy 
Ghost's advocates for such a supernatural work as a mission, 
a work whose very success depends on its being made super- 
natural. Insist on the supernatural ; call loudly for self- 
conquest in overcoming bodily comfort by steadfast attend- 
ance on the exercises ; insist especially on the early morning 
service, just because it is the hard one — something hard done 
for God ; accentuate fully the plaintive note of penance in 
all the first part of the mission ; utterly repudiate the notion 
that the mission is given for the sake of gaining the in- 
dulgence, and maintain fiercely the reverse, that the 
indulgence is granted for the purpose of securing full attend- 
ance at the mission ; elevate the natural motives and maxim- 
ize the supernatural ones. Banish totally the huckstering 
spirit from the mission, its preachers and its people— do all 
this and you will make a success. It was in this spirit that 
St. Leonard of Port Maurice, a missionary for forty-four 
years, said : " My vocation is the giving of missions and 
solitude," the latter for prayer and study that the former 
might be fruitful. What makes a good mission is good ser- 
mons and instructions by good men ; discourses resulting from 



MISSIONS TO CATHOLICS. 



105 



patient prayer and well directed study of Scripture and of the 
great models of apostolic preaching. 

The pastor's part in a mission is in the highest degree 
important. He is related to the missionaries as the father of 
the family to the physician. The people may have ten 
thousand missionaries, but not many fathers. The parish 
church is the people's spiritual home, the pastor is the regu- 
lar representative of religion, its aids are dispensed by him 
from infancy to old age, from birth to death, its doctrines are 
taught by him and its discipline administered as the ordinary 
magistracy of the Church. Salvation is in the parish, and 
the people are saved between missions. Hence, a good mis- 
sion is one in which the priest and his parish organism are 
taken fully into account. They are the standard representa- 
tives of the means of salvation. He should feel this and act 
accordingly. Understanding, of course, that the missionaries 
know their business, he should not unduly interfere, but 
should give them every aid of suggestion, information, 
encouragement, reasonable criticism, honest applause. 
Especially should he be their forerunner. He should pene- 
trate the people with the idea that God sends the mission for 
all, and that all are expected to attend it and to make it. 
His announcements of it should begin several weeks before- 
hand, should be made personally rather than by his assistants, 
should be peremptory as well as attractive, should be printed 
in the local secular journals as well as in leaflets for distribu- 
tion. Public notice should be given that sinners not attend- 
ing shall be visited by the clergy and individually solicited. 
Public prayers for sinners should be had for several weeks 
beforehand at all the daily Masses, in parish school and in 
Sunday school, and enjoined upon parents at family devotions. 
All this is often recommend by the superior of the mission 
in the preliminary correspondence — would that it were 
always carried out. 

If a pastor secures a mission to fill the parish treasury, or 
because it is part of the regular routine, or because he wants 
the Easter Communions taken off his hands, he cannot com- 
plain if the effects are transient. The cultivation of the 



I06 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Irord's vineyard cannot be let out on shares. A true pastor 
is the truest missionary. He is in a real sense the superior of 
the mission. I had rather be annoyed by the misdirected 
suggestions of a zealous parish priest than left totally alone 
by an indifferent one. Sometimes an old world custom 
divests the pastor of his badge of office, his stole, at the 
opening ceremony. I had rather see the head missionary 
hand over to the pastor his crucifix. 

The clergy of the parish should stay at home and should 
attend the exercises. Nothing edifies the people so much, 
nothing encourages the missionaries so much as to see the 
local clergy in the sanctuary during the early morning and 
evening services. It is furthermore a wonderful help to the 
preachers to have their topics seriously discussed with the 
pastor and his assistants. And nothing topples over the 
sinner's last defences so quickly as a call from the pastor and 
one of the missionaries to find out why he has not been 
attending. 

The pastor should have a plan of campaign against vice 
discussed and matured early in the mission, and should set 
to work at once to make the fruits of the mission permanent. 
It sounds too grotesque to be true, but something like the 
following has actually been said publicly to the people after 
a mission. " Now you have all been to the sacraments, and 
I don't want to see sign or sight of you at confession till your 
Easter duty." Or this : " Now that the parish is in a good 
state, I'll take a trip." When the mission preaching ends, 
the mission results begin. More earnest parish preaching 
begins. Personal attention to particular cases begins after 
the mission and ranks high. Special attention to societies 
is necessary, with particular reference to new members. The 
war against vice and its occasions is hotly renewed — against 
saloons, public and forbidden dances, bad plays and shows, 
obscene reading and pictures. Antidotes and preventives 
of vice must be provided. Looking after those who relapse, 
encouraging them to renewed efforts, is a golden work after 
a mission. The weak spot in a mission is the failure of per- 
severance. Like many a showy piece of cloth, the mission 



I 



MISSIONS TO CATHOLICS. 107 

as it wears sometimes develops the presence of shoddy. I do 
not refer to the want of perseverance arising from occasional 
carelessness of the local clergy, but to defects in the mission 
itself. Nor do I deny that the expectations of results are 
sometimes extravagant. But the mission itself is often ill 
calculated to secure permanent effects. This not seldom 
arises from its having been too short. The patient is cured 
of his disease and then dies of collapse ; he was dismissed 
too soon from the hospital. The custom of dividing a mission 
between the sexes, compulsory as circumstances have some- 
times made it, necessarily confines the preaching to one 
short week, and the Saturday night sermon is often sac- 
rificed to the supposed exigencies of the confessional. Now 
there can be no doubt that hearing the word of God is the 
supreme good of the mission, for the sacraments can be had 
at any time. Each sermon or instruction omitted from a 
course already reduced to starvation limits is just so much 
taken from perseverance in the memory, will and understand- 
ing of your penitents. Brothers, I would like to say to all mis- 
sionaries, fight for every sermon and for every instruction. The 
word of God outranks all else in a mission. I had rather be 
dizzy-headed with a few hours longer work in the confessional 
than be shame-faced a year after when the pastor says : 
"Your mission did not wear well." 

Another defect telling against perseverance is lack of 
judgment in dealing with the occasions of sin. The fatal 
diseases of the soul are chiefly epidemic and contagious. In 
America they are lust and drunkenness, and the spiritual 
health officers must disinfect the parish thoroughly before 
signing a clear bill of health. In matters of this sort, while 
zeal feeds the fires under the boiler, discretion holds the 
helm. Good sense tells us that if principles may be learned 
from books, conditions are known only by personal inspec- 
tion and the testimony of witnesses. A sound exponent of 
moral principles may publish his book in Italy, but contem- 
porary facts in America must be studied on the ground. 
Terms may be deceptive in such cases, for the names of 
things may be the same here as in France and their natures 



Io8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW: 

quite dissimilar. Principles for dealing with the occasions 
of sin are universal, but the application of them is wholly 
local. Local customs, therefore, must be investigated by the 
missionaries, peculiar race traits considered, circumstances of 
labor and of recreation well understood, together with the 
personal and home enviroments of the people. What do the 
people read, how do they spend their leisure, what are 
the prevalent and what the occasional vices, where are they 
committed, what are the public and private amusements of 
the place? — Such questions are pertinent and necessary in 
preparing for the sermon on the occasion of sin, and for the 
treatment of penitents in the confessional. These two 
departments of moral influence, the word of God and the 
Sacrament of Penance, should work together better than they 
sometimes do. Often a preacher will condemn a class of sin- 
makers, such as venders of dirty literature, saloon-keepers 
and dance-hall keepers, to eternal punishment in his sermon, 
and will allow the wretches to palaver and whine themselves 
through his confessional to Communion — a burning scandal 
to the people. This is what St. Francis de Sales calls 
having the tongue longer than the arm. If you condemn a 
man's business you cannot approve the man. Consult the 
law of the American Church. Read what is said by the 
Prelates of the Baltimore Councils about the occasions of 
sin, and extract the spirit from the letter ; this has the 
authentication of Rome's broad seal. Then use your own 
personal knowledge of things as they are here and now, with 
an intelligent application of the principles of morality under 
the steadying hand of common sense. Never fail to ask the 
local clergfy, one and all, to testify of vices epidemic and 
sporadic, and of the circumstances, places, companionships^ 
literature, racial and local customs forming their environ- 
ment. Look into the press of the place with the same object 
in mind. One of the most important channels of informa- 
tion is the statement of both fact and opinion by good 
Christians among the laity. The devout wives, mothers, 
sisters and daughters of a Catholic parish are full of the Holy 
Spirit, and their decision on what causes men and women to 



MISSIONS TO CATHOLICS. 



109 



commit drunkenness and lust is testimony of paramount im- 
portance. Nor should one fail to take into careful considera- 
tion the eflforts of secular philanthropists and their associations, 
the testimony of the police and the lessons of the criminal 
and pauper statistics. 

The malady once known, the treatment is plain. All 
theologians agree that severity is the only charity in dealing 
with occasions of sin, general and particular ; that credence 
is to be refused or most reluctantly given to promises made 
in such cases, this sort of human weakness as easily believ- 
ing a lie as telling one. The knife and the caustic are here 
the whole art of healing. 

And in public or private discourses the missionary should 
be the foremost truthteller of the Catholic Church. If there 
are any sinners to whom the mission should be a terror it is 
those who lead others astray. A panic rout is the end to be 
aimed at. Sometimes we find such a class lording it over 
the town and even the State. But the Church is given to 
save the people from them. They creep by degrees into a 
sort of toleration ; even if the law turns upon them they 
actually claim sanctuary at our altars. They are " good 
fellows," generous (alas ! at whose expense !), public spirited. 
They assume to be good citizens, claim to be good enough 
Catholics. They slip along because the pastor is young and 
green, or old and worn out, or newly come, or timid, or 
oppressed with debt, or with too large a parish to look at 
things sharply, or wearied and discouraged. A good mission 
will change it all, will isolate and stigmatize such cases, and 
the dance hall and the bar-room and the pool-room will be 
properly advertized to the people as plague spots to be avoided 
if perseverance is desired. Why should Achab be punished 
and Jezabel be left oflf? — the missionary should cry aloud 
against both that they are equally guilty and that ' ' the dogs 
shall lick their blood on the highway." 

The vocation of a missionary to the faithful is one of the 
highest. Whatever preserves the faith and love of Christ is 
next to that which bestows those saving gifts, and the mis- 
sionary to the faithful ranks next to the missionary to the 



1 10 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

unbeliever. It is, besides, a life of easy labor, one of the 
greatest activity and the least responsibility. The intervals 
of rest are brief, but they come often and they are real little 
vacations, the missionary dragging after him no half done 
work, no annoying details of duties incessantly renewing 
themselves, as it is the case with parish clergy. As a school 
of sacred eloquence the mission is unequalled, and from its 
constant repetition, aflfectionate criticism and imperative study 
there results in a few years a repertory of sermons and instruc- 
tions copious and various enough for a life-time, together 
with the fluency and readiness due to continual public speak- 
ing. Meantime the holy ambition to a perfect spiritual life 
is never wanting, and is, in fact, quite requisite, if one is 
going to stand the strain of never living at home, fighting 
sin with all one's reserves of bodily and mental force, and 
always departing from the field of victory before the spoils 
of vain glory can be gathered in. 

In conclusion, let me once more warn my brethren against 
shortening missions or dropping a single sermon or instruc- 
tion. The ideal mission is at least of two weeks, followed 
by a week of doctrinal lectures in a public hall for the benefit 
of non-Catholics, the question-box in active use. But a 
good mission to Catholics is sometimes spoiled to make a 
poor mission to both Catholics and non-Catholics. The 
doctrinal instruction which opens the evening service, given 
after careful preparation and in a lively, kindly manner, and 
taken in turn by all the fathers, old and young, will do for 
all kinds of hearers a good work of persuasion. An intelli- 
gent treatment of the eternal truths, dealing generously in 
doctrinal and Scriptural proofs, will edify Protestants as well 
as convert sinful Catholics. 

Another missionary element making essentially for perse- 
verance, and one not seldom slighted, is the preaching of 
those sermons calculated to elevate the Christian's motives 
in the service of God. Tell me, brother missionaries, which 
is better calculated for perseverance, fear or love ? Love, of 
course. Man is too noble a being to go far for good or bad 
from the stimulus of fear ; but for love he goes over the seas 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. m 

and mountains and through fire and blood. Then let us 
preach God's love more than, perhaps, some of us heretofore 
have done. I forget what old veteran missionary it was who 
said to me in my early days that every sermon at a mission 
should be a masterpiece. But if there is to be any pre- 
eminence, let it be given to the discourse of the Mercy of 
God. If you must make sacrifice of a topic from want of 
time, never give up the loving kindness of the Good Shep- 
herd. Appeal to the loving loyalty by a magnificent sermon 
on the two standards, the very marrow of the Exercises of 
St. Ignatius and a topic sometimes quite forgotten. The 
love of God, prayer, heaven, the veneration of Mary and of 
the Saints, Holy Communion — O ! why should not such 
subjects be the very soul of a mission, as they are the very 
life of the faithful Christian ! 

Walter Elliott. 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIYIL WAR. 

(Part II.) 

VERY early on the morning of Sunday, May 3, 1863, 
Father Corby celebrated Mass for his troops at Scott's 
Mills, not far from Chancellorsville, Va. A few boards were 
nailed together to form an altar under a spreading beech 
tree, and there, on the slope of a hill facing the brigade, 
the Holy Sacrifice was offered up. The sermon was a gem 
of brevity — the prayer, " God bless and protect my men !" 
for, before the function was over, the booming of cannon in 
the distance announced the beginning of a battle, and almost 
•with the Ite^ missa est., came the order to get ready to 
advance. 

The chaplain went forward with the men, and when they 
were sent to the front — their usual position — they began to 
suffer numerous losses. Then was the priest kept busy. 
At first the wounded that could be reached were taken to 
the Chancellorville mansion, and there Father Corby stayed 
until the Confederates got the exact range of the building^ 



112 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

and knocked Gen. Hooker down by striking a pillar of the 
porch against which he was leaning, killed the favorite 
horse of one of his staff, struck dead a soldier taking a drink 
at the well before the door, and toppled over the chimney. 
Finally, the building caught fire and burned to the ground, 
consuming a number of the wounded that had been carried 
there for medical treatment. Before this last named horror 
had happened, however, Father Corby had yielded to the 
tearful entreaties of his orderly, and had taken a position 
further to the rear. 

The battle went against the Union forces, and thousands 
of them were wounded and thousands of them killed. From 
early morning until late at night the chaplain stayed on the 
field, doing all that he could for the suffering survivors of 
the engagementj until he was himself nearly dead with 
fatigue, nervous excitement and hunger. When he did rest 
from his labors he had no food with him and his terror- 
stricken orderly had disappeared, having obtained early in 
the day permission to retire to some safe place. Borrowing 
a horse from Col. Kelly, the priest rode miles in the rain that 
was pouring down, but still he could find no trace of his 
horse or of his man At last he crossed the river, and, after 
going on a few more miles toward the place of the morning's 
encampment, he discovered his servant safe and snug in a bit 
of woods. There he got something to eat. He was still 
quite exhausted ; nevertheless, he had to pass the night with- 
out shelter, under the trees. 

A few days later, while the army was on its way to the 
camp at Falmouth, it halted early in the evening in a pretty 
dreary bit of country. The chaplain of the 88th New York 
was supervising the erection of the " fly " or roof of a tent, 
which was kept up by a four-foot pole in the center— the 
only shelter he had there and then — when some of his men, 
who had returned from a short foraging expedition, brought 
him word that there was a Catholic family living in a cabin 
not far away, who had not seen a priest for two years and 
whose youngest child was dying unbaptized. The soldiers 
requested Father Corby to visit the poor folk and christen 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



113 



tHe little one. Accompanied by several of those who had 
brought him the news, he started, and after a long and rough 
walk he reached the cot, baptized the infant, and had a talk 
with the father and mother. Their place had been so 
ravaged by the contending armies that they had been plun- 
dered of all their goods, and were actually on the verge of 
starvation. The chaplain took up a collection for their 
benefit among his escort, not forgetting to contribute some 
dollars himself, and the sum total was a surprising act of 
charity from men getting only ^13.00 a month, and earning 
even that pittance by exposure, marches, hardships and the 
frequent risk of mutilation and death. While his reverence 
and his companions were still at the house, a rain-storm 
came up, and they all started for camp on the double-quick. 
It became very dark of a sudden and the rain fell in long 
and heavy drops. They could not run very fast, for they 
had to traverse an old ploughed field, with ridges, matted 
with vegetation, and soft with mold. In their haste, they 
tripped and stumbled and fell, laughing at one another's 
mishaps, and taking comfort by turns out of Dean Swift's 
maxim, " The more dirt, the less hurt." When they made 
camp, they were soaked to the skin and covered with mud. 
Then Father Corby found that his orderly had put his 
blanket under the tent-fly in such a manner as to catch the 
rain, so that it also was saturated. He consoled himself with 
the reflection that he was better off" than the poor fellows 
left in torture or lifeless on the field of Chancellorsville. So, 
pushing a bayonet into the ground under the center of the 
"fly," where the rain did not reach, and placing a lighted 
candle in that part of the weapon that fits on to the musket, 
he half reclined on one arm and read his Office for the day. 
Then, having finished his prayers, he slept in his drenched 
clothes and wet blanket for a few hours until the bugle 
called reveille. 

When the army was on its way to Gettysburg in June, 1863, 
Father Corby celebrated Mass one Sunday morning on the 
top of a very high hill in Virginia — a " young mountain," 
the soldiers called it, beautiful with trees and shrubs, and 



114 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



picturesque with boulders and masses of rock. Before leav- 
ing the place, they erected an immense cross to mark the 
spot where the sacred ceremony had taken place. 

Early on the morning of June 29, the corps to which the 
Irish Brigade belonged, started from Frederick in Maryland 
and did not halt that night until about eleven o'clock. On 
that day they made the longest march of any body of 
infantry in any department during the whole war. They 
went fully thirty-four miles. When it is considered that they 
had shortly before been engaged in an exhausting battle, 
that they had been on the march daily for weeks before, and 
that they carried about sixty pounds — including musket, car- 
tridges, provisions, shelter- tent and blanket — it was a marvel- 
ous feat of endurance. They halted in a ploughed field. 
Rain was then falling. Under an apple-tree, wrapped in a 
blanket, supperless, Father Corby spent the rest of the 
night. 

On the afternoon of July 2 commenced the tremendous 
battle of Gettysburg. Gen. Lee had between eighty and a 
hundred thousand men, with more than two hundred cannon, 
while Gen. Meade had still more soldiers and a heavier 
batterv of artillery. Just as the engagement opened, with 
the discharge of 120 guns from the side of the enemy. Father 
Corby proposed to give a general absolution to his men. 
Major-Gen. St. Clair Mulholland, then a Colonel in the Irish 
Brigade, furnishes this vivid picture of the memorable 
event : 

" Now (as the Third Corps is being pressed back) help is 
called for, and Hancock tells Caldwell to have his men ready. 
' Fall in ! ' and the men run to their places. ' Take arms ! ' 
and the four brigades of Zook, Cross, Brook and Kelly are 
ready for the fray. There are yet a few minutes to spare 
before starting and the time is occupied by one of the most 
impressive religious ceremonies I have ever witnessed. The 
Irish Brigade, which had been commanded formerly by Gen. 
Thomas Francis Meagher and whose green flag had been 
unfurled in every battle in which the Army of the Potomac 
had been engaged, from the first Bull Run to Appomattox, and 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



115 



-was now commanded by Col. Patrick Kelly of the 88th, New 
York, formed a part of this division. The Brigade stood in 
columns of regiments, closed in mass. As a large majority 
of its members were Catholics, the chaplain of the Brigade, 
Rev. William Corby, proposed to give a general absolution 
to all the men before going into the fight. While this is 
customary in the armies of Catholic countries in Europe, it 
was perhaps the first time it was ever witnessed on this con- 
tinent, unless, indeed, the grim old warrior. Ponce de Leon, as 
he tramped though the Everglades of Florida in search of the 
Fountain of Youth, or De Soto, on his march to the Missis- 
sippi, indulged this act of devotion. Father Corby stood on 
a large rock in front of the brigade. Addressing the men, he 
explained what he was about to do, saying that each one 
could receive the benefit of the absolution by making a sin- 
cere Act of Contribution and firmly resolving to embrace the 
first opportunity of confessing his sins, urging them to do 
their duty and reminding them of the high and sacred nature 
of their trust as soldiers and the noble object for which they 
fought. . . . The brigade was standing at ' Order arms ! ' 
As he closed his address, every man. Catholic and non-Cath- 
olic, fell on his knees with his head bowed down. Then 
stretching his right hand toward the brigade. Father Corby 
pronounced the words of absolution : 

" ' Dominus noster Jesus Christus vos absolvat^ et ego, auc- 
toritate ipsius^ vos absolvo ab omni vinculo, excommunica- 
tionis interdicti, in quantum possum et vos indigetis, deinde 
ego absolvo vos a peccaiis vestris, in nom.ine Pati'is et Filii et 
Spiritus Sancti. Amen.' " 

"The scene was more than impressive — it was awe-inspir- 
ing. Near by stood a brilliant throng of officers who had 
gathered to witness this very unusual occurrence, and while 
there was profound silence in the ranks of the Second Corps, 
yet over to the left, out by the peach orchard and Little 
Round Top, where Weed and Vincent and Hazlitt were 
dying, the roar of the battle rose and swelled and re-echoed 
through the woods, making music more sublime than ever 



1 16 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

sounded through cathedral aisle. The act seemed to be irt 
harmony with the surroundings. I do not think there was 
a man in the brigade who did not offer up a heart-felt prayer. 
For some, it was their last ; they knelt there in their grave- 
clothes. In less than half an hour many of them were 
numbered with the dead of July 2. Who can doubt that 
their prayers were good ? What Iwas wanting in the elo- 
quence of the priest to move them to repentance, was 
supplied in the incidents of the fight. That heart would be 
incorrigible, indeed, that the scream of a Whitworth bolt, 
added to Father Corby's touching appeal, would not move 
to contrition." 

" In performing this ceremony," adds Father Corby him- 
self, " I faced the army. My eye covered thousands of 
officers and men. I noticed that all^ Catholic and non-Catho- 
lic, officers and private soldiers, showed a profound respect^ 
wishing at this fatal crisis to receive every benefit of divine 
grace that could be imparted through the instrumentality of 
the Church ministry. Even Major-General Hancock 
removed his hat and, as far as compatible with the situation, 
bowed in reverential devotion. That general absolution was 
intended for all — in quantum possum — not only for our 
brigade but for all. North and South, who were susceptible 
of it and who were about to appear before their Judge. Let 
us hope that many thousands of souls, purified by hardships, 
fasting, prayer and blood, met a favorable sentence on the 
ever memorable battlefield of Gettysburg." 

By way of parentheses it may be related here that about 
a week after that engagement, a captain one day, during the 
march, rode up to his Reverence and said: "Chaplain, I 
would like to know more about your religion. I was present 
on that awful day, July 2, when you made a prayer and, 
while I have often witnessed ministers make prayers, I never 
witnessed one so powerful as the one you made that day in 
front of Hancock's corps just as the ball opened with one 
hundred and twenty guns blazing at us." The priest was 
tickled with the phrase "just as the ball opened" and 
delighted with the good impression made on this non-Catho- 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



117 



iic officer by the ceremony of imparting absolution. He 
willingly instructed him in the faith, so far as he could under 
the circumstances, and gave him an invitation to call on him 
in camp for further information. 

As Father Corby was the only chaplain with the Irish 
Brigade at Gettysburg, it is easy to believe that he had a 
most exhausting work to do during the three days of that 
terrific engagement and for nearly a week afterward. 

The Army of the Potomac pursued Lee's retreating forces 
toward the Rappahannock. One morning, after marching 
all night, the Irish Brigade received orders at break of day 
to halt for breakfast. Just as the fires were lighted, a cannon- 
ball crashed through the branches of a cherry tree, under 
which Acting-Brigadier-General Kelly and Father Corby 
were waiting for their coffee. One of the officers near by 
remarked : " It's bad manners for the Confederates to call so 
early, even before breakfast." So a battery was hastily got 
in position to make them move on, and the men took up 
again their muskets to increase the effectiveness of the notice 
to quit served by the cannon. The skirmish cost the brigade 
their breakfast, for they could not rest in the pursuit with 
the enemy so close. Another encounter took place some- 
what later in the day, and kept the Union soldiers on the 
qui vive as they hastened toward the river. It was well on 
toward dusk when Father Corby, two of the doctors and some 
men of the ambulance corps determined to break their fast. 
They could lay their hands on nothing in the way of food, 
except a few ears of corn that had been brought along for the 
horses. Turning aside from the road and halting, they made 
a fire and half roasted, half burned the corn. This they were 
eating with hunger for sauce, when a scout rushed up to 
them with the announcement that they were cut off" from 
their own army by some Confederate cavalry. Directing the 
ambulances to proceed to Fairfax, the surgeons and the priest 
hastily mounted their horses and rode all night. Toward 
four o'clock the next morning they found themselves over 
the Occoquon River, safe from capture or pursuit. Then they 
dismounted, tied their horses to some trees, and, although it 



1 1 8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

was raining, they lay down and slept until seven, having 
had nothing to eat for two nights and a day, except a few 
grains of parched corn, and three hours' sleep in all that 
time. When they were again in the saddle, they rode on 
until they came to a cabin, where, on the promise of pay, 
ttey got a breakfast of fat pork, corn pome, and a drink 
made of burned peas. It cost them five dollars, and was pro- 
nounced by them to be one of the most delicious meals that 
they had ever tasted. 

At Warrenton, Virginia, Father Corby found a small 
Catholic church. There also he met the widow of Admiral 
Raphael Semmes, who, although she assured him that he 
was " on the wrong side," gave him a small Mass stone and 
baked him some altar bread. With these the next day he 
offered up in sacrifice the Holy of Holies on the tented plain, 
sanctifying thus another spot in Virginia, as he had already 
hallowed hundreds of others in that State, and in Maryland 
and in Pennsylvania. 

When the Union army went into winter quarters in Decem- 
ber, 1863, the Government gave the survivors of the Irish 
Brigade, who had re-enlisted " for the war," free transporta- 
tion to New York. The friends of the Command in the 
metropolis gave them a hundred thousand welcomes, tend- 
ered them a banquet in Irving Hall, and feasted and lionized 
them without stint or stop during their stay. 

The spring of 1864 found the brigade back in camp at 
Brandy Station, on the north bank of the Rapidan, with its 
ranks so replenished with recruits that it was nearly as 
numerous as it ha4.been in September, 1863. 

Early in April, 1864, the services of Father Corby were 
invoked in behalf of a soldier named Dawson, belonging to a 
Massachusetts regiment, who was under sentence of death. 
He had wandered off from camp, gotten stupidly drunk on 
liquor that he stole from a residence in the neighborhood, 
and either he or one of two companions of his in his wild 
foray had committed a capital offence. They were not so 
stupidly intoxicated as he was, and managed to get back to 
their tents undetected. He was apprehended, tried by court 



I 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



119 



martial and sentenced to be hanged. He had been so good a 
soldier that the officers of his regiment did not want to see 
him executed. Accordingly nine of them drew up a petition 
to the President, and persuaded Father Corby to go on to 
Washington to present it in person. It set forth that the 
condemned had always, up to the commission of the crime, 
been an excellent soldier, that after his arrest he had had an 
opportunity to escape and refused to take it, and that he had 
won the Victoria Medal and Cross of Honor for bravery dur- 
ing the Crimean war. When the chaplain arrived at the 
White House and sent in his card, he was immediately 
admitted to the presence of Mr. Lincoln. With few words 
he made known the object of his visit, but the President was 
not disposed to heed the petition, for discipline had been too 
lax and the generals were complaining that he was too mer- 
ciful. He promised, however, to consider the case, and wrote 
across the back of the document: "Set for the 25th of 
April." That was the date fixed for the execution. " Feel- 
ing that my case was about gone," says Father Corby, "I 
put in a few more pleadings. The President then asked what 
I had to say in extenuation of the crime. I answered that I 
could not say anything on that score, since the man had been 
tried by court-martial and had been found guilty; but I added 
that good reasons had been set forth in the petition for mercy 
and pardon. I showed that an actual injustice had been done, 
according to military standards, in keeping the man so long 
— some months — under sentence; the suspense he had under- 
gone must be considered as unnecessary cruelty. Still the 
President was not inclined to grant the pardon, and said that 
suspense was more or less inevitable on account of the move- 
ments of the army. But, finally, I touched a tender chord. 
All who knew President Lincoln knew that he was a very 
tender-hearted man. I said, almost in despair of my case : 
' Well, Mr. President, since I have seen from the start that it 
was out of the question to plead the innocence of this man or 
to say anything in mitigation of his crime, I have confined 
myself to pleading for his pardon; but, since your Excellency 
sees fit not to grant it, I must leave his life in your hands. ' 



I20 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

This was too much. His tender heart recoiled when he 
realized that a man's life depended upon his mercy. As I 
started across ' the green room ' to take my departure he 
turned in his chair and, throwing one of his long legs over the 
other, said : * Chaplain, see here ! I will pardon him, if 
General Meade will, and I will put that on the petition.' 
Then under the note, ' Set for the 25th,' he wrote : * If Gen- 
eral Meade will say in writing he thinks this man ought to 
be pardoned, it shall be done. A. Lincoln, April 19, 1864.' " 
Thanking the President, the priest withdrew, caught the next 
train and hurried back to camp. But General Meade would 
not consent to the pardon, saying that discipline should be 
enforced, and that when a pardon was to be granted the 
President himself should give the final decision. He, how- 
ever, oflfered the chaplain another pass to Washington or the 
use of the military telegraph wires. General Hancock 
allowed the message to go from his headquarters. The tele- 
gram was sent, but it was never answered. It probably never 
reached the President, some subordinate having most likely 
in the multiplicity of affairs thrown it into the waste basket, 
or the imperious Secretary of War having cast it into the fire. 
Consequently the man was hanged according to sentence, but 
the officers who had tried to save him never forgot Father 
Corby's willingness to serve them, nor will his reverence 
ever forget his interview with Abraham Lincoln. 

On May 5, 1864, the army, then under Gen. Grant, began 
the terrible Battle of the Wilderness, which, lasted two days. 
The Irish Brigade lost heavily for, as usual, it was assigned 
to a position where the fight was certain to be fierce. On 
the ytli, Gen. Lee retreated to Spottsylvania Court House. 
On the 8th, Sunday, Father Corby and the Jesuit chaplain, 
Father Ouellet, managed to say Mass while both armies 
were making preparations for another engagement, as the 
Union forces were pursuing their adversaries and forcing them 
to conflict. The soldiers who had been seriously wounded, 
rejoiced at the opportunity to receive Communion, and those 
among them who were still able to be in arms approached 
tbe same Sacrament as if it were to be their Viaticum, for 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL U'AR. 121 

they knew that numbers of them would most likely be 
dead in a day or two. It was a most solemn function. 

On the loth of May occurred the bloody Battle of Spottsyl- 
vania. It was the most sanguinary of the whole campaign. 
The two priests were kept busy all day long attending to 
the Catholic veterans who had fallen in the fray. They 
risked their own lives over and over again to give absolution 
to the dying. They beheld all the horrors of war. They 
gave themselves up to the work of their sacred ministry with- 
out thought of their own safety or comfort. Late in the 
evening, they met and began to look about for a place to 
pass the night. Near where many of the stricken had been 
collected, they found a little island, about fifty feet by thirty, 
-dotted with pines, dry, clean, and covered with the odorous 
pine needles, which the privates were wont to call " Virginia 
feathers." The little Eden was separated from the main 
land by a stream four feet wide and three feet deep. Thank- 
ing their stars for the discovery of such a cozy nook, they 
heaped up a lot of the pine needles for a bed and counted on 
making this their headquarters while kept in that neighbor- 
hood. Then, after taking a bite to eat, they set out, lantern 
in hand, to revisit their patients and to hunt up the late 
cases, if any, that needed their ministrations. After going 
the round of their part of the field, they returned to their 
islet weary and drowsy, and, lying down on their improvised 
beds, they were soon fast asleep. In the morning they were 
literally covered with wood-ticks. ' ' These vermin infested 
that spot," says Father Corby, " and turned our paradise into 
a land ' cursed to bring forth evil things.' These •wood-ticks 
are of a livid color, a species of Acarus. They bury their 
heads and shoulders, so to speak, in the skin, and, as they 
feed on your blood, their heads swell inside the skin and 
their bodies swell outside. The body assumes the size and 
shape of a large pea, and to remove them you must break the 
body and leave the head bedded in your flesh. Father 
Ouellet and I had to go through this morning exercise by 
way of making our toilet. During the day we .sujQfered 
terribly. The heads of those pests were still in deep and 



122 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

caused a burning sensation that was anything but comfort- 
able. That night we secured a quantity of salt and washed 
in water impregnated with the salt. This helped us some, 
but for many days we endured great pain. When perspiring 
the raw wounds filled with the perspiration and smarted so 
as to throw us into a fever and we passed whole nights in 
sleepless agony." 

The Second Corps, of which the Irish Brigade formed a 
part, made a strategic move on the 12th of May by which 
they captured 3,000 men and 40 cannon. On the way they 
passed over some ground that had been contested for by the 
pickets and skirmishers on both sides in the previous battle, 
and they saw many dead bodies of Confederates still unburied. 
One man, mortally wounded but still fully conscious, looked 
at them with feverish eyes as they hurried by. Father 
Corby went over to his side, gave him water, found that he • 
had never been baptized, instructed him sufiiciently and 
administered the sacrament to him. Then doing what he 
could for his physical comfort, and cheering him with the 
hope of Heaven, the chaplain bade him good-bye and 
hastened after his vanished command, admiring the ways of 
Divine Providence that had so wonderfully accorded the 
boon of Baptism to that soul. 

The two armies continued to fight off and on from May 4 
to June 20, when the Union forces found themselves in front 
of Petersburg, Virginia, having lost 100,000 out of 160,000 
men since they had broken camp some 46 days before. This 
fearful loss will give you an idea of what the soldiers had to 
pass through and their sufferings from marches in heat and 
rain (when even horses died from sunstroke and thirst), from 
the dust, the vermin, hunger, fever, the digging of rifle pits 
and fighting. The chaplain shared the exposure and priva- 
tions of the men. When he could, he celebrated Mass ; when 
he could not, he gave his prayers and his presence for the 
benefit of the troops. 

Before Petersburg the Federal lines were advanced by 
degrees . until they were so close to the Confederates that 
sharpshooters on the other side often got within range. 



AN ARMY CHAPLAIN IN THE CIVIL WAR. 



123. 



Once a bullet passed through Father Ouellet's tent near 
where he was saying his Office. Finally many of the soldiers 
made shot-proof shelters for themselves by excavating in the 
hillside holes just about large enough for them to crawl into 
and covering the top with logs. 

On July II a summons came for the priest to attend a sick 
soldier at City Point, eleven miles away. Mounting his 
horse the chaplain started. At dusk he came to a mountain 
stream that had been swollen by recent rains until it had 
become a torrent and had broken down the bridge. Some 
soldiers, encamped on its bank, warned the Father not to 
attempt to cross it as it was swift and deep, but he replied 
that he was on a sick call and had to go over. " Well," said 
they, " pass over here to the left so as to avoid the sunken 
timbers of the bridge." His horse was strong and a good 
swimmer, so he reached the opposite shore in safety. To- 
wards midnight, on his way back, he came to the same 
stream. After plunging in, he , endeavored to guide the 
horse in what he thought was the best course, but the animal 
obeyed the bridle reluctantly and a moment or two later was 
stumbling over the submerged beams. Then his Reverence 
gave him free rein and the intelligent beast veered toward the 
right, got along without further mishap and reached land on. 
the very spot where he had entered the water in the evening. 

The third anniversary of the formation of the Irish 
Brigade was celebrated early in September, 1864, in 
the camp near Petersburg. Gen. Meagher was the guiding 
spirit of the occasion. Invitations to attend a Solemn High 
Mass were accepted by Generals Hancock, Miles, Birney, 
Gibbons, Mott and De Trobriand an,d by many subordinate 
officers with their battalions or regiments. A beautiful 
chapel tent was erected. The grounds near it were cleared 
and cleaned. Pine and cedar trees were planted around. 
Seats were built for the invited guests. About 9 o'clock the 
bugles sounded the summons to get ready and at 10 o'clock 
the Sacrifice began, in the presence of an immense concourse 
of veterans. It was oflfered up by Fathers Ouellet, Gillen 
and Corby. The Asperges was announced, not by a choir,. 



124 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

but by the bugles followed by a discharge of cannon. Then, 
under the direction of General Meagher, at the Introibo the 
bands played solemn music, the most appropriate airs they 
knew ; at the Credo^ there was another grand salvo from the 
guns ; then the bugles blew again and after them the bands 
struck up ; at the Sanctus the kettle-drums rolled out an 
announcement of the coming of the Lord ; at the Elevation, 
the bugles woke the echoes, there was a roll of musketry and 
the booming of cannon saluted the God of Battles ; after 
that the military bands played until the Ite^ missa est^ when 
guns, drums, and trumpets proclaimed the end of the Mass. 
Father Corby preached a touching anniversary sermon. 
After the function, the guests of the Brigade were invited to 
dinner. A speech of welcome was made by General Meagher. 
To it responded Major-General Hancock, who eulogized the 
brigade in the strongest possible terms. Generals Miles, Gib- 
bons, Mott, Birney, and DeTrobriand. The last-named 
officer declared that the Irishmen in his command claimed 
him as one of themselves on the evidence of his name, which 
they insisted was only a Gallican modification of the good 
old|, Celtic patronymic of O'Brien. This declaration was 
greeted with boisterous applause. Thus with religious and 
social festivities the day was fittingly celebrated. 

Father Corby spent the winter of 1864 at Notre Dame, 
Indiana, having been summoned home to take part in the 
election of a* provincial superior of the Congregation of the 
Holy Cross for this country. Toward the end of February, 
however, he retured to his brigade. The members of it were 
delighted to see him again and gave him a cordial welcome. 
He remained with them from that on to the close of the war. 

During the three years that Father Corby was an army 
chaplain, he managed to celebrate Mass frequently and to 
recite the Divine Office almost every day. He read his 
Breviary while going forward on horse-back, during halts for 
meals, and at night after every other call of duty had been 
satisfied. Except for the malarial fever, which he contracted 
early and which took him to the very point of death, he bore 
the hardships of campaigning without loss of health. His 



LIBELLUM R'DI p. A. ESCHBACH. 



125 



ministry at " the front " had its consolations as well as its 
sufferings. The legion of souls that went to their judgment 
shriven by him and owing their probable state of grace to 
him, gave him fresh courage in times of depression, strength 
in weariness, and joy ineffable in days of peace. 

With heartfelt thanksgiving for God's mercies to himself 
and his surviving companions and with grief and prayers for 
the dead who had fallen in the conflict. Father Corby 
attended the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the Battle of Gettysburg on the field there in July, 1888. 

After the cruel war was over, the chaplain of the 88th 
New York Infantry bade farewell to the heroic Irish Brigade 
and returned to the classic precincts of Notre Dame. There 
as professor, training the young for the battle of life, and as 
priest, leading souls to spiritual victories, he still lives to 
demonstrate that " peace hath its victories no less renowned 
than war! " 

L. W. Reilly. 

Note. — Readers of the foregoing pages will be glad to 
know that Father Corby has made a book of his army expe- 
riences, entitled " Memoirs of Chaplain Life ; " also that Rev. 
P. P. Cooney, C.S.C. is at work on a history of the services 
rendered by Catholic priests and Sisters to the cause of the 
Union. 



LIBELLUM R'DI P. A. ESCHBACH. 

Casus de ectopicis sen extra-uterinis conceptibus necnon de 
procuratione abortus — Auctore A. Eschbach^ Seminarii 
Gallici in urbe Rector e. Pag. ^j et 11 in 8vo. Bibliotheque 
des Analecta Ecclesiastica. — Revue Romaine. No. 2. 

Principale argumentum hujus libelli jam in fasciculo 
mensis Julii horum libellorum periodicorum communicatum 
est. Nova enim est editio duorum articulorum quos Rev. auctor 
primum ediderat in libellis Romanis periodicis Analecta 
Ecclesiastica inscriptis, mensibus Februario et Martio, ad 
confutandas solutiones in hisce libellis mense Novembri anni 



126 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

praeteriti et hujus anni mense Januario datas, nunc additis 
duabus appendicibus, quarum una est responsio ad epistolam 
Klagenfurto ad auctorem missam, qua explicet quaedam de 
directa et indirecta occisione atque de defensione contra 
aggressorem ; altera appendix post absolutum libellum 
distincta paginatione adjecta continet defensionem quam 
infrascriptus miseram Romam ad clarissimam Directionem 
Analectorum. et qua repellere studueram impugnationes R. 
P. Eschbach eodem fere modo, brevius tamen, quo in hisce 
libellis mense Julio ; sed continet defensionem meam cum 
animadversionibus cl. mei adversarii in ipsam banc defen- 
sionem. 

De quibus additamentis, quatenus res ipsa illustrari potest, 
pauca dicturus sum. 

Dixeram ad meam defensionem : 
P Sequi ex operatione ista chirurg^ca praeter malum 
alioquin inevitabile bonum maximum ; 

11° Posse proin operationem illam tamdiu pro licita 
haberi, quamdiu non constet cam esse illicitam ; 

III*^ Videri probabile omnino, eam non esse directam 
foettls occisionem, neque pro casu tantae necessitatis illici- 
tam : idque allatis novis rationibus physiologicis compro- 
baveram. 

Animadvertit igitur ad haec cl. adversarius mens : 

Ad I. " Ad minima reduci bona, quae ipse {i. e. ego) tam- 
quam maxima extollit," siquidem ea operatio, utpote pericu- 
losa omnino, vitam matris nullatenus in tuto coUocet, neque 
spem baptizandi foetus oflferat ; nam " nonnisi foetus jam 
emortuos communiter inveniri." 

Respondeo : Narrante adversario meo, anno 1892, Dr. 
Martin Bruxellis in conventu medicorum retulit "de 56 
feminis ob ectopicam praegnationem a se excisis, in quibus 
semel et non amplius foetum adhuc vivum invenit. " Sit, in 
reliquis omnibus non solum dubium, sed certitudinem mortis 
lam secutae adfuisse, etiam unius infantis aeternam beatitu- 
dinem habeo pro bono maximo. Atque si minus in tuto 
coUocatur vita matris, hujus vitae servandae spes est tamen 
bonum aliquod. 



LIBELLUM R'DT p. A. ESCHBACH. 



127 



Ad II. R. P. Eschbacli animadvertit, de illiceitate nostrae 
opera tionis constare ; nam " theologorum schola Integra a 
remotissimis ad recentiora tempora docet et clamat, constare 
esse illicitum ex consulto procurare abortum, etiamsi in 
abortu extremum obtineatur remedium salvandi matrem." 
Atque repetit quod attulerat dictum Salmanticensium : 
" Nemo admittet," simul laudans Sporer ejusque verba ex 
TheoL sacram. p. iv «, 7/0 .• ' 'Certissimum est apud omnes, 
id (procurare abortum) nullo unquam casu vel causa licere, 
sive abortus intendatur propter se ut finem, sive solum inten- 
datur ut medium propter alium finem, v. gr. ad conservandam 
vitam matris." 

Ad quae respondeo : i. Quid sibi velint " omnes theologi " 
jam alibi illustravi. Cautius et rectius Sanchez, de matri- 
monio lib. II disp. 20 n, 7 de eadem re dicit : ' ' constat apud 
omnes auctores tola hac disputatione refer endos^^"* sed statim 
addit alios tres qui stent a parte contraria. 

2. Quod vero ad Sporer ejusque verba attinet, dolendum 
est, quod adversarius mens non attulerit quae idem auctor 
eodem loco, n. 712, babet: "At quid, si medicamentum 
adbibendum aeque ejfficaciter tendat ad sanitatem matris et 
interitum foetus alioquin desperati : poteritne adhuc licite 
adhiberi, applicari a medico, assumi a matre ? Quidquid 
negent Corduba, etc., eo quod videatur directe procurare 
abortum et occidere foetum : vera est sententia affirmativa." 
Quae ad nostrum casum magis applicantur ; nam in nostro 
■casu operatio aeque efficaciter tendit ad salvandam matrem 
atque ad interitum foetus alioquin desperati. 

3. Auctores veteres, quando directe procurare abortum in 
nullo casu, ne ad salvandam. quidem matrem., licere dicunt, 
de nostro casu cogitasse, sine temeritate in dubium vocari 
potest. Quid potissimum spectaverint, disces ex Sanchez, 
qui 1. c. quum dixisset, ob avertendum imminens matris 
periculum licere directe inducere abortum foetus nondum 
animati, pergit n. 10 : " non tamen id admitterem licere ad 
vitandum periculum vitae, quod ex partu femina sibi immi- 
nere experta est, vel famae vitaeve jacturam^ quam probabili- 
ter metuit detecto crimine? ' 



128 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

4. Quibus explicatis, etiam apparet quid sibi velit quod 
in ultima pagina a cl. adversario accuser gravissimae cen- 
surae in catholicam scholam reprolatae^ ' ' utpote quae per tot 
saecula argumentis nihil valentibus nee quidquam probanti- 
bus innixa docuisset, ex consulto procurare abortum esse 
illicitum." Cujus rei accusor quia nolui admittere, ex iis 
quae theologi de abortu disputaverant, nostrum casum jam 
pro deciso habendum esse. — Verum in re cognata specta- 
tissimos habeo praecessores, ipsam S. Poenitentiariam, quae 
anno 1872, pro deciso non habebat quod demum anno 1884 
decisum est : illicitam esse etiam in extrema necessitate cran- 
iotomiam ; quod concludes ex iis quae notavi in mea Theol. 
mor. I n. 848. Ceteroquin equidem non dixi, rationes a 
theologorum schola prolatis nihil valere ad probandum quod 
ipsi volebant, sed rationes ab adversario meo adductas, 
easque nisi ultima ratio physiologica persistat, nihil valere 
neque quidquam probare, scilicet ea nullatenus probare quae 
ipse probare debuit. Theses enim suas probare debuit, atque 
ita probare debuit, ut evinceret meas rationes ne probabiles 
quidem esse. Nam in hoc melioris sum conditionis, quod ad 
statuendam liceitatem alicujus actionis sufficiet ratio vere 
probabilis ; ad statuendum peccatum, idque mortale, adver- 
sarius habet rationes certas atque convincentes. Num eas re 
ipsa attulerit, idque etiam seclusa sua ratione physiologica,. 
lectori judicandum committo. 

Ad III. cl. adversarius notat : " Cl. auctor non quidem 
solum de ectopicis, sed etiam de uterinis conceptibus dixit, 
lectorem ad suum opus Theologiae moralis remittens, ubi de 
his exclusive agitur. ' ' Ad quae respondeo : Quum remittam 
lectorem ad meam theolog^am moralem, de abortu in genere 
non plus dixi quam quae ibi habentur. Rem autem ibi 
disputatam nunquam ita tradidi, ac si practicam securitatem 
et probabilitatem omnino evicissem. Aperte enim dico in 
omnibus editionibus : " Ceterum in re adeo difficili rationes 
illas proposuisse sujfficiat ; num rem evincant^ aliorum judicio 
relinquo?"^ De casu autem nostro de quo quaeritur, sane 
fidentius locutus sum: neque sine causa ; sunt enim graviores 
rationes quas attuli, cur in nostro casu habeatur occisia 
foetiis indirecta tantum. 



COATROVEHSIA DE ECTOPICIS CONCEPTIBUS. 



129 



Neque rationem illam quam in response meo fusius expo- 
sueram, ex physiologia petitam — ex qua sane peti debet, sed 
non sine adminigulo ratiocinationis — adversarius refellit eo 
quod suas animadversiones hisce concludit : " Sinat itaque 
adversarius simpliciter praeterire quas fusiori calamo 
anatomicas et embryologicas notiones supra transciipsit. 
Non is utique sum, qui, quum ex professo de argumentis 
physiologico-theologicis disputaverim, notiones hujusmodi 
minus habeam. Istas tamen ad rem hie vel nihil vel parum 
facere, neque tales inveniri, quae certam de procuratione 
abortus scholae doctrinam obnubilent aut dubiam reddant, 
omnino puto." Equidem puto, eas ad rem nostram diluci- 
dandam valere plurimum. 

Aug. Lehmkuhl, SJ. 

Exaeten in Hollandia. 



ANIMADVERSIONES IN CONTROVERSIA DE ECTOPICIS CONCEP- 
TIBUS. 

Rogatus ut mentem meam aperiam de controversia circa 
casum de ectopicis conceptibus, in hisce periodicis libellis 
exorta et agitata, libenter et brevissime id faciam eo solum 
fine ut veritatis jura serventur, et ut, eliminatis iis quae ad 
controversiam non spectant, clan us appareat quid sentiendum 
sit de datis solutionibus. Displicet enim quod, non sine aliqua 
verborum acrimonia, ex una parte iterum instaurata fuerint 
argumenta contra certissimum aliquod doctrinae punctum, et 
ex alia suspiciones manifestatae fuerint de patrocinio indi- 
recte iis dato a viris qui semper et fortiter illud denegarunt. 

I. Et re quidem vera controversia haec quae ab initio 
tota fuit de ectopicis conceptibus, alio sane divertit ; nam 
plura nuper hinc inde scripta fuerunt quae quaestionem de 
liceitate craniotomiae directe attingunt. Quaestionem istam 
prorsus solutam esse existimaveram ex eo praesertim tempore 
quo Romanae Congregationes plura dederunt responsa ex 
quibus certo conficitur craniotomiam habendam esse ceu 
operationem directe occisivam^ ejusque liceitatem non amplius 
posse tuto doceri in scholis Catholicis. Immo fateor me nun- 
quam hac de re dubitasse et jam inde ab anno 1872 quo 
primum mota fuit quaestio in periodico Romae edito cui 



130 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

titulus ''''Acta S. Sedis'''' turn scriptis turn verbis liceitatem 
craniotomiae impugnasse. Non solum igitur ut ab insinuatis 
suspicioiiibus me exonerem, sed etiam ut paucis perstringam 
totam banc doctrinam liceat mihi ea hie referre quae alibi 
antea scripsi. 

" Catholic theologians have always been practically agreed 
as to the sinfulness of the practice of craniotomy. The 
reason is simply that the end, however good and desirable, 
can never justify or excuse the use of means which are 
unlawful in themselves. Now, the killing of a human being, 
even though that being is within a few moments of death 
from other causes, is wrong in itself, and has all the guilt of 
homicide. This proposition has never been doubted by 
Catholics. They all admit that, even in that case, dominion 
over life and death belongs to God alone. Hence the killing 
of a human being can never be adopted as a means for 
obtaining any end, even one so desirable as saving the life of 
a mother. 

Up to a few years ago this teaching was received without 
question by all writers on ethics within the Church. Of late 
years, however — moved, no doubt, by the practice prevailing 
among some medical men — some few theologians took up the 
opposite side, and began almost to maintain the lawfulness of 
the operation, provided an attempt had previously been made 
to baptize the child m utero. The chief writers on this side 
of the question were Rev. Drs. Avanzini and Pennacchi, of 
Rome. Their arguments may, in the main, be reduced to two. 

1. The killing of the child is indirect, so far as the inten- 
tion of the operator is concerned, for he looks only to the 
safety of the mother. Now, all moralists hold that the 
indirect killing of innocent persons may sometimes be lawful, 
as, for instance, in the case where a general advancing to the 
attack, places hostages in the first rank of his army. It is 
then lawful for the defending army to fire, though they are 
certain that they will thereby slay their own friends. 

2. Even if the killing of the child be supposed to be 
directly contained in the intention of the operator, it is 
merely the slaying of an unjust aggressor. The mother has 



I 



CONTROVERSIA DE ECTOPICIS CONCEPTIBUS. 



131 



a right to her life, and the presence of the child will deprive 
her of that right. It is true that the child is unconscious of 
this fact, and is in no sense morally responsible for it ; but it 
still remains true that it is in reality an impediment to the 
mother's enjoyment of her right to life ; and so, just as I 
may, when necessary for saving my own life, kill the lunatic 
who attacks me, though he be not responsible for his act, so 
may I take the life of the child to save that of the mother. 

It must be confessed that, in spite of the ability of the 
writers who have presented these arguments for the lawful- 
ness of craniotomy, they would seem to be no better than 
trivial sophisms. With regard to the first, it is evidently 
false to say that a means which is directly adopted for attain- 
ing an end, is only indirectly contained in the intention of 
the agent who so adopts it. It is not indeed \h^ final object 
of his intention, but it is the immediate and direct object — 
€ven more direct, if anything, than the end which is ulti- 
mately intended. The parity with the case of the hostages 
does not hold, for there the defenders do not kill their friends 
in order that from their death the destruction of the enemy 
may result : this would be to intend the death of the inno- 
cent in itself. They aim at the enemy, though they know 
that their balls will certainly strike also their friends. With 
regard to the death of the latter, their intention is purely 
permissive. The same cannot be said of the intention of the 
craniotomist. He takes the death and dismemberment of 
the child as a means to secure the safety of the mother. His 
direct intention, therefore, is, first and foremost, to kill the 
child. 

The second argument is due to an equal confusion of ideas. 
To constitute an aggressor, some positive act is required. 
The child is in its unfortunate position through no act of its 
own ; it has come there by the course of nature, and is, in 
itself, wholly passive in the matter — indeed, generally speak- 
ing, the mother might with more propriety be called the 
aggressor on the rights of the child." — The Medical Record^ 
New York, Nov. 28, 1885. 

Quod de craniotomia hie dixi applicandum etiam est 



132 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



accelerationi partus^ quae fieret in quarto aut quinto mense 
praegnationis, iitut potentiorem haec antea habuerit patro- 
num et magistrum. Nullum enim inter haec duo inveniri 
poterit discrimen nisi accidentale. Quare hac in re pleno 
animo assentior iis quae a clarissimo Eschbach pluribus in 
locis et docte traduntur, et maxime doleo quod clari§simus 
Lehmkuhl tarn obstinate deneget actionem qua foetus extra- 
hitur esse directe occisivam. Etenim impossibile est negare 
esse directe volitum illud quod assumitur uti medium, et si 
aliunde constat medium aliquod mortem secum ferre neces- 
sario nexu, sequitur profecto actionem qua medium illud 
ponitur esse directe occisivam. Argumentum autem deduc- 
tum ex " placenta " non solvitur animadvertendo illam ad 
matrem potius quam ad foetum pertinere ; nam si ex una 
parte constat illam esse foetui abolute necessariam et ex alia 
supponatur actio incisiva directe posita ad foetum extrahen- 
dum, actio ista certo certius dicenda est directe occisiva. 
Facta autem Eleazari et Samsonis et exempla illorum qui 
nanfragio perituri sunt ad rem non faciunt ; nam scimus 
omnes licite posse poni causam bonam aut indiiferentem ex 
qua immediate sequatur duplex effectus, alter bonus, mains 
alter. 

II. Deveniendo nunc ad id quod secundo loco mihi dicen- 
dum proposui, duas tantum attingam solutiones casus in quo 
ectopica praegnantia certo supponitur, illam scilicet Patris 
Lehmkuhl et aliam a me traditam. De prima candide fateor 
me nullo modo posse eam admittere non solum quia tunc 
aperta et facillima, immo etiam necessaria sterneretur via 
tum ad accelerationem partus tum ad craniotomiam, sed 
etiam quia obstant plura Romanarum Congregationum 
responsa, quae casum istum indubitanter, etsi non explicite^ 
includunt. Praeterea, quod quidem caput est, obstat 
insuperabile et invictum argumentum desumptum ex eo 
quod nunquam, prorsus nunquam, licere debet ponere 
actionem directe occisivam foetus quamdiu ejus jus ad vitam 
integrum perseverat. Sed hoc ipsum est quod clarissi- 
mus theologus denegat : negat scilicet incisionem matris 
ad foetum extrahendum esse actionem directe occisivam, 



CONTROVERSIA DE ECTOPICIS CONCEPT/BUS 



^33 



nam haec scribit " Difficultas sola est num debeat 
haec foetus praematuri excisio haberi pro directa occisione. 
Quod non puto. Privatur quidain foetus elemento aliquo ad 
vitam sibi necessario, quo fortasse per pauculos dies vel horas 
vitam suam producere possit ; sed eo privari, vel eo seprivare 
homini licet in conflictu cum salute vitae alienae potioris, 
praecipue quando pro eo ipso, qui tantillo bono privatur, 
simul spes boni infinite majoris causatur." Sed ista quo- 
modo possunt admitti ? Num seria ilia difl5cultas quam 
auctor ipse sibi proponit soluta poterit cuiquam apparere 
tribus illis verbis " quod non puto ? " Ilia autem quae 
sequuntur ipsissima ilia sunt ad quae olim recurrebant 
fautores craniotomiae. In ipsis etiam innuitur tantillum 
vitae posse facile sperni : quasi non esset reus patrati homi- 
cidii qui hominem occideret graviter vulneratum et mox 
certo moriturum ! Pace igitur tanti viri liceat iterum 
animadvertere hie non agi de difficultate sed de solido atque 
inconcusso principio vi cujus directe volitum dicitur quidquid 
assumitur tanquam medium. Ergo si ex una parte constat 
excisionem foetus praematuri assumi uti medium, et ex alia 
certissimum est banc excisionem esse illi tam mortiferam 
sicut mortifera est pisci subtractio aquae aut viro alicui 
snbtractio aeris, dicendum omnino est illam esse actionem 
directe occisivam. Nisi antea vis istius argumenti plene 
elidatur inutile erit recurrere ad quodcumque malum quod 
per talem excisionem evitaretur aut ad quodcumque bonum 
quod exinde sequeretur, nam sartum semper tectumque 
ser van debet aureum illud priucipium : No7i sunt facienda 
mala ut evetiiant bona. 

Dixi paulo ante, nuUam actionem directe occisivam foetus, 
posse licite poni quamdiii ejus jus ad vitam integrum 
perseverat. In hisce verbis habes totum fundamentum 
solutionis casus a me traditae. Etenim jus foetus ad vitam, 
saltern foetus immaturi, practice loquendo, confunditur cum 
jure permanendi in loco ubi jacet, quicumque tandem ille sit. 
Ergo si in casu praegnantiae extra-uterinae, natura dictante, 
non potest probari foetum ibi esse debere ubi est reconditus, 
imo probari potest non debere ibi esse, sequitur profecto 



134 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEUr. 

ilium non possidere jus ad vitam. Quod aliis verbis hue 
recidit ut dicam, in casu pregnantiae extra-uterinae et solum 
in isto casu^ foetum mihi apparere vere affectum omnibus 
conditionibus aggresoris materialiter injusti, qui non solum 
indirecte sed etiam directe occidi potest ; nam, stante 
aggressione, amissum est jus ad vitam. Solutionem igitur 
affirmativam unice dedi propter banc rationem, et quoniam 
nemo adhuc rationem istam falsam esse ostendit, solutionem 
ipsam non possum non retinere. Et re quidem vera, suppo- 
nas quaeso, aliquem adesse qui a nativitate sortitus fuerit 
sex digitos, aut duos nasos. Num ipsum contra quintum 
Decalogi praeceptum agere dicemus, si sextum digitum aut 
alterum nasum sibi amputabit ? Reus forte erit si hoc 
faciat, sed solum propter periculum, si quid adsit, cui totum 
corpus exponet ; at sane non contrahit malitiam mutilationis 
corporis quia illud non privat naturali sua integritate. 
Scilicet non eodem modo monstruosus hie vir peccaret sicut 
ille qui unum ex quinque digitis aut unicum quem habet 
nasum sibi abscinderet. Ratio autem haec est quia natura 
exigit quidem^ ut corpus nostrum integrum Deo servemus, sed 
corpus quod sit humanum. Unde sequitur quod ubicumque 
invenimus aliquid innaturale et monstruosum, ibi nequit 
urgeri jus naturae, natura enim non sibi contradicit. Neque 
dicas hanc eamdem rationem urgeri posse in casu praegnan- 
tiae uterinae, si quando foetus nimis grande caput protendat, 
posse scilicet tunc caput comprimi usque ad occisionem ; 
nam respondetur hanc consequentiam nullo modo sequi, 
quippe cum monstruositas accidentalis toto coelo differat a 
substantiali. Num natura determinavit unquam quanta esse 
debeat in homine moles capitis, sicut certo statuit unum 
debere esse nasum et solum quinque digitos in unaquaque 
manu ? Ceterum tantus est horror quo erga craniotomiam 
afficior ut, si utcumque probabitur hanc meam solutionem, 
unice datam pro casu praegnantiae extra-uterinae, ansam 
praebere illius fautoribus, solutionem ipsam prorsus et 
libentissime repudiabo. Absit enim ut unquam, aut affir- 
mando dicam aut dubitando insinuem, craniotomiam esse 
licitam. A. Sabetti, SJ. 



CONFERENCES. 



135 



CONFERENCES. 

TWO PRIESTS DISTRIBUTING HOLT COMMUNION AT MASS. 

Qu. When a priest in surplice and stole assists the celebrant of 
the Mass in distributing holy Communion, on account of the large 
number of communicants, should he repeat the words " Misereatur 
vestri," etc., in taking the ciborium, after the celebrant has pro- 
nounced the " Misereatur vestri," — or should he begin to distribute 
the sacred particles without saying anything ? Some maintain that 
as the Ritual prescribes the recitation of the ' ' Misereatur vestri ' ' 
in the administration of holy Communion, it is to be observed by 
every priest who distributes the same. What do you say ? 

Resp. In speaking of the administration of holy Com- 
munion intra missam^ the Rubrics prescribe the recitation of 
the "Misereatur vestri," etc., for the celebrant of the Mass. 
Hence the priest who assists the celebrant in distributing 
holy Communion at the Mass, says nothing. This stands to 
reason. The words "Misereatur vestri," etc., are addressed 
to the present communicants by way of general absolution as 
a direct preparation for the reception of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment. There can be no more purpose in repeating them 
under the circumstances, than in repeating the "Confiteor." 



PREYENTED FROM SATING THE BRETIART. 

Qu. Whilst on a journey recently I lost my Breviary, in changing 
stage-coach. The place I was bound for had no Catholic Church, 
and it was wholly unlikely that I would meet, before two or three 
days, a Catholic priest who could help me out by the loan of an 
Office book. To turn back would have been very inconvenient, 
although I could have done so, and felt serious scruples about the 
prospect of having to neglect the Office for at least two days. Do 
you think the duty of reciting the Canonical Hours in the given case 
was of such gravity as to oblige my returning home at the sacrifice 
of time and money, although my journey was not a necessary one ? 



136 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Resp. Whilst the duty of daily reciting the Canonical 
Hours is unquestionably a grave one, and therefore obliges 
under proportionately grave inconveniences, there was in the 
present case no reason for anxiety. The Church prescribes 
for her clergy daily prayer — ordinarily and strictly the prayer 
of the Breviary ; but when a priest is by some accident, such 
as the forgetting of his Oflfice book, or protracted labor in the 
confessional or on sick calls, prevented from saying the reg- 
ular Office of the day, he is at perfect liberty to substitute 
other prayers in its place. This is the purpose of a special 
faculty granted to missionar}'^ priests and hence in general to 
the clergy of the United States " recitandi Rosarium vel 
alias preces^ si Breviarium secitm deferre non poterunt^ 
vel divinum Officium ob aliquod legitimum impedimentuni 
recitare no7i valeanty (Form. I, n. 26.) The S. Congrega- 
tion declares that, ordinarily the fifteen decades of the beads 
are here understood as supplying the omission of the Office 
for one day. In particular cases of incapacity to recite vocal 
prayers a bishop may dispense with this requirement in part 
or wholly. 

This covers likewise the ground of a proposition, made 
some time ago, to have a shorter Office substituted for our 
Sunday Office. The Holy See answered the request by 
referring to the above mentioned faculty, of which any priest 
who is overworked on Sundays can avail himself ; moreover, 
according to the discretion of the Bishop, a rule might be 
formulated which would dispense the clergy from the Sunday 
Office in part or wholly under given conditions. The five- 
hour rule in regard to the confessional is one of the applica- 
tions of this privilege. 



MATRIMONIAL DISPENSATIONS BY TELEGRAPH. 

In the last issue of the Review we published a Decision 
of the S. Poenitentiary pointing out that matrimonial dis- 
pensations cannot be validly applied until the document 
containing the same has been actually received, even though 



CONFERENCES. 



137 



the parties concerned have been assured by private message 
that the dispensation is actually granted. 

This must not be understood as if a telegraphic or cable 
message, sent by direct authority of the Holy See, were to 
be of no avail. There are circumstances when the Holy See 
or its officials might find it necessary to use this method of 
communicating a dispensation, to save complications which 
would arise out of delay. In such cases the usual guarantee 
of the directly oflScial character of the despatch must of 
course be looked for. The following answer of the S. Office 
to a query from an Italian bishop, puts the matter beyond 
doubt. 

S. C. S. Ofiicii, 14 Aug. 1892. — " Se sia valida una dis- 
pensa matrimoniale eseguita dalP Ordinario dietro I'avviso 
telegrafico, prima di avere ricevuto il documento autentico 
della grazia concessa." 

Resp. Negative., nisi notitia telegraphica transmissa fuerit 
ex oflficio auctoritate S. Sedis. SSmus approbavit. 



COMMUNICATIO IN SACRIS CUM SCHISMATICIS. 

Qu. I am Hungarian and a member of the Greek Church in 
communion with the Holy See of Rome. Some time ago I visited 
a sick companion who comes from Bucharest and belongs to the 
Greek schismatic Church. Whilst there the Greek priest entered 
with the Blessed Sacrament to administer to the sick man. I knew 
that it is not lawful for unj^ate Greeks to communicate in any 
religious rites of schismatics, because it implies that one does not 
hold the Church of Christ as the unerring and only true Church. 
But I also knew that this Russian priest, whilst he does not accept 
the apostolic teaching of the Church of St. Peter, is a truly ordained 
priest, and therefore had the Blessed Sacrament, which he conse- 
crated, really present in his hands. Was I to stay and adore the 
Holy Eucharist, or should I have left for fear of giving scandal to 
those of my own faith ? 

Resp. The proper conduct was to acknowledge by adora- 
tion the real presence of our Lord, despite the fact that He 



138 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

was in the keeping of one who refuses to believe His entire doc- 
trine. Beyond this act of reverence to the Blessed Sacrament 
there was no reason to take part in any ceremony which the 
schismatic priest or others might construe into a special 
regard for his belief or person. Hence, it would not be neces- 
sary, under similar circumstances, to accompany the priest to 
his church after he leaves the sick, or to enter there for the 
purpose of adoring, as Catholics would naturally do in case of 
their own priests. 



CONSECRATION OF AN ALTAR IN AN UNCONSECRATED CHURCH. 

Qu. Can I have an altar consecrated before the church, which is 
not yet entirely free from debt, is to be solemnly consecrated ? The 
church and altar are both of stone and complete in every respect. 

Resp. A fixed altar can 7iot be consecrated until the church 
is consecrated. ' ' Utrum in ecclesia tantummodo benedicta 
altare possit consecrari, quin prius ipsa ecclesia consecretur." 
Resp. S. R. C, 12 Sept., 1857 — Negative. 



SEPARATING MATINS FROM LAUDS. 

Qu. Is it lawful to say Matins (anticipated) in the evening, and 
leave Lauds until next day, or must they be said as a moral unit 
since they constitute but one Canonical Hour ? 

In separating Matins and Lauds does it suffice to say the oration 
of the day after the Te Deum, or must you make all the commemo- 
rations ? 

Is the Paternoster and Salve Regina (or corresponding antiphon) 
to be said in such cases ? 

Resp. In private recitation the parts of the Office may be 
separated for some good reason. Hence, Matins may be said 
in the evening ; Lauds the following day. In this case Matins 
end as follows : Te Deum ; Dominus vobiscum — et cum sp.y 
etc. Oremus (oration of the day only) ; Dominus vobiscum — 
et cum sp. , Benedicamus^ Fidelium animae^ etc. , and Pater 
noster. The Salve Regina^ etc., need not be said. (Cf. S. 
R. C, Deer., 7 Feb., 1886.) 



CONFERENCES. 



139 



REQUIEM MASS OYER THE ASHES OF A CREMATED CORPSE. 

It is only by degrees that the diflSculties, arising from the 
practice of cremation present themselves to the priest in his 
sacred ministry. We have already seen in our previous 
treatment of the subject on various occasions that the Church 
condemns the practice as repugnant to every religious 
instinct, and, incidentally, as a method adopted by certain 
secret and atheistic societies in Italy to lessen the influence 
of the Catholic Church by abolishing her liturgy. 

Nevertheless, a Catholic cremated against his own will 
and disposition is not to be deprived (like the conscious 
abettors of the system of cremation) of the last rites of the 
Church. Lest scandal arise among Catholics from this 
benign interpretation of the law, it is to be made known that 
the deceased did not wish his body cremated and that the 
Church is not accountable for the disposition which the non- 
Catholic friends of the deceased make of the dead. But it is 
not lawful for the priest to go to the crematory for the pur- 
pose of blessing the ashes or otherwise showing or implying 
approbation of the custom. (Cf. American Ecclesiastical 
Review, vol. x, n. 6, p. 453.) 

But what is to be done when, despite the unwillingness of 
the deceased Catholic to be cremated, his friends take the 
corpse to the crematory before it is brought to the church, 
and afterwards request the priest to perform the "absolu- 
tion " or to say Mass over the ashes? 

From a reply of the S. Congregation, dated July 27, 1892, 
we would conclude that a priest could not lawfully act in 
the given case without compromising the attitude of the 
Church in regard to the forbidden practice of cremation. 
The question asked by the diocesan authorities of Freiburg 
(Baden), was whether Mass might be celebrated publicly for 
Catholics whose bodies have been cremated without their 
consent. The answer was no^ but that Mass might be pri- 
vately applied for such souls. The difference between a 
public and a private Mass, as here indicated, is that of a pub- 
lic liturgical act m which the Church solemnly espouses the 
object for which the Mass is celebrated, whilst the private 



I40 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

celebration of Mass stands for an intercessory act on the part 
of the priest individually. The Church does not refuse 
prayer to the deceased, but she will not do so with a liturgical 
solemnity which could be misinterpreted as approval of the 
irregular act which she wishes to condemn. The funeral 
Mass has always the character of a public celebration, even 
though it be performed without outward show, because it 
is known for whom the service is being performed. 

The same reasons would seem to apply to the giving of 
the "absolution" of the dead, which is a public liturgical 
act and may be construed as a tacit approbation or at least 
toleration of the system of burning the dead, with which the 
Church emphatically dissociates her children. Mass or abso- 
lution performed over the corpse before cremation, when it is 
known that the deceased did not wish the latter, have an 
entirely dififerent aspect. 

AN EXCEPTIONAL CASE. 

Qu. An agnostic physician who at one time had advocated cre- 
mation and desired his own body to be disposed of by the method 
of incineration becomes a Catholic on his death-bed. The priest, 
after preparing the man for death, adverts to the rite of the Catholic 
burial , whereupon the sick man earnestly protests that he wishes 
to be cremated, both from a fear of being buried alive and also 
because he believes it to be a good sanitary measure for the com- 
munity. Before the priest can reason him out of this prejudice and 
show him how this would compromise his faith as a Catholic, the 
last agony is upon the man and he dies. 

Can he receive the last rites of the Church, since he is sure to be 
cremated and that upon his own declared wish ? 

Resp. The man dies without due warning of the laws of 
the Church. His act is in no way contumacious and hence no 
sin. Having become a Catholic in the face of death, from 
what we must assume to have been serious and convincing 
reasons, there can be no doubt that the deceased would have 
abandoned his intention to be cremated if the matter could 
have been placed in the just light for him. We have an 
answer of the Holy Office to a doubt similar to the case pro- 
posed, and this answer is in favor of the deceased. 



CONFERENCES. 



141 



"Is it allowed to administer the last sacraments to such of 
the faithful as, not being freemasons, have given orders for the 
cremation of their bodies after death, not as a question of 
principle but upon other grounds, and refuse to counteract 
these orders ?" 

Resp. S. C. S. O., 27 Jul., 1892. "If they refuse, after 
due warning, no. As to the giving or admission of such 
warning, the rules laid down by approved authors are to be 
followed ; particular care must be taken that no scandal be 
given." 

It is evident from this reply that only obstinate refusal to 
comply with the just law of the Church on this subject can 
be construed as condemning a person to the privation of 
Christian burial. 



CATHOLIC OFFICIAI.S AND WORKMEN IN PUBLIC CREMATORIES. 

Qu. " Is it allowed to co-operate in the cremation of a corpse, 
either by direction, advice or assistance, as medical adviser, official 
or workman at the crematory ; or may this be allowed at least in 
case of certain necessity or to avoid greater evil ?" 

"Is it allowed to administer the sacraments to persons co- 
operating as above, if they refuse to discontinue such co-operation 
or declare that they are not in a position capable of discontinuing 
h?" 

Resp. " A formal co-operation, by means of direction or 
advice, is never allowed. On the other hand, material co- 
operation may at times be tolerated in cases : (i) Where 
cremation is not considered as an avowed demonstration of 
Freemasonry ; (2) When there is nothing which in itself 
expresses directly and unquestionably {unice) a rejection of 
the Catholic teaching and an acknowledgment of the princi- 
ples of the Crematory League ; (3) When it is not clear that 
the Catholic officials and workmen are employed and induced 
to accept the work for the purpose of showing contempt for 
the Catholic religion. Furthermore, whilst they may be left in 
" good faith " under the above-mentioned circumstance, they 
are to be warned never to take direct part in an actual crema- 
tion." (S. C. S. Officii, 27 Jul. 1892.) 



142 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



THE PRITILEGE OF THE APOSTOLIC BENEDICTION TERBAtLT 

GIVEN. 

Qu. Your recent remarks in reference to the Apostolic Bene- 
diction in articulo mortis suggest to me to ask for an explana- 
tion regarding the following case, which, I understand, actually 
occurred. 

On occasion of a visit to the Holy Father the following favor is 
accorded : " I give yourself, your relatives and friends, the absolu- 
tion in articulo mortis.^ ^ Now, presuming that the recipients 
were in a state to receive such absolution, where would be the 
limit of its conference, and what ceremony would be necessary for 
its application to any individual recipient ? 

Resp. The Apostolic Blessing with Plenary Indulgence 
in articulo mortis^ which it is customary to receive from the 
Pope is usually understood to include kindred to the third 
degree (proche parents jusqu'au troisi^me degr^). The 
Holy Father can hardly have used the word absolution under 
the circumstances, as he could not possibly give it unless he 
acted as confessor at the death-bed. The " Apostolic Bless- 
ing," as usually understood, includes a Plenary Indulgence, 
which is gained under the ordinary conditions after sacra- 
mental absolution by pronouncing with contrite heart the 
holy name of Jesus, if not with the lips, at least inwardly. 
The ceremony of its application is practically the ceremony 
of receiving the last sacraments, and has merely the purpose 
ot increasing the graces flowing from their application. 

If the Sovereign Pontiff actually used the phrase " and 
your friends " in giving the Indulgence, it implied that the 
recipient would be expected to comply with the formality of 
presenting the names of the friends whom he desired to 
benefit by the blessing upon an engrossed card prepared for 
this purpose and easily obtained in Rome. These cards are 
signed by the Holy Father at an opportune time after the 
audience, when they are presented to him by some official of 
the Papal household. Visitors at the Vatican are, as a rule, 
informed of these observances, which are not essential unless 
where, as in the present case, a doubt arises as to the precise 
extent of the favor granted. 



ANALECTA. 



ANALECTA. 



143 



SlNCTISSmi DOMIXI NOSTRI LEONIS DIYINA PROTIDENTIA 
PAPAE Xni EPISTOLA APOSTOLICA 

PRINCIPIBUS POPULISQUE UNIVERSIS LEO PP. XIII. 

Salutem et Pacem in Domino. 

Praeclara gratulationis publicae testimonia, quae toto superiore 
anno, ob memoriam primordiorum episcopatus Nostri, undique 
accepimus, quaeque proximo tempore insignis Hispanorum pietas 
cumulavit, hunc imprimis attulere Nobis laetitiae fructum quod in 
ilia similitudine concordiaque voluntatum eluxit lEcclesiae unitas, 
eiusque cum Pontifice maximo mira coniunctio. Videbatur per eos 
dies orbis catholicus, quasi rerum ceterarum cepisset oblivio, in 
aedibus Vaticanis obtutum oculorum animique cogitationem defix- 
isse. Principum legationes, peregrinorum frequentia, plenae 
amoris epistolae, caerimoniae sanctissimae id aperte significabant 
in obsequio Apostolicae Sedis cor unum esse omnium catholicorum 
et animam. Quae res hoc etiam accidit iucundior et gratior, quia 
cum consiliis coeptisque Nostris admodum congruens. Siquidem 
gnari temporum et memores officii, in omni pontificatus Nostri 
cursu, hoc constanter spectavimus, atque hoc, quantum docendo 
agendoque potuimus, conati sumus, coUigare Nobiscum arctius 
omnes gentes omnesque populos, atque in conspicuo ponere vim 
pontificatus romani, salutarem in omnes partes. Maximas igitur et 
agimus et habemus gratias primum quidem benignitati divinae, 
cuius munere beneficioque id aetatis attigimus incolumes : deinde 
viris principibus, episcopis, clero, privatisque universis, quotquot 
multiplici testificatione pietatis et obsequii dedere operam ut perso- 
nam ac dignitatem Nostram honore, Nosque privatim opportuno 
solatio afficerent. 

Quamquam ad plenum solidumque solatium, multum sane defuit. 
Nam inter ipsas popularis laetitiae studiique significationes, obver- 
sabatur animo multitudo ingens, in illo gestientium catholicorum 
consensu aliena, partim quod evangelicae sapientiae est omino 
€xpers, partim quod, licet christiano initiata nomini, afide catholica 



144 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

dissidet. Qua re graviter commovebamur, commovemur : neque 
enim fas est sine intimo doloris sensu cogitationem intendere in 
tantam generis humani partem longe a Nobis, velut itinere devio, 
digredientem. — lamvero, cum Dei omnipotentis vices in terris 
geramus, qui vult omnes homines salvos fieri et ad agnitionem 
veritatis venire, cumque Nos et sera aetas et amara curarum ad 
humanum urgeant exitum, visum est redemptoris magistrique 
nostri lesu Christi in eo imitari exemplum, quod proxime ad 
caelestia rediturus summis precibus a Deo Patre flagitavit, ut 
alumni sectatoresque sui et mente et animo unum fierent : Rogo 
. . . ui omnes unum sint, sicui tu Pater in me, et ego in te, ut 
et ip si in nobis unum. sini^ . Quae quidem precatio obsecratioque 
divina quoniam non eos tantum complectitur qui tunc in lesum 
Christum crederent, sed etiam quotquot credituri reliquo tempore 
essent, idcirco dat ilia Nobis causam non ineptam aperiendi 
fidenter vota Nostra, conandique, quoad possumus, ut homines, 
nuUo generis locorumve discrimine, ad fidei divinae unitatem 
vocentur atque incitentur universi. 

Urgente propositum caritate, quae illuc accurrit celerius, ubi 
opitulandi necessitas maior, primum quidem provolat animus ad 
gentes omnium miserrimas, quae Evangelii lumen vel nullo modo 
acceperunt, vel acceptum, incuria seu longinquitate, restinxerunt : 
proptereaque Deum ignorant, et in summo errore versantur. Quo- 
niam salus omnis a lesu Christo proficiscitur, nee enim aliud nomen 
est sub caelo datum hominibus, in quo nos oporteat salvos fieri, ^ vot- 
orum Nostrorum hoc est maximum, posse sacrosancto lesu nomine 
cunctas terrarum plagas celeriter imbui atque compleri. Qua in re 
munus efficere sibi demandatum a Deo Ecclesia quidem nullo tem- 
pore praetermisit. Quid enim undeviginti saecula laboravit, quid 
egit studio constantiaque maiore, qifam ut ad veritatem atque insti- 
tuta Christiana gentes adduceret ? Hodieque frequenter maria 
transmittunt, ad ultima loca progressuri, ex auctoritate Nostra prae- 
cones Evangelii : quotidieque a Deo contendimus ut multiplicare 
benigne velit sacrorum administros, dignos munere apostolico, qui 
scilicet commoda sua et incolumitatem et vitam ipsam, si res postu- 
laverit, pro Christi regno amplificando non dubitent devovere. 

Tu vero propera, humani generis servator et parens lesu Christe; 
exequi ne differas quod olim te dixisti facturum, ut cum exaltatus 
esses a terra, omnia traheres ad te ipsum. Ergo illabere aliquando, 

I loan, xvii, 20-21. 2 Acts, iv, 12. 



ANALECTA. 14^ 

atque ostende te multitudini infinitae, beneficiorum maximorum, 
quae cruore tuo peperisti mortalibus, adhuc expert! : excita sedentes 
in tenebris et umbra mortis, ut radiis illustrati sapientiae virtutisque 
tuae, in te et per te sint coiisummati in umim. 

Cuius quidem unitatis sacramentum cogitantibus, occurrit Nobis 
universitas populorum, quos ab erroribus diuturnis ad evangelicam 
sapientiam divina pietas iamdiu traduxit. Nihil profecto ad recor- 
dationem iucundius, neque ad laudem providentissimi numinis prae- 
clarius veterum memoria temporum, cum fides divinitus accepta 
patrimonium commune atque individuum vulgo habebatur : cum 
excultas humanitate gentes, locis, ingenio, moribus dissitas, licet 
aliis de rebus saepe dissiderent, dimicarent, nihilominus in eo, quod 
ad religionem pertinet, fides Christiana universas coniugabat. Ad 
huius recordationem memoriae, nimis aegre fert animus, quod suc- 
cessu aetatum, suspicionibus inimicitiisque commotis, magnas ac 
florentes nationes de sinu Ecclesiae romanae male auspicata tempora 
abstraxerint. Utcumque sit.Nos quidem gratia confisi misericordiaque 
omnipotentis Dei, qui novit unus opitulandi maturitates, et cuius in 
potestate est eo, quo vult,voluntates hominum flectere, ad eas ipsas 
nationes adiicimus animum, easdemque caritate paterna hortamur 
atque obsecramus, ut redire, compositis dissidiis, velint ad uni- 
tatem. 

Ac primo peramanter respicimus ad Orientem, unde in orbem 
universum initio profecta salus. Videlicet expectatio desiderii Nos- 
tri iucundam spem incohare iubet, non longe abfore ut redeant, 
unde discessere, fide avita gloriaque vetere illustres, Ecclesise 
orientales, Eo vel magis quod non ingenti discrimine seiunguntur: 
imo, si pauca excipias, sic cetera consentimus, ut in ipsis catholici 
nominis vindiciis non raro ex doctrina, ex more, ex ritibus, quibus 
orientales utuntur, testimonia atque argumenta promamus. Prae- 
cipuum dissidii caput, de romani Pontificis primatu. Verum respi- 
ciant ad initia, videant quid maiores senserint sui, quid proxima 
originibus aetas tradiderit. Inde enimvero illud Christi divinum 
testimonium. Tic es Petrus et super hanc peirant aedificabo 
Ecclesiam meam, luculenter extat de romanis Pontificibus com- 
probatum. Atque in Pontificum numero lectos ex Oriente ipso 
non paucos prisca vidit aetas, imprimisque Anacletum, Evar- 
istum, Anicetum, Eleutherium, Zosimum, Agathonem : quorum 
plerisque contigit, ut universae christianae reipublicae admin- 
istrationem sapienter sancteque gestam, profiiso etiam sanguine 
consecrarent. Plane liquet quo tempore, qua causa, quibus 



146 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

auctoribus infelix excitata discordia. Ante illud tempus, quo 
tempore homo separavit quod Deus coniunxerat, sanctum erat apud 
omnes christiani orbis gentes Sedis Apostolicae nomen, romanoque 
Pontifici, ut beati Petri successor! legitimo, ob eamque rem lesu 
Christi in terris vicario, Oriens pariter atque Occidens consentienti- 
bus sententiis sine uUa dubitatione parebant. Hanc ob causam, si 
respiciatur ad initia dissidii, Photius ipse oratores de rebus suis 
Romam destinandos curavit : Nicolaus vero I. Pontifex maximus 
Constantinopolim legatos suos nullo contradicente ab Urbe misit, 
ut Ignatii Patriarchae causam diligenter investigarenty et Sedi 
Apostolicae plenis ac veracibus referrent indiciis : ita ut tota rei 
gestae historia primatum romanae Sedis, quacum dissensus turn 
erumpebat, aperte confirmet. Denique in Conciliis magnis turn 
Lugdunensi IK, tum Florentino, supremam romanorum pontificum 
potestatem nemo ignorat, facili consensione et una omnes voce, 
latinos graecosque ut dogma sanxisse. 

Ista quidem ob hanc rem consulto revocavimus, qui ad reconciH- 
andam pacem velut invitamenta sunt : eo vel magis, quod hoc 
tempore perspicere in orientalibus videmur multo mitiorem erga 
catholicos animum, imo propensionem quamdam benevolentis vol- 
untatis. Id nominatim non multo ante apparuit, cum scilicet 
nostris, pietatis causa in Orientem advectis, egregia humanitatis 
amicitiaeque praestita officia vidimus. Itaque os Nostrum patei ad 
vos, quotquot estis, graeco aliove orientali ritu, Ecclesiae catholicae 
discordes. Magnopere velimus, reputet unusquisque apud se illam 
Bessarionis ad patres vestros plenam amoris gravitatisque oration- 
em : Quae nobis relinquetur apud Deum responsio, quare afratri- 
bus divisi fuerimus , quos ut uniret et ad unum ovile redigeret, ipse 
descendit de caelo, incamatus et crucifixus est? quae nostra defensio 
erit apud posteros nostros ? non patiamur haec^ Patres optimi : non 
habeamus hanc sententiam, non ita male nobis consulamus et nostris. 
Quae sint postulata Nostra, probe per se ipsa et coram Deo per- 
pendite. Nulla quidem humana re, sed caritate divina, communis- 
que salutis studio permoti, reconciliationem coniunctionemque cum 
Ecclesia romana suademus : coniunctionem intelligimus plenam ac 
perfectam : talis enim esse nullo modo potest ea, quae nihil amplius 
inducat, quam certam aliquam dogmatum credendorum concordiam 
fratemaeque caritatis commutationem. Vera coniunctio inter 
christianos est, quam auctor Ecclesiae lesus Christus instituit volu- 
itque, in fidei et regiminis unitate consistens. Neque est cur 
dubitetis, quidquam propterea vel Nos vel successores Nostros de 



ANALECTA. 



147 



iure vestro, de patxiarchalibus privilegiis, de rituali cuiusque Ecclesiae 
consuetudine detracturos. Quippe hoc etiam fuit, idem que est per- 
petuo futurum in consilio disciplinaque Apostolicae Sedis positum, 
propriis cuiusque populi originibus moribusque ex aequo et bono 
non parce tribuere. At vero redintegrata nobiscum communione, 
mirum profecto quanta Ecclesiis vestris dignitas quantum decus, 
divino munere, accedet. Sic igitur vestram ipsorum supplica- 
tionem Deus perbenigne audiat, Fac cessent schismata ecclesiarum^ 
atque, Congrega dispersos et reduc errantes, et coniunge sandaetuae 
catholicae et apostolicae Ecclesiae^ : sic ad illam reslituamini unam 
sanctamque fidem, quam ultima vetustas nobis perinde vobisque 
constantissime tradidit ; quam patres ac maiores vestri inviolate 
servarunt : quam ipsam splendore virtutum, magnitudine ingenii, 
excellentia doctrinae certatim illustravere Athanasius, Basilius, 
Gregprius Nazianzenus, loannes Chrysostomus, uterque Cyrillus, 
aliique magni complures, quorum gloria ad Orientem atque 
Occidentem, tamquam communis hereditas aeque pertinet. 

Vosque nominatim compellare hoc loco liceat, Slavorum gentes 
universae, quarum claritudinem nominis multa rerum gestarum 
monumenta testantur. Nostis quam egregie de Slavis meruerint 
sancti in fide patres Cyrillus et Methodius, quorum memoriam 
Nosmetipsi honore debito augendam aliquot ante annis curavimus. 
Eorum virtute et laboribus parta plerisque e genere vestro populis 
humanitas et salus. Quo factum ut . Slavoniam inter et romanos 
pontifices pulcherrima vicissitudo hinc beneficiorum, illinc fidelis- 
simae pietatis diu extiterit. Quod si maiores vestros misera tem- 
porum calamitas magnam partem a professione romana alienavit, 
considerate quanti sit redire ad unitatem. Vos quoque Ecclesia 
pergit ad suum revocare complexum, salutis, prosperitatis, magni- 
tudinis praesidium multiplex praebitura. 

Caritate non minore ad populos respicimus, quos, recentiore 
memoria, insolita quaedam rerum temporumque conversio ab 
Ecclesia romana seiunxit. Variis exactorum temporum casibus 
oblivione dimissis, cogitationem supra humana omnia erigant, 
animoque veritatis et salutis unice cupido, reputent apud se consti- 
tutam a Christo Ecclesiam. Quacum si velint congregationes 
conferre suos, et quo loco in illis religio sit aestimare, facile dabunt, 
se quidem multis maximisque in rebus, primordiorum oblitos, ad 
nova errore vario defluxisse ; neque diffitebuntur, ex eo velut 
patrimonio veritatis, quod novarum rerum auctores secum in seces- 
I (In liturg, S. Basilii.) 2 {Id.) 



148 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

sione avexerant, nullam fere formulam fidei certam atque auc- 
toritate praeditam apud ipsos superesse. Immo vero illuc iam 
deventum, ut multi non vereantur fundamentum ipsum convellere, 
in quo religio tota et spes omnis mortalium unice nititur, quod est 
divina lesu Christi Servatoris natura. Pariter, quos antea novi 
veterisque Testamenti Hbros affirmabant divino afflatu conscriptos, 
eis nunc talem abnegant auctoritatem : quod sane, data cuilibet 
potestate interpretandi sensu iudicioque suo, omnino consequi erat 
necesse. Hinc sua cuiusque conscientia, sola dux et norma vitae, 
qualibet alia reiecta agendi regula : hinc pugnantes inter se 
opiniones et sectae multiplices, eaedemque persaepe in naturalistni 
aut rationalismi placita abeuntes. Quocirca, desperate senten- 
tiarum consensu, iam coniunctionem praedicant et commendant 
fraternae caritatis. Atque id sane vere : quandoquidem caritate 
mutua coniuncti esse universi debemus. Id enim maxime lesus 
Christus praecepit, atque banc voluit esse sectatorum suorum notam^ 
diligere inter se. Verum qui potest copulare animos perfecta 
caritas, si Concordes mentes non effecerit fides ? His de causis 
complures eorum de quibus loquimur, sano iudicio, veritatisque 
studiosi, certam salutis viam in Ecclesia catholica quaesivere, cum 
plane intelligerent nequaquam se posse cum lesu Christo tamquam 
capite esse coniunctos, cuius non adhaerescerent corpori, quod est 
Ecclesia : nee sinceram Christi fidem adipisci, cuius magisterium 
legitimum, Petro et successoribus traditum, repudiarent. li vide- 
licet in Ecclesia romana expressam verae Ecclesiae speciem 
atque imaginem dispexere, inditis ab auctore Deo notis plane 
conspicuam : ideoque in ipsis numerantur multi, acri iudicio 
subtilique ad antiquitatem excutiendam ingenio, qui Ecclesiae 
romanae ab Apostolis continuationem, dogmatum integritatem, 
disciplinae constantiam scriptis egregiis illustrarint. . Igitur horum 
virorum proposito exemplo, compellat vos plus animus quam 
oratio, fratres nostri, qui tria iam saecula nobiscum de fide 
Christiana dissidetis, itemque vos, quotcumque deinceps quavis de 
causa seorsum a nobis abiistis. Occurramus omnes in unitatevt 
fidei et agnitionis filii Dei^. Ad hanc unitatem, quae nuUo 
tempore Ecclesiae catholicae defuit, nee potest ulla ratione deesse, 
sinite ut vos invitemus, dextramque peramanter porrigamus, Vos 
Ecclesiae, communis parens, jamdiu revocat ad se, vos cathoHci 
universi fi-aterno desiderio expectant, ut sancte nobiscum colatis 

I Eph. iv, 13. 



ANALECTA. I^g 

Deum, unius Evangelii, unius fidei, unius spei professione in cari- 
tate perfecta coniuncti. 

Ad plenum optatissimae unitatis concentum, reliquum est ut ad 
eos, quotquot toto orbe sunt, transgrediatur oratio, quorum in 
salute diu evigilant curae cogitationesque Nostrae : catholicos 
intelligimus, quos romanae professio fidei uti obedientes iacit Apos- 
tolicae Sedi, ita tenet cum lesu Christo coniunctos. Non ii quidem 
ad veram sanctamque unitatem cohortandi, quippe cuius iam sunt, 
divina bonitate, compotes : monendi tamen ne, ingravantibus 
undique periculis, summum Dei beneficium socordi^ atque ignavia 
corrumpant. Huius rei gratis, quae Nosmetipsi gentibus catholicis 
vel universis vel singulis alias documenta dedimus, ex iis cogitandi 
agendique normam opportune sumant : illudque imprimis velut 
sum mam sibi legem statuant, magisterio auctoritatique Ecclesiae 
non anguste, non diffidenter, sed toto animo et perlibente voluntate 
omnibus in rebus esse parendum. Qua in re animum advertant, 
illud quam valde sit unitati christianae perniciosum, quod germanam 
formam notionemque Ecclesiae varius opinionum error passim 
obscuravit, delevit. Ea quippe, Dei conditoris voluntate ac iussu, 
societas est genere suo perfecta : cuius officium ac munus est 
imbuere praeceptis institutisque evangelicis genus humanum, 
tuendaque integritate morum et christianarum exercitatione virtu- 
tum, ad eam, quae unicuique hominum proposita in caelis est, 
felicitatem- adducere, Quoniamque societas est, uti diximus, per- 
fecta, idcirco vim habet virtutemque vitae, non extrinsecus haustam, 
sed consilio divino et suapte natura insitam : eademque de causa 
nativam habet legum ferendarum potestatem, in iisque ferendis 
rectum est eam subesse nemini : itemque aliis in rebus, quae sint 
iuris sui oportet esse liberam. Quae tamen libertas non est eius- 
modi, ut ullum det aemulationi invidiaeque locum : non enim 
potentiam consectatur Ecclesia, neque ulla cupiditate sua impellitur, 
sed hoc vult, hoc expetit unice, tueri in hominibus officia virtutum, 
et hac ratione, hac via, sempiternae eorum saluti consulere. Ide- 
oque facilitatem indulgentiamque .maternam adhibere solet : imo 
etiam non raro contingit, ut plura temporibus civitatum tribuens, 
uti iure suo abstineat : quod sane pacta ipsa abunde testantur cum 
imperiis saepe conventa. Nihil magis ab ea alienum, quam rapere 
ad se quicquam de iure imperii : sed vicissim vereatur imperium 
necesse est iura Ecclesiae, caveatque ne ullam ex iis partem ad se 
traducat. Nunc vero, si res et facta spectentur, cuiusmodi est 
temporum cursus ? Ecclesiam videlicet suspectam habere, fastidere, 



150 ■ AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

odisse, invidiose criminari nimis multi consuevere : quodque multo 
gravius, id agunt omni ope et contentione, ut ditioni gubernatorum 
civitatis faciant servientem. Hinc sua ipsi et erepta bona, et 
deducta in angustum libertas • hinc alumnorum sacri ordinis cir- 
cumiecta difficultatibus institutio : perlatae in Clerum singular! 
severitate leges : dissolutae, prohibitae, optima christiani nominis 
praesidia, religiosorum sodalitates ; brevi regalistarum praecepta 
atque acta acerbius renovata. Hoc quidem est vim aferre sanctis- 
simis Ecclesiae iuribus, quod maxima gignit civitatibus mala, 
propterea quod cum divinis consiliis aperte pugnat. Princeps enim 
atque opifex mundi Deus, qui hominum congregation! et civilem et 
sacram potestatem providentissime praeposuit, distinctas quidem per- 
manere eas voluit, at vero seiunctas esse et conligere vetuit. Quin 
immo cum Dei ipsius voluntas, tum commune societatis humanae 
bonumomnino postulat, ut potestas civilis in regendo gubernandoque 
cum ecclesiastica conveniat. Hinc sua et propria sunt imperio iura 
atque officia, sua item Ecclesiae : sed alterum cum altera concor- 
diae vinclo colligatum esse necesse est. — Ita sane futurum, ut 
Ecclesiae imperiaque necessitudines mutuae ab ilia sese expediant 
perturbatione, quae nunc est, non uno nomine improvida, bonisque 
omnibus permolesta : pariterque impetrabitur, ut non permixtis, 
neque dissociatis utriusque rationibus, reddant cives quae stint 
Caesaris, Caesari, quae sunt Dei, Deo. 

Simili modo magnum unitati discrimen ab ea hominum secta im- 
pendet, quae Massonica nominatur, cuius funesta vis nationes prae- 
sertim catholicas iamdiu premat. Turbulentorum temporum nacta 
favorem, viribusque et opibus et successu insolescens, dominatum 
suum firmius constabilire, latisque propagare summa ope contendit. 
lamque ex latebra et insidiis in lucem erupit civitatum, atque in 
hac Urbe ipsa, catholic! nominis principe, quasi Dei numen 
lacessitura consedit. Quod vero calamitosissimum est ubicumque 
vestigium posuit, ibi in omnes sese ordines in omniaque instituta 
reipublicae infert, si tandem summam arbitriumque obtineat. Cala- 
mitosissimum id quidem eius enim manifesta est quum opinionum 
pravitas tum consiliorum nequitia. Per speciem vindicandi iuris 
human! civilisque societatis instaurandae, christianum nomen 
hostiliter petit traditam a Deo doctrinam repudiat : officia pietatis, 
divina sacramenta, tales res augustiores tamquam superstitiosa 
vituperat : de matrimonio, de familia, de adolescentium institu- 
tione, de privata' omni et publica disciplina, christianam formam 
detrahere nititur, omnemque humanae et divinae potestatis rever- 



ANALECTA. 



151 



entiam ex animo evellere populorum. Praecipit vero colendam 
homini esse naturam, atque huius unius principiis aestimari ac 
dirigi veritatem, honestatem, iustitiam oportere. Quo pacto, uti 
perspicuum est, compellitur homo ad mores fere vitaeque consue- 
tudinem ethnicorum, eamque multiplicatis illecebris vitiosiorem. 
Hac de re, quamquam alias a Nobis gravissimeque est dictum, 
Apostolica tamen vigilantia, adducimur in idem ut insistamus, etiam 
atque etiam monentes, in tam praesenti periculo nuUas esse 
cautiones tantas quin suscipiendae sint maiores. Clemens pro- 
hibeat Deus nefaria consilia : sentiat tamen atque intelligat populus 
christianus, indignissimum sectae iugum excutiendum aliquando 
esse : excutiantque enixius, qui durius premuntur, Itali et Galli. 
Quibus armis, qua ratione id rectius possint, iam Nos ipsi demon- 
stravimus ; neque victoria incerta eo fidentibus duce, cujus perstat 
divina vox : Ego vici mundum ^. 

Utroque depulso periculo, restitutisque ad fidei unitatem imperils 
et civitatibus, mirum quam efficax medicina malprum et quanta 
bonorum copia manaret. Praecipua libet attingere. 

Pertinet primum ad dignitatem ac munera Ecclesiae : quae 
quidem receptura esset honoris gradum debitum, atque iter suum 
et invidia vacuum et libertate munitum pergeret, admin istra evan- 
gelicae veritatis et gratiae : idque singulari cum salute civitatum. 
Ea enim cum magistra sit et dux hominum generi a Deo data, 
conferre operam potest praecipue accommodatam maximis tem- 
porum conversionibus in commune bonum temperandis, caussis vel 
impeditissimis opportune dirimendis, recto iustoque, quae firmis- 
sima sunt fundamenta reipublicae provehendo. 

Praedara deinde coniunctionis inter nationes accessio fieret, 
desideranda maxime hoc tempore, ad taetra bellorum discrimina 
praecavenda. Ante oculos habemus Europae tempora. Multos 
iam annos plus specie in pace vivitur, quam re. Insidentibus sus- 
picionibus mutuis, singulae fere gentes pergunt certatim instruere 
sese apparatu bellico. Improvida adolescentium aetas procul 
parentum consilio magisterioque in pericula truditur vitae militaris : 
validissima pubes ab agrorum cultura, a studiis optimis, a merca- 
turis, ab artificiis, ad arma traducitur. Hinc exhausta magnis 
sumptibus aeraria, attritae civitatum opes, afflicta fortuna priva- 
torum ; iamque ea, quae nunc est, veluti procincta pax diutius ferri 
non potest. Civilis hominum coniunctionis talemne esse natur^ 

I lo. xvi, 33. 



152 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Statu m ? Atqui hinc evadere, et pacem veri nominis adipisci, 
nisi Jesu Christi beneficio, non possumus. Etenim ad ambitionem 
ad appetentiam alieni, ad aemulationem cohibendam, quae sunt 
maximae bellorum faces, Christiana virtute imprimisque iustitia, 
nihil est aptius : cuius ipsius virtutis munere turn iura gentium et 
religiones foederum integra esse possunt, turn germanitatis vincula 
firmiter permanere, eo persuaso : Iustitia elevat gentem ^. 

Pariter domi suppetet inde praesidium salutis publicae multo 
certius ac validius, quam quod leges et arma praebent. Siquidem 
nemo non videt, ingravescere quotidie pericula incolumitatis et 
tranquillitatis publicae, cum seditiorum sectae, quod crebra testatur 
facinorum atrocitas, in eversiones conspirent atque excidia civita- 
tum. Scilicet magna contentione agitatur ea duplex causa, quam 
socialem, quam politicam appellant. Utraque sane gravissima : 
atque utrique sapienter iusteque dirimendae, quamvis laudabilia 
studia, temperamenta, experimenta sint in medio consulta, tamen 
nihil aliud tarn opportunum fuerit, quam si passim animi ad con- 
scientiam regulamque officii ex interiore fidei christianae principio 
informentur. De sociali causa in hanc sententiam a Nobis non 
multo ante, dat^ oper^, tractatum est, sumptis ab Evangelio, ite- 
mque a naturali ratione principiis. De cslusssl poh'tica, libertatis 
cum potestate conciliandae gratis, quas multi notione confundunt 
et re intemperanter distrahunt, ex Christiana philosophia vis 
derivari potest perutilis. Nam hoc posito, et omnium assensu 
approbato, quaecumque demum sit forma reipublicae, auctoritatem 
esse a Deo, continuo ratio perspicit, legitimum esse in aliis ius 
imperandi, consentaneum in aliis officium parendi, neque id 
dignitati contrarium, quia Deo verius quam homini paretur : a Deo 
autem iudicium durissimutn iis qui praesunt denuntiatum est, nisi 
personam eius recte iusteque gesserint. Libertas vero singulorum 
nemini potest esse suspecta et invisa, quia nocens nemini in iis quae 
vera sunt, quae recta, quae cum publica tranquillitate coniuncta, 
versabitur. Denique si ullud spectetur, quid possit populorum ac 
principum parens et conciliatrix Ecclesia, ad utrosque iuvandos 
auctoritate consilioque suo nata, tum maxime apparebit quantum 
salutis communis intersit ut gentes universae inducant animum 
idem de fide Christiana sentire, idem profiteri, 

Ista quidem cogitantes ac toto animo concupiscentes, longe 
intuemur qualis esset rerum ordo in terris /uturus, nee quidquam 

X Prov. xiv, 34. 



ANALECTA. 



153 



novimus consequentium bonorum contemplatione iucundius. 
Fingi vix animo potest, quantus ubique gentium repente foret ad 
omnem excellentiam prosperitatemque cursus, constituta tran- 
quillitate, et otio, incitatis ad incrementa litteris, conditis insuper 
auctisque christiano more, secundum praescripta Nostra, agrico- 
larum, opificum, industriorum consociationibus, quarum ope et 
vorax reprimatur usura, et utilium laborum campus dilatetur. 

Quorum vis beneficiorum, humanarum atque excultarum gentium 
nequaquam circumscripta finibus, longe lateque, velut abundan- 
tissimus amnis, deflueret. Illud enim est considerandum, quod 
initio diximus, gentes multitudine infinitas plura iam saecula et 
aetates praestolari, a quo lumen veritatis humanitatisque accipiant. 
Certe, quod pertinet ad sempiternam populorem salutem, aeternae 
mentis consilia longissime sunt ab hominum intelligentia remota : 
nihilominus si per varias terrarum plagas tam est adhuc infelix 
superstitio diffusa, id non minima ex parte vitio dandum subortis 
de religione dissidiis. Nam, quantum valet mortalis ratio ex rerum 
eventis existimare, hoc plane videtur Europae munus assignatum a 
Deo, ut christianam gentium humanitatem ad omnes terras sensim 
preferat. Cuius tanti operis initia progressusque, superiorum 
aetatum parta laboribus, ad laeta incrementa properabant, cum 
repente discordia saeculo xvi deflagravit. Discerpto disputa- 
tionibus dissidiisque nomine christiano, extenuatis Europae 
per contentiones et bella viribus, funestam temporum vim sacrae 
expeditiones sensere. Insidentibus discordiae caussis, quid mirum 
si tam magna pars mortalium moribus inhumanis, et vesanis ritibus 
implicita tenetur? Omnes igitur pari studio demus operam ut 
Concordia vetus, communis boni causs^, restituatur. Eiusmodi 
reconciliandae concordiae, pariterque beneficiis christianae sapientiae 
late propagandis, opportuna maxime fluunt tempora, propterea 
quod humanae fraternitatis sensa nunquam altius in animos pervasere, 
neque ulla aetate visus homo sui similes, noscendi opitulandique 
causs^, studiosius anquirere. Immensos terrarum marisque tractus 
celeritate incredibili currus et navigia transvehuntur ; quae sane 
egregios usus afferunt, non ad commercia tantummodo curiosita- 
temque ingeniosorum, sed etiam ad verbum Dei ab ortu solis ad 
occasum late disseminandum. 

Non sumus nescii, quam diuturni laboriosique negotii sit rerum 
ordo, quem restitutum optamus : nee fortasse deerunt, qui Nos 
arbitrentur nimiae indulgere spei, atque optanda magis, quam 
expectanda quaerere. Sed Nos quidem spem omnem ac plane fidu- 



154 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

ciam collocamus in humani generis Servatore lesu Christo, probe 
memores, quae olim et quanta per stultitiam Crucis et praedicationis 
eius patrata sint, huius mundi obstupescente et confusa sapientia- 
Principes vero et rectores civitatum nominatim rogamus, velint pro 
civili prudentia sua et fideli populorum cura consilia Nostra ex 
veritate aestimare, velint auctoritate et gratia fovere. Quaesitorum 
fructuum si vel pars provenerit, non id minimi fuerit beneficii loco in 
tanta rerum omnium inclinatione, quando impatientia praesentium 
temporum cum formidine iungitur futurorum. 

Extrema saeculi superioris fessam cladibus trepidamque perturba- 
tionibus Europam reliquere. Haec, quae ad exitum properat aetas, 
quidni, versa vice, humano generi hereditate transmittat auspicia 
concordiae cum spe maximorum bonorum, quae unitate fide 
christianae continentur ? 

Adsit optatis votisque Nostris dives in misericordia Deus, cuius 
in potestate tempore sunt et momenta, benignissimeque implere 
maturet divinum illud lesu Christi promissum, fiet unum ovile et 
unus pastor ^ . 

Datum Romae apud S. Petrum die xx lunii anno mlcccxciv, 
Pontificatus Nostri decimoseptimo. 

LEO PP. XIII. 



I loann. x, i6. 



BOOK REVIEW. 



155 



BOOK REVIEW. 

A CONVERT THROUGH SPIRITUALISM. With Preface 
by Richard F. Clarke, S.J. — London : Kegan Paul, Trench, 
Trubner & Co. 

' To a Catholic," says the lady who writes this remarkable story 
of the experience which led her into the Catholic Church, "all 
conscious seeking into the invisible world is, as we are aware, wisely 
forbidden." At the time when she became a member of the 
spiritualist circle she knew nothing of the Catholic Church and felt 
no such restraint. She had lost her husband after a very happy but 
short married life and "was hungering and thirsting for some sign 
of his presence, for some evidence that he still lived," when she 
began to hear Spiritualism discussed. Eagerly, yet with the single 
purpose which her affection for her departed husband prompted, 
she pursued the subject and soon came into contact with other 
persons equally honest in the search after the unknown. The com- 
munications received during the seances were often startling and 
seemingly true, "but occasionally deceptions were attempted." 
" I recollect particularly that on one occasion, when a friend of 
mine and I had our hands on the ' Indicator,' a spirit endeavored 
to communicate with me which professed to be that of my husband 
. . . Dubious of the identity and conscious of a distressing influ- 
ence, I said : ' I charge you to speak the truth in the name of the 
Blessed Trinity.' Instantly the movement of the 'Indicator' 
ceased . . . After some minutes it began again to spell, though 
very slowly, and, as it were, painfully : ' I am one of the unhappy 
beings whom you would call a devil." 

The writer and her friend were at this time fully alive to the 
danger of spiritualistic communication when held, "not from any 
good motive, but out of morbid curiosity and with a half guilty 
consciousness of the influence to which they are subject, being no 
heaven sent messenger." But they did not intend to tempt God. 
Their seances were begun by prayer, and it appears that this had 



156 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

been suggested by the spirits of the departed, who also besought 
the members to pray for them. "This fact," says our writer, 
"struck me very much — ' Is not this the Roman Catholic Doctrine 
of purgatory and of prayer to the dead ? ' I asked a spirit. ' Yes, 
and it is true ' was the reply. . . . We began to wonder whether, 
as the Church of Rome was apparently considerably right, it might 
not be actually possible that she should be right in a good deal 
more , and what if she should be altogether right, and be the one 
true teacher? " At another time a friend, who has since become a 
Catholic, and who is at present a nun, asked the spirit whether the 
Church of England was preferable to other forms of religion, as 
she believed it then to be. ' ' The Roman Catholic Church is the 
true religion ' ' was the reply. Upon this the friend immediately 
exclaimed : " Now I know that this is not a reliable message ! " 
Yet she found the peace of her soul in that Church, after all. So 
did the writer of our sketch, whose first plain statement of her case 
provoked not a little criticism from Catholics who saw in the assump- 
tion of one not belonging to the true fold of Christ, claiming to 
have received communications and petitions for intercessory prayer 
from the souls in purgatory, a certain inconsistency and presumption. 
Yet this is an error. The sincere search after truth is a mark itself 
of Catholicity so far as it ensures communication of preparatory 
graces to the soul and there is no cause why God could not or 
should not make use of such communications as above related to 
bring full conviction to the inquirer. 

As for the actual existence of such communications there can be 
no doubt. On the part of Catholics it would be wrong to solicit 
any intercourse with the spirit-world, because of its extreme danger 
and the difficulty of distinguishing between good and evil spirits, 
which latter, as St. Paul assures us, often assume the garb of light. 
When, nevertheless, God desires such communication, the initiative 
comes, as a rule, from Himself, and with it goes the guarantee of 
the heavenly source of the message. In the case of sincere non- 
Catholics this rule does not apply in the same degree, and hence 
we cannot pronounce upon the character of similar communications 
with any degree of certainty. As our author says : " In the preter- 
naturalism of the present day, outside the Church, there are many 
shades and grades and degrees and differences included under the 
general name of ^^ Spiritualism,'^ and whilst she allows "that it is 
scarcely possible to overstate or exaggerate its many and fearful 
perils," yet in some cases, as in her own, she believes that God uses 



BOOK review: 



157 



this means to lead souls from darkness to the light of Catholic truth. 
Father Richard Clarke, in a preface of several pages, lays down what 
seem to him the rules that ought to guide us in forming our opinion 
as to what is lawful and what is unlawful in the method of intercourse 
with those who belong to the invisible world. These rules prac- 
tically formulate the distinction suggested above, between invoking 
the spirits of the dead (necromancy) through wantonness and the 
desire of an honest soul to obtain assurance of a basis for that 
longing after eternal happiness which is an agony for those who 
have no positive faith to guide them in their aspirations. 

CASUS DE ECTOPICIS SEU EXTRA-UTERINIS CON- 
CEPTIBUS NECNON DE PROCURATIONE ABOR- 
TUS, Auctore A. Eschbach, Seminarii Gallici in Urbe 
Rectore. — Rome : Imprimerie S. Joseph. 1894. 

The contents of this pamphlet which is, practically, a reprint of 
the articles that have recently appeared in the Revue Romaine, have 
already been discussed in the two preceding issues of this Review. 
P. Lehmkuhl, S.J., answers specifically, in the present number (see 
the article Libellum P. Eschbach) the charges advanced against 
the position of the eminent Jesuit theologian. How far these 
explanations will satisfy our illustrious Roman critic remains to be 
seen. We anticipate, however, that this controversy will definitely 
settle the delicate question which has been thoroughly ventilated in 
our pages for the last six months or more. 

THEOLOGIA MORALIS per modum Conferentiarum auc- 
tore cl. P. Benjamin Elbel, O.S.F. Novis curis editit P. 
F. Irenaeus Bierbaum, O.S.F. — Editio secunda. Cum 
approbatione Superiorum. Vol. I. — Padcrbornae, 
MDCCCXCIV. Ex Typographia Bonifaciana.— (J. W. 
Shroeder.) Page iv, 923. 

There can be no hesitation in pronouncing favorably upon this 
new edition of a work whose excellent features of method we 
pointed out some years ago, when reviewing the first edition. P. 
Elbel's text has stood the test of a centenary advance in perfect- 
ing the medium of pastoral science. The present edition is an 
improvement on its predecessor from a mechanical point of view, 
facilitating reference to the contents both by the headlines and also 



158 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

by a complete index at the end of the volume. Furthermore, the 
entire work has been subjected to a scrupulous revise in order to 
bring the solutions of the given cases of conscience in explicit and 
complete harmony with the recent decisions of the S. Office. The 
fourth part, " De sex ultimis praeceptis decalogi," has been added 
to the first volume, which is both a convenience and perhaps also 
somewhat more congruous than the old partition. 

As to the matter, apart from the added references to later decrees 
of the S. Congregation, some portions of the work have been recast, 
notably the latter part of the Conferences De magia etmaleficio. In 
regard to spiritualism though we believe the judgment of our author 
is practically correct, there are exceptions classed under the 
generic name of spiritistic influence which must limit the cate- 
gorical enunciation of such principles as "spiritismus proprie dictus 
pravissimus est . . . quia experentia teste tendit ad obscurandam 
veritatem catholicam et stabiliendam falsitatem, haeresim et aposta- 
siam a fide." We admit that the danger implied in this quasi defi- 
nition is exceedingly great and can never be lawfully braved by a 
Catholic, yet there are well authenticated cases where the opposite 
results have been reached. We refer the reader to another book 
review entitled "A Convert Through Spiritualism," as suggestive 
in this respect. Whether text books in theology should take 
account of these exceptions or possibilities when giving the princi- 
ple upon which to form a practical judgment, must depend on the 
hkelihood of a priest encountering such cases, when he will find that 
acting upon the above defined principle will make him close the 
door of the Church to a soul in search of truth, instead of reasonably 
opening it in the conviction that the veil which conceals evil is some- 
times a revelation of truth. But this is an incidental criticism which 
in no wise falls singly upon the theologian before us ; for after all 
caution is a better principle than too much distinction in questions 
which are at best obscure. 

The methodical arrangement, clear exposition and thoroughly 
practical application of the established moral code to concrete cases 
form the distinguishing features of this theology. It is a combina- 
tion of theory and practice which readily appeals to the student who 
is preparing for the ministry of the confessional. If cases of con- 
science as treated here were simply read in the "Conferences" 
which many of the clergy periodically hold for the purpose of 
mutual advancement in the study of moral theology, a vast amount 
of good would be accomplished with but little effort or preparatory 



BOOK REVIEW 



159 



application. As a theological text book Elbel holds a distinct 
place and ranks, as we have said before, by the side of scientific 
works with the very highest. 

THE LIFE OF THE BLESSED ANTHONY BALDI- 
NUCCI. By Francis Goldie, S.J.— London : Burns & 
Oates. 1894. 

One year ago, on the feast of St. George, amid the festivities of 
the Episcopal Jubilee of Leo XIII., Rome celebrated the solemn 
beatification of the Jesuit, Anthony Baldinucci. He was not, like 
many of his recently canonized brethren, a martyr who had sacri- 
ficed his life-blood during the persecution in China or Japan, but a 
missionary whom burning zeal for the salvation of souls in his 
native country urged to the unbloody martyrdom of daily sacrifices 
which require a heroism different, but probably of a higher kind, 
than the generous act which spends itself once for all under the 
torture of the persecutor. 

Blessed Anthony lived and labored among the people in the 
towns and villages round about Rome. As a youth of seventeen 
he had entered the religious state, fifteen years he had spent in 
preparing himself for his work of the missions, and then for twenty 
more he labored day and night attracting and leading souls to God 
by the wondrous unction of his preaching, and much more by the 
edification of his beautiful life. He actually died whilst giving 
a mission at Pofi, a little town south of Frosinone, the Frusino of 
Volscians on the Via Latina, and it is touching to watch the interest 
with which he occupied himself with this duty to the last, even 
when he lay helplessly stretched on his death-bed. "^ ' ' He asked 
them to sing for him one of the mission hymns from a little book 
called Laudi spirituali, on our Lady's birth, and he himself, with 
much fervor and joyfulness, though faintly and as best he could, 
yet with great tenderness, sang the refrain, Gesu, mio dolce amor, 
io per te muoio — Jesus, my true love, for Thee I die !' ' He particu- 
larly enjoyed, and often asked those around his bed to repeat the 
words of another hymn " Paradiso, o bella patria,'" and when he 
was told, as he desired, that the priest who had taken his place as 
preacher, was giving the people in the church the blessing at the 
conclusion of the mission, he raised himself, and, with' crucifix in 
hand, also blessed the people whom he loved ; then he called for a 
lay brother, to whom he was much attached, and gave him some 



l6o AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

rules faithfully to observe, for the protection of his innocence and 
perseverance in virtue in years to come, when his dying friend 
would no longer be with him. 

The author of the present life had at his disposal Father Van- 
nucci's biography of our Saint, published last year in Italian, like- 
wise the Summarium de Virtutibus, used in the process of Beatifi- 
cation, which furnished fragrant material for a chapter, entitled "A 
Nosegay of Virtue," at the end of the volume. There are many 
well known figures of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries 
introduced into the well written narrative, which give something of an 
historical (apart from the hagiographic) character to the volume. The 
handsome face of the boy Antonio in front is a good copy of the 
picture by Baltassar di Volterra, now in the Pitti gallery at Flor- 
ence. The painter was a dear friend to the father of our Saint. 
The volume also contains a geographical map outlining the field of 
Blessed Anthony's missionary activity. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

THE LIFE OF ST. FRANCIS BORGIA, of the Society of Jesus. By 
A. M. Clarke. — London : Burns & Oates. 1894. 

THE LIFE OF THE BLESSED ANTONY BALDINUOOI. By 
Francis Goldie, S.J. — London : Burns & Oates. 1894. 

THE FORMATION OF CHRISTENDOM. By T. W. Allies, K.C.S.G. 
Popular Edition. — London : Burns & Oates. — New York, Cincinnati, 
Chicago : Benziger Bros. 1894. 

THE FIRST DIVORCE OF HENRY VIII. As told in the State Papers. 
By Mrs. Hope. Edited with Notes and Introduction by Francis Aidan 
Gasquet, D.D., O.S.B. — London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. 
1894. (Benziger Bros.) 

A CONVERT THROUGH SPIRITUALISM. With Preface by 
Richard F. Clarke, S.J. — London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. 
(Benziger Bros.) 

THEOLOGIA MORALIS per modum Conferentiarum, Auctore cl. P. B. 
Elbel, O.S.F. Novis curis edidit P. F. Irenaeus Bierbaum, O.S.F.— 
Editio secunda. Vol. I. Paderbornae, 1894. Typogr. Bonifaciana. (J. 
W. Schroeder) Pr. Mark. 7, 50. 

S. THOMAE AQUINATIS O. P. DOCTRINA SINCERA DE 
UNIONE HYPOSTATICA Verbi Dei cum humanitate amplissime 
declarata, Auctore J. B. Terrien, S.J., in Cathol. Instituto Parisiensi S. 
Theolog. Profess. — Parisiis : P. Lethielleux, edit. 1894. Pg. 216. Fr. 
Fr. 3.50. 



AMERICAN 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 



New Series — Vol. I. — (XI.)— September, 1894. — No. 3. 



PABISH MISSIONS. 

BY A FRANCISCAN FATHER. 

ONE of the most important points in the line of pastoral 
duties and of the salvation of souls, no doubt, is the 
giving, periodically, of what is called a mission. The 
office of the Church — of her consecrated ministers — ever 
since the commission of Christ to the Apostles of going 
throughout the whole world and of preaching the Gospel to 
all nations, was and is of a missionary nature — an embassy, 
representative of Almighty God and directed to the whole 
world — for the purpose of its salvation. 

The scope of this article is not a discussion of the mis- 
sionary work of the Church among the heathens or among 
people separated from the Church, but an essay on Parish 
Missions, conducted by her through the medium of her mis- 
sionaries, among her own children and for their benefit, that 
is to say, for the conversion of sinners, for the arousing of 
the lukewarm, and the improvement and perseverance of her 
good and devout children. Hence it follows that the making 
of converts, though most desirable and gratifying to the heart 
of the missionary and that of the pastor, is not the primary 
or main object of a parish mission, and that its success or 
failure must not be judged or gauged, at least not chiefly, 
by this standard. 

A mission always is and must be pronounced successful 
whenever through its influence the sinners, public or occult, 
are converted, the tepid and indifferent Christians are aroused 
to fervor and the good are made still better ; whenever, in a 
word, a new Christianlike spirit is infused into the congre- 
gation. And if this three-fold end is not realized, the 

161 



l63 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

mission, no matter how much eulogized otherwise, is a 
failure. 

There is need of a mission in a parish whenever, in the 
prudent judgment of the pastor, an extraordinary impulse 
and grace is required to revive or to stimulate the dormant 
Christian faith and piety of his flock, to arouse those, that 
under ordinary circumstances and by the usual efforts of his 
ministry, can hardly be aroused — to revalidate defective or 
bad confessions, to uproot deep-seated evil habits, or to make 
up for deficiencies or defects of his ordinary ' ' cura animarum," 
and to reach those that are and keep beyond the reach of 
their own pastor, or fail, for some reason or other, to heed 
his pastoral admonitions. 

An extraordinary cause, as a rule, will bring about ex- 
traordinary results. A mission, no doubt, is a time of 
extraordinary divine grace and of effort on the part of men, 
and hence must and (all parties concerned doing their very 
best) will be crowned with extraordinary results, sometimes 
even surpassing the most sanguine expectations of the parish 
priest. Whatever and whoever can not be gained by means 
of a mission, can hardly ever, as daily experience proves, be 
gained at any other time. 

There are to be found, sometimes, extraordinary local or 
exceptional conditions of affairs in parishes, when besides 
the general conditions calling for a mission, there exist 
special, local or personal reasons for a revival. Such, in the 
writer's humble opinion, would exist when a parish has been 
newly established or organized ; when it has been shocked 
by public scandals ; when a new church or parochial school 
must be built, whilst the Catholic people are indifferent or 
unreasonably opposed to it ; or when the material temple has 
been completed ; on occasion of a jubilee, or when local 
evils cannot be successfully combated ^by the customary 
efforts of the pastor ; when the people are estranged from or 
unjustly opposed to their pastor and there is hope of a mutual 
reconciliation. But in any case the object of the pastor, as 
well as of the missionary, in getting up a mission must be 
the spiritual welfare of the people, and nothing else. 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



163 



The question might be asked here : How frequently ougfht 
a mission to take place in a parish ? 

Of course, there is on this, as well as on nearly all other 
matters, a difference of opinion, of theory and of practice. 
Thanks to God, the priests who from principle are opposed to 
missions are few, and, to be sure, there would be none if 
they had only once or twice gone along on missions, and in 
the confessional, on these occasions, had observed the good 
done by missions. I honestly believe that millions of souls 
now in the glory of heaven would have been lost forever if 
it had not been for a mission. But, at the same time, it 
must be admitted, a good thing can be overdone. If a 
mission is given regularly every other year, it is bound to 
lose its novelty and attraction, and cannot, for obvious 
reasons, be expected to make so deep and lasting an impres- 
sion, to yield so rich a harvest, as would be the case if it 
were of less frequent occurrence. Ne quid nimis ! 

On the other hand, a mission ought not to be unreason- 
ably long delayed. From every five to seven years a mission 
ought to be preached in every organized parish, and the 
statutes of some dioceses of this country would seem to 
justify this assertion. 

How long ought a mission to last ? 

The length or duration of a mission, no doubt, must 
largely depend upon circumstances, but nevertheless, it may 
be laid down as a rule that it ought not to last much less 
than a week nor exceed the space of two weeks. The mis- 
sion ought to close whilst the enthusiasm of the people is at 
its highest point, and they are wishing it might last a week 
longer. To close when they beg^n to feel tired of it does 
not seem to be good policy. 

If a mission is to last two weeks, it is advisable to divide 
the sexes, i. e. , to devote one week to the women and the 
other to the men. 

As every one knows, this is frequently done, but it may 
appear doubtful whether this method is the best that could 
be adopted. In that case, the missionaries address only one- 
half of the congregation at a time, whereas they might just 



1 64 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

as well, if the capacity of the church and other circumstances 
will permit, have the whole or nearly the whole parish 
listen to their discourses. Not to mention other reasons, 
much better results can, and as a general rule will be achieved, 
if all the members, both male and female, of the parish 
attend the mission for two weeks in succession. 

HOW MANY MISSIONARIES OUGHT TO CONDUCT THE MISSION? 

The labors of one missionary, no matter what his qualifi- 
cations, can hardly be called a mission. Unless the congrega- 
tion consists of a very limited number of families, there never 
ought to be less than two. Our dear Lord Himself never 
sent less than two of His disciples to preach. For a parish 
of a hundred to two hundred families two missionaries will 
do, and for every additional hundred families, the services of 
one more missionary ought to be secured. As a rule, a 
missionary ought not to be expected to deliver more than 
one mission sermon a day. Apart from this regard for the 
missionaries, the people ought to be supplied with a sufii- 
•cient number and choice of confessors. Two hundred and 
fifty to three hundred general confessions is all a missionary 
ought to hear at a mission of one week's duration. 

The object of the mission being the conversion, reforma- 
tion and improvement of the people, the sermons and dis- 
courses preached during the mission must be adapted to that 
end. They ought to be such in character, style and deliv- 
ery, as to terrify the sinner, to awaken the lukewarn and to 
sanctify the pious and devout Christians. Hence, as is 
obvious, they ought not to be exclusively dogmatical, 
instructive, much less controversial, because no matter how 
good in themselves, instructions and discourses of this kind 
will fail to arouse the people to that pitch of enthusiasm and 
to that change of heart and life, which the mission is 
intended to bring about. It seems to me they ought to 
resemble, in substance at least, the meditations of the retreat, 
though, of course, they will differ from them in style, form 
and manner because a mission is a retreat for the people. 



PARISH MISSIONS. 165 

WHAT ABOUT SPECIAL INSTRUCTIONS AND CONFERENCES 
FOR THE DIFFERENT STATES OF LIFE? 

On this matter again there exists a difference of opinion : 
but, to be candid, I honestly believe there are ten reasons for, 
to one against these particular instructions, intended for and 
given exclusively to one particular state of life. No one of 
any experience can doubt that in our days of laxity of 
morals, instructions for married people, for instance, 
are not only timely, but absolutely necessary, in order to 
guard and prevent them from the ways and practices of 
modem heathens. But how can such delicate matters be 
safely treated before a mixed audience or conveniently 
at any other time ? To reserve them for the confessional is 
impracticable, because of the want of time. Not only will 
the people, during a mission, be ready to humbly receive 
these instructions touching upon all the duties of their par- 
ticular state of life, they will oftentimes even express their 
gratitude and appreciation of the information received. And 
as to the good effect of these important instructions, let those 
speak who have assisted in hearing confessions on missions 
where such instructions were given. 

At missions, the people, with the exception of scrupulous 
souls, ought to be urged to make a general confession, because 
of the alarming multitude of former doubtful, invalid and 
sacrilegious confessions, and because a real genuine conver- 
sion, a thorough and lasting change of life, as a rule, dates 
from the day of such a general confession. It may be safely 
said, a mission that does not yield this fruit is not very suc- 
cessful. 

The time for the making of the general confession ought 
not to be set too early — for instance, the very first days of the 
mission, — because the people at that early period are not 
sufficiently prepared. Nor does it seem advisable to put off 
the confessions to the very last — say, the last or second last 
day of the mission — because then there will be a rush, and 
the number of available confessors being generally limited, it 
will be next to impossible to do justice to the crowd of peni- 



l66 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REP^IEW, 

tents. It would seem that the time most suitable for the 
general confessions would be at or after the middle of the 
mission, one day (or more) being assigned to each particular 
state, after the particular instruction and those sermons that 
serve as a preparation for confession have been given. 

IS ONE CONFESSION SUFFICIENT? 

Generally speaking, one confession made after careful 
preparation on the part of the penitent and with due assist- 
ance of the confessor, is sufficient. Still it oftentimes, or at 
least sometimes happens, that the penitent afterwards 
remembers, or in subsequent discourses is reminded of some- 
thing that at the time of confession escaped his memory, and 
now disquiets his conscience. Though the formal integrity 
required by divine law of confession was complied with, it 
lacked material integrity, and the penitent's conscience is 
not at rest. Now, in this case, he ought not to be denied the 
opportunity of a second confession. 

Since a mission is to reform not only individual members 
of the parish, but also the parish as such, which is the 
proper way and method to combat and to abolish local 
public evils that may exist in a parish ? — Are they to be at- 
tacked directly ? 

Evils of this kind may be intemperance, gambling, prosti- 
tution or kindred immoralities, sinful parties and dances, 
enmities, neglect of divine service, of Catholic education, 
mixed marriages, opposition to the pastor, and the like. It 
seems to me, as a rule, from which there may be on account 
of circumstances exceptions, that it is the best and safest 
policy for the missionary to attack these vices not directly, 
but indirectly, and in order to avoid the creation of prejudice 
against himself, the pastor and the mission, not even to 
insinuate that he has knowledge of their existence to any 
great extent in the parish. The mission hardly ever pro- 
duces a good eflfect when the missionaries give the people to 
understand that they have a poor or a bad opinion of them. 
Surely this is not a captatio benevolentiae. 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



167 



At a mission it is customary to organize or re-organize 
societies and to establish confraternities. They are, indeed, 
a powerful means to preserve and perpetuate the good work 
of the mission. It is very much to be desired that the whole 
parish should be divided up into societies and that each 
society should have its own special Sunday for monthly 
Communion and meeting. A congregation without these 
church societies may be compared to a fruit-tree devoid alike 
of blossom and fruit. Still it is not necessary to enlarge 
upon the usefulness of societies to the parish. But, if ever, 
the mission is the time when the parishioners will be ready 
to join them. They might also be urged by the missionaries 
to become members of some or other confraternity approved 
by the Church. All ought to be enrolled in that of the 
Scapular. The Confraternity or League of the Sacred Heart 
is becoming more and more popular. The Third Order of 
St. Francis, so strongly recommended by the Sovereign 
Pontiflf (a Tertiary himself), can easily be introduced on 
occasion of a mission. Perhaps more than anything else the 
Third Order will serve to foster in the parish the spirit of 
genuine Christian piety. In all his missionary travels and 
labors between ocean and ocean, the writer never struck a 
more devout and more pious congregation, than one in the 
Central States. The parish priest was a most enthusiastic 
advocate and promoter of the Third Order, and three hun- 
dred and forty souls belonged and lived up to the rule of the 
Third Order of St. Francis, Ex fructibus eorum cogno- 
scetis eos. But no matter how good all these things, it is not 
advisable to introduce too many confraternities in a parish. 
Again, ne quid nimis ! 

With regard to converts, we may be permitted to repeat 
what was said in the beginning, that the making of them is 
not the main point or object of the parish mission. Still the 
conversion to the true faith of non-Catholics is one of its 
most consoling results. The serious truths announced dur- 
ing the mission can hardly fail to make a deep impression 
upon people not altogether devoid of the religious element 
and who perhaps never before heard anything like them from 



l68 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the lips of their ministers. Urged alike by the voice of divine 
grace and the persuasion of their Catholic friends and neigh- 
bors, they may come and ask to be received into the Church. 

Still, we consider it a serious mistake to admit them with- 
out a due course of probation, instruction and preparation. 
And how can the missionary, during the few hours he might 
possibly have of leisure, impart a thorough knowledge and 
understinding of Catholic truth ! This is next to impossi- 
ble. If these converts, who at the mission are apt to 
embrace the Catholic religion on the spur of the moment, 
through emotion rather than conviction, are at once received 
into the Church, what is generally the outcome? Like a 
straw fire, their religious enthusiasm will soon die away, 
they will frequently turn out renegades, or almost always be 
found anything but exemplary Christians, a poor acquisition 
to the Church. Surely, converts should not be discouraged 
or turned away, but let them be turned over to the hands of 
the pastor for the purpose of a full and complete course of 
instruction. 

To insure success, not only the missionaries, but also the 
parochial clergy must do their full duty. The success or failure 
of a mission, in many cases, is largely to be attributed to them. 

The resident clergy's co-operation is needed before, during 
and after the mission. No need to prove this assertion. 
All that is required is to point out in what way or manner 
that co-operation is to be rendered. 

First of all the pastor must be a man inflamed with the 
zeal for souls, having at heart the good of his flock, and 
seeking to promote it by all available means ; and one of 
them, perhaps the most powerful of all, is the grace of a 
holy mission. It is an incontrovertible fact that the best 
priests and pastors of souls are in favor of missions, and that a 
priest indifferent or even opposed to them cannot be called a 
very zealous one. The next thing in the line of the pastor's co- 
operation will be the appointment of the proper time when the 
mission is to take place. In this matter he must be careful 
not to consult his own convenience but the interests of his 
people, and to make due allowance for the conditions and 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



169 



particular circumstances of his parishioners. A mission is out 
of place at a time of the year when, owing to the inclemency 
of the season, of extreme cold or heat, or to the bad state of 
roads, or to the pressure of unavoidable business, or such 
similar circumstances, the people cannot, at least not reason- 
ably, be expected to attend from beginning to the end. It 
is the pastor's place, unless done so by higher authority, to 
select the missionaries whom he wishes to conduct the exer- 
cises of the mission, and to apply in due season to the proper 
authorities. A priest cannot expect to have missionaries sent 
at a moment's notice, hence application for missionaries ought 
to be made at least some months previous to the time and 
date it is desired to have the mission. And this application 
ought to be directed, not to the missionaries themselves, but 
to their respective superiors. It is also desirable not to have 
the same missionaries, nor even missionaries of the same Order 
or Community at each and every mission. "Varietas delectat. " 
More than this. One set or class of missionaries might 
do better at this time or place, and another might be prefer- 
able under different circumstances. The services of the 
missionaries secured, the parish priest ought, in due season, 
to apply to the bishop of the diocese for faculties needed by 
missionaries. The ordinary or usual faculties given to 
priests oftentimes prove inadequate to the work and object of 
the mission, hence more extensive faculties, more ample 
powers ought to be asked. Generally these faculties, so 
essential to the complete success of the missionary work, will 
be most cheerfully granted, but, alas ! the writer is aware of 
some instances wherein the faculty of absolving parties who 
had married out of the Church, was positively denied. How 
embarrassing to the missionary when, after having from the 
pulpit invited these poor sinners to return, he must in the 
confessional, for the lack of faculties, turn them away, — 
knowing that they will be discouraged, as is frequently the 
case, from making another attempt to be forgiven. It would 
seem to stand to reason that, if ever, parties in need of the 
benefit of special faculties will, at the time of a mission, be 
disposed to seek pardon and ready to repair the scandal 



170 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



given. Again, it is difficult to be obliged to apply for facul- 
ties for each individual case during the progress of the 
mission. And what can be done if at the very close of the 
mission such a reserved case should present itself? May it 
not even happen that the refusal of the faculty in question, 
and the necessity of application in each particular, individual 
case, will create, besides manv other inconveniences, a 
danger of violatio sigilli ! But videant consules ! Salus 
ainimae suprema lex esto ! 

The parish clergy, furthermore, ought to prepare the way 
by repeated announcement from the pulpit and otherwise, of 
the mission to be given, and by frequent allusion in their 
sermons to its necessity, importance and blessings. Much, 
indeed, depends upon this preparation of the people. The 
parish priest, likewise, ought to have an understanding with 
the missionaries concerning articles of mission goods to be 
procured previous to the mission, as well as with regard to 
everything else required for the mission. 

But above all, let it be borne in mind that the principal 
preparation for a successful mission is made by prayer; 
hence the zealous pastor will invoke, and urge the people to 
invoke, by means of daily prayer, God's blessing upon the mis- 
sion, weeks, perhaps months, previous to the day set for its 
opening. 

During the days of the mission, the parochial clergy are 
expected to be at their post of duty, for the mission is not 
the proper time of absence, vacation or leisure for the resi- 
dent clergy. More than that of any other priest, the presence 
and assistance of the pastor is required. The idea of the 
missionaries having full charge of the parish, so as to relieve 
the parochial clergy of all duty and responsibility during 
the period of the mission, surely is a mistaken one. The 
information and counsel to be derived from the clergy upon 
various matters, that are apt to come up during the progress 
of the mission, are almost indispensable to the missionaries ; 
whilst the presence and lively interest taken by the clergy 
serve to edify and encourage the people. What, on the other 
hand, would they think and say if their priests, during the 



PARISH MISSIONS. 



171 



mission, would be conspicuous by their absence or indifference. 
It goes without saying, that on the part of the mission- 
ary, parochial or visiting clergy, everything or act that is in- 
consistent with the spirit, aim and object of the mission, 
everything that savors of levity, of jealousy or turpis lucri 
must be carefully avoided. 

The sale of mission goods ought to be conducted — not by 
any of the missionaries who ought to have no hand or personal 
interest in it, save that of blessing them ; nor by the paro- 
chial clergy, but by some competent and reliable parties ap- 
pointed by the pastor. To guard against the suspicion of profit 
or the appearance of business, these articles should not be 
offered for sale at the very beginning or first days of the mis- 
sion, nor in the church, nor ought they to be too high priced. 

Besides attending to everything prescribed by the order of 
the exercises, and providing for the wants and reasonable 
comfort of the missionaries, the parochial clergy ought to re- 
lieve them of part of the burden that is not exactly their 
business when giving missions. Such work, for instance, 
would be the recital with the people of the Rosary, the giv- 
ing of the Benediction and Communion, recording the mem- 
bers enrolled in a confraternity, and especially the daily 
Missa Cantata. No reasonable pastor will ask the mission- 
ary, whose vocal organs on that occasion are taxed to their 
utmost capacity, to sing High Mass. There are good reasons 
why the pastor himself, during the mission, should give 
Holy Communion. If it happens that some one or other 
fail to attend the mission, or to approach the Sacraments, 
the pastor should leave no means unemployed to bring them 
in. His personal presence in the church or sanctuary, at the 
various exercises of the mission, is bound to impress the 
people favorably. To hear confessions during the mission is 
not expected of the parochial clergy ; but if requested, 
either by some one or another of his congregation, or by the 
missionaries, they surely ought not to refuse to lend aid in 
that direction, and as much as possible act upon the same 
principle, and in the same spirit as the missionaries. 

The co-operation of the parochial clergy, however, must 



172 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

not cease with the close of the mission, regardless of its suc- 
cess or failure. They ought to continue the good work, to 
irrigate and to mature the seed planted by the hands of the 
missionaries. With that view, they ought to treat with the 
utmost kindness and solicitude the returned prodigal son, 
never throwing up to him his former disorders. Let the 
converted sinner feel that, together with the pardon of God, 
he obtained the unreserved pardon of man. If, as will some- 
times happen, after the mission, a straggler will come to un- 
burden his conscience, let him be received with open arms. 
For weeks and even months following the mission, the 
good, zealous pastor in his discourses to his flock will refer 
to the mission preached, to the instruction received, to the 
blessings, graces and happiness obtained, to the good resolu- 
tions formed and promises made, thus to keep burning in 
the hearts of his parishioners the fire of religious fervor and 
divine love, and to lead them to perseverance by inculcating 
upon their minds the necessity of the use of the means of 
grace, of prayer of the frequent reception of the holy Sac- 
raments, — and above all, the flight from the approximate oc- 
casion of sin. To the societies or confraternities organized 
by the missionaries, to the converts gained, he must give due 
care and attention. If during the mission he discovered 
that his parishioners, in some way or other, had been disedi- 
fied by his own personal ways and actions, let him be care- 
ful to correct them. Above all, let him be extremely cau- 
tious in his remarks upon the mission and the missionaries, 
let him not exhibit the slightest trace of jealousy at praise 
bestowed by his people, and never encourage or countenance 
adverse criticism. The writer has charge of a parish where, 
some years ago, the pastor on the Sunday following the close 
of the mission, from the pulpit made an indiscreet and im- 
prudent remark, and by so doing almost entirely undid and 
spoiled the good done by the mission. To keep up the re- 
membrance of those days of grace and salvation, the people 
ought to be urgei frequently to visit the mission cross 
erected, there to meditate, to pray and to gain the indul- 
gences attached. 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



173 



And finally, let him not omit to have a renewal of the mis- 
sion, for a few days at least, if not for a whole week, the fol- 
lowing year. If these points are faithfully observed, the 
parish mission will always, by the grace of God, prove a 
source of untold blessings to individuals and to whole 
parishes. 

P. Victor, O.S.F. 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PABISH MISSIONS. 

BY A REDEMPTORIST MISSIONARY. 
I. 

THE immense benefits derived from parish missions are 
too well known to need our comment. The better 
portion of the parishioners are strengthened in their faith ; 
they learn to appreciate their religion in greater measure 
and to practice it more cheerfully ; they are put on their 
guard against dangers that threaten them at the present, or 
may rise up against them in the future. The weaker portion 
of the congregation is animated to greater fervor ; the way- 
ward are brought back ; the erring are enlightened ; the 
ignorant are instructed ; all classes of sinners are brought to 
repentance. 

NECESSITY OF MISSIONS. 

Although everybody seems to understand the great utility 
of missions being periodically introduced in the parish, but is 
there a real necessity for them? Many a pastor of souls 
believes that a mission is a good thing, and he would perhaps 
make up his mind to have one himself, but owing to some 
imaginary obstacles, he will wait for some opportune time. 
He cannot convince himself of the real necessity of a mis- 
sion, at least as far as his parish is concerned, in which he 
believes the best order to prevail. " Et haec cogitaverunt et 
erraverunt." The writer of this knows from the experience 
he has gathered in the field of American missions during a 
period of forty years, how often pastors have deceived them- 
selves in this respect. Of course, when we speak of the 



174 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

necessity of missions, we do not mean an absolute necessity, 
as though people could not be saved without them. People 
have been, are now, and no doubt will be saved, without 
having ever had a mission. But what we mean tp say is 
that many souls will not be saved without a mission. 

There is scarcely a single parish in which some people 
may not be found who habitually neglect Mass on Sunday 
and on feasts of obligation, while they could go without any 
difficulty, or, if there are some obstacles in the way, they 
could easily overcome them. Such people, if they go to 
their annual confession, manifest some kind of sorrow when 
questioned about this point, and promise to amend. And 
yet, after having attended Mass twice or three times, miss it 
again the same as before. Next year they make the same 
promises, and the same relapses follow. Nothing but a good 
mission will bring these people to a change of their perverse 
dispositions and make practical Catholics out of them. 

And what is said here in regard to missing Mass applies to 
many other sins that are habitually committed, notwithstand- 
ing all the fair promises that are made at the confessional. 
And is there not good reason to doubt the validity of these 
confessions ? — an evil that is likewise best remedied by a 
good mission. 

In every parish there is a smaller or greater number of such 
as neglect the sacraments for years, and all the eflforts of a 
zealous pastor, of a solicitous mother or wife, of relations 
and friends, all the prayers of pious souls, are unavailing to 
bring them to a reconciliation with God. Nothing but a 
well conducted mission can bring about their conversion. 
The plain but forcible exposition of the evil of sin and its 
terrible consequences on the one hand, and the reflection on 
the mercy and goodness of God on the other, made to bear 
upon them by experienced missionaries who know how to 
deal with that class of people, make an irresistible impres- 
sion upon their perverted hearts, and, like so many prodigals, 
they rise to go to their Father. 

These and similar effects of missions are seen by many, 
and they are so many proofs of their necessity. But there 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 175 

are other reasons why missions are needed. St. Leonard of 
Porto Mauritio, the famous missionary of the Franciscan 
Order, used to say that he believed that at least one-third of 
all the confessions made were bad. The experience which 
St. Vincent de Paul had in the confessional about the over- 
whelming number of sacrileges committed, gave him the 
first thought of establishing the Congregation of the Mission 
(lyazarists). St. Alphonsus Liguori had the same experience 
and to meet this great evil properly and to cure it success- 
fully in the mission, he laid down particular rules of action 
for the missionaries of his Congregation (Redemptorists). 
But there is no need of going so far back ; let all those who 
have spent a few years on the missions speak from their own 
personal experience, and they will confirm the unquestion- 
ably strong testimony. This evil exists in the best regulated 
parishes. Many an active and zealous pastor thinks it 
impossible that his parish can be infected with this plague, 
because he believes that his people place full confidence in 
him. Yet the hearts of many people are kept closed over 
the most heinous crimes, until one or two very plain instruc- 
tions have been given on this subject, and even then some 
sins are kept concealed. Missionaries usually have this sad 
experience at the customary renewal which follows a short 
time after the mission. 

Still another reason why missions are necessary is the 
general ignorance of Catholics in religious matters. Our 
people are, as a rule, well educated as far as their temporal 
interests are concerned, but in regard to religion they know • 
barely enough to be saved. The reason is obvious. There 
is not enough of religious instruction given to the young 
while at school. Even in Catholic schools and educational 
institutions there is more attention paid and more time given 
to the sciences than to religion. And what little is learned 
in the school is soon forgotten. We have quite an amount 
of reading matter in books as well as in papers and periodi- 
cals, by which the defect of religious education might in 
some measure be supplied. But the very people that should 
read them never look at them. There are also many good 



176 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

and instructive sermons preached from Sunday to Sunday in 
many churches both in the cities and in the country, but 
how many are those that hear a sermon ? The five minutes' 
sermon prescribed by the late Plenary Council should make 
up for this defect. Often however, it amounts to no more 
than a protracted announcement about some church affair, or 
a collection. The mission is badly needed to give at least 
the most necessary religious knowledge to the people. How 
many hundreds of Catholics have not been heard saying 
after attending a mission : " Were it not for this mission I 
would never have known my religion ! ' ' 

There is much ignorance prevailing among our Catholics 
in regard to the precepts of the Church, the law of fast, the 
law of annual confession and Easter Communion, the neces- 
sity of the sacraments and the way to receive them, — but 
particularly with regard to the Sacrament of Matrimony, the 
laws of the Church in reference to the most ordinary impedi- 
ments to matrimony, the way of contracting marriage and 
the preparation thereto, — not to speak of the most shocking 
abuses practised in married life, now so common even among 
Catholics. 

Indifferentism in religious matters is growing daily and 
fixing itself in the hearts of our people. The incessant 
eflforts of the world and the devil are unfortunately but too 
successful in plunging many into the abyss of infidelity. 
The mission is a most efficient means in the hands of Divine 
Providence to keep many back from pursuing the broad way 
opening before them, and to rescue others from utter perdi- 
tion. The plain, yet powerful preaching of the eternal 
truths revives the faith, strengthens it and raises the soul to 
higher aspirations. 

There are yet other reasons why missions are necessary in 
certain parishes, which we must here pass over in silence. 

Missions may be called a special institution of the Church 
for the reformation of tliie people. What retreats are to the 
clergy and to religious communities, that missions are for the 
people. Many religious orders have made missions part of 
their special occupation, such as the Order of St. Francis, 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



177 



the Order of St. Dominic and the Society of Jesus ; other 
religious congregations have been instituted to pursue the 
work of the missions as the only object of their vocation, 
such as the Institutes of St. Vincent de Paul, St. Paul of the 
Cross, and of St. Alphonsus Liguori. The work of these 
Religious Orders has received the most hearty approbation of 
♦ the Church. Several Popes of this and the last century, 
have bestowed the highest encomiums upon the work of par- 
ish missions, and have enriched them with many indulgences 
to make them more attractive. Among others let us hear 
Benedict XIV : — "Diuturna experientia edocti perspeximus, 
ad improbos mores corrigendos, qui vel serpere incipiunt, vel 
nimis jam invalescunt, vel tandem diuturnitate confirmati 
dioceses latins occuparunt, nihil magis conferre, quam 
alienam opem ac vires implorare, videlicet Sacras Missiones 
ubique indicere. — Quo circa neque novum neque incertum 
dici potest hoc remedium, quod populi corruptelis corrigendis 
proponitur. Antiquum illud est, malis curandis aptissimum 
et fortasse unicum, quod tot episcopi pietatis gloria insignes 
magna cum utilitate in diocesibus adhibuerunt. " Bulla 
" Gravissimum " 8 Sept. 1745. 

Pius VI condemned those who call missions an empty 
noise without effect. " Propositio enuntians, irregularem 
strepitum novarum institutionum quae dicta sunt exercitia 
vel missiones . . . forte nunquam aut saltem perraro eo 
pertingere, ut absolutam conversionem operentur ; et ex- 
teriores illos commotionis actus, qui apparuere, nil aliud 
fuisse quam transeuntia naturalis concussionis fulgura ; — 
temeraria, male sonans, perniciosa, mori pie ac salutariter 
per Ecclesiam frequentato et in verbo Dei fundatoinjuriosa." 
— Auct. fid. prop. 15. 

Pius IX of blessed memory, speaks in the same sense i 
" Sacrae missiones, ubi operariis idoneis commissae fuerint, 
valde utiles benedicente Domino esse constat, tum fovendae 
bonorum pietati, tum peccatoribus, et longo etiam vitiorum 
habitu depravatis hominibus, ad salutarem poenitentiam 
excitandis." — Enc. 8 Dec. 1849. 

The action of the bishops of the entire Catholic world in 



178 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

reference to parish missions has always corresponded with 
the sentiments pronounced by the Holy See. Our own 
bishops assembled in the Second Plenary Council have well 
understood the necessity and utility of missions, and, there- 
fore, have laid down special regulations with regard to them . 
A decree of that Council says : "Si vero unquam pastorem 
aliquem hac in re suo oflBcio deesse contigerit, ab episcopo 
cogendus erit ad missionarios accersendos ; quod si non 
fecerit, ipse episcopus eos mittat." — Cone. PI. II n. 473. 

The work of the missions may be called the extraordinary 
ministry of the Church instituted to aid the ordinary min- 
istry, to save those whom the ordinary ministry cannot reach 
any more, but about whom our most tender mother the 
Church is most solicitous. She is filled with greater anxiety 
about her erring children than even about the conversion of 
the heathen, because bad Catholics are a disgrace to her, and 
their sins and vices are more ofiensive to God than the crimes 
of heathen nations. ' ' Melius enim erat illis non cognoscere 
viam justitiae, quam post agnitionem retrorsum converti ab 
eo, quod illis traditum est sancto mandato." — II Pet. 2, 27. 

Priests who are called to this extraordinary ministry need 
to be particularly trained for it. Their entire education, or 
at least their last studies, are directed toward this object, we 
might say, exclusively, the same as it is with regard to 
young clerics who are preparing for the foreign missions. 

WHAT IS REQUIRED TO MAKE A MISSION SUCCESSFUL. 

Are missions generally successful? Far from it. Most 
missions do a certain amount of good, some more, some less, 
but that does not yet make them successful missions. 

What is a successful mission ? It is that from which the 
parishioners derive a sufficient knowledge of the doctrines 
which they must believe as well as of the Christian duties 
which they must fulfil ; at which all, except perhaps a few 
renegades, receive the Sacraments worthily, with a full 
determination to live as practical Catholics for the future, 
and keep the same for at least some years. After that another 
mission is needed to repair the evil that in the meanwhile 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 179 

may have crept in, and to renew the spirit of zeal for good, 
which by that time has become languid. The success of the 
mission is, therefore, not to be estimated by the collections 
taken up during the time or at the close of the exercises, nor 
by the fulsome reports in the newspapers praising the g^and 
and eloquent discourses of the missionaries, nor even by the 
number of converts made at the mission. For it happens 
but too often, that converts gained during the mission fall 
away from the Church as fast as they were taken in, because 
they are not sufficiently instructed in the faith, nor have they 
had opportunity to consider maturely the duties to be fulfilled 
by a member of the Church, before they were admitted into 
its fold. 

To make a mission successful, three essential conditions 
are required from the start. If one is wanting the mission 
cannot but be a failure. Taking for granted that God will 
give extraordinary grace where human effort combines for 
the salvation of souls, we require : i. Extraordinary efforts 
on the part of the missionaries. 2. Extra work on the part 
of the pastor and of his assistants. 3. Faithful co-operation 
on the part of the people. 

A mission is a season of extraordinary grace for the parish. 
Everything in connection with it must be extraordinary, — 
the preparation, the exercises, the preachers, the discourses, 
the attendance of the people, the work in the confessional 
and all the various ceremonies performed during the mission. 
Then the result will not fail to be an extraordinary effect. 

We need not consider in detail the part that depends on 
God. God most willingly gives extraordinary grace to the 
mission, provided fervent prayers are offered for that purpose 
before and during the mission, because no grace without 
prayer. It remains for us to consider the part the missionaries 
have to perform, the work the pastor has to do, and what is 
to be done to secure a regular attendance of the people. 

THE MISSIONARIES. 

To achieve some extraordinary result, God sends out extra- 
ordinary messengers who, in this case, are the missionaries. 



I 



l8o AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

A missionary must in every respect be a man of God. If he 
is this, then no special eflforts on his part are needed to pro- 
duce a favorable impression, wherever he is seen or whatever 
work he performs, in the pastor's residence, in the sacristy, 
in the pulpit, in the confessional, in the parlor, at the bed- 
side of the sick. The people will at once give him their 
confidence, will listen to his word as directly coming from 
heaven, and will most eagerly look for the occasion to dis- 
close to him the secrets of their hearts in the confessional. 
And the blessing of God will add still more to this good 
feeling that has sprung up so suddenly. Everything is ready 
for the missionary's work. Let him only take good care 
lest he spoil it by faults of his own. Let him be on his 
guard against impulsiveness in his sermons and instructions, 
in giving out his notices, in his occasional remarks, in his 
way of speaking in the confessional. He should be kind 
toward all, and manifest his love for God and his zeal for 
the salvation of souls at all times in spite of temptations, 
difficulties, obstacles and provocations. Thus he will appear 
among the people as a true messenger from God. 

Endowed with these happy dispositions the missionaries 
begin their work by doing their utmost to secure a regular 
attendance of the people. Therefore, a" good opening dis- 
course that embodies the importance and necessity of missions 
together with the method of making it well, is the first in 
order. But, as it is most frequently the case that only a 
minority of the parishioners attend the late Mass on Sun- 
days, announcements to that effect have to be made in a few 
well chosen words at all the Masses. This should be done 
by one of the missionaries, who are more experienced in this 
matter, so that the attention of the people will be aroused 
effectually. It has been said that the missionaries should 
not put in their appearance before the regular opening of the 
mission. All very good, but then the object, which is the 
invitation of the people to the mission, is not fully attained. 

After the introduction follows the regular course of the 
mission, — discourses for which the missionaries are supposed 
to be well prepared. These discourses will h^ve to be ar- 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. i8l 

ranged and modified, in respect of both the subjects and their 
application, to the various needs of particular congregations. 
The general object to be attained is the instruction of the 
mind and the movement of the will. Both must go hand in 
hand, although we may aim sometimes more directly to 
reach the intelligence, whilst at other times we make greater 
efforts to reach the heart. 

II. , 

NECESSITY OF INSTRUCTION AT MISSIONS. 

The people in general are sadly in need of religious in- 
struction, not excepting even the so-called "educated class." 
The instructions first in order are those needed for the 
worthy reception of the sacraments during the mission, in 
particular of the Sacrament of Penance and of the Blessed 
Eucharist. These must be given from the very outset of 
the exercises to prevent sacrilege during the mission. As 
soon as the people are supposed to be sufficiently impressed 
with the necessity of saving their souls and the disastrous 
evil of mortal sin, they should be well instructed in the 
proper way of making a good confession. They should 
clearly understand the essential parts of the Sacrament of 
Penance and how to perform them, as also the great remedy 
for sacrilegious confessions in the past, — general confes- 
sion, — by whom and how to be made. Nor should be omit- 
ted the main obstacles against a reconciliation with God, as 
enmity, the retention of ill-gotten goods, and the proximate 
occasion of sin, Next in order come the Blessed Eucharist, 
the Mass and Holy Communion. It may sound strange to 
say, yet it is true that many of our people do not realize 
what they receive in Holy Communion ; as to thanksgiving 
after Communion, there are very few who make any. No 
wonder that the sacraments produce no fruit. 

After this, instructions must be given in regard to all the 
Commandments of God and the Precepts of the Church, 
although not necessarily in the regular order of the cate- 
chism. As far a5 the missionaries are concerned, they must 



l82 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW^ 

do all they can to infuse into the minds of the people a suf- 
ficient knowledge of their religious duties. If it is found that 
a good number of the parishioners are rather ignorant in re- 
gard to matters of faith, the evil must be remedied by one 
or the other dogmatical sermon, which should hardly ever 
assume the character of a controversial, and never of a pol- 
emical discourse. The missionary comes to instruct 
Catholics, not to fight Protestants. If any of the latter class 
are present, they are gained much more easily by some solid, 
clear and plain instruction, given in a fervent apostolic man- 
ner, than by controversy. It is perhaps advisable never to 
use the word " Protestant." And yet at such missions, as 
experience shows, many Protestants are converted, or receive 
the first impulse to their conversion. 

But more important than all this are instructions for the 
different states of life on their special duties, which should 
never be omitted at any mission, even should it have to be 
done at the sacrifice of the ordinary evening sermon. There 
exists an apparent prejudice in certain quarters against these 
particular discourses. It cannot be denied that by the im- 
prudent utterances on subjects in themselves of a delicate 
nature, harm rather than good may be done. This happens 
when the missionary forgets his character as an apostolic 
man, when he is not sufficiently prepared, when he is not 
careful in his expressions, when he goes into details regard- 
ing matters that should *' not so much as be named among 
Christians," when he says the most serious things more by 
way of a joke than in the dignified way of a messenger from 
heaven, etc. Such missionaries should never be allowed to 
give these instructions, if they are not to be considered 
altogether unfit for the position of a missionary. 

" But would it not be better to leave the people in their 
blissful ignorance ?" Ignorance ! Would to God it were no 
more than ignorance, — and if it is, then in most cases it is a 
culpable ignorance, — ignorance about matters which man 
must know to save his soul. No ! Everybody is obliged to 
know what he is to do in his particular position or state of 
life. Besides, very much depends on the knowledge and the 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



183 



fullfillment of these particular duties with regard to human 
society in general and for the Church and the State in par- 
ticular. It may be laid down as the great maxim of our 
times : . Save the family and you save the world. But to 
save the family or to put it on a Christian basis, it is neces- 
sary to bring the diflferent members of the family to an exact 
observance of their duties ; the parents, to have a higher re- 
gard for the position they hold from God, the purity of life 
they should cultivate, the responsibility for their offspring 
of which they should be mindful. Children should be 
taught the respect, love and obedience which they owe to 
their parents, how they are to shun the numerous dangers 
that surround them, and in what manner they should pre- 
pare for their future state of life. Everybody knows how 
much depends on good training of youth. One of the most 
recent acts of Pope Leo XIII is directed toward the eleva- 
tion of the Christian family, and in this he has given the 
keynote to the concerted action of the hierarchy and the 
pastoral clergy throughout the world for social regeneration. 
Missionaries must take a most prominent part in this great 
movement of our days. 

The limited space of this article does not permit a further 
dilucidation of the various topics to be treated in these par- 
ticular instructions. For the present we leave this point to 
the discretion of experienced missionaries. 

THE MOVEMENT AND ELEVATION OF THE WILL TO A CHANGE 

OF LIFE. 

To effect a change of heart, to raise the soul from the mire 
of sin, to fill it with compunction, to detach it from earth 
and fill it with a desire of heaven and life everlasting — this 
is the very essence of a good mission. The clear and fear- 
less exposition of the so-called Eternal Truths, the deep reflec- 
tion made on them by the people, the powerful influence of 
God's extraordinary grace added to this, will make a lasting 
impression. These truths are deeply buried in the soul of 
every man. All believe them in some way, even infidels, no 
matter how much they have tried to secure themselves in 



l84 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

their unbelief. But, for many causes they are lost sight of. 
Ivike precious stones buried under a heap of rubbish, these 
eternal truths seem to be forgotten, consequently disregarded 
by most men, and hence arise the disorders of their lives. It 
is the very object of the mission to clear away the rubbish 
from men's souls and to show up to them these truths as they 
are, presenting them to the people without the cover of high- 
sounding sentences, or in the pomp of oratorical display. 
The eflfect is marvelous. ' ' Videbunt et timebunt et spera- 
bunt in Domino. " Ps. xxxix, 4. After listening two or three 
times to the plain and forcible exposition of one or the other 
of these truths, the people begin to open their eyes, they 
' ' see ' ' what they seemed not to have seen before — they fear 
Gk)d's judgments, the "beginning of Wisdom;" — and seeing 
also the goodness and meicy of God, they put their confi- 
dence in Him, begin to love Him; and after having received 
pardon, they are determined to serve Him faithfully in the 
future. 

The missionaries must necessarily be well prepared for 
these sermons, paying more attention to sound matter, strict 
logical order, and persuasive, even forcible delivery, than 
style of language. Their eloquence will find ample occasion 
of displaying itself, when, after having made plain their 
doctrine, they begin the attack upon the will of their audi- 
ence to make it surrender to the grace of God. 

THE MISSIONARY IN THE CONFESSIONAL. 

The first fruits of the mission are reaped in the confes- 
sional. It is there the real conversion takes place. And 
who should reap the fruit but the one who has sown the seed 
— the missionary. All the confessions should be heard by the 
missionaries^ for the following reasons : 

, I. The missionaries have taken upon themselves the obli- 
gation of giving a good mission to the entire parish. But, 
the principal work of the mission is that all the parishioners 
make a good confession ; therefore, the missionaries must 
take upon themselves the confessions of all the parishioners. 
They have no obligation to hear people from other parishes. 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 185 

nor should they allow them to come, so as not td unneces- 
sarily crowd their confessionals and thus make it more diffi- 
cult for the parishioners to approach them. 

2. By the very fact that by their sermons they have moved 
the people to repentance and have enlightened them with 
more religious knowledge, they have gained their confidence. 
The people feel attracted by them, and it is to them they 
desire to go to unburden their consciences. This more than 
ordinary confidence of the people in the missionaries is from 
God, and God uses it as a most effectual means for their 
reconciliation. Therefore, every facility ought to be offered 
to the people for approaching the missionaries for confession. 

3. Missionaries, by their constant employment on the 
missions, as well as by their special instructions from home, 
are better adapted to deal with such complicated c£ises as 
generally turn up on the missions ; they know bettet how to 
take souls steeped in vice and sacrilege, and to supply the 
wants of those who coming only half disposed, are still 
afraid to tell their sins, and most unwilling to abandon sin 
and the proximate occasion thereof; they understand better 
how to enter into the most secret recesses of the heart in 
which sin is kept hidden, or where the devil lurks concealed. 
Confessors not devoted to this special work, often lack the 
necessary patience, if not the requisite knowledge, to do this 
most arduous task in such a way as to leave no doubt of its 
being thoroughly accomplished. 

4. The casual confessors often called to aid the mission- 
aries frequently lack the time to enter thoroughly into the 
condition of the penitent at a mission. They are generally 
priests from other parishes, and as such have other duties to 
attend to ; or they are unaccustomed to long and protracted 
sittings in the confessional, consequently they shorten the 
confessions as much as their conscience will allow, and often 
more than their conscience warrants — they do not give the 
penitents sufficient time to speak, silence them as over- 
scrupulous or talkative, just when they ought to be allowed 
to speak ; they are averse to the idea of hearing general 
confessions, will not allow them even in cases when they are 



l86 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

absolutely necessary, because in their hurry they do not per- 
ceive that necessity. What, then, is gained by such confes- 
sions? — And, consequently, of what good is the mission 
at all ? 

5. It is most important on the missions that all the confes- 
sors follow the same line of action. But, it is simply 
impossible to obtain this from a variety of confessors. The 
people discover a diflference of direction very soon, and they 
can hardly understand it. It causes talk, criticism, dissatis- 
faction, etc. The missionaries are, as a rule. Religious, men 
of one school and consequently of one line of action. If 
they alone occupy the confessionals, everything works 
smoothly. 

HOW MUST CONFESSIONS BE HEARD AT THE MISSIONS ? 

The duties of a confessor at a mission widely diflfer from those 
of a confessor at ordinary times. The missionary in the con- 
fessional must attend to the past, the present and the future 
of his penitent. With reference to the past, it must be seen 
whether or not a general confession is needed to bring this 
soul to the road of perfection. Therefore, the confessor 
must inquire about the past life of the penitent, although 
the latter may say nothing about it. Many are so ignorant 
that, notwithstanding the instructions g^ven at the mission, 
they do not know how to approach the confessor about their 
past lives, others are overcome by fright, while others will 
allow shame to predominate over them, even at the mission, 
and they will say nothing about the past unless they are asked. 

In regard to the present some penitents badly need instruc- 
tion and there may be no other opportunity of giving it to 
them. ' To this class belong grown people who never went 
to Holy Communion and who could be allowed to receive it 
after having received a short instruction from the confessor. 
Married people should be questioned in regard to abuses in 
married life, especially when there is good reason to suspect 
their guilt in this matter (and where is it not ?) A consid- 
erable number of married people pretend to be ignorant of 
the sinfulness of onanism and abortion, an evil which is 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 187 

assuming^ greater dimensions from year to year, even in our 
country, according to the testimony of many eminent physi- 
cians and priests. If asked in a general way, they will often 
deny that they are guilty of any abuse in this line. Such 
people need instruction in this matter and must be made to 
promise to keep the law of God and nature in this regard in 
the future, even under the penalty of being sent away with- 
out absolution. For this we have a late decision of the 
Sacred Poenitentiary, which we quote. 

I. Quando adest fundata suspicio, poenitentem qui de onanismo omnino 
silet, huic crimini esse addictum, num confessario liceat a prudenti et dis- 
creta interrogatione abstinere, eo quod praevideat plures ex bona fide 
exturbandos, multosque sacramenta deserturos esse? — An potius teneatur 
confessarius prudenter et discrete interrogare ? 

II. An Confessarius qui, sive ex spontanea confessione sive ex- prudenti 
interrogatione, cognoscit, poenitentem esse onanistam, teneatur ilium de 
hujus peccati gravitate, aeque ac de aliorum peccatorum mortalium monere 
eumque (ut ait Rituale Romanum) patema charitate reprehendere eique 
absolutionem tunc solum impertiri, cum sufficientibus signis constet, eumdem 
dolere de praeterito et habere propositum non amplius onanistice agendi ? 

Sacra Poenitentiaria attento vitium infandum de quo in casu late invaluisse 
ad proposita dubia respondendum censuit, prout respondet : • 
Ad I. Regulariter negative ad primam partem ; affirmative ad secundam. 
Ad II. Affirmative 'y\aX& doctrinas probatorum auctorum. 
Datum Romae in S. Poenit. die 10. Mart. 1886. 

Card. Monaco, Poenit. Maj. 

Hipp. Can. Pai,ombi, 5. P. Seer. 

After that the confessor must look to and provide for the 
future of the penitent ; and here are three things to be 
observed : (i) that the penitent will keep out of the proxi- 
mate occasion of sin, (2) that he will fortify himself regularly 
with the sacraments, and (3) that he practice ejaculatory 
prayer in temptation. 

If all the confessions are heard in this manner, then there 
is every reason to hope that the entire parish, being now 
truly reconciled to God, will persevere in God's holy service 
for a considerable time. 

There is no need of causing the people to return to confes- 
sion a second time. As a general thing, there is no time for 
this. All should receive absolution after their first confes- 



l88 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

sion, but be free to return again if their conscience is not 
entirely at rest. It is useless to say that they should settle 
their remaining scruples with their own confessors. These 
scruples, if they are not perhaps more than that, are often of 
such a nature as were the sins they concealed before, and be- 
ing yet too weak, they would rather make sacrilegious con- 
fessions again, than disclose their trouble to their own 
confessor. Long experience proves it. 

I PERSEVERANCE. 

Conversion and perseverance is the great two-fold object of 
the mission. After everything has been done for the individual 
parishioners in the confessional to secure their perseverance, 
the missionaries are to give this subject special attention in 
some sermons and instructions, to be preached toward the end 
of the mission. Among these deserve special mention the ser- 
mon on the absolute necessity of prayer, on the frequentation 
of the sacraments, and on shunning the proximate occasion 
of sin. Without these three means, salvation becomes simply 
impossible. But, to help carrying them into eflfect, the most 
powerful assistance of the Blessed Virgin Mary is to be ob- 
tained. For this reason, after a clear and popular discourse 
on the patronage of the Mother of God, the whole congrega- 
tion should be dedicated to her service. 

Ordinarily, this will suffice. It is well, however, to es- 
tablish or promote some special means, particularly for the 
younger generation, to better secure their perseverance. 
Hence, the introduction of the Sodality of the Blessed Vir- 
gin, or of some other confraternity, such as that of the Holy 
Family, so strongly recommended by Leo XIII, should en- 
gage the attention of the missionaries. However, to render 
such pious institutions fruitful it becomes indispensably 
necessary that they be placed in charge of some priest who 
is both able and willing to give to them his constant care and 
attention ; otherwise they will soon come to naught, and 
what was at first a very pious undertaking is turned into a 
ridiculous farce. 

In certain localities temperance and total abstinence so- 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 189 

cieties must be introduced under the same conditions. But, 
it is never advisable to pledge the whole congregation, be- 
cause some, perhaps many will not keep it, and not having 
kept it, they may stay from the sacraments. The zeal of 
missionaries who exact this pledge is certainly very praise- 
worthy, but may it not be asked : What right have the mis- 
sionaries to demand from the people of an entire parish that 
to which no law, either divine or human, obliges them? 
There are other and more effectual means to check the de- 
mon of intemperance, instituted by the lyord Himself. 

DUTIES OF PASTORS AND THEIR ASSISTANTS IN REGARD 
TO THE MISSION. 

To give the work of the missionaries more effect, the pas- 
tor and his assistants should co-operate with them wherever 
they can, and perform well especially that part of the mission 
which directly devolves on them. Much, very much is to be 
done by the parish clergy before, during and after the mission. 

I. Before the mission. About a month before the mis- 
sion the people are to receive due notice of it. The mission 
must be emphatically announced three or four Sundays be- 
fore it begins, and the good will of the people ought to be 
aroused in advance in expectation of the extraordinary sea- 
son of grace prepared for them. A sermon or two, together 
with the morning exhortations given at the early Masses on 
Sundays, on the goodness of God soon to be manifested to- 
ward the parish, as well as on the abuse of God's grace, es- 
pecially at the mission, will not fail to prepare the people 
well. It is a very good practice to have printed notices dis- 
tributed throughout the parish, stating the day and hour of 
the opening of the mission, the hours of the daily exercises, 
and the time for the men and women accordingly as it is ar- 
ranged. A word of encouragement, together with an appro- 
priate text from Holy Scripture, should find a prominent 
place on this paper. It may also be published in general by 
what class of missionaries the exercises are to be conducted ; 
but no names of individuals should be given, because the 



190 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



very name of the missionary, his nationality, perhaps some 
personal prejudice against him, against the Order of which 
he is a member, may keep some from attending the mission. 
For the same reason it is inadvisable to publish in advance 
the subjects of the discourses, or who is to preach on such or 
such a day. Such things do more harm than good. The 
devil hates missions — and when he cannot prevent them, he 
does all he can to keep the people away ; and if a pin's 
head will serve his purpose he will make use of it. By no 
means should the time be published^ how long the mission will 
last^ because some who need the mission most, particularly 
the sermons of the first few days, will take this for an excuse 
and begin to come only toward the end. *' Experto crede." 

Besides this, the pastor and his assistants should organize 
among themselves a general visitation through the parish, 
find out the most careless members, and give them a cordial 
invitation to attend the mission. Such visits, made at such 
a time, produce an immense deal of good. The sight of the 
pastor, looking after his wayward sheep, a few kind words 
from him, an aflfectionate shaking of hands, do not fail to 
favorably impress the most hardened hearts. 

Another most important preparation .for the mission con- 
sists in arranging for a sufficient number of missionaries to 
do the immense work required, and for sufficient time to do 
it well. We have seen what work is to be effected in the 
pulpit and in the confessional. The pastor should inform 
the superior of the mission-house as approximately as he can 
do it^ how many families belong to his parish., or what the 
number of communicants may be., and then leave him to de- 
termine the number of missionaries and the time the mission 
is to last. Superiors generally know how many men they 
must send and how many days they must work, to make the 
mission a real success. If they find opposition in this point 
on the part of the pastors, they cannot guarantee a fruitful 
mission. We shall give an answer below to the objections 
made against missions on this head. 

2. During the mission. After the pastor has thus pre- 
pared his people for the mission, he, on the opening day in- 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



191 



troduces to them the missionaries as so many messengers 
from God, and he hands over to them, for the few days to 
come, the entire care and management of his parish. In 
making this introduction he follows the customs of the mis- 
sionaries on such occasions. Then he retires, so to speak, 
from his place on the stage, only to work so much the more 
behind the scenes. He acts like the captain of a vessel, who 
leaves the whole management of the ship to the pilot, until 
the latter has steered it through the harbor in safety. 

The pastor should particularly abstain from interfering 
with the missionaries in regard to the management of the 
mission. The missionaries have a continuous experience in 
this work ; they have their time-honored traditions and cus- 
toms, their rules, their special education in this branch of 
the sacred ministry, and a special grace from Heaven besides. 
They know what sermons and instructions are needed, what 
is to be said, when, how, and how much ; what ceremonies 
are to be performed etc. All that the pastor should do is to 
inform the missionaries of the peculiar vices, abuses, dangers, 
etc., prevalent in the parish, then leave it to them to employ 
whatever remedies they see best adapted for the cure of the 
evil. ♦ 

The assistants of the pastor should not go on vacation 
during the mission, but help wherever they can to promote 
the success of the mission. They, as well as the pastor him- 
self, are to inquire whether the wayward sinners whom they 
met before the mission, are attending the exercises, and, if 
not, visit them again to remind them of their promise. 

They should be willing to take from the hands of the 
missionaries the instruction of certain grown-up people, that 
need some special attention, such as have not yet made their 
First Communion, or have grown up in total ignorance of 
their religion : they are to take charge of converts who wish 
to join the Church, or at least desire to know more about the 
Catholic Church with a view of adopting the faith if they 
can be convinced of its divine origin. The parish clergy 
should take upon themselves the late Mass on Sundays as 
well as on week-days, give Benediction, and distribute Holy 



192 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Communion whenever it is necessary. In doing so they save 
a great deal of time for the missionaries, which these badly 
need for the confessional. 

3. After the mission. If the powers of darkness could 
not prevent the mission, nor the people from attending it, 
they shall surely use every artifice to destroy the effects of it. 
But the vigilance and the solicitude of the parish clergy may 
prevent this, at least to a great extent, if not altogether. For 
this purpose the pastor should give his attention to the fol- 
lowing points : 

At least one sermon should be preached on the efforts the 
powers of hell will make to gain back what they have lost 
during the mission. Our Lord Himself speaks of this — 
Luke c. xi. In this connection the means to be adopted 
should be explained. It is well to warn against a relapse, 
but the relapsed must not be discouraged. The temptation 
to give up all attempt toward a pure life after the first 
relapse, is most common. And many of those converted at 
the mission will fall again, especially if they had contracted 
sinful habits in which they had indulged for years. The 
mission has changed their will but not their nature. " The 
spirit is indeed willing but the flesh is weak." — Matt. xxvi. 

The people should be exhorted and encouraged to frequent 
the sacraments at least every three months, young people 
oftener ; and every facility should be offered to the men for 
approaching the confessionals at a time when they are free 
from their work. Without the sacraments the souls of the 
people will die from spiritual starvation, the same as their 
bodies would die if left without food for a considerable time. 
This is the most important point to be attended to after the 
mission. Another general visitation should be made through 
the parish, at least within a year, to see whether all comply 
with this duty. 

Our men, both married and single, need some special care. 
An idea is suggested here which has never yet been carried 
out in practice, and which would nevertheless greatly pro- 
mote perseverance after the mission among the men of the 
parish. Once every three months the married men ought to 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



193 



be called together — and very soon after, the unmarried men — 
to give them what might be styled a " Quarterly Conference," 
consisting of a well prepared and a well digested familiar 
discourse on some of their particular duties with special 
reference to the exigencies of the present day. This occasion 
could be made use of to exhort them to approach the sacra- 
ments again on the Sunday following, having for this pur- 
pose a sort of two General Communions, one for the married, 
another for the single men ; but not together, because the 
young do not as a rule like to be merged in a crowd of older 
men. 

If some confraternity or religious society was established 
or newly organized at the mission, let that be well attended 
to, especially with regard to the frequentation of the sacra- 
ments. Still, this must not be considered as carrying out the 
object mentioned in the foregoing point, because it affects 
only a certain portion of the congregation, that is, those who 
belong to some pious union. 

As it is the practice of most missionaries to have a ' ' Re- 
newal of the Mission," let the pastor order it by all means 
and make his arrangements for it very soon after the mission. 
The Renewal confirms the good effects of the mission and 
makes them lasting — it prevents the relapse of many into 
their former evil habits — it raises again and encourages those 
that have relapsed already — and it brings in those that have 
neglected the mission. But, if the Renezval as such, is to do 
any good, it should be given at a time when the mission is 
yet fresh in the minds of the people^ and, therefore, should 
take place at least within nine months after the mission. If 
later, it is no more a Renewal, nor can it be treated as such, 
but it is to be a new mission, and that would come too soon. 
Missions given too frequently, generally do more harm than 
good. 

OBJECTIONS AGAINST MISSIONS. 

In conclusion let us review some of the ordinary objections 
made against missions. Some of these are expressed openly, 
while others are kept concealed in the minds of the pastors ; 



194 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

but they are well known even without having recourse to 
the art of " mind reading." 

"In my parish everything is in the best order." — You 
deserve praise, my dear pastor, for the high opinion you have 
of your people, and, no doubt, you have worked well ^for 
them, but you see only the surface of the hearts of your 
people without knowing or even suspecting what is concealed 
underneath. 

" But my people have great confidence in me." — True ; and 
just because many of them not wishing to destroy that good 
opinion they know you have of them, will not tell you all 
that burdens their souls. 

" I ask all that is needed of my penitents. " — Did you "dig 
in the wall" — "pass in through the inner door " — of their 
consciences? — If you. did, you might have beheld "every 
form of creeping things and of living creatures " (Ez. viii.) 
But these "walls and inner doors" have generally to be 
burst open first by the extraordinary grace of the mission and 
by the vivid reflection on the Eternal Truths, before any one 
can look through. 

" Missions lessen the authority of the pastor. The mis- 
sionaries gain the entire confidence of the people — the pastor 
is nothing." — Not so. The people generally feel very grate- 
ful toward the pastor for procuring the mission for them. 
That the people show an extraordinary confidence in the 
missionaries, is essentially necessary for the good success of 
the mission. God wants it so. Or, does the pastor perhaps, 
wish the people to have no or but little confidence in the men 
whom he has called to his aid ? 

" Is it not an indirect acknowledgment of the pastor that 
he has not performed his duty toward his people or that he 
is unable to do so ? " — On the contrary, he shows that he does 
his duty by calling the mission to his parish, and if he would 
not, his bishop would have a right to call him to order for 
neglecting his duty. The best and most zealous pastors are 
the first to call for the mission. 

" Missions do no good. I have had a mission ; it effected 
no change for the better. I have .heard the same of other 



THE GOOD EFFECTS OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



195 



missions." — A vast amount of good effected by the mission is 
never seen until judgment day. But, supposing this to be 
so, then, let it be asked : were those missions such as are 
described in this article? And, if they were not, whose 
fault was it ? Was there sufficient time given to the mission- 
aries to preach what was necessary — to hear the confessions 
as they should have been heard ? Or, was the whole work 
rather to be finished within a very limited time ? A good 
mission in a good sized parish should last ten days, and if 
the sexes are separated, ten days should be allowed for each 
sex. Are not pastors generally opposed to the idea of having 
a mission take more than a week's time? And then they 
want no more than two or three missionaries for a work that 
requires four and five. To whom is the failure of such mis- 
sions to be attributed ? — Did the pastor sufficiently prepare 
his people for the mission ? Did he try to perpetuate the 
good effects of the mission by doing his duty after it»? I<et 
these questions be fairly answered, then we may be able to 
account for the partial or total failure of some missions. 

" Missions are too expensive." This may be so, but they 
are expensive neither to the church nor to the pastor. The 
collections taken up during the mission, and especially at 
the end, together with what accrues from the sale of the 
articles of devotion, more than cover the expenses incurred 
by the pastor and of the donation given to the missionaries. 
And these are all the expenses which need and should be 
made. There is no necessity for grand dinners, costly wines, 
and other extravagant delicacies during the mission. The 
writer of this article has taken a part in five hundred and 
forty-seven missions, and among these he does not remem- 
ber a single one the income of which did not more than 
cover the ordinary expenses without any particular effort be- 
ing made to raise money for this purpose. It may happen 
indeed that some pastors can not raise a certain sum of money 
from the mission, which they expected for some otheir pious 
purposes not connected with the mission. But, missions are 
not given for such an object. 

Let this suffice for the furtherance of the great work car- 



196 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

ried on in the Church of God by her extraordinary ministry — 
the missions. Thanks to the great mercy of God, many 
missions are given throughout the width and the length of 
the country, and many more should be given, and many 
more missionaries are needed for this salutary work. But, a 
great many of our missions are not yet what they ought to 
be, and consequently do not effect the amount of good in- 
tended by the Church. The object of this article is to draw 
the attention of both pastors and missionaries to some of the 
defects of our missions which could easily be remedied. 
May this be done for the greater glory of God and the salva- 
tion of so many more souls. 

Joseph Wissel, C.SS.R. 

Mission House of the Redemptorist Fathers, Saratoga^ N. Y. 



w 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR PARISHES. 

BY A PASSIONIST FATHER. 
I. 

ITH a rapidly increasing population and a correspond- 
ing increase of clergy, both regular and secular, the 
holding of missions in parishes has become a very noted 
element in the moral and religious world, and deserves more 
than a mere passing notice. Already the demand upon 
missionary priests is far greater than the supply, owing, no 
doubt, to the remarkable influence which these missions 
have upon the bulk of our people. No one who has listened 
to the hurried step or dull patter of a thousand feet or more 
hastening toward the dimly lighted church — long before the 
dawn of day, or watched the surging crowd that issues lorth 
at night, and the constant stream going and coming from the 
same holy place all day long, can fail to recognize the won- 
derful influence which a mission has upon the people. The 
determined countenance, the humble attitude and heroic 
patience of the many gathered at all times around the con- 
fessional during these days of graces, and the piety of those 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR PARISHES. 



197 



who throng the Communion table, all testify to the 
immediate benefits that a mission brings to a parish. In 
fact, to gain an adequate idea of the influence and benefits 
of missions, would be to speak the history of real Christian 
civilization viewed in its highest form and under the most 
favorable auspices. 

The men whose special vocation has destined them to 
labors of this kind and who are called " Missionary Fathers," 
can lay no greater claim to power as priests than that of 
God's regularly appointed ministers — such as the parochial 
clergy. Yet in point of fact they do possess a power greater 
in word and in work^ and this seems to be the combined 
result of given conditions on the part of the people requiring 
a mission and of certain qualifications on the part of the 
missionary priests, which, humanly speaking, insure the 
success of their work. 

Generally speaking, the conditions which call for a mission 
are found in all parishes. The ordinary condition is the 
positive need of a periodical " renewal of spirit " among the 
people. The most zealous pastor will find it a difficult task 
to preserve among his parishioners that practical religion 
which he wishes to see in them. Human nature is weak — it 
is prone to evil. Habits of carelessness and downright 
indifference are easily contracted, and moral evils become 
prevalent. There is a strong tendency to slide away from 
God and the practice of religious duties and to shirk every 
moral obligation. A renewal of religious energy, therefore, 
becomes a necessity. A prudent pastor finds that the most 
strenuous efforts of the local clergy are not sufficient to effect 
this renewal. He must resort to some extraordinary means. 
Hence the mission — which, if conducted at a seasonable time 
and in the proper manner, cannot fail to produce that 
renewal of spirit in the congregation which is the immediate 
object of the mission. 

There is another condition calling for missions that may 
be classified under the head of ordinary^ and that is the 
change that takes place in a congregation every three or 
more years. Our parishes in most instances are composed 



198 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

of a large floating population. There is a continual going 
out of people and a corresponding influx. Then again there 
is that constant change which in the lapse of time nature 
herself effects. In a very few years the child has reached 
the period of youth, the girl has attained womanhood, the 
boy becomes the man. This changes almost the entire com- 
plexion of a congregation at least every five years, and there- 
fore a mission, if not of absolute necessity, is an affair of the 
utmost importance in such a parish and should be held at 
least every five years. 

Some of the conditions, however, which call for a mission 
are quite exceptional. The formation of a parish, or the 
re-construction of a parish where the the church has been 
rebuilt or enlarged, come under this category. Also when 
some dreadful scandal has occurred in a parish which is cal- 
culated to weaken faith and promote immorality. In the 
latter case there is no doubt but that a mission is very 
necessary. The novelty of the mission, the powerful sermons 
of the Fathers and their advice to individuals in the confes- 
sional, will do more, humanly speaking, than anything else 
to destroy the scandal and heal its ill effects. In the former 
case nothing, perhaps, conduces more to the formation of a 
parish or its reconstruction than a good mission. The 
people flocking day and night to the exercises become 
habituated to church attendance. The pastor, who is sup- 
posed to be present at nearly every exercise, will come into 
immediate contact with his people as a congregation and 
with individuals who heretofore were unknown to him as 
Catholics, but through the mission are brought to a sense of 
duty toward God and the Church. 

The time of Jubilee might be added as another exceptional 
cause calling for a mission. As during this season extraor- 
dinary graces and indulgences are offered the people, it is 
well that the parochial clergy afford them extraordinary 
facilities for acquiring these special blessings. 

These ordinary or exceptional conditions being found in a 
parish, a judicious selection of the time for holding the 
mission has much to do with its success. A pastor should 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR PARISHES. 199 

endeavor to have his mission at that season of the year which 
affords the best opportunity to his people for coming in a 
body to all the exercises. Many priests invariably want 
their missions in Lent. We fail to see why ; because outside 
of our large cities it is a very inconvenient time as far as the 
people are concerned, and then the weather at this season is 
generally very bad. It might be remarked, also, that 
missions held every year in a parish are unseasonable for 
another reason. People become accustomed to them, and 
the mission loses that power which its very novelty carries 
with it. When the needs of a parish are such that extra 
preachers and confessors must be called annually, it is far 
better to term their labors "« Retreat.,^'' and let the exer- 
cises be conducted under that form so that the mission, 
when it comes, may appear to the people what it really is — 
*' an extraordinary season of grace and salvation." 

II. 

The real success of a mission depends principally on the 
labors of the missionary Fathers, their personal qualifications 
and the character or style of sermons and instructions they 
give to the people. 

The groundwork of their labors may be considered under 
a twofold aspect — objectively, or subjectively. Objectively^ 
it is the mind and the heart of the people — their moral con- 
dition. Subjectively^ it is the quick perception of this by the 
missionary Fathers, and the judicious application of that style 
of sermons and instructions best suited to the people's needs. 
Hence the effective missionary priest is not the mere declaimer 
who has learned his lesson as a schoolboy and gets it off with 
more or less dramatic effect. Neither is he the man who 
rattles off a stereotyped edition of powerful sermons without 
any special relation to the wants of his immediate audience. 
Nor again is he an effective missionary who fires off his 
biggest guns at the very commencement of the mission, 
without any relation to the logical sequence of eternal 
truths or the moral condition of his audience. Such may 
please for the time, but their work is not lasting. The real 



200 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

powerful missionary, the man whose labors are destined to 
be crowned with success, is he who quickly takes in the 
mental and moral worth of his listeners and shapes his dif- 
ferent subjects and the style of his preaching in accordance 
with this idea. Viewed under its every aspect, a mission 
should be above all things else a most logical aflfair. Logical 
in the conception of the end for which the mission is given, 
logical in the application of those means best suited to attain 
that end, and logical, above all, in the sequence of truths, 
whether moral or dogmatic, that are placed before the minds 
of the people for their consideration. As a rule, there 
should be at least two priests conducting a work of this 
kind that aspires to the dignity and success of a mission. 
These two' men should form, as it were, a powerful battery, 
each well prepared in his own distinct mode of warfare — 
each attacking the enemy from a dififerent position, and in 
an altogether different manner, yet both working in the most 
logical harmony. One is pre-eminently the instructor or 
Catechist^ the other is the Preacher. 

The style of the catechist should be didactic — plain, 
simple, and every word right to the point. He explains 
the laws of God and the precepts of the Church ; he 
prepares the people for a good confession by explaining its 
qualities. His object is to enlighten the mind — he never 
seeks to move the will. His instructions should be short. 
The preacher, however, on whom practically the success of 
the mission depends, must seek to move the will. He 
hammers while the iron isjieated and shapes or moulds the 
hearts of the people. Having measured the mental and 
moral calibre of his audience he suits his subjects accord- 
ingly. Generally his sermons are on the eternal truths, such 
as " The Importance of Salvation — Mortal Sin — Death, etc." 
He will, however, introduce into these, very adroitly but 
powerfully, the vices he has come to root up, the evils he 
has come to cure. Moreover, when he is aware that there is 
some local or prevalent evil existing, he will concentrate on 
this all his powers of eloquence in some special sermon 
about the middle of the mission. The preacher should be a 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR PARISHES. 201 

man of great experience, with a correct knowledge of tlie 
human heart, and a keen observer of its many passions. His 
discourses must be carefully prepared, and consist of solid, 
well digested matter ; every argument so logically put 
together that the whole tremendous force of his entire sermon 
may come upon the heart like an avalanche, moving the will 
to do the good he seeks, or avoid the evil he deplores. 

Men thus qualified will not only renew the spirit of an 
entire congregation, and lay down the solid foundation for a 
grand spiritual edifice, but they actually reap a rich harvest 
during the very time of the mission. This is evident in the 
number and kind of confessions they hear. It is the surest 
test of the success of a mission. As a rule missionary priests 
devote from ten to twelve hours daily to the hearing of con- 
fessions. Generally, more time is given to each penitent 
during a mission than on other occasions. The reason is 
obvious. The practice of requiring general confessions 
during a mission is not at all commendable. Such confes- 
sions can hardly be made in a satisfactory manner unless the 
penitent return a second and perhaps a third time. Now all 
this, except in cases of real necessity, is little better than 
loss ot valuable time to the confessor. Moreover, experience 
teaches that this promiscuous hearing of general confessions 
during the mission, is calculated to upset weak minds, and 
leave the conscience in a very troubled state afterwards. In 
some instances, also, it panders to the foolish idea that the 
holy Fathers are, after all, the only men who can hear con- 
fessions properly, and when these shall have left the place, 
the penitent, having lost confidence in the local clergy, is 
simply at sea and liable at any time to suffer shipwreck. 
Now, one of the characteristic features of efficient mission- 
iaries is that they establish or strengthen the confidence of 
people in the local clergy, and whatever may be done to the 
contrary is positively detrimental to the ultimate success of 
the mission. There are, however, cases in time of the 
mission, and many of them, where the confessor is obliged to 
permit and insist on a general confession, other cases again 
where he must patiently listen and solye the doubts engen- 



202 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

dered by the instructions or sermons of the mission. In a 
word, the missionary Fathers cannot hurry people, or as 
some one remarked " railroad them through the confessional." 
This would be unwise, for it is here especially that the 
Fathers do their solid work. The criterion of their success 
here^is not the number they rush through, as mere absolving 
machines, but the completeness of the work they do in each 
case, the finish that is given to every individual that kneels 
before them. Hence though one confession is sufficient 
during the mission, it is always more satisfactory to penitent 
andj confessor, when a second conveniently can be made, 
because this enables the confessor to g^ve the finest touches 
to his work, and leaves the conscience of the penitent per- 
fectly at rest. 

Although the work of uprooting local and public evils is 
done principally by powerful sermons, yet where there is an 
understanding and concerted action among the confessors, 
that work is best accomplished in the confessional. 

With regard to the establishment of confraternities or 
sodalities, that is best effected toward the end of the' 
mission. If the mission lasts two weeks, it is well to begin 
this work of establishment at the end of the first week. 
Announce for Sunday afternoon a meeting of men or women 
as the case may be, and when they are gathered, a simple 
explanation of the nature of the society to be established and 
strong reasons for joining it, may be given, and then the 
names of members taken. Another meeting the last Sunday 
of the mission will confirm the work, and generally bring 
new members. These confraternities or sodalities are very 
necessary in every parish, and they should be established or 
strengthened during the mission. 

As|to people who are not of the Church Catholic, but come 
occasionally to the exercises of the mission, the less particular 
attention publicly paid to them by missionary priests, the 
better. Missions given in parishes are not as a rule for 
outsiders. The converts that a parish priest earnestly seeks 
are his own fallen people. The number of these converts, — 
not the converts from Protestantism — tells the real success of 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR FARISHES. 



203 



a mission. It must, however, be granted that missions are 
the source of innumerable conversions to Catholicity ; yet this 
happens, not through the preaching of controversy, but rather 
by the clear and forcible explanation of plain, moral and dog- 
matic truths, without any reference whatever to non-Catholics. 
There is a loftiness and conviction in these grand truths 
which seizes the mind and the heart of non-Catholics, and 
converts thus made are generally faithful and a credit to the 
Church. It is laudable, indeed, to set aside some definite 
hour in the day, when non-Catholics, seeking information, 
may call at the parochial residence and receive that attention 
which their condition deserves. But barring some excep- 
tional cases, it is better, after a short encouraging conversa- 
tion with them, to refer or introduce them to the local clergy, 
and let these devote that length of time to their instruction 
and probation which a zealous missionary cannot spare, and 
which, moreover, is necessary for the permanent success of 
such conversions. 

III. 

Although a mission may be held under favorable circum- 
stances already mentioned, and conducted by very efl5cient 
men, yet the co-operation of the local clergy is an important 
factor in its success. 

Preparatory to the mission, and for two or three Sundays 
before its opening, a clear announcement should be made 
in such a manner as to elicit all-sided attention. Its 
necessity and object should be dwelt upon at some length. 
And here the pastor has a magnificeut opportunity of 
engaging his zeal in behalf of his flock. He can remind 
them of the many efforts and sacrifices made by him in their 
behalf ; that with all this, he finds many have fallen away, 
others have grown cold and indifferent. His dread responsi- 
bility before God for every soul committed to his care maybe 
dwelt upon with splendid effect. And now to relieve his 
own conscience, that nothing has been left undone for his 
people, and seejiing above all things else their spiritual 



204 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

welfare, he invites missionary priests, as " God's special 
messengers "— to come and labor for them. He will have 
special prayers recited every day after the parochial Mass 
and request special prayers at home, for the success of the 
mission. This proceeding not only announces the mission 
and makes its advent the topic of conversation, but draws 
God's special blessing on the work. Immediately preceding 
the mission, it should be well announced in the daily or 
weekly local newspapers. It is well to have the ' ' order of exer- 
cises ' ' furnished by the missionary Fathers a week before the 
the mission opens, — and let this be printed and distributed at 
the church door, on the Sunday that the mission begins. 
Some priests find it an excellent plan to make a visitation of 
the entire parish as soon as they have definitely arranged the 
time of the mission, and thus personally announce it and 
encourage those to come whom they know actually need it. 

During the mission, the local clergy co-operate very much 
by their presence at the dijBferent exercises. The people like 
to see their own priests interested in the work. Their 
example is encouraging. Moreover, the clergy have thus an 
opportunity of noticing those present and finding out the 
absent. They will make it a point to visit the negligent 
and thus bring them to the mission. 

Excepting the simple announcement of a collection to 
defray the expenses of the mission, the mention of money 
matters should be studiously avoided during this holy time. If 
the people have reason to suspect that the mission is a money- 
making afiair, they become prejudiced at once and the mission 
is a failure. It matters not how eloquent the missionary 
Fathers may be, however great their powers of attraction, let 
people conceive the idea that emptying their purses is the 
object of the mission, and the indifferent will remain away 
while the good become disgusted. No one will object to the 
customary plate offering that is taken up at the principal ser- 
vices. But if people are forced to pay admission to the services 
whether they are pew-holders or not, if the collectors are at the 
door with their baskets to shame them into an admission fee, 
the result is discouraging. The poor cannot come, the hard 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR PARISHES. 



205 



cases will use this as a pretext for not coming, the clergy are 
severely criticized, the missionaries lose courage, — their 
principal work then must be the defense of the clergy and 
trying to explain away their conduct. Reminding the 
people daily that the Holy Sacrifice is ofiered up for those 
* that contribute ten cents or more to the offering, morning and 
evening, savors of traffic ; so also the ten cent basket, which 
is so unbecomingly thrust at people as they enter, ill becomes 
the mission ; and the enormous prices set on mission goods, 
or pious articles, for sale during this time, is in many cases 
little short of downright swindling. Men of vast experience 
both as missionaries and pastors know well that when a 
mission is spiritually a perfect success, the financial condition 
of the parish will quickly become better. Let your people make 
the mission well, do not place even the shadow of a hind- 
rance to this, and once they begin to come regularly to 
church, join societies, and frequent the Sacraments, their 
purse-strings will open generously. Of all the impediments 
to the success of a mission, this appearance of money-making 
is the greatest ; whereas, when the congregation is imbued 
with the idea that the mission is purely for their spiritual 
good, that the pastor looks to this above all things else, then 
" all co-operating in good," the mission is a grand success. 

IV. 

To preserve the good spirit engendered by the mission, and 
gather the fruit it is calculated to bring forth, the labors 
of the missionary Fathers should be followed up by some 
systematic work on the part of the local clergy. The follow- 
ing suggestions may be of some help in enabling zealous 
priests to carry out this idea. 

I. — System in Preaching. — People grow tired of the ordi- 
nary Sunday sermon. It's the same identical explanation of 
the Gospel year after year. They need more plain, practical 
instruction and fewer moral harangues. These instructions 
should be made interesting, which will always be the case 
when they are given in something like systematic order and 



2o6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

are replete with simple but solid information. Such would 
be a series of instructions on the Sacraments, the Command- 
ments, the ceremonies of the Mass, as we find them treated 
in that admirable work of the Abb6 Gaume — " The 
Catechism of Perseverance." Occasionally a series of dog- 
matic instructions on faith, on the Church, on the religious ' 
errors of the day. It is remarkable with what avidity peo- 
ple seek after information of this kind, and it is easily given 
by a zealous priest. 

2. — System in Hearing Confessions. — Every possible facility 
should be afforded the people for approaching frequently the 
tribunal of penance. A prudent disposition of the priests' 
time for this work is the confessional, and great punctuality 
should be noticeable. It is not at all encouraging when a 
priest announces confessions at three o'clock, and does not 
appear until four or five. Many sacrifices are made by 
people in coming, but habitual disappointments when they 
do come, may keep them away altogether. The practice of 
those priests who hear confessions every day, or every 
second day, before or after their Mass, is commendable. It 
is an immense relief to them on Saturdays, and moreover it 
gives a better opportunity to many working people, men 
especially, to be heard on Saturday night. Parochial clergy 
should insist on this, that girls not working and married 
women, especially the old women, should go to confession 
during the day-time, so that when the working class, men 
particularly, come on Saturday nights, they may not wait 
too long or be crowded out altogether. 

3. — System with Sodalities. — There is no doubt but that 
the sodalities or societies in a parish are its mainstay. 
Special attention must be paid to these. It is not enough to 
leave them to the tender care of the good Sisters, much less 
to care for themselves. They need the personal attention of 
a priest. Besides the few prayers recited at their regular 
monthly meetings, it is advantageous to give them a short 
instruction and some encouragement. This can easily be 



EFFECTIVE MISSION WORK IN OUR PARISHES. 



207 



done by the priest appointed to their charge. Moreover, his 
presence regularly at their meetings, gives him a chance to 
see who are present, and find out who are absent. A priest 
should never absent himself from the meeting of men's 
societies. 

When sodalities prosper and the members show a good 
will, it is amazing how advantageous a short retreat is to 
them, and to the priest. The Retreat may be for only a few 
days, or for a week, but it gives them to understand the zeal 
of their pastor, and while strengthening the sodality, in 
spirit, it generally augments its number. • 

In conclusion it may be remarked that it is comparatively 
easy for a priest to build upon the groundwork laid during a 
mission, if in his priestly contact with his people, he mani- 
fests a true apostolic zeal for their spiritual welfare. In this 
manner, he will hold his own with any missionary Father. 
His congregation will love him and confide in him. Nothing 
captivates our people, rich and poor, learned or unlearned, 
more than the unselfish spirit and disinterested zeal of the 
priest. They gladly come to his aid in financial diflSculties. 
They look to him as their spiritual Father. They heed 
his pastoral advice. They loathe to displease him ; and 
although some may fall away from the fervor of piety 
engendered by the mission, yet many will remain to testify 
by their exemplary lives its manifold benefits. 

Father Robert, C. P. 

St, MichaePs Passionist Monastery, 
West Hoboken, N. J. 



2o8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

THE WORK OF PARISH MISSIONS. 

BY A FATHER OF THE SOCIETY OF THE PRECIOUS BLOOD. 

MISSIONS are of no recent date in the Church of Christ. 
This world-wide Institution is, in fact, the outcome of 
a Divine Mission. Being ''sent " by His Eternal Father into 
this home of sin, our Redeemer entered upon His missionary- 
career, " teaching daily in the temple," " preaching to the 
multitudes from the ship," and as He " went about doing 
good," He at the same time carefully trained His disciples 
for a similar work among Jews and Gentiles. ' ' Sicut misit 
me Pater," etc. The mission, then, in the Catholic Church, 
is a continuation of the life-work of Jesus, whether by it are 
meant prolonged missionary labors among barbarous tribes, 
or the exercise of regular parochial missions at home. It is 
of the latter only that I wish to speak. 

The benefits that accrue from this work in Christ's vine- 
yard cannot easily be overestimated. During these seasons 
of extraordinary grace the kingdom of God is re-established 
in the hearts of many. Sinners are restored to God's friend- 
ship ; tepid souls are re-animated to a life of fervor ; the 
righteous encouraged in their efforts to aim at still greater 
perfection ; in a word : A mission well made, destroys the 
kingdom of satan, purifies and renovates the parish, and 
glorifies the Church of God. What Retreats are for the 
clergy and religious, missions are for the laity. They are 
the Spiritual Exercises of which all stand in need at times 
according to St. Paul, Eph. iv, 23, " Renovamini " etc. A 
series of eternal truths, and instructions on the duties of the 
various states of life, proposed for consideration within the 
space of eight, ten or fourteen days, is calculated to quicken 
man's perception of things supernatural, move the will and 
mould his conduct more effectually than if given out on 
successive Sundays or after still longer intervals when the 
bustle and distraction of every day life have almost wiped 
out every vestige of the preceding instruction. Add to this, 
that the sermons are preached by strangers, who, in wield- 
ing the two-edged sword, are listened to by many with 



THE WORK OF PARISH MISSIONS. 209 

greater docility than is one familiar to all. The mission is 
a time of special graces on account of the many and fervent 
prayers that are offered up daily by hundreds crying out for 
help. Seldom are confessions made so complete, so sincere, 
and so contrite as during the time of a mission. For proofs 
I refer to the writings of St. Alphonse of Liguori, who gave 
missions for forty years, and to what is related in the biogra- 
phies of other great missionaries, e. g. St. Francis Xavier, 
St. Vincent a Paulo, St. Philip Neri, St. Leonard a Portu 
Mauritio and St. Paul of the Cross. What wonder, then, 
that Roman Pontiffs have so often recommended and highly 
indulgenced such exercises, and approved of the religious 
communities established for the purpose of giving missions ! 
Must even a D'Alembert confess to the impious Voltaire : 
" This jubilee has put us back half a century ; another such 
jubilee, and our cause is ruined." If missions were deemed 
a necessity in ages of faith and countries entirely Catholic, 
who can doubt their usefulness in this age of religious 
indifference in a country that exhibits a far greater variety 
of creeds than nationalities ? A country in which a most 
dangerous influence is brought to bear on weak Catholics by 
a sectarian, irreligious and immoral press ; where secret 
societies are springing up almost every day, and snares are so 
cunningly laid by the craft of those "that lie in wait;" 
where so manj^ inducements are offered to our pleasure-lov- 
ing youths and maidens ; where many are to be reclaimed 
who have received a very imperfect Catholic education at 
home or in school ; while others, still lingering outside of 
the fold, are only waiting for some powerful impulse to 
examine the claims of God's holy Church. 

Besides these general conditions which call for missions, 
there are others of exceptional nature, v. g.^ sinful customs 
and abuses of long standing, scandals, enmities, violent 
prejudices against Catholics or invincible ignorance of our 
holy religion. 

In order to meet these wants of man's heart and heal the 
infirmities of his soul, the mission appeals alike to his intel- 
lect and heart. The discourses on the end of man and the 



210 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

eternal truths are so many knocks at the door of his heart 
and set him thinking, while the plain instructions on the 
Commandments and Sacraments (Penance, Eucharist — as 
Communion and Sacrifice, and Matrimony) point out to 
him the way and means of salvation. Conferences in which 
the duties of the various states of life are explained on con- 
fession day, are a great help in examining the conscience and 
disposing for heartfelt contrition. They enable penitents to 
make a complete confession at once and thus quiet their 
conscience. It is well, however, to give those who desire it, 
another chance to receive the Sacrament of Penance while 
preparing for the Communion to be offered up on the day 
after the mission for deceased relatives, friends, benefactors 
and pioneers of the parish. What an acceptable time for a 
good general confession given to all for whom the same 
is necessary or useful ! And their number is legion. Many 
have not yet made one. Though their former confessions 
may not have been sacrilegious, yet these people are not 
altogether at ease on account of defects that may have crept 
in, in course of time, in the examination of conscience, con- 
trition, accusation, performance of penance — all or some 
of which were gone through in a hurried, thoughtless, 
superficial manner. Habitual sinners there are who show 
great surprise when told that if they wish to receive absolu- 
tion, they must make a number of confessions over again. 
They assure the confessor that they always confessed their 
sins according to numerical and specific distinctions and 
aggravating circumstances, imagining that this is all that is 
required of them. Not a few, who, through fear or shame, 
had concealed their greatest sins for years, are anxiously 
looking forward to the mission to rid themselves of the 
heavy load with the help of God's g^ace and the assistance 
of the missionary Father. Scrupulous penitents must, of 
course, abide by the directions received from their ordinary 
confessor. As a rule, confessions are not heard during the 
first days of the Mission, until people have attended some of 
the instructions and have had ample time to prepare for a 
review. Married women are usually invited to conference 



I 



i 



THE WORK OF PARISH MISSIONS. 21 1 

and confession first of all. Once you gain the good will of 
the wives and mothers you have secured the valuable assist- 
ance of what might be called very energetic '•' canvassing 
agents " in every home of the parish. 

Again, rare opportunities are offered in these conferences, 
as well as in occasional sermons, to inveigh against (public) 
local evils and perseveringly to combat them on all si'des 
until uprooted, which is part of the groundwork to be done 
during the mission. The service thus rendered to pastors 
by discreet and systematic work in the pulpit and confes- 
sional is seldom ineffectual and transient. 

However, it is not only by preaching and hearing con- 
fessions that missions are to become a success with God's 
help, but also by the establishment of confraternities, 
sodalities, etc. With the blessed Rosary, Scapular and 
Indulgenced Cross, the Christian's armor, our child of the 
mission is prepared for renewed attacks on the part of 
Satan, the world and the flesh. There is an Altar Society, 
that of Christian Mothers, a Young Ladies' s Sodality, that 
comes forth from the exercises on a general Communion day 
with re-awakened energies and numbers greatly increased ; 
here youths and married men are prompted to join a Catholic 
Mutual Aid Association or a Sodality Club deemed expedi- 
ent pro hie et nunc. How many of our young men are lost to 
the Church by the inducement the Lodge holds out to them ! 
They are told that in time of sickness they can draw 
dividends — three to , five dollars a week ; evety possible 
encouragement and assistance offered them in business, and 
when they travel abroad they meet friends and supporters in 
every town. Religion, they are given to understand, is no 
barrier to the privileges of membership. How important, 
then, the introduction of some of our well organized Catholic 
societies that supply all the reasonable demands of the age \ 

During missions non-Catholics evince at times a strong 
desire to come nearer to our Church, and here another field 
of labor opens for pastor and missionary. While the greatest 
possible attention should be given to such as seek earnestly, 
it might be the wiser plan not to precipitate their con version ^ 



212 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

but kindly invite, nay urge them to continue their studies 
and prayers and be prompt at catechetical instructions, even 
after they have attended all the mission exercises. Poorly 
instructed converts are apt to fall away after the first fervor 
of enthusiasm has abated, or they cling to the Church like 
the icicles hanging from the eaves. A mission can at most 
give the impulse and lay the foundation whereon to erect 
the religious edifice, except in cases where candidates for 
Baptism or Eucharist have previously acquired a satisfactory 
knowledge of the Catholic religion. In this case there need 
be no delay, especially if friends or relatives begin to throw 
obstacles in the way of conversion. If, for good reasons, 
the admission of converts into the Church during a mission, 
be considered advisable, religious instruction should be 
continued for some time at least after the mission. One 
of the most necessary precautions to be taken when converts 
are received "on short acquaintance," is, undoubtedly, to 
secure a good sponsor, a well instructed, practical Catholic, 
who will interest himself in the spiritual advancement of 
his god-child. It is not out of place either to assure converts, 
desirous of avoiding publicity for good reasons, that the 
abjuration of previous errors, and profession of faith, etc., 
need not be made before the entire congregation, a few 
witnesses being sufficient. Not a few, on the contrary, 
may easily be induced to have the act performed solemnly 
to the edification of the faithful. 

The main object of missions, however, is to strengthen 
faith in our Catholic people, and reanimate their religious 
fervor ; their exemplary lives will then help to spread God's 
kingdom among others, as was the case in the earlier ages of 
Christianity. 

The co-operation of the parochial clergy is necessary pre- 
paratory to the mission by announcing the same in good 
season, say two or three weeks before the opening. In 
places, however,where considerable opposition may be looked 
for on the part of bad Catholics, freethinkers or others, it 
may be best to give shorter notice and thus prevent schemers 
from decrying the mission and prepossessing the minds of 



THE WORK OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



213 



men against it. While counseling merchants, traveling 
men, and the faithful generally, not to enter upon journeys 
that might be postponed, and undertake no work, engage in 
no trade, traflSc, plays or amusements incompatible with this 
time of prayer and meditation, the parish priest will do a 
good service to his people and missionary by briefly explain- 
ing the end of the mission and calling upon his flock to pray 
for abundant graces. A short devotion with all in church 
on Sundays for that purpose and Rosar}-^ offered up by the 
children during morning Mass on week days, must assuredly 
help to dispose people for these days of salvation. Is it not 
a great source of consolation for a missionary to know that 
while he is seeking "the lost one " with untiring zeal, good 
and pious souls, in the seclusion of a convent home perhaps, 
are pouring forth fervent prayers during the silent vigils of 
the night before the tabernacle for himself and his dear 
children of the mission ? " Neque qui plantat est aliquid, 
neque qui vigilat, sed qui incrementum dat, Deus." — I Cor. 
iii, 7. I consider this one of the most important features 
of mission work. 

It is not always lost time, either, to visit careless Catholics, 
even such as have not gone to church for years, and kindly 
invite them to the mission. At limes this cordial invitation 
accompanied with a fatherly admonition may be made 'by 
letter. A kind and encouraging word to such as keep board- 
ing-houses, restaurants, meat markets, as well as other public 
men, v. g.., physicians, instructors, state or city officials, may 
not only prove highly beneficial to these parties personally, 
but to all upon whom such men are able to wield an influ- 
ence for good or evil. It is well to prepare a list of nominal 
Catholics, for whom hopes may yet be entertained. Any 
well informed member of the parish will suggest names of 
new comers, and such as are seldom seen in church or do not 
figure on the pew-rent list. Some of these may harbor slight 
misgivings or prejudices ; a pleasant interview with their 
pastor will brush these away. Others have been out of the 
Church so long, have " forgotten their confession prayers," 
and therefore dread the tribunal of penance ; — here relapsing 



214 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



sinners, no longer in the proximate occasion of sin, would be 
willing to make amends, but oh ! that general confession ! — 
but they all had to promise the kind Father who came to see 
them to go to the mission and there they are told how easy it 
is to make a good' confession with the help of God's minister. 
They make another attempt and are saved. Some you will 
find who are waiting "just a little longer," are not yet 
ready ; others, who are very poor, have no pew, nothing to 
oflfer, in fact no clothes fit to wear. Here are railroad men 
who would swear that they are unable to make the mission. 
Why? " Father, I must be out early in the morning," and 
" we are run very hard just now, the company have taken 
men ofi" the road." Tell them they can receive Communion 
at 5 o'clock A. M. How often are such men able to secure 
substitutes for a day or so, or obtain permission to " lay off." 
Where there is a will there is a way. 

Other preparations for the mission are to be made in the 
church edifice. It is of considerable importance to have the 
church well lighted during evening service. In the absence 
of electric light or gas, large coal oil lamps with reflectors, 
chandeliers, or at least some candles along the walls will and 
must answer the purpose. It is well to appoint ushers to take 
strangers to vacant seats and by all means to try to fill front 
seats first. Nothing is more annoying to priest and people, 
than to have late comers walk through the entire church in 
quest of seats during a sermon. The pastor should not omit 
to inform choir members that no new and extra grand Masses 
and solos are expected during the mission. The usual hymns, 
Veni Creator^ O Salutaris^ Tantunt Ergo — all in Lattn^ of 
course, chaste, simple, church-like, sung briefly without 
many repetitions, but with great unction — help to bring the 
congregation nearer to God and leave salutary impressions 
upon the minds and hearts of all. A High Mass in the 
morning, at 9 o'clock or so, and in the evening at 7 or 7.30 
Rosarv, sermon and Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, 
seem to answer the purpose of a mission. An extra effort at 
the organ during the solemn conclusion of the mission is, no 
doubt, befitting. 



THE WORK OF PARISH MISSIONS. 



215 



Not only previous to, but likewise during the mission, 
the zealous activity of the parochial clergy is required to 
some degree. In larger parishes, where but one missionary 
conducts the services, the pastor will try to procure help in 
the confessional. By taking the various states of life on suc- 
cessive days the rush will at no time be too great, yet it may 
be too much for one priest, especially when many general 
confessions are expected. It is perhaps the safest rule to 
invite one or two, who can be relied on, to hear in the after- 
noon and evening after the respective conferences — Tuesday 
P. M. married ladies ; Wednesday, young ladies ; Thursday, 
married men ; Friday, young men — rather than invite num- 
bers, and sometimes have a " crowded house " and no work, 
then again scores of penitents waiting and only one priest to 
dispose of. Lengthy admonitions need not be given to peni- 
tents who have just listened to a thorough explanation 01 
their respective duties. Whether or not assistance is needed 
in the confessional, every pastor can easily ascertain from the 
missionary if he but mention the number of families or peni- 
tents that may be reasonably expected. If at all able, I like 
to hear them all myself during the five or six confession days. 
Children may be heard on the first Monday of the mission or 
in classes after morning service during the ensuing week. 

In places where book-stores are not convenient, the devo- 
tional articles, viz., rosaries, scapulars, crucifixes, prayer- 
books, catechetical and instructive works — such as " Cath- 
olic Belief," "Catholic Worship," "Faith of Our Fathers," 
"Goffine," "Correct Thing for Catholics," "Short Lines," 
"Side Switches," "Notes on IngersoU," "Lives of the 
Saints," "Catholic Almanacs," etc. — should be obtained 
at an early day and assorted in some suitable place, school 
hall, or any building near the church, where people can 
easily get all they need for private use and family purposes. 
It is necessary to emphasize the order for good, strong beads 
and crosses, no brittle ware, which can either not be indul- 
genced at all or easily lose the indulgence. When possible 
the pastor or an assistant priest should superintend the sale 
of books, etc. Half an hour before and after service -^ill 



2i6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. ^ 

suffice. A word from the priest in recommending a certain 
book or devotional to a parishioner, goes much farther than 
if a lady of the parish, or even a school teacher, speaks 
volumes in its praise. 

From the beginning of the mission the pastor should 
demand promptness and regularity from all who are engaged 
in divine service in the sanctuary, sacristy, belfry and gal- 
lery, that Mass in the morning and Rosary in the evening 
may begin without delay at the time announced. Acolytes 
should not be permitted to remain in the sacristy during 
sermon to get the censer ready. This can be attended to 
while the large bell is tolled after sermon and three Our 
Fathers are said for the conversion of sinners. 

It is well to make arrangements for the mission cross 
during the earlier part of the week, that it may be in 
readiness with suitable inscription or motto, when needed. 

The mission over, the missionary's work is done, but not 
that of the pastor. The foundation is laid upon which the 
latter is to build up systematically, if the fruits of the 
mission shall last. Much depends upon a frequent and 
thorough renewal of spirit. This is brought about chiefly 
by a worthy reception of the sacraments. Young people 
should be urged to receive monthly, as they are exposed to 
more numerous and more violent temptations, and sorely 
stand in need of the counsels and directions a wise and 
vigilant confessor alone can give them. Mothers, as a rule, 
are pretty regular on general Communion day when the 
society members are expected. Married men might go at 
least once in three months. If, besides, the First Fridays 
are observed by the more fervent, the good spirit manifested 
during the time of the mission, is not in danger of evapo- 
rating so soon. 

If it is arranged that the Forty Hours' Adoration is held 
annually in fall or winter, then even the most tardy of peni- 
tents will come to confession and Communion at least twice 
a year. ♦ 

In regard to the sodalities, every pastor must know what 
he may reasonably expect from his people, young and old. I. 



HOU^ TO PRESERVE THE FRUITS OF A MISSION. 



217 



do not believe that iron-clad rules will answer the purpose 
for all. How many a sodality could have been saved in 
principle despite a change in name, if some new, and by 
no means objectionable, feature had been seasonably blended 
with the old. Perhaps you can bring a circulating library, 
dramatic club, reading-room, lawn parties, literary sociables 
or some innocent amusement in connection with the same, 
and prolong its life and usefulness. A short devotion once 
a month, or quarterly, before the mission cross to obtain the 
grace of perseverance, will revive the memory of graces 
received and resolutions taken during the holy season. As 
a part of the penance enjoined on Confession Day, it is well 
to have the penitent read attentively the Souvenir of Re- 
membrance he received during the mission. 

Godfrey Schachter, C.PP.S. 

Carthagena, Ohio. 



SUGGESTIONS HOW TO PRESERTE THE FRUITS OF A "MISSION." 

BY THE PROVINCIAL OF THE CARMELITES. 

WHAT ought a pastor to do, to render lasting the fruits 
of a mission? We have three kinds of people to 
deal with : the zealous, the easy going and the callous. As 
to the zealous there is no difficulty. They are themselves 
anxious to keep and develop any grace they may receive. 
Of the callous there are two species. One is indifferent 
through ignorance in religion, the other is hardened by vice 
and rejects grace when offered. The latter probably will 
not attend a mission, or only listen to some sermons without 
the intention of benefiting by them or approaching the 
sacraments. Some few come in a bad disposition, but are 
struck by grace, yield and for the future are zealous, or even 
zealots. The great difficulty lies with the easy going, those 
reeds shaken by the winds, who are always what the company 
is in which they find themselves. How can they be made 
steadfast ? A complex question demands a complex solution. 



2i8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

1. The ignorance in religion is to be removed. Adults 
cannot be called to catechism like children, therefore cate- 
chetical sermons must take the place, and they should be 
within the realm of intelligence of the hearer, presupposing 
nothing, couched in plain, easy language, and leaving out all 
the subtleties, which perplex without enlightening. Per- 
sonal experience proves to me, that such sermons are popular 
and fruitful. 

2. Association is necessary. Societies ought to be called 
into existence, which give Catholics a chance to gather among 
themselves for amusement, instruction and recreation for the 
whole family. Confraternities are a good thing, but they 
hardly reach those to whom they would be most beneficial, 
and their influence in every day-life is very small, if we 
except the League of the Sacred Heart, which cannot be too 
highly recommended, and has converted whole congrega- 
tions. 

It appears to me, that the question of amusements for our 
Catholics has been too much neglected or treated in an one- 
sided manner. Catholics are told, with whom not to asso- 
ciate and what not to do, but no substitute is offered. As 
long as Catholics are men, they will desire some relaxation 
and amusement, and if not a Catholic one is offered to them, 
they will continue seeking forbidden ones. Frequent gath- 
erings of Catholics would render religious ties stronger, help 
to overcome human respect, and favorably impress the out- 
sider. 

3. The zealous Catholic ought to act as missionary among 
the indifferent members. The words of a layman are often 
more efficacious than those of the priest. 

4. Reading matter, cheap and suited to the individual 
taste ought to be introduced into the families. As it is 
impossible altogether to suppress light reading, the pastor 
should take care to substitute Catholic works. The same 
ht>lds good of newspapers. If undertaken on a large scale, 
great blessing would iresult from such substitution, but I 
must confess I do not wish to ventilate the question, as our 
priests are hardly prepared yet to undertake such a great task 



PROTESTANT ZEAL IN MISSIONARY WORK. 219 

and carry it out successfully. Yet I am convinced that the 
principles advocated by our daily press are largely responsible 
for the tares, which we find among our wheat so soon after a 
mission. 

These are a few hints which might prove useful to others 
in the pastoral charge. Much might be said in detail 
regarding each of the points mentioned, but it is hardly 
necessary for the accomplishment of a practical purpose for 
the thoughtful readers of the Review. 



Pius R. Mayer, O.C.C. 

New Baltimort, Pa. 



PROTESTANT ZEAL IN MISSIONARY WORK. 

SURELY it is unpleasant for a priest and a missionary to 
appeal to his brothers of the clergy and to those aspir- 
ing to the honor of the Sanctuary by contrasting Protestant 
activity with that of Catholics in America. 

With a noble envy we may indeed point to the generous 
youths of France, who for three centuries have been fighting 
the Master's battle with the sword of the Spirit — the Word 
of God — in pagan lands. Countless missionaries have left 
that great country and done good service. " Gesta Dei per 
Francos " is still a true saying. But we are not the French 
and we have not their spirit. It cannot be said that the 
American is lacking in energy or in high-minded zeal ; yet 
as Catholics we have shown but little of either quality in 
cultivating a large and inviting missionary field. There are 
hardly any American Catholics on the Foreign Missions ; 
but a few, I believe, on the Indian, a couple in Alaska, 
while St. Joseph's Seminary and the Epiphany Apostolic 
College have about seventy in preparation for the Negro 
Missions. 

To this let me contrast in the present paper one solitary 
movement among Protestants. It is the Student Volunteer 



220 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

movement. At Detroit during March 1894, they held their 
second convention, the first preceding it in Cleveland, Ohio, 
by three years. 

It was a convention of students gathered, let me repeat, 
in the cause of the Foreign Missions. In the Strait-city 
there were assembled eleven hundred youths, mostly all men 
— ^an insignificant fraction being women — and representing 
300 Protestant institutions of learning in the United States 
and Canada. 

Think of it, iioo, more than half the young men in our 
general Catholic Colleges according to Hoflfmann's Direc- 
tory — 2,076 being their number — and eight times as many 
colleges (300 to 25) were present, in their delegates, as there 
are Catholic Colleges. Or again they equalled three-fourths 
the number of seminarians (1,100 to 1,457) ^^ boast of in 
the land, and from five times as many institutions. 

To this convention Yale sent 25 and Princeton 25 also. 
Should our Catholic Colleges try to equal its members, they 
would have to send half their boys. Fancy Mt. St. Mary's, 
Georgetown, Fordham and Notre Dame sending together 
half their households to some central point to discuss the 
Foreign Missions. Or suppose the Catholic Colleges would 
emulate the spirit of Yale and Princeton and send 25 a piece. 
We should have 625 Catholic boys gathering. A great sight 
surely ! Mind you, those 1,100 Protestant young gentlemen 
who assembled at Detroit bore the cost. They paid the 
journeys to and fro, their hotel bills, and other expenses 
incidental to a trip. These facts are significant. 

Those youths who assembled in Detroit have the same 
country as we, the same aspirations, the same sentiments 
except in religious matters. Some of them may have been 
our playmates and neighbors. How is it that we behold such 
a magnificent spectacle as the sight of 1,100 earnest, honest, 
manly boys meeting in the cold winter, traveling from 
Winnipeg and the Gulf, from Oregon and Maine to spread 
the glad tidings ? " How beautiful the feet of them that 
preach the Gospel of peace, of them that bring glad tidings 
of good things." 



PROTESTANT ZEAL IN MISSIONARY WORK. 221 

But more. Not only did i,ioo youths gather from the 
Protestant colleges of Canada and the United States, but 
leading men of the various denominations were there to 
lead and guide them. It is not a hap-hazard, go-as-you- 
please movement. Dr. Smith, Secretary of the American 
Missionary Board, a professor from Yale, and missionaries 
from Syria, India, China, Persia, Africa and Japan led the 
boys. At one time 60 professors from 40 different colleges 
held a Ispecial conference to advance the movement And 
what did they do ? 

In the forenoon they studied the organization and its 
methods ; the afternoons were given to the discussion of 
various kinds of mission works, evangelical work, medical 
work, woman's work, school work, Christian Endeavor, 
Epworth League, etc.; in all twenty-five subjects engaged 
their attention. A Rev. H. P. Beach, of Springfield, Mass., 
gave them points for practical preparation : The Volunteer 
is to be "all things to all men." He advised him among 
other things : " (i) to become acquainted with the officers, 
polity, and policy of his board ; (2) to study his chosen field as 
to its strategic points, the climate, people, religions, the work 
accomplished, and the successes and failures, as pictured in 
missionary biographies ; (3) to know something about keep- 
ing accounts, practical work at gardening, carpentry, etc. ; 
(4) to study the laws of health, dentistry, preparation of the 
dead for burial, etc.; (5) to be able to use the camera, print- 
ing press and magic lantern, and know how to start indus- 
trial, normal and kindergarten schools ; (6) to study to be an 
organizer and pastor ; but, above all, to be skilled in per- 
sonal work." This last point was frequently urged by the 
missionaries. The most effective way of winning souls is 
hand-to-hand, heart-to-heart work, and they insisted that 
men should begin at home and not wait until they reach 
the foreign field. 

Every night the delegates held rousing-meetings, in which 
the claims of the various missions were discussed, as well as 
the conditions of success. 

On the Sunday, which came during the convention, 34 



222 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Protestant churches had their pulpits filled by delegates. 
Let me add that the church where the convention met 
seats 1,500 ; but from the start there were steady overflow 
meetings in other churches. 

The purpose of the movement was announced by the 
president in these words : " It is to lead students to a 
thorough consideration of the claims of the foreign missions 
upon them, to foster this purpose, to unite volunteers in an 
aggressive movement, to maintain an intelligent interest at 
home, but especially to secure a sufficient number of quali- 
fied men and women for the work of evangelization of the 
world in this generation." It is a little curious to note 
that a printed card, known as the "Declaration Card" was 
circulated, on which were these words : " // is my purpose^ 
if God permits^ to become a foreign missionary.^'* This card 
is the basis of membership, ipso facto by signing it, the 
volunteer becomes a member. The signers, however, were 
warned that it was no pledge, but a mere honest declaration 
of purpose. 

Before speaking of the results, let us prefix the Jines of 
policy as announced in the convention : 

(i) Efibrts to establish the movement in new sections and 
new classes of institutions, especially in young woman col- 
leges. 

(2) More thorough supervision of work already begun. 

(3) More earnest, prayerful pressing of the masses of the 
unevangelized upon fellow-students ; 

(4) A more comprehensive course of study outlined. 

(5) Increase in contributions. 

(6) Keeping in close touch with volunteers already in the 
field. 

(7) Most of all, absolute dependence on the Holy Spirit 
for life and light. 

Very sensible speeches were made on the need of intel- 
lectual and spiritual and practical training. The results are 
particularly interesting. 

The first convention was held at Cleveland in 1891. To-day 
there are 447 different institutions, which have the volunteer 



PROTESTANT ZEAL IN MISSIONARY WORK. 



223 



movement; i. e. , about half as many more as were represented. 
About 50 per cent, more theological students have declared 
for the foreign missions than there were three years ago. 

On their rolls they have 3,200 students. Now compare 
this number with ours. Hoffmann's Directory gives 2,076 
students in our secular colleges and 1,457 i° ^^^ seminaries ; 
in all 3,533. In other words, the volunteers from Protestant 
colleges for the foreign missions are almost as many as the 
students in all the Catholic colleges and seminaries, or, for 
instance, twelve for every boy in St. Charles' College, Blli- 
cott's City, Md. Of more significance is the fact that, of 
the 3,200 enrolled, 686 are actually on the foreign missions, 
laboring, according to their lights, away off in China, Japan, 
Oceanica, Syria and Africa. That is, one-fifth are in the 
front of battle. More Protestant missionaries have left 
America during the past two and a half years, than in the 
five and a half which preceded. We are told that during 
the past three years contributions have doubled, although 
no amount is given. 

Let me now take up the arguments advanced for one 
mission, viz : China. The representatives of that field num- 
bered upwards of 20. China has about seven times as many 
people as the United States. Of this vast number of human 
beings 1,000,000 die every month, i. <?., something over two 
a second. Four hundred million Pagans are there, among 
whom Christ our Lord wants His disciples to take His 
place as witnesses to His Divinity and Truth. When 
Christian, China will become a great evangelizing agency. 
The Chinaman was called a natural evangelist, no doubt 
intimating the spirit of zeal which the converts show. The 
result was that one-half of the volunteers ready to go out 
this year chose China for their field, i. ^., 26 out of 52. 

The reasons alleged by the youths who volunteered are 
worth repeating : " Because I can't stay away ;" " Because 
God wants me there;" "Because more are ready to take 
my place here than there;" "Because I have given my 
life to Christ, to be used where there is the greatest need ;'* 
"That I may not build on another's foundation." And a 



L 



224 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Texan volunteer declared: "Because the need is greater 
there than in my own State." 

At some length we have given an idea of this volun- 
teer convention. The application which we make of it is 
obvious. By no flight of the imagination could we hope 
to see at a congress, assembled in the interests of Catholic 
foreign missions, so large, or even proportionally so large, a 
representation of Catholic colleges. Nor could we expect to see 
as large a number of representative men. Bishops, priests and 
laity prepare papers, make speeches, etc. No ; we could not 

But, what good do these Protestants missions ? 

Before answering, let me correct some false impressions 
prevalent among us. They are that Protestant missions are 
what Marshall in his ' ' Christian Missions ' ' has painted 
them. Marshall's book is misleading. 

Any of us can take almost any epoch in our own Church 
History and make out about as bad a case against the Catholic 
Church as Marshall makes against Protestantism. From my 
reading on the subject I am convinced that the great English 
Convert is not altogether reliable. He is a pleader, writing as if 
he held a brief. Priests who have been on the foreign mis- 
sion in the East have assured me that countless prayers, de- 
votions, Masses, offices, beads, are being offered up in 
chapels and convents in that far oflF land by Bishops, Priests, 
and Sisters, begging God to put into the hearts of Ameri- 
can Catholic youth the same zeal and love of the heathen 
which animates their Protestant countrymen. 

As far as my reading of history goes, heresy seems ever to 
have been missionary and agressive. To take just two in- 
stances. The conversion of the Goths was effected in the 
fourth century by Ulphilas an Arian, who was consecrated 
bishop by Eusebius of Nicomedia. At that time they lived 
on the Euxine. They continued Arian till the last years of 
the sixth century, that is, for two hundred years and over, dur- 
ing which they drifted from the Black Sea, where Ulphilas 
labored amongst them, to Spain, where they established the 
Gothic kingdom, that ended in Recarred becoming a Catho- 
lic while Gregory the Great was Pope. 



PROTESTANT ZEAL IN MISSIONARY WORK. 



225 



The other instance is cf our day. When in 1879 the 
Jesuits, sent from England to the Zambesi Mission, reached 
Bechuanaland, they found its king, Khama by name, and 
his people devout Protestants. There they also met the Pro- 
testant missionary, Mr. Hepburn and his wife, who had 
passed thirty years among those savages. All travellers agree 
in extolling the virtues of Khama. So honest are the 
Bechuana that the most precious things, such as gold 
watches, may be exposed without any risk or fear of theft. 

What good do Protestants do ? Water we know will never 
rise above its level ; neither will Protestantism. To our mind 
the Protestant mission joined with the English language are 
doing the same work for Asia, and Africa and the Isles of 
the Pacific that the Roman Empire and the Latin tongue 
did for the Apostles. They are preparing the way, remov- 
ing barriers, destroying prejudices. Their work is good by 
a natural goodness, even their handling of supernatural 
agencies, v.g. Scripture, Preaching or Baptism, is more of a 
natural modus agendi, than aught else. 

We look upon it as a seed time, which with God's help the 
Catholic Church will garner. In this conclusion I was very 
much strengthened by my experiences at the Congress of 
Africa at Chicago. For nine days large gatherings thrice 
daily were held. Men and women, preachers and travelers 
gathered from the four quarters of the globe to discuss the 
Negro in all his bearings. There was no end of speeches, 
but the writer was the solitary Catholic among them all. 
No one can gainsay the earnestness of these speakers. They 
were full of Africa and gave indisputable proofs of how well 
they must have studied the Dark Continent and its mazes of 
problems and perplexities. 

Furthermore, the dominant note was encouraging and 
could not fail to stimulate one like myself, to whom the 
cause of the black man, the world over, is most dear. Com- 
ing now to our Negro Missions, we see the same if not a 
greater disproportion of Protestant efforts as compared to 
Catholics. Our work is familiar to American Catholics. 
We form a Society whose members are ordained " sub titulo 



226 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Missionis," the object of a society being chiefly mutual sup- 
port in our work and to have a staunch breakwater, by means 
of which to perpetuate the Negro Missions. St. Joseph's 
Seminary and the Epiphany Apostolic College are our train- 
ing houses. The former has thirteen and the latter sixty 
students who are looking forward with eager joy to the 
Master's work among the forgotten Blacks. The want of 
zeal, fear, prejudice and human respect, are the great 
bugbears which deter many, but a courageous soul 
should overcome these. And the undaunted spirit of our 
non-Catholic countrymen should awaken a corresponding 
chord in the hearts of our Catholic youth. 

J. R. Slattery. 

St. Joseph* s Seminary for the Negro Missions, 
Baltimore, Md. 



THE DIOCESAN CLERGY AND MISSIONS TO NON-CATHOLICS. 

IT is growing daily more evident that the Catholic Church 
is winning its way to the better class of minds among 
our non-Catholic brethren. Any reasonable effort to gain a 
hearing for the Church's claims demonstrates a missionary 
opportunity. 

The religious tendencies of the American people are mani- 
fest. They cling to Protestantism in spite of its shifting 
doctrines and shambling organizations because it offers them 
the sovereignty of Jesus Christ for their soul's salvation. 
According to the last census there are about thirteen millions 
of Protestant church members, and a moderate estimate of " ad- 
herents " would not fall short of a number three times as large. 
Nothing can account for this condition but the prevalence of 
a powerful religious sentiment, dominant, almost universal, 
among our non-Catholic countrymen — a determination to 
secure eternal happiness by obedience to the Gospel of Christ. 
The entire nation is eager for religion. Earnest and virtuous 



THE DIOCESAN CLER G Y AND MISSIONS. 227 

men and women can win adherence everywhere to any form 
of Christian belief. 

It is not mainly by family traditions, nor by social influ- 
ences that the Protestant churches are kept up. It is by 
downright appeals to the religious sense of the people and 
by honest personal choice. The more worldly attractions are 
but adjuncts to the deep stirrings of religious aspirations. 

It is pitiful to see how this fertile soil is wasted. Apart 
from the errors of the common run of sects, the most gro- 
tesque delusions gather followers if advocated by earnest 
men. Read this clipping, made last winter from a Detroit 
daily paper : 

JOSEPH SMITH'S SON. 



LATTER DAY SAINTS DEDICATE A COLKMAN TEMPLE. 



And Joseph Smith, Jr., President of the Church, Officiated — His Father 
Founded the Mormon Faith — Largest Sect iu Coleman. 

Coleman, Mich., Feb. 21. — Tne latter-day saints of this place have just 
dedicated their new church. The village was thronged with the faithful 
from surrounding towns, and an excursion train was run from Beaverton, 
where the saints have recently organized a society. The chief drawing 
card was Elder Joseph Smith, of Lamont, la., son of the prophet, Joseph 
Smith, founder of the faith 

Elder Smith, "president of the high council and president of the church 
of the world," preached the sermon. For over one hour he held the vast 
audience spell-bound, and gave them a sound, clear talk on the principal 
lines ol their faith. 

It was about five years since the latter-day saints commenced operations 
here, and they have kept steadily increasing, until now they are the 
strongest society in Coleman, numbering 84 members. It was less than 
one year ago that they decided to build a place of worship and the building 
they have dedicated is free of debt, costing nearly |3,ooo. 



Having repudiated polygamy the Mormons enter the field 
with no small chance of success. If this preposterous and 
till recently unclean sect, can win converts in a typical Amer- 



228 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

ican community, what cannot the Church of the living God 
do ? And why do the Mormons succeed ? Not because of 
their errors, but because of their earnestness, and because of 
the fragments of religious truth they have. "Holiness to 
the Lord ! " is their motto, and after holiness the people 
yearn. Only brigands or monsters are drawn together by 
untruth or vice. Our fellow-countrymen are allured to the 
various sects by promise of union with God, made to them 
by deeply earnest missionaries — union with God by pardon 
of sin and the inner guidance of the Holy Spirit. Many of 
them, indeed, if not most of them, change from one erron- 
eous view of the great problems of life to another, and keep 
on changing. But there is every reason to believe that the 
Catholic Church with its unity of truth, its perfect rest of 
soul in the pardon of sin, its twofold union with God in the 
outer gift of the Holy Eucharist and inner touch of the 
Spirit, would win and hold them all. But this fulness of 
truth must be made known to them as their own sects have 
been — urged, pressed, thrust upon them by every missionary 
medium, and chiefly by that most resistless of all influences, 
earnest and devout men and women. 

Everywhere in the rural districts (and this article does not 
refer to the larger cities) one hears of the missionaries of the 
various Protestant denominations. They hold meetings in 
the school-houses, they invite all to attend, and they plead 
for the love of Christ like men on fire. Nothing draws like 
Christ preached by a zealous man or woman. Then these 
rural "evangelists" go to the houses of the people, crave 
leave to pray with them and to read the Bible to them. The 
result is an increase of membership in the nearest church 
and often the formation of a new congregation. They 
organize the society, a minister is engaged, the country 
church is built, and so they continue for some years. But 
after a time, their children, if not themselves, are captured 
in the same way by a rival denomination, a Baptist mission- 
ary, a Methodist, a Campbellite, a Seventh-day Adventist, a 
Mormon, while you and I, brethren of the Apostolic Clergy, 
stand by and are content to laugh at the grotesque antics of 



THE DIOCESAN CLERGY AND MISSIONS. 



229 



our deluded brethren, as they leap up for the fruit of the tree 
of life and grasp only the leaves. Would that all of us loved 
the fruit as earnestly as many of them love the leaves. 

The school-house apostolate is an inviting one. There is 
no manner of doubt but that audiences almost wholly non- 
Catholic can be had in these arenas of all rural discussion. 
Of course conversion to Catholicity is a far different affair 
from the quick and fleeting results of emotional Protestant- 
ism. But it comes from learning the truth, and the truth we 
are bound to preach if we can get hearers. 

They will come to hear us in public halls. I have preached 
over twenty missions to non-Catholics in public halls of small 
towns between September, 1893, ^^^ ^^ following June. 
I always had a fair audience of Protestants, and in nearly 
every place a full house. They came from first to last 
because they were fond of hearing about religion. The little 
hand-bill, advertising the lectures, seen in the village post- 
office, or found in the wagon as the farmer started home was 
enough to draw many of them. Others gladly came at the 
invitation of a Catholic neighbor. The lectures and the 
answers to questions found in my query box were listened to 
with absorbed attention, and my leaflets and pamphlets will- 
ingly accepted. My experience is that of many priests in 
all parts of the country. " Last week,' ' wrote a priest to 
me lately, " we spoke to a large audience of non-Catholics in 
a town where there are but two Catholic families." 

It is not alone in darkest Africa but in brightest America, 
that missionary heroes are called for. And if you say the 
heathen are most easily converted, I answer yes, if you 
please ; but I had rather hew the heavy timber of prejudice 
from the rich soil of an imperial civilization, and wait long 
for a harvest, than put the plough at once into the sand hills 
of complacent heathendom. 

We do not claim that the conversion of this people will 
be immediate, though there have been in history sudden 
impulses of grace sweeping in many millions. Doubtless, 
long familiarity with Catholic faith and practice will be needed 
for the conversion of the average Protestant But all the 



230 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

sooner should we begin. A people whose civilization is daily ^ 
growing more dainty, whose reasoning faculties have been 
hurt for religious investigation by the disappointments of 
Protestant uncertainty, who undervalue dogmatic exactness, 
whose instincts will feel the force of prejudice even after 
conviction shall have released their intelligence, who have 
suflfered from the influence of a prodigious system of lying 
fables about Catholicity, by false history, and by false reports 
of our doctrines and usages — a people thus encumbered are 
not to be converted in a day. But they can be converted 
finally. They will listen to us, and every day we address 
them is so much time taken from the sum total of their ban- 
ishment from the truth. 

The conversion of America can best be done by the secular 
priesthood. I do not mean to compare community missiona- 
ries and secular ones with each other, nor the diflferent states 
of life with each other. But I maintain that in America the 
bishop's priests have the best opportunity for making con- 
versions. The state of life called the secular priesthood has 
its apostolic side. The diocesan clergy are a missionary body 
because the Church of Christ is essentially so, and they are 
its ordinary equipment. All will agree that the proper 
vocation of a bishop is to spread the faith in his diocese just 
as well as to maintain it, to win converts as well as to serve 
the faithful. And the bishop is but multiplied by his priests. 
It is an error to suppose that the secular clergy are the 
ordinary priesthood minus the coips d''Uite^ the latter being 
the community clergy. The corps d^ elite of the Catholic 
church are the bishops, a distinctly apostolic body. The 
grace of the priesthood is itself essentially apostolic or 
missionary and becomes efficaciously so when associated by 
the diocesan organism with that of the bishop. He is the 
Apostle of his diocese. What is good for a bishop to do is 
good for him to have his priests do according to each one's 
gifts, and as far as their order allows. 

Does not the bishop's office include going after the lost 
sheep? You answer, yes, just as truly as caring for those in 
the fold. Well, this means preaching and writing for non- 



THE DIOCESAN CLERGY AND MISSIONS. 



231 



Catholics— functions confessedly capable of being participated 
in by the clergy. There are functions exclusively episcopal, 
but they do not embrace missions to non-Catholics any more 
than the care of souls in a parish. In the propagation of the 
spoken and written word the bishop is a leader of a host of 
co-workers. Will you not allow him a few priests for the 
teeming thousands of immortal souls deluded with error and 
many of them rotting with vice all around you ? Even in 
the ruling of his church he has his vicars, his chancellor, his 
secretary, some of whom are so close to his office as to be 
called his "other self." And shall the bishops have no 
"other selves" for the many millions of non-Catholics 
scattered through our dioceses, or rather among whom our 
dioceses are scattered ? Shall the canon law be better served 
for Catholics than the Gospel of Christ for non-Catholics? 
Shall we have no bishop's missionaries — not even one ? The 
answer is the practical missionary enterprises actually on 
foot or in preparation in several of the American dioceses. 

Of course one thinks instinctively of the religious com- 
munities in connection with this work, nor shall we have 
long to wait for them. They are in a special sense associated 
with the Apostolic See of Rome. But are they so much so as 
the bishops ? What they are to the Pope by ecclesiastical law 
the bishops are by the divine law — and hence the same is to 
be said of the bishop's ordinary clergy. Not for many ages 
have Pope and bishop been so much to each other as in this 
age, and especially in America. 

Moreover, converts will best be started by the clergy who 
must prepare them, instruct them, receive them into the 
Church and maintain them in perseverance. The starting of 
converts and their final reception should be of a piece and 
by the same priest, if possible, or be at least a family matter 
among the diocesan brotherhood. Seculars and seculars 
work well together. The Holy Spirit has given this genera- 
tion many lessons of how much the divine brotherhood of 
the diocese can accomplish, in the canonization of John 
Baptist de Rossi, the miraculous life of the Cure d'Ars, the 
heroic character of such men as Bishop Baraga, the achieve- 



232 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

ments of the members of the Missions ^trang^res. Nor 
should the manifest tendency shown at Rome in the break- 
ing down of barriers between the bishops and the com- 
munities be without its lesson to us. 

No doubt the routine care (to use the term in its highest 
meaning) of the faithful will absorb the g^reater part of the 
energies of the parish priest. But this continual spiritual 
banquet can itself be given a mission savor. The onlookers 
of every creed and of none should always be taken into 
account, drawn to look closer, attracted to study the religion 
of Catholics. Are not the faithful buried in the non-Catholic 
mass as leaven in the lump ? Each Catholic is the exponent 
of his jfaith for edification or for scandal. A missionary 
spirit is therefore called for as against one of indifference to 
outsiders in the routine work of a parish. Catholicity is not 
a secret society, it is a city seated on a hill. 

Zeal for souls, meantime, is hurt by overzeal against error. 
Not that we should hate error less, but that we should love 
the truth more. When Protestants are gathered in your 
church at a Catholic neighbor's funeral, or marriage, or found 
present at some festival, you should say a kindly word of wel- 
come to them, and many kindly words of exposition of the 
doctrines and practices suggested by the occasion. You may 
humiliate them if you like, and fill them with chagrin by 
railing at their errors, but only to embitter them against you 
and your faith. Positive evidence of Catholic truth, given in 
a kindly spirit, makes them their own accusers. Let the 
stated services of your church be made attractive by the 
order and beauty in the Sanctuary, by the sweetness of the 
music, especially by the kindly eloquence of the sermons — a 
quality made up of solidity of doctrine and the adornments 
of rhetoric. Emphasize the essentials. The indispensable 
means of salvation should ever be prominent, whereas we 
too often lay heaviest stress on the helps — preferring some- 
times to preach on some particular devotion rather than on 
the Catholic doctrine which inspires it ; advancing, for in- 
stance, some " popular" adaptation of the Eucharist rather 
than revealing its own infinite depths ; preaching about the 



THE DIOCESAN CLERGY AND MISSIONS. 



233 



saints in a spirit apparently forgetful of the sacraments and 
the virtues which made them saints. 

Enlarge upon the virtues that can best be appreciated by 
those who are without the fold. How much can Protestants 
understand of the supernatural virtues, of the faith of Catho- 
lics, of their repentance, or of their divine charity ? Just as 
much as you or your people will show forth by the practice 
of the natural virtues. Truthfulness, honesty, good citizen- 
ship, temperance, generosity, cheerful patience, loyal friend- 
ship, public spirit, hatred of bribery and corruption — if these 
qualities of true manhood and citizenship are made asso- 
ciates of any form of Christianity they are its best creden- 
tials among Americans. These are the missionary virtues. 
Make yourself and your congregation a powerful help to all 
manner of good living, and you will be no less a true parish 
priest than an effective missionary. Unite the welfare of 
religion and of the civil community in your purposes and 
conduct. This is the best union of Church and State any- 
where ; it is the only possible one in America. Take things 
as they are and try to better them in their own proper de- 
velopment, bringing to the work a sympathetic spirit and 
making yourself at home with all that is good around you. 

I need not point out the missionary value of extra-liturgical 
services in English, the entire congregation singing and 
praying together, and entertained by a short instruction, 
doctrinal, devotional or historical. And once or twice a 
year a short course of lectures should be given in the church 
if Protestants will attend, otherwise in a public hall. Well 
advertised beforehand, delivered by the parish priest or one 
of his neighbors with the fire of deep conviction and with 
evidence of honest preparation, these discourses will do in- 
calculable good. Such occasions are also excellent opportu- 
nities for distributing literature. As to the spirit which 
should inspire both out-spoken and written utterances to 
non-Catholics read the following extract from the Life of 
St. Francis de Sales. 

" In 1594, when he was sent into the Duchy of Chablais, 
he found only seven Catholics at Thonon, its capital. He 



234 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

labored there for five or six years, aided by his cousin, Louis 
de Sales, and in the end brought over to Catholicity between 
forty thousand and fifty thousand souls. His exertions 
seemed to meet with little success for the first four years ; he 
lived in the midst of continual hostility ; and sometimes his 
life was in danger from the fanatical Calvinists in those 
abodes of heresy ; but his angelic sweetness and wisdom 
carried him through all. A pestilence which raged in Thonon 
enabled the servant of God to win the hearts of the people 
by his saintly charity, assisting the sick and dying at all 
hours, by day and night, and deterred by no fear of infection. 
The simplicity and gentleness with which he set forth the 
Catholic truth, gave him such power that, provided only a 
Protestant allowed him a quiet and peaceable hearing, he 
would make his objections disappear almost before they were 

stated His method was always to have some 

particular object in his sermons, such as the explanation 
of some point of faith, or the inculcation of some virtue. 
He preferred rather to set forth the faith as if he were 
instructing Catholics only, without controversially disputing 
against objections ; and by this means the heretics, who 
were very numerous, were gently led to perceive that 
texts on which they relied to defend their errors, rightly 
understood, only proved the truths taught by the Catholic 
Church." 

Use the local press. Not a month will pass but that some 
opportunity will be offered for a plain statement, brief or at 
length, of the Catholic view of a point of morality, or of a 
social question, or of an historical difiiculty. You are a 
citizen as well as a priest, and the union of these dignities 
should make you the foremost man in your community, 
especially in the press and on the platform. I lately asked a 
parish priest how he got along with the papers in his village. 
He smiled and said, " I am sub-editor of both of them." An 
educated man who is willing to contribute short articles 
with a strong moral tendency is a desideratum to the average 
country editor. And what a great missionary outlook the 
use of the press opens to you. But this, and much else that 



THE DIOCESAN CLERGY AND MISSIONS. 



- 235 



I have here counselled, means that some members of the 
ordinary clergy must move out of some cherished ruts. If 
the Church is to become a missionary force we must have 
increase of missionary spirit. 

Beware of minimizing your office. Priests and priests are 
not to be set off from each other as essentially different. 
The eternal priesthood is one, whether vowed more or vowed 
less. Whatever distinctions lawfully exist in the sacerdotal 
order as ecclesiastical states, they do not divide the priesthood 
either in dignity of office or call to perfection. All men who 
are ordained to offer the sacrifice of the New Law are made 
thereby members of the priesthood of Jesus Christ, one and 
indivisible, whose fullness is in the Episcopate. And of all 
legal preferences, none can compare with that which is due 
to the parish priest. He is more strictly the priest of the 
Pope and the bishop, being chosen for the ordinary care of 
souls. But that word ordinary is misunderstood if taken to 
exclude the care of the most necessitous of souls — the non- 
Catholics living in our parishes. 

Never before were the bishops drawn nearer to the Popes 
than in our day ; and hence the bishop's priests also are 
drawn, through them, to a larger and yet larger share 
of the privileges resulting from union with that See 
which is especially named the Apostolic See, and which is 
and ever has been the missionary centre of the whole world. 
Better than ever before can our Saviour say of us all, Pope, 
Bishops, priests and people. " I know mine and mine know 
me." Apostolic conditions are becoming more general in 
the Church every day with the development of the resources 
of modern civilization. The press, the facilities and desire 
of travel, the spread of education, the use of the mails 
and the telegraph, are golden opportunities for spreading the 
true religion. These advantages are God-given, and so 
is the implied command to use them for God's purposes. 
In such times as these, priests worthy the name, gather 
from the very air the grace of inspired zeal. Where in 
former times but one heroic soul struggled in isolated valor 
for hard fought triumphs, a thousand commonplace men, 



236 - AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

enobled by their providential era, can now wifa easy 
victories. 

The Catholic clergy are the very hinges of the ages. 
Relying on the clergy, the Church turns toward her straying 
children and invites them to return. And especially must 
all depend on those who are closely united to the bishops, 
if our Saviour's prophecy shall in our day be fulfilled, or led 
far onward toward fulfillment : "And other sheep I have 
that are not of this fold ; them also must I bring, and they 
shall hear my voice, and there shall be one fold and one 
Shepherd."^ Walter Elliott. 

Paulist Convent, New York City. 



CONFERENCES. 
ON THE INDEX. 

{Decret. S^Junii iSg^.) 

Among the works published under Catholic names and in 
a seemingly Catholic spirit, which have been recently placed 
on the Index of " Prohibited Books," we note the following, 
of two of which English translations have been announced : 

Sabatier Paul. — Vie de S. Fran9ois d' Assise. Paris, Libr. 
Fischbacher, 1894. 

R'enan Ernest. — Histoire du poeple d' Israel. — Tom. iv et 
V. Paris, Colmann L^vy Edit. 1894. 

Pieraccini Abbt Ant: Cure au diocese d'Ajaccio. — Au del^ 
de la vie. Fragments philos. theolog. sur les myst^res 
d'outretombe . Saint Amand. Society anonyme de I'imprim. 
S. Joseph, 1892. 

Abb'e Rogues^ archiprttre de Lavaur. Aimer et Souflfrir. — 
Vie de la R. M^re S. Th^rSse de Jdsus. — Appendice sur la vie 
et mort de M. I'abb^ Roques. — Vues sur le Sacerdoce et 
I'oeuvre sacerdotale ; (Extrait de la vie de la R. M^re S. 
Th^r^se, abbesse du monastere de S. Claire — Lavaur). Publi^e 
avec autorisation de 1' Ordinaire. 

I This article was written before the publication of the last Encyclical 
Praeclara gratulationis. The writer is rejoiced to add his humble voice to 
the great acclaim with which all missionaries hail the venerable Pontiff's 
appeals to our separated brethren. W. E. 



BOOK REVIEW. 337 



BOOK REVIEWS. 

LETTERS OF ST. ALPHONSUS MARIA DE LI- 
GUORI.— Part I. General Correspondence. Vol. III. 
(Vol. XX. of the Ascetical V/orks. — Centenary edition.) 
Translated from the Italian. Edited by Rev. Eugene 
Grimm, C. SS. R. — New York, Cincinnati, Chicago : 
Benziger Bros. 1894. 

Of the numerous letters (considerably over a thousand) which 
have been thus far published in the present English edition, of the 
correspondence of St. Alphonsus, the volume before us contains 
some of the most interesting and of special value to the clergy. 
The majority of these are addressed to priests, religious and secular. 
They cover every variety of topic, and show us the Saint in all the 
charm of his familiar and friendly relations, whilst they teach us 
much about the uses of practical methods in the missionary life and 
in the direction of souls. As a matter of course St. Alphonsus 
comes before us mostly in the capacity of superior, either directing 
the members of his Congregation, or advising as bishop the secular 
clergy of his diocese. But he is as good as the lowest of his sub- 
jects when there is question of doing humble service, or a hope of 
resigning an honored charge. To Father Antonio de Paola who 
continually urges him to establish a house of the Order in Rome, 
for the purpose of strengthening the Institute, the Saint writes that 
he has no notion of doing so. 

We have but one thing to do : to live united with God, to observe our 
rules, to be charitable to every one, to be satisfied in our miseries, and, 
above all, to be humble, for a little pride can ruin us, as it has ruined 
others. 

Although he gready esteems this good priest, whom he had made 
superior of the house at Scifelli, he does not hesitate to point out to 
him his faults when there is question of benefiting the community 
which is apt to suffer from them. 

You must be very charitable towards them. I repeat the last injunction 
designedly, for your intentions are good and your conduct is irreproachable; 
but on the other hand your health is poor, you suffer from hypochondria, 
and this malady renders one disagreeable to the brethren. This was the 
only defect that was noticed in you, when you were rector at Sant' Angelo. 



238 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



I compassionate you on account of your delicate state of health ; but I 
beg you to endeavor to treat every one with meekness. 

To a young priest who is overscrupulous and consults the Saint, 
he gives this answer : 

I have read your letter attentively. 

Here is my answer : Place yourself at the feet of Jesus Christ and say to 
Him : O Lord, I wish to do what is pleasing to Thee, and not what is pleas- 
ing to me. Jesus Christ will answer you : What pleases me is that you do 
what the Superiors command you. . . . 

This ministry, you say, is for me a source of scruples. But, my dear Luigi, 
find me a confessor with a timorous conscience, who exercises his ministry 
without having scruples. If your mode of reasoning were correct, no one 
would hear any more confessions. 

It is a rule, that after having heard confessions, the confessor should not 
think of what he has done. It is sufficient that he has not deliberately 
wished to commit an error, I say deliberately. 

When Brother Alphonsus Maria, as the Saint frequently signs 
himself in his letters, is vexed with the folly or perversity of others 
he has a curious way of showing his temper. ' ' May God make a 
saint of Father Maione ! " he writes to P. Andrea Villani, because 
that good priest had misled the Saint into an awkward and serious 
mistake in an action toward the ciril authorities. "I pray God 
to make them saints ! " he writes to Stefano Liguori at Ciorani, who 
had informed him of the insubordination of certain priests. " I see 
very well, the devil has shown his horns ; it is he that makes some 
act through passion and party- spirit." But he does not content 
himself with this pious wish, when there is need of severer expres- 
sion. " Those subjects," he writes to the Fathers at Ciorani, "who 
render themselves useless (by their disobedience), and who cannot 
labor for the salvation of souls as their ministry requires of them, 
should be dismissed from the Congregation." He was as good 
as his word, and restored order by insisting on due respect being 
paid to legitimate authority, even though it was his own person that 
represented it; for, said he, " I wish to die a quiet death, and not 
to leave the Congregation an example of unpunished disobedience. " 
(Letter 943.) 

However, the correspondence is not altogether confined to the 
recommendation of virtues and the enforcing of ecclesiastical dis- 
cipline. There are many which have a purely business character, 
and which show that the man of prayer and ascetic habits rather 
gained than lost by these in acute perception of the proprieties of 



BOOK review: 



239 



practical life. He gives pointed and sober advice about building, 
mortgages, even politics so far as they concern the interests of 
souls to be saved. He wants the clergy to pay their debts promptly, 
and not have tradesmen complain. Not even lawyers are exempted 
from his paternal interference in this respect. Thus we find the 
bishop write to the administrators of the Church of St. Nicola the 
following : 

Arienzo, Episcopai, Pai,ace, March 8, 1774. 

Gbntlemen : — Signer Alessandro Manto has complained to me of not 
having received sufficient fees for services rendered by him to the Church of 
St. Nicola, in his quality of advocate. You can, without difficulty, grant 
him an additional ten ducats ; require of him the usual receipt. 

The last words are significant, and show that the holy bishop 
was quite alive to the possibility of a lawyer making a new action 
out of the neglect of formalities in a bygone one. 

The volume will be read with much interest. There must be 
some four or five hundred additional letters, which will complete 
this excellent edition of the ascetic works of the holy Bishop and 
Founder. The twenty-two volumes, with general alphabetical 
index and the Life of the Saint, make a complete library of which 
the priest may safely avail himself- at all times for guidance in the 
direction of souls as well as for his personal sanctification. 



THE LOVER OF SOULS. Short Conferences on the 
Sacred Heart of Jesus. By a Priest. — New York, Cin- 
cinnati, Chicago: Benziger Bros., 1894. Pp. 176. 

Among the many excellent books written of late years to explain 
the devotion to the Sacred Heart and, at the same time, to animate 
the reader to the pious practice of it, few, if any, can be said to 
cover the practical purpose of the present Conferences. They are 
short and simple ; yet the author is evidently a man of more than 
ordinary theological acumen and training. Therejis in his language 
likewise that sympathetic tone of personal devotion which begets 
conviction quite apart from the argument which the subject matter 
proposes. 

The Conferences begin with the familiar exposition of Catholic 
devotion in its leading phases, set forth the various manifestations 
of divine love calling for a return of love, and point out the ways of 
corresponding to the divine call. Just a trifle didactic, especially in 



240 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the concluding chapters, the style of these Conferences is sufficiently 
accentuated to keep the reader or hearer in the right temper of 
reflection, which, as St. Ignatius says, is the core of spiritual 
advancement. The occasional air of originality which may be 
remarked in the exposition of his subject, offers no room for criti- 
cism from a theological point of view, and the author, who modestly 
withholds his name, gives no occasion for serious controversy on a 
subject in which carelessness of language would endanger soundness 
of doctrine. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

THE PRINCIPLES OP fHE RELIG-IOUS LIFE. An Explication 
of the Catechism of the Vows. By the Rev. Peter Cotel, S.J. Trans- 
lated from the French by L. W. Reilly. — Baltimore : John B. Piet. 1894. 
i2mo. Pg. v, 242. Pr. bound, I1.50. 

LB SA.INT SACRIFICE DE LA MESSE. Son explication dogma- 
tique, liturgique et asc^tique. Par le Dr. Nicolas Gihr. Traduit par M. 
l'Abb6 L. Th. Moccand, V. G. Rev6tu de I'Approbation de S. G. Mgr. 
Isoard, Ev6que d'Annecy. Deux Volumes. — Paris : P. Lethielleux. 1894. 

OCCASIONAL SERMONS AND LECTURES. By the Rev. John 
M. Kiely. — New York : D. Appleton & Co. 1894. Pr. bound, $1.00. 

RELATIO ANNALIS SEXTA pro anno scholastico 1893-1894, de 
Pontificio Collegia Josephino de Propaganda Fide, Columbi Ohio, Foed. 
Sept. Americae Stat.— Columbi, Ohioensis : Ex Typograph. Polyglotta 
Collegii Josephini. 1894. 

SUMMARIUM LOQIOALB secundum Principia S. Thomae Aquinatis, 
ad usum Alumnorum Pontificii Collegii Josephini Columbensis, Auctore 
Josepho Jessing, ejusdem Pont. Collegii Rectore. Fascic. i. Prima 
mentis operatic. — Fascic. ii. Secunda mentis operatio. — Fascic. iii. 
Tertia mentis operatio. — Columbi, Ohioensis. Ex Typographia Poly- 
glotta Collegii Josephini. 1894. 

TRACTATUS CANONICUS DE SACRA ORDINATIONB. Au- 
ctore Petro Gasparri, instit. Cath. Parisiensis professore. Vol. I et II. 
Parisiis : Delhomme et Briguet. 1893. Pr. Fr. 13. 



AMERICAN 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



New Series — Vol. I. — (XL) — October, 1894. — No. 4. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 

WHERE was the Garden of Eden located ? Where was 
the seat of Paradise ? In what quarter of the globe* 
are we to look for the cradle of our race ? These are ques- 
tions that have been asked again and again, time out of 
mind. Philosophers and theologians, historians archaeolo- 
gists, biologists and zoologists, have taken them up and dis- 
cussed them in bulky tomes, but none of the answers so far 
given have met with general acceptance. 

A special human interest attaches to these questions, and 
hence the marked attention they have always received from 
both the learned and the illiterate. In them there is some- 
thing that excites our curiosity, and stimulates the spirit of 
investigation as do few other subjects. They speak of the 
origin of humanity and of the beginnings of history than 
which nothing is more fascinating or mysterious. 

The questions asked are three in number, but they are in- 
reality one and the same. Paradise and Eden for the pur- 
pose of this paper, may be considered synonymous terms and 
both may be looked upon as the mother-region of mankind. 

241 



243 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

An answer therefore to any one of the questions propounded, 
will be for most persons — for all believers in the Bible 
assuredly — a response to all three, and what is said of one 
may, in great measure be iterated, and with equal truth, of 
the other two. 

At the very outset we are surprised by the diversity of opin- 
ions that have obtained regarding the site of the Terrestrial 
Paradise, and the various points of view from which it has 
been considered. A collection of the various notions that 
have prevailed, and of the opinions that have been defended 
would form an interesting contribution to our literature, and 
illustrate some strange phases in the development of human 
thought. It would, indeed, be difficult to find anything more 
curious or instructive, or that better exemplifies how hope- 
lessly at sea scholars may be regarding a subject which, at 
the first blush, would seem to admit of at least an approxi- 
mate, if not a definitive, solution. 

Sonie of the earlier commentators of the Scriptures, Philo- 
Judaeus, Origen and the majority of the Alexandrine School 
viewed Paradise in a mystical and allegorical rather than in 
a literal sense, although they did not deny the existence of 
a real Paradise in a geographical sense. According to Philo 
it typified virtue, whilst according to Origen it was a picture 
of the soul or of heaven. In their view Paradise was not 
terrestrial but celestial ; the trees spoken of were not trees but 
angelic virtues ; the rivers mentioned were waters of grace ; 
the delights of the garden were the peace and happiness 
which are fruits of innocence. By many the Paradise 
described by Moses was regarded as identical with that 
spoken of in the New Testament, and it was accordingly 
located in a mysterious region intermediate between heaven 
and earth but belonging to both. 

Many modern exegetists, especially among those belong- 
ing to the rationalistic school, or the school of the " Higher 
Criticism," go much farther than the interpreters of the 
Alexandrine school, and deny in toto the existence of the 
Garden of Eden as described by the author of Genesis. 
According to their view the stories of Eden and Paradise are 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



243 



but myths which are no more deserving of credence than are 
those of the Greeks, Hindus and Persians respecting the Isles 
of the Blessed, Mt. Meru and Haraberezaiti. To them the 
Garden of Eden is but the Hebrew analogue of the Elysian 
Fields, the Gardens of the Hesperides, the Fortunate Isles of 
the Greeks ; the Asgard of the Scandinavians, and the 
Kwen-lun of the Chinese ; all of which we are told, are as 
truly mythological in character, and as devoid of foundation 
in fact as are the tales and legends of the peoples named in 
respect of their gods, demi-gods, and heroes. 

To add to the doubt and confusion introduced by those who 
refuse to see in the Mosaic Garden of Eden anything beyond 
myth or allegory, certain representatives of modem thought 
come forward and tell us that science has demonstrated that 
there could not have been such a place as the traditional 
Paradise and that it could not have been the cradle of our 
race, for the simple reason that humanity has not, as is gen- 
erally imagined, descended from a single pair but from several 
pairs. The defenders of this theory — known as polygenists 
— assure us that the doctrine of the unity of species to which 
the world has so long pledged its faith, is no longer tenable ; 
that instead of being one, there are many species, of man ; 
and that they not only have no genetic connection with one 
another but that they originate in diflferent parts of the earth 
far remote from each other. 

It is true, that polygenists are not agreed as to the number 
of the species into which the genus Homo should be 
divided, or what characters should determine the different 
species. It is, indeed, difficult, to find any two who 
agree on these points. According to Virey there are but 
two species ; Professor Louis Agassiz makes nine ; Borey 
de Saint Vincent finds fifteen, while Desmoulins raises 
the number to sixteen. 

By some anthropologists the races or species of men 
are divided according to the color of the skin or hair ; by 
others according to the form and size of the skull ; and by 
others still according to the size of the facial angle. Again 
men are grouped according as they have straight or wooly 



244 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

hair, or according to the combined characters of the hair, 
cranium and complexion. It may here be remarked that as 
used by polygenists the terms races and species are singu- 
larly vague and confused, and the lines of demarcation 
drawn by different authors are often as fanciful as their 
theories are grotesque. 

Agassiz divides the earth into nine great regions or king- 
doms, which were first peopled by men especially created for 
these different divisions of the globe. He would have it, 
however, that all these groups of mankind constituted but 
one species although descending from different parents, but 
his opponents, in spite of all his protestations that he was a 
monogenist, insisted on it that he was a polygenist pure and 
simple. 

At all events, whatever may have been the great naturalist's 
contention regarding the unity of the human species, his 
theory made for several points of origin for the human 
family instead of one, according to the traditional view. 
There were, therefore, not one but several cradles for 
humanity ; several mother-regions for the progenitors of the 
countless tribes that now inhabit the world. This view, it is 
obvious, is entirely subversive of the Adamic origin of the 
human species, and denies by implication the truthfulness of 
the Genesiac narrative respecting the Garden of Eden as the 
birthplace of humanity. 

Quatrefages, however, has shown that this " theory which 
attaches a human race to every centre of appearance as a 
local product of that centre, ought to be rejected by anyone 
who sets the least value upon the results of observation. ' ' ^ 
How Agassiz with his vast knowledge, could give his name 
to a theory that is contradicted not only by zoology and 
anthropology, but also by ethnology and linguistics, has 
always been an enigma that many of his friends and 
admirers have found inexplicable. 

Vogt, like Agassiz, contends for different centres of appear- 
ance for humanity, but, unlike the Cambridge professor, he 

I "The Human Species," p. 167. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



245 



is a staiincli believer in the simian origin of man. Vogt is 
an ardent evolutionist, while Agassiz, to the day of his death, 
battled against evolution as a theory that was utterly at 
variance with both the facts of biology and paleontology. 
Agassiz was a believer in God, the Creator of all things, 
while Vogt ignores, if he does not deny, the existence of a 
personal Creator, for the reason, he tells us that there is " no 
sphere of action for such a being." Not only, according to 
Vogt, are there manifold species of men indigenous to 
diflferent and widely separated regions of the earth, but 
these species are the descendants of certain anthropoid 
apes, of certain " missing links," connecting man with 
the baboons and monkeys of the Old and New Worlds. 
American races of men, he will have it, are derived from 
American apes, Negroes from African apes, Negritos from 
Asiatic apes.^ 

Haeckel agrees in the main with Vogt in his evolutionary 
views respecting the simian origin of man, but inclines to 
monogenism rather than polygenism. The Professor of Jena 
denies, however, that there was ever, strictly speaking, a 
first man, or a first pair, from which all the races of men are 
descended. Man's first ancestor, far from being the perfect 
man depicted by Moses or Milton, was but a simple speck of 
protoplasm, in the form of an humble Moneron or Amoeba, 
which made its appearance on our planet not a few thousands 
of years ago, but many millions, yea many "milliards of 
thousands of years ago." He sketches out the genealogy of 
our race through twenty- two typical, transitory forms, some 
of which have never had any existence outside of Haeckel's 
fertile brain, and asks us to accept his fantasies as the latest 
results of veritable science. He differs from many of his 
colleagues in advocating but one centre of appearance for 
mankind. In this respect, at least, he is at one with those 
who hold the unity of origin of the human species, although 
the common ancestor of the various races of men, according 

I "Lectures on Man," London, 1864, p. 467. In his Memoire sur les 
MicrocSphales, however, the Genevese naturalist carries back the genealogy 
of man to one primeval ancestor. 



246 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

to Haeckel, is much farther separated in time from those who 
now inhabit the earth than is Adam, the traditional father 
of our species. Haeckel's Paradise — he puts an interrogation 
mark after Paradise, which is rather singular in one who is 
always so positive in his statements — is located in a hypo- 
thetical continent at the bottom of the Indian Ocean. From 
this submerged continent, of which Wallace declares there 
isno good evidence, Haeckel would have us believe, are 
derived the various races and tribes of men who now people 
the Old World and the New. Lemuria, then, according to 
Haeckel takes the place of the Garden of Eden as described 
in Genesis, and an insignificant Amoeba replaces the Scrip- 
tural Adam as the progenitor of mankind ! 

Without entering into details it is suflficient to observe here 
that the theories of Agassiz, Vogt, and Haeckel are very far 
from meeting with general acceptance. There is no evidence 
whatever either in favor of polygenism or of the simian origin 
of man. On the contrary, the more closely the subject is 
investigated, the more carefully all the facts bearing on the 
case are scrutinized and compared, the more inevitable 
becomes the inference in favor of monogeny. 

The ablest exponents in every department of science have 
been and are defenders of doctrine of the unity of the human 
species. Linnaeus, Buflfon, Cuvier, the two Geoffroys, Hum- 
boldt, Johann Miiller, Quatrefages and Mivart have, from 
purely scientific data, demonstrated that all the evidence, so 
far adduced and collated, proves, in the most unmistakable 
manner, that there is but one species of man, and that the 
teaching of science regarding the specific unity of mankind 
is identical with that of Scripture. Polygenism, therefore, 
may be dismissed as an hypothesis which is not only unten- 
able, but as one which is not sustained by any of the sciences 
that are appealed to in its defence. With truth then does 
Winchell declare " the plural origin of mankind is a doctrine 
now almost entirely superseded."^ 

Even so ardent a polygenist as the distinguished linguist 
Pott, of Halle, is compelled to affirm, " I must declare, 

I Pre-Adamites, p. 297. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



247 



although with regret, that there is nothing in philology 
which is directly opposed to the derivation of all men from a 
single primitive pair, and the prospect of one day demon- 
strating such origin by decisive arguments drawn from lin- 
guistics cannot be ignored." For this and other similar 
reasons, which it were easy to adduce, we may consider the 
unity of the human species as one of the accepted teachings 
of science as well as one of the admitted dogmas of general 
Christian belief. 

What has been said of polygenism may likewise be pre- 
dicated of the theory of the animal origin of man. Not only 
is it not proven, but all positive evidence is decidedly against 
it. No "missing link," no pithecanthropoid, no alalus^ 
connecting man with any species of catarrhine apes, or other 
irrational mammal, has yet been discovered, and, judging 
from the systematic and zealous yet fruitless search that has 
been made for such a link, in all parts of the world, we may 
safely conclude that it never will be forthcoming. 

I make this declaration not because I have any prejudices 
against the theory of evolution as applied to plant life or to 
animals other than man, for I have none. Evolution is a 
theory which, like any other theory, must stand or fall, 
according as it is supported or not supported by the facts on 
which it is supposed to rest. So far is it from being 
established that many of the most eminent authorities in 
contemporary science hesitate to give in their adhesion to 
the theory as currently taught. It is indeed a plausible and 
a fascinating theory, but is it warranted by a correct inter- 
pretation of nature ? We might allow it to be or not to be. 
But even if demonstrated it has nothing to do, as far as the 
evidence now stands, with the evolution of man. There is 
nothing in organic evolution properly understood that is 
irreconcilable either with Scriptural teaching or Christian 
orthodoxy. All statements to the contrary proceed from 
either scientific or hermeneutical myopia, or both together. 
For it is a notable fact that in the Mosaic account of Creation 
the word bara — to create from nothing — is used only three 
times, first in the creation of inorganic matter, secondly in 



248 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

the creation of animal life, and lastly in the creation of man 
into whose face was "breathed the breath of life." As far, 
then, as revelation is concerned there is nothing in a theistic 
view of evolution excluding man that any orthodox Christian 
may not accept. On the contrary, far from being opposed 
to the theory that animal and plant life is developed and dif- 
ferentiated by the operation of natural causes, the words of 
the Sacred Text seem to imply it, if they do not express and 
corroborate it. But be this as it may, whatever views we 
may entertain respecting the evolution of plants and animals 
we are still entitled to hold to the traditional belief that man is 
not only specifically one but also that he was specially 
created with all his noble powers of mind and soul, and not 
evolved from some lower form of animal life. 

Some years ago, in an address delivered before the Anthro- 
pological Congress in Vienna, the eminent pathologist and 
anthropologist. Professor Virchow, certainly not biased in 
favor of Scriptural teaching, greatly shocked some of the 
more radical of his evolutionary friends by asserting that 
" Since the Darwinian theory of the origin of man made its 
first victorious mark twent> years ago we have sought for 
the intermediate stages which were supposed to connect man 
with the apes ; the proto-man, the pro-anthropos is not yet 
discovered. For anthropological science the pro-anthropos 
is ever a subject for discussion. At that time in lunspruck 
the prospect was, apparently, that the course of descent from 
ape to man would be reconstructed all at once ; but now we 
cannot even prove the descent of the separate races from one 
another. At this moment we are able to say that among the 
peoples of antiquity no single one was any nearer to the ape 
than we are. And at this moment, too, I can affirm that there 
is not upon earth any absolutely unknown race of men." 
These declarations Virchow has reiterated and emphasized on 
various occasions since, and they may be accepted as the 
latest word that science, not theory, has to say on the 
simian origin of humanity. 

The unity of human origin is then a fact. The Bible 
declares it, science confirms it. The special creation of our 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



249 



first parents is also a fact. Scripture attests it and science 
allows it. These facts being admitted we have eliminated 
from the discussion two elements of difl&culty that we need 
not further consider. 

There was then a first man. There was a primeval pair 
from which all the rest of mankind have descended. 
Humanity, then, had a birthplace. There was consequently 
a Paradise, a Garden of Eden, as declared by the Scriptures, 
and as disclosed by the traditions of so many nations and 
races of men. 

But the question again arises : Where was this mother- 
region of our race? Where was the Garden of Eden of 
which Genesis speaks ? In what part of the world shall we 
look for this Paradise of delights of which sages have spoken 
and of which poets have sung ? It must have been some- 
where on the earth's surface. It will not do to say that such 
a birthplace for humanity is a myth and never had any exist- 
ence. Fronl what precedes it is clear that such a supposi- 
tion is not only ungrounded but absurd. 

Some have thought that the question could be answered 
oflf-hand, from the indications given by the Bible alone. 
Others have fancied that the data of science were quite 
sufficient to settle all doubts regarding the matter. Others 
again are like Hudibras, who 

" Knew the seat of Paradise, 
Conld tell in what degree it lies, 
^ And as he was disposed, could prove it 

Below the moon, or else above it." 

In the minds of some the question is encumbered with 
insuperable difficulties, and a reply to the queries raised is in 
the very nature of the case impossible. In the minds of 
others these same difficulties are brushed aside by a majestic 
wave of the hand, and the exact spot occupied by the Garden 
of Eden is at once pointed out. There are those who despair 
of ever knowing more about the matter than we know now, 
whilst there are others who anticipate the early discovery of 
some Chaldean tablet, some Accado-Sumerian monument, or 



250 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

some antediluvian record that will give full details and 
settle, as if by magic, all further controversy. 

Truth to tell, there is scarcely a region on the earth's 
surface in which the Garden of Eden has not been located at 
one time or other. Some have imagined that it was at the 
Pole in the ''faerie North," others at the Equator; some 
have placed it in Siberia, others in Peru. It has been 
located in the places now occupied by the Caspian Sea and 
Lake Van, on the banks of the Ganges, and in the island of 
Ceylon. Hebron, Damascus, Jerusalem, Babylon have each 
been considered as situated on the identical spot where our 
first parents were created and where they fell. According to 
Credner the Garden of Eden was in the Canary Islands ; 
according to Hasse it was in Prussia on the shores of the 
Baltic. Herder imagined it to have been in Cashmere, Well- 
hausen opined that it was farther East, while de Bertheau held 
that it was in the north of the continent. Livingston sought 
for it in equatorial Africa and hoped to find it at the head 
waters of the Nile, if he could but be fortunate enough to 
discover them. Daumer maintained that it was in Australia, 
whence man emigrated to America, and thence to Asia and 
Europe by way of Behring's Straits. The terrestrial Para- 
dise of the old Celts was in Avalon, a sea-girt isle of the 
North ; whilst the Paradise of the Jewish commentators who 
have followed Josephus and mediaeval Hebrew exegetists 
is "in the very centre of the earth, somewhere in the 
shadowy East, far removed from the approach of mortals. " 

Galindo places the primitive home of our race in the New 
World ; H. L. Morgan makes the valley of the Colombia 
river the Garden of Eden, the " seed -land of the Gauowanian 
family," whom, it seems, he regards as autocthonous. Dr. 
Rudolph Falb, by a careful study of the Quichua and 
Aimara languages, fancies that he has discovered such a close 
relationship between them and the Aryan and Semitic 
tongues that he is warranted in concluding that we must 
look to the lofty plateaus of Bolivia and Peru for the 
cradle of the human race. Professor D. G. Brinton, in a 
recent lecture expresses his belief that the first home of 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



251 



our race was either in Western Europe or Northern Africa. 
From the time of Cosmos Indicopleustes, who flourished 
in the sixth century, to our own, travelers and explorers have 
sought for the Garden of Eden, and geographers have indi- 
cated on their maps the places they imagined it should occupy. 

Sir John Mandeville, who made his celebrated journey to 
the East in the early part of the fourteenth century, places 
Paradise " beyond the land and isles and deserts of Prester 
John's lordship." " Of Paradise," he says, " I cannot speak 

properly for I was not there I repent not going 

there, but I was not worthy." "But," he continues, 
" Terrestrial Paradise, as wise men say, is the highest place 
of the earth, and is so high that it nearly touches the circle 
of the moon there as the moon makes her turn." 

Again, he tells us, " You shall understand that no mortal 
may approach to that Paradise ; for by land no man may go, 
for wild beasts that are in the deserts, and for the high 
mountains and great huge rocks that no man may pass by for 
the dark places that are there ; and by the rivers may no man 
go, for the water runs so roughly and so sharply, because it 
comes down so outrageously from the high places above, 
that it runs in so great waves that no ship may row or sail 
against it ; and the water roars so, and makes so huge a 
noise, and so great a tempest, that no man may hear another 
in the ship though he cried with all the might he could. 
Many g^eat lords have essayed with great will many times to 
pass by those rivers toward Paradise, with full great com- 
panies ; but they might not speed on their voyage ; and 
many died for weariness of rowing against the strong waves ; 
and many of them became blind, and many deaf, from the 
noise of the water ; and some perished and were lost in the 
waves, so that no mortal man may approach to that place 
without the special grace of God."^ 

Columbus, as we learn from his letters, thought he had 
found the site of the Garden of Eden, in what is now Vene- 
zuela or Colombia. True, he was not aware when he wrote 
that he had discovered a new Continent. He was under the 

I '• The Voyage and Travaile of Sir John Mandeville," chap. xxx. 



252 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



impression that he was on the east coast of Asia, the ocean- 
laved shores of far-oflf Cathay. He accepted as true the 
traditional belief which located Paradise in farther India, or 
yet more to the eastward, and was fully persuaded that he 
had, in the Orinoco, discovered one of the rivers that watered 
Eden. 

Writing to his royal patrons, Ferdinand and Isabella, of 
the region at the head-waters of the Orinoco he says, " I 
have no doubt, that if I could pass below the equinoctial line 
after reaching the highest point of which I have spoken, 
I would find a much milder temperature and a variation in the 
stars and in the water ; not that I suppose that elevated point 
to be navigable, nor, indeed, that there is any water there ; 
indeed I believe it impossible to ascend thither, because I am 
convinced that it is the spot of the earthly Paradise whither 
no one can go but by God's permission." Continuing, he 
adds, "There are great indications of this being the terres- 
trial Paradise, for its site coincides with the opinions of the 
holy and wise theologians whom I have mentioned ; and 
moreover, the other evidences agree with the supposition, for 
I have never either read or heard of fresh water coming in so 
large a quantity in close conjunction with the water of the 
sea ; the idea is also corroborated by the blandness of the 
temperature ; and if the water of which I speak does not 
proceed from the earthly Paradise, it appears to be still more 
marvelous for I do not believe that there is any river in the 
world so large or so deep. " The more I reason on the 
subject," he concludes, " the more satisfied I become that the 
terrestrial Paradise is situated on the spot I have described ; 
and I ground my opinion upon the arguments and authorities 
already quoted. May it please the Lord to grant your High- 
nesses a long life and health and peace to follow out so noble 
an investigation, in which I think our Lord will receive great 
service, Spain considerable increase of its greatness, and all 
Christians much consolation and pleasure, because by this 
means the name of our Lord will be published abroad."' 

Unger considered Paradise as situated in the lost Atlantis. 

I "Select Letters of Christopher Columbtxs," translated by R. H. Major 
F.S.A. pp. 136-142. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



253 



Ignatius Donnelly does the same. Accepting Plato's account 
of it, as given in the Timaeus, as so much veritable history, 
he attempts to show, not only that Atlantis was the Garden 
of Eden, but that it was also the only possible centre of dis- 
tribution for the various races which now people the Old and 
the New Worlds. And more than this. " Not only," he avers, 
" was it the original home of mankind, but it was likewise the 
focus whence have eradiated all our cereals and most useful 
plants and fruits and all our domestic animals. Here too, he 
claims, many of the most valuable inventions which have 
ever blessed our race had their origin.^ In a word, if we are 
to believe Donnelly, Atlantis was the home of art, science 
and literature, and the people who inhabited it not only 
enjoyed all the peace and happiness of which the ancient 
poets speak as being the lot of the privileged mortals of the 
Golden Age, but they were the prototypes of the gods, demi- 
gods and heroes of a later and less fortunate period. 

M. Mayou, in an ingenious article in a late number of La 
Notivelle Revu^ argues that the Desert of Sahara embraces 
what was once the Garden of Eden. What is now a bleak 
and arid waste was once, he believes, a land of marvelous 
beauty and fertility, watered by large rivers and meandering 
streams ; covered with rich verdure and luxuriant vegeta- 
tion ; densely populated and the happy home of a peaceful 
and contented people. A new reading of Genesis in the light 
of certain hieroglyphical inscriptions of the twelfth dynasty 
regarding the pyramid of Cheops will, he assures us, solve 
the mystery that has so long enshrouded the monument 
Gizeh, and reveal the reason why all attempts hitherto made 
to locate the Paradise of Scripture have proved futile. The 
Nile, he will have it, formerly flowed through Sahara, where 
it divided into four branches, constituting the quadrifurcate 
river of Genesis. At this time the people of Egypt, who, 
even then, were a powerful and a highly civilized nation, 
suflfered from lack of water, and cast about for increasing 
their supply of this all-important element. They obtained it 

1 See "Atlantis, The Antediluvian World, " chap. ix. 

2 Les Secrets des Pyramids de Memphis^ April 15, 1893. 



254 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

by deflecting the course of the Nile, and directing it through 
their own country. By making a large cut or ditch through 
an elevation near Khartoum, they appropriated to themselves 
the waters of the great reservoirs of equatorial Africa, and 
shut off" from their neighbors in Sahara the only source of 
irrigation on which their country could depend. It was thus 
man and not God, who closed Paradise and made entrance 
into it impossible, by taking from it the water that gave it 
fecundity and life. 

Mr. F. W. Warren, Count Saporta and others, basing their 
opinions on certain forced interpretations of various ancient 
legends and traditions, and on the results of scientific explor- 
ations of the regions within the Arctic Circle, reach the con- 
clusion that the first home of our race was in the circumpolar 
North. The investigations of botanists declare the singular, 
but as yet inexplicable fact, that " all the floral types and 
forms revealed in the oldest fossils of the earth originated 
in the region of the North Pole, and thence spread first 
over the northern and then over the southern hemisphere, 
proceeding from north to south." The writers just men- 
tioned make the same contention for the world's fauna. 
And why not? they inquire. Are we not justified in locating 
humanity's birthplace where the animals and plants which 
serve man and on which he subsists and which have accom- 
panied him on his migrations over the earth's surface, are 
known to have originated? "Only from the circumpolar 
regions of the North," affirms Count Saporta, "could primi- 
tive humanity have radiated as from a centre to spread into 
the several continents at once and to give rise to successive 
emigrations toward the south. This theory best agrees with 
the presumed march of the human races." * At the Pole of 
the earth, therefore, " the sacred quarter " of the world, " the 
navel of the earth," " the mesomphalos, " the umbilicus orbis 
terrarum^ are we to look for the long lost Eden, for the cradle 
of our race. There where the aurora borealis is seen in all 
its splendor, under a canopy formed by palpitating and waft- 

I Popular Science Monthly, Sept., 1883, p. 678. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



255 



ing draperies, quivering curtains and shining streamers of 
prismatic hues of matchless brilliancy and varying intensity, 
our first parents spent the first happy days of their existence 
and there, amid a frozen desolation lie buried the " hearth- 
stone of humanity's earliest and loveliest home."^ 

From the foregoing opinions, entertained at various times, 
the reader can infer how prominent a part wild conjecture, 
unbridled fancy and love of learned paradox have played in 
the numerous investigations that have been made with a 
view of determining the geographical seat of Paradise. And, 
be it remembered, allusion has been made to only a few of 
the opinions that have in times past been promulgated 
respecting humanity's pristine home. Nearly a hundred 
different theories regarding the location of the birthplace of 
our race have been advocated at one time or other, nearly all 
of which are now discarded as improbable or ridiculous. 

Must we then look upon the Garden of Eden as a phil- 
osophic myth, as many have done, and can we find no place 
for it but Utopia ? Because we refuse to believe that it was 
located on some elevated plateau of the Andes, or on the top 
of some mountain in farther India, or in the desert of Sahara, 
or in the fabled Atlantis, or in some mythical Hyperborian 
land which has been icebound for the past million years or 
more, must we abandon all further quest for this "sacred 
quarter ' ' of the world ? 

Or — and here we run against another objection — must we 
believe that such a place is " past finding out," because, for- 
sooth, a certain school of modern scientists will have it that 
man has been on earth far longer than is commonly supposed 
according to the traditional view. Must we accept as demon- 
strated the current teachings regarding the antiquity of our 
race that are based on a few skulls, flint-flakes, and arrow- 
heads found in sundry parts of the Old and New Worlds, and 
conclude that all reputed indications as to man's cradle-land 
are misleading and that all vestiges of his early sojourn on 
our planet are obliterated ? 

I " Paradise Found," p. 433, by W. F. Warren. 



256 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

In view of the diverse and conflicting opinions that have 
been held by the foremost exponents of science concerning 
certain finds which have been made during the past few 
decades, one should hesitate about giving an afl&rmative 
answer to these questions. 

Most of our readers are familiar with the controversy that 
raged a few years ago about the flint flakes discovered by 
Abb^ Bourgeois at Thenay, and the proof they were fancied 
to give to the theory of Tertiary man. Tertiary man is now 
utterly discredited by all sober-minded scientists. Our readers 
will remember, too, the sensation occasioned by the dis- 
coveries of the Neanderthal man who was variously estimated 
to have antiquity of from several hundred thousand to less 
than a hundred years. And they are not ignorant of a dis- 
cussion which is still going on respecting the age of certain 
flint-flakes and implements found at Trenton on the banks of 
the Delaware — remains which, according to some archaeolo- 
gists, attest for the aborigines of New Jersey an antiquity 
of ten or twenty thousand years, while other equally com- 
petent experts assert that there is not a scintilla of evidence 
that such remains date back more than a few centuries at 
most. 

Again, no one who makes any pretense of keeping 
abreast with current discussions in science can be ignorant of 
a controversy now going on between astronomers, physicists 
and mathematicians on the one side, and certain geologists, 
biologists and archaeologists on the other, regarding a ques- 
tion — the age of the earth — that has a direct bearing on the 
antiquity of the human species. Lord Kelvin, Professors 
Tait and Newcomb, George H. Darwin, M. Faye, Clarence 
King and others assure us that reasoning from calculable 
data the age of the world, instead of counting hundreds of 
millions and billions of years, as many geologists and biolo- 
gists assert, cannot exceed ten or twenty million years at most, 
and that, consequently, the period during which man has 
existed on earth must of necessity be proportionally brief. 
Until, therefore, geologist, biologists and archaeologists can 
agree among themselves as to the interpretation of the facts 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



257 



with whicli their respective sciences deal, and until they can 
disprove what now seem to be undeniable conclusions of 
physics, mathematics and astronomy : until in word, they 
can establish by certain proofs that the traditional view of 
the recent origin of man is not well founded, we may feel at 
liberty to maintain that his appearance does not antedate the 
time assigned to this event by a legitimate interpretation of 
the Septuagint Version of the Hebrew Scriptures. Such 
being the case we have the age of our race reduced from the 
untold aeons of Darwin and Haeckel, and de Mortillet, to a 
period that does not cover, at the outside, more than ten or 
twelve thousand years. 

It is easy then to see how human history may extend back 
to our first progenitor ; how we may have reliable traditional 
knowledge of the conditions of life and place of abode of our 
first parents, and how, in a word, history and tradition, aided 
by modern research, may enable us to determine, at least 
approximately, humanity's cradle-land, the Garden of Eden 
of the Bible. 

Just here we encounter another difl&culty that requires 
explanation. Primitive man, it is objected by many modern 
writers, if not the offspring of some anthropomorphic ape ; 
if not " descended from a hairy quadruped furnished with a 
tail and pointed ears, probably arboreal in his habits," as 
Darwin describes him, was far from approaching the Mosaic 
or Miltonic ideal which has so long flattered our vanity. 
Primitive man, far from being the type of physical perfection 
and intellectual power and moral excellence we have been 
wont to regard him, was, we are assured, but little removed, 
either in moral or physical character, from the Orang-outang ; 
was as far below certain African and Oceanic negroes as the 
latter are inferior to the Teutonic or Pelasgic types. These 
premises being taken for granted, the conclusion is drawn, 
that if Genesiac man is a myth, the Garden of Eden is also 
a myth. 

But is it certain that this new view of the condition of 
primitive man is correct ? Is there any evidence that he was 
the brutal, groveling savage that he is so often pictured to 



I 



358 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

have been ; that there was a time when, in the words of a 
German writer " people were unable to make any conceivable 
distinction between a plant and a man?" One can safely 
and unhesitatingly aflSrm that there is no more evidence for 
such a view of primitive man than there is for polygenism, 
or the simian origin of our race, or for the vast antiquity so 
often claimed for the human species — theories, which, if not 
all discredited, certainly do not repose on the firm foundation 
of thoroughly attested, irrefragable, scientific facts. 

So far, not a single fact has been disclosed by the study of 
the various races of men, civilized and savage, which cannot 
be explained as well by retrogression from a higher type, as 
by development from a lower one ; that devolution and subse- 
quent partial progress, it may be, cannot account for as well 
as evolution. Even Renan is forced to admit that there is 
not a single example in all history evidencing the passage of 
any people by its unaided efforts, from a state of savagery to 
a condition of civilization. Taking history as our guide — 
and it is our only safe guide in the premises — we cannot go 
back to a time when man was either physically or intellect- 
ually on a lower plane than he is now ; or when he was not 
capable of as high ethical conceptions as he is to-day ; or 
when his religious nature was less elevated or responsive 
than it is at present. We may go back to the beginnings of 
history and even to the prehistoric past and man is civilized. 
This is the lesson taught by the excavations of Schliemann 
at Mycenae and Hissarlik, not to speak of similar investiga- 
tions made elsewhere in the Orient by other explorers. The 
Egyptians, as we first know them, far from being savages, 
were the builders of temples and monuments that are still 
the admiration of the world. Assyria, Chaldea, Babylonia, as 
shown by the marvelous discoveries in the valleys of the 
Tigris and Euphrates during the past decades, were not in- 
ferior to Egypt in civilization or culture, and there is similarly 
incontestible evidence for believing that their predecessors, the 
Accadians and Sumerians, were equally enlightened and 
advanced in all the more important arts of life. 

That the antediluvians, and the patriarchs, and the imme- 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



259 



diate descendants of our first common father were less higlily 
endowed physically and intellectually ; that their moral and 
religious conceptions were of a lower order science cannot 
assert, because science, as science, can know nothing without 
the aid of history, and history, as just stated, but confirms 
and amplifies the indications of Scripture. 

It is not my purpose to urge the opinion of De Maistre, 
who contended that the civilization of primitive man was of 
the most advanced and splendid character : to maintain that 
Adam and his immediate descendants had all the advantages 
of what we now denominate civilization ; that they enjoyed 
all the refinements of luxury in the way of food, dress, 
furniture, habitation, means of locomotion — the product of 
ages of invention and industry — which are so characteristic 
of our age ; that they were distinguished by the culture of 
which we boast so much ; that they excelled in art or litera- 
ture, or were noted for their zeal in promoting the cause of 
science, or forwarding the progress of invention and discovery. 
Far from it. The civilization which we set so much store 
by, and which has its drawbacks as well as its advantages, is 
the fruit of slow and gradual evolution ; the accumulated 
results of hundreds of generations of labor and experience ; 
the heritage developed by the expenditure of thousands of 
years of the world's best thought and energy. But what I 
do maintain is that primitive man was neither the debased 
and grovelling brute of certain contemporary anthropologists, 
nor the magnificent savage of Rousseau — a being whose 
desires were confined to the gratification of his physical needs 
and passions, who was mild and impassive, and utterly 
indifferent to either good or evil. Prescinding from the 
supernatural state to which, according to Scripture, man was 
raised, and the original grace of which theology speaks, 
reason and science, not to speak of the unanimous testimony 
of the ethnic traditions of our race, tell us that man — as he 
came from the hands of his Creator — was physically a perfect 
specimen of humanity endowed with all the gifts of mind 
and soul necessary to enable him to govern the family of 
which he was the chief, and to instruct its members in their 



26o AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

duties toward God and toward one another. Homines 
Sylvaticiy the first men undoubtedly were in the sense that 
they lived in forests and on plains, and not in palaces and 
cities. Ignorant they unquestionably were of the most, if 
not of all of the arts of life that we now deem indispensable* 
They could neither read nor write. Their language, prob- 
ably monosyllabic, was undoubtedly of the simplest 
character. It was, as we may believe, a human invention, 
and not a divine institution. The Creator undoubtedly 
endowed man with intelligence and the faculty of speech, 
and in this sense it may be asserted that language is of 
divine origin. He gave man the instrument of speech, but 
there is no evidence that He did more than this. Still less 
is there any evidence that He was the immediate Author of 
the first language spoken by our race, that language for 
which a certain school of philologists have so long been 
seeking, and from which, they will have it, all other forms 
of speech are derived.^ But notwithstanding this, they were 
still — those who were true to the lessons of the father of human- 
ity — physically, morally, and intellectually, the peers, if not 
the superiors, of any of their descendants. Far from being 
just a little above the brutes they were rather but a little 
below the angels. They were men of perfect physique and 
of almost god-like intelligence. Considering the degeneracy 
of the race as compared with the original type, one can 
truly say of man as he now is that he is, in the words of 
Emerson, " but a dwarf of humanity," '* a god in ruins." 

Again, the much mooted question as to the geographical 
seat of Eden comes to the fore. Has modern research done 
anything toward clearing up the mystery which has so long 

I The view that spoken language is a human invention and not a divine 
institution, is not, as is so often imagined, entirely a modern one with 
Catholic scholars. It was held and defended by St. Gregory of Nyssa, in the 
fourth century, as will be seen in his twelfth book Against Eunomius. The 
essence of language, as all know, is an intellectual activity known as the 
verbutn mentale ; while actual speech, the verbum oris, is the external 
manifestation of thoughts by articulate sounds. God undoubtedly gave our 
first parents the power of speech, the verbum mentale, but there is no reason 
to believe that He also endowed them with the verbum oris, and much less 
that He constructed for their special behoof a complete and perfect language. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 261 

enveloped the Paradisaic home of our race, or are we to 
renounce forever all hope of even an approximate solution of 
the enigma ?^ 

Leaving out of consideration the vagaries of certain trans- 
formists and polygenists ; discarding the dreams of eccentric 
speculators and paradox-mongers, it may be asserted of a 
truth that the general consensus of the highest and most 
trustworthy" authorities, in every department of inquiry is 
agreed on locating the cradle of humanity somewhere in 
Western Asia. 

Quatrefages, the eminent anthropologist, is disposed to 
consider the lofty plateau of Pamir as the original hearth- 
stone of mankind. This is also the view of the distinguished 
orientalist, Fran9ois Lenormant^ 

According Lenormant the four rivers — the Phison, Gehon, 
Tigris and Euporates — which watered Gan-Eden or Paradise, 
were what are now known as the Indus, Oxus, Tarin and 
Jaxartes. Here, too, curiously enough, on this *'Roof of the 
World," on this "Central Boss of Asia," is the spot where the 
Puranas locate the primeval Aryan Paradise, the holy Mount 
Meru ; — the centre, according to Parsi traditions, whence 
radiated the first Aryan migrations, and one of the regions 
of the earth which even Mohammedan teaching has assigned 
as the cradle-land of our species. 

The theories, however, of Quatrefages and Lenormant, 
plausible as they may appear from certain points of view, 
and cleverly advocated as they are by their originators, do 
not find much favor with the generality of scholars. The 
concurrent testimony of the majority of investigators who 
have most profoundly studied the subject unites in proclaim- 
ing the basin drained by the Euphrates and Tigris as the 
almost certain mother-region of the human family. It is here 
that the author of Genesis locates the Garden of Eden. • 

It will not do to say tliat the testimony of the Bible is 
ruled out of court, because in the estimation of so many it is 
regarded as a divinely inspired record. It is here considered 

1 "The Human Species." — pp. 175-177. \ 

2 ^^ Histoire Ancienne de I' Orient " Tom. I, p. 104. 



262 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



simply as a historical document, composed by one who knew 
whereof he wrote, and whose narrative, humanly considered, 
bears every indication of having been founded on information 
that was perfectly reliable, and drawn from traditions which 
were fresh and carefully preserved by the descendants of the 
Patriarchs. Neither will it avail to object that the authen- 
ticity of Genesiac account of Eden has been impaired by 




Site of Eden according to Lenormant and Quatre/ages. 
modern criticism or proven to be unworthy of credence. 
Such statements, as all know, have been made, but assertion 
is not proof, nor is conjecture demonstration. 

Nor again can it be argued that the time which intervened 
between the creation of our first parents and the date of the 
composition of Genesis was so great as to preclude the possi- 
bility of simple tradition being adequate to preserve in their 
integrity all the facts of the Mosaic narrative. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 263 

When we realize the power of memory as illustrated in the 
conservation and transmission from generation to generation 
of the noble epics of Homer ; when we reflect that the " Rig 
Veda," which is four times the length of the Iliad, was pre- 
served intact from age to age and is still preserved by the 
unaided memory ; when we bear in mind that the great body 
of Vedic literature, stupendous as it is in volume, has been 
perpetuated and handed down to us by oral traditions despite 
the fact that the art of writing has been known in India for 
twenty-five centuries ; when we remember that there is yet 
a class of Hindu priests, who still learn the contents of their 
Sacred Books " as their ancestors learnt it thousands of years 
ago, from the lips of a teacher," we shall experience no difii- 
culty in understanding how the author of Genesis could give 
an accurate account of what so profoundly aflfected the first 
representatives of our race. Only a few generations existed 
between Adam and Moses and it would be preposterous to 
assert that the Hebrew lawgiver could not have an exact tra- 
ditional knowledge of what took place in antediluvian times, 
when we know of what wonderful feats the disciplined 
memory is capable in other matters that are more difficult 
and far less important. 

Yet more. When we consider how admirably and unex- 
pectedly recent explorations in the valley of the Nile and in 
the plains of Mesopotamia have illustrated and corroborated 
so many passages of Holy Writ ; how Egyptian inscriptions 
and Chaldean tablets have illumined and explained what 
before was unintelligible and seemingly at variance with the 
known facts of history, we may justly hesitate about accept- 
ing the latest hypothesis the ' ' Higher Criticism ' ' may urge 
against the authenticity of Genesis because, forsooth, some 
passages in the text may not admit of ready or certain inter- 
pretation. And then, too, when we remember what has been 
accomplished in exegesis since Layard, and Botta, and Smith 
and Rawlinson, began their epoch-making investigations, we 
can form some estimate as to what the future has in store in 
the way of buried records regarding the history of the 
patriarchal world. 



264 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

For the reasons indicated, therefore, and for others which 
need not be specified we can, I insist, safely trust to the 
declarations of the Genesiac narrative regarding the location 
of Eden, and find in it our best guide toward answering the 
long vexed question of humanity's first abode. 

In following the Bible it is quite evident that the site of 
the Garden of Eden must have been somewhere between the 
sources of the Euphrates and the Tigris and the embouchure 
of these rivers in the J'ersian Gulf. There can be no doubt 
about the topography of Paradise thus far. These two rivers 
are specially mentioned as among the four which watered 
the Garden of delights. It is true that Renan and others 
will have it that the Tigris and Euphrates here mentioned 
were named after other rivers, probably in Northern India, 
which, long ages before, were known by these names. It has 
also been surmised that both these names were substituted 
for names entirely diflferent, which have long since been for- 
gotten. There is, however, not the slightest trace of genuine 
evidence for either of these assumptions. But the great 
difficulty for those who accept the indications of the 
Scriptural account of Paradise, and believe that the Eu- 
phrates and Tigris of Genesis are identical with the rivers that 
at present are so named, is the identification of the two other 
rivers mentioned, viz. the Phison and the Gehon. 

Many scholars and theologians, among them the erudite 
Dom Calmet, locating Eden in the high lands of Armenia, 
where the Euphrates and Tigris take their rise, have imagined 
that by the Phison and the Gehon are to be understood the 
Phasis and the Araxes. But the great objection to this 
theory is that these rivers, which have entirely diflferent 
sources and are totally disconnected, can by no legitimate 
construction of the narrative be considered as being branches 
of one parent stream. 

The distinguished orientalist. Sir Henry Rawlinson, one of 
the founders of the science of Assyriology, places Eden in 
the land of Eridu, in Babylonia — a land celebrated in Chal- 
dean hymns both for its great fertility and singular beauty. 
According to this view the Djuha, which flowed by the city of 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 265 

Eridu, would be tlie Gehon, and the Arahter would be the 
Phison, while the other two rivers — the Tigris and the 
Euphrates, which now water the plains of Babylonia — are 
the identical rivers of that name referred to in Genesis. 
Rawlinson's view is substantially the same as one put forth 
two centuries ago by Huet, the learned bishop of Avranches, 
and maintained by such eminent scholars as Morin, Bochart 
and others of their contemporaries. It has much in its favor, 
but in the present status of the question is less probable than 
other views that have been advanced. 

Some twelve years ago Friedrich Delitzsch, professor of 
Assyriology in L/cipsic, published his remarkable book — Wo 
lag das Paradies — in which he advanced the opinion that 
the Garden of Eden occupied the same site on which was 
subsequently built the city of Babylon. According to his 
theory, which is very ingeniously devised and defended, the 
Phison and Gehon of Scripture were no other than two 
canals — the Pallacopas and the Schatt-en-Nil. The former, 
which was a large and navigable canal, answering to the 
Phison, started from the Euphrates below Babylon, and fol- 
lowing the course formerly taken by the Euphrates itself 
finally emptied its waters into the Persian Gulf. The other 
canal, called by the Arabs Schatt-en-Nil — likewise large and 
navigable — starts from the left bank of the Euphrates at 
Babylon and constitutes the Gehon. It afterwards returns 
to the parent stream near the confines of central and southern 
Babylonia. In spite, however, of the array of interesting 
facts marshalled together in support of his thesis and the air 
of plausibility he has been able to give to his arguments, 
Delitzsch does not seem to have as many supporters of his 
theory as it was at one time supposed he would have. His 
proflfered explanations of the Genesiac narrative are often 
rather suggestions of difficulties that in the present state of 
knowledge are simply unanswerable. 

Going further southward we come to another locality 
which has often been looked upon as the true site of Paradise. 
This is the land intervening between the confluence of the 
Tigris and the Euphrates and the Persian Gulf. Into the 



266 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW 

Shatt-el-Arab, formed by the union of the Euphrates and the 
Tigris, flow two other large rivers, the Karun and the Kerk- 
hah — the former of which, it is contended, corresponds to 
the Phison, and the latter to the Gehon. Both these rivers, as 
well as the Euphrates and Tigris, admirably conform to the 
descriptions of them given in the second chapter of Genesis. 
The Karun especially has all the characteristics of the 
Phison. Originating in the mountains of eastern Persia, it 
traverses formations of metomorphic and crystalline rocks 
in which are found not only gold but also the minerals which 
are supposed to answer to the onyx and bdellium of the 
Sacred Text.^ 

An objection has been urged against this site on the ground 
that the words of Scripture appear to imply that Paradise 
was not below the confluence of the four rivers, as this view 
demands, but rather above the point whence they diverge. 
To this it may be replied that too much stress seems to be 
laid on this difficulty which, atter all, is more apparent than 
real. The meaning to be attached to the words will mani- 
festly depend greatly on the location of the author of the 
Edenic narrative at the time of writing, and the point from 
which he is supposed to have viewed the site of Paradise. 
They may therefore be interpreted to mean that Eden was 
situated below the point of affluence of the four rivers and 
not above their point of affluence as is generally supposed. 

Another objection — and by most people supposed to be an 
unanswerable one — against locating the Garden of Eden in 
the basin watered by the Shatt-el-Arab is that the land be- 
tween the confluence of the four rivers and the Persian Gulf, 
was at the time of Moses either a dismal uninhabitable marsh 
or was entirely submerged. 

There is, no doubt, good reason for believing that within 
historic times the Persian Gulf extended much farther north- 
ward than it now reaches ; that not only much of the southern 
Chaldean plain was under the sea, but that all the four Para- 
disaic rivers entered the gulf at difierent points. This, 

I Cf. chap, iv of Modem Science in Bible Lands, by J. W. Dawson. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 



267 



however, does not invalidate the argument in favor of the 
Garden of Eden having been located south of the confluence 
of the Euphrates and the Tigris. For if it is a fact that the 
country in this section was entirely submerged in early 
historic times, it is equally certain that since the advent of 
man on earth the Babylonian plain extended much farther 




southward than it does at present. For there is incontestible 
geologic proof that in the beginning of the human period 
not only was Europe and Western Asia more elevated than 
they now are, but also that much of the northern portion of 
the Persian Gulf was occupied by dryland, much higher and 
better drained than the land which now borders the sea in 



268 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

this vicinity. At the close of the Pleistocene period, and 
prior to the appearance of man, the Shatt-el-Arab was longer 
than it is at present ; the country through which it passed 
was not only elevated above its present level, but was also, 
as we may conceive, highly fertile, well wooded and covered 
with luxuriant vegetation of a subtropical character. The 
climate was mild and equable and the environment was all 
that could be desired to make this spot an ideal home for the 
first representatives of our race. 

Such a view does not, as may be urged, necessarily pre- 
suppose a greater antiquity for man than orthodoxy is willing 
to concede. The elevation and depression of the northern 
coast line of the Persian Gulf do not, as the Uuiformitarian 
school of geologists contend, imply the aeons which have been 
claimed for them. On the contrary, as has been demonstrated 
by the recent investigations by Howorth and Prestwich,^ 
there have been since the advent of man on earth abrupt and 
transitory elevations and subsidences over large continental 
areas. At the close of the "Mammoth Age" which was 
subsequent to the appearance of man, according to most 
geologists, there was, says Howorth, "a very violent and 
widespread dislocation of the earth's crust, which led to the 
upheaval of some of the loftiest mountain chains," and with 
this, as he supposes, was immediately connected the latest 
epoch of mountain building, by which the Himalayas and 
Cordilleras, the Ural, Altai and Thian-Shan Mountains were 
tilted up to their present heights. " Such an upheaval," he 
asserts, " was accompanied b)' an equally rapid and substantial 
subsidence in other places, of which there is much 
evidence."^ 

Here then at the long last we have found the object of our 
quest. In the basin drained by the Shatt-el-Arab, on the 
northern border of the Persian Gulf, at the extreme soutll of 
old Babylonia, so famous in history — the theatre of so many 

1 Cf. Prestwich in the ' ' Proceedings of The Royal Society, " vol. liii, 1893, 
and Howorth's two learned and interesting works, "The Mammoth and the 
Flood," and " The Glacial Nightmare and the Flood." 

2 Geological Magazine, 1892, p. 63. 



THE SITE OF THE GARDEN OF EDEN. 269 

political, social and religious revolutions, and the trysting 
place of humanity's first intellectual jousts — must we locate 
the Garden of Eden. Here, too, we find the prototype of the 
Elysian Fields, the Gardens of the Hesperides, the Isles of 
the Blessed, the Olympus, the Centre of the Earth — the 
Omphalos — of which poets have sung and of which all 
peoples have their traditions. ^ 

This sacred spot, while answering fully to the description 
of the Genesiac narrative, at the same time meets all the 
requirements of theology and satisfies all the exigencies of 
history and science. 

All the indications of authentic history points to this spot 
as the cradle of our race. It was here indeed that history 
was first written ; it was in this land that the first libraries 
were formed ; it was in the capitals of Mesopotamia that 
literature essayed its earliest flights. 

From this spot went forth those streams of humanity that 
have long since reached every nook and corner of the habit- 
able earth. From this quarter of the globe have come all 
our most useful plants and cereals — wheat, rye, oats, barley, — 
and most of our domestic animals. Hence have proceeded the 
cow, the hog, the sheep that supply us with food and cloth- 
ing ; the horse, the ass and the camel, that carry our burdens 
and the ever faithful dog, man's vigilant protector and 
friend . 

I After the above was in print, I was pleased to find what is essentially a 
confirmation of the views advocated in this paper, in the latest work of the 
illustrious orientalist, Prof. A. H. Sayce, of Oxford, In "The Higher 
Criticism and the Verdict of the Monuments," p. 95, this distinguished 
scholar writes of the site of Eden as follows : 

" The scenery, however, is entirely Babylonian. The Eden itself, in 
which the garden was planted, was the plain of Babylonia. This we now 
know from the evidence of the cuneiform texts. It was called by its inhabi- 
tants the Edinu, a word borrowed by the Semites from the Accado-Sumerian 
edin, 'the (fertile) plain.' To the east of it lay the land of the 'Nomads,' 
termed Nod in Genesis, and Manda in the inscriptions. The river which 
watered the garden was the Persian Gulf, known to the Babylonians as ' the 
river,' or more fully 'the bitter' or 'salt river.' It was regarded as the 
source of the four other rivers whose ' heads ' were thus at the spots where 
they flowed into the source which at once received and fed them." 



270 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



It is toward this point that all the lines of human thought 
converge as to their natural centre. Thither must linguistics 
look for a solution of many of its riddles. To this favored 
portion of the world must ethnology go if it would read 
aright the affiliations of the various races and the countless 
tribes of human kind. Here alone have the traditions of the 
great Euphratean Valley their proper interpretation, and 
here alone have the myths which have so long puzzled 
Orientalists their full significance. 

The Garden of Eden is not then " a bit of mythical geog- 
raphy" as it has so often been denominated. It is a fact and 
one of the most interesting and important, and suggestive 
facts of all history ; the open sesame which explains many 
facts that were else an enigma ; the thread of Ariadne that 
prevents us from losing ourselves in ' ' the labyrinth of fanci- 
ful theories and in the chaos of clashing opinions," in which 
the lot of the modern searcher after truth is cast. 

No ; the story of the Garden of Eden is not, I repeat it, a 
mere fiction. It is a trustworthy narrative which, in the 
words of a distinguished French writer, '•' gives us, under the 
form of infantine poesy, the first page of the moral history of 
humanity ; of that history which has for documents not 
simply a few flints, more or less perfectly fashioned, but all 
that survivance of a divine life in the human soul manifested 
by its aspirations and its dolors, and by that universal senti- 
ment of forfeiture which is evidenced in all mythologies, 
and which is the dominant aspiration of all religions." 

And, strange irony of fate ! It is in close proximity to 
the spot here indicated for the seat of Paradise that those 
who are most opposed to the Biblical account of man's origin 
have been compelled, by the overmastering indications of 
science, to locate the birthplace of our race. For not far to 
the south of the lower Euphratean basin is situated Haeckel's 
hypothetical lycmuria,^ a submerged continent of which, as 
already stated, there is no satisfactory evidence, and whose 
existence, even if proven, would throw no more light on the 
Biblical Eden than is afforded by the area contended for in 
this paper. Where the Euphrates, therefore, empties its 

I "History of Creation," vol. i, p. 361 and vol. 2, p. 326. 



DAILY MASS. 



271 



wateis into the Persian Gulf, or at a point not far remote, 
was it that " the Lord God planted a Paradise of pleasure 
from the beginning wherein he placed man whom he had 
formed."^ This is the sacred spot which tradition, history 
and science, with no uncertain voice, designate as the land 
wherein lived the men of the "Golden Age," as humanity's 
first, and fairest and happiest home. 



J. A. Zahm, C. S. C. 
hotre Dame University. 



DAILY MASS. 

One Mass is wortli more than all the treasures of the world. — B. Leonard 
of Port Maurice. 

The Mass is the abridgment of divine love and the compendium of all the 
benefits conferred on men. — St. Bonaventure. 

Necessario fatemur, nullum aliud opus adeo sanctum ac divinum a Christi 
fidelibus tractari posse, quam hoc tremendum mysterium. — Cone. Trid. 

nTF I were a parish priest," recently exclaimed a fervent 
^ convert, ' ' it seems to me that I would never rest until 
the great body of my parishioners were habitual attendants 
at daily Mass." "If you were a parish priest," replied a 
pastor who had overheard the remark, " you would in all 
probability be very well satisfied if your people habitually 
attended Mass even on Sundays and holidays. ' ' The pastor 
presumably looked upon the convert as a sort of visionary 
enthusiast, wrapped up in a longing for unattainable ideals, 
and impatient, as converts are ofttimes wont to be, of low 
standards of piety among their brethren in the faith. The 
convert possibly regarded the pastor as a priest not over- 
burdened with that zeal for the glory of God and the salva- 
tion of souls which his profession calls for, and his ordination 
presupposed him possessed of. The judicious reader will 
perhaps be of the opinion that the remark of the layman was 

I Genesis, 11, 8. "^ 



272 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

as natural and intellig^ible as the reply of the cleric was 
flippant and inadequate. 

It is assuredly not surprising that an intelligent observer 
should be struck by the glaring inconsistency between the 
belief of all Catholics concerning the Mass, and the practice 
of a great many of them as regards attendance thereat. 
Thoroughly convinced that the oblation of the adorable 
Sacrifice is the central fact of all Christian worship, how can 
Catholics nevertheless manifest, as to the matter of taking 
an actual part in the oblation, so lamentable an indifference. 
For, that thousands and thousands of the faithful are indiffer- 
ent in this respect, it would be futile to deny. Even among 
the sterling Catholics who form perhaps the majority of 
every parish, men and women faithful in the performance of 
all essential duties, "good, practical Catholics" as we are 
wont to call them, how many are there not who entirely 
neglect the daily performance of the grandest and most 
efficacious of all acts of piety. 

When the celebrant of the week day Mass, in the average 
parish of the land, turns around to say "Orate, fratres," what 
proportion of those who without notable inconvenience 
could be present are really there to join their prayers to his ? 
Yet all his people firmly believe that at the altar is being 
consummated the most sublime and most beneficial sacrifice 
possible on earth or in heaven. With a certainty precluding 
all shadow of doubt, they know that " when the beams of the 
morning sun come in at the windows of the church, and fall 
for a moment into the uncovered chalice, and glance there 
as if among precious stones with a restless, timid gleaming, 
and the priest sees it, and the light seems to vibrate into his 
own heart, quickening his faith and love, it is the Blood of 
God which is there, the very living Blood whose first 
fountains were in the Immaculate Heart of Mary." ^ 

That the Mass is the holiest of acts and the most pleasing 
to God, that it is potential beyond all other acts in appeasing 
the divine anger and victoriously combatting the forces of 

I Faber, "The Precious Blood." 



BAIL Y MASS. 



273 



hell, and that of all conceivable sacrifices it is incomparably 
the most fruitful of graces and blessings to men on earth arid 
of relief and solace to the souls in purgatory, these are 
truisms familiar as household words to every adult Catholic, 
yet sadly inoperative as to their influence upon the conduct 
of many. Daily attendance at the oblation of the 
unbloody Sacrifice is certainly the best of all devotions. 
Whose fault is it that it is so very generally neglected ? 
Primarily and principally, doubtless, the fault of the faithful 
themselves ; but in a measure, also, and sometimes in a 
large measure, the fault of the pastors as well. 

It may be taken for granted that in every parish there is 
to be found a considerable number of fervent souls, genuinely 
religious men and women, who are so far consistent Catholics 
that they habitually consider salvation to be the paramount 
affair in life, who daily acquit themselves of the obligation of 
seeking God's assistance in prayer, and who approach, every 
few weeks, the tribunal of penance and the Holy Table. 
That such people do not in addition frequently, not to say 
habitually, attend week-day Mass, is probably due to one of 
two causes : Hither the opportunity is wanting, or their 
pastors have not sufiiciently impressed upon them the excel- 
lence of the practice and the incalculable advantages to be 
derived therefrom. While the latter cause is undoubtedly 
the more common, the former is not so rare as is desirable, 
and all too frequently one is made aware of the existence 
of both. 

The pastor who wishes to see an appreciable number of 
his people present at the daily Mass, must make up his mind 
to celebrate regularly every morning, and to celebrate at a 
fixed hour. Nothing will more speedily reduce his week- 
day congregation to a mere handful than their uncertainty 
as to the question whether on a given morning, the Holy 
Sacrifice will be offered or not. If he omits celebrating once 
or twice one week and two or three times the next, if it is no 
uncommon experience for the assembled parishioners to wait 
half an hour or more and then be informed that ' ' Father 
Edward is indisposed this morning," it is tolerably certain 



L 



274 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



that the number of attendants will sooner or later dwindle to 
a' few saintly women whose piety is proof against all dis- 
appointments, and whose charity possibly attributes to 
Father Edward's indisposition a gravity that is non-existent. 

Apart from any strict obligation resting upon a pastor to 
celebrate as frequently as he can, obligation incurred by the 
reception of stipends, by promises, etc., he can hardly be 
allowed, in the matter of omitting to say Mass^ the same 
latitude as might be given to a simple priest who is free from 
the burden of a pastoral charge. Yet even the simple priest 
is advised to celebrate as often as is possible. The advice is 
based on reasons which the Venerable Bede thus groups 
together : " The priest who, being prevented by no legiti- 
mate reason, does not celebrate, deprives, as far as in him 
lies, the most Holy Trinity of the greatest glory and most 
signal honor that can be rendered to it ; the angels of a 
sovereign joy ; sinners of their pardon ; the just of the aids 
and graces which they need ; the souls in purgatory of a con- 
siderable relief ; and the Church of the spiritual benefit of 
Jesus Christ Himself, of the. supreme remedy." 

The truly zealous pastor will not only afford his parish- 
ioners the opportunity of hearing Mass as often as he reason- 
ably can ; he will, moreover, offer the Holy Sacrifice at the 
hour best suited to the convenience of the majority of those 
desirous of being present. His celebrating a half-hour or an 
hour earlier, or later, than the time which his personal pre- 
ference would select, he will account a trivial sacrifice, 
amply compensated for by the additional worshippers thereby 
drawn to the house of God, for the glorification of His name 
and their own spiritual and bodily welfare. 

Once the hour is determined, however, the parish priest 
will best consult the interests of his people and best insure 
the attendance of an increasing congregation by observing 
the strictest punctuality in beginning Mass at the appointed 
time. As a general rule, it is mistaken charity to postpone 
Mass, even on Sundays, for ten, fifteen or twenty minutes, 
because the church is not well filled, or the members of the 
choir are not all present ; and on week-days the priest will 



DAIL Y MASS. 



275 



lose nothing by displaying all the promptitude of the most 
exact business man. A daily Mass known to be celebrated 
invariably at six o'clock is far more likely to be participated 
in by a numerous congregation than one understood to begin 
"about six o'clock," a phrase in which the qualifying term 
suggests probable tardiness of uncertain duration, and which 
in any case wants the definiteness and precision that satisfies 
the orderly mind. 

Regularity and punctuality on the part of the celebrant, 
then, are the primary requisites to the general practice, in 
any parish, of this devotion to the daily Mass. If these were 
the sole requisites there would be but little cause for com- 
plaint, since in the overwhelming majority of parishes these 
conditions actually exist. That something additional is 
needed to draw the people in appreciable numbers to the 
morning Sacrifice is evident from the pitifully empty 
churches in which day after day the tremendous Mystery of 
Calvary is renewed. This additional, and equally essential, 
condition is the vivid realization by the faithful of the in- 
comparable excellence of the Holy Mass ; a living, practical 
belief in the untold blessings of which its devout attendants 
are the recipients ; a firmly settled conviction that to treat 
the Holy Sacrifice with indiflference, to abstain from taking 
part in it when one can readily do so, is an act of genuine 
folly. To animate the faithful with such sentiments and to 
persuade them to act in conformity therewith, is surely the 
duty of their spiritual father, of the pastor whose mission it 
is, not merely to seek out and bring back to the fold the lost 
sheep of his flock, but to lead all his sheep to rich and 
abundant pasturage. 

This is an age of special devotions, of sodalities, unions, 
apostleships, confraternities, arch-confraternities, and pious 
associations of all kinds. Excellent as the purpose of each 
may be, it is quite conceivable that a pastor may doubt the 
expediency of indiscriminately recommending to his people 
such a multiplicity of devotional exercises, and may hesitate 
about warmly endorsing the practice of any considerable 
number of them. Granting, however, that he is desirous of 



276 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

seeing his parishioners devotional at all, that he believes in 
the advisability of their performing any other acts of piety 
than those which are of strict obligation, it is diflScult ta 
imagine him feeling hesitancy in recommending as frequent 
attendance as possible at the oblation of the august Sacrifice 
of the altar. Here, surely, he is secure and need have no 
scruple as to the wisdom of his action. Here is a subject 
upon which he may insist, in season and out of season, with 
the certitude that he is not overstepping the bounds of due 
discretion. Here, if he desires a hobby, is one which is per- 
fectly safe and which he cannot pursue too assiduously. If, 
in the zealous advocacy of certain other devotions, the 
warmth of one's feelings may give rise to occasional exagger- 
ated statements concerning their excellence and advantages, 
here is no such danger, — on the sublimity of the Mass, and 
on the benefits resulting to those who hear it devoutly, 
exaggeration is impossible. 

While it would be a work of supererogation, if not an act 
of impertinence to the reverend readers of the Review to 
insist at any length on the various considerations likely to 
prove efiectual in winning the faithful to a more general 
practice of this salutary devotion, a brief reference to one or 
two topics may prove so far useful to the younger clergy as 
to suggest some lines of thought to be pursued and plans of 
arguments to be developed. 

And first, through the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, we must 
adequately accomplish the main purpose of our existence. 
To honor and glorify God is the principal destiny of all 
created beings, angelic and human, animate and inanimate. 
" Praise ye him, all his angels ; praise ye him, all his hosts."^ 
" Every one that calleth upon my name, I have createc^ him 
for my glory.'"* " L<et all thy works, O Lord, praise thee."* 
God's glory, in a word, is the ultimate raison d^Ure of the 
universe and all it contains — and, in greater degree or less, 
that glory has been given to Him ever since the morning 
stars praised Him together, "and all the sons of God made a 

I Ps. cxlvii, 2. 2 Is. xlii, 7. 3 Ps. cxliv, 10. 



DAIL Y MASS 



277 



joyful melody." Now all the honor which the angels have 
ever rendered to God by their homage, or men have ever 
given to Him by their virtues, penances, and martyrdoms, is 
as naught compared to the glory which God receives from the 
celebration of a single Mass ; and this infinite honor may be 
paid to the Heavenly Father by the humblest mortal who 
devoutly attends the Holy Sacrifice. 

Considered as a sacrifice of petition, the Mass is clearly the 
most efl5cacious means of securing the blessings of God, tem- 
poral as well as spiritual. "Amen, amen, I say to you : If 
you ask the Father anything in my name, he will give it to 
you."^ If anyone may confidently expect the fulfilment of 
this promise of Jesus Christ, it is surely he who, actually 
present at the oblation of the Lamb of God, not only asks 
in the name of Jesus, but has his petition presented to 
the Father by Jesus himself. As a sacrifice of propitiation, 
the Mass, being the unbloody renewal of the bloody Sacrifice 
of Calvary, has an equal salutary effect, " the remission of 
sins." " Let us go, therefore, with confidence to the throne 
of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace in season- 
able aid."" Reconciled by this "clean oblation," God 
grants the grace of penance to sinners guilty of grievous 
offences, and suffuses with the full light of pardon souls 
stained by only venial faults. Finally, as a sacrifice of satis- 
faction, the Mass, according to St. Thomas, has the power 
ex opere operato to remit the temporal punishment due for 
our sins, because by it "the fruits of the bloody Sacrifice 
of the Cross are distributed and received in the same 
abundant measure." This atonement, still due to God after 
the guilt of sin has been remitted, must be made either by 
voluntary penance and other satisfactory works here, or in 
the cleansing fires of purgatory hereafter. Could there be 
any stronger motive to induce the faithful to throng to the 
sacrificial altar as often as they may ? 

"The tinklings of the Mass-bell, like new-creative words," 
says Father Faber, " change the whole aspect of the uncon- 

I John xvi, 23. 2 Heb. iv, 16. 



278 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

scious world. Unknown and unsuspected temporal calam- 
ities are daily driven away, like clouds before the wind, by 

the oblations of the Precious Blood Let us leave oflf 

the calculation, and contemplate in quietude the ocean of 
painstaking graces, of vast satisfactions, and of kingly expi- 
ations, into which the daily Masses of the Church outpour 
themselves, lighting the patient darkness under ground, 
flashing up to the skies as so much additional light and song, 
and beautifying the poor, exiled earth in the eye of the all- 
holy heavens." While these graces, satisfactions, and expi- 
ations undoubtedly benefit all the children of the Church, 
they are just as undoubtedly applied in most copious super- 
abundance and with most plenary effect to those of the faith- 
ful who take actual part in the offering of the Sacrifice. 

If the convert whom we quoted in the opening paragraph 
of this paper, had the foregoing considerations in mind, then 
his remark was clearly neither irrational nor extravagant. 
Many a pastor expends considerable energy on movements 
far less beneficial to his people than would be the promotion 
of a fuller attendance at daily Mass ; and there are compara- 
tively few parishes, perhaps, in which the pastors could not 
by the exertion of a little earnest, zealous effort, speedily 
bring about a notable increase in the numbers of their morn- 
ing congregations. It is, of course, purely a question, not of 
obligation, but of devotion, and of devotion that does not 
interfere with the performance of other duties of one's state 
in life. We readily grant that the devotion is impracticable 
to very many Catholics whose time is not at their own dis- 
posal ; but we believe also that it is quite practicable to 
thousands of Catholics who habitually neglect it. Pretexts 
for absenting oneself are easily discoverable ; but in sober 
earnestness, no Catholic really believes that the economy of 
any household ever suffered, or the prosperity of any business 
man ever waned because the wife or husband gave one half 
hour of the day's forty-eight to the worship of that God on 
whose Providence our life and health and happiness depend. 

It is pertinent to add that one unfailing result of a priest's 
strenuous efforts to spread this best of all devotions among 



THE FAULINE PRIVILEGE IN OUR FACULTIES. 



279 



his people, is his own fuller realization of the sublime dignity 
of the Sacrifice whose unworthy minister he is, and his pro- 
portionately greater care that the effects of the Mass ex opere 
operaniis may increase in fruitfulness from day to day. Even 
were this the only result attainable, his zeal would be abun- 
dantly rewarded ; for he cannot too sedulously shun the 
danger of celebrating with irreverence, inattention, or a lack 
of actual devotion. Viewed from any standpoint the practice 
of attending daily Mass is thus thoroughly commendable ; 
to flock and pastor alike, it will surely prove a source of 
innumerable benedictions. 



Arthur Barry O'Neill, C.S.C. 



THE PAULINE PRITILEGE IN OUR FACULTIES. (FORM I, ART. IL) 

" Dispensandi cum gentilibus et infidelibus plures uxores 
habentibUSy ut post conversionem et baptismum^ quam ex illis 
maluerinty si etiam ipsa Jidelis Jiat, retinere possint^ nisi 
prima voluerit convertiy 

THE Catholic Church recognizes as valid a marriage 
between persons not baptized. It is a union instituted 
by God from the beginning of man's creation, and as such it 
is sacred, although lacking the sacramental character which 
elevates it, through the special application of Christ's merits, 
from a natural to a supernatural act. 

Unbaptized persons are not within the jurisdiction of the 
Church ; hence, whilst she recognizes the legality of the 
natural contract to which they have bound themselves as 
husband and wife, she does not consider their state in her 
special legislation until one of the parties, or both, enter her 
fold ; for only then is she required to exercise her ministry as 
guardian of the sacrament. 

When both husband and wife are simultaneously ad- 



28o AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

mitted into the Churcli of Christ, it is easily understood how 
their marriage contract is only strengthened by assuming 
a sacramental character. But when one party is converted 
to the true faith, whilst the other remains infidel, two con- 
tingencies are open. Either the unbaptized party acquiesces 
in the conversion without hindering the Catholic in the free 
and peaceful performance of his or her Christian duties ; or 
else, the change of one member turning to the service of God 
for conscience sake provokes the other member to opposi- 
tion, whence arises a spirit of aversion and malice, or even 
open blasphemy against the Creator. In the latter case we 
have a bond, originally designed by God as a means of 
peace and mutual help, becoming a constant and forced 
occasion of sin, which, in this instance, implies an attempt 
to step between God and the truth-seeking soul, endangering 
that union to which every man is bound at the peril of his 
soul. 

In such circumstances the discipline of the Church, based 
upon the explicit teaching of St. Paul to the Corinthians, 
has ever been, that, if the unbaptized husband or wife is not 
willing to live peacefully with the newly converted party, 
they are free to separate and are at liberty to marry again. ^ 

This privilege is called by theologians the "Pauline Privi- 
lege," and arises in principle from a conflict between a divine 
and a natural right, in which the latter is made to yield to 
the former. 

Our purpose here is to call attention to a particular applica- 
tion of this privilege, as set forth in that clause of our Facul- 
ties, which is placed at the head of this paper. The precise 
meaning and purpose of \h\^facultas dispensandi is somewhat 

I If any brother have a wife that believeth not, and she consent to dwell 
with him, let him not put her away 

And if any woman have a husband that believeth not, and he consent to 
^ dwell with her, let her not put away her husband. 

For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the believing wife ; and the 
unbelieving wife is sanctified by the believing husband : otherwise your 
children should be imclean, but now they are holy. 

But if the unbeliever depart, let him depart. For a brother or sister is 
not under bondage in such cases ; but God has called us in peace, etc. — 
I Cor. vii, 12-17. 



THE PAULINE PRIVILEGE IN OUR FACULTIES. 281 

involved, and in attempting a very brief explanation we avail 
ourselves of the excellent commentary of P. Jos. Putzer/ 

Marriages between persons not baptized are of common 
occurrence in the United States. Besides the multitudes 
educated in the atmosphere of atheism who have no religious 
belief whatever, there are the Friends, the Jews, and latterly 
a considerable influx of Mahometans, whose belief excludes 
baptism from their symbolism. Among these, polygamy, for- 
bidden by State-law is common, in so far as they admit 
civil divorce a vinculo. Several successive decrees of divorce 
operate to secure the civil rights of parties to marry 
repeatedly whilst previous husbands or wives are still living. 
But the Catholic Church does not so regard marriage. 
What God has united, only He, and not the mere concession 
of a civil magistrate can separate. In the tribunal of the 
Church, therefore, as in that of God, the first marriage 
between unbaptized persons stands valid, and every subse- 
quent attempt at a legitimate union is null and void. That 
first marriage can only be broken by the Pauline Privilege, 
as already explained, in the case where one of the parties 
becomes a Catholic by receiving the Sacrament of Baptism, 
whilst the other is unwilling to cohabit peacefully with the 
newly converted husband or wife. 

But is the convert, who has been previously divorced one 
or more times, and thus has practically several husbands or 
wives living, free to abandon these unions indiscriminately ? 
Is the convert bound to the second marriage when the first 
consort refuses to cohabit peacefully ; and if the second re- 
fuse, is he bound to the first, or to any subsequently attempted 
alliance ? 

The Apostolic Faculty answers the question. A convert, 
after having received baptism, is free to choose among those 
to whom he previously pledged his troth that one who may be 
willing to embrace the true faith with him, provided his first 
wife is not disposed to do so. This applies equally in the 
case of the wife with regard to her divorced husband, and all 
subsequent attempted marriages. 

I Commentarium in Facultates Apostolicas. — Edit III. Ilchestriae, 1893. 



282 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

What has been said of divorced cases (successive polygamy) 
is of course true with regard to converts from Mahometanism 
or Mormonism who practice simultaneous polygamy. 

Although this privilege of separating is open for an 
indefinite period to parties who live in disparity of religion 
(an unbaptized person and a Christian), yet when once such 
persons have obtained a dispensation from the impediment of 
disparitas cultus they are newly bound to each other, and the 
right to separate with liberty to marry again ceases. 

But in all cases where the Pauline Privilege is to operate, 
the Church requires an express guarantee that the unbaptized 
party is actually unwilling to live peacefully, as explained 
above, with the newly converted consort. In order to have 
this guarantee, even where a civil divorce exists, it is nec- 
essary to make a written statement informing the unbaptized 
party that the Catholic consort will consider himself or her- 
self free to enter another matrimonial alliance with a Catholic, 
or to take religious vows, etc., unless the unbaptized party 
become a Catholic, or at least consent to live peacefully with 
the convert in the free exercise of his or her faith. This 
statement is called Interpellatio canonica^ and should be ad- 
dressed in the case of polygamistic marriages to each of the 
parties with whom matrimony had been attempted. 

The present faculty implicitly declares, however, that the 
Interpellatio need only be made in the case of \}cit. first mar- 
riage, which was really valid ; and that since a separation 
has already taken place, the only question to be asked the 
non-baptized member is, whether he (or she) will embrace 
the Catholic faith, and, if this be consented to, the convert 
is bound to return to his first alliance. 

We may remark here in conclusion that the unwillingness 
of the unbaptized party to dwell peacefully with the newly 
baptized Catholic need not have for its expressed reason the 
faith of the convert. Any antagonism which points to a 
separation as desirable for the common peace would be likely 
to develop into opposition to the faith and religious practices 
of a Catholic, and hence becomes sufiicient cause for the 
application of the Pauline Privilege. (Lehmkuhl, Theod. 
mor. vol. ii, n. 706, 2.) 



THE PRIEST— CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 283 

The Interpellatio is not to be made until one of the par- 
ties has actually become a Catholic by being baptized. 
Furthermore, the present faculty has no application in cases 
where one of the parties becomes a Catholic and the other 
receives baptism in a sectarian religion. 



THE PBIEST IN HIS RELATIONS TO CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 

WE have no *' Mass priests " in this country. Our* rank 
and file of rectors and elect permanent rectors, form- 
ing a nucleus for proper parish priests in the near future, 
have their relations to the Church, teaching and taught, 
minutely described in Moral Theology and in the course of 
Canon I^aw, as likewise by the monita of Pastoral Theology. 

But the Church, considered apart from its individual earthly 
head and members, has a subsistence as a corporate whole. 
Nor is she, thus viewed, merely an abstract being — she is a 
bride from heaven, given to mortal man. That mortal man 
is especially the priest, consecrated at her altars, plighting to 
her his troth and going forth a belted knight to sing her 
beauty and defend her cause. 

A poet-priest, styled by Rev. Matthew Russell, editor of 
the Irish Monthly^ the " Laureate of the Blessed Virgin," 
goes so far in his loving familiarity with his patroness as to 
call himself "her lover and her spouse." How much more 
literally cannot, nay, must not every priest, equal by his 
office, and superior by his dignity, to St. Joseph, claim fealty 
to his chosen love upon earth, and be publicly acknowledged 
as her true though humble, her devoted bridegroom, never 
to be divorced ? 

There is a clerical custom in the Tyrol, which can scarcely 
be charged with unpoetical incongruity, since it seems to be 
practised by the most pious and conscientious. There, a 
newly-ordained priest is allowed to choose some innocent 



284 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

g^rl-child> of eleven or twelve years of age, who shall be 
privileged to act as a God-bride at the Primiz or the solemn 
celebration of the clergyman's first Mass. The little betrothed 
is decked with delicate orange blossoms, and carries a 
bouquet of jessamine, eglantine and white roses in her lily 
hands. The bridal veil fans her cheeks and half conceals, 
half reveals the glances of the innocent eyes. Maybe, as in 
the earthly nuptials, which the Church favors so delicately 
and sublimely by assigning the betrothed pair, as very 
ministers of the great sacrament to one another, places of 
honor in the sanctuary — so, in this spiritual bridal, the 
innocent kneels on 2, pHe-dieu in the sanctuary, not removed 
more than the length of the arm from the touch of the vest- 
ments of the virgin priest about to ascend the altar and 
consummate the Sacrifice of love. Sacramenium hoc magnum 
est : ego autem dico in Christo et in ecclesia. (Ephes. v, 30. ) 
The priest is alter Christus^ and the Church is his true 
and only spouse. 



I. 



QUALIFICATIONS AS FATHER AND JUDGE. 

Man is happy, individually, according to the measure of 
his attainment of his end, and racially, as he succeeds in 
projecting his personality into the future by the progeny ot 
his body or of his soul. The eloquent Father Thomas Burke, 
in one of his subtly beautiful sermons, argues that Christ the 
Lord redeemed the whole race of mankind by His infinitely 
meritorious Passion ; but had still to apply that Passion to 
each individual's sanctification by uniting Himself with 
each in the Most Blessed Sacrament. Likewise, the priest 
appears the most closely united with the Church in his per- 
sonal character, in oider, principally, to complete his own 
sanctification by this heavenly union, through which he 
participates in the merits and graces of the divine Bride- 
groom, and in the powers and privileges of the mediatorship. 
Interpres ac mediator Dei et hominum constitutus — the duties 



THE PRIEST— CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 



285 



of which offices are defined to be, praecipua sacerdotis functio? 
A priest's own happiness is, without a shadow of a doubt, 
bound up inextricably with his personal sanctity, which, 
again, cannot be dissevered from the sanctification of his 
portion of the flock of the Lord Christ. But a very few of 
the means which he is to employ toward attaining this 
double end can here be noted. 

WE ARE CLERKS AND BOOKS ARE OUR TOOLS. 

Books are a clergyman's tools. He wants but few and 
those of the aptest for every day use. Whatever may be the 
appositeness of the dictum, "Timeo virum unius libri," it 
seems certain to many of our best men that outside of four 
volumes there is scant satisfaction to be procured from so- 
called meditation books. These four are the Scriptures, 
Itnitatio Christi^ Spiritual Combat, and St. Ignatius' Exer- 
citia. As to spiritual reading, as many more think they 
practice a fair modicum by reciting attentively their daily 
Office. It may not be considered extravagant to say, that 
not more than a score out of a hundred secular priests find 
any marrow in popular literature ad hoc^ save in two or three 
authors, St. Francis de Sales and St. Teresa, or St. Louis de 
Granada and St. Bernard. A careful selection of the best 
five hundred books, not including, of course, Migne's collec- 
tion, or the mighty tomes of the Fathers, must be his ever- 
ready and well thumbed dictionary. He cannot afford, 
whatever be his nationality, to eschew a fair line of classic 
English authors. And, though some of our confreres may 
hold up their hands in horror, or at least smile contemptu- 
ously at the suggestion, no one who aspires to be a speaker 
or a writer, can do without a strong tincture of our great, 
and we would dare say, unapproachable English poets. As 
to the now well understood question of reading, semi-occa- 
sionally, a good specimen of a sane school of fiction, we all, 
with grum but keen old Doctor Brownson may pooh-pooh 
stories, but read them just the same. 

I Cat. Rom. De Ord. Sac. n. 25. 



286 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

THE FINAL AGE OF DISCRETION. 

They say truly, that young people are guarded, even by 
"The hope that springs eternal in the human breast," from 
realizing the ills of life — disease, fortuitous mishaps, the 
pangs of death and final dissolution. But, when growth of 
body ^nd mind shall have been assured, a man's task and a 
woman's labor are revealed to them on the threshold of 
mature years. Then they find out, by trial, by torments of 
others and their own, by contact with revealed punishment 
of man's rebellion, what at last is life and the long train of 
combats and miseries, triumphs and defeats its four letters 
disclose. Even so the Church of God is wise in not permit- 
ting beardless youths and untried callats to assume the ofl&ce 
of her spouse and to act as fathers of her children, until 
even the civil period of man's estate shall have been over- 
passed and confirmed by several years' experience and the 
discipline of the stern master called Life. She wills her 
own to be wise in judgment as a presbyter or senior. He 
must stand secure in the control of his imagination by the 
strictly hedged bounds of theological and ascetic knowledge, 
well-grown and trimmed by meditation, reflection — the very 
opposite and cure of illusions and splenetic outcroppings. 

"if the eye be single." 
She commands him to be sure of his integrity by the .vow 
of continence, not so much pronounced by the lips as seared 
on the brain and sealed in the heart, as a conditio sine qua 
non of nuptials with a virgin spouse. He must show him- 
self, too, ready of wit and tactful withal, to apply book 
knowledge to circumstances and to the living stage of life — 
reason nimbly from premises to conclusion, from theoretical 
to practical. This and no other is the eagle eye of virginity 
which recognizes the Lord on the troubled waters, and 
intuitively strikes a balance of certainty without the badger- 
ing process of the majors and minors of a syllogism. All 
know that etymology of virtue, from vir^ a man, in the 
largest sense of the word. Thus hangs a priest's character 
of sublime yet simple manliness on his being taught, and on 



THE PRIEST— CHUR CH AND SO CIE TV. 287 

Bis acting out, every dictate of tliat human-divine law 
which calls him ever from the depths of his nature, to 
ascend to the height of his God-like image and " be perfect 
as his heavenly Father is perfect. " 

Secondly, No efficient priest, who is worthy to be called 
such, will cultivate unduly a dogmatism which is apt to 
form the ruling line of his character. He begets for himself 
no honor who shows he is ever anon seeking but that. 
Simplicity, humility — which are no true virtues if they be 
lies — must be substituted at the bottom as ground-sills of 
the character-building of the ' ' minister of God and dis- 
penser of His mysteries." Admirable, as well as natural, is 
it to find the truest courtesy, the most kind consideration, 
and the simplest manly deportment in Popes, Cardinals, 
Primates ; even in those who, placed highest, know the 
meaning of those benign words of the Master : Ne vocemini 
magistri ; and of His apostles: neque ut dominantes in 
cleris . . . sed forma facti gregis ex animo. ... (I Pet. v, 3.) 

SACERDOTAL DIGNITY AND FREEDOM. 

To say a particular word for our own America, the anec- 
dote told of Archbishop Kenrick, of Baltimore, is apposite. 
Some one, probably used to milording bishops in England 
and Ireland, persisting in addressing the American in the 
same terms, the republican primate finally cut him short 
by saying : " Lord me no lord ; you left your lords in Ire- 
land." The young priest, as he must avoid, like the pesti- 
lence, being haughty toward the laity in our midst, need 
not be a cringer and a .flatterer, to say the least of it, 
by addressing superiors with superlative, exotic, and here-a- 
ways ridiculous titles. Respectful always, according to the 
established custom in free countries, it is not against his 
ordination oath, nor the accepted reading of ecclesiastical 
etiquette, to hold his place without fear or favor. But he 
serves no good end well, who brings ecclesiastical matters 
unnecessarily before the public or before the laity, where 
the rights of these are not concerned, and in cases where, 



288 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

thanks to the wisdom of Rome, ecclesiastical tribunals have 
cognizance at our doors. 

In dealings with fellow-clergymen, deference to true learn- 
ing, venerable age and deserved rank is always graceful and 
never unwise or unpolitic in a neo-presbyter. If you be 
dogmatic, they will be apt to be more so. No man's per- 
sonal opinion or ipse dixit ought to be the criterion in 
friendly discussions on the set sacerdotal sciences. "Show 
your authority," be the rule in these as in those other bicker- 
ings over the rubrics or local customs and diocesan statutes. 
Once the matter is decided by respectable citation in formal 
conferences or private conversations, be not so greatly de- 
mented as to contend against the known truth — no matter 
if, in popular parlance, the decision " lay you out." 

To be conquered by truth is never a fool's privilege. If 
you join in the carping against hierarchical shortcomings — 
deliciae hominum ecclesiasticorum — in which you may be 
partially justified on account of tlje abuse of a superior's 
power, at least express yourself in measured words, respect- 
ing the office if you spare not the man, and, for God's sake, 
restrict the delicacy to sacerdotal ears. 

DIVINE COURT CEREMONIAL. 

Finally, a tender and chivalric love for the Church will 
incline every priestly lover of hers, to carry out her heavenly 
ritual to the letter and in a spirit endowed with intellectual 
affection. It is her and her Divine Spouse's court cere- 
monial. It is unearthly in its beauty, instinct with moving 
grace, elevating and entrancing in its sublimity and simpli- 
city combined. Most eloquent and touching to the actor, 
and drawing, as the cord of the second Adam, to the children 
he has generated to the Mother Church, and is ever nourish- 
ing at the breast by word, by deed, by every movement at 
the altar, by every glance of the eye and wave of the hand, 
of himself, his Mass-servers, his sexton, his helper of the 
altar or tabernacle society. Respect God, your Bride, your 
cloth, and heaven will bring you honor a hundred-fold evert 
here below. 



THE PRIEST— CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 289 

THE priest's relation TO SOCIETY. 

The heading lays stress on the last word, society^ as dis- 
tinguished from State. It is not at all in purpose to debate 
the portentous questions of such broad character as those on 
n Eglise et P Etat^ treated a quarter of a century since by 
the brilliant Louvain professor, M. Moulart, in his incisive 
series of articles in the university Revue Catholique ; or 
quite recently made public by our intrepid Cardinal Gib- 
bons, in the happy phrasing of his address ad hoc^ preced- 
ing the presidential election of 1892. Let priests and their 
superiors in rank vote or not vote ; vote one ticket ot another. 
Unless politicians foist religion into their partisan wrangles, 
Catholic priests will not be prone to intrude the exercise 
of their undoubted civil rights. In two cases only have our 
clergy of late years manifested spirited public action in the 
field denominated political, but which is more truly moral 
and social, viz. , the abuse of the retail liquor trade and the 
rightful adjustment of the local and municipal school ques- 
tion. Neither can these vital matters occupy our present 
attention, strictly bounded by the horizon surrounding a 
clergyman's social deportment among his own people or as 
associated with non-Catholics. 

THE NEW ERA OF FELLOWSHIP. 

Conservative prudishness about joining with other religion- 
ists or public movers in social improvements, regarding, for 
example, the treatment of our Indians, the Negro, inmates 
of houses of correction, or the G. A. R., does not square 
with the pronouncement of our glorious Pope Leo or the 
examples of the English-speaking Cardinals, in our own 
day — the era of democracy. We may rise to the stature of 
patriots and neighbors without dwindling into partisans and 
Pharisees. Moreover, the chance is presented here and now, 
when the Holy See's conciliatory policy is being pushed even 
more liberally forward, to take occasion ad captandam benevo- 
lentiam acatholicorum. The clergy and prominent laity gifted 
with the snap and ready acumen of good speaking, may be 
invited to give expositions of the faith, discipline, history, 



390 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

economy of the Church, outside the fold. The Church, in 
the English-speaking world and the French Republic, has 
received so decided a swing forward in public opinion, 
<iespite the rabid deviltry of European Masonry and the 
black-hearted calumnies of our New World Know-Nothings, 
that thousands of souls are ripe — not for abstract contro- 
versies or dry-as-dust disquisitions, written or spoken, but 
for lively presentations of defense and explanation. The 
well-spoken lectures, connected or not with special mis- 
sions, as well as the specific purpose of, for instance, the 
Paulists in speaking to non-Catholic audiences ; the sale of 
such small tracts and pithy pamphlets as are being spread 
abroad in a few years by the ten thousands ; the spirit of 
respectful inquiry, all prove that the time has come for 
every priest to be on the alert to 

" Catch the golden moments as they fly." 
The little sporadic sparks of bigotry, which the whipper- 
snappers of " Native " and other foreign alarmists burst 
their cheeks to blow into flame, will only intensify curiosity. 
And the routing of the smaller batteries of agnostic infidelity, 
as the two Fathers Lambert are doing, after the spiking of 
Ingersoll's big guns, will clear the field indeed for the pacific 
conquering of a glorious world. This must be brought to 
pass by conviction, by a sense of the nation's crying need of 
head and heart, by the Church's uplifting of the masses in 
the Republic, and that principally — let us take it well to 
heart — through the thorough drilling of the clergy, not in 
carnal arms, God and the saints forfend ! but in the wielding 
of the sword of the spirit, in the pious direction of their flocks 
under efficient bishops. 

one's own household. 
Society, however, begins primarily at home, and a pastor 
and his assistants manifest first their gentlemanliness and 
Christianity toward those of their own household and those 
who visit or have business at the presbytery. Teach house- 
keepers to attend to their own affairs, and not stand between 
you and your people ; but, at the same time, be kind to them 



THE PRIEST— CHURCH AND SOCIETY. 



291 



in their own sphere, if you would have peace, and cultivate 
a spirit of cheerful order. Men are to be met manfully and 
frankly in America, and there is to be no brow-beating, much 
less vituperation and "provoking your sons to anger " on 
this side of the water. Do never suffer the porter or house- 
maid to dispose of beggars and waifs of humanity, that beat 
against the priest's door when they will not be heard else- 
where, nor turn them off with surly words or insult them 
with just as surly alms. It will be more just, too, sometimes, 
to return to the known poor the dollar or two they offer you 
for seat or perquisite. Indeed, in view of the many difficulties 
of obtaining and retaining suitable priests' housekeepers, 'tis 
pity that the great work of organizing some institute to train 
them has not been initiated. Ad mulierculas quod attinet 
mos tibi sit eas tantummodo in loco dicto office sen parlor 
recipere, earum difficultates enodaturo sen supplicationes ac- 
cepturo, relegatis ad confessionale negotiis quae proprie ad 
sacramentum pertinent. Janua autem cubiculi tui, si invitus 
non possis eas alio inducere, sit aperta, famam propter 
mutuam et periculum utrobique, praesertim quando aliqua- 
tenus moraturae praevidentur. 

A good trick to practise on the quaesulae^ who surrepti- 
tiously frequent your kitchen to the anger of the housekeeper 
and the detriment of the larder, is to appear blandly among 
them and, after " bidding them the time o' day," proceed to 
catechize them solemnly on the sacraments or command- 
ments. Like the Pharisees, who were bidden to throw the 
first stone, they will vanish one by one, beginning with the 
oldest. In country parishes, where the good people come 
gaping about, disturbing your privacy, the same device might 
serve, only with the difference that you first invite them all 
indoors and make them run the gauntlet on the first and 
second chapters of the short catechism. This does not, how- 
ever, forbid the giving of a cup of coffee to some poor faster 
who is weakly and has come a long way in order to receive 
holy Communion. This slight and obvious bit of charity 
leads one to remark that true politeness in a priest does not 
consist in his scrupulous observance of the trifling minutiae 



292 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



of society etiquette. If there be any Christian sense in what 
passes under the name of *' manners," it must be based on 
the Christian foundation of true charity — the spirit of help- 
fulness to high and low, the liieasuring of all by St. James' 
rules of Christly equality. The clerg^y were exempted by 
concordats between canon and civil law in truly Catholic 
times and countries — and are even now privileged by Sul- 
tanic firman in Mahommedan Turkey ! — from subjection to 
lay tribunals. The common law of the Church requires 
the ministers of Christ to conform the color and cut of their 
clerical dress, not to the decrees from Paris, but to the enact- 
ments of councils. Without being rude, without manifesting 
singularity otherwise in their social intercourse, why should 
not priests vindicate their freedom from the bonds which 
even sensible laymen and ladies find artificial and galling ? 
Leave courtliness to the courts that bred it. But leave also to 
others their innocent fashions, and beware of involving the 
pulpit in the futile custom of inveighing against women's 
dress, as long as it does not exceed their means and station in 
life, and does not break through the hedge of modesty. 

Outside of parish work, every true priest who has the time 
should, for his own peace and the good of all to whom he is 
a debtor, cultivate an inclination to study. What to do, for 
assistants, for rectors of small parishes in town or country, 
with the weekly hours and days that seem to lie fallow on 
their hands ? Vae soli used to be translated by our Rt. Rev. 
Father de Neve to mean : " Woe to the priest who does not 
know how to be alone." Practise on some favorite instru- 
ment of music for rational pastime, and to make yourself the 
fitter to lead the choir to sing the divine service ? Nothing 
forbids that, or even a pet bird, or pet dog for off" days. But 
for serious occupation ? Have we lost the prestige by which 
the clergy are the leaders of thought or the leaveners of 
literature, with the charm of culture tinctured with interest- 
ing piety? For the sake of picking up lost threads in our 
theology or rubrics we students are bidden to go over a short 
resume of practical study once in four years. But where are 
the students among priests ? — where the well-read speakers ? 



EPISCOPAX. GLOVES. 293 

— where the contributors to science, at least their own science 
in its multifarious branches, or a select specialty ? " Canon 
la\y, for example," our old President of Louvain used to say, 
" is so important, that our late Holy Father remarked to me 
smiling : ' If an American priest wants to be a bishop, let 
him apply himself above all to canon law.' " Or, as another 
studious religious answered a priest who complained of 
nothing to do. " Why," said he, " there are whole libraries 
of the Fathers waiting for your leisure hours." ''Go for- 
ward," to quote yet again and crystallize on this clerical 
page the motto furnished American Catholics by the Papal 
Legate at the instance of Pope Leo, " Go forward, with the 
book of truth in one hand and the Constitu'ion of the United 
States in the other." This cannot be accomplished without 
a higher standard of learning among the clergy — cheering on 
the Catholic University by their own enthusiasm for study, 
by their selecting some specialty to ground themselves in, 
to talk about, to write upon, to act out in life. 

Thos. Jefferson Jenkins. 

St. Lawrence, Kentucky. 



EPISCOPAIi GLOYES. 

IT is generally assumed that gloves were first used in the 
northern countries as a protection against cold. Like 
other articles of dress the wear and style of the glove soon be- 
came an indication of class distinctions, which, being legally 
recognized, gave to it a significance belonging in principle 
to rank or authority itself. 

A man values his hand, because its wondrous mechanism 
gives him a power superior to that of all animals, and which 
is only realized when some accident deprives him of it. 
Anaxagoras goes so far as to maintain that man's whole 
pre-eminence in the order of creation is owing to the fashion 
of his hand, which possesses a certain combination of strength 
with a marvelous variety, extent and rapidity of motion, 
arising out of a peculiar power of the thumb, and the forms, 
relations and sensibility of the fingers, which adapt it for 



294 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



holding, pulling, spinning, weaving and constructing — 
properties which may be found separately in other animals, 
but are combined only in the human hand . Galenus argues 
somewhat more consistently that man has a hand because he 
is the wisest of creatures. But let any one who doubts the 
vital endowments of the hand, read Sir Charles Bell's singular 
book on " The Hand " and he will understand why so much 
ado has been made in all ages about its cover, thelglove. 

Prescinding here from all other uses we confine our few 
notes to the subject of the glove as a liturgical garment. In 
the language of the Church it is a symbol of purity, of 
reverence, of authority, of strength. 

Many writers, among whom Hugo Victorinus in his Liber 
Eruditionis Theologicae^ Durandus and Vicecomes, maintain 
that the reverence shown to the Sacred Mysteries from the 
beginnings of the Christian Church has made the use of 
gloves a practice since Apostolic times. We know that 
anciently priests wore gloves in the celebration of Mass.^ 
Gregory of Tours describes St. Ambrose as present at the 
burial of St. Martin, wearing gloves during the function of 
the holy mysteries. Innocent III, Cardinal Bona and 
Robertus Sala have learnedly discussed the antiquity of the 
use of gloves in the liturgical functions, so as to leave no 
doubt about the fact itself. 

We have said that they are a symbol oi purity. Hence, as 
Durandus testifies, the gloves worn by the bishops previous 
to the thirteenth century were of spotless white. By them, 
he says, " chastity and cleanness are indicated." Per ipsas 
vero chirothecas albas castitas et munditia denotantur. The 
two-fold quality here suggested consists in that priestly 
integrity which does not touch, nor permit itself to be 
touched by the defilements of sensuality and avarice. 
" Innocens manibus," according to the terms of his sacred 
calling, the intercessor is to raise his chaste hands to heaven 

I Chirotecae olim non fuerunt solummodo omamenta seu tegumenta 
manuum exclusive propria Episcoporum, sed communia quoque presbyteris 
uti edocemur ab auctore anonymo tn Expositione Liturgicae Gallicanae apud 
Martene. — De Insign. Episcop. Comment. Rinaldi — Bucci. Fred. Pustet. 
1891. 



EPISCOPAL GLOVES. 



295 



in order to effectually invoke the blessing of God upon his 
flock. His right hand is to descend bearing the clear light 
of a divine inspiration, and the fulness of unstained blessings 
upon those who depend for all heavenly gifts upon the 
shepherd whose crozier invites their obedience. As of old 
white gloves were given to a judge in token of his having 
spoken just judgments, so the clean covering of the bishop's 
hand is to be an assurance of his integrity and of that con- 
stant joy which arises from a pure conscience. Hence the 
ancient form of prayer which the bishop used to pronounce 
in putting on the gloves for the celebration of Mass, says : 
" Deign to adorn me, Thy unworthy servant, O Creator of all 
things, with the clothing oi justice and j'oyy SinA let me be 
clean so as to stand with pure heart before Thy sight." 
(Vet. miss. lUyric. saec. vii.) 

The prayer which the Roman Pontifical prescribes for the 
blessing of the bishop's gloves reveals fully the beautiful 
purpose of this investiture: "O Almighty Creator, who 
hast given unto man, made in Thy own image, hands 
endowed with the mark of discretion^ as it were, the instru- 
ment of intelligence^ for the purpose of acting according to 
righteousness ; and who hast ordained that they should be kept 
clean in order that the soul may be carried worthily in them^ 
and that Thy sacred mysteries may be consecrated by them 
in a becoming manner, bless and sanctify these gloves ; so 
that whoever of Thy ministering Pontiffs will put them on 
in all humility may receive from Thy bountiful mercy both 
purity of heart and integrity of action." 

But with cleanness of hand goes the power that both 
supports and graces authority. " He that hath clean hands 
shall be stronger and stronger," says Job (xvii, 9). Hence 
we find that princes of old bestowed the glove as a mark of 
high dignity upon their vassals. They gave by it, as it 
were, part of their power and authority. It served as a token 
of rank, of royal friendship, of the transfer of dominion. 
The officer wore it fastened to his helmet or sword ; it 
accompanied legal contracts and deeds of sale as a sign of 
irrevocable settlement. In the Parliamentary Regest of 



296 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Paris, A. D. 1294, we read: "Comes Flandriae per tradi- 
tionem cerothecae in manu D. Regis humiliter posuit posses- 
sionem bonanim villarum Flandriae," etc. 

With a similar meaning was the glove employed in the 
ritual of the Church. Bishops and abbots received by it 
the right and title of diocesan or abbotical domain, as well 
as ecclesiastical honors and jurisdiction. " Idem sanctus 
Pontifex usum chirothecarum omnibus in hoc Coenobio 
regulariter promovendis. . . . Apostolica auctoritate 
concessit, " says the old chronicle of Monte Cassino. 

So, too, the transmission or handing of the Bishop's 
glove was a sign of special benevolence or in a canonical 
sense it betokened the consent of the Ordinary to a trans- 
action which it behooved him to judge. The old Speculum 
Saxonicum (Lib. ii, art. 26, n. 6), has the following which 
furnishes an illustration of this use of the glove. ' ' Nemini 
licet forum erigere, vel monetam de novo instituere, sine con- 
sensu ejus loci Ordinarii, seujudicis; etiam Rex in signum 
sui consensus suam ad hoc mitt ere debet chirothecam?'' 

As a token of worth the quality of the glove soon came 
to denote the value of that which it was meant to represent. 
Both linen and silk have their peculiar significance as mate- 
rial whence the liturgical vestments are made. The one sym- 
bolical of natural purity, the other of strength and precious 
worth, they emphasize the characteristics indicated by the 
use of the glove as a token of pure integrity, inward strength, 
and authority. Bruno of Asti, to whom a famous com- 
mentary attributed to St. Thomas of Aquinis said rightfully 
to belong, tells us that the bishop wears gloves of pure 
linen " in order that the hands which are clad in linen 
covers, may be chaste and clean and pure " (ut scilicet manus, 
quae lineis cooperiuntur chirothecis, castae, mundae et 
nitidae sint.)* Later, in the thirteenth century, we read 
that the gloves which the Pontiffs wear are made of silk. 
They were ornamented with precious gems and embroidered 
with gold and silver, according to the rank of him who wore 
them. At present they usually have a cross in gold or the 
I Insign. Bpiscop. Comment, 1. c. 



EPISCOPAL GLOVES. 



297 



initials of the Holy Name embroidered so as to be visible on 
the outside. " In medio, et in antica ipsarum parte crucem, 
vel nomen D. N. J. Chr. filis aureis confectum exhibent, et 
qurea fasciola circumcirciter exornari quoque solent." ^ 

The mystical meaning in connection with the Holy Sacri- 
fice, as represented in the glove emblematic of purity and 
strength, must be looked for in the liturgical colors. The 
present discipline of the Church prescribes that the color of 
the episcopal gloves is to correspond to the color indicated in 
the Oflfice of each day according to the ecclesiastical Ka- 
lendar. The mystery of faith, which expresses the sen- 
timent to be called forth in the hearts of the high priest 
and the faithful worshippers by means of some particular 
color, such as hopeful sorrow and penance in the purple, 
joy and sacrifice of generous love in the red, trust and con- 
fidence of peaceful labor in the green, and so forth — all 
readily combine with the fundamental notion which the 
glove represents. And this varied use of color was the 
privilege of the sanctuary for centuries. The princes and 
soldiers wore their gloves in white, that of the emperor alone 
being adorned with purple gems. Integrity was the parole 
which that emblem spoke, whether worn upon the hand or 
attached to helmet or sword ; whether given in token of 
friendship and favor, or cast in defiant resentment at the feet 
of an offending equal. But the chirotheca de guerra had no 
proper place in the city of peace, the coelistis urbi Hiero- 
Salem which the Church represents. Strength and power 
to be exerted in the establishment of order and good rule, 
had no such hard weapon as the lance or sword. The 
Shepherd's staff, held with a firm but gently forcing hand, 
was meant to reach a goodly distance and to be "handled 
with gloves ; " and although there are cases where gloves are 
out of order, there are for a Bishop, perhaps, many more in 
which an " excuse my glove, Thomas," is a safer welcome 
than a shake with ever so honest a democratic hand. 

P. Arminio. 

I Insi^- Episcop. Comment, 1. c. 



298 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



CONFERENCES. 

STATISTICS ABOUT CATHOLIC INDIANS. 

Qu. Sometime ago the Independent published a papef by Mr. 
William Penn Redman in which the latter says : "By strangely 
inaccurate and exaggerated statistics, the Roman Catholics are 
claiming great ascendency among the Indians." He then contrasts 
the statistics given by Sadlier and Hoffman in their Directories, and 
gives a tabulated estimate of his own which seems to warrant his 
criticism. I have seen nothing in our Catholic papers to answer 
Mr. Redman's strictures. Can you let in any light on the subject, 
since our policy toward the Indian Bureau ought certainly to rest 
on a just basis or on no other ? 

Resp. Mr. Redman certainly has lighted upon some 
strange figures in the printed Catholic Directory (notably 
Sadlier' s edition), and he makes the utmost of them to tell 
unjustly against the claim of Catholics to successful and self- 
sacrificing work among the Indians. We do not propose to 
defend or explain the carelessness of the collator of these 
statistics, though it suggests itself that there must be some 
other cause than the wish to exaggerate when we read 
81,000 (Jamestown) for 8,000, and 41,000 (Lacrosse) for 4,000 
in the tables. The comma after the first figure in the manu- 
script was mistaken by the printer for a one and the absur- 
dity allowed to stand in the mechanical summing up. 

Nor can such slips be made any apology for the constant 
attempts to present Catholics as seeking and obtaining the 
lion's share in appropriations for their Indian schools. 
Neither Sadlier's nor Hoffman's Directories form the basis of 
any calculation made by our Government in apportioning 
the funds devoted to the education of the Indians. 

But the figures which Mr. Redman lays down as " fair," 
are not by any means as fair as his plausible introduction of 
them would lead us to suppose ; only they are less palpable 



CONFERENCES. 



299 



as misstatements than the blunders of the Director)'-, which 
no man having to reason upon them would fail to recognize 
as such. Take the Jesuit Mission in Montana, for which 
State we can obtain figures as nearly as possible accurate, 
because P. Palladino, who lives and labors in that field, has 
made a special study of detail for the pilrpose of publishing 
his history of the Indians in the Northwest. In answer to our 
inquiry he writes : " Mr. R. of the Independent cuts down 
the number of Catholic Indians in Montana to 4,000, whereas 
we know to a certainty that they are over six thousand." 

The same unquestionable authority, referring to Mr. Red- 
man's statements in depreciation of what Catholic mission- 
aries (he mentions the Jesuits in particular) have done during 
about two hundred and fifty years of labor among the tribes, 
reminds the critic that Indians, like other mortals, die, and 
that there are many well-known causes for the decrease of 
numbers among our Indian tribes, which the missionaries 
have no power to prevent. Moreover, it is not yet forgotten 
history that up to quite recently, no longer than ten years 
ago, the Government agents for the Indians would not permit 
the missionaries in Montana to do any mission work, except 
among the Flatheads and their two confederate tribes, the 
Pend d'Oreilles and Kootenays, which formed a very small 
proportion of the Indian population (hardly a sixth) and 
altogether excluded the Sioux, Gros Ventres, Assiniboins and 
Arapahoes in that State. ' ' I am not equally well informed 
about the Indians outside of Montana," writes P. Palladino, 
" but if Mr Redman of the Independent is not more correct 
about the latter than he shows himself to be regarding the 
former, his figures and tables regarding Catholic Indians are 
utterly unreliable and misleading. " 

We may be allowed in this connection to quote here a per- 
tinent passage from the work " Indians and Whites in the 
Northwest," which the author kindly allowed us to see in 
manuscript and which, we trust, will soon have a suflicient 
guarantee of subscriptions to be printed for the sake of vin- 
dicating the zeal of Catholic missionaries in behalf of our 
Indian population. 



300 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



"There are to-day in Montana, as so many offshoots sprung 
from little St. Mary's, nine Indian Missions, counting depen- 
dencies, and nine schools, including the Kindergarten, with 
an aggregate number of some 7,000 Catholic Indians, one 
thousand of these being Indian pupils, boys and girls, in 
actual attendance at school. This is out of a total popula- 
tion of 11,070, as gathered from the reports of the Indian 
Office, or 10,336, as given by the official census of 1890. 

*' The number of members of the Society of Jesus engaged 
in school and mission duty comprises eighteen Fathers, eight 
Scholastics and twelve Coadjutor Brothers, who are ably and 
efficiently assisted in the educational part of the work by 
fourteen members of the Sisterhood of Providence and some 
sixty Ursuline Sisters. 

" The showing, though fair, is not by any means what it 
might and could have been under less unfavorable circum- 
stances. Had the Church been given full charge of these 
races ; had she been afforded in years past by the United 
States Government one-tenth or even one-thousandth of the 
assistance, means and resources lavishly bestowed, wasted 
and thrown away on Indian jobs, hap-hazard schemes, futile 
experimental measures ; had at least Catholic missionaries 
been left free and untrammeled in their self-sacrificing 
devotedness and peaceful mission of lifting these races from 
barbarism, how different would be to-day the result ! 

" Some fifty years ago the total Indian population in what 
is now the State of Montana could not fall short of 50,000, 
if it were not considerably above these figures. What a ruth- 
less destroyer of human life has the white man's civilization 
been ! Forecasting the future by the past, the total extinc- 
tion of the Indian in Montana is only a matter of but a few 
years." 



THE EUCHAEISTIC LEAGUE OF PRIESTS. 

The recent " Eucharistic Congress " which assembled at 
the University of Notre Dame, Ind., has given a signal 
impulse to the promotion of the Devotion to the Blessed 



CONFERENCES. 



3or 



Sacrament among our clergy. The movement is an emin- 
ently practical one, and we hope to have an opportunity at 
an early date to place before our readers some of its imme- 
diate results. For the present we wish to record the fact of 
its activity in our midst and the Apostolic brief of appro- 
bation, which was received last June by the president of the 
" Congress," the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Covington. 

The association, called Confraternitas Sacerdotalis Adora- 
tionis SS. Sacramenti^ which is exclusively composed of 
members of the clergy (priests, deacons and sub-deacons), was 
canonically erected at Rome on June i6, 1887, by His Emi- 
nence Cardinal Parocchi. 28,900 members have been enrolled 
to June, 1894, amongst them 11 bishops and about 300 priests 
of the United States. 

The members are obliged to make every week one con- 
tinuous hour of adoration^ before the Blessed Sacrament ; to 
say one Mass annually for the deceased members of the Asso- 
ciation, and to return regularly at the end of every second 
month to their respective director the ticket of adoration, on 
which the hour of adoration observed is inscribed. This is 
enjoined to preserve the association from stagnation and 
serves to remind the priest of his weekly duty. 

^h^ principal object oi the association is the promotion of 
devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament, especially amongst 
the clergy. The members respond to one of the most ardent 
desires of our Lord, Jesus Christ, to be visited by "His 
friends," priests {Non potuistis una hora vigilare mecum f), 
cultivate the spirit of prayer {nos autem orationi instantes 
erimus)^ try to gain a deeper knowledge and love of the 
Emmanuel, and consequently to imitate Him more diligently 
{cognosce oves meas et cognoscunt me meae). This prayer 
will draw down efficacious graces upon pastor and flock . 

Plenary indulgence is granted on the day on which the 
members make an hour's adoration before the Most Blessed 
Sacrament, either exposed or enclosed in the tabernacle, on 
the day of admission into the association, and in articulo 
mortis ; on the feasts of Epiphany and Corpus Christi. 

I Any hour in the week may be chosen by the members. 



303 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 



The central direction is entrusted to the Rev. Fathers of 
the Most Blessed Sacrament ; as soon as there are in a 
diocese more than twelve members, the Rt. Rev. Ordinary of 
the diocese will appoint a director dicecesanus. 



APOSTOLIC BRIEF COMMENDING THE ACTION OF THE EUCHAR- 
ISTIC LEAGUE IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Venerabili Fratri, 

Camillo Maes, 

Episcx)pd Covingtonensi, Covingtoniam. 

LEO p.p. XIII. 
Venerabilis Frater^ salutem et Apostolicam Benedictionem. 

Quaecumque ad Sacrosanctae Eucharistiae religionem in 
Christifidelibus amplificandam praestantur ea nos praecipua 
animi laetitia cognoscimus, utpote memores, esse illam 
maxime signum caritatis divinae in humanum genus, dig- 
namque propterea quam summo studio mortales maximaque 
colant reverentia. Ea de causa libenti accepimus voluntate, 
conventum ab sodalibus consociationis Eucharisticae istic, 
proximo sextili mense, celebrandum ad cultum divinae Eu- 
charistiae, imprimis penes sacrorum ministros, provehendum, 
simulque ad praeparandos animos, ut congressus Euchar- 
isticus universalis aliquot post annos apud vos habeatur. — 
Haec ut vobis omnia e sententia cedant feliciter, tibi, Venera- 
bilis Frater, ac Sacerdotibus Sodalibus eucharisticis omnibus 
Apostolicam Benedictionem amantissime impertimus. 

Datum Romae, apud S. Petrum, die XII. Junii MDCCC- 
XCIV., Pontificatus Nostri anno decimo septimo. 

Leo p. p. XIII. 



THE BAPTISM OF ARMENIAN SCHISMATICS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Qu, A Catholic Roumanian (Rusniac) in this town recently mar- 
ried a widow who had formerly belonged to the Armenian Schis- 
matic Church. She became a Catholic before the marriage. Later 
on the husband came to me and asked whether a young child 



CONFERENCES. 303 

which she had from her former husband would have lo be rebap- 
tized, since it had received baptism according to the Armenian 
schismatic rite. I judged that the baptismal form in the Greek 
churches, even such as are not in communion with the Holy See, is 
usually considered valid. A brother priest thinks that baptism should 
have been repeated sub condiiione, since this is the rule with con- 
verts generally when we are not certain of the form employed by 
their ministers. Please let me know how I am to act, since there 
are numerous Greek schismatics here who mix with the Rusniacs. 

Resp. The Baptism of the Oriental Christians separated 
from the Catholic Church may, as a rule, be considered valid. 
This is certainly true of the Armenian schismatics, as the 
Holy See has declared in a decree S. C. S. Oflficii 8 Sept. 
1633. (Cf. Collectanea n. 520.) 

The Armenian Ritual, used by the schismatics has two 
forms for baptism, substantially alike. 

Baptizat nunc ntanus mea in nomine Patris et Filii et 
Spiritus Sanctis or 

Baptise t nunc manus mea in nomine Patris.^ baptize t nunc 
m.anus m,ea in nomine Filii., baptizet nunc manus mea in 
nomine Spiritus Sancti. 



CONFESSIONS IN PRIVATE HOUSES. 

Qu. I know that the ecclesiastical law forbids us to hear confes- 
sions of women without a crates and in a private house, unless they 
are unable to rise from the sickbed. Every alternate Sunday I am 
obliged to go to a little village some miles from the parish church, 
where there are a number of poor Catholics. The service is con- 
ducted in the parlor of a private house ; and sometimes I am of 
course obliged to hear confessions of women, who could not come 
to the parish church except under great difficulties. Does the law 
oblige me to have a crates under all circumstances or is it sufficient 
if the door of the room be left open, as is prescribed in the case of 
the sick ? 

Resp. We give the answer of the S. Congregation of the 

Propaganda to the bishops of Ireland in a similar question. 

*' Injungant confessariis nusquam confessiones foeminarum 



304 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REPlEl^. 



recipere sine cratibus vel alio quovis opportune repagulo, 
exceptis infirmis in lecto recumbentibus, quo in casu porta 
cubiculi patens sit ita ut confessor et poenitens e longinquo 
visibiles." (S. C. de Prop. Fide, 12 Feb. 1821.) This we 
interpret to mean that where there is no crates the door of 
the room must remain ajar. 



TAKING DOWN THE STATIONS OF THE CROSS. 

Qu. During repairs made in my little church of C. . . the 
Stations of the Cross were removed from the wall and piled up in a 
secure place. When I wanted to reset them I noticed that some ot 
the little blessed crosses had dropped from their respective frames, 
and there is no way of indentifying the frames they belonged to. 

Is it necessary to have a new erection of the Stations with all the 
usual formalities, or does it suffice to replace the frames in their 
former places with any one of the crosses over them ? 

Resp. There is no new erection required. The crosses 
may be changed one for the other, or new ones substituted 
for such as break or are lost (provided the number of new 
crosses does not exceed the number of old ones retained), or 
they can be arranged in a dififerent way from their previous 
location on the wall of the same church or chapel. When a 
church is rebuilt in the same place under the same title, the 
old Stations of the Cross can be put up in the new edifice 
without being again blessed. — " Nova erectio ob mutationem 
accidentalem in Crucibus non requiritur^ ut si Cruces reno- 
ventur vel mutentur salva earum substantia, aut veteribus 
novae, at in minori parte substituantur, quamvis sine bene- 
dictione, aut imagines tantum novis substitutis removeantur, 
aut si Cruces at tempus remotae denuo eidem loco restituantur 
vel in eodem loco melius disponantur. " (Commentar. in 
Facultat. Apost. n. 207.) 



"ORTHODOX" GREEK CATHOLICS IN OCR CHURCHES. 

Qu. Can I allow " Orthodox " Greek Catholics to come to my 
church, invite them to assist regularly at Mass, to make their con- 



CONFERENCES. 



305 



fession and to receive holy Communion, when I know they would 
willingly do so, because they have no priest of their own, and they 
understand my language ? 

Resp. The so-called "Ortliodox" Greek Catholics are 
schismatic, that is to say, they are not in communion with 
the Holy See (although they have a valid priesthood and true 
sacraments). Hence a priest, whether of Greek or Latin 
rite in the true Catholic Church cannot invite them to the 
participation of the sacraments except under the condition 
that they are willing permanently to renounce their alle- 
giance to the schismatic Church. They may be allowed to 
come to the service, but a priest cannot take cognizance of 
their presence as if they were of his fold, because by so doing 
he would leave upon them the impression that they are not 
separated from the true Church of Christ and its obedience, 
which would certainly be wrong. 

No priest should accept money by way of stipend from 
these poor people. It is deceiving them. They are to be 
won over, if possible, by the teaching of truth, not by min- 
imizing the awful diflference between their state and that of 
a true child of the Church. Their being mostly in good 
faith entitles them to our sympathy, and God's mercy is sure 
to take account of their ignorance on judgment day, but still 
good will is not true faith, although it mostly prepares the 
way to its acceptance. We subjoin a decision of the S. S. of 
the Office which is pertinent to the case in question. 

" An graeci schismatici adire possint Catholicorum 
ecclesiae, ibique materialiter tantum assistere eorum sacris et 
divinis." Resp. S. C. S. Officii, 22 Sept., 1763 : " Accessum 
graecorum non unitorum ad ecclesiae Catholicorum posse 
permitti dummodi iis non administrentur Sacramenta, nee 
quoquo modo communicent in divinis, nee ad hujusmodi 
adventum fuerint invitati." 



3o6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



ANALECTA. 
PIAE CONSOCIATIONIS A SACRA FAMILIA REGULAE.» 

AUCTORITATE AB EMI PRAESIDIS PROMULGATAE. 

I. Finis. — In brevi Apostolico Neminem fugit, a SSmo D. N. 
Leone PP. XIII, die 14 mensis lunii, 1892, pro universo terrarum 
orbe promulgato, habetur, Piae Consociationi a S, Familia id esse 
propositum : ' ' Familias Christianas arctiori pietatis nexu sacrae 
Familiae devincire, vel potius omnino devovere, eo etiam consilio, 
uti scilicet lesu, Maria, loseph, familias sibi deditas tamquam rem 
propriam tueantur et foveant ;" quare omnes, quicumque ad earn 
pertinent societatem, oportere contendere ut "inter se colligatis 
fide mentibus, caritate voluntatibus, in amore Dei atque hominum, 
vitam ad propositum exigant exemplar." Ad haec facilius certius- 
que assequenda, Cardinalis vice sacra Urbis Antistes, ab Ipso Pon- 
tifice Maximo Leone XIII Consociationis universae Praeses electus 
datusque Patronus, audito coetu a consiliis, haec quae sequuntur 
servanda decrevit. 

II. Adimplenda munera. — {a) Cardinalis Praesidis erit, coetus 
virorum a consiliis, quando Ipsi opportunum videbitur, indicere 
eisque praeesse, litteras ad Episcopos diocesanos, pro suis quemque 
negotiis, atque eiusmodi atia subscribere. Eiusdem erit paroecia- 
rum numerum ac familiarum, recipere,quae per varias orbis regiones 
in Piae Consociationis album fuerint adscriptae. Sacris coetibus ac 
religionis solemnibus, quae a Pia Consociatione celebrari in urbe con- 
tigerit, vel ipse praeerit, vel alius ab Eo sufficiendus Antistes. Sui 
denique muneris erit, de omnibus, quae piam hanc Societatem spec- 
tent, per consiliarios suos edoceri, praesertim in iis, quae ab his 
possent ex officio fieri, vel quae aliquam difficultatem praeseferre 
videantur. 

I For other Documents, the Statutes, and various Decisions of the S. 
Congregation on this subject, we refer the reader to Vol. VII (Oct., 1892) 
p. 310, 317, etc., (Nov.) p. 380, 391-397. oi the Rkvibw. 



\ 



ANALECTA. 



307 



(^) Trium (quorum alter est a secretis pro tempore S. Rituum 
Congregationis), quos Cardinalis Praeses sibi adscivit, urbanorum 
Antistitum erit diligenter conventibus interesse, suam sententiam 
dicere, significare Praesidi si quid noverint Piae Societati profu- 
turum , in omnia quae ad huius bonum referantur sedulo incumbere. 

His accedit Sacerdos, qui fungalur munere Secretarii Piae Socie- 
tatis, ad id electus a Cardinali Praeside. Huic curae erit, graviora, 
quae in conventibus occurrant pertractanda negotia, adnotare ; 
quae ad rei incrementum collatura duxerit, proponere ; scriptis 
edendis a Pia Consociatione vigilem navare operam ; de omnibus 
ac singulis communicare cum Praeside, ut et necessaria adprobatione 
et duplici subscriptione muniantur. 

Porro Sacerdos a secretis adsciscere sibi in auxilium poterit alium 
Presbyterum, a Praeside adprobandum, qui Secretarii vices adim- 
pleat. Ad eum itaque pertinebit dandas ad Episcopos aliosve 
litteras exarare eorumque epistolis rescribere, prout a Cardinali 
Praeside fuerit edoctus, cui etSecretario postea tradet subscribendas. 
Penes ipsum erit pltueus, sive archivum, quo scripta, libellos, sacras 
imagines, et alia eiusmodi servabit in usum Sodalium, prout Piae 
Consociationi consilium constituerit. Agendas sibi expensas ipse 
describat et Praesidi referat, cui etiam rationem reddet. 



III. Extra urbem. — {a) Episcopi diocesani erit aliquem e suis 
Sacerdotibus, quantum fieri possit digniorem, eligere ad munus 
Moderatoris, huius studium excitare in bonum Piae Consociationis 
quo alacriorem operam in omnibus, quae ipsum spectaverint, 
afferat ; sedulo advigilare : ab ipso electo Moderatore de omnibus 
velle doceri quae ad Piae Consociationis bonum referantur. 

{J}) Ad dioecesanum Moderatorem pertinebit Moderatores 
parochiales opera et consilio iuvare, ut pari alacritate ac prudentia 
sese in omnibus gerant. Ab unoquoque eorum saepe numerum et 
nomina exquiret familiarum, quae Piae Consociationi fuerint 
adscriptae, de quibus edoceri deinde possit. Neque harum modo, 
sed et nomina descriptarum paroeciarum in tabulis recensenda 
curabit ; mox earum exemplar ad Urbem mittet. 

{c) Paroeciarum Rectores singuli Moderatoris officium inter 
oves sibi creditas assumant obeantque. De suae quisque Consocia- 
tionis negotiis cum Moderatore dioecesano communicet, cuius 
auctoritate, consilio, opera iuvari possint. Familias paroeciae in 
sociorum numerum adscisci cupientes in tabulas referet, palamque 



3o8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Moderatori dioecesano faciet. Quotannis, stato die, paroeciae 
familias recensere studebit, novasque, si fieri possit, in album Socie- 
tatis inscribendas curabit. Quo autem Sacrae Nazarethanae 
Familiae cultus honorque foveatur magis, sermonem interdum de 
Piae Consociatione ad oves suas habeat, quum in festis peculiaribus 
Domini, Deiparae ac S. losephi, tum maxime quum Sodalium 
pactum erit solemniter renovandum, vel etiam quum in parochiali 
Ecclesia religiosam aliquam eiusdem S. Familiae solemnitatem 
celebrari contingat, quam et indicere et dirigere prudenti eius arbi- 
trio relinquitur. Idem, si opportunum videbitur, auxiliares viros ac 
mulieres moribus et pietate praestantes in parte laboris adsumat, qui 
rei provehendae omni studio dent operam. 

id) Delecti ex utroque sexu rei provehendae, alteri inter viros, 
alterae inter mulieres, ab suo edocti Parocho, in Piae Consociationis 
incrementum magno studio prudentiaque incumbent, adhibitis, quae 
ad rem sunt validissima, precibus, hortationibus, virtutum exem- 
plis. Praeterea in omnibus, pro quibus eorum opera uti Parochi in 
Domino iudicaverint, dociles omnino se praebeant. 

IV. Servanda a Familiis adscriptis. — (a) In honorem Naza- 
rethanae Familiae studeat quicumque ei dederit nomen similitudinem 
aliquam earum virtutum adripere, quarum lesus, Maria, loseph 
praeclarissima in terris exempla prodiderunt, quum omnibus, tum 
maxzime illis, qui labore manuum victum quaerunt. Sed ad ilia in 
primis animum adiiciant, quae sanctitatem domesticae societatis 
spectant, uti sunt mutua caritatis officia, praesertim inter coniuges, 
filiorum recta institutio, horumque obedientia et obsequium in 
parentes, pax et concordia domi, aliaque huiusmodi. Itaque a 
vitiis omnino caveant, ab iis maxime quae singularem infamiae 
notam Christiano homini inurant, quaeque Ipsi Sacrae Familiae 
iniuriam videantur afferre praecipuam, cuius generis sunt impia 
verba aut obscoena, ebrietates, incompositi mores, hisque similia. 

(J)) Ad Poenitentiae Eucharistiae et Sacramenta solemnioribus 
saltern anni diebus pie accedent, praesertim quo die Familiarum 
consecratio renovabitur. 

{fi) Ecclesiae praecepta, in tanta morum demutatione ac corruptela 
tam parvi habita, suaviter observari curabunt, ea potissimum ex 
quorum custodia aliis bona exempla derivant, uti auditio sacri festis 
diebus, abstinentia, praescripto tempore, a cibis vetitis, aliaque 
eiusmodi. 

{fj) Peculiar! honore celebranda curabunt festa Piae Consoci- 



ANALECTA. 



309 



ationis propria, quae plenaria indulgentia a Summo Pontifice fuere 
ditata, in primisque solemnem constitutum diem in honorum Sacrae 
Familiae, qui dies erit per universum orbem Dominica tertia post 
Epiphaniam, quo simul, nisi aliter expedire Moderatoribus paro- 
chialibus in Domino visum fuerit, ritus consecrationis renovabitur. 

(<?) Dent operam ut, semel saltem in die, ante Sacrae Familiae 
imaginem communes fundantur preces, in quibus praecipua ratione 
commendatur Rosarii in honorem Deiparae recitatio. 

(/) Pietatis exercitationes, quas diximus, enixe commendantur 
iis, qui ad Piam Consociationem pertinent, nullatenus tamen eorum 
onerata conscientia. 

Datum Romae ex Aedibus Vicariatus, Dominica infra Octav. 
Epiph., die 8 lanuarii 1893. 

L. M. Card, Vic. Praeses. 
C. Mancini a Secretis. 



DE PRESBYTEBIS ADMITTENDIS AD EXEBCITIUM ORDIMJM, 
EIUBATO SCHISMATE. 

Quoad praxim admittendi presbyteros et diaconos (e schismate 
ad catholicam Ecclesiam redeuntes) ad exercitium suorum Ordinum 
postquam catholicam fidem susceperint, sequentia observanda sunt. 
Si sacerdos absolute dicat se ordinatum fuisse cum manuum impo- 
sitione ac verborum prolatione, et nihil aliud obstet, poterit mis- 
sionarius, postquam cum illo super irregularitate dispensaverit 
eumque ab excommunicatione absolvent, eum ad exercitium suorum 
Ordinum admittere iuxta ritum approbatum et expurgatum, in quo 
fuit ordinatus. Si vero is sacerdos ingenue fateatur se non recordari 
de materia et forma suae Ordinationis, vel de una aut altera dubitare, 
non potest admitti ad exercitium suorum Ordinum donee sub con- 
ditione fuerit reordinatus. Tandem si absolute asserat vel manuum 
impositionem vel formae prolationem, sive utramque omissam 
fuisse, reordinandus erit absolute antequam ad exercitium suorum 
Ordinum admittatur. 

S.C.S. Officii, 8 Apr., 1704. 



3IO 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 



BOOK REVIEW. 

RELATIO ANNALIS SEXTA pro anno scholastic© 
1893-94, de Pontificio CoUegio Josephino de Propaganda 
Fide, Columbi, Ohio, Foederat. Sept. Americae Statuum. — 
Columbi, Ohioensis : Ex Typographia Polyglotta Collegii 
Josephini MDCCCLXCIV. 

There has never been much ' ' flourish of trumpets ' ' about this 
institution, although it actually represents, if we speak impartially, 
one of the most important of our ecclesiastical institutions in 
America at this time. If we say one of the most important we might 
also add, the most efficient, where work and sacrifice and high aims 
are joined to high attainments. Let us briefly survey the history of 
this College, which was not built up on endowments and promises, 
but grew in the strength of the elements which God had placed 
within it, like the mustard tree of Christ, a living organism such as 
the Church of which it is a sprig, not like the Babel-towers of 
human vanity or human pride which stand lifeless until they fall to 
crush the Hfe that is beneath them. 

A zealous priest, some twenty years ago, opened his house for a 
number of orphans. Ten years later we find attached to the 
orphanage a training school and workshop of Christian art. Among 
the youth who were there taught to work in wood, in stone and 
glass the symbols of the Christian faith, there were at times found 
those who yearned to fashion the semblance of the divine Model in 
their own and their brethren's hearts. Apostolic vocations are a 
natural outcome of the study which begets a love for holy Church 
and her abodes. We have colleges and seminaries where these 
vocations can be matured ; but the poor boy has but a rare chance 
to obtain the preliminary education for the study of theology 
because our colleges and seminaries find it necessary to exact a 
sufficiently high sum of money to protect themselves against impo- 
sition of such as may not persevere, and also to defray necessary 
expenses. Father Jessing was often sure enough that the yearning 
of his favorite orphan boys for the ecclesiastical seminary meant a 



i 



BOOK REVIEW. 



3" 



real vocation. He had striven to keep them thus far by his own 
literary labors and the generous help of a few steady friends, and 
later by the sale of the ecclesiastical articles made by his boys. 
Why might he not keep them longer and train them until they could 
serve the missions ? God would stand by him. So he opened, in 
1888, a College for his boys where they might be instructed in the 
higher branches. ' ' The College is an absolutely free institute, in 
which no fees whatever are asked of the students, who receive 
instruction, as well as whatever else they need, gratis for the love 
of God. Hence only truly devout and gifted young men are taken 
up and are strictly kept to sound study." There is no distinction 
of nationality,as a condition for the reception of candidates, and the 
priests here ordained are intended to be placed at the disposal of 
needy bishops in any part of the United States. Thus two flagrant 
evils, from which the Church suffers in this land, may be remedied 
in time ; first, the necessity of ordaining priests rather with the 
purpose of supplying missionary churches with ministers of the 
sacraments, than with any regard to the necessary requirements of 
a solid ecclesiastical education. Secondly, our bishops would be 
enabled to obtain a native clergy familiar with the different lan- 
guages spoken by the emigrants from various nationalties for whom 
priests can only with difficulty be found, yet who art apt to lose 
their faith without the ministrations of religion in their own tongue. 
The vagrant element among the Catholic priesthood, to the abnor- 
mal increase of which attention has recently been drawn in the 
Protestant press of this country and Canada, is a direct result of 
the necessities to which we have referred, and that such scandals be 
eliminated by a system in which the Church is at the sam^ time 
strengthened unto edification is surely a matter of congratulation. 

The fact that the new Seminary founded by the Very Rev. 
Jessing was not a diocesan institution, nor dependent on any local 
ecclesiastical authority, suggested its being placed under the imme- 
diate supervision of the S. Propaganda in Rome, the centre of 
Catholicity. Nearly two years ago the Sovereign Pontiff, having 
recognized and approved the character and purpose of the institu- 
tion, raised it to the rank of a Pontifical College, under the imme- 
diate jurisdiction of the S. Congregation of the Propaganda. The 
number of students in the Apostolic Seminary is at present 
about 120. 

How are these students supported ? By the receipts of an ably 
conducted German weekly paper, the Ohio Waisenfreund ; by the 



312 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

proceeds of the industrial department which has reached a high 
degree of excellence in the making of articles of ecclesiastical art, 
and finally by the establishment of some burses by generous bene- 
factors, who having watched the noble work and its immediate 
results, became convinced that they could not bestow their charity 
upon a worthier object. This, too, is our conviction, strengthened 
by the perusal of every page of the Report of the apostolic labor 
done in the Josephinum of Columbus within the last six years. 
The system of study and discipline, the evidence of practical results 
and the a priori proof of a work approved by God, which consists 
in the self-sacrifice of the men who conduct it, without pay, without 
much praisey and despite many discouragements from apathy and 
opposition, these are the grounds of its highest commendation to 
those who hesitate where to cast their bread so that it may return 
to them upon the running waters. 

Send your alms to this youngest foundation of the Holy See, 
which educates, really educates, priests for all the abandoned and 
scattered Catholic of this large continent, and it will bring you more 
blessings and joys than the founding of hospitals, orphanages, or 
universities. The Report sent us, for the last scholastic year, 
which can probably be obtained by applying at the Josephinum, 
Columbus, Ohio, will give more light to those who feel an interest 
in' this noble work. 



S. THOMAE AQUINATIS DOCTRINA SINCERA DE 
UNIONE HYPOSTATICA VERBI DEI CUM HU- 
MANITATE AMPLISSIME DECLARATA. Auctore 
J. B. Terrien, S.J., in Catholico Institute Parisiensi S. 
Theolog., Professore. — Parisiis: P. Lrethielleux. 1894. 

The doctrine of the Church which maintains in the one divine 
person of the Son of God (the Logos) a union of the human and 
the divine natures, each of these intact and unconfused, has been 
clearly defined in the course of her struggles against heresies — 
beginning with the Gnostic, Manichaean, Arian and ApoUinarists 
who denied either the personality or the twofold nature of a divine- 
human Mediator, and ending with the Nestorians, Monophysites, 
Adoptianists and Monothelites who opposed the idea principally of 
the perfect union of the two natures in the same person. The 
terms of Catholic theology have moreover become crystalized so 



BOOK "kEVIEW 313 

that we attach a very precise meaning to the expression " hypostatic 
•union." By it we understand person as identical with the hypos- 
tasis (suppositum, subsistentia) of a rational or spiritual essence, 
nature or substance. The difference between person and hypostasis is 
the difference of the nature which belongs to the person. This has 
been the teaching of the Church Cathohc from the beginning and 
is the faith likewise of the schismatic Greek sects which have 
severed communion with the Holy See. The so-called representa- 
tives of the sixteenth century Reformation too held on to this cardinal 
dogma of Christian belief, until they were gradually infected by the 
rationalist movement which established a new Christology differing 
from the the ancient heresies only in this, that it denied every 
divine element of a saving mediatorship. 

Although a correct understanding of the terms «a/«r<? 2,ViA person, 
together with their mutual relation, leaves no uncertainty as to the 
true meaning of the Catholic doctrine of the hypostatic union, there 
are several important dogmatic truths which explain the manner of 
it or fiow from it, and these have agitated the schoolmen and theo- 
logians unto our own times. The explanation of what theologians 
call circuminsessio or perichoresis, the communicatio idiomatum, the 
Sonship of Christ as man, and the cultus latriae which we pay to 
His human body, the dogma of the divine maternity in our Blessed 
Lady, these are questions intimately dependent upon a lucid inter- 
pretation of the fundamental dogma. Hence it need not surprise us 
that a learned Jesuit professor of theology at the Paris Institute 
should find sufficient reason for writing a book of over two hundred 
pages on such a topic and find much to say that is new, because it is 
either clearer or better than the doctrine of the Old Masters com- 
pared with what science teaches us to-day. 

P. Terrien confines himself altogether to the question of the sub- 
stance of the hypostatic union, if we may so apply the term in 
English. It is, of course, the test-link of the dogmatic chain. To 
insure a safe basis for his argument the author enters into the most 
careful analysis of his terms. This necessitates the devoting of a 
large portion of the book to philosophical definitions with their 
rationale in which the Angelic Doctor is made not only the basis of 
authority, but the actual interpreter of the definitions to be found in 
his own works. Esse, ens, existere in se, subsistere, subsistentia, 
substantia, accidens are carefully distinguished. The method of dis- 
tinguishing between essentia and esse is itself subjected to close 
scrutiny by applying the teaching of St. Thomas to it and showing 



314 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

in what sense it is true that forma dat esse. The terms hypostasis 
and persona are clearly separated in the sense indicated by us 
above. 

The second book is the practical application of the foregoing 
principles to the divine Logos. The author proves with mathemati- 
cal severity that the unity of the actus essendi is at the basis of the 
substantial union by which the humanity of the divine Word is 
effected. He anticipates every conceivable objection against this 
thesis, and explains away with singular consistency the possible mis- 
apprehensions that may arise from a comparison of the theandric 
with the human compositum. The full importance of P. Terrien's 
method of argumentation is brought out in the synchronistic testi- 
mony and teachings, on this point, of the Fathers and Doctors, which 
he compares with that of St. Thomas. There are, as he well 
proves, many problems in connection with this important dogma, 
which St. Thomas alone solves to complete satisfaction. 

The work deserves the attention of theologians and is an able 
contribution to the literature which elucidates the teaching of the 
Angel of the Schools. 



THE PRINCIPLES OF THE RELIGIOUS LIFE: or 
an Explication of the Catechism of the Vows. By the 
Rev. Peter Cotel, S.J. Translated from the French by 
L. ^V. Reilly. — Baltimore : John B. Piet. 1894. i2mo. 
Pg. V, 242. 

Father Cotel' s "Catechism of the Religious Vows," as well as 
his "Principles of the Religious Life" which is an enlargement of 
the former booklet, are well known in France and have proved an 
acceptable text book for directors and superiors of religious com- 
munities. We find therein a simple and didactic exposition of the 
nature and excellence of the vows of evangelical perfection, of the 
obligations which they entail and the advantages which their prac- 
tice in community life affords as a motive power toward that union 
with God which is the ultimate aim of a life of voluntary self-denial 
set forth in the gospel-counsels. In maintaining that life it is of 
highest importance to adhere to first principles, and not only to 
such as lie at the basis of doctrinal truth or moral rectitude, but 
likewise to those which regard the psychical and physical develop- 
ment of the individual, by noting the tendencies and passions, the 



BOOK REVIEW 



315 



phases of self-deception, the errors and weakness of judgment to 
which man in the corrupt state of nature is hable. Fr. Cotel's 
book proposes to afford an aid to religious, in teaching them to 
regulate their aims and actions upon these fundamental principles. 

The advantage of possessing such a work in English must with- 
out comment, appeal to numerous English speaking religious, not 
only in the States, but wherever American and British civilization 
has by their aid become a fact to which mercantile enterprise single- 
handed could lay no permanent claim. 

Although we have not before us the original to compare with the 
present translation, there is every evidence that Mr. Reilly has 
adhered with exceptional fidelity to the text of his author. In a 
book, the main subject matter of which is of an analytical character 
and consists of definitions taken from the works of approved 
masters in ascetical theology, this is obviously the safest course, and 
testifies to the conscientious view which the translator has taken 
to his task. 

Fr. Cotel's definition of a vow (Art I) is: a deliberate promise made 
to God of an act better than its opposite. In the seventeen pages 
devoted to the explanation of this definition each term is analyzed 
at length, until we come to the last words " an act better than its 
opposite.^' For their meaning the reader is referred to Fr. Cotel's 
" Catechism of the Vows." Now considering that the present book 
is intended as an explanation of the Catechism, and that these last 
words of the definition are in reality the only ones that are likely to 
present any difficulty to the intelligent reader not familiar with 
scholastic terminology, the reference to the Catechism is ill judged. 
The scholastics use the term to indicate that a vow must not have 
for its object a good which deprives another of his right or hinders the 
accomplishment of a greater good (ut non sit privativum aut ex se 
impeditivum alterius operis excellentioris seu perfectioris). But 
the limitation, as it stands in this "Explication of the Catechism 
of the Vows," serves no other purpose than to puzzle the reader; 
for it is not at all necessary to the complete definition of a vow. 
Theologians, and with them St. Thomas (Op. ii, ii, q. 88, a i et 2j) 
whom Fr. Cotel follows as his principal guide place the essential 
elements of the definition in the words "a promise deliberately 
made to God." This covers the whole ground. The addition of 
de meliori bono, which, as some explain, means : ut bonutn illtid 
melius sit guam ejus opposituni bears no other sense than the one 
we have given above, which, since the author prefers to introduce 



3l6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

it, requires, more than any other part of the definition, a clear 
explanation of its meaning. Nor does the Catechism referred to 
satisfy in this respect. 

This defect must, of course, be laid at the door of the author ; but 
the judicious translator might correct it, in a future edition, without 
injury to the original, by a footnote, for we believe that he himself 
can only have comprehended the meaning of the phrase " than its 
opposite," by reason of his previously acquired familiarity with the 
language ol the Schools. This privilege is not accorded to our 
average religious to whom a thousand things may present them- 
selves as the opposite of that which they promise to God. To clear 
up such obscurities seem to us to lie within the proper sphere of the 
translator, whose purpose is to make the book accessible and prac- 
tically understood. 

The sensible remarks on "manifestation of conscience " in the 
concluding portion of the book would gain in importance by some 
explicit reference to the recent decree on the subject (Dec. 17, 1890), 
which is easily misapplied by those who adhere only to the letter of 
such injunctions. 

Both the translator and publisher deserve the thanks of religious 
communities, to whom Father Cotel's book has hitherto been inac- 
cessible, for this publication in English. The book, which is of a 
convenient form for its purpose, bears the "imprimatur" of Car- 
dinal Gibbons. 



LE SAINT SACRIFICE DE LA ME3SE. Son explica- 
tion dogmatique, liturgique et asc6tique. Par le Dr. 
Nicholas Gihr. Traduit par M. I'Abb^, L. Th. Moccand, 
V. G. Revgtu de 1' approbation de S. G. Mgr. Isoard, 
Eveque d' Annecy, Vol. I et II.— Paris : P. Lethielleux, 
1894. 

The Abb6 Moccand has, to use the words of Mgr. Isoard, ' ' given 
to French ecclesiastics, and to all Christians who enjoy the advan- 
tage of an intellectual culture enabling them to read it," a translation 
of Dr. Gihr's erudite and well known work on the holy Sacrifice of 
the Mass. " It is a book," says the Bishop of Annecy, in his appro- 
bation of it, " which has the peculiar merit of all works issuing from 
Germany. It is complete {com^let). Complete, because it treats 



BOOK REVIEW. 



Z^l 



thoroughly the subject which it proposes to itself ; and it is com- 
plete because it is a work which unites with the characteristic ele- 
ment of religious science that of a tender piety." 

In these words the learned French Bishop has given us the nature 
and worth of the book. It is a work to be studied; and to him who 
seeks at once knowledge and wisdom regarding the worship of the 
sacred mysteries of the Altar, from their first wondrous institution in 
the cenacle through the fruit-bearing ages of the Church, will find in 
these pages an inexhaustible and clear fountain. The French edition 
is made from-the fifth of the original German. The latter has gained 
much of added detail in archaeological, liturgical and rubrical sci- 
ence since its first appearance, and some of the quotations and notes 
of a purely ascetical character have been subsequently omitted to 
avoid swelling the bulk of the work, which the French publisher has 
found it more convenient to put in two volumes. 

The idea of sacrifice as an act of worship, the sacrifice of 
Calvary, the unbloody Sacrifice of the altar forming the central 
source of devotion and grace in the Catholic Church — these are 
the introductory themes to the full treatment of the Liturgy of the 
Mass. The vast erudition which the writers of the ages of faith 
developed in the Schools, the light which the interpreters of 
Catholic symbolism have thrown upon the mysterious forms of the 
ritual, the historical evidence of unbroken unity drawn from the 
constantly growing number of archaeological proofs in cypher and 
art — all these elements have been brought together, sifted, digested 
and rendered serviceable to the student of many sciences in this 
unique and thoroughly trustworthy work ol Dr. Gihr. 

The French translation, on comparison with the original, proves 
itself both faithful to the author's thoughts and statements, and free 
from that servile rendering of an idiom altogether distinct in its 
nature and composition from the French. This is, of course, essen- 
tial to make the work acceptable to ecclesiastics in France who 
have abundance of good literature on this, as on all other topics 
within the range of ascetic theology. The present translation 
indicates, however, the real want of a more solid treatment of such 
subjects, a feature which is, as the French writer of the Introduction 
readily admits, usually to be found in the works which issue from 
German scholarship. Herder, the publisher of Dr. Gihr's first five 
editions, has found a ready sale of more than twenty thousand 
copies among the clergy of his country. France is likely to receive 
the work in its national version with similar favor. It would be 



3l8 AMERICAN £:CCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

some proof of a healthy intellectual life among the English speaking 
clergy of America if a hopeful publisher here were to venture on a 
modest edition in English. Of numbers able to read we have 
enough and there is much boasting that we have hope to represent 
some day the aristocracy of intellect. It is idle talk. A few writers of 
soUd attainments there are, some few more readers of learned books ; 
how few, is best shown by the booktrader's meagre sales-list. Our 
ambition is to popularize knowledge, and that means largely to en- 
courage superficial knowledge with all its attendent dangers. It can 
never last unless the teachers, above all the clergy, turn an earnest 
mind to solid studies, to such books as Dr. Gihr offers in his special 
line. 



L'HOMME-SINGE ET LES PRECURSEURS D'ADAM 
EN FACE DE LA SCIENCE ET DE LA THEO- 
LOGIE.— Par Fr. Dierckx, S.J., Societe Beige de 
Libraire, i6 Rue Treurenberg, Bruxelles. 

This is by all odds one of the most satisfactory works on the sub- 
ject treated which we have ever read. Although a brochure of 
only 124 pages — made' up of articles which have appeared in the 
Revue des Questions Scientifiques — it discusses the topics it embraces 
much more thoroughly than many a larger and more pretentious 
work. Fr. Dierckx deserves the gratitude of his readers for having 
given in so small compass so much valuable and interesting infor- 
mation. The author displays a complete mastery of his subject, 
both from the point of view of science and theology, and while 
thoroughly liberal in his views, he sacrifices nothing of faith or 
dogma. He critically examines the latest conclusions of science and 
shows that neither the Church nor the Bible has anything to appre- 
hend from scientific investigation or advancement. It is only sham 
science — fanciful speculations and wild hypotheses — that is ever 
opposed to revealed truth. True science and the teachings of faith 
neither are nor can be contradictory, and the oft-repeated assertion 
that they are contradictory has no other foundation than ignorance 
or misrepresentation. 

We are glad to take this occasion to say a word of the Revue des 
Questions Scientifiques itself. The opuscule we have just noticed is 
a fair sample of the scope and character of this estimable magazine. 



BOOK REVIEW. 



319 



In our opinion it stands without a rival among quarterlies — either 
secular or religious. As its name indicates, it is a review of current 
questions in science. It counts among its contributors the ablest 
scholars of the Catholic world and is an honor not only to its pro- 
moters but to the Church as well. Every article is an exhaustive 
study of the topics treated, and gives the reader the last word of 
science and, whenever required, it indicates the bearings of the dis- 
coveries and conclusions of science on the doctrines of the Church. 
No priest who reads French can afford to be without this valuable 
publication. Besides being thorough and always up to date it is a 
library in itself, and, considering the amount of matter it gives in 
its pages, it constitutes one of the cheapest libraries with which we 
are acquainted. 

J. A. Z. 



ORCHIDS.— A Novel by Lelia Hardin Bugg. St. Louis, 
Mo. : B. Herder, 1894. 

" Orchids " is a high-class novel which we cannot afford to pass 
by in silence. The description of American life and character, in 
which the vulgar aspirations and devious methods of a certain class 
of our New World society are contrasted with the noble impulses 
and right-minded courage of the frank American character when 
guided by the principles of religious training, is true and natural. 
The tone is throughout pure and elevating, without that tinge of 
exalted sentimentality which is supposed to be a proper antidote for 
the shameless naturalism of the modern novel, but which, by its 
extreme method creates unreal views of life, and thus defeats its 
own purpose of improving heart and mind. 

On reading at first the author's views expressed in her spirited 
"After-Thought," we were inclined to cavil with certain canons 
she lays down as to the proper aim of the novel writer. But when 
•we looked in the book for the illustration of the principle of natural- 
ism as we understood her to emphasize it ■ in theory, our critique 
was gradually disarmed. 

"Orchids," like the American herb perennial from which the 
novel takes its name, merits a lasting place among the flowers of 
our literature. 



320 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



ETUDE THBOLOaiQUE SUR LES OBDINATIONS ANQLI- 
OAWES. Par M. I'Abb^ A. Boudinhon, Prof, de Droit Canon a 1' Insti- 
tut, Cath. de Paris.^Paris : P. Lethielleux. 1894. 

BIBLE, SCIENCE AND FAITH. By the Rev. J. A. Zahm, C.S.C, 
Professor of Physics at the University of Notre Dame, Ind. — Baltimore : 
John Murphy & Co. 1894. 

BELIEF IN THE DIVINITY OP JESUS CHBIST. By the Rev. 
Father Didon, O.P. — London : Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. 
(Benziger Bros.) 1894. 

CHBISTUS ALS PROPHET. Nach den Evangelien dargestellt von 
Dr. Franz Schmid, Prof. Theol. — Brixen : Kath. Polit. Pressverein. 
Pr. Mk. 2.40. 

MISSALE ROMANUM. Editio octava juxta edit, typicam. (Convenient 
size for devotional use.) — Ratisbonne, New York and Cincinnati : Fr. 
Pustet. 1894. Pr. I2.25. 

OEREMONIAE MISSABUM SOLEMNIUM ET PONTIFIOAL- 
lUM, aliaeque functiones ecclesiasticae, illustratae opera Georgii Scho- 
ber, C.SS.R. — Ratisbonae, Neo Eboraci et Cincinnati : Fr. Pustet. 1894. 
Pr. |i.io 

LATIN GRAMMAR. Adapted for the use of Colleges ; from the Fif- 
teenth German edition of Dr. P. Schultz's Grammar. Fifteenth edition, 
revised and enlarged, — Fr. Pustet & Co. 1894. 

LATIN EXERCISES adapted to the Latin Grammar of Dr. F. Schultz, 
for Schools and Colleges. Fourteenth edition, with English-Latin 
vocabulary. — Fr. Pustet & Co. 1894. 

MELODIES OP MOOD AND TENSE. By Charles H. A. Esling, 
A.M., LL.B.— Philadelphia: Charles H. Walsh. 1894. Edit, de luxe, Pr. 
$2.00 

ORCHIDS. A Novel by Lelia Hardin Bugg.— St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 
1894. Pr, I1.50. 

THE REBELS, OR THE IRISH INSURGENT CHIEFS OF 1803. 
An Historical Drama in Five Acts, by Rev. B. M. O'Boylan. — Newark, 
Ohio. 1894. 

THE NEW FIFTH READER (Cath. National Series).— New York, 
Cincinnati and Chicago : Benziger Bros. Price $i.co. 

BIBLE HISTORY for the use of Catholic Schools. By Rt. Rev. Richard 
Gilmour, D.D. — Benziger Bros. Pr. 50c. 

BIBLE STORIES FOR LITTLE CHILDREN.— Benziger Bros. Pr. 
bd., 20c. 



AMERICAN 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



New Series — Vol. I. — (XI.) — November, 1894. — No. 5. 



THE NATURE AND AIM OF THE PRIESTS' EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. 

THE Philistines of old had put their army in battle array 
against Israel. At the first onset the Israelites were 
defeated ; yet they hoped for victory, saying : " I,et us fetch 
unto us the Ark of the Covenant of the Lord, from Silo, and 
let it come in the midst of us, that it may save us from the 
hand of our enemies. So the people sent to Silo and they 
brought from thence the Ark of the Covenant, and the two 
sons of Heli, Ophni and Phinees, were with the Ark. And 
when the Ark was come into the camp, all Israel shouted 
with a great shout. And the Philistines hearing the shout 
and understanding that the Ark of the Covenant was come 
into the camp, were afraid, saying : God is come into the camp. 
And sighing they said : Woe to us ; who shall deliver us ? " 
The Philistines fought and Israel was overthrown. Why was 
Israel overthrown, even though the Ark of the Covenant, 
the pledge of God's presence with the people, was in their 
midst, in charge of the priests ? May we not justly look 
for the reason in these words of the Bible: "The sons of 
Heli were ' . . . not knowing the lyord, nor the office of 

321 



322 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the priests to the people . . . They withdrew men from 
the sacrifice of the Lord." I Kings ii, 12, 13, 17. What 
the Ark of the Covenant was to the Israelites the Blessed 
Eucharist is, in a more eminent degree, to the Christian. 
In it lies the strength as well as the grandeur of the cause 
for which we, as members of the Church militant, stand in 
defence. Yet victory is not assured unless the "sons of 
Heli," the anointed priests of the Lord, unite to fulfill with 
knowledge and love " the office of the priests to the people." 

It is, then, to bring into our camp the infallible means of 
victory against the enemies of God's chosen host, that the 
" Priests' Eucharistic League " has been established. 
Through it the twofold discipline of love and vigilance is 
fostered, and the soldiers of Christ's army support one 
another in their perfect conformity to the movements of 
their royal Leader. 

The saintly Father Julian Eymard, prompted by his love 
for the Blessed Sacrament, conceived the fruitful idea of form- 
ing a congregation of priests whose exclusive duty would 
be to serve as a permanent bodyguard, and kindle devotion 
to their Eucharistic Lord. Desirous, moreover, to draw the 
entire secular clergy into permanent and close co-operation 
with his noble Legion, he established the Eucharistic League 
of Priests who were to give a practical answer to our common 
divine Master's invitation to watch with Him in His struggle 
against the powers of darkness, by devoting a fixed hour to 
adoration before the Blessed Sacrament once a week. Of 
this latter union Pope Pius IX., said: "This idea comes 
from heaven. I am convinced that the Church stands in 
need of it. All means should be employed to spread the 
knowledge of the Holy Eucharist." " Can I not watch with 
my Lord present in the Tabernacle one hour out of the 168 
hours of every week?" This question numerous clerics 
throughout the world have been induced to ask themselves 
since the day (i6th of June, 1887), when the Priests' Euchar- 
istic League was canonically erected at Rome by His 
Eminence Cardinal Parocchi, Vicar General of His Holiness 
Leo XIII. Up to the date of this our first American 



THE PRIESTS' EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. 



323 



Eucharistic Convention at Notre Dame, Indiana, 30,000 
priests throughout the Catholic world have answered cour- 
ageously and earnestly : "I can and I will watch one hour 
every week with my Eucharistic Lord." As members of the 
Eucharistic lycague they are keeping watchful company 
with their divine Friend at the foot of His altar. While 
thus fulfilling the ardent desire of His Sacred Heart, they 
are making use of a most efficacious means to preserve and 
increase their knowledge of God and of God's truths, to 
persevere and grow in the virtues that are indispensable to 
their sublime office and dignity, to strengthen themselves 
against the attacks of the hereditary enemy of their souls. 
The continuous intercourse, during the hour of adoration, 
with Him " who is the true light which enlighteneth every 
man that cometh into this world," cannot fail to enlighten 
more and more the mind and intellect, and to warm the 
heart of the priest. It will greatly fructify the personal 
efforts within the range of his sacred studies, to which a 
true priest feels it necessary to devote himself. Deeply* 
penetrated with the light of Christ's real presence in the 
Eucharist, shed upon him during the hour of the weekly 
watch, how could he, each morning ascend the altar other- 
wise than with a full sense of his tremendous responsibility, 
with purity of heart and intention ? This same light is a 
warning to him against fatal lukewarmness and indifference 
so easily acquired in his daily dealings with the Most Holy 
of Holies. A better knowledge of the Lord must produce a 
better imitation of Him. Christ in the Eucharist is not 
only the light and the truth. He is also the way and the 
life. Christ demands from His followers incessant prayer, as 
He Himself had spent, during His earthly life, whole nights 
in prayer. The life of our hidden Lord in the Holy Euchar- 
ist serves us as a model of uninterrupted prayer. At that 
little gate of the Tabernacle the priest will never cry in 
vain : " Lord, teach me to pray, grant me always the true 
spirit of prayer." Our age is alarmingly materialistic ; fos- 
tering a spirit of inordinate liberty and independence, it 
blindly aspires to shake off" the yoke of law and authority. 



334 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

How shall we priests better learn the necessary detachment 
from material riches and enjoyments, than by listening to the 
silent admonitions of Him, who in this life was the greatest 
lover of poverty, not having where to lay His head, and 
who in His Eucharistic life lovingly divests Himself of 
all outward greatness and splendor ? Where can we priests 
more easily and thoroughly acquire solid humility, ready 
and cheerful submission to lawful authority, than here at 
the foot of the altar where our meek, humble and obedient 
Lord preaches these virtues continually in the Eucharist ? 
And how shall we more surely deserve the crowning grace 
to abide in the knowledge and love of God till life's last 
hour, and to fight the last good fight, when the attacks of 
our soul's enemies will be most fierce, than by often abiding 
whole hours in adoration and prayer before the sacred taber- 
nacle? Ophni and Phinees, the priests of old, "were not 
knowing the Lord " and in the hour of battle derived no help 
and safety from the Ark of the Covenant, either for them- 
selves or for their people. 

The next aim of our Eucharistic League is the direct and 
inevitable sequence of the first. Whilst awakening in the 
priests the true spirit of adoration, our League aims at the 
same time at making them zealous apostles of the divine 
Eucharist, who glory in working by all available means to 
enkindle in the people a great faith and devotion toward the 
most holy Sacrament, and thus to sanctify their flocks by 
making accessible to them the numberless graces which flow 
from this source of all virtue and holiness. The priest must 
not only personally know and love his God, but he must 
make Him known and loved by others. This is the meaning 
of his priestly ofiice to the people. A solid and practical 
devotion to the holy Eucharist cannot but inspire the priest 
with the right zest in all his sacerdotal functions for the 
benefit of his people. When in administering baptism he 
clothes the soul of a child with the garment of sanctifying 
grace, his mind anticipates the thought of how the soul of 
that Christian child must ever be guarded which is one day to 
enshrine its Eucharistic Lord in Holy Communion. Hence 



THE PRIESTS' EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. 



325 



all his wishes and labors, all his admonitions, instructions 
and prayers are directed to this great and noble end in order 
that a genuine Catholic atmosphere may pervade the family 
circle where the child is reared, and that it may enjoy the 
inestimable blessing of a solid Catholic teaching and train- 
ing in a good parochial school — a blessing which can only 
in rare cases be supplied by any other system of education. 
A faithful member of the Priests' Eucharistic League must 
needs grow in his solicitude and love for the parochial school, 
since such a school affords the best opportunity and a power- 
ful help in the Apostleship of the Eucharist. Daily assist- 
ance of Catholic children at hoi)' Mass is a chief concomitant 
blessing of our parochial schools, and this frequent inter- 
course, in their early years, with the Eucharistic Jesus, the 
divine Friend of children, and their daily participation in the 
fruits of the Sacrifice of the Mass, may be made productive of 
the happiest results in later life. 

Again, what a boon is the Holy Eucharist for the priest 
when, seated in the sacred tribunal of penance, he is exercis- 
ing his office to the people. During many weary hours he is 
consoled and cheered by the thought that there is dwelling 
next to him, in the Tabernacle, Christ his Lord, from whom 
he holds the wonderful charge and power to forgive sins, for 
whom he is cleansing and preparing a worthy abode in the 
hearts of sinners, and who from His Eucharistic throne 
sends light and help to the priest, and grace and pardon to 
the penitent. 

Love of the Blessed Sacrament teaches us, moreover, to 
profit by the time employed in carrying the Holy Viaticum. 
It renders insignificant to us any hardship and fatigue suf- 
fered in the duty of preparing the sick and dying for the last 
struggle. 

The faithful member of the Priests' Eucharistic League 
endeavors in his hour of adoration to obtain an abundance of 
faith, hope, love and devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament, 
in order that out of his heart's abundance his mouth may 
speak to the people in sermon and catechetical instruction. 
He will teach and urge young and old, in season and out of 



326 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

season, to know and appreciate our greatest treasure, to oflfer 
to their Eucharistic Lord the frequent homage of praise and 
adoration, of thanksgiving, atonement and reparation, to 
have recourse to Him in all their wants and needs, to come 
as often as possible to the Sacrifice of Mass, to nourish their 
souls frequently in worthy Holy Communion. St. Francis 
Solanus, the great missionary- in South America, preached 
with such holy unction as to cause loud sobbing among his 
hearers, touching the most hardened sinners, who, after the 
sermon, prostrated themselves at the feet of the Saint to. 
confess their sins. When asked whence he obtained the 
points for his sermon and the manner of explaining them, he 
gave the beautiful answer : " I get them in a corner of the 
Sanctuary before the Most Blessed Sacrament. God himself, 
the most perfect of preachers, suggests them to me." It 
is thus that in fostering great personal devotion to the Holy 
Eucharist our League is powerfully aiding the priest to 
understand better and to fulfil more sacredly his office to the 
people. Ophni and Phinees of old were " not knowing the 
office of the priests to the people ; " they withdrew men from 
the Sacrifice of the Lord, and thus priests and people failed 
to be saved by the Ark of the Covenant from the most ter- 
rible disaster in their war against the Philistines. 

After our Lord had instituted the Holy Eucharist, He 
prayed at once to His heavenly Father that those whom He 
had ordained His first priests might remain united. " Holy 
Father, keep them in Thy name, whom Thou hast given 
Me ; that they may be one as We also are." No less now 
than at the Last Supper, it is Christ's wish and prayer that 
there may be a holy union among His priests. To bring 
about the fulfilment of this desire of our Lord, is a further 
aim of the Priests' Eucharistic League. It endeavors to 
unite all the associates by the closest bonds of true brother- 
hood, so that all may live in the same spirit, assist one an- 
other by the example of faith and love toward our Lord in 
the holy Eucharist. All mutually participate in the prayers, 
merits and good works of thousands of their brother-priests, 
bound together in this League throughout all parts of the 



THE PRIESTS' EC/CHAR IS TIC LEAGUE. 



327 



earth. How encouraging and consoling for each member of 
our League is the thought that every week his own private 
wants and necessities, his own petitions and intentions are 
recommended to the loving Heart of our God in the Taber- 
nacle by the other associates during their hour of adoration ! 
Thus aided and seconded, our individual adorations and 
prayers, breathed in the solitude of the sanctuary, are wafted, 
as it were, in a strong chorus to the throne of the triune God 
and irresistibly urged upon His divine mercy. And this 
cheering consolation extends beyond our grave, since, by a 
rule of the League, each member offers up once every year 
the Holy Sacrifice for the deceased associates. 

Where there is union, there is strength. United we stand, 
divided we fall. If the priests of a diocese or of a country 
are united in their brotherhood, discarding all animosities 
to which poor, frail human nature so easily falls a prey, their 
labors for the kingdom of God and the salvation of souls 
will be blessed by Him who has pledged His word : " Where 
there are two or three gathered together in My name, there 
am I in the midst of them." — Math, xviii, 20. We priests 
of the United States of America have special reason to hail 
with satisfaction this union of the Bucharistic League. For 
this League absolutely waives all distinction of birthplace 
and language, of nationality and custom. It is eminently 
Catholic, worthy of the Church of Christ, which embraces 
all nations, all peoples and tongues — the Church whose wel- 
fare and growth none should have so much at heart, as we, 
its guardians and representatives. The enemies of Christ 
band together to destroy His holy Church, His kingdom on 
earth. The war is raging more fiercely from day to day. 
Lucifer once had the audacity to tempt our Lord, showing 
Him from a very high mountain all the kingdoms of the 
world and the glory of them, and saying to Him : "All these 
will I give Thee, if falling down Thou wilt adore me." — 
Math, iv, 9. This Lucifer, by Christ defeated, has now 
succeeded in having his altars erected and finds his duped 
followers prostrate before him. It is from these ranks that 
issues forth that diabolical hatred and fury against Christ 



328 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

and His Church, which dare rob from the tabernacles of our 
churches, or buy for money from sacriligious communicants, 
consecrated hosts, to oflfer them on the altars of the chief of 
demons, or outrage them by abominations which would be 
wholly incredible if they were not well attested. Who then 
would not wish that the Priests' Eucharistic League might 
rapidly spread over all the dioceses of our land and prove an 
effective means to unite us priests in loving friendship and 
true brotherhood ! It is by such union alone that we can 
hope to counteract successfully the unity of the Masonic 
sect, which Leo XIII in his last Encyclical truly styled a 
formidable power, because it has long oppressed all nations, 
especially Catholic nations, and it spares no pains to assert 
its authority and extend its dominion everywhere. 

It belongs to us to atone for the outrages perpetrated by 
the Luciferians against our Lord in the consecrated Host. 
We are destined to labor for the more speedy triumph of the 
Church by influencing the Sacred Heart of Jesus through 
the combined supplications of thousands of priests prostrate 
at the feet of the Lord in the Most Blessed Sacrament. 

If we thus unite in the Eucharistic League in order to 
pray and labor with courage and perseverance, to know and 
love our Lord more and more, to know fully and fulfill con- 
scientiously the office of our sacred ministry to the people, 
to draw the people to the Holy Eucharist, to the sacrifice of 
Mass — then we may safely predict the final issue of the battle. 
The fate of the war of old shall be reversed. Victory will 
cleave to the standard of Israel, not to that of the Philistines. 
Satan with his demons and with all the enemies of God's 
Church will be overthrown. Christ, our dearest Lord, will 
reign in triumph ! 



William Cluse, V. G. 

GermantoTvn, III. 



EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. 



329 



HISTORY AND PRESENT STATUS OF THE EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE 
IN THE UNITED STATES. 

THE Sacerdotal Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament 
had up to July 5, 1894, 29,310 inscribed members. Of 
this number about 360 belong to the United States of 
America. The Association owes its existence to Father 
Eymard, who died in the odor of sanctity in the year 1869 ; 
it was he also who founded the Congregation of the Priests 
of the Blessed Sacrament. This Congregation has at present 
five Houses ; the Mother House, which at the same time is 
the Centre of our Priests' League, is in Paris ; the other 
four houses are in Rome, Marseilles, Brussels and Montreal 
(Canada). 

The first members of the League in the United States were 
for the most part enlisted in the Eastern districts. New 
York, Massachusetts, Vermont and Maine are represented on 
the list of American members, beginning with No. 5051 of 
the whole list. The first census shows about 54 American 
members. The names of these, with few exceptions, have 
now disappeared from the pages of the Catholic Directory, to 
take their place, no doubt, on the list of the Blessed enrolled 
in the Book of Life. 

The first Bishops of this country who gave their names to 
the Association were Mgr. Goesbriand, of Burlington, and 
Mgr. Neraz, of San Antonio. It is owing to their influence 
that several priests in the Eastern States and in Texas were 
enlisted. Some of the members had become acc[uainted 
with the Association during their studies in European semi- 
naries. It seems also that in the theological seminary of the 
Sulpician Fathers in Baltimore there had been for a time 
zealous workers for the Association. There were only 8 out 
of the 54 first American members with whom regular corres- 
pondence could be kept up. Among them are the Rev. 
Didier, of Baltimore, Rev. Wach, of Troy, Ind., and Rev. 
E. Bachmann, of Louisville, the latter of whom has been par- 
ticularly instrumental in spreading the League in the 
diocese of Louisville. In the year 1891 the attention of the 



330 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Benedictines of St. Meinrad was called to the Association 
and one of the Fathers, by request of the Central Direction 
at Paris, assumed the general direction for the United 
States. 

Owing to the zeal of the Rev. Director of the Tabernacle 
Society and other priests in the Archdiocese of Cincinnati, 
it was found possible to have a diocesan director appointed 
for Cincinnati in 1891. The Most Rev. Archbishop Elder 
accordingly selected as the first diocesan director the Rev. 
Henry Brinkmeyer, Rector of the Seminary of St. Gregory, 
at Cedar Point, Ohio. 

The next diocese is Belleville, where in a short time the 
League grew so much that Mgr. Jansen could appoint his 
Vicar General, the Very Rev. W. Cluse, as diocesan director. 

From Belleville the salutary influence spread into the 
neighboring dioceses of Alton and Fort Wayne. Rev. 
Meckel, of Highland, 111., and Rev. F. Meissner were chosen 
as directors of the League in their respective dioceses. The 
progress of the League in the Archdiocese of St. Louis, Mo., 
and in the diocese of Louisville, Ky., warranted similar 
appointments in the persons of Rev. J. J. Flanagan for St. 
Louis, and of the Very Rev. L. Deppen, Chancellor for the 
diocese of Louisville. Very Rev. J. Friedland was recently 
appointed for the diocese of Detroit ; the Rev. Stephen 
Schmidt for Covington ; Rev. Cyr. Saint Pierre for Sioux 
Falls. Rev. P. Bede Maler, O.S.B., General Director for 
the United States, is at present Director of the League for 
the other districts in which the Association is not yet suflS- 
ciently strong to have a local diocesan director. The num- 
ber of those who were enlisted during the last five years by 
giving their names to the General Director is 280 ; to which 
must be added those who applied directly to Paris, making a 
total of about 360 in the United States. Of this number a 
few have died. 

As to the representation of the various ecclesiastical pro- 
vinces, the Province of Cincinnati heads the list, seven 
bishops and about one hundred priests of that province being 
active members of the League. Then follows the Province 



EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. 



331 



of Chicago, principally represented by the dioceses of Belle- 
ville and Alton. 

The Province of New Orleans is represented by twenty 
members, of which seven belong to the Archdiocese itself, 
ten to San Antonio. The Province of St. Louis has about 
fifty members, of which thirty belong to the Archdiocese of 
St. Louis itself and were gained to the League principally 
by the zeal of Rev. J. J. Flanagan. 

Several of the Rt. Rev. Bishops have repeatedly recom- 
mended the League to their clergy. To the twelve members 
of the American Hierarchy who are Associates of the League 
must be added the name of Mgr. Zardetti who had been 
enrolled when Bishop of St. Cloud. 

According to the By-Laws of the League each member is 
expected to pay one dollar per annum, in return for which "a 
monthly periodical, the official organ of the League in 
Europe (French or German) has been hitherto sent to the 
members. But the advisability of establishing an American 
periodical to represent the interests of the League in the 
United States is at present under consideration, as appears 
from the proposals made at the late convention in Notre 
Dame. 

In reference to the financial aspect of the League it may 
be suggested that since, with the growth of the Association 
in the near future the expenses of the Directors will also 
increase, owing to correspondence, printing, etc., it would 
be advisable to fix the amount of the annual contribution at 
a figure proportionate to defray these expenses. It is need- 
less to say that the labor of management by the Rev. 
Directors is undertaken without any remuneration. 

In conclusion I may here refer to some incidents which 
gave occasion to the recent Convention at Notre Dame. In 
October, 1892, a circular had been sent to all the bishops of 
this country, in which the convocation of a Eucharistic Con- 
gress was proposed to be held in connection with the World's 
Fair at Chicago. Circumstances showed that this was 
impossible. Subsequently it was proposed to hold simply a 
Convention for which the Most. Rev. Archbishop kindly 



33^ AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

offered St. Mary's Seminary at Cincinnati ; but a series of 
circumstances delayed the preliminary preparations which 
were necessary in order to reach some practical results from 
such a movement. Finally, under the direction of Mgr. 
Maes, of Covington, the necessary steps were taken to bring 
about the Convention of last summer. Three preliminary 
meetings were held at Covington, on March 7, June 12 and 
July 10, and definite arrangements were concluded which led 
to the enthusiastic and in every way promising Convention 
at Notre Dame, described in another part of this Review. 

FiNTAN, O.S.B., 

Abbot 0/ St. Meinrad. 



STATUTA ASSOCUTIONIS SACERDOTUM ADORATORUV 

seu aggregationis sacerdotalis — congregationi ssmi sacra- 

menti — a, r. p. eymard institut-(e. 

priests' eucharistic league. 

Haec Associatio a SSmo Dno Nostro Leone XIII approbata et benedicta, 
a pluritnis orbis catholici Archiepiscopis et Episcopis commendata, Rotnae 
canonice erecta die i6a Januarii 1887, ab Emo et Rmo Card. Parocchi, SS. 
Vicario general!, sequent! dccreto definitive approbata est : 

Lucidus Maria tituli S. Crucis in Jerusalem S. R. E. Presbyt. 
Card. Parocchi SS. D, N. Papae Vicarius generalis, etc. 

Cum ad vitam spiritus in sacerdotibus fovendam nihil aptius sit 
quam ardens eorundem in Jesum Christum sub sacramentali specie 
absconditum amor, idcirco piam societatem sacerdotum, qui divinis- 
simo Eucharistiae Sacramento, et singulares agant gratias pro 
acceptis beneficiis, et adorationis actus exhibeant, et postula- 
tiones et vota pro Ecclesia sine intermissione offerant, Nos potestate 
nostra ordinaria die 16, Januarii curr. anni 1887 ereximus et 
canonice erectam fuisse pronuntiavimus. 

Ejusdem autem Societatis Constitutionem sex hisce capitulis con- 
signatam ac sufficienti experimento dignam, quae confirmetur, 
judicatam definitive approbamus. • 

Datum Romae ex aedibus Vicariatus die 20 Augusti 1887. 

Lucidus Maria, Card. Vicarius. 
August. Can. Barbiellini, Secretarius. 



ASSO CIA TIO SA CERDO TUM ADORA TOR UM. 333 

I. ASSOCIATIONIS FINIS. 

Pia haec Associatio Clero proponitur, et finem habet : 

1° Ut ardens Sacri Cordis D. N. Jesu Christi desiderium implea- 
tur, qiio in Sanctissimo Altaris Sacramento optat visitari et adorari ; 
convocando scilicet sacerdotes, ut frequentius veniant ad Christum 
Sacramentalem et vivant ex hoc Sacramento vitae, in quo princi- 
pium, gratia et finis Sacerdotii Catholici reperitur ; 

2° Ut omnes sacerdotes aggregatos vinculis mutuae caritatis uniat, 
qua eodem spiritu viventes sibi mutuum juvamen exemplis fidei et 
amoris erga Deum Sacramentalem praebeant, et participes fiant 
precum, meritorum et bonorum operum tot millium confratrum, 
qui ex toto orbe nomen piae Associationi dederunt ; 

3** Ut adoratores in spiritu et veritate et simul apostolos fortes 
gloriae SSmae Eucharistiae pariat, qui strenue laborent, ut fidem et 
devotionem fidelium erga Sanctissimum Sacramentum augeant, 
et populos sanctificent innumeris gratiis, quae ab Eucharistia dima- 
nant, uti e fonte omnis virtutis et sanctificationis ; 

4° Ut meliores dies impetrent Sanctae Dei Ecclesiae, adhibita una 
e viribus supernaturalibus potentissima, supplicatione innumerorum 
sacerdotum, qui ad pedes Domini Sacramentalis prostrati, adventum 
Regni ejus jugiter implorent in seipsis et in universo mundo. 

5° Ut expient innumera sacrilegia a malis sacerdotibus SSmo 
Sacramento illata. 

Sacerdotes sodales SSmi Sacramenti euchari&tica Jesu Christi 
/ita vivant, quae praesertim in sui abnegatione et immolationis amore 
consistit. Memores sint se Regnum Domini Eucharisticum debere 
totis viribus tueri ac propagare, in mundum missi tanquam incendi- 
arii amoris Ejus. Studia, zelum ac pietatem suam ad Eucharistiam 
constanter referant. Recordentur hoc sibi primum inesse officium, 
ut per seipsos adorationi vacent : ' * Nos autem orationi instantes 
erimus,^' et ministerii sui fructum in oratione parandum esse atque 
firmandum. Dein vero, ab Eucharistia ad populos descendant sicut 
Moyses a monte, Apostoli a Coenaculo, i§^neo zelo repleti ad verbum 
Ejus annuntiandum et gloriam promovendam : ' ' Orationi instantes 
. . . et ministerio verbid Spondeant se in omnibus rerum 
adjunctis Jesu Christi causam et honorem amplexuros et defensuros, 
et consuetudinem visitandi Sanctissimum Sacramentum, necnon 
Sacrae Communionis frequentationem quantum potuerint propaga- 
turos. Demum, in cunctis suis actibus et ministeriis, ^terno 
Sacerdoti Jesu Christo uniti vivant, qui sacrdotii exemplum est et 
gloria. R. P. Eymard. 



334 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 



II. CONDITIONES ADSCRIPTIONIS. 

Quivis Associationi adnumerari cupiens, satisfacere debet sequen- 
tibus conditionibus : 

4° Ut sacerdotali charactere insignitus sit, vel saltern in majoribus 
Ordinibus constitutus. ^ 

2° Ut ejus nomen et praenomen non abbreviatum in Associationis 
catalogo describatur, quod onyiino praestandum est ad indulgentias 
lucrandas. 

3° Ut singulis hebdomadis horant unavt Adorationis continuant 
persolvat coram Sanctissimo Sacramento sive exposito sive in Taber- 
naculo latenti. Dies autem et hora ad libitum relinquuntur, et possunt 
pro ministerii exigentia singulis hebdomadis variari. 

Advertant Associati se uti posse licentia aperiendi sacrum Tabemaculum 
durante adorationis hora, dummodo sex cerei accensi super altare ardeant. 
— De Herdt, t. II, n° 65, I: '• Pro privata Expositione solum Tabemaculum 
aperitur, et sacra pyxis clausa, suaque velam.ine obtecta, populi oculis sub- 
jicitur.^^ . . . — III. *^ Ad privatum. Expositionem. neque publica 
causa, neque facultas Episcopi requiritur ; sed causa privata, ut alicujus 
infirmitasy aut alia privata fam,ilice necessitas^ desiderium. alicujus viri 
religiosi, etc., et consensus prcefecti Ecclesics sufficiunty S. R. C. 31 Mail 
1643, n. 1245—10 Jul. 1688, n. 3013.— Bened. XIV. Instr. XXX.— Gardell. 
ininstr. Clem. § 36, nn. 2, 9, et 11. 

4° Ut in die adscriptionis, specialem sui consecrationem Sanctis- 
simo Sacramento faciat (cujus formula optioni cujusque relinquitur ; 
una tamen indicatur ad tergum testimonii adscriptionis.) 

5° Ut in fine cujusque mensis assidue remittat directori libellum 
Adorationis, de quo infra (III, 2) sermo erit. 

6° Ut semel in anno Sacrum offerat pro Confratribus ipso anno et 
antea defunctis. 

7° Ut semel in mense indulgentiam horae adorationis affixam 
applicet animabus Confratrum, quorum obitus per "Annales" men- 
sis elapsi renuntiatus fuerit. 

III. ASSOCIATIONIS REGULATIO. 

I. Unusquisque Sacerdos Adorator, cum Associationi inscribitur, 
accipit aggregationis testimonium cum inscripta formula consecra- 
tionis SSmo Sacramento faciendse, de qua supra dictum est. 

I Alumni seminariorum, usquedum in Associationem sacerdotalem pos- 
sint adscribi, nomen dare possunt " Aggregationi SSmi Sacramenti*^ quae 
unam adorationis horam singulis tantum mensibus exigit, cum privilegio 
indulgentiae plenarise, si Sacram Communionem acceperint, aut secus 7 
annorum et 7 quadrag. — Quam indulgentiam quotidie lucrari possunt sub 
iisdem conditionibus. 



ASSOCIATIO SACERDOTUM ADORATORUM. 



335 



2. Omnes quolibet mense accipiunt "Annales " Operis, una cum 
libello quod singulis mensibus remittere debent ad proprium Asso- 
ciationis centrum, postquam in eo signaverint peractas adorationis 
horas. 

3. Omnia libella in centre Associationis accepta, omnesque 
commendationes precum, thecae inclusa coUocantur coram. SSmo 
Sacramento diu noctuque exposito ibique per totum mensem re- 
manent, in obsequium profecto Divino Cordi gratissimum, in testi- 
monium amoris et fidelitatis sacerdotum Ejus, et ut jugis in eorum 
gratiam deprecatio. 

4. Annua contributio pro Operis expensis offerenda, assignatur 
$1.00 pro quovis Associate sine uUa exceptione. 

rv. INDULGENTI^ A SUMMO PONTIFICE PIC IX. CONCESS^ CONGREGATIONI 

SSMI SACRAMKNTI, ET AD ASSOCIATIONKM SACERDOTUM 

ADORATORUM EXTENSA. 

1. Indulgentia plenaria quotidiana, quoties in die unam horam in adora- 
tione transegerint ad pedes Sanctissimi expositi vel in Tabemaculo reconditi, 
dummodo in hoc ultimo casu una lampas in sanctuario accensa^colluceat. 

2. Indulgentia plenaria in die adscriptionis in Sodalitatem. 

3. Indulgentia plenaria in articulo mortis, si corde contrite sacrum Jesn 
nomen invocaverint. 

4. Indulgentia plenaria diebus festis Epiphaniae et Corporis Domini, 
dummodo per aliquod tempus Sanctissimum devote adorent in una Ecclesi- 
arum Congregationis, -vel in ecclesia parochiali. 

Meminerint Associati in fine cujusvis horse adorationis precari ad inten- 
tionem summi Pontificis et pro Ecclesiae prosperitate, ut indulgentiam 
plenariam consequantur. 

Omnes praedictae indulgentiae animabus Defunctorum per modum suf- 
fragii sunt applicabiles. 

Praeterea Sacerdotes Associati participant non solum in Confratrum 
meritis, sed in iis etiam Religiosorum SSmi Sacramenti et omnium aggre- 
gatorum in diversis eorum piis operibus. 

DECLARATIONES. 

1. Nomen "Priests' Eucharistic League" brevitatis caussa hac 
in regione adoptatum est. 

2. Animadvertant Sodales, horam unam Adorationis continuam 
praescriptam esse. Non licet, nisi necessitatis caussa, dividere 
horam adorationis. Brevis tantum intemiptio non impedit quomi- 
nus indulgentias lucretur Sodalis. 

3. Hora ad intentionem Associationis unice detur Adorationi 
Smi. Sacramenti, nee aliis finibus inserviat. Breviarii recitatio hoc 



336 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



tempore adorationis tunc tantum admitti posse videtury si fit cum 
continua applicatione ad Smum Altaris Sacramentum, quod per- 
difficile esse quisquis admittit. Meditatio referatur ad Smum Sac- 
ramentum. Quaecumque Adorationem Smi Sacramenti hac hora 
prsestandam impediunt, menti Associationis aliena esse censenda 
sunt. 

4. Adoratio fieri potest hiemis tempore in sacristia, immo etiam 
in domo ; utrum indulgentias tunc lucrari possit Sodalis, si domo 
Adorationem peragit, dubium est. 

5. Adoratio potest fieri vel genuflectendo, sedendo vel stando 
juxta libitum. Non est necessarium, Sodalem esse vestitum super- 
pelliceo durante hora adorationis. 

6. Tempus, quo S. Viaticum fertur ad aegrotum, si horae spatium 
explet, pro adorationis hora sumi potest, nee non tempus devo- 
tionum publicarum coram Smo exposito, si per horam durant. 

7. Sodales remittant diligenter libella adorationis ad Directores 
Dioecesanos ; ubi nullus existit, ad Directorem Generalem. Scribant 
loco ad id destinato numerum Certificati, nomen proprium cum 
loco Residentiae et Dioecesis, dies, quo hora adorationis habebatur, 
signo X, dies, quo S. Sacrificium pro defunctis Sodalibus offere- 
batur, signo X X notetur in serie numerorum, qui infra in libello 
inveniuntur. Non postulatur datum exactum, sed sufficit approxi- 
matum. Pagina altera scribantur intentiones precibus Con- 
gregationis Smi Sacramenti et Associatorum commendandae si 
libet. 

8. Si quis sodalis horam adorationis obire non potuerit una 
hebdomada, suppleat ipsam in sequenti ; si hoc etiam non fieri 
potuit vel per longius tempus ab hora adorationis detentus ftiit, 
nihilominus libellum remittat, causa omissionis voluntariae seu 
involuntariae breviter indicata in ipso libello. Ipsa libelli etiam 
sine horis adorationis indicatis remissio consideratur ut intentio 
remanendi in Associations 

9. Si quis per dimidium annum libellum mittere neglexerit, 
iterum atque iterum benigne de obligatione praescripta a Director e 
certior fiat- Si terna admonitione suscepta libellum non mittere 
persistit, supponetur ipsius voluntas non amplius pertinendi ad 
associationem, nomenque eius ex albo Confi-aternitatis destruetur. 

10. Religiosi admitti possunt Sodales Confi-aternitatis permit- 
tentibus Superioribus suis, si omnes obligationes quales caeteri 
Sodales adamussim explent. Libella et contributiones et ipsi mit- 
tant ad Directores Dioecesanos. 



ASSO CIA TIO SA CERDO TUM ADORA TQR UM. 337 

11. In contributione annua — $1.00 — est inclusa subscriptio pro 
Annalibus Associationis. 

12. Litteris ad directores cum quaestionibus directis addatur 
semper " Postage stamp" pro mittenda responsione. 

13. Mutationes Residentiae quam primum sunt indicandse direc- 
toribus. 

14. Conferentiae Sodalium in dioecesibus subsunt permission! 
Redmi Ordinarii, cuius etiam est, Directorem Dicecesanum nomi- 
nare, si ipsi placet, ubi primum plusquam 12 sodales nomen 
dederint Associationi. 

15. Indefesso zelo curent Reverendi Sodales, ut novos semper 
lucrentur Domini N. Jesu Christi adoratores, et optime sciant, 
Ilium, qui dat velle, dare etiam gratia efficacissima perficere pro 
bona voluntate. 

DIRECTION Olf THE PRTSSTS' KUCHARISTIC LKAGim. 

Central Direction oe the League : Paris, Avenue Friedland 27. 

Director General for the United States: Rev. Bede Maler, O.S.B., 
Prof, of Theology, St. Meinrad's Abbey, St Meinrad, Ind. 
Diocesan Directors : 

Very Rev. Hy. Brinkmeyer, Rector of St. Gregory's Seminary, Cedar 
Point, O., for the Archdiocese of Cincinnati. 

Very Rev. Wm. Cluse, V.G., Rector of the St. Boniface Church, Ger- 
mantown, 111., for Belleville. 

Rev. Jos. Meckel, Rector of St. Paul's Church, Highland, 111., for Alton. 

Very Rev. Louis G. Deppen, Chancellor, 1307 Brook street, Louisville, 
Ky., for Louisville. 

Rev. Hy. Meissner, Rector of St. Charles* Church, Pertt, Ind., for Fort 
Wayne. 

Rev. J. J. Flanagan, Holy Name Church, 2041 East Grand Avenue, St. 
Louis, Mo , for St. Louis. 

Very Rev. J. Friedland, Rector of St. Francis' Church, 437 Orleans street, 
Detroit, Mich., for Detroit. 

Rev. Stephen Schmidt, Rector of St. Francis' Church, Dayton, Ky., for 
Covington. 

Rev. Cyr. Saint-Pierre, JeflFerson, S. D., for Sioux Falls. 

For Canada: Le R. P. Directeur, 50 Avenue Mont Royal, Montreal, 
Canada. 



338 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

THE riEST CONTENTION OF THE EUCHABISTIC LEAGUE IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

FROM the statistics given by the Right Rev. Abbot 
Fintan it appears that the Eucharistic League has 
been in active operation in the United States for some years 
past. In order to extend its beneficent influence, however, 
upon the whole body of the American clergy, it was resolved 
to imitate the example of the European unions, and to organ- 
ize a Eucharistic Congress which would call public attention 
to the existence of the association, and arouse a common 
interest in its work. A necessary preliminary to the success 
of the proposed Congress was the calling of a convention of 
the active and interested members for the purpose of organ- 
izing a systematic propaganda whereby the subject and 
methods of the Eucharistic League might be made known 
and rightly understood. 

In response to an invitation sent out by the Bishop of 
Covington, February 2, 1894, to a number of bishops and 
priests, the following assembled at the bishop's house, Cov- 
ington, Ky., on the feast of St. Thomas Aquinas, Bishop 
Maes presiding : 

Most Rev. Wm. H. Elder, D.D., Archbishop of Cincinnati. 

Rt. Rev. C. P. Maes, D.D., Bishop of Covington. 

Very Rev. W. Cluse, V.G., Belleville, 111. 

Rev. Jos. A. Blenke, Covington, Ky. 

Rev. Bede Maler, O. S. B. , St. Meinrad's, Ind. 

Rev. Henry Brinkmeyer, Cedar Point, O. 

The latter was asked to act as Secretary. 

Upon the assurance given by Rev. B. Maler, O.S.B., that 
the Very Rev. Provincial of the Fathers of the Holy Cross 
would gladly permit said convention to be held at Notre 
Dame University, it was resolved to hold the convention at 
Notre Dame, Ind., on Tuesday and Wednesday, the 7th and 
8th days of August this year, 1894. It was furthermore 
agreed that the convention open with a Pontifical High Mass 
at 10 A.M., the first meeting to take place at 2.30 P.M. 
Resolved, that at 7 P.M., of the same day, there be an Hour 
of Adoration in common, with Procession and Benediction 



THE EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. 



339 



of the Blessed Sacrament ; that the next day at 7 A. M., 
Pontifical Requiem High Mass be celebrated for the deceased 
members of the Association ; and that the last meeting of 
the convention be concluded with the Te Deum and Bene- 
diction cum Sanctissimo. 

The special aim of the convention being to increase the 
personal devotion of the associates and to make the Associa- 
tion and its utility known to brother priests, it was resolved 
to have a number of papers prepared on the subiect of 
the Eucharistic League. These papers were referred to the 
Rev. Thos. J. Jenkins for publication. We print them here, 
together with three other papers subsequently written for 
this number of the American Ecclesiastical Review, as 
the most direct means of recommending the grand object of 
the League to our clergy. 

Bishop Maes undertook to have the minutes of the prelim- 
inary meeting, together with an invitation to the convention, 
sent to all the associates. The Secretary was instructed to 
say in his minutes, that all suggestions of subjects to be 
discussed and of action to be taken by said convention were 
to be forwarded to the Bishop of Covington. 

On the 7th of August the convention was opened at Notre 
Dame University. There were present the Most Rev. Arch- 
bishop of Cincinnati, the Rt. Rev. Bishops of Fort Wayne, 
Covington, Vincennes and Grand Rapids ; also Mgr. Hurth, 
C.S.C, recently appointed Bishop of Dacca, in Bengal, four 
Abbots, and some 175 priests from the ranks of the secular 
and regular clergy, representatives of His Eminence the 
Cardinal, the Archbishops of New York, Chicago and 
Dubuque, the Bishops of Pittsburgh, Hartford, Peoria, Little 
Rock, Detroit, the Coadjutors of Monterey and Burlington, 
and Bishop Seidenbush. 

After Benediction of the Most Blessed Sacrament, given in 
the evening by the Rt. Rev. Bishop of Fort Wayne, a meet- 
ing of the Directors of the League was held under the presi- 
dency of Bishop Maes of Covington. On the following 
morning Pontifical High Mass was celebrated by the Most 
Rev. Archbishop Elder, assisted by the Very Rev. Brammer, 



340 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

Vicar General of Fort Wayne, as Assistant Priest, Very Rev. 
Rainer, Rector of St. Francis' Seminary, Milwaukee, and 
Rev. Higgins, S.J. , as Deacons of Honor, and Revs. French and 
Cavanaugh, of Notre Dame University, as Deacon and Sub- 
deacon of the Mass. Rev. F. Spillard, C.S.C, acted as 
Master of Ceremonies. 

The opening sermon was delivered by Mgr. Maes, who set 
forth in glowing speech the purpose of the convention and 
the great good to be eflfected by the work of the members 
assembled for the propagation of the I^eague. 

In the afternoon the first general session of the meeting 
took place in Washington Hall of the University. On 
motion of the Bishop of Fort Wayne, Mg^. Maes was asked 
to take the chair. Rev. T. F. O'Rorke, of St. Patrick's 
Church, Wyandotte, and the Rev. Lamping, of Troy, Ohio, 
were made Secretaries of the meeting. A press committee was 
appointed, consisting of Rev. Dr. Kemper, of Dayton, presi- 
dent ; Rev. T. J. Jenkins, of St. L<awrence, Rev. Daniel E. 
Hudson, C. S. C, of Notre Dame, Rev. J. Flanagan, of St. 
Louis, Rev. P. Bede, O.S.B., of St. Meinrad's Abbey, Indiana. 
As the Committee on Finance were chosen : Vicar-General 
Cluse, president, Rev. B. Oechtering and Very Rev. Bush. 
The Committee on Resolutions consisted of Right Rev. Bishop 
Chatard, of Vincennes, president, Revs. Didier, Meissner, 
Meckel, and the Very Rev. Hogarty, of St. Vincent, Ky. 

After the appointments of oflBcers, the Brief of approba- 
tion by the Holy Father, addressed to the president of the 
convention, was read. Next in order came the reading of 
letters from His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons, the Apostolic 
Delegate, Archbishops Ryan, Ireland, Grace, Feehan, Cha- 
pelle and Hennessy ; Bishops of Buffalo, Burlington, Wichita, 
Cleveland, Wheeling, Salt Lake City, Ogdensburg, Monterey, 
Green Bay, Davenport and St. Augustine. After this the 
papers prepared for the convention were read as reported. 

In the evening a magnificent demonstration of priestly 
love and devotion toward our Eucharistic Lord took place in 
the beautiful church and grounds of Notre Dame. The 
Most Blessed Sacrament was exposed by the Rev. F. Spillard, 



THE EUCHARIST I C LEAGUE. 



341 



C.S.C. The bishops and clergy assembled for the adoration, 
during which the Bishop of Grand Rapids gave a touching 
meditation on the Relation of Christ to His priests. It is 
difl&cult to describe the imposing spectacle presented by the 
procession in honor of our Eucharistic Lord which followed. 
The Bishop of Fort Wayne carried the Most Blessed Sacra- 
ment, accompanied by the Archbishop in cappa magna^ the 
bishops and the clergy in festal robes. Amid the joyous 
sound of the bells from the great tower of Notre Dame and the 
chants of the devout multitude, the procession passed 
through a line ot triumphal arches with thousands of lamps 
and circles of electric lights, brightening the whole area 
around, and awakening a loving enthusiasm in every breast 
capable of understanding the Catholic devotion to the Holy 
Eucharist. One must have seen Notre Dame University, 
above all at night, when the golden cupola with its grand 
figure of the Madonna is lit up beneath the star-dotted vault 
of heaven, in order to conceive something of the impression 
made by a spectacle such as this procession of the Most 
Blessed Sacrament. The entire population of the city of 
South Bend had turned out to view the celebration, and no 
doubt many a g^ace of conversion went forth from the Lord 
as He passed through the multitude that night. More than 
250 priests had come to join in the Act of Adoration, and it 
was a sublime moment when the Bishop ascended the high 
steps in the magnificent portico of the University to impart 
the Sacramental Blessing to the assembled multitude. 

On the following day a solemn Pontifical Requiem was cele- 
brated by the Bishop of Fort Wayne, with the ministers of 
the previous day, for the happy repose of the dead members 
of the Eucharistic League. After this a second session was 
held at which all the clergy were present. Propositions 
were discussed and other business transacted with reference 
to the future Congress. Among the resolutions adopted 
were : the sending of a message of thanks to the Holy 
Father for the interest shown in the American League ; and 
a request to be addressed to the American Episcopate to take 
definite steps for a Eucharistic Congress at some opportune 



342 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

time. It was also resolved to express publicly the grateful 
sentiments of the League toward the Tabernacle Societies 
for their zeal in preparing vestments and otherwise aiding 
poor churches, and as eflScient aids in propagating a practical 
devotion toward the Blessed Sacrament. The proposal was 
also made to urge the establishment of organized devotion 
to the Blessed Sacrament in our ecclesiastical seminaries. 

An appropriate reference was made by the Rev. D. McMa- 
hon, of New York, to the "Apostolic Union of Priests," 
counting many members in the United States, who would be 
inclined to adopt the Hour of Adoration in their rule of life, 
and become associates of the Bucharistic League. A similar 
recommendation was made with regard to the Bucharistic 
Union in behalf of the Poor Souls. 

Archbishop Blder, Bishops Chatard and Richter made con- 
cluding addresses, urging continued zeal in behalf of the 
object of the convention. 

It was determined that, in case it were not found advisable 
to hold the Bucharistic Congress in 1895, a convention should 
be called in some Bastern city. The Right Rev. Camillus 
P. Maes was appointed permanent president of the Buchar- 
istic Conventions, with the Very Rev. W. Cluse as secretary 
and treasurer. The meeting closed with Benediction and Te 
Deum, after having tendered a vote of thanks to the author- 
ities of the University of Notre Dame for their generous 
hospitality and whole-souled zeal in promoting the good 
work of the convention by every means at their command. 



THE FIRST BUCHARISTIC CONGRESS TO BE HELD IN AMERICA. 

WHBN we consider the aims and methods of the Buchar- 
istic Congresses, as illustrated in the several assem- 
blies held, within recent years, in Burope, the conclusion 
becomes inevitable that in no land will similar efforts be of 
greater practical utility than in these United States. 

A careful study of the history of religious movements in 
Europe reveals the fact that most of the Bucharistic organi- 
zations, so widespread in Catholic Burope, and which sur- 



THE FIRST EUCHARISTIC CONGRESS. 



343 



round the place of their foundation with such a halo of 
venerable antiquity, had their origin at the beginning of the 
second decade of centuries. They became the divine leaven 
which permeated the sturdy generation of the ages of faith, 
and made Catholic life the bulwark of society and of the 
family. The devotion to the Eucharistic God created an 
eminently religious public spirit, which considered the social 
kingship of Jesus Christ as the supreme authority, and em- 
phasized the divine right not only over the soul and in the 
family circle, but in the legislation of states and empires. 

From that epoch dates the building of those famous 
cathedrals, which were the practical outcome of the recogni- 
tion of the God-man in public life. God's house was the 
most prominent edifice in every community, because God, 
the King of kings, was believed to dwell there, and His 
law was submitted to by nations as well as by individuals. 
The eternal principles of justice were recognized by states- 
men, and the moral precepts of the Gospel became the 
foundation of common law and shaped legislation for public 
weal. Thus temporal interests, no matter how urgent, 
became secondary to the eternal interests of mankind. The 
claims of Jesus Christ to the fealty of the government as 
well as to the adoration of its subjects found expression in 
the character of the buildings erected in His honor. The 
Church, God's own real abode, became as much more beautiful 
than the homes of the people, as heaven surpasseth in 
splendor all the adorning of earth. And this unrestrained 
manifestation of generous loyalty to God, far from crush- 
ing out the public spirit — faithful indication of the healthy 
life of a people — lifted the citizen above the petty self-love 
of modem individualism. It fostered a noble public senti- 
ment, and thereby successfully claimed a princely tax on the 
people's earnings for the purpose of housing the representa- 
tives of its temporal authority in artistic town halls, which 
were only less monumental than the regal shrines of the 
Eucharistic God, the recognized source of all earthly power. 

These times were the golden age of Christianity, when 
the name of Jesus Christ was written in the Constitutions as 



344 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 



well as in the hearts of the people. They were the result 
of man's knowledge and recognition of the real presence of 
the God-Man in the Eucharistic Tabernacle and of His ever- 
abiding love as manifested upon the altar whereon is offered 
the perpetual sacrifice. 

During the religious and moral decay of the following 
centuries, the people clung to religion, upheld by the tradi- 
tions of the Fathers, and by the glorious evidences, in archi- 
tecture, sculpture and painting, of their Eucharistic fervor, 
until the revolutionary ideas of the seventeenth and eight- 
eenth centuries well nigh destroyed all but these material 
evidences of the old Catholic faith. 

Modern progress, so called, has done much to retard a 
revival of the glowing heart-worship of Jesus Christ in the 
Holy Eucharist. But a return-current has set in. A new 
spirit is rekindling the ever present, if latent, love of God in 
the souls of clergy and people, and for the last twenty years 
the power of Jesus Eucharistic is making itself felt. Its circle 
of devotional fire is ever widening. In Europe, more espe- 
cially, it is gaining ground rapidly, strengthened by the tra- 
ditions of a glorious past, the influence of which is all the 
more readily felt from the fact that these traditions are not 
unmixed with feelings of national pride. The Eucharistic 
Congresses of the Old World owe much of their success 
to the mediaeval traditions of Eucharistic guilds, and to 
the forefathers' generosity in building churches to the 
Eucharistic God which almost defy the corroding tooth of 
time. 

But what of these United States of America ? We are a 
new people composed of old elements. By the same sound 
law of revulsion, our zeal in building churches must be made 
the starting point toward a reviving love for Jesus Christ 
whose Tabernacle is erected therein. 

Our people have generously contributed toward the build- 
ing oi the temple, but they have, broadly speaking, built 
better than they knew. Too often, like the Athenians of old, 
they have acted on general principles of religion and made 
their offering — " salva fide," in the light of the personal 



THE FIRST EUCHARISTIC CONGRESS. 



345 



Eucharistic relations of Jesus Christ witli His people — to an 
unknown God ! Lack of traditions will make it somewhat 
more difficult to arouse the enthusiasm of the faithful, but the 
personal sacrifices which they have made to build the temple 
can be successfully used as a lever and as an interested incen- 
tive to make them adore and love with more exterior, and 
especially with more convinced interior devotion, the Divine 
Treasure enshrined therein. 

Surrounded as we are with an atmosphere of infidelity, or, 
at least, of indiflference to exterior manifestations of faith, it 
becomes the duty of us, priests, to prepare the people for the 
religious zeal and fearless piety, without which a Eucharistic 
Congress, in which the laity must take a prominent part, 
would be a failure. 

It takes time to do so. And this is the greater reason why 
we should go immediately and vigorously to work. 

The "Priests' Eucharistic League," already established, is 
the first element of success. But we shall have to create a 
spirit of more ardent faith, of fealty and love to Jesus Euchar- 
istic among the people. A Congress would do little good so 
long as these preliminaries have not been attended to ; they 
are the foundations of the work. 

How shall we accomplish it ? Among various means which 
the zeal of individual priests will readily suggest, let me 
mention a few. 

I. Eucharistic guilds were, as already noted, the origin of 
the glorious revival of Faith ; let us follow the lines which 
made the Eucharistic work such a signal success in the Old 
World. Organize the old established Confraternity of the 
Blessed Sacrament for men. Make the conditions for ad- 
mission such that to be a member of it is a title to Catholic 
distinction. I may speak of experience in this matter. 
In my old home, the " Laudate," as the members of the 
Confraternity were called, were the most virtuous and most 
respectable men of the parish, leaders in all good works. 
They were tenacious in their right to surround the Blessed 
Sacrament, lighted taper in hand, at all public functions. 
They formed a body guard, or, more honorable still, they 



L 



346 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

were allowed to carry the baldachino enthroning the Holy 
Kucharist during solemn processions in the church or on 
the street. 

2. The devotion of the Perpetual Adoration, both diurnal 
and nocturnal, will soon naturally follow in large parishes, 
and contribute immensely toward an abiding living faith and 
love for Jesus Eucharistic. 

3. Frequent Holy Communion will become the rule in 
the parish, and from that food of the soul, often received, 
will grow the strength of faith which makes practical Cath- 
olic men of whom we may be proud. Teach them to devote 
sufficient time to thanksgiving after Holy Communion 
and how to avail themselves of that precious time. 

4. The Forty Hours' Devotion is sufficiently known and 
practiced. The ladies' associations may be induced to adore 
the Blessed Sacrament in the day-time, the men's societies 
at night. I^et us not forget to g^ve the school children, by 
class-rooms, the privilege of half an hour's devout prayer, 
so that when grown up men, they may still be in heart and 
soul the children of faith whom Jesus loves. 

5. Finally, we should encourage the attendance of our 
people at evening service — Vespers and Benediction. In my 
experience more Catholic hearts, grown cold by neglect of 
religious duties for years, have been enkindled with the fire 
of God's love during Benediction, and more non-Catholics 
have been drawn to the Church of Jesus Christ under the 
direct influence of the Eucharistic blessing, than at any other 
public function of the Church. 

People will thus be drawn by a resistless divine force to 
the God of our Tabernacles. The influence of Jesus Christ 
will be directly brought to bear upon the lives of the faith- 
ful. Unbounded love and public recognition of Jesus Christ 
in the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist will follow. Not 
till then, in my humble opinion, should the permanent 
organization of Eucharistic Congresses be asked to name a 
date for the convocation of an international Eucharistic Con- 
gress. The American Catholic soil may be broken and tilled 
in the mean time, so as to be fit in three years for the trans- 



PROPAGATION OF THE LEAGUE. 



347 



planting of that Tree of Life without endangering the fruits 
which are expected from its heavenly blossoms. 

And judging from the interest lately manifested in the 
work of the Priests' Eucharistic League, we may nourish the 
hope that the hierarchy of the United States will deem it 
proper to call an American Eucharistic Congress within two 
years. That such an event cannot be realized before that 
time, is our firm conviction, with all due respect for the 
admirable zeal of those who look only to the object itself, 
without calculating the requirements of a solid preparation, 
the expenses entailed and the results aimed at for the perfect 
accomplishment of the work. 

Camili^us p. Maes, 

Bishop of Covington^ Ky, 



PROPAGATION OP THE LEAGUE. 

THE total number of clerics belonging to the Euchar- 
istic League in December, 1893, was 27,560. Of 
these only 250 were associates from the United States. It 
would not be just to draw from this small proportion of 
American members the conclusion that there exists among 
ns any notable lack of devotion to the Most Blessed Sacra- 
ment. The observance of special rules and fixed hours of 
adoration are not essential to faith and love for the Holy 
Eucharist. On the other hand it will be admitted that the 
fact of association and a certain pledge insure not only 
greater fidelity in this respect, but multiply the ordinary 
opportunities for deepening the convictions of faith and for 
intensifying the love toward the Blessed Sacrament. 

Regarded in this light the Eucharistic League of Priests 
is a great promoter for practical good among the clergy, and 
the fact that it is not as widely known in our midst as 
might be, is a decided loss to the Catholic cause in America. 
We may, in some sense, apply here the words of St. John 



348 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

the Baptist, referring to our Lord : There has stood one in 
the midst of you^ whom yon know not. (St. John i, 26.) 

The thought suggests itself, therefore, quite naturally, 
that there should be instituted a system of Propaganda by 
which the League may become universally known and its 
membership increased among the secular clergy for whom it 
is chiefly intended. Its object, principles and methods 
should be canvassed throughout the length and breadth of 
the land. To effect this it is essential that there be com- 
bined activity. There is to be more organization, more 
publicity, more incitement to participation. There should 
be a director and other ofl&cers, filled with zeal and love for 
the Holy Eucharist, who propagate the League in every 
diocese and province. The bishops can surely be appealed 
to, to interest themselves in so noble a work, not only by 
giving their names to the League, but by actively espousing 
its cause and aiding in its extension. Among other ways 
and means this could be introduced and partially carried 
out by the clergy assembled in their annual Retreat When 
we measure our many opportunities in this respect, it is no 
exaggeration to charge even the anointed of the Lord, His 
special household servants, with negligence in not thinking 
enough of Him, in not waiting on Him with prayer, assid- 
uity and love. In France, according to the Annals, at least 
one whole night during the Clerical Retreat is devoted to 
the solemn adoration of the Blessed Sacrament — a spec- 
tacle most edifying, yet which has hardly been witnessed in 
the United States. 

I repeat, then, that it appears highly advisable that there 
be formed in the United States branch organizations, affili- 
ated to the head centre, with a director of each branch in 
its respective diocese. For some dioceses this has already 
been done. If the bishops be appealed to by the represen- 
tatives of the League to concur in this grand outpouring of 
love and fidelity to our Lord in the Sacrament of His love, 
they will undoubtedly answer in favor of the scheme. The 
local directors can easily correspond with the heads of 
ecclesiastical seminaries, and chiefly with those houses 



MEANS OF PROPAGATING THE LEAGUE. 



349 



where Diocesan Retreats are held, urging them to take part 
in this movement in honor of the Holy Eucharist. In 
short, let the local directors use their best endeavors to 
enroll in their branch association as many of their clerical 
brethren as they can reach. 

E. DiDIER. 
Baltimore^ Md. 



MEANS OF PROPAGATING THE LEAGUE. 

HAVING in view the chief end of the Eucharistic 
League, as explained in its Constitution, I would 
suggest the following means as best suited to propagate it 
among our clergy. 

First. — The " Priests' Eucharistic League" to be effectu- 
ally advanced, should begin at the Seminary. There, while 
the mind is plastic, the soul fresh, clean, bright and untar- 
nished by the world, amid surroundings most favorable, the 
devotion to our Lord in the Most Holy Sacrament as one 
most peculiarly fitting to the ministry, and therefore deserv- 
edly dear to aspirants to that state, can be best aroused. There 
are few priests who, in the midst of their toils and trials, do 
not at times flit back in spirit to the seminary chapel, and 
hear again the prayers, meditations, novenas, hymns, and 
other devotions of their seminary life, and glean, from even 
the shortest glance backwards, a cheering picture, an uplift- 
ing emotion, and an encouraging reminiscence. Let the 
work of the League begin there in a preparatory League, 
officered from the Faculty, with the one hour's watch made 
in common and with all the solemnity that can be clustered 
about it. Thus the foundations of the Association will be 
well and deeply laid. This will add to the ranks of the 
Priestly League a number of new, zealous and youthful 
members each year. It will be no new thing, to be eyed 
suspiciously and scanned closely by the ultra-conservatism 
that frowns at things however good and old, if only they 
look young and new. 



350 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Second. — As the young priest conies forth from the Semi- 
nary, let him find a diocesan union or branch of the League 
to welcome him into its shelter, to give him the encourage- 
ment, the help, the God-speed that will aid him in the try- 
ing time of recent emancipation from the strict discipline 
and routine of seminary life. We who are in the going 
down of life know something of the greatness of this peril 
and of the numbers who have been hurt therein. 

Under such circumstances, the Bucharistic League will 
hold out a helping hand to the inexperienced youth, to show 
him how to keep up the old devotional spirit and thus confer 
upon him a boon that passing years will make him value 
more and more, and cause him to be grateful for being so 
well looked after by his seniors in the Lord's service. The 
second means, then, would be diocesan branches of the 
League. 

Third. — This diocesan union or branch of the League, 
meeting every month, two months, or three months, at one 
or more places according to the size of the diocese and its 
priestly strength, would tend to keeping up and increasing 
fervor in the work. With the one hour's prayer in common, 
to beg^n with, to be followed with an interchange of senti- 
ments and experiences and the encouraging words of advice 
from our Superiors, much good would be done and each 
member would go home to his mission with greater consola- 
tion to himself and greater fruits to his people. The shep- 
herd that loves his flock will lead it where the sweetest 
waters and the richest pastures can be found, and so times 
pass and the work is kept up without break. God alone, 
for whom we labor, can tell what a return may be looked 
for. 

Then when the clergy are gathered in their yearly 
Retreat, one day of it, or even a half-day, should be set apart 
for this work . A diocesan conference of the League could 
be held, and appropriate instructions, devotions, and other 
exercises would give fresh life and spirit to the work. 
Such a conference would be an inspiring conclusion to the 
Retreat and put the seal on the resolutions made therein . 



MEANS OF PRO PA GA TING THE LEAGUE. 351 

Incidentally, I may add, the union between the different 
members of the clergy would become strong and holy by 
reason of the League. 

Fourth. — Provincial conferences or conventions, to be held 
about once a year, with all the solemnity which the Church, 
our venerable Mother, knows so well how to give to such a 
celebration, would serve to do away with the cumbrous and 
expensive yearly congress for the whole country. One whole 
day would be enough for earnest, practical men to do all that 
such a congress calls for. It would widen and strengthen 
the League and make its advantages better known and appre- 
ciated. Then, at longer intervals, we can have the reunion 
of all the branches of the land, a grand evidence of the pro- 
gress and success of our work, and a grand national gift to 
our Lord of a public, magnificent profession of our love to 
Him whose delight it is to be with us. We could show the 
world, the heavenly court, all creation, that we also feel 
delight, absorbing, uplifting and purifying, at having Him 
with us by day and by night, near to us at all times, waiting 
for us at all times, rich in mercy and long-suffering for us 
ever, and that most of all because He loves us with a special 
love, for we are His priests^ and we love Him with a special 
love because we are His priests. 

Fifth. — Finally, a very powerful means of promoting our 
work is the press. Every trade and calling has its special 
organ to represent its interests and keep the members in 
touch with the advance of the times. We are strong enough 
to set about having an organ — a monthly — devoted to the 
Eucharistic League. If our European brethren were less 
national, we might, long since, have had a periodical legible 
to every priest, in the language of the Church, and not leave 
each tongue to speak for its own patrons. The tongue in 
which we daily pray, in which we daily sacrifice, would be a 
fitting instrument, not merely to aid the work, but to make 
the union of Christ's priesthood closer and stronger, and 
more hallowing in its results. 

It may not be unseasonable to suggest that in the imme- 
diate future a larger membership will be secured by a little 



352 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

relaxation in the matter of the hour's prayerful watch. If 
this could be modified so as to let the hour be more readily 
divided into its two half-hours on the same day or separate 
days when, not merely necessity, but even grave inconven- 
ience would call for it, a very strong objection to the League 
would be taken from the minds of many priests. It is not 
always easy to secure this one hour's uninterrupted seclu- 
sion ; a great many will find a whole hour's prayer difficult 
to a degree, where they could occupy a half-hour successfully 
and without becoming tired of it ; and it is just those who 
have grown remiss in prayer, have lost the practice of mental 
prayer, have become weaned away trom exercises of piety, 
who are to be drawn into a closer communion with the Lord 
chosen by them for their inheritance here and hereafter. 
In time there will be no need for this indulgence. In pro- 
portion as the heart grows nearer to Christ the half-hours 
will soon coalesce and thus the old-time spirit of recollection 
will be revived. 

^ E. Bush. 

AUoona, Pa. 



THE ESTABLISHKENT OF A EUCHABISHC MONTHLY. 

THERE is hardly any argument required to prove the 
advisability of establishing a monthly periodical of the 
Eucharistic League. The Blessed Sacrament is the centre 
of all our worship, the sun of our religious life, the devotion 
of devotions, the raison <f' Hre of the priesthood — the taber- 
nacle is the family hearth around which we daily assemble, 
the Eucharist is God living among His own, the Emmanuel. 
We need not then answer the question why there should 
exist a periodical whose purpose it is to defend and to spread 
this heavenly truth in our midst and to win from American 
Catholics the homage and love due to it by every title. 

That the duty of establishing such an organ of devotion to 
the Blessed Sacrament naturally devolves upon the Euchar- 
istic League is equally plain. The Association itself, by 



ESTABLISHMENT OF A EUCHARISTIC MONTHL Y. 



353 



its object and constitutional activity, furnishes material for 
such a publication. The nature of the I^eague, its spirit, its 
rules and regulations, its manifold advantages — all these offer 
constant topics for discussion among the associates, and for 
those whose co-operation they would invite to the grand 
work. Moreover a periodical of this kind serves as an 
encouragement to the members. It suggests means and ways 
of keeping alive their fervor and supplies them with fresh 
motives for action as well as with healthy food for mind and 
heart. All this can hardly be accomplished in any other 
way — at least not with equal results. Books are not adequate 
to this purpose. Short, pithy explanations once advanced 
do not suffice ; repetition is necessary. A book appears 
heavy, dead, a thing of the past ; a periodical is pointed, liv- 
ing, of the present. Moreover, we desire to become acquainted 
with the thoughts and deeds of our brethren ; we dislike to 
be alone, solitary, even in our devotions ; the example of 
brother priests incites us to imitate and emulate them. The 
spider draws all its threads from its own substance; far better 
for us, occasionally at least, to make use of the thoughts and 
sentiments of wiser and holier men in our communications 
with our Maker. An organ of the Eucharistic League would 
suggest subjects for loving, practical communion with our 
great High Priest ; it would also report faithfully the delib- 
erations of our associates who assemble elsewhere to honor 
the same divine Master. Such a magazine would not only 
be an aid to the priest's personal sanctification, its influence 
would be more widespread, for it could be made the agent of 
invaluable hints from practical men, suggestions how to 
extend the devotion to the Holy Eucharist among the faith- 
ful, how to organize and promote confraternities of perpetual 
adoration, how to induce the young to conserve the strength 
of their souls by the frequent and fervent reception of the 
sacraments. A vast number of practical, moral, liturgical, 
and dogmatic questions relating to the Blessed Sacrament 
could be treated seriatim^ briefly and entertainingly, all with 
a view to enlighten and sanctify priest and people. A super- 
abundance of matter would suggest itself to the editor of 



354 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

such a journal calculated to render the paper edifying, 
instructive and interesting. 

"But could it be made to pay expenses?" is a query 
which I fancy arises in the minds of many. I think it could 
become self-supporting. Some months ago a Cincinnati 
firm oflfered to print and mail i,ooo copies of a 1 6-page 
monthly, composition to be leaded long primer, 1,500 ems to 
the page, for some $30.00. Making the subscription $1.00 a 
year, 500 subscribers would amply pay all the expenses 
incurred. In two or three years, I assume, that number of 
subscribers could be easily secured, and during this interval, 
I feel assured there are among us those who would willingly 
unite to supply the deficit, if such should occur. May we not 
look to the University of Notre Dame to furnish an editor 
competent and willing to put on his armor for this laudable 
enterprise ? To embrace labors, if need be, for the defence 
of the Emmanuel ? His ofl&ce could be made the centre of 
the American Priests' Bucharistic League, where all applica- 
tions for membership and for the transmission to the asso- 
ciations of monthly libelli, tickets of admissions, documents 
decrees, and every kind of necessary information. In this 
wise, unity and facility of administration would be secured, 
and therewith strength of government and effectiveness of 
propaganda. With this view I took the liberty, at the recent 
Convention of the Bucharistic League in Notre Dame, of 
suggesting that a committee of three be appointed to devise 
ways and means for the prompt establishment of such a 
monthly organ. It seemed to me that, even if the conven- 
tion were for the time being to accomplish nothing more 
than the inauguration of such a periodical, it would thereby 
lay the foundation of a great work. It would inaugurate an 
era marked by special love and devotion toward the Blessed 
Sacrament on the part of the Catholic priesthood ; and the 
seed thus planted would soon produce abundant fruits to be 
gathered throughout the wide expanse of our beautiful 
country — the land of fairest promise for the future glory of 
Mother Church. 

H. Brinkmeyer. 
St. Gregory's Seminaty, Cedar Point, Ohio. 



i 



FRUITS OF THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 355 

FRUITS OF THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 

THE Hour of Adoration, accordirrg to the rules of the 
Eucharistic League, is to be a work of the purest 
love. Love attracts, love unites ; even when materially 
separated, love keeps us spiritually in the presence of the 
beloved. From the ardent furnace of the sanctuary emanated 
that sacred flame which kindled the fire of responsive love 
in our youthful hearts, and taught us, through the years 
of preparation for life's tasks, to yearn with the royal poet : 
"How lovely are Thy tabernacles, O Lord of Hosts! My 
soul longeth and fainteth for the courts of the Lord.^ 
Blessed are they that dwell in Thy house. ^ I have chosen 
to be an abject in the house of my God, rather than to dwell 
in the tabernacles of sinners, for better is one day in Thy 
courts above thousands." ' 

Youth's inspiration of love brought us with the dawn of 
manhood to the centre from which it had issued, and there, 
in the sanctuary, before the throne of love, we proclaimed, 
in face of heaven and earth, the covenant of our heart's 
love: " Dominus pars haereditatis meae et calicis mei." 
And in the holy place resounded the blessed ratification of 
our covenant, and thrilled our souls by its blissful assur- 
ance: "Jam non dicam vos servos sed amicos." We felt 
ourselves enriched by the favors and privileges which were 
so abundantly showered upon us by our Beloved, and in the 
jubilant consciousness that the fair anticipations of our 
youth had become a happy reality, we were ready never to 
divide the aim of our life. Then we found it easy to 
declare: "I have loved, O Lord, the beauty of Thy house, 
and the place where Thy glory dwelleth,"* and to protest: 
*' One thing I have asked of the Lord, this will I seek after ; 
that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of 
my life," ^ 

But apart from the motives of love, urging us to the 
practice of habitual adoration of Jesus in the most holy 
Eucharist, as it is enjoined and fostered by the League, we 

I Ps. Ixxxiii, 2. 2 Ibid. 5. 3 Ibid. 11, 

4 Ps. XXV, 8. 5 Ps. xxvi, 4. 



356 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

fixed an additional incentive to it in the wondrous fruits 
which the Hour of Adoration, regularly observed, produces 
in the soul and life of the priest. 

As a first fruit of the Hour of Adoration we must put it 
down that it is a discipline of the mind and of the heart 
which prepares us and fits us for the better accomplishment 
of otq- priestly functions. Not only in theory, but in practice, 
it is universally acknowledged that upon no field of man's 
physical or mental activity can there be any excellence, 
without g^eat labor toward eflecting such excellence. In 
the science and practice of holiness all spiritual guides and 
models keep this principle before us. Of St. Aloysius we 
read that he tried for hours upon hours until he should 
attain such control over his faculties as would enable him 
to spend one full hour in prayer without distraction. 

Who needs complete control of his faculties more than 
does the priest ? 

The threat of Jeremiah : "Cursed be he that doeth the 
work of the Lord deceitfully,"^ must be constantly ringing 
in his ears. The "work of the Lord" is pre-eminently the 
duty of his state. It places him daily before the throne* 
of the divine Majesty as a mediator for his race ; with the 
words of praise and supplication upon his lips ; of praise, 
that he may supply the neglect of his brethren, and of sup- 
plication, that he may stay the arm of justice, and bring 
down wonders of mercy upon a sinful world. We feel that 
for such a task we certainly ought to be free, ' ' ab omnibus 
vanis, perversis et alienis cogitationibus, " as we protest 
every day in reciting the divine OflSce ; that we cannot 
justify ourselves in complying with this obligation "materi- 
aliter " only, if it is not done with attention and devotion, 
' ' digne attente ac devote ut exaudiri mereamur ante con- 
spectum divinae majestatis." 

Again, the "work of the Lord" places us daily at the 
altar. When the Holy Ghost says of the old sanctuary of 
figure : " Locus iste sanctus est in quo orat sacerdos pro 
peccatis et delictis populi," what should we think of the 

I Jer. zlviii, lo. 



FRUITS OF THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 357 

sanctuary of the reality. With better reason should we 
have the awe of the Bethsamites, and declare with them : 
"Who shall be able to stand before the Lord, this holy 
God?"^ 

And yet we are not only to stand in His presence and 
pray for the sins of the people, but we are to hold in our 
hands Him who through our ministry again and again 
becomes the Victim of expiation, which we are to lay at 
the feet of God's eternal Majesty as an adequate atonement 
for the guilt of the world. 

The Council of Trent assures us that Christ, our Lord, 
is continually being sacrificed upon our altars : " Supra 
sacram mensam Christus occisus jacet," and the great St. 
Thomas teaches : " In qualibet missa invenitur omnis fructus 
quern Christus operatus est in Cruce." What complete 
mental discipline should be ours for the worthy perform- 
ance of this "work of the Lord," which the saints were 
wont to call a sublime and fearful duty — ' ' excelsum et 
expavendum officium." 

How necessary again is the control of our faculties for 
the honor and beneficial influence of our pulpit. And there, 
in addition, we stand in need of that spiritual unction, 
which shows us to be not only teachers but fathers ; a dis- 
tinction which the great Apostle so jealously made in his 
own favor ; that unction which, in the language of the 
Church to her ministers, enables us not only to instruct but 
to delight and move — " non solum docere sed et delectare et 
movere." This unction is nothing else than the zeal for 
God's honor and the love for men's souls, which can be 
acquired only through communion with the divine Master 
who came to seek and to save that which was lost. 

It is needless to mention here the administration of the 
sacraments and the habitual professional relations of the pas- 
tor with his people ; in all, the edification and the greater 
spiritual good of the faithful make the same requirements 
of us as in the more prominent functions of our ministry ; 
for all, an hour of uninterrupted communion with Him who 

I I Kings vi, 20. 



358 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

is "the true Light that enlighteneth every man coming 
into this world" — with Him who is by excellence the Good 
Shepherd, must be the best training school. Nearly every 
priest will have experienced occasions when he has to recite 
the Canonical Hours, celebrate Mass, proclaim the word of God 
and administer the sacraments under circumstances which are 
anything but calculated to help the complete recollection of 
mind, the absolute concentration of thought which he knows 
and feels ought to be his at the time. It is easy to surrender 
to these unfavorable circumstances, to give up all endeavor 
for the befitting recollection which we imagine to be impos- 
sible, and to satisfy ourselves with a material correctness of 
these functions, although we are aware that, with some of 
them, there is but one step from the mere perfunctory trans- 
action to serious doubts as to validity. 

A full hour of recollection, of centralization of our 
thoughts upon the focal mystery of our official functions 
must be a safeguard amid these risks. It will be found, by 
a fair trial, to produce that spiritual discipline which we 
need for the safe, worthy and salutary discharge of the duties 
of our state. 

The second fruit of the Adoration Hour is an increase of 
personal sanctity, a strengthening of those virtues which 
constitute the priestly character. I am far from the inten- 
tion of even indicating that this fruit cannot be reaped also 
from other practices which the Church, spiritual teachers 
and the educators of the clergy recommend ; but I do say 
that the Adoration Hour is a most excellent and efficient 
means of producing this fruit. All are agreed that the 
devotion to the Blessed Sacrament is most eflfectual in 
developing and preserving priestly piety. A whole hour 
spent, of our own free choice, before the altar, must of 
necessity have a stronger eflfect, make a deeper impression 
and have a more lasting influence than shorter practices, 
which do not permit of the same undisturbed and intimate 
communion with the divine Master. 

For a full hour we are with Him who called us to a life of 
abnegation and sacrifice abhorrent to flesh and blood, and 



THE FRUITS OF THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 3^9 

who Himself chose a life of abasement and self-annihilation, 
and who mysteriously perpetuates His existence here upon 
earth under conditions which show forth such stupendous 
forge tfulness of self in love for man, that even the greatest 
sacrifices which we may be called upon to bring dwindle 
into insignificance. We arise and go forth more deeply 
impressed with the words addressed to us at our ordin- 
ation : " Imitamini quod tractatis quatenus mortis dominicae 
mysterium celebrantes, mortificare membra vestra a vitiis 
et concupiscentiis omnibus procuretis." 

A full hour we view the hidden life of our Master — that 
seclusion, that deep concealment of His infinite majesty, that 
silence, that retirement, that wonderful union of the contem- 
plative and active life ; we view His obedience to all, even 
His basest enemies, His humility in divesting Himself of 
every trace of glory. His patience and condescension to all 
who come, old and young, rich and poor, learned and ignor- 
ant, saint and sinner ; and viewing this life so gloriously 
divine in its very abasement, we understand the Apostle : 
" The wisdom of the flesh is death — because the wisdom of 
the flesh is an enemy to God,"* and we begin to love a life 
hidden with Christ in God and we practically find a new 
significance in the word of the Bishop at our ordination 
when he said : " Ministros Ecclesiae fide et opere debere 
esse perfectos." 

A full hour we breathe that zeal for souls which actuated 
our Master in all the works of love for man, which now holds 
Him captive in the seclusion, obscurity and poverty of the 
Tabernacle ; which keeps Him in His hidden life and makes 
Him humble, obedient and patient almost to contradiction 
with His very being. We hear Him say again : " I am 
come to send fire on the earth, and what will I but that 
it be kindled?'"' And we declare ourselves ready to go 
obediently and humbly and patiently to bring the souls 
of men to the knowledge and appreciation of His loving 
designs : we rise and resume the path of our daily duties 
keeping more clearly in sight the injunction : "Si oflS- 

I Rom. viii, 6, 7. 2 St. Luke xii, 49. 



360 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

cium vis exercere presbyteri aliorum salutem fac lucrum 
animae tuae." 

The third fruit of the Adoration Hour consists in the partic- 
ular blessings which, we can easily believe, the Eucharistic 
God will pour upon those who devote themselves to this act 
of special homage. It would be out of place here to say 
anything of the efl&cacy of prayer. Our associates in Europe 
give public and enthusiastic testimony through the period- 
icals of the Eucharistic League that they have found the 
Hour of Adoration a remarkably efficacious means of obtain- 
ing assistance in spiritual and temporal needs. Extra- 
ordinary conversions, re-establishment of peace and good 
understanding, disappearance of hopeless difficulties, the 
religious reformation of entire parishes, as well as restoration 
of health and unlooked-for success in material undertakings, 
are ascribed by our brethren to the benignity of the sacra- 
mental Lord. And do we not believe that He is the same 
around whom, when walking visibly upon earth, multitudes 
pressed into immediate presence, knowing " that virtue went 
out from Him and healed all ;"^ the same who sent away 
rejoicing all that came to IJim with the affliction of their 
hearts upon their suppliant lips ? 

To the great servant of God, Balthasar Alvarez, when in 
prayer before the Blessed Sacrament, the Saviour appeared 
in the form of a most amiable child, stretching forth His 
little hands so full of brilliant pearls and jewels that they 
could scarcely hold them, and saying : " Oh ! if I could find 
some one to take these from Me ! " — These pearls and jewels 
are the spirit and the unction requisite for the salutary 
discharge of our sacerdotal functions, the graces and virtues 
for our personal sanctification and the particular spiritual and 
temporal blessings that we may desire for ourselves or 
for others, " Let us go, therefore, with confidence to the 
throne of grace ; that we may obtain mercy, and find grace 
in seasonable aid."* 

P. J. HURTH, C.S.C., 
Bishop of Dacca^ India. 
I St. Luke vi, 19. 2 Heb. iv, 16. 



HOU^ TO MAKE THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 361 

HOW TO MAKE THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 

THE main object of the Eucharistic League, the heart 
and soul, as it were, of its work, is the Hour of Adora- 
tion assigned to each week. If this be observed by its mem- 
bers, promptly and conscientiously, the Eucharistic League 
will justly claim a place amongst the most important, meri- 
torious and far-reaching confraternities that have been 
sanctioned by and enjoy the protection of our holy Mother 
Church. Should this, however, be neglected or treated as a 
matter of secondary importance, the Eucharistic League will 
have no feature to be considered, no blessings to expect, no 
reason for its existence. A name without significance, 
a union without a bond, would, indeed, be the Eucharistic 
League so-called, were its members ever to grow negligent or 
careless in this particular practice. Let the zeal of the 
members abound in this exercise and we are safe to predict 
for our League a bright future, a rich harvest and a most 
honorable name and record in God's book of life. 

We cannot, therefore, wonder why the theme " how to 
make the Hour of Adoration," should be deemed an impor- 
tant consideration in connection with a discussion on the 
subject of the Eucharistic League. 

To be brief as well as clear, we shall dispose of the 

important matter embodied in our question, ' ' how to make 

the Hour of Adoration," by considering the following points : 

I. The time occupied by the adoration. 

II. The place where the adoration should be performed. 

III. The method of the exercise proper. 

I. The time for the adoration may be fixed by each member 
of the League to suit his circumstances and occupation. 
Any day of the week, any hour of the day may be selected, 
the essential point not to be overlooked being that the 
adoration last a full and continuous hour. Though the 
assumed obligation of making an hour's adoration does not 
necessarily require an uninterrupted hour, the indulgence to 
be gained thereby is conditioned by this very point. It goes 



362 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

without saying that an interruption of a few moments or 
even of a minute or two will not aflfect the indulgence. 
"Parvum pro nihilo habetur" sets us at rest about that. 
But if there be question of a material and unnecessary inter- 
ruption, the adoration though lengthened out to a full hour, 
is not entitled to the plenary indulgence. 

As to the requisite time to be spent in adoration by the 
members of the League, one hour is assigned for each week, 
making for each month four or five hours of adoration. Should 
it happen that for some reason or other the adoration have 
been omitted in one week, an additional hour should be held 
the following week, and it will entitle to the indulgence 
as well as also satisfy the obligation. It is, however, by no 
means advisable to postpone and carry over to another week 
what should be attended to this week. As each day has its own 
burdens, so also each week may be looked for to have its own 
share of disturbances and molestations whereby pious exer- 
cises are made liable to suffer. The practice of postponement 
is most probably the reason why some members have died in 
despair and why their names were struck from the book of 
life. It should, therefore, be our earnest desire and endeavor 
to have each week record its own work, lest we be found 
amongst those that grumble at the full hour's adoration, 
imagining this obligation to be incompatible with their other 
duties and occupations. Considering the extraordinary 
blessing attached to this exercise, the plenary indulgence, 
the obligation of spending once a week a full hour in the 
most intimate intercourse with our Eucharistic Lord, in 
quiet consultation with our heavenly Master, in company 
with the High-priest by excellence, cannot be regarded as 
being too burdensome or too difficult. Let the uninterrupted 
hours of one week spent in unprofitable conversation, in 
useless reading, by needless sleep stand out in bold relief 
and stifle the murmur of objection. 

There may be, of course, grave reasons which render the 
interruption of the Hour of Adoration as well as also the 
omission of the exercise quite legitimate. But let lost time 
be brought in, omissions supplied in such a manner that at 



HOH' TO MAKE THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 363 

least the obligation be fulfilled if the indulgence should be 
lost. It is true there is no sin in neglecting the devotional 
exercise, there being no obligation binding the members of 
the League under pain of sin. But who would consider such 
neglect as having no semblance of sin, in view of the fact 
that the applicant for membership made a serious promise to 
his dearest Friend on earth, to pay Him a longed-for visit of 
an hour every week, and to bring Him consolation in His 
abandonment? And if such neglect should have occurred, 
if such serious promise had been broken, would you call an 
atonement consisting in its humble acknowledgment, when 
sending the monthly libellum, too severe ? May these 
remarks suffice with regard to the time allotted for the 
obligatory adoration. 

II. We, now, will turn our attention to the second point of 
our discussion. It is the place, where the adoration should 
be made, that calls for a few explanatory remarks. The 
church is the place where God's special friend, where God's 
chosen priest should be found often engaged in his holy 
ministry. Here he is to toil and labor ; here is his field of 
action ; here is the dispensary of celestial grace dependent 
in a g^eat measure, upon his prudent and zealous minis- 
tration. Here also should he be sought for, when inquired 
after, absorbed in communion with Jesus Christ, the 
Eucharistic King. "Quid est quod quaerebatis? nescie- 
batis, quia in his, quae Patris mei sunt, oportet me esse ? " 
His should be the word of exultation : " Laetatus sum in his 
quae dicta sunt mihi : In domum Domini ibimus. " His 
should be the sigh of David when he says : " Sitivit anima 
mea ad Deum fortem vivum : quando veniam et apparebo 
ante fatiem Dei ? " With his eyes on the altar should the 
people behold him when asking the question, " Ubi est Deus 
tuus ? " The hour of meditation, then, must be held in 
Church, near the tabernacle of the Lord. This is so impera- 
tive that the indulgence is lost, if the adoration is made 
anywhere else. Choose, if convenient, the closest vicinity 
of the Sacramental Lord. It may be well to mention here 



364 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the privilege the adoring priest has, namely, that of a private 
exposition of the Blessed Sacrament. To insist on making 
use of this privilege may be out of place. However I shall 
cite the decrees of S. R. C. Let them speak for themselves. 
"Pro privata expositione solum Tabernaculum aperitur, et 
sacra Pyxis cjausa, suoque velamine obtecta populi oculis 
subjicitur, ita ut ex Tabernaculo nunquam extrahetur, neque. 
populus cum ea benedicatur." " Ad privatam expositionem 
neque publica causa, neque facultas episcopi requiritur, sed 
causa privata, ut alicujus infirmitas, aut alia privata familiae 
necessitas, desiderium alicujus viri religiosi uti et consensus 
Praefecti ecclesiae suflBciunt. ' ' 

" Si quandocunque privata ex causa S.S. Eucharistia expo- 
nenda videbitur, a tabernaculo nunquam extrahatur, sed in 
pyxide velata in aperto ejusdem tabemaculi ostiolo, cum 
assistentia alicujus Sacerdotis stola et superpelliceo induti, 
et cum sex saltem luminibus cereis collocetur." 

These decrees, dated respectively 31st of May, 1642, July 
10, 1688, and December 9, 1602, unmistakably point to a 
period when the Blessed Sacrament was held in higher 
esteem and when the devotional exercises to the holy 
Eucharist were cultivated more piously than we may boast 
of now. It is evident that we have receded from old 
venerable practices which it will be well to revive. For the 
adoring priest the private exposition will prove a potent 
means to render recollection easy and refreshing. Let us 
return to the practices of our forefathers and renew the spirit 
of happy times gone by. Almost an equivalent means to 
make the Hour of Adoration both easy and delicious is oflfered 
to the priest on his way to administer the holy Viaticum. 
Where is the true priest that has not on these occasions felt 
how sweet and consoling it is to have his beloved Lord rest 
so near his heart ? 

But what shall we say to the priest whose sickness or whose 
continuous absence from a church puts an obstacle to the 
visit of the Blessed Sacrament, or who finds it very incon- 
venient to stay for a whole hour in church in extreme cold 
weather ? Shall he be left alone in his desolation ? 



HOW TO MAKE THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 



365 



Shall he, under aggravating circumstances, even suflfer the 
mortification of being excluded from the League ? Decidedly 
not ! Let him, if at all unable to fix his thoughts on the 
Blessed Redeemer, express his regret to our Lord that 
his physical state of health does not permit him to approach 
the tabernacle, or let him direct his eyes, wherever he may 
be, towards the holy place where the Eucharistic King 
resides, as the Jews of old, yearning for the temple in 
Jerusalem when dwelling in the land of captivity ; and 
though he gain no indulgence by making his hour of devo- 
tion, the Lord will not forget to bless him, be it from the 
church, where he was baptized or from that church where 
he received his first holy Communion, or where so many 
times he has broken to his own flock the bread of life. 

III. The most important part of our discussion remains yet 
to be considered. Our attention is to be directed to the 
method of the adoration. It is well for us to remark in a 
general way, that the Hour of Adoration should be spent in 
meditation. It would be, perhaps, best not to resort to books 
wherefrom to draw the thoughts which are to occupy our 
minds while engaged in adoration. But unless we have 
attained a high degree of recollection and prayer, we shall 
feel the want of books of meditations for the purpose of 
avoiding spiritual aridity and languor. However, the use of 
such books should not degenerate into a mere spiritual 
lecture. They should assist us in fixing our imagination 
and ofiering the points from whose consideration we arrive 
at practical resolutions. We should speak from our own 
hearts to the Heart of Jesus, and address our Saviour in our 
own language as a child would do to his own father. We 
should feel happy in our own way in the company with our 
best Friend. All otherwise obligatory prayers, such as the 
divine Ofl&ce, the holy Rosary, the Stations of the Cross 
should not be allowed to supplant the adoration. All 
other occupations should be discarded, when we wish 
to enjoy the consolations and fruits of an intimate 
intercourse with our heavenly Friend. We should speak to 



366 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

our Saviour and listen to the voice of our Beloved One in the 
holy Sacrament, " Loquere Domine, quia audit servus tuus." 
So much about the method in general. The adoration 
proper should comprise, like any meditation, three parts: 
Preparation, consideration, conclusion. A few remarks on 
these three parts is all that can be asked of me in this paper. 
As for the preparation, a lively act of faith in the real 
presence of our Lord in his Sacrament is the first require- 
ment for a good meditation, such as we speak of here. To 
strengthen our faith, it would be well to remind ourselves of 
the history of the institution of the holy Eucharist ; to recall 
the types that foreshadowed the Blessed Sacrament, to think 
of the practices of our holy Church during the centuries of 
its existence, as so many striking testimonies corroborating 
our belief in the Eucharistic presence. To still more 
animate our faith and cause in our souls that holy awe so 
essential for quickening our spirit to fruitful meditation, we 
might think of the thousands and thousands of pious adorers 
in all parts of the world, who, like us, are kneeling around 
the altar of the Most High oflfering the incense of their 
prayers, holding themselves ready as victims of love and 
immolation. Listen, as it were, to the canticles and hymns 
ascending to the Sacred Host ; behold in spirit the myriads 
of candles all eager, it would seem, to bring light into the 
darkness of unbelief and telling the wonders of Christ's love 
for the children of men. 

The meditation proper now should take up any subject in 
connection with the Blessed Sacrament As already stated 
pious books might lend us their assistance for this exercise 
of the intellect and the will, in furnishing us the truths to be 
considered and prompting the resolutions to be elicited. 
Such books as " The Eternal Priesthood," by Manning ; 
" The Blessed Sacrament," by Faber ; " Visits to the Blessed 
Sacrament," by St. Alphonsus Liguori ; " The Fourth Book 
of Thomas A. Kempis"; ''Christ on the Altar," by Mgr. 
De Goesbriand, and others too numerous to mention, are full 
of suggestions by which we might profit. But even without 
the assistance of books we shall hardly die of hunger, if we 



HOW TO MAKE THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 367 

do not give way to inertness. Follow our Lord in His 
earthly career from His birth to His death and compare the 
various stages in His life with His dwelling in the Blessed 
Sacrament. Consider the various functions of Jesus Christ 
while on earth and see how He performs the same offices in 
our midst through the holy Eucharist He will teach you 
as His disciples, He will watch over you as the Good Shepherd, 
He will command you as when seated on the mountain of the 
Beatitudes — He sacrifices Himself for you as He did on 
Golgotha. 

Behold Him, the great Benefactor of mankind ! Who is even 
now willing to feed you when hungry, to cleanse you when 
in sin, to console you when in sorrow, to give you courage 
when downhearted. Speak to your Lord of the weaknesses 
you are subject to, ask Him to have mercy on you. Resolve 
what you are to do to make Him better known, more loved 
and honored. 

For a soul that is truly pious, or even only well disposed, 
there is no end to the thoughts that will suggest themselves 
before the tabernacle of the living God, of the Redeemer 
of mankind, of the dreadful Judge of the living and dead. 
Felt you as a child in simplicity, behold Jesus full of 
meekness ! Were you sick and in misery — call Him from 
the wilds of Judea, from Kapharnaum and Jerusalem that He 
place His hand on you and bring you relief. 

We may need books, to assist us and guide us in the Hour 
of Adoration ; but there is more search for them than is 
necessary, I am confident, if we will only try to employ the 
faculties which God has given us. 

And were we really in need of such helps, no doubt, as our 
League will grow in numbers, from our own midst will rise 
up splendid teachers and guides that will lead us up to the 
highest summit of recollection and repose in the Eucharistic 
Lord. 

The last part of adoration consists in thanking the Lord 
for all the favors bestowed, in reassuring Him that we shall 
soon return to Him. In fine, kneeling down you ask the 
Lord's blessing for yourself, for all your brethren in the 



368 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW.. 

League and for all your friends, the closest of whom are your 
Holy Father on the Vatican Hill, your Bishop, your own 
parishioners. This done " Vade in pace ! Dominus erit 
tecum benedicturus omnia opera manuum tuarum." 



J. Meckel. 

Highland, III. 



OBJECTIONS TO THE "HOUR OF ADORATION" AND THE 
" LIBELLUM.W 

IN the beautiful " Formula of Consecration " recom- 
mended to the members of the Priests' Eucharistic 
I/cague we promise to devote ourselves "with a willing 
heart " to the humble and loving adoration of our Blessed 
lyord, truly, really and substantially present in the Most 
Holy Sacrament of the Altar, and to do this more particu- 
larly by passing at least one hour every week in the adoration 
and pious guard i^pia custodid) of the Most Blessed Sacra- 
ment. 

This Hour of Adoration is, therefore, properly and justly 
considered to be the most important duty which we have as- 
sumed as members of the I^eague. It is to be the chief and 
most effective means for obtaining the object of the Associa- 
tion, which is to unite the priests as a " Guard of Honor " of 
the great Eternal High Priest, who has associated them with 
Himself in this transcendent dignity and clothed them with 
the more than angelic powers of the priesthood of the new 
I^aw. It is to be an occasion of the most profound homage 
to the Eucharistic God, of the deepest gratitude for this most 
wonderful memorial of His boundless love and mercy, of 
most humble and loving reparation for the coldness and 
indifference with which He is treated, and even the positive 
outrages and indignities which are offered to Him in this 
Mystery of I^ove. To whom is He, the "Sacramental 
King " (as Father Faber calls Him), to look for this homage, 



OBJECTIONS TO THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 369 

these evidences and proofs of a sincere and loyal attachment, 
if not to His ministers, His priests, the members of His own 
household? Again, this visit offers the best opportunity for 
presenting to our Lord our petitions ; our various needs and 
necessities, in our own behalf and in behalf of our people. 
He is there as upon a " throne of grace," which, as the 
Apostle says (Heb. iv, 16), we should approach with confi- 
dence, that we may obtain mercy and find grace in season- 
able aid. 

These four objects of prayer in general : Homage and 
adoration, praise and thanksgiving, reparation and atone- 
ment, and, finally, petitions for needed graces and blessings, 
will almost spontaneously occupy the devout soul in the 
presence of the Most Blessed Sacrament. To render, there- 
fore, our pious exercise as complete and fruitful as possible, 
these various acts of a believing and loving heart must all 
receive due attention, and necessarily occupy some time in 
proportion to their importance. Hence the necessity of a 
prolonged visit to the Blessed Sacrament, that the object of 
our Leagfue may be more and more realized. 

The duration of this visit is to be one continuous hour at 
least once a week, for several reasons. In the first place, a 
definite space of time had to be set as the minimum, if the 
Association were to exist and accomplish anything at all, and 
one hour every week was not deemed too long for the full 
attainment of the objects of the visits, and the various 
spiritual fruits which we are to reap from them ; nor was it 
considered as an undue interference with other calls upon 
the time and attention of even the most busy priests, regular 
or secular. 

Another reason is found in the touching appeal of our 
Blessed Lord to His Apostles during His Agony in the 
garden : "Could you not watch one hour with me?" It is 
certainly very appropriate that they who succeed the 
Apostles in the graces and duties of the holy ministry should 
cheerfully respond to that appeal of their beloved Master, 
and for '"''one hour watch with Him " before the altar, upon 
which He renews in a mystical manner the sacrifice which 



370 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

He commenced in the Garden of Gethsemani and finished 
on Mount Calvary. 

Now, as to the objections against the Hour of Adoration, 
they refer either to the length of time or the manner of mak- 
ing the visit, or to the difficulty of sparing so much time 
from other duties. The first objection is, I think, sufficiently 
answered by what has just been said — though briefly — about 
the principal reasons for which a full hour was deemed 
necessary. If, however, the visit should be interrupted by a 
sick call or by any other urgent duty, all that is required is 
to return as soon as possible and complete the hour. 

As to the manner of making the visit, it has been made 
the subject of a special paper and will, no doubt, receive a 
clear and full treatment. I might here mention that some 
difficulties may arise in regard to the place for performing 
the devotion in the case of old and feeble or otherwise deli- 
cate persons, especially in cold weather. They may make 
their visit in the sacristy or even in their rooms, and thus 
comply with the requirements of the Confraternity though 
they cannot gain the plenary indulgence attached to the 
visit unless it be made before the Blessed Sacrament itself. 

As for the difficulty of finding a spare hour — among the 
i68 of a whole week — it is surely more imaginary than real. 
It would be strange, indeed, if amid all the cares and labors 
of even the most active missionary life, from Sunday to 
Sunday, one hour could not be set apart for this exercise. A 
very practical plan to secure the necessary leisure, undis- 
turbed by outside calls, free from the annoyance of importu- 
nate visitors, would be to choose an hour in the early morn- 
ing. We could, by rising half an hour, or a full hour, earlier 
than usual, unite a little mortification with our devotion and 
make it all the more effective and fruitful. The morning 
meditation could also be very usefully combined with it and 
draw from it special light and inspiration. And what a 
fitting preparation would it be for the daily Mass ! 

To notice other objections, that may possibly be urged 
against the Hour of Adoration, would draw out this paper 
to an undue length. But there does not appear to be any 



OBJECTIONS TO THE HOUR OF ADORATION. 371 

solid reason why the time for the visit should be shortened 
or divided, and hence the General Directory of the League 
has always declined to do so, and insisted upon the full, con- 
tinuous Hour of Adoration. 

In conclusion, a few words on the "Libellum." It is a 
little printed blank sheet, on which we note, besides name 
and address, etc. , the Hours of Adoration kept during a given 
month, together with requests for the prayers of the asso- 
ciates for special intentions. It is to be sent at the end of 
every month (or, at least, during second month) to the 
Diocesan Director, and by him forwarded to the General 
Director, and finally to the central office at Paris. There, 
in the Chapel of Perpetual Adoration, kept by the Fathers 
of the Blessed Sacrament, these tickets are placed in an urn 
before the Blessed Sacrament and kept there for a whole 
month. Thus the prayers of thousands of associates from 
all parts of the world, as it were meet and ascend to our 
Lord in the Sacrament of His Love, in behalf of the needs 
and necessities of the whole League. What a beautiful 
idea ! So truly Catholic, so expressive of the sacred bond of 
faith and charity which unites us as members of this now 
world-wide League, and, no doubt, draws us more closely to 
the Sacred Heart of Jesus in the great Sacrament of His 
Love. 

Should this alone not be a sufficient inducement for every 
member of the Association to take the little trouble, the few 
moments of time required to fill out and to forward to its 
destination every month this little ticket — this message of 
love and affection to our divine Lord ! But besides this, it 
is an outward token of the fidelity with which we discharge 
our duties as members of the League, and as such, a message 
of encouragement to our priestly associates. Without this, the 
only reliable outward sign of our union, we would be almost 
sure to lose interest and become irregular and careless in the 
performance of our weekly exercises. But by faithfully 
complying with this easy requirement of noting down our 
Hours of Adoration from week to week we will be always 
reminded of our duty, and by regularly forwarding it at the 



372 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



end of the month we will keep in living touch with all the 
members of the League, our fellow-soldiers in this grand 
army, this noble " Guard of Honor " before the throne of our 
Sacramental King. 

In view of so many advantages and blessings for ourselves 
and our fellow-members, surely the insignificant labor of 
complying with this rule ought not to be considered, and he 
who neglects for six consecutive months to send in this 
"Libellum" is, therefore, deservedly dropped from the list 
of members as having voluntarily severed his connection 
with the League. 

I am fully persuaded that all who have by their presence 
at the recent convention, and by their lively and sympathetic 
interest in its labor, attested their love for Jesus in the great 
Sacrament of His love and theiri zeal for the growth of this 
truly priestly devotion, will also by a conscientious discharge 
of this, as well as of the other duties which they have 
assumed, show themselves living, active members of our 
glorious union. 

Joseph Rademacher, 

Bp. of Fort Wayne,, Ind, 



SEMINARISTS AND THE EUCHAEISriC LEAGUE OF THE CLERGY. 

A deep and abiding devotion to the Blessed Sacrament is 
for the young Seminarian the surest guarantee that he will 
one day worthily fulfill the important duties of the holy 
ministry to which he aspires. These duties concern prin- 
cipally the honor and worship of the holy Eucharist. They 
require a habit of reverence and love, which can be attained 
only by frequent meditation, acts of adoration, and devout 
communion. 

The rules of the Seminary provide, it is true, for the culti- 
vation of this habit by daily exercises of piety calculated to 
direct mind and heart toward the Blessed Sacrament. But 
these practices, being a part of the ordinary routine, are apt 



EUCHARISTIC LEAGUE. x]X 

to be done in a more or less perfunctory manner, unless there 
are special incentives to fervor, apart from the ordinary 
discipline of community life. Individual and spontaneous 
eflfort, on the other hand, engenders a spirit of sacrifice 
which is very favorable to true devotion, and fosters a 
personal consideration of the object of our worship which in 
turn begets affection. 

For such reasons, the Superiors of our Seminaries wisely 
encourage leagues and sodalities, which the students form 
of their own accord, especially when these unions become a 
more or less direct means of increasing devotion to the holy 
Eucharist. 

The lycague of the Sacred Heart, the Tabernacle Society, 
and other associations of a similar character, all of which 
unite some particular work of charity with the common aim 
of increasing devotion toward our Bucharistic Lord, have 
stated hours of adoration before the Blessed Sacrament. One 
or the other of these leagues exists probably in every ecclesi- 
astical Seminary of the land, and it would be an easy matter 
to bring them into connection with the Bucharistic League 
of the Clergy. This would naturally lead to a continuance 
of the habit of making the hour of adoration, with its mani- 
fold fruits for the priestly life, so beautifully set forth, in 
this number of the Review, by Bishop Hurth. The special 
feature of the Bucharistic League is the so-called Libellum. 
It is not meant to be a manifestation of conscience, but 
rather an incentive to be exact in the performance of a self- 
assumed duty of honor, easily set aside when there is no 
check to forgetfulness or indolence. For the Seminarist it is 
not difficult to adopt this feature. He need never, through 
his own fault, neglect the monthly Hour of Adoration, so 
that the thought of keeping a record. of his fidelity, for the 
eye of the Director of the League, can have in it nothing odious. 
As a matter of fact, we have examples of such unions. In the 
Ecclesiastical Seminary of the diocese of Vincennes, which 
is in charge of the Benedictine Fathers at St. Meinrad, the 
students have formed a Eucharistic Association^ which serves 
as a kind of initiation to the Priests' Eucharistic League 



374 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



with its permanent features of the libellum and other incen- 
tives to perseverance and regularity in the devotion to the 
holy Eucharist. Through the kindness of the Rev. Director 
General of the Priests' Eucharistic League we are enabled to 
give the Statutes of the Association. The plan may suggest 
the formation of similar unions, without prejudice to other 
already established organizations intended to promote the 
honor of the Most Blessed Sacrament. 



Adveniat Regnum tumn Eucharisticnm 
" Magrister adest et vocat te." 

EUCHARISTIC ASSOCIATION OF ST. MEINBAD'S SEMDfABT. 

STATUTES. 

§ I. — The object of the Eucharistic Association, which is 
placed under the special protection of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
and St. Thomas Aquinas, is to promote among Seminarians the 
devotion to the Most Blessed Sacrament. 

§ 2. — To obtain this end, every member is obliged to devote a 
full hour to prayer before the Most Blessed Sacrament, at least 
once a month. 

In order to keep up this pious practice uninterruptedly, each 
member shall hand over to the Prefect his libellum, upon which 
the hour of adoration is marked. This rule must be complied with 
quarterly, according to the order of the Ecclesiastical year. 

§ 3. — The members of the Eucharistic Association shall join the 
Confraternitas Sacerdotalis Adoratorum SS. Sacramenti as soon as 
they receive subdeaconship. 

§ 4. — The benefits derived from this Association are the fol- 
lowing : 

a. A more intimate union with our Lord Jesus Christ, to whose 
special service the Seminarians feel themselves called ; 

6. The promotion of the spirit of prayer ; 

c. A more profound knowledge, sincere love and true imitation 

of Christ ; 

d. Strengthening and confirmation in the divine calling to the 

holy priesthood, and the communication of numerous 



THE EUCHARISTIC ASSOCIA TION. 375 

graces during the time of preparation for the sacred 
ministry. 

e. The participation in the spiritual treasures of the Church : a 
plenary indulgence being granted for the monthly hour of 
adoration, which is applicable to the souls in purgatory ; 
and seven years and seven quadragenes for every additional 
hour. 

§ 5. — The Association shall be under the direction of the Very 
Rev. Director of the Seminary, or a professor of the Seminary, 
whose assistants shall be a prefect and secretary, both elected 
annually by ballot and an absolute majority of the members present 
in the meeting, to which the members are to be invited eight days 
before. 

It shall be the duty of the prefect to distribute \ and collect the 
libella of adoration hours. 

§ 6. — In order that all may willingly and joyfully answer the 
call of the Lord, the time of adoration is left to the choice of the 
individual. 

The members are not exempted from dutj' of monthly adoration 
during the time of vacation. 

§ 7. — The frequent reception of the Holy Sacraments is highly 
recommended. The Seminarians will use especially the moments 
of grace immediately following Holy Communion, for the purpose 
of acquiring for themselves and their fellow-members the grace of 
perseverance in their vocation, a high esteem for the dignity of the 
priesthood, and the spirit of self-sacrifice. 

§8. — The members of the Association will endeavor to meditate 
frequently upon the Blessed Sacrament, and in the examination of 
conscience examine themselves as to the due reverence and love 
they owe to the Holy Eucharist ; nor will they allow a day to pass 
without having made a short visit to this most august Sacrament. 
They will offer up to the Sacred Heart of the Redeemer present in 
the Most Holy Eucharist, through the merits of the most pure 
heart of the Blessed Virgin, all their labors and studies, sufferings 
and struggles. 

§ 9. — Additions and amendments shall be made only by an 
absolute majority of the members assembled in a special meeting, 
and with the consent of the Director of the Seminary. 



376 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



CONFERENCES. 

THE CONFBITEENITY OF THE BLESSED SACRAMENT IN BEHALF 
OF THE SOULS IN PUE6AT0RT. 

We have already referred in these pages (July, 1894, 
page 47) to an Association in honor of the Most Blessed 
Sacrament, whose special object is to relieve the suflfering 
souls in Purgatory. At the recent Eucharistic Convention 
in Notre Dame, Ind., the Right Rev. Abbott Lonicar, O.S.B., 
directed the attention of the assembled clergy to the fact 
that the object of this Association coincides in principle 
with that of the Eucharistic League. The rules of the 
*' Arch-confraternity of Perpetual Adoration for the relief of 
the holy Souls in Purgatory " require a continuous hour of 
adoration before the Blessed Sacrament once a year. This 
makes it comparatively easy to induce the laity to join, and 
All Souls' Day oflfers a good opportunity of bringing 
the people together for the hour of adoration. As for 
priests, it will prove no task to give an additional hour ot 
adoration and a mass for the suflfering souls once a year, in 
order to obtain the privileges and graces of the Arch-confra- 
ternity, whose centre is at the Abbatial Church of St John's, 
CoUegeville, Minn. 



EUCHABISTIC CONGRESSES. 

^\i^ first Eucharistic Congress was held on June 28, 1881, 
at Lille (France). Italy, Spain, Austria, England, Switzer- 
land, Holland, Mexico, Chile, and representatives from the 
Antilles took part in it. 

The second Congress, Sept. 14-17, 1882, assembled in the 
historic city of Avignon^ for a time the seat of the Sovereign 
Pontiflfs. 



CONFERENCES. 377 

The third Congress took place in Liege (Luettich) Belgium. 
It ended on June 10, 1883. 

^hit fourth was held in Freiburg (Switzerland), September 
9, 1885. 

The fifth International Eucharistic Congress met at 
Toulouse (France), in June, 1886. During the same year 
the Archbishop of Quito presided over a National Congress 
for South America. 

• The sixth Congress was held in Paris during July, 1888. 
It gave a powerful impulse to the devotion and the spread of 
the Eucharistic League throughout the world. 

Belgium called together the seventh Congress at the quaint 
old city of Antwerp. This was held in August, 1890. 

The eighth g^and union of all the Eucharistic associations 
took place last year at ferusalem^ in Palestine, whither 
thousands of European representatives made their pilgrim- 
age. 

The ninth Congress assembled this year at RheimSy the 
coronation city of Catholic France. Another was held at 
Turin (Savoy), a short time ago. 

May we hope that the zealous lovers of our I/ord in the 
Holy Eucharist will turn their eyes toward the New World, 
and by holding the next Congress, inaugurated at the 
recent Eucharistic Convention, in these United States, draw 
upon our land and people the manifold blessings which a 
deep and living devotion toward the Blessed Sacrament 
must needs bring forth. 



A CONSECBATED ALTAR ET AN UNCONSECBATED CHUBCH. 

(correction. ) 
In the August number of the Review (page 138) we 
answered the query, whether an altar could be consecrated 
in an unconsecrated church, in the negative. Our authority 
was a decree of the S. Congregation, 12 Sept., 1857, which 
we cited as found in the Collectanea S. Congregationis de 
Propaganda Fide (published last year from the Propaganda 



378 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Press) page 307, n. 832. It did not occur to us to question 
the correctness of the statement, until some time afterwards 
our attention was called to another version of the same 
decree in Vol. Ill of the Acta S. Sedis where the answer is 
affirmative. As Muehlbauer in his Decreta authentica gives 
the same answer and discourses upon it, there can be no 
doubt that the negative of the Collectanea is an error of the 
copyist, which has been overlooked by the reviser, and which 
we did not suspect, as it is not mentioned among the " errata 
corrigenda " at the end of the volume. 

The correct answer, therefore, is that a fixed altar may be 
consecrated in a church which is merely blessed. 



INFIRM PRIESTS AND THE TOTIYE MASS. 

Qu. There is an aged priest here, who, on account of defective 
sight, has obtained the privilege of saying the Missa VoHva de 
Sancta Maria. He wants to know (a) whether he can say this 
Mass every day, even on All Souls' Day ; (b) whether he is bound 
to say the oraiio imperata ; (c) whether he can duplicate and say 
the three Masses on Christmas day. 

Resp. a. The Votiva can be used any day of the year except 
the triduum sacrum of Holy Week, provided the document 
by which the faculty is granted makes no other restriction. 

b. The oratio imperata is not obligatory in such cases, as 

the S. Congregation of Rites (28 Apr., 1868) has de- 
clared. 

c. The priest may duplicate, if the Ordinary give the 

requisite faculty ; but the usual privilege of three 
Masses on Christmas day is restricted. The reason of 
the diflference is that bination is permitted on account 
of the spiritual necessity of the people otherwise 
deprived of Mass ; whilst the three Masses of Christ- 
mas have a liturgical reason which would be wanting 
in the triple repetition of the same votive Mass. 
(Cf. Collectanea., Ed. II, n. 901.) 



CONFERENCES. 379 

CONFESSION AND HOLT COMMUNION WITHOUT ABSOLUTION. 

During the ' ' Forty Hours ' ' devotion, a confessor, almost ex- 
hausted with fatigue, hears the confession of a well-disposed peni- 
tent, who confesses mortal sins. The confessor gives the penitent 
a penance, and tells him to go to Holy Communion, but forgets to 
give him absolution. The penitent goes to Holy Communion the 
next morning. 

Quaeritur i*'. Are his sins forgiven by the grace of the Sacra- 
ment of the Eucharist ? 

2°. Were he to die after Holy Communion, would he be lost, 
supposing he had not perfect contrition ? 

3". Is it plausible to suppose that the Church would supply the 
absolution not given by the confessor ? 

It is the opinion of g^ave theologians that the Sacraments 
of the living {Sacramenta vivorum\ under certain conditions, 
confer sanctifying grace, or gratia prima. But as these 
sacraments were not instituted primarily to wash away sin, 
they do not confer this grace {gratia prima) per se^ that is, 
their first object is not the removal of sin ; on the contrary, 
as we see from their definition, they suppose the soul of the 
recipient to be free from sin and alive in grace, at the time 
of their reception. Accidentally, however, or per accidens^ 
they do wash away sin and impart the gratia prima^ which 
is the proper object of the Sacraments of the dead — Baptism 
and Penance. 

This opinion, which is considered "probable" by many 
theologians, has the authority of such grave names as St. 
Thomas, St. Alphonsus and Suarez, However, it is confessed 
that we have no certain proof from revelation for the 
opinion, and as the Church has not passed on the merits of 
the question, the matter remains quite doubtful. 

Suarez puts the state of the question in these terse terms : 
"In the other sacraments" (sc. of the living) — "except 
Extreme Unction — it is only from a pious and probable con- 
clusion that we have this opinion." The ground for the 
"/m et probabilis conjectura'''' that Suarez speaks of is that 
the sacraments g^ve grace ex opere operato to the recipient 
who places no obstacle to their reception. But as one who 



380 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

receives a Sacrament in good faith and with attrition does not 
place an obstacle, such a one gets the grace of the Sacrament 
received. As grace and mortal sin cannot exist in the soul 
at the same time, it follows that if the Sacrament received 
is one of the Sacramenta vivorum^ this Sacrament must also 
take away his sins. 

With theologians such as these holding the opinion as 
probable, we may answer the first question thus : that the 
sins of the man spoken of in the case are probably taken 
away by his reception of the Blessed Eucharist, if he had 
attrition for them. The answer to the second question may 
be inferred from the answer already given. For if perfect 
contrition were necessary as a condition for the blotting out 
of mortal sin by a Sacrament of the living, then there would 
be no benefit, in this regard, from the Sacrament, as perfect 
contrition of itself will forgive sin. 

It remains to say, in answer to the third question, that it 
does not seem at all plausible to suppose that the Church 
would supply the absolution which the exhausted confessor 
forgot to impart. 

The reason for this is that an essential of the Sacrament, 
namely the form of absolution, is wanting. Moreover, the 
nature of the Sacrament requires that the form of absolution 
be pronounced over the person, who must be morally present. 
The necessity of the moral presence of the penitent for 
absolution is held as a most certain condition by all theo- 
logians. 

It might be suggested, in conclusion, that a confessor who 
has made a mistake in regard to his penitent, especially if 
the mistake be in any essential matter, is obliged to repair 
the error, as far as possible. 



J. M. 



CONFERENCES. 



381 



THE "SQUIRE" AND MATRIMONIAL DISPENSATIONS. 

Qu. Paula asks for a dispensation from a diriment impediment 
of marriage, and obtains the same from the bishop at the request of 
her pastor. Instead of contracting in the presence of the priest, as 
was naturally expected, the parties go to a justice of the peace and 
have the marriage ceremony performed according to the civil rite. 
Was the marriage valid ? 

The contention on the one hand is that, after the dispensation had 
been granted and communicated to the parties concerned, the 
.impediment was removed and the marriage consequently valid, no 
matter where or how it took place. 

On the other hand, it is argued that the dispensation takes its 
effect only when applied by the person who is delegated for the 
function by the authority granting it. 

Resp. There is a much quoted rule in theology which 
reads : " Si dispensatio absolute concessa est, dispensatio per- 
manet, si vero hypothetice^ cum causa motiva corruit." If 
the Bishop gave the dispensation upon true reasons, which 
must have been alleged to obtain it, its validity stands on 
the ground of those reasons and makes the contract valid 
whether before the priest or any other witness. As for the 
view that dispensations take effect only at the time when 
they are applied by the person delegated for their execution, 
such can hardly be urged in cases like the present. The im- 
pediment is removed by the dispensation of the Bishop, and 
the parties concerned having been informed of the fact, they 
are free to marry. It is, no doubt, wrong to ignore the 
ministration of the priest, but this does not affect the validity 
of the act, unless the form of dispensation limits its applica- 
tion. 

It may be said that the Bishop, had he known the disposi- 
tion of the applicants for dispensation, would, in all likeli- 
hood, have refused to grant the dispensation except under 
the express condition that they were to be married in the 
presence of the priest. But the most that can be argued from 
such probability is that it creates a doubt about the validity 
of the dispensation, which doubt practically resolves itself in 
favor of the applicants, provided they actually obtained the 



382 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

dispensation. '*Qui certus est de impetrata dispensatione " 
(says Elbel P. X., Conf. xxi, 517) " et dubitat an ea sit valida, 
quia V. g. dubitat an, quod expressit vel tacuit, sit causa 
finalis necne, satis probabiliter posse praesumere dispensa- 
tionem esse validam. Ratio est : quia in dubio est inclinan- 
dum potius pro valore quam pro nullitate actus. — Tamburinus 
cit. n. 5, Gob. theol. ^xper. tr. 9, n. 68a. Eadem ratione 
Sanchez, Dicastillo de matr. disp. 8, dub. 6, n. 118. Aliique 
inferunt, generatim in dubio, etc., esse praesumendum pro 
valore actus seu dispensationis." 

The executor of a dispensation granted by Faculty from 
the Holy See is the Bishop. He ordinarily commissions 
the pastor of the applicants for dispensation to communicate 
the fact of its execution to them. 

There are cases where the S. Penitentiaria dispenses 
directly. In such cases the execution of the dispensation 
rest likewise with the Ordinary, and is considered as granted 
conditionate until its communication to the parties concerned 
renders it absoluta. 

Dispensations of this kind are not, however, committed to 
the Bishop personally, but in his oflScial capacity, so that 
their validity is maintained in the person of a substitute or 
successor to the original applicant. 

An Ordinary may also transfer his right of execution to 
another Ordinary whenever change of domicile or similar 
circumstances call for such transfer in behalf of the parties 
asking for the dispensation. (Cf. Ballernini, Op. Mor., Vol. 
VI. n. 1386, seq.) 



DISPENSATIONS OF MIBBUGE OUTSIDE OF THE DIOCESE. 

Qu. Anna obtains a dispensation from the impedimentunt dis- 
paritaiis cultus through the pastor of the place in which she resides 
and where she proposes to be married. At the time, however, her 
intended husband lives at a distance, in another diocese. After 
some unexpected delay the parties conclude to have the ceremony 
performed in the city of the bridegroom, where the bride had gone 
on a visit previous to her contemplated marriage. She accord- 
ingly requests her pastor to forward the dispensation to her. The 



CONFERENCES. 



383 



pastor refuses to send on the dispensation, statingf that it would 
have no value unless applied by himself in his own place. The 
lady, on the strength of a letter that she held, in which her pastor 
had previously informed her that the dispensation had been ob- 
tained, is married. 

Is the marriage valid and was the act licit ? 

Resp. The marriage is valid ; that is to say, the dispensa- 
tion obtained in the diocese where Anna resided at the time 
when the application was granted, is valid and follows the 
person for whose benefit it was given. The Apostolic Facul- 
tfes (Ordinariae, Form I and Extraordinariae C) are, it is 
true, given with the added clause " nee illis uti possit 
extra fines suae diocesis ;'''' but this refers in the first in- 
stance to the authority which exercises the power of dispen- 
sation, and furthermore requires that the party asking it live 
in the diocese at the time when the dispensation is obtained. 

This interpretation of the above-mentioned limiting clause 
in our Apostolic Faculties is proved by a letter of the S. 
Inquisition to the Bishop of Southwark (1865, Nov. 22), 
referring to dispensations in cases of mixed marriages. 
" Catholicos viros vel mulieres dispensari posse, justis acce- 
dentibus causis, super impedimento mixtae religionis ab 
Episcopo hanc facultatem habente, cujus sunt subditi ob 
domicilium vel quasi-domicilium in ejus dioecesi acquisitum, 
dummodo in eadem dioecesi actu existant quando dispensa- 
tionem recipiunt ; dispensationem vero ita obtentam execu- 
tioni tradi posse ubicumque mixta connubia contrahi permtt- 
tuntur^ nisi aliquid aliud obstet judicio Ordinarii loci in quo 
contrahitui matrimonium : secus pro dispensatione ad Apos- 
tolicam Sedem recurrendum esse." 

(Cf. Acta S. Sedis, vol, II, p. 671 ad 4.) 



THE "SANATIO" IN A MIXED MABRIAQE WITHOUT THE 

BEQUntED GUARANTEE OF THE CHILDEEN'S 

CATHOLIC EDUCATION. 

Qu. Some time ago the pastor of X. was called to attend a 
dying Catholic woman. The husband was a Protestant and her 
cousin, and they had been married before a sectarian minister. The 



384 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



priest realized the double impediment. The blood relationship had 
rendered the marriage invalid, and moreover the case was a reserved 
one on account of the implied denial of the Catholic faith on the part 
of the woman who attempted to contract in the Protestant church. 
Before applying to the Bishop for faculty to absolve and for dispen- 
sation to render the marriage valid the priest called for the husband, 
told him why the marriage was invalid, and that for its revalidation 
the Church required the education of the children in the true faith 
of their mother, with full liberty for the exercise of that faith on the 
part of the Catholic members. The husband said that he could not 
consent to any such condition ; that the children were Protestant up 
to that time with the consent of his wife, and that he did not wish 
any disturbance arising from such changes as the requirements of 
the priest implied. 

The priest placed the matter before the Bishop, who, in consider- 
ation of the dangerous condition of the woman, who was very likely 
to die, gave the required dispensation after some hesitation. The 
woman died shortly after, which removed, of course, all question 
as to the application of faculties, as it was then no longer in her 
power to fulfil the duties of a Catholic wife and mother. 

Could the Bishop, in virtue of the Apostolic Faculties which the 
hierarchy of these States enjoy, dispense from the impediments dis- 
paritatis cultus and mixtae religionis in a case where the guarantee 
of the Catholic education of the children is not given or expressly 
refused by the non- Catholic party, as in the above case ? 

Resp. The conditions regarding the consent of the non- 
Catholic party to religious freedom and the Catholic educa- 
tion of the children, are essential to the lawful and valid ex- 
ercise of the Apostolic Faculties as given to our bishops. The 
clause dutntnodo cautum omnino sit conditionibus ab Ecclesia 
praescriptis leaves no alternative. Besides the S. Office (i8 
Mart. 1891) in a letter to the Greek Archbishop of I/emberg, 
says : " Cautiones etiam in articulo mortis esse exigendas," 

It must, hov^ever, be borne in mind that there are condi- 
tions which may render the limitation practically void. Such 
are, for example, the age of existing children when their 
education can no longer be controlled, or the impossibility 
of future marital relation, etc. 



CONFERENCES. 385 

A KIITORED CASE WITH A DIFFEBENCE. 

The above case suggests an important distinction to which we 
would call attention here : 

Suppose that the two parties, a Catholic woman and her Protest- 
ant cousin, had come to the priest to be married, and that the 
Protestant party had consented to leave the Catholic free to exer- 
cise her religion and to educate her children in the Catholic faith — 
could the Bishop have given the dispensation for the marriage? 

We believe not. The faculty of dispensing from the 
impediment of consanguinity can not be applied in mixed 
marriages^ unless for the purpose of revalidating such mar- 
riages (in radice), but not for allowing them. This is the 
wording of the Faculty (Extraord. D. 5): ' * Dispensandi in 
matrimoniis jam contractis, non item in contrahendis^ super 
gradibus consanguinitatis et affinitatis," etc. 



THE FIRE OF PURGATORY. 

Qu. A preacher, recently, speaking of the sufferings of purga- 
tory, stated it as the common opinion of the Fathers of the Church, 
that the fire of purgation was a material fire, but that the words of 
St. Paul (I Cor. iii, 15), "yet so as by fire" might be understood 
of a spiritual fire. Some one objected to this latter interpreta- 
tion as being contrary to an express decision of the S. Congrega- 
tion to the effect that a person holding such doctrine could not be 
absolved. The Review was quoted as authority, but we could 
not find the decree. 

Resp. There was a decision of the S. Congregation, pub- 
lished in The Review (vol. VIII, p. 130), concerning the 
fire of hell Cnot purgatory). It stated that penitents, in the 
confessional, holding that the fire of hell, spoken of in the 
S. Scriptures, is to be understood in metaphysical sense {as 
excluding the literal sense)., should be properly instructed ; 
and if they refused (pertinaces) to accept the common doc- 
trine of the Catholic Church on the subject, they were to be 
denied absolution. 

The words of the preacher referred to have nothing repre- 



i 



386 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

hensible in them, unless it be this, that distinctions of 
material and spiritual fire are of little practical use. It is 
quite logical to assume that the penalty for sin will aflfect 
the sufiering-capacity of man in every part of his being in 
which he has committed sin, and that our speculations 
regarding the methods by which it is to be inflicted will not 
lessen its intensity one way or other. 



THE MISSA SOUTABIA ACCORDING TO OUR FACULTIES. 

Qu. Is it ever allowable, and under what circumstances, to say 
Mass without server or anyone else assisting ? I refer to priests in 
the United States who, having the ordinary Faculties of the mis- 
sionary clergy, desire to celebrate Mass ex devoHone. 

Resp. The question was answered in The Review some 
time ago. See Vol. VII. (Nov. 1892), p. 381. Our Faculties 
(Ord. I., 23) say: Celebrandi . . sine ministro . . si aliter cele- 
brari non potest. The " Liber de Caeremoniis Missae " states 
that the words si aliter^ etc., always suppose « ^raz^^ necessity 
for celebrating alone. The Propaganda having been asked for 
an authoritative interpretation, the Cardinal Prefect wrote to 
the Bishop of Alton (Instr. Past., Oct., 1877) that a priest 
might say the Mass without server or anyone else present, if 
otherwise he should have to omit the celebration altogether. 

For a more explicit answer, we refer to the above-men- 
tioned paper in The Review. 



ANALECTA. 



387 



ANALECTA. 

DE CASTU SACBO DECRETUM S. BITUUM CONGREGATIONIS. 

Quod S. Augustinus ceterique Patres saepenumero docuerunt de 
cantus ecclesiastici decore et utilitate, ut, per oblectamenta aurium, 
infirmior animus in affectum pieiatis assurgat ;^ id Romanorum 
Pontificum auctoritas sibi integre eximieque perficiendum semper 
attribuit. — Quapropter in hoc Catholicae Liturgiae munus ita Gre- 
gorius cognomine Magnus curas ac studia contulit, ut vel ipsam 
appellationem ab eo sacri concentus sint mutuati. Alii vero, pro- 
cessu temporum, Pontifices, quum nescii non essent quantam hujus 
rei partem sibi divini cultus vindicaret dignitas, immortalis deces- 
soris sui vestigiis insistentes, Gregorianum cantum non modo ad 
receptam, eandemque probatissimam, numeri formam revocanduin 
sed etiam ad aptiorem melioremque exemplaris rationem exigendum^ 
indesinenter curarunt. Praesertim, post Tridentinae Synodi vota et 
sanctiones, atque Missalis Romani diligentissime exarati emenda- 
tionem, Pii V. praecepto et auctoritate peractam, de promovenda 
liturgico cantu magis in dies assidua excelluit solertia Gregorii 
XIII. Pauli V. ac caeterorum, qui, ad incolume Liturgiae decus 
tuendum, nihil potius et antiquius habuerunt, quam ut rituum uni- 
formitati, sacrorum etiam concentuum uniformitas ubique respon- 
deret. Qua in re illud Apostolicae Sedis soUicitudinem juvit 
praecipue, quod ipsi curae fuerit Graduale, accurate recognitum et 
ad simpliciores modos reductum, Joanni Petro Aloisio Praenestino 
elaborate preclareque adorandum committere. Nam mandatum^ 
ut erat dignum homine officii sui perstudioso, docte ille complevit • 
et celeberrimi magistri praestare valuit industria, ut, juxta proba- 
tissimas normas, servatisque genuinis characteribus, liturgici 
concentus reformatio jure conficeretur. Opus tanti momenti illus- 
tres Petri Aloisii Praenestini discipuli, insigne ejus magisterium et 
documenta secuti, typis Mediceis Romae excudendum, Pontificum 
voluntate, susceperunt. — Incoepta tamen hujusmodi experimenta 

I Confess. L. x, c. 33, n. 3. 



388 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

et conatus non nisi aetati huic demum nostrae absolvere est con- 
cessum. Quum enim sa. me. Pius IX. liturgici cantus unitatem 
feliciter inducere quam maxime in votis haberet, a. S. R. C. assig- 
nandam, ejusdemque ductu et auspiciis muniendam, peculiarem 
virorum Gregoriani cantus laude praestantiura Commissionem in 
Urbe instituit ; ejusque examini editionem subjecit, qua denuo in 
lucem evulgaretur Graduale Romanum, typis olim Mediceis impres- 
sum et Apostolicis Pauli V. Litteris approbatum. Hanc dein edi- 
tionem saluberrimo opere absolutam, parique studio et opportunis 
inductis emendationibus, ad normas a Commissione praescriptas, 
revisam, sibi valde probari haud semel ostendit, atque authenticam 
declarare non dubitavit suis Brevibus Litteris, die 30. Maji anno 
1873, datis quarum ilia est sententia : " Hanc ipsam dicti Gradualis 
Romani editionem Reverendissimis locorutn Ordinariis, Usque om- 
nibus quibus Musices sacrae cura est, vtagnopere commendamus ; 
eo vel magiSy quod sit Nobis maxime in votis, ut cum in ceteris^ 
qiuie ad Sacram Liturgian pertinent, turn eiiam in cantu, una, 
cunctis in locis etc Dioecesibus, eademque ratio servetur, qua Roma- 
na utitur Ecclesia.^^ — Antecessoris Sui adprobationem decreto 
confirmare atque extendere e re esse duxit Sanctissimus Dominus 
Noster Leo Papa XIIL Litteris enimj Apostolicis, die 15. Novem- 
bris anno 1878, primae Antiphonarii partis quae Horas diurnas com- 
plectitur, novam editionem, ab iisdem viris per S. R. C. deputatis, 
egregie sane, ut decebat musicos eruditos, atque intelligenter revi- 
sam, peculiari commendatione est prosequutus, his sapienter ad 
Episcopos omnesque Musicae Sacrae cultores verbis usus .- " Jtaque 
tnemoratam editionem a viris ecclesiastici cantus apptim-e peritis, ad 
id a SS. Rituum Congregatioyie deputatis, revisam probamus atque 
authenticam declaramus, Reverendissimis locorum Ordinariis caeter- 
isque, quibus Musices Sacrae cura est, vehementer commendamus, 
id potissimum spectantes, ut sic cunctis in locis ac Dioecesibus, cum 
in ceteris, quae ad Sacram Liturgiam pertinent, tum etiam in cantu, 
una eademque ratio servetur, qua Romana utitur Ecclesia. ' ' 

Verum, quemadmodum post pontificium Pii IX. Breve de 
Graduali, ad ipsam editionis adprobationem in dubium vocandam, 
controversise pluries subortae et obstacula sunt permota, ob quae 
S. R. C, die 14. Aprilis an. 1877, sui muneris esse persensit 
editionem authenticam adserere, suoque suffragio penitus confirm- 
are ; haud aliter, post Apostolicas etiem Leonis XII I. Littearas, 
quin finem contentionibus facerent, sibi adhuc integrum putaverunt 
nonnulli consilia et decreta negligere de institute cantus ecclesiastici, 



ANALECTA 389 

constant! Romanae Liturgiae ratione et usu comprobati. Immo, 
choricis Ecclesiae Hbris in lucem prolatis, totaque hac re ad exitum 
egregie perducta, largiores evasere disputationes ; et, in conventu 
cultorum liturgici cantus anno 1882 Aretii habito, validius excitatae 
censurae eos moerore affecerunt, qui, in ecclesiastici concentus 
uniformitate, Apostolicae Sedi unice obtemperandum jure meri- 
toque existimant. Quum autem qui Aretium banc ob causam con- 
tenderant, vota quaedam seu postulata de eadem re non tantum 
in populum prodiderint, verum etiam Sanctissimo Domino Nostro 
Leoni XIII, formulis concinnata exhibuerint, Pontifex idem, negotii 
gravitate permotus, ut sacrorum concentuum, potissimum vero 
Gregoriani cantus, unitati et dignitati consuleret, vota ilia seu pos- 
tulata in examen adducenda assignavit peculiari Ccetui ab se delecto 
quorumdam Patrum Cardinalium Sacris tuendis Ritibus Praeposi- 
torum. Qui, omnibus mature perpensis, exquisitisque insignium 
quoque virorum sententiis, die 10. Aprilis anno 1883 sine ulla dubi- 
tatione decernendum censuerunt : ' ' Vota seu postulata ab Aretino 
Conventu superiore anno emissa, ac Sedi Apostolicee ab eodevt oblata 
pro liturgico cantti Gregoriano ad vetustam traditionem redigendo, 
accepta uti sonant recipi probarique non posse. Quamvis enint 
ecclesiastici cantus cultoribus integrum liberumque semper fuerit ac 
deinceps ftiturum sit, eruditionis gratia, disquirere qucenam veins 
fuerit ipsius ecclesiastici cantus formu, variceque ejusdem phases, 
quemadmodum de antiquis Ecclesice ritibus ax reliquis Sacra Littir- 
giax partibus eruditissimi viri cum,piurima commendatione disputare 
et inquirere consueverunt ; nihilominus earn, tantum, uti autheniicam 
Gregoriani cantus formam atque legitimam, hodie kabendam esse, 
quce,juxta Tridentinas sanctiones, a Paulo V, Pio IX. sa. me. et 
Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Leone XIII. atque a Sacra Riiuum 
Congregatione, juxta Editionem nuper adomatum, rata habiia est 
et con/irmata, utpote qua unice eam. cantus rationem. contineat, qua 
Romana utitur Ecclesta. Quocirca de hac authenticitate et legitimi- 
iate, inter eos, qui Sedis Apostolicae auctoritati sincere obsequuntur, 
nee dubitandum neque amplius disquirendum. esse. ' ' 

Attamen postremis hisce annis, diversas ob causas, pristinae diffi- 
cultates iterum interponi, recentesque immo concertationes instau- 
rari visae sunt, quae vel ipsam quum hujus Editionis tum cantus in 
ea contenti genuinitatem aut infirmare aut penitus impetere aggre- 
derentur. Neque etiam defuere qui ex desiderio, quo Pius IX. et 
Leo XIII., Pontifices Maximi, ecclesiastici cantus uniformitatem 
summopere commendatam habuerunt, alios quoscumque cantus, in 



390 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Ecclesiis peculiaribus jampridem adhibitos, omnino vetari inferrent. 
Ad haec dubia satius enucleanda, omnesque in posterum ambigui- 
tates arcendas, Sanctitas Sua judicium hac de re deferendum 
constituit Congregationi Ordinariae omnium Patrum Cardinalium 
Sacris tuendis Ritibus Praepositonim, qui in coetibus ad diem 7 et 
12 Junii nuper elapsi convocatis, resumptis omnibus ad rem perti- 
nentibus aliisque mox exhibitis mature perpensis, unanimi respon- 
derunt sententia : " Servanias esse dispositiones sa. me. Pii IX. in 
Brevi ' Qui choricis ' diei jo. Maji iSy^ ; SancHssimi Domini 
Nostri Leonis Papae XIII in Brevi ' Sacrorum Concentuum ' diei 
15. Novembris 1878 ; ac S. R. C. in Decreto diei 26. Aprilis 
i88j.^' — Quod autem adlibertatem attinet, qua Ecclesiae peculiares 
cantum legitime invectum et adhuc adhibituro possint retinere 
Sacra eadem Congregatio decretum illud iterandum atque incul- 
candum statuit, quo, in coetu die 10 Aprilis an. 1883 habito, 
plurimum hortabatur omnes locorum Ordinarios aliosque ecclesi- 
astici cantus cultores, ut Editionem praefatam in Sacra Liturgia, ad 
cantus uniformitatem servandam, adoptare curarent, quamvis illam, 
juxta prudentissimam Sedis Apostolicae agendi rationem, singulis 
Ecclesiis non imponeret. 

Facta autem de his omnibus per infrascriptum S. R. C. Praefec- 
tum Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Leoni XIII. fideli relatione 
Sanctitas Sua Decretum Sacrae Congregationis ratum habuit, 
confirmavit, et publici juris fieri mandavit die 7 Julii an 1894. 

CAJETANUS CARD. ALOISI-MASELLA, 

S. R. C. Praefectus. 
L. ►!< s. Aloisius Tripepi, 

S. R. C. Secretarius. 



IN FESTO S. TOCENTn A PAULO CONF. 

ADDITIO AD CALCEM VI. LECTIONIS. 

Post verba: "die decima nona mensis lulii quotannis assig- 
nata" addatur : " Hunc autem divinae caritatis eximium heroem, 
de unoquoque hominum genere optime meritum, Leo Tertiusdeci- 
mus, instantibus pluribus Sacrorum Antistitibus, omnium Societa- 
tum caritatis in toto catholico orbe existentium, et ab eo quomodo- 
cumque promanantum, peculiarem apud Deum Patronum declaravit 
et canstituit." 



ANALECTA. ,01 

ADDITIO MARTYROLOGIO ROMANO INSERENDA. 

C19 lulii) Quarto decimo Kalendas Augusti. ..." Sancti 
" Vicentii a Paulo Confessoris, qui obdormivit in Domino quinto 
* ' Kalendas Octobris. Hunc Leo decimus tertius omnium Societa- 
" turn caritatis in toto catliolico orbe existentium, etab eo quomodo- 
" cumque promanantium, caelestem apud Deum Patronum con- 
"stituit." 

ORBIS. 

Quum Per Litteras Apostolicas in forma Brevis, diei 12 Maii 
1885, Sanctissimus Dominus Noster Leo Papa XIIL Sanctum 
Confessorem Vincentium a Paulo omnium societatum. caritatis in 
toto catholico orbe existentium. et ab eo quomodocumque promanan- 
tium ceu peculiarem apud Deum Patronum declaraverit et consti- 
tuent ; Rmus D. Antonius Fiat, Moderator Generalis Congrega- 
tionis Missionis, quo sancti Patris ac Fundatoris sui in universa 
Ecclesia honor et gloria magis magisque adaugeatur, Sanctissi- 
mum eumdem Dominum Nostrum iteratis precibus rogavit, ut de 
eiusmodi Patronatu tam in Officio quam in Martyrologio Romano, 
die decimanona lulii, per additamenta a se proposita, mentionem 
fieri benigne concederet. 

Hae porro additiones quum a me infrascripto Cardinali Sacrae 
Rituum Congregationi Praefecto et Relatore, in Ordinariis ipsius 
Sacrae Congregationis Comitiis ad Vaticanum subsignata die coad- 
unatis, ut approbarentur propositae fuerint , Emi ac Rmi Patres 
Sacris tuendis Ritibus praepositi, audito R. P. D. Augustino 
Caprara S. Fidei Promotore, ita rescribere rati sunt : Pro gratia, 
et ad Emum Ponentem cum Promotore Fidei. Die 10 lulii 1894. 

Itaque earumque additionum revisione per me infracriptum Car- 
dinalem una cum eodem Promotore S. Fidei rite peracta, atque a 
meipso facta Sanctissimo Domino Nostro Leoni Papae XIII. de 
hisce omnibus relatione, Sanctitas Sua sententiam eiusdem Sacrae 
Congregationis ratam habens eiusmodi additamenta prout huic 
praeiacent Decreto, tam in Breviario quam in Martyrologio Romano 
inseri iussit. Die 23 iisdem mense et anno. 

^ CAL CARD. ALOISI-MASELLA, 

^. R, C Praefectus. 

Aloisius Tripepi, 
Secretarius. 



392 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



BOOK REVIEW. 

SUMNARIUM LOGICAE SECUNDUM PRINCIPIA S. 
THOMAE AQUINATIS ad usum alumnorum Ponii- 
ficii Collegii Josephini Columbiensis, auctore Josepho 
Jessing ejusdem Pont. Collegii rectore, Fasiculus I, 
prima mentis operatio. Ease II, Secunda mentis opera- 
tio. Ease. Ill, Tertia mentis operatio. Columbi Ohio- 
ensis. Ex Typographia Polyglotta Collegii Josephini, 
1894. 

The rector of the Pontifical College of St. Joseph in Columbus, 
Ohio, has found time, amidst his many arduous duties, to write a 
work on * ' Logic, ' ' which, though primarily intended for class use 
in his own college, may serve a wider purpose, and as such merits 
a brief notice here. The author has struck a safe medium between 
brevity and prolixness. In the one hundred and seventeen pages 
that make up these three fasciculi, he has unfolded the essentials of 
logic without either overstraining the beginner's mind by multi- 
plicity, or leaving it sufficiently developed through a paucity of 
objects. Confining himself mainly to the formal side of logic, he 
has followed closely the thought of Aristotle, as expanded by St. 
Thomas. We say followed, yet not servilely. He moulds the logic 
of the Stagyrite and „the Angelical to the needs and capacity of his 
young readers. His presentation, though concise, is withal clear ; 
although here and there passages occur where the terminology fails 
slightly in accuracy. To cite but one instance, Fasc. i, p. 5 : 
' ' Discretio qua inter res aliam ab alia discernimus, fit apprehen- 
sione notarum, quas res apprehensa in se habet, et conscienita 
vocatur." The discerning or apprehending act is not consciousness 
but the object of consciousness. 

HINTS ON PREACHING. By Rev. Joseph V. O'Connor. 
Philadelphia : Porter & Coates, 1894. 

In a neat volume of 69 pages, the author briefly states his views 
on preaching. The contents comprise : the law of vocal delivery, 
natural manner, cultivation of the voice, style, gesture, reading of 



BOOK REVIEW 3^3 

devotions, and some general hints on self-improvement in the art of 
delivery. That the principles laid down by Father O'Connor are 
calculated to develop practical preachers may be inferred from the 
Introduction given the book by the Most Reverend Dr. Ryan, a 
prelate enjoying the highest reputation as a pulpit orator. He 
deems these " Hints on Preaching" excellent, "because calculated 
to make preachers more natural in their delivery." 

There are many pithy sayings worth remembering scattered 
through the book, such as " Half educated persons are the sharpest 
critics." "The basis of public speech is conversation." "Much 
reading of newspapers vitiates any style you may have, and as you 
never dream of trying to remember what you read in them, they 
are practically useless as a means of mental cultivation.' ' 

Young preachers will do wise to master the contents of this little 
volume. 

DE SYSTEMATE MORALI ANTIQUORUM PROBA- 
BILISTARUM. Dissertatio historico-critica, auctore 
Franc. Ter Haar, C.SS.R. — Neo Eboraci, Cincinnati, Chi- 
cago : Fratres Benziger, 1894. Pag. 108. 

Opusculum hoc questionem antiquam novo prorsus modo per- 
tractat. Nemo sacerdos nescit, quanti momenti in theologia morali 
sit ilia quaestio quae agitur de Probabilismo ; scit quoque varia hac 
de re esse systemata. Hodiedum duo tantum systemata supersunt : 
Aequiprobabilismus, cujus praecipuus fautor est S. Alphonsus, et 
Probabilismus simplex ; etenim Probabiliorismus et Tutiorismus, 
qui saeculo praeterito tot tantosque nacti fuerant asseclas, jam 
dudum a S. Doctore devicti et prostrati jacent. Probabilistae autem 
simplices recentis aetatis praecipue nituntur communi consensu 
magnorum Probabilistarum qui post Medinam vixerunt. Jamvero 
R. P. Ter Haar hujus fundamenti valorem perpendere intendit. 

Postquam clare et distincte statum controversiae inter Aequipro- 
babilistas et Probabilistas simplices exposuit (p. 9-16), in prima 
parte agit auctor de menie antiquorum Probabilistarum (p. 17-85). 
Tres autem classes Probabilistarum inter antiquos distinguendas 
esse docet: (i) Aequiprobabilisias vel Probabilistas moderatos, qu' 
solum admittunt opinionem pro libertate, quando est aeque autfere 
aeque, i.e., dubie vel parum miaus probabilis ; {2) Probabilistas puros 
vel simplices^ qui illam thesin expresse negant et permittunt sequi 
etiam opinionem certe, evidenter, notabiliter minus probabilem ; 



394 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



(3) Probabilisias ambiguos vel ancipites,q\xi solum veram et solidam 
probabilitatem postulant, sed nequaquam definiunt in quo haec con- 
sistat, utrum scil, opinio certe ac notabiliter probabiliori opinion! 
opposita, adhuc solidam probabilitatem retineat. 

Haec antiquorum Probabilistarum distinctio in tres classes multis 
documentis probatur; textus aucforum ex ipsis fontibus allegantur, 
ita ut lector eorum mentem ex ipso verborum contextu legere 
possit. Revera ex criticis illis investigationibus constat multos et 
graves ex Probabilistis antiquis Aequiprobabilismo S. Alphonsi 
quoad systematis limites optime consentire, quia usum opinionis 
minus probabilis expresse restringunt ad aeque probabilem vel ad 
paulo aut dubie minus probabilem. Ita, ut praecipuos tantum 
auctores referam. exhibentur textus Suarez, Perez, Rebelli, Valen- 
tiae, Herinx, Mastrii, Card. Pallavicini, Passerini, Esparzae, Terilli, 
Daniel, Rassler, Mayr, Amort, Biner, etc. Multi ex illis Probabil- 
istis jam in III* editione meae Theologiae Moralis (L. I, n. 86) 
adducti fuerant, sed P. Ter Haar horum aliorumque auctorum ipsa 
verba et textus refert et discutit. 

Ex adverso tamen multi quoque ex antiquis illis theologis, prae- 
cipue saeculi XVII inter Probabilistas simplices numerandi sunt 
quemadmodum ex textis ab auctore relatis constat. Denique solide 
et erudite argumentatur de Probabilistis ambiguis, ut horum quoque 
mentem de hac controversia exploret. Tandem has conclusiones 
historicas ex variis locis S. Alphonsi confirmat (p. 80, 85). 

In altera parte doctus auctor inquirit de aucioritate antiquorum 
Probabilistarum in hac controversia (pp. 86-96). Ostendit veram 
de Probabilismo doctrinam initio post Medinam fuisse valde con- 
fusam et obscuram, eam paulatim magis fuisse explicatam et restric- 
tam, praesertim per theologos Societatis Jesu occasione coniro- 
versiarum cum Jansenistis, perfecte autem fuisse dilucidatam et 
demonstratam per S. Alphonsum, Ecclesiae Doctore, divinitus 
missum potissimum adversus Jansenismi errorem. Quoad S. 
Alphonsi auctoritatem allegat pulchrum hoc Card. Manning f. m. 
testimonium: "The works of St. Alphonsus are, I may say, a 
summary of Moral Theology, as the great work of St. Thomas is 
of dogmatic. ' ' (The Mission of St. Alphonsus. Sermons. Lond. 
1872, vol. II, p. 209). 

Antequam operi finem imponit, redit auctor ad praecipuum lun- 
damentum recentium Probabilistarum, hujusque infirmitatem osten- 
dit, spectando rem tum historice et critice, tum theologice. En 
compendium eruditae hujus dissertationis. Nostro judicio auctor 



BOOK REVIEW. 



395 



intentum suum plene probavit ; poterit quis circa unum alterumve 
textum vitilitigare ; generatim dicendum est, textus adeo claros et 
copiosos esse, ut mens, praejudiciis libera, veritatis lumini cedere 
debeat. Stylus est facilis et ab omni acrimonia alienus. Index 
Aiphabeticus in quo plus quam centum theologi occurrunt, opus 
claudit. 

Jos. Aertnys, C.SS.R. 



A RETREAT consisting of thirty-three discourses with 
Meditations for the use of the Clergy, Religious and others. 
By the Rt. Rev. John Cuthbert Hedley, O.S.B., Bishop of 
Newport and Menevia. — London : Burns & Oates. (Ben- 
ziger Bros.) 

A son of St. Benedict, father and chief of many souls called to 
various degrees of perfection, adds to the number of manuals, 
already quite large which s^rve as direction and spiritual food 
during a Retreat. The subjects considered in these thirty-three 
discourses deal, like other manuals of meditation, with the vital 
concerns of the human soul, its relation with its Creator and 
Redeemer. The introductory chapter points out the essential char- 
acteristics of a good Retreat. Then follow readings and meditations 
on: Redemption and Grace; — Sin, Death, Judgment, Hell; — The 
Life of Christ ; — The Holy Spirit ; — The Religious Promises, etc. ; 
— The Divine Office ; — The Blessed Sacrament ; — The Holy Mass ; 
— Work and Apostleship ; — Our Life and its Surroundings ; — Little 
Sins; — Spiritual Reading; — Our Blessed Lady; — Heaven ; — Perse- 
verance. 

Whilst some of these subjects seem from their title to appeal 
exclusively to priests or to religious, they will be found applicable 
to serious minded persons in the world, since the principles treated 
therein lie at the root of all Christian practice, albeit the manner in 
which the author sets them forth is apt to induce aspirations to the 
more perfect life of the evangelical counsels. 

But if the themes be old, not so the manner in which they are 
made to appeal alike to intellect and heart. The form in which 
Bishop Hedley puts his subject before us is calculated to facilitate 
both reflection and definite resolve. He begins by a consideration of 
the topic chosen for reflection, in its various phases. We commence 



396 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

by reading several pages of matter and informing the mind with 
truths which give us a survey of our duty and draw us to its fulfill- 
ment. Then follow Points for Mental Prayer, condensing thoughts 
into pithy maxims, eliciting the activity of the will and leaving a 
clear mark upon memory and heart. In this way pertinent spiritual 
reading is made a preparation for each meditation, and both combine 
to effect that renovation and deepening of convictions about the 
eternal truths, which is the main aim of a good Retreat. Some of 
the discourses are exceptionally beautiful, as that on the Blessed 
Sacrament of the Altar, and another on Prayer, to which we find 
added a method of preparation for mental prayer, full of practical 
suggestions. 

The volume will prove of real service to priests and religious in 
spiritual Retreats whether made privately or in community. 



DISTINGUISHED IRISHMEN OF THE SIXTEENTH 
CENTURY. First Series. By the Rev. Edmund 
Hogan, S.J. — London : Burns and Gates. (New York, 
Cincinnati, Chicago : Benziger Bros.) 1894. 8vo. 
Pg. ix, 506. 

Father Hogan, the eminent Jesuit professor of ithe Royal Irish 
Academy, has added another volume to his varied list of remark- 
able works on subjects of Irish history and letters. In the Ibernia 
Idnatiana, published nearly fifteen years ago, new and interesting 
documents relating to the history of Ireland were brought to light 
out of the archives of the Society. These documents consisted 
mainly of original letters written between the years 1575 and 1608, 
the printed edition reproducing the literal Latin text. At the 
instigation of Father Clark, S.J., editor of the Month (London), an 
English version was published, together with other documents of a 
somewhat later date, in form of biographies and correspondence of 
memorable Irishmen. The present collection, which is substan- 
tially a reprint of the articles published by Father Clark, ends with 
Father Holy wood's death in 1626. It embraces the biographies of 
Bishop Edmund Tanner, Fathers David Woulfe, Edmund O'Don- 
nell, Robert Rochfort, Charles Lea, Richard Fleming, John 
Howling, Thomas White, Nicholas Comerford, Walter Talbot, 
Florence O'More, Thomas Filde, Richard de la Field, Henry 
Fitzsimon, James Archer, William Bathe, Christopher Holywood, 



BOOK REVIEW. ^97 

together with Brother Dominic Collins, once chief of the O'CuUens, 
" a great tribe," as O'Duggan wrote of them, "with whom it is 
not safe to contend, ' ' but who on leaving the world to become an 
humble servant in the militia of St. Ignatius, changed his name to 
wipe out all trace of ancient pride. 

That the accounts here given are accurate can hardly be doubted. 
They are the reports of conscientious and observant men, who 
wrote of current events in trying times as spectators, or actors and 
sufferers. They give, as our author says in his preface, " a minute 
and lifelike picture of the period, and present many aspects thereof 
which are lost sight of by historians," because in setting forth their 
observations, they were influenced simply by the motive of obe- 
dience to their rule which obliged them to make their ' ' relatio ' ' on 
current events to the Superior of their Order. 

Accordingly, the evidence which Father Hogan adduces, is of 
especial value inasmuch as it corrects some widely-spread errors 
regarding historic personages and incidents, to which consent had 
been given by many for want of surer testimony. As an instance 
of this kind we may mention the scholarly William Bathe, of Drum- 
condra Castle, some of whose biographers, Catholic as well as 
Protestant, have strangely combined in misrepresenting the man 
and his work. 

The Abb6 Glaire speaks of him as a "Protestant." Harris, in 
his edition of Ware's Irish Writers and in Kippis' Biographia 
Britannica, represents him as an ill-tempered and rebellious citizen 
chagrined at the decay of his family which had fallen from its 
pristine rank. He is in various places called Bates and Batty, said 
to have been born of Protestant parents, and to have died "when 
about to retreat to the Court of Spain," which latter phrase might 
be true if he could be supposed to mean that the died ' ' when about 
to give a spiritual Retreat to the Spanish Court." 

The facts set forth by our author are that William Bathe was not 
a mere Dublin " citizen." He represented the head of his family 
as the son and heir of a Chancelor of the Exchequer and first 
cousin of the Earl of Roscommon, related to the Earl of Lincoln 
and to Queen Elizabeth, of whom he was a special favorite. His 
seat at Drumcondra was one of the chief castles, not only among 
those of his county but of his numerous namesakes and kinsmen 
who held rich demesnes in Dublin and Meath. An entry in the 
novice book of Tourney, where he was received into the Society, 
shows that, before joining the Order, ihe studied humanities in 



398 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Ireland, philosophy at Oxford and theology at Louvain. That 
his parents were not only Catholics but devoted to their faith is 
shown from many letters from which Father Hogan cites passages 
in his footnotes. 

But it would lead us too far to enter into the details of this in- 
teresting collection which contains so much that throws a pleasing 
light both upon the individuals with whose narrative it deals, as also 
upon the national features of a race conspicuous in the past for 
every noble quality of loyal faith and manly virtue. ' ' Admitti 
Hibernos desiderat omnino Pater Generalis," writes the Assistant 
General in Germany, on the Feast of St. Patrick, 1604, " quum ad 
institutum nostrum facti quodammodo videantur humilitate, obe- 
dientia, charitate et doctrinae laude, quibus, omnium locorum testi- 
monio, valde excellunt." (From Father Fitzsimon's Catalogus). 

MELODIES OF MOOD AND TENSE.— By Charles H, 
A. Esling, A.M., LL.B. Philadelphia: Charles H. 
Walsh, 1894.^ 

Those who rightly gauge the value of Belles-Lettres by the under- 
lying principle that the beautiful must rest its forms essentially upon 
the true, will rejoice at productions like " Melodies of Mood and 
Tense," where they find that the instrument on which the author 
discourses is a Catholic heart. 

Of the pieces contained in this volume, but few are what is com- 
monly termed religious poetry. They speak of the seasons, of New 
England scenes and the Old World sights that delight the tourist, 
of persons dear to the author's heart, and of others fair of universal 
fame. Yet in all there is a resonance which, like the fundamental 
chords upon the harp, impart a tone of reverence to the lyric 
melody. Accordingly the lighter vein, such as w6 find it in vers de 
society, is not used to idealize false passions, or the artificial mimicry 
of forms which lack understanding and feeling to render them 
reasonable or at least human. This seems to us a great merit, 
which is perhaps too much undervalued by those who look at 
once for rythmic form and rhyme in their analysis of true 
poetry. To us a mistaken moral sentiment, a false view of life, a 
narrow exclusiveness incompatible with Catholic tolerance, is that 
element in poetry, as in all art, which renders it a contradiction to 
its terms — because nothing can be aesthetically beautiful which is 
ethically ugly. On the other hand the ethical element in poetry is 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 39^ 

the vivifying principle, which needs, of course, suitable form to 
make it appeal to our sense, but without which all remains formal 
and cold. Mr. Esling's verses satisfy this first principle of all true 
art, and this fact entitles them to the attention of our readers. 



THE FORMATION OF CHRISTENDOM. By T. W. 
Allies, K. C. S. G. — Popular Edition. — Lrondon : Burns & 
Oates. (Benziger Bros.) 

Mr. Allies' "Formation of Christendom " has been a long time 
before the public, but it can hardly be sufficiently well known among 
the class of popular readers who would perhaps derive most fruit 
from its use. It is one of the best apologetic books of our day, and 
shows not only what Christianity has done for man in producing 
the best type of civilization, but proves conclusively that in it alone 
lie the perpetual forces which can reconstruct society whenever it 
needs reconstruction. For the Catholic there is much consolation 
in the picture which the author draws of the wondrous regenerative 
power of the Church, and to every thoughtful non-Catholic there is 
ample opportunity given of studying and comparing the elements 
that build and those that destroy the divinely inspired fabric of 
human society. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

DB SYSTEMATB MORALI ANTIQUORUM PROBABILI- 
STARUM. Dissertatio Historico Critica. Auctore Francisco Ter Haar, 
CSS.R. — Paderbornae : Ferdinand Schoeningh. 1894. /V. Mk. i 25. 

LA STIQMATIZATION, L'EXTASB DIVINE BT LBS MI- 
RACLES DB LOUBDB3. R^ponse aux Libres-Penseurs par le Dr. 
Antoine Imbert-Gourbeyre, Prof, i I'fecole de M6decine de Clermont, 
Commandeur de I'Order de Charles III. Tome I, Les Fails ; Tome II, 
A5alj'se et Discussion. — Clermont Ferrand : Librairie Catholique. L. 
Belle., editeur. — Paris : J. Vic et Amat. 1894. Pr. 15 Frs 

PARISH PRIEST'S AOOOUNT BOOK. Containing Inventories, 
Daily Receipts and Expenditures, Monthly and Annual Statements, 
Accounts for Missions attended, etc. The simplest and easiest form of 
accounts. Arranged by the Rt. Rev. John J. Hennessy, D.D., Bishop of 
Wichita, Kan. Substantially bound in cloth with leather back and cor- 
ners, 300 pages, size 12x16 inches, oblong. — St. Louis, Mo. : B. Herder. 
Pr. I4.00. 



400 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



DIB BIBLIOTHBK DBS PBIBSTBK'S. Praktische Winke fiir deren 

Anlage und Erweiterung. Von Dr. Max Heimbucher. — Regensburg u. 

Mvinchen. (B. Herder : St. Louis, Mo.) Pr- 85c. 
THREE LEOTUBBS ON CARDINAL OHRISTIAN TRUTHS. 

1, The Being of God ; II, The Mystery of Lile ; III, Belief and Unbelief. 

By Hon. Francis McGloin. — New Orleans, 31 Natchez St. Pr. 25c. each 

lecture ; surplus devoted to charity. 
PBABLBOTIONBS DOGMATIO-ffi. Tomus I : Institutiones Prope- 

deuticae ad Sacram Theologiam. Auctore Christ. Pesch, S.J. — Priburgi 

Br. 1894. B. Herder : St. Louis, Mo. Pr. %i.OQ. 
A PB ACTIO AL COMMENTARY on Holy Scripture for the use of 

Catechists and Teachers. By Fr. J. Knecht, D.D. Translated from the 

tenth German edition. Preface by Rev. Michael F. Glancey. Vol. I, 

Old Testament; Vol. U, New Testament.— B. Herder: St. Louis, Mo. 

1894. Pr. I3-95- 

D.NBUTBSTAMBNTLICHB SCHRIPTCANON UND CLEMENS 
VON ALBXANDBIEN. Von Dr. P. Dausch. Frieburg Br.— B. Herder: 
St. Louis, Mo. 1894. Pr. 50c. 

A LIFE'S DECISION. By T. W. Allies, K.C.S.C. Second Edition.— 
London : Bums & Oates. (Benziger Bros.) 1894. 

THBOLOGIA MORALIS per modum Conferentiarum. Auct. cl. P. 
Benjamin Elbel, OS.F. Novis curis edidit P. F. Iren. Bierbaum, O.S.F. 
Edit, secunda. Vol. II. — Paderbornae, 1894. (Benziger Bro.s.) 

DBR GBIST DBS KATHOLIOISMUS in der Lehre vom Glauben 
u. von der Liebe. Von Dr. J. Hirsch-Kamp. — Paderbom : Ferd. Schoe- 
ningh, 1895. 

THE STUDENT'S HANDBOOK OP BRITISH AND AMERICAN 
LITERATURE. By the Rev. O. L. Jenkins, A.M., SS. Edited by Rev. 
G. E. Viger, A.M., SS- Fifth Edition.— Baltimore : John Murphy & Co. 
1894. 

SUFFERING SOULS. A Purgatorian Manual of Prayers and Devo- 
tions. Adapted to general use by Rt. Rev. Mgr. Preston, D.D., LL.D. 
Enlarged by the Sisters of the Divine Compassion. — F. Pustet & Co. : 
New York and Cincinnati. 

DEB PAMILIENPRBUND. Kath. Wegweiser fiir d. Jahr, 1895.-81. 
Louis, Mo. : Herold des Glaubens. (B. Herder.) 

LIFE OP BL. JOHN GABRIEL PERBOYRE, Priest of the Congre- 
gation of the Mission ; Martyred in China, September 11, 1840— Balti- 
more : John Murphy & Co. 1894. Pr. |i.oo. 

LA NBCESSITB DE DEVELOPPER LBS ETUDES SCIENTI- 
PIQUBS dans les S^minaires Ecclesiastiques. Par J. A. Zahm, C.S.C. 
Conference faite au troisi^me Congr^s scientifique international des 
Catoliques H Bruxelles. 1894.— Bruxelles : Impr. Polleunis et Ceuterick. 



AMERICAN 
ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



New Series— Vol. I. — (XI.)— December, 1894. — No. 6. 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY.^ 

ITS SOURCES. 

A KNOWLEDGE of the spiritual life, of its principles, 
its laws and its practices, is a primary necessity in a 
priest, for his own guidance and that of others. In the con- 
fessional, in the pulpit, by the bedside of the sick, on every 
occasion of spiritual intercourse with others, official or casual, 
ascetic theology is the treasure-house from which he draws 
unceasingly, and with a power to enlighten, to strengthen, 
to comfort and to heal in keeping with the abundance and 
accuracy of the spiritual knowledge he has stored up in it. 
Dogmatic and moral theology are, of course, indispensable 
to him ; but, supposing a competent knowledge of both duly 
acquired and kept up, no other more useful subject presents 
itself to the ordinary priest engaged in the ministry, than that 
of the spiritual life ; and it is only repeating the common 
verdict to say that a thorough acquaintance with it will be 

I Article XXII of " Clerical Studies ;" see Volumes IV-X oi First Series 
of American Ecci^esiasticai, Review. 

401 



402 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



more helpful to him in his daily labor for souls than any 
other form of knowledge. 

Here, then, we have another subject of life-long study, 
but not of a kind to require consecutive effort or elaborate 
research. The main lines of the science once laid down in the 
manner already described, the rest is only a matter of 
thoughtful observation and experience, with a judicious use 
of books. 

It is to this last point that we propose to devote the present 
paper. Books being the principal source from which our 
knowledge of spiritual doctrine is derived, we shall consider 
briefly, first, how the literature of ascetics came into exist- 
ence, and next in what way it may practically be made 
most available by the priest in care of souls. ' 

I. 

The doctrines of the higher Christian life flow directly 
from the words and the examples of our Lord himself. The 
Gospel is their purest and most original source, and, after 
the Gospel, the inspired teachings of the Apostles. Yet, in 
a certain measure, these doctrines are found earlier still in 
the Old Testament. From the very beginning, in fact, there 
was a doctrine, as there was a life, of relative holiness among 
the children of God. The patriarchs followed noble ideals. 
The prophets, the psalms, the sapiential books give not un- 
frequently a powerful and touching expression to the highest 
aspirations of the soul, and paganism itself, echoed them 
faintly in the distance through its philosophers and its 
poets. 

It was from these various sources, human and divine, that 
the early Christians gathered their conceptions of a perfect 
life. The idea naturally expanded with the general develop- 
ment of the new doctrine and of the new life which it gave 
birth to among men. As we have already had occasion to 
remark, the teaching of the Fathers was principally of a 
practical kind. It included precept and counsel, emphasiz- 
ing one or the other according to the aptitudes or require- 



I 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY. 



403 



ments of those to whom it appealed. The Christian doctrine, 
not merely as obligatory but in its fullness, is what the 
Fathers aim at setting forth. As a consequence, their ethical 
writings belong, to say the least, as much to ascetic as to 
moral theology in its narrower sense. Sometimes the higher 
life is kept in view almost exclusively, as, for instance, in 
works written for the benefit of such as had already entered 
on the path of perfection — virgins, anchorets, cenobites and 
the like. Again, the letters of the Fathers addressed to 
seculars abound in spiritual instruction and in exhortations 
to piety, while in their homilies and other writings, which 
appeal to all, the fervor of the writers frequently lifts them 
up from the lower to the higher conceptions of the Christian 
life and lands them unconsciously on the summits of mys- 
ticism. 

The following ages walked in the light of these great men, 
adding little of spiritual any more than of dogmatic truth to 
what they had inherited from the past. Whatever there was 
of development was made in the direction of the religious 
life and on the lines laid down by its principal legislators, 
St. Basil, Cassian and St. Benedict. But, with the great 
awakening of the mediaeval mind in the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, there came, as might be expected, a con- 
siderable movement in ascetic theology as well as in the 
other departments of sacred knowledge. From St. Anselm 
to St. Thomas and St. Bonaventure, devotional writings 
abound, and in theological treatises the ascetic doctrines of 
the Gospel are invariably combined with its moral precepts. 
Like the Fathers, the g^eat schoolmen of the first period aim 
at expounding the full plan of Christian holiness in its 
higher as well as in its humbler degrees. Nowhere, in par- 
ticular, may we find a more comprehensive plan of the 
spiritual life than in the " Secunda Secundse " of St. Thomas. 
It was only later, and in the manuals written especially for 
confessors, that moral theology came to be confined to the 
study of strict duty. But the higher teaching continued its 
course on through the writings of such men as Tauler, Rus- 
brock, Gerson and Thomas d Kempis. 



404 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

With the art of printing, and the consequent multiplica- 
tion of all manner of books, the stream of ascetic teaching 
grew rapidly broader and deeper. Especially after the Coun- 
cil of Trent and the spirit of reform which it awakened, 
each year gave birth to new writings in which the Christian 
virtues were described afresh and accommodated to the vari- 
ous conditions of life, regular and secular. Books followed 
each other in rapid succession in every form of Christian 
piety, until almost each object, each practice of devotion 
came to have a literature of its own. The number of ascetic 
books in fact has grown beyond reckoning, and it is ever on 
the increase. Each season adds its tributary waters to the 
great stream. A fresh supply of treatises of piety and of manu- 
als of devotion is ever issuing forth, nor is there any reason 
to suppose that it will exhaust itself. Spiritual truths, while 
ever the same, will always call for fresh presentations in 
keeping with the changing aspirations and habits of men. 
Devotional feelings will assume new shapes in every century, 
not to say in every generation, and will seek their appropri- 
ate expression in new spiritual practices and new devotional 
writings. 

II. 

Amid this countless multitude of ascetic works some stand 
out at each period in especial relief, having won for their 
authors, by the purity, the beauty and the depth of their 
doctrine, the popular name of " Masters of the Spiritual 
Life." 

To understand the importance commonly attached to their 
teachings, we have only to remember the fact that, in the 
Church of God, there is a divine tradition of ascetic as there 
is of dogmatic and moral theology, and that the great 
spiritual writers are the accredited exponents of the former 
as the great theologians are of the latter. Individually they 
enjoy no absolute exemption from error, yet even when alone 
their judgment may not be made light of. They were all 
men of exceptional piety, many of them canonized saints, 



I 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY. 405 

familiar, consequently, with the deepest workings of grace 
and with all the practices of the higher Christian life. To 
the knowledge gathered from study and from self-observa- 
tion, most of them added a wide experience of others, the 
fame of their spiritual wisdom having gathered round them 
countless souls already under the guidance of the Spirit, yet 
looking for more light They have, consequently, to use a 
secular expression, the authority of experts in all that 
regards the higher life. 

If the authority of each one singly is so great, their united 
decisions are irresistible, and, as a fact, amid much variety 
of form, there is a remarkable identity in their teachings 
through all Christian ages. W^ can take up in .turn the 
writings of St. Augustine, St. Bonaventure, St. Francis de 
Sales and F. Faber, and feel that we are all the time in con- 
tact with the same spirit and led in the same direction — a 
sure sign that they all speak not of themselves but as 
echoing doctrines and applying principles which come from 
a higher source and have been handed down from the 
beginning. 

III. 

Side by side with the teaching of spiritual writers there 
has always been in the Church another school of the higher 
Christian virtues from which a still brighter light has shone 
forth on the world, and which has at all times given a more 
vigorous impulse to heaven-bound souls — the lives of the 
saints. 

The saints are the heroes of the higher life, the spiritual 
pioneers who, Gospel in hand, have struck out in every sphere 
of human existence new paths by which the highest summits 
may be reached. Humanity honors many of them as among its 
noblest representatives, and the Church holds them up with 
loving pride to the admiration and imitation of her children. 
By their canonization the Church is pledged to the fact that 
the path which they followed is the path of perfection and 
that the spirit in which they lived was the Spirit of God 
himself. Their own miracles wrought in life and after 



4o6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

death attest the same truth. They are so many pledges of 
the divine approval, seeming to repeat in favor of each one 
the testimony given to our Lord himself in His baptism : 
*'This is my beloved Son in whom I am well pleased." 

Hence what seems strangest in their words and actions 
should always be considered and spoken of with reverence. 
A little attention to the times and circumstances will 
ordinarily suffice to show how much there was in them of 
true wisdom. And then, with their strange ways, they won 
the trust of their contemporaries and succeeded in doing 
wonderful things ! Whatever, consequently, we may think 
of the advisability of imitating them, we cannot deny them 
the tribute of our admiration. 

At the same time due allowance has to be made, even in 
the very holiest, for the human element, with whatever 
weaknesses of judgment or of will it may entail. The 
saints, to whatever heights they may have been raised, 
remained men, with the infirmities inseparable from human 
nature. Christ alone was perfect. But if, instead of their 
individual views or actions, we meet with principles and 
practices which they all agreed to follow ; if we find certain 
fundamental conceptions of life and conduct to which they 
all held, then we may be sure that through them we reach 
the mind of Qod himself In this way many doubis may be 
solved and many misgivings allayed in regard to the true 
meaning of the Gospel teachings, or to the real value, of 
certain practices in use among Catholics. Left to our 
natural lights or to the recorded expressions of our Lord, we 
might be at a loss to determine the true value of poverty, 
humility, obedience, strictness of life, or the extent to 
which the practice of such virtues may be carried. Or again 
we may be apprehensive of excess in our feelings or in our acts 
of devotion toward the Blessed Virgin. But a single glance 
at the lives of the saints sets our doubts at rest, for in all these 
things they are agreed and in a sense that is clear to all. 

Here, then, we have the two great sources of ascetic the- 
ology — the teachings of spiritual writers and the ' ' Lives of 
the Saints." United together they embody all the spiritual 



I 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY. 



407 



experience of Christian ages, all the traditions of holiness in 
the Catholic Church ; they illustrate and expand the 
highest teachings of our Lord ; they form together the 
noblest as well as the most practical commentary of the 
Gospel. The Gospel, as we have already had occasion to 
observe, supplies only an imperfect rule of action. It points 
out distinctly the general direction ; it imparts a powerful 
impulse ; but it gives neither the measure nor the manner in 
which the impulse is to be obeyed. Take the Beatitudes ; 
take the whole Sermon on the Mount ; how are its sublime 
and persuasive counsels to be worked into concrete life ? In 
what sense are we to follow Christ and strive to be like unto 
Him ? What, exactly, is that law of patience, of forbearance, 
of detachment from earthly things ? What is this sacrifice 
of self, this daily bearing of the cross so formally enjoined ? 
We know, because the interpretation has come to us with 
the lesson ; but who, left to himself, would undertake to 
answer with assurance? And yet without assurance, of 
what value is a doctrine as a motive power or as a rule of 
action ? But the teachings and the examples of the saints 
make it all clear ; for ' ' that mind was in them which was 
also in Christ Jesus " (Philip, ii, 5). Their maxims re-echo 
those of our Lord himself, their actions reflect His actions ; 
they harmonize the whole system of the Gospel with the 
practical requirements of daily life. Their wise counsels 
extend to every social and spiritual condition ; they teach 
efficacious methods of overcoming every obstacle and of 
advancing securely and steadily on the way to perfection. 
So valuable, indeed so necessary, is their help that even those 
outside the Church who aspire to a higher spiritual life are 
instinctively led to place themselves under their guidance. 
They study our books of devotion ; they read the Lives of 
our Saints ; they translate them from foreign tongues in 
order that others of like mind may find in them that fulness 
of spiritual wisdom which they seek for in vain elsewhere, 
thus paying indirect but unmistakable homage to the pure 
and abundant light which shines forth from the Catholic 
Church for the guidance of all. 



4o8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

We have now to consider how it may be turned to account 
by the priest in the midst of his ministerial duties. 

IV. 

Ascetic books, to begin with, are his principal resource, 
but they are countless in number, and a choice is absolutely 
necessary. It has naturally to be made in view of his own 
personal needs and of those of the souls placed under his 
care. It is clear that his own soul is that to which he owes 
spiritual nutriment first of all, both for his own sake and for 
that of his people, for to be helpful to others he needs to 
sustain himself. Books written specially for priests are 
likely to be more available, because showing more directly 
the Christian virtues as they fashion the clerical life. Even 
among those a particular choice is necessary, each one having 
his individual temperament, moral and spiritual as well as 
physical. The original bent of his nature, his education, 
his associations and surroundings have made him open, it 
may be keenly alive, to certain aspects of things, while he 
remains indifferent to others. Only the books which are to 
some extent in harmony with the man can be really helpful 
to him ; to persist in using others is worse than a waste of 
time ; it begets disgust and leads to a total abandonment of 
what should be an inexhaustible source of spiritual knowl- 
edge and strength. 

Rich himself in the spiritual life, a priest finds it a task easy 
and delightful to impart its doctrines to others. Yet in this 
he will derive a considerable assistance from the works of 
ascetic writers different from those he has studied for his own 
benefit. In Christian souls there is an infinite diversity of 
needs, varying from one another, yet the priest is a debtor to 
all — " to the wise and to the unwise " — to beginners still 
needing the milk of babes, and to proficients who grow 
strong on solid food ; to the imaginative and to the 
emotional as well as to those of a reflective or logical turn of 
mind. No single individual could of himself supply so 
many and such opposite requirements. But they have all 
been met in the literature of asceticism, and it is part of 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY. 



409 



the priest's duty to know where to find what is suitable to 
each individual soul. 

He is himself, indeed, frequently the channel of these 
instructions, but still more frequently he conveys them, 
through the medium of books specially selected according 
to the requirements of each one. This opens before him an 
almost endless task, that of becoming acquainted directly 
with the books which he recommends to others ; for how can 
he recommend them judiciously if he has not positive 
knowledge of them ? Hearsay knowledge may occasionally 
sufl&ce, but the less he has to depend upon it the better. 
Ascetic books are a species of spiritual medicine ; they 
should not be prescribed at random. The books really 
useful to each one are those that help him to see deeper into 
God and into himself ; that solve his doubts and settle his 
dijficulties, make duty plainer and more attractive, set in 
motion the most powerful springs of action and lift him 
higher above himself. Many, it must be admitted, fail in 
most of these requirements, either because they were origin- 
ally written for an entirely different class of people from 
those they are presented to, or owing to certain peculiarities 
which destroy the good effect they might otherwise produce. 
Such books given to the wrong persons often do much more 
harm than good. If their merit is so great as to make them 
commendable notwithstanding, care should be taken to 
attenuate the evil by preparing the reader for what might 
otherwise be injurious. 

Thus, to confine ourselves to a few instances, we may 
notice, in the first place, that the form of virtues set forth in 
most ascetic treatises is of a distinctly monastic kind, for the 
obvious reason that the authors, religious themselves, wrote 
principally for members of their own or other religious 
bodies. Hence the prominence given to the virtues of the 
cloister, such as obedience, recollection, prayer, in preference 
to virtues more suited to the secular life. The universal 
value of such books is in the underlying spirit that dictated 
them. Intelligent readers are quick to see this and to act 
upon it ; the others have to be taught it explicitly else they 



4IO AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW 

accept with passive acquiescence an ideal of life whicli is not 
meant for them, or they turn away from it as entirely 
unsuited to their circumstances and temperament. 

Another common feature, especially in the older spiritual 
books, is their mystical tone and language ; something perfect- 
ly natural, doubtless, in the writers themselves, but entirely 
foreign to the habits of thought and language of most readers 
of the present day. To the few whose minds still assume 
that mystical form, such books are extremely welcome ; to 
the others they are almost meaningless and would serve only 
to disgust them with the spiritual life or to foster in them a 
manner of piety, weak and unreal. 



V. 



A third feature of many of our devotional books is what 
we might call their uncritical character. Around the solid 
centre of truth which they contain, there gathers a thick 
incrustation of weaker elements — spurious quotations, 
apocryphal, facts, questionable inferences, sophistical reas- 
onings. Much is stated that is neither evident nor proven ; 
much is built on slender foundations. The conjectural 
statements of one or two ancient writers are often given as 
the voice of tradition. Imagination is largely drawn upon 
to supply what is wanting in positive knowledge. 

In books written for simple, unquestioning souls, such 
features may be comparatively harmless. Stricter methods 
would perhaps prove less eflfective in bringing home to them 
the conceptions and the convictions of the higher life. The 
evil begins when such works pass on from the hands of those 
for whom they were originally meant to others more cultured 
and more exacting. The re-action in such cases is some- 
times so strong that it spreads a cloud of general doubt over 
the whole spiritual life and drives people into a sort of 
practical rationalism. In this way there are books, much 
used and very useful in former times, which are gradually 
coming to do as much- harm as good, and which will ulti- 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY. 



411 



mately disappear in presence of the growing mental exigen- 
cies of all classes of society. 

The ' 'Lives of the Saints,' ' that other great source of spiritual 
doctrine, gives rise to similar observations. In the older, 
there are things which few at the present day are in a 
position to understand ; their strangeness awakens a spirit of 
criticism rather than a wish to imitate. There is much, too, 
which is unreliable, and those who feel it can scarce be 
expected to gather much instruction or edification from what 
only awakens a smile of incredulity. Finally, most of these 
lives are placed so high above the common level and are so 
exempt from all human weakness that one is much more 
disposed to look up to them admiringly as marvels of grace 
withdrawn from the common level of humanity, than to 
attempt to learn from them or imitate them. From this 
point of view, humbler and more human types would be 
more helpful ; indeed, a larger number of biographies of 
God's servants in the ordinary walks of life would be a most 
valuable addition to our books of edification. Yet the truly 
great are more fascinating and it is to those high above them, 
not to such as are nearer their own level, that men invariably 
turn for inspiration. The great saints come closer to the 
divine ideal, and it is the view of the ideal that stirs up 
what is deepest and noblest in the soul. 

As a rule, the best books for the faithful are those written 
in view of their own needs, general and special, and in the 
familiar terms of their own vocabulary. In this as in most 
other respects. Father Faber's works are invaluable. Card- 
inal Manning's volumes on the Holy Ghost and on the 
Sacred Heart have also been widely welcomed. For obvious 
reasons most of our religious literature consists in transla- 
tions from foreign languages, chiefly from the French. To 
say nothing of the old, solid XVIIth century books, or of 
many productions of a more ephemeral kind which have 
proved useful, we may mention as accessible in English form 
the great work of Mgr. Gay, " De la Vie et des Vertus 
Chr^tiennes," unquestionably one of the most remarkable con- 
tributions of the century to the study of Christian piety. 



412 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

But the most valuable and the most popular of all are the 
devotional' writings of St. Francis de Sales, his "Introduc- 
tion to a Devout Life," as bright and as attractive almost 
to-day as it was when first it appeared nearly three hundred 
years ago; his letters, his conferences, his "Spirit," all 
redolent of the sweetness, the hopefulness, the reasonable- 
ness of that most lovable of saints. Such books as the 
" Imitation of Christ," the " Spiritual Combat," the " Christ- 
ian Perfection " of Rodriguez, are so familiar to all that they 
can never be thought of as translations. They are the daily 
bread of pious souls, ever welcome and ever strengthening. 
For those who aspire to a closer union with God, the writ- 
ings of St. Teresa and even of St. John of the Cross, are most 
helpful. And if we would have what is most substantial in 
them, divested of its mystical garb and clad in plain English, 
we have only to turn to two old books of the Benedictine 
school recently re-edited : — the ' ' Sancta Sophia " of F. 
Augustine Baker and the " Scale of Perfection," of F. 
Walter Hilton. 

But besides these ordinary and more accessible sources of 
spiritual doctrine, there are others more particularly open to 
the priest and which he naturally looks back to for a broader 
and deeper knowledge of the sacred science. We refer 
to three in particular : Theology proper, the Fathers and the 
Bible. 

(i) The whole substructure of ascetical doctrine is theo- 
logical. It is all built on the dogmatic truths and on the 
moral principles of the Gospel. Theology tests its every 
position and ascertains its conformity with the approved 
standards of doctrine. The higher a soul is lifted above the 
ordinary level of the spiritual life the more need there is of 
theological guidance. This is why the first thing that St. 
Teresa sought in her directors was not holiness but theological 
enlightenment. 

Besides, the dividing line between moral and ascetic 
theology may be easy enough to determine in the abstract, but 
in the concrete, as we have seen, it is often impossible. 
Much, consequently, of what is said of one is applicable to the 



{ 



THE STUDY OF ASCETIC THEOLOGY. 413 

other. Their general object is the same ; the destruction of 
the old man and building up of the new. Their methods are 
identical. Temptation, for example, whether it lead to sin 
or only to imperfection is combated in the same manner. 
Prayer, be it obligatory or simply of devotion, is subject to 
the same laws, and the remark holds good of confession. 
Communion, the diflferent works of mercy. The motives 
which lead to the performance of duty and to the practice of 
perfection are substantially the same. It follows that much 
that is learned in the study of moral theology is helpful in 
that of asceticism, and we may add that the strictness of 
method which prevails in the former adds much, when 
admitted, to the strength of the latter. 

Lastly, our theologians often enter freely into the region 
proper of ascetics. We have already referred to the " Secunda 
secundae" of St. Thomas, to which may be added several 
of his minor works. His numerous commentators have been 
led to expand his views on perfection and on the different 
Christian virtues, but none can compare, as far as we know, to 
Suarez, in the second part of his great treatise : De Religione. 

To these we may add the special treatises on the spiritual 
life by Cardinal Bona, Schram, Scaramelli, Morotius (an 
excellent work recently re-edited) and above all Benedict 
XIV : De Virtutibus Heraicis^ in his great work on the 
canonization of saints. 

(2) The spiritual teachings of theologians lead back to 
those of the Fathers whom they claimed to follow. What is 
most valuable in their writings has indeed become the 
common property of subsequent ages, yet there is a peculiar 
charm in getting it at the fountain head. There are those, 
even in our time, who feel more deeply impressed by the 
wisdom of the early Church as it reaches them through the 
Fathers than by aught else save the inspired word of God. 
Each one of the principal Fathers offers special attractions, 
— St. Cyprian, St. Ambrose, St. Basil, St. Gregory — above 
all, St. Augustine, that inexhaustible treasure of what is 
highest and most beautiful in the Christian life, supplying 
with St. Chrysostom, the happiest and most striking illus- 



414 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



trations of the Gospel maxims, and exhibiting the deepest 
knowledge of human nature in all its varieties. 

(3) Last there is the Bible; the Old Testament and the 
New — prophecy, wisdom, precept, narrative, "all profitable," 
St. Paul tells us (II Tim, iv) " to teach, to reprove, to correct, 
to instruct in justice." Who has not found it so hundreds of 
times, for himself and for others ? It was the only book to 
which the early Christians cou4d look for inspiration and 
guidance, and since then it has lost nothing of its authority 
nor of its power to enlighten and to persuade. Other sources 
of spiritual knowledge may prove momentarily more attract- 
ive, yet the waters are always sweetest at the fountain head 
and to it the greatest and the wisest ever come back, 
re-echoing the words of Peter : " Lord, to whom shall we go; 
Thou hast the words of eternal life." J. Hogan. 

St. John's Ecclesiastical Seminary, Boston. 



A CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LE46UE. 

*■'■ Nova et Vetera.^'' 

THE present time, when earnest eflforts are everywhere 
made to renew the spirit of Father Matthew in behalf of 
Catholic Temperance, is undoubtedly an opportune moment 
to lay before the public a plan by which, in the writer's 
humble opinion, an immense field, hitherto more or less 
closed, would be opened for the mission of Christian Temper- 
ance. While all recognize the great good accomplished by 
our Catholic Temperance societies, there is an opinion gain- 
ing ground that their work is no longer what under present 
circumstances and with the actual needs of society it might 
and ought to be. Some have openly expressed their convic- 
tion that the Catholic Temperance activity must depart from 
its present limited field and go out into the highways and 
byways to gather in all the passers-by promising each 
employment according to his own choice, whilst all are to 
work for the same glorious end, animated by the same noble 
purpose, that is, the glory of God, the honor of our holy 
Church, the common welfare of the people, the salvation of 



A CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LEAGUE. 



415 



immortal souls. The large majority of our temperance 
societies limit their membership to persons who pledge them- 
selves to total abstinence. 

A few societies, such as the League of the Holy Cross, and 
the Confraternity of the Holy Thirst admit to certain 
degrees of membership those also who, whilst not taking the 
total abstinence pledge, are willing to unite in a crusade 
against intemperance, imposing upon themselves partial 
restrictions, and aiding the good work by prayer and charity. 
But all these, compared with the number of those who advo- 
cate total abstinence, are very small. Moreover, in looking 
over the field of operation actually before us, we find our tem- 
perance army engaged almost exclusively among the English 
speaking Catholics of America. Even there its regiments 
appear few and small compared with the numerous ranks of 
the enemy. Yet there are hundred thousands of American 
Catholics, whether of German or French, Italian or Holland, 
Polish or Bohemian descent, among whom the enemy — intem- 
perance — is allowed to work his terrible ravages without any 
check. 

This may, at first, appear surprising. It is easily explained. 
Not to mention the fact that Ireland and England originated 
the Catholic temperance societies, which were thus easily 
transplanted to American soil, it must be admitted that total 
abstinence is a feature altogether uncongenial to such nation- 
alities whose traditions and customs have made certain 
alcoholic beverages not only an innocent luxury but even a 
part of the necessaries of life. As long as total abstinence 
remains a necessary condition for admission into our temper- 
ance societies, just so long will those who regard the national 
habit of using wine and beer as a legitimate practice, and not 
as a vice, remain unmoved by the appeals of the apostles of 
the total abstinence movement. Councils and synods may 
call upon the faithful children of the Church, whatever 
their nationality, to avoid the dangers and occasions leading 
to intemperance, to join in suppressing the causes of this 
terrible vice, to practice the virtue of Christian self-denial 
with regard to intoxicating drinks, to help their weak 



41 6 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

brethren by their own example, and they will be listened to 
with willing hearts ; the bishops of the country may make 
laws restricting among Catholics the use and sale of liquors 
on certain occasions or under given circumstances — and these 
laws will be accepted with submissive respect and readily 
obeyed by all wherever the proper authority insists on their 
being observed. But all the bishops of the world could not 
convince a native of Germany or France or Italy that it is 
wrong for him to take wine or beer moderately, or to oflfer a 
glass to his friend and visitor when there is no danger of 
excess. No amount of argument will ever make him believe 
that moderation is impossible unless by abjuring every drop 
of alcohol. We have no fear that the Church of God will 
ever demand any such belief of him. But that exaggerated 
and un-Catholic temperance doctrine which would make 
teetotalism an article of faith and a moral obligation for 
everybody, and force its pledge on all, casting indirectly a 
slur on every temperate drinker, has done more to render the 
word "Temperance" odious among thousands of temperate 
and intemperate Catholics immigrated here from continental 
Europe, than persons unacquainted with their ideas and 
feelings can imagine. It has made the so-called ' ' temper- 
ance people " a laughing stock to them and rendered the 
very best among continental Catholics suspicious of every 
temperance movement. This in turn has led fanatic temper- 
ance reformers, especially American Protestants, to accuse 
"the foreigners" of being intemperate by nature and habit, 
as if they were by principle opposed to temperance. This is 
a g^oss injustice, as I can testify from personal knowledge. 

At the late Catholic Congress of German Americans 
held at Louisville, Ky., the question of temperance was 
discussed in private and public. All, clergy and laity, were 
earnest and sincere in their protestations in favor of temper- 
ance and in denouncing drunkenness. No impartial judge 
could have failed to recognize that all were ready, heart and 
soul, to co-operate in whatever plan or system can be devised 
which would make due allowance to just and lawful national 
tradition and habit. But it was also plainly evident that 



A CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LEAGUE. 417 

what is properly called " temperance work " will never find 
a field for successful operation among them, unless new ways 
and methods of promoting temperance are adopted. 

Another observation may not be out of place here. When 
I said that the work of our temperance societies at present 
is not what it might and ought to be, I simply stated what 
was told me time and again by excellent Irish-American 
priests, who ever since the day of their ordination have 
been hard and successful workers in the cause of temper- 
ance. They assured me that total abstinence was no longer 
suflScient to bring about the needed reform ; that hundreds 
of their Catholic men might be reached and drawn into 
the temperance societies if, without pledging total abstin- 
ence, they were admitted on their promising, for example, 
not to treat, not to frequent saloons, not to play for drinks, 
not to touch ardent liquors, in short, not to encourage or 
rather to discountenance the habit of useless and immoderate 
drinking. 

Yet, who does not see that this would be real and thorough 
temperance work, especially in view of the modern char- 
acter of social intemperance. Speaking of the greatly 
changed circumstances of our times, Rev. Bridget says in 
his excellent book, "The Discipline of Drink," "Distilled 
spirits have replaced or been added to the less intoxicating 
liquors of former times ; arts of poisonous adulteration have 
been invented; facilities of manufacture and of transport 
and of sale have placed unnatural abundance and variety 
as a temptation in every man's path; the fret of modern 
life, the burden of excessive toil, the confinement of mines 
and factories, the absence of nearly all simple and healthful 
amusements for the poor, and the restraints of a puritanical 
Sabbath, all drive men to seek exhilaration in excessive use 
of stimulants. To meet these new conditions of life and 
new temptations to intemperance, new methods have to be 
devised." (Page 227.) Far be it from me to detract the 
smallest tittle from the honor and merit of total abstinence. 
When resting on the pedestal of religion, it rises to the 
noble heights of Christian perfection, as the German Catho- 



4i8 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

lies publicly declared in their Congress at Louisville. With 
the bishops of the Province of Dublin we all believe that : 
" Not only is the pledge of total abstinence an appropriate 
and 'truly efficacious' (Leo XIII.) remedy for so great an 
evil, but in many cases — and, perhaps, we may even go so 
far as to say, in all — it is, with the aid of divine grace the 
most efficacious remedy^ if indeed it be not the only efficacious 
remedy^ that can be employed for the reclamation of those 
who have become entangled in the snares of Satan through 
indulgence in drink. " 'QwX.^pace doctorum^ total abstinence 
is neither the only, nor, in regard to the whole Catholic 
population, the most adaptable and acceptable remedy to 
keep thousands from becoming entangled in those snares of 
Satan. Looking at the actual conditions, and taking people 
as they are, there is ample room for good and very efficient 
temperance work by that much abused creature, the ' ' mode- 
rate drinker," who drinks intoxicating liquors moderately, 
not to excess. Yet to many temperance writers and speakers 
" moderate drinker " is synonymous with " moderate drunk- 
ard ;" he drinks to excess, but moderately so, while the con- 
firmed drunkard in his excessive potations knows of no 
moderation. Even such eminent men as Cardinals Man- 
ning and Walsh have uttered words on " moderation " and 
"moderate drinker" which lead one almost unconsciously 
to think of "moderation in drunkenness" {modus in ex- 
cessu); they appear to imply that almost every moderate 
drinker is at times drunk ; that sooner or later the moderate 
cup will be exchanged for the over-flowing bottle ; at least, 
the moderate drinker gives a bad example. In this manner 
a shadow is cast over those who do not fully abstain, yet 
habitually practice the virtue of Christian moderation {vir- 
tutem temperantiae). What of it, if the one or other do at 
some rare occasion overstep the proper limit? Does one 
sinful act prevent habitual virtue ? Does that simply make 
them intemperate? Does it make them unworthy or unfit 
to work in the cause of temperance for others as well as 
for themselves ? " But the moderate drinker is always in 
danger of excess !" I would distinguish : many are, but 



A CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LEAGUE. 



419 



many are not. Besides, these dangers can be removed alto- 
gether, or at least greatly diminished by practicable means 
and protective measures, so that even those can feel safe 
enough in the presence of the drinking cup, who would not 
otherwise have the moral strength sufl&cient to resist the 
evil temptation. These means are partly of a positive 
nature, affording help and support whether of a natural or 
supernatural kind ; partly negative, by removing circum- 
stances under which the temptation would become too 
powerful. Among such circumstances or special occasions 
the Dublin Pastoral Letter mentions wakes and funerals, 
fairs and markets, public amusement, such as athletic sports, 
games, etc.; " treating " and accepting " treats ;" the enter- 
ing of public houses on pay-day, etc. Now, here is, pre- 
cisely the new field for new temperance work on a large and 
broad platform. For whatever helps to keep men from 
falling into excess, and makes them truly temperate, is 
temperance work. 

The fact is simply this : there are thousands of Catholics 
who will not take the total abstinence pledge, never. Those 
same thousands are anxious and careful to be temperate 
and moderate in the use of intoxicating drinks, and to use 
the proper means to guard themselves against the dangers of 
drunkenness. Thousands, again, of these moderate drinkers 
are willing to lend their aid and help, private and public, in 
destroying the social causes of intemperance. But they 
need leaders and an organization ; they look for that large 
platform on which they could meet their brethren engaged 
in the same holy cause. 

Cannot such a platform be erected by a general, national , 
Catholic society or league, embracing societies as well as 
individuals, which would carry on the work in different ways 
and directions, with different means and methods, and by 
different agencies, in such a manner that, while comprising 
the greatest possible number of members and covering all 
the States and Territories of the Union, each member would 
have his special work assigned to him according to his own 
individual choice and conviction. 



\ 



420 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



Such was, if I mistake not, the idea of the great Cardinal 
Manning. He says : " To meet the invasion of so widely 
spreading an evil, it appears to me that a widely extended 
organization, especially created for the purpose of arresting 
drunkenness, and of giving the mutual support of numbers 
and of sympathy to those who are in danger, is not only a 
wise mode of counter-action, but, I am inclined to believe, 
also a necessary provision." 

The advantages of such a Catholic Temperance I^eague 
are evident. The unity of its object (temperance as. against 
intemperance) ; the diversity of its means (from simple 
co-operation in prayer to total abstinence pledge) ; the uni- 
versal adaptability of its methods to persons and localities 
(men and women, children and adult, national and local 
customs) ; the simplicity of its organization (federal and 
state, or national, provincial and diocesan) ; the consequent 
large membership and wide diflfusion all over the land, — all 
would combine to make this League the greatest and most 
powerful Catholic temperance body of the world. 

a. Object. The main object and general end of the 
League is the promotion of Christian temperance. This it 
will obtain directly by binding its members to the practice 
of this virtue and by leading others to the same through 
good example and prayer; indirectly^ by suppressing the 
causes of intemperance. It is not difficult to see that the 
first concerns more the individual and forms rather the 
interior and private work of the League ; the second steps 
forward into the society at large and shows the external field 
where the united action of the League must be displayed. 
However, this distinction needs to be applied cum grano salis^ 
as the same action or work of a member may appear of a 
private or public nature according to the view taken. Total 
abstinence belongs primarily and of its very nature to the 
first class, whether it proceed from the motive of avoiding the 
danger of sin, or from the desire of supporting a weak 
brother by example, or from the spirit of Christian self- 
denial and mortification, or from whatever other religious 
motive. Anti-treating, anti-saloon, anti-whisky and the like 



A CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LEAGUE. 



421 



pledges might also be classed as private and internal work, 
although in view of public habits and customs, we may see 
in them powerful agents to suppress the social vice of drink, 
which is the public and external object of the League. 

It may seem useless to ask which of these two objects is 
the greater and more important. No one can doubt for a 
moment the inherent supernatural merit of temperance when 
practiced for conscience's sake. Nor ought we to over- 
look the wide influence of this virtue through its impetratory 
value when offered, as it is done in some societies for the 
purpose of obtaining the grace of temperance for others. 
On the other hand, it cannot be denied that, as the pernicious 
causes of drunkenness are spread far and wide in the private 
and public life of society, a more extensive field of public 
usefulness seems to be opened to those champions of tem- 
perance who carry the war into the very camp of king 
Bacchus. These crusaders, urged on by their love of God 
and country and their hatred of the degrading vice and its 
abominations, may assuredly hope no less reward from the 
God of Holiness, because their weapons are dealing death 
and destruction, while their brethren offer prayer and sacri- 
fice. It is just possible that this truth has not been sufl5- 
ciently realized by those who consider total abstinence alone 
deserving the honorable name of temperance "workers." 
Yet, the foremost apostle of temperance in our day, Cardinal 
Manning, expressed more than once and not without a certain 
emphasis " my hearty willingness to work with all Catholics 
who are laboring to extinguish drunkenness, whether they 
abstain altogether from all intoxicating drinks or not. We 
are all pledged to temperance by our baptism ; and with all 
those who labor to make that pledge a reality in themselves 
or in others, I will always heartily work. ' ' 

b. Means and Methods. It is unnecessary here to speak 
in particular of the means by which the virtue of temper- 
ance is to be fostered among the members of the League. 
These are appropiate pledges or promises, the mutual example 
and moral support, instructions by lectures and litera- 
ture ; but above all, the helps and graces of religion in 



422 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



prayer, the sacraments and the Word of God. It is more to 
the writer's purpose to explain the various modes and strate- 
gems by which the enemy is to be attacked and fought in his 
strongholds. 

The main causes of the appalling spread of the drink 
disease are probably the following, as I had occasion to state 
elsewhere : 

1. Adulterated drinks^ by which is caused a depraved 
taste, that can only be satisfied by the use and consumption 
of strong drinks. 

2. The saloon in its specific work and effect as distin- 
guished from restaurants and hotels, and with all its dire 
surroundings. 

3. Certain social habits leading to drink, such as treating, 
frequenting saloons, manners by which others are more or 
less morally forced to drink ; playing and gambling for 
liquor, etc. 

These direct and indirect causes could be most effectually 
combatted by the Temperance League : 

First, in general by creating a sound public sentiment and 
opinion against intemperance and, in particular, against these 
causes thereof: (lecture bureau ; printing and publishing 
oflfice ; etc.). 

Secondly, by directly counteracting them in procuring laws 
and seeing that they are enforced. In Europe strict laws 
covering the adulteration of all spirituous beverages are 
enforced. The distiller and the brewer alike are under strict 
police surveillance. Why can't it be done here? The place 
of manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors should be 
under regular supervision of the law. 

The late Archbishop Bayley, whilst Bishop of Newark, 
spoke"on this subject, in the winter of 1871 before the State 
Catholic Total Abstinence Union of New Jersey, as follows : 
*'A real inspection of liquors and wines, so effective that 
nothing could be sold but what is pure, would, in my opin- 
ion, put a stop to two-thirds of the intemperance that exists 
among us. Any real good government should enforce a 
rigid and effective inspection of liquors, or else not allow 



CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LEAGUE. 



423 



them to be sold at all. The very object of government is to 
protect the lives and well-being of its citizens. Our city 
authorities make stringent laws, and to a certain extent 
enforce them, against selling bad meat and decayed vegeta- 
bles. How much more important is it that they should 
hinder the sale of drinks that corrupt the blood, madden the 
brain, and lead directly to the most horrible crimes and 
widespread misery." 

As regards the saloon: a. Reduce their number. High 
license, strict rules in granting licenses, and rules as to the 
proportion of the number of saloons to the population of a 
place might be potent factors in that direction. 

b. Regulate the time of closing. Saloons ought to be 
closed all through Sundays ; city and park hotels might be 
open. But they certainly should be closed during the time 
of church services, forenoon and evening. On week days 
saloons should not be allowed to keep open after midnight, 
and on Saturdays they should, for very good reasons, close 
much earlier. It is then that men receive their wages. 
They know that they need not work the following day and 
thus they are induced to carouse and to waste their money. 
Cardinal Walsh remarks on this point : " Is it not obvious 
that a widespread and most salutary reform would at once be 
effected, if the workingmen of our city could be induced to 
observe the single rule — still better if they would pledge them- 
selves to the observance of it — not to enter a public house 
on that one day of the week on which their wages are paid? " 

c. — Control their customers. — Minors or persons under 
eighteen years of age ought not to be allowed to stay in 
saloons either for the purpose of drink or play. They have 
no business at the bar and pool table. Barkeepers selling 
liquors to minors ought to be punished by law. A wife 
ought to have the right to claim damages from the keeper of 
a saloon where her husband got drunk. 

Thirdly, Dangerous social customs might be counteracted 
by the special rules and habits to be observed by the mem- 
bers of the League . A system of diflferent degrees or ranks, 
progressing from the less severe to stricter observance, could 



424 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



be inaugurated. If I were to outline these degrees I would 
say, exempli causa^ let one degree be formed by those who 
pledge themselves not to treat or to be treated in the accepted 
sense of the word. Another might be the anti-saloon degree. 
The members would agree not to visit or go into any saloon 
merely for the purpose of drinking. A third I would call 
the anti-whisky degree. Abstain altogether from strong 
drinks, like whisky, brandy, gin, etc., though you may take 
your glass of beer or wine. A fourth, the total abstinence 
degree, would enroll all those who would be sincerely willing 
to abstain from the use of all intoxicating drinks, for a cer- 
tain time only, or for the course of their life. To these may 
be added a fifth degree, the Saturday and Sunday pledge of 
those who will abstain from intoxicating drinks, or at least 
avoid the saloon, on these two days. Another degree would 
unite all those who promise, in some way not yet mentioned, 
to abstain either at certain times {f. i. between meals on pay 
days,) or in certain places (at the bar), or on certain occasions 
(fairs, excursions, etc.). A last degree might embrace all 
those who, without belonging to any of the foregoing ranks, 
will join in a holy union of prayer and good works to obtain 
for themselves and others the grace of temperance. (Com- 
pare a most interesting enumeration of various wholesome 
practices in the Appendix to Rev. Bridget's " Discipline of 
Drink.") 

The foregoing sketch will make it evident that there is 
not a single person favoring the cause of true temperance, 
who could not become a member of the League, nor a single 
temperance society, whatever its rules and observances, which 
could not be affiliated to the League, which would thus repre- 
sent the great and powerful centre of unity and energy of 
the whole Catholic temperance army. 

Fourthly, Organization. — It is too early at this stage of 
the question to lay down a detailed plan of an organic or 
systematic arrangement of the League. Questions concern- 
ing the conditions and mode of membership, the form of 
government, general meetings or conventions, boards of man- 
aging and executive officers and so forth, can be decided only 



A CATHOLIC TEMPERANCE LEAGUE. 



425 



after a full and ample discussion of the whole project and 
must be settled by wise and experienced men. One import- 
ant point, however, must be kept in view from the very 
beginning. The League is meant to embrace old and new 
temperance societies. It will endeavor to establish new 
societies on its own broad platform, and thus extend its own 
branches all over the land ; but at the same time it desires 
to affiliate to itself all previously existing societies. We shall 
thus have a federation of temperance societies similar to the 
Federation of Trade and Labor Unions or to the German 
Catholic Central Association (Central-Verein). These older 
organizations retain their present rules and manage their own 
affairs just as before. But in joining the League they enter 
into a corporate and therefore closer union with all other 
temperance bodies, by which a new life and impulse will be 
given to their private activity while greater strength and 
power will be gained for the external and public work of the 
League. As affiliated members these societies must have 
their rightful representation in the Supreme Council or 
Board of Directors of the League. To insure equal rights 
for all, it seems also necessary to allow each of these societies 
to send its delegate to the general convention. Not only 
this ; but to perfect the bond of unity and concord, which is 
the great object of the League in this direction, the presi- 
dents of State and national unions and the reverend directors 
general of religious temperance societies might be ex-officio 
members of the Supreme Council. In regard to original 
branches of the League, its own children, who do not belong 
to any of the older unions, a simple organization and mode 
of representation can be devised on either State and national 
lines, or on the basis of the ecclesiastical division into dio- 
cesan, provincial and national unions. 

The foregoing remarks are placed before the reader for the 
sole purpose of showing that the creation of a Catholic Tem- 
perance League for the United States can not meet very 
great difficulties, if the spirit of Catholic brotherhood guide 
the men called to organize it. 

Who are they ? Cannot the heads of our foremost Tern- 



426 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

perance Societies, the Catholic Total Abstinence Union, the 
lyeague of the Holy Cross, the Confraternity of the Holy 
Thirst, and others, do it ? Of one thing I feel certain : if 
there be a real need of such a new organization as here pro- 
posed, the men to do the work will step forward in due time. 
For the present the seed is sown ; if the conditions are favor- 
able, it will grow and ripen. If not, it was well meant. 

Postscript. — The question has been raised whether such 
a League should not rather be formed upon a broader and 
unsectarian basis so as to admit equally Protestants and 
Catholics. Why not unite with our Protestant brethren in 
the same good work? Why not join with the powerful 
organization of the Women's Christian Temperance Union ? 

Union may be of a different kind : union of ideas and sen- 
timent, union of plan and policy, union of action and labor, 
union of association and companionship. A temperance 
union of this last kind, a corporate union which is to con- 
solidate Catholics and Protestants into one moral body, seems 
to be impossible for the one reason that our temperance work 
must be built on religion. Religion is the life and principle 
of Catholic Temperance. As good Bishop Bayley well said : 
" Any great, permanent reform in this matter can only come 
from religious influence. . . . It is evident that to grap- 
ple with this great evil successfully, we must revert to re- 
ligion and its beneficent influences. We must direct our 
movements against it from a religious point of view." But 
Christian temperance as understood and practised by Cath- 
olics is not based on the mere principle of religion that man 
is bound to avoid sin and its dangers, in which Protestants 
agree with us, but it supposes the practical knowledge of 
prayer and intercession, penance and sacrifice, the efiicacy of 
the sacraments, and other Catholic doctrines unknown to our 
separated brethren. Cfr. Card. Manning's remarks in the 
above cited work of Father Bridget, p. xiv. 

But there is no reason why the Catholic Temperance 
League, or any of its aflfiliated societies, should not join 
with Protestant organizations in public action to suppress 



THE RELIGIOUS UNION OF THE EAST AND WEST. 



427 



the causes, and fight the agents, of intemperance, to foster 
and strengthen public sentiment, to secure appropriate 
laws and their execution, and so forth. Such union of 
action among Catholics and Protestants, all impelled by 
religion and love of country, would exert an almost irresist- 
ible force and work immense good. It would lead to certain 
victory, overturn the reign of drunken Bacchus and firmly 
establish among our people the throne of Christian Temper- 
ance. 

S. G. Messmer, 
Bishop of Green Bay. 



THE RELIGIOUS UHION OF THE EAST AND TfEST. 

The real attitude of the Eastern religious bodies toward 
those of the West has, within late years, been the subject 
of much speculation. The late Encyclical Praeclara of Leo 
XIII, in which the Sovereign Pontiff, whilst inviting all the 
nations to religious union, addresses himself in particular to 
the Christians of the East, gave a fresh interest to the ques- 
tion and prepared the way to the recent negotiations with 
certain representatives of the Eastern communities which 
promise lasting and practical results. Those who believe 
that the conferences at the Vatican were intended to bring 
about a mere compact on the part of the principal leaders 
by which the outward adherence of the Eastern schismatic 
Churches to the See of Rome was to' be secured, altogether 
misjudge the situation of affairs and the true intent of the 
Sovereign Pontiff. Yet that such is the general impression 
of writers on the subject, both in Europe and America, is 
plain from their manner of treating the question. 

In the following paper we propose briefly to indicate in 
general outline the true condition of the people comprised 
under the name of Eastern schismatics whom the Holy 
Father desires to bring back to the bond of Apostolic unity. 



428 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

In doing this we shall confine ourselves to the simple state- 
ment of the present situation in the East, as we know it to 
exist from personal observation during many years of close 
intercourse with clergy and people of the Oriental countries. 

When we speak of the Oriental Churches generally, we 
have in mind the great complex of nations professing the 
Christian religion whose territory was at one time known as 
the Eastern division of the Roman Empire. Their number 
exceeds a hundred and thirty millions scattered over portions 
of eastern and southern Europe, Asia and Africa. In Europe 
there are the Greeks, Armenians, Georgians, Roumanians 
and Slavs, these last comprising Russians, Bulgarians, Ser- 
vians, Montenegrians and kindred tribes. In Asia there are 
Melchites, Greeks, Armenians, Syrians, Chaldeans, Mar- 
onites, Jacobites, with sects of lesser importance. In Africa 
there are Greeks, Copts, Abyssinians and the immigrated 
stock from the northern and eastern countries. 

Of all these numerous peoples following the Eastern Rite 
hardly five millions are in union with the Roman Church : 
the others, whilst professing Christianity from the earliest 
times, are separated and known under the designation of 
Schismatics. These vast numbers are the object of the pres- 
ent Sovereign Pontifl:'s solicitude, and the problem to be 
solved is, how can they be appoached with the hope of their 
ultimate return to the unity of faith pledged to communion 
with the See of St. Peter. To get at the core of the diflSculty 
involved in this attempt at unification, we shall have to 
answer successively the following questions : 

I. In what does the Eastern schism consist ? 

II. What are the nlotives that at present maintain the 
schism ? 

III. What are the means best adapted for its -extinction ? 

Speaking theologically, the schism consists in the nega- 
tion, in theory and practice, of the Hierarchical Unity of 
the Church as founded on the Primacy of St. Peter. 

Until lately it was generally accepted that the denial of 
this unity of the Church was the doctrinal stronghold to be 
attacked in order to convince the Oriental Schismatics of 



THE RELIGIOUS UNION OF THE EAST AND WEST 



429 



their error and to induce them to accept the proposal of uni- 
fication. Accordingly our theologians and controversialists 
in the schools of apologetics laid great stress upon the 
arguments supporting the doctrine of the Primacy of St. 
Peter, next to which in importance ranked the propositions 
regarding the procession of the Holy Spirit a Patre Filioque^ 
the dogma of Purgatory, and others in which the Greek so- 
called "orthodox" theologians diflfer from the teaching of 
the oecumenical Councils of the Holy Roman Church. But 
these controversies appeared to eflfect very little toward the 
desired end. The union has always remained a pious desire,, 
growing more unrealizable every day, until at last the idea 
began to prevail among Catholics that nothing could ever be 
effected in the East, that every effort was labor lost. Some 
went so far as to express the wish that the Christian religion 
might die out in the East so as to offer an unprejudiced field 
to the missionaries of the Latin Church wherein they might 
re-establish the Catholic faith in its original purity. In this 
way the Easterns were looked upon much as Protestant secta- 
ries are regarded, and only an excessive optimism could 
induce a hope of their ultimate return to Catholicism. 

However, since the authorities of the Propaganda decidedly 
favored practical inquiry into the real state of affairs in the 
East, and men conscious of the aims of Leo XIII undertook 
to visit, for the purpose of studying the situation, the differ- 
ent Christian populations of the East, particularly that 
which exists among the so-called Schismatics, it has been 
found that the practical view of the case differed in many 
respects from the theoretic view given in the schools of the- 
ology. It became clear that we had based our arguments 
against the Orientals largely on speculative foundations and 
gratuitous assumptions. In this way a change of methods 
in our dealings with the Eastern schismatics was suggested 
which is more in harmony with the practical aspect of things 
so that far happier results may be hoped for in the future. 

What has become clear is this ; that the religion which 
the dissenting Christians of those parts profess does not 
substantially oppose or deny the Catholic faith, but that the 



430 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

diflference of belief is, on the whole, but a diflference in 
words. Moreover (and the fact is very noteworthy), the 
schism has never been explicitly formulated after the public 
act of Union subscribed to at the Council of Florence. 
Hence, it may be said, 'C^dX juridically speaking, the schism 
does not exist ; and this destroys the raison (THre of many 
odious rules held -to discriminate against the Eastern Christ- 
ians on account of their belief. It is ceirtainly incorrect to 
say that the Easterns are obstinate in their errors, for the 
doctrinal differences upon which the theologians who copy 
the statements of writers previous to the Council of 
Florence lay so much stress, do not practically exist ; they 
may be found in ancient books and formulas long for- 
gotten, but they are not known to the body of the Christian 
people. 

The fact is that the cause of actual separation between 
the East and West far from resting upon dogmatic differ- 
ences, it is nothing more or less than a hierarchical separa- 
tion based upon ancient national prejudices, on feelings of 
rivalry and distrust, on the political aspiration of certain 
States, on the ambition of a few individuals and on an in- 
tense national amour propre. With the Eastern people 
nationality and religion constitute one and the same thing. 
Thus the real motives of separation are to be sought in the 
feelings of animosity and national antagonism toward the 
Christians of the West. This antagonism is the fruitful 
source of prejudice on both sides. Catholics as well as schis- 
matics entertain the most absurd impressions as to their rela- 
tive religious belief and practices. They hold that we are 
not even baptized Christians ; whilst we charge them with 
beliefs and errors in theological matters which are altogether 
unknown to them. It is true that in a spirit of antagonism 
resting upon preconceived notions about the Western Chris- 
tians, the Orientals often exaggerate the differences between 
them and us, as if they wished thereby to justify their sepa- 
ration. We, on the other hand, incline to look upon them 
as apostates from the Catholic faith who are half in malice 
or wholly in error. 



THE RELIGIOUS UNION OF THE EAST AND WEST. 



431 



Yet when we come to examine their religion it is marvel- 
lous how few changes from the Apostolic faith exist in their 
Churches after so many centuries. Their liturgy, popular 
devotions, monastic institutions and ecclesiastical discipline 
are in a comparatively flourishing condition, and there has 
been a wonderful development of vigor within recent years, 
especially among the Slavs, that is to say, in Russia. 

Admitting these facts, the idea of the Eastern Schism pre- 
sents itself in a different form from that which we find ex- 
plained in popular theology and ecclesiastical history. The 
difference is not so much one of dogmas and their opposite 
errors, as of rare prejudice, national animosity and the desire 
of political predominance or at least independence. If the 
Orientals have hitherto failed to accept the dogma of the 
primacy of the Roman Pontiff, it was not because they failed 
to recognize the necessity of union under the supreme head 
represented by the successor of St. Peter, but simply because 
they looked upon the Pope as an alien, an intruder and even 
an enemy. Not only do they pray daily for the union of 
Christendom, but the dogma of St. Peter's Primacy is formu- 
lated most clearly and explicitly in their liturgical traditions ; 
and the desirable consummation would simply be that they 
should realize in fact what they profess in words. The 
schism exists in fact and not in theory, the faith which they 
profess being quite Catholic ; at the most it would be neces- 
sary to add to their formulary certain expressions adopted in 
the West during later times. For instance, in speaking of 
the Holy Spirit they refuse to say that He proceeds from the 
Son and they say instead that He proceeds through the Son. 
Likewise, although they continually offer prayers for the 
departed, they have never accepted the term purgatory^ 
which, indeed, has yet to be introduced into the Liturgy of 
the West. 

What are the motives that keep up the separation between 
East and West ? 

We have already stated that a feeling of rivalry animates 
the Eastern people. They have never forgotten that Christ- 
ianity with the support of the Empire was for some centuries 



432 



AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



more flourishing than Western Christianity which languished 
under Barbarian invasions. From the eighth to the four- 
teenth century there was almost a continuous state of war 
between the East and West, which the action of the European 
crusaders had frequently emphasized by the cruel and un- 
christian conduct which they displayed towards the native 
Christian population of the East. After the Ottoman inva- 
sion the small party of dissenters from the Council of Florence 
began to pay court to their oppressors, the Turks, who, for 
political reasons conferred upon them local ecclesiastical 
dignities, thus fostering a favorable disposition toward the 
revival of the schism which had been formally renounced at 
the Council of Florence. On the other hand, Christians in 
the West have become accustomed to regard the Eastern 
Christians in the same light with certain ambitious and in- 
triguing individuals who professed to be representatives of 
the whole body. Time built up a wall of separation between 
the East and West, mutual prejudice and hostility followed, 
and all hopes of a religious union seemed lost. v 

What are the means for the healing of the Schism ? In 
the first place a mutual righting of ideas. On our part we 
must reduce the doctrinal question to its teal and essential 
limits, thus endeavoring to make the submission of the 
Schismatics to the Holy See less odious than the scholastic 
controversialists have hitherto seemed inclined to do. More- 
over, the standard of study in the East is so low and the 
average intelligences so little prepared to measure theological 
or scientific reasons, that the disputations of exacting apolo- 
gists have no other effect than to awaken additional opposi- 
tion among clergy and people. Every legitimate means 
should furthermore be employed to disburse the Easterns of 
their deep-rooted prejudices against the Latin Christian. For 
this reason the mutual intercourse between Catholic mission- 
aries and the peoples of the East should be facilitated as 
much as possible with a view to producing a true knowledge 
of each other. There have existed hitherto and still exist 
very severe laws prohibiting communication with the schis- 
matical Easterns, and these laws were originally made for the 



THE RELIGIOUS UNION OF THE EAST AND WEST. 



433 



purpose of safeguarding Catholics against schismatical in- 
fluences. Formerly there was a suflficient reason for the ex- 
istence of these laws and there may still be a necessity for 
their maintenance in certain circumstances. But whilst they 
protected Catholics from the taint of dangerous doctrines and 
misunderstandings they cut off all chances of converting the 
Schismatics. Since our present purpose is to promote the 
union of the dissidents with the centre of Faith, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to open the avenues which will allow our 
clergy to exercise a salutary and active influence upon them. 
Hence it must be deemed opportune and necessary to modify 
the old rules so that we may be enabled to destroy their 
prejudices and teach them the necessity of Catholic Unity, 
which alone can suffice to preserve their faith from the rapid 
encroachments of a false modern progress, which under the 
guise of science and culture leads them toward absolute 
infidelity. 

Are there any hopes at present that this rapprochement 
may be effected ? We unhesitatingly answer in the affirma- 
tive, although we must not delude ourselves by minimizing 
the difficulties which will be met with in the realization of 
such a plan. 

Partial experience has shown that wherever the Western 
missionaries have suceeded in uprooting certain prejudices 
there has speedily appeared some degree of sympathy between 
the Eastern and Western Christians. Our missionary clergy 
have become aware of the fact that there exist in the East 
populations professing substantially the same Christianity 
as we do. They have found among them a vast treasure of 
traditions, institutions, usages and religious practices which 
recall the first ages of Christianity. This has enabled us 
to show a genuine feeling of respect for the Christian rites 
of the East. 

Through attentive and prolonged study and research some 
of our scholars have succeeded in bringing to light some 
precious documents bearing on the history of the Church. 
These have become efficacious means for defending the 
Apostolic traditions of the Western Church. Thus the 



434 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Eastern Christians who had been accustomed for centuries 
to consider us as enemies have found reason to believe that 
we do not regard their usages and liturgy as opposed to the 
faith which we hold, but rather that we esteem and respect 
them. All this has opened a current of sympathy in religious 
matters between them and the Roman See, which is known 
to foster this respect for the Eastern institutions. The press 
also has begun to be interested in the question of the union 
of the churches, and occasion has thus been given and 
accepted to render a mutual understanding more easy, and 
to modify and correct whatever was inaccurate or distorted 
in our views of tfiem and vice versa. 

In Rome a series of books, called Sguardi all ''Oriente 
has been published, wherein the above-mentioned views, 
so different from those which prevailed in the past, have been 
expressed and advocated. These publications at first caused 
a certain surprise, but, as they had attracted the attention 
of the most learned and cultured of those interested in this 
movement toward unity, they have largely contributed to 
render popular that " esprit nouveau " with which the re- 
ligious question of the East is now regarded. 

The Sovereign Pontiff Leo XIII has told us that the 
time has come wherein we may hope to effect a union. 
His .predecessors have often attempted this with more or 
less success, but besides certain partial institutions and 
measures taken in regard to individual places and nations 
in the East, no general appeal had ever been made to those 
Eastern people who are less removed from us by their 
geographical position than by ancient prejudices. Pope 
Pius IX had instituted a special section of the Office of 
Propaganda for Eastern affairs, and this was a great step 
forward, as paving the way to the obtaining of correct infor- 
mation on subjects of interest to the East and to us. But 
it was reserved to Pope Leo to stir up men's minds and to 
announce to the entire world that the hour had come for us 
to take a further and more immediate step toward the accom- 
plishment of that wish which our divine Saviour expressed 
on the night when His Passion began. 



I 



AN IMPORTANT WORK. 435 

It remains then for all sincere Catholics to unite with 
these hopes of the Sovereign Pontiflf and to lend our help to 
the realization of this divine plan of unity. The union of 
the Bast and West into one Catholic Church would revive 
anew faith, hope and charity, and also bring us nearer to 
the prosperity and peace promised to the children of God's 
kingdom on earth. The Eucharistic Congress of Jerusalem 
was the beginning of a new history for the Catholic Church, 
for there was solemnly proclaimed the endeavor of the 
religious union of the East and West. The negotiations 
going on at the Vatican at this writing, are but the dis- 
ciplinary inauguration by which that unity is to be practi- 
cally and permanently effected. 

ViNCKNT VanNUTEI*LI. 
Rome, Italy, October, 1894. 

AN IMPORTANT WORK BY DOCTOR IMBERT-GOURBETRE. 

La Stigvtatisaiion^ V Extase Divine^ les Miracles de Lourdes, 
Reponse aux Libres-Penseurs. Tomes I-II. ^ 

IN God's overruling providence which permits evil that 
good may come forth, the effort of infidelity to extin- 
guish the supernatural in human life to some extent frustrates 
itself. Though in no small degree it succeeds in putting 
out the light of faith in the minds of some, it serves to 
enlarge and intensify that light in the minds of others. 
This it does by stimulating to broader and deeper study of 
the motives and facts of faith. The results of such study 
are carried through society by the spoken and printed word, 
strengthening the weak, encouraging and arming the strong. 
One such aid to faith is presented by this masterly work of an 
eminent French physician — an aid to the substance of faith to 
those who have the wish to believe ; to the quickening and 
perfecting of faith to those who catch the spirit that breathes 

I. La Stigmatization, 1' Extase Divine et les Miracles de Lourdes. 
Reponse aux Libres-Penseurs par le Dr. Antoine Imbert-Gourbeyre, 
Prof. ^ I'ficole de M^decine de Clermont, Commandeur de I'Ordre de 
Charles III. Tome I, Les Faits ; Tome II, Analyse et Discussion. — Cler- 
mont Ferrand : Librairie Catholique. L. Bellet, editeur. — Paris : J. Vic et 
Amat. 1894. 



436 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

in its pages. The author is a physician of long experience 
and high standing in the ranks of his profession. Trained 
by study and practice to observe the facts and phenomena of 
physical life, to distinguish their shadings, discern their mean- 
ing, gather their laws, his eye busied with the things of matter 
has not been dimmed to the things of spirit, but has been 
sharpened by a faith that enables him to penetrate from the 
seen into the unseen, to pass from the visible phenomena to 
their root and cause in the spiritual and supernatural. 

Travelling in Belgium twenty-six years ago, he was present 
at the ecstasies of Louise Lateau. Struck by the marvels he 
then witnessed, he devoted five years to the study of her life 
and that of several other persons similarly favored, and 
published the results of his research in a volume entitled 
" Les Stigmatises," in which he refutes the theory of 
hallucination set up by rationalism to explain the marvellous 
events in the lives of the saints. In the meantime the French 
medical school of La Salpetri^re has sprung up. Under the 
leading of its chief, the late Doctor Charcot, hysteria and 
hypnotism are brought in to supplement the hallucination 
theory. The stigmata and ecstasies of the saints, miracles, 
and the visible workings of Satan are said to yield the evidence 
of their purely natural character to hallucination, to the 
psycho-physical aberrations of hysteria, and to the " sugges- 
tions " of hypnotism — to one or the other or to all three. 
That Charcot and his followers in leaving their legitimate 
domain of nervous disorders to wander amidst the facts and 
principles of the highest domain of Mystical Theology 
should succeed really in nothing more than in manifesting 
ignorance and incompetency, not to speak of evident bad 
faith, was of course inevitable. Nevertheless, bold unproven 
assertion does efficient service in a theory that aims at 
annihilating the supernatural. Though not a method that 
usually succeeds in solving the problems of physical science 
it often passes unchallenged when applied to undermining 
belief in a superhuman Being to whom man must pay the 
sacrifice of absolute service. To follow therefore the ration- 
alist with the rigid methods of observation and experiment, 



1 



AN IMPORTANT WORK. 



437 



to point out where he omits facts of vital importance against 
his theory, where he fails to mark the diflference between 
those of a lower and a higher order, where he misstates or 
misinterprets what he does observe — all this must make for 
the advance of truth, and as such should meet the approval 
and praise of those who love truth more than a prejudice 
or a cherished theory. This is what the author of these 
volumes has done within the limits of his subject. 

It is a fact of experience, present and running back six 
centuries into the past, that many persons, men and women 
have born in their bodies, notably in their hands and feet 
and sides, wounds similar to those inflicted on our Lord in 
His Passion. The receiving and bearing of these stigmata^ 
have always been associated with ecstasies and remarkable 
sanctity. These phenomena — the stigmata, ecstasy with the 
accompanying sanctity — form the subject matter of our 
author's study. 

In his first volume he gathers the facts. Beginning with 
the thirteenth century when the seraphic Saint of Assisi 
came down from the mountain secum ferens Crudjixi imagi- 
nem . . .in carneis tnembris descriptam. digito Dei vivi^ we 
have here a list, as complete as the author's opportunities for 
research permitted, of the servants of God who since that 
day have shared the privilege of the saintly Francis. What 
a splendid procession ! Out of the age of Francis come 
thirty-two bearing like him in their bodies " the marks of 
Jesus." These are followed by twenty-three alike trophied 
from the fourteenth century, by twenty-five from the fif- 
teenth, sixty-nine from the sixteenth, one hundred and four- 
teen from the seventeenth, thirty from the eighteenth, whilst 
our own age has witnessed at least twenty-nine of these 
favored heroes. Heroes, we call them, for they bear the 
wounds of the Crucified as the reward of heroic conflict with 
pain. "The wounded of Christ they are His guard of honor. 
They are chosen by Him as victims, even as He was chosen 
by His Father. Entered into His glory and no longer able 
to suffer. He leaves them on earth, another memorial of His 
Passion, visible representatives of His wounds. His victims, 



438 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

He makes them to His likeness. They bear His wounds in 
the same spots wherein He had chosen to bear them. Like 
Him they shed their blood and sufifer unutterable pain, pain 
which would equal His own divine suflferings could these 
be equalled in mere man. Often they represent the drama 
of the Passion in all its phases ; willing victims who expiate, 
who satisfy divine justice, who turn aside the vengeance of 
heaven." (Vol. II, p. 405.) Had the author of this work 
done nothing more than compile the biographical list of 
these heroes of the cross he would merit to be called the first 
narrator of their prerogatives. It is true there have been 
other compilations of a similar kind, but none of them has 
come near to the exhaustiveness of the one before us. Rays- 
sius, in his " Hierogazophylacium Belgicum " (Duaci, 1628) 
mentions but twenty-five Stigmatises. Theophile Raynaud, 
twenty-two years later in his book " De stigmatismo sacro et 
profano, divino, humano et daemoniaco" describes only fifteen. 
Peter of Avila four years afterwards in his " Naturae pro- 
digium g^atiae portentum " increases the list to thirty-five. 
In these first four centuries of the history of Stigmatization 
our author has found at least one hundred and fifty. In our 
own day Gorres and Alfred Maury have counted but seventy, 
and the present author when he wrote his book " Les Stig- 
matises " twenty years ago cited only one hundred and 
forty-five. In the meantime his more extended research has 
enabled him to extend the number to three hundred and 
twenty-one^ and had he been able to consult the large 
libraries of Germany, Spain and Italy, and above all, the 
archives of the religious orders he is confident that he might 
have made his list still more complete. 

Of the life of each of these holy persons he gives a brief 
sketch, mainly in view of the facts bearing on their stigmata. 

In regard to these facts two aspects must be noted — their 
authenticity and their origin. As to the former, there can 
be no reasonable doubt. Those who received these wonder- 
ful marks excited wide attention and closest scrutiny by 
their marvellous lives. They passed most of their days in 
the presence of many witnesses, for the majority lived in 



AN IMPORTANT WORK. 



439 



religious communities. All of them were obliged to unveil 
the inmost workings of their souls to their spiritual directors, 
whose conscience was burdened in each case with the strict- 
est obligation of using every means to ascertain the veracity, 
nature and source of the facts presented to them. Some of 
them were obliged, out of obedience to their superiors, to 
write their own biographies which were then subjected to the 
most searching criticism of competent judges. Others had 
as biographers their confessors or their constant companions, 
but in no case was the history of their lives allowed to be 
printed without the express sanction of legitimate authority. 
To many of them the Church herself has been the historian, 
for fully one-third of them have had the case of their beatifi- 
cation either taken up or definitely decided. No one 
acquainted with the rigid scrutiny to which such cases are 
subjected by the Church can reasonably doubt the veracity 
of facts to which she gives her testimony. 

As to the origin of these singular privileges, the Church 
alone can be the final judge. They have, of course, their 
natural side, their physical and psychical characteristics, and 
as such lie open to the observation and warranted inferences 
of natural science. The physician comes in to discriminate 
the phenomena of stigmatization from those of organic dis- 
orders, but the probate spiriium^ the discernment of the 
spiritual conditions which antecede, accompany and follow 
the receiving and bearing of these exceptional gifts belongs 
to the Church. 

The Church pronounces judgment indirectly through the 
principles and conclusions of her mystical theology, a branch 
of science as definitely found on observed phenomena as is 
psychology itself. Indirectly, too, she confirms the super- 
natural origin of the stigmata by her authoritative pronounce- 
ment on the heroic sanctity of those who bore them. This 
she has done in the case of at least sixty-one siigmatisis 
whom she has raised to the honors of the altar. More 
directly she confirms their supernatural origin by explicit 
mention in her decrees of beatification, bulls of canoniza- 
tion, martyrologies, offices and liturgies consecrated to the 



440 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

saints, and particularly by instituting special festivals in 
honor of the conferring of these " signs of redemption " on 
her chosen children. Thus she has established the Feast of 
the Impression of the Stigmata on St. Francis and on St. 
Catharine of Sienna, as well as the Feast of the Transver- 
beration of the Heart of St. Teresa, to say nothing of her 
mentioning the stigmata in the offices of many other saints. 

The Church, of course, does not oblige us, under pain of 
heresy, to believe in all these supernatural facts. Neverthe- 
less, it would be rash in a Catholic to deny them. Respect 
and love for the mind of the Church as well as rational 
motives here underlie our mental submission. What our 
author here says of his own mind regarding the revelations 
of the Sacred Heart and the Apparitions at Lourdes indicates 
the intellectual attitude of every reasonable Catholic. 
"Though the Church does not impose on me belief in 
these things, yet I impose it on myself, and this for two 
motives : first, because the Church not only authorizes me 
to believe them, but, moreover, invites me to do so; second, 
on natural and scientific logic, for I know full well that the 
only possible objection that can here be urged is hallucina- 
tion. Now this objection will not hold in the face of science 
and sound sense. This is reasonable obedience, the ratio- 
nubile obsequim of St. Paul. And then, why — if one is a 
Catholic — should he refuse belief in supernatural facts recog- 
nized by the Church ? Happy they who live in faith without 
reserve, who reduce not their belief to the sole articles of 
faith" (p. xvi). 

But, it will be objected, "What about the stigmata of hvp- 
notism?" It is a well known fact that "suggestion" has 
produced in certain "mediums" stigmata resembling those 
borne by the saints. A full description of these counterfeit 
stigmata of hypnotism, how utterly unlike they are to 
the genuine, both in appearance and physiological char- 
acteristics, as well as in the manner in which they are 
communicated to their respective subjects, but, above all, 
how diametrically opposed from a psychological and spiritual 
point of view is the medium of hypnotism on the one hand 



AN IMPORTANT W^ORK. 441 

to the hero of sanctity on the other — all this is fully shown by 
our author. To enter into this subject would demand a 
special paper for itself 

The first volume, we have said, gives the facts of its sub- 
ject. The second analyzes them, works out the principles to 
which they logically lead, and defends these principles 
against materialistic objections. The first volume is the 
natural history of the supernatural ; the second its natural 
science. Here we have a minute classification of all the phe- 
nomena : physical, physiological, psychological and ascetical. 
It is here the author shows best his immense labor and 
erudition. Since his work is to meet the opposition of free- 
thinkers, it had probably been better to have passed over 
some of the incidents here related, but the work must be 
judged as a whole, not by this or that isolated portion. It is 
the full array of facts that carries the conviction of their 
origpin. The best answer to the rationalist here is to present 
the facts. ^''Monter c'^est demonter^^'' says the author. " For 
many readers these facts will be a revelation ; for all an 
instruction. Every sensible man, even though he be not a 
physician, will easily understand that this aggregate of extra- 
ordinary facts cannot be explained by the puerile theories of 
free- thought '*'* — by hallucination, hysteria, hypnotism. 

Ecstasy is the invariable accompaniment of the stigmata. 
Though the two phenomena are not intrinsically intercon- 
nected, they are so historically. An adequate knowledge, 
therefore, of the one involves some acquaintance with the 
other. A large part, accordingly, of the second volume 
before us is given to the classification of the ecstatic states, 
their physical and psychical characteristics, their causes and 
eflfects, duration, frequency, etc. The hallucination theory 
here receives full study, and the absurdity of attempting to 
account for the intense mental illumination of the saints by 
the folly of hysteria admirably shown forth. The appari- 
tions of Our Lady of Lourdes to Bernadette, and the revela- 
tions of the Sacred Heart to Blessed Margaret Mary are also 
defended. 

The attempt has been made to explain the miracles of 



442 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

lyourdes by hypnotic suggestion, "and as there are no 
hypnotizers in the sanctuary it is claimed that the sick 
hypnotize themselves by religious emotion : that their minds, 
profoundly influenced by their firm faith in the possibility of 
a supernatural cure, renders such cure easily realized — which 
means that the miraculh have cured themselves at will 
through force of imagination. This is Dr. Charcot's posi- 
tion." (p. 484.) 

That some bodily disorders may be cured by " suggestion" 
is undeniable, but that diseases recognized as incurable by 
science yield to its magic influence, not even the most enthu- 
siastic advocates of hypnotism pretend. Now it is precisely 
cases that lie admittedly beyond the healing power of medical 
art that are brought to Lourdes. The sick who have exhausted 
all the resources ot medicine, *' suggestion," perhaps itself, 
included, there receive health, thus proving the interference 
of a power superior to any that science or art possesses. 
The genuineness of the miracles of I^ourdes has been often 
and thoroughly demonstrated by testimony strong enough to 
convince any fair-minded man, but every lover of our Lady's 
beneficent power will be glad to find in the lists for her 
honor so valiant a knight as Dr. Imbert-Gourbeyre. He has 
taken up the gauntlet of Dr. Charcot and added another 
victory to the glory of Notre Dame de lyourdes. 

The work closes with a stro'ng appeal of the author to his 
brethren of the medical profession, reminding them of the 
exalted dignity of their vocation, and that they " honor the 
physician " best and only when they recognize, by practice 
as by theory, the all-embracing Providence that has per- 
mitted and administers, for the uplifting of humanity, the 
mystery of pain and disease. 

In conclusion, it may be added that the work is unique in 
the literature of its subject. There are, it is true, a number 
of other works which in part cover the same ground, notably 
Gorres' " Christliche Mystik," Ribet's " La Vraie Mystique " 
and Bonniot's "Le Miracle et ses Contrefa9ons," besides those 
which touch on the same topics in treating of hypnotism and 
hysteria ; but this far surpasses them all in fullness of material, 



PREACHING AND RHETORIC. 



443 



thorougliness of analysis and in discussion of difficulties. 
Apart, too, from its wealth of fact and principle, there is a 
charm about its style which of itself wins one to love its 
subject and admire its author. He moves through the throng 
of historical facts with perfect ease, and lifts himself to the 
region of elevated thought so naturally that the reader is 
borne along spontaneously in unceasing delight. 

F. P. Siegfried. 



PREACHING AND BHETORIC. 

Even in popular eloquence, preachers should avail themselves of the 
arts of rhetoric, figures, clear and solid arguments, correct language, the 
peroration, etc. — Muratori. 

Although the divine truths are not to be preached in the " persuasive 
words oi human wisdom," yet we must not despise the aids of true elo- 
quence. — St. Gregory Nazianzen. 

One of the first and most indispensable studies ot the priest is the 
mastery of his mother- tongue. He should acquire so thorough a knowl- 
edge of his own language that he may be able to speak and write it to 
perfection. — Fr. Mach, S. J. 

TF the English language contains one word that has better 
^ reason than most others to protest against the treatment 
to which it is subjected by the public in general, and by the 
clergy in particular, that word may well be "rhetoric." 
Persistently degraded, vilified'and slandered, it is habitually 
accused of extravagancies quite foreign to its nature, and 
unjustly convicted of crimes at utter variance with its prin- 
ciples. It is questionable whether "Jesuits" and "Jesuit- 
ism" present to the opaque intelligence of a rabid A. P. A. 
fanatic any more distorted and fantastic notions of their real 
signification, than do "rhetoric" and "rhetorical" to the 
minds of a multitude of people whose ignorance is far less 
excusable. In the vocabulary of many a priest, these words 
apparently have a stigma of opprobrium attached to them ; 
they are invariably employed in the sense of a reproachful 
characterization, and are never even thought of as available 
synonyms for what may be excellent and admirable in oral 
and written discourse. As applied specifically to preaching, 



444 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the terms are commonly used with an impropriety as glaring 
as it is absurd. To say that a sermon is rhetorical is, in the 
estimation of no small number of clerics, to pronounce one 
of the most damnatory criticisms possible, — is to exclude 
the preacher from the category, not merely of eflfective 
speakers, but of sensible men as well. 

Among all the counsels given to the young priest as to the 
style of his discourses, there are few more common, and none 
less necessary than : Avoid being rhetorical. From the per- 
sistent denunciation, found in many clerical handbooks and 
heard in most clerical circles, of this supposed capital fault, 
one would imagine that the majority of priests, or at least a 
very considerable number of them, are as a rule excessively 
elaborate in the composition of their sermons, finically ele- 
gant in the construction of their sentences, and ultra-luxuri- 
ant in their use of ambitious figures of speech. That such 
faults characterized the priests of some former age is possibly 
true ; but, if so, the average preacher of that age differed 
very materially in his methods from the average preacher of 
ours. The nineteenth-century priest who can be justly 
charged with giving immoderate attention to the expression 
of his pulpit utterances, is the exception, not the rule ; as 
applied to the great mass of our preachers, such a charge 
would be, on the face of it, ridiculously false. For one priest 
who overestimates the importance of form in his sermons, 
there are a dozen who practically disregard it in theirs ; and, 
as a simple matter of fact, the great desideratum in the Cath- 
olic pulpit is, not less but more, attention to the principles 
of rhetoric. 

In his personal experience, the number of clerical de- 
nouncers of rhetorical preaching whom the writer has 
encountered has been largely in excess of the preachers 
whose sermons called for any such denunciation ; and it is 
pertinent to add that the consistently ««rhetorical sermons 
of the denouncers themselves have very generally proved to 
be a thoroughly effective answer to their own arguments. 
One had merely to listen to their preaching during twenty 
or twenty-five minutes to understand and deplore the fact 



PREACHING AND RHETORIC. 



445 



that any discouise of theirs on rhetoric might quite appro- 
priately begin with some such introduction as the opening 
sentence of an American humorist's lecture on farming: 
*'What 1 know about farming is mighty little." 

It cannot of course be denied that here and there, espe- 
cially among the younger members of the clergy, may be 
found a few preachers who apparently consider the sub- 
stance of their thought subordinate to its expression, and 
who are concerned less with the matter of what they say 
than with their manner of saying it. Nor need the fact be 
ignored that an occasional minister of the divine word sacri- 
fices nervousness and virility of style to an undue fondness 
for rhythmical cadences or meretricious ornaments. There 
may even be some whose predilection for so-called fine writ- 
ing leads them to preach above the heads of their congrega- 
tion, under the mistaken impression that grandiloquence is 
eloquence, and sound an efiective substitute for sense. These, 
however, are extreme cases ; they are far more rarely met 
with than are instances of the equally deplorable opposite 
extreme ; and even were such cases ten times more numerous 
than they really are, they would still furnish no substantial 
argument against the application of rhetorical principles to 
the building up of the sermon. 

Far from being the legitimate outcome of the study of 
rhetoric, the errors just mentioned are not only not counten- 
anced by rhetoricians, but are expressly and unequivocally 
condemned by every expositor of the science from Campbell 
and Blair and Whately to Hepburn and Hart and Genung. 
The impression that the sole, or the principal business of 
rhetoric is to robe commonplace thought in a showy dress 
and set it off" with the glittering tinsel of tawdry ornaments, 
is not more generally prevalent than it is thoroughly erron- 
eous. That such an impression should prevail among those 
who have never studied the science, is not, perhaps, remark- 
able ; but that a notion so radically false should be enter- 
tained by men who presumably were at one period of their 
lives conversant with at least the elementary principles of 
rhetoric, is to our mind inexplicable. For, after all, rhetoric, 



446 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW, 

or the science of discourse, is based upon sound reason and 
good sense ; and all its rules and principles are directly con- 
ducive to the acquisition of skill and readiness in the effect- 
ive communication of thought. The man who vehemently 
inveighs against artificial eloquence, sophomoric declama- 
tion, bombastic periods, and the ostentatious display of 
flowery language, may imagine that he is decrying rhetoric ; 
but in reality he is merely reiterating censure which has 
been pronounced by every rhetorician of the century, and 
which he may find, if he will, in any one of a score of rhe- 
torical treatises used in our schools and colleges. 

If the scoffers at rhetoric, instead of launching invective 
tirades against its suppositious artificialities, would take the 
trouble to investigate its real principles, they would discover 
that these principles are such as may be adhered to with 
equal profit by the eminent pulpit orator addressing the most 
highly-cultured intelligences, the humble rural pastor ex- 
plaining the Gospel of the Sunday to his unlettered auditors, 
and the simple catechist preparing a class of children for 
first Communion or Confirmation. Rhetoric is concerned 
with every discourse whose aim is to instruct, convince, or 
persuade men ; and according as its precepts are observed or 
transgressed, will the discourse be relatively good or bad, 
effective or futile, eloquent or the reverse. ' ' The process of 
combining and expressing thoughts," says Hepburn, " is sub- 
ject to fixed laws inherent in the mind, which we are at 
liberty to violate, but, if we violate them, the discourse will 
fail to realize its end," The knowledge and full mastery of 
these laws, with a view to their practical observance in 
speaking or writing, is the prime object of the study of rhet- 
oric ; and any disparagement of such study is, in its ulti- 
mate analysis, scarcely less puerile than would be the con- 
demnation of grammar or logic. 

Restricting the phrase to its legitimate meaning, to 
" preach rhetorically " is to preach with propriety, elegance, 
and force ; it is to present the matter of the sermon in the 
manner best calculated to produce in the hearers the effect 
desired ; and hence, properly speaking, the more rhetorical 



PREACHING AND RHETORIC. 



447 



the preacher, the better will be the preaching. Paradoxical 
as it may sound to some, it is nevertheless strictly true that 
every good discourse, whether religious or profane, is rhetor- 
ical : no orator, in or out of the pulpit, ever speaks to the 
purpose without consciously or unconsciously conforming to 
those laws which rhetoric enjoins as necessary to the adequate 
and forcible expression of thought. 

Let it not be supposed that, in penning the foregoing para- 
graphs, the writer has been oblivious of the stock objections 
urged by a certain class of priests against the studious 
composition of sermons. He has not been unmindful of the 
formidable array of quotations from the Fathers of the 
Church, in which rhetoric seems to be despised as inconsist- 
ent with the dignity of the preacher's office ; nor has he lost 
sight of St. Paul's " not in the persuasive words of human 
.wisdom," St. Charles Borromeo's simplex et virilis oratio^ 
the "energetic plainness" of St. Ignatius, and the " sim- 
plicity " advocated by hundred of other writers on preaching. 
Such stereotyped quotations and phrases are not likely to be 
forgotten by any priest who does ever so little reading up on 
this subject. 

It is to be remarked, however, that these sentences of the 
Fathers and Saints, being detached from the context which 
best explains their meaning, are frequently interpreted in a 
sense utterly foreign to the minds of their authors ; and that 
such phrases as are quoted above are expressive of far other 
qualities than those which many glib denouncers of the 
rhetorical sermon would have us suppose them to signify. 
The Fathers undoubtedly condemn affected elegance, 
pompous expression, superfluous ornament and the like 
excesses which characterized much of the rhetoric of their 
day ; but in none of their writings will there be found the 
slightest censure of the principles inculcated by modern 
rhetoricians, or of those qualities of style which are the 
legitimate result of the practical application of those 
principles. 

It was not one of the Fathers, but a rhetorician who, in 
his introduction to a course of lectures which have proved 



448 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

the storehouse of most subsequent writers on the science 
of English discourse, declared that his purpose was : " to 
explode false ornament, to direct attention more toward sub- 
stance than show, to recommend good sense as the founda- 
tion of all good composition, and simplicity as essential to all 
true ornament." The same author, Dr. Blair, one of the 
most noted expounders of those rhetorical principles against 
which the young preacher is so assiduously warned, has this 
to say of the sermon : " With respect to style, that which 
the pulpit requires must certainly, in the first place, be very 
perspicuous. As discourses spoken there are calculated for 
the instruction of all sorts of hearers, plainness and simplicity 
should reign in them. All unusual, swollen, high-sounding 
words should be avoided ; especially all words that are 

merely poetical or merely philosophical In a 

sermon, no points or conceits should appear, no affected 
quaintness or smartness of expression. These derogate much 
from the dignity of the pulpit, and give to the preacher the air 
of foppishness which he ought, above all things, to shun. " 
Now, there is another, we take it, particularly obnoxious in 
such recommendations as these ; and even St. Alphonsus 
Liguori would hardly condemn the preacher whose sermons 
displayed conformity to such like rhetorical precepts. 

Perhaps the most egregious mistake commonly made by 
clerical talkers on this subject of preaching is the supposition 
that the simplicity of style so universally enjoined as the 
most suitable for pulpit oratory, is a negative quality, 
importing merely a lack of study or effort in the choice of 
words, the construction of sentences, and the disposition of the 
various parts of the discourse. The extemporaneous preacher 
who fancies that, because he speaks right on, in a natural, 
free and easy manner, and sedulously shuns the bugbear of 
figurative language, his sermon possesses this quality, mani- 
fests simplicity, not of style, but of understanding. If the 
Fathers, whose authority is so often adduced in vindication 
of this unstudied manner of expression, were to listen to the 
improprieties and inaccuracies of diction, the ill-chosen 
epithets and ambiguous phrases, the straggling clauses and 



PREACHING AND RHETORIC. 



449 



dislocated periods, the wearisome repetition of pious platitudes 
and stereotyped commonplaces, the whole combination of 
undignified twaddle and forceless prosing that masquerades 
nowadays under the title of a " simple " sermon, they would 
assuredly feel like exclaiming, in a paraphrase of Madame 
Roland : " O Simplicity ! Simplicity ! how many crimes 
are committed in thy name !" 

The genuine simplicity which, according to the rhetoricians 
not less than the Fathers, should distinguish the sermon, 
"stands opposed, not to ornament, but to affectation of 
ornament, or appearance of labor about our style ;" and it is a 
capital error to suppose that so excellent a quality can be 
acquired without studied effort and constant practice. No 
man is ordinarily so apt to speak in a style the very reverse 
of simple as the priest who preaches without adequate 
preparation. And just here let it be said that most of the 
adverse criticism of rhetoric in preaching comes from 
clerics whose preparation of their sermons is habitually inad- 
equate. The time and attention which conscientious preach- 
ers devote to the composition of their discourses is a tacit 
condemnation of the culpable negligence or laziness of less 
exemplary ministers of the word of God ; and very often 
these latter are merely throwing a sop to the Cerberus of 
their own conscience when they utter their loud-mouthed 
denunciations of the rhetorical, or what to their minds is 
practically the same thing, the carefully prepared sermon. 

That much harm is done to youthful preachers by this ill- 
advised talk of their elders, is incontestable. Many a young 
curate is led to give up writing his sermons, or even prepar- 
ing them with a care at all commensurate to their importance, 
simply because of sarcastic references to " high-flown senti- 
ments," "rounded periods," " the flowers of rhetoric," "the 
ambition to be eloquent," and similar platitudes, coming 
from a pastor who never grows animated unless when scold- 
ing, and is eloquent only on the subject of his pew-rents. A 
fondness for figurative language is, after all, not an unpardon- 
able offence in a very young preacher ; and if at first his style 
is somewhat overloaded with ornament, it is a fault that 



450 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEVff, 

generally cures itself, his own taste, as he- grows older, lead- 
ing him to reject all figures that are merely showy, while 
retaining those which give to his speech additional eflfective- 
ness and vivacity. There is some excuse for a young man's 
being florid, there is none for any man's being dry and unat- 
tractive ; and the preacher most likely to avoid either 
extreme is he who knows, and habitually puts in practice^ 
the rules and principles of rhetoric. 



Arthur Barry O'Neill, C.S.C. 



WHERE THE AMERICAN JESUIT TRAINS. 

AT Woodstock, Maryland, twenty-five miles by rail from 
Baltimore, for a part of the way along the winding 
Patapsco River, but only fifteen miles as the crow flies, 
stands the Collegium Maximum of the Jesuits in this country. 
Obscured from the view of the passing traveller by a thicket 
of magnificent trees, it pursues in voluntary seclusion its 
high mission of training professors and priests for the Society 
of Jesus. Not content with the ordinary course of studies 
in colleges and seminaries, it broadens and prolongs its 
curriculum, and sets before every one of its students a 
specialty in the noblest departments of learning, adding 
to the task every accessible facility for its mastery. It is 
an institution to which the Church in North America is 
indebted for some of its most efficient laborers. 

The Republic was just emerging from the devastations of 
the Civil War when the site of this House of Studies for 
young Jesuits was purchased by the Rev. Angelo Paresce, 
S.J. He needed a stout heart to undertake the foundation at 
that time, for the Union was still in civic disorder and the funds 
of the institute in the Maryland Province were low. Yet 
the need of it was urgent, for before it was started the scholas- 
tics under his jurisdiction had to cluster inconveniently in 



WHERE THE AMERICAN JESUIT TRAINS. 451 

colleges, or voyage to Europe in order to find a place in which 
to make their studies. For this reason he resolved to give 
them a school of their own, and, looking about for a loca- 
tion, he was attracted to Woodstock by its proximity to the 
principal establishments of the Order — Georgetown, Wash- 
ington, Frederick and Baltimore — by its salubrity, by its 
solitude, and by the cheapness of the price asked for the 
property. 

Accordingly, in the year 1866, Father Paresce obtained 
title for the Society to 243 acres of land, to which a tract of 
117 acres was added in 1880. The corner-stone of the college 
was laid in the following year, 1867. The institution was 
not ready for occupancy, however, until 1869, when, on 
September 23, Father Paresce, no longer provincial, but first 
rector of the new foundation, opened its halls with becom- 
ing ceremonies. Among the students who listened to his 
invocation of God's blessing on the house, were the present 
Provincial, V. Rev. William O'Brien Pardow, and the 
Rev. Samuel H. Frisbee, Spiritual Director of the present 
Community. 

On a lordly hill overlooking the brawling mill-stream 
called the Patapsco River, the first building was erected, in 
the midst of a clearing made in the primeval woods. All 
around is was a wilderness. But the uncultivated forest has 
given place to park-like grounds, with terraces, walks, drives, 
statues, flower-beds, shade trees, grottoes and lawns, to vine- 
yatd, orchard and farmed field — a beautiful demesne for the 
noblest seat of learning thus far on this continent. 

There, remote from the din and the bustle of the world, of 
which only the shrill toot of the locomotive whistle at the 
railroad station hard by serves as an occasional reminder, the 
young scholars of the Society in this region have for twenty- 
five years applied themselves to the acquisition of virtue and 
of knowledge. In that quarter of a century, thousands of 
them have passed through Woodstock's classes and no fewer 
than 365 of them have received the priesthood in its chapel. 
Its quondam inmates are now scattered over the face of the 
earth — in almost all the large cities of the United States and 



452 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Canada, among the Indians of the Far West, among the 
aborigines of Alaska, in South America, in Europe, Asia, 
Africa and Oceanica. 

The course that is pursued in this schola maxima of the 
Jesuits is the longest and highest of its kind in America. 
Compared with its finished scholastics the graduates of Har- 
vard University in mathematics, language, natural sciences 
and philosophy are almost beginners. Before going to it at 
all, the young members of the Society have almost all of them 
won their degree of A.B., and have had, besides, four years 
of preliminary training in the novitiate and the juniorate, 
cultivating piety and reviewing their humanities. Arrived 
at Woodstock, they spend three years in the study of philos- 
ophy, four hours a day, five days in the week, using Latin as 
the language of the school. Within that same period, 
they go through algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculus, 
astronomy, geology, physiology, chemistry and physics. 
Next, they devote four or five years to teaching in the col- 
leges of the Order, putting their attainments to practical use, 
and meanwhile keeping up their own studies, devoting their 
leisure hours to a general course of reading, and perfecting 
themselves in the special branch of learning in which their 
superiors desire them to excel. On their return to the 
scholasticate, in about the thirtieth year of their age, they 
pass four years in the study of moral and dogmatic theology. ^ 
Hebrew, Sacred Scripture, Canon Law, Church History, 
Sacred Eloquence and Rites. Then they are ordained. 
Finally, they are sent back for a year to the novitiate to be 
heated and refined, tempered and strengthened once more in 
the fire of godliness, to come out fully equipped 'v\ sanctity as 
well as in wisdom for the service of the Church in the holy 
ministry. 

At present about 125 young men are in the college making 
this grand course of study under the tuition of a faculty 
composed of fifteen picked professors. 

Woodstock has had a long line of erudite teachers, some 
of them known to fame by reason of their published works 
and all of them eminent for extraordinary ability. Its 



WHERE THE AMERICAN JESUIT TRAINS. 453 

first prefect of studies was the illustrious Cardinal Mazzella, 
who was summoned to Rome by the Pope in 1886 and 
clothed with the purple of a Prince of the Church for his 
masterly treatises on theology. Worthy to rank with him 
was the lamented Father Maldonado, who, after teaching at 
St. John's College, Fordham, N. Y., in England and in 
France, became Rector Magnificus of the University of 
Salamanca, in Spain, and, subsequently returned to the 
United States to teach theology at this College of the Sacred 
Heart and to here enter into his rest. Similarly worthy of 
mention are the theologians Brambring, De Augustinis, and 
Sabetti ; the Hebrew scholar, Father A. Maas ; the mathema- 
tician and astronomer, Sestini ; the Thomistic expounders, 
Valente, Piccirelli and Schiffini, the natural scientists Fris- 
bee and Freeman, and their distinguished associates, Fathers 
Schemmel, Duvernay, Franchini, Cavalier, Polano, Peter 
Mazzella (brother of the Cardinal), Cighi, Polino, Chasot, 
Becker, Ciccaterri, Piccirillo (one time editor of the Civilth 
Cattolicd)., John Murphy, Peter Finlay (now teaching in the 
Irish Theologate at Milton Park, Dublin), Salvator Brandi (at 
present a leading writer for the Civiltd. Cattolicd) Tummolo, 
John Conway, Worpenberg, Grimmelsman, Guldner, Degni, 
John T. Hedrick, Lehy, O'Sullivan, Tarr, John A. S. Bros- 
nan, Heinzle, James Smith, Holaind, P. Casey, Romano, 
Prendergast, Barrett, Brett, James Conway, Brosnahan, 
O'Brien, Kayser, Devitt, Raphael V. O' Council, Gannon, 
Kavannagh and others. 

The books written or published at Woodstock are another 
glory for the institution. They are: *'De Deo Creante," 
" De Gratia," " De Ecclesia et Religione " and " De Virtu- 
tibus Infusis," by Cardinal Mazzella; " De Sacramentis " 
and "De Deo Uno," by Fr. ^milius de Augustinis; 
" Theologiae Moralis Compendium," by Fr. Aloysius Sa- 
betti ; " De Facultatibus Animae," by Fr. J. M. Piccirelli ; 
" Summa Logicae St. Thomae," by Fr. Valente ; " De Deo 
Creante " and " De Verbo Incarnato," by Frederick Bram- 
bring ; " St. Thomae Acquinatis Tractatus de Motu Hominis 
in Deum ad Usum Juventatis Accommodatus " and " Logicae 



454 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

Generalis Institutiones," by Fr. Blasius A. SchiflBni ; 
'' Christ in Type and Prophecy," "Enchiridion" and " A 
Day in the Temple," by Fr. A. Maas ; " De Sepultura 
Christi," by Fr. Francis Jovino ; "Elementary Algebra," 
"Geometry and Trigonometry," "Elementary Theoretical 
Mechanics " and " Geometrical and Infinitesimal Analysis," 
by Fr. Benedict Sestini ; and other works. 

In its rectors Woodstock has been conspicuously blessed. 
They have been men fitted by character and accomplish- 
ments, by grace and disposition to preside over a great religi- 
ous seat of learning. Their names deserve to be recorded : 
Revs. Angelo Paresce, James Perron, Joseph Keller, Peter 
O. Racicot, Edward V. Boursaud and Joseph M. Jerge. 

For the legion of teachers educated there, for the corps of 
priests ordained there, for the band of missionaries trained 
there, for the succession of able teachers employed there, and 
for the worth of the volumes produced there, Woodstock 
College may well offer the incense of thanksgiving to the 
Lord for making such great use of it in His service during 
the first quarter of a century of its existence. 

The institution as it stands to-day enbowered in woods is, 
in some respects, ideally situated for the purpose that its 
founder had in view. Its main buildings are in the form 
of a capital letter " I " turned over on its side, so : t-n . They 
are constructed of granite quarried on the grounds, are 
four stories high, and are severely plain in their style of 
architecture. Their one ornament is the cross that sur- 
mounts them over the central entrance and the ivy-vine that 
is making haste to hide their homeliness from view. 

The chapel, which is on the second floor, is notable for 
an altar-piece of the Holy Family by Brumidi, the fresco 
artist of the federal capitol, who enriched it also with me- 
dallion portraits of six saints of the Society. 

The library contains 50,ocx) volumes. It is rich in poly- 
glot Bibles, in the works of the Fathers of the Church, and 
in books of black-letter. No other collection in this country 
is equal to it in the departments of philosophy and theology, 
and in the scientific branches it is well stocked with all the 



WHERE THE AMERICAN JESUIl TRAINS. 455 

best authorities. All departments of knowledge have con- 
tributed to its shelves, but its volumes are almost all by 
authors of renown, for its readers have no time to waste on 
trashy works of mediocre writers. It has some curious 
manuscripts, precious works in vellum, and rare editions 
that would make a book-worm glow with delight. Among 
its other treasures are a complete set of specimens of ancient 
and Roman marbles, rough and polished, the gift of a friend 
to Father Piccirillo — for which Johns Hopkins University 
offered the sum of $10,000 — and some valuable minerals col- 
lected from all parts of the world. It is ornamented with a 
painting on its ceiling representing the orbits of the planets, 
and the principal comets, as well as their respective sizes as 
compared with that of the sun. It shows portraits of St. 
Thomas Aquinas, St. Peter Canisius, S. J., Cardinal Mazzella, 
S.J., Fr. Paresce, Fr. Perron, Fr. Keller and Fr. Racicot. It 
is a commodious room, 60x30 feet and 30 feet high. In it the 
disputations of the philosophers and the theologians are held. 

The rooms devoted to physics and chemistry are well sup- 
plied with laboratory facilities and instruments, and, in an 
upper hall-way are cabinets full of specimens for the study of 
mineralogy, conchology, botany, geology and natural history. 

The refectory is spacious, having accommodations for 300 
guests. 

Within a stone's throw of the main building is the astronom- 
ical observatory where the heavens are explored by Professor 
Freeman and his disciples, who also keep track of the weather, 
as the college is a United States station for the collection of 
information for the Weather Bureau in Washington. 

The community of the college is a little world in itself. 
It has its own farm, its vineyard and its orchard, its kine, 
its printing ofl5ce, its bindery, its shoe shop, its tailor 
shop, its blacksmith shop, its carpenter shop, its hothouse 
and its zoo. 

The Society is a good mother to its sons. It provides for 
their every want and neglects neither their comfort nor their 
amusement. A fleet of row boats, bathing facilities, a base- 
ball ground, hand-ball alleys, and tennis courts make their 



456 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 

free time in summer spent in the open air enjoyable, and for 
winter out-door sports there are a hill for coasting with 
toboggans and a private pond for skating. Besides, in all 
seasons, there is time allowed for tramps to neighboring 
points of interest. 

In case of death at the college, a place of sepulture is at 
hand. About a quarter of a mile from the buildings is the 
cemetery, a circular plot enclosed with an iron railing. In 
the centre of it stands a mortuary chapel over the altar of 
which is a picture of the type of a happy demise — St. 
Joseph, in the arms of Jesus and Mary — and on the ex- 
terior of which is this charming inscription : 

SOCIETAS : lESV 

QVOS : GENVIT 

EORUM : CHAROS : CINERES 

CCZLO : REDDENDOS 

SOLLICITE 

HEIC : FOVET. 

There repose in the sleep of peace some seventy members 
of the Society — fathers, scholastics and temporal coadjutors, 
one after the other as they expired, not separated into classes, 
but lying side by side as brethren. Over every one is a 
simple marble cross, with just the name, the rank in the 
Society, and the dates of birth and death. These crosses 
are all three feet high, except two which rise five feet from 
the ground because they are the gravestones of Bishops — 
Michael O'Connor and John B. Mi^ge — who after long years 
in the pastoral ministry, resigned their mitres and retired 
to this pious retreat to make their last preparation for eternity. 
Here rest in peace Fathers Bambring, Becker, Maldonado, 
Bapst, Sourin, Piccirillo, Duranquet and other chosen souls 
who have gone before us with the sign of faith. 

The silver jubilee of the college was celebrated on Sep- 
tember 27, by a festa in which only members of the Society 
took part. Among the guests of the occasion were the Very 
Rev. Provincial, and Rev. Fathers Villiger, de Havens 
Richards, Fulton, Gannon, Murphy, Scully, O'Rourke, Bros- 



WHERE THE AMERICAN JESUIl TRAINS. 457 

nahan, Dooley, Zahm, Morgan, Gillespie, Devitt, Guldner, 
Scanlan, Hough, Heinzle, Gardiner, O'Leary, Noel, Giraud, 
and Dougherty. 

The day was opened with the community Mass at 6.15, 
celebrated by the Very Rev. Father Provincial. At 9.45 
the Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament was given by 
Father Pardow and the Te Deum was sung by the whole 
assembly. At 10.30 all the Fathers and scholastics met 
together in the library to assist at a musical and literary 
entertainment provided by the choir. Rev. W. J. Ennis, 
Mr. C. B. Moulinier, Mr. J. H. Smith, Mr. V. P. Donnelly, 
Rev. M. McMenamy, Mr. O. A. Hill and Mr. J. S. Hollohan. 
The essays and poems read recalled the history of the insti- 
tution as embodied in its founder, its professors, its achieve- 
ments, its priests and its scholastics. At i o'clock the 
jubilee dinner was served. At 8 P. M., a rain storm that had 
darkened the afternoon passed off, and for an hour the build- 
ing was illuminated, while toy balloons were sent up and 
fireworks were set off. It was a red-letter day for Woodstock. 

In one respect it is a pity that this great college is so far 
from town and without better railroad facilities, for, practi- 
cally it is buried in the woods, its worth is comparatively 
unknown outside of the Society even to ecclesiastics ; its 
disputations cannot be public, as they should be, with 
opportunity for whosoever chose to enter the contention to 
propose objections against the theses sustained by the schol- 
astics ; its students have not that stimulus that would come 
from outside observation and criticism, nor that diversion 
that might be had by occasional visits to parks, museums, 
ships, etc., and its professors have but little chance to break 
the monotony of their duties by recreations with those of 
their brethren who are in closer contact with the central 
springs of civilization. It is but a natural wish that a more 
convenient site should be procured in order that the light of 
this splendid Collegium Maximum of natural science, philos- 
ophy and theology should not be longer almost hidden from 
the world. 

L. W. Reilly. 



458 AMERICAN ECCLESIASTICAL REVIEW. 



CONFERENCES. 

WAX iJfD THE LITURGY. 

Qu. If it is not an encroachment on your time, I would like 
very much to obtain from you the section or paragraph of the 
Rubric bearing upon the qualities and materials which the candles 
for use upon the altar must possess. I refer more particularly to 
the two wax candles used during the Mass. 

A gentleman connected with a house engaged in the manu- 
facture of beeswax candles, during a recent visit here, stated that 
he was recently informed by a Priest, that the two candles in ques- 
tion must be two-thirds pure beeswax. 

I had never, prior to this occasion, heard it said that these 
candles must contain such a large percentage of beeswax. Further- 
more, as a matter of conscience, I cannot send to the various 
churches and institutions, who are among my patrons, a candle for 
use on the altar which is not in every way what it should be. 

Beeswax in the crude state is worth about twenty-eight cents a 
pound ; but makers of these goods, after defraying the varied 
charges entailed in making, packing and marketing, do not hesi- 
tate to sell a candle represented as " pure ' ' at twenty-two cents a 
pound. I may add, that a candle loo per cent, pure would not be 
suitable for use. A candle 66 per cent, "pure beeswax" cannot 
be sold for less than forty to forty-five cents per pound. 

As the time for purchasing my supply of candles for Candlemas 
and Christmas is at hand, I will be exceedingly grateful to you for 
an authoritative statement upon the subject. 

Resp. This question comes from a respectable Catholic 
merchant. Priests,